Science.gov

Sample records for radiative power frp

  1. Using the Fire Weather Index (FWI) to improve the estimation of fire emissions from fire radiative power (FRP) observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Giuseppe, Francesca; Rémy, Samuel; Pappenberger, Florian; Wetterhall, Fredrik

    2018-04-01

    The atmospheric composition analysis and forecast for the European Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Services (CAMS) relies on biomass-burning fire emission estimates from the Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS). The GFAS is a global system and converts fire radiative power (FRP) observations from MODIS satellites into smoke constituents. Missing observations are filled in using persistence, whereby observed FRP values from the previous day are progressed in time until a new observation is recorded. One of the consequences of this assumption is an increase of fire duration, which in turn translates into an increase of emissions estimated from fires compared to what is available from observations. In this study persistence is replaced by modelled predictions using the Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI), which describes how atmospheric conditions affect the vegetation moisture content and ultimately fire duration. The skill in predicting emissions from biomass burning is improved with the new technique, which indicates that using an FWI-based model to infer emissions from FRP is better than persistence when observations are not available.

  2. Estimating Landscape Fire Particulate Matter (PM) Emissions over Southern Africa using MSG-SEVIRI Fire Radiative Power (FRP) and MODIS Aerosol Optical Thickness Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mota, Bernardo; Wooster, Martin J.

    2016-04-01

    The approach to estimating landscape fire fuel consumption based on the remotely sensed fire radiative power (FRP) thermal energy release rate, as opposed to burned area, is now relatively widely used in studies of fire emissions, including operationally within the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS). Nevertheless, there are still limitations to the approach, including uncertainties associated with using only the few daily overpasses typically provided by polar orbiting satellite systems, the conversion between FRP and smoke emissions, and the increased likelihood that the more frequent data from geostationary systems fails to detect the (probably highly numerous) smaller (i.e. low FRP) component of a regions fire regime. In this study, we address these limitations to directly estimate fire emissions of Particular Matter (PM; or smoke aerosols) by presenting an approach combining the "bottom-up" FRP observations available every 15 minutes across Africa from the Meteosat Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) Fire Radiative Product (FRP) processed at the EUMETSAT LSA SAF, and the "top-down" aerosol optical thickness (AOT) measures of the fire plumes themselves as measured by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) sensors aboard the Terra (MOD04_L2) and Aqua (MYD04_L2) satellites. We determine PM emission coefficients that relate directly to FRP measures by combining these two datasets, and the use of the almost continuous geostationary FRP observations allows us to do this without recourse to (uncertain) data on wind speed at the (unknown) height of the matching plume. We also develop compensation factors to address the detection limitations of small/low intensity (low FRP) fires, and remove the need to estimate fuel consumption by going directly from FRP to PM emissions. We derive the smoke PM emissions coefficients per land cover class by comparing the total fire radiative energy (FRE) released from individual fires

  3. Meteosat SEVIRI Fire Radiative Power (FRP) products from the Land Surface Analysis Satellite Applications Facility (LSA SAF) - Part 1: Algorithms, product contents and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooster, M. J.; Roberts, G.; Freeborn, P. H.; Xu, W.; Govaerts, Y.; Beeby, R.; He, J.; Lattanzio, A.; Mullen, R.

    2015-06-01

    Characterising changes in landscape scale fire activity at very high temporal resolution is best achieved using thermal observations of actively burning fires made from geostationary Earth observation (EO) satellites. Over the last decade or more, a series of research and/or operational "active fire" products have been developed from these types of geostationary observations, often with the aim of supporting the generation of data related to biomass burning fuel consumption and trace gas and aerosol emission fields. The Fire Radiative Power (FRP) products generated by the Land Surface Analysis Satellite Applications Facility (LSA SAF) from data collected by the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) are one such set of products, and are freely available in both near real-time and archived form. Every 15 min, the algorithms used to generate these products identify and map the location of new SEVIRI observations containing actively burning fires, and characterise their individual rates of radiative energy release (fire radiative power; FRP) that is believed proportional to rates of biomass consumption and smoke emission. The FRP-PIXEL product contains the highest spatial resolution FRP dataset, delivered for all of Europe, northern and southern Africa, and part of South America at a spatial resolution of 3 km (decreasing away from the west African sub-satellite point) at the full 15 min temporal resolution. The FRP-GRID product is an hourly summary of the FRP-PIXEL data, produced at a 5° grid cell size and including simple bias adjustments for meteorological cloud cover and for the regional underestimation of FRP caused, primarily, by the non-detection of low FRP fire pixels at SEVIRI's relatively coarse pixel size. Here we describe the enhanced geostationary Fire Thermal Anomaly (FTA) algorithm used to detect the SEVIRI active fire pixels, and detail methods used to deliver atmospherically corrected FRP information

  4. Fire Radiative Power (FRP)-based Emission Factors of PM2.5, CO and NOX for Remote Sensing of Biomass Burning Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karandana Gamalathge, T. D.; Chen, L. W. A.

    2015-12-01

    Large-scale biomass burning such as forest fires represents an important and yet uncertain source of air pollutants and greenhouse gases on a global scale. Due to the highly accidental nature of forest fires, satellite remote sensing could be a promising method to develop regional and global fire emission inventories on a real-time basis. Reliable fire radiative power (FRP)-based fuel consumption and emission factors are critical in this approach. In an attempt to obtain the information, laboratory combustion experiments were conducted to simultaneously monitor FRP, fuel consumption, and emissions of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), carbon monoxide (CO), and reactive nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2). FRP were quantified using temperature-resolved values from a thermal imager instead of conventionally used average temperature, as the former provides more realistic estimates. For dry Ponderosa pine branches, a common fuel in the Sierra Nevada, a strong correlation (r2 ~ 0.8) between FRP and the mass reduction rate (MRR) was found. This led to a radiative energy yield (REY) of 8.5 ± 1.2 MJ/kg, assuming blackbody radiation and a flame emissivity of 0.5. Mass-based emission factors were determined with the carbon balance approach. Considering the ratio of mass-based emission factors and the REY, FRP-based emission factors: PM2.5: 11 g/MJ, CO: 8.0 g/MJ, NO: 0.33 g/MJ, and NO2: 0.07 g/MJ were quantified. The application of this approach to other fuel types and uncertainties in the measurements will be discussed.

  5. Detailed Evaluation of MODIS Fire Radiative Power Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ichoku, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing is providing us tremendous opportunities to measure the fire radiative energy (FRE) release rate or power (FRP) from open biomass burning, which affects many vegetated regions of the world on a seasonal basis. Knowledge of the biomass burning characteristics and emission source strengths of different (particulate and gaseous) smoke constituents is one of the principal ingredients upon which the assessment, modeling, and forecasting of their distribution and impacts depend. This knowledge can be gained through accurate measurement of FRP, which has been shown to have a direct relationship with the rates of biomass consumption and emissions of major smoke constituents. Over the last decade or so, FRP has been routinely measured from space by both the MODIS sensors aboard the polar orbiting Terra and Aqua satellites, and the SEVIRI sensor aboard the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) geostationary satellite. During the last few years, FRP has been gaining recognition as an important parameter for facilitating the development of various scientific studies relating to the quantitative characterization of biomass burning and their emissions. Therefore, we are conducting a detailed analysis of the FRP products from MODIS to characterize the uncertainties associated with them, such as those due to the MODIS bow-tie effects and other factors, in order to establish their error budget for use in scientific research and applications. In this presentation, we will show preliminary results of the MODIS FRP data analysis, including comparisons with airborne measurements.

  6. Estimation of Biomass Burning Emissions by Fusing Fire Radiative Power Observed from Polar-orbiting and Geostationary Satellites across the Continental United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, F.; Zhang, X.; Kondragunta, S.

    2016-12-01

    Trace gases and aerosols released from biomass burning significantly disturb the energy balance of the Earth and also degrade regional air quality. However, biomass burning emissions (BBE) have been poorly estimated using the traditional bottom-up approach because of the substantial uncertainties in the burned area and fuel loads. Recently, Fire Radiative Power (FRP) derived from satellite fire observations enables the estimation of BBE at multiple spatial scales in near real time. Nonetheless, it is very challenging to accurately produce reliable FRP diurnal cycles from either polar-orbiting satellites or geostationary satellites for the calculation of the temporally integrated FRP, Fire Radiative Energy (FRE). Here we reconstruct FRP diurnal cycles by fusing FRP observed from polar-orbiting and geostationary satellites and estimate BBE from 2011 to 2015 across the Continental United States. Specifically, FRP from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) is preprocessed and calibrated using the collocated and concurred observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) over Landsat TM burn scars. The climatologically diurnal FRP curves are then calculated from the calibrated GOES FRP for the 25 Bailey's ecoregions. By fitting MODIS FRP and the calibrated GOES FRP to the climatological curves, FRP diurnal cycles are further reconstructed for individual days at a 0.25-degree grid. Both FRE estimated from FRP diurnal cycles and ecoregion specified FRE combustion rates are used to estimate hourly BBE. The estimated BBE is finally evaluated using QFED and GFED4.0 inventories and emissions modeled using Landsat TM 30m burn severities and 30m fuel loading from Fuel Characteristic Classification System. The results show that BBE estimates are greatly improved by using the reconstructed FRP diurnal cycles from high temporal (GOES) and high spatial resolution (MODIS) FRP observations.

  7. LSA SAF Meteosat FRP products - Part 1: Algorithms, product contents, and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooster, M. J.; Roberts, G.; Freeborn, P. H.; Xu, W.; Govaerts, Y.; Beeby, R.; He, J.; Lattanzio, A.; Fisher, D.; Mullen, R.

    2015-11-01

    Characterizing changes in landscape fire activity at better than hourly temporal resolution is achievable using thermal observations of actively burning fires made from geostationary Earth Observation (EO) satellites. Over the last decade or more, a series of research and/or operational "active fire" products have been developed from geostationary EO data, often with the aim of supporting biomass burning fuel consumption and trace gas and aerosol emission calculations. Such Fire Radiative Power (FRP) products are generated operationally from Meteosat by the Land Surface Analysis Satellite Applications Facility (LSA SAF) and are available freely every 15 min in both near-real-time and archived form. These products map the location of actively burning fires and characterize their rates of thermal radiative energy release (FRP), which is believed proportional to rates of biomass consumption and smoke emission. The FRP-PIXEL product contains the full spatio-temporal resolution FRP data set derivable from the SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager) imager onboard Meteosat at a 3 km spatial sampling distance (decreasing away from the west African sub-satellite point), whilst the FRP-GRID product is an hourly summary at 5° grid resolution that includes simple bias adjustments for meteorological cloud cover and regional underestimation of FRP caused primarily by underdetection of low FRP fires. Here we describe the enhanced geostationary Fire Thermal Anomaly (FTA) detection algorithm used to deliver these products and detail the methods used to generate the atmospherically corrected FRP and per-pixel uncertainty metrics. Using SEVIRI scene simulations and real SEVIRI data, including from a period of Meteosat-8 "special operations", we describe certain sensor and data pre-processing characteristics that influence SEVIRI's active fire detection and FRP measurement capability, and use these to specify parameters in the FTA algorithm and to make recommendations

  8. Quantitative Evaluation of MODIS Fire Radiative Power Measurement for Global Smoke Emissions Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ichoku, Charles; Ellison, Luke

    2011-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing is providing us tremendous opportunities to measure the fire radiative energy (FRE) release rate or power (FRP) from open biomass burning, which affects many vegetated regions of the world on a seasonal basis. Knowledge of the biomass burning characteristics and emission source strengths of different (particulate and gaseous) smoke constituents is one of the principal ingredients upon which the assessment, modeling, and forecasting of their distribution and impacts depend. This knowledge can be gained through accurate measurement of FRP, which has been shown to have a direct relationship with the rates of biomass consumption and emissions of major smoke constituents. Over the last decade or so, FRP has been routinely measured from space by both the MODIS sensors aboard the polar orbiting Terra and Aqua satellites, and the SEVIRI sensor aboard the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) geostationary satellite. During the last few years, FRP has steadily gained increasing recognition as an important parameter for facilitating the development of various scientific studies and applications relating to the quantitative characterization of biomass burning and their emissions. To establish the scientific integrity of the FRP as a stable quantity that can be measured consistently across a variety of sensors and platforms, with the potential of being utilized to develop a unified long-term climate data record of fire activity and impacts, it needs to be thoroughly evaluated, calibrated, and validated. Therefore, we are conducting a detailed analysis of the FRP products from MODIS to evaluate the uncertainties associated with them, such as those due to the effects of satellite variable observation geometry and other factors, in order to establish their error budget for use in diverse scientific research and applications. In this presentation, we will show recent results of the MODIS FRP uncertainty analysis and error mitigation solutions, and demonstrate

  9. Biomass Combustions and Burning Emissions Inferred from GOES Fire Radiative Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Kondragunta, S.; Schmidt, C.

    2007-12-01

    Biomass burning significantly affects air quality and climate changes. Current estimates of burning emissions are rather imprecise and vary markedly with different methodologies. This paper investigates biomass burning consumption and emissions using GOES (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites) WF_ABBA (Wildfire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm) fire product. In doing this, we establish a set of representatives in diurnal patterns of half-hourly GOES Fire Radiative Power (FRP) for various ecosystems. The representative patterns are used to fill the missed and poor observations of half hourly FRP in GOES fire data for individual fire pixels. The simulated FRP is directly applied to the calculation of the biomass combusted during fire activities. The FRP-based biomass combustion is evaluated using the estimates using a traditional model which integrates burned area, fuel loading, and combustion factor. In the traditional model calculation, we derive burned areas from GOES WF_ABBA fire size. Fuel loading includes three different types (1) MODIS Vegetation Property-based Fuel System (MVPFS), (2) National Dangerous Rating Systems (NFDRS), and (3) the Fuel Characteristic Classification System (FCCS). By comparing the biomass combustions across the Contiguous United States (CONUS) from 2003-2005, we conclude that FRP is an effective tool to estimate the biomass burning emissions. Finally, we examine the temporal and spatial patterns in biomass combustions and emissions (PM2.5, CO, NH3) across the CONUS.

  10. LSA SAF Meteosat FRP products - Part 2: Evaluation and demonstration for use in the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, G.; Wooster, M. J.; Xu, W.; Freeborn, P. H.; Morcrette, J.-J.; Jones, L.; Benedetti, A.; Jiangping, H.; Fisher, D.; Kaiser, J. W.

    2015-11-01

    Characterising the dynamics of landscape-scale wildfires at very high temporal resolutions is best achieved using observations from Earth Observation (EO) sensors mounted onboard geostationary satellites. As a result, a number of operational active fire products have been developed from the data of such sensors. An example of which are the Fire Radiative Power (FRP) products, the FRP-PIXEL and FRP-GRID products, generated by the Land Surface Analysis Satellite Applications Facility (LSA SAF) from imagery collected by the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) onboard the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) series of geostationary EO satellites. The processing chain developed to deliver these FRP products detects SEVIRI pixels containing actively burning fires and characterises their FRP output across four geographic regions covering Europe, part of South America and Northern and Southern Africa. The FRP-PIXEL product contains the highest spatial and temporal resolution FRP data set, whilst the FRP-GRID product contains a spatio-temporal summary that includes bias adjustments for cloud cover and the non-detection of low FRP fire pixels. Here we evaluate these two products against active fire data collected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and compare the results to those for three alternative active fire products derived from SEVIRI imagery. The FRP-PIXEL product is shown to detect a substantially greater number of active fire pixels than do alternative SEVIRI-based products, and comparison to MODIS on a per-fire basis indicates a strong agreement and low bias in terms of FRP values. However, low FRP fire pixels remain undetected by SEVIRI, with errors of active fire pixel detection commission and omission compared to MODIS ranging between 9-13 % and 65-77 % respectively in Africa. Higher errors of omission result in greater underestimation of regional FRP totals relative to those derived from simultaneously collected MODIS

  11. LSA SAF Meteosat FRP Products: Part 2 - Evaluation and demonstration of use in the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, G.; Wooster, M. J.; Xu, W.; Freeborn, P. H.; Morcrette, J.-J.; Jones, L.; Benedetti, A.; Kaiser, J.

    2015-06-01

    Characterising the dynamics of landscape scale wildfires at very high temporal resolutions is best achieved using observations from Earth Observation (EO) sensors mounted onboard geostationary satellites. As a result, a number of operational active fire products have been developed from the data of such sensors. An example of which are the Fire Radiative Power (FRP) products, the FRP-PIXEL and FRP-GRID products, generated by the Land Surface Analysis Satellite Applications Facility (LSA SAF) from imagery collected by the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) on-board the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) series of geostationary EO satellites. The processing chain developed to deliver these FRP products detects SEVIRI pixels containing actively burning fires and characterises their FRP output across four geographic regions covering Europe, part of South America and northern and southern Africa. The FRP-PIXEL product contains the highest spatial and temporal resolution FRP dataset, whilst the FRP-GRID product contains a spatio-temporal summary that includes bias adjustments for cloud cover and the non-detection of low FRP fire pixels. Here we evaluate these two products against active fire data collected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and compare the results to those for three alternative active fire products derived from SEVIRI imagery. The FRP-PIXEL product is shown to detect a substantially greater number of active fire pixels than do alternative SEVIRI-based products, and comparison to MODIS on a per-fire basis indicates a strong agreement and low bias in terms of FRP values. However, low FRP fire pixels remain undetected by SEVIRI, with errors of active fire pixel detection commission and omission compared to MODIS ranging between 9-13 and 65-77% respectively in Africa. Higher errors of omission result in greater underestimation of regional FRP totals relative to those derived from simultaneously collected MODIS

  12. Simulation of the FRP Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paugam, Ronan; Wooster, Martin; Johnston, Joshua; Gastellu-Etchegorry, Jean-Philippe

    2014-05-01

    Among the different alternative of remote sensing technologies for estimating global fire carbon emission, the thermally-based measures of fire radiative power (FRP; and its temporal integration, fire radiative energy or FRE) has the potential to capture the spatial and temporal variability of fire occurrence. It was shown that a strong linear relationship exists between the total amount of thermal radiant energy emitted by a fire over its lifetime (the FRE) and the amount of fuel burned. Since all vegetation is 50(±5)% carbon, it is therefore in theory a potentially simple matter to measure the FRE and estimate the carbon release. In a fire inventory like the Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS), the total carbon emission is derived from a gridded FRE product forced by the MODIS observation, using Ct = β x FRE x Ef, where β is a conversion factor initially estimated from small scale experiment as β=0.368 and later derived for different bio dome by comparison with the Global Fire Emission Database (GFED). The sensitivities of the above equation to (i) different types of fire activity (ie, flaming, smoldering, torching), (ii) sensor view angles or (iii) soot/smoke absorption have not yet been well studied. The investigation of these types of sensitivity, and of the information content of thermal IR observations of actively burning fires in general, is one of the primary subjects of this study. Our approach is based on a combination of observational work and simulations conducted via the linkage of different fire models and the 3D radiative transfer (RT) model DART operating in the thermal domain. The radiation properties of a fire as seen from above its plume (e.g. space/air borne sensor) depend on the temperature distribution, the gas concentration (mainly CO2, H2O), and the amount, shape, distribution and optical properties of the soot particles in the flame (where they are emitting) and in the cooling plume (where they are mainly absorbing). While gas and

  13. FRP debonding monitoring using OTDR techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Shuang; Cai, C. S. Steve; Ou, Jinping

    2009-07-01

    Debonding failure has been reported as the dominant failure mode for FRP strengthening in flexure. This paper explores a novel debonding monitoring method for FRP strengthened structures by means of OTDR-based fiber optic technology. Interface slip as a key factor in debonding failures will be measured through sensing optic fibers, which is instrumented in the interface between FRP and concrete in the direction perpendicular to the FRP filaments. Slip in the interface will induce power losses in the optic fiber signals at the intersection point of the FRP strip and the sensing optic fiber and the signal change will be detected through OTDR device. The FRP double shear tests and three-point bending tests were conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed monitoring method. It is found that the early bebonding can be detected before it causes the interface failure. The sensing optic fiber shows signal changes in the slip value at about 36~156 micrometer which is beyond sensing capacity of the conventional sensors. The tests results show that the proposed method is feasible in slip measurement with high sensitivity, and would be cost effective because of the low price of sensors used, which shows its potential of large-scale applications in civil infrastructures, especially for bridges.

  14. FRP : Strengthened RC Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, J. G.; Chen, J. F.; Smith, S. T.; Lam, L.

    2002-01-01

    The strengthening of reinforced concrete (RC) structures using advanced fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites, and in particular the behaviour of FRP-strengthened RC structures is a topic which has become very popular in recent years. This popularity has arisen due to the need to maintain and upgrade essential infrastructure in all parts of the world, combined with the well-known advantages of FRP composites, such as good corrosion resistance and ease for site handling due to their light weight. The continuous reduction in the material cost of FRP composites has also contributed to their popularity. While a great amount of research now exists in the published literature on this topic, it is scattered in various journals and conference proceedings. This book therefore provides the first ever comprehensive, state-of-the-art summary of the existing research on FRP strengthening of RC structures, with the emphasis being on structural behaviour and strength models. The main topics covered include: Bond behaviour Flexural and shear strengthening of beams Column strengthening Flexural strengthening of slabs. For each area, the methods of strengthening are discussed, followed by a description of behaviour and failure modes and then the presentation of rational design recommendations, for direct use in practical design of FRP strengthening measures. Researchers, practicing engineers, code writers and postgraduate students in structural engineering and construction materials, as well as consulting firms, government departments, professional bodies, contracting firms and FRP material suppliers will find this an invaluable resource.

  15. Fire Detections and Fire Radiative Power Intercomparison Using Multiple Sensor Products over a Predominantly Gas Flaring Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, A.; Wang, J.

    2014-12-01

    Gas flaring is a global environmental hazard severely impacting climate, economy and public health. The associated emissions are frequently unreported and have large uncertainties. Prior studies have established a direct relationship between radiative energy released from fires and the biomass burned, making fire radiative power (FRP), i.e., the rate of radiative energy release, an important proxy to characterize emissions. In this study fire properties from four different satellite products were obtained over a 10⁰ x 10⁰ gas flaring region in Russia for all days of May 2013. The target area is part of Russia's biggest gas flaring region, Khanty-Mansiysk autonomous okrug. The objective of the study is to investigate the consistency of fire detections, FRP retrievals and effects of gridding FRP data from the region on a uniform grid. The four products used were: MODIS Terra level2 thermal anomalies (MOD14), MODIS Aqua level2 thermal anomalies (MYD14), VIIRS Active fire product and a recent NOAA Nightfire product. 1 km nominal resolution FRP from MOD14 AND MYD14, subpixel radiant heat (RH) from NOAA Nightfire product and fire detections from all four products were recorded on a 0.25⁰ x 0.25⁰ grid on a daily basis. Results revealed the Nightfire product had maximum detections, almost six times the number of detections by other products, mainly because of the use of M10 (1.6 µm) band as their primary detection band. The M10 band is highly efficient in identifying radiant emissions from hot sources during night-time. The correlation (after omitting outliers) between gridded NOAA Nightfire RH and corresponding MOD14 FRP and MYD14 FRP gave a moderate regression value, with MODIS FRP being mostly higher than RH. As an extension to this work, a comprehensive study for a larger temporal domain also incorporating viewing geometries and cloud cover would advance our understanding of flare detections and associated FRP retrievals not just for the target region but also

  16. Using JPSS VIIRS Fire Radiative Power Data to Forecast Biomass Burning Emissions and Smoke Transport by the High Resolution Rapid Refresh Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadov, R.; Grell, G. A.; James, E.; Alexander, C.; Stewart, J.; Benjamin, S.; McKeen, S. A.; Csiszar, I. A.; Tsidulko, M.; Pierce, R. B.; Pereira, G.; Freitas, S. R.; Goldberg, M.

    2017-12-01

    We present a new real-time smoke modeling system, the High Resolution Rapid Refresh coupled with smoke (HRRR-Smoke), to simulate biomass burning (BB) emissions, plume rise and smoke transport in real time. The HRRR is the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory's 3km grid spacing version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model used for weather forecasting. Here we make use of WRF-Chem (the WRF model coupled with chemistry) and simulate fine particulate matter (smoke) emissions emitted by BB. The HRRR-Smoke modeling system ingests fire radiative power (FRP) data from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensor on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite to calculate BB emissions. The FRP product is based on processing 750m resolution "M" bands. The algorithms for fire detection and FRP retrieval are consistent with those used to generate the MODIS fire detection data. For the purpose of ingesting VIIRS fire data into the HRRR-Smoke model, text files are generated to provide the location and detection confidence of fire pixels, as well as FRP. The VIIRS FRP data from the text files are processed and remapped over the HRRR-Smoke model domains. We process the FRP data to calculate BB emissions (smoldering part) and fire size for the model input. In addition, HRRR-Smoke uses the FRP data to simulate the injection height for the flaming emissions using concurrently simulated meteorological fields by the model. Currently, there are two 3km resolution domains covering the contiguous US and Alaska which are used to simulate smoke in real time. In our presentation, we focus on the CONUS domain. HRRR-Smoke is initialized 4 times per day to forecast smoke concentrations for the next 36 hours. The VIIRS FRP data, as well as near-surface and vertically integrated smoke mass concentrations are visualized for every forecast hour. These plots are provided to the public via the HRRR-Smoke web-page: https

  17. Radiation tolerant power converter controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, B.; Dinius, A.; King, Q.; Uznanski, S.

    2012-11-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) is the world's most powerful particle collider. The LHC has several thousand magnets, both warm and super-conducting, which are supplied with current by power converters. Each converter is controlled by a purpose-built electronic module called a Function Generator Controller (FGC). The FGC allows remote control of the power converter and forms the central part of a closed-loop control system where the power converter voltage is set, based on the converter output current and magnet-circuit characteristics. Some power converters and FGCs are located in areas which are exposed to beam-induced radiation. There are numerous radiation induced effects, some of which lead to a loss of control of the power converter, having a direct impact upon the accelerator's availability. Following the first long shut down (LS1), the LHC will be able to run with higher intensity beams and higher beam energy. This is expected to lead to significantly increased radiation induced effects in materials close to the accelerator, including the FGC. Recent radiation tests indicate that the current FGC would not be sufficiently reliable. A so-called FGClite is being designed to work reliably in the radiation environment in the post-LS1 era. This paper outlines the concepts of power converter controls for machines such as the LHC, introduces the risks related to radiation and a radiation tolerant project flow. The FGClite is then described, with its key concepts and challenges: aiming for high reliability in a radiation field.

  18. Smart FBG-based FRP anchor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhi; Zhang, Zhichun; Wang, Chuan; Ou, Jinping

    2006-03-01

    FRP ( Fiber Reinforced Polymer ) has become the popular material to alternate steel in civil engineering under harsh corrosion environment. But due to its low shear strength ability, the anchor for FRP is most important for its practical application. However, the strain state of the surface between FRP and anchor is not fully understood due to that there is no proper sensor to monitor the inner strain in the anchor by traditional method. In this paper, a new smart FBG-based FRP anchor is brought forward, and the inner strain distribution of FRP anchor has been monitored using FRP-OFBG sensors, a smart FBG-embedded FRP rebar, which is pre-embedded in the FRP rod and cast in the anchor. Based on the strain distribution information the bonding shear stress on the surface of FRP rod along the anchor can also be obtained. This method can supply important information for FRP anchor design and can also monitor the anchorage system, which is useful for the application of FRP in civil engineering. The experimental results also show that the smart FBG-based FRP anchor can give direct information of the load and damage of the FRP anchor.

  19. Surface Power Radiative Cooling Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughn, Jason; Schneider, Todd

    2006-01-01

    Terrestrial nuclear power plants typically maintain their temperature through convective cooling, such as water and forced air. However, the space environment is a vacuum environment, typically 10-8 Torr pressure, therefore in proposed missions to the lunar surface, power plants would have to rely on radiative cooling to remove waste heat. Also, the Martian surface has a very tenuous atmosphere (e.g. ~5 Torr CO2), therefore, the main heat transfer method on the Martian surface is also radiative. Because of the lack of atmosphere on the Moon and the tenuous atmosphere on Mars, surface power systems on both the Lunar and Martian surface must rely heavily on radiative heat transfer. Because of the large temperature swings on both the lunar and the Martian surfaces, trying to radiate heat is inefficient. In order to increase power system efficiency, an effort is underway to test various combinations of materials with high emissivities to demonstrate their ability to survive these degrading atmospheres to maintain a constant radiator temperature improving surface power plant efficiency. An important part of this effort is the development of a unique capability that would allow the determination of a materials emissivity at high temperatures. A description of the test capability as well as initial data is presented.

  20. Enhancements in Deriving Smoke Emission Coefficients from Fire Radiative Power Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellison, Luke; Ichoku, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Smoke emissions have long been quantified after-the-fact by simple multiplication of burned area, biomass density, fraction of above-ground biomass, and burn efficiency. A new algorithm has been suggested, as described in Ichoku & Kaufman (2005), for use in calculating smoke emissions directly from fire radiative power (FRP) measurements such that the latency and uncertainty associated with the previously listed variables are avoided. Application of this new, simpler and more direct algorithm is automatic, based only on a fire's FRP measurement and a predetermined coefficient of smoke emission for a given location. Attaining accurate coefficients of smoke emission is therefore critical to the success of this algorithm. In the aforementioned paper, an initial effort was made to derive coefficients of smoke emission for different large regions of interest using calculations of smoke emission rates from MODIS FRP and aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements. Further work had resulted in a first draft of a 1 1 resolution map of these coefficients. This poster will present the work done to refine this algorithm toward the first production of global smoke emission coefficients. Main updates in the algorithm include: 1) inclusion of wind vectors to help refine several parameters, 2) defining new methods for calculating the fire-emitted AOD fractions, and 3) calculating smoke emission rates on a per-pixel basis and aggregating to grid cells instead of doing so later on in the process. In addition to a presentation of the methodology used to derive this product, maps displaying preliminary results as well as an outline of the future application of such a product into specific research opportunities will be shown.

  1. Survivable pulse power space radiator

    DOEpatents

    Mims, James; Buden, David; Williams, Kenneth

    1989-01-01

    A thermal radiator system is described for use on an outer space vehicle, which must survive a long period of nonuse and then radiate large amounts of heat for a limited period of time. The radiator includes groups of radiator panels that are pivotally connected in tandem, so that they can be moved to deployed configuration wherein the panels lie largely coplanar, and to a stowed configuration wherein the panels lie in a stack to resist micrometeorite damage. The panels are mounted on a boom which separates a hot power source from a payload. While the panels are stowed, warm fluid passes through their arteries to keep them warm enough to maintain the coolant in a liquid state and avoid embrittlement of material. The panels can be stored in a largely cylindrical shell, with panels progressively further from the boom being of progressively shorter length.

  2. Survivable pulse power space radiator

    DOEpatents

    Mims, J.; Buden, D.; Williams, K.

    1988-03-11

    A thermal radiator system is described for use on an outer space vehicle, which must survive a long period of nonuse and then radiate large amounts of heat for a limited period of time. The radiator includes groups of radiator panels that are pivotally connected in tandem, so that they can be moved to deployed configuration wherein the panels lie largely coplanar, and to a stowed configuration wherein the panels lie in a stack to resist micrometerorite damage. The panels are mounted on a boom which separates a hot power source from a payload. While the panels are stowed, warm fluid passes through their arteries to keep them warm enough to maintain the coolant in a liquid state and avoid embrittlement of material. The panels can be stored in a largely cylindrical shell, with panels progressively further from the boom being of progressively shorter length. 5 figs.

  3. Validation of FRP Matting Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    airfield pavements using crushed stone. A side-by-side comparison between FRP and folded fiberglass matting (FFM) was performed on simulated small...medium, and large craters in Portland cement concrete and asphalt concrete pavements . The demonstration took place at the Silver Flag Exercise Site...report are not to be construed as an official Department of the Army position unless so designated by other authorized documents. DESTROY THIS

  4. Global Top-Down Smoke-Aerosol Emissions Estimation Using Satellite Fire Radiative Power Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ichoku, C.; Ellison, L.

    2014-01-01

    Fire emissions estimates have long been based on bottom-up approaches that are not only complex, but also fraught with compounding uncertainties. We present the development of a global gridded (1 deg ×1 deg) emission coefficients (Ce) product for smoke total particulate matter (TPM) based on a top-down approach using coincident measurements of fire radiative power (FRP) and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) from the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites. This new Fire Energetics and Emissions Research version 1.0 (FEER.v1) Ce product has now been released to the community and can be obtained from http://feer.gsfc. nasa.gov/, along with the corresponding 1-to-1 mapping of their quality assurance (QA) flags that will enable the Ce values to be filtered by quality for use in various applications. The regional averages of Ce values for different ecosystem types were found to be in the ranges of 16-21/gMJ-1 for savanna and grasslands, 15-32/gMJ-1 for tropical forest, 9-12/gMJ-1 for North American boreal forest, and 18- 26/MJ-1 for Russian boreal forest, croplands and natural vegetation. The FEER.v1 Ce product was multiplied by time-integrated FRP data to calculate regional smoke TPM emissions, which were compared with equivalent emissions products from three existing inventories. FEER.v1 showed higher and more reasonable smoke TPM estimates than two other emissions inventories that are based on bottom-up approaches and already reported in the literature to be too low, but portrayed an overall reasonable agreement with another top-down approach. This suggests that top-down approaches may hold better promise and need to be further developed to accelerate the reduction of uncertainty associated with fire emissions estimation in air-quality and climate research and applications. Results of the analysis of FEER.v1 data for 2004-2011 show that 65-85 Tg yr-1 of TPM is emitted globally from open biomass burning, with a

  5. Controls on variations in MODIS fire radiative power in Alaskan boreal forests: implications for fire severity conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barrett, Kirsten; Kasischke, Eric S.

    2013-01-01

    Fire activity in the Alaskan boreal forest, though episodic at annual and intra-annual time scales, has experienced an increase over the last several decades. Increases in burned area and fire severity are not only releasing more carbon to the atmosphere, but likely shifting vegetation composition in the region towards greater deciduous dominance and a reduction in coniferous stands. While some recent studies have addressed qualitative differences between large and small fire years in the Alaskan boreal forest, the ecological effects of a greater proportion of burning occurring during large fire years and during late season fires have not yet been examined. Some characteristics of wildfires that can be detected remotely are related to fire severity and can provide new information on spatial and temporal patterns of burning. This analysis focused on boreal wildfire intensity (fire radiative power, or FRP) contained in the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) daily active fire product from 2003 to 2010. We found that differences in FRP resulted from seasonality and intra-annual variability in fire activity levels, vegetation composition, latitudinal variation, and fire spread behavior. Our studies determined two general categories of active fire detections: new detections associated with the spread of the fire front and residual pixels in areas that had already experienced front burning. Residual pixels had a lower average FRP than front pixels, but represented a high percentage of all pixels during periods of high fire activity (large fire years, late season burning, and seasonal periods of high fire activity). As a result, the FRP from periods of high fire activity was less intense than those from periods of low fire activity. Differences related to latitude were greater than expected, with higher latitudes burning later in the season and at a higher intensity than lower latitudes. Differences in vegetation type indicate that coniferous vegetation

  6. Hawking radiation power equations for black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mistry, Ravi; Upadhyay, Sudhaker; Ali, Ahmed Farag; Faizal, Mir

    2017-10-01

    We derive the Hawking radiation power equations for black holes in asymptotically flat, asymptotically Anti-de Sitter (AdS) and asymptotically de Sitter (dS) black holes. This is done by using the greybody factor for these black holes. We observe that the radiation power equation for asymptotically flat black holes, corresponding to greybody factor at low frequency, depends on both the Hawking temperature and the horizon radius. However, for the greybody factors at asymptotic frequency, it only depends on the Hawking temperature. We also obtain the power equation for asymptotically AdS black holes both below and above the critical frequency. The radiation power equation for at asymptotic frequency is same for both Schwarzschild AdS and Reissner-Nordström AdS solutions and only depends on the Hawking temperature. We also discuss the power equation for asymptotically dS black holes at low frequency, for both even or odd dimensions.

  7. Elimination of deck joints using a corrosion resistant FRP approach.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-09-01

    The research presented herein describes the development of durable link slabs for jointless bridge decks based on : using a fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) grid for reinforcement. Specifically the ductility of the FRP material was : utilized to accomm...

  8. Elimination of deck joints using a corrosion resistant FRP approach.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-09-01

    The research presented herein describes the development of durable link slabs for jointless bridge decks based on using a fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) grid for reinforcement. Specifically the ductility of the FRP material was utilized to accommodat...

  9. [A development of FRP frame for crown and bridge resin. (2) Rigidity and adaptability of FRP frame].

    PubMed

    Kimura, H; Teraoka, F

    1990-05-01

    Retainer and pontic of FRP frame for crown and bridge resin were constructed with two different prepregs, used glass cloth and roving as reinforcement. Rigidity and adaptability of the FRP frame and bonding strength of jointing of retainer and pontic were investigated. The glass content was about 50 wt% for both kinds of prepregs. Bonding strength and modulus of FRP plate reinforced with glass roving were about 1.5 times larger than that of the FRP plate reinforced with glass cloth. Bonding strength of FRP specimen constructed by curing the prepreg put on the FRP plate was about 3 kgf/mm2. However, the bonding strength of specimen constructed by curing simultaneously the two prepregs was about 12 kgf/mm2. Though discrepancy of the FRP frame to stone cast of abutment tooth was proportional to the length of pontic, that of the FRP frame with a 50 mm pontic was less than 0.05 mm.

  10. Experimental evaluation and design of unfilled and concrete-filled FRP composite piles, task 1 - mechanical properties of FRP piles.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-10-01

    The overall goal of this project is the experimental evaluation and design of unfilled and concrete-filled FRP : composite piles for load-bearing in bridges. This report covers Task 1, Mechanical Properties of FRP Piles. : Mechanical and geotechnic...

  11. Tritium-powered radiation sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litz, Marc S.; Russo, Johnny A.; Katsis, Dimos

    2016-05-01

    Isotope power supplies offer long-lived (100 years using 63Ni), low-power energy sources, enabling sensors or communications nodes for the lifetime of infrastructure. A tritium beta-source (12.5-year half-life) encapsulated in a phosphor-lined vial couples directly to a photovoltaic (PV) to generate a trickle current into an electrical load. An inexpensive design is described using commercial-of-the-shelf (COTS) components that generate 100 μWe for nextgeneration compact electronics/sensors. A matched radiation sensor has been built for long-duration missions utilizing microprocessor-controlled sleep modes, low-power electronic components, and a passive interrupt driven environmental wake-up. The low-power early-warning radiation detector network and isotope power source enables no-maintenance mission lifetimes.

  12. Neutron responsive self-powered radiation detector

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Donald P.; Cannon, Collins P.

    1978-01-01

    An improved neutron responsive self-powered radiation detector is disclosed in which the neutron absorptive central emitter has a substantially neutron transmissive conductor collector sheath spaced about the emitter and the space between the emitter and collector sheath is evacuated.

  13. 47 CFR 22.593 - Effective radiated power limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effective radiated power limits. 22.593 Section... power limits. The effective radiated power of fixed stations operating on the channels listed in § 22.591 must not exceed 150 Watts. The equivalent isotropically radiated power of existing fixed microwave...

  14. Radiation chemistry related to nuclear power technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishigure, Kenkichi

    A brief review is given to the radiation chemical problems, especially with the emphasis on water radiolysis, in the nuclear power technology. Radiation chemistry in aqueous system is pointed out to be closely related to the problems such as corrosion of Zircaloy, the formation of insoluble corrosion products or crud, stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel in BWR and the radioactive waste managements. The results of the constant extention rate tests on sensitized 304 stainless steel under irradiation are shown, and the computer calculations were carried out to simulate the model experiments on the release of crud from the corroding surface under irradiation and also the water radiolysis in core of BWR.

  15. 47 CFR 95.855 - Transmitter effective radiated power limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Transmitter effective radiated power limitation. The effective radiated power (ERP) of each CTS and RTU shall... with an ERP exceeding 20 watts. No mobile RTU may transmit with an ERP exceeding 4 watts. [64 FR 59663...

  16. 47 CFR 95.855 - Transmitter effective radiated power limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Transmitter effective radiated power limitation. The effective radiated power (ERP) of each CTS and RTU shall... with an ERP exceeding 20 watts. No mobile RTU may transmit with an ERP exceeding 4 watts. [64 FR 59663...

  17. 47 CFR 22.867 - Effective radiated power limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Effective radiated power limits. The effective radiated power (ERP) of ground and airborne stations... peak ERP of airborne mobile station transmitters must not exceed 12 Watts. (b) The peak ERP of ground...

  18. Radiation beam calorimetric power measurement system

    DOEpatents

    Baker, John; Collins, Leland F.; Kuklo, Thomas C.; Micali, James V.

    1992-01-01

    A radiation beam calorimetric power measurement system for measuring the average power of a beam such as a laser beam, including a calorimeter configured to operate over a wide range of coolant flow rates and being cooled by continuously flowing coolant for absorbing light from a laser beam to convert the laser beam energy into heat. The system further includes a flow meter for measuring the coolant flow in the calorimeter and a pair of thermistors for measuring the temperature difference between the coolant inputs and outputs to the calorimeter. The system also includes a microprocessor for processing the measured coolant flow rate and the measured temperature difference to determine the average power of the laser beam.

  19. Radiated microwave power transmission system efficiency measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, R. M.; Brown, W. C.

    1975-01-01

    The measured and calculated results from determining the operating efficiencies of a laboratory version of a system for transporting electric power from one point to another via a wireless free space radiated microwave beam are reported. The system's overall end-to-end efficiency as well as intermediated conversion efficiencies were measured. The maximum achieved end-to-end dc-to-ac system efficiency was 54.18% with a probable error of + or - 0.94%. The dc-to-RF conversion efficiency was measured to be 68.87% + or - 1.0% and the RF-to-dc conversion efficiency was 78.67 + or - 1.1%. Under these conditions a dc power of 495.62 + or - 3.57 W was received with a free space transmitter antenna receiver antenna separation of 170.2 cm (67 in).

  20. Design and Fabrication of FRP Truck Trailer Side Racks.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    0.100 in. All contact surfaces in the mold were sealed with white shellac and finished with five coats of carnauba wax . The completed mold is shown in...Figure 10. 15 II Figure 10. FRP prototype mold. FRP molding procedures were duplicated for each part produced. In general, the waxed mold was coated

  1. Splicing and local reinforcement of concrete filled FRP tubes.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-01-01

    This report includes fulfillment of Task 1 of a multi-task contract to further enhance concrete filled FRP tubes, or : the Bridge in a Backpack. Task 1 investigates and develops a feasible solution for splicing the concrete filled FRP : tubes. This w...

  2. Dynamic strain distribution of FRP plate under blast loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saburi, T.; Yoshida, M.; Kubota, S.

    2017-02-01

    The dynamic strain distribution of a fiber re-enforced plastic (FRP) plate under blast loading was investigated using a Digital Image Correlation (DIC) image analysis method. The testing FRP plates were mounted in parallel to each other on a steel frame. 50 g of composition C4 explosive was used as a blast loading source and set in the center of the FRP plates. The dynamic behavior of the FRP plate under blast loading were observed by two high-speed video cameras. The set of two high-speed video image sequences were used to analyze the FRP three-dimensional strain distribution by means of DIC method. A point strain profile extracted from the analyzed strain distribution data was compared with a directly observed strain profile using a strain gauge and it was shown that the strain profile under the blast loading by DIC method is quantitatively accurate.

  3. Experimental evaluation and design of unfilled and concrete-filled FRP composite piles, task 3 - FRP composite pile flexural testing.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-06-01

    The overall goal of this project is the experimental evaluation and design of unfilled and concrete-filled FRP : composite piles for load-bearing in bridges. This report covers Task 3, FRP Composite Pile Flexural Testing. : Hollow and concrete filled...

  4. Global Characterization of Biomass-Burning Patterns using Satellite Measurements of Fire Radiative Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ichoku, Charles; Giglio, Louis; Wooster, Martin J.; Remer, Lorraine A.

    2008-01-01

    Remote sensing is the most practical means of measuring energy release from large open-air biomass burning. Satellite measurement of fire radiative energy (FRE) release rate or power (FRP) enables distinction between fires of different strengths. Based on a 1-km resolution fire data acquired globally by the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) sensor aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites from 2000 to 2006, instanteaneous FRP values ranged between 0.02 MW and 1866 MW, with global daily means ranging between 20 and 40 MW. Regionally, at the Aqua-MODIS afternoon overpass, the mean FRP values for Alaska, Western US, Western Australia, Quebec and the rest of Canada are significantly higher than these global means, with Quebec having the overall highest value of 85 MW. Analysis of regional mean FRP per unit area of land (FRP flux) shows that a peak fire season in certain regions, fires can be responsible for up to 0.2 W/m(sup 2) at peak time of day. Zambia has the highest regional monthly mean FRP flux of approximately 0.045 W/m(sup 2) at peak time of day and season, while the Middle East has the lowest value of approximately 0.0005 W/m(sup 2). A simple scheme based on FRP has been devised to classify fires into five categories, to facilitate fire rating by strength, similar to earthquakes and hurricanes. The scheme uses MODIS measurements of FRP at 1-km resolution as follows: catagory 1 (less than 100 MW), category 2 (100 to less than 500 MW), category 3 (500 to less than 1000 MW), category 4 (1000 to less than 1500 MW), catagory 5 (greater than or equal to 1500 MW). In most regions of the world, over 90% of fires fall into category 1, while only less than 1% fall into each of categories 3 to 5, although these proportions may differ significantly from day to day and by season. The frequency of occurence of the larger fires is region specific, and could not be explained by ecosystem type alone. Time-series analysis of the propertions of higher category

  5. Fabrication and experimentation of FRP helical spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekanthappa, J.; Shiva Shankar, G. S.; Amith, B. M.; Gagan, M.

    2016-09-01

    In present scenario, the automobile industry sector is showing increased interest in reducing the unsprung weight of the automobile & hence increasing the fuel Efficiency. One of the feasible sub systems of a vehicle where weight reduction may be attempted is vehicle- suspension system. Usage of composite material is a proven way to lower the component weight without any compromise in strength. The composite materials are having high specific strength, more elastic strain energy storage capacity in comparison with those of steel. Therefore, helical coil spring made of steel is replaceable by composite cylindrical helical coil spring. This research aims at preparing a re-usable mandrel (mould) of Mild steel, developing a setup for fabrication, fabrication of FRP helical spring using continuous glass fibers and Epoxy Resin (Polymer). Experimentation has been conducted on fabricated FRP helical spring to determine its strength parameters & for failure analysis. It is found that spring stiffness (K) of Glass/Epoxy helical-spring is greater than steel-coil spring with reduced weight.

  6. Elimination of deck joints using a corrosion resistant FRP approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleti, Ashok Reddy

    The research presented herein describes the development of durable link slabs for jointless bridge decks based on using FRP grid for reinforcement. Specifically, the ductility of the FRP material was utilized to accommodate bridge deck deformations imposed by girder deflection, temperature variations, and concrete shrinkage. It would also provide a solution to a number of deterioration problems associated with bridge deck joints. The design concept of the link slabs was then examined to form the basis of design for FRP grid link slabs. Improved design of FRP grid link slab/concrete deck slab interface was confirmed in the numerical analysis. The mechanical properties between the FRP grid and concrete were evaluated. The behavior of the link slab was investigated and confirmed for durability. The results indicated that the technique would allow simultaneous achievement of structural need (lower flexural stiffness of the link slab approaching the behavior of a hinge) and durability need of the link slab. Also, the development length results confirm that the bond between the FRP grid and the concrete was highly improved. The overall investigation supports the contention that durable jointless concrete bridge decks may be designed and constructed with FRP grid link slabs. It is recommended that the link slab technique be used during new construction of the bridge decks and in repair and retrofit of the bridge decks.

  7. A development of visible light cured FRP plate denture.

    PubMed

    Kimura, H; Teraoka, F

    1990-12-01

    A FRP denture base, which was made from visible light curing prepreg, was developed. The visible light cured FRP denture base had advantages with respect to an adequate strength, bonding strength of acrylic base resin, esthetic properties and ease to manipulation. The matrix resin of Bis-GMA/UDMA/3 G at 48/48/4 was determined from the results of the bending test and manipulation processing. The sateen weave's glasscloth was used for the reinforcement of the prepreg. The adaptability of the FRP plate denture was better than that of the resin base denture constructed with microwave heating.

  8. Deformation Analysis of RC Ties Externally Strengthened with FRP Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribniak, V.; Arnautov, A. K.; Kaklauskas, G.; Jakstaite, R.; Tamulenas, V.; Gudonis, E.

    2014-11-01

    The current study has two objectives: to validate the ability of the Atena finite-element software to estimate the deformations of reinforced concrete (RC) elements strengthened with fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets and to assess the effect of FRP-to-concrete bond strength on the results of numerical simulation. It is shown that the bond strength has to be selected according to the overall stiffness of the composite element. The numerical results found are corroborated experimentally by tensile tests of RC elements strengthened with basalt FRP sheets.

  9. 47 CFR 22.659 - Effective radiated power limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... radiated power limits. The purpose of the rules in this section, which limit effective radiated power (ERP... subsequently relocated. (a) Maximum ERP. The ERP of base transmitters must not exceed 100 Watts under any circumstances. The ERP of mobile transmitters must not exceed 60 Watts under any circumstances. (b) Co-channel...

  10. 47 CFR 22.913 - Effective radiated power limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... radiated power (ERP) of transmitters in the Cellular Radiotelephone Service must not exceed the limits in this section. (a) Maximum ERP. In general, the effective radiated power (ERP) of base transmitters and... areas, as those areas are defined in § 22.949, the ERP of base transmitters and cellular repeaters of...

  11. 47 CFR 22.913 - Effective radiated power limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Effective radiated power limits. 22.913 Section 22.913 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.913 Effective radiated power limits. The effective...

  12. 47 CFR 22.913 - Effective radiated power limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Effective radiated power limits. 22.913 Section 22.913 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.913 Effective radiated power limits. The effective...

  13. Power-line harmonic radiation - Can it significantly affect the earth's radiation belts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorne, R. M.; Tsurutani, B. T.

    1979-01-01

    It has been suggested that harmonic radiation from the earth's 50- and 60-hertz power transmission lines might significantly influence the distribution of electrons in the radiation belts. On the basis of observations presented here, it seems advisable to accept such a hypothesis with caution. New evidence suggests that power-line radiation does not play any major role in the nonadiabatic dynamics of radiation belt electrons.

  14. Development of a nondestructive evaluation method for FRP bridge decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Jeff; Fox, Terra

    2010-05-01

    Open steel grids are typically used on bridges to minimize the weight of the bridge deck and wearing surface. These grids, however, require frequent maintenance and exhibit other durability concerns related to fatigue cracking and corrosion. Bridge decks constructed from composite materials, such as a Fiber-reinforced Polymer (FRP), are strong and lightweight; they also offer improved rideability, reduced noise levels, less maintenance, and are relatively easy to install compared to steel grids. This research is aimed at developing an inspection protocol for FRP bridge decks using Infrared thermography. The finite element method was used to simulate the heat transfer process and determine optimal heating and data acquisition parameters that will be used to inspect FRP bridge decks in the field. It was demonstrated that thermal imaging could successfully identify features of the FRP bridge deck to depths of 1.7 cm using a phase analysis process.

  15. Long term monitoring of mechanical properties of FRP repair materials.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-06-01

    Over the years, Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) composites have gained popularity in transportation infrastructure as a material able to restore and increase the capacity of existing concrete elements. Properties such as a high strength to weight rati...

  16. Design of FRP systems for strengthening concrete girders in shear.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-06-01

    FRP systems have been used on a project-specific basis for the last two decades. They are now becoming a widely accepted method of : strengthening concrete structures. The acceptance and utilization of these new strengthening techniques depend on the...

  17. Finite element modeling of concrete structures strengthened with FRP laminates

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-05-01

    Linear and non-linear method models were developed for a reinforced concrete bridge that had been strengthened with fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites. ANSYS and SAP2000 modeling software were used; however, most of the development effort used...

  18. Applications of FRP-OFBG sensors on bridge cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhi; Zhang, Zhichun; Deng, Nianchun; Zhao, Xuefeng; Li, Dongsheng; Wang, Chuang; Ou, Jinping

    2005-05-01

    It is still a practical problem how to effectively install FBG sensors on bridge cabes. In this paper, a simple and effective solution is introduced to develop smart bridge cables using FRP-OFBG bars developed in HIT (Harbin Institute of Technology). Here, the FRP-OFBG bar acts as one component of the cable and shows force resistance and well-protected sensors in service. The installation techniques and the sensing properties of FBGs in three kinds of cables, FRP cables, common steel-wire cable and extruded-anchor cable, are introduced and tested under dead load. Moreover, the preliminary introduction of a practical field application based on this solution has been also given. The experimental results show that the deformability of FRP-OFBG bars in the smart cables can reach the terminal and show wonderful accuracy, which shows that such kind of smart cable is practical in field application.

  19. Smart FRP Composite Sandwich Bridge Decks in Cold Regions

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-07-01

    In this study, new and integrated Smart honeycomb Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (S-FRP) : sandwich materials for various transportation construction applications, with particular emphasis : on highway bridge decks in cold regions, were developed and teste...

  20. Smart FRP Composite Sandwich Bridge Decks in Cold Regions

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-07-01

    In this study, new and integrated Smart honeycomb Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (S-FRP) sandwich materials for various transportation construction applications, with particular emphasis on highway bridge decks in cold regions, were developed and tested. T...

  1. [Development of visible-light cured FRP denture].

    PubMed

    Yu, P Y

    1990-06-01

    Acrylic denture may be fractured easily because it has a relatively poor resistance to stresses of impact, and the thick acrylic denture base also uncomforted to denture wearers. In this study, for improvement of the mechanical properties, the FRP is applied to the denture base, and try to make a thin denture base. Using the visible light-curing system, the laboratory fabrication time is saved dramatically. To develop the visible light-cured FRP denture base, with various combination of matrix resins and reinforcements, the physical properties of FRP plates were investigated first. From the results of the bending test, hardness test, and manipulation considering, the sateen weave's glasscloth was choose as the reinforcement of the prepreg. The matrix resin of Bis-GMA/UDMA/3G at 48/48/4 wt% was determined. The 3 plies glasscloth included FRP plate is 0.8 mm thickness has the maximum bending strength about 50 kgf/mm2, which is about 5 times larger than that of acrylic resin. Succeeding the study of above, the FRP denture base was fabricated by using the 0.8 mm thickness 3 plies included prepreg. This repreg is manufactured in sheet form beforehand, which is ease to manipulate at laboratory. By using the visible light curing system, it is only taken 10 min. to make a FRP denture base. The following procedures of fabricating a FRP denture is the same as metalplate denture. The visible-light cured FRP denture has some advantages such as accuracy of fit, ease of fabrication and manipulation, and only 0.8 mm thickness but has superior strength.

  2. Solar radiation for Mars power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appelbaum, Joseph; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    Detailed information about the solar radiation characteristics on Mars are necessary for effective design of future planned solar energy systems operating on the surface of Mars. A procedure and solar radiation related data from which the diurnally and daily variation of the global, direct (or beam), and diffuse insolation on Mars are calculated, are presented. The radiation data are based on measured optical depth of the Martian atmosphere derived from images taken of the Sun with a special diode on the Viking Lander cameras; and computation based on multiple wavelength and multiple scattering of the solar radiation.

  3. Injuries Associated with Specific Motor Vehicle Hazards: Radiators, Batteries, Power Windows, and Power Roofs

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-07-01

    This report provides estimates of the numbers of persons injured as a result of : hazards involving four specific motor vehicle components: radiators, batteries, : power windows, and power roofs. The injury estimates are based upon data from : the Co...

  4. Radiation Specifications for Fission Power Conversion Component Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, Cheryl L.; Shin, E. Eugene; Mireles, Omar R.; Radel, Ross F.; Qualls, A. Louis

    2011-01-01

    NASA has been supporting design studies and technology development that could provide power to an outpost on the moon, Mars, or an asteroid. One power-generation system that is independent of sunlight or power-storage limitations is a fission-based power plant. There is a wealth of terrestrial system heritage that can be transferred to the design and fabrication of a fission power system for space missions, but there are certain design aspects that require qualification. The radiation tolerance of the power conversion system requires scrutiny because the compact nature of a space power plant restricts the dose reduction methodologies compared to those used in terrestrial systems. An integrated research program has been conducted to establish the radiation tolerance of power conversion system-component materials. The radiation limit specifications proposed for a Fission Power System power convertor is 10 Mrad ionizing dose and 5 x 10(exp 14) neutron per square centimeter fluence for a convertor operating at 150 C. Specific component materials and their radiation tolerances are discussed. This assessment is for the power convertor hardware; electronic components are not covered here.

  5. Radiatively coupled thermionic and thermoelectric power system concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimada, K.; Ewell, R.

    1981-01-01

    The study presented showed that the large power systems (about 100 kW) utilizing radiatively coupled thermionic or thermoelectric converters could be designed so that the power subsystem could be contained in a Space Shuttle bay as a part of an electrically propelled spacecraft. The radiatively coupled system requires a large number of individual converters since the transferred heat is smaller than with the conductively coupled system, but the advantages of the new system indicates merit for further study. The advantages are (1) good electrical isolation between converters and the heat source, (2) physical separation of converters from the heat source (making the system fabrication manageable), and (3) elimination of radiator heat pipes, which are required in an all-heat-pipe power system. In addition, the specific weight of the radiatively coupled power systems favorably compares with that of the all-heat-pipe systems.

  6. The peak electromagnetic power radiated by lightning return strokes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krider, E. P.; Guo, C.

    1983-01-01

    Estimates of the peak electromagnetic (EM) power radiated by return strokes have been made by integrating the Poynting vector of measured fields over an imaginary hemispherical surface that is centered on the lightning source, assuming that ground losses are negligible. Values of the peak EM power from first and subsequent strokes have means and standard deviations of 2 + or - 2 x 10 to the 10th and 3 + or - 4 x 10 to the 9th W, respectively. The average EM power that is radiated by subsequent strokes, at the time of the field peak, is about 2 orders of magnitude larger than the optical power that is radiated by these strokes in the wavelength interval from 0.4 to 1.1 micron; hence an upper limit to the radiative efficiency of a subsequent stroke is of the order of 1 percent or less at this time.

  7. Development of advanced grid stiffened (AGS) fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) tube-encased concrete columns.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-03-01

    In this project, a new type of confining device, a latticework of interlacing fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) ribs that are jacketed by a FRP skin, is proposed, manufactured, tested, and modeled to encase concrete cylinders. This systematic study incl...

  8. Repair & Strengthening of Distressed/Damaged Ends of Prestressed Beams with FRP Composites

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2018-02-01

    Over the past few decades, fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites have emerged as a lightweight and efficient material used for the repair and retrofit of concrete infrastructures. FRP can be applied to concrete as either externally bonded laminat...

  9. Highly accelerated lifetime for externally applied bond critical fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) infrastructure materials : [summary].

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-03-01

    The Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) uses fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites to repair bridges and strengthen bridge decks. Proven mechanical characteristics make FRP composites cost-effective in extending the life span of bridges o...

  10. Elimination of deck joints using a corrosion resistant FRP approach : LTRC technical summary report 443.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-01-01

    In the literature survey of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) grid reinforced concrete : structures, a limited number of studies were found on FRP grid stiffened concrete slabs : in bridge deck applications and other non-structural applications in build...

  11. Design and construction guidelines for strengthening bridges using fiber reinforced polymers (FRP).

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-09-01

    This research concerns the development of guidelines : for the design and use of externally-bonded FRP : strengthening systems on bridges in Michigan. Si : x representative international FRP-related guidelines : were analyzed and compared for applica...

  12. Polyurethane foam infill for fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) bridge deck panels.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-05-01

    Although still in their infancy, fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) bridges have shown great promise in eliminating corrosion : concerns and meeting (or exceeding) FHWAs goal of 100-year life spans for bridges. While FRP bridges are cost-effective in ...

  13. CMOS Ultra Low Power Radiation Tolerant (CULPRiT) Microelectronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, Penshu; Maki, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Space Electronics needs Radiation Tolerance or hardness to withstand the harsh space environment: high-energy particles can change the state of the electronics or puncture transistors making them disfunctional. This viewgraph document reviews the use of CMOS Ultra Low Power Radiation Tolerant circuits for NASA's electronic requirements.

  14. FRP/steel composite damage acoustic emission monitoring and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dongsheng; Chen, Zhi

    2015-04-01

    FRP is a new material with good mechanical properties, such as high strength of extension, low density, good corrosion resistance and anti-fatigue. FRP and steel composite has gotten a wide range of applications in civil engineering because of its good performance. As the FRP/steel composite get more and more widely used, the monitor of its damage is also getting more important. To monitor this composite, acoustic emission (AE) is a good choice. In this study, we prepare four identical specimens to conduct our test. During the testing process, the AE character parameters and mechanics properties were obtained. Damaged properties of FRP/steel composite were analyzed through acoustic emission (AE) signals. By the growing trend of AE accumulated energy, the severity of the damage made on FRP/steel composite was estimated. The AE sentry function has been successfully used to study damage progression and fracture emerge release rate of composite laminates. This technique combines the cumulative AE energy with strain energy of the material rather than analyzes the AE information and mechanical separately.

  15. 47 CFR 22.1013 - Effective radiated power limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... The effective radiated power (ERP) of transmitters in the Offshore Radiotelephone Service must not exceed the limits in this section. (a) Maximum power. The ERP of transmitters in this service must not exceed 1000 Watts under any circumstances. (b) Mobile transmitters. The ERP of mobile transmitters must...

  16. Increasing EUV source efficiency via recycling of radiation power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanein, Ahmed; Sizyuk, Valeryi; Sizyuk, Tatyana; Johnson, Kenneth C.

    2018-03-01

    EUV source power is critical for advanced lithography, for achieving economical throughput performance and also for minimizing stochastic patterning effects. Power conversion efficiency can be increased by recycling plasma-scattered laser radiation and other out-of-band radiation back to the plasma via retroreflective optics. Radiation both within and outside of the collector light path can potentially be recycled. For recycling within the collector path, the system uses a diffractive collection mirror that concomitantly filters all laser and out-of-band radiation out of the EUV output. In this paper we review the optical design concept for power recycling and present preliminary plasma-physics simulation results showing a potential gain of 60% in EUV conversion efficiency.

  17. Recent Radiation Test Results for Power MOSFETs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Topper, Alyson D.; Casey, Megan C.; Wilcox, Edward P.; Phan, Anthony M.; Kim, Hak S.; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    Single-event effect (SEE) and total ionizing dose (TID) test results are presented for various hardened and commercial power metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs), including vertical planar, trench, superjunction, and lateral process designs.

  18. Very high power THz radiation sources

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, G.L.; Martin, Michael C.; McKinney, Wayne R.

    2002-10-31

    We report the production of high power (20 watts average, {approx} 1 Megawatt peak) broadband THz light based on coherent emission from relativistic electrons. Such sources are ideal for imaging, for high power damage studies and for studies of non-linear phenomena in this spectral range. We describe the source, presenting theoretical calculations and their experimental verification. For clarity we compare this source to one based on ultrafast laser techniques.

  19. Flexural behaviour of RCC beams with externally bonded FRP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignesh, S. Arun; Sumathi, A.; Saravana Raja Mohan, K.

    2017-07-01

    The increasing use of carbon and glass fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets for strengthening existing reinforced concrete beams has generated considerable interest in understanding the behavior of the FRP sheets when subjected to bending. The study on flexure includes various parameters like percentage of increase in strength of the member due to the externally bonded Fiber reinforced polymer, examining the crack patterns, reasons of debonding of the fibre from the structure, scaling, convenience of using the fibres, cost effectiveness etc. The present work aims to study experimentally about the reasons behind the failure due to flexure of an EB-FRP concrete beam by studying the various parameters. Deflection control may become as important as flexural strength for the design of FRPreinforced concrete structures. A numerical model is created using FEM software and the results are compared with that of the experiment.

  20. Modeling delamination of FRP laminates under low velocity impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Z.; Wen, H. M.; Ren, S. L.

    2017-09-01

    Fiber reinforced plastic laminates (FRP) have been increasingly used in various engineering such as aeronautics, astronautics, transportation, naval architecture and their impact response and failure are a major concern in academic community. A new numerical model is suggested for fiber reinforced plastic composites. The model considers that FRP laminates has been constituted by unidirectional laminated plates with adhesive layers. A modified adhesive layer damage model that considering strain rate effects is incorporated into the ABAQUS / EXPLICIT finite element program by the user-defined material subroutine VUMAT. It transpires that the present model predicted delamination is in good agreement with the experimental results for low velocity impact.

  1. An experimental study on the shear strength of FRP perfobond shear connector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwon, S. C.; Kim, S. H.; Yoon, S. J.; Choi, C. W.

    2018-06-01

    In this study, push-out tests were conducted to investigate shear behaviour of FRP perfobond shear connector. The parameters influencing shear capacity of FRP perfobond shear connector are concrete dowel effect, shear resistance effect of the laterally reinforced FRP re- bar, and frictional effect between shear connector and concrete. The specimens were designed to consider these parameters. The specimens coated with sand to increase frictional resistance between the FRP re-bar and concrete. Based on the test results and the parameters, new equation was suggested to predict shear strength of FRP perfobond shear connectors. The predicted results and the experimental results were compared to check the feasibility of prediction.

  2. Strategies for Radiation Hardness Testing of Power Semiconductor Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soltis, James V. (Technical Monitor); Patton, Martin O.; Harris, Richard D.; Rohal, Robert G.; Blue, Thomas E.; Kauffman, Andrew C.; Frasca, Albert J.

    2005-01-01

    Plans on the drawing board for future space missions call for much larger power systems than have been flown in the past. These systems would employ much higher voltages and currents to enable more powerful electric propulsion engines and other improvements on what will also be much larger spacecraft. Long term human outposts on the moon and planets would also require high voltage, high current and long life power sources. Only hundreds of watts are produced and controlled on a typical robotic exploration spacecraft today. Megawatt systems are required for tomorrow. Semiconductor devices used to control and convert electrical energy in large space power systems will be exposed to electromagnetic and particle radiation of many types, depending on the trajectory and duration of the mission and on the power source. It is necessary to understand the often very different effects of the radiations on the control and conversion systems. Power semiconductor test strategies that we have developed and employed will be presented, along with selected results. The early results that we have obtained in testing large power semiconductor devices give a good indication of the degradation in electrical performance that can be expected in response to a given dose. We are also able to highlight differences in radiation hardness that may be device or material specific.

  3. Nde of Frp Wrapped Columns Using Infrared Thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halabe, Udaya B.; Dutta, Shasanka Shekhar; GangaRao, Hota V. S.

    2008-02-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility of using Infrared Thermography (IRT) for detecting debonds in Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) wrapped columns. Laboratory tests were conducted on FRP wrapped concrete cylinders of size 6″×12″ (152.4 mm×304.8 mm) in which air-filled and water-filled debonds of various sizes were placed underneath the FRP wraps. Air-filled debonds were made by cutting plastic sheets into the desired sizes whereas water-filled debonds were made by filling water in custom made polyethylene pouches. Both carbon and glass fiber reinforced wraps were considered in this study. Infrared tests were conducted using a fully radiometric digital infrared camera which was successful in detecting air-filled as well as water-filled subsurface debonds. In addition to the laboratory testing, two field trips were made to Moorefield, West Virginia for detecting subsurface debonds in FRP wrapped timber piles of a railroad bridge using infrared testing. The results revealed that infrared thermography can be used as an effective nondestructive evaluation tool for detecting subsurface debonds in structural components wrapped with carbon or glass reinforced composite fabrics.

  4. The engineering of construction specifications for externally bonded FRP composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xinbao

    This dissertation, consisting of six technical papers, presents the results of research on the theme of developing engineering and the construction specifications for externally bonded FRP composites. For particular, the work focuses on three critical aspects of the performance of FRP systems: fiber misalignment, corner radius, and lap splice length. Based on both experimental and theoretical investigations, the main contribution of this work is the development of recommendations on fiber misalignment limit, minimum corner radius, lap splice length to be used as guidance in the construction practice of FRP strengthening of concrete structures. The first three papers focus on the strength and stiffness degradation of CFRP laminates from fiber misalignment. It was concluded that misalignment affects strength more than stiffness. In practice, when all fibers in a laminate can be regarded as through fibers, it is recommended to use a reduction factor for strength and no reduction factor for stiffness to account for fiber misalignment. Findings from concrete beams strengthened with misaligned CFRP laminates verified these recommendations. The fourth and fifth papers investigate the effect of corner radius on the mechanical properties of CFRP laminates wrapped around a rectangular cross section. A unique reusable test device was fabricated to determine fiber stress and radial stress of CFRP laminates with different corner radii. Comparison performed with finite element analyses shows that the test method and the reusable device were viable and the stress concentration needs to be considered in FRP laminate wrapped corners. A minimum of 1.0 in. corner radius was recommended for practice. The sixth paper summarizes the research on the lap splice length of FRP laminates under static and repeated loads. Although a lap splice length of 1.5 in. is sufficient for CFRP laminates to develop the ultimate static tensile strength, a minimum of 4.0 in. is recommended in order to

  5. 47 CFR 22.867 - Effective radiated power limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effective radiated power limits. 22.867 Section 22.867 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.867...

  6. 47 CFR 22.913 - Effective radiated power limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 22.913 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.913 Effective radiated power limits. The effective... such systems must not exceed 1000 Watts. The ERP of mobile transmitters and auxiliary test transmitters...

  7. 47 CFR 22.535 - Effective radiated power limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... limits. The effective radiated power (ERP) of transmitters operating on the channels listed in § 22.531 must not exceed the limits in this section. (a) Maximum ERP. The ERP must not exceed the applicable limits in this paragraph under any circumstances. Frequency range (MHz) Maximum ERP (Watts) 35-36 600 43...

  8. 47 CFR 22.535 - Effective radiated power limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... limits. The effective radiated power (ERP) of transmitters operating on the channels listed in § 22.531 must not exceed the limits in this section. (a) Maximum ERP. The ERP must not exceed the applicable limits in this paragraph under any circumstances. Frequency range (MHz) Maximum ERP (Watts) 35-36 600 43...

  9. Application of the thermoelectric MEMS microwave power sensor in a power radiation monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bo, Gao; Jing, Yang; Si, Jiang; Debo, Wang

    2016-08-01

    A power radiation monitoring system based on thermoelectric MEMS microwave power sensors is studied. This monitoring system consists of three modules: a data acquisition module, a data processing and display module, and a data sharing module. It can detect the power radiation in the environment and the date information can be processed and shared. The measured results show that the thermoelectric MEMS microwave power sensor and the power radiation monitoring system both have a relatively good linearity. The sensitivity of the thermoelectric MEMS microwave power sensor is about 0.101 mV/mW, and the sensitivity of the monitoring system is about 0.038 V/mW. The voltage gain of the monitoring system is about 380 times, which is relatively consistent with the theoretical value. In addition, the low-frequency and low-power module in the monitoring system is adopted in order to reduce the electromagnetic pollution and the power consumption, and this work will extend the application of the thermoelectric MEMS microwave power sensor in more areas. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11304158), the Province Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu (No. BK20140890), the Open Research Fund of the Key Laboratory of MEMS of Ministry of Education, Southeast University (No. 3206005302), and the Scientific Research Foundation of Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications (Nos. NY213024, NY215139).

  10. Experimental evaluation and design of unfilled and concrete-filled FRP composite piles, task 6 - FRP composite pile axial compression testing.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-04-01

    The overall goal of this project is the experimental evaluation and design of unfilled and concrete-filled FRP : composite piles for load-bearing in bridges. This report covers Task 6, FRP Composite Pile Axial Compression : Testing. : Hollow and conc...

  11. The effects of nuclear radiation on Schottky power diodes and power MOSFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulisek, Jonathan Andrew

    NASA is exploring the potential use of nuclear reactors as power sources for future space missions. These missions will require electrical components, consisting of power circuits and semiconductor devices, to be placed in close vicinity to the reactor, in the midst of a high neutron and gamma-ray radiation field. Therefore, the primary goal of this research is to examine the effects of a mixed neutron and gamma-ray radiation field on the static and dynamic electrical performance of power Schottky diodes and power MOSFETs in order to support future design efforts of radiation-hard power semiconductors and circuits. In order to accomplish this, non-radiation hardened commercial power Si and SiC Schottky power diodes, manufactured by International Rectifier and Cree, respectively, were irradiated in the Ohio State University Research Reactor (OSURR), and their degradation in electrical performance was observed using I-V characterization. Key electrical performance parameters were extracted using least squares curve-fits of the corresponding semiconductor physics model equations to the experimental data, and these electrical performance parameters were used to model the diodes in PSpice. A half-wave rectifier circuit containing Cree SiC Schottky diodes, rated for 5 A DC forward current and 1200 V DC blocking voltage, was also tested and modeled in order to determine and analyze changes in overall circuit performance and diode power dissipation as a function of radiation dose. Also, electrical components will be exposed to charged particle radiation from space, such as high energy protons in the Van Allen Radiation Belts surrounding earth. Therefore, the results from this study, with respect to the Si and SiC Schottky power diodes, were compared to results published by NASA, which had tested the same diode models at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) with a 203 MeV proton beam. The comparison was made on the basis of displacement damage dose, calculated

  12. Ultrasonic Power Output Measurement by Pulsed Radiation Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Fick, Steven E.; Breckenridge, Franklin R.

    1996-01-01

    Direct measurements of time-averaged spatially integrated output power radiated into reflectionless water loads can be made with high accuracy using techniques which exploit the radiation pressure exerted by sound on all objects in its path. With an absorptive target arranged to intercept the entirety of an ultrasound beam, total beam power can be determined as accurately as the radiation force induced on the target can be measured in isolation from confounding forces due to buoyancy, streaming, surface tension, and vibration. Pulse modulation of the incident ultrasound at a frequency well above those characteristics of confounding phenomena provides the desired isolation and other significant advantages in the operation of the radiation force balance (RFB) constructed in 1974. Equipped with purpose-built transducers and electronics, the RFB is adjusted to equate the radiation force and a counterforce generated by an actuator calibrated against reference masses using direct current as the transfer variable. Improvements made during its one overhaul in 1988 have nearly halved its overall measurement uncertainty and extended the capabilities of the RFB to include measuring the output of ultrasonic systems with arbitrary pulse waveforms. PMID:27805084

  13. Study on the quality of FRP fishing vessel based on improved Fishbone Chart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, J. H.; Yu, Y. F.; Du, Q. F.; Jiang, D. W.

    2018-01-01

    The construction quality of FRP fishing vessels influences their production, use and industry development. In order to explore the factors that affect the construction quality of FRP fishing vessels, key factors affecting the construction quality of FRP fishing vessels are determined based on the quality problems of FRP fishing vessels constructed. The improved Fishbone Chart is used to analyze the eight factors of “human, machine, material, process, environment, inspection, design and information”. Taking the factors that affect the construction quality of FRP fishing vessels as the central target, the eight influencing factors were condensed into five aspects and a composite Fishbone Chart is drawn. The Fishbone Chart is used as the basic model, the influencing factors are sorted, screened and discriminated, and the system model convenient for construction site management and control is established. Finally, the causes of poor construction of FRP fishing vessels are analyzed and discussed, and relevant suggestions are put forward.

  14. Development of Radiated Power Diagnostics for NSTX-U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinke, Matthew; van Eden, G. G.; Lovell, Jack; Peterson, Byron; Gray, Travis; Chandra, Rian; Stratton, Brent; Ellis, Robert; NSTX-U Team

    2016-10-01

    New tools to measure radiated power in NSTX-U are under development to support a range of core and boundary physics research. Multiple resistive bolometer pinhole cameras are being built and calibrated to support FY17 operations, all utilizing standard Au-foil sensors from IPT-Albrecht. The radiation in the lower divertor will be measured using two, 8 channel arrays viewing both vertically and radially to enable estimates of the 2D radiation structure. The core radiation will be measured using a 24 channel array viewing tangentially near the midplane, observing the full cross-section from the inner to outer limiter. This enables characterization of the centrifugally-driven in/out radiation asymmetry expected from mid-Z and high-Z impurities in highly rotating NSTX-U plasmas. All sensors utilize novel FPGA-based BOLO8BLF analyzers from D-tAcq Solutions. Resistive bolometer measurements are complemented by an InfraRed Video Bolometer (IRVB) which measures the temperature change of radiation absorber using an IR camera. A prototype IRVB system viewing the lower divertor was installed on NSTX-U for FY16 operations. Initial results from the plasma and benchtop testing are used to demonstrate the relative advantages between IRVB and resistive bolometers. Supported in Part by DE-AC05-00OR22725 & DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  15. An exact stiffness theory for unidirectional xFRP composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klasztorny, M.; Konderla, P.; Piekarski, R.

    2009-01-01

    UD xFRP composites, i.e., isotropic plastics reinforced with long transversely isotropic fibres packed unidirectionally according to the hexagonal scheme are considered. The constituent materials are geometrically and physically linear. The previous formulations of the exact stiffness theory of such composites are revised, and the theory is developed further based on selected boundary-value problems of elasticity theory. The numerical examples presented are focussed on testing the theory with account of previous variants of this theory and experimental values of the effective elastic constants. The authors have pointed out that the exact stiffness theory of UD xFRP composites, with the modifications proposed in our study, will be useful in the engineering practice and in solving the current problems of the mechanics of composite materials.

  16. Self-sensing concrete-filled FRP tubes using FBG strain sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xin; Li, Hui

    2007-07-01

    Concrete-filled fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) tube is a type of newly developed structural column. It behaves brittle failure at its peak strength, and so the health monitoring on the hoop strain of the FRP tube is essential for the life cycle safety of the structure. Herein, three types of FRP tubes including 5-ply tube, 2-ply tube with local reinforcement and FRP-steel composite tube were embedded with the optic fiber Bragg grating (FBG) strain sensors in the inter-ply of FRP or the interface between FRP and steel in the middle height and the hoop direction. The compressive behaviors of the concrete-filled FRP tubes were experimentally studied. The hoop strains of the FRP tubes were recorded in real time using the embedded FBG strain sensors as well as the embedded or surface electric resistance strain gauges. Results indicated that the FBG strain sensors can faithfully record the hoop strains of the FRP tubes in compression as compared with the embedded or surface electric resistance strain gauges, and the strains recorded can reach more than μɛ.

  17. Lunar and Martian environmental interactions with nuclear power system radiators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-Davis, Marla E.; Gaier, James R.; Katzan, Cynthia M.

    1992-01-01

    Future NASA space missions include a permanent manned presence on the moon and an expedition to the planet Mars. Such steps will require careful consideration of environmental interactions in the selection and design of required power systems. Several environmental constituents may be hazardous to performance integrity. Potential threats common to both the moon and Mars are low ambient temperatures, wide daily temperature swings, solar flux, and large quantities of dust. The surface of Mars provides the additional challenges of dust storms, winds, and a carbon dioxide atmosphere. In this review, the anticipated environmental interactions with surface power system radiators are described, as well as the impacts of these interactions on radiator durability, which were identified at NASA Lewis Research Center.

  18. Power Beaming Leakage Radiation as A SETI Observable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, James N.; Benford, Dominic J.

    2016-01-01

    The most observable leakage radiation from an advanced civilization may well be from the use of power beam-ing to transfer energy and accelerate spacecraft. Applications suggested for power beaming involve launching spacecraft to orbit, raising satellites to a higher orbit, and interplanetary concepts involving space-to-space transfers of cargo or passengers. We also quantify beam-driven launch to the outer solar system, interstellar precursors and ultimately starships. We estimate the principal observable parameters of power beaming leak-age. Extraterrestrial civilizations would know their power beams could be observed, and so could put a message on the power beam and broadcast it for our receipt at little additional energy or cost. By observing leakage from power beams we may find a message embedded on the beam. Recent observations of the anomalous star KIC8462852 by the Allen Telescope Array (ATA) set some limits on extraterrestrial power beaming in that system.We show that most power beaming applications commensurate with those suggested for our solar system would be detectable if using the frequency range monitored by the ATA, and so the lack of detection is a meaningful,if modest, constraint on extraterrestrial power beaming in that system. Until more extensive observations are made, the limited observation time and frequency coverage are not sufficiently broad in frequency and duration to produce firm conclusions. Such beams would be visible over large interstellar distances. This implies a new approach to the SETI search: Instead of focusing on narrowband beacon transmissions generated by another civilization, look for more powerful beams with much wider bandwidth. This requires a new approach for their discovery by telescopes on Earth. Further studies of power beaming applications should be done, which could broaden the parameter space of observable features we have discussed here.

  19. Power Beaming Leakage Radiation as a SETI Observable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benford, James N.; Benford, Dominic J.

    2016-07-01

    The most observable leakage radiation from an advanced civilization may well be from the use of power beaming to transfer energy and accelerate spacecraft. Applications suggested for power beaming involve launching spacecraft to orbit, raising satellites to a higher orbit, and interplanetary concepts involving space-to-space transfers of cargo or passengers. We also quantify beam-driven launch to the outer solar system, interstellar precursors, and ultimately starships. We estimate the principal observable parameters of power beaming leakage. Extraterrestrial civilizations would know their power beams could be observed, and so could put a message on the power beam and broadcast it for our receipt at little additional energy or cost. By observing leakage from power beams we may find a message embedded on the beam. Recent observations of the anomalous star KIC 8462852 by the Allen Telescope Array (ATA) set some limits on extraterrestrial power beaming in that system. We show that most power beaming applications commensurate with those suggested for our solar system would be detectable if using the frequency range monitored by the ATA, and so the lack of detection is a meaningful, if modest, constraint on extraterrestrial power beaming in that system. Until more extensive observations are made, the limited observation time and frequency coverage are not sufficiently broad in frequency and duration to produce firm conclusions. Such beams would be visible over large interstellar distances. This implies a new approach to the SETI search: instead of focusing on narrowband beacon transmissions generated by another civilization, look for more powerful beams with much wider bandwidth. This requires a new approach for their discovery by telescopes on Earth. Further studies of power beaming applications should be performed, potentially broadening the parameter space of the observable features that we have discussed here.

  20. Radiation Testing of PICA at the Solar Power Tower

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratory's Solar Power Tower was used to irradiate specimens of Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA), in order to evaluate whether this thermal protection system material responded differently to potential shock layer radiative heating than to convective heating. Tests were run at 50, 100 and 150 Watts per square centimeter levels of concentrated solar radiation. Experimental results are presented both from spectral measurements on 1- 10 mm thick specimens of PICA, as well as from in-depth temperature measurements on instrumented thicker test specimens. Both spectral measurements and measured in-depth temperature profiles showed that, although it is a porous, low-density material, PICA does not exhibit problematic transparency to the tested high levels of NIR radiation, for all pragmatic cm-to-inch scale thicknesses. PICA acted as a surface absorber to efficiently absorb the incident visible and near infrared incident radiation in the top 2 millimeter layer in the Solar Power Tower tests up to 150 Watts per square centimeter.

  1. A Review on Strengthening Steel Beams Using FRP under Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Jumaat, Mohd Zamin; Ramli Sulong, N. H.

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, the application of fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for strengthening structural elements has become an efficient option to meet the increased cyclic loads or repair due to corrosion or fatigue cracking. Hence, the objective of this study is to explore the existing FRP reinforcing techniques to care for fatigue damaged structural steel elements. This study covers the surface treatment techniques, adhesive curing, and support conditions under cyclic loading including fatigue performance, crack propagation, and failure modes with finite element (FE) simulation of the steel bridge girders and structural elements. FRP strengthening composites delay initial cracking, reduce the crack growth rate, extend the fatigue life, and decrease the stiffness decay with residual deflection. Prestressed carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) is the best strengthening option. End anchorage prevents debonding of the CRRP strips at the beam ends by reducing the local interfacial shear and peel stresses. Hybrid-joint, nanoadhesive, and carbon-flex can also be attractive for strengthening systems. PMID:25243221

  2. A review on strengthening steel beams using FRP under fatigue.

    PubMed

    Kamruzzaman, Mohamed; Jumaat, Mohd Zamin; Sulong, N H Ramli; Islam, A B M Saiful

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, the application of fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for strengthening structural elements has become an efficient option to meet the increased cyclic loads or repair due to corrosion or fatigue cracking. Hence, the objective of this study is to explore the existing FRP reinforcing techniques to care for fatigue damaged structural steel elements. This study covers the surface treatment techniques, adhesive curing, and support conditions under cyclic loading including fatigue performance, crack propagation, and failure modes with finite element (FE) simulation of the steel bridge girders and structural elements. FRP strengthening composites delay initial cracking, reduce the crack growth rate, extend the fatigue life, and decrease the stiffness decay with residual deflection. Prestressed carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) is the best strengthening option. End anchorage prevents debonding of the CRRP strips at the beam ends by reducing the local interfacial shear and peel stresses. Hybrid-joint, nanoadhesive, and carbon-flex can also be attractive for strengthening systems.

  3. A high-power synthesized ultrawideband radiation source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efremov, A. M.; Koshelev, V. I.; Plisko, V. V.; Sevostyanov, E. A.

    2017-09-01

    A high-power ultrawideband radiation source has been developed which is capable of synthesizing electromagnetic pulses with different frequency bands in free space. To this end, a new circuit design comprising a four-channel former of bipolar pulses of durations 2 and 3 ns has been elaborated and conditions for the stable operation of gas gaps of independent channels without external control pulses have been determined. Each element of the 2 × 2 array of combined antennas is driven from an individual channel of the pulse former. Antennas excited by pulses of the same duration are arranged diagonally. Two radiation synthesis modes have been examined: one aimed to attain ultimate field strength and the other aimed to attain an ultimate width of the radiation spectrum. The modes were changed by changing the time delay between the 2-ns and 3-ns pulses. For the first mode, radiation pulses with a frequency band of 0.2-0.8 GHz and an effective potential of 500 kV have been obtained. The synthesized radiation pulses produced in the second mode had an extended frequency band (0.1-1 GHz) and an effective potential of 220 kV. The pulse repetition frequency was 100 Hz.

  4. Reduction of radiation exposure in Japanese BWR Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Morikawa, Yoshitake

    1995-03-01

    The reduction of occupational exposure to radiation during the annual inspection and maintenance outages of Japanese boiling water reactors (BWR) is one of the most important objectives for stable and reliable operation. It was shown that this radiation exposure is caused by radionuclides, such as Co-60, Co-58 and Mn-54 which are produced from the metal elements Co, Ni, and Fe present in the corrosion products of structural materials that had been irradiated by neutrons. Therefore, to reduce radiation sources and exposures in Japanese BWRs, attempts have been reinforced to remove corrosion products and activated corrosion products from the primary coolantmore » system. This paper describes the progress of the application of these measures to Japanese BWRs. Most Japanese BWR-4 and BWR-5 type nuclear power plants started their commercial operations during the 1970s. With the elapse of time during operations, a problem came to the forefront, namely that occupational radiation exposure during plant outages gradually increased, which obstructed the smooth running of inspections and maintenance work. To overcome this problem, extensive studies to derive effective countermeasures for radiation exposure reduction were undertaken, based on the evaluation of the plants operation data.« less

  5. Bridge-in-a-Backpack(TM). Task 7 : investigation of damage and repairs for concrete filled FRP tubular arches.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-04-01

    This report includes fulfillment of Task 7 of a multi-task contract to further enhance concrete filled FRP tubes, or : the Bridge in a Backpack. : Damage due to impact of the FRP shell of the concrete filled FRP tubular arch bridges has been and stil...

  6. Recent Radiation Test Results for Trench Power MOSFETs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Casey, Megan C.; Wilcox, Edward P.; Phan, Anthony M.; Kim, Hak S.; Topper, Alyson D.; Ladbury, Raymond L.; Label, Kenneth A.

    2017-01-01

    Single-event effect (SEE) radiation test results are presented for various trench-gate power MOSFETs. The heavy-ion response of the first (and only) radiation-hardened trench-gate power MOSFET is evaluated: the manufacturer SEE response curve is verified and importantly, no localized dosing effects are measured, distinguishing it from other, non-hardened trench-gate power MOSFETs. Evaluations are made of n-type commercial and both n- and p-type automotive grade trench-gate device using ions comparable to of those on the low linear energy transfer (LET) side of the iron knee of the galactic cosmic ray spectrum, to explore suitability of these parts for missions with higher risk tolerance and shorter duration, such as CubeSats. Part-to-part variability of SEE threshold suggests testing with larger sample sizes and applying more aggressive derating to avoid on-orbit failures. The n-type devices yielded expected localized dosing effects including when irradiated in an unbiased (0-V) configuration, adding to the challenge of inserting these parts into space flight missions.

  7. Heat pipe radiator technology for space power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, A. W.; Gustafson, E.; Ercegovic, B. A.

    1986-01-01

    High-reliability high-performance deployable monogroove and dual-slot heat pipe radiator systems to meet the requirements for electric power in future space missions, such as the 300-kW(e) electric powder demand projected for NASA's Space Station, are discussed. Analytical model trade studies of various configurations show the advantages of the dual-slot heat pipe radiator for high temperature applications as well as its weight reduction potential over the 50-350 F temperature range. The ammonia-aluminum monogroove heat pipe, limited to below-180 F operating temperatures, is under development, and can employ methanol-stainless steel heat pipes to achieve operating temperatures in excess of 300 F. Dual-slot heat pipe configuration proof-of-concept testing was begun in 1985.

  8. Crack Monitoring Method for an FRP-Strengthened Steel Structure Based on an Antenna Sensor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiping; Chen, Kai; Li, Zongchen; Jiang, Xiaoli

    2017-10-20

    Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) has been increasingly applied to steel structures for structural strengthening or crack repair, given its high strength-to-weight ratio and high stiffness-to-weight ratio. Cracks in steel structures are the dominant hidden threats to structural safety. However, it is difficult to monitor structural cracks under FRP coverage and there is little related research. In this paper, a crack monitoring method for an FRP-strengthened steel structure deploying a microstrip antenna sensor is presented. A theoretical model of the dual-substrate antenna sensor with FRP is established and the sensitivity of crack monitoring is studied. The effects of the weak conductivity of carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRPs) on the performance of crack monitoring are analyzed via contrast experiments. The effects of FRP thickness on the performance of the antenna sensor are studied. The influence of structural strain on crack detection coupling is studied through strain-crack coupling experiments. The results indicate that the antenna sensor can detect cracks in steel structures covered by FRP (including CFRP). FRP thickness affects the antenna sensor's performance significantly, while the effects of strain can be ignored. The results provide a new approach for crack monitoring of FRP-strengthened steel structures with extensive application prospects.

  9. Crack Monitoring Method for an FRP-Strengthened Steel Structure Based on an Antenna Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhiping; Li, Zongchen

    2017-01-01

    Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) has been increasingly applied to steel structures for structural strengthening or crack repair, given its high strength-to-weight ratio and high stiffness-to-weight ratio. Cracks in steel structures are the dominant hidden threats to structural safety. However, it is difficult to monitor structural cracks under FRP coverage and there is little related research. In this paper, a crack monitoring method for an FRP-strengthened steel structure deploying a microstrip antenna sensor is presented. A theoretical model of the dual-substrate antenna sensor with FRP is established and the sensitivity of crack monitoring is studied. The effects of the weak conductivity of carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRPs) on the performance of crack monitoring are analyzed via contrast experiments. The effects of FRP thickness on the performance of the antenna sensor are studied. The influence of structural strain on crack detection coupling is studied through strain–crack coupling experiments. The results indicate that the antenna sensor can detect cracks in steel structures covered by FRP (including CFRP). FRP thickness affects the antenna sensor’s performance significantly, while the effects of strain can be ignored. The results provide a new approach for crack monitoring of FRP-strengthened steel structures with extensive application prospects. PMID:29053614

  10. Repair and retrofit of concrete bridge girders using hybrid FRP sheets.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-02-01

    The use of carbon fibers (CF) and glass fibers (GF) were combined to strengthen potentially non-ductile flexural : members. Based on tension tests of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) rovings and sheets, as well as theoretical : research on hybrid FRP, ...

  11. Repairing/strengthening of bridges with post-tensioned FRP strands and performance evaluation.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-06-01

    The proposed project is to take advantage of some new developments in bridge engineering to apply fiber reinforced polymers (FRP) post-tensioning strands on a selected structure. The use of externally post-tensioned FRP strands to repair/strengthen b...

  12. Calculating the Responses of Self-Powered Radiation Detectors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, D. A.

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. The aim of this research is to review and develop the theoretical understanding of the responses of Self -Powered Radiation Detectors (SPDs) in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). Two very different models are considered. A simple analytic model of the responses of SPDs to neutrons and gamma radiation is presented. It is a development of the work of several previous authors and has been incorporated into a computer program (called GENSPD), the predictions of which have been compared with experimental and theoretical results reported in the literature. Generally, the comparisons show reasonable consistency; where there is poor agreement explanations have been sought and presented. Two major limitations of analytic models have been identified; neglect of current generation in insulators and over-simplified electron transport treatments. Both of these are developed in the current work. A second model based on the Explicit Representation of Radiation Sources and Transport (ERRST) is presented and evaluated for several SPDs in a PWR at beginning of life. The model incorporates simulation of the production and subsequent transport of neutrons, gamma rays and electrons, both internal and external to the detector. Neutron fluxes and fuel power ratings have been evaluated with core physics calculations. Neutron interaction rates in assembly and detector materials have been evaluated in lattice calculations employing deterministic transport and diffusion methods. The transport of the reactor gamma radiation has been calculated with Monte Carlo, adjusted diffusion and point-kernel methods. The electron flux associated with the reactor gamma field as well as the internal charge deposition effects of the transport of photons and electrons have been calculated with coupled Monte Carlo calculations of photon and electron transport. The predicted response of a SPD is evaluated as the sum of contributions from individual

  13. Low-Cost Radiator for Fission Power Thermal Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maxwell, Taylor; Tarau, Calin; Anderson, William; Hartenstine, John; Stern, Theodore; Walmsley, Nicholas; Briggs, Maxwell

    2014-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is developing fission power system technology for future Lunar surface power applications. The systems are envisioned in the 10 to 100kW(sub e) range and have an anticipated design life of 8 to 15 years with no maintenance. NASA GRC is currently setting up a 55 kW(sub e) non-nuclear system ground test in thermal-vacuum to validate technologies required to transfer reactor heat, convert the heat into electricity, reject waste heat, process the electrical output, and demonstrate overall system performance. Reducing the radiator mass, size, and cost is essential to the success of the program. To meet these goals, Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT) and Vanguard Space Technologies, Inc. (VST) are developing a single facesheet radiator with heat pipes directly bonded to the facesheet. The facesheet material is a graphite fiber reinforced composite (GFRC) and the heat pipes are titanium/water. By directly bonding a single facesheet to the heat pipes, several heavy and expensive components can be eliminated from the traditional radiator design such as, POC(TradeMark) foam saddles, aluminum honeycomb, and a second facesheet. A two-heat pipe radiator prototype, based on the single facesheet direct-bond concept, was fabricated and tested to verify the ability of the direct-bond joint to withstand coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) induced stresses during thermal cycling. The thermal gradients along the bonds were measured before and after thermal cycle tests to determine if the performance degraded. Overall, the results indicated that the initial uniformity of the adhesive was poor along one of the heat pipes. However, both direct bond joints showed no measureable amount of degradation after being thermally cycled at both moderate and aggressive conditions.

  14. Investigation of rectangular concrete columns reinforced or prestressed with fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) bars or tendons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choo, Ching Chiaw

    Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites have been increasingly used in concrete construction. This research focused on the behavior of concrete columns reinforced with FRP bars, or prestressed with FRP tendons. The methodology was based the ultimate strength approach where stress and strain compatibility conditions and material constitutive laws were applied. Axial strength-moment (P-M) interaction relations of reinforced or prestressed concrete columns with FRP, a linearly-elastic material, were examined. The analytical results identified the possibility of premature compression and/or brittle-tension failure occurring in FRP reinforced and prestressed concrete columns where sudden and explosive type failures were expected. These failures were related to the rupture of FRP rebars or tendons in compression and/or in tension prior to concrete reaching its ultimate strain and strength. The study also concluded that brittle-tension failure was more likely to occur due to the low ultimate tensile strain of FRP bars or tendons as compared to steel. In addition, the failures were more prevalent when long term effects such as creep and shrinkage of concrete, and creep rupture of FRP were considered. Barring FRP failure, concrete columns reinforced with FRP, in some instances, gained significant moment resistance. As expected the strength interaction of slender steel or FRP reinforced concrete columns were dependent more on column length rather than material differences between steel and FRP. Current ACI minimum reinforcement ratio for steel (rhomin) reinforced concrete columns may not be adequate for use in FRP reinforced concrete columns. Design aids were developed in this study to determine the minimum reinforcement ratio (rhof,min) required for rectangular reinforced concrete columns by averting brittle-tension failure to a failure controlled by concrete crushing which in nature was a less catastrophic and more gradual type failure. The proposed method using rhof

  15. Development of ductile hybrid fiber reinforced polymer (D-H-FRP) reinforcement for concrete structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somboonsong, Win

    The corrosion of steel rebars has been the major cause of the reinforced concrete deterioration in transportation structures and port facilities. Currently, the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) spends annually $31 billion for maintaining and repairing highways and highway bridges. The study reported herein represents the work done in developing a new type of reinforcement called Ductile Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Polymer or D-H-FRP using non-corrosive fiber materials. Unlike the previous FRP reinforcements that fail in a brittle manner, the D-H-FRP bars exhibit the stress-strain curves that are suitable for concrete reinforcement. The D-H-FRP stress-strain curves are linearly elastic with a definite yield point followed by plastic deformation and strain hardening resembling that of mild steel. In addition, the D-H-FRP reinforcement has integrated ribs required for concrete bond. The desirable mechanical properties of D-H-FRP reinforcement are obtained from the integrated design based on the material hybrid and geometric hybrid concepts. Using these concepts, the properties can be tailored to meet the specific design requirements. An analytical model was developed to predict the D-H-FRP stress-strain curves with different combination of fiber materials and geometric configuration. This model was used to optimize the design of D-H-FRP bars. An in-line braiding-pultrusion manufacturing process was developed at Drexel University to produce high quality D-H-FRP reinforcement in diameters that can be used in concrete structures. A series of experiments were carried out to test D-H-FRP reinforcement as well as their individual components in monotonic and cyclic tensile tests. Using the results from the tensile tests and fracture analysis, the stress-strain behavior of the D-H-FRP reinforcement was fully characterized and explained. Two series of concrete beams reinforced with D-H-FRP bars were studied. The D-H-FRP beam test results were then compared with companion

  16. Beamed microwave power transmitting and receiving subsystems radiation characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    Measured characteristics of the spectrum of typical converters and the distribution of radiated Radio Frequency (RF) energy from the terminals (transmitting antenna and rectenna) of a beamed microwave power subsystem are presented for small transmitting and receiving S-band (2.45 GHz) subarrays. Noise and harmonic levels of tube and solid-state RF power amplifiers are shown. The RF patterns and envelope of a 64 element slotted waveguide antenna are given for the fundamental frequency and harmonics through the fifth. Reflected fundamental and harmonic patterns through the fourth for a 42 element rectenna subarray are presented for various dc load and illumination conditions. Bandwidth measurements for the waveguide antenna and rectenna are shown.

  17. The control of the magnetosphere by power line radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luette, J. P.; Park, C. G.; Helliwell, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    Evidence is presented that radiated power line harmonics leak into high-altitude regions of the magnetosphere with sufficient intensity to control the starting frequencies of chorus emissions. OGO-3 data from three passes show that the starting frequencies of all measurable chorus emissions were within a few hertz of power line harmonics. It is also found that emissions detected over Western Europe were controlled by harmonics of 50 Hz; over the eastern United States and Canada by 60 Hz; and along the Alaska-New Zealand meridian by harmonics of both 50 and 60 Hz. These results indicate that man-made VLF noise plays an important role in the generation of chorus, one of the commonly observed forms of wave activity in the outer magnetosphere.

  18. Design Optimization of Hybrid FRP/RC Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papapetrou, Vasileios S.; Tamijani, Ali Y.; Brown, Jeff; Kim, Daewon

    2018-04-01

    The hybrid bridge consists of a Reinforced Concrete (RC) slab supported by U-shaped Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) girders. Previous studies on similar hybrid bridges constructed in the United States and Europe seem to substantiate these hybrid designs for lightweight, high strength, and durable highway bridge construction. In the current study, computational and optimization analyses were carried out to investigate six composite material systems consisting of E-glass and carbon fibers. Optimization constraints are determined by stress, deflection and manufacturing requirements. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and optimization software were utilized, and a framework was developed to run the complete analyses in an automated fashion. Prior to that, FEA validation of previous studies on similar U-shaped FRP girders that were constructed in Poland and Texas is presented. A finer optimization analysis is performed for the case of the Texas hybrid bridge. The optimization outcome of the hybrid FRP/RC bridge shows the appropriate composite material selection and cross-section geometry that satisfies all the applicable Limit States (LS) and, at the same time, results in the lightest design. Critical limit states show that shear stress criteria determine the optimum design for bridge spans less than 15.24 m and deflection criteria controls for longer spans. Increased side wall thickness can reduce maximum observed shear stresses, but leads to a high weight penalty. A taller cross-section and a thicker girder base can efficiently lower the observed deflections and normal stresses. Finally, substantial weight savings can be achieved by the optimization framework if base and side-wall thickness are treated as independent variables.

  19. Radiated Sound Power from a Curved Honeycomb Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Jay H.; Buehrle, Ralph D.; Klos, Jacob; Grosveld, Ferdinand W.

    2003-01-01

    The validation of finite element and boundary element model for the vibro-acoustic response of a curved honeycomb core composite aircraft panel is completed. The finite element and boundary element models were previously validated separately. This validation process was hampered significantly by the method in which the panel was installed in the test facility. The fixture used was made primarily of fiberboard and the panel was held in a groove in the fiberboard by a compression fitting made of plastic tubing. The validated model is intended to be used to evaluate noise reduction concepts from both an experimental and analytic basis simultaneously. An initial parametric study of the influence of core thickness on the radiated sound power from this panel, using this numerical model was subsequently conducted. This study was significantly influenced by the presence of strong boundary condition effects but indicated that the radiated sound power from this panel was insensitive to core thickness primarily due to the offsetting effects of added mass and added stiffness in the frequency range investigated.

  20. From nuclear power to coal power: Aerosol-induced health and radiative effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielonen, Tero; Laakso, Anton; Karhunen, Anni; Kokkola, Harri; Partanen, Antti-Ilari; Korhonen, Hannele; Romakkaniemi, Sami; Lehtinen, Kari E. J.

    2015-12-01

    We have investigated what would be the climate and PM-induced air quality consequences if all nuclear reactors worldwide were closed down and replaced by coal combustion. In a way, this presents a "worst-case scenario" since less polluting energy sources are available. We studied simultaneously the radiative and health effects of coal power emissions using a global 3-D aerosol-climate model (ECHAM-HAMMOZ). This approach allowed us to estimate the effects of a major global energy production change from low carbon source to a high carbon one using detailed spatially resolved population density information. We included the radiative effects of both CO2 and PM2.5 but limited the study of health effects to PM2.5 only. Our results show that the replacement of nuclear power with coal power would have globally caused an average of 150,000 premature deaths per year during the period 2005-2009 with two thirds of them in Europe. For 37 years the aerosol emissions from the additional coal power plants would cool the climate but after that the accumulating CO2 emissions would accelerate the warming of the climate.

  1. Styrene vapor control systems in FRP yacht plants.

    PubMed

    Todd, W F

    1985-01-01

    The production of large (greater than 25-ft) fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) yachts has presented problems of styrene exposure in excess of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration permissible exposure level (OSHA PEL) of 100 ppm. Also, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is currently recommending a 10-hour workshift, 40-hour workweek time weighted average (TWA) of 50 ppm for styrene. Meeting this challenge will require a system of engineering, work practice, personal protective equipment, and monitoring control measures. NIOSH has performed a study of the engineering controls in three FRP yacht plants. Work practices and the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) were also considered in the evaluation. The three systems evaluated included a dilution system, a local ventilation system, and a push-pull ventilation system. The cost of constructing and operating these systems was not evaluated in this study. Study results indicated that each type of ventilation system can meet the present PEL of 100 ppm styrene; however, it is not certain that these systems can meet a lower PEL of 50 ppm styrene.

  2. Estimating trace gas and aerosol emissions over South America: Relationship between fire radiative energy released and aerosol optical depth observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Gabriel; Freitas, Saulo R.; Moraes, Elisabete Caria; Ferreira, Nelson Jesus; Shimabukuro, Yosio Edemir; Rao, Vadlamudi Brahmananda; Longo, Karla M.

    2009-12-01

    Contemporary human activities such as tropical deforestation, land clearing for agriculture, pest control and grassland management lead to biomass burning, which in turn leads to land-cover changes. However, biomass burning emissions are not correctly measured and the methods to assess these emissions form a part of current research area. The traditional methods for estimating aerosols and trace gases released into the atmosphere generally use emission factors associated with fuel loading and moisture characteristics and other parameters that are hard to estimate in near real-time applications. In this paper, fire radiative power (FRP) products were extracted from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) fire products and new South America generic biomes FRE-based smoke aerosol emission coefficients were derived and applied in 2002 South America fire season. The inventory estimated by MODIS and GOES FRP measurements were included in Coupled Aerosol-Tracer Transport model coupled to the Brazilian developments on the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (CATT-BRAMS) and evaluated with ground truth collected in Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Smoke, Aerosols, Clouds, rainfall, and Climate (SMOCC) and Radiation, Cloud, and Climate Interactions (RaCCI). Although the linear regression showed that GOES FRP overestimates MODIS FRP observations, the use of a common external parameter such as MODIS aerosol optical depth product could minimize the difference between sensors. The relationship between the PM 2.5μm (Particulate Matter with diameter less than 2.5 μm) and CO (Carbon Monoxide) model shows a good agreement with SMOCC/RaCCI data in the general pattern of temporal evolution. The results showed high correlations, with values between 0.80 and 0.95 (significant at 0.5 level by student t test), for the CATT-BRAMS simulations with PM 2.5μm and CO.

  3. Background radiation measurements at high power research reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashenfelter, J.; Balantekin, B.; Baldenegro, C. X.; Band, H. R.; Barclay, G.; Bass, C. D.; Berish, D.; Bowden, N. S.; Bryan, C. D.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Chu, R.; Classen, T.; Davee, D.; Dean, D.; Deichert, G.; Dolinski, M. J.; Dolph, J.; Dwyer, D. A.; Fan, S.; Gaison, J. K.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gilje, K.; Glenn, A.; Green, M.; Han, K.; Hans, S.; Heeger, K. M.; Heffron, B.; Jaffe, D. E.; Kettell, S.; Langford, T. J.; Littlejohn, B. R.; Martinez, D.; McKeown, R. D.; Morrell, S.; Mueller, P. E.; Mumm, H. P.; Napolitano, J.; Norcini, D.; Pushin, D.; Romero, E.; Rosero, R.; Saldana, L.; Seilhan, B. S.; Sharma, R.; Stemen, N. T.; Surukuchi, P. T.; Thompson, S. J.; Varner, R. L.; Wang, W.; Watson, S. M.; White, B.; White, C.; Wilhelmi, J.; Williams, C.; Wise, T.; Yao, H.; Yeh, M.; Yen, Y.-R.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, X.; Prospect Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Research reactors host a wide range of activities that make use of the intense neutron fluxes generated at these facilities. Recent interest in performing measurements with relatively low event rates, e.g. reactor antineutrino detection, at these facilities necessitates a detailed understanding of background radiation fields. Both reactor-correlated and naturally occurring background sources are potentially important, even at levels well below those of importance for typical activities. Here we describe a comprehensive series of background assessments at three high-power research reactors, including γ-ray, neutron, and muon measurements. For each facility we describe the characteristics and identify the sources of the background fields encountered. The general understanding gained of background production mechanisms and their relationship to facility features will prove valuable for the planning of any sensitive measurement conducted therein.

  4. Background radiation measurements at high power research reactors

    DOE PAGES

    Ashenfelter, J.; Yeh, M.; Balantekin, B.; ...

    2015-10-23

    Research reactors host a wide range of activities that make use of the intense neutron fluxes generated at these facilities. Recent interest in performing measurements with relatively low event rates, e.g. reactor antineutrino detection, at these facilities necessitates a detailed understanding of background radiation fields. Both reactor-correlated and naturally occurring background sources are potentially important, even at levels well below those of importance for typical activities. Here we describe a comprehensive series of background assessments at three high-power research reactors, including γ-ray, neutron, and muon measurements. For each facility we describe the characteristics and identify the sources of the backgroundmore » fields encountered. Furthermore, the general understanding gained of background production mechanisms and their relationship to facility features will prove valuable for the planning of any sensitive measurement conducted therein.« less

  5. Radiative corrections in the (varying power)-law modified gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammad, Fayçal

    2015-06-01

    Although the (varying power)-law modified gravity toy model has the attractive feature of unifying the early- and late-time expansions of the Universe, thanks to the peculiar dependence of the scalar field's potential on the scalar curvature, the model still suffers from the fine-tuning problem when used to explain the actually observed Hubble parameter. Indeed, a more correct estimate of the mass of the scalar field needed to comply with actual observations gives an unnaturally small value. On the other hand, for a massless scalar field the potential would have no minimum and hence the field would always remain massless. What solves these issues are the radiative corrections that modify the field's effective potential. These corrections raise the field's effective mass, rendering the model free from fine-tuning, immune against positive fifth-force tests, and better suited to tackle the dark matter sector.

  6. Kilometric radiation power flux dependence on area of discrete aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saflekos, N. A.; Burch, J. L.; Gurnett, D. A.; Anderson, R. R.; Sheehan, R. E.

    1989-01-01

    Kilometer wavelength radiation, measured from distant positions over the North Pole and over the Earth's equator, was compared to the area of discrete aurora imaged by several low-altitude spacecraft. Through correlative studies of auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) with about two thousand auroral images, a stereoscopic view of the average auroral acceleration region was obtained. A major result is that the total AKR power increases as the area of the discrete auroral oval increases. The implications are that the regions of parallel potentials or the auroral plasma cavities, in which AKR is generated, must possess the following attributes: (1) they are shallow in altitude and their radial position depends on wavelength, (2) they thread flux tubes of small cross section, (3) the generation mechanism in them reaches a saturation limit rapidly, and (4) their distribution over the discrete auroral oval is nearly uniform. The above statistical results are true for large samples collected over a long period of time (about six months). In the short term, AKR frequently exhibits temporal variations with scales as short as three minutes (the resolution of the averaged data used). These fluctuations are explainable by rapid quenchings as well as fast starts of the electron cyclotron maser mechanism. There were times when AKR was present at substantial power levels while optical emissions were below instrument thresholds. A recent theoretical result may account for this set of observations by predicting that suprathermal electrons, of energies as low as several hundred eV, can generate second harmonic AKR. The indirect observations of second harmonic AKR require that these electrons have mirror points high above the atmosphere so as to minimize auroral light emissions. The results provide evidence supporting the electron cyclotron maser mechanism.

  7. Efficiency of Synchrotron Radiation from Rotation-powered Pulsars

    SciTech Connect

    Kisaka, Shota; Tanaka, Shuta J., E-mail: kisaka@phys.aoyama.ac.jp, E-mail: sjtanaka@center.konan-u.ac.jp

    2017-03-01

    Synchrotron radiation is widely considered to be the origin of the pulsed non-thermal emissions from rotation-powered pulsars in optical and X-ray bands. In this paper, we study the synchrotron radiation emitted by the created electron and positron pairs in the pulsar magnetosphere to constrain the energy conversion efficiency from the Poynting flux to the particle energy flux. We model two pair creation processes, two-photon collision, which efficiently works in young γ -ray pulsars (≲10{sup 6} year), and magnetic pair creation, which is the dominant process to supply pairs in old pulsars (≳10{sup 6} year). Using the analytical model, we derivemore » the maximum synchrotron luminosity as a function of the energy conversion efficiency. From the comparison with observations, we find that the energy conversion efficiency to the accelerated particles should be an order of unity in the magnetosphere, even though we make a number of the optimistic assumptions to enlarge the synchrotron luminosity. In order to explain the luminosity of the non-thermal X-ray/optical emission from pulsars with low spin-down luminosity L {sub sd} ≲ 10{sup 34} erg s{sup −1}, non-dipole magnetic field components should be dominant at the emission region. For the γ -ray pulsars with L {sub sd} ≲ 10{sup 35} erg s{sup −1}, observed γ -ray to X-ray and optical flux ratios are much higher than the flux ratio between curvature and the synchrotron radiations. We discuss some possibilities such as the coexistence of multiple accelerators in the magnetosphere as suggested from the recent numerical simulation results. The obtained maximum luminosity would be useful to select observational targets in X-ray and optical bands.« less

  8. Review of advanced radiator technologies for spacecraft power systems and space thermal control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.; Peterson, George P.

    1994-01-01

    A two-part overview of progress in space radiator technologies is presented. The first part reviews and compares the innovative heat-rejection system concepts proposed during the past decade, some of which have been developed to the breadboard demonstration stage. Included are space-constructable radiators with heat pipes, variable-surface-area radiators, rotating solid radiators, moving-belt radiators, rotating film radiators, liquid droplet radiators, Curie point radiators, and rotating bubble-membrane radiators. The second part summarizes a multielement project including focused hardware development under the Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) High Capacity Power program carried out by the NASA Lewis Research Center and its contractors to develop lightweight space radiators in support of Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) power systems technology.

  9. Design equations for the assessment and FRP-strengthening of reinforced rectangular concrete columns under combined biaxial bending and axial loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessandri, S.; Monti, G.

    2008-05-01

    A simple procedure is proposed for the assessment of reinforced rectangular concrete columns under combined biaxial bending and axial loads and for the design of a correct amount of FRP-strengthening for underdesigned concrete sections. Approximate closed-form equations are developed based on the load contour method originally proposed by Bresler for reinforced concrete sections. The 3D failure surface is approximated along its contours, at a constant axial load, by means of equations given as the sum of the acting/resisting moment ratio in the directions of principal axes of the sections, raised to a power depending on the axial load, the steel reinforcement ratio, and the section shape. The method is extended to FRP-strengthened sections. Moreover, to make it possible to apply the load contour method in a more practical way, simple closed-form equations are developed for rectangular reinforced concrete sections with a two-way steel reinforcement and FRP strengthenings on each side. A comparison between the approach proposed and the fiber method (which is considered exact) shows that the simplified equations correctly represent the section interaction diagram.

  10. Space charge dosimeters for extremely low power measurements of radiation in shipping containers

    DOEpatents

    Britton, Jr., Charles L.; Buckner, Mark A [Oak Ridge, TN; Hanson, Gregory R [Clinton, TN; Bryan, William L [Knoxville, TN

    2011-05-03

    Methods and apparatus are described for space charge dosimeters for extremely low power measurements of radiation in shipping containers. A method includes insitu polling a suite of passive integrating ionizing radiation sensors including reading-out dosimetric data from a first passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor and a second passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor, where the first passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor and the second passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor remain situated where the dosimetric data was integrated while reading-out. Another method includes arranging a plurality of ionizing radiation sensors in a spatially dispersed array; determining a relative position of each of the plurality of ionizing radiation sensors to define a volume of interest; collecting ionizing radiation data from at least a subset of the plurality of ionizing radiation sensors; and triggering an alarm condition when a dose level of an ionizing radiation source is calculated to exceed a threshold.

  11. Space charge dosimeters for extremely low power measurements of radiation in shipping containers

    DOEpatents

    Britton, Jr; Charles, L [Alcoa, TN; Buckner, Mark A [Oak Ridge, TN; Hanson, Gregory R [Clinton, TN; Bryan, William L [Knoxville, TN

    2011-04-26

    Methods and apparatus are described for space charge dosimeters for extremely low power measurements of radiation in shipping containers. A method includes in situ polling a suite of passive integrating ionizing radiation sensors including reading-out dosimetric data from a first passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor and a second passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor, where the first passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor and the second passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor remain situated where the dosimetric data was integrated while reading-out. Another method includes arranging a plurality of ionizing radiation sensors in a spatially dispersed array; determining a relative position of each of the plurality of ionizing radiation sensors to define a volume of interest; collecting ionizing radiation data from at least a subset of the plurality of ionizing radiation sensors; and triggering an alarm condition when a dose level of an ionizing radiation source is calculated to exceed a threshold.

  12. Repair of impact damaged utility poles with fiber reinforced polymers (FRP), phase II.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-06-01

    Vehicle collisions with steel or aluminum utility poles are common occurrences that yield substantial but often repairable : damage. This project investigates the use of a fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite system for in situ repair that : mini...

  13. FRCM and FRP composites for the repair of damaged PC girders.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-01-01

    Fabric-reinforced-cementitious-matrix (FRCM) and fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites have : emerged as novel strengthening technologies. FRCM is a composite material consisting of a sequence of : one or more layers of cement-based matrix reinfo...

  14. Polyurethane foam infill for fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) bridge deck panels.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-05-01

    The objective of the proposed research is to develop, test, and evaluate fiber-reinforced, polyurethane foams to replace the costly : honeycomb construction currently used to manufacture FRP bridge deck panels. The effort will focus on developing an ...

  15. Push-out tests and evaluation of FRP perfobond rib shear connectors performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolpasky, Ludvik; Ryjacek, Pavel

    2017-09-01

    The behavioural characteristics of FRP (fibre-reinforced polymer) perfobond rib shear connector was examined through push-out tests in order to verify the applicability for pedestrian bridge structure. The aim of this study is to determine interaction between high performance concrete slab and handmade FRP plate which represent web of the composite beam. Combination of these modern materials leads to structural system with both great load bearing capacity and also sufficient flexural stiffness of the composite element. Openings cut into the GFRP plate at a variable spacing allow GFRP reinforcement bars to be inserted to act as shear studs. Hand lay-up process can increase suitable properties of FRP for connection by perfobond rib shear connectors. In this study, three push-out tests on fiber-reinforced polymer were performed to investigate their shear behaviour. The results of the push-out tests on FRP perfobond rib shear connector indicates great promise for application in full scale structures.

  16. Highly accelerated lifetime for externally applied bond critical fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) infrastructure materials.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-03-01

    This report describes a research project to investigate accelerated aging protocols for fiber-reinforced : polymer (FRP) reinforcement of concrete. This research was conducted in three stages. In the first : stage, various spectroscopic techniques we...

  17. Hybrid FRP-concrete bridge deck system final report I : development and system performance validation.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-10-01

    In this study, the concept of the hybrid FRP-concrete structural systems was applied to both bridge : superstructure and deck systems. Results from the both experimental and computational analysis for : both the hybrid bridge superstructure and deck ...

  18. Response of No-Name Creek FRP Bridge to Local Weather : Technical Summary

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-09-01

    Since 1996, over 30 Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) composite bridges have been installed in the United States. Bridge locations are in Kansas, Missouri, New York, Iowa, Colorado, West Virginia, Ohio, California, Idaho, Washington, Pennsylvania, Illin...

  19. Development of load and resistance factor design for FRP strengthening of reinforced concrete bridges.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2006-05-01

    Externally bonded fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites are an increasingly adopted technology for the renewal of existing concrete structures. In order to encourage the further use of these materials, a design code is needed that considers the i...

  20. Assessment of mechanically fastened fiber reinforced polymer (MF-FRP) strips for extending bridge service life.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-03-01

    The enhancement of load rating concrete structures by the installation of Fiber reinforced : polymer strips (FRP) is becoming a preferred short-term action. The addition of supplemental : tensile capacity to concrete beams by applying high tensile st...

  1. A model for predicting the shear bearing capacity of FRP-strengthened beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sas, G.; Carolin, A.; Täljsten, B.

    2008-05-01

    The shear failure of reinforced concrete beams needs more attention than the bending failure since no or only small warning precedes the failure. For this reason, it is of utmost importance to understand the shear bearing capacity and also to be able to undertake significant rehabilitation work if necessary. In this paper, a design model for the shear strengthening of concrete beams by using fiber-reinforced polymers (FRP) is presented, and the limitations of the truss model analogy are highlighted. The fracture mechanics approach is used in analyzing the bond behavior between the FRP composites and concrete. The fracture energy of concrete and the axial rigidity of the FRP are considered to be the most important parameters. The effective strain in the FRP when the debonding occurs is determined. The limitations of the anchorage length over the cross section are analyzed. A simple iterative design method for the shear debonding is finally proposed.

  2. Behavior of hollow-core FRP-concrete-steel columns subjected to cyclic axial compression.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-08-01

    This report presents the results of an experimental study that was conducted to investigate the effects of key parameters on the compressive behavior of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP)-concrete-steel double-skin tubular columns (FSDT). Hybrid FSDT col...

  3. Response of No-Name Creek FRP Bridge to Local Weather : Technical Summary

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-09-01

    Since 1996, over 30 Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) composite bridges have been installed : in the United States. Bridge locations are in Kansas, Missouri, New York, Iowa, Colorado, West : Virginia, Ohio, California, Idaho, Washington, Pennsylvania, I...

  4. Research notes : non-destructive evaluation of FRP-strengthened reinforced concrete.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2005-04-01

    Many reinforced concrete structures across the country are being strengthened with fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites to increase the load capacity. In many cases, composites provide the most cost effective strengthening option, and they do no...

  5. Long-term monitoring of mechanical properties of FRP repair materials.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-07-01

    Fiber- reinforced polymer composites (FRP) are an attractive repair option for existing concrete structures. : CDOT has used this material on some projects, in particular the repair of the Castlewood Canyon Bridge in : 2003. Further use of the materi...

  6. Response of No-Name Creek FRP Bridge to Local Weather

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-09-01

    Since 1996, over 30 Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) composite bridges have been installed in the United States. Bridge : locations are in Kansas, Missouri, New York, Iowa, Colorado, West Virginia, Ohio, California, Idaho, Washington, Pennsylvania, : I...

  7. Optical power and energy radiated by natural lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quick, Mason G.; Krider, E. Philip

    2013-02-01

    Calibrated measurements of the visible and near-infrared radiation produced by both negative and positive cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning strokes have been made at distances of 5 to 32 km in southern Arizona (AZ) and the central Great Plains using a photodiode sensor with a flat spectral response between 0.4 and 1.0 µm. Time-correlated video images (60 fps) of the channel development provided information about the types of strokes that were detected and reports from the U.S. National Lightning Detection Network indicated their locations, polarities, and estimates of their peak current. In our sample of negative strokes that were suitable for analysis, there were 23 first (or only) strokes (FS), 19 subsequent strokes that created new ground contacts (NGC), and 101 subsequent strokes that re-illuminated a preexisting channel (PEC). We also analyzed 10 positive strokes (in nine flashes), and 73 of the larger impulses that were radiated by intracloud discharges (CPs). Assuming that these events can be approximated as isotropic sources and that the effects of atmospheric extinction are negligible, the peak optical power (Po), total optical energy (Eo), and characteristic widths of the sources (tcw = Eo/Po) have been computed. Median values of Po for negative FS, NGC, and PEC strokes were 1.8 × 1010 W, 1.1 × 1010 W, and 4.4 × 109 W, respectively. Median values of Eo were 3.6 × 106 J, 3.5 × 106 J, and 1.2 × 106 J, respectively. The median characteristic widths of negative FS, NGC, and PEC strokes were 229 µs, 244 µs, and 283 µs, respectively. Positive CG strokes produced a median Po, Eo, and tcw of 1.9 × 1010 W, 9.3 × 106 J, and 497 µs, respectively. Estimates of the space-and-time-average power per unit length (ℓo) in the lower portion of negative FS, NGC, and PEC channels had medians of 2.8 × 106 W/m, 3.2 × 106 W/m, and 1.4 × 106 W/m, respectively, and the median ℓo for four positive strokes was 8.8 × 106 W/m. Median values for the estimated peak

  8. Blast Design of Reinforced Concrete and Masonry Components Retrofitted with FRP

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    1 BLAST DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE AND MASONRY COMPONENTS RETROFITTED WITH FRP Marlon L. Bazan, Ph.D. and Charles J. Oswald, P.E., Ph.D...as an alternative to traditional methods for strengthening and retrofitting concrete and masonry structures to resist blast loads. The development...and experimental validation of a methodology for modeling the response of blast loaded concrete and masonry structural components retrofitted with FRP

  9. 21 CFR 892.5770 - Powered radiation therapy patient support assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Powered radiation therapy patient support assembly. 892.5770 Section 892.5770 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... therapy patient support assembly. (a) Identification. A powered radiation therapy patient support assembly...

  10. 21 CFR 892.5770 - Powered radiation therapy patient support assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Powered radiation therapy patient support assembly. 892.5770 Section 892.5770 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... therapy patient support assembly. (a) Identification. A powered radiation therapy patient support assembly...

  11. 21 CFR 892.5770 - Powered radiation therapy patient support assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Powered radiation therapy patient support assembly. 892.5770 Section 892.5770 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... therapy patient support assembly. (a) Identification. A powered radiation therapy patient support assembly...

  12. 21 CFR 892.5770 - Powered radiation therapy patient support assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Powered radiation therapy patient support assembly. 892.5770 Section 892.5770 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... therapy patient support assembly. (a) Identification. A powered radiation therapy patient support assembly...

  13. 21 CFR 892.5770 - Powered radiation therapy patient support assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Powered radiation therapy patient support assembly. 892.5770 Section 892.5770 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5770 Powered radiation...

  14. Nonlinear behaviors of FRP-wrapped tall trees subjected to high wind loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, J.; Yi, Z. Z.; Choi, S. G.

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the mechanical stability of historical tall trees wrapped with fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) laminates using finite element (FE) analysis. High wind loads are considered as external loading conditions as they are one of the major threats on the structural stability of tall old trees. There have been several traditional practices to enhance the stability of tall trees exposed to high windstorms such as tree supporters and anchorages. They, however, have been sometimes causing negative effects with their misuses as the application guidelines for those methods were not adequately studied or documented. Furthermore, the oldest known trees in the country should be protected from the damage of external surface as well as ruin of the landscape. The objective of this study was to evaluate the structural effects of FRP wraps applied to tall trees subjected to high wind loads. The anisotropic material properties of wood and FRP laminates were considered in the analysis in addition to geometrically nonlinear behaviors. This study revealed that FRP wrapping for tall trees could effectively reduce the deflections and maximum stresses of trees, which results in the enhanced stability of tall trees. The optimum geometry and thicknesses of FRP wraps proposed in this study would provide fundemental guidelines for designing and constructing the application of innovative FRP wraps on tall trees, which are structurally unstable or should be preserved nationally and historically.

  15. Investigation of mRNA expression for secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (sFRP2) in chick embryos.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chung-Tien; Lin, Yu-Ting; Kuo, Tzong-Fu

    2007-08-01

    The roles of secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (sFRP2) in organ development of vertebrate animals are not well understood. We investigated expression of sFRP2 during embryogenesis of Arbor Acre broiler chicken eggs. Expression of sFRP2 was detected in the folds and lateral layer of developing brains. The sFRP2 signals in the developing eye were marked as a circle along the orbit. In younger embryos on days 3-6, the sFRP2 signals were consistent with growth of the sclerotome, suggesting that sFRP2 may be associated with somite development. Furthermore, with the exception of bones, sFRP2 mRNA was detectable in the interdigital tissue of embryos older than eight days as the limbs matured. This revealed that sFRP2 might play a role in myogenesis. In situ hybridization was also used to analyze the expression of sFRP2 in day 3-10 chick embryos. Signals were expressed in the gray matter of the developing brain coelom, including the optic lobe, metencephalon, myelencephalon, mesencephalon and diencephalon. The developing eyes contained an intercellular distribution of sFRP2 in the pigmented layer of the retina and photoreceptors. Furthermore, sFRP2 was expressed in the mantle layer of the neural tube and notochord. Based on these findings, it seems reasonable to suggest that sFRP2 may play an active role in embryogenesis, especially in development of the neural system, eyes, muscles and limbs.

  16. 76 FR 63316 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Secreted Frizzled Related Protein-1 (sFRP-1) and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ... Exclusive License: Secreted Frizzled Related Protein-1 (sFRP-1) and derivatives thereof and their Use In... belonging to the patent families having HHS Reference Numbers E-160-1997/0,/1,/2 and/3; E-014-2000/0; and E... Related Protein-1 (sFRP-1). sFRP-1, also known as SARP-2 (Secreted Apoptosis Related Protein-2). The IP...

  17. Low-Power Multi-Aspect Space Radiation Detector System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Fralick, Gustave; Freeman, Jon C.; Burkebile, Stephen P.

    2012-01-01

    The advanced space radiation detector development team at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has the goal of developing unique, more compact radiation detectors that provide improved real-time data on space radiation. The team has performed studies of different detector designs using a variety of combinations of solid-state detectors, which allow higher sensitivity to radiation in a smaller package and operate at lower voltage than traditional detectors. Integration of all of these detector technologies will result in an improved detector system in comparison to existing state-of-the-art (SOA) instruments for the detection and monitoring of the deep space radiation field.

  18. Behaviour of concrete beams reinforced withFRP prestressed concrete prisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svecova, Dagmar

    The use of fibre reinforced plastics (FRP) to reinforce concrete is gaining acceptance. However, due to the relatively low modulus of FRP, in comparison to steel, such structures may, if sufficient amount of reinforcement is not used, suffer from large deformations and wide cracks. FRP is generally more suited for prestressing. Since it is not feasible to prestress all concrete structures to eliminate the large deflections of FRP reinforced concrete flexural members, researchers are focusing on other strategies. A simple method for avoiding excessive deflections is to provide sufficiently high amount of FRP reinforcement to limit its stress (strain) to acceptable levels under service loads. This approach will not be able to take advantage of the high strength of FRP and will be generally uneconomical. The current investigation focuses on the feasibility of an alternative strategy. This thesis deals with the flexural and shear behaviour of concrete beams reinforced with FRP prestressed concrete prisms. FRP prestressed concrete prisms (PCP) are new reinforcing bars, made by pretensioning FRP and embedding it in high strength grout/concrete. The purpose of the research is to investigate the feasibility of using such pretensioned rebars, and their effect on the flexural and shear behaviour of reinforced concrete beams over the entire loading range. Due to the prestress in the prisms, deflection of concrete beams reinforced with this product is substantially reduced, and is comparable to similarly steel reinforced beams. The thesis comprises both theoretical and experimental investigations. In the experimental part, nine beams reinforced with FRP prestressed concrete prisms, and two companion beams, one steel and one FRP reinforced were tested. All the beams were designed to carry the same ultimate moment. Excellent flexural and shear behaviour of beams reinforced with higher prestressed prisms is reported. When comparing deflections of three beams designed to have the

  19. Impact of Radiation Hardness and Operating Temperatures of Silicon Carbide Electronics on Space Power System Mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.; Tew, Roy C.; Schwarze, Gene E.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of silicon carbide (SiC) electronics operating temperatures on Power Management and Distribution (PMAD), or Power Conditioning (PC), subsystem radiator size and mass requirements was evaluated for three power output levels (100 kW(e) , 1 MW(e), and 10 MW(e)) for near term technology ( i.e. 1500 K turbine inlet temperature) Closed Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) power systems with a High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) heat source. The study was conducted for assumed PC radiator temperatures ranging from 370 to 845 K and for three scenarios of electrical energy to heat conversion levels which needed to be rejected to space by means of the PC radiator. In addition, during part of the study the radiation hardness of the PC electronics was varied at a fixed separation distance to estimate its effect on the mass of the instrument rated reactor shadow shield. With both the PC radiator and the conical shadow shield representing major components of the overall power system the influence of the above on total power system mass was also determined. As expected, results show that the greatest actual mass savings achieved by the use of SiC electronics occur with high capacity power systems. Moreover, raising the PC radiator temperature above 600 K yields only small additional system mass savings. The effect of increased radiation hardness on total system mass is to reduce system mass by virtue of lowering the shield mass.

  20. Hybrid FRP-concrete bridge deck system final report II : long term performance of hybrid FRP-concrete bridge deck system.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-06-01

    This report describes the investigation of the long term structural performance of a : hybrid FRP-concrete (HFRPC) bridge deck on steel girders. The study aimed at : assessing three long term aspects pertaining to the HFRPC bridge deck: (1) creep : c...

  1. Experimental evaluation and design of unfilled and concrete-filled FRP composite piles, task 2 - FRP composite pile driving at the Richmond-Dresden bridge over the Kennebec River.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-01-01

    The overall goal of this project is the experimental evaluation and design of unfilled and concrete-filled FRP : composite piles for load-bearing in bridges. This report covers Task 2, FRP Composite Pile Driving at the : Richmond-Dresden Bridge over ...

  2. Experimental Analysis of Dynamic Effects of FRP Reinforced Masonry Vaults.

    PubMed

    Corradi, Marco; Borri, Antonio; Castori, Giulio; Coventry, Kathryn

    2015-11-27

    An increasing interest in the preservation of historic structures has produced a need for new methods for reinforcing curved masonry structures, such as arches and vaults. These structures are generally very ancient, have geometries and materials which are poorly defined and have been exposed to long-term historical movements and actions. Consequently, they are often in need of repair or reinforcement. This article presents the results of an experimental study carried out in the laboratory and during on-site testing to investigate the behaviour of brick masonry vaults under dynamic loading strengthened with FRPs (Fiber Reinforced Polymers). For the laboratory tests, the brick vaults were built with solid sanded clay bricks and weak mortar and were tested under dynamic loading. The experimental tests were designed to facilitate analysis of the dynamic behaviour of undamaged, damaged and reinforced vaulted structures. On-site tests were carried out on an earthquake-damaged thin brick vault of an 18th century aristocratic residence in the city of L'Aquila, Italy. The provision of FRP reinforcement is shown to re-establish elastic behavior previously compromised by time induced damage in the vaults.

  3. Experimental Analysis of Dynamic Effects of FRP Reinforced Masonry Vaults

    PubMed Central

    Corradi, Marco; Borri, Antonio; Castori, Giulio; Coventry, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    An increasing interest in the preservation of historic structures has produced a need for new methods for reinforcing curved masonry structures, such as arches and vaults. These structures are generally very ancient, have geometries and materials which are poorly defined and have been exposed to long-term historical movements and actions. Consequently, they are often in need of repair or reinforcement. This article presents the results of an experimental study carried out in the laboratory and during on-site testing to investigate the behaviour of brick masonry vaults under dynamic loading strengthened with FRPs (Fiber Reinforced Polymers). For the laboratory tests, the brick vaults were built with solid sanded clay bricks and weak mortar and were tested under dynamic loading. The experimental tests were designed to facilitate analysis of the dynamic behaviour of undamaged, damaged and reinforced vaulted structures. On-site tests were carried out on an earthquake-damaged thin brick vault of an 18th century aristocratic residence in the city of L’Aquila, Italy. The provision of FRP reinforcement is shown to re-establish elastic behavior previously compromised by time induced damage in the vaults. PMID:28793697

  4. Distributed Long-Gauge Optical Fiber Sensors Based Self-Sensing FRP Bar for Concrete Structure

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yongsheng; Wu, Zhishen

    2016-01-01

    Brillouin scattering-based distributed optical fiber (OF) sensing technique presents advantages for concrete structure monitoring. However, the existence of spatial resolution greatly decreases strain measurement accuracy especially around cracks. Meanwhile, the brittle feature of OF also hinders its further application. In this paper, the distributed OF sensor was firstly proposed as long-gauge sensor to improve strain measurement accuracy. Then, a new type of self-sensing fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) bar was developed by embedding the packaged long-gauge OF sensors into FRP bar, followed by experimental studies on strain sensing, temperature sensing and basic mechanical properties. The results confirmed the superior strain sensing properties, namely satisfied accuracy, repeatability and linearity, as well as excellent mechanical performance. At the same time, the temperature sensing property was not influenced by the long-gauge package, making temperature compensation easy. Furthermore, the bonding performance between self-sensing FRP bar and concrete was investigated to study its influence on the sensing. Lastly, the sensing performance was further verified with static experiments of concrete beam reinforced with the proposed self-sensing FRP bar. Therefore, the self-sensing FRP bar has potential applications for long-term structural health monitoring (SHM) as embedded sensors as well as reinforcing materials for concrete structures. PMID:26927110

  5. An investigation into the impact of cryogenic environment on mechanical stresses in FRP composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fifo, O.; Basu, B.

    2015-07-01

    Fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) composites are fast becoming a highly utilised engineering material for high performance applications due to their light weight and high strength. Carbon fibre and other high strength fibres are commonly used in design of aerospace structures, wind turbine blades, etc. and potentially for propellant tanks of launch vehicles. For the aforementioned fields of application, stability of the material is essential over a wide range of temperature particularly for structures in hostile environments. Many studies have been conducted, experimentally, over the last decade to investigate the mechanical behaviour of FRP materials at varying subzero temperature. Likewise, tests on aging and cycling effect (room to low temperature) on the mechanical response of FRP have been reported. However, a relatively lesser focused area has been the mechanical behaviour of FRP composites under cryogenic environment. This article reports a finite element method of investigating the changes in the mechanical characteristics of an FRP material when temperature based analysis falls below zero. The simulated tests are carried out using a finite element package with close material properties used in the cited literatures. Tensile test was conducted and the results indicate that the mechanical responses agree with those reported in the literature sited.

  6. Experimental investigation of RC beams using BOTDA(R)-FRP-OF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhi; He, Jianping; Huang, Ying; Ou, Jinping

    2008-04-01

    Brillouin based fiber optic sensing turns to be a promising technology for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). However, the bare optical fiber is too fragile to act as a practical sensor, so high durability and large range (large strain) Brillouin distributed sensors are in great needs in field applications. For this reason, high durable and large range optical fiber Brillouin Optical Time Domain Analysis (Reflectometer) sensors packaged by Fiber Reinforcement Polymer (FRP), named BOTDA(R)-FRP-OF, have been studied and developed. Besides, in order to study the large strain, crack and slip between the rebar and concrete in reinforced concrete (RC) beams using BOTDR(A) technique, five RC Beams installed with BOTDA(R)-FRP-OF sensors have been set up. And the damage characteristics of the RC beams were investigated by comparing the strain measured by the BOTDA(R)-FRP-OF sensors and the strain from traditional electric strain gauges and Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors, respectively. The test results show that the BOTDA(R)-FRP-OF sensor can effectively detect the damage (including crack and slip) characteristic of RC beam, and it is suitable for the long-term structural health monitoring on concrete structures such as bridge, big dam and so on.

  7. Study on RC beams using BOTDA(R)-FRP-OF technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jianping; Zhou, Zhi; Huang, Ying; Ou, Jinping

    2008-03-01

    Brillouin based fiber optic sensing turns to be a promising technology for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). However, the bare optical fiber is too fragile to act as a practical sensor, so high durability and large range (large strain) Brillouin distributed sensors are in great needs in field applications. For this reason, high durable and large range optical fiber Brillouin Optical Time Domain Analysis sensors packaged by Fiber Reinforcement Polymer (FRP), named BOTDA(R)-FRP-OF, have been studied and developed. Besides, in order to study the large strain, crack and slip between the rebar and concrete in reinforced concrete (RC) beams using BOTDR(A) technique, two RC Beams installed with BOTDA(R)-FRP-OF sensors have been set up. And the damage characteristics of the RC beams were investigated by comparing the strain measured by the BOTDA(R)-FRP-OF sensors and the strain from traditional electric strain gauges. The test results show that the BOTDA(R)-FRP-OF sensor can effectively detect the damage (including crack and slip) characteristic of RC beam, and it is suitable for the long-term structural health monitoring on concrete structures such as bridge, big dam and so on.

  8. Distributed Long-Gauge Optical Fiber Sensors Based Self-Sensing FRP Bar for Concrete Structure.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yongsheng; Wu, Zhishen

    2016-02-25

    Brillouin scattering-based distributed optical fiber (OF) sensing technique presents advantages for concrete structure monitoring. However, the existence of spatial resolution greatly decreases strain measurement accuracy especially around cracks. Meanwhile, the brittle feature of OF also hinders its further application. In this paper, the distributed OF sensor was firstly proposed as long-gauge sensor to improve strain measurement accuracy. Then, a new type of self-sensing fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) bar was developed by embedding the packaged long-gauge OF sensors into FRP bar, followed by experimental studies on strain sensing, temperature sensing and basic mechanical properties. The results confirmed the superior strain sensing properties, namely satisfied accuracy, repeatability and linearity, as well as excellent mechanical performance. At the same time, the temperature sensing property was not influenced by the long-gauge package, making temperature compensation easy. Furthermore, the bonding performance between self-sensing FRP bar and concrete was investigated to study its influence on the sensing. Lastly, the sensing performance was further verified with static experiments of concrete beam reinforced with the proposed self-sensing FRP bar. Therefore, the self-sensing FRP bar has potential applications for long-term structural health monitoring (SHM) as embedded sensors as well as reinforcing materials for concrete structures.

  9. Review of Punching Shear Behaviour of Flat Slabs Reinforced with FRP Bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Osama A.; Khattab, Rania

    2017-10-01

    Using Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) bars to reinforce two-way concrete slabs can extend the service life, reduce maintenance cost and improve-life cycle cost efficiency. FRP reinforcing bars are more environmentally friendly alternatives to traditional reinforcing steel. Shear behaviour of reinforced concrete structural members is a complex phenomenon that relies on the development of internal load-carrying mechanisms, the magnitude and combination of which is still a subject of research. Many building codes and design standards provide design formulas for estimation of punching shear capacity of FRP reinforced flat slabs. Building code formulas take into account the effects of the axial stiffness of main reinforcement bars, the ratio of the perimeter of the critical section to the slab effective depth, and the slab thickness on the punching shear capacity of two-way slabs reinforced with FRP bars or grids. The goal of this paper is to compare experimental data published in the literature to the equations offered by building codes for the estimation of punching shear capacity of concrete flat slabs reinforced with FRP bars. Emphasis in this paper is on two North American codes, namely, ACI 440.1R-15 and CSA S806-12. The experimental data covered in this paper include flat slabs reinforced with GFRP, BFRP, and CFRP bars. Both ACI 440.1R-15 and CSA S806-12 are shown to be in good agreement with test results in terms of predicting the punching shear capacity.

  10. Increased expression of the WNT antagonist sFRP-1 in glaucoma elevates intraocular pressure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wan-Heng; McNatt, Loretta G.; Pang, Iok-Hou; Millar, J. Cameron; Hellberg, Peggy E.; Hellberg, Mark H.; Steely, H. Thomas; Rubin, Jeffrey S.; Fingert, John H.; Sheffield, Val C.; Stone, Edwin M.; Clark, Abbot F.

    2008-01-01

    Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is the principal risk factor for glaucoma and results from excessive impedance of the fluid outflow from the eye. This abnormality likely originates from outflow pathway tissues such as the trabecular meshwork (TM), but the associated molecular etiology is poorly understood. We discovered what we believe to be a novel role for secreted frizzled-related protein-1 (sFRP-1), an antagonist of Wnt signaling, in regulating IOP. sFRP1 was overexpressed in human glaucomatous TM cells. Genes involved in the Wnt signaling pathway were expressed in cultured TM cells and human TM tissues. Addition of recombinant sFRP-1 to ex vivo perfusion-cultured human eyes decreased outflow facility, concomitant with reduced levels of β-catenin, the Wnt signaling mediator, in the TM. Intravitreal injection of an adenoviral vector encoding sFRP1 in mice produced a titer-dependent increase in IOP. Five days after vector injection, IOP increased 2 fold, which was significantly reduced by topical ocular administration of an inhibitor of a downstream suppressor of Wnt signaling. Thus, these data indicate that increased expression of sFRP1 in the TM appears to be responsible for elevated IOP in glaucoma and restoring Wnt signaling in the TM may be a novel disease intervention strategy for treating glaucoma. PMID:18274669

  11. Power Radiated from ITER and CIT by Impurities

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Cummings, J.; Cohen, S. A.; Hulse, R.; Post, D. E.; Redi, M. H.; Perkins, J.

    1990-07-01

    The MIST code has been used to model impurity radiation from the edge and core plasmas in ITER and CIT. A broad range of parameters have been varied, including Z{sub eff}, impurity species, impurity transport coefficients, and plasma temperature and density profiles, especially at the edge. For a set of these parameters representative of the baseline ITER ignition scenario, it is seen that impurity radiation, which is produced in roughly equal amounts by the edge and core regions, can make a major improvement in divertor operation without compromising core energy confinement. Scalings of impurity radiation with atomic number and machine size are also discussed.

  12. Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composite piles used on pier rehabilitation, Little Diamond Island, Casco Bay, Portland, Maine.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-10-01

    Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composite piles were used on a pier rehabilitation project at : Little Diamond Island in Casco Bay near Portland Maine. The project was the replacement : of an aging wooden pier at the ferry berthing terminal. The FRP p...

  13. Development of advanced grid stiffened (AGS) fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) tube-encased concrete columns : [technical summary].

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-03-01

    In recent years, the use of fi ber reinforced polymer (FRP) tube-encased concrete columns for new construction and rebuilding : of engineering structures has increased. The purpose in FRP tube-encased concrete columns is to replace the steel rebar by...

  14. Experimental evaluation and design of unfilled and concrete-filled FRP composite piles : Task 5 : laminate durability testing : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-05-01

    The overall goal of this project is the experimental evaluation and design of unfilled and concrete-filled FRP composite piles for load-bearing in bridges. This report covers Task 5, Laminate Durability Testing. : Mechanical properties of the FRP mat...

  15. Dynamic response of RC beams strengthened with near surface mounted Carbon-FRP rods subjected to damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capozucca, R.; Blasi, M. G.; Corina, V.

    2015-07-01

    Near surface mounted (NSM) technique with fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) is becoming a common method in the strengthening of concrete beams. The availability of NSM FRP technique depends on many factors linked to materials and geometry - dimensions of the rods used, type of FRP material employed, rods’ surface configuration, groove size - and to adhesion between concrete and FRP rods. In this paper detection of damage is investigated measuring the natural frequency values of beam in the case of free-free ends. Damage was due both to reduction of adhesion between concrete and carbon-FRP rectangular and circular rods and cracking of concrete under static bending tests on beams. Comparison between experimental and theoretical frequency values evaluating frequency changes due to damage permits to monitor actual behaviour of RC beams strengthened by NSM CFRP rods.

  16. Comparison of sound power radiation from isolated airfoils and cascades in a turbulent flow.

    PubMed

    Blandeau, Vincent P; Joseph, Phillip F; Jenkins, Gareth; Powles, Christopher J

    2011-06-01

    An analytical model of the sound power radiated from a flat plate airfoil of infinite span in a 2D turbulent flow is presented. The effects of stagger angle on the radiated sound power are included so that the sound power radiated upstream and downstream relative to the fan axis can be predicted. Closed-form asymptotic expressions, valid at low and high frequencies, are provided for the upstream, downstream, and total sound power. A study of the effects of chord length on the total sound power at all reduced frequencies is presented. Excellent agreement for frequencies above a critical frequency is shown between the fast analytical isolated airfoil model presented in this paper and an existing, computationally demanding, cascade model, in which the unsteady loading of the cascade is computed numerically. Reasonable agreement is also observed at low frequencies for low solidity cascade configurations. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  17. Non-linear heterogeneous FE approach for FRP strengthened masonry arches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertolesi, Elisa; Milani, Gabriele; Fedele, Roberto

    2015-12-01

    A fast and reliable non-linear heterogeneous FE approach specifically conceived for the analysis of FRP-reinforced masonry arches is presented. The approach proposed relies into the reduction of mortar joints to interfaces exhibiting a non-linear holonomic behavior, with a discretization of bricks by means of four-noded elastic elements. The FRP reinforcement is modeled by means of truss elements with elastic-brittle behavior, where the peak tensile strength is estimated by means of a consolidated approach provided by the Italian guidelines CNR-DT200 on masonry strengthening with fiber materials, where the delamination of the strip from the support is taken into account. The model is validated against some recent experimental results relying into circular masonry arches reinforced at both the intrados and the extrados. Some sensitivity analyses are conducted varying the peak tensile strength of the trusses representing the FRP reinforcement.

  18. An experimentally based analytical model for the shear capacity of FRP-strengthened reinforced concrete beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrino, C.; Modena, C.

    2008-05-01

    This paper deals with the shear strengthening of Reinforced Concrete (RC) flexural members with externally bonded Fiber-Reinforced Polymers (FRPs). The interaction between an external FRP and an internal transverse steel reinforcement is not considered in actual code recommendations, but it strongly influences the efficiency of the shear strengthening rehabilitation technique and, as a consequence, the computation of interacting contributions to the nominal shear strength of beams. This circumstance is also discussed on the basis of the results of an experimental investigation of rectangular RC beams strengthened in shear with "U-jacketed" carbon FRP sheets. Based on experimental results of the present and other investigations, a new analytical model for describing the shear capacity of RC beams strengthened according to the most common schemes (side-bonded and "U-jacketed"), taking into account the interaction between steel and FRP shear strength contributions, is proposed.

  19. Vacuum Surface Flashover Characteristics and Secondary Electron Emission Characteristics of Epoxy Resin and FRP Insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamano, Yasushi; Takahashi, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Shinichi; Hanada, Masaya; Ikeda, Yoshitaka

    Neutral beam injectors (NBI) used for JT-60 are required to generate negative ions of 500 keV energies. To produce such high-energy ions, the electrostatic accelerators consisting of 3-stage of electrodes and three insulator rings are applied. The insulators are made of Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic (FRP) which is composed of epoxy resin and glass fibers. The surface discharges along the insulators are one of the most serious problems in the development of NBI. To increase the hold-off voltage against surface flashover events, it is necessary to investigate the FRP and epoxy resin insulator properties related to surface discharges in vacuum. This paper describes surface flashover characteristics for epoxy resin, FRP and Alumina samples under vacuum condition. In addition, the measurements of secondary electron emission (SEE) characteristics are also reported. These are important parameters to analyze surface discharge characteristics of insulators in vacuum.

  20. Constitutive Behavior and Finite Element Analysis of FRP Composite and Concrete Members.

    PubMed

    Ann, Ki Yong; Cho, Chang-Geun

    2013-09-10

    The present study concerns compressive and flexural constitutive models incorporated into an isoparametric beam finite element scheme for fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) and concrete composites, using their multi-axial constitutive behavior. The constitutive behavior of concrete was treated in triaxial stress states as an orthotropic hypoelasticity-based formulation to determine the confinement effect of concrete from a three-dimensional failure surface in triaxial stress states. The constitutive behavior of the FRP composite was formulated from the two-dimensional classical lamination theory. To predict the flexural behavior of circular cross-section with FRP sheet and concrete composite, a layered discretization of cross-sections was incorporated into nonlinear isoparametric beam finite elements. The predicted constitutive behavior was validated by a comparison to available experimental results in the compressive and flexural beam loading test.

  1. Perspectives Of Employment Of Pultruded FRP Structural Elements In Seismic Engineering Field

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, Salvatore; Silvestri, Mirko

    2008-07-08

    Today the employment of FRP material in structural engineering is in common use, with excellent results in term of applications especially as reinforcement of existing structures. This success is related to the very reduced weight of FRP material, to its performance in term of strength and durability and thanks to the easy use in technical application. There is a modern way to use this material disguised as structural pultruded element (with weight equal to 1600-1800 kg/m{sup 3}) in new constructions, local reinforcements and in other seismic applications. Actually the international technical and scientific literature in form of draft, recommendations andmore » researches on this topic is very rich also taking into account Italian contribution. Some interesting applications of all FRP structures in seismic engineering field are showed in this research in real terms and in form of capability.« less

  2. Constitutive Behavior and Finite Element Analysis of FRP Composite and Concrete Members

    PubMed Central

    Ann, Ki Yong; Cho, Chang-Geun

    2013-01-01

    The present study concerns compressive and flexural constitutive models incorporated into an isoparametric beam finite element scheme for fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) and concrete composites, using their multi-axial constitutive behavior. The constitutive behavior of concrete was treated in triaxial stress states as an orthotropic hypoelasticity-based formulation to determine the confinement effect of concrete from a three-dimensional failure surface in triaxial stress states. The constitutive behavior of the FRP composite was formulated from the two-dimensional classical lamination theory. To predict the flexural behavior of circular cross-section with FRP sheet and concrete composite, a layered discretization of cross-sections was incorporated into nonlinear isoparametric beam finite elements. The predicted constitutive behavior was validated by a comparison to available experimental results in the compressive and flexural beam loading test. PMID:28788312

  3. Kinetic and radiative power from optically thin accretion flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sądowski, Aleksander; Gaspari, Massimo

    2017-06-01

    We perform a set of general relativistic, radiative, magneto-hydrodynamical simulations (GR-RMHD) to study the transition from radiatively inefficient to efficient state of accretion on a non-rotating black hole. We study ion to electron temperature ratios ranging from TI/Te = 10 to 100, and simulate flows corresponding to accretion rates as low as 10^{-6}\\dot{M}_Edd, and as high as 10^{-2}\\dot{M}_Edd. We have found that the radiative output of accretion flows increases with accretion rate, and that the transition occurs earlier for hotter electrons (lower TI/Te ratio). At the same time, the mechanical efficiency hardly changes and accounts to ≈3 per cent of the accreted rest mass energy flux, even at the highest simulated accretion rates. This is particularly important for the mechanical active galactic nuclei (AGN) feedback regulating massive galaxies, groups and clusters. Comparison with recent observations of radiative and mechanical AGN luminosities suggests that the ion to electron temperature ratio in the inner, collisionless accretion flow should fall within 10 < TI/Te < 30, I.e. the electron temperature should be several percent of the ion temperature.

  4. Radiation force on absorbing targets and power measurements of a high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Zuwen; Zhu, Zhemin; Ye, Shigong; Jiang, Wenhua; Zhu, Houqing; Yu, Jinshen

    2010-10-01

    Based on the analytic expressions for the radiated field of a circular concave piston given by Hasegawa et al., an integral for calculation of the radiation force on a plane absorbing target in a spherically focused field is derived. A general relation between acoustic power P and normal radiation force F n is obtained under the condition of kr ≫ 1. Numerical computation is carried out by using the symbolic computation program for practically focused sources and absorbing circular targets. The results show that, for a given source, there is a range of target positions where the radiation force is independent of the target’s position under the assumption that the contribution of the acoustic field behind the target to the radiation force can be neglected. The experiments are carried out and confirm that there is a range of target positions where the measured radiation force is basically independent of the target’s position even at high acoustic power (up to 700 W). It is believed that when the radiation force method is used to measure the acoustic power radiated from a focused source, the size of the target must be selected in such a way that no observable sound can be found in the region behind the target.

  5. Generation of high power sub millimeter radiation using free electron laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panwar, J.; Sharma, S. C.; Malik, P.; Yadav, M.; Sharma, R.

    2018-03-01

    We have developed an analytical formalism to study the emission of high power radiation lying in the sub millimetre range. A relativistic electron beam (REB) is velocity modulated by the pondermotive force exerted by the laser beams. After passing through the drift space, the beam gets density modulated which further interacts with the strong field wiggler and acquires a transverse velocity that couples with the modulated density of the beam in the presence of ion channel which contribute to the non-linear current density which further leads to the emission of the radiation. The output radiation can be modified by changing the wiggler parameters and the energy of the electron beam. The power of the output radiation is found to increase with the modulation. The obtained radiation can be employed for various applications.

  6. Two-dimensional AXUV-based radiated power density diagnostics on NSTX-Ua)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faust, I.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Bell, R. E.; Tritz, K.; Diallo, A.; Gerhardt, S. P.; LeBlanc, B.; Kozub, T. A.; Parker, R. R.; Stratton, B. C.

    2014-11-01

    A new set of radiated-power-density diagnostics for the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) tokamak have been designed to measure the two-dimensional poloidal structure of the total photon emissivity profile in order to perform power balance, impurity transport, and magnetohydrodynamic studies. Multiple AXUV-diode based pinhole cameras will be installed in the same toroidal angle at various poloidal locations. The local emissivity will be obtained from several types of tomographic reconstructions. The layout and response expected for the new radially viewing poloidal arrays will be shown for different impurity concentrations to characterize the diagnostic sensitivity. The radiated power profile inverted from the array data will also be used for estimates of power losses during transitions from various divertor configurations in NSTX-U. The effect of in-out and top/bottom asymmetries in the core radiation from high-Z impurities will be addressed.

  7. Two-dimensional AXUV-based radiated power density diagnostics on NSTX-U.

    PubMed

    Faust, I; Delgado-Aparicio, L; Bell, R E; Tritz, K; Diallo, A; Gerhardt, S P; LeBlanc, B; Kozub, T A; Parker, R R; Stratton, B C

    2014-11-01

    A new set of radiated-power-density diagnostics for the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) tokamak have been designed to measure the two-dimensional poloidal structure of the total photon emissivity profile in order to perform power balance, impurity transport, and magnetohydrodynamic studies. Multiple AXUV-diode based pinhole cameras will be installed in the same toroidal angle at various poloidal locations. The local emissivity will be obtained from several types of tomographic reconstructions. The layout and response expected for the new radially viewing poloidal arrays will be shown for different impurity concentrations to characterize the diagnostic sensitivity. The radiated power profile inverted from the array data will also be used for estimates of power losses during transitions from various divertor configurations in NSTX-U. The effect of in-out and top/bottom asymmetries in the core radiation from high-Z impurities will be addressed.

  8. Two-tiered design analysis of a radiator for a solar dynamic powered Stirling engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hainley, Donald C.

    1989-01-01

    Two separate design approaches for a pumped loop radiator used to transfer heat from the cold end of a solar dynamic powered Stirling engine are described. The first approach uses a standard method to determine radiator requirements to meet specified end of mission conditions. Trade-off studies conducted for the analysis are included. Justification of this concept within the specified parameters of the analysis is provided. The second design approach determines the life performance of the radiator/Stirling system. In this approach, the system performance was altered by reducing the radiator heat transfer area. Performance effects and equilibrium points were determined as radiator segments were removed. This simulates the effect of loss of radiator sections due to micro-meteoroid and space debris penetration. The two designs were compared on the basis of overall system requirements and goals.

  9. Two-tiered design analysis of a radiator for a solar dynamic powered Stirling engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hainley, Donald C.

    1989-01-01

    Two separate design approaches for a pumped loop radiator used to transfer heat from the cold end of a solar dynamic powered Stirling engine are described. The first approach uses a standard method to determine radiator requirements to meet specified end of mission conditions. Trade-off studies conducted for the analysis are included. Justification of this concept within the specified parameters of the analysis is provided. The second design approach determines the life performance of the radiator/Stirling system. In this approach, the system performance was altered by reducing the radiator heat transfer area. Performance effects and equilibrium points were determined as radiator segments were removed. This simulates the effect of loss of radiator sections due to micro-meteoroid and space debris penetration. The two designs are compared on the basis of overall system requirements and goals.

  10. Study on effects of different patterns and cracking for wastes FRP (used banner) wrapping on compressive strength of confined concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syazani Leman, Alif; Shahidan, Shahiron; Azmi, M. A. M.; Syamir Senin, Mohamad; Ali, N.; Abdullah, S. R.; Zuki, S. S. Mohd; Ibrahim, M. H. Wan; Nazri, Fadzli Mohamed

    2017-11-01

    Previous researches have shown that FRP are being introduce into wide variety of civil engineering applications. Fibre Reinforce Concrete (FRP) are also used as repairing method in concrete structures. FRP such as S-glass, AR-glass, E-glass, C-glass, and Aramid Fibre are the common material used in industry. The FRP strips provide the necessary longitudinal and hoop reinforcement. However, there are lots waste materials that can be form as fibre and used in repairing. Banner is a type of waste material fibre that can be used in repairing. In this study, banner will be used as the replacement of the common FRP. The confined concrete (cylinder) of 300mm height and 150mm diameter were cast with M35 grade concrete and tested until it is crack. Next banner are used as the wrapping along the cracking of the concrete with three different pattern that are full wrapping, two band wrapping and cross wrapping using epoxy. Epoxy is a common name for a type of strong adhesive used for sticking things together and covering surface. The objective of this study is to determine the maximum strength and the effect of different patterns wrapping of FRP (banner) on the compressive strength of confined concrete. The results are shows that banner are suitable as a replacement of material for FRP.

  11. Lightweight Damage Tolerant, High-Temperature Radiators for Nuclear Power and Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craven, Paul D.; SanSoucie, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    NASA is increasingly emphasizing exploration to bodies beyond near-Earth orbit. New propulsion systems and new spacecraft are being built for these missions. As the target bodies get further out from Earth, high energy density systems, e.g., nuclear fusion, for propulsion and power will be advantageous. The mass and size of these systems, including supporting systems such as the heat exchange system, including thermal radiators, will need to be as small as possible. Conventional heat exchange systems are a significant portion of the total thermal management mass and size. Nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) is a promising option for high-speed, in-space travel due to the high energy density of nuclear fission power sources and efficient electric thrusters. Heat from the reactor is converted to power for use in propulsion or for system power. The heat not used in the power conversion is then radiated to space as shown in figure 1. Advanced power conversion technologies will require high operating temperatures and would benefit from lightweight radiator materials. Radiator performance dictates power output for nuclear electric propulsion systems. Pitch-based carbon fiber materials have the potential to offer significant improvements in operating temperature, thermal conductivity, and mass. These properties combine to allow significant decreases in the total mass of the radiators and significant increases in the operating temperature of the fins. A Center-funded project at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center has shown that high thermal conductivity, woven carbon fiber fins with no matrix material, can be used to dissipate waste heat from NEP systems and because of high specific power (kW/kg), will require less mass and possibly less total area than standard metal and composite radiator fins for radiating the same amount of heat. This project uses an innovative approach to reduce the mass and size required for the thermal radiators to the point that in-space NEP and power

  12. Concrete Open-Wall Systems Wrapped with FRP under Torsional Loads

    PubMed Central

    Mancusi, Geminiano; Feo, Luciano; Berardi, Valentino P.

    2012-01-01

    The static behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) beams plated with layers of fiber-reinforced composite material (FRP) is widely investigated in current literature, which deals with both its numerical modeling as well as experiments. Scientific interest in this topic is explained by the increasing widespread use of composite materials in retrofitting techniques, as well as the consolidation and upgrading of existing reinforced concrete elements to new service conditions. The effectiveness of these techniques is typically influenced by the debonding of the FRP at the interface with concrete, where the transfer of stresses occurs from one element (RC member) to the other (FRP strengthening). In fact, the activation of the well-known premature failure modes can be regarded as a consequence of high peak values of the interfacial interactions. Until now, typical applications of FRP structural plating have included cases of flexural or shear-flexural strengthening. Within this context, the present study aims at extending the investigation to the case of wall-systems with open cross-section under torsional loads. It includes the results of some numerical analyses carried out by means of a finite element approximation.

  13. Reliability model for ductile hybrid FRP rebar using randomly dispersed chopped fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behnam, Bashar Ramzi

    Fiber reinforced polymer composites or simply FRP composites have become more attractive to civil engineers in the last two decades due to their unique mechanical properties. However, there are many obstacles such as low elasticity modulus, non-ductile behavior, high cost of the fibers, high manufacturing costs, and absence of rigorous characterization of the uncertainties of the mechanical properties that restrict the use of these composites. However, when FRP composites are used to develop reinforcing rebars in concrete structural members to replace the conventional steel, a huge benefit can be achieved since FRP materials don't corrode. Two FRP rebar models are proposed that make use of multiple types of fibers to achieve ductility, and chopped fibers are used to reduce the manufacturing costs. In order to reach the most optimum fractional volume of each type of fiber, to minimize the cost of the proposed rebars, and to achieve a safe design by considering uncertainties in the materials and geometry of sections, appropriate material resistance factors have been developed, and a Reliability Based Design Optimization (RBDO), has been conducted for the proposed schemes.

  14. Mechanical properties and aesthetics of FRP orthodontic wire fabricated by hot drawing.

    PubMed

    Imai, T; Watari, F; Yamagata, S; Kobayashi, M; Nagayama, K; Toyoizumi, Y; Nakamura, S

    1998-12-01

    The FRP wires 0.5 mm in diameter with a multiple fiber structure were fabricated by drawing the fiber polymer complex at 250 degrees C for an esthetic, transparent orthodontic wire. Biocompatible CaO-P2O5-SiO2-Al2O3 (CPSA) glass fibers of 8-20 microm in diameter were oriented unidirectionally in the longitudinal direction in PMMA matrix. The mechanical properties were investigated by 3-point flexural test. The FRP wire showed sufficient strength and a very good elastic recovery after deformation. Young's modulus and the flexural load at deflection 1 mm were nearly independent of the fiber diameter and linearly increased with the fiber fraction. The dependence on fiber fraction obeys well the rule of mixture. This FRP wire could cover the range of strength corresponding to the conventional metal orthodontic wires from Ni-Ti used in the initial stage of orthodontic treatments to Co-Cr used in the final stage by changing the volume ratio of glass fibers with the same external diameter. The estheticity in external appearance was excellent. Thus the new FRP wire can satisfy both mechanical properties necessary for an orthodontic wire and enough estheticity, which was not possible for the conventional metal wire.

  15. In-situ monitoring of curing and ageing effects in FRP plates using embedded FBG sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xian, Guijun; Wang, Chuan; Li, Hui

    2010-04-01

    In recent years, fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites have been widely applied in civil engineering for retrofitting or renewal of existing structures. Since FRP composite may degrade when exposed to severe outdoor environments, a serious concern has been raised on its long term durability. In the present study, fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors were embedded in glass-, carbon- and basalt-fiber reinforced epoxy based FRP plates with wet lay-up technology, to in-situ monitor the stain changes in FRPs during the curing, and water immersion and freeze-thaw ageing processes. The study demonstrates that the curing of epoxy resin brings in a slight tension strain (e.g., 10 ~ 30 μɛ) along the fiber direction and a high contraction (e.g., ~ 1100μɛ) in the direction perpendicular to the fibers, mainly due to the resin shrinkage. The cured FRP strips were then subjected to distilled water immersion at 80oC and freeze-thaw cycles from -30°C to 30°C. Remarkable strain changes of FRPs due to the variation of the temperatures during freeze-thaw cycles indicate the potential property degradation from fatigue. The maximum strain change is dependent on the fiber types and directions to the fiber. Based on the monitored strain values with temperature change and water uptake content, CTE (coefficient of thermal expansion) and CME (coefficient of moisture expansion) are exactly determined for the FRPs.

  16. Design for FRP systems for strengthening concrete girders in shear : status letter.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-09-24

    This is to let you know that we have completed our NCHRP 12-75 project entitled DESIGN OF : FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE GIRDERS IN SHEAR and submitted the final : report on June 7, 2010. The report is undergoing final editorial revis...

  17. Crack detection and fatigue related delamination in FRP composites applied to concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Jeff; Baker, Rebecca; Kallemeyn, Lisa; Zendler, Andrew

    2008-03-01

    Reinforced concrete beams are designed to allow minor concrete cracking in the tension zone. The severity of cracking in a beam element is a good indicator of how well a structure is performing and whether or not repairs are needed to prevent structural failure. FRP composites are commonly used to increase the flexural and shear capacity of RC beam elements, but one potential disadvantage of this method is that strengthened surfaces are no longer visible and cracks or delaminations that result from excessive loading or fatigue may go undetected. This research investigated thermal imaging techniques for detecting load induced cracking in the concrete substrate and delamination of FRP strengthening systems applied to reinforced concrete (RC). One small-scale RC beam (5 in. x 6 in. x 60 in.) was strengthened with FRP and loaded to failure monotonically. An infrared thermography inspection was performed after failure. A second strengthened beam was loaded cyclically for 1,750,000 cycles to investigate how fatigue might affect substrate cracking and delamination growth throughout the service-life of a repaired element. No changes were observed in the FRP bond during/after the cyclic loading. The thermal imaging component of this research included pixel normalization to enhance detectability and characterization of this specific type of damage.

  18. Large scale distribution monitoring of FRP-OF based on BOTDR technique for infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhi; He, Jianping; Yan, Kai; Ou, Jinping

    2007-04-01

    BOTDA(R) sensing technique is considered as one of the most practical solution for large-sized structures as the instrument. However, there is still a big obstacle to apply BOTDA(R) in large-scale area due to the high cost and the reliability problem of sensing head which is associated to the sensor installation and survival. In this paper, we report a novel low-cost and high reliable BOTDA(R) sensing head using FRP(Fiber Reinforced Polymer)-bare optical fiber rebar, named BOTDA(R)-FRP-OF. We investigated the surface bonding and its mechanical strength by SEM and intensity experiments. Considering the strain difference between OF and host matrix which may result in measurement error, the strain transfer from host to OF have been theoretically studied. Furthermore, GFRP-OFs sensing properties of strain and temperature at different gauge length were tested under different spatial and readout resolution using commercial BOTDA. Dual FRP-OFs temperature compensation method has also been proposed and analyzed. And finally, BOTDA(R)-OFs have been applied in Tiyu west road civil structure at Guangzhou and Daqing Highway. This novel FRP-OF rebar shows both high strengthen and good sensing properties, which can be used in long-term SHM for civil infrastructures.

  19. ASSESSMENT OF STYRENE EMISSION CONTROLS FOR FRP/C AND BOAT BUILDING INDUSTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of several conventional and novel emission control technologies that have been used or could be used to treat styrene emissions from open molding processes in fiberglass-reinforced plastics/composites (FRP/C) and fiberglass boat building ...

  20. Development of Lateral Prestress in High-Strength Concrete-Filled FRP Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, T.; Ozbakkaloglu, T.

    2018-02-01

    This paper reports on an experimental investigation into the axial and lateral strain development of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) confined high-strength concrete (HSC) with prestressed FRP shells. A total of 24 aramid FRP (AFRP)-confined concrete specimens were manufactured as concrete-filled FRP tubes (CFFTs) with instrumentation to measure the strain variations during application of prestress, removal of end constraints and progressive prestress losses. Prestressed CFFT specimens were prepared with three different dose rates of expansive mineral admixture to create a range of lateral prestress applied to AFRP tubes manufactured with sheet thicknesses of 0.2 or 0.3 mm/ply and referred to as lightly- or well-confined, respectively. In addition to these three levels of prestress, non-prestressed companion specimens were manufactured and tested to determine baseline performance. The experimental results from this study indicate that lateral prestressing of CFFTs manufactured with HSC can be achieved by varying the expansive mineral admixture dose rate with a lateral prestress of up to 7.3 MPa recorded in this study. Significant strain variations were measured during removal of the end constraints with up to 700 microstrain recorded in the axial direction. Finally, the measurement of prestress losses for the month following prestress application revealed minimal progressive losses, with only 250 and 100 με recorded for the axial and hoop strains, respectively.

  1. Strengthening of Route 378 bridge over Wynantskill Creek in New York using FRP laminates

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-03-01

    This report describes application of Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (FRP) composite laminates to strengthen an aging reinforced-concrete T-beam bridge in South Troy, Rensselaer County, New York. Leakage at the end joints of this single-span structure led t...

  2. ADDENDUM TO ASSESSMENT OF STYRENE EMISSION CONTROLS FOR FRP/C AND BOAT BUILDING INDUSTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is an addendum to a 1996 report, Assessment of Styrene Emission Controls for FRP/C and Boat Building Industries. It presents additional evaluation of the biological treatment of styrene emissions, Dow Chemical Company's Sorbathene solvent vapor recovery system, Occupa...

  3. Vibrational characteristics of FRP-bonded concrete interfacial defects in a low frequency regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Tin Kei; Lau, Denvid

    2014-04-01

    As externally bonded fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) is a critical load-bearing component of strengthened or retrofitted civil infrastructures, the betterment of structural health monitoring (SHM) methodology for such composites is imperative. Henceforth the vibrational characteristics of near surface interfacial defects involving delamination and trapped air pockets at the FRP-concrete interface are investigated in this study using a finite element approach. Intuitively, due to its lower interfacial stiffness compared with an intact interface, a damaged region is expected to have a set of resonance frequencies different from an intact region when excited by acoustic waves. It has been observed that, when excited acoustically, both the vibrational amplitudes and frequency peaks in the response spectrum of the defects demonstrate a significant deviation from an intact FRP-bonded region. For a thin sheet of FRP bonded to concrete with sizable interfacial defects, the fundamental mode under free vibration is shown to be relatively low, in the order of kHz. Due to the low resonance frequencies of the defects, the use of low-cost equipment for interfacial defect detection via response spectrum analysis is highly feasible.

  4. Evaluation of wearing surface materials for FRP bridge decks : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2005-07-01

    The wearing surface on many fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composite bridge decks have cracked or delaminated after only a short time in service. Consequently, a set of tests were conducted on four wearing surface products in order to select the mate...

  5. High Conductivity Carbon-Carbon Heat Pipes for Light Weight Space Power System Radiators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.

    2008-01-01

    Based on prior successful fabrication and demonstration testing of a carbon-carbon heat pipe radiator element with integral fins this paper examines the hypothetical extension of the technology via substitution of high thermal conductivity composites which would permit increasing fin length while still maintaining high fin effectiveness. As a result the specific radiator mass could approach an ultimate asymptotic minimum value near 1.0 kg/m2, which is less than one fourth the value of present day satellite radiators. The implied mass savings would be even greater for high capacity space and planetary surface power systems, which may require radiator areas ranging from hundreds to thousands of square meters, depending on system power level.

  6. Parametric Study of Shear Strength of Concrete Beams Reinforced with FRP Bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Job; Ramadass, S.

    2016-09-01

    Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) bars are being widely used as internal reinforcement in structural elements in the last decade. The corrosion resistance of FRP bars qualifies its use in severe and marine exposure conditions in structures. A total of eight concrete beams longitudinally reinforced with FRP bars were cast and tested over shear span to depth ratio of 0.5 and 1.75. The shear strength test data of 188 beams published in various literatures were also used. The model originally proposed by Indian Standard Code of practice for the prediction of shear strength of concrete beams reinforced with steel bars IS:456 (Plain and reinforced concrete, code of practice, fourth revision. Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, 2000) is considered and a modification to account for the influence of the FRP bars is proposed based on regression analysis. Out of the 196 test data, 110 test data is used for the regression analysis and 86 test data is used for the validation of the model. In addition, the shear strength of 86 test data accounted for the validation is assessed using eleven models proposed by various researchers. The proposed model accounts for compressive strength of concrete ( f ck ), modulus of elasticity of FRP rebar ( E f ), longitudinal reinforcement ratio ( ρ f ), shear span to depth ratio ( a/ d) and size effect of beams. The predicted shear strength of beams using the proposed model and 11 models proposed by other researchers is compared with the corresponding experimental results. The mean of predicted shear strength to the experimental shear strength for the 86 beams accounted for the validation of the proposed model is found to be 0.93. The result of the statistical analysis indicates that the prediction based on the proposed model corroborates with the corresponding experimental data.

  7. Detection of Fatigue Crack in Basalt FRP Laminate Composite Pipe using Electrical Potential Change Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altabey, Wael A.; Noori, Mohammed

    2017-05-01

    Novel modulation electrical potential change (EPC) method for fatigue crack detection in a basalt fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) laminate composite pipe is carried out in this paper. The technique is applied to a laminate pipe with an embedded crack in three layers [0º/90º/0º]s. EPC is applied for evaluating the dielectric properties of basalt FRP pipe by using an electrical capacitance sensor (ECS) to discern damages in the pipe. Twelve electrodes are mounted on the outer surface of the pipe and the changes in the modulation dielectric properties of the piping system are analyzed to detect damages in the pipe. An embedded crack is created by a fatigue internal pressure test. The capacitance values, capacitance change and node potential distribution of ECS electrodes are calculated before and after crack initiates using a finite element method (FEM) by ANSYS and MATLAB, which are combined to simulate sensor characteristics and fatigue behaviour. The crack lengths of the basalt FRP are investigated for various number of cycles to failure for determining crack growth rate. Response surfaces are adopted as a tool for solving inverse problems to estimate crack lengths from the measured electric potential differences of all segments between electrodes to validate the FEM results. The results show that, the good convergence between the FEM and estimated results. Also the results of this study show that the electrical potential difference of the basalt FRP laminate increases during cyclic loading, caused by matrix cracking. The results indicate that the proposed method successfully provides fatigue crack detection for basalt FRP laminate composite pipes.

  8. Performance analysis of radiation cooled dc transmission lines for high power space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarze, G. E.

    1985-01-01

    As space power levels increase to meet mission objectives and also as the transmission distance between power source and load increases, the mass, volume, power loss, and operating voltage and temperature become important system design considerations. This analysis develops the dependence of the specific mass and percent power loss on hte power and voltage levels, transmission distance, operating temperature and conductor material properties. Only radiation cooling is considered since the transmission line is assumed to operate in a space environment. The results show that the limiting conditions for achieving low specific mass, percent power loss, and volume for a space-type dc transmission line are the permissible transmission voltage and operating temperature. Other means to achieve low specific mass include the judicious choice of conductor materials. The results of this analysis should be immediately applicable to power system trade-off studies including comparisons with ac transmission systems.

  9. An evaluation of ionizing radiation emitted by high power microwave generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovell, C. David; Bolch, W. Emmett

    1992-02-01

    Ionizing radiation emitted by electron-beam driven high power microwave (HPM) generators were measured in the near and far-field using lithium fluoride (LiF) thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD's). Simplified photon energy spectra were determined by measuring radiation transmission, at electron beam energies of 300 to 650 keV, through various thicknesses of steel and lead attenuators. These data were used to calculate the effective energy of the x-rays produced by interactions between the electrons and the walls or other structures of the HPM generators. Operators were polled to determine locations of burn marks or other visible damage to locate potential ionizing radiation source regions.

  10. High Power, Millimeter-Wavelength, Coherent Radiation Sources.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-25

    J . Murphy, Ph.D. (1982). 5. M. Abdelkarim , Ph.D. (1984). 6. T. Buller, Ph.D. (1985). a 7. B. Johnson, Ph.D. (1985). 8. E. Garate, Ph.D. (1985). 9. R...AD-A174 521 HIGH POWER KILL IMETER-WAVELENGTH COHERENTRAITO 1/ SOURCES(U) DARTMOUTH COLL HANOVER N H DEPT OF PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY J E WALSH 25 SEP...82 - 1/31/86 -.: AIR F , 2 ..... . . T . ... ...... , 7 Approved for public release;"":" " ’n2. j ;’L’-’ ,- -"!d ,-d 12 l . 7. ... - ’ " + d. Chief

  11. Radiation Mitigation and Power Optimization Design Tools for Reconfigurable Hardware in Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, Matthew; Graham, Paul; Wirthlin, Michael; Wang, Li; Larchev, Gregory

    2005-01-01

    The Reconfigurable Hardware in Orbit (RHinO)project is focused on creating a set of design tools that facilitate and automate design techniques for reconfigurable computing in space, using SRAM-based field-programmable-gate-array (FPGA) technology. In the second year of the project, design tools that leverage an established FPGA design environment have been created to visualize and analyze an FPGA circuit for radiation weaknesses and power inefficiencies. For radiation, a single event Upset (SEU) emulator, persistence analysis tool, and a half-latch removal tool for Xilinx/Virtex-II devices have been created. Research is underway on a persistence mitigation tool and multiple bit upsets (MBU) studies. For power, synthesis level dynamic power visualization and analysis tools have been completed. Power optimization tools are under development and preliminary test results are positive.

  12. Terahertz radiation source using a high-power industrial electron linear accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalkal, Yashvir; Kumar, Vinit

    2017-04-01

    High-power (˜ 100 kW) industrial electron linear accelerators (linacs) are used for irradiations, e.g., for pasteurization of food products, disinfection of medical waste, etc. We propose that high-power electron beam from such an industrial linac can first pass through an undulator to generate useful terahertz (THz) radiation, and the spent electron beam coming out of the undulator can still be used for the intended industrial applications. This will enhance the utilization of a high-power industrial linac. We have performed calculation of spontaneous emission in the undulator to show that for typical parameters, continuous terahertz radiation having power of the order of μW can be produced, which may be useful for many scientific applications such as multispectral imaging of biological samples, chemical samples etc.

  13. A model relating radiated power and impurity concentrations during Ne, N and Ar injection in Tore Supra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, J.; Demichelis, C.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Guirlet, R.; Hess, W.; Schunke, B.

    2000-10-01

    A model combining the MIST (core symmetric) and BBQ (SOL asymmetric) codes is used to study the relation between impurity density and radiated power for representative cases from Tore Supra experiments on strong radiation regimes using the ergodic divertor. Transport predictions of external radiation are compared with observation to estimate the absolute impurity density. BBQ provides the incoming distribution of recycling impurity charge states for the radial transport calculation. The shots studied use the ergodic divertor and high ICRH power. Power is first applied and then the extrinsic impurity (Ne, N or Ar) is injected. Separate time dependent intrinsic (C and O) impurity transport calculations match radiation levels before and during the high power and impurity injection phases. Empirical diffusivities are sought to reproduce the UV (CV R, I lines), CVI Lya, OVIII Lya, Zeff, and horizontal bolometer data. The model has been used to calculate the relative radiative efficiency (radiated power / extrinsically contributed electron) for the sample database.

  14. Strengthening of rural bridges using rapid-installation FRP technology : route 63 bridge no. H356, Phelps County.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-10-01

    This report presents the use of externally bonded fiber reinforced polymers (FRP) laminates for the flexural strengthening of a : concrete bridge. The bridge selected for this project is a two-span simply supported reinforced concrete slab with no tr...

  15. [Development of denture base resin. 2. Manufacturing of visible-light cured prepreg and physical properties of FRP].

    PubMed

    Kimura, H; Yu, P Y; Teraoka, F; Sugita, M

    1989-09-01

    To develop the visible light-cured FRP denture base, we investigated the physical properties and the warp of FRP plate by using various combinations of matrix resin and reinforcement. From the results of the bending test, hardness test and manipulation processing, the matrix resin of Bis-GMA/UDMA/3 G at 48/48/4 wt% was determined. The sateen weave's glasscloth as the reinforcement of the prepreg was used. The maximum plies included FRP of 0.5 mm, 0.8 and 1.0 mm thickness have the same maximum bending strengths of 45 kgf/mm2, which is about 5 times larger than that of conventional acrylic resin. The warp of these FRP plates were not found.

  16. Experimental evaluation and design of unfilled and concrete-filled FRP composite piles : Task 4A : design specifications.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-08-01

    The overall goal of this project is the experimental evaluation and design of unfilled and concrete-filled FRP composite piles for load-bearing in bridges. This report covers Task 4A, Design Specifications. : Structural design specifications are base...

  17. Measuring power loss due to radiation and charge exchange in MST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waksman, Jeff; Chapman, Brett; Fiksel, Gennady; Nonn, Paul

    2008-11-01

    An array of photodiode-pyrobolometer pairs will be placed on MST to measure the spatial structure of the radiated power and charge exchange. Photodiodes (XUV detectors) measure photonic radiated power from about 10eV to 10keV, while pyrobolometers (thermal detectors) measure both photonic radiated power and power carried by charge-exchange neutrals. Compared to other thermal detectors, pyrobolometers have very good time resolution. To accurately calibrate the individual detectors, an electron gun producing a modulated square wave output has been set up to carefully calibrate each new pyrobolometer to be placed on MST. When viewing the MST plasma, subtraction of the data from the photodiode-pyrobolometer pairs allows one to determine the net power loss due to charge-exchange neutrals. These measurements are important in the calculation of ion energy balance, and it is potentially important in understanding the difference in the temperatures reached by majority and impurity ions during magnetic-reconnection ion-heating events. Since toroidal and poloidal asymmetries in charge exchange are possible, a distributed array of detector pairs will facilitate a better estimate of global power loss. Work supported by the U.S.D.O.E. .

  18. Radiation and temperature effects on electronic components investigated under the CSTI high capacity power project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarze, Gene E.; Niedra, Janis M.; Frasca, Albert J.; Wieserman, William R.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of nuclear radiation and high temperature environments must be fully known and understood for the electronic components and materials used in both the Power Conditioning and Control subsystem and the reactor Instrumentation and Control subsystem of future high capacity nuclear space power systems. This knowledge is required by the designer of these subsystems in order to develop highly reliable, long-life power systems for future NASA missions. A review and summary of the experimental results obtained for the electronic components and materials investigated under the power management element of the Civilian Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) high capacity power project are presented: (1) neutron, gamma ray, and temperature effects on power semiconductor switches, (2) temperature and frequency effects on soft magnetic materials; and (3) temperature effects on rare earth permanent magnets.

  19. Solar Power System Options for the Radiation and Technology Demonstration Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.; Haraburda, Francis M.; Riehl, John P.

    2000-01-01

    The Radiation and Technology Demonstration (RTD) Mission has the primary objective of demonstrating high-power (10 kilowatts) electric thruster technologies in Earth orbit. This paper discusses the conceptual design of the RTD spacecraft photovoltaic (PV) power system and mission performance analyses. These power system studies assessed multiple options for PV arrays, battery technologies and bus voltage levels. To quantify performance attributes of these power system options, a dedicated Fortran code was developed to predict power system performance and estimate system mass. The low-thrust mission trajectory was analyzed and important Earth orbital environments were modeled. Baseline power system design options are recommended on the basis of performance, mass and risk/complexity. Important findings from parametric studies are discussed and the resulting impacts to the spacecraft design and cost.

  20. Electron Cyclotron Radiation, Related Power Loss, and Passive Current Drive in Tokamaks: A Review

    SciTech Connect

    Fidone, Ignazio; Giruzzi, Gerardo; Granata, Giovanni

    2001-01-15

    A critical review on emission of weakly damped, high-harmonics electron cyclotron radiation, the related synchrotron power loss, and passive current drive in tokamaks with a fish-scale first wall is presented. First, the properties of overlapping harmonics are discussed using general analytical formulas and numerical applications. Next, the radiation power loss and efficiency of passive current drive in tokamak reactors are derived for the asymmetric fish-scale first wall. The radiation power loss is determined by the direction-averaged reflection coefficient {sigma}{sub 0} and the passive current drive by the differential reflectivity {delta}{sigma}/(1 - {sigma}{sub 0}). Finally, the problem of experimental investigations ofmore » the high harmonics radiation spectra, of {sigma}{sub 0} and {delta}{sigma}/(1 - {sigma}{sub 0}) in existing and next-step tokamaks, is discussed. Accurate measurements of the radiation spectra and the fish-scale reflectivity can be performed at arbitrary electron temperature using a partial fish-scale structure located near the tokamak equatorial plane.« less

  1. Modal analysis and nonlinear characterization of an airborne power ultrasonic transducer with rectangular plate radiator.

    PubMed

    Andrés, R R; Acosta, V M; Lucas, M; Riera, E

    2018-01-01

    Some industrial processes like particle agglomeration or food dehydration among others can be enhanced by the use of power ultrasonic technologies. These technologies are based on an airborne power ultrasonic transducer (APUT) constituted by a pre-stressed Langevin-type transducer, a mechanical amplifier and an extensive plate radiator. In order to produce the desired effects in industrial processing, the transducer has to vibrate in an extensional mode driving an extensive radiator in the desired flexural mode with high amplitude displacements. Due to the generation of these high amplitude displacements in the radiator surfaces, non-linear effects like frequency shifts, hysteresis or modal interactions, among others, may be produced in the transducer behavior. When any nonlinear effect appears, when applying power, the stability and efficiency of this ultrasonic technology decreases, and the transducer may be damaged depending on the excitation power level and the nature of the nonlinearity. In this paper, an APUT with flat rectangular radiator is presented, as the active part of an innovative system with stepped reflectors. The nonlinear behavior of the APUT has been characterized numerically and experimentally in case of the modal analysis and experimentally in the case of dynamic analysis. According to the results obtained after the experiments, no modal interactions are expected, nor do other nonlinear effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Radiated Power and Impurity Concentrations in the EXTRAP-T2R Reversed-Field Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corre, Y.; Rachlew, E.; Cecconello, M.; Gravestijn, R. M.; Hedqvist, A.; Pégourié, B.; Schunke, B.; Stancalie, V.

    2005-01-01

    A numerical and experimental study of the impurity concentration and radiation in the EXTRAP-T2R device is reported. The experimental setup consists of an 8-chord bolometer system providing the plasma radiated power and a vacuum-ultraviolet spectrometer providing information on the plasma impurity content. The plasma emissivity profile as measured by the bolometric system is peaked in the plasma centre. A one dimensional Onion Skin Collisional-Radiative model (OSCR) has been developed to compute the density and radiation distributions of the main impurities. The observed centrally peaked emissivity profile can be reproduced by OSCR simulations only if finite particle confinement time and charge-exchange processes between plasma impurities and neutral hydrogen are taken into account. The neutral hydrogen density profile is computed with a recycling code. Simulations show that recycling on metal first wall such as in EXTRAP-T2R (stainless steel vacuum vessel and molybdenum limiters) is compatible with a rather high neutral hydrogen density in the plasma centre. Assuming an impurity concentration of 10% for oxygen and 3% for carbon compared with the electron density, the OSCR calculation including lines and continuum emission reproduces about 60% of the total radiated power with a similarly centrally peaked emissivity profile. The centrally peaked emissivity profile is due to low ionisation stages and strongly radiating species in the plasma core, mainly O4+ (Be-like) and C3+ Li-like.

  3. Comparison of Stopping Power and Range Databases for Radiation Transport Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, H.; Bichsel, Hans; Wilson, John W.; Shinn, Judy L.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Badavi, Francis F.

    1997-01-01

    The codes used to calculate stopping power and range for the space radiation shielding program at the Langley Research Center are based on the work of Ziegler but with modifications. As more experience is gained from experiments at heavy ion accelerators, prudence dictates a reevaluation of the current databases. Numerical values of stopping power and range calculated from four different codes currently in use are presented for selected ions and materials in the energy domain suitable for space radiation transport. This study of radiation transport has found that for most collision systems and for intermediate particle energies, agreement is less than 1 percent, in general, among all the codes. However, greater discrepancies are seen for heavy systems, especially at low particle energies.

  4. Prototypes of Self-Powered Radiation Detectors Employing Intrinsic High-Energy Current (HEC) (POSTPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    neutron sensi- tivities of a Pt self - powered detector ,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 25, 292–295 (1978). 6T. A. Dellin, R. E. Huddleston, and C. J...Gamma-sensitive self - powered detectors and their use for in-core flux -mapping,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 28, 752–757 (1981). 9E. A. Burke and J. Wall...AFCEC-CX-TY-TP-2016-0006 PROTOTYPES OF SELF - POWERED RADIATION DETECTORS EMPLOYING INTRINSIC HIGH-ENERGY CURRENT (HEC) (POSTPRINT) Piotr

  5. IV INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ATOM AND MOLECULAR PULSED LASERS (AMPL'99): Radiative and photochemical properties of organic compounds excited by high-power XeCl laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopylova, T. N.; Kuznetsova, Rimma T.; Svetlichnyi, Valerii A.; Sergeev, A. K.; Tel'minov, E. N.; Filinov, D. N.

    2000-06-01

    Radiative and photochemical properties of a number of laser dyes excited by focused radiation of a XeCl laser with intensity up to 200 MW cm-2 were studied. A method for measuring the gain of organic molecules under high-power excitation is proposed. The dependence of the dye transmittance for the pump radiation on its intensity was studied. It is shown that changes in energy, spectral, and time characteristics of radiation and the photostability of compounds under high-power excitation are associated with the formation of superluminescence.

  6. Variability in effective radiating area and output power of new ultrasound transducers at 3 MHz.

    PubMed

    Johns, Lennart D; Straub, Stephen J; Howard, Samuel M

    2007-01-01

    Spatial average intensity (SAI) is often used by clinicians to gauge therapeutic ultrasound dosage, yet SAI measures are not directly regulated by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) standards. Current FDA guidelines permit a possible 50% to 150% minimum to maximum range of SAI values, potentially contributing to variability in clinical outcomes. To measure clinical values that describe ultrasound transducers and to determine the degree of intramanufacturer and intermanufacturer variability in effective radiating area, power, and SAI when the transducer is functioning at 3 MHz. A descriptive and interferential approach was taken to this quasi-experimental design. Measurement laboratory. Sixty-six 5-cm(2) ultrasound transducers were purchased from 6 different manufacturers. All transducers were calibrated and then assessed using standardized measurement techniques; SAI was normalized to account for variability in effective radiating area, resulting in an nSAI. Effective radiating area, power, and nSAI. All manufacturers with the exception of Omnisound (P = .534) showed a difference between the reported and measured effective radiating area values (P < .001). All transducers were within FDA guidelines for power (+/-20%). Chattanooga (0.85 +/- 0.05 W/cm(2)) had a lower nSAI (P < .05) than all other manufacturers functioning at 3 MHz. Intramanufacturer variability in SAI ranged from 16% to 35%, and intermanufacturer variability ranged from 22% to 61%. Clinicians should consider treatment values of each individual transducer, regardless of the manufacturer. In addition, clinicians should scrutinize the power calibration and recalibration record of the transducer and adjust clinical settings as needed for the desired level of heating. Our data may aid in explaining the reported heating differences among transducers from different manufacturers. Stricter FDA standards regarding effective radiating area and total power are needed, and standards regulating SAI should be

  7. Variability in Effective Radiating Area and Output Power of New Ultrasound Transducers at 3 MHz

    PubMed Central

    Johns, Lennart D; Straub, Stephen J; Howard, Samuel M

    2007-01-01

    Context: Spatial average intensity (SAI) is often used by clinicians to gauge therapeutic ultrasound dosage, yet SAI measures are not directly regulated by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) standards. Current FDA guidelines permit a possible 50% to 150% minimum to maximum range of SAI values, potentially contributing to variability in clinical outcomes. Objective: To measure clinical values that describe ultrasound transducers and to determine the degree of intramanufacturer and intermanufacturer variability in effective radiating area, power, and SAI when the transducer is functioning at 3 MHz. Design: A descriptive and interferential approach was taken to this quasi-experimental design. Setting: Measurement laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Sixty-six 5-cm2 ultrasound transducers were purchased from 6 different manufacturers. Intervention(s): All transducers were calibrated and then assessed using standardized measurement techniques; SAI was normalized to account for variability in effective radiating area, resulting in an nSAI. Main Outcome Measure(s): Effective radiating area, power, and nSAI. Results: All manufacturers with the exception of Omnisound (P = .534) showed a difference between the reported and measured effective radiating area values (P < .001). All transducers were within FDA guidelines for power (±20%). Chattanooga (0.85 ± 0.05 W/cm2) had a lower nSAI (P < .05) than all other manufacturers functioning at 3 MHz. Intramanufacturer variability in SAI ranged from 16% to 35%, and intermanufacturer variability ranged from 22% to 61%. Conclusions: Clinicians should consider treatment values of each individual transducer, regardless of the manufacturer. In addition, clinicians should scrutinize the power calibration and recalibration record of the transducer and adjust clinical settings as needed for the desired level of heating. Our data may aid in explaining the reported heating differences among transducers from different manufacturers

  8. Lightweight Damage Tolerant Radiators for In-Space Nuclear Electric Power and Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craven, Paul; SanSoucie, Michael P.; Tomboulian, Briana; Rogers, Jan; Hyers, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) is a promising option for high-speed in-space travel due to the high energy density of nuclear power sources and efficient electric thrusters. Advanced power conversion technologies for converting thermal energy from the reactor to electrical energy at high operating temperatures would benefit from lightweight, high temperature radiator materials. Radiator performance dictates power output for nuclear electric propulsion systems. Pitch-based carbon fiber materials have the potential to offer significant improvements in operating temperature and mass. An effort at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to show that woven high thermal conductivity carbon fiber mats can be used to replace standard metal and composite radiator fins to dissipate waste heat from NEP systems is ongoing. The goals of this effort are to demonstrate a proof of concept, to show that a significant improvement of specific power (power/mass) can be achieved, and to develop a thermal model with predictive capabilities. A description of this effort is presented.

  9. Radiation characteristics of input power from surface wave sustained plasma antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Naito, T., E-mail: Naito.Teruki@bc.MitsubishiElectric.co.jp; Yamaura, S.; Fukuma, Y.

    This paper reports radiation characteristics of input power from a surface wave sustained plasma antenna investigated theoretically and experimentally, especially focusing on the power consumption balance between the plasma generation and the radiation. The plasma antenna is a dielectric tube filled with argon and small amount of mercury, and the structure is a basic quarter wavelength monopole antenna at 2.45 GHz. Microwave power at 2.45 GHz is supplied to the plasma antenna. The input power is partially consumed to sustain the plasma, and the remaining part is radiated as a signal. The relationship between the antenna gain and the input powermore » is obtained by an analytical derivation and numerical simulations. As a result, the antenna gain is kept at low values, and most of the input power is consumed to increase the plasma volume until the tube is filled with the plasma whose electron density is higher than the critical electron density required for sustaining the surface wave. On the other hand, the input power is consumed to increase the electron density after the tube is fully filled with the plasma, and the antenna gain increases with increasing the electron density. The dependence of the antenna gain on the electron density is the same as that of a plasma antenna sustained by a DC glow discharge. These results are confirmed by experimental results of the antenna gain and radiation patterns. The antenna gain of the plasma is a few dB smaller than that of the identical metal antenna. The antenna gain of the plasma antenna is sufficient for the wireless communication, although it is difficult to substitute the plasma antenna for metal antennas completely. The plasma antenna is suitable for applications having high affinity with the plasma characteristics such as low interference and dynamic controllability.« less

  10. Behavior of Insulated Carbon-FRP-Strengthened RC Beams Exposed to Fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayin, B.

    2014-09-01

    There are two main approaches to improving the fire resistance of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) systems. While the most common method is to protect or insulate the FRP system, an other way is to use fibers and resins with a better fire performance. This paper presents a numerical investigation into the five protection behavior of insulated carbon-fiber-reinforced-polymer (CFRP)-strengthened reinforced concrete (RC) beams. The effects of external loading and thermal expansion of materials at elevated temperatures are taken into consideration in a finite-element model. The validity of the numerical model is demonstrated with results from an existing experimental study on insulated CFRP-strengthened RC beams. Conclusions of this investigation are employed to predict the structural behavior of CFRP-strengthened concrete structures.

  11. Dynamic assessment of reinforced concrete beams repaired with externally bonded FRP sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonfiglioli, B.; Pascale, G.

    2006-01-01

    This research deals with RC beams strengthened with FRP. An experimental research is presented which is aimed at evaluating the capability of an experimental modal analysis to assess the stiffness decrease due to damage, as well as the stiffness recovery due to strengthening. Ten beams were tested. All of them were subjected to loading cycles with increasing load levels in order to induce cracking of different severity in them. The beams were then retrofitted by externally bonded FRP sheets. Three types of composites were used. The number of layers was varied, too. Modal tests were carried out after each loading-unloading cycle. The modal frequencies and damping ratios were determined for the first four vibration modes. The results obtained indicate that an experimental modal analysis can give useful information on the severity of damage and the effectiveness of strengthening.

  12. Effect of the tapered end of a FRP plate on the interfacial stresses in a strengthened beam used in civil engineering applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahi, B. E.; Benrahou, K. H.; Belakhdar, Kh.; Tounsi, A.; Bedia, E. A. Adda

    2014-09-01

    The interfacial stresses of a beam strengthened with a FRP plate, which is widely employed in the civil engineering for rehabilitation and retrofitting of conventional structures, is investigated. An important feature of the reinforced beam is significant stress concentrations in the adhesive at the ends of the FRP plate. To reduce these interfacial stresses, a FRP plate with a tapered end is often used. The finite-difference method is utilized in this work to predict the distribution of interfacial stresses in beams strengthened with a FRP plate having a tapered end. Numerical results from the analysis are presented to demonstrate the advantages of using tapers in the design of strengthened beams.

  13. Possible standoff detection of ionizing radiation using high-power THz electromagnetic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nusinovich, Gregory S.; Sprangle, Phillip; Romero-Talamas, Carlos A.; Rodgers, John; Pu, Ruifeng; Kashyn, Dmytro G.; Antonsen, Thomas M., Jr.; Granatstein, Victor L.

    2012-06-01

    Recently, a new method of remote detection of concealed radioactive materials was proposed. This method is based on focusing high-power short wavelength electromagnetic radiation in a small volume where the wave electric field exceeds the breakdown threshold. In the presence of free electrons caused by ionizing radiation, in this volume an avalanche discharge can then be initiated. When the wavelength is short enough, the probability of having even one free electron in this small volume in the absence of additional sources of ionization is low. Hence, a high breakdown rate will indicate that in the vicinity of this volume there are some materials causing ionization of air. To prove this concept a 0.67 THz gyrotron delivering 200-300 kW power in 10 microsecond pulses is under development. This method of standoff detection of concealed sources of ionizing radiation requires a wide range of studies, viz., evaluation of possible range, THz power and pulse duration, production of free electrons in air by gamma rays penetrating through container walls, statistical delay time in initiation of the breakdown in the case of low electron density, temporal evolution of plasma structure in the breakdown and scattering of THz radiation from small plasma objects. Most of these issues are discussed in the paper.

  14. Development of Embedded Vascular Networks in FRP for Active/Passive Thermal Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    Passive Thermal Management Katarzyna...To) 30 September 2012 – 31 December 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Development of Embedded Vascular Networks in FRP for Active/ Passive Thermal Management   5a...Active/ Passive   Thermal   Management   Reference:       EOARD  grant  (FA8655-­‐12-­‐1-­‐2144)   Investigators:    

  15. High Temperature Water Heat Pipes Radiator for a Brayton Space Reactor Power System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Tournier, Jean-Michel

    2006-01-01

    A high temperature water heat pipes radiator design is developed for a space power system with a sectored gas-cooled reactor and three Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) engines, for avoidance of single point failures in reactor cooling and energy conversion and rejection. The CBC engines operate at turbine inlet and exit temperatures of 1144 K and 952 K. They have a net efficiency of 19.4% and each provides 30.5 kWe of net electrical power to the load. A He-Xe gas mixture serves as the turbine working fluid and cools the reactor core, entering at 904 K and exiting at 1149 K. Each CBC loop is coupled to a reactor sector, which is neutronically and thermally coupled, but hydraulically decoupled to the other two sectors, and to a NaK-78 secondary loop with two water heat pipes radiator panels. The segmented panels each consist of a forward fixed segment and two rear deployable segments, operating hydraulically in parallel. The deployed radiator has an effective surface area of 203 m2, and when the rear segments are folded, the stowed power system fits in the launch bay of the DELTA-IV Heavy launch vehicle. For enhanced reliability, the water heat pipes operate below 50% of their wicking limit; the sonic limit is not a concern because of the water, high vapor pressure at the temperatures of interest (384 - 491 K). The rejected power by the radiator peaks when the ratio of the lengths of evaporator sections of the longest and shortest heat pipes is the same as that of the major and minor widths of the segments. The shortest and hottest heat pipes in the rear segments operate at 491 K and 2.24 MPa, and each rejects 154 W. The longest heat pipes operate cooler (427 K and 0.52 MPa) and because they are 69% longer, reject more power (200 W each). The longest and hottest heat pipes in the forward segments reject the largest power (320 W each) while operating at ~ 46% of capillary limit. The vapor temperature and pressure in these heat pipes are 485 K and 1.97 MPa. By contrast, the

  16. Damping mathematical modelling and dynamic responses for FRP laminated composite plates with polymer matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qimao

    2018-02-01

    This paper proposes an assumption that the fibre is elastic material and polymer matrix is viscoelastic material so that the energy dissipation depends only on the polymer matrix in dynamic response process. The damping force vectors in frequency and time domains, of FRP (Fibre-Reinforced Polymer matrix) laminated composite plates, are derived based on this assumption. The governing equations of FRP laminated composite plates are formulated in both frequency and time domains. The direct inversion method and direct time integration method for nonviscously damped systems are employed to solve the governing equations and achieve the dynamic responses in frequency and time domains, respectively. The computational procedure is given in detail. Finally, dynamic responses (frequency responses with nonzero and zero initial conditions, free vibration, forced vibrations with nonzero and zero initial conditions) of a FRP laminated composite plate are computed using the proposed methodology. The proposed methodology in this paper is easy to be inserted into the commercial finite element analysis software. The proposed assumption, based on the theory of material mechanics, needs to be further proved by experiment technique in the future.

  17. A state of the art review on reinforced concrete beams with openings retrofitted with FRP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osman, Bashir H.; Wu, Erjun; Ji, Bohai; S Abdelgader, Abdeldime M.

    2016-09-01

    The use of externally bonded fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets, strips or steel plates is a modern and convenient way for strengthening of reinforced concrete (RC) beams. Several researches have been carried out on reinforced concrete beams with web openings that strengthened using fiber reinforced polymer composite. Majority of researches focused on shear strengthening compared with flexural strengthening, while others studied the effect of openings on shear and flexural separately with various loading. This paper investigates the impact of more than sixty articles on opening reinforced concrete beams with and without strengthening by fiber reinforcement polymers FRP. Moreover, important practical issues, which are contributed in shear strengthening of beams with different strengthening techniques, such as steel plate and FRP laminate, and detailed with various design approaches are discussed. Furthermore, a simple technique of applying fiber reinforced polymer contributed with steel plate for strengthening the RC beams with openings under different load application is concluded. Directions for future research based on the existing gaps of the present works are presented.

  18. Disbond detection with piezoelectric wafer active sensors in RC structures strengthened with FRP composite overlays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giurgiutiu, Victor; Harries, Kent; Petrou, Michael; Bost, Joel; Quattlebaum, Josh B.

    2003-12-01

    The capability of embedded piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS) to perform in-situ nondestructive evaluation (NDE) for structural health monitoring (SHM) of reinforced concrete (RC) structures strengthened with fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composite overlays is explored. First, the disbond detection method were developed on coupon specimens consisting of concrete blocks covered with an FRP composite layer. It was found that the presence of a disbond crack drastically changes the electromechanical (E/M) impedance spectrum measured at the PWAS terminals. The spectral changes depend on the distance between the PWAS and the crack tip. Second, large scale experiments were conducted on a RC beam strengthened with carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite overlay. The beam was subject to an accelerated fatigue load regime in a three-point bending configuration up to a total of 807,415 cycles. During these fatigue tests, the CFRP overlay experienced disbonding beginning at about 500,000 cycles. The PWAS were able to detect the disbonding before it could be reliably seen by visual inspection. Good correlation between the PWAS readings and the position and extent of disbond damage was observed. These preliminary results demonstrate the potential of PWAS technology for SHM of RC structures strengthened with FRP composite overlays.

  19. Investigation on Main Radiation Source at Operation Floor of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Unit 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirayama, Hideo; Kondo, Kenjiro; Suzuki, Seishiro; Hamamoto, Shimpei; Iwanaga, Kohei

    2017-09-01

    Pulse height distributions were measured using a LaBr3 detector set in a 1 cm lead collimator to investigate main radiation source at the operation floor of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Unit 4. It was confirmed that main radiation source above the reactor well was Co-60 from the activated steam dryer in the DS pool (Dryer-Separator pool) and that at the standby area was Cs-134 and Cs-137 from contaminated buildings and debris at the lower floor. Full energy peak count rate of Co-60 was reduced about 1/3 by 12mm lead sheet placed on the floor of the fuel handling machine.

  20. Commercial Nuclear Power Industry: Assessing and Meeting the Radiation Protection Workforce Needs.

    PubMed

    Hiatt, Jerry W

    2017-02-01

    This paper will provide an overview of the process used by the commercial nuclear power industry in assessing the status of existing industry staffing and projecting future supply demand needs. The most recent Nuclear Energy Institute-developed "Pipeline Survey Results" will be reviewed with specific emphasis on the radiation protection specialty. Both radiation protection technician and health physicist specialties will be discussed. The industry-initiated Nuclear Uniform Curriculum Program will be reviewed as an example of how the industry has addressed the need for developing additional resources. Furthermore, the reality of challenges encountered in maintaining the needed number of health physicists will also be discussed.

  1. Radiation resistance of thin-film solar cells for space photovoltaic power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodyard, James R.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    Copper indium diselenide, cadmium telluride, and amorphous silicon alloy solar cells have achieved noteworthy performance and are currently being studied for space power applications. Cadmium sulfide cells had been the subject of much effort but are no longer considered for space applications. A review is presented of what is known about the radiation degradation of thin film solar cells in space. Experimental cadmium telluride and amorphous silicon alloy cells are reviewed. Damage mechanisms and radiation induced defect generation and passivation in the amorphous silicon alloy cell are discussed in detail due to the greater amount of experimental data available.

  2. Optical radiative properties of ablating polymers exposed to high-power arc plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerra, Marley; Pettersson, Jonas

    2018-03-01

    The radiative properties of polymers exposed to high-intensity radiation are of importance for the numerical simulation of arc-induced ablation. The paper investigates the optical properties of polymethylmethacrylate PMMA and polyamide PA6 films exposed to high-power arc plasmas, which can cause ablation of the material. A four-flux radiative approximation is first used to estimate absorption and scattering coefficients of the tested materials in the ultraviolet (UV) and in the visible (VIS) ranges from spectrophotometric measurements. The temperature-induced variation of the collimated transmissivity of the polymers is also measured from room temperature to the glass temperature of PMMA and the melting temperature of PA6. Furthermore, band-averaged absorption and scattering coefficients of non-ablating and ablating polymers are estimated from the UV to the short-wavelength infrared (SWIR), covering the range of interest for the simulation of arc-induced ablation. These estimates are obtained from collimated transmissivities measured with an additional in situ photometric system that uses a high-power, transient arc plasma to both illuminate the samples and to induce ablation. It is shown that the increase in the bulk temperature of PA6 leads to a strong reversible increase in collimated transmissivity, significantly reducing the absorption and scattering coefficients of the material. A weaker but opposite effect of temperature on the optical properties is found in PMMA. As a consequence, it is suggested that the absorption coefficient of polymers used for arc-induced ablation estimates should not be taken directly from direct collimated transmissivity measurements at room temperature. The band-averaged radiation measurements also show that the layer of products released by ablation of PMMA produces scattering radiation losses mainly in the VIS-SWIR ranges, which are only a small fraction of the total incident arc radiation. In a similar manner, the ablation layer

  3. Satellite observed impacts of wildfires on regional atmosphere composition and shortwave radiative forcing: multiple cases study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Y.; Li, R.; Huang, J.; Bergeron, Y.; Fu, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Emissions of aerosols and trace gases from wildfires and the direct shortwave radiative forcing were studied using multi-satellite/sensor observations from Aqua Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Aqua Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), and Aqua Cloud's and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES). The selected cases occurred in Northeast of China (NEC), Siberia of Russia, California of America have dominant fuel types of cropland, mixed forest and needleleaf forest, respectively. The Fire radiative power (FRP) based emission coefficients (Ce) of aerosol, NOx (NO2+NO), formaldehyde (HCHO), and carbon monoxide (CO) showed significant differences from case to case. 1) the FRP of the cropland case in NEC is strongest, however, the Ce of aerosol is the lowest (20.51 ± 2.55 g MJ-1). The highest Ce of aerosol is 71.34 ± 13.24 g MJ-1 in the needleleaf fire case in California. 2) For NOx, the highest Ce existed in the cropland case in NEC (2.76 ± 0.25 g MJ-1), which is more than three times of those in the forest fires in Siberia and California. 3) The Ce of CO is 70.21±10.97 and 88.38±46.16 g MJ-1 in the forest fires in Western Siberia and California, which are about four times of that in cropland fire. 4) The variation of Ce of HCHO are relatively small among cases. Strong spatial correlations are found among aerosol optical depth (AOD), NOx, HCHO, and CO. The ratios of NOx to AOD, HCHO, and CO in the cropland case in NEC show much higher values than those in other cases. Although huge differences of emissions and composition ratios exist among cases, the direct shortwave (SW) radiative forcing efficiency (SWARFE) of smoke at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) are in good agreement, with the shortwave radiative forcing efficiencies values of 20.09 to 22.93 per unit AOD. Results in this study reveal noteworthy variations of the FRP-based emissions coefficient and relative chemical composition in the smoke

  4. Atmospheric propagation of high power laser radiation at different weather conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pargmann, Carsten; Hall, Thomas; Duschek, Frank; Handke, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    Applications based on the propagation of high power laser radiation through the atmosphere are limited in range and effect, due to weather dependent beam wandering, beam deterioration, and scattering processes. Security and defense related application examples are countermeasures against hostile projectiles and the powering of satellites and aircrafts. For an examination of the correlations between weather condition and laser beam characteristics DLR operates at Lampoldshausen a 130 m long free transmission laser test range. Sensors around this test range continuously monitor turbulence strength, visibility, precipitation, temperature, and wind speed. High power laser radiation is obtained by a TruDisk 6001 disk laser (Trumpf company) yielding a maximum output power of 6 kW at a wavelength of 1030 nm. The laser beam is expanded to 180 mm and focused along the beam path. Power and intensity distribution are measured before and after propagation, providing information about the atmospheric transmission and alterations of diameter and position of the laser beam. Backscattered laser light is acquired by a photo receiver. As a result, measurements performed at different weather conditions show a couple of correlations to the characteristics of the laser beam. The experimental results are compared to a numerical analysis. The calculations are based on the Maxwell wave equation in Fresnel approximation. The turbulence is considered by the introduction of phase screens and the "von Karman" spectrum.

  5. Performance of a Brayton power system with a space type radiator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nussle, R. C.; Prok, G. M.; Fenn, D. B.

    1974-01-01

    Test results of an experimental investigation to measure Brayton engine performance while operating at the sink temperatures of a typical low earth orbit are presented. The results indicate that the radiator area was slightly oversized. The steady state and transient responses of the power system to the sink temperatures in orbit were measured. During the orbital operation, the engine did not reach the steady state operation of either sun or shade conditions. The alternator power variation during orbit was + or - 4 percent from its mean value of 9.3 kilowatts.

  6. Characterization of Radiation Fields in Biological Shields of Nuclear Power Plants for Assessing Concrete Degradationa

    SciTech Connect

    Remec, Igor; Rosseel, Thomas M; Field, Kevin G

    Life extensions of nuclear power plants to 60 and potentially 80 years of operation have renewed interest in long-term material degradation. One material being considered is concrete, with a particular focus on radiation-induced effects. Based on the projected neutron fluence values (E > 0.1 MeV) in the concrete biological shields of the US pressurized water reactor fleet and the available data on radiation effects on concrete, some decrease in mechanical properties of concrete cannot be ruled out during extended operation beyond 60 years. An expansion of the irradiated concrete database and a reliable determination of relevant neutron fluence energy cutoffmore » value are necessary to ensure reliable risk assessment for extended operation of nuclear power plants.« less

  7. High-intensity power-resolved radiation imaging of an operational nuclear reactor.

    PubMed

    Beaumont, Jonathan S; Mellor, Matthew P; Villa, Mario; Joyce, Malcolm J

    2015-10-09

    Knowledge of the neutron distribution in a nuclear reactor is necessary to ensure the safe and efficient burnup of reactor fuel. Currently these measurements are performed by in-core systems in what are extremely hostile environments and in most reactor accident scenarios it is likely that these systems would be damaged. Here we present a compact and portable radiation imaging system with the ability to image high-intensity fast-neutron and gamma-ray fields simultaneously. This system has been deployed to image radiation fields emitted during the operation of a TRIGA test reactor allowing a spatial visualization of the internal reactor conditions to be obtained. The imaged flux in each case is found to scale linearly with reactor power indicating that this method may be used for power-resolved reactor monitoring and for the assay of ongoing nuclear criticalities in damaged nuclear reactors.

  8. High-intensity power-resolved radiation imaging of an operational nuclear reactor

    PubMed Central

    Beaumont, Jonathan S.; Mellor, Matthew P.; Villa, Mario; Joyce, Malcolm J.

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the neutron distribution in a nuclear reactor is necessary to ensure the safe and efficient burnup of reactor fuel. Currently these measurements are performed by in-core systems in what are extremely hostile environments and in most reactor accident scenarios it is likely that these systems would be damaged. Here we present a compact and portable radiation imaging system with the ability to image high-intensity fast-neutron and gamma-ray fields simultaneously. This system has been deployed to image radiation fields emitted during the operation of a TRIGA test reactor allowing a spatial visualization of the internal reactor conditions to be obtained. The imaged flux in each case is found to scale linearly with reactor power indicating that this method may be used for power-resolved reactor monitoring and for the assay of ongoing nuclear criticalities in damaged nuclear reactors. PMID:26450669

  9. On the electromagnetic fields, Poynting vector, and peak power radiated by lightning return strokes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krider, E. P.

    1992-01-01

    The initial radiation fields, Poynting vector, and total electromagnetic power that a vertical return stroke radiates into the upper half space have been computed when the speed of the stroke, nu, is a significant fraction of the speed of light, c, assuming that at large distances and early times the source is an infinitesimal dipole. The initial current is also assumed to satisfy the transmission-line model with a constant nu and to be perpendicular to an infinite, perfectly conducting ground. The effect of a large nu is to increase the radiation fields by a factor of (1-beta-sq cos-sq theta) exp -1, where beta = nu/c and theta is measured from the vertical, and the Poynting vector by a factor of (1-beta-sq cos-sq theta) exp -2.

  10. Organic Materials Ionizing Radiation Susceptibility for the Outer Planet/Solar Probe Radioisotope Power Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golliher, Eric L.; Pepper, Stephen V.

    2001-01-01

    The Department of Energy is considering the current Stirling Technology Corporation 55 We Stirling Technology Demonstration Convertor as a baseline option for an advanced radioisotope power source for the Outer Planets/Solar Probe project of Jet Propulsion Laboratory and other missions. However, since the Technology Demonstration Convertor contains organic materials chosen without any special consideration of flight readiness, and without any consideration of the extremely high radiation environment of Europa, a preliminary investigation was performed to address the radiation susceptibility of the current organic materials used in the Technology Demonstration Convertor. This report documents the results of the investigation. The results of the investigation show that candidate replacement materials have been identified to be acceptable in the harsh Europa radiation environment.

  11. Current scaling of radiated power for 40-mm diameter single wire arrays on Z

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nash, T. J.; Cuneo, M. E.; Spielman, R. B.; Chandler, G. A.; Leeper, R. J.; Seaman, J. F.; McGurn, J.; Lazier, S.; Torres, J.; Jobe, D.; Gilliland, T.; Nielsen, D.; Hawn, R.; Bailey, J. E.; Lake, P.; Carlson, A. L.; Seamen, H.; Moore, T.; Smelser, R.; Pyle, J.; Wagoner, T. C.; LePell, P. D.; Deeney, C.; Douglas, M. R.; McDaniel, D.; Struve, K.; Mazarakis, M.; Stygar, W. A.

    2004-11-01

    In order to estimate the radiated power that can be expected from the next-generation Z-pinch driver such as ZR at 28 MA, current-scaling experiments have been conducted on the 20 MA driver Z. We report on the current scaling of single 40 mm diameter tungsten 240 wire arrays with a fixed 110 ns implosion time. The wire diameter is decreased in proportion to the load current. Reducing the charge voltage on the Marx banks reduces the load current. On one shot, firing only three of the four levels of the Z machine further reduced the load current. The radiated energy scaled as the current squared as expected but the radiated power scaled as the current to the 3.52±0.42 power due to increased x-ray pulse width at lower current. As the current is reduced, the rise time of the x-ray pulse increases and at the lowest current value of 10.4 MA, a shoulder appears on the leading edge of the x-ray pulse. In order to determine the nature of the plasma producing the leading edge of the x-ray pulse at low currents further shots were taken with an on-axis aperture to view on-axis precursor plasma. This aperture appeared to perturb the pinch in a favorable manner such that with the aperture in place there was no leading edge to the x-ray pulses at lower currents and the radiated power scaled as the current squared ±0.75. For a full-current shot we will present x-ray images that show precursor plasma emitting on-axis 77 ns before the main x-ray burst.

  12. Recent Work in Hybrid Radiation Transport Methods with Applications to Commercial Nuclear Power

    SciTech Connect

    Kulesza, Joel A.

    This talk will begin with an overview of hybrid radiation transport methods followed by a discussion of the author’s work to advance current capabilities. The talk will then describe applications for these methods in commercial nuclear power reactor analyses and techniques for experimental validation. When discussing these analytical and experimental activities, the importance of technical standards such as those created and maintained by ASTM International will be demonstrated.

  13. Collisionless dissociation and isotopic enrichment of SF6 using high-powered CO2 laser radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gower, M. C.; Billman, K. W.

    1977-01-01

    Dissociation of S-32F6 and the resultant isotopic enrichment of S-34F6 using high-powered CO2 laser radiation has been studied with higher experimental sensitivity than previously reported. Enrichment factors have been measured as a function of laser pulse number, wavelength, energy and time duration. A geometry independent dissociation cross section is introduced and measured values are presented. Threshold energy densities, below which no dissociation was observed, were also determined.

  14. Radiation power and linewidth of a semifluxon-based Josephson oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Paramonov, M.; Fominsky, M. Yu.; Koshelets, V. P.

    We demonstrate a high-frequency generator operating at ∼200 GHz based on flipping a semifluxon in a Josephson junction of moderate normalized length. The semifluxon spontaneously appears at the π discontinuity of the Josephson phase artificially created by means of two tiny current injectors. The radiation is detected by an on-chip detector (tunnel junction). The estimated radiation power (at the detector) is ∼8 nW and should be compared with the dc power of ∼100 nW consumed by the generator. The measured radiation linewidth, as low as 1.1 MHz, is typical for geometrical (Fiske) resonances, although we tried to suppress such resonances by placing well-matched microwavemore » transformers at its both ends. Making use of a phase-locking feedback loop, we are able to reduce the radiation linewidth to less than 1 Hz measured relative to the reference oscillator and defined just by the resolution of our measurement setup.« less

  15. Status of the Development of Low Cost Radiator for Surface Fission Power - II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarau, Calin; Maxwell, Taylor; Anderson, William G.; Wagner, Corey; Wrosch, Matthew; Briggs, Maxwell H.

    2016-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is developing fission power system technology for future Lunar and Martian surface power applications. The systems are envisioned in the 10 to 100kWe range and have an anticipated design life of 8 to 15 years with no maintenance. NASA GRC is currently setting up a 55 kWe non-nuclear system ground test in thermal-vacuum to validate technologies required to transfer reactor heat, convert the heat into electricity, reject waste heat, process the electrical output, and demonstrate overall system performance. The paper reports on the development of the heat pipe radiator to reject the waste heat from the Stirling convertors. Reducing the radiator mass, size, and cost is essential to the success of the program. To meet these goals, Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT) and Vanguard Space Technologies, Inc. (VST) are developing a single facesheet radiator with heat pipes directly bonded to the facesheet. The facesheet material is a graphite fiber reinforced composite (GFRC) and the heat pipes are titanium/water Variable Conductance Heat Pipes (VCHPs). By directly bonding a single facesheet to the heat pipes, several heavy and expensive components can be eliminated from the traditional radiator design such as, POCO"TM" foam saddles, aluminum honeycomb, and a second facesheet. As mentioned in previous papers by the authors, the final design of the waste heat radiator is described as being modular with independent GFRC panels for each heat pipe. The present paper reports on test results for a single radiator module as well as a radiator cluster consisting of eight integral modules. These tests were carried out in both ambient and vacuum conditions. While the vacuum testing of the single radiator module was performed in the ACT's vacuum chamber, the vacuum testing of the eight heat pipe radiator cluster took place in NASA GRC's vacuum chamber to accommodate the larger size of the cluster. The results for both articles show good agreement

  16. Radiation effects in concrete for nuclear power plants Part I: Quantification of radiation exposure and radiation effects

    SciTech Connect

    Field, Kevin G; Pape, Yann Le; Remec, Igor

    A large fraction of light water reactor (LWR) construction utilizes concrete, including safety-related structures such as the biological shielding and containment building. Concrete is an inherently complex material, with the properties of concrete structures changing over their lifetime due to the intrinsic nature of concrete and influences from local environment. As concrete structures within LWRs age, the total neutron fluence exposure of the components, in particular the biological shield, can increase to levels where deleterious effects are introduced as a result of neutron irradiation. This work summarizes the current state of the art on irradiated concrete, including a review ofmore » the current literature and estimates the total neutron fluence expected in biological shields in typical LWR configurations. It was found a first-order mechanism for loss of mechanical properties of irradiated concrete is due to radiation-induced swelling of aggregates, which leads to volumetric expansion of the concrete. This phenomena is estimated to occur near the end of life of biological shield components in LWRs based on calculations of estimated peak neutron fluence in the shield after 80 years of operation.« less

  17. Formation of short high-power laser radiation pulses in excimer mediums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losev, V. F., Sr.; Ivanov, N. G.; Panchenko, Yu. N.

    2007-06-01

    Presently an excimer mediums continue are examined as one of variants for formation of powerful and over powerful pulses of laser radiation with duration from units of nanosecond up to tens femtosecond. The researches on such powerful installations as "NIKE" (USA) and << SUPER ASHURA >>, Japan) proceed in this direction. The main advantage of excimer mediums is the opportunity to work in a frequency mode, absence of restriction on the size of active area, high uniformity of a gas working medium, high efficiency (up to 10 %) and wide spectral range of laser radiation (KrF, XeCl ~ 2nm, XeF (C-A), Xe IICl ~ 50-100 nanometers). Research in area of high quality laser beams formation in excimer mediums and its amplification in high power amplifiers are carried out the long time in Institute of High Current Electronics SB RAS, Tomsk, Russia. The wide aperture XeCl laser system of MELS-4k is used for these investigations. Last time we take part in program on development of high power excimer laser system with a petawatt level of power. This system supposes the formation and amplification high quality laser beams with different pulse duration from units of nanosecond up to tens femtosecond. We research the possibility of laser beams formation in excimer mediums with ps-ns pulse duration having the low noise and divergence near to diffraction limit. In other hand, we are developing the wide aperture XeF(C-A) amplifier with optical pump on base electron accelerator. According to our estimations of the XeF(C-A) amplifier based on the converter of e-beam energy to the Xe II* fluorescence at 172 nm will allow to obtain up to 100 TW peak power in a 30 fs pulse.

  18. Generating high-power short terahertz electromagnetic pulses with a multifoil radiator.

    PubMed

    Vinokurov, Nikolay A; Jeong, Young Uk

    2013-02-08

    We describe a multifoil cone radiator capable of generating high-field short terahertz pulses using short electron bunches. Round flat conducting foil plates with successively decreasing radii are stacked, forming a truncated cone with the z axis. The gaps between the foil plates are equal and filled with some dielectric (or vacuum). A short relativistic electron bunch propagates along the z axis. At sufficiently high particle energy, the energy losses and multiple scattering do not change the bunch shape significantly. When passing by each gap between the foil plates, the electron bunch emits some energy into the gap. Then, the radiation pulses propagate radially outward. For transverse electromagnetic waves with a longitudinal (along the z axis) electric field and an azimuthal magnetic field, there is no dispersion in these radial lines; therefore, the radiation pulses conserve their shapes (time dependence). At the outer surface of the cone, we have synchronous circular radiators. Their radiation field forms a conical wave. Ultrashort terahertz pulses with gigawatt-level peak power can be generated with this device.

  19. Optimized tokamak power exhaust with double radiative feedback in ASDEX Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallenbach, A.; Bernert, M.; Eich, T.; Fuchs, J. C.; Giannone, L.; Herrmann, A.; Schweinzer, J.; Treutterer, W.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2012-12-01

    A double radiative feedback technique has been developed on the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak for optimization of power exhaust with a standard vertical target divertor. The main chamber radiation is measured in real time by a subset of three foil bolometer channels and controlled by argon injection in the outer midplane. The target heat flux is in addition controlled by nitrogen injection in the divertor private flux region using either a thermoelectric sensor or the scaled divertor radiation obtained by a bolometer channel in the outer divertor. No negative interference of the two radiation controllers has been observed so far. The combination of main chamber and divertor radiative cooling extends the operational space of a standard divertor configuration towards high values of P/R. Pheat/R = 14 MW m-1 has been achieved so far with nitrogen seeding alone as well as with combined N + Ar injection, with the time-averaged divertor peak heat flux below 5 MW m-2. Good plasma performance can be maintained under these conditions, namely H98(y,2) = 1 and βN = 3.

  20. Bridge-in-a-backpack(TM) task 3.3 : investigate soil-structure interaction-modeling and experimental results of concrete filled FRP tube arches.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-12-01

    This report includes fulfillment of Task 3.3 of a multi-task contract to further enhance concrete filled FRP tubes, or : the Bridge in a Backpack. Task 3 is an investigation of soil-structure interaction for the FRP tubes. Task 3.3 is the : modeling ...

  1. Materials-of-Construction Radiation Sensitivity for a Fission Surface Power Convertor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, Cheryl L.; Geng, Steven M.; Niedra, Janis M.; Sayir, Ali; Shin, Eugene E.; Sutter, James K.; Thieme, Lanny G.

    2007-01-01

    A fission reactor combined with a free-piston Stirling convertor is one of many credible approaches for producing electrical power in space applications. This study assumes dual-opposed free-piston Stirling engines/linear alternators that will operate nominally at 825 K hot-end and 425 K cold-end temperatures. The baseline design options, temperature profiles, and materials of construction discussed here are based on historical designs as well as modern convertors operating at lower power levels. This notional design indicates convertors primarily made of metallic components that experience minimal change in mechanical properties for fast neutron fluences less than 10(sup 20) neutrons per square centimeter. However, these radiation effects can impact the magnetic and electrical properties of metals at much lower fluences than are crucial for mechanical property integrity. Moreover, a variety of polymeric materials are also used in common free-piston Stirling designs for bonding, seals, lubrication, insulation and others. Polymers can be affected adversely by radiation doses as low as 10(sup 5) - 10(sup 10) rad. Additionally, the absorbing dose rate, radiation hardness, and the resulting effect (either hardening or softening) varies depending on the nature of the particular polymer. The classes of polymers currently used in convertor fabrication are discussed along possible substitution options. Thus, the materials of construction of prototypic Stirling convertor engines have been considered and the component materials susceptible to damage at the lowest neutron fluences have been identified.

  2. Beam power-dependent laser-induced fluorescence radiation quenching of silver-ion-exchanged glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahal, Arashmid; Khalesifard, Hamid Reza M.

    2007-04-01

    In this article, results of an investigation about the modification of silver ions embedded in a glass matrix under the action of a CW high-power Ar + laser beam, by means of laser-induced fluorescence, is reported. It is known [A. Nahal, H.R.M. Khalesifard, J. Mostafavi-Amjad, Appl. Phys. B 79 (2004) 513-518] that, as a result of the interaction of the laser beam with the sample, the embedded silver ions reduce to neutral ones and silver clusters are formed. We observed that the fluorescence radiation of the central part of the interaction area, on the sample, diminishes simultaneously with the formation of the neutral clusters. Further increase in the exposure time or the power of the beam results in reappearance of the fluorescence radiation, in the central part of the interaction area. We found that, during and after the interaction the spectrum of the fluorescence radiation changes. This makes it possible to study the laser-induced changes in the embedded silver ions and clusters, in real-time.

  3. Revisiting a pre-inflationary radiation era and its effect on the CMB power spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Suratna; Goswami, Gaurav; Rangarajan, Raghavan

    2015-06-01

    We revisit the scenario where inflation is preceded by a radiation era by considering that the inflaton too could have been in thermal equilibrium early in the radiation era. Hence we take into account not only the effect of a pre-inflationary era on the inflaton mode functions but also that of a frozen thermal distribution of inflaton quanta. We initially discuss in detail the issues relevant to our scenario of a pre-inflationary radiation dominated era and then obtain the scalar power spectrum for this scenario. We find that the power spectrum is free from infrared divergences. We then use themore » WMAP and Planck data to determine the constraints on the inflaton comoving 'temperature' and on the duration of inflation. We find that the best fit value of the duration of inflation is less than 1 e-folding more than what is required to solve cosmological problems, while only an upper bound on the inflaton temperature can be obtained.« less

  4. Impacts of propagating, frustrated and surface modes on radiative, electrical and thermal losses in nanoscale-gap thermophotovoltaic power generators.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Michael P; Dupré, Olivier; Blandre, Etienne; Chapuis, Pierre-Olivier; Vaillon, Rodolphe; Francoeur, Mathieu

    2015-06-26

    The impacts of radiative, electrical and thermal losses on the performances of nanoscale-gap thermophotovoltaic (nano-TPV) power generators consisting of a gallium antimonide cell paired with a broadband tungsten and a radiatively-optimized Drude radiator are analyzed. Results reveal that surface mode mediated nano-TPV power generation with the Drude radiator outperforms the tungsten radiator, dominated by frustrated modes, only for a vacuum gap thickness of 10 nm and if both electrical and thermal losses are neglected. The key limiting factors for the Drude- and tungsten-based devices are respectively the recombination of electron-hole pairs at the cell surface and thermalization of radiation with energy larger than the cell absorption bandgap. A design guideline is also proposed where a high energy cutoff above which radiation has a net negative effect on nano-TPV power output due to thermal losses is determined. It is shown that the power output of a tungsten-based device increases by 6.5% while the cell temperature decreases by 30 K when applying a high energy cutoff at 1.45 eV. This work demonstrates that design and optimization of nano-TPV devices must account for radiative, electrical and thermal losses.

  5. Impacts of propagating, frustrated and surface modes on radiative, electrical and thermal losses in nanoscale-gap thermophotovoltaic power generators

    PubMed Central

    Bernardi, Michael P.; Dupré, Olivier; Blandre, Etienne; Chapuis, Pierre-Olivier; Vaillon, Rodolphe; Francoeur, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    The impacts of radiative, electrical and thermal losses on the performances of nanoscale-gap thermophotovoltaic (nano-TPV) power generators consisting of a gallium antimonide cell paired with a broadband tungsten and a radiatively-optimized Drude radiator are analyzed. Results reveal that surface mode mediated nano-TPV power generation with the Drude radiator outperforms the tungsten radiator, dominated by frustrated modes, only for a vacuum gap thickness of 10 nm and if both electrical and thermal losses are neglected. The key limiting factors for the Drude- and tungsten-based devices are respectively the recombination of electron-hole pairs at the cell surface and thermalization of radiation with energy larger than the cell absorption bandgap. A design guideline is also proposed where a high energy cutoff above which radiation has a net negative effect on nano-TPV power output due to thermal losses is determined. It is shown that the power output of a tungsten-based device increases by 6.5% while the cell temperature decreases by 30 K when applying a high energy cutoff at 1.45 eV. This work demonstrates that design and optimization of nano-TPV devices must account for radiative, electrical and thermal losses. PMID:26112658

  6. Use of a Molecular Decoy to Segregate Transport from Antigenicity in the FrpB Iron Transporter from Neisseria meningitidis

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Muhammad; Prince, Stephen M.; Rigby, Stephen E. J.; Imran, Muhammad; Patel, Hema; Chan, Hannah; Sanders, Holly; Maiden, Martin C. J.; Feavers, Ian M.; Derrick, Jeremy P.

    2013-01-01

    FrpB is an outer membrane transporter from Neisseria meningitidis, the causative agent of meningococcal meningitis. It is a member of the TonB-dependent transporter (TBDT) family and is responsible for iron uptake into the periplasm. FrpB is subject to a high degree of antigenic variation, principally through a region of hypervariable sequence exposed at the cell surface. From the crystal structures of two FrpB antigenic variants, we identify a bound ferric ion within the structure which induces structural changes on binding which are consistent with it being the transported substrate. Binding experiments, followed by elemental analysis, verified that FrpB binds Fe3+ with high affinity. EPR spectra of the bound Fe3+ ion confirmed that its chemical environment was consistent with that observed in the crystal structure. Fe3+ binding was reduced or abolished on mutation of the Fe3+-chelating residues. FrpB orthologs were identified in other Gram-negative bacteria which showed absolute conservation of the coordinating residues, suggesting the existence of a specific TBDT sub-family dedicated to the transport of Fe3+. The region of antigenic hypervariability lies in a separate, external sub-domain, whose structure is conserved in both the F3-3 and F5-1 variants, despite their sequence divergence. We conclude that the antigenic sub-domain has arisen separately as a result of immune selection pressure to distract the immune response from the primary transport function. This would enable FrpB to function as a transporter independently of antibody binding, by using the antigenic sub-domain as a ‘molecular decoy’ to distract immune surveillance. PMID:23457610

  7. Use of a molecular decoy to segregate transport from antigenicity in the FrpB iron transporter from Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Muhammad; Prince, Stephen M; Rigby, Stephen E J; Imran, Muhammad; Patel, Hema; Chan, Hannah; Sanders, Holly; Maiden, Martin C J; Feavers, Ian M; Derrick, Jeremy P

    2013-01-01

    FrpB is an outer membrane transporter from Neisseria meningitidis, the causative agent of meningococcal meningitis. It is a member of the TonB-dependent transporter (TBDT) family and is responsible for iron uptake into the periplasm. FrpB is subject to a high degree of antigenic variation, principally through a region of hypervariable sequence exposed at the cell surface. From the crystal structures of two FrpB antigenic variants, we identify a bound ferric ion within the structure which induces structural changes on binding which are consistent with it being the transported substrate. Binding experiments, followed by elemental analysis, verified that FrpB binds Fe(3+) with high affinity. EPR spectra of the bound Fe(3+) ion confirmed that its chemical environment was consistent with that observed in the crystal structure. Fe(3+) binding was reduced or abolished on mutation of the Fe(3+)-chelating residues. FrpB orthologs were identified in other Gram-negative bacteria which showed absolute conservation of the coordinating residues, suggesting the existence of a specific TBDT sub-family dedicated to the transport of Fe(3+). The region of antigenic hypervariability lies in a separate, external sub-domain, whose structure is conserved in both the F3-3 and F5-1 variants, despite their sequence divergence. We conclude that the antigenic sub-domain has arisen separately as a result of immune selection pressure to distract the immune response from the primary transport function. This would enable FrpB to function as a transporter independently of antibody binding, by using the antigenic sub-domain as a 'molecular decoy' to distract immune surveillance.

  8. Strengthening of reinforced concrete beams with basalt-based FRP sheets: An analytical assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nerilli, Francesca; Vairo, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    In this paper the effectiveness of the flexural strengthening of RC beams through basalt fiber-reinforced sheets is investigated. The non-linear flexural response of RC beams strengthened with FRP composites applied at the traction side is described via an analytical formulation. Validation results and some comparative analyses confirm soundness and consistency of the proposed approach, and highlight the good mechanical performances (in terms of strength and ductility enhancement of the beam) produced by basalt-based reinforcements in comparison with traditional glass or carbon FRPs.

  9. Strengthening of reinforced concrete beams with basalt-based FRP sheets: An analytical assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Nerilli, Francesca; Vairo, Giuseppe

    2016-06-08

    In this paper the effectiveness of the flexural strengthening of RC beams through basalt fiber-reinforced sheets is investigated. The non-linear flexural response of RC beams strengthened with FRP composites applied at the traction side is described via an analytical formulation. Validation results and some comparative analyses confirm soundness and consistency of the proposed approach, and highlight the good mechanical performances (in terms of strength and ductility enhancement of the beam) produced by basalt-based reinforcements in comparison with traditional glass or carbon FRPs.

  10. Generation of high-power, tunable terahertz radiation from laser interaction with a relativistic electron beam

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Zhen; Yan, Lixin; Du, Yingchao; ...

    2017-05-01

    We propose a method based on the slice energy spread modulation to generate strong subpicosecond density bunching in high-intensity relativistic electron beams. A laser pulse with periodic intensity envelope is used to modulate the slice energy spread of the electron beam, which can then be converted into density modulation after a dispersive section. It is found that the double-horn slice energy distribution of the electron beam induced by the laser modulation is very effective to increase the density bunching. Since the modulation is performed on a relativistic electron beam, the process does not suffer from strong space charge force ormore » coupling between phase spaces, so that it is straightforward to preserve the beam quality for terahertz (THz) radiation and other applications. We show in both theory and simulations that the tunable radiation from the beam can cover the frequency range of 1 - 10 THz with high power and narrow-band spectra.« less

  11. Robust, Radiation Tolerant Command and Data Handling and Power System Electronics for SmallSats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Hanson Cao; Fraction, James

    2018-01-01

    In today's budgetary environment, there is significant interest within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to enable small robotic science missions that can be executed faster and cheaper than previous larger missions. To help achieve this, focus has shifted from using exclusively radiation-tolerant or radiation-hardened parts to using more commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components for NASA small satellite missions that can last at least one year in orbit. However, there are some portions of a spacecraft's avionics, such as the Command and Data Handling (C&DH) subsystem and the Power System Electronics (PSE) that need to have a higher level of reliability that goes beyond what is attainable with currently available COTS parts. While there are a number of COTS components that can withstand a total ionizing dose (TID) of tens or hundreds of kilorads, there is still a great deal of concern about tolerance to and mitigation of single-event effects (SEE).

  12. Characterization of Radiation Fields in Biological Shields of Nuclear Power Plants for Assessing Concrete Degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Remec, Igor; Rosseel, Thomas M; Field, Kevin G

    Life extensions of nuclear power plants to 60 and potentially 80 years of operation have renewed interest in long-term material degradation. One material being considered is concrete with a particular focus on radiation-induced effects. Based on the projected neutron fluence (E > 0.1 MeV) values in the concrete biological shields of the US PWR fleet and the available data on radiation effects on concrete, some decrease in mechanical properties of concrete cannot be ruled out during extended operation beyond 60 years. An expansion of the irradiated concrete database and a reliable determination of relevant neutron fluence energy cutoff value aremore » necessary to assure reliable risk assessment for NPPs extended operation.« less

  13. Radiation and Thermal Cycling Effects on EPC1001 Gallium Nitride Power Transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Scheick, Leif Z.; Lauenstein, Jean M.; Casey, Megan C.; Hammoud, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Electronics designed for use in NASA space missions are required to work efficiently and reliably under harsh environment conditions. These include radiation, extreme temperatures, and thermal cycling, to name a few. Information pertaining to performance of electronic parts and systems under hostile environments is very scarce, especially for new devices. Such data is very critical so that proper design is implemented in order to ensure mission success and to mitigate risks associated with exposure of on-board systems to the operational environment. In this work, newly-developed enhancement-mode field effect transistors (FET) based on gallium nitride (GaN) technology were exposed to various particles of ionizing radiation and to long-term thermal cycling over a wide temperature range. Data obtained on control (un-irradiated) and irradiated samples of these power transistors are presented and the results are discussed.

  14. Behavior of Concrete Cylinders Strengthened with a Basalt-FRP and Subjected to Mechanical Loads and Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulendinov, T.; Zesers, A.; Tamužs, V.

    2017-09-01

    Concrete samples were manufactured and strengthened with a basalt FRP (BFRP) using two kinds of winding patterns (spiral and tight). The efficiency of common and temperature-resistant epoxy binders were studied. Some of the samples were encased in an external concrete shell for an additional protection of the FRP reinforcement during heating. Both plain and polypropylene-microfiber-reinforced concretes were used for the external casing. Stress-strain relations of the samples before and after heating were obtained. The effects of high temperatures on the integrity of concrete samples with a BFRP reinforcement was investigated.

  15. Nonlinear micromechanics-based finite element analysis of the interfacial behaviour of FRP-strengthened reinforced concrete beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd El Baky, Hussien

    This research work is devoted to theoretical and numerical studies on the flexural behaviour of FRP-strengthened concrete beams. The objectives of this research are to extend and generalize the results of simple experiments, to recommend new design guidelines based on accurate numerical tools, and to enhance our comprehension of the bond performance of such beams. These numerical tools can be exploited to bridge the existing gaps in the development of analysis and modelling approaches that can predict the behaviour of FRP-strengthened concrete beams. The research effort here begins with the formulation of a concrete model and development of FRP/concrete interface constitutive laws, followed by finite element simulations for beams strengthened in flexure. Finally, a statistical analysis is carried out taking the advantage of the aforesaid numerical tools to propose design guidelines. In this dissertation, an alternative incremental formulation of the M4 microplane model is proposed to overcome the computational complexities associated with the original formulation. Through a number of numerical applications, this incremental formulation is shown to be equivalent to the original M4 model. To assess the computational efficiency of the incremental formulation, the "arc-length" numerical technique is also considered and implemented in the original Bazant et al. [2000] M4 formulation. Finally, the M4 microplane concrete model is coded in FORTRAN and implemented as a user-defined subroutine into the commercial software package ADINA, Version 8.4. Then this subroutine is used with the finite element package to analyze various applications involving FRP strengthening. In the first application a nonlinear micromechanics-based finite element analysis is performed to investigate the interfacial behaviour of FRP/concrete joints subjected to direct shear loadings. The intention of this part is to develop a reliable bond--slip model for the FRP/concrete interface. The bond

  16. Power Generation from a Radiative Thermal Source Using a Large-Area Infrared Rectenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shank, Joshua; Kadlec, Emil A.; Jarecki, Robert L.; Starbuck, Andrew; Howell, Stephen; Peters, David W.; Davids, Paul S.

    2018-05-01

    Electrical power generation from a moderate-temperature thermal source by means of direct conversion of infrared radiation is important and highly desirable for energy harvesting from waste heat and micropower applications. Here, we demonstrate direct rectified power generation from an unbiased large-area nanoantenna-coupled tunnel diode rectifier called a rectenna. Using a vacuum radiometric measurement technique with irradiation from a temperature-stabilized thermal source, a generated power density of 8 nW /cm2 is observed at a source temperature of 450 °C for the unbiased rectenna across an optimized load resistance. The optimized load resistance for the peak power generation for each temperature coincides with the tunnel diode resistance at zero bias and corresponds to the impedance matching condition for a rectifying antenna. Current-voltage measurements of a thermally illuminated large-area rectenna show current zero crossing shifts into the second quadrant indicating rectification. Photon-assisted tunneling in the unbiased rectenna is modeled as the mechanism for the large short-circuit photocurrents observed where the photon energy serves as an effective bias across the tunnel junction. The measured current and voltage across the load resistor as a function of the thermal source temperature represents direct current electrical power generation.

  17. The formation of ozone and UV radiation from high-power pulsed electric discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piskarev, I. M.; Ushkanov, V. A.; Selemir, V. D.; Spirov, G. M.; Malevannaya Pikar', I. A.; Zuimach, E. A.

    2008-09-01

    High-power electric discharges with pulse energies of from 0.15 J to 4 kJ were studied. The yields of UV photons and ozone were found to be approximately equal, which led us to conclude that discharge conditions under which UV radiation and ozone fully destroyed each other were possible. If ozone formation was suppressed, as when a negative volume charge was created in the spark gap region, the flux of UV photons reached 3 × 1023 photons/(cm2 s).

  18. Test and Evaluation of Fiber Optic Sensors for High-Radiation Space Nuclear Power Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Klemer, Daniel; Fielder, Robert S.; Stinson-Bagby, Kelly L.

    2004-07-01

    Fiber optic sensors can be used to measure a number of parameters, including temperature, strain, pressure and flow, for instrumentation and control of space nuclear power systems. In the past, this technology has often been rejected for use in such a high-radiation environment based on early experiments that revealed a number of degradation phenomena, including radiation-induced fiber attenuation, or 'graying', and Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) fading and wavelength shift. However, this paper reports the results of recent experimental testing that demonstrates readability of fiber optic sensors to extremely high levels of neutron and gamma radiation. Both distributed Fiber Bragg Gratingmore » (FBG) sensors and single-point Extrinsic Fabry Perot Interferometer (EFPI) sensors were continuously monitored over a 2-month period, during which they were exposed to combined neutron and gamma radiation in both in-core and ex-core positions within a nuclear reactor. Total exposure reached approximately 2 x 10{sup 19} cm{sup -2} fast neutron (E > 1 MeV) fluence and 8.7 x 10{sup 8} Gy gamma for in-core sensors. FBG sensors were interrogated using a standard Luna Innovations FBG measurement system, which is based on optical frequency-domain reflectometer (OFDR) technology. Approximately 74% of the 19 FBG sensors located at the core centerline in the in-core position exhibited sufficient signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to remain readable even after receiving the maximum dose. EFPI sensors were spectrally interrogated using a broadband probe source operating in the 830 nm wavelength region. While these single-point sensors failed early in the test, important additional fiber spectral transmission data was collected, which indicates that interrogation of EFPI sensors in alternate wavelength regions may allow significant improvement in sensor longevity for operation in high-radiation environments. This work was funded through a Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contract with the

  19. Aerial radiation monitoring around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant using an unmanned helicopter.

    PubMed

    Sanada, Yukihisa; Torii, Tatsuo

    2015-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011 generated a series of large tsunami that seriously damaged the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), which resulted in the release of radioactive materials into the environment. To provide further details regarding the distribution of air dose rate and the distribution of radioactive cesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) deposition on the ground within a radius of approximately 5 km from the nuclear power plant, we carried out measurements using an unmanned helicopter equipped with a radiation detection system. The distribution of the air dose rate at a height of 1 m above the ground and the radioactive cesium deposition on the ground was calculated. Accordingly, the footprint of radioactive plumes that extended from the FDNPP was illustrated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Temperature Dependence of Power Reflectivity of the First-Wall Materials in the Synchrotron Radiation Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takada, Noriharu; Nagatsu, Masaaki; Shimada, Michiya

    1995-07-01

    The temperature dependence of power reflectivity in the synchrotron radiation range was measured for candidate first-wall materials of the fusion reactor, such as B4C-coated isotropic graphite, C/C composite material, silicon carbide (SiC), tungsten (W), molybdenum (Mo) and SUS-316. The measurements were carried out using a vacuum vessel with a pressure of about 3 mTorr to avoid oxidation. Distinct temperature dependence of reflectivity was observed only for B4C-coated isotropic graphite. For the other materials, power reflectivities were insensitive to temperature in the range from 300 K to ˜900 K. Theoretical analysis of the results is also presented.

  1. Statistics of the radiated field of a space-to-earth microwave power transfer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, G. H.; Leininger, G.

    1976-01-01

    Statistics such as average power density pattern, variance of the power density pattern and variance of the beam pointing error are related to hardware parameters such as transmitter rms phase error and rms amplitude error. Also a limitation on spectral width of the phase reference for phase control was established. A 1 km diameter transmitter appears feasible provided the total rms insertion phase errors of the phase control modules does not exceed 10 deg, amplitude errors do not exceed 10% rms, and the phase reference spectral width does not exceed approximately 3 kHz. With these conditions the expected radiation pattern is virtually the same as the error free pattern, and the rms beam pointing error would be insignificant (approximately 10 meters).

  2. Program THEK energy production units of average power and using thermal conversion of solar radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    General studies undertaken by the C.N.R.S. in the field of solar power plants have generated the problem of building energy production units in the medium range of electrical power, in the order of 100 kW. Among the possible solutions, the principle of the use of distributed heliothermal converters has been selected as being, with the current status of things, the most advantageous solution. This principle consists of obtaining the conversion of concentrated radiation into heat by using a series of heliothermal conversion modules scattered over the ground; the produced heat is collected by a heat-carrying fluid circulating inside a thermal loop leading to a device for both regulation and storage.

  3. Single-Event Gate Rupture in Power MOSFETs: A New Radiation Hardness Assurance Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauenstein, Jean-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Almost every space mission uses vertical power metal-semiconductor-oxide field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) in its power-supply circuitry. These devices can fail catastrophically due to single-event gate rupture (SEGR) when exposed to energetic heavy ions. To reduce SEGR failure risk, the off-state operating voltages of the devices are derated based upon radiation tests at heavy-ion accelerator facilities. Testing is very expensive. Even so, data from these tests provide only a limited guide to on-orbit performance. In this work, a device simulation-based method is developed to measure the response to strikes from heavy ions unavailable at accelerator facilities but posing potential risk on orbit. This work is the first to show that the present derating factor, which was established from non-radiation reliability concerns, is appropriate to reduce on-orbit SEGR failure risk when applied to data acquired from ions with appropriate penetration range. A second important outcome of this study is the demonstration of the capability and usefulness of this simulation technique for augmenting SEGR data from accelerator beam facilities. The mechanisms of SEGR are two-fold: the gate oxide is weakened by the passage of the ion through it, and the charge ionized along the ion track in the silicon transiently increases the oxide electric field. Most hardness assurance methodologies consider the latter mechanism only. This work demonstrates through experiment and simulation that the gate oxide response should not be neglected. In addition, the premise that the temporary weakening of the oxide due to the ion interaction with it, as opposed to due to the transient oxide field generated from within the silicon, is validated. Based upon these findings, a new approach to radiation hardness assurance for SEGR in power MOSFETs is defined to reduce SEGR risk in space flight projects. Finally, the potential impact of accumulated dose over the course of a space mission on SEGR

  4. Investigation of the plasma radiation power in the Globus-M tokamak by means of SPD silicon photodiodes

    SciTech Connect

    Iblyaminova, A. D., E-mail: a.iblyaminova@mail.ioffe.ru; Avdeeva, G. F.; Aruev, P. N.

    2016-10-15

    Radiation losses from the plasma of the Globus-M tokamak are studied by means of SPD silicon photodiodes developed at the Ioffe Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences. The results from measurements of radiation losses in regimes with ohmic and neutral beam injection heating of plasmas with different isotope compositions are presented. The dependence of the radiation loss power on the plasma current and plasma–wall distance is investigated. The radiation power in different spectral ranges is analyzed by means of an SPD spectrometric module. Results of measurements of radiation losses before and after tokamak vessel boronization are presented. The time evolution ofmore » the sensitivity of the SPD photodiode during its two-year exploitation in Globus-M is analyzed.« less

  5. Statistical properties of radiation power levels from a high-gain free-electron laser at and beyond saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, C. B.; Fawley, W. M.; Esarey, E.

    2003-07-01

    We investigate the statistical properties (e.g., shot-to-shot power fluctuations) of the radiation from a high-gain free-electron laser (FEL) operating in the nonlinear regime. We consider the case of an FEL amplifier reaching saturation whose shot-to-shot fluctuations in input radiation power follow a gamma distribution. We analyze the corresponding output power fluctuations at and beyond saturation, including beam energy spread effects, and find that there are well-characterized values of undulator length for which the fluctuations reach a minimum.

  6. Deformation behavior of FRP-metal composites locally reinforced with carbon fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholze, M.; Kolonko, A.; Lindner, T.; Lampke, T.; Helbig, F.

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates variations of hybrid laminates, consisting of one aluminum sheet and a unidirectional glass fiber (GF) reinforced polyamide 6 (PA6) basic structure with partial carbon fiber (CF) reinforcement. To create these heterogeneous FRP laminates, it is necessary to design and produce semi-finished textile-based products. Moreover, a warp knitting machine in conjunction with a warp thread offset unit was used to generate bionic inspired compounds. By the variation of stacking prior to the consolidation process of the hybrid laminate, an oriented CF reinforcement at the top and middle layer of the FRP is realized. In both cases the GFRP layer prevents contact between the aluminum and carbon fibers. In so doing, the high strength of carbon fibers can be transferred to the hybrid laminate in load directions with an active prevention of contact corrosion. The interface strength between thermoplastic and metal component was improved by a thermal spray coating on the aluminum sheet. Because of the high surface roughness and porosity, mechanical interlock was used to provide high interface strength without bonding agents between both components. The resulting mechanical properties of the hybrid laminates are evaluated by three point bending tests in different load directions. The effect of local fiber orientation and layer positioning on failure and deformation mechanism is additionally investigated by digital image correlation (DIC).

  7. Fabry-Perot sensors for the monitoring of FRP reinforced bridge decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benmokrane, Brahim; Quirion, Marco; El-Salakawy, Ehab; Debaiky, Ahmed S.; Lackey, Tom

    2004-07-01

    The extensive use of deicing salts in Canada during winter times is identified as the main reason behind the deterioration of highway bridges and parking garages. To fight this infrastructure crisis, Fibre Reinforced Polymers (FRP) has become a very attractive alternative to traditional reinforcing steel due to their non-corrosive nature and light weight. The replacement of steel with Glass FRP bars in bridge deck slabs has been extensively researched in the last few years. This paper presents the first efforts to implement these bars in two highway bridges in Quebec, Canada, and Vermont, USA. These projects are aimed to prove the feasibility of using GFRP bars in bridge construction. GFRP bars were used as reinforcement for parts of the deck slabs in the two bridges while traditional steel was used in the remaining parts. Fibre Optic Sensors (FOS) were used to measure strains in the concrete, reinforcing bars and steel girders. The sensors were surface mounted on the bars or steel girders using standard glue, or embedded in concrete. Static and dynamic testing of the bridges was done using loaded trucks placed for maximum stresses. The design, construction, testing, and results obtained from the bridges are briefly outlined in this paper. The results indicated the accuracy of the sensors and their feasibility for bridge construction and remote monitoring.

  8. Monitoring Poisson's Ratio Degradation of FRP Composites under Fatigue Loading Using Biaxially Embedded FBG Sensors.

    PubMed

    Akay, Erdem; Yilmaz, Cagatay; Kocaman, Esat S; Turkmen, Halit S; Yildiz, Mehmet

    2016-09-19

    The significance of strain measurement is obvious for the analysis of Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (FRP) composites. Conventional strain measurement methods are sufficient for static testing in general. Nevertheless, if the requirements exceed the capabilities of these conventional methods, more sophisticated techniques are necessary to obtain strain data. Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors have many advantages for strain measurement over conventional ones. Thus, the present paper suggests a novel method for biaxial strain measurement using embedded FBG sensors during the fatigue testing of FRP composites. Poisson's ratio and its reduction were monitored for each cyclic loading by using embedded FBG sensors for a given specimen and correlated with the fatigue stages determined based on the variations of the applied fatigue loading and temperature due to the autogenous heating to predict an oncoming failure of the continuous fiber-reinforced epoxy matrix composite specimens under fatigue loading. The results show that FBG sensor technology has a remarkable potential for monitoring the evolution of Poisson's ratio on a cycle-by-cycle basis, which can reliably be used towards tracking the fatigue stages of composite for structural health monitoring purposes.

  9. A phenomenological intra-laminar plasticity model for FRP composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yinhua; Hou, Chi; Wang, Wenzhi; Zhao, Meiying; Wan, Xiaopeng

    2015-07-01

    The nonlinearity of fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites have significant effects on the analysis of composite structures. This article proposes a phenomenological intralaminar plasticity model to represent the nonlinearity of FRP composite materials. Based on the model presented by Ladeveze et al., the plastic potential and hardening functions are improved to give a more rational description of phenomenological nonlinearity behavior. A four-parameter hardening model is built to capture important features of the hardening curve and consequently gives the good matching of the experiments. Within the frame of plasticity theory, the detailed constitutive model, the numerical algorithm and the derivation of the tangent stiffness matrix are presented in this study to improve model robustness. This phenomenological model achieved excellent agreement between the experimental and simulation results in element scale respectively for glass fibre-reinforced polymer (GFRP) and carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP). Moreover, the model is capable of simulating the nonlinear phenomenon of laminates, and good agreement is achieved in nearly all cases.

  10. Experimental Research of FRP Composite Tube Confined Steel-reinforced Concrete Stub Columns Under Axial Compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ji Zhong; Cheng, Lu; Wang, Xin Pei

    2018-06-01

    A new column of FRP composite tube confined steel-reinforced concrete (FTCSRC) column was proposed. This paper elaborates on laboratorial and analytical studies on the behavior of FCTSRC columns subjected to axial compressive load. Eight circular FTCSRC stub columns and one circular steel tube confined concrete (STCC) stub column were tested to investigate the failure mode and axial compression performance of circular FTCRSC columns. Parametric analysis was implemented to inquire the influence of confinement material (CFRP-steel tube or CFRP-GFRP tube), internal steel and CFRP layers on the ultimate load capacity. CFRP-steel composite tube was composed of steel tube and CFRP layer which was wrapped outside the steel tube, while CFRP-GFRP composite tube was composite of GFRP tube and CFRP layer. The test results indicate that the confinement effect of CFRP-steel tube is greatly superior to CFRP-GFRP tube. The ductility performance of steel tube confined high-strength concrete column can be improved obviously by encasing steel in the core concrete. Furthermore, with the increase in the layers of FRP wraps, the axial load capacity increases greatly.

  11. Numerical Analysis of a Masonry Panel Reinforced with Pultruded FRP Frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casalegno, C.; Russo, S.; Sciarretta, F.

    2018-05-01

    The paper presents a numerical study on the retrofit of traditional masonry with pultruded GFRP profile frames adjacent to a wall and connected to it by mechanical fasteners. This kind of retrofit solution, not having been explored yet either in theory or practice, is similar to the common steel frame retrofits, but offers the advantages of lightness and durability of FRP composite materials. The retrofit system proposed, once proven effective and advantageous, would bring a considerable potential innovation into its available options. Three different frame geometries and two cases of masonry thickness were considered to investigate the effectiveness of the retrofit GFRP frame on the inplane static response of the wall to horizontal loads. The global and local (connection) failure behavior of the wall-frame system was investigated using the 3D finite-element method. A general increase in strength after the retrofit, up to about 130%, was found, and a switch from rocking to the diagonal tension failure mode was observed. The strength hierarchy of the retrofitted systems was also analyzed to clarify the effectiveness of the retrofit in imparting a residual strength to masonry. A thinner masonry structure was clearly recognized to have got the greatest benefits, but the retrofit could also significantly improve the inplane shear strength of a thicker wall. A comparison with steel structures of analogous capacity in terms of weight and natural vibration frequencies supported the viability of composite FRP frames for retrofit.

  12. Anchorage strength models for end-debonding predictions in RC beams strengthened with FRP composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nardini, V.; Guadagnini, M.; Valluzzi, M. R.

    2008-05-01

    The increase in the flexural capacity of RC beams obtained by externally bonding FRP composites to their tension side is often limited by the premature and brittle debonding of the external reinforcement. An in-depth understanding of this complex failure mechanism, however, has not yet been achieved. With specific regard to end-debonding failure modes, extensive experimental observations reported in the literature highlight the important distinction, often neglected in strength models proposed by researchers, between the peel-off and rip-off end-debonding types of failure. The peel-off failure is generally characterized by a failure plane located within the first few millimetres of the concrete cover, whilst the rip-off failure penetrates deeper into the concrete cover and propagates along the tensile steel reinforcement. A new rip-off strength model is described in this paper. The model proposed is based on the Chen and Teng peel-off model and relies upon additional theoretical considerations. The influence of the amount of the internal tensile steel reinforcement and the effective anchorage length of FRP are considered and discussed. The validity of the new model is analyzed further through comparisons with test results, findings of a numerical investigation, and a parametric study. The new rip-off strength model is assessed against a database comprising results from 62 beams tested by various researchers and is shown to yield less conservative results.

  13. Modeling of high-strength concrete-filled FRP tube columns under cyclic load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Kee-Yen; Ma, Chau-Khun; Apandi, Nazirah Mohd; Awang, Abdullah Zawawi; Omar, Wahid

    2018-05-01

    The behavior of high-strength concrete (HSC) - filled fiber-reinforced-polymer (FRP) tubes (HSCFFTs) column subjected to cyclic lateral loading is presented in this paper. As the experimental study is costly and time consuming, a finite element analysis (FEA) is chosen for the study. Most of the previous studies have focused on examining the axial load behavior of HSCFFT column instead of seismic behavior. The seismic behavior of HSCFFT columns has been the main interest in the industry. The key objective of this research is to develop a reliable numerical non-linear FEA model to represent the seismic behavior of such column. A FEA model was developed using the Concrete Damaged Plasticity Model (CDPM) available in the finite element software package (ABAQUS). Comparisons between experimental results from previous research and the predicted results were made based on load versus displacement relationships and ultimate strength of the column. The results showed that the column increased in ductility and able to deform to a greater extent with the increase of the FRP confinement ratio. With the increase of confinement ratio, HSCFFT column achieved a higher moment resistance, thus indicated a higher failure strength in the column under cyclic lateral load. It was found that the proposed FEA model can regenerate the experimental results with adequate accuracy.

  14. New Submerged-Robot Control Optical Fiber Cable With Small-Diameter, High-Strength Frp Covered Optical Fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuse, K.; Shirasaka, Y.; Yanagawa, H.

    1984-10-01

    Of natural resources on the earth, the utilization of the oceans has the oldest history, and the development of them has been delayed most. However, hot expectation is being placed on the development of the oceans. The element that obstructs the acceleration of such development is the sea itself. From a technical viewpoint, the means to explore the oceans have not been developed sufficiently, and equipment such as special large vehicles and ships has been bulky, requiring a very large sum of money to prepare them. These have been part of the reasons why the development of the oceans has been delayed. For this reason, a large number of exploratory systems will be studied as the ocean development becomes active in the near future. A single optical fiber cable has been considered as a cable for control of an ocean exploratory robot, which weighs approximately 30 to 40 kg at most in air requiring no power feeding to the drive section inside the vehicle and running by self on a built-in battery, as well as for data transfer. This cable is believed most suitable in terms of high speed mobility, transmission characteristics, and system cost. The mode (system) of pay off of the cable paid off by the ship loading such a cable becomes very important in the design of optical fiber cables for control of ocean exploratory robots. This paper introduces a new FRP covered optical fiber cable developed as an optical fiber cable for control of ocean exploratory robots with a small diameter and rotating motion. This cable is considered most suitable for the pay off-system which is simple and offers the highest space utility. The paper describes a basic study made prior to an actual performance test in the sea, as well as its design and characteristics.

  15. [Application of low-power visible and near infrared radiation in clinical oncology].

    PubMed

    Zimin, A A; Zhevago, N A; Buĭniakova, A I; Samoĭlova, K A

    2009-01-01

    Although low-power visible (VIS) and near infrared (nIR) radiation emitted from lasers, photodiodes, and other sources does not cause neoplastic transformation of the tissue, these phototherapeutic techniques are looked at with a great deal of caution for fear of their stimulatory effect on tumour growth. This apprehension arises in the first place from the reports on the possibility that the proliferative activity of tumour cells may increase after their in vitro exposure to light. Much less is known that these phototherapeutic modalities have been successfully used for the prevention and management of complications developing after surgery, chemo- and radiotherapy. The objective of the present review is to summarize the results of applications of low-power visible and near infrared radiation for the treatment of patients with oncological diseases during the last 20-25 years. It should be emphasized that 2-4 year-long follow-up observations have not revealed any increase in the frequency of tumour recurrence and metastasis.

  16. Characterization of Radiation Fields in Biological Shields of Nuclear Power Plants for Assessing Concrete Degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remec, Igor; Rosseel, Thomas M.; Field, Kevin G.; Le Pape, Yann

    2016-02-01

    Life extensions of nuclear power plants to 60 and potentially 80 years of operation have renewed interest in long-term material degradation. One material being considered is concrete, with a particular focus on radiation-induced effects. Based on the projected neutron fluence values (E > 0.1 MeV) in the concrete biological shields of the US pressurized water reactor fleet and the available data on radiation effects on concrete, some decrease in mechanical properties of concrete cannot be ruled out during extended operation beyond 60 years. An expansion of the irradiated concrete database and a reliable determination of relevant neutron fluence energy cutoff value are necessary to ensure reliable risk assessment for extended operation of nuclear power plants. Notice: This manuscript has been authored by UT-Battelle, LLC, under contract DE-AC0500OR22725 with the US Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a nonexclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, worldwide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

  17. Sandwich Core Heat-Pipe Radiator for Power and Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Marc; Sanzi, James; Locci, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Next-generation heat-pipe radiator technologies are being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center to provide advancements in heat-rejection systems for space power and propulsion systems. All spacecraft power and propulsion systems require their waste heat to be rejected to space in order to function at their desired design conditions. The thermal efficiency of these heat-rejection systems, balanced with structural requirements, directly affect the total mass of the system. Terrestrially, this technology could be used for thermal control of structural systems. One potential use is radiant heating systems for residential and commercial applications. The thin cross section and efficient heat transportability could easily be applied to flooring and wall structures that could evenly heat large surface areas. Using this heat-pipe technology, the evaporator of the radiators could be heated using any household heat source (electric, gas, etc.), which would vaporize the internal working fluid and carry the heat to the condenser sections (walls and/or floors). The temperature could be easily controlled, providing a comfortable and affordable living environment. Investigating the appropriate materials and working fluids is needed to determine this application's potential success and usage.

  18. A low-power, radiation-resistant, Silicon-Drift-Detector array for extraterrestrial element mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, B. D.; Gaskin, J. A.; Elsner, R. F.; Chen, W.; Carini, G. A.; De Geronimo, G.; Keister, J.; Li, S.; Li, Z.; Siddons, D. P.; Smith, G.

    2012-02-01

    We are developing a modular Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS) for measuring the abundances of light surface elements (C to Fe) fluoresced by ambient radiation on remote airless bodies. The value of fluorescence spectrometry for surface element mapping is demonstrated by its inclusion on three recent lunar missions and by exciting new data that have recently been announced from the Messenger Mission to Mercury. The SDD-XRS instrument that we have been developing offers excellent energy resolution and an order of magnitude lower power requirement than conventional CCDs, making much higher sensitivities possible with modest spacecraft resources. In addition, it is significantly more radiation resistant than x-ray CCDs and therefore will not be subject to the degradation that befell recent lunar instruments. In fact, the intrinsic radiation resistance of the SDD makes it applicable even to the harsh environment of the Jovian system where it can be used to map the light surface elements of Europa. In this paper, we first discuss our element-mapping science-measurement goals. We then derive the necessary instrument requirements to meet these goals and discuss our current instrument development status with respect to these requirements.

  19. Radiation dose reduction efficiency of buildings after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station.

    PubMed

    Monzen, Satoru; Hosoda, Masahiro; Osanai, Minoru; Tokonami, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    Numerous radionuclides were released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (F1-NPS) in Japan following the magnitude 9.0 earthquake and tsunami on March 11, 2011. Local residents have been eager to calculate their individual radiation exposure. Thus, absorbed dose rates in the indoor and outdoor air at evacuation sites in the Fukushima Prefecture were measured using a gamma-ray measuring devices, and individual radiation exposure was calculated by assessing the radiation dose reduction efficiency (defined as the ratio of absorbed dose rate in the indoor air to the absorbed dose rate in the outdoor air) of wood, aluminum, and reinforced concrete buildings. Between March 2011 and July 2011, dose reduction efficiencies of wood, aluminum, and reinforced concrete buildings were 0.55 ± 0.04, 0.15 ± 0.02, and 0.19 ± 0.04, respectively. The reduction efficiency of wood structures was 1.4 times higher than that reported by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The efficiency of reinforced concrete was similar to previously reported values, whereas that of aluminum structures has not been previously reported. Dose reduction efficiency increased in proportion to the distance from F1-NPS at 8 of the 18 evacuation sites. Time variations did not reflect dose reduction efficiencies at evacuation sites although absorbed dose rates in the outdoor air decreased. These data suggest that dose reduction efficiency depends on structure types, levels of contamination, and evacuee behaviors at evacuation sites.

  20. A Low-Power, Radiation-Resistant, Silicon-Drift-Detector Array for Extraterrestrial Element Mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey B. D.; De Geronimo G.; Gaskin, J.A.

    2012-02-08

    We are developing a modular Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS) for measuring the abundances of light surface elements (C to Fe) fluoresced by ambient radiation on remote airless bodies. The value of fluorescence spectrometry for surface element mapping is demonstrated by its inclusion on three recent lunar missions and by exciting new data that have recently been announced from the Messenger Mission to Mercury. The SDD-XRS instrument that we have been developing offers excellent energy resolution and an order of magnitude lower power requirement than conventional CCDs, making much higher sensitivities possible with modest spacecraft resources. In addition,more » it is significantly more radiation resistant than x-ray CCDs and therefore will not be subject to the degradation that befell recent lunar instruments. In fact, the intrinsic radiation resistance of the SDD makes it applicable even to the harsh environment of the Jovian system where it can be used to map the light surface elements of Europa. In this paper, we first discuss our element-mapping science-measurement goals. We then derive the necessary instrument requirements to meet these goals and discuss our current instrument development status with respect to these requirements.« less

  1. Powerful radiative jets in supercritical accretion discs around non-spinning black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sądowski, Aleksander; Narayan, Ramesh

    2015-11-01

    We describe a set of simulations of supercritical accretion on to a non-rotating supermassive black hole (BH). The accretion flow takes the form of a geometrically thick disc with twin low-density funnels around the rotation axis. For accretion rates {gtrsim } 10 dot{M}_Edd, there is sufficient gas in the funnel to make this region optically thick. Radiation from the disc first flows into the funnel, after which it accelerates the optically thick funnel gas along the axis. The resulting jet is baryon loaded and has a terminal density-weighted velocity ≈0.3c. Much of the radiative luminosity is converted into kinetic energy by the time the escaping gas becomes optically thin. These jets are not powered by BHrotation or magnetic driving, but purely by radiation. Their characteristic beaming angle is ˜0.2 rad. For an observer viewing down the axis, the isotropic equivalent luminosity of total energy is as much as 1048 erg s- 1 for a 107 M⊙ BH accreting at 103 Eddington. Therefore, energetically, the simulated jets are consistent with observations of the most powerful tidal disruption events, e.g. Swift J1644. The jet velocity is, however, too low to match the Lorentz factor γ > 2 inferred in J1644. There is no such conflict in the case of other tidal disruption events. Since favourably oriented observers see isotropic equivalent luminosities that are highly super-Eddington, the simulated models can explain observations of ultraluminous X-ray sources, at least in terms of luminosity and energetics, without requiring intermediate-mass BHs.

  2. High power radiators of ultra-short electromagnetic quasi-unipolar pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, V. M.; Ostashev, V. E.; Tarakanov, V. P.; Ul'yanov, A. V.

    2017-05-01

    Results of creation, operation, and diagnostics of the high power radiators for ultra-short length electromagnetic pulses (USEMPs) with a quasi-unipolar profile, which have been developed in our laboratory, are presented. The radiating module contains: the ultra-wideband (UWB) antenna array, the exciting high voltage pulse semiconductor generator (a pulser), the power source and the control unit. The principles of antenna array with a high efficiency aperture about 0.9 were developed using joint four TEM-horns with shielding electrodes in every TEM-horn. Sizes of the antenna apertures were (16-60) cm. The pulsers produced by “FID Technology” company had the following parameters: 50 Ohm connector impedance, unipolar pulses voltages (10-100) kV, the rise-time (0.04-0.15) ns, and the width (0.2-1) ns. The modules radiate the USEMPs of (0.1-10) GHz spectrum, their repetition rate is (1-100) kHz, and the effective potential is E*R = (20-400) kV, producing the peak E-field into the far-zone of R-distance. Parameters of the USEMP waves were measured by a calibrated sensor with the following characteristics: the sensitivity 0.32V/(kV/m), the rise-time 0.03 ns, the duration up to 7 ns. The measurements were in agreement with the simulation results, which were obtained using the 3-D code “KARAT”. The USEMP waves with amplitudes (1-10) kV/m and the pulse repetition rate (0.5-100) kHz were successfully used to examine various electronic devices for an electromagnetic immunity.

  3. Static-dynamic friction transition of FRP esthetic orthodontic wires on various brackets by suspension-type friction test.

    PubMed

    Suwa, N; Watari, F; Yamagata, S; Iida, J; Kobayashi, M

    2003-11-15

    A new testing apparatus for the measurement of frictional properties was designed and the frictional coefficients were obtained and compared with each other in various combinations of brackets and orthodontic wires, including esthetic fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) wire that was especially designed and manufactured. Three kinds of wires (stainless steel, nickel-titanium, and FRP) and four brackets (single-crystal alumina, polycrystalline alumina, polycarbonate, and stainless steel) were used. The testing was done under dry and wet conditions. The friction testing equipment was designed to attach the bracket to a C-shaped bar suspended with a variable mass, and sliding along a fixed wire. The transition between static and dynamic friction was measured as a breakaway force, with the use of a universal test machine. In addition to material properties, this testing fixture eliminates geometrical factors, such as the rotational moment at the edge of the bracket slot, deflection of the orthodontic wire, and tension of the ligature wire. Nearly ideal frictional properties between materials are obtained. The frictional properties of FRP wire were similar to those of metal wires on all brackets, except the polycrystalline alumina bracket. The frictional coefficient between the polycrystalline ceramic bracket and FRP wire was larger than that of other combinations. There was little difference in frictional coefficients between dry and wet conditions. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Development of a self-stressing NiTiNb shape memory alloy (SMA)/fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) patch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Tahan, M.; Dawood, M.; Song, G.

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a self-stressing patch using a combination of shape memory alloys (SMAs) and fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites. Prestressed carbon FRP patches are emerging as a promising alternative to traditional methods to repair cracked steel structures and civil infrastructure. However, prestressing these patches typically requires heavy and complex fixtures, which is impractical in many applications. This paper presents a new approach in which the prestressing force is applied by restraining the shape memory effect of NiTiNb SMA wires. The wires are subsequently embedded in an FRP overlay patch. This method overcomes the practical challenges associated with conventional prestressing. This paper presents the conceptual development of the self-stressing patch with the support of experimental observations. The bond between the SMA wires and the FRP is evaluated using pull-out tests. The paper concludes with an experimental study that evaluates the patch response during activation subsequent monotonic tensile loading. The results demonstrate that the self-stressing patch with NiTiNb SMA is capable of generating a significant prestressing force with minimal tool and labor requirements.

  5. Value engineering and cost effectiveness of various fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) repair systems : final report, June 2007.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2007-06-01

    This report is an extension to the final report for NCDOT project 2004-15 Value Engineering and Cost-Effectiveness of : Various Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP) Repair Systems, submitted in June 2005. In that report, seventeen 30-ft long : prest...

  6. Experimental evaluation and design of unfilled and concrete-filled FRP composite piles : Task 7 : final report : thesis.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-05-01

    The overall goal of this project is the experimental evaluation and design of unfilled and concrete-filled FRP composite piles for load-bearing in bridges. This report covers Task 7, Final Report - Thesis. : This final report covers Tasks 1, 2, 3, 5 ...

  7. FRP MODEL - VERSION 1.0 FOR ESTIMATING STYRENE EMISSIONS FROM FIBER-REINFORCED PLASTICS FABRICATION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This software estimates styrene emissions from the manufacture of fiber-reinforced plastics/composite (FRP/C) products. In using the model, the user first chooses the appropriate process: gel coating, resin sprayup, hand layup, etc. Choosing a process will cause the 'baseline' in...

  8. Evaluation of the analgesic effect of low-power optical radiation in acute inflammatory process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Denise M.; Zangaro, Renato A.; Cury, Yara; Frigo, Lucio; Barbosa, Daniella G.; da Silva Melo, Milene; Munin, Egberto

    2004-07-01

    Many research works have explored the use of the low power laser as a tool for the control of inflammatory processes. The anti-inflammatory effect of low power optical radiation and its ability to induce analgesia has been reported for different experimental conditions. Many published works are very qualitative in nature. In this work the action of low power laser radiation on acute inflammatory process is evaluated. The time evolution of rat paw edema and pain induced by carrageenan was experimentally monitored. A 632.8 nm He-Ne laser was used for the treatment. The laser treatment, at a dosage of 2,5 J/cm2, was applied at the first, second and third hour after the induction of the inflammation. A hydroplethysmometer was used for the evaluation of the inflammation. The measurement of pain sensitivity was performed according to the method described by Randall and Selito, (1957). The laser treatment was capable of inhibiting the carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia by 49% (p<0,001) at the second hour after the induction, as compared to the non-treated group. At the fourth hour (peak of the carrageenan action on hyperalgesia) and at the sixth hour, the achieved inhibition was 49% (p<0,001) and 61% (p<0,001), respectively. In the treated groups, the edema evolution was inhibited by 38% (p<0,01), at the second hour after induction, as compared to the non-treated groups. At the fourth hour (peak of the carrageenan action on leakage) and at sixth hour the achieved inhibition was 35% (p<0,01) and 30% (p<0,05) respectively.

  9. Technology for radiation efficiency measurement of high-power halogen tungsten lamp used in calibration of high-energy laser energy meter.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ji Feng; Hu, Xiao Yang; Sun, Li Qun; Zhang, Kai; Chang, Yan

    2015-03-20

    The calibration method using a high-power halogen tungsten lamp as a calibration source has many advantages such as strong equivalence and high power, so it is very fit for the calibration of high-energy laser energy meters. However, high-power halogen tungsten lamps after power-off still reserve much residual energy and continually radiate energy, which is difficult to be measured. Two measuring systems were found to solve the problems. One system is composed of an integrating sphere and two optical spectrometers, which can accurately characterize the radiative spectra and power-time variation of the halogen tungsten lamp. This measuring system was then calibrated using a normal halogen tungsten lamp made of the same material as the high-power halogen tungsten lamp. In this way, the radiation efficiency of the halogen tungsten lamp after power-off can be quantitatively measured. In the other measuring system, a wide-spectrum power meter was installed far away from the halogen tungsten lamp; thus, the lamp can be regarded as a point light source. The radiation efficiency of residual energy from the halogen tungsten lamp was computed on the basis of geometrical relations. The results show that the halogen tungsten lamp's radiation efficiency was improved with power-on time but did not change under constant power-on time/energy. All the tested halogen tungsten lamps reached 89.3% of radiation efficiency at 50 s after power-on. After power-off, the residual energy in the halogen tungsten lamp gradually dropped to less than 10% of the initial radiation power, and the radiation efficiency changed with time. The final total radiation energy was decided by the halogen tungsten lamp's radiation efficiency, the radiation efficiency of residual energy, and the total power consumption. The measuring uncertainty of total radiation energy was 2.4% (here, the confidence factor is two).

  10. Evolution of the linear-polarization-angle-dependence of the radiation-induced magnetoresistance-oscillations with microwave power

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Tianyu; Mani, R. G.; Wegscheider, W.

    2014-11-10

    We examine the role of the microwave power in the linear polarization angle dependence of the microwave radiation induced magnetoresistance oscillations observed in the high mobility GaAs/AlGaAs two dimensional electron system. The diagonal resistance R{sub xx} was measured at the fixed magnetic fields of the photo-excited oscillatory extrema of R{sub xx} as a function of both the microwave power, P, and the linear polarization angle, θ. Color contour plots of such measurements demonstrate the evolution of the lineshape of R{sub xx} versus θ with increasing microwave power. We report that the non-linear power dependence of the amplitude of the radiation-inducedmore » magnetoresistance oscillations distorts the cosine-square relation between R{sub xx} and θ at high power.« less

  11. Radiation resistant concrete for applications in nuclear power and radioactive waste industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnham, Steven Robert

    Elemental components of ordinary concrete contain a variety of metals and rare earth elements that are susceptible to neutron activation. This activation occurs by means of radiative capture, a neutron interaction that results in formation of radioisotopes such as Co-60, Eu-152, and Eu-154. Studies have shown that these three radioisotopes are responsible for the residual radioactivity found in nuclear power plant concrete reactor dome and shielding walls. Such concrete is classified as Low Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) and Very Low Level Waste (VLLW) by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) standards and requires disposal at appropriate disposal sites. There are only three such sites in the USA, and every nuclear power plant will produce at the time of decommissioning approximately 1,500 tonnes of activated concrete classified as LLRW and VLLW. NAVA ALIGA (ancient word for a new stone) is a new concrete mixture developed mainly by research as presented in this thesis. The purpose of NAVA ALIGA is to satisfy IAEA clearance levels if used as a material for reactor dome, spent fuel pool, or radioactive waste canisters. NAVA ALIGA will never be activated above the IAEA clearance level after long-term exposure to neutron radiation when used as a material for reactor dome, spent fuel pool, and radioactive waste canisters. Components of NAVA ALIGA were identified using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ISP-MS) to determine trace element composition. In addition, it was tested for compressive strength and permeability, important for nuclear infrastructure. The studied mixture had a high water to cement ratio of 0.56, which likely resulted in the high measured permeability, yet the mixture also showed a compressive strength greater than 6 000 psi after 28 days. In addition to this experimental analysis, which goal was to develop a standard approach to define the concrete mixtures in satisfying the IAEA

  12. Minimal Internal Radiation Exposure in Residents Living South of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Disaster.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Junichi; Kato, Shigeaki; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Mori, Jinichi; Tanimoto, Tetsuya; Abe, Koichiro; Sakai, Shuji; Hayano, Ryugo; Tokiwa, Michio; Shimmura, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Following the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster, assessment of internal radiation exposure was indispensable to predict radiation-related health threats to residents of neighboring areas. Although many evaluations of internal radiation in residents living north and west of the crippled Fukushima nuclear power plant are available, there is little information on residents living in areas south of the plant, which were similarly affected by radio-contamination from the disaster. To assess the internal radio-contamination in residents living in affected areas to the south of the plant or who were evacuated into Iwaki city, a whole body counter (WBC) screening program of internal radio-contamination was performed on visitors to the Jyoban hospital in Iwaki city, which experienced less contamination than southern areas adjacent to the nuclear plant. The study included 9,206 volunteer subjects, of whom 6,446 were schoolchildren aged 4-15 years. Measurements began one year after the incident and were carried out over the course of two years. Early in the screening period only two schoolchildren showed Cs-137 levels that were over the detection limit (250 Bq/body), although their Cs-134 levels were below the detection limit (220 Bq/body). Among the 2,760 adults tested, 35 (1.3%) had detectable internal radio-contamination, but only for Cs-137 (range: 250 Bq/body to 859 Bq/body), and not Cs-134. Of these 35 subjects, nearly all (34/35) showed elevated Cs-137 levels only during the first year of the screening. With the exception of potassium 40, no other radionuclides were detected during the screening period. The maximum annual effective dose calculated from the detected Cs-137 levels was 0.029 and 0.028 mSv/year for the schoolchildren and adults, respectively, which is far below the 1 mSv/year limit set by the government of Japan. Although the data for radiation exposure during the most critical first year after the incident are unavailable due to a lack of systemic

  13. A Self-Powered Thin-Film Radiation Detector Using Intrinsic High-Energy Current (HEC) (Author’s Final Version)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-08

    10.1118/1.4935531. A new radiation detection method relies on high-energy current (HEC) formed by secondary charged particles in the detector material...photocurrent, radiation detection , self-powered, thin-film U U U SAR 17 Dr. Joseph Wander Reset A Self-powered thin-film radiation detector using intrinsic...Program, Lowell, MA 01854 Purpose: We introduce a radiation detection method that relies on high-energy current (HEC) formed by secondary 10 charged

  14. Damage in a Thin Metal Film by High-Power Terahertz Radiation.

    PubMed

    Agranat, M B; Chefonov, O V; Ovchinnikov, A V; Ashitkov, S I; Fortov, V E; Kondratenko, P S

    2018-02-23

    We report on the experimental observation of high-power terahertz-radiation-induced damage in a thin aluminum film with a thickness less than a terahertz skin depth. Damage in a thin metal film produced by a single terahertz pulse is observed for the first time. The damage mechanism induced by a single terahertz pulse could be attributed to thermal expansion of the film causing debonding of the film from the substrate, film cracking, and ablation. The damage pattern induced by multiple terahertz pulses at fluences below the damage threshold is quite different from that observed in single-pulse experiments. The observed damage pattern resembles an array of microcracks elongated perpendicular to the in-plane field direction. A mechanism related to microcracks' generation and based on a new phenomenon of electrostriction in thin metal films is proposed.

  15. Damage in a Thin Metal Film by High-Power Terahertz Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agranat, M. B.; Chefonov, O. V.; Ovchinnikov, A. V.; Ashitkov, S. I.; Fortov, V. E.; Kondratenko, P. S.

    2018-02-01

    We report on the experimental observation of high-power terahertz-radiation-induced damage in a thin aluminum film with a thickness less than a terahertz skin depth. Damage in a thin metal film produced by a single terahertz pulse is observed for the first time. The damage mechanism induced by a single terahertz pulse could be attributed to thermal expansion of the film causing debonding of the film from the substrate, film cracking, and ablation. The damage pattern induced by multiple terahertz pulses at fluences below the damage threshold is quite different from that observed in single-pulse experiments. The observed damage pattern resembles an array of microcracks elongated perpendicular to the in-plane field direction. A mechanism related to microcracks' generation and based on a new phenomenon of electrostriction in thin metal films is proposed.

  16. Environmental radiation at Izu-Oshima after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Inoue, K; Hosoda, M; Sugino, M; Simizu, H; Akimoto, A; Hori, K; Ishikawa, T; Sahoo, S K; Tokonami, S; Narita, H; Fukushi, M

    2012-11-01

    Environmental radiation at Izu-Oshima Island was observed 6 months after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1-NPP). A car-borne survey of the dose rate in air was conducted over the entire island and the results were compared with measurements performed in 2005 (i.e. before the accident). The activity concentrations of (134)Cs and (137)Cs were also measured using a germanium detector. The dose rate in air was found to be 2.9 ± 1.2 times higher than that in 2005 and (134)Cs was detected on Izu-Oshima Island. These results are attributed to the accident at the F1-NPP.

  17. Synchrotron radiation imaging is a powerful tool to image brain microvasculature

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Mengqi; Sun, Danni; Xie, Yuanyuan

    2014-03-15

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) imaging is a powerful experimental tool for micrometer-scale imaging of microcirculation in vivo. This review discusses recent methodological advances and findings from morphological investigations of cerebral vascular networks during several neurovascular pathologies. In particular, it describes recent developments in SR microangiography for real-time assessment of the brain microvasculature under various pathological conditions in small animal models. It also covers studies that employed SR-based phase-contrast imaging to acquire 3D brain images and provide detailed maps of brain vasculature. In addition, a brief introduction of SR technology and current limitations of SR sources are described in this review. Inmore » the near future, SR imaging could transform into a common and informative imaging modality to resolve subtle details of cerebrovascular function.« less

  18. Synchrotron radiation imaging is a powerful tool to image brain microvasculature.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mengqi; Peng, Guanyun; Sun, Danni; Xie, Yuanyuan; Xia, Jian; Long, Hongyu; Hu, Kai; Xiao, Bo

    2014-03-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) imaging is a powerful experimental tool for micrometer-scale imaging of microcirculation in vivo. This review discusses recent methodological advances and findings from morphological investigations of cerebral vascular networks during several neurovascular pathologies. In particular, it describes recent developments in SR microangiography for real-time assessment of the brain microvasculature under various pathological conditions in small animal models. It also covers studies that employed SR-based phase-contrast imaging to acquire 3D brain images and provide detailed maps of brain vasculature. In addition, a brief introduction of SR technology and current limitations of SR sources are described in this review. In the near future, SR imaging could transform into a common and informative imaging modality to resolve subtle details of cerebrovascular function.

  19. Optimization design of high power ultrasonic circular ring radiator in coupled vibration.

    PubMed

    Xu, Long; Lin, Shuyu; Hu, Wenxu

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents a new high power ultrasonic (HPU) radiator, which consists of a transducer, an ultrasonic horn, and a metal circular ring. Both the transducer and horn in longitudinal vibrations are used to drive a metal circular ring in a radial-axial coupled vibration. This coupled vibration cannot only generate ultrasound in both the radial and axial directions, but also focus the ultrasound inside the circular ring. Except for the radial-axial coupled vibration mode, the third longitudinal harmonic vibration mode with relative large vibration amplitude is also detected, which can be used as another operation mode. Overall, the HPU with these two vibration modes should have good potential to be applied in liquid processing, such as sonochemistry, ultrasonic cleaning, and Chinese herbal medicine extraction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A comment on power-law inflation with a dark radiation component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Valentino, Eleonora; Bouchet, François R.

    2016-10-01

    Tram et al. 2016 recently pointed out in [1] that power-law inflation in presence of a dark radiation component may relieve the 3.3 σ tension which exists within standard ΛCDM between the determination of the local value of the Hubble constant by Riess et al. (2016) [2] and the value derived from CMB anisotropy data [3] by the Planck collaboration. In this comment, we simply point out that this interesting proposal does not help in solving the σ8 tension between the Planck data and, e.g., the weak lensing measurements. Moreover, when the latest constraints on the reionization optical depth obtained from Planck HFI data [4] are included in the analysis, the H0 tension reappears and this scenario looses appeal.

  1. Effect of Different Solar Radiation Data Sources on the Variation of Techno-Economic Feasibility of PV Power System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alghoul, M. A.; Ali, Amer; Kannanaikal, F. V.; Amin, N.; Aljaafar, A. A.; Kadhim, Mohammed; Sopian, K.

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the variation in techno-economic feasibility of PV power system under different data sources of solar radiation. HOMER simulation tool is used to predict the techno-economic feasibility parameters of PV power system in Baghdad city, Iraq located at (33.3128° N, 44.3615° E) as a case study. Four data sources of solar radiation, different annual capacity shortages percentage (0, 2.5, 5, and 7.5), and wide range of daily load profile (10-100 kWh/day) are implemented. The analyzed parameters of the techno-economic feasibility are COE (/kWh), PV array power capacity (kW), PV electrical production (kWh/year), No. of batteries and battery lifetime (year). The main results of the study revealed the followings: (1) solar radiation from different data sources caused observed to significant variation in the values of the techno-economic feasibility parameters; therefore, careful attention must be paid to ensure the use of an accurate solar input data; (2) Average solar radiation from different data sources can be recommended as a reasonable input data; (3) it is observed that as the size and of PV power system increases, the effect of different data sources of solar radiation increases and causes significant variation in the values of the techno-economic feasibility parameters.

  2. Directed high-power THz radiation from transverse laser wakefield excited in an electron density filament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalmykov, Serge; Englesbe, Alexander; Elle, Jennifer; Domonkos, Matthew; Schmitt-Sody, Andreas

    2017-10-01

    A tightly focused femtosecond, weakly relativistic laser pulse partially ionizes the ambient gas, creating a string (a ``filament'') of electron density, locally reducing the nonlinear index and compensating for the self-focusing effect caused by bound electrons. While maintaining the filament over many Rayleigh lengths, the pulse drives inside it a three-dimensional (3D) wave of charge separation - the plasma wake. If the pulse waist size is much smaller than the Langmuir wavelength, electron current in the wake is mostly transverse. Electrons, driven by the wake across the sharp radial boundary of the filament, lose coherence within 2-3 periods of wakefield oscillations, and the wake decays. The laser pulse is thus accompanied by a short-lived, almost aperiodic electron current coupled to the sharp index gradient. The comprehensive 3D hydrodynamic model shows that this structure emits a broad-band THz radiation, with the highest power emitted in the near-forward direction. The THz radiation pattern contains information on wake currents surrounding the laser pulse, thus serving as an all-optical diagnostic tool. The results are tested in cylindrical and full 3D PIC simulations using codes WAKE and EPOCH.

  3. Contrails and their impact on shortwave radiation and photovoltaic power production - a regional model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, Simon; Unterstrasser, Simon; Bechtold, Jan; Vogel, Heike; Jung, Martin; Pak, Henry; Vogel, Bernhard

    2018-05-01

    A high-resolution regional-scale numerical model was extended by a parameterization that allows for both the generation and the life cycle of contrails and contrail cirrus to be calculated. The life cycle of contrails and contrail cirrus is described by a two-moment cloud microphysical scheme that was extended by a separate contrail ice class for a better representation of the high concentration of small ice crystals that occur in contrails. The basic input data set contains the spatially and temporally highly resolved flight trajectories over Central Europe derived from real-time data. The parameterization provides aircraft-dependent source terms for contrail ice mass and number. A case study was performed to investigate the influence of contrails and contrail cirrus on the shortwave radiative fluxes at the earth's surface. Accounting for contrails produced by aircraft enabled the model to simulate high clouds that were otherwise missing on this day. The effect of these extra clouds was to reduce the incoming shortwave radiation at the surface as well as the production of photovoltaic power by up to 10 %.

  4. High-power laser radiation in atmospheric aerosols: Nonlinear optics of aerodispersed media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuev, V. E.; Zemlianov, A. A.; Kopytin, Iu. D.; Kuzikovskii, A. V.

    The bulk of this book contains the results of investigations carried out at the Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Siberian Branch, USSR Academy of Science with the participation of the authors. The microphysical and optical characteristics of atmospheric aerosols are considered, taking into account light scattering by a single aerosol particle, light scattering by a system of particles, the scattering phase matrix, light scattering by clouds and fogs, light scattering by hazes, and scattering phase functions of polydispersed aerosols. Other topics studies are related to low-energy (subexplosive) effects of radiation on individual particles, the formation of clear zones in clouds and fogs due to the vaporization of droplets under regular regimes, self-action of a wave beam in a water aerosol under conditions of regular droplet vaporization, laser beam propagation through an explosively evaporating water-droplet aerosol, the propagation of high-power laser radiation through hazes, the ionization and optical breakdown in aerosol media, and laser monitoring of a turbid atmosphere using nonlinear effects.

  5. Radiation effects in concrete for nuclear power plants, Part II: Perspective from micromechanical modeling

    DOE PAGES

    Le Pape, Yann; Field, Kevin G.; Remec, Igor

    2014-11-15

    The need to understand and characterize the effects of neutron irradiation on concrete has become urgent because of the possible extension of service life of many nuclear power generating stations. Current knowledge is primarily based on a collection of data obtained in test reactors. These results are inherently difficult to interpret because materials and testing conditions are inconsistent. A micromechanical approach based on the Hashin composite sphere model is presented to derive a first-order separation of the effects of radiation on cement paste and aggregate, and, also, on their interaction. Although the scarcity of available data limits the validation ofmore » the model, it appears that, without negating a possible gamma-ray induced effect, the neutron-induced damage and swelling of aggregate plays a predominant role on the overall concrete expansion and the damage of the cement paste. Finally, the radiation-induced volumetric expansion (RIVE) effects can also be aided by temperature elevation and shrinkage in the cement paste.« less

  6. Studies of atmosphere radio-sounding for monitoring of radiation environments around nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyarchuk, Kirill; Karelin, Alexander; Tumanov, Mikhail

    2014-05-01

    The nuclear power plants practically do not discharge to the atmosphere any products causing significant radioactive contaminations. However, during the years of the nuclear power industry, some large accidents occurred at the nuclear objects, and that caused enormous environmental contamination. Among the most significant accidents are: thermal explosion of a reservoir with high-level wastes at the Mayak enterprise in the South Ural region, near the town of Kyshtym, in the end of September 1957; accident at the nuclear power plant in Windscale, UK, in October 1957; accident at the Three-Mile Island, USA, in 1979; accident at the Chernobyl power plant in April 1986. In March of 2011, a large earthquake and the following tsunami caused the largest nuclear catastrophe of XXI century, the accident at the Fucushima-1 power plant. The last accident highlighted the need to review seriously the safety issues at the active power plants and to develop the new effective methods for remote detection and control over radioactive environmental contamination and over general geophysical situation in the areas. The main influence of the fission products on the environment is its ionisation, and therefore various detectable biological and physical processes that are caused by ions. Presence of an ionisation source within the area under study may cause significant changes of absolute humidity and, that is especially important, changes of the chemical potential of atmosphere vapours indicating presence of charged condensation centres. These effects may cause anomalies in the IR radiation emitted from the Earth surface and jumps in the chemical potentials of water vapours that may be observed by means of the satellite remote sensing by specialized equipment (works by Dimitar Ouzounov, Sergey Pulinets, e.a.). In the current study, the theoretical description is presented from positions of the molecular-kinetic condensation theory that shows significant changes of the absolute and

  7. Experimental evaluation and design of unfilled and concrete-filled FRP composite piles : Task 4B : material & construction specifications : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-07-01

    The overall goal of this project is the experimental evaluation and design of unfilled and concrete-filled FRP composite piles for load-bearing in bridges. This report covers Task 4B, Materials and Construction Specifications. : This technical report...

  8. Experimetal study on the FRP-concrete bond behavior under repeated loadings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.-Y.; Yi, C.-K.; Cheong, Y.-G.

    2009-11-01

    In this study, the effects of repeated loads on the FRP-concrete bond strength were investigated experimentally by direct pull out tests according to CSA S806-02. A conventional reinforcing steel bar and two types of glass-fiber-reinforced plastic (GFRP) bars were embedded in concrete and tested under four different loading patterns. The bond strength-slip curves of the bars were obtained and analyzed. The results showed that the maximum bond strengths under the repeated loads differed from those obtained under monotonic ones. In addition, noticeable differences in degradation of the bond strength with respect to the magnitude of slip were observed between the different bar types tested. On the basis of an image analysis of failure surfaces, they were attributed to the different bond failure mechanisms associated with the steel and GFRP bars.

  9. Evaluation of RC Bridge Piers Retrofitted using Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (FRP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shayanfar, M. A.; Zarrabian, M. S.

    2008-07-01

    For many long years, steel reinforcements have been considered as the only tool for concrete confinements and studied widely, but nowadays application of Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) as an effective alternative is well appreciated. Many bridges have been constructed in the past that are necessary to be retrofitted for resisting against the earthquake motions. The objective of this research is evaluation of nonlinear behavior of RC bridge piers. Eight RC bridge piers have been modeled by ABAQUS software under micromechanical model for homogeneous anisotropic fibers. Also the Bilinear Confinement Model by Nonlinear Transition Zone of Mirmiran has been considered. Then types and angles of fibers and their effects on the final responses were evaluated [1]. Finally, effects of retrofitting are evaluated and some suggestions presented.

  10. Behaviour of square FRP-Confined High-Strength Concrete Columns under Eccentric Compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallah Pour, Ali; Gholampour, Aliakbar; Zheng, Junai; Ozbakkaloglu, Togay

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study on the effect of load eccentricity on the axial compressive behaviour of carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP)- confined high-strength concrete (HSC) columns with a square cross-section. The axial loading was applied to the specimens at six different load eccentricities ranging from zero to 50 mm. The results show that the load eccentricity significantly influences the axial load-displacement and axial stress-strain behaviour of FRP-confined HSC. Increasing the load eccentricity leads to an increase in the ultimate axial strain but a decrease in the ultimate axial stress and second branch slope of the axial stress-strain curve.

  11. Radiation occupational health interventions offered to radiation workers in response to the complex catastrophic disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Shimura, Tsutomu; Yamaguchi, Ichiro; Terada, Hiroshi; Okuda, Kengo; Svendsen, Erik Robert; Kunugita, Naoki

    2015-05-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) 1 was severely damaged from the chain reaction of the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami on 11 March 2011, and the consequent meltdown and hydrogen gas explosions. This resulted in the worst nuclear accident since the Chernobyl accident of 1986. Just as in the case of Chernobyl, emergency workers were recruited to conduct a wide range of tasks, including disaster response, rescuing activities, NPP containment, and radiation decontamination. This paper describes the types and efficacy of the various occupational health interventions introduced to the Fukushima NPP radiation workers. Such interventions were implemented in order to prevent unnecessary radiation overexposure and associated adverse health effects and work injuries. Less than 1% of all emergency workers were exposed to external radiation of >100 mSv, and to date no deaths or health adversities from radiation have been reported for those workers. Several occupational health interventions were conducted, including setting of new regulatory exposure limits, improving workers' radiation dosimetry, administration of stable iodine, running an occupational health tracking system, and improving occupational medicine and preventative care. Those interventions were not only vital for preventing unnecessary radiation, but also for managing other general health issues such as mental health, heat illness and infectious diseases. Long-term administration of the aforementioned occupational health interventions is essential to ensure the ongoing support and care for these workers, who were put under one of the most severe occupational health risk conditions ever encountered. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  12. Genetic effects in children exposed in prenatal period to ionizing radiation after the Chornobyl nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Stepanova, Ye I; Vdovenko, V Yu; Misharina, Zh A; Kolos, V I; Mischenko, L P

    2016-12-01

    To study the genetic effects in children exposed to radiation in utero as a result of the Chornobyl nuclear power plant accident accounting the total radiation doses and equivalent radiation doses to the red bone marrow. Incidence of minor developmental anomalies was studied in children exposed to radiation in utero (study group) and in the control group (1144 subjects surveyed in total). Cytogenetic tests using the method of differential G-banding of chromosomes were conducted in 60 children of both study and control groups (10-12-year-olds) and repeatedly in 39 adolescents (15-17-year-olds). A direct correlation was found between the number of minor developmental anomalies and fetal dose of radiation, and a reverse one with fetal gestational age at the time of radiation exposure. Incidence of chromosomal damage in somatic cells of 10-12-year-old children exposed prenatally was associated with radiation dose to the red bone marrow. The repeated testing has revealed that an increased level of chromosomal aberrations was preserved in a third of adolescents. The persons exposed to ionizing radiation at prenatal period should be attributed to the group of carcinogenic risk due to persisting increased levels of chromosome damage. This article is a part of a Special Issue entitled "The Chornobyl Nuclear Accident: Thirty Years After".

  13. Risk Perception and Anxiety Regarding Radiation after the 2011 Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident: A Systematic Qualitative Review

    PubMed Central

    Lyamzina, Yuliya; Suzuki, Yuriko; Murakami, Michio

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a review of the publications of the risk perceptions or anxiety regarding radiation among people living in Japan after the 2011 Fukushima nuclear power plant accident. Two database (MEDLINE and PsycINFO) and hand-searched the references in identified publications were searched. For each identified publication, the measurements and time related-change of risk perception and anxiety regarding radiation were summarized. Twenty-four publications were identified. Quantitative measures of risk perception or anxiety were roughly divided into two types: single-item Likert scales that measure anxiety about radiation; and theoretical, or model-based measures. Rates of Fukushima residents with radiation-related anxiety decreased from 2012 to 2015. Factors governing risk perception or radiation-related anxiety were summarized by demographics, disaster-related stressors, trusted information, and radiation-related variables. The effects of risk perception or anxiety regarding radiation were summarized as severe distress, intention to leave employment or not to return home, or other dimensions. This review provides summary of current findings on risk perception or anxiety regarding radiation in Japan after the accident. Further researches are needed about detailed statistical analysis for time-related change and causality among variables. PMID:29077045

  14. Risk Perception and Anxiety Regarding Radiation after the 2011 Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident: A Systematic Qualitative Review.

    PubMed

    Takebayashi, Yoshitake; Lyamzina, Yuliya; Suzuki, Yuriko; Murakami, Michio

    2017-10-27

    The purpose of this study was to provide a review of the publications of the risk perceptions or anxiety regarding radiation among people living in Japan after the 2011 Fukushima nuclear power plant accident. Two database (MEDLINE and PsycINFO) and hand-searched the references in identified publications were searched. For each identified publication, the measurements and time related-change of risk perception and anxiety regarding radiation were summarized. Twenty-four publications were identified. Quantitative measures of risk perception or anxiety were roughly divided into two types: single-item Likert scales that measure anxiety about radiation; and theoretical, or model-based measures. Rates of Fukushima residents with radiation-related anxiety decreased from 2012 to 2015. Factors governing risk perception or radiation-related anxiety were summarized by demographics, disaster-related stressors, trusted information, and radiation-related variables. The effects of risk perception or anxiety regarding radiation were summarized as severe distress, intention to leave employment or not to return home, or other dimensions. This review provides summary of current findings on risk perception or anxiety regarding radiation in Japan after the accident. Further researches are needed about detailed statistical analysis for time-related change and causality among variables.

  15. Summary of the Manufacture, Testing and Model Validation of a Full-Scale Radiator for Fission Surface Power Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, David L.; Calder, James; Siamidis, John

    2011-01-01

    A full-scale radiator for a lunar fission surface power application was manufactured by Material innovations, Inc., for the NASA Glenn Research Center. The radiator was designed to reject 6 kWt with an inlet water temperature of 400 K and a water mass flow rate of 0.5 kg/s. While not flight hardware, the radiator incorporated many potential design features and manufacturing techniques for future flight hardware. The radiator was tested at NASA Glenn Research Center for heat rejection performance. The results showed that the radiator design was capable of rejecting over 6 kWt when operating at the design conditions. The actual performance of the radiator as a function of operational manifolds, inlet water temperature and facility sink temperature was compared to the predictive model developed by NASA Glenn Research Center. The results showed excellent agreement with the model with the actual average face sheet temperature being within 1% of the predicted value. The results will be used in the design and production of NASA s next generation fission power heat rejection systems. The NASA Glenn Research Center s Technology Demonstration Unit will be the first project to take advantage of the newly developed manufacturing techniques and analytical models.

  16. Mathematical Modeling of Optical Radiation Emission as a Function of Welding Power during Gas Shielded Metal Arc Welding.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Stefan; Janßen, Marco; Schmitz, Martin; Ott, Günter

    2017-11-01

    Arc welding is accompanied by intense optical radiation emission that can be detrimental not only for the welder himself but also for people working nearby or for passersby. Technological progress advances continuously in the field of joining, so an up-to-date radiation database is necessary. Additionally, many literature irradiance data have been measured for a few welding currents or for parts of the optical spectral region only. Within this paper, a comprehensive study of contemporary metal active gas, metal inert gas, and cold metal transfer welding is presented covering optical radiation emission from 200 up to 2,700 nm by means of (spectro-) radiometric measurements. The investigated welding currents range from 70 to 350 A, reflecting values usually applied in industry. Based upon these new irradiance data, three mathematical models were derived in order to describe optical radiation emission as a function of welding power. The linear, exponential, and sigmoidal emission models depend on the process variant (standard or pulsed) as well as on the welding material (mild and stainless steel, aluminum). In conjunction with the corresponding exposure limit values for incoherent optical radiation maximum permissible exposure durations were calculated as a function of welding power. Typical times are shorter than 1 s for the ultraviolet spectral region and range from 1 to 10 s for visible radiation. For the infrared regime, exposure durations are of the order of minutes to hours. Finally, a validation of the metal active gas emission models was carried out with manual arc welding.

  17. Decrease of neutrophils chemiluminescence during exposure to low-power laser infrared radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czuba, Zenon P.; Adamek, Mariusz; Krol, Wojciech; Sieron, Aleksander; Cieslar, Grzegorz

    1995-01-01

    The neutrophil is the cell in which phagocyting and transforming of some exogeneous agents results in marked stimulation of nonmitochondrial respiratory chain activity (respiratory burst). In our experiment we focused on determining the level of chemiluminescence (CL) of stimulated neurotrophils during and after irradiation, measuring the photon emission intensity in 6 second's intervals. We used Ga-Al-As pulsed laser (wavelength 904 nm, mean power 8,9 mW, Alpha-Electronics GmbH, Germany) which was placed over the tube containing the suspension of guinea pig peritoneal neurotrophils (2X106 cells/ml). The sensitivity range of used photomultiplier (9514s, THORN EMI, Middlesex, England) was 300-600 nm, which allowed us to measure the CL of neutrophils while being irradiated. The neutrophils were stimulated by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and CL intensified by luminol. The decay of luminol-dependent CL of neutrophils may be described by hyperbolic function curve. We switched the laser radiation on for 20 s, 60 s and 300 s and each time we observed the same reaction: the about 20% decrease of intensity of CL immediately after beginning the irradiation. The CL remained on decreased level during the whole period of irradiation reaching immediately the level of CL intensity characteristic for decay curve (20% increase), just after switching off the laser. Only after the longest irradiation time (300 s) we observed CL being higher and inconsistent with decay curve for several minutes. The type of reaction was always the same, regardless to the point of CL decay curve at which laser radiation was applied. The same changes of Cl we obtained irradiating the enzymatic system: horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-luminol - H2O2.

  18. Prototypes of self-powered radiation detectors employing intrinsic high-energy current.

    PubMed

    Zygmanski, Piotr; Shrestha, Suman; Briovio, Davide; Karellas, Andrew; Sajo, Erno

    2016-01-01

    of 30-150 nA/cm(2) for unit air kerma (1 Gy), which is viable for practical applications. The experiments had an excellent agreement with the computations. Within the examined range of 60-120 kVp, the energy dependence of the HEC (normalized to the x-ray tube output) was relatively small. Based on the experimental results for 100 ms sampling time, it would be possible to measure the time dependence of x-ray beams for x-ray tube current of 0.1 mA or higher. Significant advantages of the HEC device are that generation of its signal does not require external power supply, it can be made in any size and shape, including flexible curvilinear forms, and it is inexpensive. It remains to be determined, which of the potential applications in medical dosimetry (both in vivo and external), or radiation protection would benefit from such selfpowered detectors.

  19. Four-Wave Mixing of Gigawatt Power, Long-Wave Infrared Radiation in Gases and Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pigeon, Jeremy James

    The nonlinear optics of gigawatt power, 10 microm, 3 and 200 ps long pulses propagating in gases and semiconductors has been studied experimentally and numerically. In this work, the development of a high-repetition rate, picosecond, CO2 laser system has enabled experiments using peak intensities in the range of 1-10 GW/cm2, approximately one thousand times greater than previous nonlinear optics experiments in the long-wave infrared (LWIR) spectral region. The first measurements of the nonlinear refractive index of the atomic and molecular gases Kr, Xe, N2, O2 and the air at a wavelength near 10 microm were accomplished by studying the four-wave mixing (FWM) of dual-wavelength, 200 ps CO2 laser pulses. These measurements indicate that the nonlinearities of the diatomic molecules N2, O2 and the air are dominated by the molecular contribution to the nonlinear refractive index. Supercontinuum (SC) generation covering the infrared spectral range, from 2-20 microm, was realized by propagating 3 ps, 10 microm pulses in an approximately 7 cm long, Cr-doped GaAs crystal. Temporal measurements of the SC radiation show that pulse splitting accompanies the generation of such broadband light in GaAs. The propagation of 3 ps, 10 microm pulses in GaAs was studied numerically by solving the Generalized Nonlinear Schrodinger Equation (GNLSE). These simulations, combined with analytic estimates, were used to determine that stimulated Raman scattering combined with a modulational instability caused by the propagation of intense LWIR radiation in the negative group velocity dispersion region of GaAs are responsible for the SC generation process. The multiple FWM of a 106 GHz, 200 ps CO2 laser beat-wave propagating in GaAs was used to generate a broadband FWM spectrum that was compressed by the negative group velocity dispersion of GaAs and NaCl crystals to form trains of high-power, picosecond pulses at a wavelength near 10 microm. Experimental FWM spectra obtained using 165 and 882

  20. Relationship of surface fuels to fire radiative energy as estimated from airborne lidar and thermal infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudak, A. T.; Dickinson, M. B.; Kremens, R.; Loudermilk, L.; O'Brien, J.; Satterberg, K.; Strand, E. K.; Ottmar, R. D.

    2013-12-01

    Longleaf pine stand structure and function are dependent on frequent fires, so fire managers maintain healthy longleaf pine ecosystems by frequently burning surface fuels with prescribed fires. Eglin Air Force Base (AFB) in the Florida panhandle boasts the largest remnant of longleaf pine forest, providing a productive setting for fire scientists to make multi-scale measurements of fuels, fire behavior, and fire effects in collaboration with Eglin AFB fire managers. Data considered in this analysis were collected in five prescribed burn units: two forested units burned in 2011 and a forested unit and two grassland units burned in 2012. Our objective was to demonstrate the linear relationship between biomass and fire energy that has been shown in the laboratory, but using two independent remotely sensed airborne datasets collected at the unit level: 1) airborne lidar flown over the burn units immediately prior to the burns, and 2) thermal infrared image time series flown over the burn units at 2-3 minute intervals. Airborne lidar point cloud data were reduced to 3 m raster metrics of surface vegetation height and cover, which were in turn used to map surface fuel loads at 3 m resolution. Plot-based measures of prefire surface fuels were used for calibration/validation. Preliminary results based on 2011 data indicate airborne lidar can explain ~30% of variation in surface fuel loads. Multi-temporal thermal infrared imagery (WASP) collected at 3 m resolution were calibrated to units of fire radiative power (FRP), using simultaneous FRP measures from ground-based radiometers, and then temporally integrated to estimate fire radiative energy (FRE) release at the unit level. Prior to AGU, FRP and FRE will be compared to estimates of the same variables derived from ground-based FLIR thermal infrared imaging cameras, each deployed with a nadir view from a tripod, at three sites per burn unit. A preliminary proof-of-concept, comparing FRE derived from a tripod-based FLIR (3

  1. Generation and use of high power 213 nm and 266 nm laser radiation and tunable 210-400 nm laser radiation with BBO crystal matrix array

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.

    2000-01-01

    A 213 nm laser beam is capable of single photon ablative photodecomposition for the removal of a polymer or biological material substrate. Breaking the molecular bonds and displacing the molecules away from the substrate in a very short time period results in most of the laser photon energy being carried away by the displaced molecules, thus minimizing thermal damage to the substrate. The incident laser beam may be unfocussed and is preferably produced by quintupling the 1064 nm radiation from a Nd:YAG solid state laser, i.e., at 213 nm. In one application, the 213 nm laser beam is expanded in cross section and directed through a plurality of small beta barium borate (BBO) crystals for increasing the energy per photon of the laser radiation directed onto the substrate. The BBO crystals are arranged in a crystal matrix array to provide a large laser beam transmission area capable of accommodating high energy laser radiation without damaging the BBO crystals. The BBO crystal matrix array may also be used with 266 nm laser radiation for carrying out single or multi photon ablative photodecomposition. The BBO crystal matrix array may also be used in an optical parametric oscillator mode to generate high power tunable laser radiation in the range of 210-400 nm.

  2. Lessons learned from Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident: efficient education items of radiation safety for general public.

    PubMed

    Ohno, K; Endo, K

    2015-07-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FNP-1) accident, while as tragic as the tsunami, was a man-made disaster created by the ignorance of the effects of radiation and radioactive materials. Therefore, it is important that all specialists in radiation protection in medicine sympathize with the anxiety of the general public regarding the harmful effects of radiation and advise people accordingly. All questions and answers were collected related to inquiries from the general public that were posted to reliable websites, including those of the government and radiation-related organizations, from March 2011 to November 2012. The questions were summarized and classified by similarity of content. (1) The total number of questions is 372. The content was broadly classified into three categories: inquiries for radiation-related knowledge and about health effects and foods. The questions asked to obtain radiation-related knowledge were the most common, accounting for 38 %. Thirty-six percentage of the questions were related to health effects, and 26 % involved foods, whereas 18 % of the questions were related to children and pregnancy. (2) The change over time was investigated in 290 questions for which the time of inquiry was known. Directly after the earthquake, the questions were primarily from people seeking radiation-related knowledge. Later, questions related to health effects increased. The anxiety experienced by residents following the nuclear accident was caused primarily by insufficient knowledge related to radiation, concerns about health effects and uncertainties about food and water safety. The development of educational materials focusing on such content will be important for risk communication with the general public in countries with nuclear power plants. Physicians and medical physicist should possess the ability to respond to questions such as these and should continue with medical examinations and treatments in a safe and appropriate manner. © The

  3. Ultrasound-mediated microbubble enhancement of radiation therapy studied using three-dimensional high-frequency power Doppler ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Sheldon J J; El Kaffas, Ahmed; Lai, Priscilla; Al Mahrouki, Azza; Lee, Justin; Iradji, Sara; Tran, William Tyler; Giles, Anoja; Czarnota, Gregory J

    2013-11-01

    Tumor responses to high-dose (>8 Gy) radiation therapy are tightly connected to endothelial cell death. In the study described here, we investigated whether ultrasound-activated microbubbles can locally enhance tumor response to radiation treatments of 2 and 8 Gy by mechanically perturbing the endothelial lining of tumors. We evaluated vascular changes resulting from combined microbubble and radiation treatments using high-frequency 3-D power Doppler ultrasound in a breast cancer xenograft model. We compared treatment effects and monitored vasculature damage 3 hours, 24 hours and 7 days after treatment delivery. Mice treated with 2 Gy radiation and ultrasound-activated microbubbles exhibited a decrease in vascular index to 48 ± 10% at 24 hours, whereas vascular indices of mice treated with 2 Gy radiation alone or microbubbles alone were relatively unchanged at 95 ± 14% and 78 ± 14%, respectively. These results suggest that ultrasound-activated microbubbles enhance the effects of 2 Gy radiation through a synergistic mechanism, resulting in alterations of tumor blood flow. This novel therapy may potentiate lower radiation doses to preferentially target endothelial cells, thus reducing effects on neighboring normal tissue and increasing the efficacy of cancer treatments. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of FRP composite structural biomaterials: ultimate strength of the fiber/matrix interfacial bond in in vivo simulated environments.

    PubMed

    Latour, R A; Black, J

    1992-05-01

    Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites are being developed as alternatives to metals for structural orthopedic implant applications. FRP composite fracture behavior and environmental interactions are distinctly different from those which occur in metals. These differences must be accounted for in the design and evaluation of implant performance. Fiber/matrix interfacial bond strength in a FRP composite is known to strongly influence fracture behavior. The interfacial bond strength of four candidate fiber/matrix combinations (carbon fiber/polycarbonate, carbon fiber/polysulfone, polyaramid fiber/polycarbonate, polyaramid fiber/polysulfone) were investigated at 37 degrees C in dry and in vivo simulated (saline, exudate) environments. Ultimate bond strength was measured by a single fiber-microdroplet pull-out test. Dry bond strengths were significantly decreased following exposure to either saline or exudate with bond strength loss being approximately equal in both the saline and exudate. Bond strength loss is attributed to the diffusion of water and/or salt ions into the sample and their interaction with interfacial bonding. Because bond degradation is dependent upon diffusion, diffusional equilibrium must be obtained in composite test samples before the full effect of the test environment upon composite mechanical behavior can be determined.

  5. Performance range of SMA actuator wires and SMA-FRP structure in terms of manufacturing, modeling and actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hübler, M.; Gurka, M.; Schmeer, S.; Breuer, U. P.

    2013-09-01

    In this contribution we present a comprehensive theoretical and experimental description of an active shape memory alloy (SMA) fiber reinforced composite (FRP) hybrid structure. The major influences on actuation performance arising from variations in the design and manufacturing process are discussed, utilizing a new phenomenological model to describe the actuating SMA material. The different material properties for the activated, respective the unactivated, SMA as well as the influence of different loading conditions or pre-treatment of the material are taken into account in this model. To validate our material model we performed new actuation experiments with an exemplary SMA-FRP structure, which we compared to finite element (FE) simulation results. Our FE-model is based on a material model for the actuating SMA elements derived from experiments and data on the actual microscopic geometry of the hybrid composite. Therefore it is able to predict very precisely the actuation behavior of a typical FRP structure for industrial use cases: a thin walled CFRP sheet with SMA wires attached to the top for performing a bending motion with a maximum deflection of approx. 25% of its length.

  6. Concrete Infill Monitoring in Concrete-Filled FRP Tubes Using a PZT-Based Ultrasonic Time-of-Flight Method

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Mingzhang; Li, Weijie; Hei, Chuang; Song, Gangbing

    2016-01-01

    Concrete-filled fiber-reinforced polymer tubes (CFFTs) have attracted interest for their structural applications in corrosive environments. However, a weak interfacial strength between the fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) tube and the concrete infill may develop due to concrete shrinkage and inadequate concrete compaction during concrete casting, which will destroy the confinement effect and thereby reduce the load bearing capacity of a CFFT. In this paper, the lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-based ultrasonic time-of-flight (TOF) method was adopted to assess the concrete infill condition of CFFTs. The basic idea of this method is that the velocity of the ultrasonic wave propagation in the FRP material is about half of that in concrete material. Any voids or debonding created along the interface between the FRP tube and the concrete will delay the arrival time between the pairs of PZT transducers. A comparison of the arrival times of the PZT pairs between the intact and the defected CFFT was made to assess the severity of the voids or the debonding. The feasibility of the methodology was analyzed using a finite-difference time-domain-based numerical simulation. Experiments were setup to validate the numerical results, which showed good agreement with the numerical findings. The results showed that the ultrasonic time-of-flight method is able to detect the concrete infill condition of CFFTs. PMID:27941617

  7. Concrete Infill Monitoring in Concrete-Filled FRP Tubes Using a PZT-Based Ultrasonic Time-of-Flight Method.

    PubMed

    Luo, Mingzhang; Li, Weijie; Hei, Chuang; Song, Gangbing

    2016-12-07

    Concrete-filled fiber-reinforced polymer tubes (CFFTs) have attracted interest for their structural applications in corrosive environments. However, a weak interfacial strength between the fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) tube and the concrete infill may develop due to concrete shrinkage and inadequate concrete compaction during concrete casting, which will destroy the confinement effect and thereby reduce the load bearing capacity of a CFFT. In this paper, the lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-based ultrasonic time-of-flight (TOF) method was adopted to assess the concrete infill condition of CFFTs. The basic idea of this method is that the velocity of the ultrasonic wave propagation in the FRP material is about half of that in concrete material. Any voids or debonding created along the interface between the FRP tube and the concrete will delay the arrival time between the pairs of PZT transducers. A comparison of the arrival times of the PZT pairs between the intact and the defected CFFT was made to assess the severity of the voids or the debonding. The feasibility of the methodology was analyzed using a finite-difference time-domain-based numerical simulation. Experiments were setup to validate the numerical results, which showed good agreement with the numerical findings. The results showed that the ultrasonic time-of-flight method is able to detect the concrete infill condition of CFFTs.

  8. An Experimental Study on Shrinkage Strains of Normal-and High-Strength Concrete-Filled Frp Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Thomas; Ozbakkaloglu, Togay

    2017-09-01

    It is now well established that concrete-filled fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) tubes (CFFTs) are an attractive construction technique for new columns, however studies examining concrete shrinkage in CFFTs remain limited. Concrete shrinkage may pose a concern for CFFTs, as in these members the curing of concrete takes place inside the FRP tube. This paper reports the findings from an experimental study on concrete shrinkage strain measurements for CFFTs manufactured with normal- and high-strength concrete (NSC and HSC). A total of 6 aramid FRP (AFRP)-confined concrete specimens with circular cross-sections were manufactured, with 3 specimens each manufactured using NSC and HSC. The specimens were instrumented with surface and embedded strain gauges to monitor shrinkage development of exposed concrete and concrete sealed inside the CFFTs, respectively. All specimens were cylinders with a 152 mm diameter and 305 mm height, and their unconfined concrete strengths were 44.8 or 83.2 MPa. Analysis of the shrinkage measurements from concrete sealed inside the CFFTs revealed that embedment depth and concrete compressive strength only had minor influences on recorded shrinkage strains. However, an analysis of shrinkage measurements from the exposed concrete surface revealed that higher amounts of shrinkage can occur in HSC. Finally, it was observed that shrinkage strains are significantly higher for concrete exposed at the surface compared to concrete sealed inside the CFFTs.

  9. A skeptic's view of PLR effects in the magnetosphere. [Power Line Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsurutani, B. T.; Thorne, R. M.

    1981-01-01

    A summary is provided of the current state of knowledge concerning the effects of man-made Power Line Harmonic Radiation (PLR) on the earth's magnetosphere and its energetic particle population. It is generally agreed that PLR is strongly attenuated as it propagates into the outer magnetosphere (outside the plasmasphere) and, other than rare cases where ducting occurs, the emissions either do not manage to propagate to the equatorial plane or are sufficiently reduced in amplitude to be below the sensitivity of currently orbiting plasma wave instrumentation. In either case PLR emissions are too weak to have a significant direct effect on scattering the trapped particle population; any possible effects must be indirect. It has, therefore, been postulated that PLR can act as an 'embryonic emission' for triggering intense whistler mode 'chorus', which then via cyclotron resonant interactions, cause particle pitch-angle scattering. Points of disagreement are related to the geographic distribution of chorus, the chorus starting frequency, the Sunday effect, and PLR effects within the plasmasphere.

  10. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis: Low LET radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes dose-response models intended to be used in estimating the radiological health effects of nuclear power plant accidents. Models of early and continuing effects, cancers and thyroid nodules, and genetic effects are provided. Weibull dose-response functions are recommended for evaluating the risks of early and continuing health effects. Three potentially lethal early effects -- the hematopoietic, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal syndromes -- are considered. In addition, models are included for assessing the risks of several nonlethal early and continuing effects -- including prodromal vomiting and diarrhea, hypothyroidism and radiation thyroiditis, skin burns, reproductive effects, and pregnancy losses. Linear andmore » linear-quadratic models are recommended for estimating cancer risks. Parameters are given for analyzing the risks of seven types of cancer in adults -- leukemia, bone, lung, breast, gastrointestinal, thyroid, and other.'' The category, other'' cancers, is intended to reflect the combined risks of multiple myeloma, lymphoma, and cancers of the bladder, kidney, brain, ovary, uterus and cervix. Models of childhood cancers due to in utero exposure are also developed. For most cancers, both incidence and mortality are addressed. The models of cancer risk are derived largely from information summarized in BEIR III -- with some adjustment to reflect more recent studies. 64 refs., 18 figs., 46 tabs.« less

  11. Spatially adjustable microplasma generation in proto-metamaterials using microwave radiative power transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyunjun; Parsons, Stephen; Hopwood, Jeffrey

    2018-01-01

    A proto-metamaterial structure creates periodic microplasma in three-dimensions within a sub-wavelength volume. A typical implementation consists of a 3 × 3 × 3 rectangular array of 2.4 GHz split ring resonators with each resonator’s split forming a 150 μm discharge gap. All 27 plasmas can be simultaneously ignited in argon up to 260 Torr and sustained by 50 W of radiation power at 650 Torr. Periodic microplasma formation alters the original properties of the material as demonstrated by the electromagnetic transmission spectra between 2.1 and 2.6 GHz with and without plasma. The average electron density of microplasmas at 650 Torr is estimated to be 2-5 × 1019 m-3 by comparing simulated and measured microwave transmission spectra. In addition, both simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the spatial variation of plasma is configurable according to coupled mode theory. Therefore, this structure allows spatially adjustable plasma creation through frequency-selective electromagnetic coupling.

  12. Central powering of the largest Lyman-α nebula is revealed by polarized radiation.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Matthew; Scarlata, Claudia; Siana, Brian

    2011-08-17

    High-redshift Lyman-α (Lyα) blobs are extended, luminous but rare structures that seem to be associated with the highest peaks in the matter density of the Universe. Their energy output and morphology are similar to those of powerful radio galaxies, but the source of the luminosity is unclear. Some blobs are associated with ultraviolet or infrared bright galaxies, suggesting an extreme starburst event or accretion onto a central black hole. Another possibility is gas that is shock-excited by supernovae. But not all blobs are associated with galaxies, and these ones may instead be heated by gas falling into a dark-matter halo. The polarization of the Lyα emission can in principle distinguish between these options, but a previous attempt to detect this signature returned a null detection. Here we report observations of polarized Lyα from the blob LAB1 (ref. 2). Although the central region shows no measurable polarization, the polarized fraction (P) increases to ∼20 per cent at a radius of 45 kiloparsecs, forming an almost complete polarized ring. The detection of polarized radiation is inconsistent with the in situ production of Lyα photons, and we conclude that they must have been produced in the galaxies hosted within the nebula, and re-scattered by neutral hydrogen.

  13. Determining radiated sound power of building structures by means of laser Doppler vibrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roozen, N. B.; Labelle, L.; Rychtáriková, M.; Glorieux, C.

    2015-06-01

    This paper introduces a methodology that makes use of laser Doppler vibrometry to assess the acoustic insulation performance of a building element. The sound power radiated by the surface of the element is numerically determined from the vibrational pattern, offering an alternative for classical microphone measurements. Compared to the latter the proposed analysis is not sensitive to room acoustical effects. This allows the proposed methodology to be used at low frequencies, where the standardized microphone based approach suffers from a high uncertainty due to a low acoustic modal density. Standardized measurements as well as laser Doppler vibrometry measurements and computations have been performed on two test panels, a light-weight wall and a gypsum block wall and are compared and discussed in this paper. The proposed methodology offers an adequate solution for the assessment of the acoustic insulation of building elements at low frequencies. This is crucial in the framework of recent proposals of acoustic standards for measurement approaches and single number sound insulation performance ratings to take into account frequencies down to 50 Hz.

  14. Photon energy upconversion through thermal radiation with the power efficiency reaching 16%.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junxin; Ming, Tian; Jin, Zhao; Wang, Jianfang; Sun, Ling-Dong; Yan, Chun-Hua

    2014-11-28

    The efficiency of many solar energy conversion technologies is limited by their poor response to low-energy solar photons. One way for overcoming this limitation is to develop materials and methods that can efficiently convert low-energy photons into high-energy ones. Here we show that thermal radiation is an attractive route for photon energy upconversion, with efficiencies higher than those of state-of-the-art energy transfer upconversion under continuous wave laser excitation. A maximal power upconversion efficiency of 16% is achieved on Yb(3+)-doped ZrO2. By examining various oxide samples doped with lanthanide or transition metal ions, we draw guidelines that materials with high melting points, low thermal conductivities and strong absorption to infrared light deliver high upconversion efficiencies. The feasibility of our upconversion approach is further demonstrated under concentrated sunlight excitation and continuous wave 976-nm laser excitation, where the upconverted white light is absorbed by Si solar cells to generate electricity and drive optical and electrical devices.

  15. Solar ultraviolet-B radiation increases phenolic content and ferric reducing antioxidant power in Avena sativa.

    PubMed

    Ruhland, Christopher T; Fogal, Mitchell J; Buyarski, Christopher R; Krna, Matthew A

    2007-06-29

    We examined the influence of solar ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B; 280-320 nm) on the maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (F(v)/F(m)), bulk-soluble phenolic concentrations, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and growth of Avena sativa. Treatments involved placing filters on frames over potted plants that reduced levels of biologically effective UV-B by either 71% (reduced UV-B) or by 19% (near-ambient UV-B) over the 52 day experiment (04 July-25 August 2002). Plants growing under near-ambient UV-B had 38% less total biomass than those under reduced UV-B. The reduction in biomass was mainly the result of a 24% lower leaf elongation rate, resulting in shorter leaves and less total leaf area than plants under reduced UV-B. In addition, plants growing under near-ambient UV-B had up to 17% lower F(v)/F(m) values early in the experiment, and this effect declined with plant age. Concentrations of bulk-soluble phenolics and FRAP values were 17 and 24% higher under near-ambient UV-B than under reduced UV-B, respectively. There was a positive relationship between bulk-soluble phenolic concentrations and FRAP values. There were no UV-B effects on concentrations of carotenoids (carotenes + xanthophylls).

  16. Low power radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation for the treatment of pain due to osteoarthritis of the knee.

    PubMed

    Alcidi, L; Beneforti, E; Maresca, M; Santosuosso, U; Zoppi, M

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the analgesic effect of low power radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF) in osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. In a randomized study on 40 patients the analgesic effect of RF was compared with the effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS). RF and TENS applications were repeated every day for a period of 5 days. The therapeutic effect was evaluated by a visual analogue scale (VAS) and by Lequesne's index: tests were performed before, immediately after and 30 days after therapy. RF therapy induced a statistically significant and long lasting decrease of VAS and of Lequesne's index; TENS induced a decrease of VAS and of Lequesne's index which was not statistically significant. A therapeutic effect of RF was therefore demonstrated on pain and disability due to knee OA. This effect was better than the effect of TENS, which is a largely used analgesic technique. Such a difference of the therapeutic effect may be due to the fact that TENS acts only on superficial tissues and nerve terminals, while RF acts increasing superficial and deep tissue temperature.

  17. Towards a better understanding of the mechanisms controlling the durability of FRP composites in concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamal, Abu Sayed Md

    Wide adoption by the construction industry of Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) rebars - a relatively recent construction material that offers numerous advantages of corrosion resistance, higher strength, lighter weight, etc. over conventional reinforcing materials for concrete, such as steel - is at least partially impeded due to a lack of an effective long term in-service performance prediction model and relatively high initial costs. A reliable service life prediction model for FRP composites in concrete depends on a clear understanding of the transport mechanisms of potentially harmful chemical species into the FRP composites and their subsequent contribution to any potentially active degradation mechanism(s). To identify which mechanisms control the degradation of Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymers (GFRP) in alkaline environments, GFRP rebars were immersed into simulated concrete pore solutions and subjected to accelerated ageing tests (Phase 1). The conditioned samples were analyzed by various electron microscopy (SEM, EDS) and spectroscopic methods (FTIR). Analyses of these tests revealed that fibre-matrix debonding took place in few samples exposed to 75 °C (the highest temperature considered in this study), and tested after one year, despite the fact that the glass fibres and polymer matrix remained essentially intact and that no penetration of alkalis into the GFRP rebars was observed. Hence, this study shows that the Vinyl Ester (VE) polymer matrix used acts as an effective semi-permeable membrane by allowing the penetration of water while blocking alkali ions. The findings showing that most of the damage seems to be confined to the fibre-matrix interphase (or interface), under the considered test conditions, stimulated an investigation on the effects of sizing on the strength retention and water up-take of GFRP rebars in Phase 2 of the testing program. In order to study the effects of sizing on the properties of GFRP rebars, GFRP custom plane sheets with

  18. Effects of low power microwave radiation on biological activity of Collagenase enzyme and growth rate of S. Cerevisiae yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsuhaim, Hamad S.; Vojisavljevic, Vuk; Pirogova, E.

    2013-12-01

    Recently, microwave radiation, a type/subset of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation (EMR) has been widely used in industry, medicine, as well as food technology and mobile communication. Use of mobile phones is rapidly growing. Four years from now, 5.1 billion people will be mobile phone users around the globe - almost 1 billion more mobile users than the 4.3 billion people worldwide using them now. Consequently, exposure to weak radiofrequency/microwave radiation generated by these devices is markedly increasing. Accordingly, public concern about potential hazards on human health is mounting [1]. Thermal effects of radiofrequency/microwave radiation are very well-known and extensively studied. Of particular interest are non-thermal effects of microwave exposures on biological systems. Nonthermal effects are described as changes in cellular metabolism caused by both resonance absorption and induced EMR and are often accompanied by a specific biological response. Non-thermal biological effects are measurable changes in biological systems that may or may not be associated with adverse health effects. In this study we studied non-thermal effects of low power microwave exposures on kinetics of L-lactate dehydrogenase enzyme and growth rate of yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae strains type II. The selected model systems were continuously exposed to microwave radiation at the frequency of 968MHz and power of 10dBm using the designed and constructed (custom made) Transverse Electro-Magnetic (TEM) cell [2]. The findings reveal that microwave radiation at 968MHz and power of 10dBm inhibits L-lactate dehydrogenase enzyme activity by 26% and increases significantly (15%) the proliferation rate of yeast cells.

  19. Investigation of the vapour-plasma plume in the welding of titanium by high-power ytterbium fibre laser radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Bykovskiy, D P; Petrovskii, V N; Uspenskiy, S A

    2015-03-31

    The vapour-plasma plume produced in the welding of 6-mm thick VT-23 titanium alloy plates by ytterbium fibre laser radiation of up to 10 kW power is studied in the protective Ar gas medium. High-speed video filming of the vapour-plasma plume is used to visualise the processes occurring during laser welding. The coefficient of inverse bremsstrahlung by the welding plasma plume is calculated from the data of the spectrometric study. (interaction of laser radiation with matter)

  20. Taking SiC Power Devices to the Final Frontier: Addressing Challenges of the Space Radiation Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Casey, Megan

    2017-01-01

    Silicon carbide power device technology has the potential to enable a new generation of aerospace power systems that demand high efficiency, rapid switching, and reduced mass and volume in order to expand space-based capabilities. For this potential to be realized, SiC devices must be capable of withstanding the harsh space radiation environment. Commercial SiC components exhibit high tolerance to total ionizing dose but to date, have not performed well under exposure to heavy ion radiation representative of the on-orbit galactic cosmic rays. Insertion of SiC power device technology into space applications to achieve breakthrough performance gains will require intentional development of components hardened to the effects of these highly-energetic heavy ions. This work presents heavy-ion test data obtained by the authors over the past several years for discrete SiC power MOSFETs, JFETs, and diodes in order to increase the body of knowledge and understanding that will facilitate hardening of this technology to space radiation effects. Specifically, heavy-ion irradiation data taken under different bias, temperature, and ion beam conditions is presented for devices from different manufacturers, and the emerging patterns discussed.

  1. Study of Natural Radioactivity, Radon Exhalation Rate and Radiation Doses in Coal and Flyash Samples from Thermal Power Plants, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Lalit Mohan; Kumar, Mukesh; Sahoo, B. K.; Sapra, B. K.; Kumar, Rajesh

    Coal is one of the most important source used for electrical power generation. Its combustion part known as fly ash is used in the manufacturing of bricks, sheets, cement, land filling etc. Coal and its by-products have significant amounts of radionuclide's including uranium, thorium which is the ultimate source of the radioactive gas radon and thoron respectively. Radiation hazard from airborne emissions of coal-fired power plants have been cited as possible causes of health in environmental. Assessment of the radiation exposure from coal burning is critically dependent on the concentration of radioactive elements in coal and in the fly ash. In the present study, samples of coal and flyash were collected from Rajghat Power Plant and Badarpur Thermal Power Plant, New Delhi, India. Radon exhalation is important parameter for the estimation of radiation risk from various materials. Solis State Nuclear Track Detector based sealed Can Technique (using LR-115 type II) has been used for measurement radon exhalation rate. Also accumulation chamber based Continuous Radon Monitor and Continuous Thoron Monitor have been used for radon masss exhalation and thoron surface exhalation rate respectively. Natural radioactivity has been measured using a low level NaI(Tl) detector based on gamma ray spectrometry.

  2. The design of a multimegawatt heat pipe radiator for an inertial fusion rocket powered manned Mars mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, K. A.

    1988-01-01

    A system of heat pipe radiators has been designed to provide waste heat rejection for an inertial fusion powered spacecraft capable of manned missions to other planets. The radiators are arrays of unfinned, arterial heat pipes operating at 1500 and 900 K. Liquid metal coolant carries up to 8000 MW of waste heat through feed pipes from on-board components (laser drivers and coil shield). The radiators do not rely on armor for protection from micrometeoroid penetration. An armored radiator design for this application with a 99 percent survivability would have a specific mass of 0.06 to 0.11 kg/kW at 1500 K. Instead, a segmentation of heat pipes is used, and bumpers are utilized to protect the feed pipes. This design reduces the specific mass to 0.015 to 0.04 kg/kW for the coil shield radiator (1500 K) and 0.06 to 0.12 kg/kW for the laser driver radiator (900 K).

  3. Bipolarization of Risk Perception about the Health Effects of Radiation in Residents after the Accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Orita, Makiko; Hayashida, Naomi; Nakayama, Yumi; Shinkawa, Tetsuko; Urata, Hideko; Fukushima, Yoshiko; Endo, Yuuko; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2015-01-01

    The late health effects of low-dose rate radiation exposure are still a serious public concern in the Fukushima area even four years after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP). To clarify the factors associated with residents' risk perception of radiation exposure and consequent health effects, we conducted a survey among residents of Kawauchi village in May and June 2014, which is located within 30 km of FNPP. 85 of 285 residents (29.8%) answered that acute radiation syndrome might develop in residents after the accident, 154 (54.0%) residents responded that they had anxieties about the health effects of radiation on children, and 140 (49.1%) residents indicated that they had anxieties about the health effects of radiation on offspring. Furthermore, 107 (37.5%) residents answered that they had concerns about health effects that would appear in the general population simply by living in an environment with a 0.23 μSv per hour ambient dose for one year, 149 (52.2%) residents reported that they were reluctant to eat locally produced foods, and 164 (57.5%) residents believed that adverse health effects would occur in the general population by eating 100 Bq per kg of mushrooms every day for one year. The present study shows that a marked bipolarization of the risk perception about the health effects of radiation among residents could have a major impact on social well-being after the accident at FNPP.

  4. Bipolarization of Risk Perception about the Health Effects of Radiation in Residents after the Accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant

    PubMed Central

    Orita, Makiko; Hayashida, Naomi; Nakayama, Yumi; Shinkawa, Tetsuko; Urata, Hideko; Fukushima, Yoshiko; Endo, Yuuko; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2015-01-01

    The late health effects of low-dose rate radiation exposure are still a serious public concern in the Fukushima area even four years after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP). To clarify the factors associated with residents’ risk perception of radiation exposure and consequent health effects, we conducted a survey among residents of Kawauchi village in May and June 2014, which is located within 30 km of FNPP. 85 of 285 residents (29.8%) answered that acute radiation syndrome might develop in residents after the accident, 154 (54.0%) residents responded that they had anxieties about the health effects of radiation on children, and 140 (49.1%) residents indicated that they had anxieties about the health effects of radiation on offspring. Furthermore, 107 (37.5%) residents answered that they had concerns about health effects that would appear in the general population simply by living in an environment with a 0.23 μSv per hour ambient dose for one year, 149 (52.2%) residents reported that they were reluctant to eat locally produced foods, and 164 (57.5%) residents believed that adverse health effects would occur in the general population by eating 100 Bq per kg of mushrooms every day for one year. The present study shows that a marked bipolarization of the risk perception about the health effects of radiation among residents could have a major impact on social well-being after the accident at FNPP. PMID:26057539

  5. Design and analysis of a high power moderate band radiator using a switched oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armanious, Miena Magdi Hakeem

    Quarter-wave switched oscillators (SWOs) are an important technology for the generation of high-power, moderate bandwidth (mesoband) wave forms. The use of SWOs in high power microwave sources has been discussed for the past 10 years [1--6], but a detailed discussion of the design of this type of oscillators for particular waveforms has been lacking. In this dissertation I develop a design methodology for a realization of SWOs, also known as MATRIX oscillators in the scientific community. A key element in the design of SWOs is the self-breakdown switch, which is created by a large electric field. In order for the switch to close as expected from the design, it is essential to manage the electrostatic field distribution inside the oscillator during the charging time. This enforces geometric constraints on the shape of the conductors inside MATRIX. At the same time, the electrodynamic operation of MATRIX is dependent on the geometry of the structure. In order to generate a geometry that satisfies both the electrostatic and electrodynamic constraints, a new approach is developed to generate this geometry using the 2-D static solution of the Laplace equation, subject to a particular set of boundary conditions. These boundary conditions are manipulated to generate equipotential lines with specific dimensions that satisfy the electrodynamic constraints. Meanwhile, these equipotential lines naturally support an electrostatic field distribution that meets the requirements for the switch operation. To study the electrodynamic aspects of MATRIX, three different (but interrelated) numerical models are built. Depending on the assumptions made in each model, different information about the electrodynamic properties of the designed SWO are obtained. In addition, the agreement and consistency between the different models, validate and give confidence in the calculated results. Another important aspect of the design process is understanding the relationship between the geometric

  6. Single-cycle powerful megawatt to gigawatt terahertz pulse radiated from a wavelength-scale plasma oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hui-Chun; Sheng, Zheng-Ming; Zhang, Jie

    2008-04-01

    We propose a scheme to generate single-cycle powerful terahertz (THz) pulses by ultrashort intense laser pulses obliquely incident on an underdense plasma slab of a few THz wavelengths in thickness. THz waves are radiated from a transient net current driven by the laser ponderomotive force in the plasma slab. Analysis and particle-in-cell simulations show that such a THz source is capable of providing power of megawatts to gigawatts, field strength of MV/cm-GV/cm, and broad tunability range, which is potentially useful for nonlinear and high-field THz science and applications.

  7. A strategy for enhancing shear strength and bending strength of FRP laminate using MWCNTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawat, Prashant; Singh, K. K.

    2016-09-01

    Multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) promises to enhance mechanical properties exceptionally when it is doped with fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composite. Glass fiber symmetrical laminate with eight layers of 4.0 mm thickness was fabricated by hand lay-up technique assisted by vacuum bagging method. Ply orientations for symmetrical laminate used [(0,90)/(+45,-45)/(+45,-45)/(0,90)//(90,0)/(+45,-45)/(+45,-45)/(90,0)]. MWCNTs reinforced three different samples (0 wt.%, 0.5 wt.% and 0.75 wt.% by weight) were tested on universal testing machine (UTM). Short beam strength test and inter laminar shear strength (ILSS) calculation have been done according to ASTM D2344 and ASTM D7264. UTM having maximum load capacity of 50 KN with loading rate of 0.1 mm/min to 50 mm/min was used for mechanical testing. Testing results justified that by adding 0.50 wt.% MWCNTs in symmetrical GFRP laminate can enhance inter laminar shear strength by 13.66% and bending strength by 44.22%.

  8. Development and characterization of soy-based epoxy resins and pultruded FRP composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jiang

    This dissertation focuses on the development, manufacture and characterization of novel soy-based epoxy FRP composites. Use of alternative epoxy resin systems derived from a renewable resource holds potential for low cost raw materials for the polymer and composite industries. Epoxidized Allyl Soyate (EAS) and Epoxidized Methyl Soyate (EMS) were developed from soybean oil with two chemical modification procedures: transesterification and epoxidation. This research investigates the curing characteristics and thermal and mechanical properties of the neat soyate resin systems. The derived soyate resins have higher reactivity and superior performance compared to commercially available epoxidized soybean oil. An efficient two-step curing method was developed in order to utilize these soyate resins to their full potential. The epoxy co-resin systems with varied soyate resin content were successfully used to fabricate composite material through pultrusion. The pultrusion resin systems with 30 wt% soyate resins yielded improved, or comparable mechanical properties with neat commercial resins. A finite element analysis of the heat transfer and curing process was performed to study the processing characterization on glass/epoxy composite pultrusion. This model can be used to establish baseline process variables and will benefit subsequent optimization. This research demonstrates that soy-based resins, especially EAS, show considerable promise as an epoxy resin supplement for use in polymer and composite structural applications. The new products derived from soybean oil can provide competitive performance, low cost and environmental advantages.

  9. Unmanned Ground Vehicle for Autonomous Non-Destructive Testing of FRP Bridge Decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinkhachorn, P.; Mercer, A. Scott; Halabe, Udaya B.; GangaRao, Hota V. S.

    2007-03-01

    Current non-destructive techniques for defect analysis of FRP bridge decks have a narrow scope. These techniques are very good at detecting certain types of defects but are not robust enough to detect all defects by themselves. For example, infrared thermography (IRT) can detect air filled defects and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is good at detecting water filled ones. These technologies can be combined to create a more robust defect detection scheme. To accomplish this, an Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) has been designed that incorporates both IR and GPR analysis to create a comprehensive defect map of a bridge deck. The UGV autonomously surveys the deck surface and acquires data. The UGV has two 1.5 GHz ground coupled GPR antennas that are mounted on the front of the UGV to collect GPR data. It also incorporates an active heating source and a radiometric IR camera to capture IR images of the deck, even in less than ideal weather scenarios such as cold cloudy days. The UGV is designed so that it can collect data in an assembly line fashion. It moves in 1 foot increments. When moving, it collects GPR data from the two antennas. When it stops it heats a section of the deck. The next time it stops to heat a section, the IR camera is analyzing the preheated deck section while preparing for the next section. Because the data is being continually collected using this method, the UGV can survey the entire deck in an efficient and timely manner.

  10. New method for the transformation of solar radiation energy into electric power for energy feeding of the space vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludanov, K. I.

    The author proposes a new method for the transformation of solar radiation energy into electric power, which is alternative for photo-transformation. Ukrpatents's positive decisions are obtained for the method and for the installation for its realization. The method includes two phases: concentration of solar radiation by paraboloid mirrors with high potential heat obtaining in the helio receiver and the next heat transformation into electric power in the framework of the thermal cycle "high temperature electrolytic steam decomposition on the components (H2 and O2) + electrochemical generation by the way of the water recombination from H2 and O2 in the low temperature fuel cell". The new method gives the double superiority in comparison with the photo-transformation.

  11. A review of the application Acoustic Emission (AE) incorporating mechanical approach to monitor Reinforced concrete (RC) strengthened with Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) properties under fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syed Mazlan, S. M. S.; Abdullah, S. R.; Shahidan, S.; Noor, S. R. Mohd

    2017-11-01

    Concrete durability may be affected by so many factors such as chemical attack and weathering action that reduce the performance and the service life of concrete structures. Low durability Reinforced concrete (RC) can be greatly improved by using Fiber Reinforce Polymer (FRP). FRP is a commonly used composite material for repairing and strengthening RC structures. A review on application of Acoustic Emission (AE) techniques of real time monitoring for various mechanical tests for RC strengthened with FRP involving four-point bending, three-point bending and cyclic loading was carried out and discussed in this paper. Correlations between each AE analyses namely b-value, sentry and intensity analysis on damage characterization also been critically reviewed. From the review, AE monitoring involving RC strengthened with FRP using b-value, sentry and intensity analysis are proven to be successful and efficient method in determining damage characterization. However, application of AE analysis using sentry analysis is still limited compared to b-value and intensity analysis in characterizing damages especially for RC strengthened with FRP specimen.

  12. Investigation of the vapour-plasma plume in the welding of titanium by high-power ytterbium fibre laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bykovskiy, D. P.; Petrovskii, V. N.; Uspenskiy, S. A.

    2015-03-01

    The vapour-plasma plume produced in the welding of 6-mm thick VT-23 titanium alloy plates by ytterbium fibre laser radiation of up to 10 kW power is studied in the protective Ar gas medium. High-speed video filming of the vapour-plasma plume is used to visualise the processes occurring during laser welding. The coefficient of inverse bremsstrahlung by the welding plasma plume is calculated from the data of the spectrometric study.

  13. Effects of nuclear radiation on a high-reliability silicon power diode. 4: Analysis of reverse bias characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Been, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    The effects of nuclear radiation on the reverse bias electrical characteristics of one hundred silicon power diodes were investigated. On a percentage basis, the changes in reverse currents were large but, due to very low initial values, this electrical characteristic was not the limiting factor in use of these diodes. These changes were interpreted in terms of decreasing minority carrier lifetimes as related to generation-recombination currents. The magnitudes of reverse voltage breakdown were unaffected by irradiation.

  14. The cosmic microwave background radiation power spectrum as a random bit generator for symmetric- and asymmetric-key cryptography.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeffrey S; Cleaver, Gerald B

    2017-10-01

    In this note, the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) Radiation is shown to be capable of functioning as a Random Bit Generator, and constitutes an effectively infinite supply of truly random one-time pad values of arbitrary length. It is further argued that the CMB power spectrum potentially conforms to the FIPS 140-2 standard. Additionally, its applicability to the generation of a (n × n) random key matrix for a Vernam cipher is established.

  15. Low-power millimeter wave radiations do not alter stress-sensitive gene expression of chaperone proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhadobov, M; Sauleau, R; Le Coq, L; Debure, L; Thouroude, D; Michel, D; Le Dréan, Y

    2007-04-01

    This article reports experimental results on the influence of low-power millimeter wave (MMW) radiation at 60 GHz on a set of stress-sensitive gene expression of molecular chaperones, namely clusterin (CLU) and HSP70, in a human brain cell line. Selection of the exposure frequency is determined by its near-future applications for the new broadband civil wireless communication systems including wireless local area networks (WLAN) for domestic and professional uses. Frequencies around 60 GHz are strongly attenuated in the earth's atmosphere and such radiations represent a new environmental factor. An exposure system operating in V-band (50-75 GHz) was developed for cell exposure. U-251 MG glial cell line was sham-exposed or exposed to MMW radiation for different durations (1-33 h) and two different power densities (5.4 microW/cm(2) or 0.54 mW/cm(2)). As gene expression is a multiple-step process, we analyzed chaperone proteins induction at different levels. First, using luciferase reporter gene, we investigated potential effect of MMWs on the activation of transcription factors (TFs) and gene promoter activity. Next, using RT-PCR and Western blot assays, we verified whether MMW exposure could alter RNA accumulation, translation, or protein stability. Experimental data demonstrated the absence of significant modifications in gene transcription, mRNA, and protein amount for the considered stress-sensitive genes for the exposure durations and power densities investigated. The main results of this study suggest that low-power 60 GHz radiation does not modify stress-sensitive gene expression of chaperone proteins. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident and school bullying of affected children and adolescents: the need for continuous radiation education.

    PubMed

    Sawano, Toyoaki; Nishikawa, Yoshitaka; Ozaki, Akihiko; Leppold, Claire; Tsubokura, Masaharu

    2018-05-01

    The health threats of radiation-release incidents are diverse and long term. In addition to direct radiation effects, it is imperative to manage the indirect effects of radiation such as stigma, prejudice and broader mental health impacts. Six years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident of March 2011, bullying caused by stigma and prejudice toward evacuees, including children, has become a social problem in Japan. This phenomenon may be associated with the fact that knowledge about radiation has still not reached the general public, and to a potential lack of motivation among Japanese citizens to learn about radiation and bullying. Continuous and sustained education regarding radiation is warranted in order to enhance the general knowledge level about the effects of radiation in Japan after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, and this education will become an important reference for education after future nuclear disasters.

  17. The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident and school bullying of affected children and adolescents: the need for continuous radiation education

    PubMed Central

    Sawano, Toyoaki; Nishikawa, Yoshitaka; Ozaki, Akihiko; Leppold, Claire; Tsubokura, Masaharu

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The health threats of radiation-release incidents are diverse and long term. In addition to direct radiation effects, it is imperative to manage the indirect effects of radiation such as stigma, prejudice and broader mental health impacts. Six years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident of March 2011, bullying caused by stigma and prejudice toward evacuees, including children, has become a social problem in Japan. This phenomenon may be associated with the fact that knowledge about radiation has still not reached the general public, and to a potential lack of motivation among Japanese citizens to learn about radiation and bullying. Continuous and sustained education regarding radiation is warranted in order to enhance the general knowledge level about the effects of radiation in Japan after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, and this education will become an important reference for education after future nuclear disasters. PMID:29635385

  18. Radiation Exposure and Thyroid Cancer Risk After the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident in Comparison with the Chernobyl Accident.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, S; Takamura, N; Ohtsuru, A; Suzuki, S

    2016-09-01

    The actual implementation of the epidemiological study on human health risk from low dose and low-dose rate radiation exposure and the comprehensive long-term radiation health effects survey are important especially after radiological and nuclear accidents because of public fear and concern about the long-term health effects of low-dose radiation exposure have increased considerably. Since the Great East Japan earthquake and the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in Japan, Fukushima Prefecture has started the Fukushima Health Management Survey Project for the purpose of long-term health care administration and medical early diagnosis/treatment for the prefectural residents. Especially on a basis of the lessons learned from the Chernobyl accident, both thyroid examination and mental health care are critically important irrespective of the level of radiation exposure. There are considerable differences between Chernobyl and Fukushima regarding radiation dose to the public, and it is very difficult to estimate retrospectively internal exposure dose from the short-lived radioactive iodines. Therefore, the necessity of thyroid ultrasound examination in Fukushima and the intermediate results of this survey targeting children will be reviewed and discussed in order to avoid any misunderstanding or misinterpretation of the high detection rate of childhood thyroid cancer. © World Health Organisation 2016. All rights reserved. The World Health Organization has granted Oxford University Press permission for the reproduction of this article.

  19. A Radiological Assessment Skills Training Program for the Radiation Worker at Shoreham Nuclear Power Station.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Leonard, Jr.

    Radiation workers, by law, have the responsibility to maintain their exposure to radiation levels as low as possible. This responsibility has not been accepted. Instead, they have relied solely on the policing action of health physics (HP) technicians, thereby delegating their lawful responsibility. Continued overexposure in the U.S. nuclear power…

  20. Effect of Microwave Radiation Power on the Size of Aggregates of ZnO NPs Prepared Using Microwave Solvothermal Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Chudoba, Tadeusz; Gierlotka, Stanisław; Lojkowski, Witold

    2018-01-01

    This paper reports the possibility of changing the size of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) aggregates through a change of synthesis parameters. The effect of the changed power of microwave heating on the properties of ZnO NPs obtained by the microwave solvothermal synthesis from zinc acetate dissolved in ethylene glycol was tested for the first time. It was found that the size of ZnO aggregates ranged from 60 to 120 nm depending on the power of microwave radiation used in the synthesis of ZnO NPs. The increase in the microwave radiation power resulted in the reduction of the total synthesis time with simultaneous preservation of the constant size and shape of single ZnO NPs, which were synthesized at a pressure of 4 bar. All the obtained ZnO NPs samples were composed of homogeneous spherical particles that were single crystals with an average size of 27 ± 3 nm with a developed specific surface area of 40 m2/g and the skeleton density of 5.18 ± 0.03 g/cm3. A model of a mechanism explaining the correlation between the size of aggregates and the power of microwaves was proposed. This method of controlling the average size of ZnO NPs aggregates is presented for the first time and similar investigations are not found in the literature. PMID:29783651

  1. Nowcast and Short-Term Forecast of Solar Radiation for Photovoltaic power and Solar thermal using 3rd generation geostationary satellite.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takenaka, H.; Teruyuki, N.; Nakajima, T. Y.; Higurashi, A.; Hashimoto, M.; Suzuki, K.; Uchida, J.; Nagao, T. M.; Shi, C.; Inoue, T.

    2017-12-01

    It is important to estimate the earth's radiation budget accurately for understanding of climate. Clouds can cool the Earth by reflecting solar radiation but also maintain warmth by absorbing and emitting terrestrial radiation. similarly aerosols also have an effect on radiation budget by absorption and scattering of Solar radiation. In this study, we developed the high speed and accurate algorithm for shortwave (SW) radiation budget and it's applied to geostationary satellite for rapid analysis. It enabled highly accurate monitoring of solar radiation and photo voltaic (PV) power generation. Next step, we try to update the algorithm for retrieval of Aerosols and Clouds. It indicates the accurate atmospheric parameters for estimation of solar radiation. (This research was supported in part by CREST/EMS).

  2. Framework for Mapping of Receiver Interference Tolerance Masks to Tolerable Effective Isotropic Radiated Power Levels : GPS ABC Workshop V RTCA Washington, DC October 14, 2016.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-10-14

    Outline : : Interference Tolerance Mask (ITM) to Effective Isotropic Radiated Power (IRP) for the particular case of a single transmitter : : ITM() to IRP() for the general case of multiple transmitters : : Input parameters needed to solv...

  3. Potentials of Optical Damage Assessment Techniques in Automotive Crash-Concepts composed of FRP-Steel Hybrid Material Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dlugosch, M.; Spiegelhalter, B.; Soot, T.; Lukaszewicz, D.; Fritsch, J.; Hiermaier, S.

    2017-05-01

    With car manufacturers simultaneously facing increasing passive safety and efficiency requirements, FRP-metal hybrid material systems are one way to design lightweight and crashworthy vehicle structures. Generic automotive hybrid structural concepts have been tested under crash loading conditions. In order to assess the state of overall damage and structural integrity, and primarily to validate simulation data, several NDT techniques have been assessed regarding their potential to detect common damage mechanisms in such hybrid systems. Significant potentials were found particularly in combining 3D-topography laser scanning and X-Ray imaging results. Ultrasonic testing proved to be limited by the signal coupling quality on damaged or curved surfaces.

  4. RADIATION EXPOSURE OF THE POPULATION FROM 222Rn AND OTHER NATURAL RADIONUCLIDES AROUND MOCHOVCE NUCLEAR POWER PLANT, SLOVAKIA.

    PubMed

    Bulko, Martin; Holý, Karol; Pohronská, Žofia; Mullerová, Monika; Böhm, Radoslav; Holá, Ol'ga

    2017-11-01

    In this article, the effective dose to the population from natural sources of ionizing radiation in the vicinity of Mochovce nuclear power plant in Slovakia is presented. All major contributions to the effective dose were taken into account, including the contributions from gamma radiation of soil and rocks, cosmic radiation, and indoor and outdoor radon and thoron. On the basis of recent indoor radon measurements in Slovak cities and publicly available data about radon concentration in the soil air, a roughly linear relationship was found between these variables. Consequently, the annual effective dose from indoor radon and thoron was conservatively estimated. For the area of interest, a map of conservatively estimated potential effective doses was created. For the villages in the vicinity of Mochovce, the conservatively estimated effective dose to the population from natural sources ranged from 5.4 to 14.6 mSv, which is four orders of magnitude higher than the contribution of radioactive discharges from Mochovce nuclear power plant. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Estimation of soft X-ray and EUV transition radiation power emitted from the MIRRORCLE-type tabletop synchrotron.

    PubMed

    Toyosugi, N; Yamada, H; Minkov, D; Morita, M; Yamaguchi, T; Imai, S

    2007-03-01

    The tabletop synchrotron light sources MIRRORCLE-6X and MIRRORCLE-20SX, operating at electron energies E(el) = 6 MeV and E(el) = 20 MeV, respectively, can emit powerful transition radiation (TR) in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and the soft X-ray regions. To clarify the applicability of these soft X-ray and EUV sources, the total TR power has been determined. A TR experiment was performed using a 385 nm-thick Al foil target in MIRRORCLE-6X. The angular distribution of the emitted power was measured using a detector assembly based on an NE102 scintillator, an optical bundle and a photomultiplier. The maximal measured total TR power for MIRRORCLE-6X is P(max) approximately equal 2.95 mW at full power operation. Introduction of an analytical expression for the lifetime of the electron beam allows calculation of the emitted TR power by a tabletop synchrotron light source. Using the above measurement result, and the theoretically determined ratio between the TR power for MIRRORCLE-6X and MIRRORCLE-20SX, the total TR power for MIRRORCLE-20SX can be obtained. The one-foil TR target thickness is optimized for the 20 MeV electron energy. P(max) approximately equal 810 mW for MIRRORCLE-20SX is obtained with a single foil of 240 nm-thick Be target. The emitted bremsstrahlung is negligible with respect to the emitted TR for optimized TR targets. From a theoretically known TR spectrum it is concluded that MIRRORCLE-20SX can emit 150 mW of photons with E > 500 eV, which makes it applicable as a source for performing X-ray lithography. The average wavelength, \\overline\\lambda = 13.6 nm, of the TR emission of MIRRORCLE-20SX, with a 200 nm Al target, could provide of the order of 1 W EUV.

  6. Power monitoring in space nuclear reactors using silicon carbide radiation detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruddy, Frank H.; Patel, Jagdish U.; Williams, John G.

    2005-01-01

    Space reactor power monitors based on silicon carbide (SiC) semiconductor neutron detectors are proposed. Detection of fast leakage neutrons using SiC detectors in ex-core locations could be used to determine reactor power: Neutron fluxes, gamma-ray dose rates and ambient temperatures have been calculated as a function of distance from the reactor core, and the feasibility of power monitoring with SiC detectors has been evaluated at several ex-core locations. Arrays of SiC diodes can be configured to provide the required count rates to monitor reactor power from startup to full power Due to their resistance to temperature and the effects of neutron and gamma-ray exposure, SiC detectors can be expected to provide power monitoring information for the fill mission of a space reactor.

  7. Fundamental Materials Studies for Advanced High Power Microwave and Terahertz Vacuum Electronic Radiation Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-10

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2014-0359 Fundamental Materials Studies for Advanced High Power Microwave and Terahertz John Booske UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN SYSTEM...12-2014 Final Technical Performance Report October 1, 2011 - September 30, 2014 Fundamental Materials Studies for Advanced High Power Microwave and...emission-barrier scandate cathodes and identify related, alternative cathode materials systems for advanced vacuum electronic cathodes for high power THz

  8. How an antenna launches its input power into radiation: thepattern of the Poynting vector at and near an antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, J.D.

    2005-05-18

    In this paper I first address the question of whether theseat of the power radiated by an antenna made of conducting members isdistributed over the "arms" of the antenna according tomore » $$ - \\bf J \\cdotE$$, where $$\\bf J$$ is the specified current density and $$\\bf E$$ is theelectric field produced by that source. Poynting's theorem permits only aglobal identification of the total input power, usually from a localizedgenerator, with the total power radiated to infinity, not a localcorrespondence of $$- \\bf J \\cdot E\\ d^3x $$ with some specific radiatedpower, $$r^2 \\bf S \\cdot \\hat r\\ d\\Omega $$. I then describe a modelantenna consisting of two perfectly conducting hemispheres of radius\\emph a separated by a small equatorial gap across which occurs thedriving oscillatory electric field. The fields and surface current aredetermined by solution of the boundary value problem. In contrast to thefirst approach (not a boundary value problem), the tangential electricfield vanishes on the metallic surface. There is no radial Poyntingvector at the surface. Numerical examples are shown to illustrate how theenergy flows from the input region of the gap and is guided near theantenna by its "arms" until it is launched at larger \\emph r/a into theradiation pattern determined by the value of \\emph ka.« less

  9. Thermal Investigation of Interaction between High-power CW-laser Radiation and a Water-jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecher, Christian; Janssen, Henning; Eckert, Markus; Schmidt, Florian

    The technology of a water guided laser beam has been industrially established for micro machining. Pulsed laser radiation is guided via a water jet (diameter: 25-250 μm) using total internal reflection. Due to the cylindrical jet shape the depth of field increases to above 50 mm, enabling parallel kerfs compared to conventional laser systems. However higher material thicknesses and macro geometries cannot be machined economically viable due to low average laser powers. Fraunhofer IPT has successfully combined a high-power continuous-wave (CW) fiber laser (6 kW) and water jet technology. The main challenge of guiding high-power laser radiation in water is the energy transferred to the jet by absorption, decreasing its stability. A model of laser water interaction in the water jet has been developed and validated experimentally. Based on the results an upscaling of system technology to 30 kW is discussed, enabling a high potential in cutting challenging materials at high qualities and high speeds.

  10. Parametric Study of Radiator Concepts for a Stirling Radioisotope Power System Applicable to Deep Space Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.; Tew, Roy C.; Thieme, Lanny G.

    2000-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and the NASA Glenn Research Center are developing a Stirling converter for an advanced radioisotope power system to provide spacecraft onboard electric power for NASA deep space missions. This high-efficiency converter is being evaluated as an alternative to replace the much lower efficiency radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). The current power requirement (six years after beginning of mission (BOM) for a mission to Jupiter) is 210 W(sub e) (watts electric) to be generated by two separate power systems, one on each side of the spacecraft. Both two-converter and four-converter system designs are being considered, depending on the amount of required redundancy.

  11. Comment on ‘Poynting flux in the neighbourhood of a point charge in arbitrary motion and radiative power losses’

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowland, David R.

    2018-01-01

    Based on a calculation of the Poynting vector flux in the neighbourhood of an accelerating point charge, Singal (2016 Eur. J. Phys. 37 045210) has claimed that the instantaneous rate of energy radiated by the charge differs from the Larmor formula. It is argued in this comment that Singal’s proposed formula for the radiated power is physically untenable because it predicts a negative rate of energy loss in physically realisable situations. The cause of Singal’s erroneous conclusion is identified as being a failure to realise that the bound electromagnetic field energy of an accelerating charge differs by the Schott energy from the bound field energy of a charge moving at a constant velocity equal to the current velocity of the accelerating charge. References to the salient literature are provided.

  12. Generation of high-power terahertz radiation by nonlinear photon-assisted tunneling transport in plasmonic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Pai-Yen; Salas, Rodolfo; Farhat, Mohamed

    2017-12-01

    We propose an optoelectronic terahertz oscillator based on the quantum tunneling effect in a plasmonic metamaterial, utilizing a nanostructured metal-insulator-metal (MIM) tunneling junction. The collective resonant response of meta-atoms can achieve >90% optical absorption and strongly localized optical fields within the MIM plasmonic nanojunction. By properly tailoring the radiation aperture, the nonlinear quantum conductance induced by the metamaterial-enhanced, photon-assisted tunneling may produce miliwatt-level terahertz radiation through the optical beating (or heterodyne down conversion) of two lasers with a slight frequency offset. We envisage that the interplay between photon-assisted tunneling and plasmon coupling within the MIM metamaterial/diode may substantially enhance the modulated terahertz photocurrent, and may therefore realize a practical high-power, room-temperature source in applications of terahertz electronics.

  13. No detectable bioeffects following acute exposure to high peak power ultra-wide band electromagnetic radiation in rats.

    PubMed

    Walters, T J; Mason, P A; Sherry, C J; Steffen, C; Merritt, J H

    1995-06-01

    A wide range assessment of the possible bioeffects of an acute exposure to high peak power ultra-wide band (UWB) electromagnetic radiation was performed in rats. The UWB-exposure consisted of 2 min of pulsed (frequency: 60 Hz, pulse width: 5-10 ns) UWB (bandwidth: 0.25-2.50 GHz) electromagnetic radiation. Rats were examined using one of the following: 1) a functional observational battery (FOB); 2) a swimming performance test; 3) a complete panel of blood chemistries; or 4) determination of the expression of the c-fos protein in immunohistologically-stained sections of the brain. No significant differences were found between UWB- or sham-exposed rats on any of the measured parameters.

  14. Radiation Shielding Study of Advanced Data and Power Management Systems (ADPMS) Housing Using Geant4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, F.; Kurvinen, K.; Brander, T.; Orava, R.; Heino, J.; Virtanen, A.; Kettunen, H.; Tenhunen, M.

    2008-02-01

    A design goal for current space system is to reduce the mass used to enclose components of the spacecraft. One potential target is to reduce the mass of electronics and its housings. The use of composite materials, especially CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic) is a well known and vastly used approach to mass reduction. A design goal, cost reduction, has increased the use of commercial (non-space qualified) electronics. These commercial circuits and other components cannot tolerate as high radiation levels as space qualified components. Therefore, the use of standard electronics components poses a challenge in terms of the radiation protection capability of the ADPMS housings. The main goal of this study is to provide insight on the radiation shielding protection produced by different configurations of CFRP tungsten laminates of epoxies and cyanate esters and then to compare them to the protection given by the commonly used aluminum. For a spacecraft operating in LEO and MEO orbits the main components of the space radiation environment are energetic electrons and protons, therefore in our study we will compare the experimental and simulation results of the radiation attenuation of different types of laminates for those particles. At the same time the experimental data has been used to validate the Geant4 model of the laminates, which can be used for future optimizations of the laminate structures.

  15. Environmental gamma radiation analysis for Ulsan city with the highest nuclear power plant density in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, UkJae; Bae, Jun Woo; Kim, Hee Reyoung

    2017-11-01

    This study presents a real-time measurement-based rapid radiation distribution visualization system for radionuclide recognition, which can quickly scan a contaminated environment. The system combines a portable detector with a digital map and a program for quick data treatment. Radiation information at the measurement location is transferred between a detector and a laptop. It includes environmental and artificial components, specific radionuclides, and total radionuclides. After scanning the area, the radiation distributions are comprehensively displayed in 2D and 3D maps corresponding to the measured area, all in a few tens of seconds. The proposed method was verified using the standard 137 Cs and 60 Co sources. The gamma radiation distribution of the areas measured in Ulsan city, which included non-destructive testing and radioisotope treatment facilities, hospitals, transportation spots, and residential and commercial areas, showed that Ulsan city has maintained safe levels of radiation. The system performed well. In addition, it was found that this system could detect unexpected hot spots quickly in affected environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Low-Radiation Cellular Inductive Powering of Rodent Wireless Brain Interfaces: Methodology and Design Guide.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Nima; Aliroteh, Miaad S; Salam, M Tariqus; Perez Velazquez, Jose Luis; Genov, Roman

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a general methodology of inductive power delivery in wireless chronic rodent electrophysiology applications. The focus is on such systems design considerations under the following key constraints: maximum power delivery under the allowable specific absorption rate (SAR), low cost and spatial scalability. The methodology includes inductive coil design considerations within a low-frequency ferrite-core-free power transfer link which includes a scalable coil-array power transmitter floor and a single-coil implanted or worn power receiver. A specific design example is presented that includes the concept of low-SAR cellular single-transmitter-coil powering through dynamic tracking of a magnet-less receiver spatial location. The transmitter coil instantaneous supply current is monitored using a small number of low-cost electronic components. A drop in its value indicates the proximity of the receiver due to the reflected impedance of the latter. Only the transmitter coil nearest to the receiver is activated. Operating at the low frequency of 1.5 MHz, the inductive powering floor delivers a maximum of 15.9 W below the IEEE C95 SAR limit, which is over three times greater than that in other recently reported designs. The power transfer efficiency of 39% and 13% at the nominal and maximum distances of 8 cm and 11 cm, respectively, is maintained.

  17. Effects of FRP application on the seismic response of a masonry church in Emilia-Romagna (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milani, Gabriele; Shehu, Rafael; Valente, Marco

    2016-12-01

    The paper presents some preliminary results of advanced Finite Element (FE) analyses on the upgrading of old masonry constructions by means of Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRPs). The case study is a masonry Romanesque church, located in Ferrara, Emilia Romagna (Italy). The church exhibits widespread damage caused by the recent earthquake sequence occurred in 2012 about 60 km far from Ferrara with two major seismic events of magnitude 5.8 and 5.9. The main damage involved mainly the columns of the central nave and the apse. A partial detachment of the façade was observed too. First, gravity load analyses and non-linear static and dynamic analyses are performed on the church in the unretrofitted configuration. Numerical results put in evidence the insufficient strength of the apse and the columns of the naves, and the detachment of the façade. A strengthening intervention conducted by means of FRP strips is numerically analysed, assuming the behavior of the strips, especially for what concerns delamination, in agreement with Italian Guidelines. Numerical results show a quite reasonable strength improvement of the weak structural elements due to FRP application, with levels of strength higher than the minimum ones required by Italian Code.

  18. Structural Performance of a Hybrid FRP-Aluminum Modular Triangular Truss System Subjected to Various Loading Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dongdong; Huang, Yaxin; Zhao, Qilin; Li, Fei; Gao, Yifeng

    2014-01-01

    A novel hybrid FRP-aluminum truss system has been employed in a two-rut modular bridge superstructure composed of twin inverted triangular trusses. The actual flexural behavior of a one-rut truss has been previously investigated under the on-axis loading test; however, the structural performance of the one-rut truss subjected to an off-axis load is still not fully understood. In this paper, a geometrical linear finite element model is introduced and validated by the on-axis loading test; the structural performance of the one-rut truss subjected to off-axis load was numerically obtained; the dissimilarities of the structural performance between the two different loading cases are investigated in detail. The results indicated that (1) the structural behavior of the off-axis load differs from that of the on-axis load, and the off-axis load is the critical loading condition controlling the structural performance of the triangular truss; (2) under the off-axis load, the FRP trussed members and connectors bear certain out-of-plane bending moments and are subjected to a complicated stress state; and (3) the stress state of these members does not match that of the initial design, and optimization for the redesign of these members is needed, especially for the pretightened teeth connectors. PMID:25254254

  19. Monitoring Poisson’s Ratio Degradation of FRP Composites under Fatigue Loading Using Biaxially Embedded FBG Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Akay, Erdem; Yilmaz, Cagatay; Kocaman, Esat S.; Turkmen, Halit S.; Yildiz, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The significance of strain measurement is obvious for the analysis of Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (FRP) composites. Conventional strain measurement methods are sufficient for static testing in general. Nevertheless, if the requirements exceed the capabilities of these conventional methods, more sophisticated techniques are necessary to obtain strain data. Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors have many advantages for strain measurement over conventional ones. Thus, the present paper suggests a novel method for biaxial strain measurement using embedded FBG sensors during the fatigue testing of FRP composites. Poisson’s ratio and its reduction were monitored for each cyclic loading by using embedded FBG sensors for a given specimen and correlated with the fatigue stages determined based on the variations of the applied fatigue loading and temperature due to the autogenous heating to predict an oncoming failure of the continuous fiber-reinforced epoxy matrix composite specimens under fatigue loading. The results show that FBG sensor technology has a remarkable potential for monitoring the evolution of Poisson’s ratio on a cycle-by-cycle basis, which can reliably be used towards tracking the fatigue stages of composite for structural health monitoring purposes. PMID:28773901

  20. Probing reionization with the cross-power spectrum of 21 cm and near-infrared radiation backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Xiao-Chun, E-mail: xcmao@bao.ac.cn

    2014-08-01

    The cross-correlation between the 21 cm emission from the high-redshift intergalactic medium and the near-infrared (NIR) background light from high-redshift galaxies promises to be a powerful probe of cosmic reionization. In this paper, we investigate the cross-power spectrum during the epoch of reionization. We employ an improved halo approach to derive the distribution of the density field and consider two stellar populations in the star formation model: metal-free stars and metal-poor stars. The reionization history is further generated to be consistent with the electron-scattering optical depth from cosmic microwave background measurements. Then, the intensity of the NIR background is estimatedmore » by collecting emission from stars in first-light galaxies. On large scales, we find that the 21 cm and NIR radiation backgrounds are positively correlated during the very early stages of reionization. However, these two radiation backgrounds quickly become anti-correlated as reionization proceeds. The maximum absolute value of the cross-power spectrum is |Δ{sub 21,NIR}{sup 2}|∼10{sup −4} mK nW m{sup –2} sr{sup –1}, reached at ℓ ∼ 1000 when the mean fraction of ionized hydrogen is x-bar{sub i}∼0.9. We find that Square Kilometer Array can measure the 21 cm-NIR cross-power spectrum in conjunction with mild extensions to the existing CIBER survey, provided that the integration time independently adds up to 1000 and 1 hr for 21 cm and NIR observations, and that the sky coverage fraction of the CIBER survey is extended from 4 × 10{sup –4} to 0.1. Measuring the cross-correlation signal as a function of redshift provides valuable information on reionization and helps confirm the origin of the 'missing' NIR background.« less

  1. 46 CFR 160.035-8 - Construction of fibrous glass reinforced plastic (F.R.P.), oar-, hand-, and motor-propelled...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Construction of fibrous glass reinforced plastic (F.R.P... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Lifeboats for Merchant Vessels § 160.035-8 Construction of fibrous glass... set forth in this subpart. (2) Fibrous glass reinforced plastic lifeboats may be of the following...

  2. 46 CFR 160.035-8 - Construction of fibrous glass reinforced plastic (F.R.P.), oar-, hand-, and motor-propelled...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Construction of fibrous glass reinforced plastic (F.R.P... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Lifeboats for Merchant Vessels § 160.035-8 Construction of fibrous glass... set forth in this subpart. (2) Fibrous glass reinforced plastic lifeboats may be of the following...

  3. Role of DDC-4/sFRP-4, a secreted frizzled-related protein, at the onset of apoptosis in mammary involution.

    PubMed

    Lacher, M D; Siegenthaler, A; Jäger, R; Yan, Xi; Hett, S; Xuan, L; Saurer, S; Lareu, R R; Dharmarajan, A M; Friis, R

    2003-05-01

    Using differential display, we isolated DDC-4, a secreted frizzled-related protein (sFRP), which is induced in the physiological apoptosis of hormonally regulated, reproductive tissues such as mammary gland, prostate, corpus luteum and uterus. The role of this gene in apoptosis was studied in animals overexpressing ectopic DDC-4/sFRP-4. Transgenic mice bearing the DDC-4/sFRP-4 cDNA under the control of the MMTV-LTR promoter showed lactational insufficiency and many apoptotic cells in the alveoli between day 19 of pregnancy and day 4 of lactation as demonstrated by TUNEL reaction and the presence of activated caspase-3. We performed a PKB/Akt kinase assay and studied several of its substrates using phosphorylation-specific antibodies to show reduced phosphorylation in PKB/Akt itself, as well as in glycogen synthetase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta), BAD, and Forkhead. Taken together, our results show a role for DDC-4/sFRP-4 in abrogating an epithelial cell survival pathway at the onset of mammary gland involution.

  4. Impact of Total Ionizing Dose Radiation Testing and Long-Term Thermal Cycling on the Operation of CMF20120D Silicon Carbide Power MOSFET

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Scheidegger, Robert J.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Casey, Megan; Scheick, Leif; Hammoud, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Power systems designed for use in NASA space missions are required to work reliably under harsh conditions including radiation, thermal cycling, and extreme temperature exposures. Silicon carbide devices show great promise for use in future power electronics systems, but information pertaining to performance of the devices in the space environment is very scarce. A silicon carbide N-channel enhancement-mode power MOSFET called the CMF20120 is of interest for use in space environments. Samples of the device were exposed to radiation followed by long-term thermal cycling to address their reliability for use in space applications. The results of the experimental work are presentd and discussed.

  5. Reionization Simulations Powered by Graphics Processing Units. I. On the Structure of the Ultraviolet Radiation Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubert, Dominique; Teyssier, Romain

    2010-11-01

    We present a set of cosmological simulations with radiative transfer in order to model the reionization history of the universe from z = 18 down to z = 6. Galaxy formation and the associated star formation are followed self-consistently with gas and dark matter dynamics using the RAMSES code, while radiative transfer is performed as a post-processing step using a moment-based method with the M1 closure relation in the ATON code. The latter has been ported to a multiple Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) architecture using the CUDA language together with the MPI library, resulting in an overall acceleration that allows us to tackle radiative transfer problems at a significantly higher resolution than previously reported: 10243 + 2 levels of refinement for the hydrodynamic adaptive grid and 10243 for the radiative transfer Cartesian grid. We reach a typical acceleration factor close to 100× when compared to the CPU version, allowing us to perform 1/4 million time steps in less than 3000 GPU hr. We observe good convergence properties between our different resolution runs for various volume- and mass-averaged quantities such as neutral fraction, UV background, and Thomson optical depth, as long as the effects of finite resolution on the star formation history are properly taken into account. We also show that the neutral fraction depends on the total mass density, in a way close to the predictions of photoionization equilibrium, as long as the effect of self-shielding are included in the background radiation model. Although our simulation suite has reached unprecedented mass and spatial resolution, we still fail in reproducing the z ~ 6 constraints on the neutral fraction of hydrogen and the intensity of the UV background. In order to account for unresolved density fluctuations, we have modified our chemistry solver with a simple clumping factor model. Using our most spatially resolved simulation (12.5 Mpc h -1 with 10243 particles) to calibrate our subgrid model, we have

  6. Internal Radiation Exposure Dose in Iwaki City, Fukushima Prefecture after the Accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant

    PubMed Central

    Orita, Makiko; Hayashida, Naomi; Nukui, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Naoko; Kudo, Takashi; Matsuda, Naoki; Fukushima, Yoshiko; Takamura, Noboru

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) on 11 March 2011, a huge amount of radionuclides, including radiocesium, was released and spread over a wide area of eastern Japan. Although three years have passed since the accident, residents around the FNPP are anxious about internal radiation exposure due to radiocesium. In this study, we screened internal radiation exposure doses in Iwaki city of Fukushima prefecture, using a whole-body counter. The first screening was conducted from October 2012 to February 2013, and the second screening was conducted from May to November 2013. Study participants were employees of ALPINE and their families who underwent examination. A total of 2,839 participants (1,366 men and 1,473 women, 1–86 years old) underwent the first screening, and 2,092 (1,022 men and 1,070 women, 1–86 years old) underwent the second screening. The results showed that 99% of subjects registered below 300 Bq per body in the first screening, and all subjects registered below 300 Bq per body in the second screening. The committed effective dose ranged from 0.01–0.06 mSv in the first screening and 0.01–0.02 mSv in the second screening. Long-term follow-up studies are needed to avoid unnecessary chronic internal exposure and to reduce anxiety among the residents by communicating radiation health risks. PMID:25478794

  7. Internal radiation exposure dose in Iwaki city, Fukushima prefecture after the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Orita, Makiko; Hayashida, Naomi; Nukui, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Naoko; Kudo, Takashi; Matsuda, Naoki; Fukushima, Yoshiko; Takamura, Noboru

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) on 11 March 2011, a huge amount of radionuclides, including radiocesium, was released and spread over a wide area of eastern Japan. Although three years have passed since the accident, residents around the FNPP are anxious about internal radiation exposure due to radiocesium. In this study, we screened internal radiation exposure doses in Iwaki city of Fukushima prefecture, using a whole-body counter. The first screening was conducted from October 2012 to February 2013, and the second screening was conducted from May to November 2013. Study participants were employees of ALPINE and their families who underwent examination. A total of 2,839 participants (1,366 men and 1,473 women, 1-86 years old) underwent the first screening, and 2,092 (1,022 men and 1,070 women, 1-86 years old) underwent the second screening. The results showed that 99% of subjects registered below 300 Bq per body in the first screening, and all subjects registered below 300 Bq per body in the second screening. The committed effective dose ranged from 0.01-0.06 mSv in the first screening and 0.01-0.02 mSv in the second screening. Long-term follow-up studies are needed to avoid unnecessary chronic internal exposure and to reduce anxiety among the residents by communicating radiation health risks.

  8. Radioisotopic energy conversion system (RECS): A new radioisotopic power cell, based on nuclear, atomic, and radiation transport principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinfelds, Eric Victor

    The topic of this thesis is the development of the Radioisotope Energy Conversion System (RECS) in a project which is utilizing analytical computational assisted design and some experimental Research in the investigation of fluorescers and effective transducers with the appropriate energy range choice for the conversion of energy. It is desirable to increase the efficiency in electrical power from the raw kinetic power available from the radioactive material within radioisotope power generators. A major step in this direction is the development and use of Radioisotope Energy Conversion Systems to supplement and ideally replace Radioactive Thermal Generators (RTG). It is possible to achieve electrical conversion efficiencies exceeding 25% for RECS power devices compared to only 9 percent efficiency for RTG's. The theoretical basis with existent materials for the potential achievability of efficiencies above 25% is documented within this thesis. The fundamental RECS consists of a radioisotope radiative source (C1), a mediating fluorescent gas (C2) which readily absorbs energy from the beta particles (or alpha's) and subsequently emits blue or UV photons, photovoltaic cells (C3) to convert the blue and UV photons into electrical energy [2], and electrical circuitry (C4). Solid State inspired component (C3), due to its theoretical (and attainable) high efficiency, is a large step ahead of the RTG design concept. The radioisotope flux source produces the beta(-) particles or alpha particles. Geometrically, presently, we prefer to have the ambient fluorescent gas surround the radioisotope flux source. Our fluorescer shall be a gas such as Krypton. Our specifically wide band-gap photovoltaic cells shall have gap energies which are slightly less than that of UV photons produced by the fluorescing gas. Diamond and Aluminum Nitride sample materials are good potential choices for photovoltaic cells, as is explained here in. Out of the material examples discussed, the highest

  9. Design and analysis of the radiator structure for space power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dauterman, W. H.; Montgomery, L. D.

    1973-01-01

    The design, analysis, fabrication, and development of the 5-kWe radiator structure are shown. Thermal performance, meteoroid protection, structural capability during launch, development testing and space operation, material evaluation, and the configuration selection are described. The fin-tube development program depends on the relative values of the thermal coefficients of expansion. The initial selection of aluminum fins and Type 316 stainless-steel tubes was based on previous experience; however, the large differential in their expansion rates showed that an alternate, more compatible, combination was needed. Copper, stainless-steel-clad copper, boron-impregnated aluminum, and an independent radiator with a titanium structure were all considered as alternate materials. The final selection was Lockalloy fins with Type 304 stainless-steel D tubes.

  10. Estimation of Radiofrequency Power Leakage from Microwave Ovens for Dosimetric Assessment at Nonionizing Radiation Exposure Levels

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Iturri, Peio; de Miguel-Bilbao, Silvia; Aguirre, Erik; Azpilicueta, Leire; Falcone, Francisco; Ramos, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    The electromagnetic field leakage levels of nonionizing radiation from a microwave oven have been estimated within a complex indoor scenario. By employing a hybrid simulation technique, based on coupling full wave simulation with an in-house developed deterministic 3D ray launching code, estimations of the observed electric field values can be obtained for the complete indoor scenario. The microwave oven can be modeled as a time- and frequency-dependent radiating source, in which leakage, basically from the microwave oven door, is propagated along the complete indoor scenario interacting with all of the elements present in it. This method can be of aid in order to assess the impact of such devices on expected exposure levels, allowing adequate minimization strategies such as optimal location to be applied. PMID:25705676

  11. [Prevention of Inonotus obliquus polysaccharides for high power microwave radiation induced testicular injury in rats: an experimental research].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li-Wei; Zhong, Xiu-Hong; Sun, Yan-Mei; Yang, Shu-Yan; Shen, Nan; Zhang, Yi-Zhong; Yang, Ning-Jiang; Ren, Kuang; Lu, Shi-Jie

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the effect of Inonotus obliquus polysaccharides on testicular injury induced by exposure to high power microwave (HPM) in rats. A total of 30 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, i.e., the normal control group, the microwave radiation model group, the treatment group, the new microwave radiation model group, and the prevention group, 6 in each group. All rats, except those in the normal control group, were exposed to microwave at an average power density of 200 mW/cm2 for 6 min. Rats in the control group and the model group were administered with normal saline by gastrogavage, once a day. Rats in the treatment group and the prevention group were given with Inonotus obliquus polysaccharides by gastrogavage, 2 mL each time (400 mg/kg body weight), once a day. All rats were sacrificed on the 11th day.The sperm density and the rate of sperm deformity were determined. Pathological changes of testis were observed by light microscope and transmission electron microscope. Short-term HPM irradiation could significantly reduce the sperm density and increase the sperm deformity rate (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, obvious pathological changes of testes occurred. Compared with the two model groups, the sperm density increased and the sperm deformity rate decreased in the treatment group and the prevention group (P < 0.05). Under the light microscope, injuries of spermatogenic cells and stromal cells, as well as vascular dilatation and congestion were obviously alleviated in the treatment group and the prevention group. Mitochondrial swelling and endoplasmic reticulum expansion shown by ultrastructural observation were also significantly alleviated. Of them, injuries of spermatogenic cells and inflammation response were milder in the treatment group than in the prevention group. Inonotus obliquus polysaccharides had significant protective effect on microwave radiation induced testicular injury. Better effect was obtained by therapeutic medication than

  12. Some neutron and gamma radiation characteristics of plutonium cermet fuel for isotopic power sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neff, R. A.; Anderson, M. E.; Campbell, A. R.; Haas, F. X.

    1972-01-01

    Gamma and neutron measurements on various types of plutonium sources are presented in order to show the effects of O-17, O-18 F-19, Pu-236, age of the fuel, and size of the source on the gamma and neutron spectra. Analysis of the radiation measurements shows that fluorine is the main contributor to the neutron yields from present plutonium-molybdenum cermet fuel, while both fluorine and Pu-236 daughters contribute significantly to the gamma ray intensities.

  13. Radiation Power as Function of Current in Wall-stabilized AC Arc of Water-cooled Vortex Type with Small Caliber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwao, Toru; Naito, Yuto; Shimizu, Yuta; Yamamoto, Shinji

    2016-10-01

    The problem of an emergency large-scale lighting with the high-intensity discharge (HID) lamp is the lack of radiation intensity because of inappropriate energy balance. Some researchers have researched that the radiation power depended on the arc temperature increases with increasing the current. However, the heat loss and the erosion of the electrode as well as the radiation power increases with increasing the current excessively. AC current replaces alternately the cathode and the anode. Thus, it is possible to avoid the concentration of the heat transfer to the anode. Moreover, the lamp efficiency decreases with increasing the current excessively because of ultra violet rays increment. It is necessary to control the temperature distribution with controlling the current and radius. In this paper, the radiation power as a function of the current in the wall-stabilized AC arc of water-cooled vortex type with small caliber was measured. As a result, the radiation power increased with increasing the current and appropriate wall radius. The radiation of AC arc is smaller than it of DC arc. And, the erosion of electrode decreases.

  14. Calculated stopping powers of low-energy electrons in some materials of interest in radiation protection.

    PubMed

    Akande, W

    1993-03-01

    Stopping powers of low-energy (< 10 keV) electrons in aluminum, copper, cesium, barium, lead, lithium, and uranium were calculated using an analytic method. The interaction of the electrons with the materials were characterized in terms of three cross sections for total ionization and total scattering. Experimental cross section data were collated, where available, for the materials. The expressions were then fitted to the data to obtain the values of the relevant constants in the expressions. This enabled the basic equation of stopping powers of electrons to be evaluated for the materials. Comparison of the results obtained with those of other workers was affected.

  15. [A Survey about the Radiation Effects and A Health Survey of Fukushima Inhabitants after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident].

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Ryuji; Ohga, Kazuhiro; Yoko-O, Makoto; Kohzaki, Masaoki

    According to questionnaire surveys in 2011 and 2013 about the health effects of radiation after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident, the guardians of child patients were more anxious than doctors and medical students. Also, according to the thyroid examinations in a Fukushima health survey, 190 cases of thyroid cancer were reported, and anxiety about radiation effects remained. This study is based on a survey about the guardians of child patients anxiety about radiation effects six years after the nuclear power plant accident, and includes a questionnaire survey about radiation effects and thyroid examinations in a Fukushima health survey. Anonymous question sheets with 20 questions were sent to pediatric medical facilities in Fukushima, and the parents of children who consulted the pediatric and medical staff answered the questionnaire. Thirty percent of the guardians of child patients had never been educated about radiation and 67% had never been educated about the effects of radiation on humans. The guardians of child patients were more anxious than the medical staff about thyroid cancer, health effects on children and genetic effects. Our results indicate that the guardians of child patients think that the increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer is due to radiation effects after the nuclear power plant accident and they desire continued thyroid examinations.

  16. Resolving Recent Plant Radiations: Power and Robustness of Genotyping-by-Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Mazuecos, Mario; Mellers, Greg; Vigalondo, Beatriz; Sáez, Llorenç; Vargas, Pablo; Glover, Beverley J

    2018-03-01

    Disentangling species boundaries and phylogenetic relationships within recent evolutionary radiations is a challenge due to the poor morphological differentiation and low genetic divergence between species, frequently accompanied by phenotypic convergence, interspecific gene flow and incomplete lineage sorting. Here we employed a genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach, in combination with morphometric analyses, to investigate a small western Mediterranean clade in the flowering plant genus Linaria that radiated in the Quaternary. After confirming the morphological and genetic distinctness of eight species, we evaluated the relative performances of concatenation and coalescent methods to resolve phylogenetic relationships. Specifically, we focused on assessing the robustness of both approaches to variations in the parameter used to estimate sequence homology (clustering threshold). Concatenation analyses suffered from strong systematic bias, as revealed by the high statistical support for multiple alternative topologies depending on clustering threshold values. By contrast, topologies produced by two coalescent-based methods (NJ$_{\\mathrm{st}}$, SVDquartets) were robust to variations in the clustering threshold. Reticulate evolution may partly explain incongruences between NJ$_{\\mathrm{st}}$, SVDquartets and concatenated trees. Integration of morphometric and coalescent-based phylogenetic results revealed (i) extensive morphological divergence associated with recent splits between geographically close or sympatric sister species and (ii) morphological convergence in geographically disjunct species. These patterns are particularly true for floral traits related to pollinator specialization, including nectar spur length, tube width and corolla color, suggesting pollinator-driven diversification. Given its relatively simple and inexpensive implementation, GBS is a promising technique for the phylogenetic and systematic study of recent radiations, but care must be

  17. Collisional-radiative switching - A powerful technique for converging non-LTE calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hummer, D. G.; Voels, S. A.

    1988-01-01

    A very simple technique has been developed to converge statistical equilibrium and model atmospheric calculations in extreme non-LTE conditions when the usual iterative methods fail to converge from an LTE starting model. The proposed technique is based on a smooth transition from a collision-dominated LTE situation to the desired non-LTE conditions in which radiation dominates, at least in the most important transitions. The proposed approach was used to successfully compute stellar models with He abundances of 0.20, 0.30, and 0.50; Teff = 30,000 K, and log g = 2.9.

  18. Microscopic nonlinear relativistic quantum theory of absorption of powerful x-ray radiation in plasma.

    PubMed

    Avetissian, H K; Ghazaryan, A G; Matevosyan, H H; Mkrtchian, G F

    2015-10-01

    The microscopic quantum theory of plasma nonlinear interaction with the coherent shortwave electromagnetic radiation of arbitrary intensity is developed. The Liouville-von Neumann equation for the density matrix is solved analytically considering a wave field exactly and a scattering potential of plasma ions as a perturbation. With the help of this solution we calculate the nonlinear inverse-bremsstrahlung absorption rate for a grand canonical ensemble of electrons. The latter is studied in Maxwellian, as well as in degenerate quantum plasma for x-ray lasers at superhigh intensities and it is shown that one can achieve the efficient absorption coefficient in these cases.

  19. LDQ10: a compact ultra low-power radiation-hard 4 × 10 Gb/s driver array

    DOE PAGES

    Zeng, Z.; Zhang, T.; Wang, G.; ...

    2017-02-28

    Here, a High-speed and low-power VCSEL driver is an important component of the Versatile Link for the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) experiments. A compact low-power radiation-hard 4 × 10 Gb/s VCSEL driver array (LDQ10) has been developed in 65 nm CMOS technology. Each channel in LDQ10 can provide a modulation current up to 8 mA and bias current up to 12 mA. Edge pre-emphasis is employed to compensate for the bandwidth limitations due to parasitic and the turn-on delay of VCSEL devices. LDQ10 occupies a chip area of 1900 μm × 1700 μm and consumes 130 mW power for typical currentmore » settings. The modulation amplitude degrades less than 5% after 300 Mrad total ionizing dose. LDQ10 can be directly wire-bonded to the VCSEL array and it is a suitable candidate for the Versatile Link.« less

  20. Internal radiation exposure of Ground Self-Defense Force members involved in the management of the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant disaster.

    PubMed

    Naoi, Yutaka; Fujikawa, Akira; Kyoto, Yukishige; Kunishima, Naoaki; Ono, Masahiro; Watanabe, Yukie

    2013-01-01

    When the Great East Japan Earthquake occurred on March 11, 2011, the Ground Self-Defense Force (GSDF) was dispatched nationally to Northeast area in Japan. The highly trained GSDF members were simultaneously assigned to various missions for the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plants disaster. The missions of GSDF terminated on August 31, 2011. Special medical examinations were conducted for the members as they returned to each military unit. GSDF members who were assigned to the nuclear power plant were at risk of radiation exposure; therefore, pocket dosimeters were used to assess external radiation exposure. A few months after the mission was terminated, measurements of internal radiation exposure were performed. This is the first report of the internal exposure of GSDF members who worked in the restricted radiation contamination area. Here, we report the amounts of internal and external exposure of and the equipment used by the GSDF members.

  1. Remote detection of radioactive material using high-power pulsed electromagnetic radiation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dongsung; Yu, Dongho; Sawant, Ashwini; Choe, Mun Seok; Lee, Ingeun; Kim, Sung Gug; Choi, EunMi

    2017-05-09

    Remote detection of radioactive materials is impossible when the measurement location is far from the radioactive source such that the leakage of high-energy photons or electrons from the source cannot be measured. Current technologies are less effective in this respect because they only allow the detection at distances to which the high-energy photons or electrons can reach the detector. Here we demonstrate an experimental method for remote detection of radioactive materials by inducing plasma breakdown with the high-power pulsed electromagnetic waves. Measurements of the plasma formation time and its dispersion lead to enhanced detection sensitivity compared to the theoretically predicted one based only on the plasma on and off phenomena. We show that lower power of the incident electromagnetic wave is sufficient for plasma breakdown in atmospheric-pressure air and the elimination of the statistical distribution is possible in the presence of radioactive material.

  2. Remote detection of radioactive material using high-power pulsed electromagnetic radiation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dongsung; Yu, Dongho; Sawant, Ashwini; Choe, Mun Seok; Lee, Ingeun; Kim, Sung Gug; Choi, EunMi

    2017-01-01

    Remote detection of radioactive materials is impossible when the measurement location is far from the radioactive source such that the leakage of high-energy photons or electrons from the source cannot be measured. Current technologies are less effective in this respect because they only allow the detection at distances to which the high-energy photons or electrons can reach the detector. Here we demonstrate an experimental method for remote detection of radioactive materials by inducing plasma breakdown with the high-power pulsed electromagnetic waves. Measurements of the plasma formation time and its dispersion lead to enhanced detection sensitivity compared to the theoretically predicted one based only on the plasma on and off phenomena. We show that lower power of the incident electromagnetic wave is sufficient for plasma breakdown in atmospheric-pressure air and the elimination of the statistical distribution is possible in the presence of radioactive material. PMID:28486438

  3. Globally Stable Microresonator Turing Pattern Formation for Coherent High-Power THz Radiation On-Chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shu-Wei; Yang, Jinghui; Yang, Shang-Hua; Yu, Mingbin; Kwong, Dim-Lee; Zelevinsky, T.; Jarrahi, Mona; Wong, Chee Wei

    2017-10-01

    In nonlinear microresonators driven by continuous-wave (cw) lasers, Turing patterns have been studied in the formalism of the Lugiato-Lefever equation with emphasis on their high coherence and exceptional robustness against perturbations. Destabilization of Turing patterns and the transition to spatiotemporal chaos, however, limit the available energy carried in the Turing rolls and prevent further harvest of their high coherence and robustness to noise. Here, we report a novel scheme to circumvent such destabilization, by incorporating the effect of local mode hybridizations, and we attain globally stable Turing pattern formation in chip-scale nonlinear oscillators with significantly enlarged parameter space, achieving a record-high power-conversion efficiency of 45% and an elevated peak-to-valley contrast of 100. The stationary Turing pattern is discretely tunable across 430 GHz on a THz carrier, with a fractional frequency sideband nonuniformity measured at 7.3 ×10-14 . We demonstrate the simultaneous microwave and optical coherence of the Turing rolls at different evolution stages through ultrafast optical correlation techniques. The free-running Turing-roll coherence, 9 kHz in 200 ms and 160 kHz in 20 minutes, is transferred onto a plasmonic photomixer for one of the highest-power THz coherent generations at room temperature, with 1.1% optical-to-THz power conversion. Its long-term stability can be further improved by more than 2 orders of magnitude, reaching an Allan deviation of 6 ×10-10 at 100 s, with a simple computer-aided slow feedback control. The demonstrated on-chip coherent high-power Turing-THz system is promising to find applications in astrophysics, medical imaging, and wireless communications.

  4. The microlasertron: An efficient switched-power source of mm wavelength radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.B.

    1986-12-01

    An extension of W. Willis' ''Switched Power Linac'' is studied. Pulsed laser light falls on a photocathode wire, or wires, within a simple resonant structure. The resulting pulsed electron current between the wire and the structure wall drives the resonant field, and rf energy is extracted in the mm to cm wavelength range. Various geometries are presented, including one consisting of a simple array of parallel wires over a plane conductor. Results from a one-dimensional simulation are presented.

  5. Damaged Concrete Viaduct in an Italian Highway: Concrete Characterization and Possible Strengthening Techniques by FRP Applications in Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tittarelli, Francesca; Ruello, Maria Letizia; Capuani, Domenico; Aprile, Alessandra

    2017-10-01

    The “Fornello” viaduct in the Italian Orte-Ravenna highway (E45) is seriously damaged. In this paper, the concrete of the reinforced slab has been widely characterized to evaluate the level of damage and to identify the causes of degradation. No-destructive tests, as those based on ultrasonic waves, as well as chemical, physical and mechanical destructive tests have been carried out on specimens drawn from deteriorated and not deteriorated zones of the R/C bridge decks. Into the slab thickness, the concentration distribution of main anions has been quantified by ion chromatography. Porosimetry tests have been carried out to detect the resistance to freeze-thaw cycles of cement paste. Possible strengthening techniques by FRP applications have been compared.

  6. On the possibility of using the dynamic Franz - Keldysh effect to detect the parameters of high-power IR laser radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Grigor'ev, A M

    2011-05-31

    The increase in the absorption of light by a semiconductor (when the light photon energy is somewhat smaller than the semiconductor bandgap or equals it) in the presence of a strong light wave (for which the semiconductor is transparent) has been investigated. The possibility of designing novel light detectors for measuring the energy parameters and spatial and temporal characteristics of high-power IR laser radiation is demonstrated. (measurement of laser radiation parameters)

  7. Measurement of internal radiation exposure among decontamination workers in villages near the crippled Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Tsubokura, Masaharu; Nihei, Masahiko; Sato, Katsumi; Masaki, Shin; Sakuma, Yu; Kato, Shigeaki; Sugimoto, Amina; Nomura, Shuhei; Matsumura, Tomoko; Miyazaki, Makoto; Hayano, Ryugo; Shibuya, Kenji; Kami, Masahiro; Sasaki, Taro

    2013-10-01

    Decontamination workers may face a high risk of exposure to internal irradiation through inhalation during decontamination activities; there is, however, little previous research on the levels of internal contamination during decontamination procedures. The authors reviewed the medical records, including whole body counter measurements, of decontamination workers in villages near the crippled Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant to assess their levels of internal radiation exposure. In total, 83 decontamination workers were enrolled in this study. They were regularly engaged in decontamination activities in highly contaminated areas where surface 137Cs deposition density was over 100 kBq m-2. The present study showed low levels of internal exposure among the decontamination workers near the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant. The cesium burdens of all the decontamination workers were below detection limits. They had reported no acute health problems. The resuspension of radioactive materials may cause minimal internal contamination during decontamination activities.

  8. Investigating the performances of a 1 MV high pulsed power linear transformer driver: from beam dynamics to x radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maisonny, R.; Ribière, M.; Toury, M.; Plewa, J. M.; Caron, M.; Auriel, G.; d'Almeida, T.

    2016-12-01

    The performance of a 1 MV pulsed high-power linear transformer driver accelerator were extensively investigated based on a numerical approach which utilizes both electromagnetic and Monte Carlo simulations. Particle-in-cell calculations were employed to examine the beam dynamics throughout the magnetically insulated transmission line which governs the coupling between the generator and the electron diode. Based on the information provided by the study of the beam dynamics, and using Monte Carlo methods, the main properties of the resulting x radiation were predicted. Good agreement was found between these simulations and experimental results. This work provides a detailed understanding of mechanisms affecting the performances of this type of high current, high-voltage pulsed accelerator, which are very promising for a growing number of applications.

  9. Plasma plume diagnostics of low power stationary plasma thruster (SPT-20M8) with collisional radiative model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uttamsing Rajput, Rajendrasing; Alona, Khaustova; Loyan, Andriy V.

    2017-03-01

    Electric propulsion offers higher specific impulse compared to the chemical propulsion systems. It reduces the overall propellant mass and enables high operational lifetimes. Scientific Technological Center of Space Power and Energy (STC SPE), KhAI is involved in designing, manufacturing and testing of stationary plasma thrusters (SPT). Efforts are made to perform plasma diagnostics with corona and collisional radiative models (C-R model), as expected corona model falls short below 4 eV because of the heavy particle collisions elimination, whereas the C-R model's applicability is confirmed. Several tests are performed to analyze the electron temperature at various operational parameters of thruster like discharge voltage and mass flow rate. SPT-20M8 far and near-field plumes diagnostics are performed. Feasibility of C-R model by comparing its result to optical emission spectroscopy (OES) to investigate the electron temperature is validated with the probe measurements within the 10% of discrepancy.

  10. Description of high-power laser radiation in the paraxial approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Milant'ev, V P; Karnilovich, S P; Shaar, Ya N

    2015-11-30

    We consider the feasibility of an adequate description of a laser pulse of arbitrary shape within the framework of the paraxial approximation. In this approximation, using a parabolic equation and an expansion in the small parameter, expressions are obtained for the field of a sufficiently intense laser radiation given in the form of axially symmetric Hermite – Gaussian beams of arbitrary mode and arbitrary polarisation. It is shown that in the case of sufficiently short pulses, corrections to the transverse components of the laser field are the first-order rather than the secondorder quantities in the expansion in the small parameter.more » The peculiarities of the description of higher-mode Hermite – Gaussian beams are outlined. (light wave transformation)« less

  11. Solar radiation - to - power generation models for one-axis tracking PV system with on-site measurements from Eskisehir, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filik, Tansu; Başaran Filik, Ümmühan; Nezih Gerek, Ömer

    2017-11-01

    In this study, new analytic models are proposed for mapping on-site global solar radiation values to electrical power output values in solar photovoltaic (PV) panels. The model extraction is achieved by simultaneously recording solar radiation and generated power from fixed and tracking panels, each with capacity of 3 kW, in Eskisehir (Turkey) region. It is shown that the relation between the solar radiation and the corresponding electric power is not only nonlinear, but it also exhibits an interesting time-varying characteristic in the form of a hysteresis function. This observed radiation-to-power relation is, then, analytically modelled with three piece-wise function parts (corresponding to morning, noon and evening times), which is another novel contribution of this work. The model is determined for both fixed panels and panels with a tracking system. Especially the panel system with a dynamic tracker produces a harmonically richer (with higher values in general) characteristic, so higher order polynomial models are necessary for the construction of analytical solar radiation models. The presented models, characteristics of the hysteresis functions, and differences in the fixed versus solar-tracking panels are expected to provide valuable insight for further model based researches.

  12. [Dependence of anti-inflammatory effects of high peak-power pulsed electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequency on exposure parameters].

    PubMed

    Gapeev, A B; Mikhaĭlik, E N; Rubanik, A V; Cheremis, N K

    2007-01-01

    A pronounced anti-inflammatory effect of high peak-power pulsed electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequency was shown for the first time in a model of zymosan-induced footpad edema in mice. Exposure to radiation of specific parameters (35, 27 GHz, peak power 20 kW, pulse widths 400-600 ns, pulse repetition frequency 5-500 Hz) decreased the exudative edema and local hyperthermia by 20% compared to the control. The kinetics and the magnitude of the anti-inflammatory effect were comparable with those induced by sodium diclofenac at a dose of 3 mg/kg. It was found that the anti-inflammatory effect linearly increased with increasing pulse width at a fixed pulse repetition frequency and had threshold dependence on the average incident power density of the radiation at a fixed pulse width. When animals were whole-body exposed in the far-field zone of radiator, the optimal exposure duration was 20 min. Increasing the average incident power density upon local exposure of the inflamed paw accelerated both the development of the anti-inflammatory effect and the reactivation time. The results obtained will undoubtedly be of great importance in the hygienic standardization of pulsed electromagnetic radiation and in further studies of the mechanisms of its biological action.

  13. Radiation dose rates now and in the future for residents neighboring restricted areas of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Kouji H.; Niisoe, Tamon; Imanaka, Mie; Takahashi, Tomoyuki; Amako, Katsumi; Fujii, Yukiko; Kanameishi, Masatoshi; Ohse, Kenji; Nakai, Yasumichi; Nishikawa, Tamami; Saito, Yuuichi; Sakamoto, Hiroko; Ueyama, Keiko; Hisaki, Kumiko; Ohara, Eiji; Inoue, Tokiko; Yamamoto, Kanako; Matsuoka, Yukiyo; Ohata, Hitomi; Toshima, Kazue; Okada, Ayumi; Sato, Hitomi; Kuwamori, Toyomi; Tani, Hiroko; Suzuki, Reiko; Kashikura, Mai; Nezu, Michiko; Miyachi, Yoko; Arai, Fusako; Kuwamori, Masanori; Harada, Sumiko; Ohmori, Akira; Ishikawa, Hirohiko; Koizumi, Akio

    2014-01-01

    Radiation dose rates were evaluated in three areas neighboring a restricted area within a 20- to 50-km radius of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in August–September 2012 and projected to 2022 and 2062. Study participants wore personal dosimeters measuring external dose equivalents, almost entirely from deposited radionuclides (groundshine). External dose rate equivalents owing to the accident averaged 1.03, 2.75, and 1.66 mSv/y in the village of Kawauchi, the Tamano area of Soma, and the Haramachi area of Minamisoma, respectively. Internal dose rates estimated from dietary intake of radiocesium averaged 0.0058, 0.019, and 0.0088 mSv/y in Kawauchi, Tamano, and Haramachi, respectively. Dose rates from inhalation of resuspended radiocesium were lower than 0.001 mSv/y. In 2012, the average annual doses from radiocesium were close to the average background radiation exposure (2 mSv/y) in Japan. Accounting only for the physical decay of radiocesium, mean annual dose rates in 2022 were estimated as 0.31, 0.87, and 0.53 mSv/y in Kawauchi, Tamano, and Haramachi, respectively. The simple and conservative estimates are comparable with variations in the background dose, and unlikely to exceed the ordinary permissible dose rate (1 mSv/y) for the majority of the Fukushima population. Health risk assessment indicates that post-2012 doses will increase lifetime solid cancer, leukemia, and breast cancer incidences by 1.06%, 0.03% and 0.28% respectively, in Tamano. This assessment was derived from short-term observation with uncertainties and did not evaluate the first-year dose and radioiodine exposure. Nevertheless, this estimate provides perspective on the long-term radiation exposure levels in the three regions. PMID:24567380

  14. Radiation Stability of Metal Fe0.56Ni0.44 Nanowires Exposed to Powerful Pulsed Ion Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedin, S. A.; Ovchinnikov, V. V.; Remnev, G. E.; Makhin'ko, F. F.; Pavlov, S. K.; Gushchina, N. V.; Zagorskiy, D. L.

    2018-01-01

    The resistance of Fe0.56Ni0.44 alloy nanowires (fabricated by template synthesis using polymer track membranes) 60 and 100 nm in diameter to radiation with powerful pulsed 85% C+ + 15% H+ ions ( E = 20 keV, j = 100 A/cm2, τ = 90 ns) has been investigated. The conclusion that nanosized regions of explosive energy release, so-called thermal spikes, which are thermalized regions of dense cascades of atomic displacements heated to several thousand degrees (in which the thermal pressure can reach several tens of GPa), play an important role in the nanowire structure change is drawn. These are observed as melted nanosized regions on the nanowire surface. Calculations have shown that energy supplied by an ion beam during the action of a single pulse in the used mode (provided that thermal radiation and thermal conductivity serve as energy sinks) can be both sufficient and insufficient to completely melt nanowires depending on their orientation with respect to the ion beam. The bending and failure of nonmelted nanowires is explained by the generation and propagation of post-cascade shock waves.

  15. Synchrotron Radiation Sheds Fresh Light on Plant Research: The Use of Powerful Techniques to Probe Structure and Composition of Plants.

    PubMed

    Vijayan, Permual; Willick, Ian R; Lahlali, Rachid; Karunakaran, Chithra; Tanino, Karen K

    2015-07-01

    While synchrotron radiation is a powerful tool in material and biomedical sciences, it is still underutilized in plant research. This mini review attempts to introduce the potential of synchrotron-based spectroscopic and imaging methods and their applications to plant sciences. Synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray absorption and fluorescence techniques, and two- and three-dimensional imaging techniques are examined. We also discuss the limitations of synchrotron-based research in plant sciences, specifically the types of plant samples that can be used. Despite limitations, the unique features of synchrotron radiation such as high brightness, polarization and pulse properties offer great advantages over conventional spectroscopic and imaging tools and enable the correlation of the structure and chemical composition of plants with biochemical function. Modern detector technologies and experimental methodologies are thus enabling plant scientists to investigate aspects of plant sciences such as ultrafast kinetics of biochemical reactions, mineral uptake, transport and accumulation, and dynamics of cell wall structure and composition during environmental stress in unprecedented ways using synchrotron beamlines. The potential for the automation of some of these synchrotron technologies and their application to plant phenotyping is also discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. The effect of the coupling between the top plate and the fingerboard on the acoustic power radiated by a classical guitar (L).

    PubMed

    García-Mayén, Héctor; Santillán, Arturo

    2011-03-01

    An experimental investigation on the coupling between the fingerboard and the top plate of a classical guitar at low frequencies is presented. The study was carried out using a finished top plate under fixed boundary conditions and a commercial guitar. Radiated sound power was determined in one-third octave bands up to the band of 1 kHz based on measurements of sound intensity. The results provide evidence that the way in which the fingerboard and top plate are coupled is not a relevant factor in the radiated acoustic power of the classical guitar in the studied frequency range. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  17. Pro-Inflammatory wnt5a and Anti-Inflammatory sFRP5 Are Differentially Regulated by Nutritional Factors in Obese Human Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Schulte, Dominik M.; Müller, Nike; Neumann, Katrin; Oberhäuser, Frank; Faust, Michael; Güdelhöfer, Heike; Brandt, Burkhard; Krone, Wilhelm; Laudes, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Background Obesity is associated with macrophage infiltration of adipose tissue. These inflammatory cells affect adipocytes not only by classical cytokines but also by the secreted glycopeptide wnt5a. Healthy adipocytes are able to release the wnt5a inhibitor sFRP5. This protective effect, however, was found to be diminished in obesity. The aim of the present study was to examine (1) whether obese human subjects exhibit increased serum concentrations of wnt5a and (2) whether wnt5a and/or sFRP5 serum concentrations in obese subjects can be influenced by caloric restriction. Methodology 23 obese human subjects (BMI 44.1±1.1 kg/m2) and 12 age- and sex-matched lean controls (BMI 22.3±0.4 kg/m2) were included in the study. Obese subjects were treated with a very low-calorie diet (approximately 800 kcal/d) for 12 weeks. Body composition was assessed by impedance analysis, insulin sensitivity was estimated by HOMA-IR and the leptin-to-adiponectin ratio and wnt5a and sFRP5 serum concentrations were measured by ELISA. sFRP5 expression in human adipose tissue biopsies was further determined on protein level by immunohistology. Principal Findings Pro-inflammatory wnt5a was not measurable in any serum sample of lean control subjects. In patients with obesity, however, wnt5a became significantly detectable consistent with low grade inflammation in such subjects. Caloric restriction resulted in a weight loss from 131.9±4.0 to 112.3±3.2 kg in the obese patients group. This was accompanied by a significant decrease of HOMA-IR and leptin-to-adiponectin ratio, indicating improved insulin sensitivity. Interestingly, these metabolic improvements were associated with a significant increase in serum concentrations of the anti-inflammatory factor and wnt5a-inhibitor sFRP5. Conclusions/Significance Obesity is associated with elevated serum levels of pro-inflammatory wnt5a in humans. Furthermore, caloric restriction beneficially affects serum concentrations of anti-inflammatory sFRP5

  18. Mobile telephones: a comparison of radiated power between 3G VoIP calls and 3G VoCS calls.

    PubMed

    Jovanovic, Dragan; Bragard, Guillaume; Picard, Dominique; Chauvin, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the mean RF power radiated by mobile telephones during voice calls in 3G VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) using an application well known to mobile Internet users, and to compare it with the mean power radiated during voice calls in 3G VoCS (Voice over Circuit Switch) on a traditional network. Knowing that the specific absorption rate (SAR) is proportional to the mean radiated power, the user's exposure could be clearly identified at the same time. Three 3G (High Speed Packet Access) smartphones from three different manufacturers, all dual-band for GSM (900 MHz, 1800 MHz) and dual-band for UMTS (900 MHz, 1950 MHz), were used between 28 July and 04 August 2011 in Paris (France) to make 220 two-minute calls on a mobile telephone network with national coverage. The places where the calls were made were selected in such a way as to describe the whole range of usage situations of the mobile telephone. The measuring equipment, called "SYRPOM", recorded the radiation power levels and the frequency bands used during the calls with a sampling rate of 20,000 per second. In the framework of this study, the mean normalised power radiated by a telephone in 3G VoIP calls was evaluated at 0.75% maximum power of the smartphone, compared with 0.22% in 3G VoCS calls. The very low average power levels associated with use of 3G devices with VoIP or VoCS support the view that RF exposure resulting from their use is far from exceeding the basic restrictions of current exposure limits in terms of SAR.

  19. Ultra Low Power, Radiation Tolerant UHF Radio Technologies for In Situ Communication Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lay, N. E.

    2001-01-01

    For future deep space missions, significant reductions in the mass and power requirements for short-range telecommunication systems will be critical in enabling a wide variety of new mission concepts. These possibilities include penetrators, gliders, miniature rovers, and sensor networks. Under joint funding from NASA's Cross Enterprise and JPL's Telecommunications and Mission technology programs, recent development activity has focused on the design of ultralow mass and power transceiver systems and subsystems suitable for operation in a flight environment. For these efforts, the functionality of the transceiver has been targeted towards a specific Mars communications scenario. However, the overall architecture is well suited to any short or medium range application where a remote probe will aperiodically communicate with a base station, possibly an orbiter, for the eventual purpose of relaying science information back to Earth. In 2001, these sponsors have been augmented with collaborative expertise and funding from JPL's Center for Integrated Space Microsystems in order to migrate existing concepts and designs to a System on a Chip (SOAC) solution. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  20. Laser absorption, power transfer, and radiation symmetry during the first shock of inertial confinement fusion gas-filled hohlraum experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pak, A.; Dewald, E. L.; Landen, O. L.; Milovich, J.; Strozzi, D. J.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Bradley, D. K.; Divol, L.; Ho, D. D.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Meezan, N. B.; Michel, P.; Moody, J. D.; Moore, A. S.; Schneider, M. B.; Town, R. P. J.; Hsing, W. W.; Edwards, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Temporally resolved measurements of the hohlraum radiation flux asymmetry incident onto a bismuth coated surrogate capsule have been made over the first two nanoseconds of ignition relevant laser pulses. Specifically, we study the P2 asymmetry of the incoming flux as a function of cone fraction, defined as the inner-to-total laser beam power ratio, for a variety of hohlraums with different scales and gas fills. This work was performed to understand the relevance of recent experiments, conducted in new reduced-scale neopentane gas filled hohlraums, to full scale helium filled ignition targets. Experimental measurements, matched by 3D view factor calculations, are used to infer differences in symmetry, relative beam absorption, and cross beam energy transfer (CBET), employing an analytic model. Despite differences in hohlraum dimensions and gas fill, as well as in laser beam pointing and power, we find that laser absorption, CBET, and the cone fraction, at which a symmetric flux is achieved, are similar to within 25% between experiments conducted in the reduced and full scale hohlraums. This work demonstrates a close surrogacy in the dynamics during the first shock between reduced-scale and full scale implosion experiments and is an important step in enabling the increased rate of study for physics associated with inertial confinement fusion.

  1. Analysis of the phase control of the ITER ICRH antenna array. Influence on the load resilience and radiated power spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Messiaen, A., E-mail: a.messiaen@fz-juelich.de; Ongena, J.; Vervier, M.

    2015-12-10

    The paper analyses how the phasing of the ITER ICRH 24 strap array evolves from the power sources up to the strap currents of the antenna. The study of the phasing control and coherence through the feeding circuits with prematching and automatic matching and decoupling network is made by modeling starting from the TOPICA matrix of the antenna array for a low coupling plasma profile and for current drive phasing (worst case for mutual coupling effects). The main results of the analysis are: (i) the strap current amplitude is well controlled by the antinode V{sub max} amplitude of the feedingmore » lines, (ii) the best toroidal phasing control is done by the adjustment of the mean phase of V{sub max} of each poloidal straps column, (iii) with well adjusted system the largest strap current phasing error is ±20°, (iv) the effect on load resilience remains well below the maximum affordable VSWR of the generators, (v) the effect on the radiated power spectrum versus k{sub //} computed by means of the coupling code ANTITER II remains small for the considered cases.« less

  2. Laser absorption, power transfer, and radiation symmetry during the first shock of inertial confinement fusion gas-filled hohlraum experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Pak, A.; Dewald, E. L.; Landen, O. L.

    2015-12-15

    Temporally resolved measurements of the hohlraum radiation flux asymmetry incident onto a bismuth coated surrogate capsule have been made over the first two nanoseconds of ignition relevant laser pulses. Specifically, we study the P2 asymmetry of the incoming flux as a function of cone fraction, defined as the inner-to-total laser beam power ratio, for a variety of hohlraums with different scales and gas fills. This work was performed to understand the relevance of recent experiments, conducted in new reduced-scale neopentane gas filled hohlraums, to full scale helium filled ignition targets. Experimental measurements, matched by 3D view factor calculations, are usedmore » to infer differences in symmetry, relative beam absorption, and cross beam energy transfer (CBET), employing an analytic model. Despite differences in hohlraum dimensions and gas fill, as well as in laser beam pointing and power, we find that laser absorption, CBET, and the cone fraction, at which a symmetric flux is achieved, are similar to within 25% between experiments conducted in the reduced and full scale hohlraums. This work demonstrates a close surrogacy in the dynamics during the first shock between reduced-scale and full scale implosion experiments and is an important step in enabling the increased rate of study for physics associated with inertial confinement fusion.« less

  3. Fire danger rating over Mediterranean Europe based on fire radiative power derived from Meteosat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Miguel M.; DaCamara, Carlos C.; Trigo, Isabel F.; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Feridun Turkman, K.

    2018-02-01

    We present a procedure that allows the operational generation of daily forecasts of fire danger over Mediterranean Europe. The procedure combines historical information about radiative energy released by fire events with daily meteorological forecasts, as provided by the Satellite Application Facility for Land Surface Analysis (LSA SAF) and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). Fire danger is estimated based on daily probabilities of exceedance of daily energy released by fires occurring at the pixel level. Daily probability considers meteorological factors by means of the Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI) and is estimated using a daily model based on a generalized Pareto distribution. Five classes of fire danger are then associated with daily probability estimated by the daily model. The model is calibrated using 13 years of data (2004-2016) and validated against the period of January-September 2017. Results obtained show that about 72 % of events releasing daily energy above 10 000 GJ belong to the extreme class of fire danger, a considerably high fraction that is more than 1.5 times the values obtained when using the currently operational Fire Danger Forecast module of the European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS) or the Fire Risk Map (FRM) product disseminated by the LSA SAF. Besides assisting in wildfire management, the procedure is expected to help in decision making on prescribed burning within the framework of agricultural and forest management practices.

  4. High average-power 2 μm radiation generated by intracavity KTP OPO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Guangyuan; Guo, Jing; Jiao, Zhongxing; Wang, Biao

    2015-09-01

    A high average-power 2 μm laser with good beam quality based on an intracavity potassium titanium oxide phosphate (KTP) optical parametric oscillator (OPO) is demonstrated. A concave lens is used in the 1064 nm Nd:YAG pumped laser cavity to compensate for the thermal lensing of the laser rod. The cavity length of the KTP OPO is enlarged to improve the 2 μm beam quality. The maximum average output of the 2 μm laser is up to 18 W at 7 kHz with M 2 less than 6 and pulse width of 70 ns. The FWHM of the signal and idle lights are both less than 3 nm.

  5. Roles of children and their parents in the reduction of radiation risk after the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    PubMed Central

    Kitamura, Akiko

    2017-01-01

    Introduction On March 11, 2011, Japan experienced its largest recorded earthquake with a magnitude of 9.0. The resulting tsunami caused massive damage to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant reactors, and the surrounding environment was contaminated with radioactive materials. During this period, some residents were exposed to high levels of radiation (up to 5 millisieverts [mSv]), but since then, many residents have been exposed to low levels of radiation (<1 mSv). This study was conducted to assess the effects of lifestyle and attitude factors on external radiation exposure among Fukushima residents. Methods This community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in Nihonmatsu City of the Fukushima Prefecture from May to July 2014. The population survey targeted 6,884 children between the ages of 0–15 years, and a personal radiation badge and questionnaire were administered to each of the residences. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess the impact of lifestyle and attitude factors on external radiation dose. Results The study participants (population size [n] = 4,571) had an additional mean radiation dose of 0.65 mSv/year, which is small as compared to the mean radiation dose 6 months after the disaster (1.5 mSv/year), in 2012 (1.5 mSv/year), and in 2013 (1.0 mSv/year). External radiation doses statistically varied by socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. Participants living in wooden residences (p-value<0.001) and within 100 meters of a forest (p = 0.001) had higher radiation exposure. Conversely, participants with a cautious attitude towards radiation had lower radiation exposure (beta [b] = -0.124, p = 0.003). Conclusion Having a cautious attitude towards radiation and being aware of exposure risks proved to be significant in the reduction of external radiation dose. Therefore, in the event of future radiation disasters, attitudes towards and awareness of radiation should be considered in the reduction of exposure risk and

  6. Roles of children and their parents in the reduction of radiation risk after the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Maya Sophia; Komasa, Yukako; Kimura, Shinzo; Shibanuma, Akira; Kitamura, Akiko; Jimba, Masamine

    2017-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, Japan experienced its largest recorded earthquake with a magnitude of 9.0. The resulting tsunami caused massive damage to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant reactors, and the surrounding environment was contaminated with radioactive materials. During this period, some residents were exposed to high levels of radiation (up to 5 millisieverts [mSv]), but since then, many residents have been exposed to low levels of radiation (<1 mSv). This study was conducted to assess the effects of lifestyle and attitude factors on external radiation exposure among Fukushima residents. This community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in Nihonmatsu City of the Fukushima Prefecture from May to July 2014. The population survey targeted 6,884 children between the ages of 0-15 years, and a personal radiation badge and questionnaire were administered to each of the residences. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess the impact of lifestyle and attitude factors on external radiation dose. The study participants (population size [n] = 4,571) had an additional mean radiation dose of 0.65 mSv/year, which is small as compared to the mean radiation dose 6 months after the disaster (1.5 mSv/year), in 2012 (1.5 mSv/year), and in 2013 (1.0 mSv/year). External radiation doses statistically varied by socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. Participants living in wooden residences (p-value<0.001) and within 100 meters of a forest (p = 0.001) had higher radiation exposure. Conversely, participants with a cautious attitude towards radiation had lower radiation exposure (beta [b] = -0.124, p = 0.003). Having a cautious attitude towards radiation and being aware of exposure risks proved to be significant in the reduction of external radiation dose. Therefore, in the event of future radiation disasters, attitudes towards and awareness of radiation should be considered in the reduction of exposure risk and implementation of radiation protection.

  7. Homogenized rigid body and spring-mass (HRBSM) model for the pushover analysis of out-of-plane loaded unreinforced and FRP reinforced walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertolesi, Elisa; Milani, Gabriele

    2017-07-01

    The present paper is devoted to the discussion of a series of unreinforced and FRP retrofitted panels analyzed adopting the Rigid Body and Spring-Mass (HRBSM) model developed by the authors. To this scope, a total of four out of plane loaded masonry walls tested up to failure are considered. At a structural level, the non-linear analyses are conducted replacing the homogenized orthotropic continuum with a rigid element and non-linear spring assemblage by means of which out of plane mechanisms are allowed. FRP retrofitting is modeled adopting two noded truss elements whose mechanical properties are selected in order to describe possible debonding phenomenon or tensile rupture of the strengthening. The outcome provided numerically are compared to the experimental results showing a satisfactory agreement in terms of global pressure-deflection curves and failure mechanisms.

  8. Radiation Exposure

    MedlinePlus

    Radiation is energy that travels in the form of waves or high-speed particles. It occurs naturally in sunlight. Man-made radiation is used in X-rays, nuclear weapons, nuclear power plants and cancer treatment. If you are exposed to small amounts of radiation over a ...

  9. X-ray monochromators for high-power synchrotron radiation sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Michael

    1990-11-01

    Exact solutions to the problems of power flow from a line source of heat into a semicylinder and of uniform heat flow normal to a flat surface are discussed. These lead to bounds on feasible designs and the boundary layer problem can be placed in proper perspective. While finite element calculations are useful if the sample boundaries are predefined, they are much less help in establishing design principles. Previous work on hot beam X-ray crystal optics has emphasised the importance of coolant hydraulics and boundary layer heat transfer. Instead this paper emphasises the importance of the elastic response of crystals to thermal strainfields and the importance of maintaining the Darwin reflectivity. The conclusions of this design study are that the diffracting crystal region should be thin, but not very thin, similar in area to the hot beam footprint, part of a thin-walked buckling crystal box and remote from the support to which the crystal is rigidly clamped. Prototype 111 and 220 cooled silicon crystals tested at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven have almost perfect rocking curves under a beam heat load of {1}/{3}kW.

  10. Optimization of a heat-pipe-cooled space radiator for use with a reactor-powered Stirling engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moriarty, Michael P.; French, Edward P.

    1987-01-01

    The design optimization of a reactor-Stirling heat-pipe-cooled radiator is presented. The radiator is a self-deploying concept that uses individual finned heat pipe 'petals' to reject waste heat from a Stirling engine. Radiator optimization methodology is presented, and the results of a parametric analysis of the radiator design variables for a 100-kW(e) system are given. The additional steps of optiminzing the radiator resulted in a net system mass savings of 3 percent.

  11. Total radiated power, infrared output, and heat generation by cold light sources at the distal end of endoscopes and fiber optic bundle of light cables.

    PubMed

    Hensman, C; Hanna, G B; Drew, T; Moseley, H; Cuschieri, A

    1998-04-01

    Skin burns and ignition of drapes have been reported with the use of cold light sources. The aim of the study was to document the temperature generated by cold light sources and to correlate this with the total radiated power and infrared output. The temperature, total radiated power, and infrared output were measured as a function of time at the end of the endoscope (which is inserted into the operative field) and the end of the fiber optic bundle of the light cable (which connects the cable to the light port of the endoscope) using halogen and xenon light sources. The highest temperature recorded at the end of the endoscope was 95 degrees C. The temperature measured at the optical fiber location of the endoscope was higher than at its lens surface (p < 0.0001). At the end of the fiber optic bundle of light cables, the temperature reached 225 degrees C within 15 s. The temperature recorded at the optical fiber location of all endoscopes and light cables studied rose significantly over a period of 10 min to reach its maximum (p <0.0001) and then leveled off for the duration of the study (30 min). The infrared output accounted only for 10% of the total radiated power. High temperatures are reached by 10 min at the end of fiber optic bundle of light cables and endoscopes with both halogen and xenon light sources. This heat generation is largely due to the radiated power in the visible light spectrum.

  12. The Diamond Window with Boron-Doped Layers for the Output of Microwave Radiation at High Peak and Average Power Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, O. A.; Kuzikov, S. V.; Vikharev, A. A.; Vikharev, A. L.; Lobaev, M. A.

    2017-10-01

    We propose a novel design of the barrier window for the output of microwave radiation at high peak and average power levels. A window based on a plate of polycrystalline CVD diamond with thin (nanometer-thick) boron-doped layers with increased conductivity is considered. Such a window, which retains the low radiation loss due to the small total thickness of the conductive layers and the high thermal conductivity inherent in diamond, prevents accumulation of a static charge on its surface, on the one hand, and allows one to produce a static electric field on the surface of the doped layer, which impedes the development of a multipactor discharge, on the other hand. In this case, a high level of the power of the transmitted radiation and a large passband width are ensured by choosing the configuration of the field in the form of a traveling wave inside the window.

  13. [Effect of Biejiajian Pills on Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway and DKK-1 and FrpHe gene expressions in hepatocellular carcinoma cells].

    PubMed

    He, Songqi; Cheng, Yang; Zhu, Yun; Fan, Qin; Sun, Haitao; Jia, Wenyan

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effect of Biejiajian Pills on Wnt signal pathway and its inhibitory gene (DKK-1 and FrpHe) expressions and explore the mechanism underlying the action of Biejiajian Pills to suppress the invasiveness of hepatocellular carcinoma. Twenty-four Wistar rats were randomized equally into 3 groups for gavage of normal saline and Biejiajian Pills at 20- and 10-fold clinical doses for 3 days. Blood samples were then collected from the rats, and the serum was separated and added in HepG2 cell cultures. After 48 h of culture, the cells were collected to determine the cellular content of β-catenin protein using flow cytometry and detect DKK-1 and FrpHe mRNA expressions using qRT-PCR. HepG2 cells cultured in the presence of sera from rats fed with Biejiajian Pills showed significantly lowered β-catenin protein expression and obvious down-regulation of DKK-1 mRNA expression, and the effect was correlated with the doses of the drug administered. The expression of FrpHe mRNA showed no significant differences between the 3 groups. Biejiajian Pills can effectively inhibit the invasiveness and migration of hepatocellular carcinoma cells, which is closely related to decreased expressions of β-catenin and DKK-1 to cause block of the Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway.

  14. Reconstruction of the Radiation Emergency Medical System From the Acute to the Sub-acute Phases After the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Crisis.

    PubMed

    Ojino, Mayo; Ishii, Masami

    2014-02-01

    The radiation emergency medical system in Japan ceased to function as a result of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, which has commonly become known as the "Fukushima Accident." In this paper, we review the reconstruction processes of the radiation emergency medical system in order of events and examine the ongoing challenges to overcoming deficiencies and reinforcing the system by reviewing relevant literature, including the official documents of the investigation committees of the National Diet of Japan, the Japanese government, and the Tokyo Electric Power Company, as well as technical papers written by the doctors involved in radiation emergency medical activities in Fukushima. Our review has revealed that the reconstruction was achieved in 6 stages from March 11 to July 1, 2011: (1) Re-establishment of an off-site center (March 13), (2) Re-establishment of a secondary radiation emergency hospital (March 14), (3) Reconstruction of the initial response system for radiation emergency care (April 2), (4) Reinforcement of the off-site center and stationing of disaster medical advisors at the off-site center (April 4), (5) Reinforcement of the medical care system and an increase in the number of hospitals for non-contaminated patients (From April 2 to June 23), and (6) Enhancement of the medical care system in the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant and the construction of a new medical care system, involving both industrial medicine and emergency medicine (July 1). Medical resources such as voluntary efforts, academic societies, a local community medical system and university hospitals involved in medical care activities on 6 stages originally had not planned. In the future, radiation emergency medical systems should be evaluated with these 6 stages as a basis, in order to reinforce and enrich both the existing and backup systems so that minimal harm will come to nuclear power plant workers or evacuees and that they will receive proper care. This

  15. A short review of radiation-induced raft-mediated graft copolymerization: A powerful combination for modifying the surface properties of polymers in a controlled manner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsbay, Murat; Güven, Olgun

    2009-12-01

    Surface grafting of polymeric materials is attracting increasing attention as it enables the preparation of new materials from known and commercially available polymers having desirable bulk properties such as thermal stability, elasticity, permeability, etc., in conjunction with advantageous newly tailored surface properties such as biocompatibility, biomimicry, adhesion, etc. Ionizing radiation, particularly γ radiation is one of the most powerful tools for preparing graft copolymers as it generates radicals on most substrates. With the advent of living free-radical polymerization techniques, application of γ radiation has been extended to a new era of grafting; grafting in a controlled manner to achieve surfaces with tailored and well-defined properties. This report presents the current use of γ radiation in living free-radical polymerization and highlights the use of both techniques together as a combination to present an advance in the ability to prepare surfaces with desired, tunable and well-defined properties.

  16. Cavity-enhanced frequency doubling from 795nm to 397.5nm ultra-violet coherent radiation with PPKTP crystals in the low pump power regime.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xin; Han, Yashuai; Bai, Jiandong; He, Jun; Wang, Yanhua; Yang, Baodong; Wang, Junmin

    2014-12-29

    We demonstrate a simple, compact and cost-efficient diode laser pumped frequency doubling system at 795 nm in the low power regime. In two configurations, a bow-tie four-mirror ring enhancement cavity with a PPKTP crystal inside and a semi-monolithic PPKTP enhancement cavity, we obtain 397.5nm ultra-violet coherent radiation of 35mW and 47mW respectively with a mode-matched fundamental power of about 110mW, corresponding to a conversion efficiency of 32% and 41%. The low loss semi-monolithic cavity leads to the better results. The constructed ultra-violet coherent radiation has good power stability and beam quality, and the system has huge potential in quantum optics and cold atom physics.

  17. Radiation measurements at the campus of Fukushima Medical University through the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku earthquake and subsequent nuclear power plant crisis.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Tsuneo

    2011-01-01

    An earthquake, Tohoku region Pacific Coast earthquake, occurred on the 11th of March, 2011, and subsequent Fukushima nuclear power plant accidents have been stirring natural radiation around the author's office in Fukushima Medical University (FMU). FMU is located in Fukushima city, and is 57 km (35 miles) away from northwest of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. This paper presents three types of radiation survey undertaken through the unprecedented accidents at the campus and the hospital of FMU. First, a group of interested people immediately began radiation surveillance; the group members were assembled from the faculty members of " Life Sciences and Social Medicine" and " Human and Natural Sciences." Second, the present author, regardless of the earthquake, had serially observed natural radiations such as gamma radiation in air with NaI scintillation counter, atmospheric radon with Lucas cell, and second cosmic rays with NaI scintillation. Gamma radiation indicated most drastic change, i.e., peak value (9.3 times usual level) appeared on March 16, and decreased to 1.7 times usual level after two months. A nonlinear least squares regression to this decreasing data gave short half-life of 3.6 days and long half-life of 181 days. These two apparent half-lives are attributed to two groups of radioisotopes, i.e., short half-life one of I-131 and long half-life ones of Cs-134, Cs-137 and Sr-90. Also, atmospheric radon concentration became high since a stop of ventilation, while second cosmic rays did not show any response. Third, late April, 2011, a team of radiation dosimetry under the direct control of Dean, School of Medicine, was established for the continuation of radiation survey in the campus and the hospital of Fukushima Medical University.

  18. A Radiation-Tolerant, Low-Power Non-Volatile Memory Based on Silicon Nanocrystal Quantum Dots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, L. D.; Boer, E. A.; Ostraat, M. L.; Brongersma, M. L.; Flagan, R. C.; Atwater, H. A.; deBlauwe, J.; Green, M. L.

    2001-01-01

    Nanocrystal nonvolatile floating-gate memories are a good candidate for space applications - initial results suggest they are fast, more reliable and consume less power than conventional floating gate memories. In the nanocrystal based NVM device, charge is not stored on a continuous polysilicon layer (so-called floating gate), but instead on a layer of discrete nanocrystals. Charge injection and storage in dense arrays of silicon nanocrystals in SiO2 is a critical aspect of the performance of potential nanocrystal flash memory structures. The ultimate goal for this class of devices is few- or single-electron storage in a small number of nanocrystal elements. In addition, the nanocrystal layer fabrication technique should be simple, 8-inch wafer compatible and well controlled in program/erase threshold voltage swing was seen during 100,000 program and erase cycles. Additional near-term goals for this project include extensive testing for radiation hardness and the development of artificial layered tunnel barrier heterostructures which have the potential for large speed enhancements for read/write of nanocrystal memory elements, compared with conventional flash devices. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  19. Dose-rate effects on the radiation-induced oxidation of electric cable used in nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, A. B.; Bell, R. M.; Bryson, N. M. N.; Doyle, T. E.; Hall, M. B.; Mason, L. R.; Quintric, L.; Terwilliger, P. L.

    1995-01-01

    Dose-rate effects were measured for typical ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) and crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) electric cable used in nuclear power plants. The radiation source was the 60Co Irradiation Facility at the University of Virginia. Dose rates were varied from 5 Gy/h to 2500 Gy/h. It was found that there is little or no dose-rate effect at low doses for four of the five EPR cable products tested from 2500 Gy/h down to dose rates of 5 Gy/h but perhaps a small dose-rate effect at high doses for dose rates above 340 Gy/h. A small dose-rate exists for the fifth EPR above 340 Gy/h at all doses. A dose-rate effect exists above 40 Gy/h for two of the three XLPE cable products tested, but there is no dose-rate for these XLPE's between 40 Gy/h and 5 Gy/h. These results indicate that the dose-rate effects observed are due to oxygen diffusion effects during heterogeneous aging and suggest that there is no dose-rate effect for either EPR or XLPE during homogeneous aging.

  20. First results of an investigation of the effects of microwave radiation with low power density on the behavior of rats

    SciTech Connect

    Roberti, B.; Heebels, G.H.; Hendricx, J.C.M.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of microwave radiation on the spontaneous motor activity of the male Wistar rat was investigated. Rats were exposed to microwaves of 10.7 GHz, continuous wave (CW), 3 GHz, CW or 3 GHz pulsed wave (PW) with power densities of about 1 mW/sq cm for 185 h. Moreover, a small number of rats was irradiated with 3 GHz, PW at 25 mW/sq cm for 17 days. Spontaneous activity was automatically measured and analyzed in 5 classes of movements of increasing amplitudes. After termination of the irradiation no differences were found between the irradiated rats and the non-irradiated controls. Inmore » the experiment with 3 GHz, PW at 25 mW/sq cm for 17 days, rats were used that had been pretrained to a constant top performance on a 2 m long runway. Their running-times were not influenced by the irradiation. No deleterious effects of the microwave irradiation have been found as yet. (Author)« less

  1. Anti-inflammatory effects of low-intensity extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation: frequency and power dependence.

    PubMed

    Gapeyev, A B; Mikhailik, E N; Chemeris, N K

    2008-04-01

    Using a model of acute zymosan-induced footpad edema in NMRI mice, the frequency and power dependence of anti-inflammatory effect of low-intensity extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation (EHF EMR) was found. Single whole-body exposure of animals to EHF EMR at the intensity of 0.1 mW/cm(2) for 20 min at 1 h after zymosan injection reduced both the footpad edema and local hyperthermia on average by 20% at the frequencies of 42.2, 51.8, and 65 GHz. Some other frequencies from the frequency range of 37.5-70 GHz were less effective or not effective at all. At fixed frequency of 42.2 GHz and intensity of 0.1 mW/cm(2), the effect had bell-shaped dependence on exposure duration with a maximum at 20-40 min. Reduction of intensity to 0.01 mW/cm(2) resulted in a change of the effect dependence on exposure duration to a linear one. Combined action of cyclooxygenase inhibitor sodium diclofenac and EHF EMR exposure caused a partial additive effect of decrease in footpad edema. Combined action of antihistamine clemastine and EHF EMR exposure caused a dose-dependent abolishment of the anti-inflammatory effect of EHF EMR. The results obtained suggest that arachidonic acid metabolites and histamine are involved in realization of anti-inflammatory effects of low-intensity EHF EMR. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. The Ultimate Experiment Proving the Beneficial Effect of Low Level Radiation and Safety of Nuclear Power Plant: Serendipity of the Airborne Nuclear Weapons Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fong, Peter

    1997-11-01

    The cancer deaths per 100,000 U.S. population plotted as a function of time (year) over the past 60 years can be represented by a smooth curve except the years 1952-1978 where the data points fall below the smooth curve indicating a reduction of cancer ceaths of a total of 418,000. This anormaly is traced, through the space-time correlation of the mortalities with the 48 States, to the airborne nuclear weapons tests (mostly in Nevada) during that period when 500 nuclear bombs were exploded in air, generating an extra amount of radiation of 30 mrem/year. From this serendipitous experiment we deduce the law of the beneficial effect of low level radiation that a doubling of the background radiation (as in Colorado) will reduce cancer death rate by 24.3%. The actual rate of reduction in Colorado is 25% lower than the national average. Thus the law is verified. In another aspect Kerala,India has a background radiation 20 times higher than normal and it has a life expectancy 10.7 years longer than average India, thus showing the great beneficial affect of low level radiation. Concerning the nuclear power plant safety, the 500 bombs exploded are equivalent to 50 Chernobyl type nuclear plant explosions, the results of which are the reduction of 418,000 cancer deaths. Thus the nuclear industry is absolutely safe under any catastrophic disasters that may befall on the 414 nuclear plant now operating on the earth. The beneficial effects of radiation have been taken advantage of in folklores and health practices in Brazil, Chekoslovakia, Germany and Colorado. These health practices can benefit from the radiation generated from nuclear power and the nuclear waste disposal problem can be solved by turning trashes into treasures.

  3. Secreted Frizzled-related protein 1 (sFRP1) regulates spermatid adhesion in the testis via dephosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase and the nectin-3 adhesion protein complex

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Elissa W. P.; Lee, Will M.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2013-01-01

    Development of spermatozoa in adult mammalian testis during spermatogenesis involves extensive cell migration and differentiation. Spermatogonia that reside at the basal compartment of the seminiferous epithelium differentiate into more advanced germ cell types that migrate toward the apical compartment until elongated spermatids are released into the tubule lumen during spermiation. Apical ectoplasmic specialization (ES; a testis-specific anchoring junction) is the only cell junction that anchors and maintains the polarity of elongating/elongated spermatids (step 8–19 spermatids) in the epithelium. Little is known regarding the signaling pathways that trigger the disassembly of the apical ES at spermiation. Here, we show that secreted Frizzled-related protein 1 (sFRP1), a putative tumor suppressor gene that is frequently down-regulated in multiple carcinomas, is a crucial regulatory protein for spermiation. The expression of sFRP1 is tightly regulated in adult rat testis to control spermatid adhesion and sperm release at spermiation. Down-regulation of sFRP1 during testicular development was found to coincide with the onset of the first wave of spermiation at approximately age 45 d postpartum, implying that sFRP1 might be correlated with elongated spermatid adhesion conferred by the apical ES before spermiation. Indeed, administration of sFRP1 recombinant protein to the testis in vivo delayed spermiation, which was accompanied by down-regulation of phosphorylated (p)-focal adhesion kinase (FAK)-Tyr397 and retention of nectin-3 adhesion protein at the apical ES. To further investigate the functional relationship between p-FAK-Tyr397 and localization of nectin-3, we overexpressed sFRP1 using lentiviral vectors in the Sertoli-germ cell coculture system. Consistent with the in vivo findings, overexpression of sFRP1 induced down-regulation of p-FAK-Tyr397, leading to a decline in phosphorylation of nectin-3. In summary, this report highlights the critical role of sFRP

  4. R & D of smart FRP-OFBG-based steel strand and its application in monitoring of prestressing loss for RC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhi; Zhou, Hui; Huang, Ying; Ou, Jinping

    2008-03-01

    The long-term monitoring and performance evaluation techniques for the steel strand based pre-stressed structures are still not mature yet, especially for the prestressing loss monitoring and prediction. The main problem of this issue is lack of reliable monitoring techniques. To resolve this problem, in this paper, a new kind of quasi-distributed smart steel strand based on FRP-OFBG(Fiber Reinforced Polymer-Optical Fiber Bragg Grating) has been developed and its pre-stress monitoring principle has been also given. The test of the post-tension pre-stressed concrete beam with bonded tendons and its tensioning experiments have been conducted. And the prestressing loss of the steel strands has been monitored using the FBG in it. Researches results indicate that this kind of smart steel strand can monitor both instant loss and permanent loss of the prestressing successfully, and it can preferably describe the pre-stress loss state of the pre-stressed structure. Compared with the traditional monitoring instrument, this kind of smart steel strand owns distinct advantages and broad application foregrounds.

  5. Automatically produced FRP beams with embedded FOS in complex geometry: process, material compatibility, micromechanical analysis, and performance tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabler, Markus; Tkachenko, Viktoriya; Küppers, Simon; Kuka, Georg G.; Habel, Wolfgang R.; Milwich, Markus; Knippers, Jan

    2012-04-01

    The main goal of the presented work was to evolve a multifunctional beam composed out of fiber reinforced plastics (FRP) and an embedded optical fiber with various fiber Bragg grating sensors (FBG). These beams are developed for the use as structural member for bridges or industrial applications. It is now possible to realize large scale cross sections, the embedding is part of a fully automated process and jumpers can be omitted in order to not negatively influence the laminate. The development includes the smart placement and layout of the optical fibers in the cross section, reliable strain transfer, and finally the coupling of the embedded fibers after production. Micromechanical tests and analysis were carried out to evaluate the performance of the sensor. The work was funded by the German ministry of economics and technology (funding scheme ZIM). Next to the authors of this contribution, Melanie Book with Röchling Engineering Plastics KG (Haren/Germany; Katharina Frey with SAERTEX GmbH & Co. KG (Saerbeck/Germany) were part of the research group.

  6. Fracture Toughness and Shear Strength of the Bonded Interface Between an Aluminium Alloy Skin and a FRP Patch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Prashant; Shinde, Prakash Sonyabapu; Bhoyar, Gaurav

    2018-05-01

    The existing techniques to determine the fracture properties such as critical energy release rate in mode I (GIc) and mode II (GIIc) of an interface between two sheets of same material were modified to determine these properties between the sheets of dissimilar materials and thickness. In addition, the interface shear strength (ISS) was also determined. Experiments were carried out on the specimens made of a pre-cracked thin aluminium alloy skin and a Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) patch. Two kinds of surface preparation of the aluminium skin were employed; (i) emery-paper roughened surface (ERS) and (ii) Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) treated surface (NTS). GIc of ERS specimen was found to be 36.1 J/m2, while it was found to be much higher for NTS specimens, that is, 87.3 J/m2. GIIc was found to be 282.4 J/m2 for ERS specimens and much higher as 734.5 J/m2 for NTS specimens. ISS was determined as 32.6 MPa for ERS specimen and significantly higher for NTS specimen, that is, 44.5 MPa. The micrographs obtained from a field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and the surface roughness test showed that the NTS was significantly rougher than the ERS, explaining the higher values of all the three kinds of NTS specimens.

  7. Antioxidant power, lipid oxidation, color, and viability of Listeria monocytogenes in beef bologna treated with gamma radiation and containing various levels of glucose.

    PubMed

    Sommers, Christopher H; Fan, Xuetong

    2002-11-01

    Ionizing radiation can be used to pasteurize ready-to-eat (RTE) meat products. Thermal processing of RTE meats that contain dextrose results in the production of antioxidants that may interfere with ionizing radiation pasteurization of RTE meat products. Beef bologna was manufactured with dextrose concentrations of 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8%. Antioxidant activity, as measured by the Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assay, increased with dextrose concentration but was unaffected by ionizing radiation. Lipid oxidation increased significantly in irradiated bologna (4 kGy) that contained dextrose. Hunter color analysis indicated that the addition of dextrose reduced the ionizing radiation-induced loss of redness (a-value) but promoted the loss of brightness (L-value). The radiation resistance, D10-value, of Listeria monocytogenes that was surface-inoculated onto bologna slices was not affected by dextrose concentration. L. monocytogenes strains isolated from RTE meats after listeriosis outbreaks were utilized. Increased antioxidant activity generated by thermal processing of dextrose in fine emulsion sausages does not present a barrier to radiation pasteurization of RTE meats. However, a high dextrose concentration in combination with gamma irradiation increases lipid oxidation significantly.

  8. INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER. LASER PLASMA: Calculation of mass transfer in the remote cutting of metals by radiation of a high-power repetitively pulsed CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladush, G. G.; Rodionov, N. B.

    2002-01-01

    The mechanism of remote cutting of steel plates by radiation of a high-power repetitively pulsed CO2 laser is theoretically studied. The models of melt removal by the gravity force and the recoil pressure of material vapour are proposed and the sufficient conditions for the initiation of cutting are determined. A numerical model of a thermally thin plate was employed to describe the cutting for large focal spots.

  9. Observations of 50/60 Hz Power Line Radiation in the Low Latitude Ionosphere Detected by the Electric Field Instrument on the C/NOFS Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfaff, R. F., Jr.; Freudenreich, H. T.; Simoes, F. A.; Liebrecht, M. C.; Farrell, W.

    2017-12-01

    One of the most ubiquitous forms of EM radiation emanating from the earth's surface is that of power line radiation. Associated with AC electric power generation, such emissions are typically launched along conducting power lines that may travel hundreds, or even thousands of km, from generating stations. The fundamental frequencies of such emissions are characteristically 50 Hz or 60 Hz, depending on the regional standards for power generation/consumption. The frequency of this radiation is well below that of the plasma frequency of the ionosphere (typically several MHz) and hence is expected to reflect back to the earth and propagate in the waveguide formed by the earth's surface and the bottom ledge of the ionosphere, typically near 100 km. Given that such power lines are widespread on the exposed lithosphere, the leakage of some ELF emissions associated with electric power generation might nevertheless be expected in the ionosphere, in the same manner in which a small fraction of the power associated with ELF Schumann resonances and lightning sferics have been shown to penetrate into the ionosphere. We present direct measurements of 50/60 Hz power line radiation detected by in situ probes on an orbiting satellite in the earth's ionosphere. The data were gathered by the Vector Electric Field Investigation (VEFI) tri-axial double probe detector flown on the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecast System (C/NOFS) satellite. C/NOFS was launched in April, 2008 into a low latitude (13 deg inclination) orbit with perigee and apogee of 400 km and 850 km, respectively. The electric field wave data were gathered by ELF receivers comprised of two orthogonal broadband channels sampled at 512 s/sec each, and digitized with 16 bit A/D converters. The data show distinct 60 Hz emissions while the satellite sampled within the Brazilian sector whereas distinct 50 Hz emissions were detected over India. Other, less distinct, emissions were observed over Africa and southeast Asia

  10. Ultra-low power high temperature and radiation hard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) silicon-on-insulator (SOI) voltage reference.

    PubMed

    Boufouss, El Hafed; Francis, Laurent A; Kilchytska, Valeriya; Gérard, Pierre; Simon, Pascal; Flandre, Denis

    2013-12-13

    This paper presents an ultra-low power CMOS voltage reference circuit which is robust under biomedical extreme conditions, such as high temperature and high total ionized dose (TID) radiation. To achieve such performances, the voltage reference is designed in a suitable 130 nm Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) industrial technology and is optimized to work in the subthreshold regime of the transistors. The design simulations have been performed over the temperature range of -40-200 °C and for different process corners. Robustness to radiation was simulated using custom model parameters including TID effects, such as mobilities and threshold voltages degradation. The proposed circuit has been tested up to high total radiation dose, i.e., 1 Mrad (Si) performed at three different temperatures (room temperature, 100 °C and 200 °C). The maximum drift of the reference voltage V(REF) depends on the considered temperature and on radiation dose; however, it remains lower than 10% of the mean value of 1.5 V. The typical power dissipation at 2.5 V supply voltage is about 20 μW at room temperature and only 75 μW at a high temperature of 200 °C. To understand the effects caused by the combination of high total ionizing dose and temperature on such voltage reference, the threshold voltages of the used SOI MOSFETs were extracted under different conditions. The evolution of V(REF) and power consumption with temperature and radiation dose can then be explained in terms of the different balance between fixed oxide charge and interface states build-up. The total occupied area including pad-ring is less than 0.09 mm2.

  11. Modelling the performance of the tapered artery heat pipe design for use in the radiator of the solar dynamic power system of the NASA Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Austin Lewis

    1988-01-01

    The paper presents a computer program developed to model the steady-state performance of the tapered artery heat pipe for use in the radiator of the solar dynamic power system of the NASA Space Station. The program solves six governing equations to ascertain which one is limiting the maximum heat transfer rate of the heat pipe. The present model appeared to be slightly better than the LTV model in matching the 1-g data for the standard 15-ft test heat pipe.

  12. A FTIR/chemometrics approach to characterize the gamma radiation effects on iodine/epoxy-paint interactions in Nuclear Power Plants.

    PubMed

    Colombani, Juliette; Chauvet, Elodie; Amat, Sandrine; Dupuy, Nathalie; Gigmes, Didier

    2017-04-01

    The effects of radiation on polymeric materials are a topic of concern in a wide range of industries including the sterilization, and the nuclear power industry. While much work has concentrated on systems like polyolefins that are radiation sterilized, some work has been done on epoxy systems. The epoxy system studied is an epoxy/amine paint which is representative of the paint that covers the inner surfaces of the French nuclear reactor containment buildings. In case of a severe accident on a Nuclear Power Plant, fission products can be released from the nuclear fuel to the reactor containment building. Among them, volatile iodine (I 2 ) can be produced and can interact with the epoxy-paint. This paint is also subjected to gamma radiation damages (due to the high dose in the containment coming from radionuclides released from the fuel). So the epoxy-paint studied was exposed to gamma radiation under air atmosphere after being loaded with I 2 or not. The aim of this study is to characterize by FTIR spectroscopy the iodine-paint interactions, then to identify the radiation damages on the epoxy-paint, and to check their effects on these iodine-paint interactions. This work shows the potential of multi-block analysis method (ANOVA-PCA and COMDIM = AComDim) for such a study as it allows to identify the nature of iodine/epoxy-paint interactions and to characterize the gamma radiation damages on the epoxy-paint. AComDim method conduces to the extraction of Common Components to different tables and highlights factors of influence and their interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Radiation-related anxiety among public health nurses in the Fukushima Prefecture after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Koji; Orita, Makiko; Goto, Aya; Kumagai, Atsushi; Yasui, Kiyotaka; Ohtsuru, Akira; Hayashida, Naomi; Kudo, Takashi; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2016-10-24

    In Japan, public health nurses (PHNs) play important roles in managing the health of local residents, especially after a disaster. In this study, we assessed radiation anxiety and the stress processing capacity of PHNs in the Fukushima Prefecture in Japan, after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS). We conducted a questionnaire survey among the PHNs (n=430) in July of 2015 via postal mail. The questions included demographic factors (sex, age and employment position), knowledge about radiation, degree of anxiety about radiation at the time of the FDNPS accident (and at present), by asking them to answer questions about radiation and the Sense of Coherence-13 (SOC-13). We classified the low and high levels of anxiety by asking them to answer questions about radiation, and compared the anxiety-negative (-) group with the anxiety-positive (+) group. Of the PHNs, 269 (62.6%) were classified in the anxiety (-) group and 161 (37.4%) were in the anxiety (+) group. When the multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted, the PHNs at the time of the accident (OR: 2.37, p=0.007), current general anxieties about radiation (OR: 3.56, p<0.001), current possession of materials to obtain knowledge about radiation (OR: 2.11, p=0.006) and knowledge of the childhood thyroid cancer increase after the Chernobyl accident (OR: 1.69, p=0.035) were significantly associated with anxiety after the FDNPS accident. The mean SOC-13 was 43.0±7.7, with no significant difference between the anxiety (-) group and anxiety (+) group (p=0.47). Our study suggested that anxiety about radiation was associated with materials and knowledge about radiation in the PHNs in the Fukushima Prefecture 4 years after the FDNPS accident. It is important for PHNs to obtain knowledge and teaching materials about radiation, and radiation education programmes for PHNs must be established in areas that have nuclear facilities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  14. Radiation-related anxiety among public health nurses in the Fukushima Prefecture after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Koji; Orita, Makiko; Goto, Aya; Kumagai, Atsushi; Yasui, Kiyotaka; Ohtsuru, Akira; Hayashida, Naomi; Kudo, Takashi; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2016-01-01

    Objective In Japan, public health nurses (PHNs) play important roles in managing the health of local residents, especially after a disaster. In this study, we assessed radiation anxiety and the stress processing capacity of PHNs in the Fukushima Prefecture in Japan, after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS). Methods We conducted a questionnaire survey among the PHNs (n=430) in July of 2015 via postal mail. The questions included demographic factors (sex, age and employment position), knowledge about radiation, degree of anxiety about radiation at the time of the FDNPS accident (and at present), by asking them to answer questions about radiation and the Sense of Coherence-13 (SOC-13). We classified the low and high levels of anxiety by asking them to answer questions about radiation, and compared the anxiety-negative (−) group with the anxiety-positive (+) group. Results Of the PHNs, 269 (62.6%) were classified in the anxiety (−) group and 161 (37.4%) were in the anxiety (+) group. When the multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted, the PHNs at the time of the accident (OR: 2.37, p=0.007), current general anxieties about radiation (OR: 3.56, p<0.001), current possession of materials to obtain knowledge about radiation (OR: 2.11, p=0.006) and knowledge of the childhood thyroid cancer increase after the Chernobyl accident (OR: 1.69, p=0.035) were significantly associated with anxiety after the FDNPS accident. The mean SOC-13 was 43.0±7.7, with no significant difference between the anxiety (−) group and anxiety (+) group (p=0.47). Conclusions Our study suggested that anxiety about radiation was associated with materials and knowledge about radiation in the PHNs in the Fukushima Prefecture 4 years after the FDNPS accident. It is important for PHNs to obtain knowledge and teaching materials about radiation, and radiation education programmes for PHNs must be established in areas that have nuclear facilities. PMID

  15. Towards coherent combining of X-band high power microwaves: phase-locked long pulse radiations by a relativistic triaxial klystron amplifier.

    PubMed

    Ju, Jinchuan; Zhang, Jun; Qi, Zumin; Yang, Jianhua; Shu, Ting; Zhang, Jiande; Zhong, Huihuang

    2016-08-02

    The radio-frequency breakdown due to ultrahigh electric field strength essentially limits power handling capability of an individual high power microwave (HPM) generator, and this issue becomes more challenging for high frequency bands. Coherent power combining therefore provides an alternative approach to achieve an equivalent peak power of the order of ∼100 GW, which consequently provides opportunities to explore microwave related physics at extremes. The triaxial klystron amplifier (TKA) is a promising candidate for coherent power combing in high frequency bands owing to its intrinsic merit of high power capacity, nevertheless phase-locked long pulse radiation from TKA has not yet been obtained experimentally as the coaxial structure of TKA can easily lead to self-excitation of parasitic modes. In this paper, we present investigations into an X-band TKA capable of producing 1.1 GW HPMs with pulse duration of about 103 ns at the frequency of 9.375 GHz in experiment. Furthermore, the shot-to-shot fluctuation standard deviation of the phase shifts between the input and output microwaves is demonstrated to be less than 10°. The reported achievements open up prospects for accomplishing coherent power combining of X-band HPMs in the near future, and might also excite new development interests concerning high frequency TKAs.

  16. Towards coherent combining of X-band high power microwaves: phase-locked long pulse radiations by a relativistic triaxial klystron amplifier

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Jinchuan; Zhang, Jun; Qi, Zumin; Yang, Jianhua; Shu, Ting; Zhang, Jiande; Zhong, Huihuang

    2016-01-01

    The radio-frequency breakdown due to ultrahigh electric field strength essentially limits power handling capability of an individual high power microwave (HPM) generator, and this issue becomes more challenging for high frequency bands. Coherent power combining therefore provides an alternative approach to achieve an equivalent peak power of the order of ∼100 GW, which consequently provides opportunities to explore microwave related physics at extremes. The triaxial klystron amplifier (TKA) is a promising candidate for coherent power combing in high frequency bands owing to its intrinsic merit of high power capacity, nevertheless phase-locked long pulse radiation from TKA has not yet been obtained experimentally as the coaxial structure of TKA can easily lead to self-excitation of parasitic modes. In this paper, we present investigations into an X-band TKA capable of producing 1.1 GW HPMs with pulse duration of about 103 ns at the frequency of 9.375 GHz in experiment. Furthermore, the shot-to-shot fluctuation standard deviation of the phase shifts between the input and output microwaves is demonstrated to be less than 10°. The reported achievements open up prospects for accomplishing coherent power combining of X-band HPMs in the near future, and might also excite new development interests concerning high frequency TKAs. PMID:27481661

  17. Reconstruction of the Radiation Emergency Medical System From the Acute to the Sub-acute Phases After the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Crisis

    PubMed Central

    OJINO, Mayo; ISHII, Masami

    2014-01-01

    The radiation emergency medical system in Japan ceased to function as a result of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, which has commonly become known as the “Fukushima Accident.” In this paper, we review the reconstruction processes of the radiation emergency medical system in order of events and examine the ongoing challenges to overcoming deficiencies and reinforcing the system by reviewing relevant literature, including the official documents of the investigation committees of the National Diet of Japan, the Japanese government, and the Tokyo Electric Power Company, as well as technical papers written by the doctors involved in radiation emergency medical activities in Fukushima. Our review has revealed that the reconstruction was achieved in 6 stages from March 11 to July 1, 2011: (1) Re-establishment of an off-site center (March 13), (2) Re-establishment of a secondary radiation emergency hospital (March 14), (3) Reconstruction of the initial response system for radiation emergency care (April 2), (4) Reinforcement of the off-site center and stationing of disaster medical advisors at the off-site center (April 4), (5) Reinforcement of the medical care system and an increase in the number of hospitals for non-contaminated patients (From April 2 to June 23), and (6) Enhancement of the medical care system in the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant and the construction of a new medical care system, involving both industrial medicine and emergency medicine (July 1). Medical resources such as voluntary efforts, academic societies, a local community medical system and university hospitals involved in medical care activities on 6 stages originally had not planned. In the future, radiation emergency medical systems should be evaluated with these 6 stages as a basis, in order to reinforce and enrich both the existing and backup systems so that minimal harm will come to nuclear power plant workers or evacuees and that they will receive proper care

  18. Quantifying the impact of smoke aerosol on the UV radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolik, I. N.; Tatarskii, V.; Hall, S. R.; Petropavlovskikh, I. V.

    2017-12-01

    We present an analysis of the impact of smoke on the UV radiation. The analysis is performed for a case study by combining the modeling and measurements. The case study is focusing in wildfires occurred in California in ????. The fires have been affecting the environment in the region, posing a serious threat to the human well - being.The modeling is performed using a fully couple WRF- Chem- SMOKE model. The model uses the FRP MODIS satellite data to generate the smoke emission for an actual event. The smoke aerosol is treated in a size and composition resolved manner. The optical properties are computed online and provided to the TUV model that is incorporated in the WRF - Chem-SMOKE model. The analysis of the impact of smoke on the UV radiation is performed. We assess the impact of smoke on the TOA radiative forcing. Our results show a significant impact of smoke on the radiative regime of the atmosphere.

  19. Investigation of occupational radiation exposures to NORM at an Irish peat-fired power station and potential use of peat fly ash by the construction industry.

    PubMed

    Organo, C; Lee, E M; Menezes, G; Finch, E C

    2005-12-01

    Annually, approximately 15% of Ireland's electricity requirement is provided through the combustion of 3 x 10(6) tonnes of peat. While the literature on coal-fired power generation is quite abundant, studies on the peat-fired power generation industry from a radiological point of view are scarce. A study of the largest Irish peat-fired power plant was initiated to review the potential occupational radiation exposures arising from the occurrence of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) at different stages of the industrial process and to investigate any radiological health consequences that may arise should peat fly ash be used as a component of building materials. Ambient gamma dose rate measurements, radon measurements, quantification of the occupational exposure from inhalation of airborne particles (personal air sampling) and gamma spectrometry analysis of peat, peat ash and effluent samples from the ash ponds were undertaken. The results indicate that the radiation dose received by any worker involved in the processing of the peat and the handling of the ash resulting from peat combustion does not exceed 150 microSv per annum. Regulatory control of the peat-fired power generation is therefore unnecessary according to the Irish legislation with regards to NORM. The potential use of peat fly ash as a by-product in the building industry was also found to have a negligible radiological impact for construction workers and for members of the public.

  20. Availability of Japanese Government's supplemental texts on radiation reflecting the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident for elementary and secondary education from dental students' understanding.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Midori; Honda, Eiichi; Dashpuntsag, Oyunbat; Maeda, Naoki; Hosoki, Hidehiko; Sakama, Minoru; Tada, Toshiko

    2016-05-01

    Following the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident, the Japanese government created two supplemental texts about radiation reflecting the accident for elementary, middle school, and high school students. These texts were made to explain radiation and consequently to obtain public consent for the continuation of the nuclear program. The present study aimed to evaluate the appropriateness of the content of the texts and to collect the basic data on the level of understanding necessary to improve radiation education. Lectures on radiology including nuclear energy and the Fukushima accident were given to 44 fourth-year dental students in 2013. The questionnaire was administered in 2014 when these students were in their sixth-year. The survey was also administered to 40 first-year students and 41 fourth-year students who hadn't any radiology lectures. Students rated their level of understanding of 50 phrases used in the texts on a four-point scale (understanding = 3, a little knowledge = 2, having heard = 1, no knowledge = 0). Questions on taking an advanced physics course in high school and means of learning about radiation in daily life were also asked. The level of understanding of phrases in the supplemental text for middle and high school students was significantly higher among sixth-year students (mean = 1.43) than among first-year (mean = 1.12) or fourth-year (mean = 0.93) students (p < 0.05). Overall, the level of understanding was low, with scores indicating that most students knew only a little. First-year students learning about radiation from television but four-year and six-year students learning about radiation from newspaper scored significantly higher (p < 0.05). It was concluded that radiation education should be improved by using visual material and preparing educators to teach the material for improving the public's understanding of radiation use-especially nuclear power generation because the phrases used in the supplementary texts are very

  1. Chiyoda Thoroughbred CT-121 clean coal project at Georgia Power`s Plant Yates

    SciTech Connect

    Burford, D.P.

    1997-12-31

    The Chiyoda Thoroughbred CT-121 flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process at Georgia Power`s Plant Yates completed a two year demonstration of its capabilities in late 1994 under both high- and low-particulate loading conditions. This $43 million demonstration was co-funded by Southern Company, the Electric Power Research Institute and the DOE under the auspices of the US Department of Energy`s Round II Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) program. The focus of the Yates Project was to demonstrate several cost-saving modifications to Chiyoda`s already efficient CT-121 process. These modifications included: the extensive use of fiberglass reinforced plastics (FRP) in the construction of themore » scrubber vessel and other associated vessels, the elimination of flue gas reheat through the use of an FRP wet chimney, and reliable operation without a spare absorber module. This paper focuses on the testing results from the last trimester of the second phase of testing (high-ash loading). Specifically, operation under elevated ash loading conditions, the effects of low- and high-sulfur coal, air toxics verification testing results and unexpected improvements in byproduct gypsum quality are discussed.« less

  2. Radiation protection following nuclear power accidents: a survey of putative mechanisms involved in the radioprotective actions of taurine during and after radiation exposure

    PubMed Central

    Christophersen, Olav Albert

    2012-01-01

    There are several animal experiments showing that high doses of ionizing radiation lead to strongly enhanced leakage of taurine from damaged cells into the extracellular fluid, followed by enhanced urinary excretion. This radiation-induced taurine depletion can itself have various harmful effects (as will also be the case when taurine depletion is due to other causes, such as alcohol abuse or cancer therapy with cytotoxic drugs), but taurine supplementation has been shown to have radioprotective effects apparently going beyond what might be expected just as a consequence of correcting the harmful consequences of taurine deficiency per se. The mechanisms accounting for the radioprotective effects of taurine are, however, very incompletely understood. In this article an attempt is made to survey various mechanisms that potentially might be involved as parts of the explanation for the overall beneficial effect of high levels of taurine that has been found in experiments with animals or isolated cells exposed to high doses of ionizing radiation. It is proposed that taurine may have radioprotective effects by a combination of several mechanisms: (1) during the exposure to ionizing radiation by functioning as an antioxidant, but perhaps more because it counteracts the prooxidant catalytic effect of iron rather than functioning as an important scavenger of harmful molecules itself, (2) after the ionizing radiation exposure by helping to reduce the intensity of the post-traumatic inflammatory response, and thus reducing the extent of tissue damage that develops because of severe inflammation rather than as a direct effect of the ionizing radiation per se, (3) by functioning as a growth factor helping to enhance the growth rate of leukocytes and leukocyte progenitor cells and perhaps also of other rapidly proliferating cell types, such as enterocyte progenitor cells, which may be important for immunological recovery and perhaps also for rapid repair of various damaged

  3. [Nuclear-power-plant accidents: thyroid cancer incidence and radiation-related health effects from the Chernobyl accident].

    PubMed

    Schlumberger, Martin; Le Guen, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident, enormous amounts of radioisotopes were released in the atmosphere and have contaminated surrounding populations in the absence of rapid protective countermeasures. The highest radiation doses were delivered to the thyroid gland, and the only direct consequence of radiation exposure observed among contaminated population is the increased incidence of thyroid cancers among subjects who were children in 1986 and who lived at that time in Belarus, Ukraine or Russia. © 2012 médecine/sciences – Inserm / SRMS.

  4. Development of a fiber-guided laser ultrasonic system resilient to high temperature and gamma radiation for nuclear power plant pipe monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jinyeol; Lee, Hyeonseok; Lim, Hyung Jin; Kim, Nakhyeon; Yeo, Hwasoo; Sohn, Hoon

    2013-08-01

    This study develops an embeddable optical fiber-guided laser ultrasonic system for structural health monitoring (SHM) of pipelines exposed to high temperature and gamma radiation inside nuclear power plants (NPPs). Recently, noncontact laser ultrasonics is gaining popularity among the SHM community because of its advantageous characteristics such as (a) scanning capability, (b) immunity against electromagnetic interference (EMI) and (c) applicability to high-temperature surfaces. However, its application to NPP pipelines has been hampered because pipes inside NPPs are often covered by insulators and/or target surfaces are not easily accessible. To overcome this problem, this study designs embeddable optical fibers and fixtures so that laser beams used for ultrasonic inspection can be transmitted between the laser sources and the target pipe. For guided-wave generation, an Nd:Yag pulsed laser coupled with an optical fiber is used. A high-power pulsed laser beam is guided through the optical fiber onto a target structure. Based on the principle of laser interferometry, the corresponding response is measured using a different type of laser beam guided by another optical fiber. All devices are especially designed to sustain high temperature and gamma radiation. The robustness/resilience of the proposed measurement system installed on a stainless steel pipe specimen has been experimentally verified by exposing the specimen to high temperature of up to 350 °C and optical fibers to gamma radiation of up to 125 kGy (20 kGy h-1).

  5. 47 CFR 25.204 - Power limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... communication services, the equivalent isotropically radiated power transmitted in any direction towards the... coequally with terrestrial radiocommunication services, the equivalent isotropically radiated power... restriction as to the equivalent isotropically radiated power transmitted by an earth station towards the...

  6. 47 CFR 25.204 - Power limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... communication services, the equivalent isotropically radiated power transmitted in any direction towards the... coequally with terrestrial radiocommunication services, the equivalent isotropically radiated power... restriction as to the equivalent isotropically radiated power transmitted by an earth station towards the...

  7. 47 CFR 25.204 - Power limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... communication services, the equivalent isotropically radiated power transmitted in any direction towards the... coequally with terrestrial radiocommunication services, the equivalent isotropically radiated power... restriction as to the equivalent isotropically radiated power transmitted by an earth station towards the...

  8. Increased impedance near cut-off in plasma-like media leading to emission of high-power, narrow-bandwidth radiation

    PubMed Central

    Hur, M. S.; Ersfeld, B.; Noble, A.; Suk, H.; Jaroszynski, D. A.

    2017-01-01

    Ultra-intense, narrow-bandwidth, electromagnetic pulses have become important tools for exploring the characteristics of matter. Modern tuneable high-power light sources, such as free-electron lasers and vacuum tubes, rely on bunching of relativistic or near-relativistic electrons in vacuum. Here we present a fundamentally different method for producing narrow-bandwidth radiation from a broad spectral bandwidth current source, which takes advantage of the inflated radiation impedance close to cut-off in a medium with a plasma-like permittivity. We find that by embedding a current source in this cut-off region, more than an order of magnitude enhancement of the radiation intensity is obtained compared with emission directly into free space. The method suggests a simple and general way to flexibly use broadband current sources to produce broad or narrow bandwidth pulses. As an example, we demonstrate, using particle-in-cell simulations, enhanced monochromatic emission of terahertz radiation using a two-colour pumped current source enclosed by a tapered waveguide. PMID:28071681

  9. Increased impedance near cut-off in plasma-like media leading to emission of high-power, narrow-bandwidth radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hur, M. S.; Ersfeld, B.; Noble, A.; Suk, H.; Jaroszynski, D. A.

    2017-01-01

    Ultra-intense, narrow-bandwidth, electromagnetic pulses have become important tools for exploring the characteristics of matter. Modern tuneable high-power light sources, such as free-electron lasers and vacuum tubes, rely on bunching of relativistic or near-relativistic electrons in vacuum. Here we present a fundamentally different method for producing narrow-bandwidth radiation from a broad spectral bandwidth current source, which takes advantage of the inflated radiation impedance close to cut-off in a medium with a plasma-like permittivity. We find that by embedding a current source in this cut-off region, more than an order of magnitude enhancement of the radiation intensity is obtained compared with emission directly into free space. The method suggests a simple and general way to flexibly use broadband current sources to produce broad or narrow bandwidth pulses. As an example, we demonstrate, using particle-in-cell simulations, enhanced monochromatic emission of terahertz radiation using a two-colour pumped current source enclosed by a tapered waveguide.

  10. Analytical investigation of a three-dimensional FRP-retrofitted reinforced concrete structure's behaviour under earthquake load effect in ANSYS program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altun, F.; Birdal, F.

    2012-12-01

    In this study, a 1:3 scaled, three-storey, FRP (Fiber Reinforced Polymer) retrofitted reinforced concrete model structure whose behaviour and crack development were identified experimentally in the laboratory was investigated analytically. Determination of structural behaviour under earthquake load is only possible in a laboratory environment with a specific scale, as carrying out structural experiments is difficult due to the evaluation of increased parameter numbers and because it requires an expensive laboratory setup. In an analytical study, structure was modelled using ANSYS Finite Element Package Program (2007), and its behaviour and crack development were revealed. When experimental difficulties are taken into consideration, analytical investigation of structure behaviour is more economic and much faster. At the end of the study, experimental results of structural behaviour and crack development were compared with analytical data. It was concluded that in a model structure retrofitted with FRP, the behaviour and cracking model can be determined without testing by determining the reasons for the points where analytical results are not converged with experimental data. Better understanding of structural behaviour is analytically enabled with the study.

  11. Impulse powerful UV-radiation source pumped by the sublight ionization waves for the bacteriological disinfection of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filiouguine, Igor V.; Kostiouchenko, S. V.; Koudryavtsev, N. N.; Vasilyak, Leonid M.; Yakimenko, A. V.

    1993-11-01

    The bacteriological disinfective action of UV-radiation is well known. The pioneer work on UV-radiation used for bacteriological disinfection of waste water was made in 1910. Because of the high cost and low living time of the UV-radiation sources, the alternative technique for waste water purification by chlorine introducing was spread out. During the second stage of the UV purification development, beginning in approximately 1970, the interest for bacteriological cleaning of water, increased again. Two reasons were responsible for this event: first, the significant improvement of technology and design of UV-bacteriological purificators, and second, recognition of the serious danger of chlorine compounds introduced into water under purification because of the toxicity of these compounds. Further investigations gave excellent results in the creation and industrial applications of UV- bacteriological purificators. Now we can see a rapid development of industrial technology in UV-purification of drinking and waste waters.

  12. Absorption spectra measurements of the x-ray radiation heated SiO2 aerogel plasma in 'dog-bone' targets irradiated by high power laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Dong, Q.-L.; Wang, S.-J.; Li, Y.-T.; Zhang, J.; Wei, H.-G.; Shi, J.-R.; Zhao, G.; Zhang, J.-Y.; Wen, T.-S.; Zhang, W.-H.; Hu, X.; Liu, S.-Y.; Ding, Y.-K.; Zhang, L.; Tang, Y.-J.; Zhang, B.-H.; Zheng, Z.-J.; Nishimura, H.; Fujioka, S.; Takabe, H.

    2008-05-01

    We studied the opacity effect of the SiO2 aerogel plasma heated by x-ray radiation produced by high power laser pulses irradiating the inner surface of golden 'dog-bone' targets. The PET crystal spectrometer was used to measure the absorption spectra of the plasmas in the range from 6.4 Å to 7.4 Å, among which the line emissions involving the K shell of Si ions from He-like to neutral atom were located. The experimental results were analyzed with Detailed-Level-Accounting method. As the plasma temperature increased, the characteristic lines of highly ionized ions gradually dominated the absorption spectrum.

  13. Pulmonary-impedance power spectral analysis: A facile means of detecting radiation-induced gastrointestinal distress and performance decrement in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rick, R. C.; Lushbaugh, C. C.; Mcdow, E.; Frome, E.

    1972-01-01

    Changes in respiratory variance revealed by power spectral analysis of the pulmonary impedance pneumogram can be used to detect and measure stresses directly or indirectly affecting human respiratory function. When gastrointestinal distress occurred during a series of 5 total-body exposures of 30 R at a rate of 1.5 R/min, it was accompanied by typical shifts in pulmonary impedance power spectra. These changes did not occur after protracted exposure of 250 R (30 R daily) at 1.5 R/hr that failed to cause radiation sickness. This system for quantitating respiratory effort can also be used to detect alterations in one's ability to perform under controlled exercise conditions.

  14. A 0.18 μm CMOS low-power radiation sensor for asynchronous event-driven UWB wireless transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastianini, S.; Crepaldi, M.; Demarchi, D.; Gabrielli, A.; Lolli, M.; Margotti, A.; Villani, G.; Zhang, Z.; Zoccoli, G.

    2013-12-01

    The paper describes the design of a readout element, proposed as a radiation monitor, which implements an embedded sensor based on a floating-gate transistor. The paper shows the design of a microelectronic circuit composed of a sensor, an oscillator, a modulator, a transmitter and an integrated antenna. A prototype chip has recently been fabricated and tested exploiting a commercial 180 nm, four metal CMOS technology. Simulation results of the entire behavior of the circuit before submission are presented along with some measurements of the actual chip response. In addition, preliminary tests of the performance of the Ultra-Wide Band transmission via the integrated antenna are summarized. As the complete chip prototype area is less than 1 mm2, the chip fits a large variety of applications, from spot radiation monitoring systems in medicine to punctual measurements of radiation level in High-Energy Physics experiments. A sensitivity of 1 mV/rad was estimated within an absorbed dose range up to 10 krad and a total power consumption of about 165 μW.

  15. Influence of High-Power Pulsed IR Laser Radiation on the Electrophysical Properties of Cd x Hg1- x Те Heteroepitaxial Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talipov, N. Kh.

    2013-05-01

    Results of investigations into the electrophysical properties of p- and n-type Cd x Hg1- x Te heteroepitaxial layers grown by molecular beam and liquid phase epitaxy methods after exposure to high-power pulsed IR radiation of solid-state Nd3+:YAG and chemical DF lasers at wavelengths of 1.06 and 3.8-4.2 μm, respectively, are presented. It is demonstrated that the main types of defects resulting from pulsed irradiation are mercury vacancies that play the role of acceptors in this material. The spatial distribution of generated mercury vacancies depends on the intensity and wavelength of laser radiation: the defects generated by pulses of the Nd3+:YAG laser are concentrated only near the surface, whereas DF-laser radiation creates defects in the entire volume of the heteroepitaxial structures. It is established that irradiation with the Nd3+:YAG laser of the p-Cd x Hg1- x Te heteroepitaxial layers implanted by boron ions leads to the activation of implanted boron atoms as a result of melting and recrystallization of the irradiated surface layer.

  16. Comprehensive data on ionising radiation from Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in the town of Miharu, Fukushima Prefecture: The Misho Project.

    PubMed

    Koike, T; Suzuki, Y; Genyu, S; Kobayashi, I; Komori, H; Otsu, H; Sakuma, H; Sakuma, K; Sarausad, E M; Shimada, K; Shinozuka, T; Tamura, H; Tsukada, K; Ukai, M; Yamamoto, T O

    2014-09-01

    Data related to radioactivity released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident on 15 March 2011 gathered by residents of Miharu, Fukushima Prefecture, and by Tohoku University are presented. These data sets consist of (1) the earliest radiation monitoring by a Geiger counter in the town, (2) ratios of radioactivity between (132)Te and (137)Cs for a wide area between Fukushima and Tokyo, (3) radiation measurement of soil samples collected from 18 school grounds, and (4) external radiation exposure of 1400 students using OSL badges. By combining and analysing these various data sets, a curve for the cumulative total external exposure as a function of time, with 16 : 00 h on 15 March 2011 being time zero, is obtained. The average cumulative external dosage is estimated to be 10 mSv (σ = 4.2 mSv) over 10 years. In addition, the initiative that the residents of Miharu took in response to the FDNPP accident, which became known as The Misho Project (MP), is documented; in particular, the time at which the municipality instructed the immediate ingestion of iodine tablets by those under the age of 40, 13 : 00 h on 15 March 2011, is assessed.

  17. On the Role of Solar Wind Discontinuities in the ULF Power Spectral Density at the Earth's Outer Radiation Belt: a Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lago, A.; Alves, L. R.; Braga, C. R.; Mendonca, R. R. S.; Jauer, P. R.; Medeiros, C.; Souza, V. M. C. E. S.; Mendes, O., Jr.; Marchezi, J.; da Silva, L.; Vieira, L.; Rockenbach, M.; Sibeck, D. G.; Kanekal, S. G.; Baker, D. N.; Wygant, J. R.; Kletzing, C.

    2016-12-01

    The solar wind incident upon the Earth's magnetosphere can produce either enhancement, depletion or no change in the flux of relativistic electrons at the outer radiation belt. During geomagnetic storms progress, solar wind parameters may change significantly, and occasionally relativistic electron fluxes at the outer radiation belt show dropouts in a range of energy and L-shells. Wave-particle interactions observed within the Van Allen belts have been claimed to play a significant role in energetic particle flux changes. The relation between changes on the solar wind parameters and the radiation belt is still a hot topic nowadays, particularly the role played by the solar wind on sudden electron flux decreases. The twin satellite Van Allen Probes measured a relativistic electron flux dropout concurrent to broad band Ultra-low frequency (ULF) waves, i.e. from 1 mHz to 10 Hz, on October 2, 2013. Magnetic field and plasma data from both ACE and WIND satellites allowed the characterization of this event as being an interplanetary coronal mass ejection in conjunction with shock. The interaction of this event with the Earth's magnetosphere was modeled using a global magnetohydrodynamic simulation and the magnetic field perturbation deep in magnetosphere could be analyzed from the model outputs. Results show the contribution of time-varying solar wind parameters to the generation of ULF waves. The power spectral densities, as a function of L-shell, were evaluated considering changes in the input parameters, e.g. magnitude and duration of dynamic pressure and magnetic field. The modeled power spectral densities are compared with Van Allen Probes data. The results provide us a clue on the solar wind characteristics that might be able to drive ULF waves in the inner magnetosphere, and also which wave modes are expected to be excited under a specific solar wind driving.

  18. Subsurface defect detection in first layer of pavement structure and reinforced civil engineering structure by FRP bonding using active infrared thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumoulin, Jean; Ibos, Laurent

    2010-05-01

    In many countries road network ages while road traffic and maintenance costs increase. Nowadays, thousand and thousand kilometers of roads are each year submitted to surface distress survey. They generally lean on pavement surface imaging measurement techniques, mainly in the visible spectrum, coupled with visual inspection or image processing detection of emergent distresses. Nevertheless, optimisation of maintenance works and costs requires an early detection of defects within the pavement structure when they still are hidden from surface. Accordingly, alternative measurement techniques for pavement monitoring are currently under investigation (seismic methods, step frequency radar). On the other hand, strengthening or retrofitting of reinforced concrete structures by externally bonded Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) systems is now a commonly accepted and widespread technique. However, the use of bonding techniques always implies following rigorous installing procedures. To ensure the durability and long-term performance of the FRP reinforcements, conformance checking through an in situ auscultation of the bonded FRP systems is then highly suitable. The quality-control program should involve a set of adequate inspections and tests. Visual inspection and acoustic sounding (hammer tap) are commonly used to detect delaminations (disbonds) but are unable to provide sufficient information about the depth (in case of multilayered composite) and width of debonded areas. Consequently, rapid and efficient inspection methods are also required. Among the non destructive methods under study, active infrared thermography was investigated both for pavement and civil engineering structures through experiments in laboratory and numerical simulations, because of its ability to be also used on field. Pulse Thermography (PT), Pulse Phase Thermography (PPT) and Principal Component Thermography (PCT) approaches have been tested onto pavement samples and CFRP bonding on concrete

  19. [Measures against Radiation Exposure Due to Large-Scale Nuclear Accident in Distant Place--Radioactive Materials in Nagasaki from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jun; Sera, Koichiro; Takatsuji, Toshihiro

    2015-01-01

    To investigate human health effects of radiation exposure due to possible future nuclear accidents in distant places and other various findings of analysis of the radioactive materials contaminating the atmosphere of Nagasaki due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The concentrations of radioactive materials in aerosols in the atmosphere of Nagasaki were measured using a germanium semiconductor detector from March 2011 to March 2013. Internal exposure dose was calculated in accordance with ICRP Publ. 72. Air trajectories were analyzed using NOAA and METEX web-based systems. (134)Cs and (137)Cs were repeatedly detected. The air trajectory analysis showed that (134)Cs and (137)Cs flew directly from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant from March to April 2011. However, the direct air trajectories were rarely detected after this period even when (134)Cs and (137)Cs were detected after this period. The activity ratios ((134)Cs/(137)Cs) of almost all the samples converted to those in March 2011 were about unity. This strongly suggests that the (134)Cs and (137)Cs detected mainly originated from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011. Although the (134)Cs and (137)Cs concentrations per air volume were very low and the human health effects of internal exposure via inhalation is expected to be negligible, the specific activities (concentrations per aerosol mass) were relatively high. It was found that possible future nuclear accidents may cause severe radioactive contaminations, which may require radiation exposure control of farm goods to more than 1000 km from places of nuclear accidents.

  20. Risk and preventive factors for heat illness in radiation decontamination workers after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Kakamu, Takeyasu; Hidaka, Tomoo; Hayakawa, Takehito; Kumagai, Tomohiro; Jinnouchi, Takanobu; Tsuji, Masayoshi; Nakano, Shinichi; Koyama, Kikuo; Fukushima, Tetsuhito

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to reveal factors related to heat illness in radiation decontamination workers and determine effective preventive measures. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to 1,505 radiation decontamination workers. The questionnaire included age, sex, duration of decontamination work, previous occupation, education provided by employers regarding heat illness, preventive action against heat illness, and subjective symptoms of heat illness during work. We included 528 men, who replied and answered all questions, in the statistical analysis. Subjective symptoms of heat illness were categorized as "no symptoms", "Grade I" and "Grade II" according to severity. A multiple linear regression model was used to determine the factors associated with the severity of heat illness. The mean age of the subjects was 47.6 years old (standard deviation: 13.4). Of the 528 workers, 316 (59.8%) experienced heat illness symptoms (213 at Grade I and 103 at Grade II). The results of the stepwise selection revealed that age, outdoor manual labor, adequate sleep, use of a cool vest, and salt intake were selected as preventive factors, whereas living in a company dormitory or temporary housing, wearing light clothing, and consuming breakfast were selected as risk factors for heat illness. Both working conditions and living environment are associated with heat illness in radiation decontamination workers. Type of housing and sleep are also strongly related to heat illness during work. Employers should consider not only the working conditions of the employee but also the employee's daily living conditions, in order to prevent heat illness.