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Sample records for radiation-inducible telomerase upregulation

  1. Leptin upregulates telomerase activity and transcription of human telomerase reverse transcriptase in MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, He; Zhao, Tiansuo; Wang, Xiuchao; Gao, Chuntao; Wang, Jian; Yu, Ming; Hao, Jihui

    2010-03-26

    The aim was to analyze the mechanism of leptin-induced activity of telomerase in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. We found that leptin activated telomerase in a dose-dependent manner; leptin upregulated the expression of Human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (hTERT) at mRNA and protein levels; blockade of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation significantly counteracted leptin-induced hTERT transcription and protein expression; chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that leptin enhanced the binding of STAT3 to the hTERT promoter. This study uncovers a new mechanism of the proliferative effect of leptin on breast cancer cells and provides a new explanation of obesity-related breast cancer.

  2. Radiation-induced up-regulation of Mmp2 involves increased mRNA stability, redox modulation, and MAPK activation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Weiling; Goswami, Prabhat C; Robbins, Mike E C

    2004-04-01

    We have previously observed time- and dose-dependent increases in matrix metalloproteinase 2 (Mmp2) protein levels in rat tubule epithelial cells (NRK52E) after irradiation. However, the mechanism(s) involved remains unclear. In the present study, irradiating NRK52E cells with 0-20 Gy gamma rays was associated with time- and dose-dependent increases in Mmp2 mRNA. Studies using the transcription inhibitor actinomycin D (ActD) added 24 h after irradiation revealed the t(1/2) of Mmp2 mRNA to be approximately 8 h in control cells. In contrast, the increase in Mmp2 mRNA levels in irradiated cells was essentially unchanged after incubation with ActD for up to 12 h. Incubating cells with the antioxidants N-acetylcysteine or ebselen or the MEK pathway inhibitors PD98059 and U0126 prior to irradiation abolished the radiation-induced up-regulation of Mmp2. Irradiating NRK52E cells led to reactive oxygen species-mediated Erk1/2 activation; preincubation with NAC prevented the radiation-induced increase in phosphorylated Erk1/2. Transfecting cells with a dominant-negative ERK mutant completely inhibited radiation-induced Erk phosphorylation and abolished the radiation-induced up-regulation of Mmp2 protein. Thus the radiation-induced up-regulation of Mmp2 mRNA is due in part to increased mRNA stability and is mediated by redox; the ERK MAPK signaling pathway may be involved.

  3. Survivin enhances telomerase activity via up-regulation of specificity protein 1- and c-Myc-mediated human telomerase reverse transcriptase gene transcription

    SciTech Connect

    Endoh, Teruo; Tsuji, Naoki; Asanuma, Koichi; Yagihashi, Atsuhito; Watanabe, Naoki . E-mail: watanabn@sapmed.ac.jp

    2005-05-01

    Suppression of apoptosis is thought to contribute to carcinogenesis. Survivin, a member of the inhibitor-of-apoptosis family, blocks apoptotic signaling activated by various cellular stresses. Since elevated expression of survivin observed in human cancers of varied origin was associated with poor patient survival, survivin has attracted growing attention as a potential target for cancer treatment. Immortalization of cells also is required for carcinogenesis; telomere length maintenance by telomerase is required for cancer cells to proliferate indefinitely. Yet how cancer cells activate telomerase remains unclear. We therefore examined possible interrelationships between survivin expression and telomerase activity. Correlation between survivin and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) expression was observed in colon cancer tissues, and overexpression of survivin enhanced telomerase activity by up-regulation of hTERT expression in LS180 human colon cancer cells. DNA-binding activities of specificity protein 1 (Sp1) and c-Myc to the hTERT core promoter were increased in survivin gene transfectant cells. Phosphorylation of Sp1 and c-Myc at serine and threonine residues was enhanced by survivin, while total amounts of these proteins were unchanged. Further, 'knockdown' of survivin by a small inhibitory RNA decreased Sp1 and c-Myc phosphorylation. Thus survivin participates not only in inhibition of apoptosis, but also in prolonging cellular lifespan.

  4. Curcumin Regulates Low-Linear Energy Transfer {gamma}-Radiation-Induced NF{kappa}B-Dependent Telomerase Activity in Human Neuroblastoma Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Aravindan, Natarajan; Veeraraghavan, Jamunarani; Madhusoodhanan, Rakhesh; Herman, Terence S.; Natarajan, Mohan

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: We recently reported that curcumin attenuates ionizing radiation (IR)-induced survival signaling and proliferation in human neuroblastoma cells. Also, in the endothelial system, we have demonstrated that NF{kappa}B regulates IR-induced telomerase activity (TA). Accordingly, we investigated the effect of curcumin in inhibiting IR-induced NF{kappa}B-dependent hTERT transcription, TA, and cell survival in neuroblastoma cells. Methods and Materials: SK-N-MC or SH-SY5Y cells exposed to IR and treated with curcumin (10-100 nM) with or without IR were harvested after 1 h through 24 h. NF{kappa}B-dependent regulation was investigated either by luciferase reporter assays using pNF{kappa}B-, pGL3-354-, pGL3-347-, or pUSE-I{kappa}B{alpha}-Luc, p50/p65, or RelA siRNA-transfected cells. NF{kappa}B activity was analyzed using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay and hTERT expression using the quantitative polymerase chain reaction. TA was determined using the telomerase repeat amplification protocol assay and cell survival using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltertrazolium bromide and clonogenic assay. Results: Curcumin profoundly inhibited IR-induced NF{kappa}B. Consequently, curcumin significantly inhibited IR-induced TA and hTERT mRNA at all points investigated. Furthermore, IR-induced TA is regulated at the transcriptional level by triggering telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter activation. Moreover, NF{kappa}B becomes functionally activated after IR and mediates TA upregulation by binding to the {kappa}B-binding region in the promoter region of the TERT gene. Consistently, elimination of the NF{kappa}B-recognition site on the telomerase promoter or inhibition of NF{kappa}B by the I{kappa}B{alpha} mutant compromises IR-induced telomerase promoter activation. Significantly, curcumin inhibited IR-induced TERT transcription. Consequently, curcumin inhibited hTERT mRNA and TA in NF{kappa}B overexpressed cells. Furthermore, curcumin enhanced

  5. Radiation-Induced Upregulation of Gene Expression From Adenoviral Vectors Mediated by DNA Damage Repair and Regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Nokisalmi, Petri; Rajecki, Maria; Pesonen, Sari; Escutenaire, Sophie; Soliymani, Rabah; Tenhunen, Mikko; Ahtiainen, Laura; Hemminki, Akseli

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: In the present study, we evaluated the combination of replication-deficient adenoviruses and radiotherapy in vitro. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the mechanism of radiation-mediated upregulation of adenoviral transgene expression. Methods and Materials: Adenoviral transgene expression (luciferase or green fluorescent protein) was studied with and without radiation in three cell lines: breast cancer M4A4-LM3, prostate cancer PC-3MM2, and lung cancer LNM35/enhanced green fluorescent protein. The effect of the radiation dose, modification of the viral capsid, and five different transgene promoters were studied. The cellular responses were studied using mass spectrometry and immunofluorescence analysis. Double strand break repair was modulated by inhibitors of heat shock protein 90, topoisomerase-I, and DNA protein kinase, and transgene expression was measured. Results: We found that a wide range of radiation doses increased adenoviral transgene expression regardless of the cell line, transgene, promoter, or viral capsid modification. Treatment with adenovirus, radiation, and double strand break repair inhibitors resulted in persistence of double strand breaks and subsequent increases in adenovirus transgene expression. Conclusions: Radiation-induced enhancement of adenoviral transgene expression is linked to DNA damage recognition and repair. Radiation induces a global cellular response that results in increased production of RNA and proteins, including adenoviral transgene products. This study provides a mechanistic rationale for combining radiation with adenoviral gene delivery.

  6. Up-regulation of telomerase activity in Herpesvirus saimiri immortalized human T-lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Harnack, U; Lehmann, C; Matthes, E; Pecher, G

    2001-01-01

    Human T-lymphocytes can be transformed to unlimited growth by Herpesvirus saimiri (HVS). We studied the telomerase activity of a recently established HVS immortalized human CD4 T cell clone in comparison to peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and unstimulated or phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated CD4 T-cells by a Telomeric Repeat Amplification-Protocol (TRAP) -Assay. Telomerase activity in PHA-stimulated CD4 T-cells was seven-fold and in HVS-infected CD4 T-cells 14-fold higher than in untreated CD4 T-cells. The HVS immortalized T-cell clone provides a useful tool for studying the regulation of telomerase activity during carcinogenesis and for testing of telomerase-inhibitory drugs.

  7. CpG island methylator phenotype association with upregulated telomerase activity in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Changsong; Guo, Xianling; Jiang, Guocheng; Zhang, Li; Yang, Yang; Shen, Feng; Wu, Mengchao; Wei, Lixin

    2008-09-01

    CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) involves the targeting of multiple genes by promoter hypermethylation. Telomerase plays an important role in the development of cellular immortality and oncogenesis. To gain insight into the role of epigenetic aberration of telomerase-related genes in hepatocarcinogenesis, we determined a hypermethylation profile in HCC. We examined the promoter methylation status of 9 genes associated with telomerase activity in 120 HCC, 120 cirrhosis tissues and 10 normal liver tissues by methylation-specific PCR. Assay of telomerase activity was by TRAP-ELISA. The frequency of promoter methylation of each gene was P21 63.3%, P15 42.5%, P16 62.5%, P53 14.2%, RB 32.5%, P27 48.3%, WTI 54.2%, E2F-1 70.8% and P300 65.8% of 120 HCC. Methylation status of P21, P15, P16, WTI and E2F-1 was significantly associated with HCC and nontumor tissues (p < 0.05). CIMP+ was detected in 61.7% (74/120) HCC and 15% (18/120) cirrhosis tissues, no CIMP+ was present in normal liver tissues (p < 0.001). A significant difference between CIMP status and metastasis was been found in HCC (p < 0.001). Results showed that 94.6% (70/74) HCC and 55.6% (10/18) cirrhosis patients with CIMP+ show expression of high telomerase activity than 45.5% (10/22) HCC and 6.25% (1/16) cirrhosis patients with CIMP- (p < 0.001). CIMP lead to high levels of expression of telomerase activity through the simultaneous inactivation of multiple genes associated with telomerase activity by concordant methylation.

  8. Upregulation of NRF2 through autophagy/ERK 1/2 ameliorates ionizing radiation induced cell death of human osteosarcoma U-2 OS.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ni; Zhang, Rui; Konishi, Teruaki; Wang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    The antioxidative response mediated by transcription factor NRF2 is thought to be a pivotal cellular defense system against various extrinsic stresses. It has been reported that activation of the NRF2 pathway confers cells with resistance to ionizing radiation-induced damage. However, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. In the current research, it was found that α-particle radiation has the ability to stimulate NRF2 expression in human osteosarcoma U-2 OS cells. Knockdown of cellular NRF2 level by shRNA-mediated gene silencing decreased the survival rate, increased the micronucleus formation rate and apoptosis rate in irradiated cells. Consistently, knockdown of NRF2 resulted in decreased expression of p65 and Bcl-2, and increased expression of p53 and Bax. Besides, it was observed that increased expression of NRF2 was partially dependent on radiation induced phosphorylation of ERK 1/2. Further results showed that radiation promoted autophagy flux which leads to the enhanced phosphorylation of ERK 1/2, as evidenced by the resultls that knockdown of ATG5 (Autophagy protein 5) gene by shRNA suppressed both radiation induced ERK 1/2 phosphorylation and NRF2 upregulation. Based on these results, it is proposed that attenuation of NRF2 antioxidative pathway can sensitize U-2 OS cells to radiation, where NRF2 antioxidative response is regulated by autophagy mediated activation of ERK 1/2 kinases.

  9. Short-term magnesium deficiency downregulates telomerase, upregulates neutral sphingomyelinase and induces oxidative DNA damage in cardiovascular tissues: relevance to atherogenesis, cardiovascular diseases and aging

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Nilank C; Shah, Gatha J; Li, Zhiqiang; Jiang, Xian-Cheng; Altura, Bella T; Altura, Burton M

    2014-01-01

    The present work tested the hypotheses that: 1) short-term dietary deficiency of magnesium (Mg; 21 days) in rats (MgD) would result in a downregulation of telomerase in cardiac and aortic smooth muscle cells, 2) low levels of Mg2+ added to drinking water (DW) would either prevent or greatly reduce the downregulation of telomerase in MgD, 3) MgD in rats would cause an upregulation of neutral-sphingomyelinase (N-SMAse) and p53, 4) short-term MgD would result in oxidation of DNA in diverse cardiac muscle and aortic smooth muscle cells as exemplified by measurement of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG), and 5) cross-talk between telomerase, N-SMase, p53, and 8-OH-dG would be evident in left ventricular (LV), right ventricular (RV), atrial and aortic smooth muscle obtained from rats subjected to short-term MgD. The data indicated that short-term MgD (10% normal dietary intake) resulted in downregulation of telomerase in LV, RV, atrial and aortic muscle cells; even very low levels of water-bourne Mg2+ (e.g., 15-40 mg/lday) either prevented or ameliorated the downregulation of telomerase. Our experiments also showed that MgD resulted in a 7-10 fold increased formation of 8-OH-dG in the cardiac and aortic muscle cells. The experiments also confirmed that short-term dietary deficiency of Mg resulted in greatly increased upregulation of N-SMAse and p53 in the cardiac and aortic muscle tissues. These new experiments point to a sizeable cross-talk among telomerase, N-SMAse, and p53 in rat cardiac and peripheral vascular muscle exposed to a short-term MgD. These studies would be compatible with the idea that even short-term MgD could cause alterations of the genome in diverse cell types leading to mutations of cardiac, vascular, and endothelial cells seen in aging and atherogenesis. Since we have shown, previously, that activation of N-SMAse in MgD leads to synthesis and release of ceramide in cardiovascular tissues and cells, we believe this pathway, most likely, helps to

  10. MiR-467a is upregulated in radiation-induced mouse thymic lymphomas and regulates apoptosis by targeting Fas and Bax.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fu; Chen, Song; Sun, Mingjuan; Mitchel, Ronald E J; Li, Bailong; Chu, Zhiyong; Cai, Jianming; Liu, Cong

    2015-01-01

    It has been reported dysregulation of certain microRNAs (miRNAs / miRs) is involved in tumorigenesis. However, the miRNAs associated with radiocarcinogenesis remain undefined. In this study, we validated the upregulation of miR-467a in radiation-induced mouse thymic lymphoma tissues. Then, we investigated whether miR-467a functions as an oncogenic miRNA in thymic lymphoma cells. For this purpose, we assessed the biological effect of miR-467a on thymic lymphoma cells. Using miRNA microarray, we found four miRNAs (miR-467a, miR-762, miR-455 and miR-714) were among the most upregulated (>4-fold) miRNAs in tumor tissues. Bioinformatics prediction suggests miR-467a may potentially regulate apoptosis pathway via targeting Fas and Bax. Consistently, in miR-467a-transfected cells, both proliferation and colony formation ability were significantly increased with decrease of apoptosis rate, while, in miR-467a-knockdown cells, proliferation was suppressed with increase of apoptosis rate, indicating that miR-467a may be involved in the regulation of apoptosis. Furthermore, miR-467a-knockdown resulted in smaller tumors and better prognosis in an in vivo tumor-transplanted model. To explain the mechanism of apoptosis suppression by miR-467a, we explore the expression of candidate target genes (Fas and Bax) in miR-467a-transfected relative to negative control transfected cells using flow cytometry and immunoblotting. Fas and Bax were commonly downregulated in miR-467a-transfected EL4 and NIH3T3 cells, and all of the genes harbored miR-467a target sequences in the 3'UTR of their mRNA. Fas and Bax were actually downregulated in radiation-induced thymic lymphoma tissues, and therefore both were identified as possible targets of miR-467a in thymic lymphoma. To ascertain whether downregulation of Fas and / or Bax is involved in apoptosis suppression by miR-467a, we transfected vectors expressing Fas and Bax into miR-467a-upregulated EL4 cells. Then we found that both Fas- and Bax

  11. Ionizing radiation induces upregulation of cellular procoagulability and tissue factor expression in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Goldin-Lang, Petra; Niebergall, Florian; Antoniak, Silvio; Szotowski, Bjoern; Rosenthal, Peter; Pels, Klaus; Schultheiss, Heinz-Peter; Rauch, Ursula

    2007-01-01

    The therapeutic application of ionizing radiation is associated with thrombotic events, but the exact underlying molecular mechanisms are still unclear. Tissue factor (TF), the primary initiator of blood coagulation, is essentially involved in the pathophysiology of thrombosis. Circulating monocytes have been identified to upregulate TF under inflammatory conditions and, thereby, enhance blood thrombogenicity. The study examines the effect of irradiation on the cellular procoagulability and TF protein expression of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) in a time period of 7 days. Human PBMNCs were irradiated with 20 Gy. Procoagulability of PBMNCs, released microparticles and microparticle-free cell supernatant was analyzed by a chromogenic assay and TF protein expression quantified by TF ELISA. To determine whether irradiated PBMNCs and shed microparticles initiate plasma clotting, a one stage clotting assay was performed. We found a significant increase of PBMNC-associated procoagulant activity over a time period of 7 days post irradiation. Moreover, 3 days post irradiation PBMNCs initiated the plasma clotting faster than non-irradiated cells. An enhanced cellular TF protein concentration was persistently observed throughout the investigated time up to 7 days post irradiation. Microparticle-associated TF activity significantly increased 3 days post irradiation compared with the non-irradiated controls. PBMNC-derived microparticles post irradiation also initiated the plasma clotting faster than microparticles derived from controls. The results show irradiation to induce TF expression and to increase procoagulability of PBMNCs and cell-derived microparticles. This could be a possible mechanism by which ionizing radiation enhances blood thrombogenicity.

  12. Therapeutic Targeting of Telomerase.

    PubMed

    Jäger, Kathrin; Walter, Michael

    2016-07-21

    Telomere length and cell function can be preserved by the human reverse transcriptase telomerase (hTERT), which synthesizes the new telomeric DNA from a RNA template, but is normally restricted to cells needing a high proliferative capacity, such as stem cells. Consequently, telomerase-based therapies to elongate short telomeres are developed, some of which have successfully reached the stage I in clinical trials. Telomerase is also permissive for tumorigenesis and 90% of all malignant tumors use telomerase to obtain immortality. Thus, reversal of telomerase upregulation in tumor cells is a potential strategy to treat cancer. Natural and small-molecule telomerase inhibitors, immunotherapeutic approaches, oligonucleotide inhibitors, and telomerase-directed gene therapy are useful treatment strategies. Telomerase is more widely expressed than any other tumor marker. The low expression in normal tissues, together with the longer telomeres in normal stem cells versus cancer cells, provides some degree of specificity with low risk of toxicity. However, long term telomerase inhibition may elicit negative effects in highly-proliferative cells which need telomerase for survival, and it may interfere with telomere-independent physiological functions. Moreover, only a few hTERT molecules are required to overcome senescence in cancer cells, and telomerase inhibition requires proliferating cells over a sufficient number of population doublings to induce tumor suppressive senescence. These limitations may explain the moderate success rates in many clinical studies. Despite extensive studies, only one vaccine and one telomerase antagonist are routinely used in clinical work. For complete eradication of all subpopulations of cancer cells a simultaneous targeting of several mechanisms will likely be needed. Possible technical improvements have been proposed including the development of more specific inhibitors, methods to increase the efficacy of vaccination methods, and

  13. Therapeutic Targeting of Telomerase

    PubMed Central

    Jäger, Kathrin; Walter, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Telomere length and cell function can be preserved by the human reverse transcriptase telomerase (hTERT), which synthesizes the new telomeric DNA from a RNA template, but is normally restricted to cells needing a high proliferative capacity, such as stem cells. Consequently, telomerase-based therapies to elongate short telomeres are developed, some of which have successfully reached the stage I in clinical trials. Telomerase is also permissive for tumorigenesis and 90% of all malignant tumors use telomerase to obtain immortality. Thus, reversal of telomerase upregulation in tumor cells is a potential strategy to treat cancer. Natural and small-molecule telomerase inhibitors, immunotherapeutic approaches, oligonucleotide inhibitors, and telomerase-directed gene therapy are useful treatment strategies. Telomerase is more widely expressed than any other tumor marker. The low expression in normal tissues, together with the longer telomeres in normal stem cells versus cancer cells, provides some degree of specificity with low risk of toxicity. However, long term telomerase inhibition may elicit negative effects in highly-proliferative cells which need telomerase for survival, and it may interfere with telomere-independent physiological functions. Moreover, only a few hTERT molecules are required to overcome senescence in cancer cells, and telomerase inhibition requires proliferating cells over a sufficient number of population doublings to induce tumor suppressive senescence. These limitations may explain the moderate success rates in many clinical studies. Despite extensive studies, only one vaccine and one telomerase antagonist are routinely used in clinical work. For complete eradication of all subpopulations of cancer cells a simultaneous targeting of several mechanisms will likely be needed. Possible technical improvements have been proposed including the development of more specific inhibitors, methods to increase the efficacy of vaccination methods, and

  14. Activation of Telomerase by Ionizing Radiation: Differential Response to the Inhibition of DNA Double-Strand Break Repair by Abrogation of Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, by LY294002, or by Wortmannin

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhof, Dirk Zwicker, Felix; Kuepper, Jan-Heiner; Debus, Juergen; Weber, Klaus-Josef

    2007-11-01

    Purpose: Telomerase activity represents a radiation-inducible function, which may be targeted by a double-strand break (DSB)-activated signal transduction pathway. Therefore, the effects of DNA-PK inhibitors (Wortmannin and LY294002) on telomerase upregulation after irradiation were studied. In addition, the role of trans-dominant inhibition of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, which strongly reduces DSB rejoining, was assessed in comparison with 3-aminobenzamide. Methods and Materials: COM3 rodent cells carry a construct for the dexamethasone-inducible overexpression of the DNA-binding domain of PARP1 and exhibit greatly impaired DSB rejoining after irradiation. Telomerase activity was measured using polymerase chain reaction ELISA 1 h after irradiation with doses up to 10 Gy. Phosphorylation status of PKB/Akt and of PKC{alpha}/{beta}{sub II} was assessed by western blotting. Results: No telomerase upregulation was detectable for irradiated cells with undisturbed DSB rejoining. In contrast, incubation with LY294002 or dexamethasone yielded pronounced radiation induction of telomerase activity that could be suppressed by Wortmannin. 3-Aminobenzamide not only was unable to induce telomerase activity but also suppressed telomerase upregulation upon incubation with LY294002 or dexamethasone. Phospho-PKB was detectable independent of irradiation or dexamethasone pretreatment, but was undetectable upon incubations with LY294002 or Wortmannin, whereas phospho-PKC rested detectable. Conclusions: Telomerase activation postirradiation was triggered by different treatments that interfere with DNA DSB processing. This telomerase upregulation, however, was not reflected by the phosporylation status of the putative mediators of TERT activation, PKB and PKC. Although an involvement of PKB in TERT activation is not supported by the present findings, a respective role of PKC isoforms other than {alpha}/{beta}{sub II} cannot be ruled out.

  15. Up-regulating telomerase and tumor suppressors: focusing on anti-aging interventions at the population level.

    PubMed

    Hartwig, Fernando Pires; Bertoldi, Daniel; Larangeira, Martin; Wagner, Mônica Silveira

    2014-02-01

    Most human populations are undergoing a demographic transition regarding their age structure. This transition is reflected in chronic non-communicable diseases featuring among the main contributors to burden of disease. Considering that the aging process is a major risk factor for such conditions, understanding the mechanisms underlying aging and age-related diseases is critical to develop strategies to impact human health at population and/or individual-levels. Two different aspects of aging process (namely, telomere shortening and DNA damage accumulation) were shown to interact in positively impacting mice median survival. However, strategies aimed at translating such knowledge into actual human health benefits have not yet been discussed. In this manuscript, we present potential exposures that are suited for population-level interventions, and contextualize the roles of population (based on behavioral exposures) and individual-level (based on small-molecule administration) anti-aging interventions in different levels of disease prevention. We suggest that exposures such as moderate wine consumption, reducing calorie intake and active lifestyle are potentially useful for primordial and primary prevention, while small-molecules that activate telomerase and/or tumor suppression responses are more suited for secondary and tertiary prevention (although important for primary prevention in specific population subgroups). We also indicate the need of studying the impacts, on aging and age-related diseases, of different combinations of these exposures in well-conducted randomized controlled trials, and propose Mendelian randomization as a valuable alternative to gather information in human populations regarding the effects of potential anti-aging interventions.

  16. Up-Regulating Telomerase and Tumor Suppressors: Focusing on Anti-Aging Interventions at the Population Level

    PubMed Central

    Hartwig, Fernando Pires; Bertoldi, Daniel; Larangeira, Martin; Wagner, Mônica Silveira

    2014-01-01

    Most human populations are undergoing a demographic transition regarding their age structure. This transition is reflected in chronic non-communicable diseases featuring among the main contributors to burden of disease. Considering that the aging process is a major risk factor for such conditions, understanding the mechanisms underlying aging and age-related diseases is critical to develop strategies to impact human health at population and/or individual-levels. Two different aspects of aging process (namely, telomere shortening and DNA damage accumulation) were shown to interact in positively impacting mice median survival. However, strategies aimed at translating such knowledge into actual human health benefits have not yet been discussed. In this manuscript, we present potential exposures that are suited for population-level interventions, and contextualize the roles of population (based on behavioral exposures) and individual-level (based on small-molecule administration) anti-aging interventions in different levels of disease prevention. We suggest that exposures such as moderate wine consumption, reducing calorie intake and active lifestyle are potentially useful for primordial and primary prevention, while small-molecules that activate telomerase and/or tumor suppression responses are more suited for secondary and tertiary prevention (although important for primary prevention in specific population subgroups). We also indicate the need of studying the impacts, on aging and age-related diseases, of different combinations of these exposures in well-conducted randomized controlled trials, and propose Mendelian randomization as a valuable alternative to gather information in human populations regarding the effects of potential anti-aging interventions. PMID:24490113

  17. In vitro transfection of the hepatitis B virus PreS2 gene into the human hepatocarcinoma cell line HepG2 induces upregulation of human telomerase reverse transcriptase

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Hua; Luan Fang; Ju Ying; Shen Hongyu; Gao Lifen; Wang Xiaoyan; Liu Suxia; Zhang Lining; Sun Wensheng; Ma Chunhong . E-mail: machunhong@sdu.edu.cn

    2007-04-06

    The preS2 domain is the minimal functional unit of transcription activators that is encoded by the Hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface (S) gene. It is present in more than one-third of the HBV-integrates in HBV induced hepatocarcinoma (HCC). To further understand the functional role of PreS2 in hepatocytes, a PreS2 expression plasmid, pcS2, was constructed and stably transfected into HepG2 cells. We conducted growth curve and colony-forming assays to study the impact of PreS2 expression on cell proliferation. Cells transfected with PreS2 proliferated more rapidly and formed colonies in soft agar. PreS2 expressing cells also induced upregulation of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and telomerase activation by RT-PCR and the modified TRAP assay. Blocking expression of hTERT with antisense oligonuleotide reversed the growth rate in cells stably transfected with PreS2. Our data suggest that PreS2 may increase the malignant transformation of human HCC cell line HepG2 by upregulating hTERT and inducing telomerase activation.

  18. Ferulic acid (FA) abrogates γ-radiation induced oxidative stress and DNA damage by up-regulating nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and activation of NHEJ pathway.

    PubMed

    Das, Ujjal; Manna, Krishnendu; Khan, Amitava; Sinha, Mahuya; Biswas, Sushobhan; Sengupta, Aaveri; Chakraborty, Anindita; Dey, Sanjit

    2017-01-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the radioprotective effect of ferulic acid (FA), a naturally occurring plant flavonoid in terms of DNA damage and damage related alterations of repair pathways by gamma radiation. FA was administered at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight for five consecutive days prior to exposing the swiss albino mice to a single dose of 10 Gy gamma radiation. Ionising radiation induces oxidative damage manifested by decreased expression of Cu, Zn-SOD (SOD stands for super oxide dismutase), Mn-SOD and catalase. Gamma radiation promulgated reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated DNA damage and modified repair pathways. ROS enhanced nuclear translocation of p53, activated ATM (ataxia telangiectasia-mutated protein), increased expression of GADD45a (growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible protein) gene and inactivated Non homologous end joining (NHEJ) repair pathway. The comet formation in irradiated mice peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) reiterated the DNA damage in IR exposed groups. FA pretreatment significantly prevented the comet formation and regulated the nuclear translocation of p53, inhibited ATM activation and expression of GADD45a gene. FA promoted the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) and activated NHEJ repair pathway to overcome ROS mediated oxidative stress and DNA damage. Therefore, the current study stated that FA can challenge the oxidative stress by (i) inducing nuclear translocation of Nrf2, (ii) scavenging ROS, and (iii) activating NHEJ DNA repair process.

  19. Ionizing radiation induces mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production accompanied by upregulation of mitochondrial electron transport chain function and mitochondrial content under control of the cell cycle checkpoint.

    PubMed

    Yamamori, Tohru; Yasui, Hironobu; Yamazumi, Masayuki; Wada, Yusuke; Nakamura, Yoshinari; Nakamura, Hideo; Inanami, Osamu

    2012-07-15

    Whereas ionizing radiation (Ir) instantaneously causes the formation of water radiolysis products that contain some reactive oxygen species (ROS), ROS are also suggested to be released from biological sources in irradiated cells. It is now becoming clear that these ROS generated secondarily after Ir have a variety of biological roles. Although mitochondria are assumed to be responsible for this Ir-induced ROS production, it remains to be elucidated how Ir triggers it. Therefore, we conducted this study to decipher the mechanism of Ir-induced mitochondrial ROS production. In human lung carcinoma A549 cells, Ir (10 Gy of X-rays) induced a time-dependent increase in the mitochondrial ROS level. Ir also increased mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial respiration, and mitochondrial ATP production, suggesting upregulation of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) function after Ir. Although we found that Ir slightly enhanced mitochondrial ETC complex II activity, the complex II inhibitor 3-nitropropionic acid failed to reduce Ir-induced mitochondrial ROS production. Meanwhile, we observed that the mitochondrial mass and mitochondrial DNA level were upregulated after Ir, indicating that Ir increased the mitochondrial content of the cell. Because irradiated cells are known to undergo cell cycle arrest under control of the checkpoint mechanisms, we examined the relationships between cell cycle and mitochondrial content and cellular oxidative stress level. We found that the cells in the G2/M phase had a higher mitochondrial content and cellular oxidative stress level than cells in the G1 or S phase, regardless of whether the cells were irradiated. We also found that Ir-induced accumulation of the cells in the G2/M phase led to an increase in cells with a high mitochondrial content and cellular oxidative stress level. This suggested that Ir upregulated mitochondrial ETC function and mitochondrial content, resulting in mitochondrial ROS production, and that

  20. Radiation-Induced Thymidine Phosphorylase Upregulation in Rectal Cancer Is Mediated by Tumor-Associated Macrophages by Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 From Cancer Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Tae-Dong; Li Ge; Song, Kyoung-Sub; Kim, Jin-Man; Kim, Jun-Sang; Kim, Jong-Seok; Yun, Eun-Jin; Park, Jong-Il; Park, Hae-Duck; Hwang, Byung-Doo; Lim, Kyu Yoon, Wan-Hee

    2009-03-01

    Purpose: The mechanisms of thymidine phosphorylase (TP) regulation induced by radiation therapy (XRT) in various tumors are poorly understood. We investigated the effect and mechanisms of preoperative XRT on TP expression in rectal cancer tissues. Methods and Materials: TP expression and CD68 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) levels in rectal cancer tissues and cancer cell lines were evaluated before and after XRT in Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, enzyme-linked immunoassay, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction studies. Isolated peripheral blood monocytes were used in the study of chemotaxis under the influence of MCP-1 released by irradiated colon cancer cells. Results: Expression of TP was significantly elevated by 9 Gy of XRT in most rectal cancer tissues but not by higher doses of XRT. In keeping with the close correlation of the increase in both TP expression and the number of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), anti-TP immunoreactivity was found in the CD68-positive TAMs and not the neoplastic cells. Expression of MCP-1 was increased in most cases after XRT, and this increase was strongly correlated with TP expression. However, this increase in MCP-1 expression occurred in tumor cells and not stromal cells. The XRT upregulated MCP-1 mRNA and also triggered the release of MCP-1 protein from cultured colon cancer cells. The supernatant of irradiated colon cancer cells showed strong chemotactic activity for monocyte migration, but this activity was completely abolished by neutralizing antibody. Conclusions: Use of XRT induces MCP-1 expression in cancer cells, which causes circulating monocytes to be recruited into TAMs, which then upregulate TP expression in rectal cancer tissues.

  1. Radiation-induced gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Gautam; Haas-Kogan, Daphne A.

    2013-01-01

    Radiation-induced gliomas represent a relatively rare but well-characterized entity in the neuro-oncologic literature. Extensive retrospective cohort data in pediatric populations after therapeutic intracranial radiation show a clearly increased risk in glioma incidence that is both patient age- and radiation dose/volume-dependent. Data in adults are more limited but show heightened risk in certain groups exposed to radiation. In both populations, there is no evidence linking increased risk associated with routine exposure to diagnostic radiation. At the molecular level, recent studies have found distinct genetic differences between radiation-induced gliomas and their spontaneously-occurring counterparts. Clinically, there is understandable reluctance on the part of clinicians to re-treat patients due to concern for cumulative neurotoxicity. However, available data suggest that aggressive intervention can lead to improved outcomes in patients with radiation-induced gliomas. PMID:19831840

  2. Radiation-induced pneumothorax

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, D.M.; Littman, P.; Gefter, W.B.; Miller, W.T.; Raney, R.B. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Pneumothorax is an uncommon complication of radiation therapy to the chest. The proposed pathogenesis is radiation-induced fibrosis promoting subpleural bleb formation that ruptures resulting in pneumothorax. We report on two young patients with primary sarcomas without pulmonary metastases who developed spontaneous pneumothorax after irradiation. Neither patient had antecedent radiographic evidence of pulmonary fibrosis.

  3. Radiation-Induced Bioradicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondelaers, Win; Lahorte, Philippe

    This chapter is part one of a review in which the production and application of radiation-induced bioradicals is discussed. Bioradicals play a pivotal role in the complex chain of processes starting with the absorption of radiation in biological materials and ending with the radiation-induced biological after-effects. The general aspects of the four consecutive stages (physical, physicochemical, chemical and biological) are discussed from an interdisciplinary point of view. The close relationship between radiation dose and track structure, induced DNA damage and cell survival or killing is treated in detail. The repair mechanisms that cells employ, to insure DNA stability following irradiation, are described. Because of their great biomedical importance tumour suppressor genes involved in radiation-induced DNA repair and in checkpoint activation will be treated briefly, together with the molecular genetics of radiosensitivity. Part two of this review will deal with modern theoretical methods and experimental instrumentation for quantitative studies in this research field. Also an extensive overview of the applications of radiation-induced bioradicals will be given. A comprehensive list of references allows further exploration of this research field, characterised in the last decade by a substantial advance, both in fundamental knowledge and in range of applications.

  4. Telomerase: The Devil Inside

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Mukesh; Lechel, Andre; Güneş, Çagatay

    2016-01-01

    High telomerase activity is detected in nearly all human cancers but most human cells are devoid of telomerase activity. There is well-documented evidence that reactivation of telomerase occurs during cellular transformation. In humans, tumors can rely in reactivation of telomerase or originate in a telomerase positive stem/progenitor cell, or rely in alternative lengthening of telomeres, a telomerase-independent telomere-length maintenance mechanism. In this review, we will focus on the telomerase positive tumors. In this context, the recent findings that telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutations represent the most common non-coding mutations in human cancer have flared up the long-standing discussion whether cancer originates from telomerase positive stem cells or telomerase reactivation is a final step in cellular transformation. Here, we will discuss the pros and cons of both concepts in the context of telomere length-dependent and telomere length-independent functions of telomerase. Together, these observations may provoke a re-evaluation of telomere and telomerase based therapies, both in telomerase inhibition for cancer therapy and telomerase activation for tissue regeneration and anti-ageing strategies. PMID:27483324

  5. Telomerase: The Devil Inside.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Mukesh; Lechel, Andre; Güneş, Çagatay

    2016-07-29

    High telomerase activity is detected in nearly all human cancers but most human cells are devoid of telomerase activity. There is well-documented evidence that reactivation of telomerase occurs during cellular transformation. In humans, tumors can rely in reactivation of telomerase or originate in a telomerase positive stem/progenitor cell, or rely in alternative lengthening of telomeres, a telomerase-independent telomere-length maintenance mechanism. In this review, we will focus on the telomerase positive tumors. In this context, the recent findings that telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutations represent the most common non-coding mutations in human cancer have flared up the long-standing discussion whether cancer originates from telomerase positive stem cells or telomerase reactivation is a final step in cellular transformation. Here, we will discuss the pros and cons of both concepts in the context of telomere length-dependent and telomere length-independent functions of telomerase. Together, these observations may provoke a re-evaluation of telomere and telomerase based therapies, both in telomerase inhibition for cancer therapy and telomerase activation for tissue regeneration and anti-ageing strategies.

  6. Distribution of TTAGG-specific telomerase activity in insects.

    PubMed

    Korandová, Michala; Krůček, Tomáš; Vrbová, Kristýna; Frydrychová, Radmila Capková

    2014-12-01

    In most eukaryotes, telomeres consist of tandem arrays of a short repetitive DNA sequence. Insect telomeres are generally constituted by a (TTAGG)n repeat motif. Usually, telomeres are maintained by telomerase, a specialized reverse transcriptase that adds this sequence to chromosome ends. We examined telomerase activity in 15 species across Insecta. Telomerase activity was revealed in Isoptera, Blattaria, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Trichoptera, Coleoptera, and Sternorrhyncha. In contrast, we were not able to detect telomerase activity in Orthoptera, Zygentoma, and Phasmida. Because we found telomerase activity in phylogenetically distant species, we conclude that a distribution pattern of (TTAGG)n sequence in Insecta is generally consistent with that of telomerase activity. Thus, the TTAGG-telomerase system is functional across the Insecta. Using real-time quantitative telomeric repeat amplification protocol (RTQ-TRAP) system, we quantified telomerase activity in different developmental stages and different tissues of a cockroach, Periplaneta americana. We show that telomerase is upregulated in young instars and gradually declines during development. In adults, it is most active in testes and ovaries. Thus, the telomerase activity of hemimetabolous insects seems to be associated with cell proliferation and organismal development.

  7. Radiation-Induced Bioradicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahorte, Philippe; Mondelaers, Wim

    This chapter represents the second part of a review in which the production and application of radiation-induced radicals in biological matter are discussed. In part one the general aspects of the four stages (physical, physicochemical, chemical and biological) of interaction of radiation with matter in general and biological matter in particular, were discussed. Here an overview is presented of modem technologies and theoretical methods available for studying these radiation effects. The relevance is highlighted of electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations with respect to obtaining structural information on bioradicals, and a survey is given of the research studies in this field. We also discuss some basic aspects of modem accelerator technologies which can be used for creating radicals and we conclude with an overview of applications of radiation processing in biology and related fields such as biomedical and environmental engineering, food technology, medicine and pharmacy.

  8. Radiation Induced Oral Mucositis

    PubMed Central

    PS, Satheesh Kumar; Balan, Anita; Sankar, Arun; Bose, Tinky

    2009-01-01

    Patients receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy will receive some degree of oral mucositis The incidence of oral mucositis was especially high in patients: (i) With primary tumors in the oral cavity, oropharynx, or nasopharynx; (ii) who also received concomitant chemotherapy; (iii) who received a total dose over 5,000 cGy; and (iv) who were treated with altered fractionation radiation schedules. Radiation-induced oral mucositis affects the quality of life of the patients and the family concerned. The present day management of oral mucositis is mostly palliative and or supportive care. The newer guidelines are suggesting Palifermin, which is the first active mucositis drug as well as Amifostine, for radiation protection and cryotherapy. The current management should focus more on palliative measures, such as pain management, nutritional support, and maintenance, of good oral hygiene PMID:20668585

  9. Activity of telomerase and telomeric length in Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Korandová, Michala; Frydrychová, Radmila Čapková

    2016-06-01

    Telomerase is an enzyme that adds repeats of DNA sequences to the ends of chromosomes, thereby preventing their shortening. Telomerase activity is associated with proliferative status of cells, organismal development, and aging. We report an analysis of telomerase activity and telomere length in the honeybee, Apis mellifera. Telomerase activity was found to be regulated in a development and caste-specific manner. During the development of somatic tissues of larval drones and workers, telomerase activity declined to 10 % of its level in embryos and remained low during pupal and adult stages but was upregulated in testes of late pupae, where it reached 70 % of the embryo level. Upregulation of telomerase activity was observed in the ovaries of late pupal queens, reaching 160 % of the level in embryos. Compared to workers and drones, queens displayed higher levels of telomerase activity. In the third larval instar of queens, telomerase activity reached the embryo level, and an enormous increase was observed in adult brains of queens, showing a 70-fold increase compared to a brain of an adult worker. Southern hybridization of terminal TTAGG fragments revealed a high variability of telomeric length between different individuals, although the same pattern of hybridization signals was observed in different tissues of each individual.

  10. Radiation Induced Genomic Instability

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, William F.

    2011-03-01

    Radiation induced genomic instability can be observed in the progeny of irradiated cells multiple generations after irradiation of parental cells. The phenotype is well established both in vivo (Morgan 2003) and in vitro (Morgan 2003), and may be critical in radiation carcinogenesis (Little 2000, Huang et al. 2003). Instability can be induced by both the deposition of energy in irradiated cells as well as by signals transmitted by irradiated (targeted) cells to non-irradiated (non-targeted) cells (Kadhim et al. 1992, Lorimore et al. 1998). Thus both targeted and non-targeted cells can pass on the legacy of radiation to their progeny. However the radiation induced events and cellular processes that respond to both targeted and non-targeted radiation effects that lead to the unstable phenotype remain elusive. The cell system we have used to study radiation induced genomic instability utilizes human hamster GM10115 cells. These cells have a single copy of human chromosome 4 in a background of hamster chromosomes. Instability is evaluated in the clonal progeny of irradiated cells and a clone is considered unstable if it contains three or more metaphase sub-populations involving unique rearrangements of the human chromosome (Marder and Morgan 1993). Many of these unstable clones have been maintained in culture for many years and have been extensively characterized. As initially described by Clutton et al., (Clutton et al. 1996) many of our unstable clones exhibit persistently elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (Limoli et al. 2003), which appear to be due dysfunctional mitochondria (Kim et al. 2006, Kim et al. 2006). Interestingly, but perhaps not surprisingly, our unstable clones do not demonstrate a “mutator phenotype” (Limoli et al. 1997), but they do continue to rearrange their genomes for many years. The limiting factor with this system is the target – the human chromosome. While some clones demonstrate amplification of this chromosome and thus lend

  11. Biogenesis of telomerase ribonucleoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Emily D.; Collins, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Telomerase adds simple-sequence repeats to the ends of linear chromosomes to counteract the loss of end sequence inherent in conventional DNA replication. Catalytic activity for repeat synthesis results from the cooperation of the telomerase reverse transcriptase protein (TERT) and the template-containing telomerase RNA (TER). TERs vary widely in sequence and structure but share a set of motifs required for TERT binding and catalytic activity. Species-specific TER motifs play essential roles in RNP biogenesis, stability, trafficking, and regulation. Remarkably, the biogenesis pathways that generate mature TER differ across eukaryotes. Furthermore, the cellular processes that direct the assembly of a biologically functional telomerase holoenzyme and its engagement with telomeres are evolutionarily varied and regulated. This review highlights the diversity of strategies for telomerase RNP biogenesis, RNP assembly, and telomere recruitment among ciliates, yeasts, and vertebrates and suggests common themes in these pathways and their regulation. PMID:22875809

  12. Defining the Regulation of Telomerase Through Identification of Mammary-Specific Telomerase Interacting Proteins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    Studying Telomeres and Telomerase. Zebrafish , 1:349-355. Jones,K.R., L.W.Elmore, L.Povirk, S.E.Holt, and D.A.Gewirtz. 2005. Reciprocal regulation... Zebrafish Blastula Cell Line on Rainbow Trout Stromal Cells and Subsequent Development under Feeder-Free Conditions into a Cell Line, ZEB2J. Zebrafish 5: 49...63. Elmore,L.W., M.Norris, A.T.Bright, P.A.McChesney, R.Winn, and S.E.Holt. 2008. Upregulation of Telomerase Function during Tissue Regeneration in

  13. Radiation-induced genomic instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kronenberg, A.

    1994-01-01

    Quantitative assessment of the heritable somatic effects of ionizing radiation exposures has relied upon the assumption that radiation-induced lesions were 'fixed' in the DNA prior to the first postirradiation mitosis. Lesion conversion was thought to occur during the initial round of DNA replication or as a consequence of error-prone enzymatic processing of lesions. The standard experimental protocols for the assessment of a variety of radiation-induced endpoints (cell death, specific locus mutations, neoplastic transformation and chromosome aberrations) evaluate these various endpoints at a single snapshot in time. In contrast with the aforementioned approaches, some studies have specifically assessed radiation effects as a function of time following exposure. Evidence has accumulated in support of the hypothesis that radiation exposure induces a persistent destabilization of the genome. This instability has been observed as a delayed expression of lethal mutations, as an enhanced rate of accumulation of non-lethal heritable alterations, and as a progressive intraclonal chromosomal heterogeneity. The genetic controls and biochemical mechanisms underlying radiation-induced genomic instability have not yet been delineated. The aim is to integrate the accumulated evidence that suggests that radiation exposure has a persistent effect on the stability of the mammalian genome.

  14. Radiation-induced genomic instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kronenberg, A.

    1994-01-01

    Quantitative assessment of the heritable somatic effects of ionizing radiation exposures has relied upon the assumption that radiation-induced lesions were 'fixed' in the DNA prior to the first postirradiation mitosis. Lesion conversion was thought to occur during the initial round of DNA replication or as a consequence of error-prone enzymatic processing of lesions. The standard experimental protocols for the assessment of a variety of radiation-induced endpoints (cell death, specific locus mutations, neoplastic transformation and chromosome aberrations) evaluate these various endpoints at a single snapshot in time. In contrast with the aforementioned approaches, some studies have specifically assessed radiation effects as a function of time following exposure. Evidence has accumulated in support of the hypothesis that radiation exposure induces a persistent destabilization of the genome. This instability has been observed as a delayed expression of lethal mutations, as an enhanced rate of accumulation of non-lethal heritable alterations, and as a progressive intraclonal chromosomal heterogeneity. The genetic controls and biochemical mechanisms underlying radiation-induced genomic instability have not yet been delineated. The aim is to integrate the accumulated evidence that suggests that radiation exposure has a persistent effect on the stability of the mammalian genome.

  15. Telomere and telomerase biology.

    PubMed

    Giardini, Miriam Aparecida; Segatto, Marcela; da Silva, Marcelo Santos; Nunes, Vinícius Santana; Cano, Maria Isabel Nogueira

    2014-01-01

    Telomeres are the physical ends of eukaryotic linear chromosomes. Telomeres form special structures that cap chromosome ends to prevent degradation by nucleolytic attack and to distinguish chromosome termini from DNA double-strand breaks. With few exceptions, telomeres are composed primarily of repetitive DNA associated with proteins that interact specifically with double- or single-stranded telomeric DNA or with each other, forming highly ordered and dynamic complexes involved in telomere maintenance and length regulation. In proliferative cells and unicellular organisms, telomeric DNA is replicated by the actions of telomerase, a specialized reverse transcriptase. In the absence of telomerase, some cells employ a recombination-based DNA replication pathway known as alternative lengthening of telomeres. However, mammalian somatic cells that naturally lack telomerase activity show telomere shortening with increasing age leading to cell cycle arrest and senescence. In another way, mutations or deletions of telomerase components can lead to inherited genetic disorders, and the depletion of telomeric proteins can elicit the action of distinct kinases-dependent DNA damage response, culminating in chromosomal abnormalities that are incompatible with life. In addition to the intricate network formed by the interrelationships among telomeric proteins, long noncoding RNAs that arise from subtelomeric regions, named telomeric repeat-containing RNA, are also implicated in telomerase regulation and telomere maintenance. The goal for the next years is to increase our knowledge about the mechanisms that regulate telomere homeostasis and the means by which their absence or defect can elicit telomere dysfunction, which generally results in gross genomic instability and genetic diseases.

  16. Radiation-induced cardiovascular effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapio, Soile

    Recent epidemiological studies indicate that exposure to ionising radiation enhances the risk of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in a moderate but significant manner. Our goal is to identify molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cardiovascular disease using cellular and mouse models. Two radiation targets are studied in detail: the vascular endothelium that plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cardiac function, and the myocardium, in particular damage to the cardiac mitochondria. Ionising radiation causes immediate and persistent alterations in several biological pathways in the endothelium in a dose- and dose-rate dependent manner. High acute and cumulative doses result in rapid, non-transient remodelling of the endothelial cytoskeleton, as well as increased lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation of the heart tissue, independent of whether exposure is local or total body. Proteomic and functional changes are observed in lipid metabolism, glycolysis, mitochondrial function (respiration, ROS production etc.), oxidative stress, cellular adhesion, and cellular structure. The transcriptional regulators Akt and PPAR alpha seem to play a central role in the radiation-response of the endothelium and myocardium, respectively. We have recently started co-operation with GSI in Darmstadt to study the effect of heavy ions on the endothelium. Our research will facilitate the identification of biomarkers associated with adverse cardiac effects of ionising radiation and may lead to the development of countermeasures against radiation-induced cardiac damage.

  17. The Novel Retinoid, 9cUAB30, Inhibits Telomerase and Induces Apoptosis in HL60 Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Love, William K; DeAngelis, J Tyson; Berletch, Joel B; Phipps, Sharla MO; Andrews, Lucy G; Brouillette, Wayne J; Muccio, Donald D; Tollefsbol, Trygve O

    2008-01-01

    Telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein important to neoplastic immortality, is up-regulated in approximately 85% of cancers, including leukemias. In this study, 9cUAB30, a novel retinoic acid, resulted in differentiation of HL60 leukemia cells as indicated by morphologic changes characteristic of granulocytes. It also caused a down-regulation of hTERT gene expression and a decrease in telomerase activity. Telomerase inhibition was followed by loss of proliferative capacity, induction of apoptosis, and partial differentiation. These findings demonstrate the effectiveness of 9cUAB30 at inhibiting telomerase activity by down-regulating hTERT gene expression in human leukemic cells. PMID:18795149

  18. Telomerase Mechanism of Telomere Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Wu, R Alex; Upton, Heather E; Vogan, Jacob M; Collins, Kathleen

    2017-06-20

    Telomerase is the essential reverse transcriptase required for linear chromosome maintenance in most eukaryotes. Telomerase supplements the tandem array of simple-sequence repeats at chromosome ends to compensate for the DNA erosion inherent in genome replication. The template for telomerase reverse transcriptase is within the RNA subunit of the ribonucleoprotein complex, which in cells contains additional telomerase holoenzyme proteins that assemble the active ribonucleoprotein and promote its function at telomeres. Telomerase is distinct among polymerases in its reiterative reuse of an internal template. The template is precisely defined, processively copied, and regenerated by release of single-stranded product DNA. New specificities of nucleic acid handling that underlie the catalytic cycle of repeat synthesis derive from both active site specialization and new motif elaborations in protein and RNA subunits. Studies of telomerase provide unique insights into cellular requirements for genome stability, tissue renewal, and tumorigenesis as well as new perspectives on dynamic ribonucleoprotein machines.

  19. Radiation-induced bladder carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Uyama, T.; Nakamura, S.; Moriwaki, S.

    1981-01-01

    Two cases are presented of radiation-induced bladder carcinoma which followed prior irradiation for cervical carcinoma of the uterus. One was a sixty-eight-year-old woman with bladder carcinoma fourteen years after irradiation (total dose of 4,500 rad) for cervical carcinoma of the uterus. The other was a sixty-four-year-old woman with bladder carcinoma twenty-five years after irradiation with 150-K volt apparatus for cervical carcinoma of the uterus. From the late radiation change of the skin, it was estimated that the total dose of prior radiation might be 4,000 rad or more. Both had high-grade, high-stage transitional cell bladder carcinoma, and the former was with marked mucus-forming adenomatous metaplasia.

  20. Radiation-Induced Oral Mucositis

    PubMed Central

    Maria, Osama Muhammad; Eliopoulos, Nicoletta; Muanza, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    Radiation-induced oral mucositis (RIOM) is a major dose-limiting toxicity in head and neck cancer patients. It is a normal tissue injury caused by radiation/radiotherapy (RT), which has marked adverse effects on patient quality of life and cancer therapy continuity. It is a challenge for radiation oncologists since it leads to cancer therapy interruption, poor local tumor control, and changes in dose fractionation. RIOM occurs in 100% of altered fractionation radiotherapy head and neck cancer patients. In the United Sates, its economic cost was estimated to reach 17,000.00 USD per patient with head and neck cancers. This review will discuss RIOM definition, epidemiology, impact and side effects, pathogenesis, scoring scales, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. PMID:28589080

  1. Radiation-Induced Oral Mucositis.

    PubMed

    Maria, Osama Muhammad; Eliopoulos, Nicoletta; Muanza, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    Radiation-induced oral mucositis (RIOM) is a major dose-limiting toxicity in head and neck cancer patients. It is a normal tissue injury caused by radiation/radiotherapy (RT), which has marked adverse effects on patient quality of life and cancer therapy continuity. It is a challenge for radiation oncologists since it leads to cancer therapy interruption, poor local tumor control, and changes in dose fractionation. RIOM occurs in 100% of altered fractionation radiotherapy head and neck cancer patients. In the United Sates, its economic cost was estimated to reach 17,000.00 USD per patient with head and neck cancers. This review will discuss RIOM definition, epidemiology, impact and side effects, pathogenesis, scoring scales, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, prevention, and treatment.

  2. Telomerase Activation in Hematological Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Ropio, Joana; Merlio, Jean-Philippe; Soares, Paula; Chevret, Edith

    2016-01-01

    Telomerase expression and telomere maintenance are critical for cell proliferation and survival, and they play important roles in development and cancer, including hematological malignancies. Transcriptional regulation of the rate-limiting subunit of human telomerase reverse transcriptase gen (hTERT) is a complex process, and unveiling the mechanisms behind its reactivation is an important step for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Here, we review the main mechanisms of telomerase activation and the associated hematologic malignancies. PMID:27618103

  3. Inhibition of telomerase in the endothelial cells disrupts tumor angiogenesis in glioblastoma xenografts.

    PubMed

    Falchetti, Maria Laura; Mongiardi, Maria Patrizia; Fiorenzo, Paolo; Petrucci, Giovanna; Pierconti, Francesco; D'Agnano, Igea; D'Alessandris, Giorgio; Alessandri, Giulio; Gelati, Maurizio; Ricci-Vitiani, Lucia; Maira, Giulio; Larocca, Luigi Maria; Levi, Andrea; Pallini, Roberto

    2008-03-15

    Tumor angiogenesis is a complex process that involves a series of interactions between tumor cells and endothelial cells (ECs). In vitro, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells are known to induce an increase in proliferation, migration and tube formation by the ECs. We have previously shown that in human GBM specimens the proliferating ECs of the tumor vasculature express the catalytic component of telomerase, hTERT, and that telomerase can be upregulated in human ECs by exposing these cells to GBM in vitro. Here, we developed a controlled in vivo assay of tumor angiogenesis in which primary human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) were subcutaneously grafted with or without human GBM cells in immunocompromised mice as Matrigel implants. We found that primary HUVECs did not survive in Matrigel implants, and that telomerase upregulation had little effect on HUVEC survival. In the presence of GBM cells, however, the grafted HUVECs not only survived in Matrigel implants but developed tubule structures that integrated with murine microvessels. Telomerase upregulation in HUVECs enhanced such effect. More importantly, inhibition of telomerase in HUVECs completely abolished tubule formation and greatly reduced survival of these cells in the tumor xenografts. Our data demonstrate that telomerase upregulation by the ECs is a key requisite for GBM tumor angiogenesis. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Targeting telomerase with radiolabeled inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Waghorn, Philip A; Jackson, Mark R; Gouverneur, Veronique; Vallis, Katherine A

    2017-01-05

    The expression of telomerase in approximately 85% of cancers and its absence in the majority of normal cells makes it an attractive target for cancer therapy. However the lag period between initiation of telomerase inhibition and growth arrest makes direct inhibition alone an insufficient method of treatment. However, telomerase inhibition has been shown to enhance cancer cell radiosensitivity. To investigate the strategy of simultaneously inhibiting telomerase while delivering targeted radionuclide therapy to cancer cells, (123)I-radiolabeled inhibitors of telomerase were synthesized and their effects on cancer cell survival studied. An (123)I-labeled analogue of the telomerase inhibitor MST-312 inhibited telomerase with an IC50 of 1.58 μM (MST-312 IC50: 0.23 μM). Clonogenic assays showed a dose dependant effect of (123)I-MST-312 on cell survival in a telomerase positive cell line, MDA-MB-435. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization of Trypanosoma cruzi telomerase.

    PubMed

    Campelo, Riward; Galindo, Maria Mercedes; Ramirez, Jose Luis

    2011-12-01

    High telomerase activity is always associated with actively dividing cells, however the detection of this activity in dividing Leishmania and Trypanosoma cruzi cells has always been disappointingly low. Recently, we have found that Leishmania major telomerase activity can be activated by heat, which combined with dilutions of the nuclear extracts produced an increase in activity comparable to cancer cells. Here we examined whether T. cruzi telomerase shares the same physicochemical properties of primer specificity and overall features of the L. major. Our studies revealed that no telomerase inhibitory factors were present in the nuclear lysates of T. cruzi however the enzyme was activated by heat and was very resilient to heat denaturation. We also showed the extension primer specificity, susceptibility to RNase-A and RNase-H digestion, and the effect of telomerase inhibitors.

  6. TCAB1: driving telomerase to Cajal bodies.

    PubMed

    Venteicher, Andrew S; Artandi, Steven E

    2009-05-01

    Telomerase supports the proliferation of progenitor cells and tumor cells by adding telomere repeats to chromosome ends. The low abundance and restricted expression pattern of telomerase have limited our knowledge of this important enzyme. A new telomerase protein, TCAB1, sheds light on the pathway that governs telomerase holoenzyme assembly and function in vivo. TCAB1 is a component of active telomerase and is required for the telomerase holoenzyme to accumulate in Cajal bodies and to elongate telomeres. These findings provide important new insights into how telomerase functions in cancer and in stem cell biology.

  7. Advances on the regulation of telomerase.

    PubMed

    Sunyang, Ying; Jiaxiu, Xiong; Hongxu, Mai; Jiajia, Lin; Lina, Jiang; Long, Cheng; Qinong, Ye

    2016-04-01

    Telomerase is composed of the catalytic subunit TERT (Telomerase reverse transcriptase),RNA subunit TERC (Telomerase RNA component) and other telomerase associated proteins. These two compartments with other telomerase subunits can assemble a holoenzyme, which maintain the length of telomeres. Telomerase plays important roles in cell senescence and tumor formation. The molecular mechanisms of the regulation of telomerase are very complicated. These processes comprise the regulation of transcription, post-transcription, post-translation and subcellular localization. Trafficking and assemble of TERT and TERC, as well as recruitment to telomeres, are also involved in this process. Here we review the regulation mechanism of telomerase from these aspects, and aim to laid a foundation for telomerase associated research and the drug targeting the telomerase.

  8. Treatment of Radiation-Induced Urethral Strictures.

    PubMed

    Hofer, Matthias D; Liu, Joceline S; Morey, Allen F

    2017-02-01

    Radiation therapy may result in urethral strictures from vascular damage. Most radiation-induced urethral strictures occur in the bulbomembranous junction, and urinary incontinence may result as a consequence of treatment. Radiation therapy may compromise reconstruction due to poor tissue healing and radionecrosis. Excision and primary anastomosis is the preferred urethroplasty technique for radiation-induced urethral stricture. Principles of posterior urethroplasty for trauma may be applied to the treatment of radiation-induced urethral strictures. Chronic management with suprapubic tube is an option based on patient comorbidities and preference.

  9. Radiation-induced moyamoya syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, Snehal S.; Paulino, Arnold C. . E-mail: apaulino@tmh.tmc.edu; Mai, Wei Y.; Teh, Bin S.

    2006-07-15

    Purpose: The moyamoya syndrome is an uncommon late complication after radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: A PubMed search of English-language articles, with radiation, radiotherapy, and moyamoya syndrome used as search key words, yielded 33 articles from 1967 to 2002. Results: The series included 54 patients with a median age at initial RT of 3.8 years (range, 0.4 to 47). Age at RT was less than 5 years in 56.3%, 5 to 10 years in 22.9%, 11 to 20 years in 8.3%, 21 to 30 years in 6.3%, 31 to 40 years in 2.1%, and 41 to 50 years in 4.2%. Fourteen of 54 patients (25.9%) were diagnosed with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1). The most common tumor treated with RT was low-grade glioma in 37 tumors (68.5%) of which 29 were optic-pathway glioma. The average RT dose was 46.5 Gy (range, 22-120 Gy). For NF-1-positive patients, the average RT dose was 46.5 Gy, and for NF-1-negative patients, it was 58.1 Gy. The median latent period for development of moyamoya syndrome was 40 months after RT (range, 4-240). Radiation-induced moyamoya syndrome occurred in 27.7% of patients by 2 years, 53.2% of patients by 4 years, 74.5% of patients by 6 years, and 95.7% of patients by 12 years after RT. Conclusions: Patients who received RT to the parasellar region at a young age (<5 years) are the most susceptible to moyamoya syndrome. The incidence for moyamoya syndrome continues to increase with time, with half of cases occurring within 4 years of RT and 95% of cases occurring within 12 years. Patients with NF-1 have a lower radiation-dose threshold for development of moyamoya syndrome.

  10. Radiation induces autophagic cell death via the p53/DRAM signaling pathway in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cui, Li; Song, Zhiheng; Liang, Bing; Jia, Lili; Ma, Shumei; Liu, Xiaodong

    2016-06-01

    Autophagy is known to play a role in the response of breast cancer cells to radiation therapy. However, the mechanisms that mediate the process of autophagy and contribute to radiation-induced cell death and cell survival remain to be fully characterized. Therefore, in this study, the functional role of autophagy in radiation-induced cytotoxicity in breast cancer cells was investigated. After MCF-7 cells were exposed to various doses of radiation, increased monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining and a greater deposition of LC3-positive puncta were observed. Expression of the autophagy-related proteins, Beclin 1 and LC3-II, were also found to be upregulated. Radiation-induced autophagic cell death was partially abrogated following the administration of 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and in knockdown experiments of Atg5 and Beclin 1. In the gene microarray analysis performed after irradiation, a number of differentially expressed genes were identified. In particular, upregulation of both the mRNA and protein levels of the autophagy-related genes, DRAM and TIGAR, were detected. However, inhibition of autophagy by 3-MA reduced the radiation-induced upregulation of LC3-II and DRAM. Conversely, silencing of p53 downregulated the expression of LC3-II and DRAM following radiation. Silencing of DRAM reversed the upregulation of LC3-II and DRAM following radiation, partially blocked radiation-induced cell death, and no significant change in p53 expression was detected. Based on these results, the p53/DRAM signaling pathway appears to contribute to radiation-induced autophagic cell death in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

  11. Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein CIRP/hnRNP A18 regulates telomerase activity in a temperature-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Youwei; Wu, Yangxiu; Mao, Pingsu; Li, Feng; Han, Xin; Zhang, Yi; Jiang, Shuai; Chen, Yuxi; Huang, Junjiu; Liu, Dan; Zhao, Yong; Ma, Wenbin; Songyang, Zhou

    2016-01-01

    The telomerase is responsible for adding telomeric repeats to chromosomal ends and consists of the reverse transcriptase TERT and the RNA subunit TERC. The expression and activity of the telomerase are tightly regulated, and aberrant activation of the telomerase has been observed in >85% of human cancers. To better understand telomerase regulation, we performed immunoprecipitations coupled with mass spectrometry (IP-MS) and identified cold inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP or hnRNP A18) as a telomerase-interacting factor. We have found that CIRP is necessary to maintain telomerase activities at both 32°C and 37°C. Furthermore, inhibition of CIRP by CRISPR-Cas9 or siRNA knockdown led to reduced telomerase activities and shortened telomere length, suggesting an important role of CIRP in telomere maintenance. We also provide evidence here that CIRP associates with the active telomerase complex through direct binding of TERC and regulates Cajal body localization of the telomerase. In addition, CIRP regulates the level of TERT mRNAs. At the lower temperature, TERT mRNA is upregulated in a CIRP-dependent manner to compensate for reduced telomerase activities. Taken together, these findings highlight the dual roles that CIRP plays in regulating TERT and TERC, and reveal a new class of telomerase modulators in response to hypothermia conditions. PMID:26673712

  12. Radiation-induced accelerated coronary arteriosclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, B.; Deutsch, M.; Thompson, M.; Dameshek, H.L.

    1986-07-01

    There is a paucity of information on radiation-induced coronary heart disease. A young patient with myocardial infarction following mediastinal irradiation is described. The role of radiotherapy and chemotherapy on the subsequent development of coronary heart disease is discussed.

  13. Harnessing telomerase in cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Fakhoury, Johans; Nimmo, Graeme A M; Autexier, Chantal

    2007-07-01

    Telomerase is an attractive target for anti-cancer therapeutics due to its requirement for cellular immortalization and expression in greater than 85% of human neoplasms. Though initially promising, strategies that inhibit telomerase with either small molecules or antisense oligonucleotides have a major limitation, namely the lag time required for telomere shortening before cellular effects are attained. As alternative approaches, immunotherapy and gene therapy have been tailored to exploit, rather than antagonize telomerase expression and/or activity. Immunotherapy requires the presence of the catalytic subunit of telomerase, hTERT, to elicit an immune response directed towards hTERT peptide-presenting cells. hTERT promoter-driven gene therapy and mutant telomerase RNA (hTR) gene therapy depend on the innate telomerase activity of cancer cells to drive the expression of pro-apoptotic genes and to synthesize mutated DNA sequences onto telomeres, respectively. In addition, we will discuss telomestatin, a G-quadruplex binding ligand that may exert anti-proliferative effects independently of telomere shortening. In this review, the progress, advantages, and limitations of these strategies in the ongoing effort to develop clinically relevant telomerase-based cancer therapeutics will be examined.

  14. C. elegans survivors without telomerase

    PubMed Central

    Lackner, Daniel H.; Karlseder, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In most eukaryotic organisms with a linear genome, the telomerase complex is essential for telomere maintenance and, thus, for genomic integrity. Proper telomerase function in stem and germ cell populations counteracts replication-dependent telomere shortening. On the other hand, repression of telomerase expression in most somatic tissues limits the proliferative potential of these cells through the induction of a permanent cell cycle arrest termed senescence upon critical telomere erosion. Thus, senescence, induced by telomere shortening and subsequent DNA damage signaling, is an essential tumor suppressive mechanism, emphasized by the fact that repression of telomerase is lost in about 90% of cancers, endowing them with unlimited proliferative potential. In 10% of cancers telomeres are maintained using the recombination-based alternative mechanism of telomere lengthening (ALT). To date, ALT and ALT-like mechanisms have only been described in the context of individual cells such as cancer cells and yeast. Now, several “survivor” strains of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans have been generated that can propagate despite mutations of the telomerase gene. These nematode strains represent the first multi-cellular organism with canonical telomerase that can survive in the absence of a functional telomerase pathway. PMID:24058854

  15. Radiation-induced sarcoma of the thyroid

    SciTech Connect

    Griem, K.L.; Robb, P.K.; Caldarelli, D.D.; Templeton, A.C. )

    1989-08-01

    A 23-year-old white man presented with a thyroid mass 12 years after receiving high-dose radiotherapy for a T2 and N1 lymphoepithelioma of the nasopharynx. Following subtotal thyroidectomy, a histopathologic examination revealed liposarcoma of the thyroid gland. The relationship between sarcomas and irradiation is described and Cahan and colleagues' criteria for radiation-induced sarcomas are reviewed. To our knowledge, we are presenting the first such case of a radiation-induced sarcoma of the thyroid gland.

  16. Relevance and safety of telomerase for human tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Klinger, Rebecca Y.; Blum, Juliana L.; Hearn, Bevin; Lebow, Benjamin; Niklason, Laura E.

    2006-01-01

    Tissue engineering holds the promise of replacing damaged or diseased tissues and organs. The use of autologous donor cells is often not feasible because of the limited replicative lifespan of cells, particularly those derived from elderly patients. Proliferative arrest can be overcome by the ectopic expression of telomerase via human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene transfection. To study the efficacy and safety of this potentially valuable technology, we used differentiated vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) and vascular tissue engineering as a model system. Although we previously demonstrated that vessels engineered with telomerase-expressing SMC had improved mechanics over those grown with control cells, it is critical to assess the phenotypic impact of telomerase expression in donor cells, because telomerase up-regulation is observed in >95% of human malignancies. To study the impact of telomerase in tissue engineering, expression of hTERT was retrovirally induced in SMC from eight elderly patients and one young donor. In hTERT SMC, significant lifespan extension beyond that of control was achieved without population doubling time acceleration. Karyotype changes were seen in both control and hTERT SMC but were not clonal nor representative of cancerous change. hTERT cells also failed to show evidence of neoplastic transformation in functional assays of tumorigenicity. In addition, the impact of donor age on cellular behavior, particularly the synthetic capability of SMC, was not affected by hTERT expression. Hence, this tissue engineering model system highlights the impact of donor age on cellular synthetic function that appears to be independent of lifespan extension by hTERT. PMID:16477025

  17. Dose-dependency and reversibility of radiation-induced injury in cardiac explant-derived cells of mice

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Lan; Yan, Chen; Urata, Yoshishige; Hasan, Al Shaimaa; Goto, Shinji; Guo, Chang-Ying; Zhang, Shouhua; Li, Tao-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the dose-dependency and reversibility of radiation-induced injury in cardiac explant-derived cells (CDCs), a mixed cell population grown from heart tissues. Adult C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 0, 10, 50 and 250 mGy γ-rays for 7 days and atrial tissues were collected for experiments 24 hours after last exposure. The number of CDCs was significantly decreased by daily exposure to over 250 mGy. Interestingly, daily exposure to over 50 mGy significantly decreased the c-kit expression and telomerase activity, increased 53BP1 foci in the nuclei of CDCs. However, CD90 expression and growth factors production in CDCs were not significantly changed even after daily exposure to 250 mGy. We further evaluated the reversibility of radiation-induced injury in CDCs at 1 week and 3 weeks after a single exposure to 3 Gy γ-rays. The number and growth factors production of CDCs were soon recovered at 1 week. However, the increased expression of CD90 were retained at 1 week, but recovered at 3 weeks. Moreover, the decreased expression of c-kit, impaired telomerase activity, and increased 53BP1 foci were poorly recovered even at 3 weeks. These data may help us to find the most sensitive and reliable bio-parameter(s) for evaluating radiation-induced injury in CDCs. PMID:28098222

  18. Telomerase activity promotes osteoblast differentiation by modulating IGF-signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Hamid; Qiu, Weimin; Li, Chen; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Abdallah, Basem M; Kassem, Moustapha

    2015-12-01

    The contribution of deficient telomerase activity to age-related decline in osteoblast functions and bone formation is poorly studied. We have previously demonstrated that telomerase over-expression led to enhanced osteoblast differentiation of human bone marrow skeletal (stromal) stem cells (hMSC) in vitro and in vivo. Here, we investigated the signaling pathways underlying the regulatory functions of telomerase in osteoblastic cells. Comparative microarray analysis and Western blot analysis of telomerase-over expressing hMSC (hMSC-TERT) versus primary hMSC revealed significant up-regulation of several components of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling. Specifically, a significant increase in IGF-induced AKT phosphorylation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were observed in hMSC-TERT. Enhanced ALP activity was reduced in presence of IGF1 receptor inhibitor: picropodophyllin. In addition, telomerase deficiency caused significant reduction in IGF signaling proteins in osteoblastic cells cultured from telomerase deficient mice (Terc(-/-)). The low bone mass exhibited by Terc(-/-) mice was associated with significant reduction in serum levels of IGF1 and IGFBP3 as well as reduced skeletal mRNA expression of Igf1, Igf2, Igf2r, Igfbp5 and Igfbp6. IGF1-induced osteoblast differentiation was also impaired in Terc(-/-) MSC. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that impaired IGF/AKT signaling contributes to the observed decreased bone mass and bone formation exhibited by telomerase deficient osteoblastic cells.

  19. Template boundary definition in Tetrahymena telomerase.

    PubMed

    Lai, Cary K; Miller, Michael C; Collins, Kathleen

    2002-02-15

    Telomerase elongates chromosome ends by addition of telomeric DNA repeats. The telomerase ribonucleoprotein can copy only a short template sequence within the telomerase RNA subunit. Here, we identify a region of telomerase RNA that is necessary for both correct 5' template boundary definition and high affinity telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) interaction. We also demonstrate that TERT mutants in the RNA binding domain compromise both 5' boundary definition and RNA binding. Our results indicate that sequence-specific interaction of a telomerase RNA element with the TERT RNA binding domain, not the active site motifs, defines the template boundary.

  20. Template boundary definition in mammalian telomerase.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiunn-Liang; Greider, Carol W

    2003-11-15

    Telomerase uses a short template sequence in its intrinsic RNA component to synthesize telomere repeats. Disruption of the helix P1b in human telomerase RNA or alteration of its distance from the template resulted in telomerase copying residues past the normal template boundary both in vivo and in vitro. Therefore, helix P1b is important for template boundary definition in human telomerase. Mouse telomerase RNA lacks helix P1b, and the boundary is established at 2 nt downstream of the 5'-end. The divergent structure of boundary definition elements in mammals, yeast, and ciliates suggests diverse mechanisms for template boundary definition in telomerase.

  1. Telomerase and the endocrine system.

    PubMed

    Pacini, Furio; Cantara, Silvia; Capezzone, Marco; Marchisotta, Stefania

    2011-03-29

    Telomeres are nucleoprotein complexes located at the ends of chromosomes that have a critical role in the maintenance of chromosomal integrity. This involvement is based on complex secondary and tertiary structures that rely on DNA-DNA, DNA-protein and protein-protein interactions. De novo synthesis and maintenance of telomere repeats is controlled by telomerase, a specialized complex that consists of a telomerase RNA component and a protein component--telomerase reverse transcriptase. When telomerase is silent (its default state in differentiated somatic cells), chromosomes shorten with every cell division, thus limiting the lifespan of the cells (the process of senescence) and preventing unlimited cell proliferation, which might eventually lead to the development of cancer. During this process, occasionally, a cell can activate telomerase, which stabilizes short telomeres and enables immortalization-a process essential for malignant transformation. Thus, although telomere erosion is a barrier to malignant progression, paradoxically, in certain circumstances it might also trigger tumorigenesis. A number of studies have demonstrated unequivocally that reactivation of telomerase in the presence of short telomeres is one of the most common features of human cancers, including those of the endocrine system.

  2. Behaviour of Telomere and Telomerase during Aging and Regeneration in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Alcaraz-Pérez, Francisca; García-Navarro, Esther M.; Cayuela, María L.

    2011-01-01

    Telomere length and telomerase activity are important factors in the pathobiology of human diseases. Age-related diseases and premature aging syndromes are characterized by short telomeres, which can compromise cell viability, whereas tumour cells can prevent telomere loss by aberrantly upregulating telomerase. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) offers multiple experimental manipulation advantages over other vertebrate models and, therefore, it has been recently considered as a potential model for aging, cancer, and regeneration studies. However, it has only partially been exploited to shed light on these fundamental biological processes. The aim of this study was, therefore, to investigate telomere length and telomerase expression and activity in different strains of zebrafish obtained from different stock centres to determine whether they undergo any changes during aging and regeneration. We found that although both telomerase expression and telomere length increased from embryo to adulthood stages, they drastically declined in aged fish despite telomerase activity was detected in different tissues of old fish. In addition, we observed a weaker upregulation of telomerase expression in regenerating fins of old fish, which well correlates with their impaired regeneration capacity. Strikingly, telomeres were elongated or maintained during the fin regeneration process at all ages and after repeated amputations, likely to support high cell proliferation rates. We conclude that the expression of telomerase and telomere length are closely related during the entire life cycle of the fish and that these two parameters can be used as biomarkers of aging in zebrafish. Our results also reveal a direct relationship between the expression of telomerase, telomere length and the efficiency of tissue regeneration. PMID:21347393

  3. Telomerase reverse transcriptase moonlights: Therapeutic targets beyond telomerase.

    PubMed

    Maida, Yoshiko; Masutomi, Kenkichi

    2015-11-01

    Telomeres, the repetitive sequences at chromosomal ends, protect intact chromosomes. Telomeres progressively shorten through successive rounds of cell divisions, and critically shortened telomeres trigger senescence and apoptosis. The enzyme that elongates telomeres and maintains their structure is known as telomerase. The catalytic subunit of this enzyme (telomerase reverse transcriptase [TERT]) is expressed at a high level in malignant cells, but at a very low level in normal cells. Although telomerase activity was long believed to be the only function of TERT, emerging evidence indicates that TERT plays roles beyond telomeres. For example, TERT contributes to stem cell maintenance and cell reprogramming processes in a manner independent of its canonical function. Even some types of splice variants that lack the telomerase catalytic domains exhibit the functions in a manner that does not depend on telomerase activity. We recently demonstrated that the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) activity of TERT is involved in regulation of gene silencing and heterochromatic transcription. Moreover, TERT RdRP activity is mediated by a newly identified complex, distinct from the authentic telomerase complex, that plays a role in cancer stem cells in a telomere maintenance independent manner. TERT has attracted interest as a molecular target for anticancer treatment, but previous efforts aimed at developing novel therapeutic strategies focused only on the canonical function of TERT. However, accumulating evidence about the non-canonical functions of TERT led us to speculate that the functions other than telomerase might be therapeutic targets as well. In this review, we discuss the non-canonical functions of TERT and their potential applications for anticancer treatment. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Science published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  4. TELOMERASE AND CHRONIC ARSENIC EXPOSURE IN HUMANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic exposure has been associated with increased risk of skin, lung and bladder cancer in humans. The mechanisms of carcinogenesis are not well understood. Telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein containing human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), can extend telomeres of eukary...

  5. TELOMERASE AND CHRONIC ARSENIC EXPOSURE IN HUMANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic exposure has been associated with increased risk of skin, lung and bladder cancer in humans. The mechanisms of carcinogenesis are not well understood. Telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein containing human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), can extend telomeres of eukary...

  6. Radiation-induced vaginal stenosis: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Lucinda; Do, Viet; Chard, Jennifer; Brand, Alison H

    2017-01-01

    Treatment of gynecological cancer commonly involves pelvic radiation therapy (RT) and/or brachytherapy. A commonly observed side effect of such treatment is radiation-induced vaginal stenosis (VS). This review analyzed the incidence, pathogenesis, clinical manifestation(s) and assessment and grading of radiation-induced VS. In addition, risk factors, prevention and treatment options and follow-up schedules are also discussed. The limited available literature on many of these aspects suggests that additional studies are required to more precisely determine the best management strategy of this prevalent group after RT. PMID:28496367

  7. Radiation-induced amorphization of intermetallic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, N. Q.; Sabochick, M. J.; Okamoto, P. R.

    1994-06-01

    In the present paper, important results of our recent computer simulation of radiation-induced amorphization in the ordered compounds CuTi and Cu4Ti3 are summarized. The energetic, structural, thermodynamic and mechanical responses of these intermetallics during chemical disordering, point-defect production and heating were simulated, using molecular dynamics and embedded-atom potentials. From the atomistic details obtained, the critical role of radiation-induced structural disorder in driving the crystalline-to-amorphous phase transformation is discussed.

  8. Telomerase activity of the Lugol-stained and -unstained squamous epithelia in the process of oesophageal carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Inai, M; Kano, M; Shimada, Y; Sakurai, T; Chiba, T; Imamura, M

    2001-01-01

    Up-regulation of telomerase has been reported in many cancers. Our aim was to characterize telomerase activity in various states of the oesophagus to facilitate better understanding of carcinogenesis of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. During endoscopic examinations, we obtained 45 Lugol-stained normal epithelia, 31 Lugol-unstained epithelia (14 oesophagitis, 7 mild dysplasia, 5 severe dysplasia and 5 intramucosal cancer) and 9 advanced cancer. Telomerase activity was semi-quantified by a telomeric repeat amplification protocol using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase mRNA was examined by in situ hybridization. In the Lugol-stained normal epithelia, telomerase activity increased in proportion to the increase of severity of the accompanying lesions, with a rank order of advanced cancer, intramucosal cancer, mild dysplasia and oesophagitis. In the Lugol-unstained lesions and advanced cancer, telomerase activity was highest in advanced cancer. Up-regulation of telomerase in normal squamous epithelium may be a marker of progression of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Copyright 2001 Cancer Research Campaign © 2001 Cancer Research Campaignhttp://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11592773

  9. The effect of heavy ion 12C6+on the change of telomerase activity of the human hepatocellular cells and carcinoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Bingrong

    The effect of heavy ion 12C6+on the change of telomerase activity of the human hepatocellular cells and carcinoma cells Dang Bingrong ,Hu Kaiqian (Institute of Modern Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences£¬Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences lanzhou 730000) Abstract Objective To investigate the changes in telomerase and its activity in human tumor and normal cell after exposure of the cells to heavy ion radiation.Irradiation was performed at the Heavy Ion Researsh Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). Methods We use the hepatocellular cells HL-7702 and the hepatocellular carcinoma cells SMMC-7721 from the people to experiment. Cells were exposed to 12 C6+ irradiation at 0,1,2,3 and 4Gy. The hepatocellular cells HL-7702 exposed to 12 C6+ irradiation were re-cultured for 72 hours. The hepatocellular carcinoma cells SMMC-7721 were re-cultured for 24 hours and 72 hours. PCR based telomeric repeat amplification protocol(TRAP-PCR) method were used to determine the telomerase activity in SMMC-7721and HL-7702, respectively. Result HL-7702 cells didn't have telomerase. But the cells exposed to 2Gy and 3Gy have the telomerase activity, the cells exposed to 1Gy and 4Gy didn't have the telomerase activity. After exposure to heavy ionizing radiation 1-3Gy the telomerase activity in SMMC-7721 cells were significantly increased in a dose-and timedependent manner. The cells of 7721 exposed to 4Gy was significantly lower than that 0Gy cells. Conclusion Heavy ionizing radiation, as a high LET radiation,induces the increase in telomerase activity in low dose and the decrease in high dose. It indicates that telomerase participates in the repair process of DNA injury induced by heavy ionizing radiation. Key words telomerase heavy ion hepatocellular cells SMMC-7721 cells HL-7702 cells PCR- telomeric repeat amplification protocol

  10. Activating PTEN by COX-2 inhibitors antagonizes radiation-induced AKT activation contributing to radiosensitization

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Zhen; Gan, Ye-Hua

    2015-05-01

    Radiotherapy is still one of the most effective nonsurgical treatments for many tumors. However, radioresistance remains a major impediment to radiotherapy. Although COX-2 inhibitors can induce radiosensitization, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, we showed that COX-2 selective inhibitor celecoxib enhanced the radiation-induced inhibition of cell proliferation and apoptosis in HeLa and SACC-83 cells. Treatment with celecoxib alone dephosphorylated phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN), promoted PTEN membrane translocation or activation, and correspondingly dephosphorylated or inactivated protein kinase B (AKT). By contrast, treatment with radiation alone increased PTEN phosphorylation, inhibited PTEN membrane translocation and correspondingly activated AKT in the two cell lines. However, treatment with celecoxib or another COX-2 selective inhibitor (valdecoxib) completely blocked radiation-induced increase of PTEN phosphorylation, rescued radiation-induced decrease in PTEN membrane translocation, and correspondingly inactivated AKT. Moreover, celecoxib could also upregulate PTEN protein expression by downregulating Sp1 expression, thereby leading to the activation of PTEN transcription. Our results suggested that COX-2 inhibitors could enhance radiosensitization at least partially by activating PTEN to antagonize radiation-induced AKT activation. - Highlights: • COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, could enhance radiosensitization. • Radiation induced PTEN inactivation (phosphorylation) and AKT activation. • COX-2 inhibitor induced PTEN expression and activation, and inactivated AKT. • COX-2 inhibitor enhanced radiosensitization through activating PTEN.

  11. Factors that modify radiation-induced carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Ann R

    2009-11-01

    It is known that numerous factors can influence radiation carcinogenesis in animals; these factors include the specific characteristics of the radiation (radiation type and dose, dose-rate, dose-fractionation, dose distribution, etc.) as well as many other contributing elements that are not specific to the radiation exposure, such as animal genetic characteristics and age, the environment of the animal, dietary factors and whether specific modifying agents for radiation carcinogenesis have been utilized in the studies. This overview focuses on the modifying factors for radiation carcinogenesis, in both in vivo and in vitro systems, and includes a discussion of agents that enhance (e.g., promoting agents) or suppress (e.g., cancer preventive agents) radiation-induced carcinogenesis. The agents that enhance or suppress radiation carcinogenesis in experimental model systems have been shown to lead to effects equally as large as other known modifying factors for radiation-induced carcinogenesis (e.g., dose-rate, dose-fractionation, linear energy transfer). It is known that dietary factors play an important role in determining the yields of radiation-induced cancers in animal model systems, and it is likely that they also influence radiation-induced cancer risks in human populations.

  12. Molecular pathways: radiation-induced cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Greene-Schloesser, Dana; Moore, Elizabeth; Robbins, Mike E

    2013-05-01

    Each year, approximately 200,000 patients in the United States will receive partial- or whole-brain irradiation for the treatment of primary or metastatic brain cancer. Early and delayed radiation effects are transient and reversible with modern therapeutic standards; yet, late radiation effects (≥6 months postirradiation) remain a significant risk, resulting in progressive cognitive impairment. These risks include functional deficits in memory, attention, and executive function that severely affect the patient's quality of life. The mechanisms underlying radiation-induced cognitive impairment remain ill defined. Classically, radiation-induced alterations in vascular and neuroinflammatory glial cell clonogenic populations were hypothesized to be responsible for radiation-induced brain injury. Recently, preclinical studies have focused on the hippocampus, one of two sites of adult neurogenesis within the brain, which plays an important role in learning and memory. Radiation ablates hippocampal neurogenesis, alters neuronal function, and induces neuroinflammation. Neuronal stem cells implanted into the hippocampus prevent the decrease in neurogenesis and improve cognition after irradiation. Clinically prescribed drugs, including PPARα and PPARγ agonists, as well as RAS blockers, prevent radiation-induced neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment independent of improved neurogenesis. Translating these exciting findings to the clinic offers the promise of improving the quality of life of brain tumor patients who receive radiotherapy. ©2013 AACR.

  13. Regulation of the Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase Subunit through Epigenetic Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Kayla A.; Tollefsbol, Trygve O.

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome-shortening is characteristic of normal cells, and is known as the end replication problem. Telomerase is the enzyme responsible for extending the ends of the chromosomes in de novo synthesis, and occurs in germ cells as well as most malignant cancers. There are three subunits of telomerase: human telomerase RNA (hTERC), human telomerase associated protein (hTEP1), or dyskerin, and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). hTERC and hTEP1 are constitutively expressed, so the enzymatic activity of telomerase is dependent on the transcription of hTERT. DNA methylation, histone methylation, and histone acetylation are basic epigenetic regulations involved in the expression of hTERT. Non-coding RNA can also serve as a form of epigenetic control of hTERT. This epigenetic-based regulation of hTERT is important in providing a mechanism for reversibility of hTERT control in various biological states. These include embryonic down-regulation of hTERT contributing to aging and the upregulation of hTERT playing a critical role in over 90% of cancers. Normal human somatic cells have a non-methylated/hypomethylated CpG island within the hTERT promoter region, while telomerase-positive cells paradoxically have at least a partially methylated promoter region that is opposite to the normal roles of DNA methylation. Histone acetylation of H3K9 within the promoter region is associated with an open chromatin state such that transcription machinery has the space to form. Histone methylation of hTERT has varied control of the gene, however. Mono- and dimethylation of H3K9 within the promoter region indicate silent euchromatin, while a trimethylated H3K9 enhances gene transcription. Non-coding RNAs can target epigenetic-modifying enzymes, as well as transcription factors involved in the control of hTERT. An epigenetics diet that can affect the epigenome of cancer cells is a recent fascination that has received much attention. By combining portions of this diet with

  14. [Quantification of radiation-induced genetic risk].

    PubMed

    Ehling, U H

    1987-05-01

    Associated with technical advances of our civilization is a radiation- and chemically-induced increase in the germ cell mutation rate in man. This would result in an increase in the frequency of genetic diseases and would be detrimental to future generations. It is the duty of our generation to keep this risk as low as possible. The estimation of the radiation-induced genetic risk of human populations is based on the extrapolation of results from animal experiments. Radiation-induced mutations are stochastic events. The probability of the event depends on the dose; the degree of the damage does not. The different methods to estimate the radiation-induced genetic risk will be discussed. The accuracy of the predicted results will be evaluated by a comparison with the observed incidence of dominant mutations in offspring born to radiation exposed survivors of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombings. These methods will be used to predict the genetic damage from the fallout of the reactor accident at Chernobyl. For the exposure dose we used the upper limits of the mean effective life time equivalent dose from the fallout values in the Munich region. According to the direct method for the risk estimation we will expect for each 100 to 500 spontaneous dominant mutations one radiation-induced mutation in the first generation. With the indirect method we estimate a ratio of 100 dominant spontaneous mutations to one radiation-induced dominant mutation. The possibilities and the limitations of the different methods to estimate the genetic risk will be discussed. The discrepancy between the high safety standards for radiation protection and the low level of knowledge for the toxicological evaluation of chemical mutagens will be emphasized.

  15. Detection of Telomerase Activity Using Capacitance Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Bong Keun; Lee, Ri Mi; Choi, Ahmi; Jung, Hyo-Il; Yoo, Kyung-Hwa

    2007-03-01

    Telomerase activity has been found in about 85% cancer cells, while no activity observed in normal cells, so that telomerase has been proposed as a marker for cancer detection. Here, we describe electrical detection of telomerase activity using capacitance measurements. We have investigated the length dependence of capacitance on DNA solutions and found that the capacitance of DNA solutions were dependent on the DNA length. In addition, upon adding telomerase into the solution of telomeric substrate primer, the capacitance was observed to change as a function of time due to the telomeric elongation. These results suggest that this novel nanosensor may be used for rapid detection of telomerase activity.

  16. Transcription Regulation of the Human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (hTERT) Gene

    PubMed Central

    Ramlee, Muhammad Khairul; Wang, Jing; Toh, Wei Xun; Li, Shang

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells have the ability to maintain their telomere length via expression of an enzymatic complex called telomerase. Similarly, more than 85%–90% of cancer cells are found to upregulate the expression of telomerase, conferring them with the potential to proliferate indefinitely. Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (TERT), the catalytic subunit of telomerase holoenzyme, is the rate-limiting factor in reconstituting telomerase activity in vivo. To date, the expression and function of the human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (hTERT) gene are known to be regulated at various molecular levels (including genetic, mRNA, protein and subcellular localization) by a number of diverse factors. Among these means of regulation, transcription modulation is the most important, as evident in its tight regulation in cancer cell survival as well as pluripotent stem cell maintenance and differentiation. Here, we discuss how hTERT gene transcription is regulated, mainly focusing on the contribution of trans-acting factors such as transcription factors and epigenetic modifiers, as well as genetic alterations in hTERT proximal promoter. PMID:27548225

  17. Forms and Functions of Telomerase RNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Kathleen

    Telomerase adds single-stranded telomeric DNA repeats to chromosome ends. Unlike other polymerases involved in genome replication, telomerase synthe¬sizes DNA without use of a DNA template. Instead, the enzyme active site copies a template carried within the integral RNA subunit of the telomerase ribonucleo-protein (RNP) complex. In addition to providing a template, telomerase RNA has non-template motifs with critical functions in the catalytic cycle of repeat synthesis. In its complexity of structure and function, telomerase RNA resembles the non-coding RNAs of RNP machines like the ribosome and spliceosome that evolved from catalytic RNAs of the RNA World. However, unlike these RNPs, telomerase evolved its RNP identity after advent of the Protein World. Insights about telomer-ase have broad significance for understanding non-coding RNA biology as well as chromosome end maintenance and human disease.

  18. Structure of Active, Dimeric Human Telomerase

    PubMed Central

    Sauerwald, Anselm; Sandin, Sara; Cristofari, Gaël; Scheres, Sjors H.W.; Lingner, Joachim; Rhodes, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Telomerase contains a large RNA subunit TER and a protein catalytic subunit TERT. Whether telomerase functions as monomer or dimer has been a matter of debate. Here we report biochemical and labeling data that show that in vivo assembled human telomerase contains two TERT subunits and binds two telomeric DNA substrates. Importantly, catalytic activity requires both TERT active sites to be functional, demonstrating that human telomerase functions as a dimer. We also present the three-dimensional structure of active, full-length human telomerase dimer, determined by single-particle electron microscopy in negative stain. Telomerase has a bilobal architecture, with the two monomers linked by a flexible interface. The monomer reconstruction at 23Å resolution, and fitting of the atomic structure of the beetle TERT subunit reveals the spatial relationship between RNA and protein subunits, providing insights into the telomerase architecture. PMID:23474713

  19. Telomerase dysregulation in the hippocampus of a rat model of depression: normalization by lithium.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ya Bin; Backlund, Lena; Wegener, Gregers; Mathé, Aleksander A; Lavebratt, Catharina

    2015-01-24

    Telomeres are protective DNA-protein complexes at the ends of each chromosome, maintained primarily by the enzyme telomerase. Shortening of the blood leukocyte telomeres is associated with aging, several chronic diseases, and stress, eg, major depression. Hippocampus is pivotal in the regulation of cognition and mood and the main brain region of telomerase activity. Whether there is telomere dysfunction in the hippocampus of depressed subjects is unknown. Lithium, used in the treatment and relapse prevention of mood disorders, was found to protect against leukocyte telomere shortening in humans, but the mechanism has not been elucidated. To answer the questions whether telomeres are shortened and the telomerase activity changed in the hippocampus and whether lithium could reverse the process, we used a genetic model of depression, the Flinders Sensitive Line rat, and treated the animals with lithium. Telomere length, telomerase reverse transcriptase (Tert) expression, telomerase activity, and putative mediators of telomerase activity were investigated in the hippocampus of these animals. The naïve Flinders Sensitive Line had shorter telomere length, downregulated Tert expression, reduced brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels, and reduced telomerase activity compared with the Flinders Resistant Line controls. Lithium treatment normalized the Tert expression and telomerase activity in the Flinders Sensitive Line and upregulated β-catenin. This is the first report showing telomere dysregulation in hippocampus of a well-defined depression model and restorative effects of lithium treatment. If replicated in other models of mood disorder, the findings will contribute to understanding both the telomere function and the mechanism of lithium action in hippocampus of depressed patients. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  20. Radiation-induced brain injury: A review

    PubMed Central

    Greene-Schloesser, Dana; Robbins, Mike E.; Peiffer, Ann M.; Shaw, Edward G.; Wheeler, Kenneth T.; Chan, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 100,000 primary and metastatic brain tumor patients/year in the US survive long enough (>6 months) to experience radiation-induced brain injury. Prior to 1970, the human brain was thought to be highly radioresistant; the acute CNS syndrome occurs after single doses >30 Gy; white matter necrosis occurs at fractionated doses >60 Gy. Although white matter necrosis is uncommon with modern techniques, functional deficits, including progressive impairments in memory, attention, and executive function have become important, because they have profound effects on quality of life. Preclinical studies have provided valuable insights into the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cognitive impairment. Given its central role in memory and neurogenesis, the majority of these studies have focused on the hippocampus. Irradiating pediatric and young adult rodent brains leads to several hippocampal changes including neuroinflammation and a marked reduction in neurogenesis. These data have been interpreted to suggest that shielding the hippocampus will prevent clinical radiation-induced cognitive impairment. However, this interpretation may be overly simplistic. Studies using older rodents, that more closely match the adult human brain tumor population, indicate that, unlike pediatric and young adult rats, older rats fail to show a radiation-induced decrease in neurogenesis or a loss of mature neurons. Nevertheless, older rats still exhibit cognitive impairment. This occurs in the absence of demyelination and/or white matter necrosis similar to what is observed clinically, suggesting that more subtle molecular, cellular and/or microanatomic modifications are involved in this radiation-induced brain injury. Given that radiation-induced cognitive impairment likely reflects damage to both hippocampal- and non-hippocampal-dependent domains, there is a critical need to investigate the microanatomic and functional effects of radiation in various brain regions as well as their

  1. Downregulation of telomerase activity by diclofenac and curcumin is associated with cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis in colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Rana, Chandan; Piplani, Honit; Vaish, Vivek; Nehru, Bimla; Sanyal, S N

    2015-08-01

    Uncontrolled cell proliferation is the hallmark of cancer, and cancer cells have typically acquired damage to genes that directly regulate their cell cycles. The synthesis of DNA onto the end of chromosome during the replicative phase of cell cycle by telomerase may be necessary for unlimited proliferation of cells. Telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein enzyme is considered as a universal therapeutic target of cancer because of its preferential expression in cancer cells and its presence in 90 % of tumors. We studied the regulation of telomerase and telomerase reverse transcriptase catalytic subunit (TERT) by diclofenac and curcumin, alone and also in combination, in 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride-induced colorectal cancer in rats. The relationship of telomerase activity with tumors suppressor proteins (p51, Rb, p21), cell cycle machinery, and apoptosis was also studied. Telomerase is highly expressed in DMH group and its high activity is associated with increased TERT expression. However, telomerase is absent or is present at lower levels in normal tissue. CDK4, CDK2, cyclin D1, and cyclin E are highly expressed in DMH as assessed by RT-PCR, qRT-PCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence analysis. Diclofenac and curcumin overcome these carcinogenic effects by downregulating telomerase activity, diminishing the expression of TERT, CDK4, CDK2, cyclin D1, and cyclin E. The anticarcinogenic effects shown after the inhibition of telomerase activity by diclofenac and curcumin may be associated with upregulation of tumor suppressor proteins p51, Rb, and p21, whose activation induces the cells cycle arrest and apoptosis.

  2. Radiation-induced meningiomas in pediatric patients

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, S.D.; Rockswold, G.L.; Chou, S.N.; Yock, D.; Berger, M.S.

    1988-04-01

    Radiation-induced meningiomas rarely have latency periods short enough from the time of irradiation to the clinical presentation of the tumor to present in the pediatric patient. Three cases of radiation-induced intracranial meningiomas in pediatric patients are presented. The first involved a meningioma of the right frontal region in a 10-year-old boy 6 years after the resection and irradiation of a 4th ventricular medulloblastoma. Review of our pediatric tumor cases produced a second case of a left temporal fossa meningioma presenting in a 15-year-old boy with a history of irradiation for retinoblastoma at age 3 years and a third case of a right frontoparietal meningioma in a 15-year-old girl after irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Only three cases of meningiomas presenting in the pediatric age group after radiation therapy to the head were detected in our review of the literature.

  3. Bile acids in radiation-induced diarrhea

    SciTech Connect

    Arlow, F.L.; Dekovich, A.A.; Priest, R.J.; Beher, W.T.

    1987-10-01

    Radiation-induced bowel disease manifested by debilitating diarrhea is an unfortunate consequence of therapeutic irradiation for pelvic malignancies. Although the mechanism for this diarrhea is not well understood, many believe it is the result of damage to small bowel mucosa and subsequent bile acid malabsorption. Excess amounts of bile acids, especially the dihydroxy components, are known to induce water and electrolyte secretion and increase bowel motility. We have directly measured individual and total bile acids in the stool samples of 11 patients with radiation-induced diarrhea and have found bile acids elevated two to six times normal in eight of them. Our patients with diarrhea and increased bile acids in their stools had prompt improvement when given cholestyramine. They had fewer stools and returned to a more normal life-style.

  4. Radiation-induced meningiomas in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Moss, S D; Rockswold, G L; Chou, S N; Yock, D; Berger, M S

    1988-04-01

    Radiation-induced meningiomas rarely have latency periods short enough from the time of irradiation to the clinical presentation of the tumor to present in the pediatric patient. Three cases of radiation-induced intracranial meningiomas in pediatric patients are presented. The first involved a meningioma of the right frontal region in a 10-year-old boy 6 years after the resection and irradiation of a 4th ventricular medulloblastoma. Review of our pediatric tumor cases produced a second case of a left temporal fossa meningioma presenting in a 15-year-old boy with a history of irradiation for retinoblastoma at age 3 years and a third case of a right frontoparietal meningioma in a 15-year-old girl after irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Only three cases of meningiomas presenting in the pediatric age group after radiation therapy to the head were detected in our review of the literature.

  5. Study of chemical and radiation induced carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Chmura, A.

    1995-11-01

    The study of chemical and radiation induced carcinogenesis has up to now based many of its results on the detection of genetic aberrations using the fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technique. FISH is time consuming and this tends to hinder its use for looking at large numbers of samples. We are currently developing new technological advances which will increase the speed, clarity and functionality of the FISH technique. These advances include multi-labeled probes, amplification techniques, and separation techniques.

  6. Radiation-induced heart disease in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Lauk, S.; Kiszel, Z.; Buschmann, J.; Trott, K.R.

    1985-04-01

    After local irradiation of the rat heart with X ray doses of over 10 Gy (single dose), animals developed symptoms of radiation-induced heart disease, which at higher doses would lead to fatal cardiac failure. The LD 50 at 1 year was between 15 Gy and 20 Gy. The pericardium and epicardium responded to irradiation with exudative pericarditis after 4 months. Focal myocardial damage was secondary to progressive capillary damage.

  7. Radiation induced fracture of the scapula

    SciTech Connect

    Riggs, J.H. III; Schultz, G.D.; Hanes, S.A. )

    1990-10-01

    A case of radiation induced osteonecrosis resulting in a fracture of the scapula in a 76-yr-old female patient with a history of breast carcinoma is presented. Diagnostic imaging, laboratory recommendations and clinical findings are discussed along with an algorithm for the safe management of patients with a history of cancer and musculoskeletal complaints. This case demonstrates the necessity of a thorough investigation of musculoskeletal complaints in patients with previous bone-seeking carcinomas.

  8. Ticking Telomeres/Telltale Telomerase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biermann, Carol A.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses telomeres, complexes of DNA and protein that form the chromatin at the ends of chromosomes. Highlights telomeres as controllers of chromosome integrity, expendable telomeres, DNA replication requirements and their consequences, protection of structural genes, telomerase as indicators of immortality, cancer cells and other immortals, and…

  9. Ticking Telomeres/Telltale Telomerase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biermann, Carol A.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses telomeres, complexes of DNA and protein that form the chromatin at the ends of chromosomes. Highlights telomeres as controllers of chromosome integrity, expendable telomeres, DNA replication requirements and their consequences, protection of structural genes, telomerase as indicators of immortality, cancer cells and other immortals, and…

  10. The inflammasome accelerates radiation-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Sung-Hwa; Lee, Ji Min; Park, Soojin; Yoo, Hyun; Kang, Jeong Wook; Shin, Dasom; Jung, Kyung-Hwa; Lee, Yun-Sil; Cho, Jaeho; Bae, Hyunsu

    2015-03-01

    Although lung inflammation and fibrosis are well-documented dose-limiting side effects of lung irradiation, the mechanisms underlying these pathologies are unknown. An improved mechanistic understanding of radiation-induced pneumonitis is a prerequisite for the development of more effective radiotherapy; this was the rationale for the current study. Mouse lungs were focally irradiated with 75 Gy. The numbers of neutrophils, lymphocytes, macrophages, and total cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were counted, and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels were measured. Histological analysis and immunohistochemical staining for Tgf-β1 and Cd68 (a macrophage-specific protein) was also performed. After irradiation, mice developed pneumonitis, and exhibited higher numbers of neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils, macrophages, and total cells compared to controls. In addition, inflammasome (Nlrp3, and caspase 1, Il1a, and Il1β), adhesion molecule (Vcam1), and cytokine (Il6) genes were significantly upregulated in the IR group. Cd68 and Tgfb1 proteins were significantly increased after irradiation. Upregulation of Cd68 and Tgfb1 correlates with the onset of radiation-induced pneumonitis and fibrosis. In addition, radiation-induced pneumonitis and fibrosis are accompanied by upregulation of phenotypic markers of inflammasome activity. Our findings have implications for the onset and exacerbation of damage in normal lung tissue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Quercetin inhibits radiation-induced skin fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Horton, Jason A; Li, Fei; Chung, Eun Joo; Hudak, Kathryn; White, Ayla; Krausz, Kristopher; Gonzalez, Frank; Citrin, Deborah

    2013-08-01

    Radiation induced fibrosis of the skin is a late toxicity that may result in loss of function due to reduced range of motion and pain. The current study sought to determine if oral delivery of quercetin mitigates radiation-induced cutaneous injury. Female C3H/HeN mice were fed control chow or quercetin-formulated chow (1% by weight). The right hind leg was exposed to 35 Gy of X rays and the mice were followed serially to assess acute toxicity and hind leg extension. Tissue samples were collected for assessment of soluble collagen and tissue cytokines. Human and murine fibroblasts were subjected to clonogenic assays to determine the effects of quercetin on radiation response. Contractility of fibroblasts was assessed with a collagen contraction assay in the presence or absence of quercetin and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). Western blotting of proteins involved in fibroblast contractility and TGF-β signaling were performed. Quercetin treatment significantly reduced hind limb contracture, collagen accumulation and expression of TGF-β in irradiated skin. Quercetin had no effect on the radioresponse of fibroblasts or murine tumors, but was capable of reducing the contractility of fibroblasts in response to TGF-β, an effect that correlated with partial stabilization of phosphorylated cofilin. Quercetin is capable of mitigating radiation induced skin fibrosis and should be further explored as a therapy for radiation fibrosis.

  12. Quercetin Inhibits Radiation-Induced Skin Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Jason A.; Li, Fei; Chung, Eun Joo; Hudak, Kathryn; White, Ayla; Krausz, Kristopher; Gonzalez, Frank; Citrin, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Radiation induced fibrosis of the skin is a late toxicity that may result in loss of function due to reduced range of motion and pain. The current study sought to determine if oral delivery of quercetin mitigates radiation-induced cutaneous injury. Female C3H/HeN mice were fed control chow or quercetin-formulated chow (1% by weight). The right hind leg was exposed to 35 Gy of X rays and the mice were followed serially to assess acute toxicity and hind leg extension. Tissue samples were collected for assessment of soluble collagen and tissue cytokines. Human and murine fibroblasts were subjected to clonogenic assays to determine the effects of quercetin on radiation response. Contractility of fibroblasts was assessed with a collagen contraction assay in the presence or absence of quercetin and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). Western blotting of proteins involved in fibroblast contractility and TGF-β signaling were performed. Quercetin treatment significantly reduced hind limb contracture, collagen accumulation and expression of TGF-β in irradiated skin. Quercetin had no effect on the radioresponse of fibroblasts or murine tumors, but was capable of reducing the contractility of fibroblasts in response to TGF-β, an effect that correlated with partial stabilization of phosphorylated cofilin. Quercetin is capable of mitigating radiation induced skin fibrosis and should be further explored as a therapy for radiation fibrosis. PMID:23819596

  13. Imaging radiation-induced normal tissue injury.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Mike E; Brunso-Bechtold, Judy K; Peiffer, Ann M; Tsien, Christina I; Bailey, Janet E; Marks, Lawrence B

    2012-04-01

    Technological developments in radiation therapy and other cancer therapies have led to a progressive increase in five-year survival rates over the last few decades. Although acute effects have been largely minimized by both technical advances and medical interventions, late effects remain a concern. Indeed, the need to identify those individuals who will develop radiation-induced late effects, and to develop interventions to prevent or ameliorate these late effects is a critical area of radiobiology research. In the last two decades, preclinical studies have clearly established that late radiation injury can be prevented/ameliorated by pharmacological therapies aimed at modulating the cascade of events leading to the clinical expression of radiation-induced late effects. These insights have been accompanied by significant technological advances in imaging that are moving radiation oncology and normal tissue radiobiology from disciplines driven by anatomy and macrostructure to ones in which important quantitative functional, microstructural, and metabolic data can be noninvasively and serially determined. In the current article, we review use of positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission tomography (SPECT), magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and MR spectroscopy to generate pathophysiological and functional data in the central nervous system, lung, and heart that offer the promise of, (1) identifying individuals who are at risk of developing radiation-induced late effects, and (2) monitoring the efficacy of interventions to prevent/ameliorate them.

  14. The Lactate Dehydrogenase Inhibitor Gossypol Inhibits Radiation-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Judge, Jennifer L; Lacy, Shannon H; Ku, Wei-Yao; Owens, Kristina M; Hernady, Eric; Thatcher, Thomas H; Williams, Jacqueline P; Phipps, Richard P; Sime, Patricia J; Kottmann, R Matthew

    2017-07-01

    Exposure of the lung to ionizing radiation that occurs in radiotherapy, as well as after accidental or intentional mass casualty incident can result in pulmonary fibrosis, which has few treatment options. Pulmonary fibrosis is characterized by an accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins that create scar tissue. Although the mechanisms leading to radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis remain poorly understood, one frequent observation is the activation of the profibrotic cytokine transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β). Our laboratory has shown that the metabolite lactate activates latent TGF-β by a reduction in extracellular pH. We recently demonstrated that lactate dehydrogenase-A (LDHA), the enzyme that produces lactate, is upregulated in patients with radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Furthermore, genetic silencing of LDHA or pharmacologic inhibition using the LDHA inhibitor gossypol prevented radiation-induced extracellular matrix secretion in vitro through inhibition of TGF-β activation. In the current study, we hypothesized that LDHA inhibition in vivo prevents radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis. To test this hypothesis, C57BL/6 mice received 5 Gy total-body irradiation plus 10 Gy thoracic irradiation from a (137)Cs source to induce pulmonary fibrosis. Starting at 4 weeks postirradiation, mice were treated with 5 mg/kg of the LDHA inhibitor gossypol or vehicle daily until sacrifice at 26 weeks postirradiation. Exposure to radiation resulted in pulmonary fibrosis, characterized by an increase in collagen content, fibrosis area, extracellular matrix gene expression and TGF-β activation. Irradiated mice treated with gossypol had significantly reduced fibrosis outcomes, including reduced collagen content in the lungs, reduced expression of active TGF-β, LDHA and the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α). These findings suggest that inhibition of LDHA protects against radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis, and may be a novel

  15. Telomere and Telomerase Therapeutics in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yucheng; Goldkorn, Amir

    2016-01-01

    Telomerase is a reverse transcriptase capable of utilizing an integrated RNA component as a template to add protective tandem telomeric single strand DNA repeats, TTAGGG, to the ends of chromosomes. Telomere dysfunction and telomerase reactivation are observed in approximately 90% of human cancers; hence, telomerase activation plays a unique role as a nearly universal step on the path to malignancy. In the past two decades, multiple telomerase targeting therapeutic strategies have been pursued, including direct telomerase inhibition, telomerase interference, hTERT or hTERC promoter driven therapy, telomere-based approaches, and telomerase vaccines. Many of these strategies have entered clinical development, and some have now advanced to phase III clinical trials. In the coming years, one or more of these new telomerase-targeting drugs may be expected to enter the pharmacopeia of standard care. Here, we briefly review the molecular functions of telomerase in cancer and provide an update about the preclinical and clinical development of telomerase targeting therapeutics. PMID:27240403

  16. Telomeres and Telomerase in the Radiation Response: Implications for Instability, Reprograming, and Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sishc, Brock J.; Nelson, Christopher B.; McKenna, Miles J.; Battaglia, Christine L. R.; Herndon, Andrea; Idate, Rupa; Liber, Howard L.; Bailey, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Telomeres are nucleoprotein complexes comprised of tandem arrays of repetitive DNA sequence that serve to protect chromosomal termini from inappropriate degradation, as well as to prevent these natural DNA ends from being recognized as broken DNA (double-strand breaks) and triggering of inappropriate DNA damage responses. Preservation of telomere length requires telomerase, the specialized reverse transcriptase capable of maintaining telomere length via template-mediated addition of telomeric repeats onto the ends of newly synthesized chromosomes. Loss of either end-capping function or telomere length maintenance has been associated with genomic instability or senescence in a variety of settings; therefore, telomeres and telomerase have well-established connections to cancer and aging. It has long been recognized that oxidative stress promotes shortening of telomeres, and that telomerase activity is a radiation-inducible function. However, the effects of ionizing radiation (IR) exposure on telomeres per se are much less well understood and appreciated. To gain a deeper understanding of the roles, telomeres and telomerase play in the response of human cells to IRs of different qualities, we tracked changes in telomeric end-capping function, telomere length, and telomerase activity in panels of mammary epithelial and hematopoietic cell lines exposed to low linear energy transfer (LET) gamma(γ)-rays or high LET, high charge, high energy (HZE) particles, delivered either acutely or at low dose rates. In addition to demonstrating that dysfunctional telomeres contribute to IR-induced mutation frequencies and genome instability, we reveal non-canonical roles for telomerase, in that telomerase activity was required for IR-induced enrichment of mammary epithelial putative stem/progenitor cell populations, a finding also suggestive of cellular reprograming. Taken together, the results reported here establish the critical importance of telomeres and telomerase in the

  17. [Apoptotic endonuclease EndoG induces alternative splicing of telomerase catalytic subunit hTERT and death of tumor cells].

    PubMed

    Zhdanov, D D; Vasina, D A; Orlova, V S; Gotovtseva, V Y; Bibikova, M V; Pokrovsky, V S; Pokrovskaya, M V; Aleksandrova, S S; Sokolov, N N

    2016-03-01

    Telomerase activity is known to be regulated by alternative splicing of its catalytic subunit hTERT (human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase) mRNA. Induction of non-active spliced hTERT leads to inhibition of telomerase activity. However, very little is known about the mechanism of hTERT mRNA alternative splicing. The aim of this study was to determine the role of apoptotic endonuclease EndoG in alternative splicing of hTERT and telomerase activity. Strong correlation was found between expression of EndoG and hTERT splice-variants in 12 colon cancer cell lines. Overexpression of EndoG in СаСо-2 cells downregulated the expression of active full-length hTERT variant and upregulated non-active spliced variant. Reduction of full-length hTERT caused downregulation of telomerase activity, dramatically shortening of telomeres length during cell divisions, converting cells to the replicative senescence state, activation of apoptosis and finally cell death. These data indicated the participation of EndoG in alternative splicing of mRNA of telomerase catalytic subunit, regulation of telomerase activity and cell fate.

  18. Apoptotic Endonuclease EndoG Inhibits Telomerase Activity and Induces Malignant Transformation of Human CD4+ T Cells.

    PubMed

    Vasina, D A; Zhdanov, D D; Orlova, E V; Orlova, V S; Pokrovskaya, M V; Aleksandrova, S S; Sokolov, N N

    2017-01-01

    Telomerase activity is regulated by an alternative splicing of mRNA of the telomerase catalytic subunit hTERT (human telomerase reverse transcriptase). Increased expression of the inactive spliced hTERT results in inhibition of telomerase activity. Little is known about the mechanism of hTERT mRNA alternative splicing. This study was aimed at determining the effect of an apoptotic endonuclease G (EndoG) on alternative splicing of hTERT and telomerase activity in CD4+ human T lymphocytes. Overexpression of EndoG in CD4+ T cells downregulated the expression of the active full-length hTERT variant and upregulated the inactive alternatively spliced variant. Reduction of full-length hTERT levels caused downregulation of the telomerase activity, critical telomere shortening during cell division that converted cells into the replicative senescence state, activation of apoptosis, and finally cell death. Some cells survive and undergo a malignant transformation. Transformed cells feature increased telomerase activity and proliferative potential compared to the original CD4+ T cells. These cells have phenotype of T lymphoblastic leukemia cells and can form tumors and cause death in experimental mice.

  19. Rebamipide ameliorates radiation-induced intestinal injury in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Shim, Sehwan; Jang, Hyo-Sun; Myung, Hyun-Wook; Myung, Jae Kyung; Kang, Jin-Kyu; Kim, Min-Jung; Lee, Seung Bum; Jang, Won-Suk; Lee, Sun-Joo; Jin, Young-Woo; Lee, Seung-Sook; Park, Sunhoo

    2017-08-15

    Radiation-induced enteritis is a major side effect in cancer patients undergoing abdominopelvic radiotherapy. Radiation exposure produces an uncontrolled inflammatory cascade and epithelial cell loss leading to impaired epithelial barrier function. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of rebamipide on regeneration of the intestinal epithelia after radiation injury. The abdomens of C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 13Gy of irradiation (IR) and then the mice were treated with rebamipide. Upon IR, intestinal epithelia were destroyed structurally at the microscopic level and bacterial translocation was increased. The intestinal damage reached a maximum level on day 6 post-IR and intestinal regeneration occurred thereafter. We found that rebamipide significantly ameliorated radiation-induced intestinal injury. In mice treated with rebamipide after IR, intestinal barrier function recovered and expression of the tight junction components of the intestinal barrier were upregulated. Rebamipide administration reduced radiation-induced intestinal mucosal injury. The levels of proinflammatory cytokines and matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9) were significantly reduced upon rebamipide administration. Intestinal cell proliferation and β-catenin expression also increased upon rebamipide administration. These data demonstrate that rebamipide reverses impairment of the intestinal barrier by increasing intestinal cell proliferation and attenuating the inflammatory response by inhibiting MMP9 and proinflammatory cytokine expression in a murine model of radiation-induced enteritis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Neurogenic differentiation factor NeuroD confers protection against radiation-induced intestinal injury in mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming; Du, Aonan; Xu, Jing; Ma, Yanchao; Cao, Han; Yang, Chao; Yang, Xiao-Dong; Xing, Chun-Gen; Chen, Ming; Zhu, Wei; Zhang, Shuyu; Cao, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract, especially the small intestine, is particularly sensitive to radiation, and is prone to radiation-induced injury as a result. Neurogenic differentiation factor (NeuroD) is an evolutionarily-conserved basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor. NeuroD contains a protein transduction domain (PTD), which allows it to be exogenously delivered across the membrane of mammalian cells, whereupon its transcription activity can be unleashed. Whether NeuroD has therapeutic effects for radiation-induced injury remains unclear. In the present study, we prepared a NeuroD-EGFP recombinant protein, and explored its protective effects on the survival and intestinal damage induced by ionizing radiation. Our results showed that NeuroD-EGFP could be transduced into small intestine epithelial cells and tissues. NeuroD-EGFP administration significantly increased overall survival of mice exposed to lethal total body irradiation (TBI). This recombinant NeuroD also reduced radiation-induced intestinal mucosal injury and apoptosis, and improved crypt survival. Expression profiling of NeuroD-EGFP-treated mice revealed upregulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1), a known inhibitor of apoptosis in mammalian cells. In conclusion, NeuroD confers protection against radiation-induced intestinal injury, and provides a novel therapeutic clinical option for the prevention of intestinal side effects of radiotherapy and the treatment of victims of incidental exposure. PMID:27436572

  1. Effects of PCB126 and PCB153 on telomerase activity and telomere length in undifferentiated and differentiated HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Xin, Xing; Senthilkumar, P K; Schnoor, Jerald L; Ludewig, Gabriele

    2016-02-01

    PCBs are persistent organic pollutants that are carcinogenic and immunotoxic and have developmental toxicity. This suggests that they may interfere with normal cell maturation. Cancer and stem/progenitor cells have telomerase activity to maintain and protect the chromosome ends, but lose this activity during differentiation. We hypothesized that PCBs interfere with telomerase activity and the telomere complex, thereby disturbing cell differentiation and stem/progenitor cell function. HL-60 cells are cancer cells that can differentiated into granulocytes and monocytes. We exposed HL-60 cells to PCB126 (dioxin-like) and PCB153 (nondioxin-like) 6 days before and during 3 days of differentiation. The differentiated cells showed G0/G1 phase arrest and very low telomerase activity. hTERT and hTR, two telomerase-related genes, were downregulated. The telomere shelterins TRF1, TRF2, and POT1 were upregulated in granulocytes, and TRF2 was upregulated and POT1 downregulated in monocytes. Both PCBs further reduced telomerase activity in differentiated cells, but had only small effects on the differentiation and telomere-related genes. Treatment of undifferentiated HL-60 cells for 30 days with PCB126 produced a downregulation of telomerase activity and a decrease of hTERT, hTR, TRF1, and POT1 gene expression. With PCB153, the effects were less pronounced and some shelterin genes were increased after 30 days of exposure. With each PCB, no differentiation of cells was observed and cells continued to proliferate despite reduced telomerase activity, resulting in shortened telomeres after 30 days of exposure. These results indicate cell-type and PCB congener-specific effects on telomere/telomerase-related genes. Although PCBs do not seem to strongly affect differentiation, they may influence stem or progenitor cells through telomere attrition with potential long-term consequences for health.

  2. Human telomerase: biogenesis, trafficking, recruitment, and activation.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jens C; Cech, Thomas R

    2015-06-01

    Telomerase is the ribonucleoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the extension of telomeric DNA in eukaryotes. Recent work has begun to reveal key aspects of the assembly of the human telomerase complex, its intracellular trafficking involving Cajal bodies, and its recruitment to telomeres. Once telomerase has been recruited to the telomere, it appears to undergo a separate activation step, which may include an increase in its repeat addition processivity. This review covers human telomerase biogenesis, trafficking, and activation, comparing key aspects with the analogous events in other species.

  3. Human telomerase: biogenesis, trafficking, recruitment, and activation

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Jens C.

    2015-01-01

    Telomerase is the ribonucleoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the extension of telomeric DNA in eukaryotes. Recent work has begun to reveal key aspects of the assembly of the human telomerase complex, its intracellular trafficking involving Cajal bodies, and its recruitment to telomeres. Once telomerase has been recruited to the telomere, it appears to undergo a separate activation step, which may include an increase in its repeat addition processivity. This review covers human telomerase biogenesis, trafficking, and activation, comparing key aspects with the analogous events in other species. PMID:26063571

  4. Effects of PCB126 and PCB153 on telomerase activity and telomere length in undifferentiated and differentiated HL-60 cells

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Xing; Senthilkumar, PK; Schnoor, Jerald L.; Ludewig, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    PCBs are persistent organic pollutants with carcinogenic, immune- and developmental toxicity. This suggests that they may interfere with normal cell maturation. Cancer and stem/progenitor cells have telomerase activity to maintain and protect the chromosome ends, but lose this activity during differentiation. We hypothesized that PCBs interfere with telomerase activity and the telomere complex thereby disturbing cell differentiation and stem/progenitor cell function. HL-60 cells are cancer cells that can differentiate to granulocytes and monocytes. We exposed HL-60 cells to the PCB126 (dioxin-like) and PCB153 (non-dioxin-like) 6 days before and during 3 days of differentiation. The differentiated cells showed G0/G1 phase arrest and very low telomerase activity. hTERT and hTR, two telomerase-related genes, were down-regulated. The telomere shelterins TRF1, TRF2, and POT were upregulated in granulocytes, TRF2 was up- and POT1 downregulated in monocytes. Both PCBs reduced telomerase activity in undifferentiated cells and further reduced telomerase activity in differentiated cells, but had only small effects on the differentiation and telomere-related genes. Long term treatment of undifferentiated HL-60 cells with PCB126 produced a downregulation of telomerase activity and decrease of hTERT, hTR, TRF1, and POT1 gene expression. With PCB153 the effects were less pronounced and some shelterin genes were increased after 30 days exposure. With each PCB no differentiation of cells was observed and cells continued to proliferate despite reduced telomerase activity, resulting in shortened telomeres after 30 days of exposure. These results indicate cell type and PCB congener specific effects on telomeres/telomerase-related genes and, although PCBs do not seem to strongly affect differentiation, they could influence the longevity of stem or progenitor cells through telomere attrition with potential long-term consequences for health. PMID:26330309

  5. Radiation-induced injury of the esophagus

    SciTech Connect

    Lepke, R.A.; Libshitz, H.I.

    1983-08-01

    Forty patients with functional or morphologic esophageal abnormalities following radiotherapy were identified. Abnormalities included abnormal motility with and without mucosal edema, stricture, ulceration and pseudodiverticulum, and fistula. Abnormal motility occurred 4 to 12 weeks following radiotherapy alone and as early as 1 week after therapy when concomitant chemotherapy had been given. Strictures developed 4 to 8 months following completion of radiotherapy. Ulceration, pseudodiverticulum, and fistula formation did not develop in a uniform time frame. Radiation-induced esophageal injury is more frequent when radiotherapy and chemotherapy are combined than it is with radiotherapy alone.

  6. Radiation-induced esophagitis in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Sarah; Fairchild, Alysa

    2016-01-01

    Radiation-induced esophagitis is the most common local acute toxicity of radiotherapy (RT) delivered for the curative or palliative intent treatment of lung cancer. Although concurrent chemotherapy and higher RT dose are associated with increased esophagitis risk, advancements in RT techniques as well as adherence to esophageal dosimetric constraints may reduce the incidence and severity. Mild acute esophagitis symptoms are generally self-limited, and supportive management options include analgesics, acid suppression, diet modification, treatment for candidiasis, and maintenance of adequate nutrition. Esophageal stricture is the most common late sequela from esophageal irradiation and can be addressed with endoscopic dilatation. Approaches to prevent or mitigate these toxicities are also discussed. PMID:28210168

  7. Radiation induced detwinning in nanotwinned Cu

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Youxing; Wang, Haiyan; Kirk, Mark A.; Li, Meimei; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Xinghang

    2016-11-15

    Superior radiation tolerance has been experimentally examined in nanotwinned metals. The stability of nanotwinned structure under radiation is the key factor for advancing the application of nanotwinned metals for nuclear reactors. We thus performed in situ radiation tests for nanotwinned Cu with various twin thicknesses inside a transmission electron microscope. We found that there is a critical twin thickness (10 nm), below which, radiation induced detwinning is primarily accomplished through migration of incoherent twin boundaries. Lastly, detwinning is faster for thinner twins in this range, while thicker twins are more stable.

  8. A report on radiation-induced gliomas

    SciTech Connect

    Salvati, M.; Artico, M.; Caruso, R.; Rocchi, G.; Orlando, E.R.; Nucci, F. )

    1991-01-15

    Radiation-induced gliomas are uncommon, with only 73 cases on record to date. The disease that most frequently occasioned radiation therapy has been acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Three more cases are added here, two after irradiation for ALL and one after irradiation for tinea capitis. In a review of the relevant literature, the authors stress the possibility that the ALL-glioma and the retinoblastoma-glioma links point to syndromes in their own right that may occur without radiation therapy.56 references.

  9. Combined Treatment With Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR) Gamma Ligands and Gamma Radiation Induces Apoptosis by PPARγ-Independent Up-Regulation of Reactive Oxygen Species-Induced Deoxyribonucleic Acid Damage Signals in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Eun Jong; Im, Chang-Nim; Park, Seon Hwa; Moon, Eun-Yi; Hong, Sung Hee

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To investigate possible radiosensitizing activities of the well-known peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ ligand ciglitazone and novel PPARγ ligands CAY10415 and CAY10506 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Methods and Materials: Radiosensitivity was assessed using a clonogenic cell survival assay. To investigate the mechanism underlying PPARγ ligand-induced radiosensitization, the subdiploid cellular DNA fraction was analyzed by flow cytometry. Activation of the caspase pathway by combined PPARγ ligands and γ-radiation treatment was detected by immunoblot analysis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured using 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate and flow cytometry. Results: The 3 PPARγ ligands induced cell death and ROS generation in a PPARγ-independent manner, enhanced γ-radiation–induced apoptosis and caspase-3–mediated poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage in vitro. The combined PPARγ ligand/γ-radiation treatment triggered caspase-8 activation, and this initiator caspase played an important role in the combination-induced apoptosis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ ligands may enhance the γ-radiation-induced DNA damage response, possibly by increasing γ-H2AX expression. Moreover, the combination treatment significantly increased ROS generation, and the ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine inhibited the combined treatment-induced ROS generation and apoptotic cell death. Conclusions: Taken together, these results indicated that the combined treatment of PPARγ ligands and γ-radiation synergistically induced DNA damage and apoptosis, which was regulated by ROS.

  10. Oxoisoaporphine as Potent Telomerase Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zu-Zhuang; Qin, Qi-Pin; Chen, Jia-Nian; Chen, Zhen-Feng

    2016-11-14

    Two compounds previously isolated from traditional Chinese medicine, Menispermum dauricum (DC), 6-hydroxyl-oxoisoaporphine (H-L(a)), and 4,6-di(2-pyridinyl)benzo[h]isoindolo[4,5,6-de]quinolin-8(5H)-one (H-L(b)), were known to have in vitro antitumor activity and to selectively bind human telomeric, c-myc, and bcl-2 G-quadruplexes (G4s). In this study, the binding properties of these two compounds to telomerase were investigated through molecular docking and telomeric repeat amplication protocol and silver staining assay (TRAP-silver staining assay). The binding energies bound to human telomerase RNA were calculated by molecular docking to be -6.43 and -9.76 kcal/mol for H-L(a) and H-L(b), respectively. Compared with H-L(a), the ligand H-L(b) more strongly inhibited telomerase activity in the SK-OV-3 cells model.

  11. Radiation-induced human endogenous retrovirus (HERV)-R env gene expression by epigenetic control.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ja-Rang; Ahn, Kung; Kim, Yun-Ji; Jung, Yi-Deun; Kim, Heui-Soo

    2012-11-01

    It is commonly accepted that ionizing radiation induces genomic instability by changes in genomic structure, epigenetic regulation and gene expression. Human endogenous retroviruses (HERV)-R also are often differentially expressed between normal and disease tissues under unstable genomic conditions and are implicated in the pathogenesis of several human diseases. To understand the influence of ionizing radiation on HERV-R expression, we performed quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses using γ-irradiated normal human cells. Compared to nonirradiated cells, HERV-R expression was up-regulated in γ-irradiated cells. The regulatory mechanism of HERV-R expression in irradiated cells was investigated by methylation analyses of HERV-R 5'LTRs and treatment with garcinol. These data indicated that the up-regulated transcription of HERV-R may be regulated by radiation-induced epigenetic changes induced by histone modification, and thus could be of great importance for understanding the relationship between radiation-induced biological effects and transposable elements.

  12. Defective telomere elongation and hematopoiesis from telomerase-mutant aplastic anemia iPSCs

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Thomas; Hong, So Gun; Decker, Jake E.; Morgan, Mary J.; Wu, Chuanfeng; Hughes, William M.; Yang, Yanqin; Wangsa, Danny; Padilla-Nash, Hesed M.; Ried, Thomas; Young, Neal S.; Dunbar, Cynthia E.; Calado, Rodrigo T.

    2013-01-01

    Critically short telomeres activate p53-mediated apoptosis, resulting in organ failure and leading to malignant transformation. Mutations in genes responsible for telomere maintenance are linked to a number of human diseases. We derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from 4 patients with aplastic anemia or hypocellular bone marrow carrying heterozygous mutations in the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) or the telomerase RNA component (TERC) telomerase genes. Both mutant and control iPSCs upregulated TERT and TERC expression compared with parental fibroblasts, but mutant iPSCs elongated telomeres at a lower rate compared with healthy iPSCs, and the deficit correlated with the mutations’ impact on telomerase activity. There was no evidence for alternative lengthening of telomere (ALT) pathway activation. Elongation varied among iPSC clones derived from the same patient and among clones from siblings harboring identical mutations. Clonal heterogeneity was linked to genetic and environmental factors, but was not influenced by residual expression of reprogramming transgenes. Hypoxia increased telomere extension in both mutant and normal iPSCs. Additionally, telomerase-mutant iPSCs showed defective hematopoietic differentiation in vitro, mirroring the clinical phenotype observed in patients and demonstrating that human telomere diseases can be modeled utilizing iPSCs. Our data support the necessity of studying multiple clones when using iPSCs to model disease. PMID:23585473

  13. Defective telomere elongation and hematopoiesis from telomerase-mutant aplastic anemia iPSCs.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Thomas; Hong, So Gun; Decker, Jake E; Morgan, Mary J; Wu, Chuanfeng; Hughes, William M; Yang, Yanqin; Wangsa, Danny; Padilla-Nash, Hesed M; Ried, Thomas; Young, Neal S; Dunbar, Cynthia E; Calado, Rodrigo T

    2013-05-01

    Critically short telomeres activate p53-mediated apoptosis, resulting in organ failure and leading to malignant transformation. Mutations in genes responsible for telomere maintenance are linked to a number of human diseases. We derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from 4 patients with aplastic anemia or hypocellular bone marrow carrying heterozygous mutations in the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) or the telomerase RNA component (TERC) telomerase genes. Both mutant and control iPSCs upregulated TERT and TERC expression compared with parental fibroblasts, but mutant iPSCs elongated telomeres at a lower rate compared with healthy iPSCs, and the deficit correlated with the mutations' impact on telomerase activity. There was no evidence for alternative lengthening of telomere (ALT) pathway activation. Elongation varied among iPSC clones derived from the same patient and among clones from siblings harboring identical mutations. Clonal heterogeneity was linked to genetic and environmental factors, but was not influenced by residual expression of reprogramming transgenes. Hypoxia increased telomere extension in both mutant and normal iPSCs. Additionally, telomerase-mutant iPSCs showed defective hematopoietic differentiation in vitro, mirroring the clinical phenotype observed in patients and demonstrating that human telomere diseases can be modeled utilizing iPSCs. Our data support the necessity of studying multiple clones when using iPSCs to model disease.

  14. Single cell measurement of telomerase expression and splicing using microfluidic emulsion cultures

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Richard; Hart, Kristina; Mathies, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Telomerase is a reverse transcriptase that maintains telomeres on the ends of chromosomes, allowing rapidly dividing cells to proliferate while avoiding senescence and apoptosis. Understanding telomerase gene expression and splicing at the single cell level could yield insights into the roles of telomerase during normal cell growth as well as cancer development. Here we use droplet-based single cell culture followed by single cell or colony transcript abundance analysis to investigate the relationship between cell growth and transcript abundance of the telomerase genes encoding the RNA component (hTR) and protein component (hTERT) as well as hTERT splicing. Jurkat and K562 cells were examined under normal cell culture conditions and during exposure to curcumin, a natural compound with anti-carcinogenic and telomerase activity-reducing properties. Individual cells predominantly express single hTERT splice variants, with the α+/β− variant exhibiting significant transcript abundance bimodality that is sustained through cell division. Sub-lethal curcumin exposure results in reduced bimodality of all hTERT splice variants and significant upregulation of alpha splicing, suggesting a possible role in cellular stress response. The single cell culture and transcript abundance analysis method presented here provides the tools necessary for multiparameter single cell analysis which will be critical for understanding phenotypes of heterogeneous cell populations, disease cell populations and their drug response. PMID:26202962

  15. Withaferin-A kills cancer cells with and without telomerase: chemical, computational and experimental evidences

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yue; Katiyar, Shashank P; Sundar, Durai; Kaul, Zeenia; Miyako, Eijiro; Zhang, Zhenya; Kaul, Sunil C; Reddel, Roger R; Wadhwa, Renu

    2017-01-01

    Maintenance of telomere length is the most consistent attribute of cancer cells. Tightly connected to their capacity to overcome replicative mortality, it is achieved either by activation of telomerase or an Alternative mechanism of Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT). Disruption of either of these mechanisms has been shown to induce DNA damage signalling leading to senescence or apoptosis. Telomerase inhibitors are considered as potential anticancer drugs but are ineffective for ALT cancers (~15% of all cancers). Withaferin-A (Wi-A), a major constituent of the medicinal plant, Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha), has been shown to exert anti-tumour activity. However, its effect on either telomerase or ALT mechanisms has not been investigated. Here, by using isogenic cancer cells with/without telomerase, we found that Wi-A caused stronger cytotoxicity to ALT cells. It was associated with inhibition of ALT-associated promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies, an established marker of ALT. Comparative analyses of telomerase positive and ALT cells revealed that Wi-A caused stronger telomere dysfunction and upregulation of DNA damage response in ALT cells. Molecular computational and experimental analyses revealed that Wi-A led to Myc-Mad mediated transcriptional suppression of NBS-1, an MRN complex protein that is an essential component of the ALT mechanism. The results suggest that Wi-A could be a new candidate drug for ALT cancers. PMID:28425984

  16. Epigenetics in radiation-induced fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Weigel, C; Schmezer, P; Plass, C; Popanda, O

    2015-04-23

    Radiotherapy is a major cancer treatment option but dose-limiting side effects such as late-onset fibrosis in the irradiated tissue severely impair quality of life in cancer survivors. Efforts to explain radiation-induced fibrosis, for example, by genetic variation remained largely inconclusive. Recently published molecular analyses on radiation response and fibrogenesis showed a prominent role of epigenetic gene regulation. This review summarizes the current knowledge on epigenetic modifications in fibrotic disease and radiation response, and it points out the important role for epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation, microRNAs and histone modifications in the development of this disease. The synopsis illustrates the complexity of radiation-induced fibrosis and reveals the need for investigations to further unravel its molecular mechanisms. Importantly, epigenetic changes are long-term determinants of gene expression and can therefore support those mechanisms that induce and perpetuate fibrogenesis even in the absence of the initial damaging stimulus. Future work must comprise the interconnection of acute radiation response and long-lasting epigenetic effects in order to assess their role in late-onset radiation fibrosis. An improved understanding of the underlying biology is fundamental to better comprehend the origin of this disease and to improve both preventive and therapeutic strategies.

  17. Radiation induced conductivity in space dielectric materials

    SciTech Connect

    Hanna, R.; Paulmier, T. Belhaj, M.; Dirassen, B.; Molinie, P.; Payan, D.; Balcon, N.

    2014-01-21

    The radiation-induced conductivity of some polymers was described mainly in literature by a competition between ionization, trapping/detrapping, and recombination processes or by radiation assisted ageing mechanisms. Our aim is to revise the effect of the aforementioned mechanisms on the complex evolution of Teflon{sup ®} FEP under space representative ionizing radiation. Through the definition of a new experimental protocol, revealing the effect of radiation dose and relaxation time, we have been able to demonstrate that the trapping/recombination model devised in this study agrees correctly with the observed experimental phenomenology at qualitative level and allows describing very well the evolution of radiation induced conductivity with irradiation time (or received radiation dose). According to this model, the complex behavior observed on Teflon{sup ®} FEP may be basically ascribed to the competition between electron/hole pairs generation and recombination: electrons are deeply trapped and act as recombination centers for free holes. Relaxation effects have been characterized through successive irradiations steps and have been again well described with the defined model at qualitative level: recombination centers created by the irradiation induce long term alteration on the electric properties, especially the effective bulk conductivity. One-month relaxation does not allow a complete recovery of the material initial charging behavior.

  18. Radiation induced conductivity in space dielectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, R.; Paulmier, T.; Molinie, P.; Belhaj, M.; Dirassen, B.; Payan, D.; Balcon, N.

    2014-01-01

    The radiation-induced conductivity of some polymers was described mainly in literature by a competition between ionization, trapping/detrapping, and recombination processes or by radiation assisted ageing mechanisms. Our aim is to revise the effect of the aforementioned mechanisms on the complex evolution of Teflon® FEP under space representative ionizing radiation. Through the definition of a new experimental protocol, revealing the effect of radiation dose and relaxation time, we have been able to demonstrate that the trapping/recombination model devised in this study agrees correctly with the observed experimental phenomenology at qualitative level and allows describing very well the evolution of radiation induced conductivity with irradiation time (or received radiation dose). According to this model, the complex behavior observed on Teflon® FEP may be basically ascribed to the competition between electron/hole pairs generation and recombination: electrons are deeply trapped and act as recombination centers for free holes. Relaxation effects have been characterized through successive irradiations steps and have been again well described with the defined model at qualitative level: recombination centers created by the irradiation induce long term alteration on the electric properties, especially the effective bulk conductivity. One-month relaxation does not allow a complete recovery of the material initial charging behavior.

  19. Mouse models for radiation-induced cancers.

    PubMed

    Rivina, Leena; Davoren, Michael J; Schiestl, Robert H

    2016-09-01

    Potential ionising radiation exposure scenarios are varied, but all bring risks beyond the simple issues of short-term survival. Whether accidentally exposed to a single, whole-body dose in an act of terrorism or purposefully exposed to fractionated doses as part of a therapeutic regimen, radiation exposure carries the consequence of elevated cancer risk. The long-term impact of both intentional and unintentional exposure could potentially be mitigated by treatments specifically developed to limit the mutations and precancerous replication that ensue in the wake of irradiation The development of such agents would undoubtedly require a substantial degree of in vitro testing, but in order to accurately recapitulate the complex process of radiation-induced carcinogenesis, well-understood animal models are necessary. Inbred strains of the laboratory mouse, Mus musculus, present the most logical choice due to the high number of molecular and physiological similarities they share with humans. Their small size, high rate of breeding and fully sequenced genome further increase its value for use in cancer research. This chapter will review relevant m. musculus inbred and F1 hybrid animals of radiation-induced myeloid leukemia, thymic lymphoma, breast and lung cancers. Method of cancer induction and associated molecular pathologies will also be described for each model. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the UK Environmental Mutagen Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Endogenous Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase N-Terminal Tagging Affects Human Telomerase Function at Telomeres In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Kunitoshi; Vogan, Jacob M.; Wu, Robert A.; Gill, Manraj S.; Zhang, Xiaozhu; Collins, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Telomerase action at telomeres is essential for the immortal phenotype of stem cells and the aberrant proliferative potential of cancer cells. Insufficient telomere maintenance can cause stem cell and tissue failure syndromes, while increased telomerase levels are associated with tumorigenesis. Both pathologies can arise from only small perturbation of telomerase function. To analyze telomerase at its low endogenous expression level, we genetically engineered human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) to express various N-terminal fusion proteins of the telomerase reverse transcriptase from its endogenous locus. Using this approach, we found that these modifications can perturb telomerase function in hPSCs and cancer cells, resulting in telomere length defects. Biochemical analysis suggests that this defect is multileveled, including changes in expression and activity. These findings highlight the unknown complexity of telomerase structural requirements for expression and function in vivo. PMID:27872149

  1. Endogenous Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase N-Terminal Tagging Affects Human Telomerase Function at Telomeres In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Kunitoshi; Vogan, Jacob M; Wu, Robert A; Gill, Manraj S; Zhang, Xiaozhu; Collins, Kathleen; Hockemeyer, Dirk

    2017-02-01

    Telomerase action at telomeres is essential for the immortal phenotype of stem cells and the aberrant proliferative potential of cancer cells. Insufficient telomere maintenance can cause stem cell and tissue failure syndromes, while increased telomerase levels are associated with tumorigenesis. Both pathologies can arise from only small perturbation of telomerase function. To analyze telomerase at its low endogenous expression level, we genetically engineered human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) to express various N-terminal fusion proteins of the telomerase reverse transcriptase from its endogenous locus. Using this approach, we found that these modifications can perturb telomerase function in hPSCs and cancer cells, resulting in telomere length defects. Biochemical analysis suggests that this defect is multileveled, including changes in expression and activity. These findings highlight the unknown complexity of telomerase structural requirements for expression and function in vivo. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  2. Telomerase activation by genomic rearrangements in high-risk neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Peifer, Martin; Hertwig, Falk; Roels, Frederik; Dreidax, Daniel; Gartlgruber, Moritz; Menon, Roopika; Krämer, Andrea; Roncaioli, Justin L.; Sand, Frederik; Heuckmann, Johannes M.; Ikram, Fakhera; Schmidt, Rene; Ackermann, Sandra; Engesser, Anne; Kahlert, Yvonne; Vogel, Wenzel; Altmüller, Janine; Nürnberg, Peter; Thierry-Mieg, Jean; Thierry-Mieg, Danielle; Mariappan, Aruljothi; Heynck, Stefanie; Mariotti, Erika; Henrich, Kai-Oliver; Glöckner, Christian; Bosco, Graziella; Leuschner, Ivo; Schweiger, Michal R.; Savelyeva, Larissa; Watkins, Simon C.; Shao, Chunxuan; Bell, Emma; Höfer, Thomas; Achter, Viktor; Lang, Ulrich; Theissen, Jessica; Volland, Ruth; Saadati, Maral; Eggert, Angelika; de Wilde, Bram; Berthold, Frank; Peng, Zhiyu; Zhao, Chen; Shi, Leming; Ortmann, Monika; Büttner, Reinhard; Perner, Sven; Hero, Barbara; Schramm, Alexander; Schulte, Johannes H.; Herrmann, Carl; O’Sullivan, Roderick J.; Westermann, Frank; Thomas, Roman K.; Fischer, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is a malignant paediatric tumour of the sympathetic nervous system1. Roughly half of these tumours regress spontaneously or are cured by limited therapy. By contrast, high-risk neuroblastomas have an unfavourable clinical course despite intensive multimodal treatment, and their molecular basis has remained largely elusive2–4. Here we have performed whole-genome sequencing of 56 neuroblastomas (high-risk, n = 39; low-risk, n = 17) and discovered recurrent genomic rearrangements affecting a chromosomal region at 5p15.33 proximal of the telomerase reverse transcriptase gene (TERT). These rearrangements occurred only in high-risk neuroblastomas (12/39, 31%) in a mutually exclusive fashion with MYCN amplifications and ATRX mutations, which are known genetic events in this tumour type1,2,5. In an extended case series (n = 217), TERT rearrangements defined a subgroup of high-risk tumours with particularly poor outcome. Despite a large structural diversity of these rearrangements, they all induced massive transcriptional upregulation of TERT. In the remaining high-risk tumours, TERT expression was also elevated in MYCN-amplified tumours, whereas alternative lengthening of telomeres was present in neuroblastomas without TERT or MYCN alterations, suggesting that telomere lengthening represents a central mechanism defining this subtype. The 5p15.33 rearrangements juxtapose the TERT coding sequence to strong enhancer elements, resulting in massive chromatin remodelling and DNA methylation of the affected region. Supporting a functional role of TERT, neuroblastoma cell lines bearing rearrangements or amplified MYCN exhibited both upregulated TERT expression and enzymatic telomerase activity. In summary, our findings show that remodelling of the genomic context abrogates transcriptional silencing of TERT in high-risk neuroblastoma and places telomerase activation in the centre of transformation in a large fraction of these tumours. PMID:26466568

  3. Telomerase activation by genomic rearrangements in high-risk neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Peifer, Martin; Hertwig, Falk; Roels, Frederik; Dreidax, Daniel; Gartlgruber, Moritz; Menon, Roopika; Krämer, Andrea; Roncaioli, Justin L; Sand, Frederik; Heuckmann, Johannes M; Ikram, Fakhera; Schmidt, Rene; Ackermann, Sandra; Engesser, Anne; Kahlert, Yvonne; Vogel, Wenzel; Altmüller, Janine; Nürnberg, Peter; Thierry-Mieg, Jean; Thierry-Mieg, Danielle; Mariappan, Aruljothi; Heynck, Stefanie; Mariotti, Erika; Henrich, Kai-Oliver; Gloeckner, Christian; Bosco, Graziella; Leuschner, Ivo; Schweiger, Michal R; Savelyeva, Larissa; Watkins, Simon C; Shao, Chunxuan; Bell, Emma; Höfer, Thomas; Achter, Viktor; Lang, Ulrich; Theissen, Jessica; Volland, Ruth; Saadati, Maral; Eggert, Angelika; de Wilde, Bram; Berthold, Frank; Peng, Zhiyu; Zhao, Chen; Shi, Leming; Ortmann, Monika; Büttner, Reinhard; Perner, Sven; Hero, Barbara; Schramm, Alexander; Schulte, Johannes H; Herrmann, Carl; O'Sullivan, Roderick J; Westermann, Frank; Thomas, Roman K; Fischer, Matthias

    2015-10-29

    Neuroblastoma is a malignant paediatric tumour of the sympathetic nervous system. Roughly half of these tumours regress spontaneously or are cured by limited therapy. By contrast, high-risk neuroblastomas have an unfavourable clinical course despite intensive multimodal treatment, and their molecular basis has remained largely elusive. Here we have performed whole-genome sequencing of 56 neuroblastomas (high-risk, n = 39; low-risk, n = 17) and discovered recurrent genomic rearrangements affecting a chromosomal region at 5p15.33 proximal of the telomerase reverse transcriptase gene (TERT). These rearrangements occurred only in high-risk neuroblastomas (12/39, 31%) in a mutually exclusive fashion with MYCN amplifications and ATRX mutations, which are known genetic events in this tumour type. In an extended case series (n = 217), TERT rearrangements defined a subgroup of high-risk tumours with particularly poor outcome. Despite a large structural diversity of these rearrangements, they all induced massive transcriptional upregulation of TERT. In the remaining high-risk tumours, TERT expression was also elevated in MYCN-amplified tumours, whereas alternative lengthening of telomeres was present in neuroblastomas without TERT or MYCN alterations, suggesting that telomere lengthening represents a central mechanism defining this subtype. The 5p15.33 rearrangements juxtapose the TERT coding sequence to strong enhancer elements, resulting in massive chromatin remodelling and DNA methylation of the affected region. Supporting a functional role of TERT, neuroblastoma cell lines bearing rearrangements or amplified MYCN exhibited both upregulated TERT expression and enzymatic telomerase activity. In summary, our findings show that remodelling of the genomic context abrogates transcriptional silencing of TERT in high-risk neuroblastoma and places telomerase activation in the centre of transformation in a large fraction of these tumours.

  4. The role of the JAK-STAT pathway and related signal cascades in telomerase activation during the development of hematologic malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Osamu; Kawauchi, Kiyotaka

    2013-01-01

    Telomerase, comprising a reverse transcriptase protein (TERT) and an RNA template, plays a critical role during senescence and carcinogenesis; however, the mechanisms by which telomerase is regulated remain to be elucidated. Several signaling pathways are involved in the activation of TERT at multistep levels. The JAK-STAT pathway is indispensable for mediating signals through growth factor and cytokine receptors during the development of hematopoietic cells, and its activity is frequently upregulated in hematological malignancies. Here, we review the role of the JAK-STAT pathway and related signaling cascades in the regulation of telomerase in hematological malignancies. PMID:24416646

  5. Role of neurotensin in radiation-induced hypothermia in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kandasamy, S.B.; Hunt, W.A.; Harris, A.H. )

    1991-05-01

    The role of neurotensin in radiation-induced hypothermia was examined. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of neurotensin produced dose-dependent hypothermia. Histamine appears to mediate neurotensin-induced hypothermia because the mast cell stabilizer disodium cromoglycate and antihistamines blocked the hypothermic effects of neurotensin. An ICV pretreatment with neurotensin antibody attenuated neurotensin-induced hypothermia, but did not attenuate radiation-induced hypothermia, suggesting that radiation-induced hypothermia was not mediated by neurotensin.

  6. Targeting human telomerase in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Huard, Sylvain; Autexier, Chantal

    2002-09-01

    Telomerase is a specialized RNA template-containing reverse transcriptase that mediates telomere repeat synthesis at chromosome ends. The maintenance of telomere length and integrity is essential for cell survival. Telomerase is active in most immortal and tumor cells, whereas the majority of normal human cells demonstrate no detectable activity and undergo telomere shortening. The identification of a possible role for telomerase in cellular aging and cancer has led to numerous studies designed to characterize this ribonucleoprotein enzyme. Inhibiting telomerase activity in immortal human cells reduces cellular proliferative capacity and can lead to cell death. Identifying mechanisms to specifically inhibit telomerase activity in malignant cells could thus be of great therapeutic value in the treatment of cancer. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the mechanism of action of human telomerase. The biochemical characterization of telomerase is necessary for the design and evaluation of antitelomerase therapies. Different strategies are currently under investigation to design inhibitors that target the reverse transcriptase and RNA components of the telomerase complex. Recent advances in the design of these inhibitors and their properties are discussed.

  7. InTERTpreting telomerase structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, Haley D. M.; West, Stephen C.; Beattie, Tara L.

    2010-01-01

    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was recently awarded to Elizabeth Blackburn, Carol Greider and Jack Szostak for their pioneering studies on chromosome termini (telomeres) and their discovery of telomerase, the enzyme that synthesizes telomeres. Telomerase is a unique cellular reverse transcriptase that contains an integral RNA subunit, the telomerase RNA and a catalytic protein subunit, the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), as well as several species-specific accessory proteins. Telomerase is essential for genome stability and is associated with a broad spectrum of human diseases including various forms of cancer, bone marrow failure and pulmonary fibrosis. A better understanding of telomerase structure and function will shed important insights into how this enzyme contributes to human disease. To this end, a series of high-resolution structural studies have provided critical information on TERT architecture and may ultimately elucidate novel targets for therapeutic intervention. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge of TERT structure and function, revealed through the detailed analysis of TERT from model organisms. To emphasize the physiological importance of telomeres and telomerase, we also present a general discussion of the human diseases associated with telomerase dysfunction. PMID:20460453

  8. Triptolide Mitigates Radiation-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shanmin; Zhang, Mei; Chen, Chun; Cao, Yongbin; Tian, Yeping; Guo, Yangsong; Zhang, Bingrong; Wang, Xiaohui; Yin, Liangjie; Zhang, Zhenhuan; O'Dell, Walter; Okunieff, Paul; Zhang, Lurong

    2015-11-01

    Triptolide (TPL) may mitigate radiation-induced late pulmonary side effects through its inhibition of global pro-inflammatory cytokines. In this study, we evaluated the effect of TPL in C57BL/6 mice, the animals were exposed to radiation with vehicle (15 Gy), radiation with TPL (0.25 mg/kg i.v., twice weekly for 1, 2 and 3 months), radiation and celecoxib (CLX) (30 mg/kg) and sham irradiation. Cultured supernatant of irradiated RAW 264.7 and MLE-15 cells and lung lysate in different groups were enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays at 33 h. Respiratory rate, pulmonary compliance and pulmonary density were measured at 5 months in all groups. The groups exposed to radiation with vehicle and radiation with TPL exhibited significant differences in respiratory rate and pulmonary compliance (480 ± 75/min vs. 378 ± 76/min; 0.6 ± 0.1 ml/cm H2O/p kg vs. 0.9 ± 0.2 ml/cm H2O/p kg). Seventeen cytokines were significantly reduced in the lung lysate of the radiation exposure with TPL group at 5 months compared to that of the radiation with vehicle group, including profibrotic cytokines implicated in pulmonary fibrosis, such as IL-1β, TGF- β1 and IL-13. The radiation exposure with TPL mice exhibited a 41% reduction of pulmonary density and a 25% reduction of hydroxyproline in the lung, compared to that of radiation with vehicle mice. The trichrome-stained area of fibrotic foci and pathological scaling in sections of the mice treated with radiation and TPL mice were significantly less than those of the radiation with vehicle-treated group. In addition, the radiation with TPL-treated mice exhibited a trend of improved survival rate compared to that of the radiation with vehicle-treated mice at 5 months (83% vs. 53%). Three radiation-induced profibrotic cytokines in the radiation with vehicle-treated group were significantly reduced by TPL treatment, and this partly contributed to the trend of improved survival rate and pulmonary density and function and the decreased severity of

  9. Telomerase governs immunomodulatory properties of mesenchymal stem cells by regulating FAS ligand expression

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chider; Akiyama, Kentaro; Yamaza, Takayoshi; You, Yong-Ouk; Xu, Xingtian; Li, Bei; Zhao, Yimin; Shi, Songtao

    2014-01-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) are capable of differentiating into multiple cell types and regulating immune cell response. However, the mechanisms that govern the immunomodulatory properties of BMMSCs are still not fully elucidated. Here we show that telomerase-deficient BMMSCs lose their capacity to inhibit T cells and ameliorate the disease phenotype in systemic sclerosis mice. Restoration of telomerase activity by telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) transfection in TERT−/− BMMSCs rescues their immunomodulatory functions. Mechanistically, we reveal that TERT, combined with β-catenin and BRG1, serves as a transcriptional complex, which binds the FAS ligand (FASL) promoter to upregulate FASL expression, leading to an elevated immunomodulatory function. To test the translational value of these findings in the context of potential clinical therapy, we used aspirin treatment to upregulate telomerase activity in BMMSCs, and found a significant improvement in the immunomodulatory capacity of BMMSCs. Taken together, these findings identify a previously unrecognized role of TERT in improving the immunomodulatory capacity of BMMSCs, suggesting that aspirin treatment is a practical approach to significantly reduce cell dosage in BMMSC-based immunotherapies. Subject Categories Stem Cells; Immunology PMID:24401839

  10. Template definition by Tetrahymena telomerase reverse transcriptase.

    PubMed

    Miller, M C; Liu, J K; Collins, K

    2000-08-15

    The ribonucleoprotein enzyme telomerase extends chromosome ends by copying a specific template sequence within its integral RNA component. An active recombinant telomerase RNP is minimally composed of this RNA and the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) protein, which contains sequence motifs conserved among viral reverse transcriptases (RTs), flanked by N- and C-terminal extensions specific to TERTs. We have used site-directed mutagenesis to explore the roles of Tetrahymena TERT in determining features of telomerase activity in general and in establishing the boundaries and use of an internal RNA template in specific. We identify a new ciliate-specific motif in the TERT N-terminus required for template definition. Moreover, several residues in reverse transcriptase motifs 1, 2, A and D are critical for specific aspects of internal template use. Our results indicate that the unique specificity of telomerase activity is conferred to a reverse transcriptase active site by TERT residues both within and beyond the RT motif region.

  11. DHA-enriched fish oil upregulates cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (P16(INK)) expression and downregulates telomerase activity without modulating effects of PPARγ Pro12Ala polymorphism in type 2 diabetic patients: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Toupchian, Omid; Sotoudeh, Gity; Mansoori, Anahita; Abdollahi, Shima; Ali Keshavarz, Seyyed; Djalali, Mahmoud; Nasli-Esfahani, Ensieh; Alvandi, Ehsan; Chahardoli, Reza; Koohdani, Fariba

    2016-12-19

    The present study investigated the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-enriched fish oil supplement on telomerase activity, mRNA expression of P16(INK), IL-6, and TNF-α considering Pro12Ala polymorphism in the PPARγ gene. In this double-blind randomized controlled trial, 72 PPARγ Pro12Ala polymorphism genotyped type 2 diabetic patients aged 30-70 years were randomly assigned to receive 2.4 gr of DHA-enriched fish oil or a placebo for 8 weeks. Genotyping of the Pro12Ala polymorphism in the PPARγ gene was assessed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), telomerase activity in the peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) was measured using PCR-ELISA based on the telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP), and changes in the mRNA expression of P16, IL-6, and TNF-α were measured using real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In the DHA group, telomerase activity was decreased (p = 0.001) during the intervention. In addition, between-group comparisons showed significant differences in the changes in telomerase activity (p = 0.003) and P16 mRNA expression (p = 0.028) and non-significant differences in TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA expression. The gene*DHA interaction could not affect changes in P16, IL-6, or TNF-α mRNA expression or in telomerase activity in PBMC. Short-time DHA-enriched fish oil supplementation caused increased levels of P16 expression and a decline in telomerase activity compared with the control group without modulating the effects of Pro12Ala polymorphism on the PPARγ gene. Because of the positive correlation between P16 activity and cellular senescence, the possibility of senescence stimulation by DHA is proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  12. Radiation-Induced Notch Signaling in Breast Cancer Stem Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lagadec, Chann; Vlashi, Erina; Alhiyari, Yazeed; Phillips, Tiffany M.; Bochkur Dratver, Milana; Pajonk, Frank

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: To explore patterns of Notch receptor and ligand expression in response to radiation that could be crucial in defining optimal dosing schemes for γ-secretase inhibitors if combined with radiation. Methods and Materials: Using MCF-7 and T47D breast cancer cell lines, we used real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction to study the Notch pathway in response to radiation. Results: We show that Notch receptor and ligand expression during the first 48 hours after irradiation followed a complex radiation dose–dependent pattern and was most pronounced in mammospheres, enriched for breast cancer stem cells. Additionally, radiation activated the Notch pathway. Treatment with a γ-secretase inhibitor prevented radiation-induced Notch family gene expression and led to a significant reduction in the size of the breast cancer stem cell pool. Conclusions: Our results indicate that, if combined with radiation, γ-secretase inhibitors may prevent up-regulation of Notch receptor and ligand family members and thus reduce the number of surviving breast cancer stem cells.

  13. Identification of Telomerase Components and Telomerase Regulating Factors in Yeast

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-07-01

    Bosco, G., Ross, L., Evans, S.K., Salinger , A.P., Moore, J.K., Haber, J.E., and V. Lundblad. 1998. Telomere maintenance is dependent on activities...cerevisiae. Chromosoma 107: 352-358. Nugent, C.I., Bosco, G., Ross, L., Evans, S.K., Salinger , A.P., Moore, J.K., Haber, J.E., and V. Lundblad (1998...The telomerase reverse transcriptase: components and regulation. Genes Dev. 12: 1073-1085. Hughes, T.R., Morris, D.K., Salinger , A., Walcott, N

  14. Radiation-induced mutation at minisatellite loci

    SciTech Connect

    Dubrova, Y.E. |; Nesterov, V.N.; Krouchinsky, N.G.

    1997-10-01

    We are studying the radiation-induced increase of mutation rate in minisatellite loci in mice and humans. Minisatellite mutations were scored by multilocus DNA fingerprint analysis in the progeny of {gamma}-irradiated and non-irradiated mice. The frequency of mutation in offspring of irradiated males was 1.7 higher that in the control group. Germline mutation at human minisatellite loci was studied among children born in heavily polluted areas of the Mogilev district of Belarus after the Chernobyl accident and in a control population. The frequency of mutation assayed both by DNA fingerprinting and by eight single locus probes was found to be two times higher in the exposed families than in the control group. Furthermore, mutation rate was correlated with the parental radiation dose for chronic exposure {sup 137}Cs, consistent with radiation-induction of germline mutation. The potential use of minisatellites in monitoring germline mutation in humans will be discussed.

  15. Radiation-induced mutations and plant breeding

    SciTech Connect

    Naqvi, S.H.M.

    1985-01-01

    Ionizing radiation could cause genetic changes in an organism and could modify gene linkages. The induction of mutation through radiation is random and the probability of getting the desired genetic change is low but can be increased by manipulating different parameters such as dose rate, physical conditions under which the material has been irradiated, etc. Induced mutations have been used as a supplement to conventional plant breeding, particularly for creating genetic variability for specific characters such as improved plant structure, pest and disease resistance, and desired changes in maturity period; more than 200 varieties of crop plants have been developed by this technique. The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission has used this technique fruitfully to evolve better germplasm in cotton, rice, chickpea, wheat and mungbean; some of the mutants have become popular commercial varieties. This paper describes some uses of radiation induced mutations and the results achieved in Pakistan so far.

  16. Transesophageal Echocardiography and Radiation-induced Damages

    PubMed Central

    Cottini, Marzia; Polizzi, Vincenzo; Pino, Paolo Giuseppe; Buffa, Vitaliano; Musumeci, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    The long-term sequelae of mantle therapy include, especially lung and cardiac disease but also involve the vessels and the organs in the neck and thorax (such as thyroid, aorta, and esophagus). We presented the case of 66-year-old female admitted for congestive heart failure in radiation-induced heart disease. The patient had undergone to massive radiotherapy 42 years ago for Hodgkin's disease (type 1A). Transesophageal echocardiography was performed unsuccessfully with difficulty because of the rigidity and impedance of esophageal walls. Our case is an extraordinary report of radiotherapy's latency effect as a result of dramatic changes in the structure of mediastinum, in particular in the esophagus, causing unavailability of a transesophageal echocardiogram. PMID:27867461

  17. Radiation induced carcinoma of the larynx

    SciTech Connect

    Amendola, B.E.; Amendola, M.A.; McClatchey, K.D.

    1985-07-01

    A squamous cell carcinoma presented in a 20 year old female nonsmoker three years after receiving a high dosage of radiation therapy to the base of the skull, face and entire neuroaxis and intense combination chemotherapy for a parameningeal rhabdomyosarcoma of the paranasal sinuses is reported. The larynx received a dose of about 3,500 rads over an eight week period. This dosage in conjunction with the associated intense chemotherapy regimen given to the patient may explain the appearance of a radiation induced tumor in an unusually short latent period. This certainly represents a risk in young patients in whom an aggressive combined approach is taken and the physician should be aware of.

  18. Management of radiation-induced rectal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Laterza, Liboria; Cecinato, Paolo; Guido, Alessandra; Mussetto, Alessandro; Fuccio, Lorenzo

    2013-11-01

    Pelvic radiation disease is one of the major complication after radiotherapy for pelvic cancers. The most commonly reported symptom is rectal bleeding which affects patients' quality of life. Therapeutic strategies for rectal bleeding are generally ignored and include medical, endoscopic, and hyperbaric oxygen treatments. Most cases of radiation-induced bleeding are mild and self-limiting, and treatment is normally not indicated. In cases of clinically significant bleeding (i.e. anaemia), medical therapies, including stool softeners, sucralfate enemas, and metronidazole, should be considered as first-line treatment options. In cases of failure, endoscopic therapy, mainly represented by argon plasma coagulation and hyperbaric oxygen treatments, are valid and complementary second-line treatment strategies. Although current treatment options are not always supported by high-quality studies, patients should be reassured that treatment options exist and success is achieved in most cases if the patient is referred to a dedicated centre.

  19. Telomerase activity in human pleural mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Dhaene, K.; Hubner, R.; Kumar-Singh, S.; Weyn, B.; Van Marck, E.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Gradual telomere erosion eventually limits the replicative life span of somatic cells and is regarded as an ultimate tumour suppressor mechanism, eliminating cells that have accumulated genetic alterations. Telomerase, which has been found in over 85% of human cancers, elongates telomeres and may be required for tumorigenesis by the process of immortalisation. Malignant mesothelioma is an incurable malignancy with a poor prognosis. The disease becomes symptomatic decades after exposure to carcinogenic asbestos fibres, suggesting the long term survival of pre-malignant cell clones. This study investigated the presence of telomerase in pleural malignant mesothelioma, which may be the target for future anti-telomerase drugs.
METHODS—Telomerase activity was semi-quantitatively measured in extracts from 22 primary pleural mesotheliomas, two benign solitary fibrous tumours of the pleura, four mesothelioma cell lines, and six short term mesothelial cell cultures from normal pleura using a non-isotopic dilution assay of the telomeric repeat amplification protocol.
RESULTS—Twenty of the 22 primary mesotheliomas (91%) and all tumour derived mesothelioma cell lines were telomerase positive. Different levels of enzyme activity were observed in the tumours of different histological subtypes. Telomerase activity could not be detected in the six normal mesothelial cell cultures or in the two mesotheliomas. Both benign solitary fibrous tumours showed strong telomerase activity.
CONCLUSIONS—Telomerase activity is found in a high proportion of mesotheliomas and anti-telomerase drugs might therefore be useful clinically. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that telomerase activity may be a feature of carcinogenesis in mesotheliomas and possibly in many other cancers.

 PMID:10193387

  20. Progress in Human and Tetrahymena Telomerase Structure Determination.

    PubMed

    Chan, Henry; Wang, Yaqiang; Feigon, Juli

    2017-05-22

    Telomerase is an RNA-protein complex that extends the 3' ends of linear chromosomes, using a unique telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) and template in the telomerase RNA (TR), thereby helping to maintain genome integrity. TR assembles with TERT and species-specific proteins, and telomerase function in vivo requires interaction with telomere-associated proteins. Over the past two decades, structures of domains of TR and TERT as well as other telomerase- and telomere-interacting proteins have provided insights into telomerase function. A recently reported 9-Å cryo-electron microscopy map of the Tetrahymena telomerase holoenzyme has provided a framework for understanding how TR, TERT, and other proteins from ciliate as well as vertebrate telomerase fit and function together as well as unexpected insight into telomerase interaction at telomeres. Here we review progress in understanding the structural basis of human and Tetrahymena telomerase activity, assembly, and interactions.

  1. Telomerase activity in human cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, J.

    2000-10-01

    The overall goal of this collaborative project was to investigate the role in malignant cells of both chromosome telomeres, and telomerase, the enzyme that replicates telomeres. Telomeres are highly conserved nucleoprotein complexes located at the ends of eucaryotic chromosomes. Telomere length in somatic cells is reduced by 40--50 nucleotide pairs with every cell division due to incomplete replication of terminal DNA sequences and the absence of telomerase, the ribonucleoprotein that adds telomere DNA to chromosome ends. Although telomerase is active in cells with extended proliferative capacities, including more than 85% of tumors, work performed under this contract demonstrated that the telomeres of human cancer cells are shorter than those of paired normal cells, and that the length of the telomeres is characteristic of particular types of cancers. The extent of telomere shortening ostensibly is related to the number of cell divisions the tumor has undergone. It is believed that ongoing cell proliferation leads to the accumulation and fixation of new mutations in tumor cell lineages.Therefore, it is not unreasonable to assume that the degree of phenotypic variability is related to the proliferative history of the tumor, and therefore to telomere length, implying a correlation with prognosis. In some human tumors, short telomeres are also correlated with genomic instabilities, including interstitial chromosome translocation, loss of heterozygosity, and aneuoploidy. Moreover, unprotected chromosome ends are highly recombinogenic and telomere shortening in cultured human cells correlates with the formation of dicentric chromosomes, suggesting that critically short telomeres not only identify, but also predispose, cells to genomic instability, again implying a correlation with prognosis. Therefore, telomere length or content could be an important predictor of metastatic potential or responsiveness to various therapeutic modalities.

  2. CEBP factors regulate telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter activity in whey acidic protein-T mice during mammary carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Mukesh; Witt, Britta; Knippschild, Uwe; Koch, Sylvia; Meena, Jitendra K; Heinlein, Christina; Weise, Julia M; Krepulat, Frauke; Kuchenbauer, Florian; Iben, Sebastian; Rudolph, Karl-Lenhard; Deppert, Wolfgang; Günes, Cagatay

    2013-05-01

    Telomerase is activated in the majority of invasive breast cancers, but the time point of telomerase activation during mammary carcinogenesis is not clear. We have recently presented a transgenic mouse model to study human telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene expression in vivo (hTERTp-lacZ). In the present study, hTERTp-lacZxWAP-T bitransgenic mice were generated to analyze the mechanisms responsible for human and mouse TERT upregulation during tumor progression in vivo. We found that telomerase activity and TERT expression were consistently upregulated in SV40-induced invasive mammary tumors compared to normal and hyperplastic tissues and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Human and mouse TERT genes are regulated similarly in the breast tissue, involving the CEBP transcription factors. Loss of CEBP-α and induction of CEBP-β expression correlated well with the activation of TERT expression in mouse mammary tumors. Transfection of CEBP-α into human or murine cells resulted in TERT repression, whereas knockdown of CEBP-α in primary human mammary epithelial cells resulted in reactivation of endogenous TERT expression and telomerase activity. Conversely, ectopic expression of CEBP-β activated endogenous TERT gene expression. Moreover, ChIP and EMSA experiments revealed binding of CEBP-α and CEBP-β to human TERT-promoter. This is the first evidence indicating that CEBP-α and CEBP-β are involved in TERT gene regulation during carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  3. [Medical prevention and treatment of radiation-induced pulmonary complications].

    PubMed

    Vallard, A; Rancoule, C; Le Floch, H; Guy, J-B; Espenel, S; Le Péchoux, C; Deutsch, É; Magné, N; Chargari, C

    2017-08-01

    Radiation-induced lung injuries mainly include the (acute or sub-acute) radiation pneumonitis, the lung fibrosis and the bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP). The present review aims at describing the diagnostic process, the current physiopathological knowledge, and the available (non dosimetric) preventive and curative treatments. Radiation-induced lung injury is a diagnosis of exclusion, since clinical, radiological, or biological pathognomonic evidences do not exist. Investigations should necessarily include a thoracic high resolution CT-scan and lung function tests with a diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide. No treatment ever really showed efficacy to prevent acute radiation-induced lung injury, or to treat radiation-induced lung fibrosis. The most promising drugs in order to prevent radiation-induced lung injury are amifostine, angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors and pentoxifylline. Inhibitors of collagen synthesis are currently tested at a pre-clinical stage to limit the radiation-induced lung fibrosis. Regarding available treatments of radiation-induced pneumonitis, corticoids can be considered the cornerstone. However, no standardized program or guidelines concerning the initial dose and the gradual tapering have been scientifically established. Alternative treatments can be prescribed, based on clinical cases reporting on the efficacy of immunosuppressive drugs. Such data highlight the major role of the lung dosimetric protection in order to efficiently prevent radiation-induced lung injury. Copyright © 2017 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Radiation-induced osteosarcoma of the sphenoid bone

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, S.; Nishio, S.; Morioka, T.; Fukui, M.; Kitamura, K.; Hikita, K. )

    1989-10-01

    The case of a patient who developed osteosarcoma in the sphenoid bone 15 years after radiation therapy for a craniopharyngioma is reported. Radiation-induced osteosarcoma of the sphenoid bone has not been reported previously. Reported cases of radiation-induced osteosarcomas are reviewed.

  5. Single-molecule imaging of telomerase reverse transcriptase in human telomerase holoenzyme and minimal RNP complexes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Robert Alexander; Dagdas, Yavuz S; Yilmaz, S Tunc; Yildiz, Ahmet; Collins, Kathleen

    2015-10-12

    Telomerase synthesizes chromosome-capping telomeric repeats using an active site in telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) and an integral RNA subunit template. The fundamental question of whether human telomerase catalytic activity requires cooperation across two TERT subunits remains under debate. In this study, we describe new approaches of subunit labeling for single-molecule imaging, applied to determine the TERT content of complexes assembled in cells or cell extract. Surprisingly, telomerase reconstitutions yielded heterogeneous DNA-bound TERT monomer and dimer complexes in relative amounts that varied with assembly and purification method. Among the complexes, cellular holoenzyme and minimal recombinant enzyme monomeric for TERT had catalytic activity. Dimerization was suppressed by removing a TERT domain linker with atypical sequence bias, which did not inhibit cellular or minimal enzyme assembly or activity. Overall, this work defines human telomerase DNA binding and synthesis properties at single-molecule level and establishes conserved telomerase subunit architecture from single-celled organisms to humans.

  6. Fundamental mechanisms of telomerase action in yeasts and mammals: understanding telomeres and telomerase in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Christine A.

    2017-01-01

    Aberrant activation of telomerase occurs in 85–90% of all cancers and underpins the ability of cancer cells to bypass their proliferative limit, rendering them immortal. The activity of telomerase is tightly controlled at multiple levels, from transcriptional regulation of the telomerase components to holoenzyme biogenesis and recruitment to the telomere, and finally activation and processivity. However, studies using cancer cell lines and other model systems have begun to reveal features of telomeres and telomerase that are unique to cancer. This review summarizes our current knowledge on the mechanisms of telomerase recruitment and activation using insights from studies in mammals and budding and fission yeasts. Finally, we discuss the differences in telomere homeostasis between normal cells and cancer cells, which may provide a foundation for telomere/telomerase targeted cancer treatments. PMID:28330934

  7. Fundamental mechanisms of telomerase action in yeasts and mammals: understanding telomeres and telomerase in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Christine A; Tomita, Kazunori

    2017-03-01

    Aberrant activation of telomerase occurs in 85-90% of all cancers and underpins the ability of cancer cells to bypass their proliferative limit, rendering them immortal. The activity of telomerase is tightly controlled at multiple levels, from transcriptional regulation of the telomerase components to holoenzyme biogenesis and recruitment to the telomere, and finally activation and processivity. However, studies using cancer cell lines and other model systems have begun to reveal features of telomeres and telomerase that are unique to cancer. This review summarizes our current knowledge on the mechanisms of telomerase recruitment and activation using insights from studies in mammals and budding and fission yeasts. Finally, we discuss the differences in telomere homeostasis between normal cells and cancer cells, which may provide a foundation for telomere/telomerase targeted cancer treatments.

  8. Telomerase activity in pregnancy complications (Review)

    PubMed Central

    FRAGKIADAKI, PERSEFONI; TSOUKALAS, DIMITRIOS; FRAGKIADOULAKI, IRINI; PSYCHARAKIS, CHRISTOS; NIKITOVIC, DRAGANA; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A.; TSATSAKIS, ARISTIDES M.

    2016-01-01

    Telomeres are specific DNA regions positioned at the ends of chromosomes and composed of functional non-coding repeats. Upon cell division, the telomeres decrease in length by a preordained amount. When the telomeres become critically short, cells lose the ability to divide and enter a specific functioning mode designated as 'cellular senescence'. However, human tissues express an enzyme that deters the shrinking of the telomeres, the telomerase. Due to its ability to maintain telomere length, the telomerase slows down and possibly suspends the aging of the cells. In regard to this, solid evidence demonstrates that female human fertility decreases with increased maternal age and that various adverse factors, including alterations in telomerase activity, can contribute to age-associated infertility in women. The fact that telomerase activity is regulated in a time- and location-dependent manner in both embryo and placental tissues, highlights it potential importance to the successful completion of pregnancy. Since maternal age is a crucial determining factor for the success of in vitro and in vivo fertilization, numerous studies have focused on telomerase activity and its correlation with mammalian fertilization, as well as the following cleavage and pre-implantation developmental processes. Associations between telomerase activity and pregnancy complications have been previously observed. Our aim in this review was to summarize and critically discuss evidence correlating telomerase activity with pregnancy complications. PMID:27175856

  9. Telomerase activity in pregnancy complications (Review).

    PubMed

    Fragkiadaki, Persefoni; Tsoukalas, Dimitrios; Fragkiadoulaki, Irini; Psycharakis, Christos; Nikitovic, Dragana; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Tsatsakis, Aristides M

    2016-07-01

    Telomeres are specific DNA regions positioned at the ends of chromosomes and composed of functional non-coding repeats. Upon cell division, the telomeres decrease in length by a preordained amount. When the telomeres become critically short, cells lose the ability to divide and enter a specific functioning mode designated as 'cellular senescence'. However, human tissues express an enzyme that deters the shrinking of the telomeres, the telomerase. Due to its ability to maintain telomere length, the telomerase slows down and possibly suspends the aging of the cells. In regard to this, solid evidence demonstrates that female human fertility decreases with increased maternal age and that various adverse factors, including alterations in telomerase activity, can contribute to age-associated infertility in women. The fact that telomerase activity is regulated in a time- and location-dependent manner in both embryo and placental tissues, highlights it potential importance to the successful completion of pregnancy. Since maternal age is a crucial determining factor for the success of in vitro and in vivo fertilization, numerous studies have focused on telomerase activity and its correlation with mammalian fertilization, as well as the following cleavage and pre-implantation developmental processes. Associations between telomerase activity and pregnancy complications have been previously observed. Our aim in this review was to summarize and critically discuss evidence correlating telomerase activity with pregnancy complications.

  10. Telomerase Activity and Telomere Length in Daphnia

    PubMed Central

    Schumpert, Charles; Nelson, Jacob; Kim, Eunsuk; Dudycha, Jeffry L.; Patel, Rekha C.

    2015-01-01

    Telomeres, comprised of short repetitive sequences, are essential for genome stability and have been studied in relation to cellular senescence and aging. Telomerase, the enzyme that adds telomeric repeats to chromosome ends, is essential for maintaining the overall telomere length. A lack of telomerase activity in mammalian somatic cells results in progressive shortening of telomeres with each cellular replication event. Mammals exhibit high rates of cell proliferation during embryonic and juvenile stages but very little somatic cell proliferation occurs during adult and senescent stages. The telomere hypothesis of cellular aging states that telomeres serve as an internal mitotic clock and telomere length erosion leads to cellular senescence and eventual cell death. In this report, we have examined telomerase activity, processivity, and telomere length in Daphnia, an organism that grows continuously throughout its life. Similar to insects, Daphnia telomeric repeat sequence was determined to be TTAGG and telomerase products with five-nucleotide periodicity were generated in the telomerase activity assay. We investigated telomerase function and telomere lengths in two closely related ecotypes of Daphnia with divergent lifespans, short-lived D. pulex and long-lived D. pulicaria. Our results indicate that there is no age-dependent decline in telomere length, telomerase activity, or processivity in short-lived D. pulex. On the contrary, a significant age dependent decline in telomere length, telomerase activity and processivity is observed during life span in long-lived D. pulicaria. While providing the first report on characterization of Daphnia telomeres and telomerase activity, our results also indicate that mechanisms other than telomere shortening may be responsible for the strikingly short life span of D. pulex. PMID:25962144

  11. Early administration of IL-6RA does not prevent radiation-induced lung injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Toshiyuki; Yamazaki, Hideya; Teshima, Teruki; Kihara, Ayaka; Suzumoto, Yuko; Inoue, Takehiro; Nishimoto, Norihiro; Matsuura, Nariaki

    2010-04-07

    Radiation pneumonia and subsequent radiation lung fibrosis are major dose-limiting complications for patients undergoing thoracic radiotherapy. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine and plays important roles in the regulation of immune response and inflammation. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether anti-IL-6 monoclonal receptor antibody (IL-6RA) could ameliorate radiation-induced lung injury in mice. BALB/cAnNCrj mice having received thoracic irradiation of 21 Gy were injected intraperitoneally with IL-6RA (MR16-1) or control rat IgG twice, immediately and seven days after irradiation. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to examine the plasma level of IL-6 and serum amyloid A (SAA). Lung injury was assessed by histological staining with haematoxylin and eosin or Azan, measuring lung weight, and hydroxyproline. The mice treated with IL-6RA did not survive significantly longer than the rat IgG control. We observed marked up-regulation of IL-6 in mice treated with IL-6RA 150 days after irradiation, whereas IL-6RA temporarily suppressed early radiation-induced increase in the IL-6 release level. Histopathologic assessment showed no differences in lung section or lung weight between mice treated with IL-6RA and control. Our findings suggest that early treatment with IL-6RA after irradiation alone does not protect against radiation-induced lung injury.

  12. Inhibition of CDK4/6 protects against radiation-induced intestinal injury in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Liang; Leibowitz, Brian J.; Wang, Xinwei; Epperly, Michael; Greenberger, Joel; Zhang, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Radiotherapy causes dose-limiting toxicity and long-term complications in rapidly renewing tissues, including the gastrointestinal tract. Currently, there is no FDA-approved agent for the prevention or treatment of radiation-induced intestinal injury. In this study, we have shown that PD 0332991 (PD), an FDA-approved selective inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK4/6), prevents radiation-induced lethal intestinal injury in mice. Treating mice with PD or a structurally distinct CDK4/6 inhibitor prior to radiation blocked proliferation and crypt apoptosis and improved crypt regeneration. PD treatment also enhanced LGR5+ stem cell survival and regeneration after radiation. PD was an on-target inhibitor of RB phosphorylation and blocked G1/S transition in the intestinal crypts. PD treatment strongly but reversibly inhibited radiation-induced p53 activation, which blocked p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis–dependent (PUMA-dependent) apoptosis without affecting p21-dependent suppression of DNA damage accumulation, with a repair bias toward nonhomologous end joining. Further, deletion of PUMA synergized with PD treatment for even greater intestinal radioprotection. Our results demonstrate that the cell cycle critically regulates the DNA damage response and survival of intestinal stem cells and support the concept that pharmacological quiescence is a potentially highly effective and selective strategy for intestinal radioprotection. PMID:27701148

  13. Radiation-induced degradation of aqueous fluoranthene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Petar; Getoff, Nikola

    2005-01-01

    The radiation-induced degradation of fluoranthene (FA) in slightly alkaline aqueous solution was investigated in the presence of air as well as of N 2O. Depending on the starting FA-concentration the determined Gi(-FA) was 0.34 for 1×10 -5 mol/l FA upto 0.67 for 4.6×10 -5 mol/l FA. As major radiolytic products found by HPLC-analysis were: 9-fluorene carboxylic acid ( Gi =0.006), 9-fluorenone ( Gi=0.004) and fluorene ( Gi=0.002) in addition to a mixture of carboxylic acids and aldehydes. In the presence of N 2O (90% OH, 10% H) practically the same products were observed, however in this case the yield of the carboxylic acids was about 2-times higher than in solutions saturated with air, but 4-times less aldehydes, resp. For illustration of the rather complicated degradation process a probable reaction mechanism is presented.

  14. Radiation-induced segregation, hardening, and IASCC

    SciTech Connect

    Eason, E.D.; Nelson, E.E.

    1995-12-31

    Intergranular cracking has been discovered after extended radiation exposure in several boiling water reactor (BWR) internal components made of austenitic stainless steel and nickel-based alloys. There are fewer field observations of intergranular cracking in pressurized water reactors (PWR), but failures have occurred in bolts, springs, and fuel cladding. There is concern for other PWR components, some of which will receive greater radiation doses than BWR components during the plant lifetime. This paper presents the results of an investigation on the connection between radiation induced segregation, hardening and irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC). A data base was developed containing the available data on austenitic stainless steel where the grain boundary composition was measured by Field Emission Gun-Scanning Transmission Election Microscopy (FEG-STEM), the stress corrosion susceptibility was measured by constant extension rate tests (CERT) in light water reactor environments, some estimate of irradiated strength was available and the irradiation was conducted in a power reactor. The data base was analyzed using advanced data analysis techniques, including tree-structured pattern recognition and transformation analysis codes. The most sensitive variables and optimal modeling forms were identified using these techniques, then preliminary models were calibrated using nonlinear least squares. The results suggest that more than one mechanism causes IASCC.

  15. Radiation-induced valvular heart disease.

    PubMed

    Gujral, Dorothy M; Lloyd, Guy; Bhattacharyya, Sanjeev

    2016-02-15

    Radiation to the mediastinum is a key component of treatment with curative intent for a range of cancers including Hodgkin's lymphoma and breast cancer. Exposure to radiation is associated with a risk of radiation-induced heart valve damage characterised by valve fibrosis and calcification. There is a latent interval of 10-20 years between radiation exposure and development of clinically significant heart valve disease. Risk is related to radiation dose received, interval from exposure and use of concomitant chemotherapy. Long-term outlook and the risk of valve surgery are related to the effects of radiation on mediastinal structures including pulmonary fibrosis and pericardial constriction. Dose prediction models to predict the risk of heart valve disease in the future and newer radiation techniques to reduce the radiation dose to the heart are being developed. Surveillance strategies for this cohort of cancer survivors at risk of developing significant heart valve complications are required. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. [Cisplatin-induced apoptotic endonuclease EndoG inhibits telomerase activity and causes malignant transformation of human CD4+ T lymphocytes].

    PubMed

    Zhdanov, D D; Vasina, D А; Orlova, E V; Orlova, V S; Pokrovsky, V S; Pokrovskaya, M V; Aleksandrova, S S; Sokolov, N N

    2017-01-01

    Alternative splicing of telomerase catalytic subunit hTERT pre-mRNA (human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase) regulates telomerase activity. Increased expression of non-active splice variant hTERT results in inhibition of telomerase. Apoptotic endonuclease EndoG is known to participate in hTERT alternative splicing. Expression of EndoG can be induced in response to DNA damages. The aim of this study was to determine the ability of a DNA-damaging compound, cisplatin, to induce EndoG and its influence on alternative splicing of hTERT and telomerase activity in human CD4+ Т lymphocytes. Overexpression of EndoG in CD4+ T cells downregulated the expression of active full-length hTERT variant and upregulated its non-active spliced variant. Reduction of full-length hTERT caused downregulation of telomerase activity, shortening of telomeres length during cell divisions, converting cells to the replicative senescence state, activation of apoptosis and finally cell death. Few cells survived and underwent malignant transformation. Transformed cells have increased telomerase activity and proliferative potential compare to initial CD4+ T cells. These cells have phenotype of T lymphoblastic leukemic cells and are able to form tumors and cause death in experimental mice.

  17. Combined inhibition of TGFβ and PDGF signaling attenuates radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Dadrich, Monika; Nicolay, Nils H; Flechsig, Paul; Bickelhaupt, Sebastian; Hoeltgen, Line; Roeder, Falk; Hauser, Kai; Tietz, Alexandra; Jenne, Jürgen; Lopez, Ramon; Roehrich, Manuel; Wirkner, Ute; Lahn, Michael; Huber, Peter E

    2016-05-01

    Background : Radiotherapy (RT) is a mainstay for the treatment of lung cancer, but the effective dose is often limited by the development of radiation-induced pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis. Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) play crucial roles in the development of these diseases, but the effects of dual growth factor inhibition on pulmonary fibrosis development remain unclear. Methods : C57BL/6 mice were treated with 20 Gy to the thorax to induce pulmonary fibrosis. PDGF receptor inhibitors SU9518 and SU14816 (imatinib) and TGFβ receptor inhibitor galunisertib were applied individually or in combinations after RT. Lung density and septal fibrosis were measured by high-resolution CT and MRI. Lung histology and gene expression analyses were performed and Osteopontin levels were studied. Results : Treatment with SU9518, SU14816 or galunisertib individually attenuated radiation-induced pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis and decreased radiological and histological signs of lung damage. Combining PDGF and TGFβ inhibitors showed to be feasible and safe in a mouse model, and dual inhibition significantly attenuated radiation-induced lung damage and extended mouse survival compared to blockage of either pathway alone. Gene expression analysis of irradiated lung tissue showed upregulation of PDGF and TGFβ-dependent signaling components by thoracic irradiation, and upregulation patterns show crosstalk between downstream mediators of the PDGF and TGFβ pathways. Conclusion : Combined small-molecule inhibition of PDGF and TGFβ signaling is a safe and effective treatment for radiation-induced pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis in mice and may offer a novel approach for treatment of fibrotic lung diseases in humans. Translational statement : RT is an effective treatment modality for cancer with limitations due to acute and chronic toxicities, where TGFβ and PDGF play a key role. Here, we show that a combined inhibition of

  18. Combined inhibition of TGFβ and PDGF signaling attenuates radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Dadrich, Monika; Nicolay, Nils H.; Flechsig, Paul; Bickelhaupt, Sebastian; Hoeltgen, Line; Roeder, Falk; Hauser, Kai; Tietz, Alexandra; Jenne, Jürgen; Lopez, Ramon; Roehrich, Manuel; Wirkner, Ute; Lahn, Michael; Huber, Peter E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Radiotherapy (RT) is a mainstay for the treatment of lung cancer, but the effective dose is often limited by the development of radiation-induced pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis. Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) play crucial roles in the development of these diseases, but the effects of dual growth factor inhibition on pulmonary fibrosis development remain unclear. Methods: C57BL/6 mice were treated with 20 Gy to the thorax to induce pulmonary fibrosis. PDGF receptor inhibitors SU9518 and SU14816 (imatinib) and TGFβ receptor inhibitor galunisertib were applied individually or in combinations after RT. Lung density and septal fibrosis were measured by high-resolution CT and MRI. Lung histology and gene expression analyses were performed and Osteopontin levels were studied. Results: Treatment with SU9518, SU14816 or galunisertib individually attenuated radiation-induced pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis and decreased radiological and histological signs of lung damage. Combining PDGF and TGFβ inhibitors showed to be feasible and safe in a mouse model, and dual inhibition significantly attenuated radiation-induced lung damage and extended mouse survival compared to blockage of either pathway alone. Gene expression analysis of irradiated lung tissue showed upregulation of PDGF and TGFβ-dependent signaling components by thoracic irradiation, and upregulation patterns show crosstalk between downstream mediators of the PDGF and TGFβ pathways. Conclusion: Combined small-molecule inhibition of PDGF and TGFβ signaling is a safe and effective treatment for radiation-induced pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis in mice and may offer a novel approach for treatment of fibrotic lung diseases in humans. Translational statement: RT is an effective treatment modality for cancer with limitations due to acute and chronic toxicities, where TGFβ and PDGF play a key role. Here, we show that a combined

  19. Proteasome inhibitor bortezomib is a novel therapeutic agent for focal radiation-induced osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Abhishek; Wang, Luqiang; Young, Tiffany; Zhong, Leilei; Tseng, Wei-Ju; Levine, Michael A; Cengel, Keith; Liu, X Sherry; Zhang, Yejia; Pignolo, Robert J; Qin, Ling

    2017-08-31

    Bone atrophy and its related fragility fractures are frequent, late side effects of radiotherapy in cancer survivors and have a detrimental impact on their quality of life. In another study, we showed that parathyroid hormone 1-34 and anti-sclerostin antibody attenuates radiation-induced bone damage by accelerating DNA repair in osteoblasts. DNA damage responses are partially regulated by the ubiquitin proteasome pathway. In the current study, we examined whether proteasome inhibitors have similar bone-protective effects against radiation damage. MG132 treatment greatly reduced radiation-induced apoptosis in cultured osteoblastic cells. This survival effect was owing to accelerated DNA repair as revealed by γH2AX foci and comet assays and to the up-regulation of Ku70 and DNA-dependent protein kinase, catalytic subunit, essential DNA repair proteins in the nonhomologous end-joining pathway. Administration of bortezomib (Bzb) reversed the loss of trabecular bone structure and strength in mice at 4 wk after focal radiation. Histomorphometry revealed that Bzb significantly increased the number of osteoblasts and activity in the irradiated area and suppressed the number and activity of osteoclasts, regardless of irradiation. Two weeks of Bzb treatment accelerated DNA repair in bone-lining osteoblasts and thus promoted their survival. Meanwhile, it also inhibited bone marrow adiposity. Taken together, we demonstrate a novel role of proteasome inhibitors in treating radiation-induced osteoporosis.-Chandra, A., Wang, L., Young, T., Zhong, L., Tseng, W.-J., Levine, M. A., Cengel, K., Liu, X. S., Zhang, Y., Pignolo, R. J., Qin, L. Proteasome inhibitor bortezomib is a novel therapeutic agent for focal radiation-induced osteoporosis. © FASEB.

  20. Ionizing Radiation-Induced Endothelial Cell Senescence and Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yingying; Boerma, Marjan; Zhou, Daohong

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation induces not only apoptosis but also senescence. While the role of endothelial cell apoptosis in mediating radiation-induced acute tissue injury has been extensively studied, little is known about the role of endothelial cell senescence in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced late effects. Senescent endothelial cells exhibit decreased production of nitric oxide and expression of thrombomodulin, increased expression of adhesion molecules, elevated production of reactive oxygen species and inflammatory cytokines and an inability to proliferate and form capillary-like structures in vitro. These findings suggest that endothelial cell senescence can lead to endothelial dysfunction by dysregulation of vasodilation and hemostasis, induction of oxidative stress and inflammation and inhibition of angiogenesis, which can potentially contribute to radiation-induced late effects such as cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). In this article, we discuss the mechanisms by which radiation induces endothelial cell senescence, the roles of endothelial cell senescence in radiation-induced CVDs and potential strategies to prevent, mitigate and treat radiation-induced CVDs by targeting senescent endothelial cells. PMID:27387862

  1. Structure and function of echinoderm telomerase RNA.

    PubMed

    Podlevsky, Joshua D; Li, Yang; Chen, Julian J-L

    2016-02-01

    Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein (RNP) enzyme that requires an integral telomerase RNA (TR) subunit, in addition to the catalytic telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), for enzymatic function. The secondary structures of TRs from the three major groups of species, ciliates, fungi, and vertebrates, have been studied extensively and demonstrate dramatic diversity. Herein, we report the first comprehensive secondary structure of TR from echinoderms-marine invertebrates closely related to vertebrates-determined by phylogenetic comparative analysis of 16 TR sequences from three separate echinoderm classes. Similar to vertebrate TR, echinoderm TR contains the highly conserved template/pseudoknot and H/ACA domains. However, echinoderm TR lacks the ancestral CR4/5 structural domain found throughout vertebrate and fungal TRs. Instead, echinoderm TR contains a distinct simple helical region, termed eCR4/5, that is functionally equivalent to the CR4/5 domain. The urchin and brittle star eCR4/5 domains bind specifically to their respective TERT proteins and stimulate telomerase activity. Distinct from vertebrate telomerase, the echinoderm TR template/pseudoknot domain with the TERT protein is sufficient to reconstitute significant telomerase activity. This gain-of-function of the echinoderm template/pseudoknot domain for conferring telomerase activity presumably facilitated the rapid structural evolution of the eCR4/5 domain throughout the echinoderm lineage. Additionally, echinoderm TR utilizes the template-adjacent P1.1 helix as a physical template boundary element to prevent nontelomeric DNA synthesis, a mechanism used by ciliate and fungal TRs. Thus, the chimeric and eccentric structural features of echinoderm TR provide unparalleled insights into the rapid evolution of telomerase RNP structure and function. © 2016 Podlevsky et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  2. Telomerase Regulation from Beginning to the End

    PubMed Central

    MacNeil, Deanna Elise; Bensoussan, Hélène Jeanne; Autexier, Chantal

    2016-01-01

    The vast body of literature regarding human telomere maintenance is a true testament to the importance of understanding telomere regulation in both normal and diseased states. In this review, our goal was simple: tell the telomerase story from the biogenesis of its parts to its maturity as a complex and function at its site of action, emphasizing new developments and how they contribute to the foundational knowledge of telomerase and telomere biology. PMID:27649246

  3. Structure and function of echinoderm telomerase RNA

    PubMed Central

    Podlevsky, Joshua D.; Li, Yang; Chen, Julian J.-L.

    2016-01-01

    Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein (RNP) enzyme that requires an integral telomerase RNA (TR) subunit, in addition to the catalytic telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), for enzymatic function. The secondary structures of TRs from the three major groups of species, ciliates, fungi, and vertebrates, have been studied extensively and demonstrate dramatic diversity. Herein, we report the first comprehensive secondary structure of TR from echinoderms—marine invertebrates closely related to vertebrates—determined by phylogenetic comparative analysis of 16 TR sequences from three separate echinoderm classes. Similar to vertebrate TR, echinoderm TR contains the highly conserved template/pseudoknot and H/ACA domains. However, echinoderm TR lacks the ancestral CR4/5 structural domain found throughout vertebrate and fungal TRs. Instead, echinoderm TR contains a distinct simple helical region, termed eCR4/5, that is functionally equivalent to the CR4/5 domain. The urchin and brittle star eCR4/5 domains bind specifically to their respective TERT proteins and stimulate telomerase activity. Distinct from vertebrate telomerase, the echinoderm TR template/pseudoknot domain with the TERT protein is sufficient to reconstitute significant telomerase activity. This gain-of-function of the echinoderm template/pseudoknot domain for conferring telomerase activity presumably facilitated the rapid structural evolution of the eCR4/5 domain throughout the echinoderm lineage. Additionally, echinoderm TR utilizes the template-adjacent P1.1 helix as a physical template boundary element to prevent nontelomeric DNA synthesis, a mechanism used by ciliate and fungal TRs. Thus, the chimeric and eccentric structural features of echinoderm TR provide unparalleled insights into the rapid evolution of telomerase RNP structure and function. PMID:26598712

  4. Premature aging in telomerase-deficient zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Anchelin, Monique; Alcaraz-Pérez, Francisca; Martínez, Carlos M.; Bernabé-García, Manuel; Mulero, Victoriano; Cayuela, María L.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The study of telomere biology is crucial to the understanding of aging and cancer. In the pursuit of greater knowledge in the field of human telomere biology, the mouse has been used extensively as a model. However, there are fundamental differences between mouse and human cells. Therefore, additional models are required. In light of this, we have characterized telomerase-deficient zebrafish (Danio rerio) as the second vertebrate model for human telomerase-driven diseases. We found that telomerase-deficient zebrafish show p53-dependent premature aging and reduced lifespan in the first generation, as occurs in humans but not in mice, probably reflecting the similar telomere length in fish and humans. Among these aging symptoms, spinal curvature, liver and retina degeneration, and infertility were the most remarkable. Although the second-generation embryos died in early developmental stages, restoration of telomerase activity rescued telomere length and survival, indicating that telomerase dosage is crucial. Importantly, this model also reproduces the disease anticipation observed in humans with dyskeratosis congenita (DC). Thus, telomerase haploinsufficiency leads to anticipation phenomenon in longevity, which is related to telomere shortening and, specifically, with the proportion of short telomeres. Furthermore, p53 was induced by telomere attrition, leading to growth arrest and apoptosis. Importantly, genetic inhibition of p53 rescued the adverse effects of telomere loss, indicating that the molecular mechanisms induced by telomere shortening are conserved from fish to mammals. The partial rescue of telomere length and longevity by restoration of telomerase activity, together with the feasibility of the zebrafish for high-throughput chemical screening, both point to the usefulness of this model for the discovery of new drugs able to reactivate telomerase in individuals with DC. PMID:23744274

  5. Organotypic culture in three dimensions prevents radiation-induced transformation in human lung epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Ashmawy, Mariam; Coquelin, Melissa; Luitel, Krishna; Batten, Kimberly; Shay, Jerry W.

    2016-08-01

    The effects of radiation in two-dimensional (2D) cell culture conditions may not recapitulate tissue responses as modeled in three-dimensional (3D) organotypic culture. In this study, we determined if the frequency of radiation-induced transformation and cancer progression differed in 3D compared to 2D culture. Telomerase immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) with shTP53 and mutant KRas expression were exposed to various types of radiation (gamma, +H, 56Fe) in either 2D or 3D culture. After irradiation, 3D structures were dissociated and passaged as a monolayer followed by measurement of transformation, cell growth and expression analysis. Cells irradiated in 3D produced significantly fewer and smaller colonies in soft agar than their 2D-irradiated counterparts (gamma P = 0.0004 +H P = 0.049 56Fe P < 0.0001). The cell culture conditions did not affect cell killing, the ability of cells to survive in a colony formation assay, and proliferation rates after radiation—implying there was no selection against cells in or dissociated from 3D conditions. However, DNA damage repair and apoptosis markers were increased in 2D cells compared to 3D cells after radiation. Ideally, expanding the utility of 3D culture will allow for a better understanding of the biological consequences of radiation exposure.

  6. Organotypic culture in three dimensions prevents radiation-induced transformation in human lung epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    El-Ashmawy, Mariam; Coquelin, Melissa; Luitel, Krishna; Batten, Kimberly; Shay, Jerry W.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of radiation in two-dimensional (2D) cell culture conditions may not recapitulate tissue responses as modeled in three-dimensional (3D) organotypic culture. In this study, we determined if the frequency of radiation-induced transformation and cancer progression differed in 3D compared to 2D culture. Telomerase immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) with shTP53 and mutant KRas expression were exposed to various types of radiation (gamma, +H, 56Fe) in either 2D or 3D culture. After irradiation, 3D structures were dissociated and passaged as a monolayer followed by measurement of transformation, cell growth and expression analysis. Cells irradiated in 3D produced significantly fewer and smaller colonies in soft agar than their 2D-irradiated counterparts (gamma P = 0.0004; +H P = 0.049; 56Fe P < 0.0001). The cell culture conditions did not affect cell killing, the ability of cells to survive in a colony formation assay, and proliferation rates after radiation—implying there was no selection against cells in or dissociated from 3D conditions. However, DNA damage repair and apoptosis markers were increased in 2D cells compared to 3D cells after radiation. Ideally, expanding the utility of 3D culture will allow for a better understanding of the biological consequences of radiation exposure. PMID:27539227

  7. Radiation-Induced Alopecia after Endovascular Embolization under Fluoroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ounsakul, Vipawee; Iamsumang, Wimolsiri

    2016-01-01

    Radiation-induced alopecia after fluoroscopically guided procedures is becoming more common due to an increasing use of endovascular procedures. It is characterized by geometric shapes of nonscarring alopecia related to the area of radiation. We report a case of a 46-year-old man presenting with asymptomatic, sharply demarcated rectangular, nonscarring alopecic patch on the occipital scalp following cerebral angiography with fistula embolization under fluoroscopy. His presentations were compatible with radiation-induced alopecia. Herein, we also report a novel scalp dermoscopic finding of blue-grey dots in a target pattern around yellow dots and follicles, which we detected in the lesion of radiation-induced alopecia. PMID:28074164

  8. Arsenic trioxide inhibits glioma cell growth through induction of telomerase displacement and telomere dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ye; Li, Yunqian; Ma, Chengyuan; Song, Yang; Xu, Haiyang; Yu, Hongquan; Xu, Songbai; Mu, Qingchun; Li, Haisong; Chen, Yong; Zhao, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastomas are resistant to many kinds of treatment, including chemotherapy, radiation and other adjuvant therapies. As2O3 reportedly induces ROS generation in cells, suggesting it may be able to induce telomerase suppression and telomere dysfunction in glioblastoma cells. We show here that As2O3 induces ROS generation as well as telomerase phosphorylation in U87, U251, SHG4 and C6 glioma cells. It also induces translocation of telomerase from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, thereby decreasing total telomerase activity. These effects of As2O3 trigger an extensive DNA damage response at the telomere, which includes up-regulation of ATM, ATR, 53BP1, γ-H2AX and Mer11, in parallel with telomere fusion and 3′-overhang degradation. This ultimately results in induction of p53- and p21-mediated cell apoptosis, G2/M cell cycle arrest and cellular senescence. These results provide new insight into the antitumor effects of As2O3 and can perhaps contribute to solving the problem of glioblastoma treatment resistance. PMID:26871293

  9. Telomerase Activity in Human Ovarian Carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Counter, Christopher M.; Hirte, Hal W.; Bacchetti, Silvia; Harley, Calvin B.

    1994-04-01

    Telomeres fulfill the dual function of protecting eukaryotic chromosomes from illegitimate recombination and degradation and may aid in chromosome attachment to the nuclear membrane. We have previously shown that telomerase, the enzyme which synthesizes telomeric DNA, is not detected in normal somatic cells and that telomeres shorten with replicative age. In cells immortalized in vitro, activation of telomerase apparently stabilizes telomere length, preventing a critical destabilization of chromosomes, and cell proliferation continues even when telomeres are short. In vivo, telomeres of most tumors are shorter than telomeres of control tissues, suggesting an analogous role for the enzyme. To assess the relevance of telomerase and telomere stability in the development and progression of tumors, we have measured enzyme activity and telomere length in metastatic cells of epithelial ovarian carcinoma. We report that extremely short telomeres are maintained in these cells and that tumor cells, but not isogenic nonmalignant cells, express telomerase. Our findings suggest that progression of malignancy is ultimately dependent upon activation of telomerase and that telomerase inhibitors may be effective antitumor drugs.

  10. Lipotransfer for radiation-induced skin fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, R; Griffin, M; Adigbli, G; Kalavrezos, N; Butler, P E M

    2016-07-01

    Radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF) is a late complication of radiotherapy that results in progressive functional and cosmetic impairment. Autologous fat has emerged as an option for soft tissue reconstruction. There are also sporadic reports suggesting regression of fibrosis following regional lipotransfer. This systematic review aimed to identify cellular mechanisms driving RIF, and the potential role of lipotransfer in attenuating these processes. PubMed, OVID and Google Scholar databases were searched to identify all original articles regarding lipotransfer for RIF. All articles describing irradiated fibroblast or myofibroblast behaviour were included. Data elucidating the mechanisms of RIF, role of lipotransfer in RIF and methods to quantify fibrosis were extracted. Ninety-eight studies met the inclusion criteria. A single, definitive model of RIF is yet to be established, but four cellular mechanisms were identified through in vitro studies. Twenty-one studies identified connective tissue growth factor and transforming growth factor β1 cytokines as drivers of fibrotic cascades. Hypoxia was demonstrated to propagate fibrogenesis in three studies. Oxidative stress from the release of reactive oxygen species and free radicals was also linked to RIF in 11 studies. Purified autologous fat grafts contain cellular and non-cellular properties that potentially interact with these processes. Six methods for quantifying fibrotic changes were evaluated including durometry, ultrasound shear wave elastography, thermography, dark field imaging, and laser Doppler and laser speckle flowmetry. Understanding how lipotransfer causes regression of RIF remains unclear; there are a number of new hypotheses for future research. © 2016 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Delayed Radiation-Induced Vasculitic Leukoencephalopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Rauch, Philipp J.; Park, Henry S.; Knisely, Jonathan P.S.; Chiang, Veronica L.; Vortmeyer, Alexander O.

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Recently, single-fraction, high-dosed focused radiation therapy such as that administered by Gamma Knife radiosurgery has been used increasingly for the treatment of metastatic brain cancer. Radiation therapy to the brain can cause delayed leukoencephalopathy, which carries its own significant morbidity and mortality. While radiosurgery-induced leukoencephalopathy is known to be clinically different from that following fractionated radiation, pathological differences are not well characterized. In this study, we aimed to integrate novel radiographic and histopathologic observations to gain a conceptual understanding of radiosurgery-induced leukoencephalopathy. Methods and Materials: We examined resected tissues of 10 patients treated at Yale New Haven Hospital between January 1, 2009, and June 30, 2010, for brain metastases that had been previously treated with Gamma Knife radiosurgery, who subsequently required surgical management of a symptomatic regrowing lesion. None of the patients showed pathological evidence of tumor recurrence. Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging data for each of the 10 patients were then studied retrospectively. Results: We provide evidence to show that radiosurgery-induced leukoencephalopathy may present as an advancing process that extends beyond the original high-dose radiation field. Neuropathologic examination of the resected tissue revealed traditionally known leukoencephalopathic changes including demyelination, coagulation necrosis, and vascular sclerosis. Unexpectedly, small and medium-sized vessels revealed transmural T-cell infiltration indicative of active vasculitis. Conclusions: We propose that the presence of a vasculitic component in association with radiation-induced leukoencephalopathy may facilitate the progressive nature of the condition. It may also explain the resemblance of delayed leukoencephalopathy with recurring tumor on virtually all imaging modalities used for posttreatment follow-up.

  12. Mouse models of radiation-induced cancers.

    PubMed

    Rivina, Leena; Schiestl, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Radiation-induced (RI) secondary cancers were not a major clinical concern even as little as 15 years ago. However, advances in cancer diagnostics, therapy, and supportive care have saved numerous lives and many former cancer patients are now living for 5, 10, 20, and more years beyond their initial diagnosis. The majority of these patients have received radiotherapy as a part of their treatment regimen and are now beginning to develop secondary cancers arising from normal tissue exposure to damaging effects of ionizing radiation. Because historically patients rarely survived past the extended latency periods inherent to these RI cancers, very little effort was channeled towards the research leading to the development of therapeutic agents intended to prevent or ameliorate oncogenic effects of normal tissue exposure to radiation. The number of RI cancers is expected to increase very rapidly in the near future, but the field of cancer biology might not be prepared to address important issues related to this phenomena. One such issue is the ability to accurately differentiate between primary tumors and de novo arising secondary tumors in the same patient. Another issue is the lack of therapeutic agents intended to reduce such cancers in the future. To address these issues, large-scale epidemiological studies must be supplemented with appropriate animal modeling studies. This work reviews relevant mouse (Mus musculus) models of inbred and F1 animals and methodologies of induction of most relevant radiation-associated cancers: leukemia, lymphoma, and lung and breast cancers. Where available, underlying molecular pathologies are included. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Amelioration of radiation-induced skin injury by adenovirus-mediated heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) overexpression in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective Radiation-induced skin injury remains a serious concern for radiation therapy. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the rate-limiting enzyme in heme catabolism, has been reported to have potential antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties. However, the role of HO-1 in radiation-induced skin damage remains unclear. This study aims to elucidate the effects of HO-1 on radiation-induced skin injury in rats. Methods A control adenovirus (Ad-EGFP) and a recombinant adenovirus (Ad-HO1-EGFP) were constructed. Rats were irradiated to the buttock skin with a single dose of 45 Gy followed by a subcutaneous injection of PBS, 5 × 109 genomic copies of Ad-EGFP or Ad-HO1-EGFP (n = 8). After treatment, the skin MDA concentration, SOD activity and apoptosis were measured. The expression of antioxidant and pro-apoptotic genes was determined by RT-PCR and real-time PCR. Skin reactions were measured at regular intervals using the semi-quantitative skin injury score. Results Subcutaneous injection of Ad-HO1-EGFP infected both epidermal and dermal cells and could spread to the surrounding regions. Radiation exposure upregulated the transcription of the antioxidant enzyme genes, including SOD-1, GPx2 and endogenous HO-1. HO-1 overexpression decreased lipid peroxidation and inhibited the induction of ROS scavenging proteins. Moreover, HO-1 exerted an anti-apoptotic effect by suppressing FAS and FASL expression. Subcutaneous injection of Ad-HO1-EGFP demonstrated significant improvement in radiation-induced skin injury. Conclusions The present study provides evidences for the protective role of HO-1 in alleviating radiation-induced skin damage in rats, which is helpful for the development of therapy for radiation-induced skin injury. PMID:22247972

  14. Therapy with Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Protects Lungs from Radiation-Induced Injury and Reduces the Risk of Lung Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Klein, Diana; Schmetter, Alexandra; Imsak, Roze; Wirsdörfer, Florian; Unger, Kristian; Jastrow, Holger; Stuschke, Martin; Jendrossek, Verena

    2016-01-10

    Previous thorax irradiation promotes metastatic spread of tumor cells to the lung. We hypothesized that vascular damage facilitates lung metastasis after thorax irradiation and that therapeutically applied multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) with reported repair activity may prevent these adverse effects of ionizing radiation by protecting lung endothelia from radiation-induced damage. Previous whole-thorax irradiation (WTI) with 15 Gy significantly enhanced seeding and metastatic growth of tumor cells in the lung. WTI was further associated with endothelial cell damage, senescence of lung epithelial cells, and upregulation of invasion- and inflammation-promoting soluble factors, for example, endothelial matrix metalloproteinase 2 (Mmp2), its activator Mmp14, the cofactor tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 2 (Timp2), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (Ccl2), and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (Plau/uPA), and recruitment of CD11b+CD11c- myelomonocytic cells. Inhibition of Mmp2 counteracted radiation-induced vascular dysfunction without preventing increased metastasis. In contrast, therapy with bone marrow or aorta-derived MSCs within 2 weeks postirradiation antagonized radiation-induced damage to resident cells as well as the resulting secretome changes and abrogated the metastasis-promoting effects of WTI. Therapy with MSCs protects lungs from radiation-induced injury and reduces the risk of lung metastasis. MSC-mediated inhibition of Mmp2 mediates their protective effects at the vasculature. Furthermore, local and systemic effects such as inhibition of radiation-induced senescence of bronchial epithelial cells and associated secretion of immunomodulatory factors may participate in the inhibitory effect of MSCs on lung metastasis. MSC therapy is a promising strategy to prevent radiation-induced lung injury and the resulting increased risk of metastasis.

  15. Specific telomerase RNA residues distant from the template are essential for telomerase function

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Jagoree; Fulton, Tracy B.; Blackburn, Elizabeth H.

    1998-01-01

    The reverse transcriptase telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein complex that adds telomeric repeats to chromosome ends, using a sequence within its endogenous RNA component as a template. Although templating domains of telomerase RNA have been studied in detail, little is known about the roles of the remaining residues, particularly in yeast. We examined the functions of nontemplate telomerase residues in the telomerase RNA of budding yeast Kluyveromyces lactis. Although approximately half of the RNA residues were dispensable for function, four specific regions were essential for telomerase action in vivo. We analyzed the effects of mutating these regions on in vivo function, in vitro telomerase activity, and telomerase RNP assembly. Deletion of two regions resulted in synthesis of stable RNAs that appeared unable to assemble into a stable RNP. Mutating a region near the 5′ end of the RNA allowed RNP assembly but abolished enzymatic activity. Mutations in another specific small region of the RNA led to an inactive telomerase RNP with an altered RNA conformation. PMID:9784502

  16. Dynamics of telomerase activity in response to acute psychological stress

    PubMed Central

    Epel, Elissa S.; Lin, Jue; Dhabhar, Firdaus S.; Wolkowitz, Owen M.; Puterman, E; Karan, Lori; Blackburn, Elizabeth H.

    2010-01-01

    Telomerase activity plays an essential role in cel0l survival, by lengthening telomeres and promoting cell growth and longevity. It is now possible to quantify the low levels of telomerase activity in human leukocytes. Low basal telomerase activity has been related to chronic stress in people and to chronic glucocorticoid exposure in vitro. Here we test whether leukocyte telomerase activity changes under acute psychological stress. We exposed 44 elderly women, including 22 high stress dementia caregivers and 22 matched low stress controls, to a brief laboratory psychological stressor, while examining changes in telomerase activity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). At baseline, caregivers had lower telomerase activity levels than controls, but during stress telomerase activity increased similarly in both groups. Across the entire sample, subsequent telomerase activity increased by 18% one hour after the end of the stressor (p<0.01). The increase in telomerase activity was independent of changes in numbers or percentages of monocytes, lymphocytes, and specific T cell types, although we cannot fully rule out some potential contribution from immune cell redistribution in the change in telomerase activity. Telomerase activity increases were associated with greater cortisol increases in response to the stressor. Lastly, psychological response to the tasks (greater threat perception) was also related to greater telomerase activity increases in controls. These findings uncover novel relationships of dynamic telomerase activity with exposure to an acute stressor, and with two classic aspects of the stress response -- perceived psychological stress and neuroendocrine (cortisol) responses to the stressor. PMID:20018236

  17. MiR-21 is involved in radiation-induced bystander effects.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shuai; Ding, Nan; Pei, Hailong; Hu, Wentao; Wei, Wenjun; Zhang, Xurui; Zhou, Guangming; Wang, Jufang

    2014-01-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effects are well-established phenomena, in which DNA damage responses are induced not only in the directly irradiated cells but also in the non-irradiated bystander cells through intercellular signal transmission. Recent studies hint that bystander effects are possibly mediated via small non-coding RNAs, especially microRNAs. Thus, more details about the roles of microRNA in bystander effects are urgently needed to be elucidated. Here we demonstrated that bystander effects were induced in human fetal lung MRC-5 fibroblasts through medium-mediated way by different types of radiation. We identified a set of differentially expressed microRNAs in the cell culture medium after irradiation, among which the up-regulation of miR-21 was further verified with qRT-PCR. In addition, we found significant upregulation of miR-21 in both directly irradiated cells and bystander cells, which was confirmed by the expression of miR-21 precursor and its target genes. Transfection of miR-21 mimics into non-irradiated MRC-5 cells caused bystander-like effects. Taken together, our data reveals that miR-21 is involved in radiation-induced bystander effects. Elucidation of such a miRNA-mediated bystander effect is of utmost importance in understanding the biological processes related to ionizing radiation and cell-to-cell communication.

  18. MiR-21 is involved in radiation-induced bystander effects

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shuai; Ding, Nan; Pei, Hailong; Hu, Wentao; Wei, Wenjun; Zhang, Xurui; Zhou, Guangming; Wang, Jufang

    2014-01-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effects are well-established phenomena, in which DNA damage responses are induced not only in the directly irradiated cells but also in the non-irradiated bystander cells through intercellular signal transmission. Recent studies hint that bystander effects are possibly mediated via small non-coding RNAs, especially microRNAs. Thus, more details about the roles of microRNA in bystander effects are urgently needed to be elucidated. Here we demonstrated that bystander effects were induced in human fetal lung MRC-5 fibroblasts through medium-mediated way by different types of radiation. We identified a set of differentially expressed microRNAs in the cell culture medium after irradiation, among which the up-regulation of miR-21 was further verified with qRT-PCR. In addition, we found significant upregulation of miR-21 in both directly irradiated cells and bystander cells, which was confirmed by the expression of miR-21 precursor and its target genes. Transfection of miR-21 mimics into non-irradiated MRC-5 cells caused bystander-like effects. Taken together, our data reveals that miR-21 is involved in radiation-induced bystander effects. Elucidation of such a miRNA-mediated bystander effect is of utmost importance in understanding the biological processes related to ionizing radiation and cell-to-cell communication. PMID:25483031

  19. Pathogenesis and Prevention of Radiation-induced Myocardial Fibrosis

    PubMed

    Liu, Li Kun; Ouyang, Weiwei; Zhao, Xing; Su, Sheng Fa; Yang, Yan; Ding, Wen Jin; Luo, Da Xian; He, Zhi Xu; Lu, Bing

    2017-03-01

    Radiation therapy is one of the most important methods for the treatment of malignant tumors. However, in radiotherapy for thoracic tumors such as breast cancer, lung cancer, esophageal cancer, and mediastinal lymphoma, the heart, located in the mediastinum, is inevitably affected by the irradiation, leading to pericardial disease, myocardial fibrosis, coronary artery disease, valvular lesions, and cardiac conduction system injury, which are considered radiation-induced heart diseases. Delayed cardiac injury especially myocardial fibrosis is more prominent, and its incidence is as high as 20–80%. Myocardial fibrosis is the final stage of radiation-induced heart diseases, and it increases the stiffness of the myocardium and decreases myocardial systolic and diastolic function, resulting in myocardial electrical physiological disorder, arrhythmia, incomplete heart function, or even sudden death. This article reviews the pathogenesis and prevention of radiation-induced myocardial fibrosis for providing references for the prevention and treatment of radiation-induced myocardial fibrosis. Creative Commons Attribution License

  20. Radiation-induced charge trapping in bipolar base oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Fleetwood, D.M.; Riewe, L.C.; Witczak, Schrimpf, R.D.

    1996-03-01

    Capacitance-voltage and thermally stimulated current methods are used to investigate radiation induced charge trapping in bipolar base oxides. Results are compared with models of oxide and interface trap charge buildup at low electric fields.

  1. Radar detection of radiation-induced ionization in air

    DOEpatents

    Gopalsami, Nachappa; Heifetz, Alexander; Chien, Hual-Te; Liao, Shaolin; Koehl, Eugene R.; Raptis, Apostolos C.

    2015-07-21

    A millimeter wave measurement system has been developed for remote detection of airborne nuclear radiation, based on electromagnetic scattering from radiation-induced ionization in air. Specifically, methods of monitoring radiation-induced ionization of air have been investigated, and the ionized air has been identified as a source of millimeter wave radar reflection, which can be utilized to determine the size and strength of a radiation source.

  2. Radiation-Induced Second Cancer Risk Estimates From Radionuclide Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednarz, Bryan; Besemer, Abigail

    2017-09-01

    The use of radionuclide therapy in the clinical setting is expected to increase significantly over the next decade. There is an important need to understand the radiation-induced second cancer risk associated with these procedures. In this study the radiation-induced cancer risk in five radionuclide therapy patients was investigated. These patients underwent serial SPECT imaging scans following injection as part of a clinical trial testing the efficacy of a 131Iodine-labeled radiopharmaceutical. Using these datasets the committed absorbed doses to multiple sensitive structures were calculated using RAPID, which is a novel Monte Carlo-based 3D dosimetry platform developed for personalized dosimetry. The excess relative risk (ERR) for radiation-induced cancer in these structures was then derived from these dose estimates following the recommendations set forth in the BEIR VII report. The radiation-induced leukemia ERR was highest among all sites considered reaching a maximum value of approximately 4.5. The radiation-induced cancer risk in the kidneys, liver and spleen ranged between 0.3 and 1.3. The lifetime attributable risks (LARs) were also calculated, which ranged from 30 to 1700 cancers per 100,000 persons and were highest for leukemia and the liver for both males and females followed by radiation-induced spleen and kidney cancer. The risks associated with radionuclide therapy are similar to the risk associated with external beam radiation therapy.

  3. [Update in radiation-induced neoplasms: genetic studies].

    PubMed

    Chauveinc, Laurent; Lefevre, Sandrine; Malfoy, Bernard; Dutrillaux, Bernard

    2002-02-01

    Radiation induced tumors are a possible (very) late complications of radiotherapy. The evaluation of the risks of radiation-induced tumors has been presented in different epidemiological studies, with the evaluation of the relative risk for different tissues. But, the genetic studies are rare, and no global theory exists. Two cytogenetic profiles are described, one with translocations and one with genetic material losses, evoking two different genetic evolutions. Two questions are stated. What are the radiation-induced genetic mechanisms? Is it possible to differentiate the radiation-induced and spontaneous tumors with genetic approaches? With 37 cytogenetic cases, 12 analyzed in our laboratory, the radiation-induced tumors were characterized by genetic material losses. An anti-oncogenic evolution is probable. A new molecularly study confirm these results. Only thyroid tumors do not have this evolution. For tumors with simple karyotype, like meningioma, radiation-induced tumors seem to be more complex than spontaneous tumors. But for the others, the differentiation is impossible to be done with cytogenetic. The mechanism of the chromosomic material losses in unknown, but some hypothesis are discussed.

  4. TELOMERE AND TELOMERASE MODULATION BY BERGAMOT POLYPHENOLIC FRACTION IN EXPERIMENTAL PHOTOAGEING IN HUMAN KERATINOCYTES.

    PubMed

    Nisticò, S; Ehrlich, J; Gliozzi, M; Maiuolo, J; Del Duca, E; Muscoli, C; Mollace, V

    2015-01-01

    Photoageing represents the addition of extrinsic chronic ultraviolet radiation-induced damage on intrinsic ageing and accounts for most age-associated changes in skin appearance. In this study, we evaluated the effect of 38% BPF, a highly concentrated extract of the bergamot fruit (Citrus bergamia) on UVB-induced photoageing by examining inflammatory cytokine expression, telomere length/telomerase alterations and cellular viability in human immortalized HaCaT keratinocytes. Our results suggest that 38% BPF protects HaCaT cells against UVB-induced oxidative stress and markers of photoageing in a dose-dependent manner and could be a useful supplement in skin care products. Together with antioxidant properties, BPF, a highly concentrated extract of the bergamot fruit, appears to modulate basic cellular signal transduction pathways leading to anti-proliferative, anti-aging and immune modulating responses.

  5. Peculiarities of Yeasts and Human Telomerase RNAs Processing

    PubMed Central

    Rubtsova, M.P.; Vasilkova, D.P.; Naraykina, Yu.V.; Dontsova, O.A.

    2016-01-01

    Telomerase is one of the major components of the telomeres –– linear eukaryotic chromosome ends – maintenance system. Linear chromosomes are shortened during each cell division due to the removal of the primer used for DNA replication. Special repeated telomere sequences at the very ends of linear chromosomes prevent the deletion of genome information caused by primer removal. Telomeres are shortened at each replication round until it becomes critically short and is no longer able to protect the chromosome in somatic cells. At this stage, a cell undergoes a crisis and usually dies. Rare cases result in telomerase activation, and the cell gains unlimited proliferative capacity. Special types of cells, such as stem, germ, embryonic cells and cells from tissues with a high proliferative potential, maintain their telomerase activity indefinitely. The telomerase is inactive in the majority of somatic cells. Telomerase activity in vitro requires two key components: telomerase reverse transcriptase and telomerase RNA. In cancer cells, telomerase reactivates due to the expression of the reverse transcriptase gene. Telomerase RNA expresses constitutively in the majority of human cells. This fact suggests that there are alternative functions to telomerase RNA that are unknown at the moment. In this manuscript, we review the biogenesis of yeasts and human telomerase RNAs thanks to breakthroughs achieved in research on telomerase RNA processing by different yeasts species and humans in the last several years. PMID:28050263

  6. MYC-Driven Neuroblastomas Are Addicted to a Telomerase-Independent Function of Dyskerin.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Rosemary; Tran, Sieu L; Maritz, Michelle F; Liu, Bing; Kong, Cheng Fei; Purgato, Stefania; Yang, Chen; Murray, Jayne; Russell, Amanda J; Flemming, Claudia L; von Jonquieres, Georg; Pickett, Hilda A; London, Wendy B; Haber, Michelle; Gunaratne, Preethi H; Norris, Murray D; Perini, Giovanni; Fletcher, Jamie I; MacKenzie, Karen L

    2016-06-15

    The RNA-binding protein dyskerin, encoded by the DKC1 gene, functions as a core component of the telomerase holoenzyme as well as ribonuclear protein complexes involved in RNA processing and ribosome biogenesis. The diverse roles of dyskerin across many facets of RNA biology implicate its potential contribution to malignancy. In this study, we examined the expression and function of dyskerin in neuroblastoma. We show that DKC1 mRNA levels were elevated relative to normal cells across a panel of 15 neuroblastoma cell lines, where both N-Myc and c-Myc directly targeted the DKC1 promoter. Upregulation of MYCN was shown to dramatically increase DKC1 expression. In two independent neuroblastoma patient cohorts, high DKC1 expression correlated strongly with poor event-free and overall survival (P < 0.0001), independently of established prognostic factors. RNAi-mediated depletion of dyskerin inhibited neuroblastoma cell proliferation, including cells immortalized via the telomerase-independent ALT mechanism. Furthermore, dyskerin attenuation impaired anchorage-independent proliferation and tumor growth. Overexpression of the telomerase RNA component, hTR, demonstrated that this proliferative impairment was not a consequence of telomerase suppression. Instead, ribosomal stress, evidenced by depletion of small nucleolar RNAs and nuclear dispersal of ribosomal proteins, was the likely cause of the proliferative impairment in dyskerin-depleted cells. Accordingly, dyskerin suppression caused p53-dependent G1 cell-cycle arrest in p53 wild-type cells, and a p53-independent pathway impaired proliferation in cells with p53 dysfunction. Together, our findings highlight dyskerin as a new therapeutic target in neuroblastoma with crucial telomerase-independent functions and broader implications for the spectrum of malignancies driven by MYC family oncogenes. Cancer Res; 76(12); 3604-17. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Treating Cancer by Targeting Telomeres and Telomerase

    PubMed Central

    Ivancich, Marko; Schrank, Zachary; Wojdyla, Luke; Leviskas, Brandon; Kuckovic, Adijan; Sanjali, Ankita; Puri, Neelu

    2017-01-01

    Telomerase is expressed in more than 85% of cancer cells. Tumor cells with metastatic potential may have a high telomerase activity, allowing cells to escape from the inhibition of cell proliferation due to shortened telomeres. Human telomerase primarily consists of two main components: hTERT, a catalytic subunit, and hTR, an RNA template whose sequence is complimentary to the telomeric 5′-dTTAGGG-3′ repeat. In humans, telomerase activity is typically restricted to renewing tissues, such as germ cells and stem cells, and is generally absent in normal cells. While hTR is constitutively expressed in most tissue types, hTERT expression levels are low enough that telomere length cannot be maintained, which sets a proliferative lifespan on normal cells. However, in the majority of cancers, telomerase maintains stable telomere length, thereby conferring cell immortality. Levels of hTERT mRNA are directly related to telomerase activity, thereby making it a more suitable therapeutic target than hTR. Recent data suggests that stabilization of telomeric G-quadruplexes may act to indirectly inhibit telomerase action by blocking hTR binding. Telomeric DNA has the propensity to spontaneously form intramolecular G-quadruplexes, four-stranded DNA secondary structures that are stabilized by the stacking of guanine residues in a planar arrangement. The functional roles of telomeric G-quadruplexes are not completely understood, but recent evidence suggests that they can stall the replication fork during DNA synthesis and inhibit telomere replication by preventing telomerase and related proteins from binding to the telomere. Long-term treatment with G-quadruplex stabilizers induces a gradual reduction in the length of the G-rich 3’ end of the telomere without a reduction of the total telomere length, suggesting that telomerase activity is inhibited. However, inhibition of telomerase, either directly or indirectly, has shown only moderate success in cancer patients. Another

  8. Clinical and dosimetric factors of radiation-induced esophageal injury: Radiation-induced esophageal toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Wen-Bo; Zhao, Yan-Hui; Zhao, Yan-Bin; Wang, Rui-Zhi

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the clinical and dosimetric predictive factors for radiation-induced esophageal injury in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) during three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 208 consecutive patients (146 men and 62 women) with NSCLC treated with 3D-CRT. The median age of the patients was 64 years (range 35-87 years). The clinical and treatment parameters including gender, age, performance status, sequential chemotherapy, concurrent chemotherapy, presence of carinal or subcarinal lymph nodes, pretreatment weight loss, mean dose to the entire esophagus, maximal point dose to the esophagus, and percentage of volume of esophagus receiving >55 Gy were studied. Clinical and dosimetric factors for radiation-induced acute and late grade 3-5 esophageal injury were analyzed according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) criteria. RESULTS: Twenty-five (12%) of the two hundred and eight patients developed acute or late grade 3-5 esophageal injury. Among them, nine patients had both acute and late grade 3-5 esophageal injury, two died of late esophageal perforation. Concurrent chemotherapy and maximal point dose to the esophagus ≥60 Gy were significantly associated with the risk of grade 3-5 esophageal injury. Fifty-four (26%) of the two hundred and eight patients received concurrent chemotherapy. Among them, 25 (46%) developed grade 3-5 esophageal injury (P = 0.0001<0.01). However, no grade 3-5 esophageal injury occurred in patients who received a maximal point dose to the esophagus <60 Gy (P = 0.0001<0.01). CONCLUSION: Concurrent chemotherapy and the maximal esophageal point dose ≥60 Gy are significantly associated with the risk of grade 3-5 esophageal injury in patients with NSCLC treated with 3D-CRT. PMID:15849822

  9. Detection of telomerase activity using microchip electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Karasawa, Koji; Arakawa, Hidetoshi

    2015-07-01

    Telomerase participates in malignant transformation or immortalization of cells and thus has attracted attention as an anticancer drug target and diagnostic tumor marker. The telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) and improved TRAP methods (TRAP-fluorescence, TRAP-hybridization, etc.) are widely used forms of this telomerase assay. However, these approaches generally employ acrylamide gel electrophoresis after amplification of telomeric repeats by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), making these TRAP methods time consuming and technically demanding. In this study we developed a novel telomerase assay using microchip electrophoresis for rapid and highly sensitive detection of telomerase activity in cancer cells. The mixed gel of 0.8% hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and 0.3% polyethylene oxide (PEO) with SYBR Gold (fluorescent reagent) was used for microchip electrophoresis. As a result, the product amplified by a telomerase-positive cell could be measured in one cell per assay and detected with high reproducibility (CV=0.67%) in the short time of 100s. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor Signaling Pathway: Modulation by Acupuncture in Telomerase Knockout Mice.

    PubMed

    Lin, Dong; Wu, Qiang; Lin, Xiaoyang; Borlongan, Cesar V; He, Zhi-Xu; Tan, Jun; Cao, Chuanhai; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Telomerase is a critical enzyme that is involved in aging and cancer and that is thought to be a part of multiple neurological diseases. To investigate the telomerase response in the brain to acupuncture, the study examined the levels of expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its downstream signaling molecules, including tyrosine kinase receptor Β (TrkB), p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR), protein kinase B (Akt), extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK1/2), and nuclear factor κΒ (NF-κΒ). Both telomerase-deficient (Terc⁻/⁻) mice (Terc⁻/⁻ group) and normal, wild-type (WT) mice (WT group) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 subgroups, 1 receiving acupuncture (acupuncture subgroup), 1 receiving sham acupuncture therapy (sham subgroup), and 1 receiving no treatment (control subgroup). The study occurred at the University of South Florida Health Byrd Alzheimer's Institute (Tampa, FL, USA). The 2 acupuncture subgroups received acupuncture at the stomach 36 (ST-36) position for 30 min/d for 4 d. For the 2 sham groups, the sham point was set at a location approximately 3 mm to the lateral side of the tail on the gluteus muscle following the same schedule. After 4 d, the mice were sacrificed, and the brain tissues were collected. The protein levels in the hippocampus and dentate gyrus (DG) of each mouse were determined by western blotting and immunostaining assays. The Terc⁻/⁻ group showed downregulated hippocampal BDNF expression compared with the WT mice. Acupuncture at ST-36 for 4 d upregulated BDNF, TrkB, p75NTR, Akt, and ERK1/2 in the DG and hippocampus of the telomerase-deficient mice, but that result was not seen in the WT mice with normally functioning telomerase. The use of acupuncture in pathologies associated with telomerase deficiencies, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), may provide some benefit in terms of eliciting better clinical responses. The research team believes that result occurs

  11. [Telomere length, telomerase activity, stress and aging].

    PubMed

    Spivak, I M; Mikhelson, V M; Spivak, D L

    2015-01-01

    The review is dedicated to analysis of data available at present time concerning possible influence of stress upon telomere lengths and telomerase activity, as well as various ways of counteracting it. Present-day telomerase theory of aging gains a new impetus, shedding light upon the influence of psychological state of humans and their ability to counteract stress, upon the process of aging. It also tends to regard telomere shortening and the decrease in the activity of telomerase as a marker of level of the ability to adapt to both inner and outer influences. Both aging and age-dependent diseases are proved to be substantially retarded not only by the administration of drugs, but also by psychological means, which forms a good way towards healthy longevity. With complete understanding of the impossibility to prevent or even to slow down natural senescence itself, these methods allow to remove causes, which accelerate senescence, and to increase the average human longevity.

  12. New prospects for targeting telomerase beyond the telomere.

    PubMed

    Arndt, Greg M; MacKenzie, Karen L

    2016-08-01

    Telomerase activity is responsible for the maintenance of chromosome end structures (telomeres) and cancer cell immortality in most human malignancies, making telomerase an attractive therapeutic target. The rationale for targeting components of the telomerase holoenzyme has been strengthened by accumulating evidence indicating that these molecules have extra-telomeric functions in tumour cell survival and proliferation. This Review discusses current knowledge of the biogenesis, structure and multiple functions of telomerase-associated molecules intertwined with recent advances in drug discovery approaches. We also describe the fertile ground available for the pursuit of next-generation small-molecule inhibitors of telomerase.

  13. Telomeres and telomerase: Biological and clinical importance in dogs.

    PubMed

    Nasir, Lubna

    2008-02-01

    In recent years in human oncology the enzyme telomerase has emerged as an ideal target for cancer therapy. This has led to the assessment of telomerase in cancers in companion animals, mainly dogs and these studies confirm that in dogs, like humans, telomere maintenance by telomerase is the primary mechanism by which cancer cells overcome their mortality and extend their lifespan. This review aims to provide an introduction to the biology of telomeres and telomerase and to discuss some of the telomere/telomerase directed therapeutic methodologies currently under development which may be of benefit to the canine cancer patient.

  14. Radiation-induced myeloid leukemia in murine models

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The use of radiation therapy is a cornerstone of modern cancer treatment. The number of patients that undergo radiation as a part of their therapy regimen is only increasing every year, but this does not come without cost. As this number increases, so too does the incidence of secondary, radiation-induced neoplasias, creating a need for therapeutic agents targeted specifically towards incidence reduction and treatment of these cancers. Development and efficacy testing of these agents requires not only extensive in vitro testing but also a set of reliable animal models to accurately recreate the complex situations of radiation-induced carcinogenesis. As radiation-induced leukemic progression often involves genomic changes such as rearrangements, deletions, and changes in methylation, the laboratory mouse Mus musculus, with its fully sequenced genome, is a powerful tool in cancer research. This fact, combined with the molecular and physiological similarities it shares with man and its small size and high rate of breeding in captivity, makes it the most relevant model to use in radiation-induced leukemia research. In this work, we review relevant M. musculus inbred and F1 hybrid animal models, as well as methods of induction of radiation-induced myeloid leukemia. Associated molecular pathologies are also included. PMID:25062865

  15. Radiation-induced myeloid leukemia in murine models.

    PubMed

    Rivina, Leena; Davoren, Michael; Schiestl, Robert H

    2014-07-25

    The use of radiation therapy is a cornerstone of modern cancer treatment. The number of patients that undergo radiation as a part of their therapy regimen is only increasing every year, but this does not come without cost. As this number increases, so too does the incidence of secondary, radiation-induced neoplasias, creating a need for therapeutic agents targeted specifically towards incidence reduction and treatment of these cancers. Development and efficacy testing of these agents requires not only extensive in vitro testing but also a set of reliable animal models to accurately recreate the complex situations of radiation-induced carcinogenesis. As radiation-induced leukemic progression often involves genomic changes such as rearrangements, deletions, and changes in methylation, the laboratory mouse Mus musculus, with its fully sequenced genome, is a powerful tool in cancer research. This fact, combined with the molecular and physiological similarities it shares with man and its small size and high rate of breeding in captivity, makes it the most relevant model to use in radiation-induced leukemia research. In this work, we review relevant M. musculus inbred and F1 hybrid animal models, as well as methods of induction of radiation-induced myeloid leukemia. Associated molecular pathologies are also included.

  16. Telomerase expression predicts unfavorable outcome in osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Robert P; Drissi, Rachid; Billups, Catherine A; Daw, Najat C; Valentine, Marcus B; Dome, Jeffrey S

    2004-09-15

    Osteosarcoma is distinct from most cancers in that the majority of osteosarcomas lack telomerase expression and use the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) mechanism to maintain telomeres. Laboratory studies suggest that compared with ALT, telomerase expression is associated with increased tumor aggressiveness. We evaluated the clinical significance of telomerase expression in human osteosarcoma. Fifty-six osteosarcomas from 51 patients treated at St Jude Children's Research Hospital between 1982 and 2003 were evaluated for telomerase enzyme activity, mRNA expression of the catalytic component of telomerase (TERT), and presence of the ALT pathway. Outcome analysis was based on TERT mRNA expression in the primary tumor samples from 44 patients. Fourteen primary tumors expressed TERT mRNA (32%; eight TERT only, six TERT and ALT) and 30 did not express TERT mRNA (68%; 29 ALT, one no ALT). Progression-free survival (PFS) was inferior in the TERT-positive group compared with the TERT-negative group (3-year estimates, 21.4% +/- 9.5% v 63.7% +/- 11.1%; P =.014). Likewise, overall survival was inferior in the TERT-positive group compared with the TERT-negative group (3-year estimates, 42.9% +/- 12.2% v 70.0% +/- 9.9%; P =.031). Among 31 patients with nonmetastatic disease at diagnosis, PFS was lower in the TERT-positive group compared with the TERT-negative group (3-year estimates, 33.3% +/- 13.6% v 72.0% +/- 11.5%; P =.092). Telomerase expression in primary tumor samples is associated with decreased PFS and OS in patients with osteosarcoma. Additional studies are warranted to better define the clinical utility of this molecular marker.

  17. Serum Telomerase Levels and COPD Exacerbations.

    PubMed

    Bozkus, Fulsen; Guler, Selma; Sımsek, Secıl

    2016-03-01

    To our knowledge, there is no study on the level of telomerase in subjects with COPD during an exacerbation period. The objective of this work was to compare lipid peroxidation, telomerase, zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and malondialdehyde levels in asymptomatic smokers and subjects with COPD exacerbation. The study included 45 subjects with COPD exacerbation and 42 healthy subjects with tobacco use as a control group. Samples were taken from blood and after the serum levels of telomerase malondialdehyde, Cu, and Zn were measured, the values were compared between the 2 groups. Tests for respiratory function were performed, and sedimentation and C-reactive protein levels were measured. The COPD exacerbation group had a significantly (P < .001) lower Cu/Zn ratio compared with the control group; however, the COPD exacerbation group had significantly (P < .001) higher levels of telomerase malondialdehyde, Cu, and Zn compared with the control group. Malondialdehyde, Cu, Zn, and FEV1 were found negatively correlated in the COPD exacerbation and control groups (P < .001). The COPD exacerbation group had lower FEV1 and FVC compared with the control group. The COPD exacerbation group had significantly (P < .001) higher levels of C-reactive protein and a higher blood cell sedimentation rate compared with the control group. The reason why the subjects had a reduced Cu/Zn ratio and increased levels of telomerase, Cu, and Zn is likely to be oxidative stress, which can be defined as an increased exposure to oxidants and/or decreased antioxidant capacities It is obvious from this study that lung oxidant-antioxidant balance is abnormal in subjects with COPD exacerbation and also that the increased level of telomerase is associated with this imbalance. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  18. Telomerase activity in the various regions of mouse brain: non-radioactive telomerase repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay.

    PubMed

    Grin, Yossi; Admoni, Tamar; Priel, Esther

    2014-09-02

    Telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein, is responsible for maintaining the telomere length and therefore promoting genomic integrity, proliferation, and lifespan. In addition, telomerase protects the mitochondria from oxidative stress and confers resistance to apoptosis, suggesting its possible importance for the surviving of non-mitotic, highly active cells such as neurons. We previously demonstrated the ability of novel telomerase activators to increase telomerase activity and expression in the various mouse brain regions and to protect motor neurons cells from oxidative stress. These results strengthen the notion that telomerase is involved in the protection of neurons from various lesions. To underline the role of telomerase in the brain, we here compare the activity of telomerase in male and female mouse brain and its dependence on age. TRAP assay is a standard method for detecting telomerase activity in various tissues or cell lines. Here we demonstrate the analysis of telomerase activity in three regions of the mouse brain by non-denaturing protein extraction using CHAPS lysis buffer followed by modification of the standard TRAP assay. In this 2-step assay, endogenous telomerase elongates a specific telomerase substrate (TS primer) by adding TTAGGG 6 bp repeats (telomerase reaction). The telomerase reaction products are amplified by PCR reaction creating a DNA ladder of 6 bp increments. The analysis of the DNA ladder is made by 4.5% high resolution agarose gel electrophoresis followed by staining with highly sensitive nucleic acid stain. Compared to the traditional TRAP assay that utilize (32)P labeled radioactive dCTP's for DNA detection and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for resolving the DNA ladder, this protocol offers a non-toxic time saving TRAP assay for evaluating telomerase activity in the mouse brain, demonstrating the ability to detect differences in telomerase activity in the various female and male mouse brain region.

  19. Activation of telomerase by human cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Strååt, Klas; Liu, Cheng; Rahbar, Afsar; Zhu, Qingjun; Liu, Li; Wolmer-Solberg, Nina; Lou, Fenglan; Liu, Zhaoxu; Shen, Jie; Jia, Jihui; Kyo, Satoru; Björkholm, Magnus; Sjöberg, Jan; Söderberg-Nauclér, Cecilia; Xu, Dawei

    2009-04-01

    The mechanism by which human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) stimulates oncogenesis is unclear. Because cellular immortalization and transformation require telomerase activation by expression of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene, we examined the role of HCMV in telomerase activation. Normal human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) and human malignant glioma (MG) cell lines were infected with HCMV or transfected with expression vectors encoding HCMV immediate early (IE) antigen 72 or 86. hTERT expression and promoter activity and telomerase activity were evaluated using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, a luciferase reporter assay, and a telomeric repeat amplification protocol, respectively. hTERT promoter occupancy by the transcription factor Sp1, IE antigens, and histone deacetylases (HDACs) was assessed by chromatin immunoprecipitation. hTERT and IE protein expression in human primary glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) was determined immunohistochemically. All statistical tests were two-sided. In telomerase and hTERT-negative HDFs, HCMV infection induced constitutive hTERT expression and telomerase activation. The hTERT promoter activity in HDFs and MG cell lines was statistically significantly enhanced by HCMV in a dose-dependent manner (mean luciferase activity [arbitrary units] in control HDFs and in HDFs infected with HCMV at multiplicities of infection [MOIs] of 0.1 = 6 and 521, respectively, difference = 515, 95% CI = 178 to 850; mean activity at MOI of 1 and 10 = 8828 and 59,923, respectively; P < .001 comparing control with HCMV-infected cells at all MOIs). Ectopic expression of HCMV IE-72 protein also stimulated hTERT promoter activity in HDFs. HCMV-mediated transactivation of the hTERT gene was dependent on the presence of Sp1-binding sites in the hTERT promoter and was accompanied by increases in Sp1 binding, acetylation of histone H3, and a reduction in HDAC binding at the core promoter. In specimens of GBM, HCMV IE and hTERT proteins were

  20. Telomerase stimulates ribosomal DNA transcription under hyperproliferative conditions.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Omar Garcia; Assfalg, Robin; Koch, Sylvia; Schelling, Adrian; Meena, Jitendra K; Kraus, Johann; Lechel, Andre; Katz, Sarah-Fee; Benes, Vladimir; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin; Kestler, Hans A; Günes, Cagatay; Iben, Sebastian

    2014-08-13

    In addition to performing its canonical function, Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (TERT) has been shown to participate in cellular processes independent of telomerase activity. Furthermore, although TERT mainly localizes to Cajal bodies, it is also present within the nucleolus. Because the nucleolus is the site of rDNA transcription, we investigated the possible role of telomerase in regulating RNA polymerase I (Pol I). Here we show that TERT binds to rDNA and stimulates transcription by Pol I during liver regeneration and Ras-induced hyperproliferation. Moreover, the inhibition of telomerase activity by TERT- or TERC-specific RNA interference, the overexpression of dominant-negative-TERT, and the application of the telomerase inhibitor imetelstat reduce Pol I transcription and the growth of tumour cells. In vitro, telomerase can stimulate the formation of the transcription initiation complex. Our results demonstrate how non-canonical features of telomerase may direct Pol I transcription in oncogenic and regenerative hyperproliferation.

  1. Telomerase at the intersection of cancer and aging

    PubMed Central

    de Jesus, Bruno Bernardes; Blasco, Maria A.

    2014-01-01

    Although cancer and aging have been studied as independent diseases, mounting evidence suggest that cancer is an aging-associated disease and that cancer and aging share many molecular pathways. In particular, recent studies validated telomerase activation as a potential therapeutic target for age-related diseases, and at the same time, abnormal telomerase expression and telomerase mutations have been associated with many different types of human tumors. Here, we revisit the connection of telomerase to cancer and aging in light of recent findings supporting a role for telomerase not only in telomere elongation, but also in metabolic fitness and Wnt activation. Understanding the physiological impact of telomerase regulation is fundamental considering the therapeutic strategies that are being developed involving telomerase modulation. PMID:23876621

  2. Evolutionary perspectives of telomerase RNA structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Podlevsky, Joshua D.; Chen, Julian J.-L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Telomerase is the eukaryotic solution to the ‘end-replication problem’ of linear chromosomes by synthesising the highly repetitive DNA constituent of telomeres, the nucleoprotein cap that protects chromosome termini. Functioning as a ribonucleoprotein (RNP) enzyme, telomerase is minimally composed of the highly conserved catalytic telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) and essential telomerase RNA (TR) component. Beyond merely providing the template for telomeric DNA synthesis, TR is an innate telomerase component and directly facilitates enzymatic function. TR accomplishes this by having evolved structural elements for stable assembly with the TERT protein and the regulation of the telomerase catalytic cycle. Despite its prominence and prevalence, TR has profoundly diverged in length, sequence, and biogenesis pathway among distinct evolutionary lineages. This diversity has generated numerous structural and mechanistic solutions for ensuring proper RNP formation and high fidelity telomeric DNA synthesis. Telomerase provides unique insights into RNA and protein coevolution within RNP enzymes. PMID:27359343

  3. Telomerase inhibition by sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol from edible purple laver (Porphyra yezoensis).

    PubMed

    Eitsuka, Takahiro; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Igarashi, Miki; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2004-08-20

    As high telomerase activity is detected in most cancer cells, telomerase represents a promising cancer therapeutic target. We investigated the inhibitory effect of sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG), distributed in plants and seaweeds, on human telomerase in a cell-free system. SQDG inhibited telomerase activity dose-dependently with 50% inhibition at 22 microM, whereas monogalactosyldiacylglycerol and digalactosyldiacylglycerol did not, even at concentrations of 100 microM. Moreover, we confirmed that eicosapentaenoic acid, one of the fatty acid components of SQDG, is a potent telomerase inhibitor with 50% inhibition at 19 microM. We speculate that the structure of the sulfate group and fatty acid of SQDG is important for the potent telomerase-inhibitory effect. Our findings suggest that SQDG has potential use as a therapeutic dietary compound for telomerase inhibition.

  4. Role of diallyl disulfide-mediated cleavage of c-Myc and Sp-1 in the regulation of telomerase activity in human lymphoma cell line U937.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Pritha; Sengupta, Sumita Bandyopadhyay

    2015-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) has been considered a wonder herb for years with a reputation of disease prevention. Telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein enzyme responsible for telomere integrity, is strongly up-regulated in different types of cancers. The aim of this study was to reveal the role of diallyl disulfide (DADS), an organosulfur component of garlic, on telomerase activity in human lymphoma with an emphasis on key transcription factors c-Myc and Sp-1. Human lymphoma cell line U937 was used as model cell line. Telomerase activity was measured by telomerase repeat amplification protocol assay, levels of related proteins and mRNAs were measured by Western blot and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Moreover, in vitro binding assay was performed using radiolabeled double-stranded DNA having specific sequences to detect involvement of transcription factors in DADS-dependent modulation of telomerase activity. The present study demonstrated DADS-mediated decrease in telomerase activity in U937 cells with concomitant transcriptional down-regulation of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) that is caused by reduced binding of c-Myc and Sp-1 to their respective binding sites on hTERT promoter. Lowering of DNA-binding activity of c-Myc and Sp-1 due to DADS treatment is caused by the deactivation of these transcription factors due to cleavage. Additionally, Mad1-the repressor protein of hTERT expression-is also overexpressed in DADS-treated U937 cells. These findings strongly suggest that DADS down-regulate telomerase activity through c-Myc-, Sp-1-, and Mad1-dependent transcriptional down-regulation of hTERT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Accelerated senescence in skin in a murine model of radiation-induced multi-organ injury.

    PubMed

    McCart, Elizabeth A; Thangapazham, Rajesh L; Lombardini, Eric D; Mog, Steven R; Panganiban, Ronald Allan M; Dickson, Kelley M; Mansur, Rihab A; Nagy, Vitaly; Kim, Sung-Yop; Selwyn, Reed; Landauer, Michael R; Darling, Thomas N; Day, Regina M

    2017-03-18

    Accidental high-dose radiation exposures can lead to multi-organ injuries, including radiation dermatitis. The types of cellular damage leading to radiation dermatitis are not completely understood. To identify the cellular mechanisms that underlie radiation-induced skin injury in vivo, we evaluated the time-course of cellular effects of radiation (14, 16 or 17 Gy X-rays; 0.5 Gy/min) in the skin of C57BL/6 mice. Irradiation of 14 Gy induced mild inflammation, observed histologically, but no visible hair loss or erythema. However, 16 or 17 Gy radiation induced dry desquamation, erythema and mild ulceration, detectable within 14 days post-irradiation. Histological evaluation revealed inflammation with mast cell infiltration within 14 days. Fibrosis occurred 80 days following 17 Gy irradiation, with collagen deposition, admixed with neutrophilic dermatitis, and necrotic debris. We found that in cultures of normal human keratinocytes, exposure to 17.9 Gy irradiation caused the upregulation of p21/waf1, a marker of senescence. Using western blot analysis of 17.9 Gy-irradiated mice skin samples, we also detected a marker of accelerated senescence (p21/waf1) 7 days post-irradiation, and a marker of cellular apoptosis (activated caspase-3) at 30 days, both preceding histological evidence of inflammatory infiltrates. Immunohistochemistry revealed reduced epithelial stem cells from hair follicles 14-30 days post-irradiation. Furthermore, p21/waf1 expression was increased in the region of the hair follicle stem cells at 14 days post 17 Gy irradiation. These data indicate that radiation induces accelerated cellular senescence in the region of the stem cell population of the skin.

  6. Hypopharyngeal carcinoma after radiation for tuberculosis: radiation-induced carcinoma.

    PubMed

    van der Putten, Lisa; de Bree, Remco; Kuik, Dirk J; Rietveld, Derek H F; Langendijk, Johannes A; Leemans, C René

    2010-09-01

    Radiation may cause radiation-induced cancers after a long latency period. In a group of 111 patients surgically treated for hypopharyngeal carcinoma, patients previously treated with radiotherapy for tuberculosis in the neck were compared to patients without previous radiotherapy. Seven patients (7.4%) underwent radiotherapy (median age 15 years) and developed a hypopharyngeal carcinoma (median age 70 years, median latency period 54.4 year). Considering this long latency period and the localisation in the previous radiation field these tumours can be classified as potentially radiation-induced carcinomas. Patients with potentially radiation-induced carcinomas were significantly older when the hypopharyngeal carcinoma was diagnosed (p=0.048), were more frequently females (p=0.05) and had a worse 5-year regional control rate (p=0.048). When radiotherapy is considered in young patients the risk of induction of tumours has to be kept in mind. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Telomerase activity in melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer

    PubMed Central

    Parris, C N; Jezzard, S; Silver, A; MacKie, R; McGregor, J M; Newbold, R F

    1999-01-01

    Telomeres are specialized structures consisting of repeat arrays of TTAGGGn located at the ends of chromosomes. They are essential for chromosome stability and, in the majority of normal somatic cells, telomeres shorten with each cell division. Most immortalized cell lines and tumours reactivate telomerase to stabilize the shortening chromosomes. Telomerase activation is regarded as a central step in carcinogenesis and, here, we demonstrate telomerase activation in premalignant skin lesions and also in all forms of skin cancer. Telomerase activation in normal skin was a rare event, and among 16 samples of normal skin (one with a history of chronic sun exposure) 12.5% (2 out of 16) exhibited telomerase activity. One out of 16 (6.25%) benign proliferative lesions, including viral and seborrhoeic wart samples, had telomerase activity. In premalignant actinic keratoses and Bowen's disease, 42% (11 out of 26) of samples exhibited telomerase activity. In the basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) lesions, telomerase was activated in 77% (10 out of 13) and 69% (22 out of 32) respectively. However, only 25% (3 out of 12) of squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) had telomerase activity. With the exception of one SCC sample, telomerase activity in a positive control cell line derived from a fibrosarcoma (HT1080) was not inhibited when mixed with the telomerase-negative SCC or CMM extracts, indicating that, overall, Taq polymerase and telomerase inhibitors were not responsible for the negative results. Mean telomere hybridizing restriction fragment (TRF) analysis was performed in a number of telomerase-positive and -negative samples and, although a broad range of TRF sizes ranging from 3.6 to 17 kb was observed, a relationship between telomerase status and TRF size was not found. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10408692

  8. X-Radiation Induces Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Apoptosis by Upregulation of Axin Expression

    SciTech Connect

    Han Yang; Wang Yan; Xu Hongtao; Yang Lianhe; Wei Qiang; Liu Yang; Zhang Yong; Zhao Yue; Dai Shundong; Miao Yuan; Yu Juanhan; Zhang Junyi; Li, Guang; Yuan Ximing; Wang Enhua

    2009-10-01

    Purpose: Axis inhibition (Axin) is an important negative regulator of the Wnt pathway. This study investigated the relationship between Axin expression and sensitivity to X-rays in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to find a useful indicator of radiosensitivity. Methods and Materials: Tissue from NSCLC patients, A549 cells, and BE1 cells expressing Axin were exposed to 1-Gy of X-radiation. Axin and p53 expression levels were detected by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-PCR. Apoptosis was determined by TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling) assay and FACS (fluorescence-activate cell sorter) analysis. Caspase-3 activity was determined by Western blotting. Phospho-JNK expression was determined by immunofluorescence. Results: The expression of Axin was significantly lower in NSCLC tissues than in normal lung tissues (p < 0.05). Axin expression correlates with differentiation, TNM staging, and lymph node metastasis of NSCLC (p < 0.05). Its expression negatively correlates with the expression of p53(mt) (p=0.000) and positively correlates with apoptosis (p=0.002). The prognosis of patients with high expression of Axin was better than those with low expression. X-radiation increases Axin expression in NSCLC tissue, and caspase-3 is significantly higher in samples in which Axin is increased (p < 0.05). Both X-radiation and Axin induce apoptosis of A549 and BE1 cells; however, the combination of the two enhances the apoptotic effect (p < 0.05). In A549 cells, inhibition of p53 blocks Axin-induced apoptosis, whereas in BE1 cells, the JNK pathway is required. Conclusions: Axin induces the p53 apoptotic pathway in cells where this pathway is intact; however, in cells expressing p53(mt), Axin induces apoptosis via the JNK pathway. Elevated Axin expression following X-ray exposure is a reliable indicator for determining the radiosensitivity of NSCLC.

  9. Rhodacyanine dye MKT-077 inhibits in vitro telomerase assay but has no detectable effects on telomerase activity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wadhwa, Renu; Colgin, Lorel; Yaguchi, Tomoko; Taira, Kazunari; Reddel, Roger R; Kaul, Sunil C

    2002-08-01

    MKT-077, a cationic rhodacyanine dye analogue, causes selective toxicity to cancer cells. Its cellular targets elucidated thus far include oncogenic Ras, F-actin, mortalin (hmot-2)/mthsp70, and telomerase. Here we report that MKT-077 causes growth arrest of cancer cells in culture independent of their Ras, p53, or telomerase status. Telomerase activity is inhibited in vitro by MKT-077 in the telomerase assay used. However, the in vivo toxicity seen in telomerase-positive cancer cells was not accompanied by inhibition of telomerase activity or telomere shortening. Furthermore, cells with an alternative mechanism for lengthening of telomeres were also sensitive to MKT-077 and showed enhanced formation of alternative mechanism for lengthening of telomeres-associated PML bodies in their nuclei. The data suggested that inhibition of telomerase activity is unlikely to be a prime cause of MKT-077-induced toxicity in cancer cells.

  10. Panretinal photocoagulation for radiation-induced ocular ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Augsburger, J.J.; Roth, S.E.; Magargal, L.E.; Shields, J.A.

    1987-08-01

    We present preliminary findings on the effectiveness of panretinal photocoagulation in preventing neovascular glaucoma in eyes with radiation-induced ocular ischemia. Our study group consisted of 20 patients who developed radiation-induced ocular ischemia following cobalt-60 plaque radiotherapy for a choroidal or ciliary body melanoma. Eleven of the 20 patients were treated by panretinal photocoagulation shortly after the diagnosis of ocular ischemia, but nine patients were left untreated. In this non-randomized study, the rate of development of neovascular glaucoma was significantly lower (p = 0.024) for the 11 photocoagulated patients than for the nine who were left untreated.

  11. The Mechanisms of Radiation-Induced Bystander Effect

    PubMed Central

    Najafi, M; Fardid, R; Hadadi, Gh; Fardid, M

    2014-01-01

    The radiation-induced bystander effect is the phenomenon which non-irradiated cells exhibit effects along with their different levels as a result of signals received from nearby irradiated cells. Responses of non-irradiated cells may include changes in process of translation, gene expression, cell proliferation, apoptosis and cells death. These changes are confirmed by results of some In-Vivo studies. Most well-known important factors affecting radiation-induced bystander effect include free radicals, immune system factors, expression changes of some genes involved in inflammation pathway and epigenetic factors. PMID:25599062

  12. [Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of radiation-induced enteritis].

    PubMed

    Sinkó, Dániel; Baranyai, Zsolt; Nemeskéri, Csaba; Teknos, Dániel; Jósa, Valéria; Hegedus, László; Mayer, Arpád

    2010-09-05

    The number of radiotherapy in the treatment of malignant diseases is increasing worldwide. During the radiotherapy of tumors in the minor pelvis and abdomen intestinal inflammation of different degree may occur even if special attention is paid. Irradiation to the minor pelvis causes in half of the cases radiation induced acute enteritis, whereas in 25% chronic enteritis and colitis will develop. Chronic enteritis following radiotherapy raises a number of diagnostic and therapeutic problems that can be solved only with cooperation of different specialties. Authors present a short review regarding therapeutical options of radiation induced enteritis.

  13. Single-molecule imaging of telomerase reverse transcriptase in human telomerase holoenzyme and minimal RNP complexes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Robert Alexander; Dagdas, Yavuz S; Yilmaz, S Tunc; Yildiz, Ahmet; Collins, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Telomerase synthesizes chromosome-capping telomeric repeats using an active site in telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) and an integral RNA subunit template. The fundamental question of whether human telomerase catalytic activity requires cooperation across two TERT subunits remains under debate. In this study, we describe new approaches of subunit labeling for single-molecule imaging, applied to determine the TERT content of complexes assembled in cells or cell extract. Surprisingly, telomerase reconstitutions yielded heterogeneous DNA-bound TERT monomer and dimer complexes in relative amounts that varied with assembly and purification method. Among the complexes, cellular holoenzyme and minimal recombinant enzyme monomeric for TERT had catalytic activity. Dimerization was suppressed by removing a TERT domain linker with atypical sequence bias, which did not inhibit cellular or minimal enzyme assembly or activity. Overall, this work defines human telomerase DNA binding and synthesis properties at single-molecule level and establishes conserved telomerase subunit architecture from single-celled organisms to humans. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08363.001 PMID:26457608

  14. Mutations in the promoter of the telomerase gene TERT contribute to tumorigenesis by a two-step mechanism.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Kunitoshi; Lorbeer, Franziska K; Shain, A Hunter; McSwiggen, David T; Schruf, Eva; Oh, Areum; Ryu, Jekwan; Darzacq, Xavier; Bastian, Boris C; Hockemeyer, Dirk

    2017-08-17

    TERT promoter mutations (TPMs) are the most common non-coding mutations in cancer. The timing and consequences of TPMs have not been fully established. Here we show that TPMs acquired at the transition from benign nevus to malignant melanoma do not support telomere maintenance. In vitro experiments revealed that TPMs do not prevent telomere attrition, resulting in cells with critically short and unprotected telomeres. Immortalization by TPMs requires a gradual upregulation of telomerase, coinciding with telomere fusions. These data suggest that TPMs contribute to tumorigenesis by promoting immortalization and genomic instability in two phases. In an initial phase, TPMs do not prevent bulk telomere shortening but extend cellular life-span by healing the shortest telomeres. In the second phase, the critically short telomeres lead to genome instability and telomerase is further upregulated to sustain cell proliferation. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Anti-aging effect of estrogen on telomerase activity in ovariectomised rats--animal model for menopause.

    PubMed

    Cen, Jiaping; Zhang, Hongyan; Liu, Yuanwei; Deng, Miao; Tang, Shanshan; Liu, Wenhua; Zhang, Zhifen

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-aging effects of exogenous estrogen on telomerase activity in ovariectomized female Sprague-Dawley rats. Thirty-three 12-week-old female rats were divided into three groups: the ovariectomized-Treated group (Treated, n = 11), the ovariectomized control group (OVX, n = 11) and the Sham-operated group (Sham, n = 11). The rats in the Treated group were given 0.21 mg/kg estradiol valerate intragastric administration while other two groups were given the amount of physiological saline daily. All of the animals were euthanized 12 weeks after treatment, and abdominal aortic blood samples were taken to assess the level of estradiol (E2), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). Telomerase activity and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) mRNA expression in the heart, liver, brain tissues of all rats were measured by reverse transcriptional polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Compared to the OVX and Sham group, telomerase activity and TERT mRNA levels were significantly increased in the heart, liver and brain tissues of rats in the Treated group (p < 0.05). The telomerase expression was significantly higher in the heart than in liver and brain tissues in the Treated group (p < 0.05). Based on the findings in the ovariectomized female rats model, exogenous estrogen can significantly up-regulate telomerase activity and TERT mRNA expression to exert the effects of anti-aging.

  16. Endoglin haploinsufficiency reduces radiation-induced fibrosis and telangiectasia formation in mouse kidneys.

    PubMed

    Scharpfenecker, Marion; Floot, Ben; Russell, Nicola S; Ten Dijke, Peter; Stewart, Fiona A

    2009-09-01

    Endoglin is a transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) co-receptor mainly expressed in dividing endothelial cells. It regulates cell proliferation and survival and is upregulated at sites of vessel repair. Mutations in endoglin have been linked to the vascular disease hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). HHT patients display dilated capillaries (telangiectasia) that are prone to rupture. Cancer patients receiving radiotherapy develop similar vascular damage in normal tissues lying in the irradiation field. If located in the mucosa, irradiation-induced telangiectasia can lead to severe bleeding. Therefore, this study was aimed at investigating the role of endoglin in radiation-induced telangiectasia formation. Kidneys of endoglin heterozygous (Eng(+/-)) or wild type mice were irradiated with 16 Gy. Mice were sacrificed after 20 weeks and changes in gene expression and protein levels were analysed. Expression of TGF-beta target genes involved in radiation-induced fibrosis and fibrosis development in the kidney decreased in Eng(+/-) compared to wild type mice. Unexpectedly, Eng(+/-) mice also displayed reduced telangiectasia formation in the irradiated kidney. Endoglin plays an important role in the development of irradiation-induced normal tissue damage. Future studies will show whether interfering with endoglin functions protects tissues from late radiation toxicity.

  17. Exosome-mediated microRNA transfer plays a role in radiation-induced bystander effect

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shuai; Wang, Jufang; Ding, Nan; Hu, Wentao; Zhang, Xurui; Wang, Bing; Hua, Junrui; Wei, Wenjun; Zhu, Qiyun

    2015-01-01

    Bystander effects can be induced through cellular communication between irradiated cells and non-irradiated cells. The signals that mediate this cellular communication, such as cytokines, reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide and even microRNAs, can be transferred between cells via gap junctions or extracellular medium. We have previously reported that miR-21, a well described DDR (DNA damage response) microRNA, is involved in radiation-induced bystander effects through a medium-mediated way. However, the mechanisms of the microRNA transfer have not been elucidated in details. In the present study, it was found that exosomes isolated from irradiated conditioned medium could induce bystander effects. Furthermore, we demonstrated plenty of evidences that miR-21, which is up-regulated as a result of mimic transfection or irradiation, can be transferred from donor or irradiated cells into extracellular medium and subsequently get access to the recipient or bystander cells through exosomes to induce bystander effects. Inhibiting the miR-21 expression in advance can offset the bystander effects to some extent. From all of these results, it can be concluded that the exosome-mediated microRNA transfer plays an important role in the radiation-induced bystander effects. These findings provide new insights into the functions of microRNAs and the cellular communication between the directly irradiated cells and the non-irradiated cells. PMID:26488306

  18. The role of protein kinase C alpha translocation in radiation-induced bystander effect.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zihui; Xu, An; Wu, Lijun; Hei, Tom K; Hong, Mei

    2016-05-11

    Ionizing radiation is a well known human carcinogen. Evidence accumulated over the past decade suggested that extranuclear/extracellular targets and events may also play a critical role in modulating biological responses to ionizing radiation. However, the underlying mechanism(s) of radiation-induced bystander effect is still unclear. In the current study, AL cells were irradiated with alpha particles and responses of bystander cells were investigated. We found out that in bystander AL cells, protein kinase C alpha (PKCα) translocated from cytosol to membrane fraction. Pre-treatment of cells with PKC translocation inhibitor chelerythrine chloride suppressed the induced extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) activity and the increased cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) expression as well as the mutagenic effect in bystander cells. Furthermore, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) was elevated in directly irradiated but not bystander cells; while TNFα receptor 1 (TNFR1) increased in the membrane fraction of bystander cells. Further analysis revealed that PKC activation caused accelerated internalization and recycling of TNFR1. Our data suggested that PKCα translocation may occur as an early event in radiation-induced bystander responses and mediate TNFα-induced signaling pathways that lead to the activation of ERK and up-regulation of COX-2.

  19. Exosome-mediated microRNA transfer plays a role in radiation-induced bystander effect.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shuai; Wang, Jufang; Ding, Nan; Hu, Wentao; Zhang, Xurui; Wang, Bing; Hua, Junrui; Wei, Wenjun; Zhu, Qiyun

    2015-01-01

    Bystander effects can be induced through cellular communication between irradiated cells and non-irradiated cells. The signals that mediate this cellular communication, such as cytokines, reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide and even microRNAs, can be transferred between cells via gap junctions or extracellular medium. We have previously reported that miR-21, a well described DDR (DNA damage response) microRNA, is involved in radiation-induced bystander effects through a medium-mediated way. However, the mechanisms of the microRNA transfer have not been elucidated in details. In the present study, it was found that exosomes isolated from irradiated conditioned medium could induce bystander effects. Furthermore, we demonstrated plenty of evidences that miR-21, which is up-regulated as a result of mimic transfection or irradiation, can be transferred from donor or irradiated cells into extracellular medium and subsequently get access to the recipient or bystander cells through exosomes to induce bystander effects. Inhibiting the miR-21 expression in advance can offset the bystander effects to some extent. From all of these results, it can be concluded that the exosome-mediated microRNA transfer plays an important role in the radiation-induced bystander effects. These findings provide new insights into the functions of microRNAs and the cellular communication between the directly irradiated cells and the non-irradiated cells.

  20. Prevention effects of Schisandra polysaccharide on radiation-induced immune system dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lian-Mei; Jia, Yun-Long; Ma, Ming; Duan, Yu-Qing; Liu, Li-Hua

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we investigate the efficacy of SP (Schisandra polysaccharide) in prevention of radiation-induced immune dysfunction and discussed the underlying mechanisms with a Bal/bc mouse model. The data demonstrated that SP could reverse the decreases in the number of white blood cells and lymphocytes in peripheral blood. In addition, the immunoglobulin G (IgG) and complement C3 in blood serum were all decreased after radiation and SP could restore this radiation disorder. Furthermore, SP could reverse the deregulation of CD3(+)CD4(+) and CD3(+)CD8(+) T cell subsets in peripheral blood and thymus of mice after radiotherapy. We also performed terminal dexynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and Immunohistochemistry (IHC) to investigate the apoptosis and underlying mechanisms of SP in thymus. Data showed that radiation-induced apoptosis of thymocytes could be reversed by SP through inducing upregulation of Bcl-2 expression and downregulation of Fas and Bax levels. Furthermore, SP has no any side-effects on immunity of normal mice. In conclusion, our results indicated that SP could effectively prevent immune injury during radiotherapy by protecting the immune system. This valuable information should be of assistance in choosing a rational design for therapeutic interventions of prevention immune system damage in the radiation treatment.

  1. The role of protein kinase C alpha translocation in radiation-induced bystander effect

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Zihui; Xu, An; Wu, Lijun; Hei, Tom K.; Hong, Mei

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is a well known human carcinogen. Evidence accumulated over the past decade suggested that extranuclear/extracellular targets and events may also play a critical role in modulating biological responses to ionizing radiation. However, the underlying mechanism(s) of radiation-induced bystander effect is still unclear. In the current study, AL cells were irradiated with alpha particles and responses of bystander cells were investigated. We found out that in bystander AL cells, protein kinase C alpha (PKCα) translocated from cytosol to membrane fraction. Pre-treatment of cells with PKC translocation inhibitor chelerythrine chloride suppressed the induced extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) activity and the increased cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) expression as well as the mutagenic effect in bystander cells. Furthermore, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) was elevated in directly irradiated but not bystander cells; while TNFα receptor 1 (TNFR1) increased in the membrane fraction of bystander cells. Further analysis revealed that PKC activation caused accelerated internalization and recycling of TNFR1. Our data suggested that PKCα translocation may occur as an early event in radiation-induced bystander responses and mediate TNFα-induced signaling pathways that lead to the activation of ERK and up-regulation of COX-2. PMID:27165942

  2. Telomerase Expression in Medaka ( Oryzias melastigma) Pharyngeal Teeth.

    PubMed

    Tan, W H; Witten, P E; Winkler, C; Au, D W T; Huysseune, A

    2017-06-01

    Nonmammalian vertebrates have the capacity of lifelong tooth replacement. In all vertebrates, tooth formation requires contact and interaction between the oral or pharyngeal epithelium and the underlying mesenchyme. To secure lifelong replacement, the presence of odontogenic stem cells has been postulated, particularly in the epithelial compartment. This study uses an advanced teleost fish species, the marine medaka Oryzias melastigma, a close relative to Oryzias latipes, to examine the expression and distribution of telomerase reverse transcriptase (Tert), the catalytic unit of telomerase, in developing pharyngeal teeth and to relate these data to the proliferative activity of the cells. The data are complemented by expression analysis of the pluripotency marker oct4 and bona fide stem cell marker lgr5. Tert distribution and tert expression in developing tooth germs show a dynamic spatiotemporal pattern. Tert is present first in the mesenchyme but is downregulated as the odontoblasts differentiate. In contrast, in the epithelial enamel organ, Tert is absent during early stages of tooth formation and upregulated first in ameloblasts. Later, Tert is expressed and immunolocalized throughout the entire inner enamel epithelium. The pattern of Tert distribution is largely mutually exclusive with that of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunoreactivity: highly proliferative cells, as revealed by PCNA staining, are negative for Tert; conversely, PCNA-negative cells are Tert-positive. Only the early condensed mesenchyme is both Tert- and PCNA-positive. The absence of tert-positive cells in the epithelial compartment of early tooth germs is underscored by the absence of oct4- and lgr5-positive cells, suggesting ways other than stem cell involvement to secure continuous renewal.

  3. ARSENIC EFFECTS ON TELOMERE AND TELOMERASE ACTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic effects on telomere and telomerase activity. T-C. Zhang, M. T. Schmitt, J. Mo, J. L. Mumford, National Research Council and U.S Environmental Protection Agency, NHEERL, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711
    Arsenic is a known carcinogen and also an anticancer agent for acut...

  4. ARSENIC EFFECTS ON TELOMERE AND TELOMERASE ACTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic effects on telomere and telomerase activity. T-C. Zhang, M. T. Schmitt, J. Mo, J. L. Mumford, National Research Council and U.S Environmental Protection Agency, NHEERL, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711
    Arsenic is a known carcinogen and also an anticancer agent for acut...

  5. Activin inhibits telomerase activity in cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Katik, Indzi; Mackenzie-Kludas, Charley; Nicholls, Craig; Jiang, Fang-Xu; Zhou, Shufeng; Li, He; Liu, Jun-Ping

    2009-11-27

    Activin is a pleiotropic cytokine with broad tissue distributions. Recent studies demonstrate that activin-A inhibits cancer cell proliferation with unknown mechanisms. In this report, we demonstrate that recombinant activin-A induces telomerase inhibition in cancer cells. In breast and cervical cancer cells, activin-A resulted in telomerase activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Significant inhibition was observed at 10 ng/ml of activin-A, with a near complete inhibition at 80 ng/ml. Consistently, activin-A induced repression of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene, with the hTERT gene to be suppressed by 60-80% within 24 h. In addition, activin-A induced a concomitant increase in Smad3 signaling and decrease of the hTERT gene promoter activity in a concentration-dependent fashion. These data suggest that activin-A triggered telomerase inhibition by down-regulating hTERT gene expression is involved in activin-A-induced inhibition of cancer cell proliferation.

  6. Telomerase Recruitment Requires both TCAB1 and Cajal Bodies Independently

    PubMed Central

    Stern, J. Lewis; Zyner, Katherine G.; Pickett, Hilda A.; Cohen, Scott B.

    2012-01-01

    The ability of most cancer cells to grow indefinitely relies on the enzyme telomerase and its recruitment to telomeres. In human cells, recruitment depends on the Cajal body RNA chaperone TCAB1 binding to the RNA subunit of telomerase (hTR) and is also thought to rely on an N-terminal domain of the catalytic subunit, hTERT. We demonstrate that coilin, an essential structural component of Cajal bodies, is required for endogenous telomerase recruitment to telomeres but that overexpression of telomerase can compensate for Cajal body absence. In contrast, recruitment of telomerase was sensitive to levels of TCAB1, and this was not rescued by overexpression of telomerase. Thus, although Cajal bodies are important for recruitment, TCAB1 has an additional role in this process that is independent of these structures. TCAB1 itself localizes to telomeres in a telomerase-dependent but Cajal body-independent manner. We identify a point mutation in hTERT that largely abolishes recruitment yet does not affect association of telomerase with TCAB1, suggesting that this region mediates recruitment by an independent mechanism. Our results demonstrate that telomerase has multiple independent requirements for recruitment to telomeres and that the function of TCAB1 is to directly transport telomerase to telomeres. PMID:22547674

  7. Telomerase inhibitors: a patent review (2010-2015).

    PubMed

    Man, Ruo-Jun; Chen, Long-Wang; Zhu, Hai-Liang

    2016-06-01

    Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein that catalyses the addition of telomeric repeat sequences (having the sequence 5'-TTAGGG-3' in humans) to the ends of chromosomes. Telomerase activity is detected in most types of human tumours, but it is almost undetectable in normal somatic cells. Therefore, telomerase is a promising therapeutic target. To date, the known inhibitors of telomerase include nucleoside analogues, oligonucleotides and G-quadruplex stabilizers. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of telomerase inhibitors, the relationships between telomerase inhibitors, cancer, and fields such as inflammation. This review summarizes new patents published on telomerase inhibitors from 2010 to 2015. The review provides a brief account of the background, development, and on-going issues involving telomerase inhibitors. In particular, this review emphasizes imetelstat (GRN163L) and some typical G-quadruplex stabilizers that participate in telomerase inhibition. Overall, the research scope of antineoplastic is becoming broader and telomerase inhibitors have been shown to be a promising therapeutic target. Therefore, novel antineoplastic agents with greater activity and higher specificity must be developed.

  8. Telomerase recruitment requires both TCAB1 and Cajal bodies independently.

    PubMed

    Stern, J Lewis; Zyner, Katherine G; Pickett, Hilda A; Cohen, Scott B; Bryan, Tracy M

    2012-07-01

    The ability of most cancer cells to grow indefinitely relies on the enzyme telomerase and its recruitment to telomeres. In human cells, recruitment depends on the Cajal body RNA chaperone TCAB1 binding to the RNA subunit of telomerase (hTR) and is also thought to rely on an N-terminal domain of the catalytic subunit, hTERT. We demonstrate that coilin, an essential structural component of Cajal bodies, is required for endogenous telomerase recruitment to telomeres but that overexpression of telomerase can compensate for Cajal body absence. In contrast, recruitment of telomerase was sensitive to levels of TCAB1, and this was not rescued by overexpression of telomerase. Thus, although Cajal bodies are important for recruitment, TCAB1 has an additional role in this process that is independent of these structures. TCAB1 itself localizes to telomeres in a telomerase-dependent but Cajal body-independent manner. We identify a point mutation in hTERT that largely abolishes recruitment yet does not affect association of telomerase with TCAB1, suggesting that this region mediates recruitment by an independent mechanism. Our results demonstrate that telomerase has multiple independent requirements for recruitment to telomeres and that the function of TCAB1 is to directly transport telomerase to telomeres.

  9. Tetrahydrobiopterin Protects against Radiation-induced Growth Inhibition in H9c2 Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zheng-Yi; Li, Yi; Li, Rui; Zhang, An-An; Shang, Bo; Yu, Jing; Xie, Xiao-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor of nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) for the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO). BH4 therapy can reverse the disease-related redox disequilibrium observed with BH4 deficiency. However, whether BH4 exerts a protective effect against radiation-induced damage to cardiomyocytes remains unknown. Methods: Clonogenic assays were performed to determine the effects of X-ray on H9c2 cells with or without BH4 treatment. The contents of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in H9c2 cells were measured to investigate oxidative stress levels. The cell cycle undergoing radiation with or without BH4 treatment was detected using flow cytometry. The expression levels of proteins in the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT)/P53 signaling pathway, inducible NOS (iNOS), and endothelial NOS (eNOS) were examined using Western blotting. Results: X-ray radiation significantly inhibited the growth of H9c2 cells in a dose-dependent manner, whereas BH4 treatment significantly reduced the X-ray radiation-induced growth inhibition (control group vs. X-ray groups, respectively, P < 0.01). X-ray radiation induced LDH release, apoptosis, and G0/G1 peak accumulation, significantly increasing the level of MDA and the production of NO, and decreased the level of SOD (control group vs. X-ray groups, respectively, P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). By contrast, BH4 treatment can significantly reverse these processes (BH4 treatment groups vs. X-ray groups, P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). BH4 reversed the X-ray radiation-induced expression alterations of apoptosis-related molecules, including B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2 associated X protein, and caspase-3, and molecules of the PI3K/Akt/P53 signaling pathway. BH4 enhanced the production of NO in 2 Gy and 4 Gy radiated groups by upregulating eNOS protein expression and downregulating iNOS protein expression. Conclusions: BH4 treatment can protect

  10. Telomerase Activity in Articular Chondrocytes Is Lost after Puberty

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Brooke; Novakofski, Kira D.; Donocoff, Rachel Sacher; Liang, Yan-Xiang Amber

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Telomere length and telomerase activity are important indicators of cellular senescence and replicative ability. Loss of telomerase is associated with ageing and the development of osteoarthritis. Implantation of telomerase-positive cells, chondrocytes, or stem cells expressing a normal chondrocyte phenotype is desired for cartilage repair procedures. The objective of this study was to identify at what age chondrocytes and at what passage bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) become senescent based on telomerase activity. The effect of osteogenic protein–1 (OP-1) or interleukin-1α (IL-1α) treatment on telomerase activity in chondrocytes was also measured to determine the response to anabolic or catabolic stimuli. Methods: Articular cartilage was collected from horses (n = 12) aged 1 month to 18 years. Chondrocytes from prepubescent horses (<15 months) were treated with OP-1 or IL-1α. Bone marrow aspirate from adult horses was collected and cultured for up to 10 days to isolate MSCs. Telomerase activity was measured using the TeloTAGGG Telomerase PCR ELISA kit. Results: Chondrocytes from prepubescent horses were positive for telomerase activity. Treatment with IL-1α resulted in a decrease in chondrocyte telomerase activity; however, treatment with OP-1 did not change telomerase activity. One MSC culture sample was positive for telomerase activity on day 2; all samples were negative for telomerase activity on day 10. Conclusions: These results suggest that chondrocytes from prepubescent donors are potentially more suitable for cartilage repair procedures and that telomerase activity is diminished by anabolic and catabolic cytokine stimulation. If MSCs are utilized in cartilage repair, minimal passaging should be performed prior to implantation. PMID:26069700

  11. Poor outcome in radiation-induced constrictive pericarditis

    SciTech Connect

    Karram, T.; Rinkevitch, D.; Markiewicz, W. )

    1993-01-15

    The purpose was to compare the outcome of patients with radiation-induced constrictive pericarditis versus patients with constiction due to another etiology. Twenty patients with constrictive pericarditis were seen during 1975-1986 at a single medical center. Six had radiation-induced constrictive pericarditis (Group A). The etiology was idiopathic in ten subjects and secondary to carcinomatous encasement, chronic renal failure, purulent infection and tuberculosis in one patient each (Group B, N = 14). Meang age was 53.4 [+-] 15.5 years. Extensive pericardiectomy was performed in 3/6 Group A and 13/14 Group B patients. All Group A patients died, 4 weeks - 11 years post-diagnosis (median = 10 months). Two Group A patients died suddenly, one died post-operatively of respiratory failure, another of pneumonia and two of recurrent carcinoma. Thirteen Group B patients are alive (median follow-up = 72 months). The only death in this group was due to metastatic cancer. The poor outcome with radiation-induced constriction is probably multi-factorial. Poor surgical outcome is to be expected in patients with evidence of recurrent tumor, high-dose irradiation, pulmonary fibrosis or associated radiation-induced myocardinal, valvular or coronary damage.

  12. Radiation-induced instability and its relation to radiation carcinogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ullrich, R. L.; Ponnaiya, B.

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: A model that identifies radiation-induced genetic instability as the earliest cellular event in the multi-step sequence leading to radiation-induced cancer was previously proposed. In this paper ongoing experiments are discussed which are designed to test this model and its predictions in mouse mammary epithelial cells. RESULTS: Several lines of evidence are presented that appear to support this model: first, the development of delayed mutations in p53 following irradiation in altered growth variants; secondly, the high frequencies for the induction of both instability and transformation following irradiation in mammary epithelial cells; and finally, the demonstration that susceptibility to the induction of cytogenetic instability is a heritable trait that correlates with susceptibility to transformation and radiation-induced mammary cancer. Mice resistant to transformation and mammary cancer development are also resistant to the development of instability after irradiation. In contrast, mice sensitive to transformation and cancer are also sensitive to the development of cytogenetic instability. CONCLUSIONS: Data from this laboratory and from the studies cited above suggest a specific, and perhaps unique, role for radiation-induced instability as a critical early event associated with initiation of the carcinogenic process.

  13. Radiation-induced instability and its relation to radiation carcinogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ullrich, R. L.; Ponnaiya, B.

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: A model that identifies radiation-induced genetic instability as the earliest cellular event in the multi-step sequence leading to radiation-induced cancer was previously proposed. In this paper ongoing experiments are discussed which are designed to test this model and its predictions in mouse mammary epithelial cells. RESULTS: Several lines of evidence are presented that appear to support this model: first, the development of delayed mutations in p53 following irradiation in altered growth variants; secondly, the high frequencies for the induction of both instability and transformation following irradiation in mammary epithelial cells; and finally, the demonstration that susceptibility to the induction of cytogenetic instability is a heritable trait that correlates with susceptibility to transformation and radiation-induced mammary cancer. Mice resistant to transformation and mammary cancer development are also resistant to the development of instability after irradiation. In contrast, mice sensitive to transformation and cancer are also sensitive to the development of cytogenetic instability. CONCLUSIONS: Data from this laboratory and from the studies cited above suggest a specific, and perhaps unique, role for radiation-induced instability as a critical early event associated with initiation of the carcinogenic process.

  14. Radiation-induced augmentation of the immune response

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.E.; Lefkovits, I.; Troup, G.M.

    1980-01-01

    Radiation-induced augmentation of the immune response has been shown to occur both in vivo and in vitro. Evidence is presented to implicate injury to an extremely radiosensitive T cell in the expression of this phenomenon. Experiments are outlined which could be employed to support or reflect this hypothesis.

  15. Use of probiotics for prevention of radiation-induced diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Delia, P; Sansotta, G; Donato, V; Frosina, P; Messina, G; De Renzis, C; Famularo, G

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the efficacy of a high-potency probiotic preparation on prevention of radiation-induced diarrhea in cancer patients. METHODS: This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Four hundred and ninety patients who underwent adjuvant postoperative radiation therapy after surgery for sigmoid, rectal, or cervical cancer were assigned to either the high-potency probiotic preparation VSL#3 (one sachet t.i.d.,) or placebo starting from the first day of radiation therapy. Efficacy endpoints were incidence and severity of radiation-induced diarrhea, daily number of bowel movements, and the time from the start of the study to the use of loperamide as rescue medication. RESULTS: More placebo patients had radiation-induced diarrhea than VSL#3 patients (124 of 239 patients, 51.8%, and 77 of 243 patients, 31.6%; P < 0.001) and more patients given placebo suffered grade 3 or 4 diarrhea compared with VSL#3 recipients (55.4% and 1.4%, P < 0.001). Daily bowel movements were 14.7 ± 6 and 5.1 ± 3 among placebo and VSL#3 recipients (P < 0.05), and the mean time to the use of loperamide was 86 ± 6 h for placebo patients and 122 ± 8 h for VSL#3 patients (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Probiotic lactic acid-producing bacteria are an easy, safe, and feasible approach to protect cancer patients against the risk of radiation-induced diarrhea. PMID:17352022

  16. Radiation-induced cognitive impairment-from bench to bedside

    PubMed Central

    Greene-Schloesser, Dana; Robbins, Mike E.

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 100 000 patients per year in the United States with primary and metastatic brain tumor survive long enough (>6 months) to develop radiation-induced brain injury. Before 1970, the human brain was thought to be radioresistant; the acute central nervous system (CNS) syndrome occurs after single doses of ≥30 Gy, and white matter necrosis can occur at fractionated doses of ≥60 Gy. Although white matter necrosis is uncommon with modern radiation therapy techniques, functional deficits, including progressive impairments in memory, attention, and executive function have become increasingly important, having profound effects on quality of life. Preclinical studies have provided valuable insights into the pathogenic mechanisms involved in radiation-induced cognitive impairment. Although reductions in hippocampal neurogenesis and hippocampal-dependent cognitive function have been observed in rodent models, it is important to recognize that other brain regions are affected; non–hippocampal-dependent reductions in cognitive function occur. Neuroinflammation is viewed as playing a major role in radiation-induced cognitive impairment. During the past 5 years, several preclinical studies have demonstrated that interventional therapies aimed at modulating neuroinflammation can prevent/ameliorate radiation-induced cognitive impairment independent of changes in neurogenesis. Translating these exciting preclinical findings to the clinic offers the promise of improving the quality of life in patients with brain tumors who receive radiation therapy. PMID:23095829

  17. Radiation-induced xerostomia: pathophysiology, clinical course and supportive treatment.

    PubMed

    Guchelaar, H J; Vermes, A; Meerwaldt, J H

    1997-07-01

    Xerostomia, or oral dryness, is one of the most common complaints experienced by patients who have had radiotherapy of the oral cavity and neck region. The hallmarks of radiation-induced damage are acinar atrophy and chronic inflammation of the salivary glands. The early response, resulting in atrophy of the secretory cells without inflammation might be due to radiation-induced apoptosis. In contrast, the late response with inflammation could be a result of radiation-induced necrosis. The subjective complaint of a dry mouth appears to be poorly correlated with objective findings of salivary gland dysfunction. Xerostomia, with secondary symptoms of increased dental caries, difficulty in chewing, swallowing and speaking, and an increased incidence of oral candidiasis, can have a significant effect on the quality of life. At present there is no causal treatment for radiation-induced xerostomia. Temporary symptomatic relief can be offered by moistening agents and saliva substitutes, and is the only option for patients without residual salivary function. In patients with residual salivary function, oral administration of pilocarpine 5-10 mg three times a day is effective in increasing salivary flow and improving the symptoms of xerostomia, and this therapy should be considered as the treatment of choice. Effectiveness of sialogogue treatment requires residual salivary function, which emphasizes the potential benefit from sparing normal tissue during irradiation. The hypothesis concerning the existence of early apoptotic and late necrotic effects of irradiation on the salivary glands theoretically offers a way of achieving this goal.

  18. SPHINX Measurements of Radiation Induced Conductivity of Foam

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, W.P.; Beutler, D.E.; Burt, M.; Dudley, K.J.; Stringer, T.A.

    1998-12-14

    Experiments on the SPHINX accelerator studying radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) in foam indicate that a field-exclusion boundary layer model better describes foam than a Maxwell-Garnett model that treats the conducting gas bubbles in the foam as modifying the dielectric constant. In both cases, wall attachment effects could be important but were neglected.

  19. Obstructive jaundice due to radiation-induced hepatic duct stricture

    SciTech Connect

    Chandrasekhara, K.L.; Iyer, S.K.

    1984-10-01

    A case of obstructive jaundice due to radiation-induced hepatic duct stricture is reported. The patient received postoperative radiation for left adrenal carcinoma, seven years prior to this admission. The sequelae of hepatobiliary radiation and their management are discussed briefly.

  20. Radiation-Induced Immune Modulation in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    postulate that radiation-induced TNFR I probably acts as a “ brake ” on immunity. Because of the high risk of the proposed experiment and high...the rest of body shielded. Tumor diameters were measured in three mutually orthogonal dimensions at 2–3 day intervals with a vernier caliper and the

  1. Radiation-induced nonlinear optical response of quartz fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaksin, O. A.

    2006-10-01

    The intensity of radiation-induced luminescence and transient optical losses in KU-1 (Russia) and K-3 (Japan) quartz glass optical tibers irradiated in a fast pulsed fission reactor (a pulse duration of 80 μs and a neutron flux up to 7 × 1016 cm 2 s 2) has been measured in the visible range. The intensity of the fast luminescence component nonlinearly depends on the neutron flux. The luminescence intensity and the transient optical losses depend on the probe light intensity. Suppression of radiation-induced luminescence is observed at wavelengths that are longer or shorter than the probe light wavelength. Light probing leads to an increase in transient optical losses and a more rapid recovery of transparency. A model of two photon fluxes is proposed to analyze the relationship of the effects of suppression of radiation-induced luminescence and the increase in optical losses upon light probing. The effect of suppression of radiation-induced luminescence can be used to control the optical properties of fibers in radiation fields.

  2. Data acquisition system used in radiation induced electrical degradation experiments

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.P.

    1995-04-01

    Radiation induced electrical degradation (RIED) of ceramic materials has recently been reported and is the topic of much research at the present time. The object of this report is to describe the data acquisition system for an experiment designed to study RIED at the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) at Brookhaven National Laboratory.

  3. Prevention of Radiation-Induced Breast Cancer by Amifostine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    acetylcysteine and captopril . 4 Task 2. To determine if post-irradiation amifostine treatment can reduce the frequency of radiation-induced ductal...similar to amifostine but more suited to oral administration such as WR- 3689, WR151327, N-acetylcysteine and captopril . The first task is to

  4. Prevention of Radiation-Induced Breast Cancer by Amifostine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    acetylcysteine and captopril . 4 Task 2. To determine if post-irradiation amifostine treatment can reduce the frequency of radiation-induced ductal...similar to amifostine but more suited to oral administration such as WR- 3689, WR151327, N-acetylcysteine and captopril . The first task is to

  5. Prevention of Radiation-Induced Breast Cancer by Amifostine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    and captopril . 4 Task 2. To determine if post-irradiation amifostine treatment can reduce the frequency of radiation-induced ductal dysplasia...amifostine but more suited to oral administration such as WR- 3689, WR151327, N-acetylcysteine and captopril . The first task is to determine if

  6. Radiation induces senescence and a bystander effect through metabolic alterations.

    PubMed

    Liao, E-C; Hsu, Y-T; Chuah, Q-Y; Lee, Y-J; Hu, J-Y; Huang, T-C; Yang, P-M; Chiu, S-J

    2014-05-22

    Cellular senescence is a state of irreversible growth arrest; however, the metabolic processes of senescent cells remain active. Our previous studies have shown that radiation induces senescence of human breast cancer cells that display low expression of securin, a protein involved in control of the metaphase-anaphase transition and anaphase onset. In this study, the protein expression profile of senescent cells was resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis to investigate associated metabolic alterations. We found that radiation induced the expression and activation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase that has an important role in glycolysis. The activity of lactate dehydrogenase A, which is involved in the conversion of pyruvate to lactate, the release of lactate and the acidification of the extracellular environment, was also induced. Inhibition of glycolysis by dichloroacetate attenuated radiation-induced senescence. In addition, radiation also induced activation of the 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathways to promote senescence. We also found that radiation increased the expression of monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) that facilitates the export of lactate into the extracellular environment. Inhibition of glycolysis or the AMPK/NF-κB signalling pathways reduced MCT1 expression and rescued the acidification of the extracellular environment. Interestingly, these metabolic-altering signalling pathways were also involved in radiation-induced invasion of the surrounding, non-irradiated breast cancer and normal endothelial cells. Taken together, radiation can induce the senescence of human breast cancer cells through metabolic alterations.

  7. CHIP promotes human telomerase reverse transcriptase degradation and negatively regulates telomerase activity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Hoon; Khadka, Prabhat; Baek, Seung Han; Chung, In Kwon

    2010-12-31

    The maintenance of eukaryotic telomeres requires telomerase, which is minimally composed of a telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) and an associated RNA component. Telomerase activity is tightly regulated by expression of human (h) TERT at both the transcriptional and post-translational levels. The Hsp90 and p23 molecular chaperones have been shown to associate with hTERT for the assembly of active telomerase. Here, we show that CHIP (C terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein) physically associates with hTERT in the cytoplasm and regulates the cellular abundance of hTERT through a ubiquitin-mediated degradation. Overexpression of CHIP prevents nuclear translocation of hTERT and promotes hTERT degradation in the cytoplasm, thereby inhibiting telomerase activity. In contrast, knockdown of endogenous CHIP results in the stabilization of cytoplasmic hTERT. However, it does not affect the level of nuclear hTERT and has no effect on telomerase activity and telomere length. We further show that the binding of CHIP and Hsp70 to hTERT inhibits nuclear translocation of hTERT by dissociating p23. However, Hsp90 binding to hTERT was not affected by CHIP overexpression. These results suggest that CHIP can remodel the hTERT-chaperone complexes. Finally, the amount of hTERT associated with CHIP peaks in G(2)/M phases but decreases during S phase, suggesting a cell cycle-dependent regulation of hTERT. Our data suggest that CHIP represents a new pathway for modulating telomerase activity in cancer.

  8. Telomerase redefined: integrated regulation of hTR and hTERT for telomere maintenance and telomerase activity.

    PubMed

    Cairney, C J; Keith, W N

    2008-01-01

    Telomerase activity is dependent on the expression of 2 main core component genes, hTERT, which encodes the catalytic component and hTR (also called TERC), which encodes the RNA component. The correlation between telomerase activity and carcinogenesis has made this molecule of great interest in cancer research, however in order to fully understand the regulation of telomerase the mechanisms controlling both telomerase genes need to be studied. Some of these mechanisms of regulation have begun to emerge, however many more remain to be deciphered. For many years hTERT has been regarded as the limiting component of telomerase and much of the research in this field has focussed on its regulation, however it was clear from an early stage that hTR expression was also tightly regulated in normal cells and disease. More recently evidence from biochemistry, promoter studies and mouse models has been steadily increasing for a role for hTR as a limiting and essential component for telomerase activity and telomere maintenance. Perhaps the time has come to redefine our view of telomerase regulation. Knowledge of the mechanisms controlling both telomerase genes in normal systems and cancer may aid our understanding of the role of telomerase in carcinogenesis or highlight potential areas for therapeutic intervention. Here we review the essential requirement of hTR for telomere maintenance and telomerase activity in normal tissues and disease and focus on recent advances in our understanding of hTR regulation in relation to hTERT.

  9. Risk and survival outcomes of radiation-induced CNS tumors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jessica W; Wernicke, A Gabriella

    2016-08-01

    Patients treated with cranial radiation are at risk of developing secondary CNS tumors. Understanding the incidence, treatment, and long-term outcomes of radiation-induced CNS tumors plays a role in clinical decision-making and patient education. Additionally, as meningiomas and pituitary tumors have been detected at increasing rates across all ages and may potentially be treated with radiation, it is important to know and communicate the risk of secondary tumors in children and adults. After conducting an extensive literature search, we identified publications that report incidence and long-term outcomes of radiation-induced CNS tumors. We reviewed 14 studies in children, which reported that radiation confers a 7- to 10-fold increase in subsequent CNS tumors, with a 20-year cumulative incidence ranging from 1.03 to 28.9 %. The latency period for secondary tumors ranged from 5.5 to 30 years, with gliomas developing in 5-10 years and meningiomas developing around 15 years after radiation. We also reviewed seven studies in adults, where the two strongest studies showed no increased risk while the remaining studies found a higher risk compared to the general population. The latency period for secondary CNS tumors in adults ranged from 5 to 34 years. Treatment and long-term outcomes of radiation-induced CNS tumors have been documented in four case series, which did not conclusively demonstrate that secondary CNS tumors fared worse than primary CNS tumors. Radiation-induced CNS tumors remain a rare occurrence that should not by itself impede radiation treatment. Additional investigation is needed on the risk of radiation-induced tumors in adults and the long-term outcomes of these tumors.

  10. Alternative splicing and nonsense-mediated decay regulate telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) expression during virus-induced lymphomagenesis in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Telomerase activation, a critical step in cell immortalization and oncogenesis, is partly regulated by alternative splicing. In this study, we aimed to use the Marek's disease virus (MDV) T-cell lymphoma model to evaluate TERT regulation by splicing during lymphomagenesis in vivo, from the start point to tumor establishment. Results We first screened cDNA libraries from the chicken MDV lymphoma-derived MSB-1 T- cell line, which we compared with B (DT40) and hepatocyte (LMH) cell lines. The chTERT splicing pattern was cell line-specific, despite similar high levels of telomerase activity. We identified 27 alternative transcripts of chicken TERT (chTERT). Five were in-frame alternative transcripts without in vitro telomerase activity in the presence of viral or chicken telomerase RNA (vTR or chTR), unlike the full-length transcript. Nineteen of the 22 transcripts with a premature termination codon (PTC) harbored a PTC more than 50 nucleotides upstream from the 3' splice junction, and were therefore predicted targets for nonsense-mediated decay (NMD). The major PTC-containing alternatively spliced form identified in MSB1 (ie10) was targeted to the NMD pathway, as demonstrated by UPF1 silencing. We then studied three splicing events separately, and the balance between in-frame alternative splice variants (d5f and d10f) plus the NMD target i10ec and constitutively spliced chTERT transcripts during lymphomagenesis induced by MDV indicated that basal telomerase activity in normal T cells was associated with a high proportion of in-frame non functional isoforms and a low proportion of constitutively spliced chTERT. Telomerase upregulation depended on an increase in active constitutively spliced chTERT levels and coincided with a switch in alternative splicing from an in-frame variant to NMD-targeted variants. Conclusions TERT regulation by splicing plays a key role in telomerase upregulation during lymphomagenesis, through the sophisticated control of

  11. Cancer-associated TERT promoter mutations abrogate telomerase silencing.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Kunitoshi; Johnson, Joshua Z; Vogan, Jacob M; Wagner, Tina; Boyle, John M; Hockemeyer, Dirk

    2015-07-21

    Mutations in the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter are the most frequent non-coding mutations in cancer, but their molecular mechanism in tumorigenesis has not been established. We used genome editing of human pluripotent stem cells with physiological telomerase expression to elucidate the mechanism by which these mutations contribute to human disease. Surprisingly, telomerase-expressing embryonic stem cells engineered to carry any of the three most frequent TERT promoter mutations showed only a modest increase in TERT transcription with no impact on telomerase activity. However, upon differentiation into somatic cells, which normally silence telomerase, cells with TERT promoter mutations failed to silence TERT expression, resulting in increased telomerase activity and aberrantly long telomeres. Thus, TERT promoter mutations are sufficient to overcome the proliferative barrier imposed by telomere shortening without additional tumor-selected mutations. These data establish that TERT promoter mutations can promote immortalization and tumorigenesis of incipient cancer cells.

  12. Telomerase: a target for therapeutic effects of curcumin and a curcumin derivative in Aβ1-42 insult in vitro.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zijian; Zhang, Aiwu; Lin, Jianwen; Zheng, Zhenyang; Shi, Xiaolei; Di, Wei; Qi, Weiwei; Zhu, Yingting; Zhou, Guijuan; Fang, Yannan

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether telomerase was involved in the neuroprotective effect of curcumin and Cur1. Alzheimer's disease is a consequence of an imbalance between the generation and clearance of amyloid-beta peptide in the brain. In this study, we used Aβ1-42 (10 µg/ml) to establish a damaged cell model, and curcumin and Cur1 were used in treatment groups. We measured cell survival and cell growth, intracellular oxidative stress and hTERT expression. After RNA interference, the effects of curcumin and Cur1 on cells were verified. Exposure to Aβ1-42 resulted in significant oxidative stress and cell toxicity, and the expression of hTERT was significantly decreased. Curcumin and Cur1 both protected SK-N-SH cells from Aβ1-42 and up-regulated the expression of hTERT. Furthermore, Cur1 demonstrated stronger protective effects than curcumin. However, when telomerase was inhibited by TERT siRNA, the neuroprotection by curcumin and Cur1 were ceased. Our study indicated that the neuroprotective effects of curcumin and Cur1 depend on telomerase, and thus telomerase may be a target for therapeutic effects of curcumin and Cur1.

  13. Suppression of radiation-induced migration of non-small cell lung cancer through inhibition of Nrf2-Notch Axis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qiuyue; Mao, Aihong; Guo, Ruoshui; Zhang, Liping; Yan, Jiawei; Sun, Chao; Tang, Jinzhou; Ye, Yancheng; Zhang, Yanshan; Zhang, Hong

    2017-03-28

    Nuclear factor E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that is associated with tumor growth and resistance to radiation. The canonical Notch signaling pathway is also crucial for maintaining non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Aberrant Nrf2 and Notch signaling has repeatedly been showed to facilitate metastasis of NSCLC. Here, we show that radiation induce Nrf2 and Notch1 expression in NSCLC. Knockdown of Nrf2 enhanced radiosensitivity of NSCLC and reduced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Importantly, we found that knockdown of Nrf2 dramatically decreased radiation-induced NSCLC invasion and significantly increased E-cadherin, but reduced N-cadherin and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2/9 expression. We found that Notch1 knockdown also upregulated E-cadherin and suppressed N-cadherin expression. Nrf2 contributes to NSCLC cell metastatic properties and this inhibition correlated with reduced Notch1 expression. These results establish that Nrf2 and Notch1 downregulation synergistically inhibit radiation-induced migratory and invasive properties of NSCLC cells.

  14. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation improves radiation-induced heart injury through DNA damage repair in rat model.

    PubMed

    Gao, Song; Zhao, Zhiying; Wu, Rong; Zeng, Yuecan; Zhang, Zhenyong; Miao, Jianing; Yuan, Zhengwei

    2017-03-01

    Radiotherapy is an effective form of therapy for most thoracic malignant tumors. However, myocardial injury resulting from the high doses of radiation is a severe complication. Here we aimed to study the possibility of reducing radiation-induced myocardial injury with mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation. We used MSCs extracted from bone marrow (BMSCs) to transplant via the tail vein into a radiation-induced heart injury (RIHI) rat model. The rats were divided into six groups: a Sham group, an IRR (irradiation) group, and four IRR + BMSCs transplantation groups obtained at different time points. After irradiation, BMSC transplantation significantly enhanced the cardiac function in rats. By analyzing the expression of PPAR-α, PPAR-γ, TGF-β, IL-6, and IL-8, we found that BMSC transplantation alleviated radiation-induced myocardial fibrosis and decreased the inflammatory reaction. Furthermore, we found that expression of γ-H2AX, XRCC4, DNA ligase4, and TP53BP1, which are associated with DNA repair, was up-regulated, along with increased secretion of growth factors SDF-1, CXCR4, VEGF, and IGF in rat myocardium in the IRR + BMSCs transplantation groups compared with the IRR group. Thus, BMSC transplantation has the potential to improve RIHI via DNA repair and be a new therapeutic approach for patients with myocardial injury.

  15. Molecular mechanisms underlying chemopreventive activities of glycyrrhizic acid against UVB-radiation-induced carcinogenesis in SKH-1 hairless mouse epidermis.

    PubMed

    Cherng, Jaw-Ming; Tsai, Kuen-Daw; Yu, Yu-Whay; Lin, Jung-Chung

    2011-08-01

    Glycyrrhizic acid has been shown to possess anti-inflammation, antiviral and chemoprotective activity against tumors. We evaluated the protective effects of glycyrrhizic acid in UVB-radiation-induced skin tumor formation in SKH-1 hairless mice and the early molecular biomarkers of these effects. Mice irradiated at 180 mJ/cm² twice per week showed 100% tumor incidence in 20 weeks. Feeding with glycyrrhizic acid prior to UVB irradiation caused delays in tumor appearance, multiplicity and size. Feeding with glycyrrhizic acid for 2 weeks before a single UVB irradiation (180 mJ/cm²) resulted in significant decrease in UVB-radiation-induced thymine dimer-positive cells, expression of proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells, and apoptotic sunburn cells together with an increase in p53- and p21/Cip1-positive cell populations in epidermis. Simultaneously, glycyrrhizic acid also significantly inhibited NF-κB, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and nitric oxide (NO) levels. Thus glycyrrhizic acid ameliorates UVB-radiation-induced tumorigenesis via downregulation of cell proliferation controls involving thymine dimer, PCNA, apoptosis and transcription factor NF-κB and of inflammatory responses involving COX-2, PGE2 and NO while upregulating of p53 and p21/Cip1 to prevent DNA damage and facilitate DNA repair.

  16. Analytical Validation of Telomerase Activity for Cancer Early Detection

    PubMed Central

    Jakupciak, John P.; Wang, Wendy; Barker, Peter E.; Srivastava, Sudhir; Atha, Donald H.

    2004-01-01

    Activation of telomerase plays a critical role in unlimited proliferation and immortalization of cells. Telomerase activity has been shown to correlate with tumor progression, indicating that tumors expressing this enzyme possess aggressive clinical behavior and that telomerase activity may be a useful biomarker for early detection of cancer. However, measurements of telomerase activity by current methods such as telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP)/polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or antibody-based radioimmunoassay (RIA) are low-throughput and not robust enough to easily accommodate the required statistical analysis to determine whether telomerase activity is a practical biomarker. As part of the National Cancer Institute Early Detection Research Network of analytical validation, we have developed a robot assisted TRAP assay (RApidTRAP) of telomerase, a potential biomarker for cancer early detection. Measurements of human telomerase reverse transcriptase catalytic subunit (hTERT) mRNA were performed in concert with measurement of telomerase activity. For this purpose we determined hTERT mRNA concentration and telomerase activity in human normal (RPE-28) and cancer (A549) cell lines as well as in human serum (SRM 1951A). Telomerase activity measurements were made using the TRAP/PCR capillary electrophoresis (CE) method on (50 to 1000) cells/reaction isolated from cell extracts. Measurement of hTERT mRNA was made using specific primers and probes on a LightCycler in the range of (10 to 7000) cells/reaction. Comparison of high-throughput telomerase activity measurements using the robot and those performed manually were consistent in sensitivity and reproducibility. Using this combination of telomerase activity and hTERT mRNA measurements, the automated system improved efficiency over traditional TRAP/PCR methods. PMID:15269291

  17. Nutrition and lifestyle in healthy aging: the telomerase challenge.

    PubMed

    Boccardi, Virginia; Paolisso, Giuseppe; Mecocci, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition and lifestyle, known to modulate aging process and age-related diseases, might also affect telomerase activity. Short and dysfunctional telomeres rather than average telomere length are associated with longevity in animal models, and their rescue by telomerase maybe sufficient to restore cell and organismal viability. Improving telomerase activation in stem cells and potentially in other cells by diet and lifestyle interventions may represent an intriguing way to promote health-span in humans.

  18. The Ku subunit of telomerase binds Sir4 to recruit telomerase to lengthen telomeres in S. cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Hass, Evan P; Zappulla, David C

    2015-07-28

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in humans, the telomerase RNA subunit is bound by Ku, a ring-shaped protein heterodimer best known for its function in DNA repair. Ku binding to yeast telomerase RNA promotes telomere lengthening and telomerase recruitment to telomeres, but how this is achieved remains unknown. Using telomere-length analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation, we show that Sir4 - a previously identified Ku-binding protein that is a component of telomeric silent chromatin - is required for Ku-mediated telomere lengthening and telomerase recruitment. We also find that specifically tethering Sir4 directly to Ku-binding-defective telomerase RNA restores otherwise-shortened telomeres to wild-type length. These findings suggest that Sir4 is the telomere-bound target of Ku-mediated telomerase recruitment and provide one mechanism for how the Sir4-competing Rif1 and Rif2 proteins negatively regulate telomere length in yeast.

  19. Telomerase activity in human brain tumors: astrocytoma and meningioma.

    PubMed

    Kheirollahi, Majid; Mehrazin, Masoud; Kamalian, Naser; Mohammadi-asl, Javad; Mehdipour, Parvin

    2013-05-01

    Somatic cells do not have telomerase activity but immortalized cell lines and more than 85 % of the cancer cells show telomerase activation to prevent the telomere from progressive shortening. The activation of this enzyme has been found in a variety of human tumors and tumor-derived cell lines, but only few studies on telomerase activity in human brain tumors have been reported. Here, we evaluated telomerase activity in different grades of human astrocytoma and meningioma brain tumors. In this study, assay for telomerase activity performed on 50 eligible cases consisted of 26 meningioma, 24 astrocytoma according to the standard protocols. In the brain tissues, telomerase activity was positive in 39 (65 %) of 50 patients. One sample t test showed that the telomerase activity in meningioma and astrocytoma tumors was significantly positive entirely (P < 0.001). Also, grade I of meningioma and low grades of astrocytoma (grades I and II) significantly showed telomerase activity. According to our results, we suggest that activation of telomerase is an event that starts mostly at low grades of brain including meningioma and astrocytoma tumors.

  20. Telomeres and telomerase: a modern fountain of youth?

    PubMed

    de Magalhães, João Pedro; Toussaint, Olivier

    2004-01-01

    Since ageing is a universal human feature, it is not surprising that, from the Babylonian epic of Gilgamesh to Ponce de Leon seeking the "Fountain of Youth," countless people have dreamed of finding a way to avoid ageing, to no avail. Yet the search continues. In this review, we present one of the latest candidates: the enzyme telomerase, capable of elongating the tips of chromosomes, the telomeres. Research into the causes of cellular ageing established the telomeres as the molecular clock that counts the number of times cells divide and triggers cellular senescence. Herein, we review arguments both in favor and against the use of telomerase as an anti-ageing therapy. The importance of the telomeres in cellular ageing, the low or non-existent levels of telomerase activity in human tissues, and the ability of telomerase to immortalize human cells suggest that telomerase can be used as an anti-ageing therapy. On the other hand, recent experiments in mice have raised doubts whether telomerase affects organismal ageing. Results from human cells expressing telomerase have also suggested telomerase may promote tumorigenesis. We conclude that, though telomerase may be used in regenerative medicine and to treat specific diseases, it is unlikely to become a source of anti-ageing therapies.

  1. Critical telomerase activity for uncontrolled cell growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesch, Neil L.; Burlock, Laura J.; Gooding, Robert J.

    2016-08-01

    The lengths of the telomere regions of chromosomes in a population of cells are modelled using a chemical master equation formalism, from which the evolution of the average number of cells of each telomere length is extracted. In particular, the role of the telomere-elongating enzyme telomerase on these dynamics is investigated. We show that for biologically relevant rates of cell birth and death, one finds a critical rate, R crit, of telomerase activity such that the total number of cells diverges. Further, R crit is similar in magnitude to the rates of mitosis and cell death. The possible relationship of this result to replicative immortality and its associated hallmark of cancer is discussed.

  2. Use of telomerase to create bioengineered tissues.

    PubMed

    Shay, Jerry W; Wright, Woodring E

    2005-12-01

    Telomeres are repetitive DNA (TTAGGG) elements at the ends of chromosomes. Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein complex that catalyzes the addition of telomeric sequences to the ends of chromosomes. The catalytic protein component of telomerase (hTERT) is expressed only in specific germ line cells, proliferative stem cells of renewal tissues, and cancer cells. The expression of hTERT in normal cells reconstitutes telomerase activity and circumvents the induction of senescence. Telomeres shorten with each cell division, eventually leading to senescence (aging), due to incomplete lagging DNA strand synthesis and end-processing events, and because telomerase activity is not detected in most somatic tissues. There are specific tissues and locations in which replicative senescence likely contributes to the decline in human physiological function with increased age and with chronic illnesses. While expressing hTERT in cells results in the maintenance of telomere length and greatly extended life span, blocking replicative aging systemically would be predicted to increase the potential for tumor formation. However, there are many situations in which the transient rejuvenation of cells could be beneficial. Ectopic expression of hTERT has been shown to immortalize human skin keratinocytes, dermal fibroblasts, muscle satellite (stem), and vascular endothelial, myometrial, retinal-pigmented, and breast epithelial cells. In addition, human bronchial, corneal and skin cells expressing hTERT can be used to form organotypic (3D) cultures (bioengineered tissues) that express differentiation-specific proteins, demonstrating that hTERT by itself does not alter normal physiology. The production of hTERT-engineered tissues offers the possibility of producing tissues to treat a variety of chronic diseases and age-related medical conditions that are due to telomere-based replicative senescence.

  3. A human telomerase holoenzyme protein required for Cajal body localization and telomere synthesis.

    PubMed

    Venteicher, Andrew S; Abreu, Eladio B; Meng, Zhaojing; McCann, Kelly E; Terns, Rebecca M; Veenstra, Timothy D; Terns, Michael P; Artandi, Steven E

    2009-01-30

    Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex that synthesizes telomere repeats in tissue progenitor cells and cancer cells. Active human telomerase consists of at least three principal subunits, including the telomerase reverse transcriptase, the telomerase RNA (TERC), and dyskerin. Here, we identify a holoenzyme subunit, TCAB1 (telomerase Cajal body protein 1), that is notably enriched in Cajal bodies, nuclear sites of RNP processing that are important for telomerase function. TCAB1 associates with active telomerase enzyme, established telomerase components, and small Cajal body RNAs that are involved in modifying splicing RNAs. Depletion of TCAB1 by using RNA interference prevents TERC from associating with Cajal bodies, disrupts telomerase-telomere association, and abrogates telomere synthesis by telomerase. Thus, TCAB1 controls telomerase trafficking and is required for telomere synthesis in human cancer cells.

  4. Structural Analysis Reveals the Deleterious Effects of Telomerase Mutations in Telomerase-Associated Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Hunter; Rice, Cory; Skordalakes, Emmanuel

    2017-02-01

    Naturally occurring mutations in the ribonucleoprotein reverse transcriptase, telomerase, are associated with the bone marrow failure syndromes dyskeratosis congenita (DKC), aplastic anemia (AA), and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, the mechanism by which these mutations impact telomerase function remains unknown. Here we present the structure of the human telomerase c-terminal extension (CTE or thumb domain) determined by the method of single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) to 2.31 A resolution. We also used direct telomerase activity and nucleic acid binding assays to explain how naturally occurring mutations within this portion of telomerase contribute to human disease. The single mutations localize within three highly conserved regions of the telomerase thumb domain referred to as motifs E-I, (thumb loop and helix) E-II and E-III (the FVYL pocket, comprising the hydrophobic residues F1012, V1025, Y1089 and L1092). Biochemical data shows that the mutations associated with DKC, AA and IFP disrupt the binding between telomerases protein subunit reverse transcriptase (TERT) and its nucleic acid substrates leading to loss of telomerase activity and processivity. Collectively our data shows that although these mutations do not alter the overall stability or expression of TERT, these rare genetic disorders are associated with an impaired telomerase holoenzyme that is unable to correctly assemble with its nucleic acid substrates, leading to incomplete telomere extension and telomere attrition, which are hallmarks of these diseases.

  5. Human telomerase activity, telomerase and telomeric template expression in hepatic stem cells and in livers from fetal and postnatal donors.

    PubMed

    Schmelzer, Eva; Reid, Lola M

    2009-10-01

    Although telomerase activity has been analyzed in various normal and malignant tissues, including liver, it is still unknown to what extent telomerase can be associated with specific maturational lineage stages. We assessed human telomerase activity, protein and gene expression for the telomerase reverse transcriptase, as well as expression of the telomeric template RNA hTER in hepatic stem cells and in various developmental stages of the liver from fetal to adult. In addition, the effect of growth factors on telomerase activity was analyzed in hepatic stem cells in vitro. Telomerase was found to be highly active in fetal liver cells and was significantly higher than in hepatic stem cells, correlating with gene and protein expression levels. Activity in postnatal livers from all donor ages varied considerably and did not correlate with age or gene expression levels. The hter expression could be detected throughout the development. A short stimulation by growth factors of cultured hepatic stem cells did not increase telomerase activity. Telomerase is considerably active in fetal liver and variably in postnatal livers. Although telomerase protein is present at varying levels in liver cells of all donor ages, gene expression is solely associated with fetal liver cells.

  6. Human Telomerase Activity, Telomerase and Telomeric Template Expression in Hepatic Stem Cells and in Livers from Fetal and Postnatal Donors

    PubMed Central

    Schmelzer, Eva; Reid, Lola M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Even though telomerase activity has been analyzed in various normal and malignant tissues, including liver, it is still unknown to what extent telomerase can be associated with specific maturational lineage stages. Methods We assessed human telomerase activity, protein and gene expression for the telomerase reverse transcriptase, as well as expression of the telomeric template RNA hter in hepatic stem cells and in various developmental stages of the liver from fetal to adult. Additionally, the effect of growth factors on telomerase activity was analyzed in hepatic stem cells in vitro. Results Telomerase was found to be highly active in fetal liver cells and was significantly higher than in hepatic stem cells, correlating with gene and protein expression levels. Activity in postnatal livers from all donor ages varied considerably and did not correlate with age or gene expression levels. The hter expression could be detected throughout development. A short stimulation by growth factors of cultured hepatic stem cells did not increase telomerase activity. Conclusions Telomerase is considerably active in fetal liver and variably in postnatal livers. Although telomerase protein is present at varying levels in liver cells of all donor ages, gene expression is associated solely with fetal liver cells. PMID:19240645

  7. Oligomer formation in the radiation-induced polymerization of styrene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harayma, Hiroshi; Al-Sheikhly, Mohamad; Silverman, Joseph

    2003-12-01

    Analyses of the oligomers formed in radiation-induced polymerization of purified styrene were performed. The principal dimeric products were cis- and trans-diphenyl-cyclobutane with a relatively small amount of 1-phenyltetralin; the trimeric products were the optical isomers of 1-phenyl-4-[1'-phenylethyl-(1')]-tetralin in gamma-ray and 60 MeV proton irradiation. Oligomer formation increased with increasing dose, but more gradually than the linear formation of high polymer with dose. The yield was 0.25-3.1 μmol/J at low doses and decreased to an asymptotic value of 0.15 at higher doses. It appears that oligomers act as chain transfer agents during the polymerization reaction which would account for the observed decrease in molecular weight of the high polymer with increase in dose. Although the thermal and radiation-induced polymerization of styrene have different initiation steps, the oligomers produced by both reactions are similar in composition.

  8. Faecal microbiota transplantation protects against radiation-induced toxicity.

    PubMed

    Cui, Ming; Xiao, Huiwen; Li, Yuan; Zhou, Lixin; Zhao, Shuyi; Luo, Dan; Zheng, Qisheng; Dong, Jiali; Zhao, Yu; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Junling; Lu, Lu; Wang, Haichao; Fan, Saijun

    2017-04-01

    Severe radiation exposure may cause acute radiation syndrome, a possibly fatal condition requiring effective therapy. Gut microbiota can be manipulated to fight against many diseases. We explored whether intestinal microbe transplantation could alleviate radiation-induced toxicity. High-throughput sequencing showed that gastrointestinal bacterial community composition differed between male and female mice and was associated with susceptibility to radiation toxicity. Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) increased the survival rate of irradiated animals, elevated peripheral white blood cell counts and improved gastrointestinal tract function and intestinal epithelial integrity in irradiated male and female mice. FMT preserved the intestinal bacterial composition and retained mRNA and long non-coding RNA expression profiles of host small intestines in a sex-specific fashion. Despite promoting angiogenesis, sex-matched FMT did not accelerate the proliferation of cancer cells in vivo FMT might serve as a therapeutic to mitigate radiation-induced toxicity and improve the prognosis of tumour patients after radiotherapy.

  9. Radiation-induced decomposition of explosives under extreme conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Giefers, Hubertus; Pravica, Michael; Yang, Wenge; Liermann, Peter

    2008-11-03

    We present high-pressure and high temperature studies of the synchrotron radiation-induced decomposition of powder secondary high explosives pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) and 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) using white beam synchrotron radiation at the 16 BM-B and 16 BM-D sectors of the HP-CAT beamline at the Advanced Photon Source. The radiation-induced decomposition rate TATB showed dramatic slowing with pressure up to 26.6 GPa (the highest pressure studied), implying a positive activation volume of the activated complex. The decomposition rate of PETN varied little with pressure up to 15.7 GPa (the highest pressure studied). Diffraction line intensities were measured as a function of time using energy-dispersive methods. By measuring the decomposition rate as a function of pressure and temperature, kinetic and other constants associated with the decomposition reactions were extracted.

  10. Caffeine Markedly Enhanced Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Erkang; Wu, Lijun

    2009-04-01

    In this paper it is shown that incubation with 2 mM caffeine enhanced significantly the MN (micronucleus) formation in both the 1 cGy α-particle irradiated and non-irradiated bystander regions. Moreover, caffeine treatment made the non-irradiated bystander cells more sensitive to damage signals. Treated by c-PTIO(2-(4-carboxy-phenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-imidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide), a nitric oxide (NO) scavenger, the MN frequencies were effectively inhibited, showing that nitric oxide might be very important in mediating the enhanced damage. These results indicated that caffeine enhanced the low dose α-particle radiation-induced damage in irradiated and non-irradiated bystander regions, and therefore it is important to investigate the relationship between the radiosensitizer and radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE).

  11. Radioadaptive response for protection against radiation-induced teratogenesis.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Ryuji; Ootsuyama, Akira; Norimura, Toshiyuki

    2005-03-01

    To clarify the characteristics of the radioadaptive response in mice, we compared the incidence of radiation-induced malformations in ICR mice. Pregnant ICR mice were exposed to a priming dose of 2 cGy (667 muGy/min) on day 9.5 of gestation and to a challenging dose of 2 Gy (1.04 Gy/min) 4 h later and were killed on day 18.5 of gestation. The incidence of malformations and prenatal death and fetal body weights were studied. The incidence of external malformations was significantly lower (by approximately 10%) in the primed (2 cGy + 2 Gy) mice compared to the unprimed (2 Gy alone) mice. However, there were no differences in the incidence of prenatal death or the skeletal malformations or the body weights between primed and unprimed mice. These results suggest that primary conditioning with low doses of radiation suppresses radiation-induced teratogenesis.

  12. Radiation induced viscous flow in amorphous thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayr, S. G.; Ashkenazy, Y.; Averback, R. S.

    2003-03-01

    We investigate surface roughness and stress relaxation in amorphous thin films during ion beam irradiation by a combination of experiments and molecular dynamics simulations. These experiments show, that smoothing occurs by a viscous mechanism. With computer simulations we investigate the model system CuTi, and find that radiation induced viscous flow is independent of the recoil energy between 100 and 15keV, when compared on the basis of defect production. Additionally we can identify a threshold recoil energy for flow of approximately 10eV. We show, that point defects can mediate the flow, by injection of interstitial and vacancy-like defects, which induce the same amount of flow as recoil events. The results are compared with the thermal spike model of radiation induced viscous flow.

  13. Dose and volume impact on radiation-induced xerostomia.

    PubMed

    Marmiroli, Luca; Salvi, Giovanna; Caiazza, Adolfo; Di Rienzo, Luigi; Massaccesi, Mariangela; Murino, Paola; Macchia, Gabriella

    2005-01-01

    Radiation-induced xerostomia consists in the chronic dryness of the mouth caused by parotid gland irradiation. Parotid glands produce approximately 60% of saliva while the rest is secreted by submandibular and accessory salivary glands. Methods of measuring the salivary output are essentially represented by 99mTc-pertechnate scintigraphy or simpler albeit less accurate methods in stimulated or unstimulated saliva. There are subjective and objective criteria of classification and grading of the secretion of saliva. Radiation-induced xerostomia, namely the residual salivary gland function is evidently associated with the mean dose absorbed. The salivary output tends to decrease after the end of radiotherapy. The partial dose-volume is substantially correlated with the mean dose to the whole gland. As for ipsilateral irradiation for head and neck cancer, conformal RT or IMRT allow to spare the contralateral parotid gland without increasing the risk of contralateral nodal recurrences. The monitoring system of late toxicity used by the authors is presented.

  14. Radiation-induced transient darkening of optically transparent polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Downey, S.W.; Builta, L.A.; Carlson, R.L.; Czuchlewski, S.J.; Moir, D.C.

    1986-11-15

    Results are presented for the radiation-induced transient darkening of thin organic polymer films normally used as Cerenkov light emissions sources. The radiation source is a 27-MeV, 10-..mu..C, 200-ns electron beam generated by the PHERMEX accelerator. The typical dose for a single pulse is 5 Mrad. At this dose, the broadband time-resolved percent transmission above 520 nm was measured for four common polymers: polyimide (Kapton-H), polyethylene terephthalate (Mylar), cellulose acetate, and high-density polyethylene. Kapton was found to darken the most and polyethylene darkened the least. The recovery time to normal transmission for Kapton was found to be greater than 10--20 ..mu..s. The radiation-induced attenuation coefficient is shown to depend on electronic band energy separation. The results show that Kapton is not the material of choice for a Cerenkov light source.

  15. Telomerase reactivation reverses tissue degeneration in aged telomerase-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Jaskelioff, Mariela; Muller, Florian L; Paik, Ji-Hye; Thomas, Emily; Jiang, Shan; Adams, Andrew C; Sahin, Ergun; Kost-Alimova, Maria; Protopopov, Alexei; Cadiñanos, Juan; Horner, James W; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria; Depinho, Ronald A

    2011-01-06

    An ageing world population has fuelled interest in regenerative remedies that may stem declining organ function and maintain fitness. Unanswered is whether elimination of intrinsic instigators driving age-associated degeneration can reverse, as opposed to simply arrest, various afflictions of the aged. Such instigators include progressively damaged genomes. Telomerase-deficient mice have served as a model system to study the adverse cellular and organismal consequences of wide-spread endogenous DNA damage signalling activation in vivo. Telomere loss and uncapping provokes progressive tissue atrophy, stem cell depletion, organ system failure and impaired tissue injury responses. Here, we sought to determine whether entrenched multi-system degeneration in adult mice with severe telomere dysfunction can be halted or possibly reversed by reactivation of endogenous telomerase activity. To this end, we engineered a knock-in allele encoding a 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT)-inducible telomerase reverse transcriptase-oestrogen receptor (TERT-ER) under transcriptional control of the endogenous TERT promoter. Homozygous TERT-ER mice have short dysfunctional telomeres and sustain increased DNA damage signalling and classical degenerative phenotypes upon successive generational matings and advancing age. Telomerase reactivation in such late generation TERT-ER mice extends telomeres, reduces DNA damage signalling and associated cellular checkpoint responses, allows resumption of proliferation in quiescent cultures, and eliminates degenerative phenotypes across multiple organs including testes, spleens and intestines. Notably, somatic telomerase reactivation reversed neurodegeneration with restoration of proliferating Sox2(+) neural progenitors, Dcx(+) newborn neurons, and Olig2(+) oligodendrocyte populations. Consistent with the integral role of subventricular zone neural progenitors in generation and maintenance of olfactory bulb interneurons, this wave of telomerase

  16. Modulation of Radiation-Induced Apoptosis by Thiolamines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warters, R. L.; Roberts, J. C.; Wilmore, B. H.; Kelley, L. L.

    1997-01-01

    Exposure to the thiolamine radioprotector N-(2-mercaptoethyl)-1,3-propanediamine (WR-1065) induced apoptosis in the mouse TB8-3 hybridoma after 60-minute (LD(sub50) = 4.5mM) or during a 20-hour (LD(sub50) = 0.15 mM) exposure. In contrast, a 20-hour exposure to 17 mM L-cysteine or 10 mM cysteamine was required to induce 50 percent apoptosis within 20 hours. Apoptosis was not induced by either a 60-minute or 20-hour exposure to 10 mM of the thiazolidime prodrugs ribose-cysteine (RibCys) or ribose-cysteamine (RibCyst). Thiolamine-induced apoptosis appeared to be a p53-independent process since it was induced by WR-1065 exposure in human HL60 cells. Exposure to WR-1065 (4mM for 15 minutes) or cysteine (10mM for 60 minutes) before and during irradiation protected cells against the induction of both DNA double-strand breaks and apoptosis, while exposure to RibCys (10 mM for 3 hours) did not. Treatment with either WR-1065, cysteine, RibCys or RibCyst for 60 minutes beginning 60 minutes after irradiation did not affect the level of radiation-induced apoptosis. In contrast, treatment with either cysteine, cysteamine or RibCys for 20 hours beginning 60 minutes after irradiation enhanced radiation-induced apoptosis. Similar experiments could not be conducted with WR-1065 because of its extreme toxicity. Our results indicate that thiolamine enhancement of radiation-induced apoptosis is not involved in their previously reported capacity to reduce radiation-induced mutations.

  17. Prosthodontic management of radiation induced xerostomic patient using flexible dentures

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, Varsha; V, Yuvraj; Nair, Preeti P; Thomas, Shaji

    2012-01-01

    Xerostomia causes discomfort for complete denture wearers as the tissues become dry and friable due to lack of lubricating properties of saliva. Common problems faced by such patients are glossitis, mucositis, angular chelitis, dysgeusia and difficulty in chewing and swallowing. This case report describes a new method in addressing such issues by using flexible complete denture construction in radiation induced xerostomic patient with minimal tissue damage during and after denture construction procedures. PMID:22605708

  18. Modulation of Radiation-Induced Apoptosis by Thiolamines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warters, R. L.; Roberts, J. C.; Wilmore, B. H.; Kelley, L. L.

    1997-01-01

    Exposure to the thiolamine radioprotector N-(2-mercaptoethyl)-1,3-propanediamine (WR-1065) induced apoptosis in the mouse TB8-3 hybridoma after 60-minute (LD(sub50) = 4.5mM) or during a 20-hour (LD(sub50) = 0.15 mM) exposure. In contrast, a 20-hour exposure to 17 mM L-cysteine or 10 mM cysteamine was required to induce 50 percent apoptosis within 20 hours. Apoptosis was not induced by either a 60-minute or 20-hour exposure to 10 mM of the thiazolidime prodrugs ribose-cysteine (RibCys) or ribose-cysteamine (RibCyst). Thiolamine-induced apoptosis appeared to be a p53-independent process since it was induced by WR-1065 exposure in human HL60 cells. Exposure to WR-1065 (4mM for 15 minutes) or cysteine (10mM for 60 minutes) before and during irradiation protected cells against the induction of both DNA double-strand breaks and apoptosis, while exposure to RibCys (10 mM for 3 hours) did not. Treatment with either WR-1065, cysteine, RibCys or RibCyst for 60 minutes beginning 60 minutes after irradiation did not affect the level of radiation-induced apoptosis. In contrast, treatment with either cysteine, cysteamine or RibCys for 20 hours beginning 60 minutes after irradiation enhanced radiation-induced apoptosis. Similar experiments could not be conducted with WR-1065 because of its extreme toxicity. Our results indicate that thiolamine enhancement of radiation-induced apoptosis is not involved in their previously reported capacity to reduce radiation-induced mutations.

  19. Follistatin attenuates radiation-induced fibrosis in a murine model

    PubMed Central

    Forrester, Helen B.; de Kretser, David M.; Leong, Trevor; Hagekyriakou, Jim; Sprung, Carl N.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Fibrosis can be a disabling, severe side effect of radiotherapy that can occur in patients, and for which there is currently no effective treatment. The activins, proteins which are members of the TGFβ superfamily, have a major role in stimulating the inflammatory response and subsequent fibrosis. Follistatin is an endogenous protein that binds the activins virtually irreversibly and inhibits their actions. These studies test if follistatin can attenuate the fibrotic response using a murine model of radiation-induced fibrosis. Experimental design C57BL/6 mice were subcutaneously injected with follistatin 24 hours prior to irradiation. Mice were irradiated in a 10 x 10 mm square area of the right hind leg with 35 Gy and were given follistatin 24 hours before radiation and three times a week for six months following. Leg extension was measured, and tissue was collected for histological and molecular analysis to evaluate the progression of the radiation-induced fibrosis. Results Leg extension was improved in follistatin treated mice compared to vehicle treated mice at six months after irradiation. Also, epidermal thickness and cell nucleus area of keratinocytes were decreased by the follistatin treatment compared to the cells in irradiated skin of control mice. Finally, the gene expression of transforming growth factor β1 (Tgfb1), and smooth muscle actin (Acta2) were decreased in the irradiated skin and Acta2 and inhibin βA subunit (Inhba) were decreased in the irradiated muscle of the follistatin treated mice. Conclusions Follistatin attenuated the radiation-induced fibrotic response in irradiated mice. These studies provide the data to support further investigation of the use of follistatin to reduce radiation-induced fibrosis in patients undergoing radiotherapy for cancer. PMID:28301516

  20. Follistatin attenuates radiation-induced fibrosis in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Forrester, Helen B; de Kretser, David M; Leong, Trevor; Hagekyriakou, Jim; Sprung, Carl N

    2017-01-01

    Fibrosis can be a disabling, severe side effect of radiotherapy that can occur in patients, and for which there is currently no effective treatment. The activins, proteins which are members of the TGFβ superfamily, have a major role in stimulating the inflammatory response and subsequent fibrosis. Follistatin is an endogenous protein that binds the activins virtually irreversibly and inhibits their actions. These studies test if follistatin can attenuate the fibrotic response using a murine model of radiation-induced fibrosis. C57BL/6 mice were subcutaneously injected with follistatin 24 hours prior to irradiation. Mice were irradiated in a 10 x 10 mm square area of the right hind leg with 35 Gy and were given follistatin 24 hours before radiation and three times a week for six months following. Leg extension was measured, and tissue was collected for histological and molecular analysis to evaluate the progression of the radiation-induced fibrosis. Leg extension was improved in follistatin treated mice compared to vehicle treated mice at six months after irradiation. Also, epidermal thickness and cell nucleus area of keratinocytes were decreased by the follistatin treatment compared to the cells in irradiated skin of control mice. Finally, the gene expression of transforming growth factor β1 (Tgfb1), and smooth muscle actin (Acta2) were decreased in the irradiated skin and Acta2 and inhibin βA subunit (Inhba) were decreased in the irradiated muscle of the follistatin treated mice. Follistatin attenuated the radiation-induced fibrotic response in irradiated mice. These studies provide the data to support further investigation of the use of follistatin to reduce radiation-induced fibrosis in patients undergoing radiotherapy for cancer.

  1. Heavy-ion radiation induced bystander effect in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Shujian; Sun, Yeqing; Zhang, Meng; Wang, Wei; Cui, Changna

    2012-07-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effect is defined as the induction of damage in neighboring non-hit cells by signals released from directly-irradiated cells. Recently, Low dose of high LET radiation induced bystander effects in vivo have been reported more and more. It has been indicated that radiation induced bystander effect was localized not only in bystander tissues but also in distant organs. Genomic, epigenetic, metabolomics and proteomics play significant roles in regulating heavy-ion radiation stress responses in mice. To identify the molecular mechanism that underlies bystander effects of heavy-ion radiation, the male mice head were exposed to 2000mGy dose of 12C heavy-ion radiation and the distant organ liver was detected on 1h, 6h, 12h and 24h after radiation, respectively. MSAP was used to monitor the level of polymorphic DNA methylation changes. The results show that heavy-ion irradiate mouse head can induce liver DNA methylation changes significantly. The percent of DNA methylation changes are time-dependent and highest at 6h after radiation. We also prove that the hypo-methylation changes on 1h and 6h after irradiation. But the expression level of DNA methyltransferase DNMT3a is not changed. UPLC/Synapt HDMS G2 was employed to detect the proteomics of bystander liver 1h after irradiation. 64 proteins are found significantly different between treatment and control group. GO process show that six of 64 which were unique in irradiation group are associated with apoptosis and DNA damage response. The results suggest that mice head exposed to heavy-ion radiation can induce damage and methylation pattern changed in distant organ liver. Moreover, our findings are important to understand the molecular mechanism of radiation induced bystander effects in vivo.

  2. Torin2 Suppresses Ionizing Radiation-Induced DNA Damage Repair.

    PubMed

    Udayakumar, Durga; Pandita, Raj K; Horikoshi, Nobuo; Liu, Yan; Liu, Qingsong; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Hunt, Clayton R; Gray, Nathanael S; Minna, John D; Pandita, Tej K; Westover, Kenneth D

    2016-05-01

    Several classes of inhibitors of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) have been developed based on its central role in sensing growth factor and nutrient levels to regulate cellular metabolism. However, its ATP-binding site closely resembles other phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinase (PIKK) family members, resulting in reactivity with these targets that may also be therapeutically useful. The ATP-competitive mTOR inhibitor, Torin2, shows biochemical activity against the DNA repair-associated proteins ATM, ATR and DNA-PK, which raises the possibility that Torin2 and related compounds might radiosensitize cancerous tumors. In this study Torin2 was also found to enhance ionizing radiation-induced cell killing in conditions where ATM was dispensable, confirming the requirement for multiple PIKK targets. Moreover, Torin2 did not influence the initial appearance of γ-H2AX foci after irradiation but significantly delayed the disappearance of radiation-induced γ-H2AX foci, indicating a DNA repair defect. Torin2 increased the number of radiation-induced S-phase specific chromosome aberrations and reduced the frequency of radiation-induced CtIP and Rad51 foci formation, suggesting that Torin2 works by blocking homologous recombination (HR)-mediated DNA repair resulting in an S-phase specific DNA repair defect. Accordingly, Torin2 reduced HR-mediated repair of I-Sce1-induced DNA damage and contributed to replication fork stalling. We conclude that radiosensitization of tumor cells by Torin2 is associated with disrupting ATR- and ATM-dependent DNA damage responses. Our findings support the concept of developing combination cancer therapies that incorporate ionizing radiation therapy and Torin2 or compounds with similar properties.

  3. Thermodynamic models of radiation-induced processes in solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurov, V. M.; Eremin, E. N.; Kasymov, S. S.; Laurinas, V. CH; Chernyavskii, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    A thermodynamic model is proposed to qualitatively describe the radiation-induced processes in solids: temperature dependence of the X-ray radio luminescence output, dependence of these processes on the excitation density, energy accumulating in a solid under exposure to ionizing radiation and its temperature dependence. The proposed model and the formula derived can be used to develop radiation-resistant and radiation-sensitive materials.

  4. Process and Radiation Induced Defects in Electronic Materials and Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washington, Kenneth; Fogarty, T. N.

    1997-01-01

    Process and radiation induced defects are characterized by a variety of electrical techniques, including capacitance-voltage measurements and charge pumping. Separation of defect type into stacking faults, displacement damage, oxide traps, interface states, etc. and their related causes are discussed. The defects are then related to effects on device parameters. Silicon MOS technology is emphasized. Several reviews of radiation effects and silicon processing exist.

  5. Dynamics of radiation-induced amorphization in intermetallic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, N.Q.; Okamoto, P.R. ); Devanathan, R. Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering); Meshii, M. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1992-06-01

    Recent progress in molecular-dynamics simulations of radiation-induced crystalline-to-amorphous transition in intermetallic compounds and the relationship between amorphization and melting are discussed. By focusing on the mean-square static displacement, which provides a generic measure of energy stored in the lattice in the forms of chemical and topological disorder, a unified description of solid-state amorphization as a disorder-induced, isothermal melting process can be developed within the framework of a generalized Lindemann criterion.

  6. Process and Radiation Induced Defects in Electronic Materials and Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washington, Kenneth; Fogarty, T. N.

    1997-01-01

    Process and radiation induced defects are characterized by a variety of electrical techniques, including capacitance-voltage measurements and charge pumping. Separation of defect type into stacking faults, displacement damage, oxide traps, interface states, etc. and their related causes are discussed. The defects are then related to effects on device parameters. Silicon MOS technology is emphasized. Several reviews of radiation effects and silicon processing exist.

  7. YThe BigH3 Tumor Suppressor Gene in Radiation-Induced Malignant Transformation of Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Shao, G.; Piao, C.; Hei, T.

    Carcinogenesis is a multi-stage process with sequences of genetic events governing the phenotypic expression of a series of transformation steps leading to the development of metastatic cancer Previous studies from this laboratory have identified a 7 fold down- regulation of the novel tumor suppressor Big-h3 among radiation induced tumorigenic BEP2D cells Furthermore ectopic re-expression of this gene suppresses tumorigenic phenotype and promotes the sensitivity of these tumor cells to etoposide-induced apoptosis To extend these studies using a genomically more stable bronchial cell line we ectopically expresses the catalytic subunit of telomerase hTERT in primary human small airway epithelial SAE cells and generated several clonal cell lines that have been continuously in culture for more than 250 population doublings and are considered immortal Comparably-treated control SAE cells infected with only the viral vector senesced after less than 10 population doublings The immortalized clones demonstrated anchorage dependent growth and are non-tumorigenic in nude mice These cells show no alteration in the p53 gene but a decrease in p16 expression Exponentially growing SAEh cells were exposed to graded doses of 1 GeV nucleon of 56 Fe ions accelerated at the Brookhaven National Laboratory Irradiated cells underwent gradual phenotypic alterations after extensive in vitro cultivation Transformed cells developed through a series of successive steps before becoming anchorage independent in semisolid medium These findings indicate

  8. Modeling radiation induced segregation in Iron-Chromium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Senninger, Oriane; Soisson, Frederic; Martinez Saez, Enrique; Nastar, Maylise; Fu, Chu-Chun; Brechet, Yves

    2015-10-16

    Radiation induced segregation in ferritic Fe-Cr alloys is studied by Atomistic Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations that include di usion of chemical species by vacancy and interstitial migration, recombination, and elimination at sinks. The parameters of the di usion model are tted to DFT calculations. Transport coe cients that control the coupling between di usion of defects and chemical species are measured in dilute and concentrated alloys. Radiation induced segregation near grain boundaries is directly simulated with this model. We nd that the di usion of vacancies toward sinks leads to a Cr depletion. Meanwhile, the di usion of self-interstitials causes an enrichment of Cr in the vicinity of sinks. For concentrations lower than 15%Cr, we predict that sinks will be enriched with Cr for temperatures lower than a threshold. When the temperature is above this threshold value, the sinks will be depleted in Cr. These results are compared to previous experimental studies and models. Cases of radiation induced precipitation and radiation accelerated precipitation are considered.

  9. Modeling radiation induced segregation in Iron-Chromium alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Senninger, Oriane; Soisson, Frederic; Martinez Saez, Enrique; ...

    2015-10-16

    Radiation induced segregation in ferritic Fe-Cr alloys is studied by Atomistic Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations that include di usion of chemical species by vacancy and interstitial migration, recombination, and elimination at sinks. The parameters of the di usion model are tted to DFT calculations. Transport coe cients that control the coupling between di usion of defects and chemical species are measured in dilute and concentrated alloys. Radiation induced segregation near grain boundaries is directly simulated with this model. We nd that the di usion of vacancies toward sinks leads to a Cr depletion. Meanwhile, the di usion of self-interstitials causesmore » an enrichment of Cr in the vicinity of sinks. For concentrations lower than 15%Cr, we predict that sinks will be enriched with Cr for temperatures lower than a threshold. When the temperature is above this threshold value, the sinks will be depleted in Cr. These results are compared to previous experimental studies and models. Cases of radiation induced precipitation and radiation accelerated precipitation are considered.« less

  10. Radiation-induced cataract in astronauts and cosmonauts.

    PubMed

    Rastegar, Noushin; Eckart, Peter; Mertz, Manfred

    2002-07-01

    Opacification of the ocular lens is an important effect of exposure to ionizing radiation. Astronauts and cosmonauts are exposed to relatively high doses of all types of radiation in space, including high-energy particle radiation. A study was initiated to examine the lenses of the eyes of astronauts/cosmonauts to detect signs of radiation-induced cataracts. The aim of this study was to take a first step towards gaining improved, quantitative insight into the risk of radiation-induced cataract associated with long space missions. The lenses of 21 former astronauts and cosmonauts were examined, using an upgraded Topcon SL-45 B Scheimpflug camera system. The degrees of opacification in this group of astronauts and cosmonauts were compared with the measurements in a reference group. This reference group was established by examining a cohort of 395 persons using the same Scheimpflug system. Initial results indicated that opacity values in most of the astronauts and cosmonauts were slightly to strongly increased in regions IV (posterior cortex) and V (posterior capsule), compared with the average opacity values for the respective age-group of the reference cohort. The aim of this study - to conduct first examinations of astronauts' and cosmonauts' ocular lenses with regard to signs of radiation-induced cataract - was successfully achieved in a total of 21 astronauts and cosmonauts using a Scheimpflug camera system. It is planned to examine a larger group of astronauts and cosmonauts in the future.

  11. Clarithromycin Attenuates Radiation-Induced Lung Injury in Mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Jun; Yi, Chin-ok; Heo, Rok Won; Song, Dae Hyun; Cho, Yu Ji; Jeong, Yi Yeong; Kang, Ki Mun; Roh, Gu Seob; Lee, Jong Deog

    2015-01-01

    Radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) is a common and unavoidable complication of thoracic radiotherapy. The current study was conducted to evaluate the ability of clarithromycin (CLA) to prevent radiation-induced pneumonitis, oxidative stress, and lung fibrosis in an animal model. C57BL/6J mice were assigned to control, irradiation only, irradiation plus CLA, and CLA only groups. Test mice received single thoracic exposures to radiation and/or oral CLA (100 mg/kg/day). Histopathologic findings and markers of inflammation, fibrosis, and oxidative stress were compared by group. On a microscopic level, CLA inhibited macrophage influx, alveolar fibrosis, parenchymal collapse, consolidation, and epithelial cell changes. The concentration of collagen in lung tissue was lower in irradiation plus CLA mice. Radiation-induced expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, TNF receptor 1, acetylated nuclear factor kappa B, cyclooxygenase 2, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, and matrix metallopeptidase 9 were also attenuated by CLA. Expression levels of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 and heme oxygenase 1, transforming growth factor-β1, connective tissue growth factor, and type I collagen in radiation-treated lungs were also attenuated by CLA. These findings indicate that CLA ameliorates the deleterious effects of thoracic irradiation in mice by reducing pulmonary inflammation, oxidative damage, and fibrosis.

  12. Clarithromycin Attenuates Radiation-Induced Lung Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Jun; Yi, Chin-ok; Heo, Rok Won; Song, Dae Hyun; Cho, Yu Ji; Jeong, Yi Yeong; Kang, Ki Mun; Roh, Gu Seob; Lee, Jong Deog

    2015-01-01

    Radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) is a common and unavoidable complication of thoracic radiotherapy. The current study was conducted to evaluate the ability of clarithromycin (CLA) to prevent radiation-induced pneumonitis, oxidative stress, and lung fibrosis in an animal model. C57BL/6J mice were assigned to control, irradiation only, irradiation plus CLA, and CLA only groups. Test mice received single thoracic exposures to radiation and/or oral CLA (100 mg/kg/day). Histopathologic findings and markers of inflammation, fibrosis, and oxidative stress were compared by group. On a microscopic level, CLA inhibited macrophage influx, alveolar fibrosis, parenchymal collapse, consolidation, and epithelial cell changes. The concentration of collagen in lung tissue was lower in irradiation plus CLA mice. Radiation-induced expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, TNF receptor 1, acetylated nuclear factor kappa B, cyclooxygenase 2, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, and matrix metallopeptidase 9 were also attenuated by CLA. Expression levels of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 and heme oxygenase 1, transforming growth factor-β1, connective tissue growth factor, and type I collagen in radiation-treated lungs were also attenuated by CLA. These findings indicate that CLA ameliorates the deleterious effects of thoracic irradiation in mice by reducing pulmonary inflammation, oxidative damage, and fibrosis. PMID:26114656

  13. Radiation-induced grain boundary segregation in austenitic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Bruemmer, S.M.; Charlot, L.A.; Vetrano, J.S.; Simonen, E.P.

    1994-11-01

    Radiation-induced segregation (RIS) to grain boundaries in Fe-Ni-Cr-Si stainless alloys has been measured as a function of irradiation temperature and dose. Heavy-ion irradiation was used to produce damage levels from 1 to 20 displacements per atom (dpa) at temperatures from 175 to 550{degrees}C. Measured Fe, Ni, and Cr segregation increased sharply with irradiation dose (from G to 5 dpa) and temperature (from 175 to about 350{degrees}C). However, grain boundary concentrations did not change significantly as dose or temperatures were further increased. Although interfacial compositions were similar, the width of radiation-induced enrichment or depletion profiles increased consistently with increasing dose or temperature. Impurity segregation (Si and P) was also measured, but only Si enrichment appeared to be radiation-induced. Grain boundary Si peaked at levels approaching 10 at% after irradiation doses to 10 dpa at an intermediate temperature of 325{degrees}C. No evidence of grain boundary silicide precipitation was detected after irradiation at any temperature. Equilibrium segregation of P was measured in the high-P alloys, but interfacial concentration did not increase with irradiation exposure. Comparisons to reported RIS in neutron-irradiated stainless steels revealed similar grain boundary compositional changes for both major alloying and impurity elements.

  14. Telomeres and telomerase: Pharmacological targets for new anticancer strategies?

    PubMed

    Pendino, F; Tarkanyi, I; Dudognon, C; Hillion, J; Lanotte, M; Aradi, J; Ségal-Bendirdjian, E

    2006-03-01

    Telomeres are located at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. Human telomerase, a cellular reverse transcriptase, is a ribonucleoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and extension of telomeric DNA. It is composed of at least, a template RNA component (hTR; human Telomerase RNA) and a catalytic subunit, the telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). The absence of telomerase is associated with telomere shortening and aging of somatic cells, while high telomerase activity is observed in over 85% of human cancer cells, strongly indicating its key role during tumorigenesis. Several details regarding telomere structure and telomerase regulation have already been elucidated, providing new targets for therapeutic exploitation. Further support for anti-telomerase approaches comes from recent studies indicating that telomerase is endowed of additional functions in the control of growth and survival of tumor cells that do not depend only on the ability of this enzyme to maintain telomere length. This observation suggests that inhibiting telomerase or its synthesis may have additional anti-proliferative and apoptosis inducing effect, independently of the reduction of telomere length during cell divisions. This article reviews the basic information about the biology of telomeres and telomerase and attempts to present various approaches that are currently under investigation to inhibit its expression and its activity. We summarize herein distinct anti-telomerase approaches like antisense strategies, reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and G-quadruplex interacting agents, and also review molecules targeting hTERT expression, such as retinoids and evaluate them for their therapeutic potential. "They conceive a certain theory, and everything has to fit into that theory. If one little fact will not fit it, they throw it aside. But it is always the facts that will not fit in that are significant". "Death on the Nile". Agatha Christie.

  15. Nucleophosmin Interacts with PIN2/TERF1-interacting Telomerase Inhibitor 1 (PinX1) and Attenuates the PinX1 Inhibition on Telomerase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Derek Hang-Cheong; Ho, Sai-Tim; Lau, Kwok-Fai; Jin, Rui; Wang, Ya-Nan; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Huang, Jun-Jian; Shaw, Pang-Chui

    2017-01-01

    Telomerase activation and telomere maintenance are critical for cellular immortalization and transformation. PIN2/TERF1-interacting telomerase inhibitor 1 (PinX1) is a telomerase regulator and the aberrant expression of PinX1 causes telomere shortening. Identifying PinX1-interacting proteins is important for understanding telomere maintenance. We found that PinX1 directly interacts with nucleophosmin (NPM), a protein that has been shown to positively correlate with telomerase activity. We further showed that PinX1 acts as a linker in the association between NPM and hTERT, the catalytic subunit of telomerase. Additionally, the recruitment of NPM by PinX1 to the telomerase complex could partially attenuate the PinX1-mediated inhibition on telomerase activity. Taken together, our data reveal a novel mechanism that regulates telomerase activation through the interaction between NPM, PinX1 and the telomerase complex. PMID:28255170

  16. Profiling mitochondrial proteins in radiation-induced genome-unstable cell lines with persistent oxidative stress by mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, John H.; Jin, Shuangshuang; Morgan, William F.; Yang, Austin; Wan, Yunhu; Aypar, Umut; Peters, Jonathan S.; Springer, David L.

    2008-06-01

    Radiation-induced genome instability (RIGI) is a response to radiation exposure in which the progeny of surviving cells exhibit increased frequency of chromosomal changes many generations after the initial insult. Persistently elevated oxidative stress accompanying RIGI and the ability of free-radical scavengers, given before irradiation, to reduce the incidence of instability suggest that radiation induced alterations to mitochondrial function likely play a role in RIGI. To further elucidate this mechanism, we performed high-throughput quantitative mass spectrometry on samples enriched in mitochondrial proteins from three chromosomally-unstable GM10115 Chinese-hamster-ovary cell lines and their stable parental cell line. Out of several hundred identified proteins, sufficient data were collected on 74 mitochondrial proteins to test for statistically significant differences in their abundance between unstable and stable cell lines. Each of the unstable cell lines showed a distinct profile of statistically-significant differential abundant mitochondrial proteins. The LS-12 cell line was characterized by 8 downregulated proteins, whereas the CS-9 cell line exhibited 5 distinct up-regulated proteins. The unstable 115 cell line had two down-regulated proteins, one of which was also downregulated in LS-12, and one up-regulated protein relative to stable parental cells. The mitochondrial protein profiles for LS-12 and C-9 provide further evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in the genome instability of these cell lines.

  17. Telomerase Activity is Downregulated Early During Human Brain Development

    PubMed Central

    Ishaq, Abbas; Hanson, Peter S.; Morris, Christopher M.; Saretzki, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Changes in hTERT splice variant expression have been proposed to facilitate the decrease of telomerase activity during fetal development in various human tissues. Here, we analyzed the expression of telomerase RNA (hTR), wild type and α-spliced hTERT in developing human fetal brain (post conception weeks, pcw, 6–19) and in young and old cortices using qPCR and correlated it to telomerase activity measured by TRAP assay. Decrease of telomerase activity occurred early during brain development and correlated strongest to decreased hTR expression. The expression of α-spliced hTERT increased between pcw 10 and 19, while that of wild type hTERT remained unchanged. Lack of expression differences between young and old cortices suggests that most changes seem to occur early during human brain development. Using in vitro differentiation of neural precursor stem cells (NPSCs) derived at pcw 6 we found a decrease in telomerase activity but no major expression changes in telomerase associated genes. Thus, they do not seem to model the mechanisms for the decrease in telomerase activity in fetal brains. Our results suggest that decreased hTR levels, as well as transient increase in α-spliced hTERT, might both contribute to downregulation of telomerase activity during early human brain development between 6 and 17 pcw. PMID:27322326

  18. Different modes of de novo telomere formation by plant telomerases.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, M S; Shakirov, E V; Hood, E E; McKnight, T D; Shippen, D E

    2001-04-01

    The telomerase reverse transcriptase can recognize broken chromosome ends and add new telomeres de novo in a reaction termed "chromosome healing". Here we investigate new telomere formation in vitro by telomerases from a variety of flowering plant species. Comparing the electrophoretic mobilities and nucleotide sequences of the products, we uncovered three different modes of new telomere formation. The soybean telomerase, designated a Class I enzyme, only elongated DNA primers ending in telomeric nucleotides. Arabidopsis and maize telomerases, designated Class II enzymes, efficiently extended completely non-telomeric sequences by positioning the 3' terminus at a preferred site on the RNA template. Silene latifolia and sorghum telomerases constituted class III enzymes that elongated non-telomeric DNA primers by annealing them at alternative sites on the RNA template. For all enzymes, errors were prevalent during synthesis of the first two repeats, likely reflecting lateral instability of the primer 3' terminus on the template during the initial rounds of elongation. Class III telomerases, however, were five- to 13-fold more error prone than class II, generating more mistakes in distal repeats added to the primers. This remarkable variability in enzyme-DNA interactions among plant telomerases does not reflect phylogenetic relationships, and therefore implies that the telomerase active site can evolve rapidly.

  19. Utilization of ribonucleotides and RNA primers by Tetrahymena telomerase.

    PubMed

    Collins, K; Greider, C W

    1995-11-01

    Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein (RNP) DNA polymerase involved in telomere synthesis. A short sequence within the telomerase RNA component provides a template for de novo addition of the G-rich strand of a telomeric simple sequence repeat onto chromosome termini. In vitro, telomerase can elongate single-stranded DNA primers processively: one primer can be extended by multiple rounds of template copying before product dissociation. Telomerase will incorporate dNTPs or ddNTPs and will elongate any G-rich, single-stranded primer DNA. In this report, we show that Tetrahymena telomerase was able to incorporate a ribonucleotide, rGTP, into product polynucleotide. Synthesis of the product [d(TT)r(GGGG)]n was processive, suggesting that the chimeric product remained associated with the enzyme both at the active site and at a second, previously characterized, template-independent product binding site. As predicted by this finding, RNA-containing oligonucleotides served as primers for elongation. More than 3 nt of RNA at a primer 3' end decreased the quantity of product synthesis but increased the affinity of the primer for telomerase. Thus, RNA-containing primers were effective as competitive inhibitors of DNA primer elongation by telomerase. These results support the possible evolutionary origin of telomerase as an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.

  20. Telomerase inhibition impairs tumor growth in glioblastoma xenografts.

    PubMed

    Falchetti, Maria Laura; Fiorenzo, Paolo; Mongiardi, Maria Patrizia; Petrucci, Giovanna; Montano, Nicola; Maira, Giulio; Pierconti, Francesco; Larocca, Luigi Maria; Levi, Andrea; Pallini, Roberto

    2006-07-01

    Telomerase is a specialized DNA polymerase that is required to replicate the ends of linear chromosomes, the telomeres. The majority of human cancers express high levels of telomerase activity that is permissive for tumor growth because it provides cells with an extended proliferative potential. Additionally, telomerase exerts cell growth promoting functions and favors cell survival. Human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells express high level of telomerase activity owing to the overexpression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), the limiting subunit of the enzyme. Here we used retroviral mediated RNA interference to dampen down telomerase activity in two distinct human GBM cell lines, U87MG and TB10. Substantial decrease of hTERT mRNA and telomerase activity had only minimal effects on telomere length maintenance, cell growth and survival in vitro. On the contrary, development of tumors upon subcutaneously grafting of U87MG and TB10 cells and intracranial implantation of U87MG cells in nude athymic mice was strongly reduced by telomerase inhibition.

  1. Telomerase activity coevolves with body mass, not lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Seluanov, Andrei; Chen, Zhuoxun; Hine, Christopher; Sasahara, Tais H. C.; Ribeiro, Antonio A. C. M.; Catania, Kenneth C.; Presgraves, Daven C.; Gorbunova, Vera

    2009-01-01

    Summary In multicellular organisms, telomerase is required to maintain telomere length in the germline but is dispensable in the soma. Mice, for example, express telomerase in somatic and germline tissues, while humans express telomerase almost exclusively in the germline. As a result, when telomeres of human somatic cells reach a critical length the cells enter irreversible growth arrest called replicative senescence. Replicative senescence is believed to be an anticancer mechanism that limits cell proliferation. The difference between mice and humans led to the hypothesis that repression of telomerase in somatic cells has evolved as a tumor-suppressor adaptation in large, long-lived organisms. We tested whether regulation of telomerase activity coevolves with lifespan and body mass using comparative analysis of 15 rodent species with highly diverse lifespans and body masses. Here we show that telomerase activity does not coevolve with lifespan but instead coevolves with body mass: larger rodents repress telomerase activity in somatic cells. These results suggest that large body mass presents a greater risk of cancer than long lifespan, and large animals evolve repression of telomerase activity to mitigate that risk. PMID:17173545

  2. Eimeria tenella: 14-3-3 protein interacts with telomerase.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Na; Gong, Pengtao; Cheng, Baiqi; Li, Jianhua; Yang, Zhengtao; Li, He; Yang, Ju; Zhang, Guocai; Zhang, Xichen

    2014-10-01

    Telomerase, consisting of telomerase RNA and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), is responsible for the maintenance of the end of linear chromosomes. TERT, as the catalytic subunit of telomerase, plays a critical role in telomerase activity. Researches indicate TERT-associated proteins participate in the regulation of telomerase assembly, posttranslational modification, localization, and enzymatic function. Here, the telomerase RNA-binding domain of Eimeria tenella TERT (EtTRBD) was cloned into pGBKT7 and performed as the bait. α-Galactosidase assay showed that the bait plasmid did not activate Gal4 reporter gene. Further, we isolated an EtTRBD-associated protein, 14-3-3, by yeast two-hybrid screening using the constructed bait plasmid. To confirm the interaction, EtTRBD and 14-3-3 were expressed by prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems. Pull-down assays by purified proteins demonstrated a direct bind between EtTRBD and 14-3-3. Co-immunoprecipitation techniques successfully validated that 14-3-3 interacted with EtTRBD in 293T cells. The protein-protein interaction provides a starting point for more in-depth studies on telomerase and telomere regulation in E. tenella.

  3. Radiation-Induced Dermatitis is Mediated by IL17-Expressing γδ T Cells.

    PubMed

    Liao, Wupeng; Hei, Tom K; Cheng, Simon K

    2017-04-01

    Radiation dermatitis is a serious cutaneous injury caused by radiation therapy or upon accidental nuclear exposure. However, the pathogenic immune mechanisms underlying this injury are still poorly understood. We seek to discover how the dysregulated immune response after irradiation orchestrates skin inflammation. The skin on the left flank of C57BL/6J wild-type and C57BL/6J Tcrd(-/-) mice, which are deficit in γδ T cells, was exposed to a single X-ray dose of 25 Gy, and the right-flank skin was used as a sham-irradiated control. At 4 weeks postirradiation, the wild-type skin exhibited signs of depilation, erythema and desquamation. Histological analysis showed hyperproliferation of keratinocytes and acanthosis. Dramatic elevation of IL17-expressing T cells was identified from the irradiated skin, which was mainly contributed by γδ T cells and innate lymphoid cells, rather than Th17 cells. Furthermore, protein levels of critical cytokines for IL17-expressing γδ T cell activation, IL1β and IL23 were found markedly upregulated. Lastly, radiation-induced dermatitis was significantly attenuated in γδ T cell knockout mice. In vitro, normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) could be initiator cells of inflammation by providing a great number of pro-inflammatory mediators upon radiation, and as well as effector cells of epidermal hyperplasia in response to exogenous IL17 and/or IL22 treatment. Our findings implicate a novel role of IL17-expressing γδ T cells in mediating radiation-induced skin inflammation. This study reveals the innate immune response pathway as a potential therapeutic target for radiation skin injury.

  4. p21 is Responsible for Ionizing Radiation-induced Bypass of Mitosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu Rui; Liu, Yong Ai; Sun, Fang; Li, He; Lei, Su Wen; Wang, Ju Fang

    2016-07-01

    To explore the role of p21 in ionizing radiation-induced changes in protein levels during the G2/M transition and long-term G2 arrest. Protein expression levels were assessed by western blot in the human uveal melanoma 92-1 cells after treatment with ionizing radiation. Depletion of p21 was carried out by employing the siRNA technique. Cell cycle distribution was determined by flow cytometry combined with histone H3 phosphorylation at Ser28, an M-phase marker. Senescence was assessed by senescence- associated-β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) staining combined with Ki67 staining, a cell proliferation marker. Accompanying increased p21, the protein levels of G2/M transition genes declined significantly in 92-1 cells irradiated with 5 Gy of X-rays. Furthermore, these irradiated cells were blocked at the G2 phase followed by cellular senescence. Depletion of p21 rescued radiation-induced G2 arrest as demonstrated by the upregulation of G2/M transition kinases, as well as the high expression of histone H3 phosphorylated at Ser28. Knockdown of p21 resulted in entry into mitosis of irradiated 92-1 cells. However, cells with serious DNA damage failed to undergo cytokinesis, leading to the accumulation of multinucleated cells. Our results indicated that p21 was responsible for the downregulation of G2/M transition regulatory proteins and the bypass of mitosis induced by irradiation. Downregulation of p21 by siRNA resulted in G2-arrested cells entering into mitosis with serious DNA damage. This is the first report on elucidating the role of p21 in the bypass of mitosis. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  5. Radiation-Induced Dermatitis is Mediated by IL17-Expressing γδ T Cells.

    PubMed

    Liao, Wupeng; Hei, Tom K; Cheng, Simon K

    2017-02-08

    Radiation dermatitis is a serious cutaneous injury caused by radiation therapy or upon accidental nuclear exposure. However, the pathogenic immune mechanisms underlying this injury are still poorly understood. We seek to discover how the dysregulated immune response after irradiation orchestrates skin inflammation. The skin on the left flank of C57BL/6J wild-type and C57BL/6J Tcrd(-/-) mice, which are deficit in γδ T cells, was exposed to a single X-ray dose of 25 Gy, and the right-flank skin was used as a sham-irradiated control. At 4 weeks postirradiation, the wild-type skin exhibited signs of depilation, erythema and desquamation. Histological analysis showed hyperproliferation of keratinocytes and acanthosis. Dramatic elevation of IL17-expressing T cells was identified from the irradiated skin, which was mainly contributed by γδ T cells and innate lymphoid cells, rather than Th17 cells. Furthermore, protein levels of critical cytokines for IL17-expressing γδ T cell activation, IL1β and IL23 were found markedly upregulated. Lastly, radiation-induced dermatitis was significantly attenuated in γδ T cell knockout mice. In vitro, normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) could be initiator cells of inflammation by providing a great number of pro-inflammatory mediators upon radiation, and as well as effector cells of epidermal hyperplasia in response to exogenous IL17 and/or IL22 treatment. Our findings implicate a novel role of IL17-expressing γδ T cells in mediating radiation-induced skin inflammation. This study reveals the innate immune response pathway as a potential therapeutic target for radiation skin injury.

  6. Telomerase reverse transcriptase acts in a feedback loop with NF-κB pathway to regulate macrophage polarization in alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiao-qin; Yang, Yang; Li, Wan-xia; Cheng, Ya-hui; Li, Xiao-feng; Huang, Cheng; Meng, Xiao-ming; Wu, Bao-ming; Liu, Xin-hua; Zhang, Lei; Lv, Xiong-wen; Li, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Activation of Kupffer cells (KCs) plays a central role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). C57BL/6 mice fed EtOH-containing diet showed a mixed induction of hepatic classical (M1) and alternative (M2) macrophage markers. Since telomerase activation occurs at critical stages of myeloid and lymphoid cell activation, we herein investigated the role of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), the determining factor of telomerase, in macrophage activation during ALD. In our study, TERT expression and telomerase activity (TA) were remarkably increased in liver tissue of EtOH-fed mice. Moreover, EtOH significantly up-regulated TERT in isolated KCs and RAW 264.7 cells and LPS induced TERT production in vitro. These data indicate that up-regulation of TERT may play a critical role in macrophages during ALD. Furthermore, loss- and gain-of-function studies suggested that TERT switched macrophages towards M1 phenotype by regulating NF-κB signaling, but had limited effect on M2 macrophages polarization in vitro. Additionally, PDTC, a chemical inhibitor of NF-κB, could dramatically down-regulate TERT expression and the hallmarks of M1 macrophages. Therefore, our study unveils the role of TERT in macrophage polarization and the cross-talk between TERT and p65, which may provide a possible explanation for the ethanol-mediated hepatic proinflammatory response and M1 macrophage polarization. PMID:26725521

  7. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase regulates vascular endothelial growth factor expression via human papillomavirus oncogene E7 in HPV-18-positive cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang; Cui, Jinquan

    2015-07-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection induces chronic and precancerous lesions and results in invasive cervical cancer. Human telomerase as well as inflammatory and angiogenic factors such as telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) could play a role in regulating HPV-induced cervical cancer. This study investigated underlying molecular events in HPV-induced HPV-positive cervical cancer through hTERT and VEGF in vitro. Expressions of hTERT, a rate-limiting subunit of telomerase, and VEGF mRNA and proteins were, respectively, assessed by qRT-PCR, ELISA, and TRAP-ELISA in HPV-positive tissue samples and cervical cancer cell lines. To assess hTERT and VEGF secretion, hTERT overexpression and knockdown were conducted in HPV-18-positive Hela cells by hTERT cDNA and shRNA transfection, respectively. Then, the effect of HPV E6 and E7 on VEGF expressions was assessed in HPV-negative cervical cancer cells. Data have shown that VEGF expression levels are associated with hTERT expressions and telomerase activity in HPV-positive cervical cancer tissues and cells. Knockdown of hTERT expression down-regulated VEGF expressions, whereas overexpression of hTERT up-regulated VEGF expressions in HPV-18-positive Hela cells. Furthermore, HPV E7 oncoprotein was necessary for hTERT to up-regulate VEGF expressions in HPV-negative cervical cancer cells. Data from this current study indicate that HPV oncoproteins up-regulated hTERT and telomerase activity and in turn promoted VEGF expressions, which could be a key mechanism for HPV-induced cervical cancer development and progression.

  8. TERRA promotes telomerase-mediated telomere elongation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Martin; Wischnewski, Harry; Bah, Amadou; Hu, Yan; Liu, Na; Lafranchi, Lorenzo; King, Megan C; Azzalin, Claus M

    2016-07-01

    Telomerase-mediated telomere elongation provides cell populations with the ability to proliferate indefinitely. Telomerase is capable of recognizing and extending the shortest telomeres in cells; nevertheless, how this mechanism is executed remains unclear. Here, we show that, in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, shortened telomeres are highly transcribed into the evolutionarily conserved long noncoding RNA TERRA A fraction of TERRA produced upon telomere shortening is polyadenylated and largely devoid of telomeric repeats, and furthermore, telomerase physically interacts with this polyadenylated TERRA in vivo We also show that experimentally enhanced transcription of a manipulated telomere promotes its association with telomerase and concomitant elongation. Our data represent the first direct evidence that TERRA stimulates telomerase recruitment and activity at chromosome ends in an organism with human-like telomeres. © 2016 The Authors.

  9. TERT promoter mutations and telomerase reactivation in urothelial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Borah, Sumit; Xi, Linghe; Zaug, Arthur J.; Powell, Natasha M.; Dancik, Garrett M.; Cohen, Scott; Costello, James C.; Theodorescu, Dan; Cech, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    Reactivation of telomerase, the chromosome end-replicating enzyme, drives human cell immortality and cancer. Point mutations in the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene promoter occur at high frequency in multiple cancers, including urothelial cancer (UC), but their impact on telomerase function has been unclear. In a study of 23 human UC cell lines, we show that these promoter mutations correlate with higher levels of TERT mRNA, TERT protein, telomerase enzymatic activity and telomere length. While previous studies found no relationship between TERT promoter mutations and UC patient outcome, we find that elevated TERT mRNA expression strongly correlates with reduced disease-specific survival (DSS) in two independent UC patient cohorts (n = 35; n = 87). These results suggest that high telomerase activity may be a better marker of aggressive UC tumors than TERT promoter mutations alone. PMID:25722414

  10. Single-Molecule Studies of Telomeres and Telomerase.

    PubMed

    Parks, Joseph W; Stone, Michael D

    2017-05-22

    Telomeres are specialized chromatin structures that protect chromosome ends from dangerous processing events. In most tissues, telomeres shorten with each round of cell division, placing a finite limit on cell growth. In rapidly dividing cells, including the majority of human cancers, cells bypass this growth limit through telomerase-catalyzed maintenance of telomere length. The dynamic properties of telomeres and telomerase render them difficult to study using ensemble biochemical and structural techniques. This review describes single-molecule approaches to studying how individual components of telomeres and telomerase contribute to function. Single-molecule methods provide a window into the complex nature of telomeres and telomerase by permitting researchers to directly visualize and manipulate the individual protein, DNA, and RNA molecules required for telomere function. The work reviewed in this article highlights how single-molecule techniques have been utilized to investigate the function of telomeres and telomerase.

  11. Telomerase Structure Paves the way for New Cancer Therapies

    SciTech Connect

    Skordalakes, S.

    2009-01-01

    Inappropriate activation of a single enzyme, telomerase, is associated with the uncontrollable proliferation of cells observed in as many as 90% of all of human cancers. Since the mid-1990s, when telomerase activity was detected in human tumors, scientists have eyed the enzyme as an ideal target for developing broadly effective anticancer drugs. One of the missing links in the effort to identify such therapies has been the high-resolution structure of the enzyme, a powerful tool used for the identification and development of clinical drugs. A recent structure of the catalytic subunit of teleomerase from the Skordalakes laboratory, a major advancement in the field of telomeres, has opened the door to the development of new, broadly effective cancer drugs, as well as anti-aging therapies. Here we present a brief description of telomerase biology, current efforts to identify telomerase function modulators and the potential importance of the telomerase structure in future drug development.

  12. Transcriptional Regulation of Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (TERT) by MYC

    PubMed Central

    Khattar, Ekta; Tergaonkar, Vinay

    2017-01-01

    Telomerase elongates telomeres and is crucial for maintaining genomic stability. While stem cells and cancer cells display high telomerase activity, normal somatic cells lack telomerase activity primarily due to transcriptional repression of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), the catalytic component of telomerase. Transcription factor binding, chromatin status as well as epigenetic modifications at the TERT promoter regulates TERT transcription. Myc is an important transcriptional regulator of TERT that directly controls its expression by promoter binding and associating with other transcription factors. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind regulation of TERT transcription by Myc. We also discuss future perspectives in investigating the regulation of Myc at TERT promoter during cancer development. PMID:28184371

  13. Modulating telomerase activity in tumor patients by targeting dyskerin binding site for hTR.

    PubMed

    Katunaric, M; Zamolo, G

    2012-09-01

    Telomeres shortening, which leads to apoptosis, is prevented by telomerase adding small repeated segments of DNA to the telomeres. The telomerase level has been correlated with progression of several cancer types, including acute leukemia, breast, prostate, lung cancer and melanoma. Suppression of telomerase activity was found to reduce metastatic potential but could have serious side effects in normal proliferative cells. One of the proteins stabilizing the telomerase complex called dyskerin reduces the maximum telomerase activity. We suggest a possible therapeutic agent which would disable the interaction of dyskerin and telomerase, but would not completely inhibit telomerase activity.

  14. Integrative structural biology of Tetrahymena telomerase - insights into catalytic mechanism and interaction at telomeres.

    PubMed

    Feigon, Juli; Chan, Henry; Jiang, Jiansen

    2016-06-01

    Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein complex that helps maintain telomeres, the physical ends of linear chromosomes. The low cellular levels of telomerase, propensity for telomerase reverse transcriptase and other telomerase proteins to aggregate, and cell cycle regulation of telomerase assembly in most organisms has made it a challenging complex for structural biology. Here we review recent progress in determining the structural basis of Tetrahymena telomerase holoenzyme function and interaction at telomeres from solution NMR, X-ray crystallography and electron microscopy studies, including the first cryoelectron microscopy structure of a telomerase holoenzyme (Science, 350, 2015, aab4070). © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  15. Kras mutations increase telomerase activity and targeting telomerase is a promising therapeutic strategy for Kras-mutant NSCLC

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Bowen; Zhang, Lianmin; Qian, Dong; Li, Chenguang; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Shengguang; Zhu, Jinfang; Gao, Liuwei; Zhang, Qiang; Jia, Bin; Hao, Ligang; Wang, Changli; Zhang, Bin

    2017-01-01

    As shortened telomeres inhibit tumor formation and prolong life span in a KrasG12D mouse lung cancer model, we investigated the implications of telomerase in Kras-mutant NSCLC. We found that Kras mutations increased TERT (telomerase reverse transcriptase) mRNA expression and telomerase activity and telomere length in both immortalized bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) and lung adenocarcinoma cells (Calu-3). MEK inhibition led to reduced TERT expression and telomerase activity. Furthermore, telomerase inhibitor BIBR1532 shortened telomere length and inhibited mutant Kras-induced long-term proliferation, colony formation and migration capabilities of BEAS-2B and Calu-3 cells. Importantly, BIBR1532 sensitized oncogenic Kras expressing Calu-3 cells to chemotherapeutic agents. The Calu-3-KrasG12D xenograft mouse model confirmed that BIBR1532 enhanced the antitumor efficacy of paclitaxel in vivo. In addition, higher TERT expression was seen in Kras-mutant NSCLC than that with wild-type Kras. Our data suggest that Kras mutations increase telomerase activity and telomere length by activating the RAS/MEK pathway, which contributes to an aggressive phenotype of NSCLC. Kras mutations-induced lung tumorigenesis and chemoresistance are attenuated by telomerase inhibition. Targeting telomerase/telomere may be a promising therapeutic strategy for patients with Kras-mutant NSCLC. PMID:27329725

  16. MiR-21 plays an Important Role in Radiation Induced Carcinogenesis in BALB/c Mice by Directly Targeting the Tumor Suppressor Gene Big-h3

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Cong; Li, Bailong; Cheng, Ying; Lin, Jing; Hao, Jun; Zhang, Shuyu; Mitchel, R.E.J.; Sun, Ding; Ni, Jin; Zhao, Luqian; Gao, Fu; Cai, Jianming

    2011-01-01

    Dysregulation of certain microRNAs (miRNAs) in cancer can promote tumorigenesis, metastasis and invasion. However, the functions and targets of only a few mammalian miRNAs are known. In particular, the miRNAs that participates in radiation induced carcinogenesis and the miRNAs that target the tumor suppressor gene Big-h3 remain undefined. Here in this study, using a radiation induced thymic lymphoma model in BALB/c mice, we found that the tumor suppressor gene Big-h3 is down-regulated and miR-21 is up-regulated in radiation induced thymic lymphoma tissue samples. We also found inverse correlations between Big-h3 protein and miR-21 expression level among different tissue samples. Furthermore, our data indicated that miR-21 could directly target Big-h3 in a 3′UTR dependent manner. Finally, we found that miR-21 could be induced by TGFβ, and miR-21 has both positive and negative effects in regulating TGFβ signaling. We conclude that miR-21 participates in radiation induced carcinogenesis and it regulates TGFβ signaling. PMID:21494432

  17. Processive and Distributive Extension of Human Telomeres by Telomerase Under Homeostatic and Non-equilibrium Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yong; Abreu, Eladio; Kim, Jinyong; Stadler, Guido; Eskiocak, Ugur; Terns, Michael P.; Terns, Rebecca M.; Shay, Jerry W.; Wright, Woodring E.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Specific information about how telomerase acts in vivo is necessary for understanding telomere dynamics in human tumor cells. Our results imply that under homeostatic telomere length-maintenance conditions only one molecule of telomerase acts at each telomere during every cell division and processively adds ~60 nt to each end. In contrast, multiple molecules of telomerase act at each telomere when telomeres are elongating (non-equilibrium conditions). Telomerase extension is less processive during the first few weeks following the reversal of long-term treatment with the telomerase inhibitor GRN163L, a time when Cajal bodies fail to deliver telomerase RNA to telomeres. This result implies that processing of telomerase by Cajal bodies may affect its processivity. Overexpressed telomerase is also less processive than the endogenously expressed telomerase. These findings reveal two major distinct extension modes adopted by telomerase in vivo. PMID:21549308

  18. Inhibition of radiation-induced skin fibrosis with imatinib.

    PubMed

    Horton, Jason A; Chung, Eun Joo; Hudak, Kathryn E; Sowers, Anastasia; Thetford, Angela; White, Ayla O; Mitchell, James B; Citrin, Deborah E

    2013-03-01

    Dermal fibrosis is a disabling late toxicity of radiotherapy. Several lines of evidence suggest that overactive signaling via the Platelet-derived growth factor receptor-beta (PDGFR-β) and V-abl Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 (cAbl) may be etiologic factors in the development of radiation-induced fibrosis. We tested the hypothesis that imatinib, a clinically available inhibitor of PDGFR-β, Mast/stem cell growth factor receptor (c-kit) and cAbl, would reduce the severity of dermal fibrosis in a murine model. The right hind legs of female C3H/HeN mice were exposed to 35 Gy of X-rays. Cohorts of mice were maintained on chow formulated with imatinib 0.5 mg/g or control chow for the duration of the experiment. Bilateral hind limb extension was measured serially to assess fibrotic contracture. Immunohistochemistry and biochemical assays were used to evaluate the levels of collagen and cytokines implicated in radiation-induced fibrosis. Imatinib treatment significantly reduced hind limb contracture and dermal thickness after irradiation. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated a substantial reduction in PDGFR-β phosphorylation. We also observed reduced Transforming Growth factor-β (TGF-β) and collagen expression in irradiated skin of imatinib-treated mice, suggesting that imatinib may suppress the fibrotic process by interrupting cross-talk between these pathways. Taken together, these results support that imatinib may be a useful agent in the prevention and treatment of radiation-induced dermal fibrosis.

  19. Measurements of prompt radiation induced conductivity of Kapton.

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, Eric F.; Zarick, Thomas Andrew; Sheridan, Timothy J.; Hartman, E. Frederick; Stringer, Thomas Arthur

    2010-10-01

    We performed measurements of the prompt radiation induced conductivity in thin samples of Kapton (polyimide) at the Little Mountain Medusa LINAC facility in Ogden, UT. Three mil samples were irradiated with a 0.5 {mu}s pulse of 20 MeV electrons, yielding dose rates of 1E9 to 1E10 rad/s. We applied variable potentials up to 2 kV across the samples and measured the prompt conduction current. Analysis rendered prompt conductivity coefficients between 6E-17 and 2E-16 mhos/m per rad/s, depending on the dose rate and the pulse width.

  20. Radiation-Induced Premelting of Ice at Silica Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Schoeder, S.; Reichert, H.; Schroeder, H.; Mezger, M.; Okasinski, J. S.; Dosch, H.; Honkimaeki, V.; Bilgram, J.

    2009-08-28

    The existence of surface and interfacial melting of ice below 0 deg. C has been confirmed by many different experimental techniques. Here we present a high-energy x-ray reflectivity study of the interfacial melting of ice as a function of both temperature and x-ray irradiation dose. We found a clear increase of the thickness of the quasiliquid layer with the irradiation dose. By a systematic x-ray study, we have been able to unambiguously disentangle thermal and radiation-induced premelting phenomena. We also confirm the previously announced very high water density (1.25 g/cm{sup 3}) within the emerging quasiliquid layer.

  1. A model of radiatively induced quark and lepton mass model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Takaaki

    2017-07-01

    We discuss a radiatively induced quark and lepton mass model in the rst and second generation introducing extra U(1) gauge symmetry, discrete Z 2 symmetry, vector-like fermions and exotic scalar elds. Then we analyze the allowed parameter regions which simultaneously satisfy the constraints of FCNCs for the quark sector and of LFVs including μ - e conversion, observed quark mass and mixing, and the lepton mass and mixing. In addition, the typical value for the (g - 2) μ in our model is presented. We also show extension of the model in which Majorana type neutrino masses are generated at the two loop level.

  2. Mechanisms of Radiation Induced Effects in Carbon Nanotubes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    kilogram ( C kg –1 ) rad [absorbed dose] 1 × 10 –2 joule per kilogram (J kg –1 ) [gray (Gy)] rem [equivalent and effective dose] 1 × 10–2 joule per...8725 John J. Kingman Road, MS 6201 Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-6201 T E C H N IC A L R E P O R T DTRA-TR-17-5 Mechanisms of Radiation-Induced...CLASSIFICATION OF: a. REPORT b. ABSTRACT c . THIS PAGE 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 00-10-2016 Final Oct 5, 2010 - Dec 31, 2015 Mechanisms of

  3. Radiation-induced malignant and atypical peripheral nerve sheath tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, K.M.; Woodruff, J.M.; Ellis, F.T.; Posner, J.B.

    1980-04-01

    The reported peripheral nerve complications of therapeutic irradiation in humans include brachial and lumbar plexus fibrosis and cranial and peripheral nerve atrophy. We have encountered 9 patients with malignant (7) and atypical (2) peripheral nerve tumors occurring in an irradiated site suggesting that such tumors represent another delayed effect of radiation treatment on peripheral nerve. In all instances the radio-theray was within an acceptable radiation dosage, yet 3 patients developed local radiation-induced skin and bony abnormalities. The malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors developed only in the radiation port. Animal studies support the clinical observation that malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors can occur as a delayed effect of irradiation.

  4. Measurements of prompt radiation induced conductivity in Teflon (PTFE).

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, E. Frederick; Zarick, Thomas Andrew; Sheridan, Timothy J.; Preston, E.

    2013-05-01

    We performed measurements of the prompt radiation induced conductivity (RIC) in thin samples of Teflon (PTFE) at the Little Mountain Medusa LINAC facility in Ogden, UT. Three mil (76.2 microns) samples were irradiated with a 0.5 %CE%BCs pulse of 20 MeV electrons, yielding dose rates of 1E9 to 1E11 rad/s. We applied variable potentials up to 2 kV across the samples and measured the prompt conduction current. Details of the experimental apparatus and analysis are reported in this report on prompt RIC in Teflon.

  5. Skeletal Scintigraphy in Radiation-Induced Fibrosis With Lymphedema.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jieqi; Iranmanesh, Arya M; Oates, M Elizabeth

    2017-03-01

    Despite increasing reliance on CT, MRI, and FDG PET/CT for oncological imaging, whole-body skeletal scintigraphy remains a frontline modality for staging and surveillance of osseous metastatic disease. We present a 54-year-old woman with metastatic breast cancer who received palliative external-beam radiation to the left ilium. Serial follow-up Tc-MDP bone scans demonstrated progressive soft-tissue uptake in her left lower extremity, extending from thigh to leg, with associated enlargement and skin thickening, consistent with lymphedema related to radiation-induced fibrosis. Correlative abdominopelvic CT scans confirmed fibrotic changes in the left thigh.

  6. Exaggerated radiation-induced fibrosis in patients with systemic sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Varga, J.; Haustein, U.F.; Creech, R.H.; Dwyer, J.P.; Jimenez, S.A. )

    1991-06-26

    Four patients with stable systemic sclerosis and limited skin involvement received radiation for the treatment of solid malignant neoplasms. Following localized irradiation, each patient developed an exaggerated cutaneous and internal fibrotic reaction in the irradiated areas. The surface area of fibrosis extended beyond the radiation portals employed, and the fibrotic process was poorly responsive to antifibrotic therapy. Three of the patients died of complications caused by fibrous encasement of internal organs. The extent and severity of postradiation fibrosis in these patients was distinctly unusual. These observations suggest that patients with systemic sclerosis are particularly susceptible to developing excessive radiation-induced fibrosis.

  7. Atorvastatin Ameliorates Radiation-Induced Cardiac Fibrosis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, KunYi; He, XuYu; Zhou, Yingling; Gao, Lijuan; Qi, Zhengyu; Chen, Jiyan; Gao, Xiuren

    2015-12-01

    Radiation-induced heart injury is one of the major side effects of radiotherapy for thoracic malignancies. Previous studies have shown that radiotherapy induced myocardial fibrosis and intensified myocardial remodeling. In this study, we investigated whether atorvastatin could inhibit radiation-induced heart fibrosis in Sprague-Dawley rats, which were randomly divided into six groups: control; radiation only; and four treatment groups receiving atorvastatin plus radiation (E1, E2, E3 and E4). All rats, except the control group, received local heart irradiation in 7 daily fractions of 3 Gy for a total of 21 Gy. Rats in groups E1 (10 mg/kg/day) and E2 (20 mg/kg/day) received atorvastatin and radiation treatment until week 12 after exposure. Rats in groups E3 (10 mg/kg/day) and E4 (20 mg/kg/day) received atorvastatin treatment from 3 months before irradiation to week 12 after irradiation. The expressions of TGF-β1, Smad2, Smad3, fibronectin, ROCK I and p-Akt in heart tissues were evaluated using real-time PCR or Western blot analyses. Atorvastatin significantly reduced the expression of TGF-β1, Smad3/P-Smad3, ROCK I and p-Akt in rats of the E1-E4 groups and in a dose-dependent manner. Fibronectin exhibited a similar pattern of expression changes. In addition, echocardiography showed that atorvastatin treatment can inhibit the increase of left ventricular end-diastolic dimension, left ventricular end-systolic diameter and left ventricular posterior wall thickness, and prevent the decrease of ejection fraction and fraction shortening in E1-E4 groups compared with the radiation only group. This study demonstrated that radiation exposure increased the expression of fibronectin in cardiac fibroblasts and induced cardiac fibrosis through activation of the TGF-β1/Smad3, RhoA/ROCK, and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. Statins ameliorated radiation-induced cardiac fibrosis in Sprague-Dawley rats. Our results suggest that atorvastatin is effective for the treatment of radiation-induced

  8. Radiation-Induced Premelting of Ice at Silica Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöder, S.; Reichert, H.; Schröder, H.; Mezger, M.; Okasinski, J. S.; Honkimäki, V.; Bilgram, J.; Dosch, H.

    2009-08-01

    The existence of surface and interfacial melting of ice below 0°C has been confirmed by many different experimental techniques. Here we present a high-energy x-ray reflectivity study of the interfacial melting of ice as a function of both temperature and x-ray irradiation dose. We found a clear increase of the thickness of the quasiliquid layer with the irradiation dose. By a systematic x-ray study, we have been able to unambiguously disentangle thermal and radiation-induced premelting phenomena. We also confirm the previously announced very high water density (1.25g/cm3) within the emerging quasiliquid layer.

  9. Facial reconstruction for radiation-induced skin cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Panje, W.R.; Dobleman, T.J. )

    1990-04-01

    Radiation-induced skin cancers can be difficult to diagnose and treat. Typically, a patient who has received orthovoltage radiotherapy for disorders such as acne, eczema, tinea capitis, skin tuberculosis, and skin cancer can expect that aggressive skin cancers and chronic radiodermatitis may develop subsequently. Cryptic facial cancers can lead to metastases and death. Prophylactic widefield excision of previously irradiated facial skin that has been subject to multiple recurrent skin cancers is suggested as a method of deterring future cutaneous malignancy and metastases. The use of tissue expanders and full-thickness skin grafts offers an expedient and successful method of subsequent reconstruction.

  10. Challenges and Opportunities in Radiation-induced Hemorrhagic Cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Zwaans, Bernadette M.M.; Nicolai, Heinz G.; Chancellor, Michael B.; Lamb, Laura E.

    2016-01-01

    As diagnosis and treatment of cancer is improving, medical and social issues related to cancer survivorship are becoming more prevalent. Hemorrhagic cystitis (HC), a rare but serious disease that may affect patients after pelvic radiation or systemic chemotherapy, has significant unmet medical needs. Although no definitive treatment is currently available, various interventions are employed for HC. Effects of nonsurgical treatments for HC are of modest success and studies aiming to control radiation-induced bladder symptoms are lacking. In this review, we present current and advanced therapeutic strategies for HC to help cancer survivors deal with long-term urologic health issues. PMID:27601964

  11. Radiation-Induced Intraspinal Chondrosarcoma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Obid, Peter; Vierbuchen, Mathias; Wolf, Eduard; Reichl, Michael; Niemeyer, Thomas; Übeyli, Hüseyin; Richter, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Case report and review of the literature. Objective To report a unique case of an intraspinal chondrosarcoma that was diagnosed 18 years after radiotherapy for a cervical carcinoma and its remarkably unusual clinical presentation. Methods A retrospective case description of an intraspinal mass lesion that occurred 6 weeks after previous spinal surgery. Results Within ∼9 weeks, the tumor had infiltrated the peritoneal cavity and reached the lumbar subcutaneous tissue. Conclusion Radiation-induced sarcomas are rare, are highly aggressive, and may be difficult to diagnose. Furthermore, the only means of achieving long-term survival is through early and extensive surgery. PMID:26430606

  12. Pathology and biology of radiation-induced cardiac disease

    PubMed Central

    Tapio, Soile

    2016-01-01

    Heart disease is the leading global cause of death. The risk for this disease is significantly increased in populations exposed to ionizing radiation, but the mechanisms are not fully elucidated yet. This review aims to gather and discuss the latest data about pathological and biological consequences in the radiation-exposed heart in a comprehensive manner. A better understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying radiation-induced damage in heart tissue and cardiac vasculature will provide novel targets for therapeutic interventions. These may be valuable for individuals clinically or occupationally exposed to varying doses of ionizing radiation. PMID:27422929

  13. Radiation-induced breast angiosarcoma: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Tato-Varela, Sara; Albalat-Fernández, Rosa; Pabón-Fernández, Sara; Núñez-García, Diego; Calle-Marcos, Manolo La

    2016-01-01

    Radiation-induced breast angiosarcoma is a severe but rare late complication in the breast-preserving management of breast cancer through surgery and radiotherapy [1]. Often the initial diagnosis of this entity is complex given its relatively anodyne nature and usually being present in the form of typically multifocal reddish-purple papular skin lesions [2]. Because of the low incidence of this tumour, there is a limited number of studies regarding its optimal therapeutic management [3]. The preferred treatment is aggressive surgical removal and the prognosis is poor with an overall survival rate of 12–20% at five years [4]. PMID:28101140

  14. Porphyrin-aminoquinoline conjugates as telomerase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Maraval, Alexandrine; Franco, Sonia; Vialas, Corine; Pratviel, Geneviève; Blasco, Maria A; Meunier, Bernard

    2003-03-21

    A series of metalloporphyrins was prepared in order to target the G-quadruplex structure of telomeric DNA for the design of antitelomerase compounds. The initial cationic tetramethylpyridiniumyl porphyrin was modified by the replacement of one or two methylpyridiniumyl groups by one or two 4-aminoquinoline moieties, at the meso position, in order to increase the cell penetration and the quadruplex affinity. The porphyrins were either metallated by manganese or by nickel. The degradation of quadruplex DNA was assayed in vitro with the manganese redox-active derivatives. All porphyrins complexes were capable of inhibiting the telomerase enzyme with IC50 values in the micromolar range (TRAP assay).

  15. Multiple DNA Interactions Contribute to the Initiation of Telomerase Elongation.

    PubMed

    Karademir Andersson, Ahu; Gustafsson, Cecilia; Krishnankutty, Roopesh; Cohn, Marita

    2017-07-07

    Telomerase maintains telomere length and chromosome integrity by adding short tandem repeats of single-stranded DNA to the 3' ends, via reverse transcription of a defined template region of its RNA subunit. To further understand the telomerase elongation mechanism, we studied the primer utilization and extension activity of the telomerase from the budding yeast Naumovozyma castellii (Saccharomyces castellii), which displays a processive nucleotide and repeat addition polymerization. For the efficient initiation of canonical elongation, telomerase required 4-nt primer 3' end complementarity to the template RNA. This DNA-RNA hybrid formation was highly important for the stabilization of an initiation-competent telomerase-DNA complex. Anchor site interactions with the DNA provided additional stabilization to the complex. Our studies indicate three additional separate interactions along the length of the DNA primer, each providing different and distinct contributions to the initiation event. A sequence-independent anchor site interaction acts immediately adjacent to the base-pairing 3' end, indicating a protein anchor site positioned very close to the catalytic site. Two additional anchor regions further 5' on the DNA provide sequence-specific contributions to the initiation of elongation. Remarkably, a non-telomeric sequence in the distal 25- to 32-nt region negatively influences the initiation of telomerase elongation, suggesting an anchor site with a regulatory role in the telomerase elongation decision. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Perifosine as a potential novel anti-telomerase therapy.

    PubMed

    Holohan, Brody; Hagiopian, Moriah M; Lai, Tsung-Po; Huang, Ejun; Friedman, Daphne R; Wright, Woodring E; Shay, Jerry W

    2015-09-08

    Most tumors circumvent telomere-length imposed replicative limits through expression of telomerase, the reverse transcriptase that maintains telomere length. Substantial evidence that AKT activity is required for telomerase activity exists, indicating that AKT inhibitors may also function as telomerase inhibitors. This possibility has not been investigated in a clinical context despite many clinical trials evaluating AKT inhibitors. We tested if Perifosine, an AKT inhibitor in clinical trials, inhibits telomerase activity and telomere maintenance in tissue culture and orthotopic xenograft models as well as in purified CLL samples from a phase II Perifosine clinical trial. We demonstrate that Perifosine inhibits telomerase activity and induces telomere shortening in a wide variety of cell lines in vitro, though there is substantial heterogeneity in long-term responses to Perifosine between cell lines. Perifosine did reduce primary breast cancer orthotopic xenograft tumor size, but did not impact metastatic burden in a statistically significant manner. However, Perifosine reduced telomerase activity in four of six CLL patients evaluated. Two of the patients were treated for four to six months and shortening of the shortest telomeres occurred in both patients' cells. These results indicate that it may be possible to repurpose Perifosine or other AKT pathway inhibitors as a novel approach to targeting telomerase.

  17. Microenvironmental Regulation of Telomerase Isoforms in Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Radan, Lida; Hughes, Chris S.; Teichroeb, Jonathan H.; Zamora, Flora M. Vieira; Jewer, Michael; Postovit, Lynne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence points to extra-telomeric, noncanonical roles for telomerase in regulating stem cell function. In this study, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) were cultured in 20% or 2% O2 microenvironments for up to 5 days and evaluated for telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) expression and telomerase activity. Results showed increased cell survival and maintenance of the undifferentiated state with elevated levels of nuclear TERT in 2% O2-cultured hESCs despite no significant difference in telomerase activity compared with their high-O2-cultured counterparts. Pharmacological inhibition of telomerase activity using a synthetic tea catechin resulted in spontaneous hESC differentiation, while telomerase inhibition with a phosphorothioate oligonucleotide telomere mimic did not. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed variations in transcript levels of full-length and alternate splice variants of TERT in hESCs cultured under varying O2 atmospheres. Steric-blocking of Δα and Δβ hTERT splicing using morpholino oligonucleotides altered the hTERT splicing pattern and rapidly induced spontaneous hESC differentiation that appeared biased toward endomesodermal and neuroectodermal cell fates, respectively. Together, these results suggest that post-transcriptional regulation of TERT under varying O2 microenvironments may help regulate hESC survival, self-renewal, and differentiation capabilities through expression of extra-telomeric telomerase isoforms. PMID:24749509

  18. Functional and mechanistic analysis of telomerase: An antitumor drug target.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yinnan; Zhang, Yanmin

    2016-07-01

    The current research on anticancer drugs focuses on exploiting particular traits or hallmarks unique to cancer cells. Telomerase, a special reverse transcriptase, has been recognized as a common factor in most tumor cells, and in turn a distinctive characteristic with respect to non-malignant cells. This feature has made telomerase a preferred target for anticancer drug development and cancer therapy. This review aims to analyze the pharmacological function and mechanism and role of telomerase in oncogenesis; to provide fundamental knowledge for research on the structure, function, and working mechanism of telomerase; to expound the role that telomerase plays in the initiation and development of tumor and its relationship with tumor cell growth, proliferation, apoptosis, and related pathway molecules; and to display potential targets of antitumor drug for inhibiting the expression, reconstitution, and trafficking of the enzyme. We therefore summarize recent advances in potential telomerase inhibitors for antitumor including natural products, synthetic small molecules, peptides and proteins, which indicate that optimizing the delivery method and drug combination could be of help in a combinatorial drug treatment for tumor. More extensive understanding of the structure, biogenesis, and mechanism of telomerase will provide invaluable information for increasing the efficiency of rational antitumor drug design. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. RNase III-dependent regulation of yeast telomerase.

    PubMed

    Larose, Stéphanie; Laterreur, Nancy; Ghazal, Ghada; Gagnon, Jules; Wellinger, Raymund J; Elela, Sherif Abou

    2007-02-16

    In bakers' yeast, in vivo telomerase activity requires a ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex with at least four associated proteins (Est2p, Est1p, Est3p, and Cdc13p) and one RNA species (Tlc1). The function of telomerase in maintaining chromosome ends, called telomeres, is tightly regulated and linked to the cell cycle. However, the mechanisms that regulate the expression of individual components of telomerase are poorly understood. Here we report that yeast RNase III (Rnt1p), a double-stranded RNA-specific endoribonuclease, regulates the expression of telomerase subunits and is required for maintaining normal telomere length. Deletion or inactivation of RNT1 induced the expression of Est1, Est2, Est3, and Tlc1 RNAs and increased telomerase activity, leading to elongation of telomeric repeat tracts. In silico analysis of the different RNAs coding for the telomerase subunits revealed a canonical Rnt1p cleavage site near the 3' end of Est1 mRNA. This predicted structure was cleaved by Rnt1p and its disruption abolished cleavage in vitro. Mutation of the Rnt1p cleavage signal in vivo impaired the cell cycle-dependent degradation of Est1 mRNA without affecting its steady-state level. These results reveal a new mechanism that influences telomeres length by controlling the expression of the telomerase subunits.

  20. Radiation-induced transmissable chromosomal instability in haemopoietic stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadhim, M. A.; Wright, E. G.

    Heritable radiation-induced genetic alterations have long been assumed to be ``fixed'' within the first cell division. However, there is a growing body of evidence that a considerable fraction of cells surviving radiation exposure appear normal, but a variety of mutational changes arise in their progeny due to a transmissible genomic instability. In our investigations of G-banded metaphases, non-clonal cytogenetic aberrations, predominantly chromatid-type aberrations, have been observed in the clonal descendants of murine and human haemopoietic stem cells surviving low doses (~1 track per cell) of alpha-particle irradiations. The data are consistent with a transmissible genetic instability induced in a stem cell resulting in a diversity of chromosomal aberrations in its clonal progeny many cell divisions later. Recent studies have demonstrated that the instability phenotype persists in vivo and that the expression of chromosomal instability has a strong dependence on the genetic characteristics of the irradiated cell. At the time when cytogenetic aberrations are detected, an increased incidence of hprt mutations and apoptotic cells have been observed in the clonal descendants of alpha-irradiated murine haemopoietic stem cells. Thus, delayed chromosomal abnormalities, delayed cell death by apoptosis and late-arising specific gene mutations may reflect diverse consequences of radiation-induced genomic instability. The relationship, if any, between these effects is not established. Current studies suggest that expression of these delayed heritable effects is determined by the type of radiation exposure, type of cell and a variety of genetic factors.

  1. Radiation-induced dural fibrosarcoma with unusually short latent period

    SciTech Connect

    Ghatak, N.R.; Aydin, F.; Leshner, R.T. Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA )

    1993-05-01

    Although rare, the occurrence of radiation-induced intracranial neoplasms of various types is well known. Among these tumors, fibrosarcomas, especially in the region of seila turcica, seem to be the most common type. These tumors characteristically occur after a long latent period, usually several years, following radiation therapy. The authors now report a case of apparently radiation-induced fibrosarcoma with some unusual features in a 10-year-old boy who was treated with radiation for medulloblastoma. He received a total dose of 53.2 Gy radiation delivered at 1.8 per fraction with 6 MV acceleration using the standard craniospinal technique. An MRI at 15 months after the completion of radiotherapy showed a mass over the cerebral convexity, which increased two-fold in size within a period of 4 months. A well circumscribed tumor was removed from the fronto-parietal convexity. The tumor measured 5x4.5x1.5 cm and was attached to the dura with invasion of the overlying bone. Histologically, it displayed the characteristic features of a low-grade fibrosarcoma. The patient remains free of tumor 18 months after the surgery. This case emphasizes the potential risk for the development of a second neoplasm following therapeutic radiation and also documents, to the authors' knowledge, the shortest latent period reported so far between administration of radiotherapy and development of an intracranial tumor.

  2. Novel Radiomitigator for Radiation-Induced Bone Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreurs, A-S; Shirazi-fard, Y.; Terada, M.; Alwood, J. S.; Steczina, S.; Medina, C.; Tahimic, C. G. T.; Globus, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation-induced bone loss can occur with radiotherapy patients, accidental radiation exposure and during long-term spaceflight. Bone loss due to radiation is due to an early increase in oxidative stress, inflammation and bone resorption, resulting in an imbalance in bone remodeling. Furthermore, exposure to high-Linear Energy Transfer (LET) radiation will impair the bone forming progenitors and reduce bone formation. Radiation can be classified as high-LET or low-LET based on the amount of energy released. Dried Plum (DP) diet prevents bone loss in mice exposed to total body irradiation with both low-LET and high-LET radiation. DP prevents the early radiation-induced bone resorption, but furthermore, we show that DP protects the bone forming osteoblast progenitors from high-LET radiation. These results provide insight that DP re-balances the bone remodeling by preventing resorption and protecting the bone formation capacity. This data is important considering that most of the current osteoporosis treatments only block the bone resorption but do not protect bone formation. In addition, DP seems to act on both the oxidative stress and inflammation pathways. Finally, we have preliminary data showing the potential of DP to be radio-protective at a systemic effect and could possible protect other tissues at risk of total body-irradiation such as skin, brain and heart.

  3. Sestrin2 protects the myocardium against radiation-induced damage.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yue-Can; Chi, Feng; Xing, Rui; Zeng, Jing; Gao, Song; Chen, Jia-Jia; Wang, Hong-Mei; Duan, Qiong-Yu; Sun, Yu-Nan; Niu, Nan; Tang, Mei-Yue; Wu, Rong

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of Sestrin2 in response to radiation-induced injury to the heart and on the cardiomyopathy development in the mouse. Mice with genetic deletion of the Sestrin2 (Sestrin2 knockout mice [Sestrin2 KO]) and treatment with irradiation (22 or 15 Gy) were used as independent approaches to determine the role of Sestrin2. Echocardiography (before and after isoproterenol challenge) and left ventricular (LV) catheterization were performed to evaluate changes in LV dimensions and function. Masson's trichrome was used to assess myocardial fibrosis. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot were used to detect the capillary density. After 22 or 15 Gy irradiation, the LV ejection fraction (EF) was impaired in wt mice at 1 week and 4 months after irradiation when compared with sham irradiation. Compared to wt mice, Sestrin2 KO mice had significant reduction in reduced LVEF at 1 week and 4 months after irradiation. A significant increase in LV end-diastolic pressure and myocardial fibrosis and a significant decrease in capillary density were observed in irradiation-wt mice, as well as in irradiation-Sestrin2 KO mice. Sestrin2 involved in the regulation of cardiomyopathy (such as myocardial fibrosis) after irradiation. Overexpression of Sestrin2 might be useful in limiting radiation-induced myocardial injury.

  4. Radiation-induced recurrent intestinal pseudo-obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Conklin, J.L.; Anuras, S.

    1981-06-01

    The syndrome of intestinal pseudo-obstruction is a complex of signs and symptoms of intestinal obstruction without evidence of mechanical obstruction of the intestinal lumen. A patient with radiation-induced intestinal pseudoobstruction is described. The patient is a 74-year old woman with a history of chronic diarrhea, recurrent episodes of crampy abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting since receiving a 13,000 rad radiation dose to the pelvis in 1954. She has been hospitalized on many occasions for symptoms and signs of bowel obstruction. Upper gastrointestinal contrast roentgenograms with small bowel follow-through done during these episodes revealed multiple dilated loops of small bowel with no obstructing lesion. Barium enemas revealed no obstructing lesion. Each episode resolved with conservative therapy. Other secondary causes for intestinal pseudo-obstruction were ruled out in our patient. She gave no history of familial gastrointestinal disorders. Although postirradiation motility abnormalities have been demonstrated experimentally this is the first report of radiation induced intestinal pseudo-obstruction.

  5. Inhibition of radiation-induced polyuria by histamine receptor antagonists

    SciTech Connect

    Donlon, M.A.; Melia, J.A.; Helgeson, E.A.; Wolfe, W.W.

    1986-03-01

    In previous studies the authors have demonstrated that gamma radiation results in polyuria, which is preceded by polydypsia. This suggests that the increased thirst elicited by radiation causes increased urinary volume (UV). Histamine, which is released following radiation exposure, also elicits drinking by nonirradiated rats when administered exogenously. In this study the authors have investigated both the role of water deprivation and the effect of histamine receptor antagonists (HRA) on radiation-induced polyuria. Sprague-Dawley rats were housed individually in metabolic cages. Water was allowed ad libitum except in deprivation experiments where water was removed for 24 hr immediately following radiation. Cimetidine (CIM), an H2 HRA, and dexbromopheniramine (DXB), an H1 HRA, were administered i.p. (16 and 1 mg/kg, respectively) 30 min prior to irradiation (950 rads from a cobalt source). UV was determined at 24-hr intervals for 3 days preceding irradiation and 24 hr postirradiation. UV in DXB treated rats was significantly reduced 24 hr postirradiation (CON = 427 +/- 54%; DXB = 247 +/- 39% of preirradiated CON) compared to postirradiation control values. CIM did not affect postirradiation UV. These data suggest that radiation-induced polyuria is caused by polydypsia which is, in part, mediated by histamine induced by an H1 receptor.

  6. DNA damage in cells exhibiting radiation-induced genomic instability

    SciTech Connect

    Keszenman, Deborah J.; Kolodiuk, Lucia; Baulch, Janet E.

    2015-02-22

    Cells exhibiting radiation induced genomic instability exhibit varied spectra of genetic and chromosomal aberrations. Even so, oxidative stress remains a common theme in the initiation and/or perpetuation of this phenomenon. Isolated oxidatively modified bases, abasic sites, DNA single strand breaks and clustered DNA damage are induced in normal mammalian cultured cells and tissues due to endogenous reactive oxygen species generated during normal cellular metabolism in an aerobic environment. While sparse DNA damage may be easily repaired, clustered DNA damage may lead to persistent cytotoxic or mutagenic events that can lead to genomic instability. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that DNA damage signatures characterised by altered levels of endogenous, potentially mutagenic, types of DNA damage and chromosomal breakage are related to radiation-induced genomic instability and persistent oxidative stress phenotypes observed in the chromosomally unstable progeny of irradiated cells. The measurement of oxypurine, oxypyrimidine and abasic site endogenous DNA damage showed differences in non-double-strand breaks (DSB) clusters among the three of the four unstable clones evaluated as compared to genomically stable clones and the parental cell line. These three unstable clones also had increased levels of DSB clusters. The results of this study demonstrate that each unstable cell line has a unique spectrum of persistent damage and lead us to speculate that alterations in DNA damage signaling and repair may be related to the perpetuation of genomic instability.

  7. Genetic variation in radiation-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Smirnov, Denis A; Brady, Lauren; Halasa, Krzysztof; Morley, Michael; Solomon, Sonia; Cheung, Vivian G

    2012-02-01

    Radiation exposure through environmental, medical, and occupational settings is increasingly common. While radiation has harmful effects, it has utility in many applications such as radiotherapy for cancer. To increase the efficacy of radiation treatment and minimize its risks, a better understanding of the individual differences in radiosensitivity and the molecular basis of radiation response is needed. Here, we integrated human genetic and functional genomic approaches to study the response of human cells to radiation. We measured radiation-induced changes in gene expression and cell death in B cells from normal individuals. We found extensive individual variation in gene expression and cellular responses. To understand the genetic basis of this variation, we mapped the DNA sequence variants that influence expression response to radiation. We also identified radiation-responsive genes that regulate cell death; silencing of these genes by small interfering RNA led to an increase in radiation-induced cell death in human B cells, colorectal and prostate cancer cells. Together these results uncovered DNA variants that contribute to radiosensitivity and identified genes that can be targeted to increase the sensitivity of tumors to radiation.

  8. Sensitivity to Radiation-Induced Cancer in Hemochromatosis

    SciTech Connect

    Bull. Richard J.; Anderson, Larry E.

    2000-06-01

    The objectives of this pilot project using HFE-knockout homozygotes and heterozygotes are to (1) determine whether the knock-out mice have greater sensitivity to radiation-induced cancer of the colon, liver and breast, (2) establish the dependence of this sensitivity on the accumulation of iron, (3) determine the extent to which cell replication and apoptosis occur in these target tissues with varying iron load, and (4) correlate the increases in sensitivity with changes in insulin-related signaling in tumors and normal tissue from each target organ. Three experimental designs will be used in the pilot project. The sequence of experiments is designed to first explore the influence of iron load on the response and demonstrate that HFE knockout mice are more sensitive than the wild type to radiation-induced cancer in one or more of three target tissues (liver, colon and breast). The dose response relationships with a broader set of radiation doses will be explored in the second experiment. The final experiment is designed to explore the extent to which heterozygotes display the increased susceptibility to cancer induction and to independently assess the importance of iron load to the initiation versus promotion of tumors.

  9. Radiation-induced genomic instability in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Huumonen, Katriina; Immonen, Hanna-Kaisa; Baverstock, Keith; Hiltunen, Mikko; Korkalainen, Merja; Lahtinen, Tapani; Parviainen, Juha; Viluksela, Matti; Wong, Garry; Naarala, Jonne; Juutilainen, Jukka

    2012-10-09

    Radiation-induced genomic instability has been well documented, particularly in vitro. However, the understanding of its mechanisms and their consequences in vivo is still limited. In this study, Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans; strain CB665) nematodes were exposed to X-rays at doses of 0.1, 1, 3 or 10Gy. The endpoints were measured several generations after exposure and included mutations in the movement-related gene unc-58, alterations in gene expression analysed with oligoarrays containing the entire C. elegans genome, and micro-satellite mutations measured by capillary electrophoresis. The progeny of the irradiated nematodes showed an increased mutation frequency in the unc-58 gene, with a maximum response observed at 1Gy. Significant differences were also found in gene expression between the irradiated (1Gy) and non-irradiated nematode lines. Differences in gene expression did not show clear clustering into certain gene categories, suggesting that the instability might be a chaotic process rather than a result of changes in the function of few specific genes such as, e.g., those responsible for DNA repair. Increased heterogeneity in gene expression, which has previously been described in irradiated cultured human lymphocytes, was also observed in the present study in C. elegans, the coefficient of variation of gene expression being higher in the progeny of irradiated nematodes than in control nematodes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first publication reporting radiation-induced genomic instability in C. elegans.

  10. Nature of radiation-induced defects in quartz

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Bu; Yu, Yingtian; Bauchy, Mathieu; Pignatelli, Isabella; Sant, Gaurav

    2015-07-14

    Although quartz (α-form) is a mineral used in numerous applications wherein radiation exposure is an issue, the nature of the atomistic defects formed during radiation-induced damage has not been fully clarified. Especially, the extent of oxygen vacancy formation is still debated, which is an issue of primary importance as optical techniques based on charged oxygen vacancies have been utilized to assess the level of radiation damage in quartz. In this paper, molecular dynamics simulations are applied to study the effects of ballistic impacts on the atomic network of quartz. We show that the defects that are formed mainly consist of over-coordinated Si and O, as well as Si–O connectivity defects, e.g., small Si–O rings and edge-sharing Si tetrahedra. Oxygen vacancies, on the contrary, are found in relatively low abundance, suggesting that characterizations based on E′ centers do not adequately capture radiation-induced structural damage in quartz. Finally, we evaluate the dependence on the incident energy, of the amount of each type of the point defects formed, and quantify unambiguously the threshold displacement energies for both O and Si atoms. These results provide a comprehensive basis to assess the nature and extent of radiation damage in quartz.

  11. DNA damage in cells exhibiting radiation-induced genomic instability

    DOE PAGES

    Keszenman, Deborah J.; Kolodiuk, Lucia; Baulch, Janet E.

    2015-02-22

    Cells exhibiting radiation induced genomic instability exhibit varied spectra of genetic and chromosomal aberrations. Even so, oxidative stress remains a common theme in the initiation and/or perpetuation of this phenomenon. Isolated oxidatively modified bases, abasic sites, DNA single strand breaks and clustered DNA damage are induced in normal mammalian cultured cells and tissues due to endogenous reactive oxygen species generated during normal cellular metabolism in an aerobic environment. While sparse DNA damage may be easily repaired, clustered DNA damage may lead to persistent cytotoxic or mutagenic events that can lead to genomic instability. In this study, we tested the hypothesismore » that DNA damage signatures characterised by altered levels of endogenous, potentially mutagenic, types of DNA damage and chromosomal breakage are related to radiation-induced genomic instability and persistent oxidative stress phenotypes observed in the chromosomally unstable progeny of irradiated cells. The measurement of oxypurine, oxypyrimidine and abasic site endogenous DNA damage showed differences in non-double-strand breaks (DSB) clusters among the three of the four unstable clones evaluated as compared to genomically stable clones and the parental cell line. These three unstable clones also had increased levels of DSB clusters. The results of this study demonstrate that each unstable cell line has a unique spectrum of persistent damage and lead us to speculate that alterations in DNA damage signaling and repair may be related to the perpetuation of genomic instability.« less

  12. Radiation-induced skin carcinomas of the head and neck

    SciTech Connect

    Ron, E.; Modan, B.; Preston, D.; Alfandary, E.; Stovall, M.; Boice, J.D. Jr. )

    1991-03-01

    Radiation exposures to the scalp during childhood for tinea capitis were associated with a fourfold increase in skin cancer, primarily basal cell carcinomas, and a threefold increase in benign skin tumors. Malignant melanoma, however, was not significantly elevated. Overall, 80 neoplasms were identified from an extensive search of the pathology logs of all major hospitals in Israel and computer linkage with the national cancer registry. Radiation dose to the scalp was computed for over 10,000 persons irradiated for ringworm (mean 7 Gy), and incidence rates were contrasted with those observed in 16,000 matched comparison subjects. The relative risk of radiogenic skin cancer did not differ significantly between men or women or by time since exposure; however, risk was greatest following exposures in early childhood. After adjusting for sex, ethnic origin, and attained age, the estimated excess relative risk was 0.7 per Gy and the average excess risk over the current follow-up was 0.31/10(4) PY-Gy. The risk per Gy of radiation-induced skin cancer was intermediate between the high risk found among whites and no risk found among blacks in a similar study conducted in New York City. This finding suggests the role that subsequent exposure to uv radiation likely plays in the expression of a potential radiation-induced skin malignancy.

  13. The thermal stability of radiation-induced defects in illite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riegler, T.; Allard, T.; Beaufort, D.; Cantin, J.-L.; von Bardeleben, H. J.

    2016-01-01

    High-purity illite specimens from the Mesoproterozoic unconformity-related uranium deposits of Kiggavik, Thelon basin, Nunavut (Canada), and Shea Creek (Athabasca basin, Saskatchewan, Canada) have been studied using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy to determine the thermal stability of the main radiation-induced defects and question the potential of using illite as a natural dosimeter. The observed spectra are complex as they can show in the same region several contributions: (1) an unstable native defect, (2) the main stable defect named Ai by reference to a previous study (Morichon et al. in Phys Chem Minerals 35:339-346, 2008), (3) a signal at g = 2.063 assigned to a new defect, not yet fully characterized, named Ai2 center and (4) impurities such as vanadyl complex or divalent manganese. Isochronal heating shows that the new signal corresponds to a stable species. Isothermal heating experiments at 400 and 450 °C provide values of half-life extrapolated at room temperature and activation energy of 1.9-29,109 years and 1.3-1.4 eV, respectively, corresponding to the Ai center. These parameters allow the use of stable radiation-induced defects as a record of radioactivity down to the Paleoproterozoic period.

  14. Characterization of radiation-induced emesis in the ferret

    SciTech Connect

    King, G.L.

    1988-01-01

    Forty-eight ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) were individually head-shielded and radiated with bilateral cobalt 60 gamma radiation at 100 cGy min at doses ranging between 49 and 601 cGy. The emetic threshold was observed at 69 cGy, the ED 50 was calculated as 77 cGy, and 100% incidence of emesis occurred at 201 cGy. With increasing doses of radiation, the latency to first emesis after radiation decreased dramatically, whereas the duration of the prodromal period increased. Two other sets of experiments suggest that dopaminergic mechanisms play a minor role in radiation-induced emesis in the ferret. Twenty-two animals were injected either intravenously or subcutaneously with 30 to 300 micrograms /kg of apomorphine. Fewer than 50% of the animals vomited to 300 micrograms/kg apomorphine; central dopaminergic receptor activation was apparent at all doses. Another eight animals received 1 mg/kg domperidone prior to either 201 (n=4) or 401 (n=4) cGy radiation and their emetic responses were compared with NaCi-injected-irradiated controls (n=8). At 201 cGy, domperidone significantly reduced only the total time in emetic behavior. At 401 cGy, domperidone had no salutary effect on radiation-induced emesis. The emetic responses of the ferret to radiation and apomorphine are compared with these responses in other vomiting species.

  15. Characterization of radiation-induced emesis in the ferret

    SciTech Connect

    King, G.L.

    1988-06-01

    Forty-eight ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) were individually head-shielded and radiated with bilateral /sup 60/Co gamma radiation at 100 cGy min-1 at doses ranging between 49 and 601 cGy. The emetic threshold was observed at 69 cGy, the ED50 was calculated at 77 cGy, and 100% incidence of emesis occurred at 201 cGy. With increasing doses of radiation, the latency to first emesis after radiation decreased dramatically, whereas the duration of the prodromal period increased. Two other sets of experiments suggest that dopaminergic mechanisms play a minor role in radiation-induced emesis in the ferret. Twenty-two animals were injected either intravenously or subcutaneously with 30 to 300 micrograms/kg of apomorphine. Fewer than 50% of the animals vomited to 300 micrograms/kg apomorphine; central dopaminergic receptor activation was apparent at all doses. Another eight animals received 1 mg/kg domperidone prior to either 201 (n = 4) or 401 (n = 4) cGy radiation and their emetic responses were compared with NaCl-injected-irradiated controls (n = 8). At 201 cGy, domperidone significantly reduced only the total time in emetic behavior. At 401 cGy, domperidone had no salutary effect on radiation-induced emesis. The emetic responses of the ferret to radiation and apomorphine are compared with these responses in other vomiting species.

  16. [Radiation-induced genomic instability: phenomenon, molecular mechanisms, pathogenetic significance].

    PubMed

    Mazurik, V K; Mikhaĭlov, V F

    2001-01-01

    The recent data on the radiation-induced genome instability as a special state of progeny of cells irradiated in vitro as well as after a whole body exposure to ionizing radiation, that make these cells considerably different from normal, unirradiated cells, were considered. This state presents a number of cytogenetical, molecular-biological, cytological and biochemical manifestations untypical for normal cells. The state is controlled by the mechanisms of regulation of checkpoints of cell cycle, and apoptosis, that is under gene p53 control. The proof has been found that this state transfers from irradiated maternal cells to their surviving progeny by the epigenetical mechanisms and would exist until the cells restore the original state of response on the DNA damage. From the point of view of the genome instability conception, that considers the chromatine rearrangement as the adaptive-evolution mechanism of adaptation of the species to changeable environmental conditions, the radiation-induced genome instability may be considered as transition of irradiated progeny to the state of read these to adaptation changes with two alternative pathways. The first leads to adaptation to enviromental conditions and restoring of normal cell functions. The second presents the cell transition into the transformed state with remain genome instability and with increase of tumour growth probability.

  17. Radiation Induced DNA Double-Strand Breaks in Radiology.

    PubMed

    Kuefner, M A; Brand, M; Engert, C; Schwab, S A; Uder, M

    2015-10-01

    Shortly after the discovery of X-rays, their damaging effect on biological tissues was observed. The determination of radiation exposure in diagnostic and interventional radiology is usually based on physical measurements or mathematical algorithms with standardized dose simulations. γ-H2AX immunofluorescence microscopy is a reliable and sensitive method for the quantification of radiation induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) in blood lymphocytes. The detectable amount of these DNA damages correlates well with the dose received. However, the biological radiation damage depends not only on dose but also on other individual factors like radiation sensitivity and DNA repair capacity. Iodinated contrast agents can enhance the x-ray induced DNA damage level. After their induction DSB are quickly repaired. A protective effect of antioxidants has been postulated in experimental studies. This review explains the prinicple of the γ-H2AX technique and provides an overview on studies evaluating DSB in radiologic examinations. Radiologic examinations including CT and angiography induce DNA double-strand breaks. Even after mammography a slight but significant increase is detectable in peripheral blood lymphocytes. The number of radiation induced double-strand breaks correlates well with the radiation dose. Individual factors including radiation sensitivity, DNA repair capacity and the application of iodinated contrast media has an influence on the DNA damage level. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Telomeres and Telomerase in Cardiovascular Diseases.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Jih-Kai; Wang, Chao-Yung

    2016-09-01

    Telomeres are tandem repeat DNA sequences present at the ends of each eukaryotic chromosome to stabilize the genome structure integrity. Telomere lengths progressively shorten with each cell division. Inflammation and oxidative stress, which are implicated as major mechanisms underlying cardiovascular diseases, increase the rate of telomere shortening and lead to cellular senescence. In clinical studies, cardiovascular risk factors such as smoking, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and hypertension have been associated with short leukocyte telomere length. In addition, low telomerase activity and short leukocyte telomere length have been observed in atherosclerotic plaque and associated with plaque instability, thus stroke or acute myocardial infarction. The aging myocardium with telomere shortening and accumulation of senescent cells limits the tissue regenerative capacity, contributing to systolic or diastolic heart failure. In addition, patients with ion-channel defects might have genetic imbalance caused by oxidative stress-related accelerated telomere shortening, which may subsequently cause sudden cardiac death. Telomere length can serve as a marker for the biological status of previous cell divisions and DNA damage with inflammation and oxidative stress. It can be integrated into current risk prediction and stratification models for cardiovascular diseases and can be used in precise personalized treatments. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of telomeres and telomerase in the aging process and their association with cardiovascular diseases. In addition, we discuss therapeutic interventions targeting the telomere system in cardiovascular disease treatments.

  19. Telomeres and Telomerase in Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Jih-Kai; Wang, Chao-Yung

    2016-01-01

    Telomeres are tandem repeat DNA sequences present at the ends of each eukaryotic chromosome to stabilize the genome structure integrity. Telomere lengths progressively shorten with each cell division. Inflammation and oxidative stress, which are implicated as major mechanisms underlying cardiovascular diseases, increase the rate of telomere shortening and lead to cellular senescence. In clinical studies, cardiovascular risk factors such as smoking, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and hypertension have been associated with short leukocyte telomere length. In addition, low telomerase activity and short leukocyte telomere length have been observed in atherosclerotic plaque and associated with plaque instability, thus stroke or acute myocardial infarction. The aging myocardium with telomere shortening and accumulation of senescent cells limits the tissue regenerative capacity, contributing to systolic or diastolic heart failure. In addition, patients with ion-channel defects might have genetic imbalance caused by oxidative stress-related accelerated telomere shortening, which may subsequently cause sudden cardiac death. Telomere length can serve as a marker for the biological status of previous cell divisions and DNA damage with inflammation and oxidative stress. It can be integrated into current risk prediction and stratification models for cardiovascular diseases and can be used in precise personalized treatments. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of telomeres and telomerase in the aging process and their association with cardiovascular diseases. In addition, we discuss therapeutic interventions targeting the telomere system in cardiovascular disease treatments. PMID:27598203

  20. Telomeres and Telomerase: From Discovery to Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Corey, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Telomeres are the ends of linear chromosomes. They cannot be fully replicated by standard polymerases and are maintained by the ribonucleoprotein telomerase. Telomeres and telomerase stand at a junction of critical processes underlying chromosome integrity, cancer, and aging and their importance was recognized by the 2009 Nobel Prize to Elizabeth Blackburn, Jack Szostak, and Carol Greider. Where will the field go now? What are the prospects for anti-telomerase agents as drugs? Nearly thirty years after Szostak and Blackburn’s pioneering manuscript on telomere ends, the challenges of discovery remain. PMID:20064431

  1. Telomere and telomerase stability in human diseases and cancer.

    PubMed

    Chiodi, Ilaria; Mondello, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    Telomeres are the nucleoprotein structures at the end of linear eukaryotic chromosomes required for genome stability. Telomerase is the specialized enzyme deputed to their elongation. Maintenance of a proper telomere structure, an accurate regulation of telomerase biogenesis and activity, as well as a correct telomere-telomerase interaction and a faithful telomeric DNA replication are all processes that a cell has to precisely control to safeguard its functionality. Here, we review key factors that play a role in the development of these processes and their relationship with human health.

  2. Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase Is Required for the Localization of Telomerase RNA to Cajal Bodies and Telomeres in Human Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tomlinson, Rebecca L.; Abreu, Eladio B.; Ziegler, Tania; Ly, Hinh; Counter, Christopher M.

    2008-01-01

    Telomere maintenance by telomerase is critical for the unlimited division potential of most human cancer cells. The two essential components of human telomerase, telomerase RNA (hTR) and telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), are recruited from distinct subnuclear sites to telomeres during S phase. Throughout the remainder of the cell cycle hTR is found primarily in Cajal bodies. The localization of hTR to Cajal bodies and telomeres is specific to cancer cells where telomerase is active and is not observed in primary cells. Here we show that the trafficking of hTR to both telomeres and Cajal bodies depends on hTERT. RNA interference–mediated depletion of hTERT in cancer cells leads to loss of hTR from both Cajal bodies and telomeres without affecting hTR levels. In addition, expression of hTERT in telomerase-negative cells (including primary and ALT cancer cell lines) induces hTR to localize to both sites. Factors that did not stimulate hTR localization in our experiments include increased hTR RNA levels and Cajal body numbers, and expression of SV40 large T antigen and oncogenic Ras. Our findings suggest that the trafficking of telomerase to Cajal bodies and telomeres in cancer cells correlates with and depends on the assembly of the enzyme. PMID:18562689

  3. Complicated RNA splicing of chicken telomerase reverse transcriptase revealed by profiling cells both positive and negative for telomerase activity.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hong; Delany, Mary E

    2006-09-01

    Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) is an essential component of the telomerase ribonucleoprotein complex which maintains telomeres. The objective of this study was to investigate chicken TERT (cTERT) alternative RNA splicing profiles of samples varying for telomerase activity and immortalization parameters. These included systems both in vivo (gastrula embryo, embryo and adult liver) and in vitro (chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) and DT40 cells). Nineteen cTERT variants were discovered, which were generated through exon skipping, intron retention, and alternative usage of splice donor and acceptor sites. Three variants were predicted to introduce in-frame mutations, whereas the others were predicted to have premature termination codons. The number of cTERT variants detected ranged from 10 in adult liver to 13 in CEFs. One variant (V4) was found in all samples and was predicted to generate a truncated protein lacking telomerase catalytic activity. Interestingly, the standard TERT expected from the full-length transcript was expressed not only in telomerase-positive, but also in telomerase-negative samples. The complicated expression profiles of cTERT in various cell systems suggest that sophisticated regulatory pathways are involved in cTERT pre-mRNA editing. Further, these results support the body of increasing evidence that alternative splicing of TERT, both in human and chicken, contributes to telomerase activity regulation.

  4. Telomerase reverse transcriptase is required for the localization of telomerase RNA to cajal bodies and telomeres in human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, Rebecca L; Abreu, Eladio B; Ziegler, Tania; Ly, Hinh; Counter, Christopher M; Terns, Rebecca M; Terns, Michael P

    2008-09-01

    Telomere maintenance by telomerase is critical for the unlimited division potential of most human cancer cells. The two essential components of human telomerase, telomerase RNA (hTR) and telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), are recruited from distinct subnuclear sites to telomeres during S phase. Throughout the remainder of the cell cycle hTR is found primarily in Cajal bodies. The localization of hTR to Cajal bodies and telomeres is specific to cancer cells where telomerase is active and is not observed in primary cells. Here we show that the trafficking of hTR to both telomeres and Cajal bodies depends on hTERT. RNA interference-mediated depletion of hTERT in cancer cells leads to loss of hTR from both Cajal bodies and telomeres without affecting hTR levels. In addition, expression of hTERT in telomerase-negative cells (including primary and ALT cancer cell lines) induces hTR to localize to both sites. Factors that did not stimulate hTR localization in our experiments include increased hTR RNA levels and Cajal body numbers, and expression of SV40 large T antigen and oncogenic Ras. Our findings suggest that the trafficking of telomerase to Cajal bodies and telomeres in cancer cells correlates with and depends on the assembly of the enzyme.

  5. Evidence for involvement of cytosolic thioredoxin peroxidase in the excessive resistance of Sf9 Lepidopteran insect cells against radiation-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Hambarde, Shashank; Singh, Vijaypal; Chandna, Sudhir

    2013-01-01

    Lepidopteran insect cells display 50-100 times higher radioresistance compared to human cells, and reportedly have more efficient antioxidant system that can significantly reduce radiation-induced oxidative stress and cell death. However, the antioxidant mechanisms that contribute substantially to this excessive resistance still need to be understood thoroughly. In this study, we investigated the role of thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx) in high-dose γ-radiation response of Sf9 cell line derived from Spodoptera frugiperda, the Fall armyworm. We identified a TPx orthologue (Sf-TPx) in Spodoptera system, with primarily cytosolic localization. Gamma-irradiation at 500 Gy dose significantly up-regulated Sf-TPx, while higher doses (1000 Gy-2000 Gy) had no such effect. G2/M checkpoint induced following 500 Gy was associated with transition of Sf-TPx decamer into enzymatically active dimer. Same effect was observed during G2/M block induced by 5 nM okadaic acid or 10 µM CDK1 (cycline dependent kinase-1) inhibitor roscovitine, thus indicating that radiation-induced Sf-TPx activity is mediated by CDKs. Accumulation of TPx dimer form during G2/M checkpoint might favour higher peroxidase activity facilitating efficient survival at this dose. Confirming this, higher lethal doses (1000 Gy-2000 Gy) caused significantly less accumulation of dimer form and induced dose-dependent apoptosis. A ∼50% knock-down of Sf-TPx by siRNA caused remarkable increase in radiation-induced ROS as well as caspase-3 dependent radiation-induced apoptosis, clearly implying TPx role in the radioresistance of Sf9 cells. Quite importantly, our study demonstrates for the first time that thioredoxin peroxidase contributes significantly in the radioresistance of Lepidopteran Sf9 insect cells, especially in their exemplary resistance against radiation-induced apoptosis. This is an important insight into the antioxidant mechanisms existing in this highly stress-resistant model cell system.

  6. Evidence for Involvement of Cytosolic Thioredoxin Peroxidase in the Excessive Resistance of Sf9 Lepidopteran Insect Cells against Radiation-Induced Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Hambarde, Shashank; Singh, Vijaypal; Chandna, Sudhir

    2013-01-01

    Lepidopteran insect cells display 50–100 times higher radioresistance compared to human cells, and reportedly have more efficient antioxidant system that can significantly reduce radiation-induced oxidative stress and cell death. However, the antioxidant mechanisms that contribute substantially to this excessive resistance still need to be understood thoroughly. In this study, we investigated the role of thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx) in high-dose γ-radiation response of Sf9 cell line derived from Spodoptera frugiperda, the Fall armyworm. We identified a TPx orthologue (Sf-TPx) in Spodoptera system, with primarily cytosolic localization. Gamma-irradiation at 500 Gy dose significantly up-regulated Sf-TPx, while higher doses (1000 Gy–2000 Gy) had no such effect. G2/M checkpoint induced following 500 Gy was associated with transition of Sf-TPx decamer into enzymatically active dimer. Same effect was observed during G2/M block induced by 5 nM okadaic acid or 10 µM CDK1 (cycline dependent kinase-1) inhibitor roscovitine, thus indicating that radiation-induced Sf-TPx activity is mediated by CDKs. Accumulation of TPx dimer form during G2/M checkpoint might favour higher peroxidase activity facilitating efficient survival at this dose. Confirming this, higher lethal doses (1000 Gy–2000 Gy) caused significantly less accumulation of dimer form and induced dose-dependent apoptosis. A ∼50% knock-down of Sf-TPx by siRNA caused remarkable increase in radiation-induced ROS as well as caspase-3 dependent radiation-induced apoptosis, clearly implying TPx role in the radioresistance of Sf9 cells. Quite importantly, our study demonstrates for the first time that thioredoxin peroxidase contributes significantly in the radioresistance of Lepidopteran Sf9 insect cells, especially in their exemplary resistance against radiation-induced apoptosis. This is an important insight into the antioxidant mechanisms existing in this highly stress-resistant model cell system. PMID:23505474

  7. Contribution of radiation-induced, nitric oxide-mediated bystander effect to radiation-induced adaptive response.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, H.; Ohnishi, T.

    There has been a recent upsurge of interest in radiation-induced adaptive response and bystander effect which are specific modes in stress response to low-dose low-dose rate radiation Recently we found that the accumulation of inducible nitric oxide NO synthase iNOS in wt p53 cells was induced by chronic irradiation with gamma rays followed by acute irradiation with X-rays but not by each one resulting in an increase in nitrite concentrations of medium It is suggested that the accumulation of iNOS may be due to the depression of acute irradiation-induced p53 functions by pre-chronic irradiation In addition we found that the radiosensitivity of wt p53 cells against acute irradiation with X-rays was reduced after chronic irradiation with gamma rays This reduction of radiosensitivity of wt p53 cells was nearly completely suppressed by the addition of NO scavenger carboxy-PTIO to the medium This reduction of radiosensitivity of wt p53 cells is just radiation-induced adaptive response suggesting that NO-mediated bystander effect may considerably contribute to adaptive response induced by radiation

  8. Amelioration of radiation-induced hematopoietic syndrome by an antioxidant chlorophyllin through increased stem cell activity and modulation of hematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Suryavanshi, Shweta; Sharma, Deepak; Checker, Rahul; Thoh, Maikho; Gota, Vikram; Sandur, Santosh K; Sainis, Krishna B

    2015-08-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells (HSPC) are low in abundance and exhibit high radiosensitivity and their ability to divide dramatically decreases following exposure to ionizing radiation. Our earlier studies have shown antiapoptotic, immune-stimulatory, and antioxidant effects of chlorophyllin, a constituent of the over the counter drug derifil. Here we describe the beneficial effects of chlorophyllin against radiation-induced hematopoietic syndrome. Chlorophyllin administration significantly enhanced the abundance of HSPC in vivo. It induced a transient cell cycle arrest in lineage-negative cells in the bone marrow. However, the chlorophyllin-treated mice exposed to whole body irradiation (WBI) had a significantly higher proportion of actively dividing HSPC in the bone marrow as compared to only WBI-exposed mice. It significantly increased the number of colony forming units (CFUs) by bone marrow cells in vitro and spleen CFUs in irradiated mice in vivo. Pharmacokinetic study showed that chlorophyllin had a serum half-life of 141.8 min in mice. Chlorophyllin upregulated antiapoptotic genes and antioxidant machinery via activation of prosurvival transcription factors Nrf-2 and NF-κB and increased the survival and recovery of bone marrow cells in mice exposed to WBI. Chlorophyllin stimulated granulocyte production in bone marrow and increased the abundance of peripheral blood neutrophils by enhancing serum levels of granulocyte-colony stimulation factor (GCSF). Most importantly, prophylactic treatment of mice with chlorophyllin significantly abrogated radiation-induced mortality. Chlorophyllin mitigates radiation-induced hematopoietic syndrome by increasing the abundance of hematopoietic stem cells, enhancing granulopoiesis, and stimulating prosurvival pathways in bone marrow cells and lymphocytes.

  9. Radiation-Induced c-Jun Activation Depends on MEK1-ERK1/2 Signaling Pathway in Microglial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Zhiyong; Sui, Guangchao; Rosa, Paulo Mottin; Zhao, Weiling

    2012-01-01

    Radiation-induced normal brain injury is associated with acute and/or chronic inflammatory responses, and has been a major concern in radiotherapy. Recent studies suggest that microglial activation is a potential contributor to chronic inflammatory responses following irradiation; however, the molecular mechanism underlying the response of microglia to radiation is poorly understood. c-Jun, a component of AP-1 transcription factors, potentially regulates neural cell death and neuroinflammation. We observed a rapid increase in phosphorylation of N-terminal c-Jun (on serine 63 and 73) and MAPK kinases ERK1/2, but not JNKs, in irradiated murine microglial BV2 cells. Radiation-induced c-Jun phosphorylation is dependent on the canonical MEK-ERK signaling pathway and required for both ERK1 and ERK2 function. ERK1/2 directly interact with c-Jun in vitro and in cells; meanwhile, the JNK binding domain on c-Jun is not required for its interaction with ERK kinases. Radiation-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) potentially contribute to c-Jun phosphorylation through activating the ERK pathway. Radiation stimulates c-Jun transcriptional activity and upregulates c-Jun-regulated proinflammatory genes, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and cyclooxygenase-2. Pharmacologic blockade of the ERK signaling pathway interferes with c-Jun activity and inhibits radiation-stimulated expression of c-Jun target genes. Overall, our study reveals that the MEK-ERK1/2 signaling pathway, but not the JNK pathway, contributes to the c-Jun-dependent microglial inflammatory response following irradiation. PMID:22606284

  10. Radiation-induced c-Jun activation depends on MEK1-ERK1/2 signaling pathway in microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhiyong; Sui, Guangchao; Rosa, Paulo Mottin; Zhao, Weiling

    2012-01-01

    Radiation-induced normal brain injury is associated with acute and/or chronic inflammatory responses, and has been a major concern in radiotherapy. Recent studies suggest that microglial activation is a potential contributor to chronic inflammatory responses following irradiation; however, the molecular mechanism underlying the response of microglia to radiation is poorly understood. c-Jun, a component of AP-1 transcription factors, potentially regulates neural cell death and neuroinflammation. We observed a rapid increase in phosphorylation of N-terminal c-Jun (on serine 63 and 73) and MAPK kinases ERK1/2, but not JNKs, in irradiated murine microglial BV2 cells. Radiation-induced c-Jun phosphorylation is dependent on the canonical MEK-ERK signaling pathway and required for both ERK1 and ERK2 function. ERK1/2 directly interact with c-Jun in vitro and in cells; meanwhile, the JNK binding domain on c-Jun is not required for its interaction with ERK kinases. Radiation-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) potentially contribute to c-Jun phosphorylation through activating the ERK pathway. Radiation stimulates c-Jun transcriptional activity and upregulates c-Jun-regulated proinflammatory genes, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and cyclooxygenase-2. Pharmacologic blockade of the ERK signaling pathway interferes with c-Jun activity and inhibits radiation-stimulated expression of c-Jun target genes. Overall, our study reveals that the MEK-ERK1/2 signaling pathway, but not the JNK pathway, contributes to the c-Jun-dependent microglial inflammatory response following irradiation.

  11. ATM Mutations and the Development of Severe Radiation-Induced Morbidity Following Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    repair of radiation-induced damage. Furthermore, cells possessing a mutated copy of this gene are more radiosensitive than cells from individuals with...AD Award Number: DAMD17-02-1-0503 TITLE: ATM Mutations and the Development of Severe Radiation-Induced Morbidity Following Radiotherapy for Breast...2005 Annual 1 Jul 2004 - 30 Jun 2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER ATM Mutations and the Development of Severe Radiation-Induced Morbidity

  12. Hydrogen Protects Mice from Radiation Induced Thymic Lymphoma in BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Luqian; Zhou, Chuanfeng; Zhang, Jian; Gao, Fu; Li, Bailong; Chuai, Yunhai; Liu, Cong; Cai, Jianming

    2011-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) is a well-known carcinogen, however the mechanism of radiation induced thymic lymphoma is not well known. Moreover, an easy and effective method to protect mice from radiation induced thymic lymphoma is still unknown. Hydrogen, or H2, is seldom regarded as an important agent in medical usage, especially as a therapeutic gas. Here in this study, we found that H2 protects mice from radiation induced thymic lymphoma in BALB/c mice. PMID:21448340

  13. Disease mutant analysis identifies a new function of DAXX in telomerase regulation and telomere maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Mengfan; Li, Yujing; Zhang, Yi; Chen, Yuxi; Huang, Wenjun; Wang, Dan; Zaug, Arthur J.; Liu, Dan; Zhao, Yong; Cech, Thomas R.; Ma, Wenbin; Songyang, Zhou

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Most human cancers depend on the telomerase to maintain telomeres; however, about 10% of cancers are telomerase negative and utilize the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) mechanism. Mutations in the DAXX gene have been found frequently in both telomerase-positive and ALT cells, and how DAXX mutations contribute to cancers remains unclear. We report here that endogenous DAXX can localize to Cajal bodies, associate with the telomerase and regulate telomerase targeting to telomeres. Furthermore, disease mutations that are located in different regions of DAXX differentially impact on its ability to interact with its binding partners and its targeting to Cajal bodies and telomeres. In addition, DAXX knockdown by RNA interference led to reduced telomerase targeting to telomeres and telomere shortening. These findings collectively support a DAXX-centric pathway for telomere maintenance, where DAXX interaction with the telomerase regulates telomerase assembly in Cajal bodies and telomerase targeting to telomeres. PMID:25416818

  14. Pif1 regulates telomere length by preferentially removing telomerase from long telomere ends

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing-Ru; Yu, Tai-Yuan; Chien, I-Chieh; Lu, Chia-Ying; Lin, Jing-Jer; Li, Hung-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein complex, is responsible for maintaining the telomere length at chromosome ends. Using its RNA component as a template, telomerase uses its reverse transcriptase activity to extend the 3′-end single-stranded, repetitive telomeric DNA sequence. Pif1, a 5′-to-3′ helicase, has been suggested to regulate telomerase activity. We used single-molecule experiments to directly show that Pif1 helicase regulates telomerase activity by removing telomerase from telomere ends, allowing the cycling of the telomerase for additional extension processes. This telomerase removal efficiency increases at longer ssDNA gaps and at higher Pif1 concentrations. The enhanced telomerase removal efficiency by Pif1 at the longer single-stranded telomeric DNA suggests a way of how Pif1 regulates telomerase activity and maintains telomere length. PMID:24981509

  15. Current Insights to Regulation and Role of Telomerase in Human Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ozturk, Mert Burak; Li, Yinghui; Tergaonkar, Vinay

    2017-01-01

    The telomerase ribonucleoprotein complex has a pivotal role in regulating the proliferation and senescence of normal somatic cells as well as cancer cells. This complex is comprised mainly of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), telomerase RNA component (TERC) and other associated proteins that function to elongate telomeres localized at the end of the chromosomes. While reactivation of telomerase is a major hallmark of most cancers, together with the synergistic activation of other oncogenic signals, deficiency in telomerase and telomeric proteins might lead to aging and senescence-associated disorders. Therefore, it is critically important to understand the canonical as well as non-canonical functions of telomerase through TERT to develop a therapeutic strategy against telomerase-related diseases. In this review, we shed light on the regulation and function of telomerase, and current therapeutic strategies against telomerase in cancer and age-related diseases. PMID:28264499

  16. Essential role for telomerase in chronic myeloid leukemia induced by BCR-ABL in mice

    PubMed Central

    Vicente-Dueñas, Carolina; Barajas-Diego, Marcos; Romero-Camarero, Isabel; González-Herrero, Inés; Flores, Teresa; Sánchez-García, Isidro

    2012-01-01

    The telomerase protein is constitutively activated in malignant cells from many patients with cancer, including the chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), but whether telomerase is essential for the pathogenesis of this disease is not known. Here, we used telomerase deficient mice to determine the requirement for telomerase in CML induced by BCR-ABL in mouse models of CML. Loss of one telomerase allele or complete deletion of telomerase prevented the development of leukemia induced by BCR-ABL. However, BCR-ABL was expressed and active in telomerase heterozygous and null leukemic hematopoietic stem cells. These results demonstrate that telomerase is essential for oncogene-induced reprogramming of hematopoietic stem cells in CML development and validate telomerase and the genes it regulates as targets for therapy in CML. PMID:22408137

  17. Defining the Regulation of Telomerase Through Identification of Mammary-Specific Telomerase Interacting Proteins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    Cold Spring Harbor Meeting, Cold Spring Harbor , NY. May 2005. Jensen, K.O., L.W.Elmore, and S.E.Holt. Telomeres and Telomerase: Cold Spring Harbor Meeting... Cold Spring Harbor , NY. May 2005. Jones, K.R., L.W.Elmore, S.E.Holt, C.Jackson-Cook, L.F.Povirk, and D.A.Gewirtz. 9 5th Annual AACR Conference

  18. Establishment and transformation of telomerase-immortalized human small airway epithelial cells by heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y. L.; Piao, C. Q.; Hei, T. K.

    Previous studies from this laboratory have identified a number of causally linked genes including the novel tumor suppressor Betaig-h3 that were differentially expressed in radiation induced tumorigenic BEP2D cells. To extend these studies using a genomically more stable bronchial cell line, we show here that ectopic expression of the catalytic subunit of telomerase (hTERT) in primary human small airway epithelial (SAE) cells resulted in the generation of several clonal cell lines that have been continuously in culture for more than 250 population doublings and are considered immortal. Comparably-treated control SAE cells infected with only the viral vector senesced after less than 10 population doublings. The immortalized clones demonstrated anchorage dependent growth and are non-tumorigenic in nude mice. These cells show no alteration in the p53 gene but a decrease in p16 expression. Exponentially growing SAEh cells were exposed to graded doses of 1 GeV/nucleon of 56Fe ions accelerated at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. Irradiated cells underwent gradual phenotypic alterations after extensive in vitro cultivation. Transformed cells developed through a series of successive steps before becoming anchorage independent in semisolid medium. These findings indicate that hTERT-immortalized cells, being diploid and chromosomal stable, should be a useful model in assessing mechanism of radiation carcinogenesis.

  19. Radiation induced genome instability: multiscale modelling and data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, Sergey; Eidelman, Yuri

    2012-07-01

    Genome instability (GI) is thought to be an important step in cancer induction and progression. Radiation induced GI is usually defined as genome alterations in the progeny of irradiated cells. The aim of this report is to demonstrate an opportunity for integrative analysis of radiation induced GI on the basis of multiscale modelling. Integrative, systems level modelling is necessary to assess different pathways resulting in GI in which a variety of genetic and epigenetic processes are involved. The multilevel modelling includes the Monte Carlo based simulation of several key processes involved in GI: DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) generation in cells initially irradiated as well as in descendants of irradiated cells, damage transmission through mitosis. Taking the cell-cycle-dependent generation of DNA/chromosome breakage into account ensures an advantage in estimating the contribution of different DNA damage response pathways to GI, as to nonhomologous vs homologous recombination repair mechanisms, the role of DSBs at telomeres or interstitial chromosomal sites, etc. The preliminary estimates show that both telomeric and non-telomeric DSB interactions are involved in delayed effects of radiation although differentially for different cell types. The computational experiments provide the data on the wide spectrum of GI endpoints (dicentrics, micronuclei, nonclonal translocations, chromatid exchanges, chromosome fragments) similar to those obtained experimentally for various cell lines under various experimental conditions. The modelling based analysis of experimental data demonstrates that radiation induced GI may be viewed as processes of delayed DSB induction/interaction/transmission being a key for quantification of GI. On the other hand, this conclusion is not sufficient to understand GI as a whole because factors of DNA non-damaging origin can also induce GI. Additionally, new data on induced pluripotent stem cells reveal that GI is acquired in normal mature

  20. Inhibition of serine palmitoyltransferase delays the onset of radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis through the negative regulation of sphingosine kinase-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Gorshkova, Irina; Zhou, Tong; Mathew, Biji; Jacobson, Jeffrey R; Takekoshi, Daisuke; Bhattacharya, Palash; Smith, Brett; Aydogan, Bulent; Weichselbaum, Ralph R; Natarajan, Viswanathan; Garcia, Joe G N; Berdyshev, Evgeny V

    2012-08-01

    The enforcement of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) signaling network protects from radiation-induced pneumonitis. We now demonstrate that, in contrast to early postirradiation period, late postirradiation sphingosine kinase-1 (SphK1) and sphingoid base-1-phosphates are associated with radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis (RIF). Using the mouse model, we demonstrate that RIF is characterized by a marked upregulation of S1P and dihydrosphingosine-1-phosphate (DHS1P) levels in the lung tissue and in circulation accompanied by increased lung SphK1 expression and activity. Inhibition of sphingolipid de novo biosynthesis by targeting serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) with myriocin reduced radiation-induced pulmonary inflammation and delayed the onset of RIF as evidenced by increased animal lifespan and decreased expression of markers of fibrogenesis, such as collagen and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), in the lung. Long-term inhibition of SPT also decreased radiation-induced SphK activity in the lung and the levels of S1P-DHS1P in the lung tissue and in circulation. In vitro, inhibition or silencing of serine palmitoyltransferase attenuated transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β)-induced upregulation of α-SMA through the negative regulation of SphK1 expression in normal human lung fibroblasts. These data demonstrate a novel role for SPT in regulating TGF-β signaling and fibrogenesis that is linked to the regulation of SphK1 expression and S1P-DHS1P formation.

  1. Inhibition of serine palmitoyltransferase delays the onset of radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis through the negative regulation of sphingosine kinase-1 expression[S

    PubMed Central

    Gorshkova, Irina; Zhou, Tong; Mathew, Biji; Jacobson, Jeffrey R.; Takekoshi, Daisuke; Bhattacharya, Palash; Smith, Brett; Aydogan, Bulent; Weichselbaum, Ralph R.; Natarajan, Viswanathan; Garcia, Joe G. N.; Berdyshev, Evgeny V.

    2012-01-01

    The enforcement of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) signaling network protects from radiation-induced pneumonitis. We now demonstrate that, in contrast to early postirradiation period, late postirradiation sphingosine kinase-1 (SphK1) and sphingoid base-1-phosphates are associated with radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis (RIF). Using the mouse model, we demonstrate that RIF is characterized by a marked upregulation of S1P and dihydrosphingosine-1-phosphate (DHS1P) levels in the lung tissue and in circulation accompanied by increased lung SphK1 expression and activity. Inhibition of sphingolipid de novo biosynthesis by targeting serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) with myriocin reduced radiation-induced pulmonary inflammation and delayed the onset of RIF as evidenced by increased animal lifespan and decreased expression of markers of fibrogenesis, such as collagen and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), in the lung. Long-term inhibition of SPT also decreased radiation-induced SphK activity in the lung and the levels of S1P-DHS1P in the lung tissue and in circulation. In vitro, inhibition or silencing of serine palmitoyltransferase attenuated transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β)-induced upregulation of α-SMA through the negative regulation of SphK1 expression in normal human lung fibroblasts. These data demonstrate a novel role for SPT in regulating TGF-β signaling and fibrogenesis that is linked to the regulation of SphK1 expression and S1P-DHS1P formation. PMID:22615416

  2. Radiation-induced lichen sclerosus of the vulva : First report in the medical literature.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Lisa R; Privette, Emily D; Patterson, James W; Tchernev, Georgi; Chokoeva, Anastasiya Atanasova; Wollina, Uwe; Lotti, Torello; Wilson, Barbara B

    2017-03-01

    A 67-year-old woman presented with a firm plaque in the perineal region, 16 months after diagnosis of a high-grade basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina and treatment by external beam radiation therapy and vaginal cuff brachytherapy. The differential diagnosis included radiation-induced morphea, radiation dermatitis, or, possibly, radiation-induced lichen sclerosus. Biopsy findings, including special staining, confirmed the diagnosis of radiation-induced lichen sclerosus. To our knowledge, this is the first report of radiation-induced lichen sclerosus of the vulvar region.

  3. Mutually Exclusive Binding of Telomerase RNA and DNA by Ku Alters Telomerase Recruitment Model

    PubMed Central

    Pfingsten, Jennifer S.; Goodrich, Karen J.; Taabazuing, Cornelius; Ouenzar, Faissal; Chartrand, Pascal; Cech, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Ku heterodimer contributes to telomere maintenance as a component of telomeric chromatin and as an accessory subunit of telomerase. How Ku binding to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and to telomerase RNA (TLC1) promotes its telomeric functions is incompletely understood. We demonstrate that deletions designed to constrict the DNA-binding ring of Ku80 disrupt non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), telomeric gene silencing and telomere length maintenance, suggesting that these functions require Ku's DNA end-binding activity. Contrary to the current model, a mutant Ku with low affinity for dsDNA also loses affinity for TLC1 both in vitro and in vivo. Competition experiments reveal that wild-type Ku binds dsDNA and TLC1 mutually exclusively. Cells expressing the mutant Ku are deficient in nuclear accumulation of TLC1, as expected from the RNA-binding defect. These findings force reconsideration of the mechanisms by which Ku assists in recruiting telomerase to natural telomeres and broken chromosome ends. PMID:22365814

  4. Inhibition of telomerase RNA decay rescues telomerase deficiency caused by dyskerin or PARN defects

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Siddharth; Schmidt, Jens C.; Goldfarb, Katherine C.; Cech, Thomas R.; Parker, Roy

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the human telomerase RNA (hTR), the telomerase RNP component dyskerin (DKC1), and the poly(A) ribonuclease (PARN) can lead to reduced levels of hTR and dyskeratosis congenita (DC). However, the enzymes and mechanisms responsible for hTR degradation are unknown. We demonstrate that defects in dyskerin binding lead to hTR degradation by PAPD5-mediated oligoadenylation promoting 3’ to 5’ degradation by EXOSC10, as well as decapping and 5’ to 3’ decay by the cytoplasmic DCP2 and XRN1 enzymes. PARN increases hTR levels by deadenylating hTR, thereby limiting its degradation by EXOSC10. Telomerase activity and proper hTR localization in dyskerin- or PARN-deficient cells can be rescued by knockdown of DCP2 and/or EXOSC10. Prevention of hTR RNA decay also leads to a rescue of localization of DC-associated hTR mutants. These results suggest that inhibition of RNA decay pathways might be a useful therapy for some telomere pathologies. PMID:26950371

  5. Genistein prevents ultraviolet B radiation-induced nitrosative skin injury and promotes cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Terra, V A; Souza-Neto, F P; Frade, M A C; Ramalho, L N Z; Andrade, T A M; Pasta, A A C; Conchon, A C; Guedes, F A; Luiz, R C; Cecchini, R; Cecchini, A L

    2015-03-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) levels increase considerably after 24h of exposure of skin to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation, which leads to nitrosative skin injury. In addition, increased NO levels after exposure to UVB radiation are associated with inhibition of cell proliferation. Compared to the UV-control group, UV-genistein at 10 mg/kg (UV-GEN10) group showed tissue protection, decreased lipid peroxide and nitrotyrosine formation, and low CAT activity. Furthermore, NO levels and iNOS labeling remained high. In this group, the reduction in lipid peroxides and nitrotyrosine was accompanied by upregulation of cell proliferation factors (Ki67 and PCNA), which indicated that prevention of nitrosative skin injury promoted cell proliferation and DNA repair. Genistein also prevented nitrosative events, inhibited ONOO(-) formation, which leads to tissue protection and cell proliferation. The UV-GEN15 group did not result in a greater protective effect compared to that with UV-GEN10 group. In the UV-GEN15 group, histological examination of the epidermis showed morphological alterations without efficient protection against lipid peroxide formation, as well as inhibition of Ki67 and PCNA, and VEGF labeling, which suggested inhibition of cell proliferation. These results help to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the photoprotective effect of genistein and reveal the importance of UVB radiation-induced nitrosative damage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Radiation-induced bystander effect in non-irradiated glioblastoma spheroid cells.

    PubMed

    Faqihi, Fahime; Neshastehriz, Ali; Soleymanifard, Shokouhozaman; Shabani, Robabeh; Eivazzadeh, Nazila

    2015-09-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBEs) are detected in cells that are not irradiated but receive signals from treated cells. The present study explored these bystander effects in a U87MG multicellular tumour spheroid model. A medium transfer technique was employed to induce the bystander effect, and colony formation assay was used to evaluate the effect. Relative changes in expression of BAX, BCL2, JNK and ERK genes were analysed using RT-PCR to investigate the RIBE mechanism. A significant decrease in plating efficiency was observed for both bystander and irradiated cells. The survival fraction was calculated for bystander cells to be 69.48% and for irradiated cells to be 34.68%. There was no change in pro-apoptotic BAX relative expression, but anti-apoptotic BCL2 showed downregulation in both irradiated and bystander cells. Pro-apoptotic JNK in bystander samples and ERK in irradiated samples were upregulated. The clonogenic survival data suggests that there was a classic RIBE in U87MG spheroids exposed to 4 Gy of X-rays, using a medium transfer technique. Changes in the expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic genes indicate involvement of both intrinsic apoptotic and MAPK pathways in inducing these effects.

  7. Ghrelin may reduce radiation-induced mucositis and anorexia in head-neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Guney, Yildiz; Ozel Turkcu, Ummuhani; Hicsonmez, Ayse; Nalca Andrieu, Meltem; Kurtman, Cengiz

    2007-01-01

    Body weight loss is common in cancer patients, and is often associated with poor prognosis, it greatly impairs quality of life (QOL). Radiation therapy (RT) is used in head and neck cancers (HNC) either as a primary treatment or as an adjuvant therapy to surgery. Patients with HNC are most susceptible to malnutrition especially due to anorexia, which is aggravated by RT. Multiple pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), interferon (IFN)-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-alpha), have been all associated with the development of both anorexia and oral mucositis. Radiation-induced mucositis occurs in almost all patients, who are treated for HNC, it could also cause weight loss. Ghrelin is a novel 28-amino acid peptide, which up-regulates body weight through appetite control, increase food intake, down-regulate energy expenditure and induces adiposity. Furthermore, ghrelin inhibits pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, TNF-alpha which may cause oral mucositis and aneroxia, which are the results of weight loss. Thus weight loss during RT is an early indicator of nutritional decline, we propose that recombinant ghrelin used prophylactically could be useful as an appetite stimulant; and preventive of mucositis because of its anti-inflammatory effect, it might help patients maintain weight over the course of curative RT of the HNC and can improve specific aspects of QOL. This issue warrants further studies.

  8. Radiation-induced acid ceramidase confers prostate cancer resistance and tumor relapse

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Joseph C.; Bai, Aiping; Beckham, Thomas H.; Marrison, S. Tucker; Yount, Caroline L.; Young, Katherine; Lu, Ping; Bartlett, Anne M.; Wu, Bill X.; Keane, Barry J.; Armeson, Kent E.; Marshall, David T.; Keane, Thomas E.; Smith, Michael T.; Jones, E. Ellen; Drake, Richard R.; Bielawska, Alicja; Norris, James S.; Liu, Xiang

    2013-01-01

    Escape of prostate cancer (PCa) cells from ionizing radiation–induced (IR-induced) killing leads to disease progression and cancer relapse. The influence of sphingolipids, such as ceramide and its metabolite sphingosine 1-phosphate, on signal transduction pathways under cell stress is important to survival adaptation responses. In this study, we demonstrate that ceramide-deacylating enzyme acid ceramidase (AC) was preferentially upregulated in irradiated PCa cells. Radiation-induced AC gene transactivation by activator protein 1 (AP-1) binding on the proximal promoter was sensitive to inhibition of de novo ceramide biosynthesis, as demonstrated by promoter reporter and ChIP-qPCR analyses. Our data indicate that a protective feedback mechanism mitigates the apoptotic effect of IR-induced ceramide generation. We found that deregulation of c-Jun induced marked radiosensitization in vivo and in vitro, which was rescued by ectopic AC overexpression. AC overexpression in PCa clonogens that survived a fractionated 80-Gy IR course was associated with increased radioresistance and proliferation, suggesting a role for AC in radiotherapy failure and relapse. Immunohistochemical analysis of human PCa tissues revealed higher levels of AC after radiotherapy failure than those in therapy-naive PCa, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, or benign tissues. Addition of an AC inhibitor to an animal model of xenograft irradiation produced radiosensitization and prevention of relapse. These data indicate that AC is a potentially tractable target for adjuvant radiotherapy. PMID:24091326

  9. Coordinated DNA dynamics during the human telomerase catalytic cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parks, Joseph W.; Stone, Michael D.

    2014-06-01

    The human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) utilizes a template within the integral RNA subunit (hTR) to direct extension of telomeres. Telomerase exhibits repeat addition processivity (RAP) and must therefore translocate the nascent DNA product into a new RNA:DNA hybrid register to prime each round of telomere repeat synthesis. Here, we use single-molecule FRET and nuclease protection assays to monitor telomere DNA structure and dynamics during the telomerase catalytic cycle. DNA translocation during RAP proceeds through a previously uncharacterized kinetic substep during which the 3‧-end of the DNA substrate base pairs downstream within the hTR template. The rate constant for DNA primer realignment reveals this step is not rate limiting for RAP, suggesting a second slow conformational change repositions the RNA:DNA hybrid into the telomerase active site and drives the extrusion of the 5‧-end of the DNA primer out of the enzyme complex.

  10. Telomerase: central regulator of all of the hallmarks of cancer.

    PubMed

    Low, Kee Chung; Tergaonkar, Vinay

    2013-09-01

    The hallmarks of cancer described by Hanahan and Weinberg are properties that cancer cells must possess for successful transformation. It is believed that each of these hallmarks is independently driven. Although elongation of telomeres is thought to be the prime function of reactivated telomerase reverse transcriptase, this activity does not account for all its effects, such as increasing cell proliferation, resistance to apoptosis, and invasion. Recent studies suggest that the telomerase subunit telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) has novel molecular functions including transcriptional regulation and metabolic reprogramming. We summarize these functions and discuss how they could directly regulate the various hallmarks of cancer. Finally, we suggest that therapeutics targeting noncanonical telomerase functions may work better than those that target its role in telomere extension.

  11. Telomeres and telomerase in the clinical management of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Piñol-Felis, C; Fernández-Marcelo, T; Viñas-Salas, J; Valls-Bautista, C

    2017-04-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide. Our aim is to describe the state of the art about the role of telomeres and telomerase in the clinical management of CRC and its potential utility as prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers and targets of new treatments. Telomere length could be a new diagnostic marker as an anomalous behavior is observed in peripheral blood cells when CRC patients and healthy people are compared. Moreover, telomeres and telomerase may be used as diagnostic markers considering that universal changes appear along the CRC process. Currently, new therapeutic cancer approaches are focused on inhibiting the maintenance of telomere length, choosing as targets telomerase -or its subunits- or the Shelterin complex. The goal of these therapies is the shortening of telomeres and the induction of cell senescence. Telomeres and telomerase emerge as useful molecular tools in the clinical management of CRC.

  12. Structural basis of template-boundary definition in Tetrahymena telomerase.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Linnea I; Akiyama, Ben M; Ooms, Alexandra; Lu, Cheng; Rubin, Seth M; Stone, Michael D

    2015-11-01

    Telomerase is required to maintain repetitive G-rich telomeric DNA sequences at chromosome ends. To do so, the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) subunit reiteratively uses a small region of the integral telomerase RNA (TER) as a template. An essential feature of telomerase catalysis is the strict definition of the template boundary to determine the precise TER nucleotides to be reverse transcribed by TERT. We report the 3-Å crystal structure of the Tetrahymena TERT RNA-binding domain (tTRBD) bound to the template boundary element (TBE) of TER. tTRBD is wedged into the base of the TBE RNA stem-loop, and each of the flanking RNA strands wraps around opposite sides of the protein domain. The structure illustrates how the tTRBD establishes the template boundary by positioning the TBE at the correct distance from the TERT active site to prohibit copying of nontemplate nucleotides.

  13. Calculation of radiation-induced creep and stress relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagakawa, Johsei

    1995-08-01

    Numerical calculation based on a computer simulation of point defect kinetics under stress was performed to predict radiation-induced deformation in an Inconel X-750 bolt in a LWR core and for a 316 stainless steel blanket in experimental fusion reactors with the water-coolant scenario. Although the displacement rate is rather low, modest irradiation creep with nearly linear stress dependence was predicted below 200 MPa at 300°C in the LWR core. This low stress dependence causes significant stress relaxation, which coincides with the experimental data to 2 dpa. An almost equal amount of enhanced irradiation creep strain was predicted at 60°C in both solution annealed and cold worker 316 stainless steel in the water-cooled blanket. The stress relaxation is practically not expected without irradiation in both the cases, but the calculation predicts that it is definitely expected under irradiation.

  14. Factors that modify risks of radiation-induced cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1988-11-01

    The collective influence of biologic and physical factors that modify risks of radiation-induced cancer introduces uncertainties sufficient to deny precision of estimates of human cancer risk that can be calculated for low-dose radiation in exposed populations. The important biologic characteristics include the tissue sites and cell types, baseline cancer incidence, minimum latent period, time-to-tumor recognition, and the influence of individual host (age and sex) and competing etiologic influences. Physical factors include radiation dose, dose rate, and radiation quality. Statistical factors include time-response projection models, risk coefficients, and dose-response relationships. Other modifying factors include other carcinogens, and other biological sources (hormonal status, immune status, hereditary factors).

  15. Measurements of prompt radiation induced conductivity of alumina and sapphire

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, E. Frederick; Zarick, Thomas Andrew; Sheridan, Timothy J.; Preston, Eric F.

    2011-04-01

    We performed measurements of the prompt radiation induced conductivity in thin samples of Alumina and Sapphire at the Little Mountain Medusa LINAC facility in Ogden, UT. Five mil thick samples were irradiated with pulses of 20 MeV electrons, yielding dose rates of 1E7 to 1E9 rad/s. We applied variable potentials up to 1 kV across the samples and measured the prompt conduction current. Analysis rendered prompt conductivity coefficients between 1E10 and 1E9 mho/m/(rad/s), depending on the dose rate and the pulse width for Alumina and 1E7 to 6E7 mho/m/(rad/s) for Sapphire.

  16. Radiation Induced Cystitis and Proctitis - Prediction, Assessment and Management.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Supriya; Madan, Renu; Julka, Pramod K; Rath, Goura K

    2015-01-01

    Cystitis and proctitis are defined as inflammation of bladder and rectum respectively. Haemorrhagic cystitis is the most severe clinical manifestation of radiation and chemical cystitis. Radiation proctitis and cystitis are major complications following radiotherapy. Prevention of radiation-induced haemorrhagic cystitis has been investigated using various oral agents with minimal benefit. Bladder irrigation remains the most frequently adopted modality followed by intra-vesical instillation of alum or formalin. In intractable cases, surgical intervention is required in the form of diversion ureterostomy or cystectomy. Proctitis is more common in even low dose ranges but is self-limiting and improves on treatment interruption. However, treatment of radiation proctitis is broadly non-invasive or invasive. Non-invasive treatment consists of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), anti-oxidants, sucralfate, short chain fatty acids and hyperbaric oxygen. Invasive treatment consists of ablative procedures like formalin application, endoscopic YAG laser coagulation or argon plasma coagulation and surgery as a last resort.

  17. Radiatively induced breaking of conformal symmetry in a superpotential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbuzov, A. B.; Cirilo-Lombardo, D. J.

    2016-07-01

    Radiatively induced symmetry breaking is considered for a toy model with one scalar and one fermion field unified in a superfield. It is shown that the classical quartic self-interaction of the superfield possesses a quantum infrared singularity. Application of the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism for effective potential leads to the appearance of condensates and masses for both scalar and fermion components. That induces a spontaneous breaking of the initial classical symmetries: the supersymmetry and the conformal one. The energy scales for the scalar and fermion condensates appear to be of the same order, while the renormalization scale is many orders of magnitude higher. A possibility to relate the considered toy model to conformal symmetry breaking in the Standard Model is discussed.

  18. Radioprotectors and Mitigators of Radiation-Induced Normal Tissue Injury

    PubMed Central

    Cotrim, Ana P.; Hyodo, Fuminori; Baum, Bruce J.; Krishna, Murali C.; Mitchell, James B.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation is used in the treatment of a broad range of malignancies. Exposure of normal tissue to radiation may result in both acute and chronic toxicities that can result in an inability to deliver the intended therapy, a range of symptoms, and a decrease in quality of life. Radioprotectors are compounds that are designed to reduce the damage in normal tissues caused by radiation. These compounds are often antioxidants and must be present before or at the time of radiation for effectiveness. Other agents, termed mitigators, may be used to minimize toxicity even after radiation has been delivered. Herein, we review agents in clinical use or in development as radioprotectors and mitigators of radiation-induced normal tissue injury. Few agents are approved for clinical use, but many new compounds show promising results in preclinical testing. PMID:20413641

  19. Dose-dependent radiation-induced hypotension in the canine

    SciTech Connect

    Cockerham, L.G.; Hampton, J.D.; Doyle, T.F.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation-induced early transient incapacitation (ETI) is often accompanied by severe systemic hypotension. However, postradiation hypotension does not occur with equal frequency in all species and is not reported with consistency in the canine. In an attempt to clarify the differences in reported canine post-radiation blood pressures, canine systemic blood pressures were determined both before and after exposure to gamma radiation of either 80 or 100 Gy. Data obtained from six sham-radiated beagles and 12 radiated beagles indicated that 100-Gy, whole-body, gamma radiation produced a decrease in systemic mean blood pressure while 80-Gy, whole-body, gamma radiation did not. Analysis of this data could be consistent with a quantal response to a gamma radiation dose between 80 Gy and 100 Gy.

  20. Radiation-induced cerebral meningioma: a recognizable entity.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, A B; Shalit, M N; Cohen, M L; Zandbank, U; Reichenthal, E

    1984-11-01

    The authors retrospectively analyzed the clinical and histopathological findings in 201 patients with intracranial meningiomas operated on in the period 1978 to 1982. Forty-three of the patients (21.4%) had at some previous time received radiation treatment to their scalp, the majority for tinea capitis. The findings in these 43 irradiated patients were compared with those in the 158 non-irradiated patients. Several distinctive clinical and histological features were identified in the irradiated group, which suggest that radiation-induced meningiomas can be defined as a separate nosological subgroup. The use of irradiation in large numbers of children with tinea capitis in the era prior to the availability of griseofulvin may be responsible for a significantly increased incidence of intracranial meningiomas.

  1. The Dose Window for Radiation-Induced Protective Adaptive Responses

    PubMed Central

    Mitchel, Ronald E. J.

    2009-01-01

    Adaptive responses to low doses of low LET radiation occur in all organisms thus far examined, from single cell lower eukaryotes to mammals. These responses reduce the deleterious consequences of DNA damaging events, including radiation-induced or spontaneous cancer and non-cancer diseases in mice. The adaptive response in mammalian cells and mammals operates within a certain window that can be defined by upper and lower dose thresholds, typically between about 1 and 100 mGy for a single low dose rate exposure. However, these thresholds for protection are not a fixed function of total dose, but also vary with dose rate, additional radiation or non-radiation stressors, tissue type and p53 functional status. Exposures above the upper threshold are generally detrimental, while exposures below the lower threshold may or may not increase either cancer or non-cancer disease risk. PMID:20585438

  2. Study of radiation induced cancers in a breast screening programme.

    PubMed

    León, A; Verdú, G; Cuevas, M D; Salas, M D; Villaescusa, J I; Bueno, F

    2001-01-01

    It is demonstrated that screening mammography programmes reduce breast cancer mortality considerably. Nevertheless, radiology techniques have an intrinsic risk, the most important being the late somatic effect of the induction of cancer. This study was carried out in order to evaluate the risk to the population produced by the Comunidad Valenciana Breast Screening Programme. All the calculations are carried out for two risk models, UNSCEAR 94 and NRPB 93. On the one hand, screening series detriments are investigated as a function of doses delivered and other parameters related to population structure and X ray equipment. On the other hand the radiation induced cancer probability for a woman who starts at 45 years and remains in the programme until 65 years old is calculated as a function of mammography units' doses and average compression breast thickness. Finally, risk comparison between a screening programme starting at 45 years old and another one starting at 50 years old is made.

  3. [Radiation-induced and therapy-related AML/MDS].

    PubMed

    Inaba, Toshiya

    2009-10-01

    Radiation induced acute myeloid leukemia (AML) was recognized a century ago, soon after mankind found radiation. Atomic bomb survivors developed de novo AML with relatively short latency with very high frequency. By contrast, excess occurrence of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) as well as solid tumors was found decades late. This difference may be due to etiology that many de novo AML patients harbor chimeric leukemogenic genes caused by chromosomal translocations, while MDS patients rarely carry chimeras. In addition, epigenetic change would play important roles. Therapy related leukemia is mainly caused by topoisomerase II inhibitors that cause de novo AML with an 11q23 translocation or by alkyrating agents that induce MDS/AML with an AML1 point mutation and monosomy 7.

  4. Modification of microcrystalline cellulose by gamma radiation-induced grafting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madrid, Jordan F.; Abad, Lucille V.

    2015-10-01

    Modified microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was prepared through gamma radiation-induced graft polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA). Simultaneous grafting was employed wherein MCC with GMA in methanol was irradiated with gamma radiation in nitrogen atmosphere. The effects of different experimental factors such as monomer concentration, type of solvent and absorbed dose on the degree of grafting, Dg, were studied. The amount of grafted GMA, expressed as Dg, was determined gravimetrically. Information from grafted samples subjected to Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) in attenuated total reflectance (ATR) mode showed peaks corresponding to GMA which indicates successful grafting. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the crystalline region of MCC was not adversely affected after grafting with GMA. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data showed that the decomposition of grafted MCC occurred at higher temperature compared to the base MCC polymer.

  5. Radiation-induced polymerization for the immobilization of penicillin acylase

    SciTech Connect

    Boccu, E.; Carenza, M.; Lora, S.; Palma, G.; Veronese, F.M.

    1987-06-01

    The immobilization of Escherichia coli penicillin acylase was investigated by radiation-induced polymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate at low temperature. A leak-proof composite that does not swell in water was obtained by adding the cross-linking agent trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate to the monomer-aqueous enzyme mixture. Penicillin acylase, which was immobilized with greater than 70% yield, possessed a higher Km value toward the substrate 6-nitro-3-phenylacetamidobenzoic acid than the free enzyme form (Km = 1.7 X 10(-5) and 1 X 10(-5) M, respectively). The structural stability of immobilized penicillin acylase, as assessed by heat, guanidinium chloride, and pH denaturation profiles, was very similar to that of the free-enzyme form, thus suggesting that penicillin acylase was entrapped in its native state into aqueous free spaces of the polymer matrix.

  6. Invertase immobilization onto radiation-induced graft copolymerized polyethylene pellets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Queiroz, Alvaro Antonio Alencar; Vitolo, Michele; de Oliveira, Rômulo Cesar; Higa, Olga Zazuco

    1996-06-01

    The graft copolymer poly(ethylene-g-acrylic acid) (LDPE-g-AA) was prepared by radiation-induced graft copolymerization of acrylic acid onto low density polyethylene (LDPE) pellets, and characterized by infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The presence of the grafted poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) was established. Invertase was immobilized onto the graft polymer and the thermodynamic parameters of the soluble and immobilized enzyme were determined. The Michaelis constant, Km, and the maximum reaction velocity, Vmax, were determined for the free and the immobilized invertase. The Michaelis constant, Km was larger for the immobilized invertase than for the free enzyme, whereas Vmax was smaller for the immobilized invertase. The thermal stability of the immobilized invertase was higher than that of the free enzyme.

  7. Pulsed radiation-induced attenuation in certain optical fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, J.D. )

    1992-05-01

    Using the X-ray pulse from the HERMES II simulation machine at Sandia National Laboratories, the pulsed radiation-induced attenuation was measured in two optical fibers considered to be 'nonrad-hard': the 50-micron-core, graded-index fiber from Corning and the plastic (PMMA) fiber from the Mitsubishi Rayon Company. These fibers were exposed to radiation up to doses of 19.5 and 28 krad(Si), respectively. In addition, fits of their post-radiation recovery were made to the geminate recombination model, from which the recombination-rate and generation constants, characteristic of this theory, were determined. These parameters should be useful in determining the response of the fibers to radiation conditions other than those encountered here. 18 refs.

  8. Potential targets for intervention in radiation-induced heart disease.

    PubMed

    Boerma, M; Hauer-Jensen, M

    2010-11-01

    Radiotherapy of thoracic and chest wall tumors, if all or part of the heart was included in the radiation field, can lead to radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD), a late and potentially severe side effect. RIHD presents clinically several years after irradiation and manifestations include accelerated atherosclerosis, pericardial and myocardial fibrosis, conduction abnormalities, and injury to cardiac valves. The pathogenesis of RIHD is largely unknown, and a treatment is not available. Hence, ongoing pre-clinical studies aim to elucidate molecular and cellular mechanisms of RIHD. Here, an overview of recent pre-clinical studies is given, and based on the results of these studies, potential targets for intervention in RIHD are discussed.

  9. Radiation-induced degradation of 4-chloroaniline in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, M.; Wolfger, H.; Getoff, N.

    2002-12-01

    The radiation-induced decomposition of 4-chloroaniline (4-ClA) was studied under steady-state conditions using aqueous solutions saturated with air, pure oxygen, N 2O, argon and argon in the presence of t-Butanol. Using HPLC-method, the initial G-values of the substrate degradation as well as of a number of radiolytic products were determined. The formation of aminophenols, chlorophenols, aniline and phenol in addition to chloride, ammonia, formaldehyde and mixture of aldehydes as well as carboxylic acids was studied as a function of absorbed dose. Based on the experimental data, probable reaction mechanisms for the degradation of 4-ClA by γ-rays and the formation of the identified products are presented.

  10. Modulation of radiation-induced hemopoietic suppression by acute thrombocytopenia

    SciTech Connect

    Ebbe, S.; Phalen, E.; Threatte, G.; Londe, H.

    1985-01-01

    Modifications of radiation-induced hemopoietic suppression by acute thrombocytopenia were evaluated. Immediately before or after exposure to sublethal irradiation, mice were given a single injection of anti-mouse platelet serum (APS), normal heterologous serum, neuraminidase (N'ase), or saline, or no further treatment was provided. Hemopoiesis was evaluated by blood cell counts, hematocrits, and incorporation of (75Se)selenomethionine into platelets. APS and N'ase induced an acute thrombocytopenia from which there was partial recovery before the platelet count started to fall from the radiation. During the second post-treatment week, both thrombocytopoiesis and erythropoiesis were greater in mice that received APS or N'ase in addition to radiation than in control irradiated mice. Differences in leukopoiesis were not apparent. Therefore, both thrombocytopoiesis and erythropoiesis appeared to be responsive to a stimulus generated by acute thrombocytopenia in sublethally irradiated mice.

  11. Probabilistic methodology for estimating radiation-induced cancer risk

    SciTech Connect

    Dunning, D.E. Jr.; Leggett, R.W.; Williams, L.R.

    1981-01-01

    The RICRAC computer code was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to provide a versatile and convenient methodology for radiation risk assessment. The code allows as input essentially any dose pattern commonly encountered in risk assessments for either acute or chronic exposures, and it includes consideration of the age structure of the exposed population. Results produced by the analysis include the probability of one or more radiation-induced cancer deaths in a specified population, expected numbers of deaths, and expected years of life lost as a result of premature fatalities. These calculatons include consideration of competing risks of death from all other causes. The program also generates a probability frequency distribution of the expected number of cancers in any specified cohort resulting from a given radiation dose. The methods may be applied to any specified population and dose scenario.

  12. [Nonsurgical treatment of chronic radiation-induced hemorrhagic proctitis].

    PubMed

    de Parades, Vincent; Bauer, Pierre; Marteau, Philippe; Chauveinc, Laurent; Bouillet, Thierry; Atienza, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    The incidence of radiation-induced chronic hemorrhagic proctitis is less than 10 to 20%. The onset of this proctitis is delayed relative to the radiation therapy and generally develops from 6 to 24 months later. There are numerous predisposing factors, the most important of which is the radiation therapy dose: risk increases exponentially above 40-45 Gy. Its pathophysiology involves progressive obliterating endarteritis and transmural interstitial fibrosis, which induce chronic ischemia that is irreversible and progressive during the years after radiation therapy. Its diagnosis depends most often on the combination of clinical history and typical endoscopic appearance (congestive mucosa and/or telangiectases). Topical administrative of sucralfate or corticosteroids as well as argon plasma coagulation, with formalin treatment if necessary, provides relief for most patients.

  13. Radiation-induced cationic polymerization of. beta. -pinene

    SciTech Connect

    Adur, A.M.; Williams, F.

    1981-03-01

    The radiation-induced polymerization of ..beta..-pinene carried out in bulk at ca.25/sup 0/ has been studied for different methods of monomer drying. It has been confirmed that the polymerization is sensitive to adventitious moisture and that substantial polymer yields (ca. 10% conversion per Mrad) can only be obtained under extremely dry conditions. Complete inhibition of the reaction by added tripropylamine corroborates the view that the polymerization is cationic. About half of the polymer formed is insoluble in the monomer. The number-average molecular weights for the soluble poly(..beta..-pinene) fraction have been measured by vapor pressure osmometry and are in the narrow range from 1700 to 2400 with little or no dependence on the degree of monomer conversion to polymer, at least up to 80%. The results are compared with literature reports on the polymerization of ..beta..-pinene by catalytic initiators.

  14. Autophagy Promotes the Repair of Radiation-Induced DNA Damage in Bone Marrow Hematopoietic Cells via Enhanced STAT3 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fei; Li, Xin; Yan, Lili; Yuan, Na; Fang, Yixuan; Cao, Yan; Xu, Li; Zhang, Xiaoying; Xu, Lan; Ge, Chaorong; An, Ni; Jiang, Gaoyue; Xie, Jialing; Zhang, Han; Jiang, Jiayi; Li, Xiaotian; Yao, Lei; Zhang, Suping; Zhou, Daohong; Wang, Jianrong

    2017-03-01

    Autophagy protects hematopoietic cells from radiation damage in part by promoting DNA damage repair. However, the molecular mechanisms by which autophagy regulates DNA damage repair remain largely elusive. Here, we report that this radioprotective effect of autophagy depends on STAT3 signaling in murine bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM-MNCs). Specifically, we found that STAT3 activation and nuclear translocation in BM-MNCs were increased by activation of autophagy with an mTOR inhibitor and decreased by knockout of the autophagy gene Atg7. The autophagic regulation of STAT3 activation is likely mediated by induction of KAP1 degradation, because we showed that KAP1 directly interacted with STAT3 in the cytoplasm and knockdown of KAP1 increased the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of STAT3. Subsequently, activated STAT3 transcriptionally upregulated the expression of BRCA1, which increased the ability of BM-MNCs to repair radiation-induced DNA damage. This novel finding that activation of autophagy can promote DNA damage repair in BM-MNCs via the ATG-KAP1-STAT3-BRCA1 pathway suggests that autophagy plays an important role in maintaining genomic integrity of BM-MNCs and its activation may confer protection of BM-MNCs against radiation-induced genotoxic stress.

  15. Millimeter wave radiation induces apoptosis via affecting the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 in SW1353 human chondrosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xihai; Ye, Hongzhi; Cai, Liangliang; Yu, Fangrong; Chen, Wenlie; Lin, Ruhui; Zheng, Chunsong; Xu, Huifeng; Ye, Jinxia; Wu, Guangwen; Liu, Xianxiang

    2012-03-01

    The efficacy and safety of millimeter wave radiation has been proven for various types of malignant tumors. However, the mechanisms underlying effects of millimeter wave radiation on apoptosis are still unclear. The present study was undertaken to examine the effects of millimeter wave radiation on cell apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential, and to determine the molecular mechanism of millimeter wave radiation-induced apoptosis by investigating the expression of Bcl-2 family proteins (Bcl-2, Bax), caspase-9 and caspase-3 in SW1353 cells. We found that millimeter wave radiation suppressed the viability of SW1353 cells, demonstrating that millimeter wave radiation induced cell apoptosis and reduced cell viability in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, we observed that treatment of cells with millimeter wave radiation significantly induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, upregulated proapoptotic Bax, caspase-9 and caspase-3, but did not significantly change levels of antiapoptotic Bcl-2. These data suggested that millimeter wave radiation may induce apoptosis via affecting the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 in SW1353 cells.

  16. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Mitochondrial Proteins Reveals Pro-Survival Mechanisms in the Perpetuation of Radiation-Induced Genomic Instability

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Stefani N.; Waters, Katrina M.; Morgan, William F.; Yang, Austin; Baulch, Janet E.

    2012-07-26

    Radiation induced genomic instability is a well-studied phenomenon that is measured as mitotically heritable genetic alterations observed in the progeny of an irradiated cell. The mechanisms that perpetuate this instability are unclear, however, a role for chronic oxidative stress has consistently been demonstrated. In the chromosomally unstable LS12 cell line, oxidative stress and genomic instability were correlated with mitochondrial dysfunction. To clarify this mitochondrial dysfunction and gain insight into the mechanisms underlying radiation induced genomic instability we have evaluated the mitochondrial sub-proteome and performed quantitative mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of LS12 cells. Of 98 quantified mitochondrial proteins, 17 met criteria for fold changes and reproducibility; and 11 were statistically significant in comparison with the stable parental GM10115 cell line. Previous observations implicated defects in the electron transport chain (ETC) in the LS12 cell mitochondrial dysfunction. Proteomic analysis supports these observations, demonstrating significantly reduced levels of mitochondrial cytochrome c, the intermediary between complexes III and IV of the ETC. Results also suggest that LS12 cells compensate for ETC dysfunction and oxidative stress through increased levels of tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes and up-regulation of proteins that protect against oxidative stress and apoptosis. More than one cellular defect is likely to contribute to the genomic instability phenotype. These data suggest that LS12 cells have adapted mechanisms that allow survival under sub-optimal conditions of oxidative stress and compromised mitochondrial function to perpetuate genomic instability.

  17. Bystander effects in radiation-induced genomic instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, William F.; Hartmann, Andreas; Limoli, Charles L.; Nagar, Shruti; Ponnaiya, Brian

    2002-01-01

    Exposure of GM10115 hamster-human hybrid cells to X-rays can result in the induction of chromosomal instability in the progeny of surviving cells. This instability manifests as the dynamic production of novel sub-populations of cells with unique cytogenetic rearrangements involving the "marker" human chromosome. We have used the comet assay to investigate whether there was an elevated level of endogenous DNA breaks in chromosomally unstable clones that could provide a source for the chromosomal rearrangements and thus account for the persistent instability observed. Our results indicate no significant difference in comet tail measurement between non-irradiated and radiation-induced chromosomally unstable clones. Using two-color fluorescence in situ hybridization we also investigated whether recombinational events involving the interstitial telomere repeat-like sequences in GM10115 cells were involved at frequencies higher than random processes would otherwise predict. Nine of 11 clones demonstrated a significantly higher than expected involvement of these interstitial telomere repeat-like sequences at the recombination junction between the human and hamster chromosomes. Since elevated levels of endogenous breaks were not detected in unstable clones we propose that epigenetic or bystander effects (BSEs) lead to the activation of recombinational pathways that perpetuate the unstable phenotype. Specifically, we expand upon the hypothesis that radiation induces conditions and/or factors that stimulate the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These reactive intermediates then contribute to a chronic pro-oxidant environment that cycles over multiple generations, promoting chromosomal recombination and other phenotypes associated with genomic instability.

  18. Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 Knockout Abrogates Radiation Induced Pulmonary Inflammation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallahan, Dennis E.; Virudachalam, Subbulakshmi

    1997-06-01

    Increased expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1; CD54) is induced by exposure to ionizing radiation. The lung was used as a model to study the role of ICAM-1 in the pathogenesis of the radiation-induced inflammation-like response. ICAM-1 expression increased in the pulmonary microvascular endothelium and not in the endothelium of larger pulmonary vessels following treatment of mice with thoracic irradiation. To quantify radiation-induced ICAM-1 expression, we utilized fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis of anti-ICAM-1 antibody labeling of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells from human cadaver donors (HMVEC-L cells). Fluorochrome conjugates and UV microscopy were used to quantify the fluorescence intensity of ICAM in the irradiated lung. These studies showed a dose- and time-dependent increase in ICAM-1 expression in the pulmonary microvascular endothelium. Peak expression occurred at 24 h, while threshold dose was as low as 2 Gy. To determine whether ICAM-1 is required for inflammatory cell infiltration into the irradiated lung, the anti-ICAM-1 blocking antibody was administered by tail vein injection to mice following thoracic irradiation. Inflammatory cells were quantified by immunofluorescence for leukocyte common antigen (CD45). Mice treated with the anti-ICAM-1 blocking antibody showed attenuation of inflammatory cell infiltration into the lung in response to ionizing radiation exposure. To verify the requirement of ICAM-1 in the inflammation-like radiation response, we utilized the ICAM-1 knockout mouse. ICAM-1 was not expressed in the lungs of ICAM-1-deficient mice following treatment with thoracic irradiation. ICAM-1 knockout mice had no increase in the inflammatory cell infiltration into the lung in response to thoracic irradiation. These studies demonstrate a radiation dose-dependent increase in ICAM-1 expression in the pulmonary microvascular endothelium, and show that ICAM-1 is required for inflammatory cell infiltration

  19. Radiation-induced leukemia: Comparative studies in mouse and man

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, M.

    1991-01-01

    We now have a clear understanding of the mechanism by which radiation-induced (T-cell) leukemia occurs. In irradiated mice (radiation-induced thymic leukemia) and in man (acute lymphoblastic T-cell leukemia, T-ALL) the mechanism of leukemogenesis is surprisingly similar. Expressed in the most elementary terms, T-cell leukemia occurs when T-cell differentiation is inhibited by a mutation, and pre-T cells attempt but fail to differentiate in the thymus. Instead of leaving the thymus for the periphery as functional T-cells they continue to proliferate in the thymus. The proliferating pre- (pro-) T-cells constitute the (early) acute T-cell leukemia (A-TCL). This model for the mechanism of T-cell leukemogenesis accounts for all the properties of both murine and human A-TCL. Important support for the model has recently come from work by Ilan Kirsch and others, who have shown that mutations/deletions in the genes SCL (TAL), SIL, and LCK constitute primary events in the development of T-ALL, by inhibiting differentiation of thymic pre- (pro-) T-cells. This mechanism of T-cell leukemogenesis brings several specific questions into focus: How do early A-TCL cells progress to become potently tumorigenic and poorly treatable Is it feasible to genetically suppress early and/or progressed A-TCL cells What is the mechanism by which the differentiation-inhibited (leukemic) pre-T cells proliferate During the first grant year we have worked on aspects of all three questions.

  20. Radiation-induced fibrosis: mechanisms and implications for therapy

    PubMed Central

    Straub, Jeffrey M.; New, Jacob; Hamilton, Chase D.; Lominska, Chris; Shnayder, Yelizaveta

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF) is a long-term side effect of external beam radiation therapy for the treatment of cancer. It results in a multitude of symptoms that significantly impact quality of life. Understanding the mechanisms of RIF-induced changes is essential to developing effective strategies to prevent long-term disability and discomfort following radiation therapy. In this review, we describe the current understanding of the etiology, clinical presentation, pathogenesis, treatment, and directions of future therapy for this condition. Methods A literature review of publications describing mechanisms or treatments of RIF was performed. Specific databases utilized included PubMed and clinicaltrials.gov, using keywords “Radiation-Induced Fibrosis,” “Radiotherapy Complications,” “Fibrosis Therapy,” and other closely related terms. Results RIF is the result of a misguided wound healing response. In addition to causing direct DNA damage, ionizing radiation generates reactive oxygen and nitrogen species that lead to localized inflammation. This inflammatory process ultimately evolves into a fibrotic one characterized by increased collagen deposition, poor vascularity, and scarring. Tumor growth factor beta serves as the primary mediator in this response along with a host of other cytokines and growth factors. Current therapies have largely been directed toward these molecular targets and their associated signaling pathways. Conclusion Although RIF is widely prevalent among patients undergoing radiation therapy and significantly impacts quality of life, there is still much to learn about its pathogenesis and mechanisms. Current treatments have stemmed from this understanding, and it is anticipated that further elucidation will be essential for the development of more effective therapies. PMID:25910988

  1. Bystander effects in radiation-induced genomic instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, William F.; Hartmann, Andreas; Limoli, Charles L.; Nagar, Shruti; Ponnaiya, Brian

    2002-01-01

    Exposure of GM10115 hamster-human hybrid cells to X-rays can result in the induction of chromosomal instability in the progeny of surviving cells. This instability manifests as the dynamic production of novel sub-populations of cells with unique cytogenetic rearrangements involving the "marker" human chromosome. We have used the comet assay to investigate whether there was an elevated level of endogenous DNA breaks in chromosomally unstable clones that could provide a source for the chromosomal rearrangements and thus account for the persistent instability observed. Our results indicate no significant difference in comet tail measurement between non-irradiated and radiation-induced chromosomally unstable clones. Using two-color fluorescence in situ hybridization we also investigated whether recombinational events involving the interstitial telomere repeat-like sequences in GM10115 cells were involved at frequencies higher than random processes would otherwise predict. Nine of 11 clones demonstrated a significantly higher than expected involvement of these interstitial telomere repeat-like sequences at the recombination junction between the human and hamster chromosomes. Since elevated levels of endogenous breaks were not detected in unstable clones we propose that epigenetic or bystander effects (BSEs) lead to the activation of recombinational pathways that perpetuate the unstable phenotype. Specifically, we expand upon the hypothesis that radiation induces conditions and/or factors that stimulate the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These reactive intermediates then contribute to a chronic pro-oxidant environment that cycles over multiple generations, promoting chromosomal recombination and other phenotypes associated with genomic instability.

  2. Radiation-induced fibrosis: mechanisms and implications for therapy.

    PubMed

    Straub, Jeffrey M; New, Jacob; Hamilton, Chase D; Lominska, Chris; Shnayder, Yelizaveta; Thomas, Sufi M

    2015-11-01

    Radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF) is a long-term side effect of external beam radiation therapy for the treatment of cancer. It results in a multitude of symptoms that significantly impact quality of life. Understanding the mechanisms of RIF-induced changes is essential to developing effective strategies to prevent long-term disability and discomfort following radiation therapy. In this review, we describe the current understanding of the etiology, clinical presentation, pathogenesis, treatment, and directions of future therapy for this condition. A literature review of publications describing mechanisms or treatments of RIF was performed. Specific databases utilized included PubMed and clinicaltrials.gov, using keywords "Radiation-Induced Fibrosis," "Radiotherapy Complications," "Fibrosis Therapy," and other closely related terms. RIF is the result of a misguided wound healing response. In addition to causing direct DNA damage, ionizing radiation generates reactive oxygen and nitrogen species that lead to localized inflammation. This inflammatory process ultimately evolves into a fibrotic one characterized by increased collagen deposition, poor vascularity, and scarring. Tumor growth factor beta serves as the primary mediator in this response along with a host of other cytokines and growth factors. Current therapies have largely been directed toward these molecular targets and their associated signaling pathways. Although RIF is widely prevalent among patients undergoing radiation therapy and significantly impacts quality of life, there is still much to learn about its pathogenesis and mechanisms. Current treatments have stemmed from this understanding, and it is anticipated that further elucidation will be essential for the development of more effective therapies.

  3. Ion beam induced luminescence: Relevance to radiation induced bystander effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, S. B.; McNeill, F. E.; Byun, S. H.; Prestwich, W. V.; Seymour, C.; Mothersill, C. E.

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this work is quantify the light emitted as a result of charged particle interaction in materials which may be of relevance to radiation induced "bystander effects" studies. We have developed a system which employs single photon counting to measure the light emitted from samples irradiated under vacuum by a charged particle beam. The system uses a fast photomultiplier tube with a peak cathode response at 420 nm. It has been tested in a proof-of-principle experiment using polystyrene targets. Light output, as a result of irradiation, was measured. The luminescence yield appears to have a non-linear behavior with the incident ion fluence: it rises exponentially to an asymptotic value. The target was irradiated with beam energies varying from 1 to 2 MeV and showed saturation at or before an incident fluence rate of 3 × 1013 H+/cm2 s. The average saturation value for the photon output was found to be 40 × 106 cps. Some measurements were performed using filters to study the emission at specific wavelengths. In the case of filtered light measurements, the photon output was found to saturate at 28 × 103, 10 × 106, and 35 × 106 cps for wavelengths of 280 ± 5 nm, 320 ± 5 nm and 340 ± 5 nm respectively. The light output reaches a maximum value because of damage induced in the polymer. Our measurements indicate a "damage cross section" of the order of 10-14 cm2. The average radiant intensity was found to increase at wavelengths of 280 and 320 nm when the proton energy was increased. This was not found to occur at 340 nm. In conclusion, the light emission at specific wavelengths was found to depend upon the incident proton fluence and the proton energy. The wavelengths of the emitted light measured in this study have significance for the understanding of radiation induced bystander effects.

  4. Barriers to Radiation-Induced In Situ Tumor Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Wennerberg, Erik; Lhuillier, Claire; Vanpouille-Box, Claire; Pilones, Karsten A.; García-Martínez, Elena; Rudqvist, Nils-Petter; Formenti, Silvia C.; Demaria, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    The immunostimulatory properties of radiation therapy (RT) have recently generated widespread interest due to preclinical and clinical evidence that tumor-localized RT can sometimes induce antitumor immune responses mediating regression of non-irradiated metastases (abscopal effect). The ability of RT to activate antitumor T cells explains the synergy of RT with immune checkpoint inhibitors, which has been well documented in mouse tumor models and is supported by observations of more frequent abscopal responses in patients refractory to immunotherapy who receive RT during immunotherapy. However, abscopal responses following RT remain relatively rare in the clinic, and antitumor immune responses are not effectively induced by RT against poorly immunogenic mouse tumors. This suggests that in order to improve the pro-immunogenic effects of RT, it is necessary to identify and overcome the barriers that pre-exist and/or are induced by RT in the tumor microenvironment. On the one hand, RT induces an immunogenic death of cancer cells associated with release of powerful danger signals that are essential to recruit and activate dendritic cells (DCs) and initiate antitumor immune responses. On the other hand, RT can promote the generation of immunosuppressive mediators that hinder DCs activation and impair the function of effector T cells. In this review, we discuss current evidence that several inhibitory pathways are induced and modulated in irradiated tumors. In particular, we will focus on factors that regulate and limit radiation-induced immunogenicity and emphasize current research on actionable targets that could increase the effectiveness of radiation-induced in situ tumor vaccination. PMID:28348554

  5. Role of Oxidative Damage in Radiation-Induced Bone Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreurs, Ann-Sofie; Alwood, Joshua S.; Limoli, Charles L.; Globus, Ruth K.

    2014-01-01

    used an array of countermeasures (Antioxidant diets and injections) to prevent the radiation-induced bone loss, although these did not prevent bone loss, analysis is ongoing to determine if these countermeasure protected radiation-induced damage to other tissues.

  6. [Radiation-induced cancers: state of the art in 1997].

    PubMed

    Cosset, J M

    1997-01-01

    Scientists now have available a large amount of data dealing with radiation-induced neoplasms. These data went back to anecdotal observations which were made in the very first years of utilization of X-rays and radioactive elements. In fact, it is essentially the strict follow-up of the Japanese populations irradiated by the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombing which allowed a more precise evaluation of the carcinogenicity of ionizing radiations. Further refinements came from therapeutical irradiations: it is now possible to study large cohorts of patients given well-known doses in well-defined volumes and followed for more than 20 years. Last but not least, a significant increase in the incidence and mortality of thyroid cancer has been detected in children contaminated by iodine radioisotopes after the Tchernobyl accident. Recently, some data suggested the emergence of "clusters" of leukemias close to some nuclear facilities, but this question remains highly polemical, both in France and in the UK. Other questions are still waiting for a precise answer; of course, the extrapolation of our available data to very low doses delivered at very low dose rates, but also the carcinogenic risk at high doses. For these "high" doses (about 30 to 70 Gy), a competition between mutagenesis and cell killing was expected, so that these dose levels were expected to be less carcinogenic than lower (a few sieverts) doses. Actually, recent data suggest that the carcinogenic risk goes on increasing up to relatively important doses. In addition, carcinogenic factors, such as tabacco, anticancer chemotherapy and individual susceptibility, are found more and more to be closely intricated with ionizing radiation in the genesis of a given cancer. Even if a number of questions are still pending, the already available data allow specialists, both in medicine and radioprotection, to edict strict rules which can be reasonably expected to have significantly reduced the risk of radiation-induced

  7. Simulating Space Radiation-Induced Breast Tumor Incidence Using Automata.

    PubMed

    Heuskin, A C; Osseiran, A I; Tang, J; Costes, S V

    2016-07-01

    Estimating cancer risk from space radiation has been an ongoing challenge for decades primarily because most of the reported epidemiological data on radiation-induced risks are derived from studies of atomic bomb survivors who were exposed to an acute dose of gamma rays instead of chronic high-LET cosmic radiation. In this study, we introduce a formalism using cellular automata to model the long-term effects of ionizing radiation in human breast for different radiation qualities. We first validated and tuned parameters for an automata-based two-stage clonal expansion model simulating the age dependence of spontaneous breast cancer incidence in an unexposed U.S. We then tested the impact of radiation perturbation in the model by modifying parameters to reflect both targeted and nontargeted radiation effects. Targeted effects (TE) reflect the immediate impact of radiation on a cell's DNA with classic end points being gene mutations and cell death. They are well known and are directly derived from experimental data. In contrast, nontargeted effects (NTE) are persistent and affect both damaged and undamaged cells, are nonlinear with dose and are not well characterized in the literature. In this study, we introduced TE in our model and compared predictions against epidemiologic data of the atomic bomb survivor cohort. TE alone are not sufficient for inducing enough cancer. NTE independent of dose and lasting ∼100 days postirradiation need to be added to accurately predict dose dependence of breast cancer induced by gamma rays. Finally, by integrating experimental relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for TE and keeping NTE (i.e., radiation-induced genomic instability) constant with dose and LET, the model predicts that RBE for breast cancer induced by cosmic radiation would be maximum at 220 keV/μm. This approach lays the groundwork for further investigation into the impact of chronic low-dose exposure, inter-individual variation and more complex space radiation

  8. Radiation-induced sarcomas of bone: factors that affect outcome.

    PubMed

    Kalra, S; Grimer, R J; Spooner, D; Carter, S R; Tillman, R M; Abudu, A

    2007-06-01

    We identified 42 patients who presented to our unit over a 27-year period with a secondary radiation-induced sarcoma of bone. We reviewed patient, tumour and treatment factors to identify those that affected outcome. The mean age of the patients at presentation was 45.6 years (10 to 84) and the mean latent interval between radiotherapy and diagnosis of the sarcoma was 17 years (4 to 50). The median dose of radiotherapy given was estimated at 50 Gy (mean 49; 20 to 66). There was no correlation between radiation dose and the time to development of a sarcoma. The pelvis was the most commonly affected site (14 patients (33%)). Breast cancer was the most common primary tumour (eight patients; 19%). Metastases were present at diagnosis of the sarcoma in nine patients (21.4%). Osteosarcoma was the most common diagnosis and occurred in 30 cases (71.4%). Treatment was by surgery and chemotherapy when indicated: 30 patients (71.4%) were treated with the intention to cure. The survival rate was 41% at five years for those treated with the intention to cure but in those treated palliatively the mean survival was only 8.8 months (2 to 22), and all had died by two years. The only factor found to be significant for survival was the ability to completely resect the tumour. Limb sarcomas had a better prognosis (66% survival at five years) than central ones (12% survival at five years) (p = 0.009). Radiation-induced sarcoma is a rare complication of radiotherapy. Both surgical and oncological treatment is likely to be compromised by the treatment received previously by the patient.

  9. Runaway telomere elongation caused by telomerase RNA gene mutations.

    PubMed

    McEachern, M J; Blackburn, E H

    1995-08-03

    The ribonucleoprotein enzyme telomerase adds telomeric DNA onto chromosome ends and is normally regulated so that telomeric DNA lengths are kept within defined bounds. In the telomerase RNA gene from the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis, specific mutations that alter telomeric DNA sequences result in telomeres elongating to up to 100 times their normal length and impair cell growth. Some mutations cause immediate elongation whereas others behave like genetic time bombs, causing elongation only after a latent period of hundreds of generations.

  10. Characterization of telomeres and telomerase expression in Xiphophorus✰

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Kevin P.; Shen, Yingjia; Pasquali, Amanda; Beldorth, Ion; Savage, Markita; Gallier, Katelyn; Garcia, Tzintzuni; Booth, Rachell E.; Walter, Ronald B.

    2011-01-01

    Research investigating telomere lengths and telomerase expression in vertebrates has progressively become important due to the association of these two biological endpoints with cellular aging and cancer in humans. Studies that rely upon the traditional use of laboratory mice have been faced with limitations largely due to inbred mice possessing large telomeres and ubiquitous expression of telomerase. Recently, a number of small fish species have been shown to provide potentially informative models for examining the role of telomeres and telomerase within intact vertebrate animals. Xiphophorus fishes represent a new world live-bearing genus that has not previously been assessed for telomere length or telomerase expression. To add to the knowledge base of telomere and telomerase biology in vertebrates we assessed telomere length and telomerase expression among several species of Xiphophorus. The telomere lengths in several organs (gill, brain, eyes, testis, ovary and liver) in three species (X. hellerii, X. maculatus, X. couchianus) and also in F1 interspecies hybrids were approximately 2–6 kb. This size was consistent within the same organs of the same species, as well as between species and F1 hybrids. Despite possessing relatively short telomere lengths compared to humans, the consistency of size among Xiphophorus species and organs may allow experimental detection of telomere shortening. The relative expression of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) was determined by quantitative real-time PCR. Expression levels of TERT was measured in seven organs (ovary, testis, liver, gill, brain, heart, skin) from X. maculatus, X. hellerii and in control and ultraviolet light (UVB) exposed skin samples from X. maculatus, X. hellerii, and F1 interspecies hybrids. TERT gene expression was significantly higher in ovary and testis, while all other organs showed low relative TERT expression. Detectable increases in TERT expression were found in skin samples upon UVB

  11. Clinical outcomes of lung transplant recipients with telomerase mutations.

    PubMed

    Tokman, Sofya; Singer, Jonathan P; Devine, Megan S; Westall, Glen P; Aubert, John-David; Tamm, Michael; Snell, Gregory I; Lee, Joyce S; Goldberg, Hilary J; Kukreja, Jasleen; Golden, Jeffrey A; Leard, Lorriana E; Garcia, Christine K; Hays, Steven R

    2015-10-01

    Successful lung transplantation for patients with pulmonary fibrosis from telomerase mutations may be limited by systemic complications of telomerase dysfunction, including myelosuppression, cirrhosis, and malignancy. We describe clinical outcomes in 14 lung transplant recipients with telomerase mutations. Subjects underwent lung transplantation between February 2005 and April 2014 at 5 transplant centers. Data were abstracted from medical records, focusing on outcomes reflecting post-transplant treatment effects likely to be complicated by telomerase mutations. The median age of subjects was 60.5 years (interquartile range = 52.0-62.0), 64.3% were male, and the mean post-transplant observation time was 3.2 years (SD ± 2.9). A mutation in telomerase reverse transcriptase was present in 11 subjects, a telomerase RNA component mutation was present in 2 subjects, and an uncharacterized mutation was present in 1 subject. After lung transplantation, 10 subjects were leukopenic and 5 did not tolerate lymphocyte anti-proliferative agents. Six subjects developed recurrent lower respiratory tract infections, 7 developed acute cellular rejection (A1), and 4 developed chronic lung allograft dysfunction. Eight subjects developed at least 1 episode of acute renal failure and 10 developed chronic renal insufficiency. In addition, 3 subjects developed cancer. No subjects had cirrhosis. At data censorship, 13 subjects were alive. The clinical course for lung transplant recipients with telomerase mutations is complicated by renal disease, leukopenia with intolerance of lymphocyte anti-proliferative agents, and recurrent lower respiratory tract infections. In contrast, cirrhosis was absent, acute cellular rejection was mild, and development of chronic lung allograft dysfunction was comparable to other lung transplant recipients. Although it poses challenges, lung transplantation may be feasible for patients with pulmonary fibrosis from telomerase mutations. Copyright © 2015

  12. Clinical Outcomes of Lung Transplantation in Patients with Telomerase Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Tokman, Sofya; Singer, Jonathan P.; Devine, Megan S.; Westall, Glen P.; Aubert, John-David; Tamm, Michael; Snell, Gregory I.; Lee, Joyce S.; Goldberg, Hilary J.; Kukreja, Jasleen; Golden, Jeffrey A.; Leard, Lorriana E.; Garcia, Christine K.; Hays, Steven R.

    2017-01-01

    Background Successful lung transplantation (LT) for patients with pulmonary fibrosis from telomerase mutations is limited by systemic complications of telomerase dysfunction including myelosuppression, cirrhosis, and malignancy. We describe clinical outcomes among 14 LT recipients with telomerase mutations. Methods Subjects underwent LT between February 2005 and April 2014 at 5 LT centers. We abstracted data from medical records, focusing on outcomes reflecting post-LT treatment effects likely to be complicated by telomerase mutations. Results The median age of subjects was 60.5 years (IQR 52.0–62.0), 64.3% were male, and the mean post-LT observation time was 3.2 years (SD ±2.9). Eleven subjects had a mutation in telomerase reverse transcriptase, 2 in telomerase RNA component, and 1 had an uncharacterized mutation. Ten subjects were leukopenic post-LT; leukopenia prompted cessation of mycophenolate mofetil in 5 and treatment with filgrastim in 4. Six subjects had recurrent lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI), 7 had acute cellular rejection (ACR) (A1), and 4 developed chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD). Ten LT recipients developed chronic renal insufficiency and 8 experienced acute, reversible renal failure. Three developed cancer, none had cirrhosis. Thirteen subjects were alive at data censorship. Conclusions The clinical course for LT recipients with telomerase mutations is complicated by renal disease, leukopenia prompting a change in the immunosuppressive regimen, and recurrent LTRI. In contrast, cirrhosis was absent, ACR was mild, and development of CLAD was comparable to other LT populations. While posing challenges, lung transplantation may be feasible for patients with pulmonary fibrosis due to telomerase mutations. PMID:26169663

  13. Turning telomerase into a Jekyll and Hyde case?

    PubMed

    Wellinger, Raymund J

    2015-01-01

    It may be possible to coerce telomerase to incorporate modified guanine nucleotides into telomeric repeat DNA, thereby seriously compromising the functionality of the telomeres. Thus, a guanine analogue such as 6-thio-dG could turn active telomerase into a chromosome de-protecting enzyme, the opposite of what it is normally, namely a chromosome-protecting enzyme. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. Developmental control of telomere lengths and telomerase activity in plants.

    PubMed Central

    Riha, K; Fajkus, J; Siroky, J; Vyskot, B

    1998-01-01

    Telomere lengths and telomerase activity were studied during the development of a model dioecious plant, Melandrium album (syn Silene latifolia). Telomeric DNA consisted of Arabidopsis-type TTTAGGG tandem repeats. The terminal positions of these repeats were confirmed by both Bal31 exonuclease degradation and in situ hybridization. Analysis of terminal restriction fragments in different tissues and ontogenetic stages showed that telomere lengths are stabilized precisely and do not change during plant growth and development. Telomerase activity tested by using a semiquantitative telomerase repeat amplification protocol correlated with cell proliferation in the tissues analyzed. Highest activity was found in germinating seedlings and root tips, whereas we observed a 100-fold decrease in telomerase activity in leaves and no activity in quiescent seeds. Telomerase also was found in mature pollen grains. Telomerase activity in tissues containing dividing cells and telomere length stability during development suggest their precise control during plant ontogenesis; however, the telomere length regulation mechanism could be unbalanced during in vitro dedifferentiation. PMID:9761795

  15. Inhibition of Telomerase Recruitment and Cancer Cell Death*

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, Mai; Nandakumar, Jayakrishnan; Sullivan, Kelly D.; Espinosa, Joaquín M.; Cech, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    Continued proliferation of human cells requires maintenance of telomere length, usually accomplished by telomerase. Telomerase is recruited to chromosome ends by interaction with a patch of amino acids (the TEL patch, for TPP1 glutamate (E) and leucine (L)-rich patch) on the surface of telomere protein TPP1. In previous studies, interruption of this interaction by mutation prevented telomere extension in HeLa cells, but the cell culture continued to grow. We now show that the telomerase inhibitor BIBR1532 acts together with TEL patch mutations to inhibit the growth of HeLa cell lines and that apoptosis is a prominent mechanism of death of these cells. Survivor cells take over the population beginning around 40 days in culture. These cells no longer express the TEL patch mutant TPP1, apparently because of silencing of the expression cassette, a survival mechanism that would not be available to cancer cells. These results provide hope that inhibiting the binding of telomerase to the TEL patch of TPP1, perhaps together with a modest inhibition of the telomerase enzyme, could comprise an effective anticancer therapy for the ∼90% of human tumors that are telomerase-positive. PMID:24097987

  16. Cancer-associated TERT promoter mutations abrogate telomerase silencing

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Kunitoshi; Johnson, Joshua Z; Vogan, Jacob M; Wagner, Tina; Boyle, John M; Hockemeyer, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter are the most frequent non-coding mutations in cancer, but their molecular mechanism in tumorigenesis has not been established. We used genome editing of human pluripotent stem cells with physiological telomerase expression to elucidate the mechanism by which these mutations contribute to human disease. Surprisingly, telomerase-expressing embryonic stem cells engineered to carry any of the three most frequent TERT promoter mutations showed only a modest increase in TERT transcription with no impact on telomerase activity. However, upon differentiation into somatic cells, which normally silence telomerase, cells with TERT promoter mutations failed to silence TERT expression, resulting in increased telomerase activity and aberrantly long telomeres. Thus, TERT promoter mutations are sufficient to overcome the proliferative barrier imposed by telomere shortening without additional tumor-selected mutations. These data establish that TERT promoter mutations can promote immortalization and tumorigenesis of incipient cancer cells. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07918.001 PMID:26194807

  17. Telomerase as a Cancer Target. Development of New Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, D.L. Mengual; Armando, R.G.; Cerrudo, C.S.; Ghiringhelli, P.D.; Gomez, D.E.

    2016-01-01

    Telomeres are the terminal part of the chromosome containing a long repetitive and non-codifying sequence that has as function protecting the chromosomes. In normal cells, telomeres lost part of such repetitive sequence in each mitosis, until telomeres reach a critical point, triggering at that time senescence and cell death. However, in most of tumor cells in each cell division a part of the telomere is lost, however the appearance of an enzyme called telomerase synthetize the segment that just has been lost, therefore conferring to tumor cells the immortality hallmark. Telomerase is significantly overexpressed in 80–95% of all malignant tumors, being present at low levels in few normal cells, mostly stem cells. Due to these characteristics, telomerase has become an attractive target for new and more effective anticancer agents. The capability of inhibiting telomerase in tumor cells should lead to telomere shortening, senescence and apoptosis. In this work, we analyze the different strategies for telomerase inhibition, either in development, preclinical or clinical stages taking into account their strong points and their caveats. We covered strategies such as nucleosides analogs, oligonucleotides, small molecule inhibitors, G-quadruplex stabilizers, immunotherapy, gene therapy, molecules that affect the telomere/telomerase associated proteins, agents from microbial sources, among others, providing a balanced evaluation of the status of the inhibitors of this powerful target together with an analysis of the challenges ahead. PMID:26873194

  18. [Studies on telomerase reverse transcriptase components and liver cancer].

    PubMed

    Cai, J J; Guo, X L

    2016-07-20

    Telomeres are DNA tandem repeats at the ends of chromosomes in eukaryotic cells and play important roles in maintaining the stability and integrity of chromosomes. Telomeres are gradually shortened with cell proliferation, and when they are shortened to a certain length, the cells experience senescence and apoptosis. However, a small number of cells can maintain the length of telomeres and restore their function through related mechanisms (activation of telomerase or other mechanisms), and some cells may even be immortalized. Therefore, telomere and telomerase are thought to be closely associated with tumor development and progression. It has been confirmed that telomerase activation is an early event in the development of primary liver cancer, especially the important component of telomerase telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), which plays an important role in this process. Here this article reviews the latest research advances in the function and regulation mechanisms of telomerase and the role of TERT in the development, progression, and treatment of primary liver cancer, especially hepatocellular carcinoma, so as to provide a molecular genetic basis for intervention of liver cancer and related targeted therapy.

  19. Aneuploidy as a mechanism of adaptation to telomerase insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Millet, Caroline; Makovets, Svetlana

    2016-08-01

    Cells' survival is determined by their ability to adapt to constantly changing environment. Adaptation responses involve global changes in transcription, translation, and posttranslational modifications of proteins. In recent years, karyotype changes in adapting populations of single cell organisms have been reported in a number of studies. More recently, we have described aneuploidy as an adaptation mechanism used by populations of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to survive telomerase insufficiency induced by elevated growth temperature. Genetic evidence suggests that telomerase insufficiency is caused by decreased levels of the telomerase catalytic subunit Est2. Here, we present experiments arguing that the underlying cause of this phenomenon may be within the telomerase RNA TLC1: changes in the expression of TLC1 as well as mutations in the TLC1 template region affect telomere length equilibrium and the temperature threshold for the induction of telomerase insufficiency. We discuss what lies at the root of telomerase insufficiency, how cell populations overcome it through aneuploidy and whether reversible aneuploidy could be an adaptation mechanism for a variety of environmental stresses.

  20. Telomerase promoter mutations in cancer: an emerging molecular biomarker?

    PubMed

    Vinagre, João; Pinto, Vasco; Celestino, Ricardo; Reis, Marta; Pópulo, Helena; Boaventura, Paula; Melo, Miguel; Catarino, Telmo; Lima, Jorge; Lopes, José Manuel; Máximo, Valdemar; Sobrinho-Simões, Manuel; Soares, Paula

    2014-08-01

    Cell immortalization has been considered for a long time as a classic hallmark of cancer cells. Besides telomerase reactivation, such immortalization could be due to telomere maintenance through the "alternative mechanism of telomere lengthening" (ALT) but the mechanisms underlying both forms of reactivation remained elusive. Mutations in the coding region of telomerase gene are very rare in the cancer setting, despite being associated with some degenerative diseases. Recently, mutations in telomerase (TERT) gene promoter were found in sporadic and familial melanoma and subsequently in several cancer models, notably in gliomas, thyroid cancer and bladder cancer. The importance of these findings has been reinforced by the association of TERT mutations in some cancer types with tumour aggressiveness and patient survival. In the first part of this review, we summarize the data on the biology of telomeres and telomerase, available methodological approaches and non-neoplastic diseases associated with telomere dysfunction. In the second part, we review the information on telomerase expression and genetic alterations in the most relevant types of cancer (skin, thyroid, bladder and central nervous system) on record, and discuss the value of telomerase as a new biomarker with impact on the prognosis and survival of the patients and as a putative therapeutic target.

  1. The common ancestral core of vertebrate and fungal telomerase RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Xiaodong; Li, Yang; Honda, Shinji; Hoffmann, Steve; Marz, Manja; Mosig, Axel; Podlevsky, Joshua D.; Stadler, Peter F.; Selker, Eric U.; Chen, Julian J.-L.

    2013-01-01

    Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein with an intrinsic telomerase RNA (TER) component. Within yeasts, TER is remarkably large and presents little similarity in secondary structure to vertebrate or ciliate TERs. To better understand the evolution of fungal telomerase, we identified 74 TERs from Pezizomycotina and Taphrinomycotina subphyla, sister clades to budding yeasts. We initially identified TER from Neurospora crassa using a novel deep-sequencing–based approach, and homologous TER sequences from available fungal genome databases by computational searches. Remarkably, TERs from these non-yeast fungi have many attributes in common with vertebrate TERs. Comparative phylogenetic analysis of highly conserved regions within Pezizomycotina TERs revealed two core domains nearly identical in secondary structure to the pseudoknot and CR4/5 within vertebrate TERs. We then analyzed N. crassa and Schizosaccharomyces pombe telomerase reconstituted in vitro, and showed that the two RNA core domains in both systems can reconstitute activity in trans as two separate RNA fragments. Furthermore, the primer-extension pulse-chase analysis affirmed that the reconstituted N. crassa telomerase synthesizes TTAGGG repeats with high processivity, a common attribute of vertebrate telomerase. Overall, this study reveals the common ancestral cores of vertebrate and fungal TERs, and provides insights into the molecular evolution of fungal TER structure and function. PMID:23093598

  2. Role of Telomerase in the Cardiovascular System.

    PubMed

    Zurek, Mark; Altschmied, Joachim; Kohlgrüber, Stefanie; Ale-Agha, Niloofar; Haendeler, Judith

    2016-06-17

    Aging is one major risk factor for the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and the development of atherosclerosis. One important enzyme known to be involved in aging processes is Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (TERT). After the discovery of the enzyme in humans, TERT had initially only been attributed to germ line cells, stem cells and cancer cells. However, over the last few years it has become clear that TERT is also active in cells of the cardiovascular system including cardiac myocytes, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts. Interference with the activity of this enzyme greatly contributes to cardiovascular diseases. This review will summarize the findings on the role of TERT in cardiovascular cells. Moreover, recent findings concerning TERT in different mouse models with respect to cardiovascular diseases will be described. Finally, the extranuclear functions of TERT will be covered within this review.

  3. [Telomerase, elixir of life for human cells?].

    PubMed

    Rufer, Nathalie; Nabholz, Markus

    2003-03-01

    Telomeres are specialized structures at the end of eukaryotic chromosomes that in vertebrates constain hundreds to thousands of tandem repeats of the sequence TTAGGG. In most human somatic cells, telomeres shorten with each cell division, eventually triggering an irreversible arrest of proliferation called cellular senescence. These observations have led to a model in which telomere length reflects the mitotic history of somatic cells. Further support for this hypothesis has come from the discovery of telomerase, a unique reverse transcriptase ribonucleoprotein that has the ability to extend 3' end of telomeres. In fibroblasts, senescence is induced by telomere attrition and depends on p53 and pRb pathways triggered by one or a few critically short telomeres. Previous studies have shown that the replicative life span of various primary human cells can be prolonged by transduction of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene. The hTERT expressing cells proliferate indefinitely, without undergoing any changes associated with transformation to malignancy. Rapid progress has been made towards the goal of using tumor-specific cytolytic CD8+ T lymphocytes for the immunotherapy of cancer. These cells can be expanded in vitro and, in principle, could be used for adoptive immunotherapy. One of the major problems that remains to be solved is the finite life span of normal human T lymphocytes. In an attempt to overcome this barrier three groups have introduced hTERT cDNA into human T lymphocytes and monitored its effect on their life span. In two of these studies, hTERT significantly extended the replicative life span of CD8+ T clones, whereas this was not the case in the third study using bulk T lymphocytes. Possible explanations for these discordant results are that better growth conditions avoided culture-induced stress in the study with clones, or that clones had undergone alterations leading, for example, to the inactivation of the pRb pathway during their

  4. Role for Telomerase in Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Abid, Shariq; Quarck, Rozenn; Marcos, Elisabeth; Parpaleix, Aurelien; Gary-Bobo, Guillaume; Dubois-Randé, Jean-Luc; Derumeaux, Geneviève; Boczkowski, Jorge; Delcroix, Marion; Blasco, Maria A.; Lipskaia, Larissa; Amsellem, Valérie; Adnot, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Background Cells exhibiting dysregulated growth may express telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), the dual function of which consists of maintaining telomere length, in association with the RNA template molecule TERC, and controlling cell growth. Here, we investigated lung TERT in human and experimental pulmonary hypertension (PH) and its role in controlling pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PA-SMC) proliferation. Methods and Results Marked TERT expression or activity was found in lungs from patients with idiopathic PH and from mice with PH induced by hypoxia or serotonin-transporter overexpression (SM22-5HTT+ mice), chiefly within PA-SMCs. In cultured mouse PA-SMCs, TERT was expressed on growth stimulation by serum. The TERT inhibitor imetelstat and the TERT activator TA65 abrogated and stimulated PA-SMC growth, respectively. PA-SMCs from PH mice showed a heightened proliferative phenotype associated with increased TERT expression, which was suppressed by imetelstat treatment. TERC−/− mice at generation 2 and TERT−/− mice at generations 2, 3, and 4 developed less severe PH than did wild-type mice exposed to chronic hypoxia, with less distal pulmonary artery muscularization and fewer Ki67-stained proliferating PA-SMCs. Telomere length differed between TERC−/− and TERT−/− mice, whereas PH severity was similar in the 2 strains and across generations. Chronic imetelstat treatment reduced hypoxia-induced PH in wild-type mice or partially reversed established PH in SM22-5HTT+ mice while simultaneously decreasing TERT expression. Opposite effects occurred in mice treated with TA65. Conclusions Telomerase exerts telomere-independent effects on PA-SMC growth in PH and may constitute a treatment target for PH. PMID:25550449

  5. Evidence for Radiation-Induced Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation as a Major Cause of Radiation-Induced Death in Ferrets

    PubMed Central

    Krigsfeld, Gabriel S.; Savage, Alexandria R.; Billings, Paul C.; Lin, Liyong; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives(s) The studies reported here were performed as part of a program in space radiation biology in which proton radiation like that present in solar particle events (SPEs), as well as conventional gamma radiation, were being evaluated in terms of the ability to affect hemostasis. Methods and Materials Ferrets were exposed to 0 – 2 Gray (Gy) of whole body proton or gamma radiation and monitored for 30 days. Blood was analyzed for blood cell counts, platelet clumping, thromboelastometry, and fibrin clot formation. Results The lethal dose of radiation to 50% of the population, known as the LD50, of ferrets was established at ~ 1.5 Gy, with 100% mortality at 2 Gy. Hypocoagulability was present as early as day 7 post-irradiation, with animals unable to generate a stable clot and exhibiting signs of platelet aggregation, thrombocytopenia, and fibrin clots in blood vessels of organs. Platelet counts were at normal levels during the early times post-irradiation when coagulopathies were present and progressively becoming more severe; platelet counts were greatly reduced at the time of the white blood cell nadir of 13 days. Conclusions The data presented here provide evidence that death at the LD50 in ferrets is most likely due to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). These data question the current hypothesis that death at relatively low doses of radiation is solely due to the cell killing effects of hematopoietic cells. The recognition that radiation-induced DIC is the most likely mechanism of death in ferrets raises the question of whether DIC is a contributing mechanism to radiation induced death at relatively low doses in large mammals. PMID:24495588

  6. Evidence for radiation-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation as a major cause of radiation-induced death in ferrets.

    PubMed

    Krigsfeld, Gabriel S; Savage, Alexandria R; Billings, Paul C; Lin, Liyong; Kennedy, Ann R

    2014-03-15

    The studies reported here were performed as part of a program in space radiation biology in which proton radiation like that present in solar particle events, as well as conventional gamma radiation, were being evaluated in terms of the ability to affect hemostasis. Ferrets were exposed to 0 to 2 Gy of whole-body proton or gamma radiation and monitored for 30 days. Blood was analyzed for blood cell counts, platelet clumping, thromboelastometry, and fibrin clot formation. The lethal dose of radiation to 50% of the population (LD50) of the ferrets was established at ∼ 1.5 Gy, with 100% mortality at 2 Gy. Hypocoagulability was present as early as day 7 postirradiation, with animals unable to generate a stable clot and exhibiting signs of platelet aggregation, thrombocytopenia, and fibrin clots in blood vessels of organs. Platelet counts were at normal levels during the early time points postirradiation when coagulopathies were present and becoming progressively more severe; platelet counts were greatly reduced at the time of the white blood cell nadir of 13 days. Data presented here provide evidence that death at the LD50 in ferrets is most likely due to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). These data question the current hypothesis that death at relatively low doses of radiation is due solely to the cell-killing effects of hematopoietic cells. The recognition that radiation-induced DIC is the most likely mechanism of death in ferrets raises the question of whether DIC is a contributing mechanism to radiation-induced death at relatively low doses in large mammals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Evidence for Radiation-Induced Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation as a Major Cause of Radiation-Induced Death in Ferrets

    SciTech Connect

    Krigsfeld, Gabriel S.; Savage, Alexandria R.; Billings, Paul C.; Lin, Liyong; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: The studies reported here were performed as part of a program in space radiation biology in which proton radiation like that present in solar particle events, as well as conventional gamma radiation, were being evaluated in terms of the ability to affect hemostasis. Methods and Materials: Ferrets were exposed to 0 to 2 Gy of whole-body proton or gamma radiation and monitored for 30 days. Blood was analyzed for blood cell counts, platelet clumping, thromboelastometry, and fibrin clot formation. Results: The lethal dose of radiation to 50% of the population (LD{sub 50}) of the ferrets was established at ∼1.5 Gy, with 100% mortality at 2 Gy. Hypocoagulability was present as early as day 7 postirradiation, with animals unable to generate a stable clot and exhibiting signs of platelet aggregation, thrombocytopenia, and fibrin clots in blood vessels of organs. Platelet counts were at normal levels during the early time points postirradiation when coagulopathies were present and becoming progressively more severe; platelet counts were greatly reduced at the time of the white blood cell nadir of 13 days. Conclusions: Data presented here provide evidence that death at the LD{sub 50} in ferrets is most likely due to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). These data question the current hypothesis that death at relatively low doses of radiation is due solely to the cell-killing effects of hematopoietic cells. The recognition that radiation-induced DIC is the most likely mechanism of death in ferrets raises the question of whether DIC is a contributing mechanism to radiation-induced death at relatively low doses in large mammals.

  8. Involvement of prostaglandins and histamine in radiation-induced temperature responses in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kandasamy, S.B.; Hunt, W.A. )

    1990-01-01

    Exposure of rats to 1-15 Gy of gamma radiation induced hyperthermia, whereas exposure to 20-150 Gy produced hypothermia. Since radiation exposure induced the release of prostaglandins (PGs) and histamine, the role of PGs and histamine in radiation-induced temperature changes was examined. Radiation-induced hyper- and hypothermia were antagonized by pretreatment with indomethacin, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor. Intracerebroventricular administration of PGE2 and PGD2 induced hyper- and hypothermia, respectively. Administration of SC-19220, a specific PGE2 antagonist, attenuated PGE2- and radiation-induced hyperthermia, but it did not antagonize PGD2- or radiation-induced hypothermia. Consistent with an apparent role of histamine in hypothermia, administration of disodium cromoglycate (a mast cell stabilizer), mepyramine (H1-receptor antagonist), or cimetidine (H2-receptor antagonist) attenuated PGD2- and radiation-induced hypothermia. These results suggest that radiation-induced hyperthermia is mediated via PGE2 and that radiation-induced hypothermia is mediated by another PG, possibly PGD2, via histamine.

  9. Countermeasures for Space Radiation Induced Malignancies and Acute Biological Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Ann

    The hypothesis being evaluated in this research program is that control of radiation induced oxidative stress will reduce the risk of radiation induced adverse biological effects occurring as a result of exposure to the types of radiation encountered during space travel. As part of this grant work, we have evaluated the protective effects of several antioxidants and dietary supplements and observed that a mixture of antioxidants (AOX), containing L-selenomethionine, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), ascorbic acid, vitamin E succinate, and alpha-lipoic acid, is highly effective at reducing space radiation induced oxidative stress in both in vivo and in vitro systems, space radiation induced cytotoxicity and malignant transformation in vitro [1-7]. In studies designed to determine whether the AOX formulation could affect radiation induced mortality [8], it was observed that the AOX dietary supplement increased the 30-day survival of ICR male mice following exposure to a potentially lethal dose (8 Gy) of X-rays when given prior to or after animal irradiation. Pretreatment of animals with antioxidants resulted in significantly higher total white blood cell and neutrophil counts in peripheral blood at 4 and 24 hours following exposure to doses of 1 Gy and 8 Gy. Antioxidant treatment also resulted in increased bone marrow cell counts following irradiation, and prevented peripheral lymphopenia following 1 Gy irradiation. Supplementation with antioxidants in irradiated animals resulted in several gene expression changes: the antioxidant treatment was associated with increased Bcl-2, and decreased Bax, caspase-9 and TGF-β1 mRNA expression in the bone marrow following irradiation. These results suggest that modulation of apoptosis may be mechanistically involved in hematopoietic system radioprotection by antioxidants. Maintenance of the antioxidant diet was associated with improved recovery of the bone marrow following sub-lethal or potentially lethal irradiation. Taken together

  10. Implications of telomeres and telomerase in endometrial pathology.

    PubMed

    Hapangama, D K; Kamal, A; Saretzki, G

    2017-03-01

    Eukaryotic chromosomal ends are linear and are protected by nucleoprotein complexes known as telomeres. The complex structural anatomy and the diverse functions of telomeres as well as the unique reverse transcriptase enzyme, telomerase that maintains telomeres are under intensive scientific scrutiny. Both are involved in many human diseases including cancer, but also in ageing and chronic disease such as diabetes. Their intricate involvement in many cellular processes and pathways is being dynamically deciphered in many organs including the endometrium. This review summarizes our current knowledge on the topic of telomeres and telomerase and their potential role in providing plausible explanations for endometrial aberrations related to common gynaecological pathologies. This review outlines the recent major findings in telomere and telomerase functions in the context of endometrial biology. It highlights the contemporary discoveries in hormonal regulation, normal endometrial regeneration, stem cells and common gynaecological diseases such as endometriosis, infertility, recurrent reproductive failure and endometrial cancer (EC). The authors carried out systematic PubMed (Medline) and Ovid searches using the key words: telomerase, telomeres, telomere length, human telomerase reverse transcriptase, telomeric RNA component, with endometrium, hormonal regulation, endometrial stem/progenitor cells, endometrial regeneration, endometriosis, recurrent miscarriage, infertility, endometrial hyperplasia, EC and uterine cancer. Publications used in this review date from 1995 until 31st June 2016. The human endometrium is a unique somatic organ, which displays dynamic telomerase activity (TA) related to the menstrual cycle. Telomerase is implicated in almost all endometrial pathologies and appears to be crucial to endometrial stem cells. In particular, it is vital for normal endometrial regeneration, providing a distinct route to formulate possible curative, non

  11. The effect of tianeptine in the prevention of radiation-induced neurocognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Akyurek, Serap; Senturk, Vesile; Oncu, Bedriye; Ozyigit, Gokhan; Yilmaz, Sercan; Gokce, Saban Cakir

    2008-12-01

    Radiation-induced neurocognitive impairment is an undesirable radiation-induced toxicity and a common health problem in patients with primary or metastatic brain tumor. It greatly impairs quality of life for long-term brain tumor survivors. Hippocampus is the most important brain structure for neurocognitive functions. It has been shown that radiation affects the hippocampal neurogenesis due to either induce the apoptosis or reduce the precursor cell proliferation in the hippocampus. Radiation-induced microglial inflammatory response is also negative regulator of neurogenesis. Tianeptine is a clinically effective antidepressant that induces neurogenesis. It has also been shown that tianeptine is able to reduce apoptosis and cytoprotective against the effects of proinflammatory cytokines in the hippocampus. Given the putative role of impaired hippocampal neurogenesis in radiation-induced neurocognitive impairment we think that tianeptine can be effective for preventing radiation-induced neurocognitive impairment by increasing hippocampal neurogenesis.

  12. Down-regulation of telomerase activity in DLD-1 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells by tocotrienol

    SciTech Connect

    Eitsuka, Takahiro; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Miyazawa, Teruo . E-mail: miyazawa@biochem.tohoku.ac.jp

    2006-09-15

    As high telomerase activity is detected in most cancer cells, inhibition of telomerase by drug or dietary food components is a new strategy for cancer prevention. Here, we investigated the inhibitory effect of vitamin E, with particular emphasis on tocotrienol (unsaturated vitamin E), on human telomerase in cell-culture study. As results, tocotrienol inhibited telomerase activity of DLD-1 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells in time- and dose-dependent manner, interestingly, with {delta}-tocotrienol exhibiting the highest inhibitory activity. Tocotrienol inhibited protein kinase C activity, resulting in down-regulation of c-myc and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) expression, thereby reducing telomerase activity. In contrast to tocotrienol, tocopherol showed very weak telomerase inhibition. These results provide novel evidence for First time indicating that tocotrienol acts as a potent candidate regulator of telomerase and supporting the anti-proliferative function of tocotrienol.

  13. Cancer-Specific Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (TERT) Promoter Mutations: Biological and Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tiantian; Yuan, Xiaotian; Xu, Dawei

    2016-01-01

    The accumulated evidence has pointed to a key role of telomerase in carcinogenesis. As a RNA-dependent DNA polymerase, telomerase synthesizes telomeric DNA at the end of linear chromosomes, and attenuates or prevents telomere erosion associated with cell divisions. By lengthening telomeres, telomerase extends cellular life-span or even induces immortalization. Consistent with its functional activity, telomerase is silent in most human normal somatic cells while active only in germ-line, stem and other highly proliferative cells. In contrast, telomerase activation widely occurs in human cancer and the enzymatic activity is detectable in up to 90% of malignancies. Recently, hotspot point mutations in the regulatory region of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene, encoding the core catalytic component of telomerase, was identified as a novel mechanism to activate telomerase in cancer. This review discusses the cancer-specific TERT promoter mutations and potential biological and clinical significances. PMID:27438857

  14. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Radiation-Induced Cystitis and Proctitis

    SciTech Connect

    Oliai, Caspian; Fisher, Brandon; Jani, Ashish; Wong, Michael; Poli, Jaganmohan; Brady, Luther W.; Komarnicky, Lydia T.

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To provide a retrospective analysis of the efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) for treating hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) and proctitis secondary to pelvic- and prostate-only radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Nineteen patients were treated with HBOT for radiation-induced HC and proctitis. The median age at treatment was 66 years (range, 15-84 years). The range of external-beam radiation delivered was 50.0-75.6 Gy. Bleeding must have been refractory to other therapies. Patients received 100% oxygen at 2.0 atmospheres absolute pressure for 90-120 min per treatment in a monoplace chamber. Symptoms were retrospectively scored according to the Late Effects of Normal Tissues-Subjective, Objective, Management, Analytic (LENT-SOMA) scale to evaluate short-term efficacy. Recurrence of hematuria/hematochezia was used to assess long-term efficacy. Results: Four of the 19 patients were lost to follow-up. Fifteen patients were evaluated and received a mean of 29.8 dives: 11 developed HC and 4 proctitis. All patients experienced a reduction in their LENT-SOMA score. After completion of HBOT, the mean LENT-SOMA score was reduced from 0.78 to 0.20 in patients with HC and from 0.66 to 0.26 in patients with proctitis. Median follow-up was 39 months (range, 7-70 months). No cases of hematuria were refractory to HBOT. Complete resolution of hematuria was seen in 81% (n = 9) and partial response in 18% (n = 2). Recurrence of hematuria occurred in 36% (n = 4) after a median of 10 months. Complete resolution of hematochezia was seen in 50% (n = 2), partial response in 25% (n = 1), and refractory bleeding in 25% (n = 1). Conclusions: Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is appropriate for radiation-induced HC once less time-consuming therapies have failed to resolve the bleeding. In these conditions, HBOT is efficacious in the short and long term, with minimal side effects.

  15. Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects in Cultured Human Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sokolov, Mykyta V.; Neumann, Ronald D.

    2010-01-01

    Background The radiation-induced “bystander effect” (RIBE) was shown to occur in a number of experimental systems both in vitro and in vivo as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). RIBE manifests itself by intercellular communication from irradiated cells to non-irradiated cells which may cause DNA damage and eventual death in these bystander cells. It is known that human stem cells (hSC) are ultimately involved in numerous crucial biological processes such as embryologic development; maintenance of normal homeostasis; aging; and aging-related pathologies such as cancerogenesis and other diseases. However, very little is known about radiation-induced bystander effect in hSC. To mechanistically interrogate RIBE responses and to gain novel insights into RIBE specifically in hSC compartment, both medium transfer and cell co-culture bystander protocols were employed. Methodology/Principal Findings Human bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) and embryonic stem cells (hESC) were irradiated with doses 0.2 Gy, 2 Gy and 10 Gy of X-rays, allowed to recover either for 1 hr or 24 hr. Then conditioned medium was collected and transferred to non-irradiated hSC for time course studies. In addition, irradiated hMSC were labeled with a vital CMRA dye and co-cultured with non-irradiated bystander hMSC. The medium transfer data showed no evidence for RIBE either in hMSC and hESC by the criteria of induction of DNA damage and for apoptotic cell death compared to non-irradiated cells (p>0.05). A lack of robust RIBE was also demonstrated in hMSC co-cultured with irradiated cells (p>0.05). Conclusions/Significance These data indicate that hSC might not be susceptible to damaging effects of RIBE signaling compared to differentiated adult human somatic cells as shown previously. This finding could have profound implications in a field of radiation biology/oncology, in evaluating radiation risk of IR exposures, and for the safety and efficacy of hSC regenerative

  16. Combination treatment with flavonoid morin and telomerase inhibitor MST‑312 reduces cancer stem cell traits by targeting STAT3 and telomerase.

    PubMed

    Chung, Seyung S; Oliva, Bryant; Dwabe, Sami; Vadgama, Jaydutt V

    2016-08-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide. The malignant CRC that undergoes metastasis in the advanced stage is usually refractory to existing chemotherapy and shows a poor prognosis. However, to date, efficient targeted-therapy for metastatic CRC is ill-defined. We tested the hypothesis that combined treatment of flavonoid morin and telomerase inhibitor MST‑312 may reduce the cancer stem cell (CSC) traits. To characterize CSC phenotype, we performed the CD133/CD44 subpopulation profiling, tumorsphere formation assay, cell invasion assay and wound healing assay. We have examined the augmenting effects of the combined treatment of morin and MST‑312 for 5-FU (5-fluorouracil) efficacy in human colorectal cancer. Morin and MST‑312 combined treatment reduced CD133 (+) and CD44 (+) subpopulations in human colorectal and breast cancer cells, respectively. Tumorsphere formation and cell invasiveness were decreased with the morin and MST‑312 combination treatment. Consistent with these data, morin and MST‑312 treatment decreased the wound healing capacity of human breast cancer cells. Stress and apoptosis antibody arrays revealed that there were specific upregulated and downregulated proteins resulting from different treatments. Phosphorylation levels of BAD, p53 and Chk1 were enhanced upon morin/MST‑312 treatments in HT-29 cells, whereas caspase-3 cleavage level and expression of IκBα were downregulated by combined morin/MST‑312 treatment in SW620 cells. Finally, morin and MST‑312 co-treatment further augmented the 5-FU efficacy, chemosensitizing the 5-FU resistant human colorectal cancer cells. Taken together, our study suggests that novel targeted-therapy can be implemented by using flavonoid morin and telomerase inhibitor MST‑312 for improved cancer prognosis.

  17. Combination treatment with flavonoid morin and telomerase inhibitor MST-312 reduces cancer stem cell traits by targeting STAT3 and telomerase

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Seyung S.; Oliva, Bryant; Dwabe, Sami; Vadgama, Jaydutt V.

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide. The malignant CRC that undergoes metastasis in the advanced stage is usually refractory to existing chemotherapy and shows a poor prognosis. However, to date, efficient targeted-therapy for metastatic CRC is ill-defined. We tested the hypothesis that combined treatment of flavonoid morin and telomerase inhibitor MST-312 may reduce the cancer stem cell (CSC) traits. To characterize CSC phenotype, we performed the CD133/CD44 subpopulation profiling, tumorsphere formation assay, cell invasion assay and wound healing assay. We have examined the augmenting effects of the combined treatment of morin and MST-312 for 5-FU (5-fluorouracil) efficacy in human colorectal cancer. Morin and MST-312 combined treatment reduced CD133 (+) and CD44 (+) subpopulations in human colorectal and breast cancer cells, respectively. Tumorsphere formation and cell invasiveness were decreased with the morin and MST-312 combination treatment. Consistent with these data, morin and MST-312 treatment decreased the wound healing capacity of human breast cancer cells. Stress and apoptosis antibody arrays revealed that there were specific upregulated and downregulated proteins resulting from different treatments. Phosphorylation levels of BAD, p53 and Chk1 were enhanced upon morin/MST-312 treatments in HT-29 cells, whereas caspase-3 cleavage level and expression of IκBα were down-regulated by combined morin/MST-312 treatment in SW620 cells. Finally, morin and MST-312 co-treatment further augmented the 5-FU efficacy, chemosensitizing the 5-FU resistant human colorectal cancer cells. Taken together, our study suggests that novel targeted-therapy can be implemented by using flavonoid morin and telomerase inhibitor MST-312 for improved cancer prognosis. PMID:27279256

  18. Differential Expression of Non-Shelterin Genes Associated with High Telomerase Levels and Telomere Shortening in Plasma Cell Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Panero, Julieta; Stella, Flavia; Schutz, Natalia; Fantl, Dorotea Beatriz; Slavutsky, Irma

    2015-01-01

    Telomerase, shelterin proteins and various interacting factors, named non-shelterin proteins, are involved in the regulation of telomere length (TL). Altered expression of any of these telomere-associated genes can lead to telomere dysfunction, causing genomic instability and disease development. In this study, we investigated the expression profile of a set of non-shelterin genes involved in essential processes such as replication (RPA1), DNA damage repair pathways (MRE11-RAD50-NBS1) and stabilization of telomerase complex (DKC1), in 35 patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and 40 cases with multiple myeloma (MM). Results were correlated with hTERT expression, TL and clinical parameters. Overall, a significant increase in DKC1, RAD50, MRE11, NBS1 and RPA1 expression along with an upregulation of hTERT in MM compared with MGUS was observed (p≤0.032). Interestingly, in both entities high mRNA levels of non-shelterin genes were associated with short TLs and increased hTERT expression. Significant differences were observed for DKC1 in MM (p ≤0.026), suggesting an important role for this gene in the maintenance of short telomeres by telomerase in myeloma plasma cells. With regard to clinical associations, we observed a significant increase in DKC1, RAD50, MRE11 and RPA1 expression in MM cases with high bone marrow infiltration (p≤0.03) and a tendency towards cases with advanced ISS stage, providing the first evidence of non-shelterin genes associated to risk factors in MM. Taken together, our findings bring new insights into the intricate mechanisms by which telomere-associated proteins collaborate in the maintenance of plasma cells immortalization and suggest a role for the upregulation of these genes in the progression of the disease. PMID:26366868

  19. Investigations of radiation-induced and carrier-enhanced conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulenberg, A., Jr.; Parker, L. W.; Yadlowski, E. J.; Hazelton, R. C.

    1985-03-01

    A steady-state carrier computer code, PECK (Parker Enhanced Carrier Kinetics), that predicts the radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) produced in a dielectric by an electron beam was developed. The model, which assumes instantly-trapped holes, was then applied to experimental measurements on thin Kapton samples penetrated by an electron beam. Measurements at high bias were matched in the model by an appropriate choice for the trap-modulated electron mobility. A fractional split between front and rear currents measured at zone bias is explained on the basis of beam-scattering. The effects of carrier-enhanced conductivity (CEC) on data obtained for thick, free-surface Kapton samples is described by using an analytical model that incorporates field injection of carriers from the RIC region. The computer code, LWPCHARGE, modified for carrier transport, is also used to predict partial penetration effects associated with CEC in the unirradiated region. Experimental currents and surface voltages, when incorporated in the appropriate models, provide a value for the trap modulated mobility that is in essential agreement with the RIC results.

  20. Investigations of radiation-induced and carrier-enhanced conductivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meulenberg, A., Jr.; Parker, L. W.; Yadlowski, E. J.; Hazelton, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    A steady-state carrier computer code, PECK (Parker Enhanced Carrier Kinetics), that predicts the radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) produced in a dielectric by an electron beam was developed. The model, which assumes instantly-trapped holes, was then applied to experimental measurements on thin Kapton samples penetrated by an electron beam. Measurements at high bias were matched in the model by an appropriate choice for the trap-modulated electron mobility. A fractional split between front and rear currents measured at zone bias is explained on the basis of beam-scattering. The effects of carrier-enhanced conductivity (CEC) on data obtained for thick, free-surface Kapton samples is described by using an analytical model that incorporates field injection of carriers from the RIC region. The computer code, LWPCHARGE, modified for carrier transport, is also used to predict partial penetration effects associated with CEC in the unirradiated region. Experimental currents and surface voltages, when incorporated in the appropriate models, provide a value for the trap modulated mobility that is in essential agreement with the RIC results.

  1. Space-radiation-induced Photon Luminescence of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thomas; Lee, Kerry

    2008-01-01

    We report on the results of a study of the photon luminescence of the Moon induced by Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) and space radiation from the Sun, using the Monte Carlo program FLUKA. The model of the lunar surface is taken to be the chemical composition of soils found at various landing sites during the Apollo and Luna programs, averaged over all such sites to define a generic regolith for the present analysis. This then becomes the target that is bombarded by Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) and Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs) above 1 keV in FLUKA to determine the photon fluence albedo produced by the Moon's surface when there is no sunlight and Earthshine. This is to be distinguished from the gamma-ray spectrum produced by the radioactive decay of radiogenic constituents lying in the surface and interior of the Moon. From the photon fluence we derive the spectrum which can be utilized to examine existing lunar spectral data and to design orbiting instrumentation for measuring various components of the space-radiation-induced photon luminescence present on the Moon.

  2. Radiation-induced heart disease in lung cancer radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Ming, Xin; Feng, Yuanming; Yang, Chengwen; Wang, Wei; Wang, Ping; Deng, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD), which affects the patients’ prognosis with both acute and late side effects, has been published extensively in the radiotherapy of breast cancer, lymphoma and other benign diseases. Studies on RIHD in lung cancer radiotherapy, however, are less extensive and clear even though the patients with lung cancer are delivered with higher doses to the heart during radiation treatment. Methods: In this article, after extensive literature search and analysis, we reviewed the current evidence on RIHD in lung cancer patients after their radiation treatments and investigated the potential risk factors for RIHD as compared to other types of cancers. Result: Cardiac toxicity has been found highly relevant in lung cancer radiotherapy. So far, the crude incidence of cardiac complications in the lung cancer patients after radiotherapy has been up to 33%. Conclusion: The dose to the heart, the lobar location of tumor, the treatment modality, the history of heart and pulmonary disease and smoking were considered as potential risk factors for RIHD in lung cancer radiotherapy. As treatment techniques improve over the time with better prognosis for lung cancer survivors, an improved prediction model can be established to further reduce the cardiac toxicity in lung cancer radiotherapy. PMID:27741117

  3. Glycyrrhetinic acid alleviates radiation-induced lung injury in mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jinmei; Zhang, Weijian; Zhang, Lurong; Zhang, Jiemin; Chen, Xiuying; Yang, Meichun; Chen, Ting; Hong, Jinsheng

    2017-01-01

    Radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) is a common complication of thoracic radiotherapy, but efficacious therapy for RILI is lacking. This study ascertained whether glycyrrhetinic acid (GA; a functional hydrolyzed product of glycyrrhizic acid, which is extracted from herb licorice) can protect against RILI and investigated its relationship to the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1/Smads signaling pathway. C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups: a control group, a GA group and two irradiation (IR) groups. IR groups were exposed to a single fraction of X-rays (12 Gy) to the thorax and administered normal saline (IR + NS group) or GA (IR + GA group). Two days and 17 days after irradiation, histologic analyses were performed to assess the degree of lung injury, and the expression of TGF-β1, Smad2, Smad3 and Smad7 was recorded. GA administration mitigated the histologic changes of lung injury 2 days and 17 days after irradiation. Protein and mRNA expression of TGF-β1, Smad2 and Smad3, and the mRNA level of Smad7, in lung tissue were significantly elevated after irradiation. GA decreased expression of TGF-β1, Smad2 and Smad3 in lung tissue, but did not increase Smad7 expression. GA can protect against early-stage RILI. This protective effect may be associated with inhibition of the TGF-β1/Smads signaling pathway. PMID:27672101

  4. Radiation-induced conductivity control in polyaniline blends/composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güven, Olgun

    2007-08-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) blends with chlorine-containing polymers and copolymers and composites with HCl-releasing compounds were prepared to investigate their radiation response in terms of induced conductivities. Blends of non-conductive PANI with poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), poly(vinylidene chloride- co-vinyl acetate), [P(VDC- co-VAc)], poly(vinylidene chloride- co-vinyl chloride), [P(VDC- co-VC)] were prepared in the form of as-cast films. A number of blends which are different in composition were exposed to gamma radiation and accelerated electrons to various doses, and the effects of irradiation type and composition of polymers on the conductivity of films were investigated by using conductivity measurements and UV-vis and FT-IR spectroscopy. The results clearly showed that ionizing radiation is an effective tool to induce and control conductivity in the blends of PANI-base with chlorine-carrying polymers as well as its composites prepared from HCl-releasing compounds such as chloral hydrate. The main mechanism behind this radiation-induced conductivity is in situ doping of PANI-base with HCl released from partner polymers and low molecular weight compounds by the effect of radiation.

  5. Gamma radiation induced changes in nuclear waste glass containing Eu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohapatra, M.; Kadam, R. M.; Mishra, R. K.; Kaushik, C. P.; Tomar, B. S.; Godbole, S. V.

    2011-10-01

    Gamma radiation induced changes were investigated in sodium-barium borosilicate glasses containing Eu. The glass composition was similar to that of nuclear waste glasses used for vitrifying Trombay research reactor nuclear waste at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India. Photoluminescence (PL) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques were used to study the speciation of the rare earth (RE) ion in the matrix before and after gamma irradiation. Judd-Ofelt ( J- O) analyses of the emission spectra were done before and after irradiation. The spin counting technique was employed to quantify the number of defect centres formed in the glass at the highest gamma dose studied. PL data suggested the stabilisation of the trivalent RE ion in the borosilicate glass matrix both before and after irradiation. It was also observed that, the RE ion distributes itself in two different environments in the irradiated glass. From the EPR data it was observed that, boron oxygen hole centre based radicals are the predominant defect centres produced in the glass after irradiation along with small amount of E’ centres. From the spin counting studies the concentration of defect centres in the glass was calculated to be 350 ppm at 900 kGy. This indicated the fact that bulk of the glass remained unaffected after gamma irradiation up to 900 kGy.

  6. Space-radiation-induced Photon Luminescence of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thomas; Lee, Kerry

    2008-01-01

    We report on the results of a study of the photon luminescence of the Moon induced by Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) and space radiation from the Sun, using the Monte Carlo program FLUKA. The model of the lunar surface is taken to be the chemical composition of soils found at various landing sites during the Apollo and Luna programs, averaged over all such sites to define a generic regolith for the present analysis. This then becomes the target that is bombarded by Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) and Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs) above 1 keV in FLUKA to determine the photon fluence albedo produced by the Moon's surface when there is no sunlight and Earthshine. This is to be distinguished from the gamma-ray spectrum produced by the radioactive decay of radiogenic constituents lying in the surface and interior of the Moon. From the photon fluence we derive the spectrum which can be utilized to examine existing lunar spectral data and to design orbiting instrumentation for measuring various components of the space-radiation-induced photon luminescence present on the Moon.

  7. Gamma radiation induces hydrogen absorption by copper in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lousada, Cláudio M.; Soroka, Inna L.; Yagodzinskyy, Yuriy; Tarakina, Nadezda V.; Todoshchenko, Olga; Hänninen, Hannu; Korzhavyi, Pavel A.; Jonsson, Mats

    2016-04-01

    One of the most intricate issues of nuclear power is the long-term safety of repositories for radioactive waste. These repositories can have an impact on future generations for a period of time orders of magnitude longer than any known civilization. Several countries have considered copper as an outer corrosion barrier for canisters containing spent nuclear fuel. Among the many processes that must be considered in the safety assessments, radiation induced processes constitute a key-component. Here we show that copper metal immersed in water uptakes considerable amounts of hydrogen when exposed to γ-radiation. Additionally we show that the amount of hydrogen absorbed by copper depends on the total dose of radiation. At a dose of 69 kGy the uptake of hydrogen by metallic copper is 7 orders of magnitude higher than when the absorption is driven by H2(g) at a pressure of 1 atm in a non-irradiated dry system. Moreover, irradiation of copper in water causes corrosion of the metal and the formation of a variety of surface cavities, nanoparticle deposits, and islands of needle-shaped crystals. Hence, radiation enhanced uptake of hydrogen by spent nuclear fuel encapsulating materials should be taken into account in the safety assessments of nuclear waste repositories.

  8. Molecular Mechanisms and Treatment of Radiation-Induced Lung Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Nian-Hua; Li, Jian Jian; Sun, Lun-Quan

    2014-01-01

    Radiation-induced lung fibrosis (RILF) is a severe side effect of radiotherapy in lung cancer patients that presents as a progressive pulmonary injury combined with chronic inflammation and exaggerated organ repair. RILF is a major barrier to improving the cure rate and well-being of lung cancer patients because it limits the radiation dose that is required to effectively kill tumor cells and diminishes normal lung function. Although the exact mechanism is unclear, accumulating evidence suggests that various cells, cytokines and regulatory molecules are involved in the tissue reorganization and immune response modulation that occur in RILF. In this review, we will summarize the general symptoms, diagnostics, and current understanding of the cells and molecular factors that are linked to the signaling networks implicated in RILF. Potential approaches for the treatment of RILF will also be discussed. Elucidating the key molecular mediators that initiate and control the extent of RILF in response to therapeutic radiation may reveal additional targets for RILF treatment to significantly improve the efficacy of radiotherapy for lung cancer patients. PMID:23909719

  9. Radiation-induced chromosomal instability in human mammary epithelial cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durante, M.; Grossi, G. F.; Yang, T. C.

    1996-01-01

    Karyotypes of human cells surviving X- and alpha-irradiation have been studied. Human mammary epithelial cells of the immortal, non-tumorigenic cell line H184B5 F5-1 M/10 were irradiated and surviving clones isolated and expanded in culture. Cytogenetic analysis was performed using dedicated software with an image analyzer. We have found that both high- and low-LET radiation induced chromosomal instability in long-term cultures, but with different characteristics. Complex chromosomal rearrangements were observed after X-rays, while chromosome loss predominated after alpha-particles. Deletions were observed in both cases. In clones derived from cells exposed to alpha-particles, some cells showed extensive chromosome breaking and double minutes. Genomic instability was correlated to delayed reproductive death and neoplastic transformation. These results indicate that chromosomal instability is a radiation-quality-dependent effect which could determine late genetic effects, and should therefore be carefully considered in the evaluation of risk for space missions.

  10. Radiation-induced optic neuropathy: A magnetic resonance imaging study

    SciTech Connect

    Guy, J.; Mancuso, A.; Beck, R.; Moster, M.L.; Sedwick, L.A.; Quisling, R.G.; Rhoton, A.L. Jr.; Protzko, E.E.; Schiffman, J. )

    1991-03-01

    Optic neuropathy induced by radiation is an infrequent cause of delayed visual loss that may at times be difficult to differentiate from compression of the visual pathways by recurrent neoplasm. The authors describe six patients with this disorder who experienced loss of vision 6 to 36 months after neurological surgery and radiation therapy. Of the six patients in the series, two had a pituitary adenoma and one each had a metastatic melanoma, multiple myeloma, craniopharyngioma, and lymphoepithelioma. Visual acuity in the affected eyes ranged from 20/25 to no light perception. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed sellar and parasellar recurrence of both pituitary adenomas, but the intrinsic lesions of the optic nerves and optic chiasm induced by radiation were enhanced after gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (DTPA) administration and were clearly distinguishable from the suprasellar compression of tumor. Repeated MR imaging showed spontaneous resolution of gadolinium-DTPA enhancement of the optic nerve in a patient who was initially suspected of harboring recurrence of a metastatic malignant melanoma as the cause of visual loss. The authors found the presumptive diagnosis of radiation-induced optic neuropathy facilitated by MR imaging with gadolinium-DTPA. This neuro-imaging procedure may help avert exploratory surgery in some patients with recurrent neoplasm in whom the etiology of visual loss is uncertain.

  11. Perinatal radiation-induced renal damage in the beagle

    SciTech Connect

    Jaenke, R.S.; Angleton, G.M. )

    1990-04-01

    The developing perinatal kidney is particularly sensitive to radiation. The pathogenesis of the radiation-induced lesion is related to the destruction of outer cortical developing nephrons and direct radiation injury with secondary hemodynamic alterations in remnant nephrons. In this study, which is part of a life span investigation of the effects of whole-body gamma radiation during prenatal and early postnatal life, dogs were given 0, 0.16, 0.83, or 1.25 Gy irradiation at either 55 days postcoitus or 2 days postpartum and were examined morphometrically and histopathologically at 70 days of age. Although irradiated dogs showed no reduction in the total number of nephrons per kidney, there was a significant increase in the total number and relative percentage of immature, dysplastic glomeruli. In addition, deeper cortical glomeruli of irradiated kidneys exhibited mesangial sclerosis similar to that associated with progressive renal failure in our previous studies. These findings are in accord with those reported at doses of 2.24 to 3.57 Gy and demonstrate that the perinatal kidney is affected by radiation doses much lower than previously demonstrated.

  12. Effects of contrast medium on radiation-induced chromosome aberrations

    SciTech Connect

    Matsubara, S.; Suzuki, S.; Suzuki, H.; Kuwabara, Y.; Okano, T.

    1982-07-01

    The effects of contrast material (meglumine iothalamate) on radiation-induced chromosome aberrations were investigated in studies on the lymphocytes of patients who had undergone diagnostic radiography and in in vitro experiments with diagnostic x rays and /sup 60/Co gamma rays. Chromosome and chromatid aberrations were found to increase significantly with increasing concentrations of contrast material that were added at irradiation. However, the aberrations were not associated with elevation of the ratio of dicentric and ring chromosomes to the number of cells with unstable chromosome aberrations at the first mitosis. Lymphocytes irradiated in the absence of contrast material did not show an increase in chromosome-type aberrations when the agent was given in increasing concentrations during subsequent incubation, but there were greater numbers of chromatid gaps and breaks. When lymphocytes were exposed to 400 R (103.2 mC/kg) of /sup 60/Co gamma rays, the presence of contrast agent did not increase the yield of dicentric and ring chromosomes, but induced a marked delay in cell proliferation, especially in lymphocytes with more heavily damaged chromosomes. In additional examination, the contrast agent itself induced sister chromatid exchanges in lymphocytes.

  13. Radiation-induced removal of sulphadiazine antibiotics from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuankun; Hu, Jun; Wang, Jianlong

    2014-08-01

    The radiation-induced removal of sulphadiazine (SD) belonging to the heterocyclic sulphonamides pharmaceuticals was investigated by gamma irradiation at different conditions in laboratory scale. The influence of initial SD concentrations, pH values, 02 and N2 on SD degradation was determined. The experimental results showed that gamma-ray irradiation was efficient for removing SD from wastewater. SD could be completely removed at an absorbed dose of 10 kGy. The degradation kinetics of SD conformed to the first-order kinetic equation. When SD concentration was in the range of 10-30 mg/L, the dose constant (d) decreased with an increasing initial SD concentration. The mineralization of SD, in terms of total organic carbon removal, was not obvious at a low absorbed dose, but it increased to more than 75% at 100 kGy. The biodegradability of SD was improved after irradiation, suggesting that irradiation could be used as a pretreatment technology for treating SD-containing wastewater. The possible degradation pathway of SD was tentatively proposed based on the analysis of intermediate products during gamma irradiation.

  14. Nocifensive Behaviors in Mice with Radiation-Induced Oral Mucositis.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Michael W; Long, C Tyler; Marcus, Karen L; Sarmadi, Shayan; Roback, Donald M; Fukuyama, Tomoki; Baeumer, Wolfgang; Lascelles, B Duncan X

    2017-02-10

    Oral mucositis can result in significant dysphagia, and is the most common dose-limiting acute toxicity in head and neck cancer patients receiving chemoradiotherapy. There is a critical need to determine the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie radiotherapy-associated discomfort in patients with mucositis. The objective was to induce oral mucositis in mice, using a clinical linear accelerator, and to quantify resultant discomfort, and characterize peripheral sensitization. A clinical linear accelerator was used to deliver ionizing radiation to the oral cavity of mice. Mucositis severity scoring, and various behavioral assays were performed to quantify bouts of orofacial wiping and scratching, bite force, gnawing behavior and burrowing activity. Calcium imaging was performed on neurons of the trigeminal ganglia. Glossitis was induced with a single fraction of at least 27 Gy. Body weight decreased and subsequently returned to baseline, in concert with development and resolution of mucositis, which was worst at day 10 and 11 postirradiation, however was resolved within another 10 days. Neither bite force, nor gnawing behavior were measurably affected. However, burrowing activity was decreased, and both facial wiping and scratching were increased while mice had visible mucositis lesions. Sensory nerves of irradiated mice were more responsive to histamine, tumor necrosis factor alpha and capsaicin. Radiation-induced glossitis is associated with hyper-reactivity of sensory neurons in the trigeminal ganglia of mice, and is accompanied by several behaviors indicative of both itch and pain. These data validate an appropriate model for cancer treatment related discomfort in humans.

  15. Gamma radiation induces hydrogen absorption by copper in water

    PubMed Central

    Lousada, Cláudio M.; Soroka, Inna L.; Yagodzinskyy, Yuriy; Tarakina, Nadezda V.; Todoshchenko, Olga; Hänninen, Hannu; Korzhavyi, Pavel A.; Jonsson, Mats

    2016-01-01

    One of the most intricate issues of nuclear power is the long-term safety of repositories for radioactive waste. These repositories can have an impact on future generations for a period of time orders of magnitude longer than any known civilization. Several countries have considered copper as an outer corrosion barrier for canisters containing spent nuclear fuel. Among the many processes that must be considered in the safety assessments, radiation induced processes constitute a key-component. Here we show that copper metal immersed in water uptakes considerable amounts of hydrogen when exposed to γ-radiation. Additionally we show that the amount of hydrogen absorbed by copper depends on the total dose of radiation. At a dose of 69 kGy the uptake of hydrogen by metallic copper is 7 orders of magnitude higher than when the absorption is driven by H2(g) at a pressure of 1 atm in a non-irradiated dry system. Moreover, irradiation of copper in water causes corrosion of the metal and the formation of a variety of surface cavities, nanoparticle deposits, and islands of needle-shaped crystals. Hence, radiation enhanced uptake of hydrogen by spent nuclear fuel encapsulating materials should be taken into account in the safety assessments of nuclear waste repositories. PMID:27086752

  16. Early corticosteroid administration in experimental radiation-induced heart disease

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, W.C.; Stryker, J.A.; Abt, A.A.; Chung, C.K.; Whitesell, L.; Zelis, R.

    1980-02-01

    The ability of dexamethasone (DEX) to reduce the severity of the late stage of radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD) was assessed in 25 New Zealand white rabbits. Ten rabbits served as unirradiated controls (CONT). In Group A, seven rabbits received intravenous DEX prior to irradiation and every 24 hours for three consecutive days. DEX was not administered to the eight rabbits in Group B. At 100 days postirradiation, the severity of the late state was determined by microscopic examination (MICRO) for myocardial fibrosis and determination of myocardial hydroxyproline content (MHP). Myocardial fibrosis was evident in groups A (40%) and B (80%) while none was present in CONT by MICRO. One rabbit in Group B with no fibrosis by MICRO had abnormally increased MHP. MHP was significantly increased in Groups A and B, as compared to CONT (p < 0.01). In addition to less fibrosis by MICRO, Group A demonstrated a significant reduction of MHP when compared to Group B (p < 0.05). Determination of MHP may be superior to MICRO in the detection of the late stage of RIHD. Also, early DEX administration appears to reduce myocardial collagen content (fibrosis) in this experimental model.

  17. Radiation-induced sarcomas of the chest wall

    SciTech Connect

    Souba, W.W.; McKenna, R.J. Jr.; Meis, J.; Benjamin, R.; Raymond, A.K.; Mountain, C.F.

    1986-02-01

    Sixteen patients are presented who had sarcomas of the chest wall at a site where a prior malignancy had been irradiated. The first malignancies included breast cancer (ten cases), Hodgkin's disease (four cases), and others (two cases). Radiation doses varied from 4200 to 5500 R (mean, 4900 R). The latency period ranged from 5 to 28 years (mean, 13 years). The histologic types of the radiation-induced sarcomas were as follows: malignant fibrous histiocytoma, nine cases; osteosarcoma, six cases; and malignant mesenchymoma, one case. The only long-term survivor is alive and well 12 years after resection of a clavicular chondroblastic osteosarcoma. Three cases were recently diagnosed. Despite aggressive multimodality treatment, the remaining 13 patients have all died from their sarcomas (mean survival, 13.5 months). All patients have apparently been cured of their first malignancies. Chemotherapy was ineffective. No treatment, including forequarter amputation, appeared to palliate the patients with supraclavicular soft tissue sarcomas. Major chest wall resection offered good palliation for seven of eight patients with sarcomas arising in the sternum or lateral chest wall. Close follow-up is needed to detect signs of these sarcomas in the ever-increasing number of patients receiving therapeutic irradiation.

  18. Radiation-Induced Sarcoma of the Breast: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Sheth, Grishma R.; Cranmer, Lee D.; Smith, Benjamin D.; Grasso-LeBeau, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Radiation-induced sarcoma (RIS) is a rare, aggressive malignancy. Breast cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy constitute a large fraction of RIS patients. To evaluate evidenced-based practices for RIS treatment, we performed a systematic review of the published English-language literature. Methods. We performed a systematic keyword search of PubMed for original research articles pertaining to RIS of the breast. We classified and evaluated the articles based on hierarchal levels of scientific evidence. Results. We identified 124 original articles available for analysis, which included 1,831 patients. No randomized controlled trials involving RIS patients were found. We present the best available evidence for the etiology, comparative biology to primary sarcoma, prognostic factors, and treatment options for RIS of the breast. Conclusion. Although the evidence to guide clinical practice is limited to single institutional cohort studies, registry studies, case–control studies, and case reports, we applied the available evidence to address clinically relevant questions related to best practice in patient management. Surgery with widely negative margins remains the primary treatment of RIS. Unfortunately, the role of adjuvant and neoadjuvant chemotherapy remains uncertain. This systematic review highlights the need for additional well-designed studies to inform the management of RIS. PMID:22334455

  19. Radiation induced destruction of thebaine, papaverine and noscapine in methanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantoğlu, Ömer; Ergun, Ece

    2016-07-01

    The presence of methanol decreases the efficiency of radiation-induced decomposition of alkaloids in wastewater. Intermediate products were observed before the complete degradation of irradiated alkaloids. In order to identify the structure of the by-products and the formation pathway, thebaine, papaverine and noscapine solutions were prepared in pure methanol and irradiated using a 60Co gamma cell at absorbed doses of 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 30, 50 and 80 kGy. The dose-dependent alkaloid degradation and by-product formation were monitored by ESI mass spectrometer. Molecular structures of the by-products and reaction pathways were proposed. Oxygenated and methoxy group containing organic compounds was observed in the mass spectra of irradiated alkaloids. At initial dose values oxygenated by-products were formed due to the presence of dissolved oxygen in solutions. After the consumption of dissolved oxygen with radicals, the main mechanism was addition of solvent radicals to alkaloid structure. However, it was determined that alkaloids and by-products were completely degraded at doses higher than 50 kGy. The G-value and degradation efficiency of alkaloids were also evaluated.

  20. Mechanisms of radiation-induced neoplastic cell transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, T.C.H.; Tobias, C.A.

    1984-04-01

    Studies with cultured mammalian cells demonstrated clearly that radiation can transform cells directly and can enhance the cell transformation by oncogenic DNA viruses. In general, high-LET heavy-ion radiation can be more effective than X and gamma rays in inducing neoplastic cell transformation. Various experimental results indicate that radiation-induced DNA damage, most likely double-strand breaks, is important for both the initiation of cell transformation and for the enhancement of viral transformation. Some of the transformation and enhancement lesions can be repaired properly in the cell, and the amount of irrepairable lesions produced by a given dose depends on the quality of radiation. An inhibition of repair processes with chemical agents can increase the transformation frequency of cells exposed to radiation and/or oncogenic viruses, suggesting that repair mechanisms may play an important role in the radiation transformation. The progression of radiation-transformed cells appears to be a long and complicated process that can be modulated by some nonmutagenic chemical agents, e.g., DMSO. Normal cells can inhibit the expression of transforming properties of tumorigenic cells through an as yet unknown mechanism. The progression and expression of transformation may involve some epigenetic changes in the irradiated cells. 38 references, 15 figures, 1 table.

  1. [Radiation-induced bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Ducray, J; Vignot, S; Lacout, A; Pougnet, I; Marcy, P-Y; Chapellier, C; Foray, N; Creisson, A; Thariat, J

    2017-04-01

    Bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia is an inflammatory reaction that can occur as a consequence of various pulmonary affections. Radiotherapy is not the sole and systematic cause of bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia. Radiation-induced should not be confused with post-radiation, dose-dependent, inflammatory pulmonary fibrosis, which is non-immunological and located within the irradiation field. The role of immunity, local inflammation and individual radiosensitivity in bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia is not well defined. Bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia represents 1% of irradiated patients with breast cancer. It results in fever (flu-like symptoms), a rather dry cough and dyspnea. In the post-radiation context, bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia may be diagnosed several months and up to a year after breast irradiation. The treatment consists of prolonged steroids or immunosuppressants, which do not prevent chronicity in 15% of patients and death in up to 5% of cases, the remaining 80% of patients healing without sequelae. Copyright © 2017 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Ionizing Radiation-Induced Cataract in Interventional Cardiology Staff

    PubMed Central

    Bitarafan Rajabi, Ahmad; Noohi, Feridoun; Hashemi, Hassan; Haghjoo, Majid; Miraftab, Mohammad; Yaghoobi, Nahid; Rastgou, Fereydon; Malek, Hadi; Faghihi, Hoshang; Firouzabadi, Hassan; Asgari, Soheila; Rezvan, Farhad; Khosravi, Hamidreza; Soroush, Sara; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The use of ionizing radiation has led to advances in medical diagnosis and treatment. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the risk of radiation cataractogenesis in the interventionists and staff performing various procedures in different interventional laboratories. Patients and Methods: This cohort study included 81 interventional cardiology staff. According to the working site, they were classified into 5 groups. The control group comprised 14 professional nurses who did not work in the interventional sites. Participants were assigned for lens assessment by two independent trained ophthalmologists blinded to the study. Results: The electrophysiology laboratory staff received higher doses of ionizing radiation (17.2 ± 11.9 mSv; P < 0.001). There was a significant positive correlation between the years of working experience and effective dose in the lens (P < 0.001). In general, our findings showed that the incidence of lens opacity was 79% (95% CI, 69.9-88.1) in participants with exposure (the case group) and our findings showed that the incidence of lenses opacity was 7.1% (95% CI:2.3-22.6) with the relative risk (RR) of 11.06 (P < 0.001). Conclusions: We believe that the risk of radiation-induced cataract in cardiology interventionists and staff depends on their work site. As the radiation dose increases, the prevalence of posterior eye changes increases. PMID:25789258

  3. Radiation-induced thymine base damage in replicating chromatin

    SciTech Connect

    Warters, R.L.; Childers, T.J.

    1982-06-01

    The efficiency of radiation-induced production of 5',6'-dihydroxydihydrothymine (t/sup ..gamma../)-type damage was determined in nascent and mature chromatin DNA for the dose range of 50 to 150 krad. These large doses affected neither the total fraction of nuclear DNA in chromatin subunits nor the nucleosome subunit repeat length. The DNA in nascent chromatin, however, was found to be 3.3 times more sensitive than mature chromatin DNA to ..gamma..-ray (/sup 137/Cs)-induced t/sup ..gamma../-type damage, while thymine damage of this type was uniformly distributed in the nucleosomal DNA of mature chromatin (i.e., in the nucleosome core and spacer DNA). The half-time for the transition of nascent DNA sensitivity to mature chromatin DNA sensitivity levels was the same as the half-time at 37/sup 0/C for the maturation of nascent into mature chromatin structure. The rate at which nascent chromatin matured was unaffected by radiation doses as large as 150 krad. The most logical explanation for the greater sensitivity of nascent DNA to radiation is the decreased concentration of histone chromosomal proteins in nascent chromatin.

  4. Chromatin Structure and Radiation-Induced Intrachromosome Exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mangala; Zhang, Ye; Hada, Megumi; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wu, Honglu

    2011-01-01

    We have recently investigated the location of breaks involved in intrachromosomal type exchange events, using the multicolor banding in situ hybridization (mBAND) technique for human chromosome 3. In human epithelial cells exposed to both low- and high-LET radiations in vitro, intrachromosome exchanges were found to occur preferentially between a break in the 3p21 and one in the 3q11. Exchanges were also observed between a break in 3p21 and one in 3q26, but few exchanges were observed between breaks in 3q11 and 3q26, even though the two regions were on the same arm of the chromosome. To explore the relationships between intrachromosome exchanges and chromatin structure, we used probes that hybridize the three regions of 3p21, 3q11 and 3q26, and measured the distance between two of the three regions in interphase cells. We further analyzed fragile sites on the chromosome that have been identified in various types of cancers. Our results demonstrated that the distribution of breaks involved in radiation-induced intrachromosome aberrations depends upon both the location of fragile sites and the folding of chromatins

  5. Epigenetic determinants of space radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Munjal M.; Baddour, Al Anoud D.; Kawashita, Takumi; Allen, Barrett D.; Syage, Amber R.; Nguyen, Thuan H.; Yoon, Nicole; Giedzinski, Erich; Yu, Liping; Parihar, Vipan K.; Baulch, Janet E.

    2017-01-01

    Among the dangers to astronauts engaging in deep space missions such as a Mars expedition is exposure to radiations that put them at risk for severe cognitive dysfunction. These radiation-induced cognitive impairments are accompanied by functional and structural changes including oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and degradation of neuronal architecture. The molecular mechanisms that dictate CNS function are multifaceted and it is unclear how irradiation induces persistent alterations in the brain. Among those determinants of cognitive function are neuroepigenetic mechanisms that translate radiation responses into altered gene expression and cellular phenotype. In this study, we have demonstrated a correlation between epigenetic aberrations and adverse effects of space relevant irradiation on cognition. In cognitively impaired irradiated mice we observed increased 5-methylcytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine levels in the hippocampus that coincided with increased levels of the DNA methylating enzymes DNMT3a, TET1 and TET3. By inhibiting methylation using 5-iodotubercidin, we demonstrated amelioration of the epigenetic effects of irradiation. In addition to protecting against those molecular effects of irradiation, 5-iodotubercidin restored behavioral performance to that of unirradiated animals. The findings of this study establish the possibility that neuroepigenetic mechanisms significantly contribute to the functional and structural changes that affect the irradiated brain and cognition. PMID:28220892

  6. Radiation induced degradation of dyes--an overview.

    PubMed

    Rauf, M A; Ashraf, S Salman

    2009-07-15

    Synthetic dyes are a major part of our life. Products ranging from clothes to leather accessories to furniture all depend on extensive use of organic dyes. An unfortunate side effect of extensive use of these chemicals is that huge amounts of these potentially carcinogenic compounds enter our water supplies. Various advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) including the use of high-energy radiation have been developed to degrade these compounds. In this review, dye decoloration and degradation as a result of its exposure to high energy radiation such as gamma radiation and pulsed electron beam are discussed in detail. The role of various transient species such as H, OH and e(aq)(-) are taken into account as reported by various researchers. Literature citations in this area show that e(aq)(-) is very effective in decolorization but is less active in the further degradation of the products formed. The degradation of the dyes is initiated exclusively by OH attack on electron-rich sites of the dye molecules. Additionally, various parameters that affect the efficiency of radiation induced degradation of dyes, such as effect of radiation dose, oxygen, pH, hydrogen peroxide, added ions and dye classes are also reviewed and summarized. Lastly, pilot plant application of radiation for wastewater treatment is briefly discussed.

  7. Low d