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Sample records for radio immuno therapy

  1. Structure-guided engineering of Anticalins with improved binding behavior and biochemical characteristics for application in radio-immuno imaging and/or therapy.

    PubMed

    Eggenstein, E; Eichinger, A; Kim, H-J; Skerra, A

    2014-02-01

    Modern strategies in radio-immuno therapy and in vivo imaging require robust, small, and specific ligand-binding proteins. In this context we have previously developed artificial lipocalins, so-called Anticalins, with high binding activity toward rare-earth metal-chelate complexes using combinatorial protein design. Here we describe further improvement of the Anticalin C26 via in vitro affinity maturation to yield CL31, which has a fourfold slower dissociation half-life above 2h. Also, we present the crystallographic analyses of both the initial and the improved Anticalin, providing insight into the molecular mechanism of chelated metal binding and the role of amino acid substitutions during the step-wise affinity maturation. Notably, one of the four structurally variable loops that form the ligand pocket in the lipocalin scaffold undergoes a significant conformational change from C26 to CL31, acting as a lid that closes over the accommodated metal-chelate ligand. A systematic mutational study indicated that further improvement of ligand affinity is difficult to achieve while providing clues on the contribution of relevant side chains in the engineered binding pocket. Unexpectedly, some of the amino acid replacements led to strong increases - more then 10-fold - in the yield of soluble protein from periplasmic secretion in Escherichia coli. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Immuno-therapy of Acute Radiation Syndromes : Extracorporeal Immuno-Lympho-Plasmo-Sorption.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava

    Methods Results Summary and conclusions Introduction: Existing Medical Management of the Acute Radiation Syndromes (ARS) does not include methods of specific immunotherapy and active detoxication. Though the Acute Radiation Syndromes were defined as an acute toxic poisonous with development of pathological processes: Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS), Toxic Multiple Organ Injury (TMOI), Toxic Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome(TMODS), Toxic Multiple Organ Failure (TMOF). Radiation Toxins of SRD Group play an important role as the trigger mechanisms in development of the ARS clinical symptoms. Methods: Immuno-Lympho-Plasmo-Sorption is a type of Immuno-therapy which includes prin-ciples of immunochromato-graphy, plasmopheresis, and hemodialysis. Specific Antiradiation Antitoxic Antibodies are the active pharmacological agents of immunotherapy . Antiradia-tion Antitoxic Antibodies bind selectively to Radiation Neurotoxins, Cytotoxins, Hematotox-ins and neutralize their toxic activity. We have developed the highly sensitive method and system for extracorporeal-immune-lypmh-plasmo-sorption with antigen-specific IgG which is clinically important for treatment of the toxic and immunologic phases of the ARS. The method of extracorporeal-immune-lypmh-plasmo-sorption includes Antiradiation Antitoxic Antibodies (AAA) immobilized on microporous polymeric membranes with a pore size that is capable to provide diffusion of blood-lymph plasma. Plasma of blood or lymph of irradiated mammals contains Radiation Toxins (RT) that have toxic and antigenic properties. Radiation Toxins are Antigen-specific to Antitoxic blocking antibodies (Immunoglobulin G). Plasma diffuses through membranes with immobilized AAA and AA-antibodies bind to the polysaccharide chain of tox-ins molecules and complexes of AAA-RT that are captured on membrane surfaces. RT were removed from plasma. Re-transfusion of plasma of blood and lymph had been provided. We show a statistical significant

  3. [Novel therapy for malignant lymphoma: adoptive immuno-gene therapy using chimeric antigen receptor(CAR)-expressing T lymphocytes].

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Keiya

    2014-03-01

    Adoptive T-cell therapy using chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) technology is a novel approach to cancer immuno-gene therapy. CARs are hybrid proteins consisting of target-antigen-specific single-chain antibody fragment fused to intracellular T-cell activation domains (CD28 or CD137/CD3 zeta receptor). CAR-expressing engineered T lymphocytes can directly recognize and kill tumor cells in an HLA independent manner. In the United States, promising results have been obtained in the clinical trials of adoptive immuno-gene therapy using CD19-CAR-T lymphocytes for the treatment of refractory B-cell malignancies, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). In this review article, CD19-CAR-T gene therapy for refractory B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma is discussed.

  4. Immuno-Oncology-The Translational Runway for Gene Therapy: Gene Therapeutics to Address Multiple Immune Targets.

    PubMed

    Weß, Ludger; Schnieders, Frank

    2017-12-01

    Cancer therapy is once again experiencing a paradigm shift. This shift is based on extensive clinical experience demonstrating that cancer cannot be successfully fought by addressing only single targets or pathways. Even the combination of several neo-antigens in cancer vaccines is not sufficient for successful, lasting tumor eradication. The focus has therefore shifted to the immune system's role in cancer and the striking abilities of cancer cells to manipulate and/or deactivate the immune system. Researchers and pharma companies have started to target the processes and cells known to support immune surveillance and the elimination of tumor cells. Immune processes, however, require novel concepts beyond the traditional "single-target-single drug" paradigm and need parallel targeting of diverse cells and mechanisms. This review gives a perspective on the role of gene therapy technologies in the evolving immuno-oncology space and identifies gene therapy as a major driver in the development and regulation of effective cancer immunotherapy. Present challenges and breakthroughs ranging from chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy, gene-modified oncolytic viruses, combination cancer vaccines, to RNA therapeutics are spotlighted. Gene therapy is recognized as the most prominent technology enabling effective immuno-oncology strategies.

  5. Effects of an immuno-enhanced diet containing antioxidants in esophageal cancer surgery following neoadjuvant therapy.

    PubMed

    Aiko, S; Kumano, I; Yamanaka, N; Tsujimoto, H; Takahata, R; Maehara, T

    2012-02-01

    Neoadjuvant therapy-induced immunological deterioration may be a key factor in postoperative morbidity in patients with esophageal cancer. This study aimed to determine the effects of perioperative feeding with an immuno-enhanced diet on immune competence in patients treated with neoadjuvant therapy followed by surgery. Because an immuno-enhanced diet that contained several antioxidants was used, perioperative oxidative stress and the effects of the immuno-enhanced diet on this stress were also investigated. Of 39 patients with esophageal cancer who underwent similar surgical procedures, 26 patients who received chemotherapy or chemoradiation therapy before surgery were randomly divided into two groups: group 1 (n= 14) was given an immuno-enhanced diet for 5 days before surgery, and group 2 (n= 12) received no enteral feeding products before surgery. Group 3 (n= 13) consisted of patients that did not receive neoadjuvant therapy and received no enteral feeding products before surgery. Several markers for coagulation and fibrinolysis were determined and immunological assessments were performed for each patient. To measure reactive oxygen metabolites and the total antioxidant capacity, diacron-reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) and OXY-adsorbent tests were performed using a free radical elective evaluator. Significant depression in lymphocyte numbers was observed in groups 1 and 2 before and early after surgery as compared to group 3. Numbers of B cells, CD4/CD8 ratio, and phytohemagglutinin-induced lymphocyte transformation tests were also significantly decreased in groups 1 and 2 on postoperative day 1. Fibrin and fibrinogen degradation products were significantly elevated in group 2 compared to group 1. d-ROMs and OXY-adsorbent test values were elevated before surgery and were decreased transiently early after surgery. Compared to groups 2 and 3, d-ROMs values were significantly lower in group 1 patients throughout the postoperative period, while OXY

  6. Practical issues of biomarker-assisted targeted therapy in precision medicine and immuno-oncology era.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dae Ho

    2018-01-01

    The concept of precision medicine is not new, as multiplex and very sensitive methods, or next-generation sequencing and matched targeted cancer therapies, have come to clinical practice. Substantial progress has been made from the discovery to the development and clinical application of biomarkers and matched targeted therapies. However, there still remain many challenges and issues to be overcome in each step, from acquisition of tumour tissues through validation of biomarkers to the final decision on targeted therapy. This review will briefly touch on these issues, hoping to provide a better understanding and application of targeted therapy in cancer treatment in the era of precision medicine and immuno-oncology. It also helps to understand that the meaning or value of biomarker(s) and matched targeted therapy changes along with expansion of knowledge and advance of methodology, and constant efforts have to be made in evaluating the meaning and clinical value during the development and after the establishment of biomarkers or the approval of matched targeted therapies, which might be more complicated by the advent of new therapeutic agents and new diagnostic methods.

  7. Advancing Cancer Therapy with Present and Emerging Immuno-Oncology Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Kamta, Jeff; Chaar, Maher; Ande, Anusha; Altomare, Deborah A.; Ait-Oudhia, Sihem

    2017-01-01

    Immuno-oncology (I-O) is a young and growing field on the frontier of cancer therapy. Contrary to cancer therapies that directly target malignant cells, I-O therapies stimulate the body’s immune system to target and attack the tumor, which is otherwise invisible to, or inhibiting the immune response. To this end, several methods have been developed: First, passive therapies that enable T-cells to fight the tumor without direct manipulation, typically through binding and modifying the intracellular signaling of surface receptors. Checkpoint inhibitors, perhaps the most well known of I-O therapies; are an example of such. These are monoclonal antibodies that block binding of the tumor cell at receptors that inactivate the T-cell. A variety of small molecules can achieve the same effect by affecting metabolic or signaling pathways to boost the immune response or prevent its attenuation. Drugs originally formulated for unrelated disease states are now being used to treat cancer under the I-O approach. Second, active therapies which often involve direct manipulations that occur in vitro and once introduced to the patient will directly attack the tumor. Adoptive cell transfer is the oldest of these methods. It involves the removal of T-cells from the body, which are then expanded and genetically modified for specificity toward tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), and then reintroduced to the patient. A similar approach is taken with cancer vaccines, where TAAs are identified and reintroduced with adjuvants to stimulate an immune response, sometimes in the context of antigen-presenting cells or viral vectors. Oncolytic viruses are genetically modified natural viruses for selectivity toward tumor cells. The resulting cytotoxicity has the potential to elicit an immune response that furthers tumor cell killing. A final active approach is bi-specific T-cell engagers. These modified antibodies act to link a T-cell and tumor cell through surface receptors and thereby forcibly

  8. Predicting IGF-1R therapy response in bone sarcomas: immuno-SPECT imaging with radiolabeled R1507

    PubMed Central

    Fleuren, Emmy D.G.; Versleijen-Jonkers, Yvonne M.H.; van de Luijtgaarden, Addy C.M.; Molkenboer-Kuenen, Janneke D.M.; Heskamp, Sandra; Roeffen, Melissa H.S.; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W.M.; Houghton, Peter J.; Oyen, Wim J.G.; Boerman, Otto C.; van der Graaf, Winette T.A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether 111In-R1507 immuno-SPECT, a novel non-invasive, in vivo screening method to visualize membranous Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF-1R) expression and accessibility, can be used to predict IGF-1R treatment (R1507) responsein bone sarcomas. Experimental design BALB/c nude mice were subcutaneously implanted with IGF-1R-expressing human bone sarcoma xenografts (OS-1, EW-5 and EW-8) which demonstrated high, modest or no response, respectively, to R1507, a monoclonal antibody targeting the extracellular domain of IGF-1R. An IGF-1R-negative tumor (OS-33), unresponsive to IGF-1R inhibitors, was examined as well. Mice were injected with indium-111 labeled R1507 (111In-R1507). Biodistribution and immuno-SPECT/CT imaging studies were performed 1, 3 and 7 days p.i. in mice with OS-1 and EW-5 xenografts and 3 days p.i. in mice with EW-8 and OS-33 xenografts. Results Biodistribution studies showed specific accumulation of 111In-R1507 in OS-1 and EW-5 xenografts (27.5±6.5%ID/g and 14.0±2.8%ID/g, 3 days p.i., respectively). Most importantly, 111In-R1507 uptake in IGF-1R-positive, but unresponsive, EW-8 xenografts (6.5±1.5%ID/g, 3 days p.i.) was similar to that of the IGF-1R-negative OS-33 tumor (5.5±0.6%ID/g, 3 days p.i.). Uptake in normal tissues was low and non-specific. Corresponding immuno-SPECT images clearly discriminated between high, modest and non-responding tumors by demonstrating a homogeneous (OS-1), heterogeneous (EW-5) or non-specific (EW-8 and OS-33)tumor uptake of 111In-R1507. Conclusions 111In-R1507 immuno-SPECT is an excellent method to visualize membranous IGF-1R expression and target accessibility in vivo in human bone sarcoma xenografts and may serve as an independent marker to predict IGF-1R therapy (R1507) responsein bone sarcoma patients. PMID:22038993

  9. Neurovascular and Immuno-Imaging: From Mechanisms to Therapies. Proceedings of the Inaugural Symposium

    PubMed Central

    Akassoglou, Katerina; Agalliu, Dritan; Chang, Christopher J.; Davalos, Dimitrios; Grutzendler, Jaime; Hillman, Elizabeth M. C.; Khakh, Baljit S.; Kleinfeld, David; McGavern, Dorian B.; Nelson, Sarah J.; Zlokovic, Berislav V.

    2016-01-01

    Breakthrough advances in intravital imaging have launched a new era for the study of dynamic interactions at the neurovascular interface in health and disease. The first Neurovascular and Immuno-Imaging Symposium was held at the Gladstone Institutes, University of California, San Francisco in March, 2015. This highly interactive symposium brought together a group of leading researchers who discussed how recent studies have unraveled fundamental biological mechanisms in diverse scientific fields such as neuroscience, immunology, and vascular biology, both under physiological and pathological conditions. These Proceedings highlight how advances in imaging technologies and their applications revolutionized our understanding of the communication between brain, immune, and vascular systems and identified novel targets for therapeutic intervention in neurological diseases. PMID:26941593

  10. Lipopolysaccharide-coated CuS nanoparticles promoted anti-cancer and anti-metastatic effect by immuno-photothermal therapy

    PubMed Central

    Moorthy, Madhappan S.; Zhang, Wei; Zeng, Ling; Kang, Mingyeong; Kwak, Minseok; Oh, Junghwan; Jin, Jun-O

    2017-01-01

    To meet the ultimate goal of cancer therapy, which is treating not only the primary tumor but also preventing metastatic cancer, the concept of combining immunotherapy with photothermal therapy (PTT) is gaining great interest. Here, we studied the new material, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) coated copper sulfide nanoparticles (LPS-CuS), for the immuno-photothermal therapy. We evaluated the effect of LPS-CuS for induction of apoptosis of CT26 cells and activation of dendritic cells. Moreover, the LPS-CuS and laser irradiation was examined anti-metastasis effect by liver metastasis model mouse in vivo. Through PTT, LPS-CuS induced elimination of CT26 tumor in BALB/c mice, which produced cancer antigens. In addition, released LPS and cancer antigen by PTT promoted dendritic cell activation in tumor draining lymph node (drLN), and consequently, enhanced the tumor antigen-specific immune responses. Finally, the primary tumor cured mice by LPS-CuS-mediated PTT completely resisted secondary tumor injection in the spleen and also prevented liver metastasis. Our results demonstrated the potential usage of LPS-CuS for the immuno-photothermal therapy against various types of cancer by showing the clear elimination of primary colon carcinoma with complete prevention of spleen and liver metastasis. PMID:29285274

  11. Carbon Beam Radio-Therapy and Research Activities at HIMAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanazawa, Mitsutaka

    2007-05-01

    Radio-therapy with carbon ion beam has been carried out since 1994 at HIMAC (Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba) in NIRS (National Institute of Radiological Sciences). Now, many types of tumors can be treated with carbon beam with excellent local controls of the tumors. Stimulated with good clinical results, requirement of the dedicated compact facility for carbon beam radio-therapy is increased. To realize this requirement, design study of the facility and the R&D's of the key components in this design are promoted by NIRS. According successful results of these activities, the dedicated compact facility will be realized in Gunma University. In this facility, the established irradiation method is expected to use, which is passive irradiation method with wobbler magnets and ridge filter. In this presentation, above R&D's will be presented together with clinical results and basic research activities at HIMAC.

  12. Enhanced function of immuno-isolated islets in diabetes therapy by co-encapsulation with an anti-inflammatory drug.

    PubMed

    Dang, Tram T; Thai, Anh V; Cohen, Joshua; Slosberg, Jeremy E; Siniakowicz, Karolina; Doloff, Joshua C; Ma, Minglin; Hollister-Lock, Jennifer; Tang, Katherine M; Gu, Zhen; Cheng, Hao; Weir, Gordon C; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G

    2013-07-01

    Immuno-isolation of islets has the potential to enable the replacement of pancreatic function in diabetic patients. However, host response to the encapsulated islets frequently leads to fibrotic overgrowth with subsequent impairment of the transplanted grafts. Here, we identified and incorporated anti-inflammatory agents into islet-containing microcapsules to address this challenge. In vivo subcutaneous screening of 16 small molecule anti-inflammatory drugs was performed to identify promising compounds that could minimize the formation of fibrotic cell layers. Using parallel non-invasive fluorescent and bioluminescent imaging, we identified dexamethasone and curcumin as the most effective drugs in inhibiting the activities of inflammatory proteases and reactive oxygen species in the host response to subcutaneously injected biomaterials. Next, we demonstrated that co-encapsulating curcumin with pancreatic rat islets in alginate microcapsules reduced fibrotic overgrowth and improved glycemic control in a mouse model of chemically-induced type I diabetes. These results showed that localized administration of anti-inflammatory drug can improve the longevity of encapsulated islets and may facilitate the translation of this technology toward a long-term cure for type I diabetes. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Enhanced function of immuno-isolated islets in diabetes therapy by co-encapsulation with an anti-inflammatory drug

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Tram T.; Thai, Anh V.; Cohen, Joshua; Slosberg, Jeremy E.; Siniakowicz, Karolina; Doloff, Joshua C.; Ma, Minglin; Hollister-Lock, Jennifer; Tang, Katherine; Gu, Zhen; Cheng, Hao; Weir, Gordon C.; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G.

    2013-01-01

    Immuno-isolation of islets has the potential to enable the replacement of pancreatic function in diabetic patients. However, host response to the encapsulated islets frequently leads to fibrotic overgrowth with subsequent impairment of the transplanted grafts. Here, we identified and incorporated anti-inflammatory agents into islet-containing microcapsules to address this challenge. In vivo subcutaneous screening of 16 small molecule anti-inflammatory drugs was performed to identify promising compounds that could minimize the formation of fibrotic cell layers. Using parallel non-invasive fluorescent and bioluminescent imaging, we identified dexamethasone and curcumin as the most effective drugs in inhibiting the activities of inflammatory proteases and reactive oxygen species in the host response to subcutaneously injected biomaterials. Next, we demonstrated that co-encapsulating curcumin with pancreatic rat islets in alginate microcapsules reduced fibrotic overgrowth and improved glycemic control in a mouse model of chemically-induced type I diabetes. These results showed that localized administration of anti-inflammatory drug can improve the longevity of encapsulated islets and may facilitate the translation of this technology towards a long-term cure for type I diabetes. PMID:23660251

  14. Comparing efficacy of reduced-toxicity allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation with conventional chemo-(immuno) therapy in patients with relapsed or refractory CLL: a Markov decision analysis.

    PubMed

    Kharfan-Dabaja, M A; Pidala, J; Kumar, A; Terasawa, T; Djulbegovic, B

    2012-09-01

    Despite therapeutic advances, relapsed/refractory CLL, particularly after fludarabine-based regimens, remains a major challenge for which optimal therapy is undefined. No randomized comparative data exist to suggest the superiority of reduced-toxicity allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (RT-allo-HCT) over conventional chemo-(immuno) therapy (CCIT). By using estimates from a systematic review and by meta-analysis of available published evidence, we constructed a Markov decision model to examine these competing modalities. Cohort analysis demonstrated superior outcome for RT-allo-HCT, with a 10-month overall life expectancy (and 6-month quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE)) advantage over CCIT. Although the model was sensitive to changes in base-case assumptions and transition probabilities, RT-allo-HCT provided superior overall life expectancy through a range of values supported by the meta-analysis. QALE was superior for RT-allo-HCT compared with CCIT. This conclusion was sensitive to change in the anticipated state utility associated with the post-allogeneic HCT state; however, RT-allo-HCT remained the optimal strategy for values supported by existing literature. This analysis provides a quantitative comparison of outcomes between RT-allo-HCT and CCIT for relapsed/refractory CLL in the absence of randomized comparative trials. Confirmation of these findings requires a prospective randomized trial, which compares the most effective RT-allo-HCT and CCIT regimens for relapsed/refractory CLL.

  15. Application of ImmunoScore Model for the Differentiation between Active Tuberculosis and Latent Tuberculosis Infection as Well as Monitoring Anti-tuberculosis Therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yu; Du, Juan; Hou, Hong-Yan; Lu, Yan-Fang; Yu, Jing; Mao, Li-Yan; Wang, Feng; Sun, Zi-Yong

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading global public health problem. To achieve the end TB strategy, non-invasive markers for diagnosis and treatment monitoring of TB disease are urgently needed, especially in high-endemic countries such as China. Interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) and tuberculin skin test (TST), frequently used immunological methods for TB detection, are intrinsically unable to discriminate active tuberculosis (ATB) from latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Thus, the specificity of these methods in the diagnosis of ATB is dependent upon the local prevalence of LTBI. The pathogen-detecting methods such as acid-fast staining and culture, all have limitations in clinical application. ImmunoScore (IS) is a new promising prognostic tool which was commonly used in tumor. However, the importance of host immunity has also been demonstrated in TB pathogenesis, which implies the possibility of using IS model for ATB diagnosis and therapy monitoring. In the present study, we focused on the performance of IS model in the differentiation between ATB and LTBI and in treatment monitoring of TB disease. We have totally screened five immunological markers (four non-specific markers and one TB-specific marker) and successfully established IS model by using Lasso logistic regression analysis. As expected, the IS model can effectively distinguish ATB from LTBI (with a sensitivity of 95.7% and a specificity of 92.1%) and also has potential value in the treatment monitoring of TB disease.

  16. Stent patency in patients with distal malignant biliary obstruction receiving chemo(radio)therapy

    PubMed Central

    Haal, Sylke; van Hooft, Jeanin E.; Rauws, Erik A. J.; Fockens, Paul; Voermans, Rogier P.

    2017-01-01

    Background and study aims  Recent literature suggests that chemo(radio)therapy might reduce the patency of plastic stents in patients with malignant biliary obstruction. Whether this might also be valid for other types of stents is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of chemo(radio)therapy on the patency of fully-covered self-expandable metal stents (FCSEMSs) and plastic stents. Patients and methods  We retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical records of patients with distal malignant biliary obstruction who underwent biliary stent placement between April 2001 and July 2015. Primary outcome was duration of stent patency. Secondary outcome was stent patency at 3 and 6 months. We used Kaplan–Meier survival analyses to compare stent patency rates between patients who received chemo(radio)therapy and patients who did not. Results  A total of 291 biliary stents (151 metal and 140 plastic) were identified. The median cumulative stent patency of FCSEMSs did not differ between patients receiving chemo(radio)therapy (n = 51) and those (n = 100) who did not ( P  = 0.70, log-rank test). The estimated cumulative stent patency of plastic stents was also comparable in 99 patients without and 41 patients with chemo(radio)therapy ( P  = 0.73, log-rank test). At 3 and 6 months, FCSEMS patency rates were 87 % and 83 % in patients without chemo(radio)therapy and 96 % and 83 % in patients with therapy, respectively. Plastic patency rates were 69 % and 55 % in patients without and 85 % and 39 % in patients with therapy, respectively. After 1 year, 78 % of the FCSEMSs were still patent in patients without chemo(radio)therapy and 69 % of the FCSEMSs were still patent in patients with therapy. Conclusion  Our data indicate that chemo(radio)therapy does not reduce the patency of biliary fully-covered metal and plastic stents. PMID:29090242

  17. Stent patency in patients with distal malignant biliary obstruction receiving chemo(radio)therapy.

    PubMed

    Haal, Sylke; van Hooft, Jeanin E; Rauws, Erik A J; Fockens, Paul; Voermans, Rogier P

    2017-11-01

     Recent literature suggests that chemo(radio)therapy might reduce the patency of plastic stents in patients with malignant biliary obstruction. Whether this might also be valid for other types of stents is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of chemo(radio)therapy on the patency of fully-covered self-expandable metal stents (FCSEMSs) and plastic stents.  We retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical records of patients with distal malignant biliary obstruction who underwent biliary stent placement between April 2001 and July 2015. Primary outcome was duration of stent patency. Secondary outcome was stent patency at 3 and 6 months. We used Kaplan-Meier survival analyses to compare stent patency rates between patients who received chemo(radio)therapy and patients who did not.  A total of 291 biliary stents (151 metal and 140 plastic) were identified. The median cumulative stent patency of FCSEMSs did not differ between patients receiving chemo(radio)therapy (n = 51) and those (n = 100) who did not ( P  = 0.70, log-rank test). The estimated cumulative stent patency of plastic stents was also comparable in 99 patients without and 41 patients with chemo(radio)therapy ( P  = 0.73, log-rank test). At 3 and 6 months, FCSEMS patency rates were 87 % and 83 % in patients without chemo(radio)therapy and 96 % and 83 % in patients with therapy, respectively. Plastic patency rates were 69 % and 55 % in patients without and 85 % and 39 % in patients with therapy, respectively. After 1 year, 78 % of the FCSEMSs were still patent in patients without chemo(radio)therapy and 69 % of the FCSEMSs were still patent in patients with therapy.  Our data indicate that chemo(radio)therapy does not reduce the patency of biliary fully-covered metal and plastic stents.

  18. Development and Validation of an Immuno-PET Tracer as a Companion Diagnostic Agent for Antibody-Drug Conjugate Therapy to Target the CA6 Epitope.

    PubMed

    Ilovich, Ohad; Natarajan, Arutselvan; Hori, Sharon; Sathirachinda, Ataya; Kimura, Richard; Srinivasan, Ananth; Gebauer, Mathias; Kruip, Jochen; Focken, Ingo; Lange, Christian; Carrez, Chantal; Sassoon, Ingrid; Blanc, Veronique; Sarkar, Susanta K; Gambhir, Sanjiv S

    2015-07-01

    To develop and compare three copper 64 ((64)Cu)-labeled antibody fragments derived from a CA6-targeting antibody (huDS6) as immuno-positron emission tomography (immuno-PET)-based companion diagnostic agents for an antibody-drug conjugate by using huDS6. Three antibody fragments derived from huDS6 were produced, purified, conjugated to 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA), and evaluated in the following ways: (a) the affinity of the fragments and the DOTA conjugates was measured via flow cytometry, (b) the stability of the labeled fragments was determined ex vivo in human serum over 24 hours, and (c) comparison of the in vivo imaging potential of the fragments was evaluated in mice bearing subcutaneous CA6-positive and CA6-negative xenografts by using serial PET imaging and biodistribution. Isotype controls with antilysozyme and anti-DM4 B-Fabs and blocking experiments with an excess of either B-Fab or huDS6 were used to determine the extent of the antibody fragment (64)Cu-DOTA-B-Fab binding specificity. Immunoreactivity and tracer kinetics were evaluated by using cellular uptake and 48-hour imaging experiments, respectively. Statistical analyses were performed by using t tests, one-way analysis of variance, and Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests. The antibody fragment (64)Cu-DOTA-B-Fab was more than 95% stable after 24 hours in human serum, had an immunoreactivity of more than 70%, and allowed differentiation between CA6-positive and CA6-negative tumors in vivo as early as 6 hours after injection, with a 1.7-fold uptake ratio between tumors. Isotype and blocking studies experiments showed tracer-specific uptake in antigen-positive tumors, despite some nonspecific uptake in both tumor models. Three antibody fragments were produced and examined as potential companion diagnostic agents. (64)Cu-DOTA-B-Fab is a stable and effective immuno-PET tracer for CA6 imaging in vivo.

  19. Development and Validation of an Immuno-PET Tracer as a Companion Diagnostic Agent for Antibody-Drug Conjugate Therapy to Target the CA6 Epitope

    PubMed Central

    Ilovich, Ohad; Natarajan, Arutselvan; Hori, Sharon; Sathirachinda, Ataya; Kimura, Richard; Srinivasan, Ananth; Gebauer, Mathias; Kruip, Jochen; Focken, Ingo; Lange, Christian; Carrez, Chantal; Sassoon, Ingrid; Blanc, Veronique; Sarkar, Susanta K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To develop and compare three copper 64 (64Cu)–labeled antibody fragments derived from a CA6-targeting antibody (huDS6) as immuno-positron emission tomography (immuno-PET)–based companion diagnostic agents for an antibody-drug conjugate by using huDS6. Materials and Methods Three antibody fragments derived from huDS6 were produced, purified, conjugated to 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA), and evaluated in the following ways: (a) the affinity of the fragments and the DOTA conjugates was measured via flow cytometry, (b) the stability of the labeled fragments was determined ex vivo in human serum over 24 hours, and (c) comparison of the in vivo imaging potential of the fragments was evaluated in mice bearing subcutaneous CA6-positive and CA6-negative xenografts by using serial PET imaging and biodistribution. Isotype controls with antilysozyme and anti-DM4 B-Fabs and blocking experiments with an excess of either B-Fab or huDS6 were used to determine the extent of the antibody fragment 64Cu-DOTA-B-Fab binding specificity. Immunoreactivity and tracer kinetics were evaluated by using cellular uptake and 48-hour imaging experiments, respectively. Statistical analyses were performed by using t tests, one-way analysis of variance, and Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests. Results The antibody fragment 64Cu-DOTA-B-Fab was more than 95% stable after 24 hours in human serum, had an immunoreactivity of more than 70%, and allowed differentiation between CA6-positive and CA6-negative tumors in vivo as early as 6 hours after injection, with a 1.7-fold uptake ratio between tumors. Isotype and blocking studies experiments showed tracer-specific uptake in antigen-positive tumors, despite some nonspecific uptake in both tumor models. Conclusion Three antibody fragments were produced and examined as potential companion diagnostic agents. 64Cu-DOTA-B-Fab is a stable and effective immuno-PET tracer for CA6 imaging in vivo. © RSNA, 2015 Online

  20. HEATHER - HElium Ion Accelerator for RadioTHERapy

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Jordan; Edgecock, Thomas; Green, Stuart

    2017-05-01

    A non-scaling fixed field alternating gradient (nsFFAG) accelerator is being designed for helium ion therapy. This facility will consist of 2 superconducting rings, treating with helium ions (He²⁺ ) and image with hydrogen ions (H + 2 ). Currently only carbon ions are used to treat cancer, yet there is an increasing interest in the use of lighter ions for therapy. Lighter ions have reduced dose tail beyond the tumour compared to carbon, caused by low Z secondary particles produced via inelastic nuclear reactions. An FFAG approach for helium therapy has never been previously considered. Having demonstrated isochronous acceleration frommore » 0.5 MeV to 900 MeV, we now demonstrate the survival of a realistic beam across both stages.« less

  1. Applications of immunoPET: Using 124I-anti-PSCA A11 minibody for imaging disease progression and response to therapy in mouse xenograft models of prostate cancer

    DOE PAGES

    Knowles, Scott M.; Tavare, Richard; Zettlitz, Kirstin A.; ...

    2014-10-17

    Here, prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) is highly expressed in local prostate cancers and prostate cancer bone metastases and its expression correlates with androgen receptor activation and a poor prognosis. Here in this study, we investigate the potential clinical applications of immunoPET with the anti-PSCA A11 minibody, an antibody fragment optimized for use as an imaging agent. We compare A11 minibody immunoPET to 18F-Fluoride PET bone scans for detecting prostate cancer bone tumors and evaluate the ability of the A11 minibody to image tumor response to androgen deprivation. Osteoblastic, PSCA expressing, LAPC-9 intratibial xenografts were imaged with serial 124I-anti-PSCA A11more » minibody immunoPET and 18F-Fluoride bone scans. Mice bearing LAPC-9 subcutaneous xenografts were treated with either vehicle or MDV-3100 and imaged with A11 minibody immunoPET/CT scans pre- and post-treatment. Ex vivo flow cytometry measured the change in PSCA expression in response to androgen deprivation. A11 minibody demonstrated improved sensitivity and specificity over 18F-Fluoride bone scans for detecting LAPC-9 intratibial xenografts at all time points. Finally, LAPC-9 subcutaneous xenografts showed downregulation of PSCA when treated with MDV-3100 which A11 minibody immunoPET was able to detect in vivo.« less

  2. Preliminary study on radio-chemo-induced oral mucositis and low level laser therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merigo, Elisabetta; Fontana, Matteo; Fornaini, Carlo; Clini, Fabio; Cella, Luigi; Vescovi, Paolo; Oppici, Aldo

    2012-09-01

    Background: Oral mucositis remains one of the most common and troubling side effects of antineoplastic radiation and drug therapy: its incidence in onco-hematological radio-chemotreated patients is variable between 50 and 100% and its impact on this populations is directly linked with the experience of intense pain causing reduction and modification of therapy regimens, decreased survival rates and increased cost of care. Purpose: Aim of this study is the preliminary evaluation of a Low Level Laser therapy (LLLT) protocol on healing process of oral mucositis and on pain and quality of life of patients experiencing this dramatic side-effect. Materials and methods: Patients were evaluated and treated at the Unita` Operativa Semplice Dipartimentale di Odontostomatologia e Chirurgia Maxillo-Facciale of the Hospital of Piacenza were they were treated for primary disease with protocols of chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. LLLT protocol was performed with a diode laser (808 nm -XD Smile - Fotona -Slovenia) on a two weeks-6 treatments schedule with power of 0.5 W and application of 30 seconds. Mucositis grading was scored on the basis of WHO classification by two blind operators at each treatment and at 1 and 2 weeks after treatment. Pain and capability of deglutition were described by patients by means questionnaires based on Visual Analogue Scale, Numerical Rating Scale and Quality of Life. Results: A relevant improvement of healing of oral mucositis, in terms of reduction of grading score, and of pain, swallowing discomfort and quality of life was recorded. Discussion and conclusion: Results of this preliminary study are encouraging for the realization of larger studies focused on the application of LLLT protocols in management of radio-chemotreated patients with oral mucositis.

  3. Effective dose to immuno-PET patients due to metastable impurities in cyclotron produced zirconium-89

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfuraih, Abdulrahman; Alzimami, Khalid; Ma, Andy K.; Alghamdi, Ali; Al Jammaz, Ibrahim

    2014-11-01

    Immuno-PET is a nuclear medicine technique that combines positron emission tommography (PET) with radio-labeled monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for tumor characterization and therapy. Zirconium-89 (89Zr) is an emerging radionuclide for immuno-PET imaging. Its long half-life (78.4 h) gives ample time for the production, the administering and the patient uptake of the tagged radiopharmaceutical. Furthermore, the nuclides will remain in the tumor cells after the mAbs are catabolized so that time series studies are possible without incurring further administration of radiopharmarceuticals. 89Zr can be produced in medical cyclotrons by bombarding an yttrium-89 (89Y) target with a proton beam through the 89Y(p,n)89Zr reaction. In this study, we estimated the effective dose to the head and neck cancer patients undergoing 89Zr-based immune-PET procedures. The production of 89Zr and the impurities from proton irradiation of the 89Y target in a cyclotron was calculated with the Monte Carlo code MCNPX and the nuclear reaction code TALYS. The cumulated activities of the Zr isotopes were derived from real patient data in literature and the effective doses were estimated using the MIRD specific absorbed fraction formalism. The estimated effective dose from 89Zr is 0.5±0.2 mSv/MBq. The highest organ dose is 1.8±0.2 mSv/MBq in the liver. These values are in agreement with those reported in literature. The effective dose from 89mZr is about 0.2-0.3% of the 89Zr dose in the worst case. Since the ratio of 89mZr to 89Zr depends on the cooling time as well as the irradiation details, contaminant dose estimation is an important aspect in optimizing the cyclotron irradiation geometry, energy and time.

  4. Predictive biomarkers for response of esophageal cancer to chemo(radio)therapy: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Huang, He-Cheng; Chen, Long-Qi; Xu, Li-Yan; Li, En-Min; Zhang, Jian-Jun

    2017-12-01

    Esophageal cancer remains a major public health issue worldwide. In clinical practice, chemo(radio)therapy is an important approach to patients with esophageal cancer. Only the part of patients who respond to chemo(radio)therapy achieve better long-term outcome. In this case, predictive biomarkers for response of esophageal cancer patients treated with chemo(radio)therapy are of importance. Meta-analysis of P53 for predicting esophageal cancer response has been reported before and is not included in our study. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize and evaluate the biomarkers for predicting response to chemo(radio)therapy. PubMed, Web of Science and the Ovid databases were searched to identify eligible studies published in English before March 2017. The risk ratio (or relative risk, RR) was retrieved in articles regarding biomarkers for predicting response of esophageal cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant therapy or chemo(radio)therapy. Fixed and random effects models were used to undertake the meta-analysis as appropriate. Forty-six articles reporting 56 biomarkers correlated with the response were finally included. Meta-analyses were carried out when there was more than one study related to the reported biomarker. Results indicated that low expression of (or IHC-negative) COX2, miR-200c, ERCC1 and TS was individually associated with prediction of response. The RR was 1.64 (n = 202, 95% CI 1.22-2.19, P < 0.001), 1.96 (n = 162, 95% CI 1.36-2.83, P < 0.001), 2.55 (n = 206, 95% CI 1.80-3.62, P < 0.001) and 1.69 (n = 144, 95% CI 1.10-2.61, P = 0.02), respectively. High expression of (or IHC-positive) CDC25B and p16 was individually related to prediction of response. The RR was 0.62 (n = 159, 95% CI 0.43-0.89, P = 0.01) and 0.62 (n = 142, 95% CI 0.43-0.91, P = 0.01), respectively. Low expression of (or IHC-negative) COX2, miR-200c, ERCC1 and TS, or high expression of (or IHC-positive) CDC25B and p16 are potential

  5. Solid tumor physiology and hypoxia-induced chemo/radio-resistance: novel strategy for cancer therapy: nitric oxide donor as a therapeutic enhancer.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Hiroyasu

    2008-09-01

    , and modulator for chemo/radio/immuno-therapy. The presence and activities of all the three isoforms of NOS and were detected in cancer tissue components such as cancer cells, tumor-associated macrophages, and vascular endothelium. Overexpression of iNOS in cancer tissues has been reported to associate with poor prognosis in patients with cancers. On the other hand, NO donors such as nitroglycerin have been demonstrated to improve the effects of cancer therapy in solid cancers. Nitroglycerin has been used safely for a long time as a potent vasodilator for the treatment of ischemic heart diseases or heart failure. Therefore, we think highly of clinical use of nitroglycerin as a novel cancer therapy in combination with anticancer drugs for improvement of cancer therapeutic levels. In this review article, we demonstrate the unique physiological characteristics of malignant solid tumors, several factors in solid tumors resulting in resistance for cancer therapies, and the effects of NO from NOS or exogenous NO-donating drugs on malignant cells. Furthermore, we refer to promising therapeutic roles of NO and NO-donating drugs for novel treatments in solid tumors.

  6. An Immuno-epidemiological Model of Paratuberculosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martcheva, M.

    2011-11-01

    The primary objective of this article is to introduce an immuno-epidemiological model of paratuberculosis (Johne's disease). To develop the immuno-epidemiological model, we first develop an immunological model and an epidemiological model. Then, we link the two models through time-since-infection structure and parameters of the epidemiological model. We use the nested approach to compose the immuno-epidemiological model. Our immunological model captures the switch between the T-cell immune response and the antibody response in Johne's disease. The epidemiological model is a time-since-infection model and captures the variability of transmission rate and the vertical transmission of the disease. We compute the immune-response-dependent epidemiological reproduction number. Our immuno-epidemiological model can be used for investigation of the impact of the immune response on the epidemiology of Johne's disease.

  7. Immuno-oncology Clinical Trial Design: Limitations, Challenges, and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Baik, Christina S.; Rubin, Eric H.; Forde, Patrick M.; Mehnert, Janice M.; Collyar, Deborah; Butler, Marcus O.; Dixon, Erica L.; Chow, Laura Q.M.

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in immuno-oncology and regulatory approvals have been rapid and paradigm shifting in many difficult-to-treat malignancies. Despite immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy becoming the standard of care across multiple tumor types, there are many unanswered questions that need to be addressed before this therapeutic modality can be fully harnessed. Areas of limitations include treatment of patients not sufficiently represented in clinical trials, uncertainty of the optimal treatment dosing and duration, and lack of understanding regarding long-term immune related toxicities and atypical tumor responses. Patients such as those with autoimmune disease, chronic viral infections, limited performance status, and brain metastases were often excluded from initial trials due to concerns of safety. However, limited data suggest that some of these patients can benefit from therapy with manageable toxicities; thus, future studies should incorporate these patients to clearly define safety and efficacy. There are still controversies regarding the optimal dosing strategy that can vary from weight-based to flat dosing, with undefined treatment duration. Further elucidation of the optimal dosing approach and evaluation of predictive biomarkers should be incorporated in the design of future trials. Finally, there are long-term immune-mediated toxicities, atypical tumor responses such as pseudoprogression and endpoints unique to immuno-oncology that are not adequately captured by traditional trial designs; thus, novel study designs are needed. In this article, we discuss in detail the above challenges and propose needed areas of research for exploration and incorporation in the next generation of immuno-oncology clinical trials. PMID:28864727

  8. An innovative therapy for peri-implantitis based on radio frequency electric current: numerical simulation results and clinical evidence.

    PubMed

    Cosoli, G; Scalise, L; Tricarico, G; Tomasini, E P; Cerri, G

    2016-08-01

    Peri-implantitis is a severe inflammatory pathology that affects soit and hard tissues surrounding dental implants. Nowadays, only prevention is effective to contrast peri-implantitis, but, in recent years, there is the clinical evidence of the efficiency of a therapy based on the application of radio frequency electric current, reporting that 81% of the cases (66 implants, 46 patients) were successfully treated. The aim of this paper is to present the therapy mechanism, exploring the distribution of the electric currents in normal and pathologic tissues. A 3D numerical FEM model of tooth root with a dental implant screwed in the alveolar bone has been realized and the therapy has been simulated in COMSOL Multiphysics® environment. Results show that the electric current is focused in the inflamed zone around the implant, due to the fact that its conductivity is higher than the healthy tissue one. Moreover, by means of a movable return electrode, the electric current and field lines can be guided in the most inflamed area, limiting the interference on healthy tissues and improving the therapy in the area of interest. In conclusion, it can be stated that this innovative therapy would make a personalized therapy for peri-implantitis possible, also through impedance measurements, allowing the clinician to evaluate the tissue inflammation state.

  9. High-intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) as salvage therapy for radio-recurrent prostate cancer: predictors of disease response.

    PubMed

    Dason, Shawn; Wong, Nathan C; Allard, Christopher B; Hoogenes, Jen; Orovan, William; Shayegan, Bobby

    2018-01-01

    Some men with localized radio-recurrent prostate cancer may benefit from salvage high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). Herein, we describe oncologic outcomes and predictors of disease response after salvage whole gland HIFU from our prospective cohort. Patients with localized radio-recurrent prostate cancer were prospectively enrolled from January 2005 to December 2014. Participants had to meet both biochemical and histological definitions of recurrence. Exclusion criteria included the receipt of prior salvage therapy, presence of metastatic disease, and administration of ADT in the 6-months prior to enrollment. Participants were treated with a single session of whole-gland HIFU ablation with the AblathermTM device (EDAP, France). The primary endpoint was recurrence-free survival (RFS), defined as a composite endpoint of PSA progression (Phoenix criteria), receipt of any further salvage therapy, receipt of ADT, clinical progression, or death. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to determine the primary end-point and stratifications were used to determine the significance of 6 pre-specified predictors of improved RFS (TRUS biopsy grade, number of study entry TRUS biopsy cores positive, palpable disease at study enrollment, pre-HIFU PSA, an undetectable post-HIFU PSA nadir, and receipt of prior hormone therapy). Survival analysis was performed on participants with a minimum of 1-year follow-up. Twenty-four participants were eligible for study inclusion with a median follow-up of 31.0 months. Median PSA at study entry was 4.02ng/ml. Median time to PSA nadir was 3 months after treatment and median post-HIFU PSA nadir was 0.04ng/ ml. Median 2-year and 5-year RFS was 66.3% and 51.6% respectively. Of our 6 pre-specified predictors, an undetectable PSA nadir was the only significant predictor of improved RFS (HR 0.07, 95% CI 0.02-0.29, log-rank P<0.001). One participant underwent an intervention for a urethral stricture. No participants developed osteitis pubis or

  10. Antibodies and antimatter: the resurgence of immuno-PET.

    PubMed

    Wu, Anna M

    2009-01-01

    The completion of the human genome, coupled with parallel major research efforts in proteomics and systems biology, has led to a flood of information on the roles of individual genes and proteins in normal physiologic processes and their disruptions in disease. In practical terms, this information has opened the door to increasingly targeted therapies as specific molecular markers are identified and validated. The ongoing transition from empiric to molecular medicine has engendered a need for corresponding molecular diagnostics, including noninvasive molecular imaging. Convergence of knowledge regarding key biomarkers that define normal biologic processes and disease with protein and imaging technology makes this an opportune time to revisit the combination of antibodies and PET, or immuno-PET.

  11. Radio Galaxies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downes, Ann

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information on radio galaxies. Topic areas addressed include: what produces the radio emission; radio telescopes; locating radio galaxies; how distances to radio galaxies are found; physics of radio galaxies; computer simulations of radio galaxies; and the evolution of radio galaxies with cosmic time. (JN)

  12. Immuno-PCR: Achievements and Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ryazantsev, D Y; Voronina, D V; Zavriev, S K

    2016-12-01

    The immuno-PCR (iPCR) method combines advantages of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction, which is used in iPCR as a method of "visualization" of antigen-antibody interaction. The use of iPCR provides classical PCR sensitivity to objects traditionally detected by ELISA. This method could be very sensitive and allow for detection of quantities of femtograms/ml order. However, iPCR is still not widely used. The aim of this review is to highlight the special features of the iPCR method and to show the main aspects of its development and application in recent years.

  13. Monitoring high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy using radio frequency ultrasound backscatter to quantify heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaczkowski, Peter J.; Anand, Ajay

    2005-09-01

    The spatial distribution and temporal history of tissue temperature is an essential indicator of thermal therapy progress, and treatment safety and efficacy. Magnetic resonance methods provide the gold standard noninvasive measurement of temperature but are costly and cumbersome compared to the therapy itself. We have been developing the use of ultrasound backscattering for real-time temperature estimation; ultrasonic methods have been limited to relatively low temperature rise, primarily due to lack of sensitivity at protein denaturation temperatures (50-70°C). Through validation experiments on gel phantoms and ex vivo tissue we show that temperature rise can be accurately mapped throughout the therapeutic temperature range using a new BioHeat Transfer Equation (BHTE) model-constrained inverse approach. Speckle-free temperature and thermal dose maps are generated using the ultrasound calibrated model over the imaged region throughout therapy delivery and post-treatment cooling periods. Results of turkey breast tissue experiments are presented for static HIFU exposures, in which the ultrasound calibrated BHTE temperature maps are shown to be very accurate (within a degree) using independent thermocouple measurements. This new temperature monitoring method may speed clinical adoption of ultrasound-guided HIFU therapy. [Work supported by Army MRMC.

  14. Indirect radio-chemo-beta therapy: a targeted approach to increase biological efficiency of x-rays based on energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oktaria, Sianne; Corde, Stéphanie; Lerch, Michael L. F.; Konstantinov, Konstantin; Rosenfeld, Anatoly B.; Tehei, Moeava

    2015-10-01

    Despite the use of multimodal treatments incorporating surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, local control of gliomas remains a major challenge. The potential of a new treatment approach called indirect radio-chemo-beta therapy using the synergy created by combining methotrexate (MTX) with bromodeoxyuridine (BrUdR) under optimum energy x-ray irradiation is assessed. 9L rat gliosarcoma cells pre-treated with 0.01 μM MTX and/or 10 μM BrUdR were irradiated in vitro with 50 kVp, 125 kVp, 250 kVp, 6 MV and 10 MV x-rays. The cytotoxicity was assessed using clonogenic survival as the radiobiological endpoint. The photon energy with maximum effect was determined using radiation sensitization enhancement factors at 10% clonogenic survival (SER10%). The cell cycle distribution was investigated using flow cytometric analysis with propidium iodide staining. Incorporation of BrUdR in the DNA was detected by the fluorescence of labelled anti-BrUdR antibodies. The radiation sensitization enhancement exhibits energy dependence with a maximum of 2.3 at 125 kVp for the combined drug treated cells. At this energy, the shape of the clonogenic survival curve of the pharmacological agents treated cells changes substantially. This change is interpreted as an increased lethality of the local radiation environment and is attributed to supplemented inhibition of DNA repair. Radiation induced chemo-beta therapy was demonstrated in vitro by the targeted activation of combined pharmacological agents with optimized energy tuning of x-ray beams on 9 L cells. Our results show that this is a highly effective form of chemo-radiation therapy.

  15. ImmunoCAP assays: Pros and cons in allergology.

    PubMed

    van Hage, Marianne; Hamsten, Carl; Valenta, Rudolf

    2017-10-01

    Allergen-specific IgE measurements and the clinical history are the cornerstones of allergy diagnosis. During the past decades, both characterization and standardization of allergen extracts and assay technology have improved. Here we discuss the uses, advantages, misinterpretations, and limitations of ImmunoCAP IgE assays (Thermo Fisher Scientific/Phadia, Uppsala, Sweden) in the field of allergology. They can be performed as singleplex (ImmunoCAP) and, for the last decade, as multiplex (Immuno Solid-phase Allergen Chip [ISAC]). The major benefit of ImmunoCAP is the obtained quantified allergen-specific IgE antibody level and the lack of interference from allergen-specific IgG antibodies. However, ImmunoCAP allergen extracts are limited to the composition of the extract. The introduction of allergen molecules has had a major effect on analytic specificity and allergy diagnosis. They are used in both singleplex ImmunoCAP and multiplex ImmunoCAP ISAC assays. The major advantage of ISAC is the comprehensive IgE pattern obtained with a minute amount of serum. The shortcomings are its semiquantitative measurements, lower linear range, and cost per assay. With respect to assay performance, ImmunoCAP allergen extracts are good screening tools, but allergen molecules dissect the IgE response on a molecular level and put allergy research on the map of precision medicine. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Co-Expression of Bmi-1 and Podoplanin Predicts Overall Survival in Patients With Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Treated With Radio(chemo)therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Vormittag, Laurenz; Thurnher, Dietmar; Geleff, Silvana

    2009-03-01

    Purpose: This study was conducted to determine the expression of Bmi-1 and podoplanin in healthy oral mucosa and in untreated tumor tissues samples of patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. All patients were treated by primary radio(chemo)therapy. Methods and Materials: The expression of Bmi-1 and podoplanin was immunohistochemically evaluated in 12 normal oral mucosa and 63 tumor specimens and correlated with patients' clinical data. Results: In healthy mucosa expression of Bmi-1 and podoplanin was restricted to the basal cell layer. Expression of both proteins was found in 79% and 86% of our tumor samples, respectively. Inmore » 17 and 8 samples, Bmi-1 and podoplanin were co-expressed at the invasive border or diffuse in the bulk of the tumor, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that the co-expression of Bmi-1 and podoplanin correlated to decreased overall survival (p = 0.044). Moreover, multivariate testing identified high expression of podoplanin (p = 0.044), co-expression of Bmi-1 and podoplanin (p = 0.007) and lack of response to therapy (p < 0.0001) as predictors of shortened overall survival in patients treated with primary radio(chemo)therapy. Conclusions: Bmi-1 and podoplanin are expressed at the invasive front of squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. Co-expression of Bmi-1 and podoplanin predicts significantly overall survival of patients treated with primary radio(chemo)therapy.« less

  17. Volumetric Modulated Arc (Radio) Therapy in Pets Treatment: The “La Cittadina Fondazione” Experience

    PubMed Central

    Dolera, Mario; Malfassi, Luca; Carrara, Nancy; Finesso, Sara; Marcarini, Silvia; Mazza, Giovanni; Pavesi, Simone; Sala, Massimo; Urso, Gaetano

    2018-01-01

    Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) is a modern technique, widely used in human radiotherapy, which allows a high dose to be delivered to tumor volumes and low doses to the surrounding organs at risk (OAR). Veterinary clinics takes advantage of this feature due to the small target volumes and distances between the target and the OAR. Sparing the OAR permits dose escalation, and hypofractionation regimens reduce the number of treatment sessions with a simpler manageability in the veterinary field. Multimodal volumes definition is mandatory for the small volumes involved and a positioning device precisely reproducible with a setup confirmation is needed before each session for avoiding missing the target. Additionally, the elaborate treatment plan must pursue hard constraints and objectives, and its feasibility must be evaluated with a per patient quality control. The aim of this work is to report results with regard to brain meningiomas and gliomas, trigeminal nerve tumors, brachial plexus tumors, adrenal tumors with vascular invasion and rabbit thymomas, in comparison with literature to determine if VMAT is a safe and viable alternative to surgery or chemotherapy alone, or as an adjuvant therapy in pets. PMID:29364837

  18. Single Agent Nanoparticle for Radiotherapy and Radio-Photothermal Therapy in Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Min; Chen, Yunyun; Adachi, Makoto; Wen, Xiaoxia; Erwin, Bill; Mawlawi, Osama; Lai, Stephen Y.; Li, Chun

    2015-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is one of the most aggressive human malignancies. The aggressive behavior of ATC and its resistance to traditional treatment limit the efficacy of radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and surgery. The purpose of this study is aimed at enhancing the therapeutic efficacy of radiotherapy (RT) combined with photothermal therapy (PTT) in murine orthotopic model of ATC, based on our developed single radioactive copper sulfide (CuS) nanoparticle platform. We prepare a new dual-modality therapy for ATC consisting of a single-compartment nanoplatform, polyethylene glycol-coated [64Cu]CuS NPs, in which the radiotherapeutic property of 64Cu is combined with the plasmonic properties of CuS NPs. Mice with Hth83 ATC were treated with PEG[64Cu]CuS NPs and/or near infrared laser. Antitumor effects were assessed by tumor growth and animal survival. We found that in mice bearing orthotopic human Hth83 ATC tumors, micro-PET/CT imaging and biodistribution studies showed that about 50% of the injected dose of PEG-[64Cu]CuS NPs was retained in tumor 48 h after intratumoral injection. Human absorbed doses were calculated from biodistribution data. In antitumor experiments, tumor growth was delayed by PEG-[64Cu]CuS NP-mediated RT, PTT, and combined RT/PTT, with combined RT/PTT being most effective. In addition, combined RT/PTT significantly prolonged the survival of Hth83 tumor-bearing mice compared to no treatment, laser treatment alone, or NP treatment alone without producing acute toxic effects. These findings indicate that this single-compartment multifunctional NPs platform merits further development as a novel therapeutic agent for ATC. PMID:25913249

  19. Radiosensitizer-eluting nanocoatings on gold fiducials for biological in-situ image-guided radio therapy (BIS-IGRT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagesha, D. K.; Tada, D. B.; Stambaugh, C. K. K.; Gultepe, E.; Jost, E.; Levy, C. O.; Cormack, R.; Makrigiorgos, G. M.; Sridhar, S.

    2010-10-01

    Image-guided radiation treatments (IGRT) routinely utilize radio-opaque implantable devices, such as fiducials or brachytherapy spacers, for improved spatial accuracy. The therapeutic efficiency of IGRT can be further enhanced by biological in situ dose painting (BIS-IGRT) of radiosensitizers through localized delivery within the tumor using gold fiducial markers that have been coated with nanoporous polymer matrices loaded with nanoparticles (NPs). In this work, two approaches were studied: (i) a free drug release system consisting of Doxorubicin (Dox), a hydrophilic drug, loaded into a non-degradable polymer poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) coating and (ii) poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) NPs loaded with fluorescent Coumarin-6, serving as a model for a hydrophobic drug, in a biodegradable chitosan matrix. Temporal release kinetics measurements in buffer were carried out using fluorescence spectroscopy. In the first case of free Dox release, an initial release within the first few hours was followed by a sustained release over the course of the next 3 months. In the second platform, release of NPs and the free drug was controlled by the degradation rate of the chitosan matrix and PLGA. The results show that dosage and rate of release of these radiosensitizers coated on gold fiducials for IGRT can be precisely tailored to achieve the desired release profile for radiation therapy of cancer.

  20. IPD—the Immuno Polymorphism Database

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, James; Halliwell, Jason A.; McWilliam, Hamish; Lopez, Rodrigo; Marsh, Steven G. E.

    2013-01-01

    The Immuno Polymorphism Database (IPD), http://www.ebi.ac.uk/ipd/ is a set of specialist databases related to the study of polymorphic genes in the immune system. The IPD project works with specialist groups or nomenclature committees who provide and curate individual sections before they are submitted to IPD for online publication. The IPD project stores all the data in a set of related databases. IPD currently consists of four databases: IPD-KIR, contains the allelic sequences of killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors, IPD-MHC, a database of sequences of the major histocompatibility complex of different species; IPD-HPA, alloantigens expressed only on platelets; and IPD-ESTDAB, which provides access to the European Searchable Tumour Cell-Line Database, a cell bank of immunologically characterized melanoma cell lines. The data is currently available online from the website and FTP directory. This article describes the latest updates and additional tools added to the IPD project. PMID:23180793

  1. Immuno-SPET/CT and immuno-PET/CT: a step ahead to translational imaging.

    PubMed

    Pecking, Alain P; Bellet, Dominique; Alberini, Jean Louis

    2012-10-01

    Malignant tumours have the remarkable property to express cell surface antigens. Pressman was first reporting that radiolabeled antibodies were capable of organ localization. It was a promising challenge but the expected success and the development of this imaging method was limited by a poor imaging resolution despite a rather good specificity of the antibodies used. Identification of key cell surface markers is opening a new era as potential molecular imaging biomarkers in oncologic applications. Antibodies production has been promoted by the development of engineered fragments with preserved immunological properties and pharmacokinetics optimized for molecular imaging. A good compromise has to be obtained between the biological properties of the antibody and the physical half-life of the radionuclide. Several positron emission tomography (PET) radionuclides such as iodine-124, copper-64, yttrium-86 or zirconium-89 have been the focus of recent immuno-PET studies with interesting informative images in preclinical and clinical studies. Thanks to the development of more sensitive new detectors and specific software, molecular imaging methods, particularly PET imaging, allow nowadays the detection of lesions smaller than 5 mm in human. Immuno-PET can potentially be used for tumour detection and identification at diagnosis, staging and restaging, for treatment selection and monitoring, and during follow-up. Moreover the availability of matched imaging or therapeutic radionuclide pairs, such as (124)I/(131)I, (64)Cu/(67)Cu and (86)Y/(90)Y, make easier the quantification of tissue uptake and dosimetry calculation for radioimmunotherapy.

  2. Impact of HPV 16/18 infection on clinical outcomes in locally advanced cervical cancers treated with radical radio (chemo) therapy - A prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Mahantshetty, Umesh; Teni, Tanuja; Naga, Pushpa; Hotwani, Chandni; Umesh, Sumuki; Kannan, Sadhana; Hande, Vinod; Pawar, Sagar; Engineer, Reena; Chopra, Supriya; Deodhar, Kedar; Maheshwari, Amita; Gurram, Lavanya; Gupta, Sudeep; Shrivastava, Shyam Kishore

    2018-02-01

    With an aim to investigate the impact of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) 16/18 infection on clinical outcomes in locally advanced cervical cancers treated with radical radio (chemo) therapy, we undertook this prospective study. Between May 2010 and April 2012, 150 histologically proven cervical cancer patients treated with radio (chemo) therapy were accrued. Cervical biopsies/brushings were collected at pre-treatment, end of treatment and at 3 monthly intervals up to 24months. Quantitative estimation of HPV 16/18 was done using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and correlated with various clinical end-points. Out of 150 patients accrued, 135 patients were considered for final analysis. Pre-treatment HPV16/18 DNA was detected in 126 (93%) patients, with HPV-16 present in 91%. The mean log (±SD) HPV-16 and HPV-18 viral load at pre-treatment was 4.76 (±2.5) and 0.14 (±2.1) copies/10ng of DNA, respectively. Though significant decline in viral load was observed on follow-ups (p<0.0001); by 9-month follow-up, 89 (66%) patients had persistence of HPV infection. Patients with persistent HPV 16/18 infection had a significantly higher overall and loco-regional relapses [44/89 (49%) and 29/89 (32%)] as compared to HPV clearance by 9months [12/43 (28%) and 5/43 (11%)] with p=0.024 and p=0.02, respectively. Also, persistent HPV infection by 24-month showed a significant impact on loco-regional control (LRC) and recurrence-free survival (RFS). In locally advanced cervical cancers treated with radical radio (chemo) therapy, persistent HPV 16/18 infection is significantly high in immediate post-treatment period and correlated with higher loco-regional, overall relapses and was also associated with early relapses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Local recurrence of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck after radio(chemo)therapy: Diagnostic performance of FDG-PET/MRI with diffusion-weighted sequences.

    PubMed

    Becker, Minerva; Varoquaux, Arthur D; Combescure, Christophe; Rager, Olivier; Pusztaszeri, Marc; Burkhardt, Karim; Delattre, Bénédicte M A; Dulguerov, Pavel; Dulguerov, Nicolas; Katirtzidou, Eirini; Caparrotti, Francesca; Ratib, Osman; Zaidi, Habib; Becker, Christoph D

    2018-02-01

    To determine the diagnostic performance of FDG-PET/MRI with diffusion-weighted imaging (FDG-PET/DWIMRI) for detection and local staging of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) after radio(chemo)therapy. This was a prospective study that included 74 consecutive patients with previous radio(chemo)therapy for HNSCC and in whom tumour recurrence or radiation-induced complications were suspected clinically. The patients underwent hybrid PET/MRI examinations with morphological MRI, DWI and FDG-PET. Experienced readers blinded to clinical/histopathological data evaluated images according to established diagnostic criteria taking into account the complementarity of multiparametric information. The standard of reference was histopathology with whole-organ sections and follow-up ≥24 months. Statistical analysis considered data clustering. The proof of diagnosis was histology in 46/74 (62.2%) patients and follow-up (mean ± SD = 34 ± 8 months) in 28/74 (37.8%). Thirty-eight patients had 43 HNSCCs and 46 patients (10 with and 36 without tumours) had 62 benign lesions/complications. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value of PET/DWIMRI were 97.4%, 91.7%, 92.5% and 97.1% per patient, and 93.0%, 93.5%, 90.9%, and 95.1% per lesion, respectively. Agreement between imaging-based and pathological T-stage was excellent (kappa = 0.84, p < 0.001). FDG-PET/DWIMRI yields excellent results for detection and T-classification of HNSCC after radio(chemo)therapy. • FDG-PET/DWIMRI yields excellent results for the detection of post-radio(chemo)therapy HNSCC recurrence. • Prospective one-centre study showed excellent agreement between imaging-based and pathological T-stage. • 97.5% of positive concordant MRI, DWI and FDG-PET results correspond to recurrence. • 87% of discordant MRI, DWI and FDG-PET results correspond to benign lesions. • Multiparametric FDG-PET/DWIMRI facilitates planning of salvage surgery in the irradiated neck.

  4. Knowledge, Stigma, and Behavioral Outcomes among Antiretroviral Therapy Patients Exposed to Nalamdana's Radio and Theater Program in Tamil Nadu, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nambiar, Devaki; Ramakrishnan, Vimala; Kumar, Paresh; Varma, Rajeev; Balaji, Nithya; Rajendran, Jeeva; Jhona, Loretta; Chandrasekar, Chokkalingam; Gere, David

    2011-01-01

    Arts-based programs have improved HIV-related knowledge, attitudes, and behavior in general and at-risk populations. With HIV transformed into a chronic condition, this study compares patients at consecutive stages of receiving antiretroviral treatment, coinciding with exposure to a radio-and-theater-based educational program (unexposed [N = 120],…

  5. Combined time-lapse cinematography and immuno-electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Balfour, B M; Goscicka, T; MacKenzie, J L; Gautam, A; Tate, M; Clark, J

    1990-04-01

    A method was developed to record interactions between mobile non-adherent immunocytes by time-lapse cinematography and then to study the same cells by immuno-electron microscopy, using monoclonal antibodies against surface components. For this purpose a modified stage was designed to fit an inverted microscope. The attachment included a device to cool the culture chamber with N2 gas, a micro-injector for monoclonal antibody and immuno-gold treatment, and two pairs of washing needles to change the medium without disturbance. The technique was first employed to study the formation of aggregates around the antigen-presenting cells in cultures containing cells from hyper-immunized animals. Recently peripheral blood cells from normal subjects and patients with immune deficiency syndromes were stimulated with pokeweed mitogen, cluster formation was recorded, and the cells were processed for immuno-electron microscopy.

  6. Molecular and functional analysis of anchorage independent, treatment-evasive neuroblastoma tumorspheres with enhanced malignant properties: A possible explanation for radio-therapy resistance

    PubMed Central

    Nazarian, Javad; Ghanem, Anthony; Vukmanovic, Stanislav; Sandler, Anthony D.

    2018-01-01

    Despite significant advances in cancer treatment and management, more than 60% of patients with neuroblastoma present with very poor prognosis in the form of metastatic and aggressive disease. Solid tumors including neuroblastoma are thought to be heterogeneous with a sub-population of stem-like cells that are treatment-evasive with highly malignant characteristics. We previously identified a phenomenon of reversible adaptive plasticity (RAP) between anchorage dependent (AD) cells and anchorage independent (AI) tumorspheres in neuroblastoma cell cultures. To expand our molecular characterization of the AI tumorspheres, we sought to define the comprehensive proteomic profile of murine AD and AI neuroblastoma cells. The proteomic profiles of the two phenotypic cell populations were compared to each other to determine the differential protein expression and molecular pathways of interest. We report exclusive or significant up-regulation of tumorigenic pathways expressed by the AI tumorspheres compared to the AD cancer cells. These pathways govern metastatic potential, enhanced malignancy and epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Furthermore, radio-therapy induced significant up-regulation of specific tumorigenic and proliferative proteins, namely survivin, CDC2 and the enzyme Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1. Bio-functional characteristics of the AI tumorspheres were resistant to sutent inhibition of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) as well as to 2.5 Gy radio-therapy as assessed by cell survival, proliferation, apoptosis and migration. Interestingly, PDGF-BB stimulation of the PDGFRβ led to transactivation of EGFR and VEGFR in AI tumorspheres more potently than in AD cells. Sutent inhibition of PDGFRβ abrogated this transactivation in both cell types. In addition, 48 h sutent treatment significantly down-regulated the protein expression of PDGFRβ, MYCN, SOX2 and Survivin in the AI tumorspheres and inhibited tumorsphere self-renewal. Radio-sensitivity in AI

  7. Molecular and functional analysis of anchorage independent, treatment-evasive neuroblastoma tumorspheres with enhanced malignant properties: A possible explanation for radio-therapy resistance.

    PubMed

    Abou-Antoun, Tamara J; Nazarian, Javad; Ghanem, Anthony; Vukmanovic, Stanislav; Sandler, Anthony D

    2018-01-01

    Despite significant advances in cancer treatment and management, more than 60% of patients with neuroblastoma present with very poor prognosis in the form of metastatic and aggressive disease. Solid tumors including neuroblastoma are thought to be heterogeneous with a sub-population of stem-like cells that are treatment-evasive with highly malignant characteristics. We previously identified a phenomenon of reversible adaptive plasticity (RAP) between anchorage dependent (AD) cells and anchorage independent (AI) tumorspheres in neuroblastoma cell cultures. To expand our molecular characterization of the AI tumorspheres, we sought to define the comprehensive proteomic profile of murine AD and AI neuroblastoma cells. The proteomic profiles of the two phenotypic cell populations were compared to each other to determine the differential protein expression and molecular pathways of interest. We report exclusive or significant up-regulation of tumorigenic pathways expressed by the AI tumorspheres compared to the AD cancer cells. These pathways govern metastatic potential, enhanced malignancy and epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Furthermore, radio-therapy induced significant up-regulation of specific tumorigenic and proliferative proteins, namely survivin, CDC2 and the enzyme Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1. Bio-functional characteristics of the AI tumorspheres were resistant to sutent inhibition of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) as well as to 2.5 Gy radio-therapy as assessed by cell survival, proliferation, apoptosis and migration. Interestingly, PDGF-BB stimulation of the PDGFRβ led to transactivation of EGFR and VEGFR in AI tumorspheres more potently than in AD cells. Sutent inhibition of PDGFRβ abrogated this transactivation in both cell types. In addition, 48 h sutent treatment significantly down-regulated the protein expression of PDGFRβ, MYCN, SOX2 and Survivin in the AI tumorspheres and inhibited tumorsphere self-renewal. Radio-sensitivity in AI

  8. Firefighters' Radios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Public Technology Inc. asked for NASA assistance to devise the original firefighter's radio. Good short-range radio communications are essential during a fire to coordinate hose lines, rescue victims, and otherwise increase efficiency. Useful firefighting tool is lower cost, more rugged short range two-way radio. Inductorless electronic circuit replaced inductances and coils in radio circuits with combination of transistors and other low-cost components. Substitution promises reduced circuit size and cost. Enhanced electrical performance made radio more durable and improved maintainability by incorporating modular construction.

  9. 21 CFR 864.9285 - Automated cell-washing centrifuge for immuno-hematology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Automated cell-washing centrifuge for immuno... Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9285 Automated cell-washing centrifuge for immuno-hematology. (a) Identification. An automated cell-washing centrifuge for immuno-hematology is a device used...

  10. 21 CFR 864.9285 - Automated cell-washing centrifuge for immuno-hematology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Automated cell-washing centrifuge for immuno... Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9285 Automated cell-washing centrifuge for immuno-hematology. (a) Identification. An automated cell-washing centrifuge for immuno-hematology is a device used...

  11. 21 CFR 864.9285 - Automated cell-washing centrifuge for immuno-hematology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Automated cell-washing centrifuge for immuno... Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9285 Automated cell-washing centrifuge for immuno-hematology. (a) Identification. An automated cell-washing centrifuge for immuno-hematology is a device used...

  12. 21 CFR 864.9285 - Automated cell-washing centrifuge for immuno-hematology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Automated cell-washing centrifuge for immuno... Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9285 Automated cell-washing centrifuge for immuno-hematology. (a) Identification. An automated cell-washing centrifuge for immuno-hematology is a device used...

  13. 21 CFR 864.9285 - Automated cell-washing centrifuge for immuno-hematology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated cell-washing centrifuge for immuno... Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9285 Automated cell-washing centrifuge for immuno-hematology. (a) Identification. An automated cell-washing centrifuge for immuno-hematology is a device used...

  14. ImmunoScenarios: A Game for the Immune System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Mark F.; Jackson, Sally W.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a board game, ImmunoScenarios, which was developed to reinforce the ideas about the immune system discussed in lecture classes. Emphasizes important characteristics of the body's specific defense system including specificity, cooperation among various cells, and memory. Includes directions for playing, student handouts, and scenarios.…

  15. 21 CFR 866.3460 - Rabiesvirus immuno-fluorescent reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rabiesvirus immuno-fluorescent reagents. 866.3460 Section 866.3460 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3460 Rabiesvirus...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3460 - Rabiesvirus immuno-fluorescent reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rabiesvirus immuno-fluorescent reagents. 866.3460 Section 866.3460 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3460 Rabiesvirus...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3460 - Rabiesvirus immuno-fluorescent reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rabiesvirus immuno-fluorescent reagents. 866.3460 Section 866.3460 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3460 Rabiesvirus...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3460 - Rabiesvirus immuno-fluorescent reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rabiesvirus immuno-fluorescent reagents. 866.3460 Section 866.3460 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3460 Rabiesvirus...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3460 - Rabiesvirus immuno-fluorescent reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rabiesvirus immuno-fluorescent reagents. 866.3460 Section 866.3460 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3460 Rabiesvirus...

  20. Technology evaluation: C242-DM1, ImmunoGen Inc.

    PubMed

    Smith, S

    2001-04-01

    C242-DM1 is a tumor-activated immunotoxin under development by GlaxoSmithKline plc (formerly SmithKline Beecham plc), under licence from ImmunoGen Inc, as a potential treatment for colon tumor. It consists of a colon cancer-specific humanized antibody, C242, conjugated to the maytansine derivative DM1. In preclinical studies, C242-DM1 caused complete tumor regression in animal models of both human pancreatic and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) at non-toxic doses. C242-DM1 has also been evaluated in an immunoconjugate combination with J-591 (Cornell University). The J591-DM1 immunoconjugate demonstrated effective, antigen-specific delivery of a highly cytotoxic drug to PSMA-positive Pca cells in vitro and in vivo with low systemic toxicity. Results from studies in monkeys showed that C242-DM1 had no significant toxicity or side effects, when administered at doses higher than those that were previously shown to completely eradicate human colon tumors in mice [271420]. ImmunoGen acquired the right to evaluate, and an option to license, technology related to maytansines from Takeda. In February 1999, ImmunoGen and SmithKline Beecham signed a US $45 million development and commercialization agreement for C242-DM1 [313493]. In August 1997, Immunogen received an SBIR grant to advance development of huC242-DM1 [258356]. EP-00425235, held by ImmunoGen, covers conjugated forms of ansamitocin (maytansine) derivatives. Takeda holds several patents for the production of ansamitocin and its analogs, the first one being JP-53124692.

  1. Enhanced EJ Cell Killing of (125)I Radiation by Combining with Cytosine Deaminase Gene Therapy Regulated by Synthetic Radio-Responsive Promoter.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Zhang, Chun-li; Kang, Lei; Wang, Rong-Fu; Yan, Ping; Zhao, Qian; Yin, Lei; Guo, Feng-qin

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the enhancing effect of radionuclide therapy by the therapeutic gene placed under the control of radio-responsive promoter. The recombinant lentivirus E8-codA-GFP, including a synthetic radiation-sensitive promoter E8, cytosine deaminase (CD) gene, and green fluorescent protein gene, was constructed. The gene expression activated by (125)I radiation was assessed by observation of green fluorescence. The ability of converting 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) to 5-fluorourial (5-FU) by CD enzyme was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The viability of the infected cells exposed to (125)I in the presence of 5-FC was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and the infected cells exposed to (125)I alone served as negative control and 5-FU as positive control. The recombinant lentiviral vector was constructed successfully. On exposure of infected cells to (125)I, green fluorescence can be observed and 5-FU can be detected. MTT assay showed that the survival rate for infected cells treated with (125)I was lower compared with the (125)I control group, but higher than the positive control group. The synthetic promoter E8 can induce the expression of downstream CD gene under (125)I radiation, and the tumor killing effect of (125)I can be enhanced by combining CD gene therapy with radiosensitive promoter.

  2. Radio astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. M.; Manchester, R. N.

    1980-01-01

    The activities of the Deep Space Network in support of radio and radar astronomy operations during July and August 1980 are reported. A brief update on the OSS-sponsored planetary radio astronomy experiment is provided. Also included are two updates, one each from Spain and Australia on current host country activities.

  3. College Radio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauls, Samuel J.

    As with commercial stations, the underlying premise of the college radio station is to serve the community, whether it be the campus community or the community at large, but in unique ways often geared to underserved niches of the population. Much of college radio's charm lies in its unpredictable nature and constant mutations. The stations give…

  4. IMMUNO-MODULATORY PROPERTIES OF PREBIOTICS EXTRACTED FROM vernonia amygdalina.

    PubMed

    Im, Ezeonu; Ae, Asuquo; Bn, Ukwah; Po, Ukoha

    2016-01-01

    Vernonia amygdalina , commonly called bitter-leaf, is widely consumed in many parts of Africa, and Nigeria, in particular. The leaf extract has been reported to have antimicrobial, anti-plasmodial, anti-helminthic, as well as prebiotic properties, but its immuno-modulatory effects have not been well-studied, neither have the prebiotics been identified. This study evaluated the immuno-modulatory properties of the aqueous leaf extract and identified the prebiotic components. The immuno-modulatory potential was evaluated by monitoring the effects of oral administration of the extract on immunological, haematological and lipid profiles of Rattus norvegicus , while the prebiotic components were identified by thin layer chromatography (TLC), following liquid-liquid fractionation of the extract. Consumption of the extract caused significant increases in CD4+-, white blood cell-, total lymphocyte- and high density lipid (HDL) counts; decreases in low density lipid (LDL) and triglycerides and no significant effect on haemoglobin (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV) in the blood of test animals. The water-soluble fraction of the extract contained most of the phyto-constituents of the extract and Thin Layer Chromatographic analysis of the fraction revealed the presence of fructo-oligosaccharide and galacto-oligosaccharide prebiotics. The results from this study have shown that the aqueous leaf extract of V. amygdalina has positive immune-modulatory and haematologic effects and contains some important prebiotic compounds.

  5. An autologous in situ tumor vaccination approach for hepatocellular carcinoma. 2. Tumor-specific immunity and cure after radio-inducible suicide gene therapy and systemic CD40-ligand and Flt3-ligand gene therapy in an orthotopic tumor model.

    PubMed

    Kawashita, Yujo; Deb, Niloy J; Garg, Madhur K; Kabarriti, Rafi; Fan, Zuoheng; Alfieri, Alan A; Roy-Chowdhury, Jayanta; Guha, Chandan

    2014-08-01

    Diffuse hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a lethal disease that radiation therapy (RT) currently has a limited role in treating because of the potential for developing fatal radiation-induced liver disease. However, recently diffuse HCC, "radio-inducible suicide gene therapy" has been shown to enhance local tumor control and residual microscopic disease within the liver for diffuse HCC, by using a combination of chemoactivation and molecular radiosensitization. We have demonstrated that the addition of recombinant adenovirus-expressing human Flt3 ligand (Adeno-Flt3L) after radio-inducible suicide gene therapy induced a Th1-biased, immune response and enhanced tumor control in an ectopic model of HCC. We hypothesized that sequential administration of recombinant adenovirus-expressing CD40L (Adeno-CD40L) could further potentiate the efficacy of our trimodal therapy with RT + HSV-TK + Adeno-Flt3L. We examined our hypothesis in an orthotopic model of diffuse HCC using BNL1ME A.7R.1 (BNL) cells in Balb/c mice. BNL murine hepatoma cells (5 × 10(4)) transfected with an expression vector of HSV-TK under the control of a radiation-inducible promoter were injected intraportally into BALB/cJ mice. Fourteen days after the HCC injection, mice were treated with a 25 Gy dose of radiation to the whole liver, followed by ganciclovir (GCV) treatment and systemic adenoviral cytokine gene therapy (Flt3L or CD40L or both). Untreated mice died in 27 ± 4 days. Radiation therapy alone had a marginal effect on survival (median = 35 ± 7 days) and the addition of HSV-TK/GCV gene therapy improved the median survival to 47 ± 6 days. However, the addition of Adeno-Flt3L to radiation therapy and HSV-TK/GCV therapy significantly (P = 0.0005) increased survival to a median of 63 ± 20 days with 44% (7/16) of the animals still alive 116 days after tumor implantation. The curative effect of Flt3L was completely abolished when using immunodeficient nude mice or mice depleted for CD4, CD8 and

  6. SU-E-T-13: A Comparative Dosimetric Study On Radio-Dynamic Therapy for Pelvic Cancer Treatment: Strategies for Bone Marrow Dose and Volume Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Li, C; Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei Province; Wang, B

    Purpose: Radio-dynamic therapy (RDT) is a potentially effective modality for local and systemic cancer treatment. Using RDT, the administration of a radio-sensitizer enhances the biological effect of high-energy photons. Although the sensitizer uptake ratio of tumor to normal tissue is normally high, one cannot simply neglect its effect on critical structures. In this study, we aim to explore planning strategies to improve bone marrow sparing without compromising the plan quality for RDT treatment of pelvic cancers. Methods: Ten cervical and ten prostate cancer patients who previously received radiotherapy at our institution were selected for this study. For each patient, ninemore » plans were created using the Varian Eclipse treatmentplanning-system (TPS) with 3D-CRT, IMRT, and VMAT delivery techniques containing various gantry angle combinations and optimization parameters (dose constraints to the bone marrow). To evaluate the plans for bone marrow sparing, the dose-volume parameters V5, V10, V15, V20, V30, and V40 for bone marrow were examined. Effective doseenhancement factors for the sensitizer were used to weigh the dose-volume histograms for various tissues from individual fractions. Results: The planning strategies had different impacts on bone marrow sparing for the cervical and prostate cases. For the cervical cases, provided the bone marrow constraints were properly set during optimization, the dose to bone marrow sparing was found to be comparable between different IMRT and VMAT plans regardless of the gantry angle selection. For the prostate cases, however, careful selection of gantry angles could dramatically improve the bone marrow sparing, although the dose distribution in bone marrow was clinically acceptable for all prostate plans that we created. Conclusion: For intensity-modulated RDT planning for cervical cancer, planners should set bone marrow constraints properly to avoid any adverse damage, while for prostate cancer one can carefully

  7. Non-invasive therapy of wrinkles and lax skin using a novel multisource phase-controlled radio frequency system.

    PubMed

    Elman, Monica; Vider, Itzhak; Harth, Yoram; Gottfried, Varda; Shemer, Avner

    2010-04-01

    Abstract The last few years have shown an increased demand for non-invasive skin tightening to improve body contour. Since light (lasers or intense pulsed light sources) has a limited ability to penetrate deep into the tissue, radio frequency (RF) modalities were introduced for the reduction of lax skin to achieve skin tightening and body circumference reduction. This study presents the use of the novel 3DEEP technology for body contouring. 3DEEP is a next generation RF technology that provides targeted heating to deeper skin layers without pain or other local or systemic side effects associated with the use of the earlier generation RF systems available today. The study included 30 treatment areas on 23 healthy volunteers at two sites. The treatment protocol included four weekly and two bi-weekly (n= 6) treatments on different body areas. Results were evaluated by standardized photography and by circumference measurements at the treatment area, and were compared to changes in body weight. Significant improvement could be observed in wrinkles and skin laxity, and in the appearance of stretch marks and cellulite. Some changes appeared as early as after a single treatment. Circumference changes of up to 4.3 cm were measured.

  8. Effects of Radio Frequency and Ultrasound Cavitation Therapy on Serum C-reactive Protein and Pro-oxidant-Antioxidant Levels.

    PubMed

    Mohammadzadeh, Mahsa; Nasrfard, Samira; Nezafati, Pouya; Arabpour, Mahla; Ghaane, Narjes; Salehi, Maryam; Safarian, Mohammad; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid; Ferns, Gordon A; Norouzy, Abdolreza

    2016-05-01

    A combination of radio-frequency (RF) and ultrasound cavitation (UC) has been reported to reduce indices of obesity. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of a combination of these techniques on anthropometric indices, pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance (PAB), and serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). This randomized clinical trial was performed on 50 healthy women between January 2014 and June 2014 in Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. Participants were randomized to one of two groups, both of which received a low-calorie diet containing 500-kcal energy deficit per day. The trial group included twenty-five subjects who were assigned to the combined treatment of RF and ultrasound cavitation program of abdomen and flank areas. There were twenty-five control subjects who received the low calorie diet alone. Biochemical markers, including serum hs-CRP and PAB values, and anthropometric indices were measured in the intervention group and healthy controls. For both the intervention and control groups, waist circumference was reduced significantly by 3.76 ± 1.69 and 2.40 ± 1.04, respectively (P < 0.05). In addition, abdominal circumference was reduced by 9.5 ± 2.66 and 3.12 ± 1.88, in these groups, respectively (P < 0.001). Decrement of PAB level in the intervention group, and its increment in the control group, were not significant (P > 0.05). In addition, reductions of hs-CRP and PAB between the two studied groups during five weeks of study were not significant (P > 0.05). Although there were significant reductions in anthropometric indices following treatment with RF and UC, the effects on serum PAB or hs-CRP were no significantly different, compared to the control group. Further studies are needed to confirm the beneficial effect for the use of these techniques.

  9. Clinical outcome of elderly patients (≥ 70 years) with esophageal cancer undergoing definitive or neoadjuvant radio(chemo)therapy: a retrospective single center analysis.

    PubMed

    Walter, Franziska; Böckle, David; Schmidt-Hegemann, Nina-Sophie; Köpple, Rebecca; Gerum, Sabine; Boeck, Stefan; Angele, Martin; Belka, Claus; Roeder, Falk

    2018-05-16

    To analyse the outcome of elderly patients (≥70 years) with esophageal cancer treated with curative intent radio(chemo)therapy. Fifty five patients (median 75 years) receiving curative intent radio(chemo)therapy for esophageal cancer from 1999 to 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Most patients showed locally advanced disease (T3/4:78%, N+:58%) with squamous cell histology (74%). Charlson comorbidity score was > 1 in 27%. 48 patients (87%) received definitive treatment while 7 patients were treated neoadjuvantly. RT was carried out as 3D-conformal treatment or IMRT. Concurrent chemotherapy was applied in 85%, mainly cisplatin/5-FU or mitomycin/5-FU. 18 FDG-PET/CT staging was used in 65%. Median follow-up was 11 months (1-68) and 21 months in survivors. 1- and 2-year rates of LRC, DC, FFTF and OS were 60%/45, 81%/72, 55%/41 and 46%/26% for the entire cohort. In univariate analysis, addition of surgery was associated with improved LRC and FFTF, nodal involvement with improved DC and lower T stage, lower Charlson score and use of PET-CT with improved OS. In multivariate analysis, lower T stage and lower Charlson score remained significant for OS. Patients treated after 2008 showed a significantly improved FFTF (1-year FFTF 64% vs 35%) and OS (1-year OS 66% vs 24%). Maximum (chemo)radiation related grade3+ toxicity was observed in 80% including 7 deaths (13%). Grade5 toxicity was significantly associated with Charlson score (CS > 1:33% vs CS ≤ 1:5%) and treatment period (24% before vs 3% after 2008). The patients treated after 2008 included significantly more SCCs, less T4 stages, had a higher percentage of PET-CT staging and were treated with smaller field lengths. Trends were also observed for lower Charlson scores and increased use of IMRT. Curative intent (chemo)radiation of elderly patients with esophageal cancer may result in considerable toxicity and unfavorable outcome. However, a clear improvement over time was observed in our cohort

  10. CB Radios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Dick

    1977-01-01

    Citizen band radios keep trucking across the American scene, and no doubt your students are caught in the folk craze. Provides some suggestions for channeling students' interests with a unit on CBs. (Author/RK)

  11. Does Preoperative Radio(chemo)therapy Increase Anastomotic Leakage in Rectal Cancer Surgery? A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Changjiang; Ren, Xuequn; Xu, Kaiwu; Chen, Zhihui; He, Yulong; Song, Xinming

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Preoperative radio(chemo)therapy (pR(C)T) appears to increase postoperative complications of rectal cancer resection, but clinical trials have reported conflicting results. The objective of this meta-analysis was performed to assess the effects of pR(C)T on anastomotic leak after rectal cancer resection. Methods. PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched from January 1980 to January 2014. Randomized controlled trials included all original articles reporting anastomotic leak in patients with rectal cancer, among whom some received preoperative radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy while others did not. The analysed end-points were the anastomotic leak. Result. Seven randomized controlled trials with 3375 patients were included in the meta-analysis. 1660 forming the group undergoing preoperative radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy versus 1715 patients undergoing without preoperative radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. The meta-analyses found that pR(C)T was not an independent risk factor for anastomotic leakage (OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.80–1.30; P = 0.88). Subgroups analysis was performed and the result was not altered. Conclusions. Current evidence demonstrates that pR(C)T did not increase the risk of postoperative anastomotic leak after rectal cancer resection in patients. PMID:25477955

  12. Hospital variation and the impact of postoperative complications on the use of perioperative chemo(radio)therapy in resectable gastric cancer. Results from the Dutch Upper GI Cancer Audit.

    PubMed

    Schouwenburg, M G; Busweiler, L A D; Beck, N; Henneman, D; Amodio, S; van Berge Henegouwen, M I; Cats, A; van Hillegersberg, R; van Sandick, J W; Wijnhoven, B P L; Wouters, M W J; Nieuwenhuijzen, G A P

    2018-04-01

    Dutch national guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of gastric cancer recommend the use of perioperative chemotherapy in patients with resectable gastric cancer. However, adjuvant chemotherapy is often not administered. The aim of this study was to evaluate hospital variation on the probability to receive adjuvant chemotherapy and to identify associated factors with special attention to postoperative complications. All patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy and underwent an elective surgical resection for stage IB-IVa (M0) gastric adenocarcinoma between 2011 and 2015 were identified from a national database (Dutch Upper GI Cancer Audit). A multivariable linear mixed model was used to evaluate case-mix adjusted hospital variation and to identify factors associated with adjuvant therapy. Of all surgically treated gastric cancer patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (n = 882), 68% received adjuvant chemo(radio)therapy. After adjusting for case-mix and random variation, a large hospital variation in the administration rates for adjuvant was observed (OR range 0.31-7.1). In multivariable analysis, weight loss, a poor health status and failure of neoadjuvant chemotherapy completion were strongly associated with an increased likelihood of adjuvant therapy omission. Patients with severe postoperative complications had a threefold increased likelihood of adjuvant therapy omission (OR 3.07 95% CI 2.04-4.65). Despite national guidelines, considerable hospital variation was observed in the probability of receiving adjuvant chemo(radio)therapy. Postoperative complications were strongly associated with adjuvant chemo(radio)therapy omission, underlining the need to further reduce perioperative morbidity in gastric cancer surgery. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  13. Radio astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellermann, Kenneth I.; Heeschen, David; Backer, Donald C.; Cohen, Marshall H.; Davis, Michael; Depater, Imke; Deyoung, David; Dulk, George A.; Fisher, J. R.; Goss, W. Miller

    1991-01-01

    The following subject areas are covered: (1) scientific opportunities (millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelength astronomy; meter to hectometer astronomy; the Sun, stars, pulsars, interstellar masers, and extrasolar planets; the planets, asteroids, and comets; radio galaxies, quasars, and cosmology; and challenges for radio astronomy in the 1990's); (2) recommendations for new facilities (the millimeter arrays, medium scale instruments, and small-scale projects); (3) continuing activities and maintenance, upgrading of telescopes and instrumentation; (4) long range programs and technology development; and (5) social, political, and organizational considerations.

  14. 21 CFR 866.5270 - C-reactive protein immuno-logical test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5270 C-reactive protein immuno-logical test system. (a) Identification. A C-reactive protein... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false C-reactive protein immuno-logical test system. 866...

  15. 21 CFR 866.5360 - Cohn fraction IV immuno-logical test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5360 Cohn fraction IV immuno-logical test system. (a) Identification. A Cohn fraction IV immunological... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cohn fraction IV immuno-logical test system. 866...

  16. 21 CFR 866.5330 - Factor XIII, A, S, immuno-logical test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5330 Factor XIII, A, S, immuno-logical test system. (a) Identification. A factor XIII, A, S... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Factor XIII, A, S, immuno-logical test system. 866...

  17. 21 CFR 866.5400 - Alpha-globulin immuno-logical test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5400 Alpha-globulin immuno-logical test system. (a) Identification. An alpha-globulin immunological... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alpha-globulin immuno-logical test system. 866...

  18. 21 CFR 866.5380 - Free secretory component immuno-logical test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5380 Free secretory component immuno-logical test system. (a) Identification. A free... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Free secretory component immuno-logical test...

  19. 21 CFR 866.5580 - Alpha-1-lipoprotein immuno-logical test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5580 Alpha-1-lipoprotein immuno-logical test system. (a) Identification. An alpha-1-lipoprotein... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alpha-1-lipoprotein immuno-logical test system...

  20. 21 CFR 866.5350 - Fibrinopeptide A immuno-logical test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5350 Fibrinopeptide A immuno-logical test system. (a) Identification. A fibrinopeptide A immunological... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fibrinopeptide A immuno-logical test system. 866...

  1. 21 CFR 866.5580 - Alpha-1-lipoprotein immuno-logical test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alpha-1-lipoprotein immuno-logical test system....5580 Alpha-1-lipoprotein immuno-logical test system. (a) Identification. An alpha-1-lipoprotein... the alpha-1-lipoprotein (high-density lipoprotein) in serum and plasma. Measurement of alpha-1...

  2. 21 CFR 866.5580 - Alpha-1-lipoprotein immuno-logical test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alpha-1-lipoprotein immuno-logical test system....5580 Alpha-1-lipoprotein immuno-logical test system. (a) Identification. An alpha-1-lipoprotein... the alpha-1-lipoprotein (high-density lipoprotein) in serum and plasma. Measurement of alpha-1...

  3. 21 CFR 866.5580 - Alpha-1-lipoprotein immuno-logical test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alpha-1-lipoprotein immuno-logical test system....5580 Alpha-1-lipoprotein immuno-logical test system. (a) Identification. An alpha-1-lipoprotein... the alpha-1-lipoprotein (high-density lipoprotein) in serum and plasma. Measurement of alpha-1...

  4. 21 CFR 866.5580 - Alpha-1-lipoprotein immuno-logical test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alpha-1-lipoprotein immuno-logical test system....5580 Alpha-1-lipoprotein immuno-logical test system. (a) Identification. An alpha-1-lipoprotein... the alpha-1-lipoprotein (high-density lipoprotein) in serum and plasma. Measurement of alpha-1...

  5. 21 CFR 866.5775 - Rheumatoid factor immuno-logical test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... Measurement of rheumatoid factor may aid in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. (b) Classification. Class... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rheumatoid factor immuno-logical test system. 866....5775 Rheumatoid factor immuno-logical test system. (a) Identification. A rheumatoid factor...

  6. 21 CFR 866.5775 - Rheumatoid factor immuno-logical test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... Measurement of rheumatoid factor may aid in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. (b) Classification. Class... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rheumatoid factor immuno-logical test system. 866....5775 Rheumatoid factor immuno-logical test system. (a) Identification. A rheumatoid factor...

  7. 21 CFR 866.5775 - Rheumatoid factor immuno-logical test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Measurement of rheumatoid factor may aid in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. (b) Classification. Class... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rheumatoid factor immuno-logical test system. 866....5775 Rheumatoid factor immuno-logical test system. (a) Identification. A rheumatoid factor...

  8. 21 CFR 866.5775 - Rheumatoid factor immuno-logical test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... Measurement of rheumatoid factor may aid in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. (b) Classification. Class... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rheumatoid factor immuno-logical test system. 866....5775 Rheumatoid factor immuno-logical test system. (a) Identification. A rheumatoid factor...

  9. 21 CFR 866.5775 - Rheumatoid factor immuno-logical test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... Measurement of rheumatoid factor may aid in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. (b) Classification. Class... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rheumatoid factor immuno-logical test system. 866....5775 Rheumatoid factor immuno-logical test system. (a) Identification. A rheumatoid factor...

  10. [Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia. A pediatric disease reaches adulthood].

    PubMed

    Lücke, Thomas; Kanzelmeyer, Nele; Franke, Doris; Hartmann, Hans; Ehrich, Jochen H H; Das, Anibh M

    2006-03-15

    Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia (SIOD) is a rare autosomal recessive multisystemic disorder caused by mutations of the SMARCAL 1 gene (SWI/SNF-related, matrix-associated, actin-dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a-like 1). Main clinical features are: disproportional growth deficiency due to spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, nephrotic syndrome with focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis, and defective cellular immunity. Patients with severe SIOD have life-limiting complications like cerebral ischemia due to vaso-occlusive processes. Only a few patients reached adulthood. The clinical course of four adult SIOD patients is presented. Even patients with severe SIOD can reach adulthood. Therefore, doctors working in the field of internal medicine and family doctors should be familiar with the clinical picture of SIOD.

  11. Food irradiation: Special solutions for the immuno-compromised

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohácsi-Farkas, Csilla

    2016-12-01

    Safety of food is particularly important for immuno-compromised patients, because these people are vulnerable to all sorts of infectious complications and foodborne pathogens as well, and even organisms normally considered non-pathogenic may cause problems. According to the guidelines published by the FDA, immunocompromised patients have to avoid high-risk foods, and advised to consume only pasteurized juice, milk or cheese, and well-cooked eggs, poultry, meat and fish. In the frame of an IAEA CRP the objective was to develop, in collaborations with the healthcare community, the use of irradiation to increase the variety, availability and acceptability of foods for immunocompromised, for example irradiated fresh produce (fruits, vegetables, salads) and ready-to-eat meals. Further aim was to widen the acceptance of irradiated foods by the healthcare and regulatory communities.

  12. A two-step enzymatic modification method to reduce immuno-reactivity of milk proteins.

    PubMed

    Damodaran, Srinivasan; Li, Yan

    2017-12-15

    A two-step enzymatic approach to reduce immuno-reactivity of whey protein isolate and casein has been studied. The method involves partial hydrolysis of proteins with proteases, followed by repolymerization with microbial transglutaminase. Whey protein isolate partially hydrolyzed with chymotrypsin, trypsin, or thermolysin retained about 80%, 30%, and 20% of the original immuno-reactivity, respectively. Upon repolymerization the immuno-reactivity decreased to 45%, 35%, and 5%, respectively. The immuno-reactivity of hydrolyzed and repolymerized casein was negligible compared to native casein. The repolymerized products were partially resistant to in vitro digestion. Peptides released during digestion of repolymerized thermolysin-whey protein hydrolysate had less than 5% immuno-reactivity, whereas those of whey protein control exhibited a sinusoidal immuno-reactivity ranging from 5 to 20%. Peptides released during digestion of repolymerized thermolysin-casein hydrolysates had no immuno-reactivity. These results indicated that it is possible to produce hypoallergenic milk protein products using the two-step enzymatic modification method involving thermolysin and transglutaminase. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. The Radio JOVE Project - Shoestring Radio Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thieman, J.; Flagg, R.; Greenman, W.; Higgins, C.; Reyes, F.; Sky, J.

    2010-01-01

    Radio JOVE is an education and outreach project intended to give students and other interested individuals hands-on experience in learning radio astronomy. They can do this through building a radio telescope from a relatively inexpensive kit that includes the parts for a receiver and an antenna as well as software for a computer chart recorder emulator (Radio Skypipe) and other reference materials

  14. Space Telecommunications Radio System STRS Cognitive Radio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briones, Janette C.; Handler, Louis M.

    2013-01-01

    Radios today are evolving from awareness toward cognition. A software defined radio (SDR) provides the most capability for integrating autonomic decision making ability and allows the incremental evolution toward a cognitive radio. This cognitive radio technology will impact NASA space communications in areas such as spectrum utilization, interoperability, network operations, and radio resource management over a wide range of operating conditions. NASAs cognitive radio will build upon the infrastructure being developed by Space Telecommunication Radio System (STRS) SDR technology. This paper explores the feasibility of inserting cognitive capabilities in the NASA STRS architecture and the interfaces between the cognitive engine and the STRS radio. The STRS architecture defines methods that can inform the cognitive engine about the radio environment so that the cognitive engine can learn autonomously from experience, and take appropriate actions to adapt the radio operating characteristics and optimize performance.

  15. Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia: case report and review of 25 patients

    PubMed Central

    Saraiva, J.; Dinis, A.; Resende, C.; Faria, E.; Gomes, C.; Correia, A; Gil, J.; da Fonseca, N.

    1999-01-01

    Immuno-osseous dysplasia is characterised by spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, lymphopenia with defective cellular immunity, and progressive renal disease. We describe a patient with a severe form of the disease, review the features of another 24 patients, and discuss the previous classification. The differences between the two groups are not striking, and although similarities are greater between affected sibs, the same diagnosis of Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia should apply to them all. The aetiology and physiopathology of this rare osteochondrodysplasia of presumed autosomal recessive inheritance remain unknown.


Keywords: osteochondrodysplasia; immuno-osseous dysplasia; spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia; defective cellular immunity PMID:10528861

  16. Modeling the economic outcomes of immuno-oncology drugs: alternative model frameworks to capture clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Gibson, E J; Begum, N; Koblbauer, I; Dranitsaris, G; Liew, D; McEwan, P; Tahami Monfared, A A; Yuan, Y; Juarez-Garcia, A; Tyas, D; Lees, M

    2018-01-01

    Economic models in oncology are commonly based on the three-state partitioned survival model (PSM) distinguishing between progression-free and progressive states. However, the heterogeneity of responses observed in immuno-oncology (I-O) suggests that new approaches may be appropriate to reflect disease dynamics meaningfully. This study explored the impact of incorporating immune-specific health states into economic models of I-O therapy. Two variants of the PSM and a Markov model were populated with data from one clinical trial in metastatic melanoma patients. Short-term modeled outcomes were benchmarked to the clinical trial data and a lifetime model horizon provided estimates of life years and quality adjusted life years (QALYs). The PSM-based models produced short-term outcomes closely matching the trial outcomes. Adding health states generated increased QALYs while providing a more granular representation of outcomes for decision making. The Markov model gave the greatest level of detail on outcomes but gave short-term results which diverged from those of the trial (overstating year 1 progression-free survival by around 60%). Increased sophistication in the representation of disease dynamics in economic models is desirable when attempting to model treatment response in I-O. However, the assumptions underlying different model structures and the availability of data for health state mapping may be important limiting factors.

  17. Modeling the economic outcomes of immuno-oncology drugs: alternative model frameworks to capture clinical outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, EJ; Begum, N; Koblbauer, I; Dranitsaris, G; Liew, D; McEwan, P; Tahami Monfared, AA; Yuan, Y; Juarez-Garcia, A; Tyas, D; Lees, M

    2018-01-01

    Background Economic models in oncology are commonly based on the three-state partitioned survival model (PSM) distinguishing between progression-free and progressive states. However, the heterogeneity of responses observed in immuno-oncology (I-O) suggests that new approaches may be appropriate to reflect disease dynamics meaningfully. Materials and methods This study explored the impact of incorporating immune-specific health states into economic models of I-O therapy. Two variants of the PSM and a Markov model were populated with data from one clinical trial in metastatic melanoma patients. Short-term modeled outcomes were benchmarked to the clinical trial data and a lifetime model horizon provided estimates of life years and quality adjusted life years (QALYs). Results The PSM-based models produced short-term outcomes closely matching the trial outcomes. Adding health states generated increased QALYs while providing a more granular representation of outcomes for decision making. The Markov model gave the greatest level of detail on outcomes but gave short-term results which diverged from those of the trial (overstating year 1 progression-free survival by around 60%). Conclusion Increased sophistication in the representation of disease dynamics in economic models is desirable when attempting to model treatment response in I-O. However, the assumptions underlying different model structures and the availability of data for health state mapping may be important limiting factors. PMID:29563820

  18. Updates in the Development of ImmunoRNases for the Selective Killing of Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jordaan, Sandra; Akinrinmade, Olusiji A.; Nachreiner, Thomas; Cremer, Christian; Naran, Krupa; Chetty, Shivan; Barth, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    Targeted cancer therapy includes, amongst others, antibody-based delivery of toxic payloads to selectively eliminate tumor cells. This payload can be either a synthetic small molecule drug composing an antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) or a cytotoxic protein composing an immunotoxin (IT). Non-human cytotoxic proteins, while potent, have limited clinical efficacy due to their immunogenicity and potential off-target toxicity. Humanization of the cytotoxic payload is essential and requires harnessing of potent apoptosis-inducing human proteins with conditional activity, which rely on targeted delivery to contact their substrate. Ribonucleases are attractive candidates, due to their ability to induce apoptosis by abrogating protein biosynthesis via tRNA degradation. In fact, several RNases of the pancreatic RNase A superfamily have shown potential as anti-cancer agents. Coupling of a human RNase to a humanized antibody or antibody derivative putatively eliminates the immunogenicity of an IT (now known as a human cytolytic fusion protein, hCFP). However, RNases are tightly regulated in vivo by endogenous inhibitors, controlling the ribonucleolytic balance subject to the cell’s metabolic requirements. Endogenous inhibition limits the efficacy with which RNase-based hCFPs induce apoptosis. However, abrogating the natural interaction with the natural inhibitors by mutation has been shown to significantly enhance RNase activity, paving the way toward achieving cytolytic potency comparable to that of bacterial immunotoxins. Here, we review the immunoRNases that have undergone preclinical studies as anti-cancer therapeutic agents. PMID:29510557

  19. Updates in the Development of ImmunoRNases for the Selective Killing of Tumor Cells.

    PubMed

    Jordaan, Sandra; Akinrinmade, Olusiji A; Nachreiner, Thomas; Cremer, Christian; Naran, Krupa; Chetty, Shivan; Barth, Stefan

    2018-03-05

    Targeted cancer therapy includes, amongst others, antibody-based delivery of toxic payloads to selectively eliminate tumor cells. This payload can be either a synthetic small molecule drug composing an antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) or a cytotoxic protein composing an immunotoxin (IT). Non-human cytotoxic proteins, while potent, have limited clinical efficacy due to their immunogenicity and potential off-target toxicity. Humanization of the cytotoxic payload is essential and requires harnessing of potent apoptosis-inducing human proteins with conditional activity, which rely on targeted delivery to contact their substrate. Ribonucleases are attractive candidates, due to their ability to induce apoptosis by abrogating protein biosynthesis via tRNA degradation. In fact, several RNases of the pancreatic RNase A superfamily have shown potential as anti-cancer agents. Coupling of a human RNase to a humanized antibody or antibody derivative putatively eliminates the immunogenicity of an IT (now known as a human cytolytic fusion protein, hCFP). However, RNases are tightly regulated in vivo by endogenous inhibitors, controlling the ribonucleolytic balance subject to the cell's metabolic requirements. Endogenous inhibition limits the efficacy with which RNase-based hCFPs induce apoptosis. However, abrogating the natural interaction with the natural inhibitors by mutation has been shown to significantly enhance RNase activity, paving the way toward achieving cytolytic potency comparable to that of bacterial immunotoxins. Here, we review the immunoRNases that have undergone preclinical studies as anti-cancer therapeutic agents.

  20. RADIO ALTIMETERS

    DOEpatents

    Bogle, R.W.

    1960-11-22

    A radio ranging device is described which utilizes a superregenerative oscillator having alternate sending and receiving phases with an intervening ranging interval between said phases, means for varying said ranging interval, means responsive to an on-range noise reduction condition for stopping said means for varying the ranging interval and indicating means coupled to the ranging interval varying means and calibrated in accordance with one-half the product of the ranging interval times the velocity of light whereby the range is indicated.

  1. [Computational medical imaging (radiomics) and potential for immuno-oncology].

    PubMed

    Sun, R; Limkin, E J; Dercle, L; Reuzé, S; Zacharaki, E I; Chargari, C; Schernberg, A; Dirand, A S; Alexis, A; Paragios, N; Deutsch, É; Ferté, C; Robert, C

    2017-10-01

    The arrival of immunotherapy has profoundly changed the management of multiple cancers, obtaining unexpected tumour responses. However, until now, the majority of patients do not respond to these new treatments. The identification of biomarkers to determine precociously responding patients is a major challenge. Computational medical imaging (also known as radiomics) is a promising and rapidly growing discipline. This new approach consists in the analysis of high-dimensional data extracted from medical imaging, to further describe tumour phenotypes. This approach has the advantages of being non-invasive, capable of evaluating the tumour and its microenvironment in their entirety, thus characterising spatial heterogeneity, and being easily repeatable over time. The end goal of radiomics is to determine imaging biomarkers as decision support tools for clinical practice and to facilitate better understanding of cancer biology, allowing the assessment of the changes throughout the evolution of the disease and the therapeutic sequence. This review will develop the process of computational imaging analysis and present its potential in immuno-oncology. Copyright © 2017 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. The immuno-dynamics of conflict intervention in social systems.

    PubMed

    Krakauer, David C; Page, Karen; Flack, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    We present statistical evidence and dynamical models for the management of conflict and a division of labor (task specialization) in a primate society. Two broad intervention strategy classes are observed--a dyadic strategy--pacifying interventions, and a triadic strategy--policing interventions. These strategies, their respective degrees of specialization, and their consequences for conflict dynamics can be captured through empirically-grounded mathematical models inspired by immuno-dynamics. The spread of aggression, analogous to the proliferation of pathogens, is an epidemiological problem. We show analytically and computationally that policing is an efficient strategy as it requires only a small proportion of a population to police to reduce conflict contagion. Policing, but not pacifying, is capable of effectively eliminating conflict. These results suggest that despite implementation differences there might be universal features of conflict management mechanisms for reducing contagion-like dynamics that apply across biological and social levels. Our analyses further suggest that it can be profitable to conceive of conflict management strategies at the behavioral level as mechanisms of social immunity.

  3. The Immuno-Dynamics of Conflict Intervention in Social Systems

    PubMed Central

    Krakauer, David C.; Page, Karen; Flack, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    We present statistical evidence and dynamical models for the management of conflict and a division of labor (task specialization) in a primate society. Two broad intervention strategy classes are observed– a dyadic strategy – pacifying interventions, and a triadic strategy –policing interventions. These strategies, their respective degrees of specialization, and their consequences for conflict dynamics can be captured through empirically-grounded mathematical models inspired by immuno-dynamics. The spread of aggression, analogous to the proliferation of pathogens, is an epidemiological problem. We show analytically and computationally that policing is an efficient strategy as it requires only a small proportion of a population to police to reduce conflict contagion. Policing, but not pacifying, is capable of effectively eliminating conflict. These results suggest that despite implementation differences there might be universal features of conflict management mechanisms for reducing contagion-like dynamics that apply across biological and social levels. Our analyses further suggest that it can be profitable to conceive of conflict management strategies at the behavioral level as mechanisms of social immunity. PMID:21887221

  4. The immuno-pathological conversions of canine demodicosis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shanker K; Dimri, Umesh

    2014-06-16

    Canine demodicosis is a common but exigent noncontagious parasitic dermatosis caused by overpopulation of the host-specific follicular mites of various Demodex species. Receptivity of dogs to demodicosis and progression of the clinical disease are influenced by numerous factors including; genetic defect, alteration of skin's structure and biochemistry, immunological disorders, hormonal status, breed, age, nutritional status, oxidative stress, length of hair coat, stage of oestrus cycle, parturition, endoparasitism and debilitating diseases. Of these, the immune status is thought to be the most significant. Thus, in the present review we intended to edify the immuno-pathological conversions of canine demodicosis. Generalized demodicosis requires a cutaneous environment that is ecologically and immunologically favorable for extreme colonization of demodectic mites. Demodex canis mites can down regulate the CD4+ T cells; possibly by an increased rate of apoptosis or immunological exhaustion of CD4+ T cells. An increased apoptosis of peripheral leukocytes confers progression of the clinical manifestations. Mites induced elevation of TGF-β and inhibition of TNF-α mRNA expression might be a key factor for revealing the difference in the mechanism of onset between localized and generalized demodicosis. Moreover, an elevated serum level of IL-10 could be accountable for the recurrence as well as occurrence of demodicosis in dogs. Over production of reactive oxygen species can corroborate immunological discrepancies in dogs with demodicosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Cytosolic sensing of immuno-stimulatory DNA, the enemy within.

    PubMed

    Dhanwani, Rekha; Takahashi, Mariko; Sharma, Sonia

    2018-02-01

    In the cytoplasm, DNA is sensed as a universal danger signal by the innate immune system. Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) is a cytosolic DNA sensor/enzyme that catalyzes formation of 2'-5'-cGAMP, an atypical cyclic di-nucleotide second messenger that binds and activates the Stimulator of Interferon Genes (STING), resulting in recruitment of Tank Binding Kinase 1 (TBK1), activation of the transcription factor Interferon Regulatory Factor 3 (IRF3), and trans-activation of innate immune response genes, including type I Interferon cytokines (IFN-I). Activation of the pro-inflammatory cGAS-STING-IRF3 response is triggered by direct recognition of the DNA genomes of bacteria and viruses, but also during RNA virus infection, neoplastic transformation, tumor immunotherapy and systemic auto-inflammatory diseases. In these circumstances, the source of immuno-stimulatory DNA has often represented a fundamental yet poorly understood aspect of the response. This review focuses on recent findings related to cGAS activation by an array of self-derived DNA substrates, including endogenous retroviral elements, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and micronuclei generated as a result of genotoxic stress and DNA damage. These findings emphasize the role of the cGAS axis as a cell-intrinsic innate immune response to a wide variety of genomic insults. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Multicenter evaluation of the Bayer Immuno I CA 15-3 assay.

    PubMed

    Cheli, C D; Morris, D L; Kish, L; Goldblatt, J; Neaman, I; Allard, W J; Yeung, K K; Wu, A H; Moore, R; Chan, D W; Fritsche, H A; Schwartz, M K; Very, D L

    1998-04-01

    We conducted a multicenter evaluation of the analytical and clinical features of the automated Bayer Immuno 1 CA 15-3 assay and compared assay performance to two manual tests. Results of the 10-day imprecision study of the Bayer Immuno 1 assay pooled across four evaluation sites and three lots of reagent produced total CV < or = 4%. Lot-to-lot reproducibility for 26 different lots of reagents and calibrators manufactured over a 2-year period was demonstrated (CV, 1.1%). Results for the Bayer Immuno 1 assay correlated well with the Biomira TRUQUANT BR 27.29 and Centocor CA 15-3 RIAs (r > or = 0.94). The upper limit of the reference interval for the Bayer Immuno 1 assay was 35.9 kilounits/L (35.9 units/mL); values were similar for all methods. Longitudinal monitoring of healthy women yielded assay values with an average CV of 11% and 21% for the Bayer Immuno 1 and Biomira assays, respectively. The Bayer Immuno 1 assay demonstrated the analytical features, intermethod correlation, and long-term performance characteristics that are essential for longitudinal monitoring of breast cancer patients.

  7. Current topics in HIV-1 pathogenesis: The emergence of deregulated immuno-metabolism in HIV-infected subjects.

    PubMed

    Dagenais-Lussier, Xavier; Mouna, Aounallah; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Tremblay, Cecile; Sekaly, Rafick-Pierre; El-Far, Mohamed; Grevenynghe, Julien van

    2015-12-01

    HIV-1 infection results in long-lasting activation of the immune system including elevated production of pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokines, and bacterial product release from gut into blood and tissue compartments, which are not fully restored by antiretroviral therapies. HIV-1 has also developed numerous strategies via viral regulatory proteins to hijack cell molecular mechanisms to enhance its own replication and dissemination. Here, we reviewed the relationship between viral proteins, immune activation/inflammation, and deregulated metabolism occurring in HIV-1-infected patients that ultimately dampens the protective innate and adaptive arms of immunity. Defining precisely the molecular mechanisms related to deregulated immuno-metabolism during HIV-1 infection could ultimately help in the development of novel clinical approaches to restore proper immune functions in these patients. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Radio Jove: Jupiter Radio Astronomy for Citizens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, Charles; Thieman, J. R.; Flagg, R.; Reyes, F. J.; Sky, J.; Greenman, W.; Brown, J.; Typinski, D.; Ashcraft, T.; Mount, A.

    2014-01-01

    Radio JOVE is a hands-on educational activity that brings the radio sounds of the Sun, Jupiter, the Milky Way Galaxy, and terrestrial radio noise to students, teachers, and the general public. Participants may build a simple radio telescope kit, make scientific observations, and interact with professional radio observatories in real-time over the Internet. Our website (http://radiojove.gsfc.nasa.gov) includes science information, construction manuals, observing guides, and education resources for teachers and students. Radio Jove is continually expanding its participants with over 1800 kits sold to more than 70 countries worldwide. Recently some of our most dedicated observers have upgraded their Radio Jove antennas to semi-professional observatories. We have spectrographs and wide band antennas, some with 8 MHz bandwidth and some with dual polarization capabilities. In an effort to add to the science literature, these observers are coordinating their efforts to pursue some basic questions about Jupiter’s radio emissions (radio source locations, spectral structure, long term changes, etc.). We can compare signal and ionosphere variations using the many Radio Jove observers at different locations. Observers are also working with members of the Long Wavelength Array Station 1 (LWA1) radio telescope to coordinate observations of Jupiter; Radio Jove is planning to make coordinated observations while the Juno Mission is active beginning in 2015. The Radio Jove program is overviewed, its hardware and software are highlighted, recent sample observations are shown, and we demonstrate that we are capable of real citizen science.

  9. Learning radio astronomy by doing radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaquerizo Gallego, J. A.

    2011-11-01

    PARTNeR (Proyecto Académico con el Radio Telescopio de NASA en Robledo, Academic Project with the NASA Radio Telescope at Robledo) is an educational program that allows high school and undergraduate students to control a 34 meter radio telescope and conduct radio astronomical observations via the internet. High-school teachers who join the project take a course to learn about the science of radio astronomy and how to use the antenna as an educational resource. Also, teachers are provided with learning activities they can do with their students and focused on the classroom implementation of the project within an interdisciplinary framework. PARTNeR provides students with firsthand experience in radio astronomy science. Thus, remote radio astronomical observations allow students to learn with a first rate scientific equipment the basics of radio astronomy research, aiming to arouse scientific careers and positive attitudes toward science. In this contribution we show the current observational programs and some recent results.

  10. Lice induced immuno-oxidative wreckage of goats.

    PubMed

    Ajith, Y; Dimri, U; Singh, Shanker K; Gopalakrishnan, A; Devi, Gopinath; Verma, M R; Joshi, Vivek; Alam, Shahjahan

    2017-08-15

    The present study aimed to evaluate the immuno-oxidative patho-biology of lice infestation in goats. Sixty goats were divided into five groups; sucking lice (Linognathus africanus) infested (Group 1, n=12), chewing lice (Bovicola caprae) infested-mild (Group 2, n=12), chewing lice (B. caprae) infested-moderate (Group 3, n=12), chewing lice (B. caprae) infested-severe (Group 4, n=12) and healthy control (Group 5, n=12). To assess the pathological changes, markers of oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation-LPO, reduced glutathione-GSH, superoxide dismutase-SOD, Catalase-CAT and total antioxidant capacity-TAC), the markers of immune status (Tumour necrosis factor alpha- TNF-α, Interleukin-10- IL-10, Transforming growth factor beta 1- TGF-β1, ratios of TNF-α/IL-10 and TNF-α/TGF-β1) and hemato-biochemical status were evaluated. Significant anemia, hypoglycemia, hypoproteinemia and hypoalbuminemia were observed in caprine pediculosis irrespective of the type of lice infested. Remarkably increased oxidative stress was observed in chewing lice infested goats and no significant changes in oxidative stress markers were observed in sucking lice infested goats. TGF-β mediated suppression of Th1 and Th2 immune responses was observed in sucking lice infested goats; whereas, a Th2 cytokine dominant inflammatory response was observed in chewing lice infested goats. From the present study, it may be concluded that sucking lice infestation produces remarkable immunosuppression and chewing lice infestation produces significant oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in goats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Immuno-PET Imaging and Radioimmunotherapy of 64Cu-/177Lu-Labeled Anti-EGFR Antibody in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Model.

    PubMed

    Song, In Ho; Lee, Tae Sup; Park, Yong Serk; Lee, Jin Sook; Lee, Byung Chul; Moon, Byung Seok; An, Gwang Il; Lee, Hae Won; Kim, Kwang Il; Lee, Yong Jin; Kang, Joo Hyun; Lim, Sang Moo

    2016-07-01

    Immuno-PET provides valuable information about tumor location, phenotype, susceptibility to therapy, and treatment response, especially to targeted radioimmunotherapy. In this study, we prepared antiepidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody via identical chelator, 3,6,9,15-tetraazabicyclo[9.3.1]-pentadeca-1(15),11,13-trience-3,6,9,-triacetic acid (PCTA), labeled with (64)Cu or (177)Lu to evaluate the EGFR expression levels using immuno-PET and the feasibility of radioimmunotherapy in an esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) model. Cetuximab was conjugated with p-SCN-Bn-PCTA and radiolabeled with (64)Cu or (177)Lu. In vitro EGFR expression levels were determined and compared using flow cytometry and cell binding assay. In vivo EGFR expression levels were evaluated via immuno-PET imaging of (64)Cu-cetuximab and biodistribution analysis. Micro-SPECT/CT imaging, biodistribution, and radioimmunotherapy studies of (177)Lu-cetuximab were performed in the ESCC model. Therapeutic responses were monitored using (18)F-FDG PET and immunohistochemical staining. (64)Cu- or (177)Lu-labeled antibodies showed high radiolabeling yield (>98%), stability (>90%), and favorable immunoreactivity. In vitro EGFR status measured by cell binding assay was correlated with the flow cytometry data. Immuno-PET, micro-SPECT/CT, and biodistribution demonstrated specific uptake in ESCC tumors depending on the EGFR expression levels. Tumor accumulation of (64)Cu- and (177)Lu-cetuximab was peaked at 48 and 120 h, respectively. Radioimmunotherapy with (177)Lu-cetuximab showed significant inhibition of tumor growth (P < 0.01) and marked reduction of (18)F-FDG SUV compared with that of control (P < 0.05). Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling positivity and Ki-67 staining indices increased and decreased, respectively, in the radioimmunotherapy group compared with other groups (P < 0.01). (64)Cu-cetuximab immuno-PET represented EGFR expression levels in ESCC tumors, and

  12. The Frequency Spectrum Radio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howkins, John, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    This journal issue focuses on the frequency spectrum used in radio communication and on the World Administrative Radio Conference, sponsored by the International Telecommunication Union, held in Geneva, Switzerland, in the fall of 1979. Articles describe the World Administrative Radio Conference as the most important radio communication conference…

  13. The Radio Amateur's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakeslee, Douglas, Ed.

    The objectives of this basic reference work for the radio amateur are to present radio theory and practice in terms of application and to reflect both the fundamentals and the rapidly-advancing technology of radio communications so that the radio amateur will have a guide to what is practical, meaningful, proven, and useful. Twenty-three chapters…

  14. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence for oral nutritional intervention on nutritional and clinical outcomes during chemo(radio)therapy: current evidence and guidance for design of future trials

    PubMed Central

    de van der Schueren, M A E; Blanchard, H; Jourdan, M; Arends, J; Baracos, V E

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Driven by reduced nutritional intakes and metabolic alterations, malnutrition in cancer patients adversely affects quality of life, treatment tolerance and survival. We examined evidence for oral nutritional interventions during chemo(radio)therapy. Design We carried out a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCT) with either dietary counseling (DC), high-energy oral nutritional supplements (ONS) aiming at improving intakes or ONS enriched with protein and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) additionally aiming for modulation of cancer-related metabolic alterations. Meta-analyses were carried out on body weight (BW) response to nutritional interventions, with subgroup analyses for DC and/or high-energy ONS or high-protein n-3 PUFA-enriched ONS. Results Eleven studies were identified. Meta-analysis showed overall benefit of interventions on BW during chemo(radio)therapy (+1.31 kg, 95% CI 0.24–2.38, P = 0.02, heterogeneity Q = 21.1, P = 0.007). Subgroup analysis showed no effect of DC and/or high-energy ONS (+0.80 kg, 95% CI −1.14 to 2.74, P = 0.32; Q = 10.5, P = 0.03), possibly due to limited compliance and intakes falling short of intake goals. A significant effect was observed for high-protein n-3 PUFA-enriched intervention compared with isocaloric controls (+1.89 kg, 95% CI 0.51–3.27, P = 0.02; Q = 3.1 P = 0.37). High-protein, n-3 PUFA-enriched ONS studies showed attenuation of lean body mass loss (N = 2 studies) and improvement of some quality of life domains (N = 3 studies). Overall, studies were limited in number, heterogeneous, and inadequately powered to show effects on treatment toxicity or survival. Conclusion This systematic review suggests an overall positive effect of nutritional interventions during chemo(radio)therapy on BW. Subgroup analyses showed effects were driven by high-protein n-3 PUFA-enriched ONS, suggesting the benefit of targeting metabolic

  15. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence for oral nutritional intervention on nutritional and clinical outcomes during chemo(radio)therapy: current evidence and guidance for design of future trials.

    PubMed

    de van der Schueren, M A E; Laviano, A; Blanchard, H; Jourdan, M; Arends, J; Baracos, V E

    2018-05-01

    Driven by reduced nutritional intakes and metabolic alterations, malnutrition in cancer patients adversely affects quality of life, treatment tolerance and survival. We examined evidence for oral nutritional interventions during chemo(radio)therapy. We carried out a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCT) with either dietary counseling (DC), high-energy oral nutritional supplements (ONS) aiming at improving intakes or ONS enriched with protein and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) additionally aiming for modulation of cancer-related metabolic alterations. Meta-analyses were carried out on body weight (BW) response to nutritional interventions, with subgroup analyses for DC and/or high-energy ONS or high-protein n-3 PUFA-enriched ONS. Eleven studies were identified. Meta-analysis showed overall benefit of interventions on BW during chemo(radio)therapy (+1.31 kg, 95% CI 0.24-2.38, P = 0.02, heterogeneity Q = 21.1, P = 0.007). Subgroup analysis showed no effect of DC and/or high-energy ONS (+0.80 kg, 95% CI -1.14 to 2.74, P = 0.32; Q = 10.5, P = 0.03), possibly due to limited compliance and intakes falling short of intake goals. A significant effect was observed for high-protein n-3 PUFA-enriched intervention compared with isocaloric controls (+1.89 kg, 95% CI 0.51-3.27, P = 0.02; Q = 3.1 P = 0.37). High-protein, n-3 PUFA-enriched ONS studies showed attenuation of lean body mass loss (N = 2 studies) and improvement of some quality of life domains (N = 3 studies). Overall, studies were limited in number, heterogeneous, and inadequately powered to show effects on treatment toxicity or survival. This systematic review suggests an overall positive effect of nutritional interventions during chemo(radio)therapy on BW. Subgroup analyses showed effects were driven by high-protein n-3 PUFA-enriched ONS, suggesting the benefit of targeting metabolic alterations. DC and/or high-energy ONS were less

  16. PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitors for Immuno-oncology: From Antibodies to Small Molecules.

    PubMed

    Geng, Qiaohong; Jiao, Peifu; Jin, Peng; Su, Gaoxing; Dong, Jinlong; Yan, Bing

    2018-02-12

    The recent regulatory approvals of immune checkpoint protein inhibitors, such as ipilimumab, pembrolizumab, nivolumab, atezolizumab, durvalumab, and avelumab ushered a new era in cancer therapy. These inhibitors do not attack tumor cells directly but instead mobilize the immune system to re-recognize and eradicate tumors, which endows them with unique advantages including durable clinical responses and substantial clinical benefits. PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors, a pillar of immune checkpoint protein inhibitors, have demonstrated unprecedented clinical efficacy in more than 20 cancer types. Besides monoclonal antibodies, diverse PD- 1/PD-L1 inhibiting candidates, such as peptides, small molecules have formed a powerful collection of weapons to fight cancer. The goal of this review is to summarize and discuss the current PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors including candidates under clinical development, their molecular interactions with PD-1 or PD-L1, the disclosed structureactivity relationships of peptides and small molecules as inhibitors. Current PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors under clinical development are exclusively dominated by antibodies. The molecular interactions of therapeutic antibodies with PD-1 or PD-L1 have been gradually elucidated for the design of novel inhibitors. Various peptides and traditional small molecules have been investigated in preclinical model to discover novel PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors. Peptides and small molecules may play an important role in immuno-oncology because they may bind to multiple immune checkpoint proteins via rational design, opening opportunity for a new generation of novel PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. Oxaliplatin immuno hybrid nanoparticles for active targeting: an approach for enhanced apoptotic activity and drug delivery to colorectal tumors.

    PubMed

    Tummala, Shashank; Gowthamarajan, K; Satish Kumar, M N; Wadhwani, Ashish

    2016-06-01

    Tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) proved to be a promising new target for colorectal cancer treatment. Elevated expression of TRAIL protein in tumor cells distinguishes it from healthy cells, thereby delivering the drug at the specific site. Here, we formulated oxaliplatin immunohybrid nanoparticles (OIHNPs) to deliver oxaliplatin and anti-TRAIL for colorectal cancer treatment in xenograft tumor models. The polymeric chitosan layer binds to the lipid film with the mixture of phospholipids by an ultra sound method followed by conjugating with thiolated antibody using DSPE-PEG-mal3400, resulting in the formation of OIHNPs. The polymer layer helps in more encapsulation of the drug (71 ± 0.09%) with appreciable particle size (95 ± 0.01 nm), and lipid layer prevents degradation of the drug in serum by preventing nanoparticle aggregation. OIHNPs have shown a 4-fold decrease in the IC50 value compared to oxaliplatin in HT-29 cells by the MTT assay. These immuno-nanoparticles represent the successful uptake and internalization of oxaliplatin in HT-29 cells rather than in MCF-7 cells determined by triple fluorescence method. Apoptotic activity in vitro of OIHNPs was determined by the change in the mitochondria membrane potential that further elevates its anti-tumor property. Furthermore, the conjugated nanoparticles can effectively deliver the drug to the tumor sites, which can be attributed to its ability in reducing tumor mass and tumor volume in xenograft tumor models in vivo along with sustaining its release in vitro. These findings indicated that the oxaliplatin immuno-hybrid nanoparticles would be a promising nano-sized active targeted formulation for colorectal-tumor targeted therapy.

  18. Therapy with radio-attenuated vaccine in experimental murine visceral leishmaniasis showed enhanced T cell and inducible nitric oxide synthase levels, suppressed tumor growth factor-beta production with higher expression of some signaling molecules.

    PubMed

    Datta, Sanchita; Roy, Syamal; Manna, Madhumita

    2015-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) or Kala-Azar (KA) is one of the most deadly forms of disease among all neglected tropical diseases. There are no satisfactory drugs or vaccine candidates available for this dreaded disease. Our previous studies showed promising therapeutic and prophylactic efficacy of the live, radio-attenuated parasites through intramuscular (I.M.) and intraperitoneal (I.P.) route in BALB/c mice model. The T-cell proliferation level, the mRNA expression level of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and tumor growth factor-beta (TGF-β) genes and finally the phosphorylation levels of phosphoinositide dependent kinase 1 (PDK1), phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K) and p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) molecules were checked in BALB/c mice model immunized with radio-attenuated Leishmania donovani parasites through I.M. route. Higher T-cell proliferation, increased iNOS level, and suppressed TGF-β level were found in treated infected animal groups (100 and 150Gy) in relation to untreated infected animals. Likewise, phosphorylation levels of PDK1, PI3K and p38MAPK of these two groups were increased when compared to untreated infected controls. The clearance of the parasites from treated infected groups of animals may be mediated by the restoration of T-cell due to therapy with radio-attenuated L. donovani parasites. The killing of parasites was mediated by increase in nitric oxide release through PDK1, PI3K and p38MAPK signaling pathways. A lower TGF-β expression has augmented the restored Th1 ambience in the 100 and 150Gy treated animal groups proving further the efficacy of the candidate vaccine. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  19. Radio frequency detection assembly and method for detecting radio frequencies

    DOEpatents

    Cown, Steven H.; Derr, Kurt Warren

    2010-03-16

    A radio frequency detection assembly is described and which includes a radio frequency detector which detects a radio frequency emission produced by a radio frequency emitter from a given location which is remote relative to the radio frequency detector; a location assembly electrically coupled with the radio frequency detector and which is operable to estimate the location of the radio frequency emitter from the radio frequency emission which has been received; and a radio frequency transmitter electrically coupled with the radio frequency detector and the location assembly, and which transmits a radio frequency signal which reports the presence of the radio frequency emitter.

  20. Nanotechnology Cancer Therapy and Treatment

    Cancer.gov

    Nanotechnology offers the means to target therapies directly and selectively to cancerous cells and neoplasms. With these tools, clinicians can safely and effectively deliver chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and the next generation of immuno- and gene therapies to the tumor. Futhermore, surgical resection of tumors can be guided and enhanced by way of nanotechnology tools. Find out how nanotechnology will offer the next generation of our therapeutic arsenal to the patient.

  1. A novel immuno-gold labeling protocol for nanobody-based detection of HER2 in breast cancer cells using immuno-electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kijanka, M; van Donselaar, E G; Müller, W H; Dorresteijn, B; Popov-Čeleketić, D; El Khattabi, M; Verrips, C T; van Bergen En Henegouwen, P M P; Post, J A

    2017-07-01

    Immuno-electron microscopy is commonly performed with the use of antibodies. In the last decade the antibody fragment indicated as nanobody (VHH or single domain antibody) has found its way to different applications previously done with conventional antibodies. Nanobodies can be selected to bind with high affinity and specificity to different antigens. They are small (molecular weight ca. 15kDa) and are usually easy to produce in microorganisms. Here we have evaluated the feasibility of a nanobody binding to HER2 for application in immuno-electron microscopy. To obtain highest labeling efficiency combined with optimal specificity, different labeling conditions were analysed, which included nanobody concentration, fixation and blocking conditions. The obtained optimal protocol was applied for post-embedment labeling of Tokuyasu cryosections and for pre-embedment labeling of HER2 for fluorescence microscopy and both transmission and scanning electron microscopy. We show that formaldehyde fixation after incubation with the anti-HER2 nanobody, improves labeling intensity. Among all tested blocking agents the best results were obtained with a mixture of cold water fish gelatine and acetylated bovine serum albumin, which prevented a-specific interactions causing background labeling while preserving specific interactions at the same time. In conclusion, we have developed a nanobody-based protocol for immuno-gold labeling of HER2 for Tokuyasu cryosections in TEM as well as for pre-embedment gold labeling of cells for both TEM and SEM. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Resonance and Radio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starrett, Malin J.

    2008-01-01

    The science and technology of radio receives little attention in contemporary education. This article discusses ways to explore the basic operating principles of radio. (Contains 4 figures, 3 footnotes, and 2 notes.)

  3. Radio-photothermal therapy mediated by a single compartment nanoplatform depletes tumor initiating cells and reduces lung metastasis in the orthotopic 4T1 breast tumor model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Min; Zhao, Jun; Tian, Mei; Song, Shaoli; Zhang, Rui; Gupta, Sanjay; Tan, Dongfeng; Shen, Haifa; Ferrari, Mauro; Li, Chun

    2015-11-01

    Tumor Initiating Cells (TICs) are resistant to radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and are believed to be responsible for tumor recurrence and metastasis. Combination therapies can overcome the limitation of conventional cancer treatments, and have demonstrated promising application in the clinic. Here, we show that dual modality radiotherapy (RT) and photothermal therapy (PTT) mediated by a single compartment nanosystem copper-64-labeled copper sulfide nanoparticles ([64Cu]CuS NPs) could suppress breast tumor metastasis through eradication of TICs. Positron electron tomography (PET) imaging and biodistribution studies showed that more than 90% of [64Cu]CuS NPs was retained in subcutaneously grown BT474 breast tumor 24 h after intratumoral (i.t.) injection, indicating the NPs are suitable for the combination therapy. Combined RT/PTT therapy resulted in significant tumor growth delay in the subcutaneous BT474 breast cancer model. Moreover, RT/PTT treatment significantly prolonged the survival of mice bearing orthotopic 4T1 breast tumors compared to no treatment, RT alone, or PTT alone. The RT/PTT combination therapy significantly reduced the number of tumor nodules in the lung and the formation of tumor mammospheres from treated 4T1 tumors. No obvious side effects of the CuS NPs were noted in the treated mice in a pilot toxicity study. Taken together, our data support the feasibility of a therapeutic approach for the suppression of tumor metastasis through localized RT/PTT therapy.Tumor Initiating Cells (TICs) are resistant to radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and are believed to be responsible for tumor recurrence and metastasis. Combination therapies can overcome the limitation of conventional cancer treatments, and have demonstrated promising application in the clinic. Here, we show that dual modality radiotherapy (RT) and photothermal therapy (PTT) mediated by a single compartment nanosystem copper-64-labeled copper sulfide nanoparticles ([64Cu]CuS NPs) could suppress

  4. 21 CFR 866.5860 - Total spinal fluid immuno-logical test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... diagnosis of multiple sclerosis and other diseases of the nervous system. (b) Classification. Class I... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Total spinal fluid immuno-logical test system. 866... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866...

  5. 21 CFR 866.5860 - Total spinal fluid immuno-logical test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... diagnosis of multiple sclerosis and other diseases of the nervous system. (b) Classification. Class I... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Total spinal fluid immuno-logical test system. 866... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866...

  6. 21 CFR 866.5860 - Total spinal fluid immuno-logical test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... diagnosis of multiple sclerosis and other diseases of the nervous system. (b) Classification. Class I... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Total spinal fluid immuno-logical test system. 866... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866...

  7. 21 CFR 866.5860 - Total spinal fluid immuno-logical test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... diagnosis of multiple sclerosis and other diseases of the nervous system. (b) Classification. Class I... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Total spinal fluid immuno-logical test system. 866... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866...

  8. 21 CFR 866.5860 - Total spinal fluid immuno-logical test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... diagnosis of multiple sclerosis and other diseases of the nervous system. (b) Classification. Class I... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Total spinal fluid immuno-logical test system. 866... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866...

  9. 21 CFR 866.5400 - Alpha-globulin immuno-logical test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... alpha-globulin (a serum protein) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of alpha-globulin may aid... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alpha-globulin immuno-logical test system. 866.5400 Section 866.5400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  10. 21 CFR 866.5350 - Fibrinopeptide A immuno-logical test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... fibrinopeptide A (a blood-clotting factor) in plasma and other body fluids. Measurement of fibrinopeptide A may... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fibrinopeptide A immuno-logical test system. 866.5350 Section 866.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  11. 21 CFR 866.5350 - Fibrinopeptide A immuno-logical test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... fibrinopeptide A (a blood-clotting factor) in plasma and other body fluids. Measurement of fibrinopeptide A may... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fibrinopeptide A immuno-logical test system. 866.5350 Section 866.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  12. 21 CFR 866.5350 - Fibrinopeptide A immuno-logical test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... fibrinopeptide A (a blood-clotting factor) in plasma and other body fluids. Measurement of fibrinopeptide A may... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fibrinopeptide A immuno-logical test system. 866.5350 Section 866.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  13. 21 CFR 866.5400 - Alpha-globulin immuno-logical test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... alpha-globulin (a serum protein) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of alpha-globulin may aid... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alpha-globulin immuno-logical test system. 866.5400 Section 866.5400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  14. 21 CFR 866.5350 - Fibrinopeptide A immuno-logical test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... fibrinopeptide A (a blood-clotting factor) in plasma and other body fluids. Measurement of fibrinopeptide A may... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fibrinopeptide A immuno-logical test system. 866.5350 Section 866.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  15. 21 CFR 866.5400 - Alpha-globulin immuno-logical test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... alpha-globulin (a serum protein) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of alpha-globulin may aid... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alpha-globulin immuno-logical test system. 866.5400 Section 866.5400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  16. 21 CFR 866.5400 - Alpha-globulin immuno-logical test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... alpha-globulin (a serum protein) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of alpha-globulin may aid... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alpha-globulin immuno-logical test system. 866.5400 Section 866.5400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  17. Ricin toxicokinetics and its sensitive detection in mouse sera or feces using immuno-PCR

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ricin (also called RCA-II or RCA60), one of the most potent toxins and documented bioweapons, is derived from castor beans of Ricinus communis. Several in vitro methods have been designed for ricin detection in complex food matrices in the event of intentional contamination. Recently, a novel Immuno...

  18. Optimizing the Immuno-Surface Characteristics for Bio-Sensors and Filters Through Modeling and Experiments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    immobilization of antibodies o Adsorbed, aminophase, heterobifunctional crosslinkers (GMBS, BMPS, EMCS) o GMBS attaches the most antibodies o ProteinA ...play a role in getting the antigen close enough to the immuno-surface to potentially interact as well as the short range molecular forces that

  19. An immuno-biosensor system based on quartz crystal microbalance for avian influenza virus detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shengping; Chen, Guoming; Zhou, Qi; Wei, Yunlong

    2007-12-01

    For the quick detection of Avian Influenza Virus (AIV), a biosensor based on Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) was fabricated according to the specific bonding principle between antibody and antigen. Staphylococcal Protein A (SPA) was extracted from Staphylococcus and purified. Then SPA was coated on the surface of QCM for immobilizing AIV monoclonal antibodies. The use of AIV monoclonal antibody could enhance the specificity of the immuno-biosensor. A multi-channel piezoelectricity detection system for the immuno-biosensor was developed. The system can work for the quick detection of AIV antigen in the case of the entirely aqueous status owe to one special oscillating circuit designed in this work. The optimum conditions of SPA coating and AIV monoclonal antibody immobilization were investigated utilizing the multi-channel detection system. The preliminary application of the immuno-biosensor system for detection of AIV was evaluated. Results indicate that the immuno-biosensor system can detect the AIV antigens with a linear range of 3-200ng/ml. The system can accomplish the detection of AIV antigens around 40 minutes.

  20. Comparing ImmunoCard with two EIA assays for Clostridium difficile toxins.

    PubMed

    Chan, Edward L; Seales, Diane; Drum, Hong

    2009-01-01

    To compare three Clostridium difficile EIA kits for the detection of C. difficile toxins from clinical specimens. A total of 287 fresh and stored stool specimens were tested using all three assays. Stools with discrepant results were sent to a reference laboratory for tissue cytotoxin assay. Trinity Medical Center, a community hospital with network hospitals. Patients with diarrhea submitted stools for detection of C. difficile toxins. Of the 287 stool specimens, 116 were positive and 171 negative for C. difficile toxins. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of Meridian EIA assay were 99.1, 97.7, 96.6, and 99.4%; ImmunoCard were 100, 98.2, 97.5, and 100%; BioStar OIA assay were 94, 98.8, 98.2, and 96% respectively. ImmunoCardprovides the best sensitivity (100%) for C. difficile toxins A and B detection. The BioStar OIA rapid test missed seven positive stool specimens possibly due to failure to detect toxin B. ImmunoCard has slightly higher predictive values, shorter turnaround time and greater convenience compared to the Meridian EIA Assay. ImmunoCard may be cost effective not only in smaller laboratories, but also in high volume laboratories, when used on a STAT basis or single request.

  1. Immuno-PCR assay for sensitive detection of proteins in real time

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The immuno-PCR (IPCR) assay combines the versatility and robustness of immunoassays with the exponential signal amplification power of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Typically, IPCR allows a 10–1,000-fold increase in sensitivity over the analogous enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Thi...

  2. [The immuno-endocrine system. A new endocrine theory: the problem of the packed transport].

    PubMed

    Csaba, György

    2011-05-15

    Since the eighties of the last century hormone content was justified in immune cells (lymphocytes, granulocytes, monocytes, macrophages and mast cells), which produce, store and secrete these hormones. Although the amount of these materials in immune cells is relatively small, the mass of the producers (immune cells) is so large, that the phenomenon must be considered from endocrinological point of view, underlying the important differences between the "classical" and immuno-endocrine systems. Cells of the classic (built-in) endocrine system are mono-producers, while immune cells can synthesize many types of hormones (polyproducers). In addition, these cells can transport the whole hormone-producing machinery to the site of need, producing a local effect. This can be observed, for example, in the case of endorphin producing immune cells during inflammation and during early pregnancy around the chorionic villi. Hormone producing immune cells also have receptors for many hormones, so that they are poly-receivers. Via hormone producing and receiving capacity there is a bidirectional connection between the neuro-endocrine and immuno-endocrine systems. In addition, there is a network inside the immuno-endocrine system. The packed transport theory attempts to explain the mechanism and importance of the immuno-endocrine system.

  3. Commercial Radio as Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothenbuhler, Eric W.

    1996-01-01

    Compares the day-to-day work routines of commercial radio with the principles of a theoretical communication model. Illuminates peculiarities of the conduct of communication by commercial radio. Discusses the application of theoretical models to the evaluation of practicing institutions. Offers assessments of commercial radio deriving from…

  4. Compatible immuno-NASBA LOC device for quantitative detection of waterborne pathogens: design and validation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xinyan; Dong, Tao; Yang, Zhaochu; Pires, Nuno; Høivik, Nils

    2012-02-07

    Waterborne pathogens usually pose a global threat to animals and human beings. There has been a growing demand for convenient and sensitive tools to detect the potential emerging pathogens in water. In this study, a lab-on-a-chip (LOC) device based on the real-time immuno-NASBA (immuno-nucleic acid sequence-based amplification) assay was designed, fabricated and verified. The disposable immuno-NASBA chip is modelled on a 96-well ELISA microplate, which contains 43 reaction chambers inside the bionic channel networks. All valves are designed outside the chip and are reusable. The sample and reagent solutions were pushed into each chamber in turn, which was controlled by the valve system. Notably, the immuno-NASBA chip is completely compatible with common microplate readers in a biological laboratory, and can distinguish multiple waterborne pathogens in water samples quantitatively and simultaneously. The performance of the LOC device was demonstrated by detecting the presence of a synthetic peptide, ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) and two common waterborne pathogens, Escherichia coli (E. coli) and rotavirus, in artificial samples. The results indicated that the LOC device has the potential to quantify traces of waterborne pathogens at femtomolar levels with high specificity, although the detection process was still subject to some factors, such as ribonuclease (RNase) contamination and non-specific adsorption. As an ultra-sensitive tool to quantify waterborne pathogens, the LOC device can be used to monitor water quality in the drinking water system. Furthermore, a series of compatible high-throughput LOC devices for monitoring waterborne pathogens could be derived from this prototype with the same design idea, which may render the complicated immuno-NASBA assays convenient to common users without special training.

  5. Pathogenesis of Septic Acute Lung Injury and Strategies for Immuno-Pharmacological Therapy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-10-01

    Model. Swine were pre anesthetized with intramuscular ketamine hydrochloride (25 mg/kg) and placed supine. Sodium pentobarbital (20-30 mg/kg) is then...covalently bound to a phosphorylated and acylated di- glucosamine disaccharide, designated lipid A. Lipid A remains highly conserved across diverse gram

  6. Assessing a novel immuno-oncology-based combination therapy: Ipilimumab plus electrochemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Mozzillo, Nicola; Simeone, Ester; Benedetto, Lucia; Curvietto, Marcello; Giannarelli, Diana; Gentilcore, Giusy; Camerlingo, Rosa; Capone, Mariaelena; Madonna, Gabriele; Festino, Lucia; Caracò, Corrado; Di Monta, Gianluca; Marone, Ugo; Di Marzo, Massimiliano; Grimaldi, Antonio M; Mori, Stefano; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Ascierto, Paolo A

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma is responsible for most skin cancer-related deaths and is one of the most common cancers diagnosed in young adults. In melanoma, tumors can become established by activation of the negative regulator of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), CTL antigen-4 (CTLA-4). Ipilimumab blocks the interaction of CTLA-4 with CD80/CD86 and augments T-cell activation and proliferation. In electrochemotherapy (ECT), local application of short high-voltage pulses renders cell membranes transiently permeable to chemotherapeutic drugs. The combination of ipilimumab and ECT may be beneficial for the treatment of metastatic melanoma; however, no prospective data are available to date. Here, we report the retrospective analysis of patients treated with ipilimumab in an expanded access program (EAP) who also received ECT. Fifteen patients with previously treated metastatic melanoma who received ipilimumab 3 mg/kg every three weeks for four cycles and underwent ECT for local disease control and/or palliation of cutaneous lesions with bleomycin 15 mg/m2 after the first ipilimumab infusion were included in the analysis. Over the study period, a local objective response was observed in 67% of patients (27% complete response [CR] and 40% partial response [PR]). According to immune-related response criteria, a systemic response was observed in nine patients (five PR and four stable disease [SD]), resulting in a disease control rate of 60%. Evaluation of circulating T-regulatory (T-reg) cells demonstrated significant differences between responders and non-responders. Overall, treatment was well-tolerated and without notable toxicity. In conclusion, the combination of ipilimumab and ECT appears to be beneficial to patients with advanced melanoma, warranting further investigation in prospective trials. PMID:26155423

  7. Assessing a novel immuno-oncology-based combination therapy: Ipilimumab plus electrochemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Mozzillo, Nicola; Simeone, Ester; Benedetto, Lucia; Curvietto, Marcello; Giannarelli, Diana; Gentilcore, Giusy; Camerlingo, Rosa; Capone, Mariaelena; Madonna, Gabriele; Festino, Lucia; Caracò, Corrado; Di Monta, Gianluca; Marone, Ugo; Di Marzo, Massimiliano; Grimaldi, Antonio M; Mori, Stefano; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Ascierto, Paolo A

    2015-06-01

    Melanoma is responsible for most skin cancer-related deaths and is one of the most common cancers diagnosed in young adults. In melanoma, tumors can become established by activation of the negative regulator of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), CTL antigen-4 (CTLA-4). Ipilimumab blocks the interaction of CTLA-4 with CD80/CD86 and augments T-cell activation and proliferation. In electrochemotherapy (ECT), local application of short high-voltage pulses renders cell membranes transiently permeable to chemotherapeutic drugs. The combination of ipilimumab and ECT may be beneficial for the treatment of metastatic melanoma; however, no prospective data are available to date. Here, we report the retrospective analysis of patients treated with ipilimumab in an expanded access program (EAP) who also received ECT. Fifteen patients with previously treated metastatic melanoma who received ipilimumab 3 mg/kg every three weeks for four cycles and underwent ECT for local disease control and/or palliation of cutaneous lesions with bleomycin 15 mg/m 2 after the first ipilimumab infusion were included in the analysis. Over the study period, a local objective response was observed in 67% of patients (27% complete response [CR] and 40% partial response [PR]). According to immune-related response criteria, a systemic response was observed in nine patients (five PR and four stable disease [SD]), resulting in a disease control rate of 60%. Evaluation of circulating T-regulatory (T-reg) cells demonstrated significant differences between responders and non-responders. Overall, treatment was well-tolerated and without notable toxicity. In conclusion, the combination of ipilimumab and ECT appears to be beneficial to patients with advanced melanoma, warranting further investigation in prospective trials.

  8. From birth to ‘immuno-health’, allergies and enterocolitis

    PubMed Central

    Houghteling, Pearl D.; Walker, W. Allan

    2015-01-01

    Microbial signals stimulate development and maintenance of the neonatal immune system. The process begins in utero, with limited exposure to microbes in the intrauterine environment, as well as maternal immune signals priming the developing immune system. After birth and initial colonization, the immune system must be able to activate against pathogens, but also achieve oral tolerance of food and resident gut microbes. Through microbial signals and appropriate nutrition, the immune system is able to achieve homeostasis. Major challenges to successful colonization and immune system regulation include abnormal microbial inoculi (cesarean section, hygiene) and antibiotics. When normal colonization is interrupted, dysbiosis occurs. This imbalance of microbes and subsequently of the immune system can result in allergic diseases, asthma or necrotizing enterocolitis. Probiotics and probiotic-derived therapies represent an exciting avenue to replete the population of commensal microbes and to prevent the immune-mediated sequelae of dysbiosis. PMID:26447970

  9. Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory began operating in 1959, and joined the NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL in 1970. It became part of the Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics in 1975. The site near Penticton, BC has a 26 m radio telescope, a seven-antenna synthesis telescope on a 600 m baseline and two telescopes dedicated to monitoring the solar radio flux at 10.7 cm. This part of the Institu...

  10. STEM on the radio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-10-01

    Looking for an Internet radio station focusing on programing about science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM)? The U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) announced on 26 September the launch of Science360 Radio, which it says is the first Internet radio stream dedicated to STEM programing. Science360 includes more than 100 radio shows and podcasts that are available on the Web as well as on iPhone and Android devices. The shows originate from a variety of sources, including NSF, other U.S. government agencies, science organizations, universities, and media outlets. For more information, see http://science360.gov/files/.

  11. Retinopathy following measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination in an immuno-incompetent girl.

    PubMed

    Schuil, J; van de Putte, E M; Zwaan, C M; Koole, F D; Meire, F M

    1998-01-01

    We describe a 4-year-old girl with subnormal visual acuity due to a bilateral retinopathy. The child had a history of encephalitis following MMR vaccination. Temporary retinopathy associated with measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination has been described. Recently an idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocytopenia in the child was diagnosed. This cellular immunodeficiency supports our hypothesis of measles retinopathy after vaccination of an immuno-deficient child.

  12. Lean management and medical laboratory: application in transfusionnal immuno-hematology.

    PubMed

    Thibert, Jean-Baptiste; Le Vacon, Françoise; Danic, Bruno

    2017-10-01

    Despite a common use in industrial applications, only a few studies describe the lean management methods in medical laboratory. These tools have been evaluated in analysis laboratory of blood donors, especially in immuno-hematology sector. The aim was to optimize the organization and maintain team cohesion and strong staff involvement in a restructuring context. The tools used and the results obtained are presented in this study.

  13. Increased expression of (immuno)proteasome subunits during epileptogenesis is attenuated by inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway.

    PubMed

    Broekaart, Diede W M; van Scheppingen, Jackelien; Geijtenbeek, Karlijne W; Zuidberg, Mark R J; Anink, Jasper J; Baayen, Johannes C; Mühlebner, Angelika; Aronica, Eleonora; Gorter, Jan A; van Vliet, Erwin A

    2017-08-01

    Inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway reduces epileptogenesis in various epilepsy models, possibly by inhibition of inflammatory processes, which may include the proteasome system. To study the role of mTOR inhibition in the regulation of the proteasome system, we investigated (immuno)proteasome expression during epileptogenesis, as well as the effects of the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin. The expression of constitutive (β1, β5) and immunoproteasome (β1i, β5i) subunits was investigated during epileptogenesis using immunohistochemistry in the electrical post-status epilepticus (SE) rat model for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The effect of rapamycin was studied on (immuno)proteasome subunit expression in post-SE rats that were treated for 6 weeks. (Immuno)proteasome expression was validated in the brain tissue of patients who had SE or drug-resistant TLE and the effect of rapamycin was studied in primary human astrocyte cultures. In post-SE rats, increased (immuno)proteasome expression was detected throughout epileptogenesis in neurons and astrocytes within the hippocampus and piriform cortex and was most evident in rats that developed a progressive form of epilepsy. Rapamycin-treated post-SE rats had reduced (immuno)proteasome protein expression and a lower number of spontaneous seizures compared to vehicle-treated rats. (Immuno)proteasome expression was also increased in neurons and astrocytes within the human hippocampus after SE and in patients with drug-resistant TLE. In vitro studies using cultured human astrocytes showed that interleukin (IL)-1β-induced (immuno)proteasome gene expression could be attenuated by rapamycin. Because dysregulation of the (immuno)proteasome system is observed before the occurrence of spontaneous seizures in rats, is associated with progression of epilepsy, and can be modulated via the mTOR pathway, it may represent an interesting novel target for drug treatment in epilepsy. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017

  14. SERS based immuno-microwell arrays for multiplexed detection of foodborne pathogenic bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jian; Hankus, Mikella E.; Cullum, Brian M.

    2009-05-01

    A novel surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based immuno-microwell array has been developed for multiplexed detection of foodborne pathogenic bacteria. The immuno-microwell array was prepared by immobilizing the optical addressable immunomagnetic beads (IMB) into the microwell array on one end of a fiber optic bundle. The IMBs, magnetic beads coated with specific antibody to specific bacteria, were used for immunomagnetic separation (IMS) of corresponding bacteria. The magnetic separation by the homemade magnetic separation system was evaluated in terms of the influences of several important parameters including the beads concentration, the sample volume and the separation time. IMS separation efficiency of the model bacteria E.coli O157:H7 was 63% in 3 minutes. The microwell array was fabricated on hydrofluoric acid etched end of a fiber optic bundle containing 30,000 fiber elements. After being coated with silver, the microwell array was used as a uniform SERS substrate with the relative standard deviation of the SERS enhancement across the microwell array < 2% and the enhancement factor as high as 2.18 x 107. The antibody modified microwell array was prepared for bacteria immobilization into the microwell array, which was characterized by a sandwich immunoassay. To demonstrate the potential of multiplexed SERS detection with the immuno-microwell array, the SERS spectra of different Raman dye labeled magnetic beads as well as mixtures were measured on the mircrowell array. In bead mixture, different beads were identified by the characteristic SERS bands of the corresponding Raman label.

  15. Vitamin D: Immuno-modulation and tuberculosis treatment.

    PubMed

    Selvaraj, Paramasivam; Harishankar, Murugesan; Afsal, Kolloli

    2015-05-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global health problem and often coincides with vitamin D deficiency. High doses of vitamin D were widely used to treat TB during the pre-antibiotic era. Vitamin D exerts its action through vitamin D receptor (VDR), and VDR gene polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility or resistance to tuberculosis as well as sputum smear and culture conversion during anti-TB treatment. In-vitro studies have revealed that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 enhances innate immunity by increased expression of various antimicrobial peptides, including cathelicidin, and induction of autophagy of the infected cells thus restricts the intracellular growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in macrophages. On the other hand, vitamin D has been shown to suppress the pro-inflammatory cytokine response and enhance the anti-inflammatory response. Supplementation with vitamin D in concert with treatment for TB may be beneficial with respect to minimizing the excessive tissue damage that occurs during the active stage of tuberculosis disease. Several clinical trials have evaluated vitamin D supplementation as an adjunct therapy in the treatment for tuberculosis. However, results are conflicting, owing to variations in dose regimens and outcomes. Further investigations are needed to find the optimal concentration of vitamin D for supplementation with standard anti-TB drugs to optimize treatment, which could help to effectively manage both drug-sensitive and drug-resistant tuberculosis.

  16. An electro-active system of immuno-assay (EASI assay) utilising self assembled monolayer modified electrodes.

    PubMed

    Porter, R; van der Logt, P; Howell, S; Kyröläinen-Reay, M; Badley, A

    2001-12-01

    Most immunoassays currently rely on optical methods for signal generation e.g. in ELISA and rapid assay formats. It has become apparent as in the Glucose sensor market that there is a need for simple direct electrical immuno-sensors. We have investigated the novel use of organic conducting monolayers used as a direct electrochemical detection support for an immuno-reaction. It was found that antibodies raised to a carbazole dimer monolayer could increase the charge movement across that monolayer surface. Antibody fragments were taken from a specific anti-carbazole antibody fragment library and combined with an antibody fragment directed to the hormone estrone 3 glucuronide (E3G), the target antigen to form a bispecific antibody fragment. The device utilised these specific antibody fragments and incorporated them on the top plate of a capillary fill format as the immuno-assay components. The immuno-reaction utilised a competition assay. Free E3G analyte in the sample displaced the bispecific antibody fragment from the immuno-surface leaving it free to bind the carbazole monolayer surface. There the binding was detected using amperometric or coulometric methods. By combining all there element it was possible to develop a sensitive immuno-assay that could detect E3G in a reproducible calibrated fashion down to 10 ng/ml.

  17. Radio Frequency Interference: Radio Astronomy's Biggest Enemy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acevedo, F.; Ghosh, Tapasi

    1997-12-01

    As technology progresses, the demand for the usage of the electromagnetic spectrum increases with it. The development is so fast and prolific that clean band space for passive users such as Radio Astronomy is becoming ever so scarce. Even though, several spectral bands have been protected for Radio Astronomy by Federal Communication Commission (in the USA) under the recommendations of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), pressure for making more spectral space commercially usable is extreme. Although these commercial usages make our modern living at all possible, often the extreme vulnerability of passive users are are not fully appreciated, resulting in unwanted emissions (RFI) in the Radio Astronomy Bands. Another source of RFI is the fact that many of the electronic devices used in the observatories themselves generate radio waves. If proper precautions are not taken, these can be received back through the Radio Telescope itself. This problem is referred to as internal RFI. The focus of this paper is the search and diminution of internal RFI in the Arecibo Observatory in Arecibo, Puerto Rico. Using a simple setup of a log-periodic antenna and a Spectrum Analyzer, spectra spanning a frequency range of 100 - 1800 MHZ were recorded in some areas of the Observatory and the new Visitor Center (AOVEF). The measurements disclosed sources of radio emission among some of the digital electronic equipment in the Equipment room and a few displays in the AOVEF. Most prominent of these was a 2.5 MHz comb spanning the entire range of the measurements emitted from the SRENDIP and AOFTM machines. The respective groups were informed and corrective shielding & isolations were implemented immediately. In AOVEF, three displays, some audio-visual equipment, and video/digital cameras used by the visitors were found to be "leaky". In future, the use of such cameras will be prohibited and the exhibits will be screened appropriately.

  18. NOAA Weather Radio

    Science.gov Websites

    Questions NOAA WEATHER RADIO Marine Coverage The NOAA Weather Radio network provides near continuous coverage of the coastal U.S, Great Lakes, Hawaii, and populated Alaska coastline. Typical coverage is 25 Transmitter frequency, call sign and power; and remarks (if any.) Atlantic Gulf of Mexico Great Lakes West

  19. Stabilized radio frequency quadrupole

    DOEpatents

    Lancaster, H.D.; Fugitt, J.A.; Howard, D.R.

    1984-12-25

    Disclosed is a long-vane stabilized radio frequency resonator for accelerating charged particles and including means defining a radio frequency resonator cavity, a plurality of long vanes mounted in the defining means for dividing the cavity into sections, and means interconnecting opposing ones of the plurality of vanes for stabilizing the resonator. 5 figs.

  20. Stabilized radio frequency quadrupole

    DOEpatents

    Lancaster, Henry D.; Fugitt, Jock A.; Howard, Donald R.

    1984-01-01

    A long-vane stabilized radio frequency resonator for accelerating charged particles and including means defining a radio frequency resonator cavity, a plurality of long vanes mounted in the defining means for dividing the cavity into sections, and means interconnecting opposing ones of the plurality of vanes for stabilizing the resonator.

  1. Film, Radio, and Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardesty, Carolyn, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This journal issue covers the history of film, radio, and television in Iowa. The first article, "When Pictures and Sound Came to Iowa," summarizes the origin of movies and radio and their early beginnings in Iowa. Using old photographs and measurement charts, the viewing, reading, and listening habits of young people in 1950 and 1958…

  2. Writing for Radio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tupper, Marianna S.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a 24-hour commercial radio station simulation class project for eighth-grade language arts. Students wrote their own scripts, chose music and were disc jockeys on their own music and talk shows, and prepared news and traffic reports. Guest speakers from actual commercial radio came in to discuss issues such as advertising, censorship,…

  3. The Radio Jove Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thieman, J. R.

    2010-01-01

    The Radio love Project is a hands-on education and outreach project in which students, or any other interested individuals or groups build a radio telescope from a kit, operate the radio telescope, transmit the resulting signals through the internet if desired, analyze the results, and share the results with others through archives or general discussions among the observers. Radio love is intended to provide an introduction to radio astronomy for the observer. The equipment allows the user to observe radio signals from Jupiter, the Sun, the galaxy, and Earth-based radiation both natural and man-made. The project was started through a NASA Director's Discretionary Fund grant more than ten years ago. it has continued to be carried out through the dedicated efforts of a group of mainly volunteers. Dearly 1500 kits have been distributed throughout the world. Participation can also be done without building a kit. Pre-built kits are available. Users can also monitor remote radio telescopes through the internet using free downloadable software available through the radiosky.com website. There have been many stories of prize-winning projects, inspirational results, collaborative efforts, etc. We continue to build the community of observers and are always open to new thoughts about how to inspire the observers to still greater involvement in the science and technology associated with Radio Jove.

  4. Solar radio continuum storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Radio noise continuum emission observed in metric and decametric wave frequencies is discussed. The radio noise is associated with actively varying sunspot groups accompanied by the S-component of microwave radio emissions. It is shown that the S-component emission in microwave frequencies generally occurs several days before the emission of the noise continuum storms of lower frequencies. It is likely that energetic electrons, 10 to 100 Kev, accelerated in association with the variation of sunspot magnetic fields, are the sources of the radio emissions. A model is considered to explain the relation of burst storms on radio noise. An analysis of the role of energetic electrons on the emissions of both noise continuum and type III burst storms is presented. It is shown that instabilities associated with the electrons and their relation to their own stabilizing effects are important in interpreting both of these storms.

  5. Comparison of the Performance of Skin Prick, ImmunoCAP, and ISAC Tests in the Diagnosis of Patients with Allergy.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Rebecca L M; El-Shanawany, Tariq; Jolles, Stephen R A; Selwood, Clive; Heaps, Adrian G; Carne, Emily M; Williams, Paul E

    2017-01-01

    Allergy is diagnosed from typical symptoms, and tests are performed to incriminate the suspected precipitant. Skin prick tests (SPTs) are commonly performed, inexpensive, and give immediate results. Laboratory tests (ImmunoCAP) for serum allergen-specific IgE antibodies are usually performed more selectively. The immuno-solid phase allergen chip (ISAC) enables testing for specific IgE against multiple allergen components in a multiplex assay. We retrospectively analysed clinic letters, case notes, and laboratory results of 118 patients attending the National Adult Allergy Service at the University Hospital of Wales who presented diagnostic difficulty, to evaluate which testing strategy (SPT, ImmunoCAP, or ISAC) was the most appropriate to use to confirm the diagnosis in these complex patients, evaluated in a "real-life" clinical service setting. In patients with nut allergy, the detection rates of SPTs (56%) and ISAC (65%) were lower than those of ImmunoCAP (71%). ISAC had a higher detection rate (88%) than ImmunoCAP (69%) or SPT (33%) in the diagnosis of oral allergy syndrome. ImmunoCAP test results identified all 9 patients with anaphylaxis due to wheat allergy (100%), whereas ISAC was positive in only 6 of these 9 (67%). In this difficult diagnostic group, the ImmunoCAP test should be the preferred single test for possible allergy to nuts, wheat, other specific foods, and anaphylaxis of any cause. In these conditions, SPT and ISAC tests give comparable results. The most useful single test for oral allergy syndrome is ISAC, and SPT should be the preferred test for latex allergy. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. A report on the implementation aspects of the International Atomic Energy Agency's first doctoral coordinated research project, "Management of liver cancer using radionuclide methods with special emphasis on trans-arterial radio-conjugate therapy and internal dosimetry".

    PubMed

    Padhy, Ajit Kumar; Dondi, Maurizio

    2008-03-01

    Liver cancer is one of the most dreaded cancers, and it is highly prevalent in the developing countries, where the resources are extremely scarce to deal with this disease using the current commercially available and expensive therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), in pursuit of its mandate to promote the application of nuclear technology in the health care in its Member States, has developed and clinically evaluated a new and cost-effective therapeutic radio-conjugate, rhenium-188 ((188)Re)-lipiodol for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma through its first Doctoral Coordinated Research Project. The ready availability of no-carrier-added (188)Re from the tungsten-188/(188)Re generator represents a potentially important source of a therapeutic radioisotope for a broad range of therapeutic applications in nuclear medicine. The alumina-based tungsten-188/(188)Re generator system comes with reasonable cost and exhibits attractive therapeutic properties, excellent performance and very long useful shelf-life. Because of the long shelf-life of several months, the use of this generator offers a unique opportunity for the cost-effective and routine availability of a versatile therapeutic radioisotope on an on-demand basis. Further, using its extensive global network and outreach, the IAEA has also transferred the technology of the in-house preparation and use of (188)Re-labeled lipiodol to many institutions around the world, which can now prepare (188)Re-labeled lipiodol in their own radiopharmacy laboratories and treat patients. This effort of the IAEA in trying to address some of the challenges of liver cancer therapy in developing countries has been and truly a global venture with involvement and contributions from several organizations, institutions and numerous individuals. This article discusses some of the implementation aspects of this very important activity of the Agency.

  7. Radio broadcasting via satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helm, Neil R.; Pritchard, Wilbur L.

    1990-10-01

    Market areas offering potential for future narrowband broadcast satellites are examined, including international public diplomacy, government- and advertising-supported, and business-application usages. Technical issues such as frequency allocation, spacecraft types, transmission parameters, and radio receiver characteristics are outlined. Service and system requirements, advertising revenue, and business communications services are among the economic issues discussed. The institutional framework required to provide an operational radio broadcast service is studied, and new initiatives in direct broadcast audio radio systems, encompassing studies, tests, in-orbit demonstrations of, and proposals for national and international commercial broadcast services are considered.

  8. Shoestring Budget Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoot, John E.

    2017-06-01

    The commercial exploitation of microwave frequencies for cellular, WiFi, Bluetooth, HDTV, and satellite digital media transmission has brought down the cost of the components required to build an effective radio telescope to the point where, for the cost of a good eyepiece, you can construct and operate a radio telescope. This paper sets forth a family of designs for 1421 MHz telescopes. It also proposes a method by which operators of such instruments can aggregate and archive data via the Internet. With 90 or so instruments it will be possible to survey the entire radio sky for transients with a 24 hour cadence.

  9. Highly sensitive immuno-assays for the determination of cotinine in serum and saliva. Comparison between RIA and an avidin-biotin ELISA.

    PubMed

    Benkirane, S; Nicolas, A; Galteau, M M; Siest, G

    1991-06-01

    Two immuno-assay methods (RIA and ELISA) have been developed for the accurate and sensitive measurement of cotinine in human body fluids (serum, saliva). RIA uses [3H]cotinine as antigen and charcoal/dextran for separating cotinine-bound antibodies from the free derivative. Another technique (ELISA) was developed to avoid the use of radio-labelled compounds and to determine cotinine in large populations, including passive or non-smokers who usually present very low concentrations. The two techniques were analytically validated. The detection limit was similar (0.1 micrograms/l) and the precision was better than 10% for both techniques. Non-smoker values ranged from 0.1 to 17 micrograms/l by ELISA and 0.1 to 27.5 micrograms/l by RIA, whereas smoker values ranged from 50 to 1000 micrograms/l (ELISA) and from 70 to 800 micrograms/l (RIA). The comparative analysis of cotinine in 96 human sera revealed a good correlation between the two methods (r = 0.97) and a reliable discrimination between the populations of non-smokers and smokers. As usual, the ELISA is more rapid (4 h 30 min) than the RIA (longer than 48 h). ELISA is proposed for use in the epidemiological investigation of the human tobacco risk.

  10. 78 FR 23150 - Commercial Radio Operators

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ...] Commercial Radio Operators AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This document amends our rules concerning commercial radio operator licenses for maritime and aviation radio... certain maritime and aviation radio stations hold an appropriate commercial radio operator license. The...

  11. Imaging free radicals in organelles, cells, tissue, and in vivo with immuno-spin trapping.

    PubMed

    Mason, Ronald Paul

    2016-08-01

    The accurate and sensitive detection of biological free radicals in a reliable manner is required to define the mechanistic roles of such species in biochemistry, medicine and toxicology. Most of the techniques currently available are either not appropriate to detect free radicals in cells and tissues due to sensitivity limitations (electron spin resonance, ESR) or subject to artifacts that make the validity of the results questionable (fluorescent probe-based analysis). The development of the immuno-spin trapping technique overcomes all these difficulties. This technique is based on the reaction of amino acid- and DNA base-derived radicals with the spin trap 5, 5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) to form protein- and DNA-DMPO nitroxide radical adducts, respectively. These adducts have limited stability and decay to produce the very stable macromolecule-DMPO-nitrone product. This stable product can be detected by mass spectrometry, NMR or immunochemistry by the use of anti-DMPO nitrone antibodies. The formation of macromolecule-DMPO-nitrone adducts is based on the selective reaction of free radical addition to the spin trap and is thus not subject to artifacts frequently encountered with other methods for free radical detection. The selectivity of spin trapping for free radicals in biological systems has been proven by ESR. Immuno-spin trapping is proving to be a potent, sensitive (a million times higher sensitivity than ESR), and easy (not quantum mechanical) method to detect low levels of macromolecule-derived radicals produced in vitro and in vivo. Anti-DMPO antibodies have been used to determine the distribution of free radicals in cells and tissues and even in living animals. In summary, the invention of the immuno-spin trapping technique has had a major impact on the ability to accurately and sensitively detect biological free radicals and, subsequently, on our understanding of the role of free radicals in biochemistry, medicine and toxicology. Published by

  12. Immuno-biosensor for Detection of CD20-Positive Cells Using Surface Plasmon Resonance.

    PubMed

    Shanehbandi, Dariush; Majidi, Jafar; Kazemi, Tohid; Baradaran, Behzad; Aghebati-Maleki, Leili; Fathi, Farzaneh; Ezzati Nazhad Dolatabadi, Jafar

    2017-06-01

    Purpose: Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing confers a real-time assessment of molecular interactions between biomolecules and their ligands. This approach is highly sensitive and reproducible and could be employed to confirm the successful binding of drugs to cell surface targets. The specific affinity of monoclonal antibodies (MAb) for their target antigens is being utilized for development of immuno-sensors and therapeutic agents. CD20 is a surface protein of B lymphocytes which has been widely employed for immuno-targeting of B-cell related disorders. In the present study, binding ability of an anti-CD20 MAb to surface antigens of intact target cells was investigated by SPR technique. Methods: Two distinct strategies were used for immobilization of the anti-CD20 MAb onto gold (Au) chips. MUA (11-mercaptoundecanoic acid) and Staphylococcus aureus protein A (SpA) were the two systems used for this purpose. A suspension of CD20-positive Raji cells was injected in the analyte phase and the resulting interactions were analyzed and compared to those of MOLT-4 cell line as CD20-negative control. Results: Efficient binding of anti-CD20 MAb to the surface antigens of Raji cell line was confirmed by both immobilizing methods, whereas this MAb had not a noticeable affinity to the MOLT-4 cells. Conclusion: According to the outcomes, the investigated MAb had acceptable affinity and specificity to the target antigens on the cell surface and could be utilized for immuno-detection of CD20-positive intact cells by SPR method.

  13. Immuno-biosensor for Detection of CD20-Positive Cells Using Surface Plasmon Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Shanehbandi, Dariush; Majidi, Jafar; Kazemi, Tohid; Baradaran, Behzad; Aghebati-Maleki, Leili; Fathi, Farzaneh; Ezzati Nazhad Dolatabadi, Jafar

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing confers a real-time assessment of molecular interactions between biomolecules and their ligands. This approach is highly sensitive and reproducible and could be employed to confirm the successful binding of drugs to cell surface targets. The specific affinity of monoclonal antibodies (MAb) for their target antigens is being utilized for development of immuno-sensors and therapeutic agents. CD20 is a surface protein of B lymphocytes which has been widely employed for immuno-targeting of B-cell related disorders. In the present study, binding ability of an anti-CD20 MAb to surface antigens of intact target cells was investigated by SPR technique. Methods: Two distinct strategies were used for immobilization of the anti-CD20 MAb onto gold (Au) chips. MUA (11-mercaptoundecanoic acid) and Staphylococcus aureus protein A (SpA) were the two systems used for this purpose. A suspension of CD20-positive Raji cells was injected in the analyte phase and the resulting interactions were analyzed and compared to those of MOLT-4 cell line as CD20-negative control. Results: Efficient binding of anti-CD20 MAb to the surface antigens of Raji cell line was confirmed by both immobilizing methods, whereas this MAb had not a noticeable affinity to the MOLT-4 cells. Conclusion: According to the outcomes, the investigated MAb had acceptable affinity and specificity to the target antigens on the cell surface and could be utilized for immuno-detection of CD20-positive intact cells by SPR method. PMID:28761820

  14. Division x: Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Russ; Chapman, Jessica; Rendong, Nan; Carilli, Christopher; Giovannini, Gabriele; Hills, Richard; Hirabayashi, Hisashi; Jonas, Justin; Lazio, Joseph; Morganti, Raffaella; Rubio, Monica; Shastri, Prajval

    2012-04-01

    This triennium has seen a phenomenal investment in development of observational radio astronomy facilities in all parts of the globe at a scale that significantly impacts the international community. This includes both major enhancements such as the transition from the VLA to the EVLA in North America, and the development of new facilities such as LOFAR, ALMA, FAST, and Square Kilometre Array precursor telescopes in Australia and South Africa. These developments are driven by advances in radio-frequency, digital and information technologies that tremendously enhance the capabilities in radio astronomy. These new developments foreshadow major scientific advances driven by radio observations in the next triennium. We highlight these facility developments in section 3 of this report. A selection of science highlight from this triennium are summarized in section 2.

  15. Fast Radio Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaspi, Victoria M.

    2017-01-01

    Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) are a recently discovered phenomenon consisting of short (few ms) bursts of radio waves that have dispersion measures that strongly suggest an extragalactic and possibly cosmological origin. Current best estimates for the rate of FRBs is several thousand per sky per day at radio frequencies near 1.4 GHz. Even with so high a rate, to date, fewer than 20 FRBs have been reported, with one source showing repeated bursts. In this talk I will describe known FRB properties including what is known about the lone repeating source, as well as models for the origin of these mysterious events. I will also describe the CHIME radio telescope, currently under construction in Canada. Thanks to its great sensitivity and unprecedented field-of-view, CHIME promises major progress on FRBs.

  16. Unveiling the radio cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderlinde, Keith

    2017-02-01

    Using a radio telescope with no moving parts, the dark energy speeding up the expansion of the Universe can be probed in unprecedented detail, says Keith Vanderlinde, on behalf of the CHIME collaboration.

  17. Gold patterned biochips for on-chip immuno-MALDI-TOF MS: SPR imaging coupled multi-protein MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Eun; Yi, So Yeon; Lee, Chang-Soo; Jung, Yongwon; Chung, Bong Hyun

    2012-01-21

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis of immuno-captured target protein efficiently complements conventional immunoassays by offering rich molecular information such as protein isoforms or modifications. Direct immobilization of antibodies on MALDI solid support enables both target enrichment and MS analysis on the same plate, allowing simplified and potentially multiplexing protein MS analysis. Reliable on-chip immuno-MALDI-TOF MS for multiple biomarkers requires successful adaptation of antibody array biochips, which also must accommodate consistent reaction conditions on antibody arrays during immuno-capture and MS analysis. Here we developed a facile fabrication process of versatile antibody array biochips for reliable on-chip MALDI-TOF-MS analysis of multiple immuno-captured proteins. Hydrophilic gold arrays surrounded by super-hydrophobic surfaces were formed on a gold patterned biochip via spontaneous chemical or protein layer deposition. From antibody immobilization to MALDI matrix treatment, this hydrophilic/phobic pattern allowed highly consistent surface reactions on each gold spot. Various antibodies were immobilized on these gold spots both by covalent coupling or protein G binding. Four different protein markers were successfully analyzed on the present immuno-MALDI biochip from complex protein mixtures including serum samples. Tryptic digests of captured PSA protein were also effectively detected by on-chip MALDI-TOF-MS. Moreover, the present MALDI biochip can be directly applied to the SPR imaging system, by which antibody and subsequent antigen immobilization were successfully monitored.

  18. NOAA Weather Radio

    Science.gov Websites

    Search For Go NWS All NOAA Radio NOAA emite avisos, vigilancias, pronósticos y otra información de Nacional de Administración Oceánica y Atmosférica y el Departamento de Comercio Federal. SEGUNDOS SALVAN Alarmas Las Radios NOAA equipadas con un rasgo de tono de alarma especial pueden sonar una alarma y pueden

  19. Conceptual Background to Radio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponsonby, J. E. B.

    2004-06-01

    The International Telecommunications Union (ITU) conceives the radio spectrum as primarily a resource for telecommunications. Indeed most applications of radio are for communications and other radio services, particularly the Radio Astronomy Service, are deemed to be `pretend'communication serviceas for spectrum amnagement purposes. The language of Radio Spectrum Management is permeated by the terminology ofcommunications, some derived from the physics of radio and some from aspects of information theory. This contribution touches on all the essential concepts of radiocommunications which the author thinks should be the common mental equipment of the Spectrum Manager. The fundamental capacity of a communication channel is discussed in terms of the degrees of freedom and bandwidth of a signal, and the signal to noise ratio. It is emphasized that an information bearing signal is inherently unpredictable, and must, at some level, be discontinuous. This has important consequences for the form of its power spectrum. The effect of inserting filters is discussed particularly with regard to constant amplitude signals and, in the context of non-linear power amplifiers, the phenomenon of`sideband recovery'. All the common generic forms of modulation are discussed including the very different case of `no-modulation' which applies in all forms of passive remote sensing. Whilst all are agreed that the radio spectrum should be used `efficiently', there is no quantitative measure of spectral efficiency which embraces all relevant aspects of spectral usage. These various aspects are dicussed. Finally a brief outline of some aspects of antennae are reviewed. It is pointed out that the recent introduction of so-called `active antennnae', which have properties unlike traditional passive antennae, has confused the interpretation of those ITU Radio Regulations which refer to antennae.

  20. The Radio JOVE Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, L.; Thieman, J.; Higgins, C.

    1999-09-01

    Radio JOVE is an interactive educational activity which brings the radio sounds of Jupiter and the Sun to students, teachers, and the general public. This is accomplished through the construction of a simple radio telescope kit and the use of a real-time radio observatory on the Internet. Our website (http://radiojove.gsfc.nasa.gov/) will contain science information, instruction manuals, observing guides, and education resources for students and teachers. Our target audience is high school science classes, but subjects can be tailored to college undergraduate physics and astronomy courses or even to middle school science classes. The goals of the project are: 1) Educate people about planetary and solar radio astronomy, space physics, and the scientific method 2) Provide teachers and students with a hands-on radio astronomy exercise as a science curriculum support activity by building and using a simple radio telescope receiver/antenna kit 3) Create the first ever online radio observatory which provides real-time data for those with internet access 4) Allow interactions among participating schools by facilitating exchanges of ideas, data, and observing experiences. Our current funding will allow us to impact 100 schools by partially subsidizing their participation in the program. We expect to expand well beyond this number as publicity and general interest increase. Additional schools are welcome to fully participate, but we will not be able to subsidize their kit purchases. We hope to make a wide impact among the schools by advertising through appropriate newsletters, space grant consortia, the INSPIRE project (http://image.gsfc.nasa.gov/poetry/inspire/), electronic links, and science and education meetings. We would like to acknoledge support from the NASA/GSFC Director's Discretionary Fund, the STScI IDEAS grant program and the NASA/GSFC Space Science Data Operations Office.

  1. Decalcification by ascorbic acid for immuno- and affinohistochemical techniques on the inner ear.

    PubMed

    Merchán-Pérez, A; Gil-Loyzaga, P; Bartolomé, M V; Remezal, M; Fernández, P; Rodríguez, T

    1999-08-01

    An ascorbic acid decalcifying solution was applied to immuno- and affinohistochemical studies on the inner ear. Rat inner ears fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde in PBS or in 2% acetic acid in ethanol solutions were adequately decalcified in an ascorbic acid solution, at a temperature of 4 degrees C. The decalcifying solution was prepared with 1% ascorbic acid and 0.84% sodium chloride in distilled water (pH 2.5-2.6). The decalcification time was in a direct relationship to the specimen calcification. In this study, two neuroactive substances (gamma-aminobutyric acid and calcitonin gene-related peptide), neurofilaments, and the galectine endogenous lectin were successfully detected immunohistochemically.

  2. Defect in IgV gene somatic hypermutation in common variable immuno-deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Levy, Y; Gupta, N; Le Deist, F; Garcia, C; Fischer, A; Weill, J C; Reynaud, C A

    1998-10-27

    Common Variable Immuno-Deficiency (CVID) is the most common symptomatic primary antibody-deficiency syndrome, but the basic immunologic defects underlying this syndrome are not well defined. We report here that among eight patients studied (six CVID and two hypogammaglobulinemic patients with recurrent infections), there is in two CVID patients a dramatic reduction in Ig V gene somatic hypermutation with 40-75% of IgG transcripts totally devoid of mutations in the circulating memory B cell compartment. Functional assays of the T cell compartment point to an intrinsic B cell defect in the process of antibody affinity maturation in these two cases.

  3. Prediction of estrus cyclicity in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) through estimation of fecal progesterone metabolite: development of an enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Ghosal, R; Sukumar, R; Seshagiri, P B

    2010-05-01

    Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), prominent "flagship species", are listed under the category of endangered species (EN - A2c, ver. 3.1; IUCN Red List 2009) and there is a need for their conservation. This requires understanding demographic and reproductive dynamics of the species. Monitoring reproductive status of any species is traditionally being carried out through invasive blood sampling and this is restrictive for large animals such as wild or semi-captive elephants due to legal, ethical, and practical reasons. Hence, there is a need for a non-invasive technique to assess reproductive cyclicity profiles of elephants, which will help in the species' conservation strategies. In this study, we developed an indirect competitive enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) to estimate the concentration of one of the progesterone-metabolites i.e., allopregnanolone (5 alpha-P-3OH) in fecal samples of Asian elephants. We validated the assay which had a sensitivity of 0.25 microM at 90% binding with an EC(50) value of 1.37 microM. Using female elephants, kept under semi-captive conditions in the forest camps of Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary, Tamil Nadu and Bandipur National Park, Karnataka, India, we measured fecal progesterone-metabolite (5 alpha-P-3OH) concentrations in six animals and showed their clear correlation with those of serum progesterone, measured by a standard radio-immuno assay. Statistical analyses using a Linear Mixed Effect model showed a positive correlation (P<0.1) between the profiles of fecal 5 alpha-P-3OH (range: 0.5-10 microg/g) and serum progesterone (range: 0.1-1.8 ng/mL). Therefore, our studies show, for the first time, that the fecal progesterone-metabolite assay could be exploited to predict estrus cyclicity and to potentially assess the reproductive status of captive and free-ranging female Asian elephants, thereby helping to plan their breeding strategy. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Relationship Between Human Nucleolar Organizer Regions and Nucleoli, Probed by 3D-ImmunoFISH.

    PubMed

    van Sluis, Marjolein; van Vuuren, Chelly; McStay, Brian

    2016-01-01

    3D-immunoFISH is a valuable technique to compare the localization of DNA sequences and proteins in cells where three-dimensional structure has been preserved. As nucleoli contain a multitude of protein factors dedicated to ribosome biogenesis and form around specific chromosomal loci, 3D-immunoFISH is a particularly relevant technique for their study. In human cells, nucleoli form around transcriptionally active ribosomal gene (rDNA) arrays termed nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) positioned on the p-arms of each of the acrocentric chromosomes. Here, we provide a protocol for fixing and permeabilizing human cells grown on microscope slides such that nucleolar proteins can be visualized using antibodies and NORs visualized by DNA FISH. Antibodies against UBF recognize transcriptionally active rDNA/NORs and NOP52 antibodies provide a convenient way of visualizing the nucleolar volume. We describe a probe designed to visualize rDNA and introduce a probe comprised of NOR distal sequences, which can be used to identify or count individual NORs.

  5. IMMUNO-SPIN TRAPPING FROM BIOCHEMISTRY TO MEDICINE: advances, challenges, and pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Mejiba, Sandra E.; Zili, Zhai; Della-Vedova, Maria C.; Muñoz, Marcos D.; Chatterjee, Saurabh; Towner, Rheal A.; Hensley, Kenneth; Floyd, Robert A.; Mason, Ronald P.; Ramirez, Dario C.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Immuno-spin trapping (IST) is based on the reaction of a spin trap with a free radical to form a stable nitrone adduct, followed by the use of antibodies, rather than traditional electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, to detect the nitrone adduct. IST has been successfully applied to mechanistic in vitro studies, and recently, macromolecule-centered radicals have been detected in models of drug-induced agranulocytosis, hepatotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, and ischemia/reperfusion, as well as in models of neurological, metabolic and immunological diseases. SCOPE OF THE REVIEW To critically evaluate advances, challenges, and pitfalls as well as the scientific opportunities of IST as applied to the study of protein-centered free radicals generated in stressed organelles, cells, tissues and animal models of disease and exposure. MAJOR CONCLUSIONS Because the spin trap has to be present at high enough concentrations in the microenvironment where the radical is formed, the possible effects of the spin trap on gene expression, metabolism and cell physiology have to be considered in the use of IST and in the interpretation of results. These factors have not yet been thoroughly dealt with in the literature. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE The identification of radicalized proteins during cell/tissue response to stressors will help define their role in the complex cellular response to stressors and pathogenesis; however, the fidelity of spin trapping/ immuno-detection and the effects of the spin trap on the biological system should be considered. PMID:23644035

  6. Immuno-analysis of microparticles: probing at the limits of detection

    PubMed Central

    Latham, Sharissa L.; Tiberti, Natalia; Gokoolparsadh, Naveena; Holdaway, Karen; Olivier Couraud, Pierre; Grau, Georges E. R.; Combes, Valery

    2015-01-01

    Microparticle (MP) research is clouded by debate regarding the accuracy and validity of flow cytometry (FCM) as an analytical methodology, as it is influenced by many variables including the pre-analytical conditions, instruments physical capabilities and detection parameters. This study utilises a simplistic in vitro system for generating MP, and through comparative analysis with immuno-electron microscopy (Immuno-EM) assesses the strengths and limitations of probe selection and high-sensitivity FCM. Of the markers examined, MP were most specifically labelled with phosphatidylserine ligands, annexin V and lactadherin, although only ~60% MP are PS positive. Whilst these two ligands detect comparable absolute MP numbers, they interact with the same population in distinct manners; annexin V binding is enhanced on TNF induced MP. CD105 and CD54 expression were, as expected, consistent and enhanced following TNF activation respectively. Their labelling however accounted for as few as 30–40% of MP. The greatest discrepancies between FCM and I-EM were observed in the population solely labelled for the surface antigen. These findings demonstrate that despite significant improvements in resolution, high-sensitivity FCM remains limited in detecting small-size MP expressing low antigen levels. This study highlights factors to consider when selecting endothelial MP probes, as well as interpreting and representing data. PMID:26553743

  7. Evaluation of instant cup noodle, irradiated for immuno-compromised patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ji-Hye; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Park, Jae-Nam; Yoon, Young-Min; Sung, Nak-Yun; Kim, Jae-Hun; Song, Beom-Seok; Yook, Hong-Sun; Kim, Byeong-Keun; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2012-08-01

    In the present study, initial microbial load of instant cup noodle (ICN) was investigated and gamma irradiation applied to develop immuno-compromised patients food for their safe consumption. The initial microbial population of dried vegetable and meat, and noodle was below the detection limit (1 log CFU/g); however, that of seasoning powder was just above 4 log CFU/g. Moreover, rehydrated-ICN with water at 100 °C still show above 3 log CFU/g of microbial load, which indicates the need for an additional process to control microbial safety of the seasoning powder. The total aerobic bacteria in seasoning powder and rehydrated-ICN could be controlled with 17 kGy gamma irradiation. This result referred 17 kGy gamma irradiation could reach 'practical sterility' of ICN. The overall difference in sensory properties between the non-irradiated and irradiated ICN was insignificant. Thus, gamma irradiation could improve the microbial quality of ICN, and reduce the risk of infection posed by the seasoning powder, without any adverse effects on their sensory quality. These results suggest that gamma-irradiated ICN can be used as a snack food for immuno-compromised patients.

  8. Magneto immuno-PCR: a novel immunoassay based on biogenic magnetosome nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wacker, Ron; Ceyhan, Buelent; Alhorn, Petra; Schueler, Dirk; Lang, Claus; Niemeyer, Christof M

    2007-06-01

    We describe an innovative modification of the Immuno-PCR technology for automatable high sensitive antigen detection. The Magneto Immuno-PCR (M-IPCR) is based on antibody-functionalized biogenic magnetosome nanoparticles revealing major advantages over synthetic magnetic particles. The general principle of the M-IPCR is similar to that of a two-sided (sandwich) immunoassay. However, antibody-functionalized magnetosome conjugates were employed for the immobilization and magnetic enrichment of the signal generating detection complex enabling the establishment of a surface independent immunoassay. To this end, the M-IPCR was carried out by simultaneously tagging the antigen with the reagent for read-out, i.e., a conjugate comprising the specific antibody and DNA fragments, in the presence of the antibody-functionalized magnetosomes. To demonstrate the general functionality of the M-IPCR, the detection of recombinant Hepatitis B surface Antigen (HBsAg) in human serum was established. We observed a detection limit of 320pg/ml of HBsAg using the M-IPCR, which was about 100-fold more sensitive than the analogous Magneto-ELISA, established in parallel for comparison purposes.

  9. Radio data archiving system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapic, C.; Zanichelli, A.; Dovgan, E.; Nanni, M.; Stagni, M.; Righini, S.; Sponza, M.; Bedosti, F.; Orlati, A.; Smareglia, R.

    2016-07-01

    Radio Astronomical Data models are becoming very complex since the huge possible range of instrumental configurations available with the modern Radio Telescopes. What in the past was the last frontiers of data formats in terms of efficiency and flexibility is now evolving with new strategies and methodologies enabling the persistence of a very complex, hierarchical and multi-purpose information. Such an evolution of data models and data formats require new data archiving techniques in order to guarantee data preservation following the directives of Open Archival Information System and the International Virtual Observatory Alliance for data sharing and publication. Currently, various formats (FITS, MBFITS, VLBI's XML description files and ancillary files) of data acquired with the Medicina and Noto Radio Telescopes can be stored and handled by a common Radio Archive, that is planned to be released to the (inter)national community by the end of 2016. This state-of-the-art archiving system for radio astronomical data aims at delegating as much as possible to the software setting how and where the descriptors (metadata) are saved, while the users perform user-friendly queries translated by the web interface into complex interrogations on the database to retrieve data. In such a way, the Archive is ready to be Virtual Observatory compliant and as much as possible user-friendly.

  10. Galileo radio science investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, H. T.; Eshleman, V. R.; Hinson, D. P.; Kliore, A. J.; Lindal, G. F.; Woo, R.; Bird, M. K.; Volland, H.; Edenhoffer, P.; Paetzold, M.

    1992-01-01

    Galileo radio-propagation experiments are based on measurements of absolute and differential propagation time delay, differential phase delay, Doppler shift, signal strength, and polarization. These measurements can be used to study: the atmospheric and ionospheric structure, constituents, and dynamics of Jupiter; the magnetic field of Jupiter; the diameter of Io, its ionospheric structure, and the distribution of plasma in the Io torus; the diameters of the other Galilean satellites, certain properties of their surfaces, and possibly their atmospheres and ionospheres; and the plasma dynamics and magnetic field of the solar corona. The spacecraft system provides linear rather than circular polarization on the S-band downlink signal, the capability to receive X-band uplink signals, and a differential downlink ranging mode. A highly-stable, dual-frequency, spacecraft radio system is developed that is suitable for simultaneous measurements of all the parameters normally attributed to radio waves.

  11. Radio frequency spectrum management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sujdak, E. J., Jr.

    1980-03-01

    This thesis is a study of radio frequency spectrum management as practiced by agencies and departments of the Federal Government. After a brief introduction to the international agency involved in radio frequency spectrum management, the author concentrates on Federal agencies engaged in frequency management. These agencies include the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA), the Interdepartment Radio Advisory Committee (IRAC), and the Department of Defense (DoD). Based on an analysis of Department of Defense frequency assignment procedures, recommendations are given concerning decentralizing military frequency assignment by delegating broader authority to unified commanders. This proposal includes a recommendation to colocate the individual Service frequency management offices at the Washington level. This would result in reduced travel costs, lower manpower requirements, and a common tri-Service frequency management data base.

  12. ImmunoPET of tissue factor expression in triple-negative breast cancer with a radiolabeled antibody Fab fragment.

    PubMed

    Shi, Sixiang; Hong, Hao; Orbay, Hakan; Graves, Stephen A; Yang, Yunan; Ohman, Jakob D; Liu, Bai; Nickles, Robert J; Wong, Hing C; Cai, Weibo

    2015-07-01

    To date, there is no effective therapy for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), which has a dismal clinical outcome. Upregulation of tissue factor (TF) expression leads to increased patient morbidity and mortality in many solid tumor types, including TNBC. Our goal was to employ the Fab fragment of ALT-836, a chimeric anti-human TF mAb, for PET imaging of TNBC, which can be used to guide future TNBC therapy. ALT-836-Fab was generated by enzymatic papain digestion. SDS-PAGE and FACS studies were performed to evaluate the integrity and TF binding affinity of ALT-836-Fab before NOTA conjugation and (64)Cu-labeling. Serial PET imaging and biodistribution studies were carried out to evaluate the tumor targeting efficacy and pharmacokinetics in the MDA-MB-231 TNBC model, which expresses high levels of TF on the tumor cells. Blocking studies, histological assessment, as well as RT-PCR were performed to confirm TF specificity of (64)Cu-NOTA-ALT-836-Fab. ALT-836-Fab was produced with high purity, which exhibited superb TF binding affinity and specificity. Serial PET imaging revealed rapid and persistent tumor uptake of (64)Cu-NOTA-ALT-836-Fab (5.1 ± 0.5 %ID/g at 24 h post-injection; n = 4) and high tumor/muscle ratio (7.0 ± 1.2 at 24 h post-injection; n = 4), several-fold higher than that of the blocking group and tumor models that do not express significant level of TF, which was confirmed by biodistribution studies. TF specificity of the tracer was also validated by histology and RT-PCR. (64)Cu-NOTA-ALT-836-Fab exhibited prominent tissue factor targeting efficiency in MDA-MB-231 TNBC model. The use of a Fab fragment led to fast tumor uptake and good tissue/muscle ratio, which may be translated into same-day immunoPET imaging in the clinical setting to improve TNBC patient management.

  13. Sensors Locate Radio Interference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    After receiving a NASA Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract from Kennedy Space Center, Soneticom Inc., based in West Melbourne, Florida, created algorithms for time difference of arrival and radio interferometry, which it used in its Lynx Location System (LLS) to locate electromagnetic interference that can disrupt radio communications. Soneticom is collaborating with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to install and test the LLS at its field test center in New Jersey in preparation for deploying the LLS at commercial airports. The software collects data from each sensor in order to compute the location of the interfering emitter.

  14. 75 FR 10439 - Cognitive Radio Technologies and Software Defined Radios

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... Technologies and Software Defined Radios AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY... concerning the use of open source software to implement security features in software defined radios (SDRs... ongoing technical developments in cognitive and software defined radio (SDR) technologies. 2. On April 20...

  15. Antibody-Coupled Magnetic Beads Can Be Reused in Immuno-MRM Assays To Reduce Cost and Extend Antibody Supply.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lei; Whiteaker, Jeffrey R; Voytovich, Uliana J; Ivey, Richard G; Paulovich, Amanda G

    2015-10-02

    Immunoaffinity enrichment of peptides coupled to targeted, multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (immuno-MRM) enables precise quantification of peptides. Affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies are routinely used as affinity reagents in immuno-MRM assays, but they are not renewable, limiting the number of experiments that can be performed. In this technical note, we describe a workflow to regenerate anti-peptide polyclonal antibodies coupled to magnetic beads for enrichments in multiplex immuno-MRM assays. A multiplexed panel of 44 antibodies (targeting 60 peptides) is used to show that peptide analytes can be effectively stripped off of antibodies using acid washing without compromising assay performance. The performance of the multiplexed panel (determined by correlation, agreement, and precision of reused assays) is reproducible (R(2) between 0.81 and 0.99) and consistent (median CVs 8-15%) for at least 10 times of washing and reuse. Application of this workflow to immuno-MRM studies greatly reduces per sample assay cost and increases the number of samples that can be interrogated with a limited supply of polyclonal antibody reagent. This allows more characterization for promising and desirable targets prior to committing funds and efforts to conversion to a renewable monoclonal antibody.

  16. High-Affinity Recombinant Antibody Fragments (Fabs) Can Be Applied in Peptide Enrichment Immuno-MRM Assays

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    High-affinity antibodies binding to linear peptides in solution are a prerequisite for performing immuno-MRM, an emerging technology for protein quantitation with high precision and specificity using peptide immunoaffinity enrichment coupled to stable isotope dilution and targeted mass spectrometry. Recombinant antibodies can be generated from appropriate libraries in high-throughput in an automated laboratory and thus may offer advantages over conventional monoclonal antibodies. However, recombinant antibodies are typically obtained as fragments (Fab or scFv) expressed from E. coli, and it is not known whether these antibody formats are compatible with the established protocols and whether the affinities necessary for immunocapture of small linear peptides can be achieved with this technology. Hence, we performed a feasibility study to ask: (a) whether it is feasible to isolate high-affinity Fabs to small linear antigens and (b) whether it is feasible to incorporate antibody fragments into robust, quantitative immuno-MRM assays. We describe successful isolation of high-affinity Fab fragments against short (tryptic) peptides from a human combinatorial Fab library. We analytically characterize three immuno-MRM assays using recombinant Fabs, full-length IgGs constructed from these Fabs, or traditional monoclonals. We show that the antibody fragments show similar performance compared with traditional mouse- or rabbit-derived monoclonal antibodies. The data establish feasibility of isolating and incorporating high-affinity Fabs into peptide immuno-MRM assays. PMID:24568200

  17. High-affinity recombinant antibody fragments (Fabs) can be applied in peptide enrichment immuno-MRM assays.

    PubMed

    Whiteaker, Jeffrey R; Zhao, Lei; Frisch, Christian; Ylera, Francisco; Harth, Stefan; Knappik, Achim; Paulovich, Amanda G

    2014-04-04

    High-affinity antibodies binding to linear peptides in solution are a prerequisite for performing immuno-MRM, an emerging technology for protein quantitation with high precision and specificity using peptide immunoaffinity enrichment coupled to stable isotope dilution and targeted mass spectrometry. Recombinant antibodies can be generated from appropriate libraries in high-throughput in an automated laboratory and thus may offer advantages over conventional monoclonal antibodies. However, recombinant antibodies are typically obtained as fragments (Fab or scFv) expressed from E. coli, and it is not known whether these antibody formats are compatible with the established protocols and whether the affinities necessary for immunocapture of small linear peptides can be achieved with this technology. Hence, we performed a feasibility study to ask: (a) whether it is feasible to isolate high-affinity Fabs to small linear antigens and (b) whether it is feasible to incorporate antibody fragments into robust, quantitative immuno-MRM assays. We describe successful isolation of high-affinity Fab fragments against short (tryptic) peptides from a human combinatorial Fab library. We analytically characterize three immuno-MRM assays using recombinant Fabs, full-length IgGs constructed from these Fabs, or traditional monoclonals. We show that the antibody fragments show similar performance compared with traditional mouse- or rabbit-derived monoclonal antibodies. The data establish feasibility of isolating and incorporating high-affinity Fabs into peptide immuno-MRM assays.

  18. New immuno-PCR assay for detection of low concentrations of shiga toxin 2 and its variants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenlan; Bielaszewska, Martina; Pulz, Matthias; Becker, Karsten; Friedrich, Alexander W; Karch, Helge; Kuczius, Thorsten

    2008-04-01

    Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains secrete toxins that are major virulence factors and diagnostic targets, but some STEC strains secrete Stx in amounts that cannot be detected using conventional cell cytotoxicity or immunological assays. Therefore, there is an urgent need for more-sensitive Stx detection methods. We describe the development of an assay that can detect low concentrations of Stx2 and its variants. An immuno-PCR Stx2 assay was developed based on an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) combining antibody capture and DNA amplification to increase the signal. The immuno-PCR assay detected 10 pg/ml of purified Stx2, compared to 1 ng/ml Stx2 detected by commercial EIA. Consequently, immuno-PCR detected Stx2 and its variants in STEC strains that produce the toxins at levels that are nondetectable by using the EIA, as well as the Stx2 in EIA-negative enriched stool cultures from patients. Our data demonstrate that the immuno-PCR developed here is a highly sensitive and specific method for the detection of trace amounts of Stx2 and Stx2 variants. It is therefore suitable for use by clinical microbiological laboratories to improve the toxin detection in clinical samples.

  19. New Immuno-PCR Assay for Detection of Low Concentrations of Shiga Toxin 2 and Its Variants▿

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenlan; Bielaszewska, Martina; Pulz, Matthias; Becker, Karsten; Friedrich, Alexander W.; Karch, Helge; Kuczius, Thorsten

    2008-01-01

    Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains secrete toxins that are major virulence factors and diagnostic targets, but some STEC strains secrete Stx in amounts that cannot be detected using conventional cell cytotoxicity or immunological assays. Therefore, there is an urgent need for more-sensitive Stx detection methods. We describe the development of an assay that can detect low concentrations of Stx2 and its variants. An immuno-PCR Stx2 assay was developed based on an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) combining antibody capture and DNA amplification to increase the signal. The immuno-PCR assay detected 10 pg/ml of purified Stx2, compared to 1 ng/ml Stx2 detected by commercial EIA. Consequently, immuno-PCR detected Stx2 and its variants in STEC strains that produce the toxins at levels that are nondetectable by using the EIA, as well as the Stx2 in EIA-negative enriched stool cultures from patients. Our data demonstrate that the immuno-PCR developed here is a highly sensitive and specific method for the detection of trace amounts of Stx2 and Stx2 variants. It is therefore suitable for use by clinical microbiological laboratories to improve the toxin detection in clinical samples. PMID:18272709

  20. An advanced dual labeled gold nanoparticles probe to detect Cryptosporidium parvum using rapid immuno-dot blot assay.

    PubMed

    Thiruppathiraja, Chinnasamy; Kamatchiammal, Senthilkumar; Adaikkappan, Periyakaruppan; Alagar, Muthukaruppan

    2011-07-15

    The zoonotic protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum poses a significant risk to public health. Due to the low infectious dose of C. parvum, remarkably sensitive detection methods are required for water and food industries analysis. However PCR affirmed sensing method of the causative nucleic acid has numerous advantages, still criterion demands for simple techniques and expertise understanding to extinguish its routine use. In contrast, protein based immuno detecting techniques are simpler to perform by a commoner, but lack of sensitivity due to inadequate signal amplification. In this paper, we focused on the development of a mere sensitive immuno detection method by coupling anti-cyst antibody and alkaline phosphatase on gold nanoparticle for C. parvum is described. Outcome of the sensitivity in an immuno-dot blot assay detection is enhanced by 500 fold (using conventional method) and visually be able to detect up to 10 oocysts/mL with minimal processing period. Techniques reported in this paper substantiate the convenience of immuno-dot blot assay for the routine screening of C. parvum in water/environmental examines and most importantly, demonstrates the potential of a prototype development of simple and inexpensive diagnostic technique. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. ELISA and ImmunoStrip® for detection of Phytophthora ramorum, P. kernoviae, and other Phytophthora species

    Treesearch

    Francisco J. Avila; Barbara Schoedel; Z. Gloria Abad; Michael D. Coffey; Cheryl Blomquist

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this work was to develop improved tools for the detection of Phytophthora ramorum and P. kernoviae for field and the laboratory use. ImmunoStrip® and ELISA were selected as the test formats for development. Presently, the diagnosis of sudden oak death (SOD) in the national survey of P. ramorum ...

  2. RADIO RANGING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Nieset, R.T.

    1961-05-16

    A radio ranging device is described. It utilizes a super regenerative detector-oscillator in which echoes of transmitted pulses are received in proper phase to reduce noise energy at a selected range and also at multiples of the selected range.

  3. Nobeyama Radio Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Nobeyama Radio Observatory has telescopes at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. It was established in 1982 as an observatory of Tokyo Astronomical Observatory (NATIONAL ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATORY, JAPAN since 1987), and operates the 45 m telescope, Nobeyama Millimeter Array, and Radioheliograph. High-resolution images of star forming regions and molecular clouds have revealed many aspects of...

  4. Nanolensed Fast Radio Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichler, David

    2017-12-01

    It is suggested that fast radio bursts can probe gravitational lensing by clumpy dark matter objects that range in mass from 10-3 M ⊙-102 M ⊙. They may provide a more sensitive probe than observations of lensings of objects in the Magellanic Clouds, and could find or rule out clumpy dark matter with an extended mass spectrum.

  5. Nanometal particle reagents for sensitive, MEMS based fiber-optic, multi-analyte, immuno-biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Bin

    Integration of nanotechnology to medical diagnostics has brought a new era to public health practice. An excellent example is the utilization of unique optoelectronic properties of nanoparticles to develop highly sensitive biosensing devices for point-of-care (POC) disease diagnosis/prognosis. Fluorophore mediated, immuno-biosensors are important disease detection tools. The property of intra-molecular fluorescence quenching of most fluorophores, however, limits the sensitivity of this type of sensors. A plasmon-rich nanometal particle (NMP) can transfer the lone pair electrons of a fluorophore, which normally participate in the fluorescence self-quenching, to its surface plasmon field, resulting in artificial fluorescence enhancement. The enhancement was found to depend on the metal type, the particle size, the distance between a particle and a fluorophore, and the quantum yield of a fluorophore. Some biocompatible solvents were also found to increase the fluorescence emission efficiency via effective dipole coupling between the fluorophore and the solvent molecule. The application of solvents in inmuno-sensing could additionally improve the fluorescence light retrieval by the conformational change of the protein complexes in solvent. The mixture of the NMP and the solvent, which we defined as nanometal particle reagent (NMPR), provided even higher enhancements. Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) kill 1 person in every 6 seconds. Among the CVDs, acute myocardial infarction (AMI; commonly known as heart attack) is the most dangerous and time-sensitive killer. A rapid and accurate AMI diagnosis is crucial for saving many lives. For this purpose, a fluorophore mediated, immuno-reaction based, multi-cardiac-marker sensing device was developed, to quantify four myocardium-specific proteins simultaneously, accurately, rapidly, and user-friendly. The four cardiac markers of our choice were myoglobin (MG), C-reactive protein (CRP), cardiac troponin I (cTnI), and B

  6. Comparative diagnostics of allergy using quantitative immuno-PCR and ELISA.

    PubMed

    Simonova, Maria A; Pivovarov, Victor D; Ryazantsev, Dmitry Y; Dolgova, Anna S; Berzhets, Valentina M; Zavriev, Sergei K; Svirshchevskaya, Elena V

    2018-05-01

    Estimation of specific IgE is essential for the prevention of allergy progression. Quantitative immuno-PCR (qiPCR) can increase the sensitivity of IgE detection. We aimed to develop qiPCR and compare it to the conventional ELISA in identification of IgE to Alt a 1 and Fel d 1 allergens. Single stranded 60-mer DNA conjugated to streptavidin was used to detect antigen-IgE-biotin complex by qiPCR. In semi-logarithmic scale qiPCR data were linear in a full range of serum dilutions resulting in three- to ten-times higher sensitivity of qiPCR in comparison with ELISA in IgE estimation in low titer sera. Higher sensitivity of qiPCR in identification of low titer IgE is a result of a higher linearity of qiPCR data.

  7. Primary hypertension is a disease of premature vascular aging associated with neuro-immuno-metabolic abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Litwin, Mieczysław; Feber, Janusz; Niemirska, Anna; Michałkiewicz, Jacek

    2016-02-01

    There is an increasing amount of data indicating that primary hypertension (PH) is not only a hemodynamic phenomenon but also a complex syndrome involving abnormal fat tissue distribution, over-activity of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), metabolic abnormalities, and activation of the immune system. In children, PH usually presents with a typical phenotype of disturbed body composition, accelerated biological maturity, and subtle immunological and metabolic abnormalities. This stage of the disease is potentially reversible. However, long-lasting over-activity of the SNS and immuno-metabolic alterations usually lead to an irreversible stage of cardiovascular disease. We describe an intermediate phenotype of children with PH, showing that PH is associated with accelerated development, i.e., early premature aging of the immune, metabolic, and vascular systems. The associations and determinants of hypertensive organ damage, the principles of treatment, and the possibility of rejuvenation of the cardiovascular system are discussed.

  8. Neuro-Modulation of Immuno-Endocrine Response Induced by Kaliotoxin of Androctonus Scorpion Venom.

    PubMed

    Ladjel-Mendil, Amina; Martin-Eauclaire, Marie-France; Laraba-Djebari, Fatima

    2016-12-01

    Kaliotoxin (KTX), a specific blocker of potassium channels, exerts various toxic effects due to its action on the central nervous system. Its use in experimental model could help the understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the neuropathological processes related to potassium channel dysfunctions. In this study, the ability of KTX to stimulate neuro-immuno-endocrine axis was investigated. As results, the intracerebroventricular injection of KTX leads to severe structural-functional alterations of both hypothalamus and thyroid. These alterations were characterized by a massive release of hormones' markers of thyroid function associated with damaged tissue which was infiltrated by inflammatory cell and an imbalanced redox status. Taken together, these data highlight that KTX is able to modulate the neuro-endocrine response after binding to its targets leading to the hypothalamus and the thyroid stimulation, probably by inflammatory response activation and the installation of oxidative stress in these organs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. ImmunoChip Study Implicates Antigen Presentation to T Cells in Narcolepsy

    PubMed Central

    Kornum, Birgitte Rahbek; Kenny, Eimear E.; Trynka, Gosia; Einen, Mali; Rico, Tom J.; Lichtner, Peter; Dauvilliers, Yves; Arnulf, Isabelle; Lecendreux, Michel; Javidi, Sirous; Geisler, Peter; Mayer, Geert; Pizza, Fabio; Poli, Francesca; Plazzi, Giuseppe; Overeem, Sebastiaan; Lammers, Gert Jan; Kemlink, David; Sonka, Karel; Nevsimalova, Sona; Rouleau, Guy; Desautels, Alex; Montplaisir, Jacques; Frauscher, Birgit; Ehrmann, Laura; Högl, Birgit; Jennum, Poul; Bourgin, Patrice; Peraita-Adrados, Rosa; Iranzo, Alex; Bassetti, Claudio; Chen, Wei-Min; Concannon, Patrick; Thompson, Susan D.; Damotte, Vincent; Fontaine, Bertrand; Breban, Maxime; Gieger, Christian; Klopp, Norman; Deloukas, Panos; Wijmenga, Cisca; Hallmayer, Joachim; Onengut-Gumuscu, Suna; Rich, Stephen S.; Winkelmann, Juliane; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in the identification of susceptibility genes and environmental exposures provide broad support for a post-infectious autoimmune basis for narcolepsy/hypocretin (orexin) deficiency. We genotyped loci associated with other autoimmune and inflammatory diseases in 1,886 individuals with hypocretin-deficient narcolepsy and 10,421 controls, all of European ancestry, using a custom genotyping array (ImmunoChip). Three loci located outside the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) region on chromosome 6 were significantly associated with disease risk. In addition to a strong signal in the T cell receptor alpha (TRA@), variants in two additional narcolepsy loci, Cathepsin H (CTSH) and Tumor necrosis factor (ligand) superfamily member 4 (TNFSF4, also called OX40L), attained genome-wide significance. These findings underline the importance of antigen presentation by HLA Class II to T cells in the pathophysiology of this autoimmune disease. PMID:23459209

  10. Protein detection through different platforms of immuno-loop-mediated isothermal amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourhassan-Moghaddam, Mohammad; Rahmati-Yamchi, Mohammad; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Daraee, Hadis; Nejati-Koshki, Kazem; Hanifehpour, Younes; Joo, Sang Woo

    2013-11-01

    Different immunoassay-based methods have been devised to detect protein targets. These methods have some challenges that make them inefficient for assaying ultra-low-amounted proteins. ELISA, iPCR, iRCA, and iNASBA are the common immunoassay-based methods of protein detection, each of which has specific and common technical challenges making it necessary to introduce a novel method in order to avoid their problems for detection of target proteins. Here we propose a new method nominated as `immuno-loop-mediated isothermal amplification' or `iLAMP'. This new method is free from the problems of the previous methods and has significant advantages over them. In this paper we also offer various configurations in order to improve the applicability of this method in real-world sample analyses. Important potential applications of this method are stated as well.

  11. Collaborative Beamfocusing Radio (COBRA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rode, Jeremy P.; Hsu, Mark J.; Smith, David; Husain, Anis

    2013-05-01

    A Ziva team has recently demonstrated a novel technique called Collaborative Beamfocusing Radios (COBRA) which enables an ad-hoc collection of distributed commercial off-the-shelf software defined radios to coherently align and beamform to a remote radio. COBRA promises to operate even in high multipath and non-line-of-sight environments as well as mobile applications without resorting to computationally expensive closed loop techniques that are currently unable to operate with significant movement. COBRA exploits two key technologies to achieve coherent beamforming. The first is Time Reversal (TR) which compensates for multipath and automatically discovers the optimal spatio-temporal matched filter to enable peak signal gains (up to 20 dB) and diffraction-limited focusing at the intended receiver in NLOS and severe multipath environments. The second is time-aligned buffering which enables TR to synchronize distributed transmitters into a collaborative array. This time alignment algorithm avoids causality violations through the use of reciprocal buffering. Preserving spatio-temporal reciprocity through the TR capture and retransmission process achieves coherent alignment across multiple radios at ~GHz carriers using only standard quartz-oscillators. COBRA has been demonstrated in the lab, aligning two off-the-shelf software defined radios over-the-air to an accuracy of better than 2 degrees of carrier alignment at 450 MHz. The COBRA algorithms are lightweight, with computation in 5 ms on a smartphone class microprocessor. COBRA also has low start-up latency, achieving high accuracy from a cold-start in 30 ms. The COBRA technique opens up a large number of new capabilities in communications, and electronic warfare including selective spatial jamming, geolocation and anti-geolocation.

  12. Employing immuno-affinity for the analysis of various microbial metabolites of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yan; Hassan, Yousef I; Shao, Suqin; Zhou, Ting

    2018-06-29

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a type B trichothecene mycotoxin that is commonly detected in grains infested with Fusarium species. The maximum tolerated levels of DON in the majority of world's countries are restricted to 0.75 mg kg -1 within the human food chain and to less than 1-5 mg kg -1 in animal feed depending on the feed material and/or animal species due to DON's short and long-term adverse effects on human health and animal productivity. The ability to accurately analyze DON and some of its fungal/bacterial metabolites is increasingly gaining a paramount importance in food/feed analysis and research. In this study, we used the immuno-affinity approach to enrich and detect DON and three of its bacterial metabolites, namely 3-epi-DON, 3-keto-DON, and deepoxy-DON (DOM-1). The optimized enrichment step coupled with high performance liquid chromatography can accurately and reproducibly quantify the aforementioned metabolites in feed matrixes (silage extract as an example in this case). It minimizes any background interface and provides a fast and easy-to-operate protocol for the analytical determination of such metabolites. More importantly, the presented data demonstrates the ability of the utilized monoclonal antibody, generated originally to capture DON in Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA), to cross react with three less/non-toxic DON metabolites. This raises the concerns about the genuine need to account for such cross-reactivity when DON contamination is assessed through an immuno-affinity based analyses using the investigated antibody. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The DSN radio science system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckles, B. J.

    1981-01-01

    The Radio Science experiments at Voyager 1 Saturn encounter which included two atmospheric occultations, a planetary ring occultation, and ring scattering experiment were supported by Deep Space Stations in Australia (DSS 43) and Spain (DSS 63). The DSN Radio Science System data flow from receipt of the radio signals at the antenna to delivery of the recorded data to the project are described.

  14. Radio disturbance warning issuance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maeda, R.; Inuki, H.

    1979-01-01

    A radio disturbance warning issuance system was introduced in the Hiraiso Branch of the Radio Research Laboratories in 1972 to reconstruct the current radio disturbance warning service as a social information service. A description of the new ideas which were experimentally systematized by means of an electronic computer is presented.

  15. Ham Radio is Mir Magic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Gary

    1997-01-01

    Presents a classroom activity in which students communicated with U.S. and Russian astronauts via ham radio while they were in orbit on the space station Mir. Gives suggestions for other ham radio classroom activities as well as names of organizations, publications, and grant programs that teachers can access to help in bring ham radio into their…

  16. The importance of Radio Quiet Zone (RQZ) for radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umar, Roslan; Abidin, Zamri Zainal; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin

    2013-05-01

    Most of radio observatories are located in isolated areas. Since radio sources from the universe is very weak, astronomer need to avoid radio frequency interference (RFI) from active spectrum users and radio noise produced by human made (telecommunication, mobile phone, microwave user and many more. There are many observatories around the world are surrounded by a Radio Quiet Zone (RQZ), which is it was set up using public or state laws. A Radio Quiet Zone normally consists of two areas: an exclusive area in which totally radio emissions are forbidden, with restrictions for residents and business developments, and a larger (radius up to 100 km above) coordination area where the power of radio transmission limits to threshold levels. Geographical Information System (GIS) can be used as a powerful tool in mapping large areas with varying RQZ profiles. In this paper, we report the initial testing of the usage of this system in order to identify the areas were suitable for Radio Quiet Zone. Among the important parameters used to develop the database for our GIS are population density, information on TV and telecommunication (mobile phones) transmitters, road networks (highway), and contour shielding. We will also use other information gathered from on-site RFI level measurements on selected 'best' areas generated by the GIS. The intention is to find the best site for the purpose of establishing first radio quiet zones for radio telescope in Malaysia.

  17. NOAA Weather Radio

    Science.gov Websites

    Search For Go NWS All NOAA NWR Recepción El área de la recepción nominal para un receptor de Radio cosas afectan la recepción de señas de la radio. Por ejemplo, las extensiones grandes de agua de sal de NWR. Siga leyendo si está dentro del área pero tiene dificultad con recepción. Su seña de la

  18. NOAA Weather Radio

    Science.gov Websites

    televisión afuera o dentro de la casa. Todos éstos pueden mejorar recepción a cualquier radio de FM , incluso NWR. Cualquier pregunta específica sobre la recepción (o falta de ella) en su sitio debe Search For Go NWS All NOAA NWR Recepción El área de la recepción nominal para un receptor de Radio

  19. NOAA Weather Radio

    Science.gov Websites

    . -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- La DESCRIPCIÓN DE COLUMNAS EN TABLAS DE ESTADOS Al hacer un clic en un estado o territorio de la la radio. (Todas áreas de ahora en adelante serán llamados condados.) Entonces la radio les mensaje de la emisión, los oyentes oirán un corto estallido estático digital que señala el fin del

  20. Radio Frequency Interference Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, T.; Chen, X.; Mohan, P.; Lao, B. Q.

    2017-09-01

    The observational facilities of radio astronomy keep constant upgrades and developments to achieve better capabilities including increasing the time of the data recording and frequency resolutions, and increasing the receiving and recording bandwidth. However in contrast, only a limited spectrum resource has been allocated to radio astronomy by the International Telecommunication Union, resulting in that the radio observational instrumentations are inevitably exposed to undesirable radio frequency interference (RFI) signals which originate mainly from the terrestrial human activity and are becoming stronger with time. RFIs degrade the quality of data and even lead to invalid data. The impact of RFIs on scientific outcome becomes more and more serious. In this article, the requirement for RFI mitigation is motivated, and the RFI characteristics, mitigation techniques, and strategies are reviewed. The mitigation strategies adopted at some representative observatories, telescopes, and arrays are also introduced. The advantages and shortcomings of the four classes of RFI mitigation strategies are discussed and presented, applicable at the connected causal stages: preventive, pre-detection, pre-correlation, and post-correlation. The proper identification and flagging of RFI is the key to the reduction of data loss and improvement in data quality, and is also the ultimate goal of developing RFI mitigation technique. This can be achieved through a strategy involving a combination of the discussed techniques in stages. The recent advances in the high speed digital signal processing and high performance computing allow for performing RFI excision of the large data volumes generated from large telescopes or arrays in both real time and offline modes, aiding the proposed strategy.

  1. Ionospheric Radio Propagation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1948-06-25

    fluctuation According to this method the noise figure of a radio noise, generated either in the receiving sys - receiver is a quotient of the ratio of available...Ibmaity @" nabe ) adal 38. So"&UJ Malabo u~aIS. 5 a"), il61 Sudde io o ,disturbances (OLD). 6; absorption elects. 111. &e d"a hashed ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~( Saim. kuiy1

  2. Radio Galaxy Zoo: A Search for Hybrid Morphology Radio Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapińska, A. D.; Terentev, I.; Wong, O. I.; Shabala, S. S.; Andernach, H.; Rudnick, L.; Storer, L.; Banfield, J. K.; Willett, K. W.; de Gasperin, F.; Lintott, C. J.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Middelberg, E.; Norris, R. P.; Schawinski, K.; Seymour, N.; Simmons, B.

    2017-12-01

    Hybrid morphology radio sources (HyMoRS) are a rare type of radio galaxy that display different Fanaroff-Riley classes on opposite sides of their nuclei. To enhance the statistical analysis of HyMoRS, we embarked on a large-scale search of these sources within the international citizen science project, Radio Galaxy Zoo (RGZ). Here, we present 25 new candidate hybrid morphology radio galaxies. Our selected candidates are moderate power radio galaxies ({L}{median}=4.7× {10}24 W Hz-1 sr-1) at redshifts 0.14< z< 1.0. Hosts of nine candidates have spectroscopic observations, of which six are classified as quasars, one as high- and two as low-excitation galaxies. Two candidate HyMoRS are giant (> 1 Mpc) radio galaxies, one resides at the center of a galaxy cluster, and one is hosted by a rare green bean galaxy. Although the origin of the hybrid morphology radio galaxies is still unclear, this type of radio source starts depicting itself as a rather diverse class. We discuss hybrid radio morphology formation in terms of the radio source environment (nurture) and intrinsically occurring phenomena (nature; activity cessation and amplification), showing that these peculiar radio galaxies can be formed by both mechanisms. While high angular resolution follow-up observations are still necessary to confirm our candidates, we demonstrate the efficacy of the RGZ in the pre-selection of these sources from all-sky radio surveys, and report the reliability of citizen scientists in identifying and classifying complex radio sources.

  3. AIDS radio triggers.

    PubMed

    Elias, A M

    1991-07-01

    In April 1991, the Ethnic Communities' Council of NSW was granted funding under the Community AIDS Prevention and Education Program through the Department of Community Services and Health, to produce a series of 6x50 second AIDS radio triggers with a 10-second tag line for further information. The triggers are designed to disseminate culturally-sensitive information about HIV/AIDS in English, Italian, Greek, Spanish, Khmer, Turkish, Macedonian, Serbo-Croatian, Arabic, Cantonese, and Vietnamese, with the goal of increasing awareness and decreasing the degree of misinformation about HIV/AIDS among people of non-English-speaking backgrounds through radio and sound. The 6 triggers cover the denial that AIDS exists in the community, beliefs that words and feelings do not protect one from catching HIV, encouraging friends to be compassionate, compassion within the family, AIDS information for a young audience, and the provision of accurate and honest information on HIV/AIDS. The triggers are slated to be completed by the end of July 1991 and will be broadcast on all possible community, ethnic, and commercial radio networks across Australia. They will be available upon request in composite form with an information kit for use by health care professionals and community workers.

  4. Workshop on Radio Transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croft, Steve; Gaensler, Bryan

    2012-04-01

    abstract-type="normal">SummaryWe are entering a new era in the study of variable and transient radio sources. This workshop discussed the instruments and the strategies employed to study those sources, how they are identified and classified, how results from different surveys can be compared, and how radio observations tie in with those at other wavelengths. The emphasis was on learning what common ground there is between the plethora of on-going projects, how methods and code can be shared, and how best practices regarding survey strategy could be adopted. The workshop featured the four topics below. Each topic commenced with a fairly brief introductory talk, which then developed into discussion. By way of preparation, participants had been invited to upload and discuss one slide per topic to a wiki ahead of the workshop. 1. Telescopes, instrumentation and survey strategy. New radio facilities and on-going projects (including upgrades) are both studying the variability of the radio sky, and searching for transients. The discussion first centred on the status of those facilities, and on projects with a time-domain focus, both ongoing and planned, before turning to factors driving choices of instrumentation, such as phased array versus single pixel feeds, the field of view, spatial and time resolution, frequency and bandwidth, depth, area, and cadence of the surveys. 2. Detection, pipelines, and classification. The workshop debated (a) the factors that influence decisions to study variability in the (u,v) plane, in images, or in catalogues, (b) whether, and how much, pipeline code could potentially be shared between one project and another, and which software packages are best for different approaches, (c) how data are stored and later accessed, and (d) how transients and variables are defined and classified. 3. Statistics, interpretation, and synthesis. It then discussed how (i) the choice of facility and strategy and (ii) detection and classification schemes

  5. A novel MDSC-induced PD-1-PD-L1+ B-cell subset in breast tumor microenvironment possesses immuno-suppressive properties.

    PubMed

    Shen, Meng; Wang, Jian; Yu, Wenwen; Zhang, Chen; Liu, Min; Wang, Kaiyuan; Yang, Lili; Wei, Feng; Wang, Shizhen Emily; Sun, Qian; Ren, Xiubao

    2018-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous group of myeloid cells that suppress T-cell activity in a tumor microenvironment. However, the suppressive function of MDSCs on B cells and its underlying mechanism remain unclear. Here, we show that in 4T1 breast cancer mice, a significantly increased number of MDSCs, in parallel with splenic B cells, are accumulated when compared to normal mice. In the presence of MDSCs, the surface molecules of B cells are remolded, with checkpoint-related molecules such as PD-1 and PD-L1 changing prominently. MDSCs also emerge as vital regulators in B-cell immune functions such as proliferation, apoptosis and the abilities to secrete antibodies and cytokines. Our study further identifies that MDSCs can transform normal B cells to a subtype of immuno- regulatory B cells (Bregs) which inhibit T-cell response. Furthermore, we identified a novel kind of Bregs with a specific phenotype PD-1 - PD-L1 + CD19 + , which exert the greatest suppressive effects on T cells in comparison with the previously reported Bregs characterized as CD1d + CD5 + CD19 + , CD5 + CD19 + and Interleukin (IL)-10-secreting B cells. Our results highlight that MDSCs regulate B-cell response and may serve as a therapeutic approach in anti-tumor treatment. Investigation of this new Breg subtype extends our understanding of regulation of T-cell response and sheds new light on anti-tumor immunity and immune therapy.

  6. Immuno-proteomic discovery of tumor tissue autoantigens identifies olfactomedin 4, CD11b, and integrin alpha-2 as markers of colorectal cancer with liver metastases.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qian; Bavi, Prashant; Wang, Julia Y; Roehrl, Michael H

    2017-09-25

    Late-stage colorectal cancer with liver metastasis is common and affords poor prognosis, yet there is a dearth of reliable biomarkers. Cancer is often characterized by an increase in serologic autoantibodies. Hence, we embarked on an immuno-proteomic strategy by using autoantibodies to discover antigens in tumor tissue as potential cancer markers. Matched sets of tissues from primary colon cancer, liver metastases, and adjacent benign tissues were obtained from colon cancer patients. Tissue proteins were extracted, and autoantigens were uncovered by immunoblotting with autoantibodies and sequenced by mass spectrometry. Informatics analyses identified 48 proteins that were found in tumor only but were absent in normal tissue. Five of these were reproducibly found in two independent experiments, including olfactomedin 4 (OLFM4), CD11b, integrin α2 (ITGA2), periostin, and thrombospondin-2. Further confirmation with tissue from 43 patients by Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and tissue microarray deemed OLFM4, CD11b, and ITGA2 to be significantly overexpressed in both primary colon tumors and liver metastases. These tumor tissue autoantigens may serve as promising markers for developing differential diagnostics and immunotherapies for colorectal cancers, in particular, those with tendency to progress to liver metastases. Late-stage colorectal cancer with liver metastasis is common and affords poor prognosis, yet there is a dearth of reliable biomarkers. Cancer is often characterized by an increase in serologic autoantibodies. Cancer tissue immunogens - antigens capable of inducing specific antibody production in patients - are promising targets for development of precision diagnostics and immunotherapies. In our manuscript, we describe on an immuno-proteomic strategy by using autoantibodies to discover antigens in tumor tissue as potential cancer markers. Matched sets of tissues from primary colon cancer, liver metastases, and adjacent benign tissues were

  7. Immuno- and gene expression analysis of EGFR and Nestin during mice skin development.

    PubMed

    Falodah, Fawaz Adnan; Al-Karim, Saleh

    2016-06-01

    Skin stem cell populations reside in the adult hair follicle, sebaceous gland, dermis and epidermis. However, the origin of most of the stem cell populations found in the adult epidermis is still unknown. Far more unknown is the embryonic origin of other stem cells that populate the other layers of this tissue. The main objectives of the present study were to identify the precise anatomical localization of stem cells in mice during skin developing; and to determine the expression levels by using immuno- and gene expression analysis. In this comparative cross sectional study, six ages been chosen and divided into: embryonic days (E12.5, E14.5 and E19.5) and litter days (L7, L14 and L19). Skin were removed from the back side and processed to assess both immuno- and gene-expression of EGFR and Nestin surface antigen markers. Data of the different studied age groups was compared using the SPSS software. EGFR was mainly expressed in the outer root sheath (ORS), in basal and, to a lesser extent, in suprabasal keratinocytes and tend to lie where the dermis comes closest to the skin surface, while Nestin expressed throughout the dermis in the early embryo, but it is subsequently restricted to the follicular connective tissue sheaths later in development and to hair follicles after birth. Immunoexpression analysis showed a strong EGFR expression in all group ages except E12.5 which recorded as moderate, while Nestin showed strong expression level for all embryonic stages, while in the litters it was moderate. The qRT-PCR results were consistent with those of the immunohistochemical study. The Pearson correlation analyze present a correlation between the cases of study with age (p≤0.01), which indicated to the effect of age to mice development. EGFR and Nestin showed to have vital role during mice development, and considered to be suitable markers for the study of skin stem cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Targeting MT1-MMP as an ImmunoPET-Based Strategy for Imaging Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Oteo, M.; Romero, E.; Cámara, J. A.; de Martino, A.; Arroyo, A. G.; Morcillo, M. Á.; Squatrito, M.; Martinez-Torrecuadrada, J. L.; Mulero, F.

    2016-01-01

    Background A critical challenge in the management of Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) tumors is the accurate diagnosis and assessment of tumor progression in a noninvasive manner. We have identified Membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) as an attractive biomarker for GBM imaging since this protein is actively involved in tumor growth and progression, correlates with tumor grade and is closely associated with poor prognosis in GBM patients. Here, we report the development of an immunoPET tracer for effective detection of MT1-MMP in GBM models. Methods An anti-human MT1-MMP monoclonal antibody (mAb), LEM2/15, was conjugated to p-isothiocyanatobenzyl-desferrioxamine (DFO-NCS) for 89Zr labeling. Biodistribution and PET imaging studies were performed in xenograft mice bearing human GBM cells (U251) expressing MT1-MMP and non-expressing breast carcinoma cells (MCF-7) as negative control. Two orthotopic brain GBM models, patient-derived neurospheres (TS543) and U251 cells, with different degrees of blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption were also used for PET imaging experiments. Results 89Zr labeling of DFO-LEM2/15 was achieved with high yield (>90%) and specific activity (78.5 MBq/mg). Biodistribution experiments indicated that 89Zr-DFO-LEM2/15 showed excellent potential as a radiotracer for detection of MT1-MMP positive GBM tumors. PET imaging also indicated a specific and prominent 89Zr-DFO-LEM2/15 uptake in MT1-MMP+ U251 GBM tumors compared to MT1-MMP- MCF-7 breast tumors. Results obtained in orthotopic brain GBM models revealed a high dependence of a disrupted BBB for tracer penetrance into tumors. 89Zr-DFO-LEM2/15 showed much higher accumulation in TS543 tumors with a highly disrupted BBB than in U251 orthotopic model in which the BBB permeability was only partially increased. Histological analysis confirmed the specificity of the immunoconjugate in all GBM models. Conclusion A new anti MT1-MMP-mAb tracer, 89Zr-DFO-LEM2/15, was synthesized efficiently. In

  9. [A VALIDATION STUDY OF THE IMPROVED PRODUCT FOR MEASURING JAPANESE CYPRESS POLLEN-SPECIFIC IgE (THERMO SCIENTIFIC™ ImmunoCAP™ ImmunoCAP JAPANESE CYPRESS POLLEN-SPECIFIC IgE)].

    PubMed

    Yonekura, Syuji; Okamoto, Yoshitaka; Nakayama, Satoshi

    Japanese cypress pollen is a major causative allergen of seasonal allergic rhinitis in Japan. Although ImmunoCAP-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) reagent Japanese cypress pollen has been widely used as a diagnostic aid, its sensitivity requires enhancement. This study evaluated an improved version of this reagent. Serum samples from 61 subjects who underwent Japanese cypress pollen exposure testing in an environmental challenge chamber in Chiba University were assessed using the conventional ImmunoCAPspecific IgE Japanese cypress pollen product and the improved product. In addition, specific IgE for Cha o 1 and Cha o 2, the primary allergen components of Japanese cypress pollen, was evaluated and their reactivity to specific IgE was compared between the conventional and improved products. The antibody titer of the improved product was approximately 1.8-fold that of the conventional product. In addition, higher correlations with Cha o 1 and Cha o 2 were observed for the improved product than for the conventional product. The clinical sensitivity (≥class 2) in 56 exposure test-positive subjects was better for the improved product (80.4%) than for the conventional product (71.4%). An improvement of the ImmunoCAP-specific IgE reagent Japanese cypress pollen resulted in enhanced Japanese cypress pollen-specific IgE sensitivity. The primary reason for this appeared to be an improved Cha o 1- and Cha o 2-specific IgE detectability.

  10. Redox Regulation and the Autistic Spectrum: Role of Tryptophan Catabolites, Immuno-inflammation, Autoimmunity and the Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, George; Maes, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) form a set of multi-faceted disorders with significant genetic, epigenetic and environmental determinants. Oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS), immuno-inflammatory pathways, mitochondrial dysfunction and dysregulation of the tryptophan catabolite (TRYCATs) pathway play significant interactive roles in driving the early developmental etiology and course of ASD. O&NS interactions with immuno-inflammatory pathways mediate their effects centrally via the regulation of astrocyte and microglia responses, including regional variations in TRYCATs produced. Here we review the nature of these interactions and propose an early developmental model whereby different ASD genetic susceptibilities interact with environmental and epigenetic processes, resulting in glia biasing the patterning of central interarea interactions. A role for decreased local melatonin and N-acetylserotonin production by immune and glia cells may be a significant treatment target. PMID:24669209

  11. Pulsed radio frequency energy in the treatment of complex diabetic foot wounds: two cases.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Jerrie A; Overstreet, Julia

    2008-01-01

    The use of radio waves (pulsed radio frequency energy) has become well accepted in the treatment of chronic wounds. We present 2 cases of complex diabetic foot wounds treated adjunctively with outpatient pulsed radio frequency energy using a solid-state, 27.12 MHz fixed power output radio frequency generator that transmits a fixed dose of nonionizing, nonthermal electromagnetic energy through an applicator pad. This therapy, in combination with offloading, debridement and advanced dressings, resulted in closure of both wounds in approximately 16 weeks.

  12. The properties of radio ellipticals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, W. B.; Disney, M. J.; Wall, J. V.; Rodgers, A. W.

    1984-03-01

    The authors present optical and additional radio data for the bright galaxies of the Disney & Wall survey. These data form the basis of a statistical comparison of the properties of radio elliptical galaxies to radio-quiet ellipticals. The correlations may be explained by the depth of the gravitational potential well in which the galaxy resides governing the circumstances under which an elliptical galaxy rids itself of internally produced gas.

  13. Radio Emission from Binary Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hjellming, R.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Stellar radio emission is most common in double star systems where each star provides something essential in producing the large amounts of radio radiation needed for it to be detectable by RADIO TELESCOPES. They transfer mass, supply energy or, when one of the stars is a NEUTRON STAR or BLACK HOLE, have the strong gravitational fields needed for the energetic particles and magnetic fields needed...

  14. RADIO FREQUENCY ATTENUATOR

    DOEpatents

    Giordano, S.

    1963-11-12

    A high peak power level r-f attenuator that is readily and easily insertable along a coaxial cable having an inner conductor and an outer annular conductor without breaking the ends thereof is presented. Spaced first and second flares in the outer conductor face each other with a slidable cylindrical outer conductor portion therebetween. Dielectric means, such as water, contact the cable between the flares to attenuate the radio-frequency energy received thereby. The cylindrical outer conductor portion is slidable to adjust the voltage standing wave ratio to a low level, and one of the flares is slidable to adjust the attenuation level. An integral dielectric container is also provided. (AFC)

  15. Circumstellar radio molecular lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    NGUYEN-QUANG-RIEU

    1987-01-01

    Radio molecular lines appear to be useful probes into the stellar environment. Silicon oxide masers provide information on the physical conditions in the immediate vicinity of the stellar photosphere. Valuable information on the physics operating in the envelope of IRC + 10216 was recently obtained by high sensitivity observations and detailed theoretical analyses. Infrared speckle interferometry in the molecular lines and in the continuum is helpful in the investigation of the inner region of the envelope. These techniques are discussed in terms of late-type star mass loss.

  16. Solar radio emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, M. V.; Smith, D. F.

    1981-01-01

    Active areas of both observational and theoretical research in which rapid progress is being made are discussed. These include: (1) the dynamic spectrum or frequency versus time plot; (2) physical mechanisms in the development of various types of bursts; (3) microwave type 1, 2, 3, and moving type 4 bursts; (4) bursts caused by trapped electrons; (5) physics of type 3bursts; (6) the physics of type 2 bursts and their related shocks; (7) the physics of both stationary and moving traps and associated type 1 and moving type 4 bursts; and (8) the status of the field of solar radio emission.

  17. NOAA Weather Radio

    Science.gov Websites

    para un condado depende de recepción de la seña fiable, que típicamente se extiende en un radio de 40 millas del transmisor, asumiendo terreno plano. Condados sin la cobertura de NWR o cobertura obstáculos de la seña y/o la distancia excesiva del transmisor. Usted puede referirse directamente a

  18. NOAA Weather Radio

    Science.gov Websites

    Emergencia (EAS) de la Comisión Federal de Comunicaciones, Radio NOAA es una red para todo tipo de peligros . De este modo, es la fuente más comprensiva de información del tiempo y emergencias que està químicos o derramamientos de petróleo). Conocida como "La Voz del Servicio Nacional de Meteorología

  19. [Evaluation of the new ImmunoCard STAT!® CGE test for the diagnosis of Amebiasis].

    PubMed

    Formenti, F; Perandin, F; Bonafini, S; Degani, M; Bisoffi, Z

    2015-08-01

    For many years, microscopic examination of stool samples has been considered to be the "gold standard" for diagnosis of intestinal parasites although the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) analysis is increasingly utilized due to its high accuracy. Recently, PCR has been approved by the World Health Organization as the current method of choice for the diagnosis of Entamoeba histolytica infection. In this study we evaluated a novel immunochromatographic antigen detection rapid test, ImmunoCardSTAT CGE (Meridian Bioscence, Milan, Italy), which has been proposed for the diagnosis of infections caused by Cryptosporidium parvum-Giardia intestinalis-Entamoeba histolytica. There is another rapid test with a similar name, the ImmunoCard STAT! Crypto/Giardia, but it is just for Cryptosporidium and Giardia. We aimed to compare E. histolytica results obtained from the rapid test with those of a rt-PCR for the detection of E. histolytica / E. dispar DNA. The new ImmunoCard rapid antigen detection test exhibited 88% sensitivity and 92% specificity (if assessed on rt-PCR negative samples) but showed a high proportion of cross-reaction between the pathogenic E. histolytica and the non pathogenic E. dispar.

  20. Systemic study on the safety of immuno-deficient nude mice treated by atmospheric plasma-activated water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehui, XU; Qingjie, CUI; Yujing, XU; Bingchuan, WANG; Miao, TIAN; Qiaosong, LI; Zhijie, LIU; Dingxin, LIU; Hailan, CHEN; Michael, G. KONG

    2018-04-01

    Cold atmospheric-pressure plasma is a new technology, widely used in many fields of biomedicine, especially in cancer treatment. Cold plasma can selectively kill a variety of tumor cells, and its biological safety in clinical trials is also very important. In many cases, the patient’s immune level is relatively low, so we first studied the safety assessment of plasma treatment in an immuno-compromised animal model. In this study, we examined the safety of immuno-deficient nude mice by oral lavage treatment of plasma-activated water, and studied the growth status, main organs and blood biochemical indexes. Acute toxicity test results showed that the maximum dose of plasma treatment for 15 min had no lethal effect and other acute toxicity. There were no significant changes in body weight and survival status of mice after 2 min and 4 min of plasma-activated water (PAW) treatment for 2 weeks. After treatment, the major organs, including heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney, were not significantly changed in organ coefficient and tissue structure. Blood biochemical markers showed that blood neutrophils and mononuclear cells were slightly increased, and the others remained unchanged. Liver function, renal function, electrolytes, glucose metabolism and lipid metabolism were not affected by different doses of PAW treatment. The above results indicate that PAW treatment can be used to treat immuno-deficient nude mice without significant safety problems.

  1. A Nanoparticle Based Sp17 Peptide Vaccine Exposes New Immuno-Dominant and Species Cross-reactive B Cell Epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Sue D.; Gao, Qian; Wilson, Kirsty L.; Heyerick, Arne; Plebanski, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Sperm protein antigen 17 (Sp17), expressed in primary as well as in metastatic lesions in >83% of patients with ovarian cancer, is a promising ovarian cancer vaccine candidate. Herein we describe the formulation of nanoparticle based vaccines based on human Sp17 (hSp17) sequence derived peptides, and map the immuno-dominant T cell and antibody epitopes induced using such formulations. The primary T and B cell immuno-dominant region within Sp17 was found to be the same when using biocompatible nanoparticle carriers or the conventional “mix-in” pro-inflammatory adjuvant CpG, both mapping to amino acids (aa) 111–142. However, delivery of hSp17111–142 as a nanoparticle conjugate promoted a number of new properties, changing the dominant antibody isotype induced from IgG2a to IgG1 and the fine specificity of the B cell epitopes within hSp17111–142, from an immuno-dominant region 134–142 aa for CpG, to region 121–138 aa for nanoparticles. Associated with this change in specificity was a substantial increase in antibody cross-reactivity between mouse and human Sp17. These results indicate conjugation of antigen to nanoparticles can have major effects on fine antigen specificity, which surprisingly could be beneficially used to increase the cross-reactivity of antibody responses. PMID:26529027

  2. Quantification of α-tubulin isotypes by sandwich ELISA with signal amplification through biotinyl-tyramide or immuno-PCR.

    PubMed

    Dráberová, Eduarda; Stegurová, Lucie; Sulimenko, Vadym; Hájková, Zuzana; Dráber, Petr; Dráber, Pavel

    2013-09-30

    Microtubules formed by αβ-tubulin dimers represent cellular structures that are indispensable for the maintenance of cell morphology and for cell motility generation. Microtubules in intact cells are in highly regulated equilibrium with cellular pools of soluble tubulin dimers. Sensitive, reproducible and rapid assays are necessary to monitor tubulin changes in cytosolic pools after treatment with anti-mitotic drugs, during the cell cycle or activation and differentiation events. Here we describe new assays for α-tubulin quantification. The assays are based on sandwich ELISA, and the signal is amplified with biotinyl-tyramide or immuno-PCR. Matching monoclonal antibody pair recognizes phylogenetically highly conserved epitopes localized outside the C-terminal isotype-defining region. This makes it possible to detect α-tubulin isotypes in different cell types of various species. Biotinyl-tyramide amplification and immuno-PCR amplification enable detection of tubulin at concentrations 2.5ng/ml and 0.086ng/ml, respectively. Immuno-PCR detection shows enhanced sensitivity and wider dynamic range when compared to ELISA with biotinyl-tyramide detection. Our results on taxol-treated and activated bone marrow-derived mast cells demonstrate, that the assays allow sensitive quantification of tubulin in complex biological fluids. © 2013.

  3. Impairment in immuno-modulatory function of Flk1(+)CD31(-)CD34(-) MSCs from MDS-RA patients.

    PubMed

    Han, Qin; Sun, Zhao; Liu, Lihui; Chen, Bin; Cao, Ying; Li, Kanghua; Zhao, Robert Chunhua

    2007-11-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes are a group of hematopoietic disorders characterized by hematopoietic stem cell dysregulation and abnormalities in the immune system. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their derived stromal cells constitute a bone marrow microenvironment, which is the niche for hematopoiesis and a key compartment for immune development and regulation. Existing evidence has shown that MSCs from MDS patients have impaired capacity in supporting hematopoiesis. Here, we conducted an investigation to determine whether the immuno-modulatory function of MSCs is also impaired in MDS-RA (refractory anemia) patients. Flk1(+)CD31(-)CD34(-) MSCs were isolated from 15 MDS-RA patients and cultured for testing biological and immunological characteristics. MDS-RA patient-derived Flk1(+)CD31(-)CD34(-) MSCs showed normal morphology, phenotype and karyotype but appeared impaired in immuno-modulatory function. The capacity of patient Flk1(+)CD31(-)CD34(-) MSCs to inhibit T lymphocyte activation and proliferation was impaired in vitro. In conclusion, MDS-RA patient-derived MSCs have impaired immuno-modulatory functions, suggesting that the dysregulation of hematopoiesis and immune response may originate from MSCs rather than HSCs. MSCs might be a potential target for developing efficacious cures for MDS.

  4. Internet Resources for Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andernach, H.

    A subjective overview of Internet resources for radio-astronomical information is presented. Basic observing techniques and their implications for the interpretation of publicly available radio data are described, followed by a discussion of existing radio surveys, their level of optical identification, and nomenclature of radio sources. Various collections of source catalogues and databases for integrated radio source parameters are reviewed and compared, as well as the web interfaces to interrogate the current and ongoing large-area surveys. Links to radio observatories with archives of raw (uv-) data are presented, as well as services providing images, both of individual objects or extracts (``cutouts'') from large-scale surveys. While the emphasis is on radio continuum data, a brief list of sites providing spectral line data, and atomic or molecular information is included. The major radio telescopes and surveys under construction or planning are outlined. A summary is given of a search for previously unknown optically bright radio sources, as performed by the students as an exercise, using Internet resources only. Over 200 different links are mentioned and were verified, but despite the attempt to make this report up-to-date, it can only provide a snapshot of the situation as of mid-1998.

  5. Disc immuno-immobilization method for simultaneous typing and isolation of Salmonella flagellar phases.

    PubMed

    Mohit, B

    1968-07-01

    Salmonella organisms of an unknown serotype are inoculated in the center of a motility agar plate, and paper discs impregnated with antiflagellar antisera are placed in the periphery of the plate. The plate is incubated at room temperature overnight. During this time, the bacteria spread in a widening circle toward the discs, while the antiserum from each disc, in turn, diffuses centrifugally. When the motile organisms encounter an antiserum reacting with their flagella, they are immobilized. A semicircular line of immobilization is noted around the reactive antiserum disc. Eleven different Salmonella isolates were typed in duplicate by a standard method and by the immuno-immobilization method. Results obtained by the two methods were essentially identical. Simultaneously, single phases were isolated from the zone between the immobilization line and its antiserum disc. Isolates from this region were of the phase not immobilized by the antiserum disc. The dried discs, prepared in tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane buffer and stored at 4 C, were stable for at least 5 months. The method can be used for the study of relatedness of surface antigens of motile, growing bacteria, thus circumventing the need for solubilization of these antigens. The results obtained can be interpreted in a similar fashion to the "identity"-"nonidentity" lines of the Ochterlony double-diffusion technique for soluble antigens.

  6. New bifunctional chelator for 64Cu-immuno-positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Darpan N; Bhatt, Nikunj; Dale, Ajit V; Kim, Jung Young; Lee, Hochun; Ha, Yeong Su; Lee, Ji-Eun; An, Gwang Il; Yoo, Jeongsoo

    2013-08-21

    A new tetraazamacrocyclic bifunctional chelator, TE2A-Bn-NCS, was synthesized in high overall yield from cyclam. An extra functional group (NCS) was introduced to the N-atom of TE2A for specific conjugation with antibody. The Cu complex of TE2A-Bn-NCS showed high kinetic stability in acidic decomplexation and cyclic voltammetry studies. X-ray structure determination of the Cu-TE2A-Bn-NH2 complex confirmed octahedral geometry, in which copper atom is strongly coordinated by four macrocyclic nitrogens in equatorial positions and two carboxylate oxygen atoms occupy the elongated axial positions. Trastuzumab was conjugated with TE2A-Bn-NCS and then radiolabeled with 64Cu quantitatively at room temperature within 10 min. Biodistribution studies showed that the 64Cu-labeled TE2A-Bn-NCS-trastuzumab conjugates maintain high stability in physiological conditions, and NIH3T6.7 tumors were clearly visualized up to 3 days by 64Cu-immuno-positron emission tomography imaging in animal models.

  7. Isolation of Rare Tumor Cells from Blood Cells with Buoyant Immuno-Microbubbles

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Guixin; Cui, Wenjin; Benchimol, Michael; Liu, Yu-Tsueng; Mattrey, Robert F.; Mukthavaram, Rajesh; Kesari, Santosh; Esener, Sadik C.; Simberg, Dmitri

    2013-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are exfoliated at various stages of cancer, and could provide invaluable information for the diagnosis and prognosis of cancers. There is an urgent need for the development of cost-efficient and scalable technologies for rare CTC enrichment from blood. Here we report a novel method for isolation of rare tumor cells from excess of blood cells using gas-filled buoyant immuno-microbubbles (MBs). MBs were prepared by emulsification of perfluorocarbon gas in phospholipids and decorated with anti-epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) antibody. EpCAM-targeted MBs efficiently (85%) and rapidly (within 15 minutes) bound to various epithelial tumor cells suspended in cell medium. EpCAM-targeted MBs efficiently (88%) isolated frequent tumor cells that were spiked at 100,000 cells/ml into plasma-depleted blood. Anti-EpCAM MBs efficiently (>77%) isolated rare mouse breast 4T1, human prostate PC-3 and pancreatic cancer BxPC-3 cells spiked into 1, 3 and 7 ml (respectively) of plasma-depleted blood. Using EpCAM targeted MBs CTCs from metastatic cancer patients were isolated, suggesting that this technique could be developed into a valuable clinical tool for isolation, enumeration and analysis of rare cells. PMID:23516425

  8. Bridging ImmunoGenomic Data Analysis Workflow Gaps (BIGDAWG): An integrated case-control analysis pipeline.

    PubMed

    Pappas, Derek J; Marin, Wesley; Hollenbach, Jill A; Mack, Steven J

    2016-03-01

    Bridging ImmunoGenomic Data-Analysis Workflow Gaps (BIGDAWG) is an integrated data-analysis pipeline designed for the standardized analysis of highly-polymorphic genetic data, specifically for the HLA and KIR genetic systems. Most modern genetic analysis programs are designed for the analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms, but the highly polymorphic nature of HLA and KIR data require specialized methods of data analysis. BIGDAWG performs case-control data analyses of highly polymorphic genotype data characteristic of the HLA and KIR loci. BIGDAWG performs tests for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, calculates allele frequencies and bins low-frequency alleles for k×2 and 2×2 chi-squared tests, and calculates odds ratios, confidence intervals and p-values for each allele. When multi-locus genotype data are available, BIGDAWG estimates user-specified haplotypes and performs the same binning and statistical calculations for each haplotype. For the HLA loci, BIGDAWG performs the same analyses at the individual amino-acid level. Finally, BIGDAWG generates figures and tables for each of these comparisons. BIGDAWG obviates the error-prone reformatting needed to traffic data between multiple programs, and streamlines and standardizes the data-analysis process for case-control studies of highly polymorphic data. BIGDAWG has been implemented as the bigdawg R package and as a free web application at bigdawg.immunogenomics.org. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Investigating free radical generation in HepG2 cells using immuno-spin trapping.

    PubMed

    Horinouchi, Yuya; Summers, Fiona A; Ehrenshaft, Marilyn; Kawazoe, Kazuyoshi; Tsuchiya, Koichiro; Tamaki, Toshiaki; Mason, Ronald P

    2014-10-01

    Oxidative stress can induce the generation of free radicals, which are believed to play an important role in both physiological and pathological processes and a number of diseases such as cancer. Therefore, it is important to identify chemicals which are capable of inducing oxidative stress. In this study, we evaluated the ability of four environmental chemicals, aniline, nitrosobenzene (NB), N,N-dimethylaniline (DMA) and N,N-dimethyl-4-nitrosoaniline (DMNA), to induce free radicals and cellular damage in the hepatoma cell line HepG2. Cytotoxicity was assessed using lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays and morphological changes were observed using phase contrast microscopy. Free radicals were detected by immuno-spin trapping (IST) in in-cell western experiments or in confocal microscopy experiments to determine the subcellular localization of free radical generation. DMNA induced free radical generation, LDH release and morphological changes in HepG2 cells whereas aniline, NB and DMA did not. Confocal microscopy showed that DMNA induced free radical generation mainly in the cytosol. Preincubation of HepG2 cells with N-acetylcysteine and 2,2'-dipyridyl significantly prevented free radical generation upon subsequent incubation with DMNA, whereas preincubation with apocynin and dimethyl sulfoxide did not. These results suggest that DMNA induces oxidative stress and that reactive oxygen species, metals and free radical generation play a critical role in DMNA-induced cytotoxicity. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Translational Immuno- and Neuro-imaging Demonstrate Corneal Neuro-immune Crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Hamrah, Pedram; Seyed-Razavi, Yashar; Yamaguchi, Takefumi

    2017-01-01

    Corneal immuno- and neuro-imaging approaches facilitate in vivo analyses of the cornea, including high-resolution imaging of corneal immune cells and nerves. This approach facilitates the analyses of underlying immune and nerve alterations not detected by clinical slit-lamp examination alone. In this review, we describe recent work performed in our translational ocular immunology center with a focus on ‘bench-to-bedside’ and ‘bedside-to-bench’ research. The ability to visualize dendritiform immune cells (DCs) in patients with laser in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM), recently discovered in the central murine cornea, has allowed us to demonstrated their utility as a potential surrogate biomarker for inflammatory ocular surface diseases. This biomarker for inflammation allows the measurement of therapeutic efficacy of anti-inflammatory drugs and its utility as an endpoint in clinical trials with high inter-observer agreement. IVCM image analyses from our studies demonstrated a significant increase in DC density and size in ocular disease, a positive correlation between DC density and clinical signs and symptoms of disease and pro-inflammatory tear cytokines, and a strong negative correlation between DC density and subbasal nerve density. In conjunction with pre-clinical research investigating the inflammatory state in a partial or fully denervated cornea, our results indicated that corneal nerves are directly involved in the regulation of homeostasis and immune privilege in the cornea. PMID:27631352

  11. Radiation-treated ready-to-eat (RTE) chicken breast Adobo for immuno-compromised patients.

    PubMed

    Feliciano, Chitho P; De Guzman, Zenaida M; Tolentino, Levelyn Mitos M; Cobar, Maria Lucia C; Abrera, Gina B

    2014-11-15

    Usually in hospitals low-bacterial diets are served to immuno-compromised patients (ICPs). However, low-bacterial diets still pose a high risk of microbial infections and limit the food selection of the patients. Thus, pathogen-free dishes must be made available. This study presents the development of pathogen-free ready-to-eat (RTE) Filipino ethnic food chicken breast Adobo, sterilized by exposure to high-dose gamma rays (25 kGy) in combination with conventional treatments. Frozen vacuum-packed samples artificially inoculated with Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium, were exposed to 25 kGy gamma radiation for complete sterilization. Microbial quality and sterility of the samples were analysed following 15, 30, and 60 days of storage at -4°C. The effects of high-dose gamma irradiation on the nutritional quality and sensory characteristics of RTE chicken breast Adobo were also evaluated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Immuno and Affinity Cytochemical Analysis of Cell Wall Composition in the Moss Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Berry, Elizabeth A; Tran, Mai L; Dimos, Christos S; Budziszek, Michael J; Scavuzzo-Duggan, Tess R; Roberts, Alison W

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to homeohydric vascular plants, mosses employ a poikilohydric strategy for surviving in the dry aerial environment. A detailed understanding of the structure, composition, and development of moss cell walls can contribute to our understanding of not only the evolution of overall cell wall complexity, but also the differences that have evolved in response to selection for different survival strategies. The model moss species Physcomitrella patens has a predominantly haploid lifecycle consisting of protonemal filaments that regenerate from protoplasts and enlarge by tip growth, and leafy gametophores composed of cells that enlarge by diffuse growth and differentiate into several different types. Advantages for genetic studies include methods for efficient targeted gene modification and extensive genomic resources. Immuno and affinity cytochemical labeling were used to examine the distribution of polysaccharides and proteins in regenerated protoplasts, protonemal filaments, rhizoids, and sectioned gametophores of P. patens. The cell wall composition of regenerated protoplasts was also characterized by flow cytometry. Crystalline cellulose was abundant in the cell walls of regenerating protoplasts and protonemal cells that developed on media of high osmolarity, whereas homogalactuonan was detected in the walls of protonemal cells that developed on low osmolarity media and not in regenerating protoplasts. Mannan was the major hemicellulose detected in all tissues tested. Arabinogalactan proteins were detected in different cell types by different probes, consistent with structural heterogneity. The results reveal developmental and cell type specific differences in cell wall composition and provide a basis for analyzing cell wall phenotypes in knockout mutants.

  13. Immuno and Affinity Cytochemical Analysis of Cell Wall Composition in the Moss Physcomitrella patens

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Elizabeth A.; Tran, Mai L.; Dimos, Christos S.; Budziszek, Michael J.; Scavuzzo-Duggan, Tess R.; Roberts, Alison W.

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to homeohydric vascular plants, mosses employ a poikilohydric strategy for surviving in the dry aerial environment. A detailed understanding of the structure, composition, and development of moss cell walls can contribute to our understanding of not only the evolution of overall cell wall complexity, but also the differences that have evolved in response to selection for different survival strategies. The model moss species Physcomitrella patens has a predominantly haploid lifecycle consisting of protonemal filaments that regenerate from protoplasts and enlarge by tip growth, and leafy gametophores composed of cells that enlarge by diffuse growth and differentiate into several different types. Advantages for genetic studies include methods for efficient targeted gene modification and extensive genomic resources. Immuno and affinity cytochemical labeling were used to examine the distribution of polysaccharides and proteins in regenerated protoplasts, protonemal filaments, rhizoids, and sectioned gametophores of P. patens. The cell wall composition of regenerated protoplasts was also characterized by flow cytometry. Crystalline cellulose was abundant in the cell walls of regenerating protoplasts and protonemal cells that developed on media of high osmolarity, whereas homogalactuonan was detected in the walls of protonemal cells that developed on low osmolarity media and not in regenerating protoplasts. Mannan was the major hemicellulose detected in all tissues tested. Arabinogalactan proteins were detected in different cell types by different probes, consistent with structural heterogneity. The results reveal developmental and cell type specific differences in cell wall composition and provide a basis for analyzing cell wall phenotypes in knockout mutants. PMID:27014284

  14. Immuno capture PCR for rapid and sensitive identification of pathogenic Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Makam, Shivakiran S; Majumder, Saugata; Kingston, Joseph J; Urs, Radhika M; Tuteja, Urmil; Sripathi, Murali H; Batra, Harsh V

    2013-12-01

    Immuno capture PCR (IPCR) is a technique capable of detecting the pathogens with high specificity and sensitivity. Rapid and accurate detection of Bacillus anthracis was achieved using anti-EA1 antibodies to capture the cells and two primer sets targeting the virulence factors of the pathogen i.e., protective antigen (pag) and capsule (cap) in an IPCR format. Monoclonal antibodies specific to B. anthracis were generated against extractable antigen 1 protein and used as capture antibody onto 96 well polystyrene plates. Following the binding of the pathogen, the DNA extraction was carried out in the well itself and further processed for PCR assay. We compared IPCR described here with conventional duplex PCR using the same primers and sandwich ELISA using the monoclonal antibodies developed in the present study. IPCR was capable of detecting as few as 10 and 100 cfu ml⁻¹ of bacterial cells and spores, respectively. IPCR was found to be 2-3 logs more sensitive than conventional duplex PCR and the sandwich ELISA. The effect of other bacteria and any organic materials on IPCR was also analyzed and found that this method was robust with little change in the sensitivity in the presence of interfering agents. Moreover, we could demonstrate a simple process of microwave treatment for spore disruption which otherwise are resistant to chemical treatments. Also, the IPCR could clearly distinguish the pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains of B. anthracis in the same assay. This can help in saving resources on unnecessary decontamination procedures during false alarms.

  15. Immuno and Affinity Cytochemical Analysis of Cell Wall Composition in the Moss Physcomitrella patens

    DOE PAGES

    Berry, Elizabeth A.; Tran, Mai L.; Dimos, Christos S.; ...

    2016-03-08

    In contrast to homeohydric vascular plants, mosses employ a poikilohydric strategy for surviving in the dry aerial environment. A detailed understanding of the structure, composition, and development of moss cell walls can contribute to our understanding of not only the evolution of overall cell wall complexity, but also the differences that have evolved in response to selection for different survival strategies. The model moss species Physcomitrella patens has a predominantly haploid lifecycle consisting of protonemal filaments that regenerate from protoplasts and enlarge by tip growth, and leafy gametophores composed of cells that enlarge by diffuse growth and differentiate into severalmore » different types. Advantages for genetic studies include methods for efficient targeted gene modification and extensive genomic resources. Immuno and affinity cytochemical labeling were used to examine the distribution of polysaccharides and proteins in regenerated protoplasts, protonemal filaments, rhizoids, and sectioned gametophores of P. patens. The cell wall composition of regenerated protoplasts was also characterized by flow cytometry. Crystalline cellulose was abundant in the cell walls of regenerating protoplasts and protonemal cells that developed on media of high osmolarity, whereas homogalactuonan was detected in the walls of protonemal cells that developed on low osmolarity media and not in regenerating protoplasts. Mannan was the major hemicellulose detected in all tissues tested. Arabinogalactan proteins were detected in different cell types by different probes, consistent with structural heterogneity. The results reveal developmental and cell type specific differences in cell wall composition and provide a basis for analyzing cell wall phenotypes in knockout mutants.« less

  16. [Control, elimination and eradication of viral immuno preventable diseases in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Valero, Nereida; Maldonado, Mery

    2005-09-01

    Vaccination has demonstrated the capacity for the drastic decrease of the prevalence and incidence of several diseases of viral etiology and it has allowed their eradication. Among these human immuno preventable diseases are included poliomyelitis, measles, mumps, chicken pox, rubella, hepatitis A and B, influenza A and yellow fever. In residents, travelers to endemic areas and personal at risk, the vaccines to Japanese and equine encephalitis, rabies and adenovirus can be applied. Venezuela has not escaped from the positive impact in the epidemiology of these illnesses as a consequence of the organization and implementation of big national vaccination campaigns; however, and in spite of these efforts, important outbreaks of measles, yellow fever, chicken pox and hepatitis have occurred in the last few years. The tools to eliminate the majority of these viral diseases exist in Venezuela as well as in other countries, and are readily available, effective and relatively not expensive, but require on the whole of an effort of authorities and communities. The implementation of these strategies should have the support of the World Health Organization and the Panamerican Health Organization. This is a priority for the next few years if our aim is the eradication of these illnesses from Venezuela, the continent and the world.

  17. ImmunoPET/MR imaging allows specific detection of Aspergillus fumigatus lung infection in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Rolle, Anna-Maria; Hasenberg, Mike; Thornton, Christopher R.; Solouk-Saran, Djamschid; Männ, Linda; Weski, Juliane; Maurer, Andreas; Fischer, Eliane; Spycher, Philipp R.; Schibli, Roger; Boschetti, Frederic; Stegemann-Koniszewski, Sabine; Bruder, Dunja; Severin, Gregory W.; Autenrieth, Stella E.; Krappmann, Sven; Davies, Genna; Pichler, Bernd J.; Gunzer, Matthias; Wiehr, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a life-threatening lung disease caused by the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, and is a leading cause of invasive fungal infection-related mortality and morbidity in patients with hematological malignancies and bone marrow transplants. We developed and tested a novel probe for noninvasive detection of A. fumigatus lung infection based on antibody-guided positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance (immunoPET/MR) imaging. Administration of a [64Cu]DOTA-labeled A. fumigatus-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb), JF5, to neutrophil-depleted A. fumigatus-infected mice allowed specific localization of lung infection when combined with PET. Optical imaging with a fluorochrome-labeled version of the mAb showed colocalization with invasive hyphae. The mAb-based newly developed PET tracer [64Cu]DOTA-JF5 distinguished IPA from bacterial lung infections and, in contrast to [18F]FDG-PET, discriminated IPA from a general increase in metabolic activity associated with lung inflammation. To our knowledge, this is the first time that antibody-guided in vivo imaging has been used for noninvasive diagnosis of a fungal lung disease (IPA) of humans, an approach with enormous potential for diagnosis of infectious diseases and with potential for clinical translation. PMID:26787852

  18. Quantitative time-resolved analysis reveals intricate, differential regulation of standard- and immuno-proteasomes

    PubMed Central

    Liepe, Juliane; Holzhütter, Hermann-Georg; Bellavista, Elena; Kloetzel, Peter M; Stumpf, Michael PH; Mishto, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Proteasomal protein degradation is a key determinant of protein half-life and hence of cellular processes ranging from basic metabolism to a host of immunological processes. Despite its importance the mechanisms regulating proteasome activity are only incompletely understood. Here we use an iterative and tightly integrated experimental and modelling approach to develop, explore and validate mechanistic models of proteasomal peptide-hydrolysis dynamics. The 20S proteasome is a dynamic enzyme and its activity varies over time because of interactions between substrates and products and the proteolytic and regulatory sites; the locations of these sites and the interactions between them are predicted by the model, and experimentally supported. The analysis suggests that the rate-limiting step of hydrolysis is the transport of the substrates into the proteasome. The transport efficiency varies between human standard- and immuno-proteasomes thereby impinging upon total degradation rate and substrate cleavage-site usage. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07545.001 PMID:26393687

  19. Immuno gold nanocages with tailored optical properties for targeted photothermal destruction of cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jingyi; Wang, Danling; Xi, Jiefeng; Au, Leslie; Siekkinen, Andy; Warsen, Addie; Li, Zhi-Yuan; Zhang, Hui; Xia, Younan; Li, Xingde

    2007-05-01

    Gold nanocages with a relatively small size (e.g., approximately 45 nm in edge length) have been developed, and the structure of these nanocages was tailored to achieve strong absorption in the near-infrared (NIR) region for photothermal cancer treatment. Numerical calculations show that the nanocage has a large absorption cross section of 3.48 x 10(-14) m(2), facilitating conversion of NIR irradiation into heat. The gold nanocages were conjugated with monoclonal antibodies (anti-HER2) to target epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) that are overexpressed on the surface of breast cancer cells (SK-BR-3). Our preliminary photothermal results show that the nanocages strongly absorb light in the NIR region with an intensity threshold of 1.5 W/cm(2) to induce thermal destruction to the cancer cells. In the intensity range of 1.5-4.7 W/cm(2), the circular area of damaged cells increased linearly with the irradiation power density. These results suggest that this new class of bioconjugated gold nanostructures, immuno gold nanocages, can potentially serve as an effective photothermal therapeutic agent for cancer treatment.

  20. Live cell and immuno-labeling techniques to study gravitational effects on single plant cells.

    PubMed

    Chebli, Youssef; Geitmann, Anja

    2015-01-01

    The constant force of gravity plays a primordial role in the ontogeny of all living organisms. Plants, for example, develop their roots and shoots in accordance with the direction of the gravitational vector. Any change in the magnitude and/or the direction of gravity has an important impact on the development of tissues and cells. In order to understand how the gravitational force affects plant cell growth and differentiation, we established two complementary experimental procedures with which the effect of hyper-gravity on single plant cell development can be assessed. The single model cell system we used is the pollen tube or male gametophyte which, because of its rapid growth behavior, is known for its instant response to external stresses. The physiological response of the pollen tube can be assessed in a quantitative manner based on changes in the composition and spatial distribution of its cell wall components and in the precisely defined pattern of its very dynamic cytoplasmic streaming. Here, we provide a detailed description of the steps required for the immuno-localization of various cell wall components using microwave-assisted techniques and we explain how live imaging of the intracellular traffic can be achieved under hyper-gravity conditions.

  1. Radio Jove: Citizen Science for Jupiter Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, C. A.; Thieman, J.; Reyes, F. J.; Typinski, D.; Flagg, R. F.; Greenman, W.; Brown, J.; Ashcraft, T.; Sky, J.; Cecconi, B.; Garcia, L. N.

    2016-12-01

    The Radio Jove Project (http://radiojove.gsfc.nasa.gov) has been operating as an educational activity for 18 years to introduce radio astronomy activities to students, teachers, and the general public. Participants may build a simple radio telescope kit, make scientific observations, and interact with radio observatories in real-time over the Internet. Recently some of our dedicated citizen science observers have upgraded their systems to better study radio emission from Jupiter and the Sun by adding dual-polarization spectrographs and wide-band antennas in the frequency range of 15-30 MHz. Some of these observations are being used in conjunction with professional telescopes such as the Long Wavelength Array (LWA), the Nancay Decametric Array, and the Ukrainian URAN2 Radio Telescope. In particular, there is an effort to support the Juno Mission radio waves instrument at Jupiter by using citizen science ground-based data for comparison and polarization verification. These data will be archived through a Virtual European Solar and Planetary Access (VESPA) archive (https://voparis-radiojove.obspm.fr/radiojove/welcome) for use by the amateur and professional radio science community. We overview the program and display recent observations that will be of interest to the science community.

  2. The Extragalactic Radio Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, A.; Fixsen, D. J.; Levin, S. M.; Limon, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Seiffert, M.; Singal, J.; Villela, T.; Wollack, E.; Wuensche, C. A.

    2011-01-01

    The existence of an isotropic component of the high-latitude radio sky has been recognized for nearly fifty years, but has typically been assumed to be Galactic in origin. We use recent radio observations to test whether the observed high-latitude component could originate within either an extended Galactic halo or a more local "bubble" structure. The lack of significant polarization from the isotropic component, combined with the lack of significant correlation with the Galactic far-infrared emission, rule out an origin within the Galaxy. We conclude that an extragalactic origin is the only viable alternative for the bulk of the isotropic high-latitude emission. The extragalactic component is 2-3 times brighter than local (Galactic) emission towards the Galactic poles and is consistent with a power law in frequency with amplitude T(sub r) = 24.1 plus or minus 2.1 K and spectral index beta = -2.599 plus or minus 0.036 evaluated at reference frequency 310 MHz.

  3. A New Concept of Enhancing Immuno-Chemotherapeutic Effects Against B16F10 Tumor via Systemic Administration by Taking Advantages of the Limitation of EPR Effect

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yuting; Tai, Xiaowei; Shi, Kairong; Ruan, Shaobo; Qiu, Yue; Zhang, Zhirong; Xiang, Bing; He, Qin

    2016-01-01

    The enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect has been comfortably accepted, and extensively assumed as a keystone in the research on tumor-targeted drug delivery system. Due to the unsatisfied tumor-targeting efficiency of EPR effect being one conspicuous drawback, nanocarriers that merely relying on EPR effect are difficult to access the tumor tissue and consequently trigger efficient tumor therapy in clinic. In the present contribution, we break up the shackles of EPR effect on nanocarriers thanks to their universal distribution characteristic. We successfully design a paclitaxel (PTX) and alpha-galactosylceramide (αGC) co-loaded TH peptide (AGYLLGHINLHHLAHL(Aib)HHIL-Cys) -modified liposome (PTX/αGC-TH-Lip) and introduce a new concept of immuno-chemotherapy combination via accumulation of these liposomes at both spleen and tumor sites naturally and simultaneously. The PTX-initiated cytotoxicity attacks tumor cells at tumor sites, meanwhile, the αGC-triggered antitumor immune response emerges at spleen tissue. Different to the case that liposomes are loaded with sole drug, in this concept two therapeutic processes effectively reinforce each other, thereby elevating the tumor therapy efficiency significantly. The data demonstrates that the PTX/αGC-TH-Lip not only possess therapeutic effect against highly malignant B16F10 melanoma tumor, but also adjust the in vivo immune status and induce a more remarkable systemic antitumor immunity that could further suppress the growth of tumor at distant site. This work exhibits the capability of the PTX/αGC-TH-Lip in improving immune-chemotherapy against tumor after systemic administration. PMID:27698946

  4. Looking for radio waves with a simple radio wave detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto (Stray Cats), Norihiro

    2011-11-01

    I created a simple device that can detect radio waves in a classroom. In physics classes I tell students that we live in a sea of radio waves. They come from TV, radio, and cell phone signals as well as other sources. Students don't realize this because those electromagnetic waves are invisible. So, I wondered if I could come up with a way to detect the waves and help students to understand them better. Electromagnetic wave meters, which measure intensity of radio waves quantitatively, are commercially available. However, to students most of these are black boxes, and at the introductory level it is more effective to detect radio waves in a simpler way. This paper describes my device and how I have used it in my classes.

  5. The Radio JOVE Project: Inexpensive Radio Astronomy for the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thieman, J. R.; Higgins, C. A.; Pine, W.

    2000-12-01

    Radio JOVE is an interactive, hands-on educational activity for learning the scientific method through the medium of radio astronomy observations of Jupiter and the sun. Students build a radio telescope from a relatively inexpensive non-profit kit (about \\$125) and use it to record data, analyze the data, and share the results with others. Alternatively, for no cost, the students can record and analyze data from remote radio telescopes connected to the Web. The project is a useful adjunct to activities in optical astronomy since students should recognize that we learn about the Universe through more than just the optical spectrum. In addition to supplementing knowledge of Jupiter and the sun, the project teaches about charged particles and magnetic fields. Building of the kit is also a mini-course in electronics. The Radio JOVE website (http://radiojove.gsfc.nasa.gov) contains science information, instruction manuals, observing guides, software, and education resources for students and teachers.

  6. Stabilized radio-frequency quadrupole

    DOEpatents

    Lancaster, H.D.; Fugitt, J.A.; Howard, D.R.

    1982-09-29

    A long-vane stabilized radio frequency resonator for accelerating charged particles and including means defining a radio frequency resonator cavity, a plurality of long vanes mounted in the defining means for dividing the cavity into sections, and means interconnecting opposing ones of the plurality of vanes for stabilizing the resonator.

  7. Redshifts of twenty radio galaxies.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burbidge, E. M.; Strittmatter, P. A.

    1972-01-01

    Spectroscopic observations and redshifts of 20 radio galaxies obtained with the Lick 120-inch telescope are presented. Ten of the radio galaxies are from the 3C R catalog, and the remainder are from the 4C, 5C, Ohio, and Parkes catalogs. The reported results represent a continuation of Burbidge's (1970) previously published data.

  8. Wide Field Radio Transient Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bower, Geoffrey

    2011-04-01

    The time domain of the radio wavelength sky has been only sparsely explored. Nevertheless, serendipitous discovery and results from limited surveys indicate that there is much to be found on timescales from nanoseconds to years and at wavelengths from meters to millimeters. These observations have revealed unexpected phenomena such as rotating radio transients and coherent pulses from brown dwarfs. Additionally, archival studies have revealed an unknown class of radio transients without radio, optical, or high-energy hosts. The new generation of centimeter-wave radio telescopes such as the Allen Telescope Array (ATA) will exploit wide fields of view and flexible digital signal processing to systematically explore radio transient parameter space, as well as lay the scientific and technical foundation for the Square Kilometer Array. Known unknowns that will be the target of future transient surveys include orphan gamma-ray burst afterglows, radio supernovae, tidally-disrupted stars, flare stars, and magnetars. While probing the variable sky, these surveys will also provide unprecedented information on the static radio sky. I will present results from three large ATA surveys (the Fly's Eye survey, the ATA Twenty CM Survey (ATATS), and the Pi GHz Survey (PiGSS)) and several small ATA transient searches. Finally, I will discuss the landscape and opportunities for future instruments at centimeter wavelengths.

  9. Safety and Special Radio Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    Numerous radio stations across the nation perform nonbroadcast services in areas ranging from aviation, forestry protection, and telephone maintenance to amateur and citizen radio. These services can be grouped in four general categories: (1) safety, (2) industry, (3) land transportation, and (4) miscellaneous purposes. This bulletin briefly…

  10. Space Telecommunications Radio Architecture (STRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, Richard C.

    2006-01-01

    A software defined radio (SDR) architecture used in space-based platforms proposes to standardize certain aspects of radio development such as interface definitions, functional control and execution, and application software and firmware development. NASA has charted a team to develop an open software defined radio hardware and software architecture to support NASA missions and determine the viability of an Agency-wide Standard. A draft concept of the proposed standard has been released and discussed among organizations in the SDR community. Appropriate leveraging of the JTRS SCA, OMG's SWRadio Architecture and other aspects are considered. A standard radio architecture offers potential value by employing common waveform software instantiation, operation, testing and software maintenance. While software defined radios offer greater flexibility, they also poses challenges to the radio development for the space environment in terms of size, mass and power consumption and available technology. An SDR architecture for space must recognize and address the constraints of space flight hardware, and systems along with flight heritage and culture. NASA is actively participating in the development of technology and standards related to software defined radios. As NASA considers a standard radio architecture for space communications, input and coordination from government agencies, the industry, academia, and standards bodies is key to a successful architecture. The unique aspects of space require thorough investigation of relevant terrestrial technologies properly adapted to space. The talk will describe NASA s current effort to investigate SDR applications to space missions and a brief overview of a candidate architecture under consideration for space based platforms.

  11. Frequency Allocation; The Radio Spectrum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) assigns segments of the radio spectrum to categories of users, and specific frequencies within each segment to individual users. Since demand for channel space exceeds supply, the process is complex. The radio spectrum can be compared to a long ruler: the portion from 10-540 kiloHertz has been set aside…

  12. Anti-Peptide Monoclonal Antibodies Generated for Immuno-Multiple Reaction Monitoring-Mass Spectrometry Assays Have a High Probability of Supporting Western blot and ELISA*

    PubMed Central

    Schoenherr, Regine M.; Saul, Richard G.; Whiteaker, Jeffrey R.; Yan, Ping; Whiteley, Gordon R.; Paulovich, Amanda G.

    2015-01-01

    Immunoaffinity enrichment of peptides coupled to targeted, multiple reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry (immuno-MRM) has recently been developed for quantitative analysis of peptide and protein expression. As part of this technology, antibodies are generated to short, linear, tryptic peptides that are well-suited for detection by mass spectrometry. Despite its favorable analytical performance, a major obstacle to widespread adoption of immuno-MRM is a lack of validated affinity reagents because commercial antibody suppliers are reluctant to commit resources to producing anti-peptide antibodies for immuno-MRM while the market is much larger for conventional technologies, especially Western blotting and ELISA. Part of this reluctance has been the concern that affinity reagents generated to short, linear, tryptic peptide sequences may not perform well in traditional assays that detect full-length proteins. In this study, we test the feasibility and success rates of generating immuno-MRM monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) (targeting tryptic peptide antigens) that are also compatible with conventional, protein-based immuno-affinity technologies. We generated 40 novel, peptide immuno-MRM assays and determined that the cross-over success rates for using immuno-MRM monoclonals for Western blotting is 58% and for ELISA is 43%, which compare favorably to cross-over success rates amongst conventional immunoassay technologies. These success rates could most likely be increased if conventional and immuno-MRM antigen design strategies were combined, and we suggest a workflow for such a comprehensive approach. Additionally, the 40 novel immuno-MRM assays underwent fit-for-purpose analytical validation, and all mAbs and assays have been made available as a resource to the community via the Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium's (CPTAC) Antibody (http://antibodies.cancer.gov) and Assay Portals (http://assays.cancer.gov), respectively. This study also represents the first

  13. Radio outburst of BL Lacertae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buemi, C. S.; Leto, P.; Trigilio, C.; Umana, G.; Giroletti, M.; Orienti, M.; Raiteri, C. M.; Villata, M.; Bach, U.

    2013-04-01

    We report on extremely high radio flux of BL Lacertae at 43 and 8 GHz. Observations at 43 GHz with the 32 m radio telescope in Noto (Italy) revealed a flux density of 10.5 +/- 0.2 Jy on 2013 April 10.65, while observations at 8 GHz with the 32 m radio telescope in Medicina (Italy) detected a flux density of 8.2 +/- 0.7 Jy on April 12.22. These extremely high radio fluxes show that the radio activity likely correlated to the strong optical, near-infrared, and gamma-ray activity of 2011-2012 (see ATels #4028, #4031, #4155, #4271, #4277, #4349, #4565, #4600), and X-ray activity of late 2012 (ATels #4557, #4627), is far to be exhausted.

  14. Radio frequency coaxial feedthrough

    DOEpatents

    Owens, Thomas L.

    1989-01-17

    An improved radio frequency coaxial transmission line vacuum feed-through provided based on the use of a half-wavelength annular dielectric pressure barrier disk, or multiple disks comprising an effective half wavelength structure to eliminate reflections from the barrier surfaces. Gas-tight seals are formed about the outer and inner diameter surfaces of the barrier disk using a sealing technique which generates radial forces sufficient to form seals by forcing the conductor walls against the surfaces of the barrier disks in a manner which does not deform the radii of the inner and outer conductors, thereby preventing enhancement of the electric field at the barrier faces which limits voltage and power handling capabilities of a feedthrough.

  15. Radio Telescope Reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baars, Jacob W. M.; Kärcher, Hans J.

    In Germany in 1904, Christian Hülsmeyer used a copy of Hertz's apparatus to demonstrate the reception of radiation reflected from a ship, thereby introducing a first primitive version of radar, albeit without range information. In the early years of the twentieth century, the ingenious inventor Guglielmo Marconi (1874-1937) was instrumental in the development of radio communication and broadcasting at long wavelengths of deca- and hectometres. The antennas were wire dipoles. In the early 1930s, Marconi used parabolic dishes of 3 m diameter in a demonstration of telephony across the English Channel at a frequency near 1.7 GHz. Radar was developed in several countries in the late 1930s and was put to use intensely in World War II, using paraboloidal reflectors at decimetre wavelengths. Great secrecy surrounded these latter activities.

  16. NOAA Weather Radio

    Science.gov Websites

    ¡tico de programación de la Radio del Tiempo de NOAA la capacidad de transmitir en español. Cualquier Programación Español Listado de estación Explicacion de SAME Coverage Station Listing County Listing Search For Go NWS All NOAA Las Políticas de Programación en Español Se le añadió al sistema automÃ

  17. Luminosities of Radio Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagchi, Manjari

    2013-08-01

    Luminosity is an intrinsic property of radio pulsars related to the properties of the magnetospheric plasma and the beam geometry, and inversely proportional to the observing frequency. In traditional models, luminosity has been considered as a function of the spin parameters of pulsars. On the other hand, parameter independent models like power law and lognormal have been also used to fit the observed luminosities. Some of the older studies on pulsar luminosities neglected observational biases, but all of the recent studies tried to model observational effects as accurately as possible. Luminosities of pulsars in globular clusters (GCs) and in the Galactic disk have been studied separately. Older studies concluded that these two categories of pulsars have different luminosity distributions, but the most recent study concluded that those are the same. This paper reviews all significant works on pulsar luminosities and discusses open questions.

  18. CURIE: Cubesat Radio Interferometry Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundkvist, D. J.; Saint-Hilaire, P.; Bain, H. M.; Bale, S. D.; Bonnell, J. W.; Hurford, G. J.; Maruca, B.; Martinez Oliveros, J. C.; Pulupa, M.

    2016-12-01

    The CUbesat Radio Interferometry Experiment (CURIE) is a proposed two-element radio interferometer, based on proven and developed digital radio receivers and designed to fit within a Cubesat platform. CURIE will launch as a 6U Cubesat and then separate into two 3U Cubesats once in orbit. CURIE measures radio waves from 0.1-19MHz, which must be measured from space, as those frequencies fall below the cutoff imposed by Earth's ionosphere. The principal science objective for CURIE is to use radio interferometry to study radio burst emissions from solar eruptive events such as flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in the inner heliosphere, providing observations important for our understanding of the heliospheric space weather environment. The influence of space weather can be felt at Earth and other planets, as radiation levels increase and lead to auroral activity and geomagnetic effects. CURIE will be able to determine the location and size of radio burst source regions and then to track their movement outward from the Sun. In addition to the primary objective CURIE will measure the gradients of the local ionospheric density and electron temperature on the spatial scale of a few kilometers, as well as create an improved map of the radio sky at these unexplored frequencies. A space based radio interferometry observatory has long been envisioned, in orbit around the Earth or the Moon, or on the far side of the Moon. Beyond its important science objectives, CURIE will prove that the concept of a dedicated space-based interferometer can be realized by using relatively cheap Cubesats. CURIE will therefore not only provide new important science results but also serve as a pathfinder in the development of new space-based radio observation techniques for helio- and astro-physics.

  19. Radio-Optical Alignments in a Low Radio Luminosity Sample

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacy, Mark; Ridgway, Susan E.; Wold, Margrethe; Lilje, Per B.; Rawlings, Steve

    1999-01-01

    We present an optically-based study of the alignment between the radio axes and the optical major axes of eight z approximately 0.7 radio galaxies in a 7C sample. The radio galaxies in this sample are approximately 20-times less radio luminous than 3C galaxies at the same redshift, and are significantly less radio-luminous than any other well-defined samples studied to date. Using Nordic Optical Telescope images taken in good seeing conditions at rest-frame wavelengths just longward of the 4000A break, we find a statistically significant alignment effect in the 7C sample. Furthermore, in two cases where the aligned components are well separated from the host we have been able to confirm spectroscopically that they are indeed at the same redshift as the radio galaxy. However, a quantitative analysis of the alignment in this sample and in a corresponding 3C sample from HST (Hubble Space Telescope) archival data indicates that the percentage of aligned flux may be lower and of smaller spatial scale in the 7C sample. Our study suggests that alignments on the 50-kpc scale are probably closely related to the radio luminosity, whereas those on the 15 kpc scale are not. We discuss these results in the context of popular models for the alignment effect.

  20. Immuno-Northern Blotting: Detection of RNA Modifications by Using Antibodies against Modified Nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Mishima, Eikan; Jinno, Daisuke; Akiyama, Yasutoshi; Itoh, Kunihiko; Nankumo, Shinnosuke; Shima, Hisato; Kikuchi, Koichi; Takeuchi, Yoichi; Elkordy, Alaa; Suzuki, Takehiro; Niizuma, Kuniyasu; Ito, Sadayoshi; Tomioka, Yoshihisa; Abe, Takaaki

    2015-01-01

    The biological roles of RNA modifications are still largely not understood. Thus, developing a method for detecting RNA modifications is important for further clarification. We developed a method for detecting RNA modifications called immuno-northern blotting (INB) analysis and herein introduce its various capabilities. This method involves the separation of RNAs using either polyacrylamide or agarose gel electrophoresis, followed by transfer onto a nylon membrane and subsequent immunoblotting using antibodies against modified nucleosides for the detection of specific modifications. We confirmed that INB with the antibodies for 1-methyladenosine (m1A), N6-methyladenosine (m6A), pseudouridine, and 5-methylcytidine (m5C) showed different modifications in a variety of RNAs from various species and organelles. INB with the anti-m5C antibody revealed that the antibody cross-reacted with another modification on DNA, suggesting the application of this method for characterization of the antibody for modified nucleosides. Additionally, using INB with the antibody for m1A, which is a highly specific modification in eukaryotic tRNA, we detected tRNA-derived fragments known as tiRNAs under the cellular stress response, suggesting the application for tracking target RNA containing specific modifications. INB with the anti-m6A antibody confirmed the demethylation of m6A by the specific demethylases fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO) and ALKBH5, suggesting its application for quantifying target modifications in separated RNAs. Furthermore, INB demonstrated that the knockdown of FTO and ALKBH5 increased the m6A modification in small RNAs as well as in mRNA. The INB method has high specificity, sensitivity, and quantitative capability, and it can be employed with conventional experimental apparatus. Therefore, this method would be useful for research on RNA modifications and metabolism.

  1. An ImmunoChip study of multiple sclerosis risk in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Isobe, Noriko; Madireddy, Lohith; Khankhanian, Pouya; Matsushita, Takuya; Caillier, Stacy J.; Moré, Jayaji M.; Gourraud, Pierre-Antoine; McCauley, Jacob L.; Beecham, Ashley H.; Piccio, Laura; Herbert, Joseph; Khan, Omar; Cohen, Jeffrey; Stone, Lael; Santaniello, Adam; Cree, Bruce A. C.; Onengut-Gumuscu, Suna; Rich, Stephen S.; Hauser, Stephen L.; Sawcer, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were: (i) to determine to what degree multiple sclerosis-associated loci discovered in European populations also influence susceptibility in African Americans; (ii) to assess the extent to which the unique linkage disequilibrium patterns in African Americans can contribute to localizing the functionally relevant regions or genes; and (iii) to search for novel African American multiple sclerosis-associated loci. Using the ImmunoChip custom array we genotyped 803 African American cases with multiple sclerosis and 1516 African American control subjects at 130 135 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms. We conducted association analysis with rigorous adjustments for population stratification and admixture. Of the 110 non-major histocompatibility complex multiple sclerosis-associated variants identified in Europeans, 96 passed stringent quality control in our African American data set and of these, >70% (69) showed over-representation of the same allele amongst cases, including 21 with nominally significant evidence for association (one-tailed test P < 0.05). At a further eight loci we found nominally significant association with an alternate correlated risk-tagging single nucleotide polymorphism from the same region. Outside the regions known to be associated in Europeans, we found seven potentially associated novel candidate multiple sclerosis variants (P < 10−4), one of which (rs2702180) also showed nominally significant evidence for association (one-tailed test P = 0.034) in an independent second cohort of 620 African American cases and 1565 control subjects. However, none of these novel associations reached genome-wide significance (combined P = 6.3 × 10−5). Our data demonstrate substantial overlap between African American and European multiple sclerosis variants, indicating common genetic contributions to multiple sclerosis risk. PMID:25818868

  2. An ImmunoChip study of multiple sclerosis risk in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Noriko; Madireddy, Lohith; Khankhanian, Pouya; Matsushita, Takuya; Caillier, Stacy J; Moré, Jayaji M; Gourraud, Pierre-Antoine; McCauley, Jacob L; Beecham, Ashley H; Piccio, Laura; Herbert, Joseph; Khan, Omar; Cohen, Jeffrey; Stone, Lael; Santaniello, Adam; Cree, Bruce A C; Onengut-Gumuscu, Suna; Rich, Stephen S; Hauser, Stephen L; Sawcer, Stephen; Oksenberg, Jorge R

    2015-06-01

    The aims of this study were: (i) to determine to what degree multiple sclerosis-associated loci discovered in European populations also influence susceptibility in African Americans; (ii) to assess the extent to which the unique linkage disequilibrium patterns in African Americans can contribute to localizing the functionally relevant regions or genes; and (iii) to search for novel African American multiple sclerosis-associated loci. Using the ImmunoChip custom array we genotyped 803 African American cases with multiple sclerosis and 1516 African American control subjects at 130 135 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms. We conducted association analysis with rigorous adjustments for population stratification and admixture. Of the 110 non-major histocompatibility complex multiple sclerosis-associated variants identified in Europeans, 96 passed stringent quality control in our African American data set and of these, >70% (69) showed over-representation of the same allele amongst cases, including 21 with nominally significant evidence for association (one-tailed test P < 0.05). At a further eight loci we found nominally significant association with an alternate correlated risk-tagging single nucleotide polymorphism from the same region. Outside the regions known to be associated in Europeans, we found seven potentially associated novel candidate multiple sclerosis variants (P < 10(-4)), one of which (rs2702180) also showed nominally significant evidence for association (one-tailed test P = 0.034) in an independent second cohort of 620 African American cases and 1565 control subjects. However, none of these novel associations reached genome-wide significance (combined P = 6.3 × 10(-5)). Our data demonstrate substantial overlap between African American and European multiple sclerosis variants, indicating common genetic contributions to multiple sclerosis risk. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All

  3. Focal epithelial hyperplasia in a human immuno-deficiency virus patient treated with laser surgery.

    PubMed

    Galanakis, Alexandros; Palaia, Gaspare; Tenore, Gianluca; Vecchio, Alessandro Del; Romeo, Umberto

    2014-07-16

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH), or Heck's disease, is a rare disease of the oral mucosa; it is mostly found in children or young adults who are immunosuppressed and who live in regions with low socioeconomic status. It is characterized by asymptomatic papules on the oral mucosa, gingiva, tongue, and lips. Healing can be spontaneous, and treatment is indicated if there are aesthetic or functional complications. Human papillomavirus, especially genotypes 13 and 32, has been associated with FEH and is detected in the majority of lesions. Histopathologically, FEH is characterized by parakeratosis, epithelial hyperplasia, focal acanthosis, and fusion and horizontal outgrowth of epithelial ridges. A 37-year-old male patient was referred to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Sciences at the Sapienza University of Rome, complaining of numerous exophytic lesions in his mouth. He stated that the lesions were not painful but he had experienced occasional bleeding after incidental masticatory trauma. He had received no previous treatment for the oral lesions. His medical history revealed that he was human immuno-deficiency virus positive and was a smoker with numerous, asymptomatic oral papules clinically and histologically corresponding to FEH. The labial and buccal mucosa were especially affected by lesions. Surgical treatment was performed using a 532-nm potassium titanyl phosphate laser (SmartLite, Deka, Florence, Italy) in continuous mode with a 300 μm fiber and power of 1.4 W (power density 1980.22 W/cm(2)). After anesthesia without vasoconstrictors, the lesions were tractioned with sutures or an Allis clamp and then completely excised. The lesions were preserved in 10% formalin for histological examination, which confirmed the clinical diagnosis of FEH. In this case, the laser allowed excellent control of bleeding, without postoperative sutures, and optimal wound healing.

  4. An enzyme-linked immuno-mass spectrometric assay with the substrate adenosine monophosphate.

    PubMed

    Florentinus-Mefailoski, Angelique; Soosaipillai, Antonius; Dufresne, Jaimie; Diamandis, Eleftherios P; Marshall, John G

    2015-02-01

    An enzyme-linked immuno-mass spectrometric assay (ELIMSA) with the specific detection probe streptavidin conjugated to alkaline phosphatase catalyzed the production of adenosine from the substrate adenosine monophosphate (AMP) for sensitive quantification of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) by mass spectrometry. Adenosine ionized efficiently and was measured to the femtomole range by dilution and direct analysis with micro-liquid chromatography, electrospray ionization, and mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS). The LC-ESI-MS assay for adenosine production was shown to be linear and accurate using internal (13)C(15)N adenosine isotope dilution, internal (13)C(15)N adenosine one-point calibration, and external adenosine standard curves with close agreement. The detection limits of LC-ESI-MS for alkaline phosphatase-streptavidin (AP-SA, ∼190,000 Da) was tested by injecting 0.1 μl of a 1 pg/ml solution, i.e., 100 attograms or 526 yoctomole (5.26E-22) of the alkaline-phosphatase labeled probe on column (about 315 AP-SA molecules). The ELIMSA for PSA was linear and showed strong signals across the picogram per milliliter range and could robustly detect PSA from all of the prostatectomy patients and all of the female plasma samples that ranged as low as 70 pg/ml with strong signals well separated from the background and well within the limit of quantification of the AP-SA probe. The results of the ELIMSA assay for PSA are normal and homogenous when independently replicated with a fresh standard over multiple days, and intra and inter diem assay variation was less than 10 % of the mean. In a blind comparison, ELIMSA showed excellent agreement with, but was more sensitive than, the present gold standard commercial fluorescent ELISA, or ECL-based detection, of PSA from normal and prostatectomy samples, respectively.

  5. Immuno-modulatory effect of local rhEGF treatment during tissue repair in diabetic ulcers.

    PubMed

    García-Honduvilla, Natalio; Cifuentes, Alberto; Ortega, Miguel A; Pastor, Marta; Gainza, Garazi; Gainza, Eusebio; Buján, Julia; Álvarez-Mon, Melchor

    2018-04-01

    Wound healing is a complex process that can be severely impaired due to pathological situations such as diabetes mellitus. Diabetic foot ulcers are a common complication of this pathology and are characterized by an excessive inflammatory response. In this work, the effects of local treatment with recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) were studied using a full-thickness wound healing model in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Wound healing process was assessed with different concentrations of rhEGF (0.1, 0.5, 2.0 and 8.0 µg/mL), placebo and both diabetic and non-diabetic controls ( n  = 53). The macroscopic healing observed in treated diabetic rats was affected by rhEGF concentration. Histologically, we also observed an improvement in the epithelialization, granulation tissue formation and maturation in treated groups, finding again the best response at doses of 0.5 and 2.0 µg/mL. Afterwards, the tissue immune response over time was assessed in diabetic rats using the most effective concentrations of rhEGF (0.5 and 2.0 µg/mL), compared to controls. The presence of macrophages, CD4 + T lymphocytes and CD8 + T lymphocytes, in the reparative tissue was quantified, and cytokine expression was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. rhEGF treatment caused a reduction in the number of infiltrating macrophages in the healing tissue of diabetic, as well as diminished activation of these leukocytes. These findings show that local administration of rhEGF improves the healing process of excisional wounds and the quality of the neoformed tissue in a dose-dependent manner. Besides, this treatment reduces the local inflammation associated with diabetic healing, indicating immuno-modulatory properties. © 2018 The authors.

  6. Dental abnormalities and preventive oral care in Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Gendronneau, M; Kérourédan, O; Taque, S; Sixou, J L; Bonnaure-Mallet, M

    2014-06-01

    Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia (SIOD) is a rare, severe, autosomal recessive disorder that results in spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, renal dysfunction, immunodeficiency, facial dysmorphism and growth failure. Little is known about oral features associated with SIOD. Some of the dental anomalies encountered are specific to SIOD and have only been reported in individuals with SIOD. This paper describes the clinical and radiographic dental manifestations of SIOD in two Caucasian brothers. Both lived to be about 10 years old. After a variety of symptoms were reported, a diagnosis of SIOD was finally made when the brothers were, respectively, 5 and 8 years old. At that time, dental anomalies, such as dyschromia, bulbous crowns, short and thin roots, had not been taken into account to establish the diagnosis. However, knowledge of the dental features characteristic of this disease could have helped make the diagnosis. Although both were caries- and periodontal disease-free, special attention was focused on prevention, including dietary counselling, plaque control, oral hygiene instructions and the use of fluoridated toothpaste. The two patients were followed every 6 months, for over 2 years (until their death), by both a private dentist and a university hospital dentist, which helped them maintain good oral health. Oral hygiene was assessed at each appointment and fissure sealants were placed by the private practitioner on their first permanent molars. This report describes dental anomalies specific to SIOD that could facilitate diagnosis. Clinicians and dentists should work in collaboration to diagnose and treat children with SIOD. These patients require regular and specific dental management because of their fragile health and their characteristic dental anomalies. Ideally, preventive visits should be scheduled every 6 months in addition to curative visits as needed.

  7. Vector-Borne Pathogen and Host Evolution in a Structured Immuno-Epidemiological System.

    PubMed

    Gulbudak, Hayriye; Cannataro, Vincent L; Tuncer, Necibe; Martcheva, Maia

    2017-02-01

    Vector-borne disease transmission is a common dissemination mode used by many pathogens to spread in a host population. Similar to directly transmitted diseases, the within-host interaction of a vector-borne pathogen and a host's immune system influences the pathogen's transmission potential between hosts via vectors. Yet there are few theoretical studies on virulence-transmission trade-offs and evolution in vector-borne pathogen-host systems. Here, we consider an immuno-epidemiological model that links the within-host dynamics to between-host circulation of a vector-borne disease. On the immunological scale, the model mimics antibody-pathogen dynamics for arbovirus diseases, such as Rift Valley fever and West Nile virus. The within-host dynamics govern transmission and host mortality and recovery in an age-since-infection structured host-vector-borne pathogen epidemic model. By considering multiple pathogen strains and multiple competing host populations differing in their within-host replication rate and immune response parameters, respectively, we derive evolutionary optimization principles for both pathogen and host. Invasion analysis shows that the [Formula: see text] maximization principle holds for the vector-borne pathogen. For the host, we prove that evolution favors minimizing case fatality ratio (CFR). These results are utilized to compute host and pathogen evolutionary trajectories and to determine how model parameters affect evolution outcomes. We find that increasing the vector inoculum size increases the pathogen [Formula: see text], but can either increase or decrease the pathogen virulence (the host CFR), suggesting that vector inoculum size can contribute to virulence of vector-borne diseases in distinct ways.

  8. Insulin immuno-neutralization in fed chickens: effects on liver and muscle transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Simon, Jean; Milenkovic, Dragan; Godet, Estelle; Cabau, Cedric; Collin, Anne; Métayer-Coustard, Sonia; Rideau, Nicole; Tesseraud, Sophie; Derouet, Michel; Crochet, Sabine; Cailleau-Audouin, Estelle; Hennequet-Antier, Christelle; Gespach, Christian; Porter, Tom E; Duclos, Michel J; Dupont, Joëlle; Cogburn, Larry A

    2012-03-01

    Chickens mimic an insulin-resistance state by exhibiting several peculiarities with regard to plasma glucose level and its control by insulin. To gain insight into the role of insulin in the control of chicken transcriptome, liver and leg muscle transcriptomes were compared in fed controls and "diabetic" chickens, at 5 h after insulin immuno-neutralization, using 20.7K-chicken oligo-microarrays. At a level of false discovery rate <0.01, 1,573 and 1,225 signals were significantly modified by insulin privation in liver and muscle, respectively. Microarray data agreed reasonably well with qRT-PCR and some protein level measurements. Differentially expressed mRNAs with human ID were classified using Biorag analysis and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Multiple metabolic pathways, structural proteins, transporters and proteins of intracellular trafficking, major signaling pathways, and elements of the transcriptional control machinery were largely represented in both tissues. At least 42 mRNAs have already been associated with diabetes, insulin resistance, obesity, energy expenditure, or identified as sensors of metabolism in mice or humans. The contribution of the pathways presently identified to chicken physiology (particularly those not yet related to insulin) needs to be evaluated in future studies. Other challenges include the characterization of "unknown" mRNAs and the identification of the steps or networks, which disturbed tissue transcriptome so extensively, quickly after the turning off of the insulin signal. In conclusion, pleiotropic effects of insulin in chickens are further evidenced; major pathways controlled by insulin in mammals have been conserved despite the presence of unique features of insulin signaling in chicken muscle.

  9. Teaching radio astronomy with Affordable Small Radio Telescope (ASRT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Bhal Chandra

    A simple, easy to build and portable radio telescope, called Affordable Small Radio Telescope (ASRT), has been developed by the Radio Physics Laboratory (RPL), a radio astronomy teaching unit associated with the National Centre for Radio Astrophysics (TIFR) and Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IUCAA), which are two premier astronomy institutes in India. ASRT consists of off-the-shelf available Direct to Home television dishes and is easy to assemble. Our design is scalable from simple very low cost telescope to more complex yet moderately costing instrument. ASRT provides a platform for demonstrating radio physics concepts through simple hands-on experiment as well as for carrying out solar monitoring by college/University students. The presentation will highlight the concept of ASRT and the different experiments that can be carried out using it. The solar monitoring observations will be discussed along-with details of methods for calibrating these measurements. The pedagogical usefulness of ASRT in introducing undergraduatephysics students to astrophysics, measurements and analysis methods used in radio astronomy will also be discussed. Use of ASRT in the last three years in the programs of RPL, namely the annual Radio Astronomy Winter School for College students (RAWSC) and Pulsar Observing for Students (POS) is also presented. This year a new program was initiated to form a virtual group of an ASRT community, which will not only share their measurements, but also think of improving the pedagogical usefulness of ASRT by innovative experiments. This initiative is presented with the best practices drawn from our experience in using ASRT as a tool for student training in space sciences. The talk will also point out future ideas in involving a larger body of students in simple radio astronomy experiments with the ASRT, which RPL is likely to nucleate as part of its mandate.

  10. Radio emission in Mercury magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varela, J.; Reville, V.; Brun, A. S.; Pantellini, F.; Zarka, P.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Active stars possess magnetized wind that has a direct impact on planets that can lead to radio emission. Mercury is a good test case to study the effect of the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) on radio emission driven in the planet magnetosphere. Such studies could be used as proxies to characterize the magnetic field topology and intensity of exoplanets. Aims: The aim of this study is to quantify the radio emission in the Hermean magnetosphere. Methods: We use the magnetohydrodynamic code PLUTO in spherical coordinates with an axisymmetric multipolar expansion for the Hermean magnetic field, to analyze the effect of the IMF orientation and intensity, as well as the hydrodynamic parameters of the solar wind (velocity, density and temperature), on the net power dissipated on the Hermean day and night side. We apply the formalism derived by Zarka et al. (2001, Astrophys. Space Sci., 277, 293), Zarka (2007, Planet. Space Sci., 55, 598) to infer the radio emission level from the net dissipated power. We perform a set of simulations with different hydrodynamic parameters of the solar wind, IMF orientations and intensities, that allow us to calculate the dissipated power distribution and infer the existence of radio emission hot spots on the planet day side, and to calculate the integrated radio emission of the Hermean magnetosphere. Results: The obtained radio emission distribution of dissipated power is determined by the IMF orientation (associated with the reconnection regions in the magnetosphere), although the radio emission strength is dependent on the IMF intensity and solar wind hydro parameters. The calculated total radio emission level is in agreement with the one estimated in Zarka et al. (2001, Astrophys. Space Sci., 277, 293) , between 5 × 105 and 2 × 106 W.

  11. Shoestring Budget Radio Astronomy (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoot, J. E.

    2017-12-01

    (Abstract only) The commercial exploitation of microwave frequencies for cellular, WiFi, Bluetooth, HDTV, and satellite digital media transmission has brought down the cost of the components required to build an effective radio telescope to the point where, for the cost of a good eyepiece, you can construct and operate a radio telescope. This paper sets forth a family of designs for 1421 MHz telescopes. It also proposes a method by which operators of such instruments can aggregate and archive data via the Internet. With 90 or so instruments it will be possible to survey the entire radio sky for transients with a 24 hour cadence.

  12. Recurrent Activity in Radio Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Jamrozy, Marek; /Jagiellonian U.; Konar, Chiranjib

    2007-10-15

    One of the outstanding issues concerning extragalactic radio sources is the total duration of their active phase and the possible existence of duty cycles of their nuclear activity. A duty cycle can be recognized if there is a mechanism which preserves the information of past activity for a sufficiently long time after a new activity has started up. If a new cycle starts before the radio lobes created during a former activity period have faded, we can recognize this by the observations of a young radio source embedded in an old relic structure.

  13. 89Zr-DFO-AMG102 Immuno-PET to Determine Local Hepatocyte Growth Factor Protein Levels in Tumors for Enhanced Patient Selection.

    PubMed

    Price, Eric W; Carnazza, Kathryn E; Carlin, Sean D; Cho, Andrew; Edwards, Kimberly J; Sevak, Kuntal K; Glaser, Jonathan M; de Stanchina, Elisa; Janjigian, Yelena Y; Lewis, Jason S

    2017-09-01

    The hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) binding antibody rilotumumab (AMG102) was modified for use as a 89 Zr-based immuno-PET imaging agent to noninvasively determine the local levels of HGF protein in tumors. Because recent clinical trials of HGF-targeting therapies have been largely unsuccessful in several different cancers (e.g., gastric, brain, lung), we have synthesized and validated 89 Zr-DFO-AMG102 as a companion diagnostic for improved identification and selection of patients having high local levels of HGF in tumors. To date, patient selection has not been performed using the local levels of HGF protein in tumors. Methods: The chelator p -SCN-Bn-DFO was conjugated to AMG102, radiolabeling with 89 Zr was performed in high radiochemical yields and purity (>99%), and binding affinity of the modified antibody was confirmed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-type binding assay. PET imaging, biodistribution, autoradiography and immunohistochemistry, and ex vivo HGF ELISA experiments were performed on murine xenografts of U87MG (HGF-positive, MET-positive) and MKN45 (HGF-negative, MET-positive) and 4 patient-derived xenografts (MET-positive, HGF unknown). Results: Tumor uptake of 89 Zr-DFO-AMG102 at 120 h after injection in U87MG xenografts (HGF-positive) was high (36.8 ± 7.8 percentage injected dose per gram [%ID/g]), whereas uptake in MKN45 xenografts (HGF-negative) was 5.0 ± 1.3 %ID/g and a control of nonspecific human IgG 89 Zr-DFO-IgG in U87MG tumors was 11.5 ± 3.3 %ID/g, demonstrating selective uptake in HGF-positive tumors. Similar experiments performed in 4 different gastric cancer patient-derived xenograft models showed low uptake of 89 Zr-DFO-AMG102 (∼4-7 %ID/g), which corresponded with low HGF levels in these tumors (ex vivo ELISA). Autoradiography, immunohistochemical staining, and HGF ELISA assays confirmed that elevated levels of HGF protein were present only in U87MG tumors and that 89 Zr-DFO-AMG102 uptake was closely correlated

  14. A low cost and high throughput magnetic bead-based immuno-agglutination assay in confined droplets.

    PubMed

    Teste, Bruno; Ali-Cherif, Anaïs; Viovy, Jean Louis; Malaquin, Laurent

    2013-06-21

    Although passive immuno-agglutination assays consist of one step and simple procedures, they are usually not adapted for high throughput analyses and they require expensive and bulky equipment for quantitation steps. Here we demonstrate a low cost, multimodal and high throughput immuno-agglutination assay that relies on a combination of magnetic beads (MBs), droplets microfluidics and magnetic tweezers. Antibody coated MBs were used as a capture support in the homogeneous phase. Following the immune interaction, water in oil droplets containing MBs and analytes were generated and transported in Teflon tubing. When passing in between magnetic tweezers, the MBs contained in the droplets were magnetically confined in order to enhance the agglutination rate and kinetics. When releasing the magnetic field, the internal recirculation flows in the droplet induce shear forces that favor MBs redispersion. In the presence of the analyte, the system preserves specific interactions and MBs stay in the aggregated state while in the case of a non-specific analyte, redispersion of particles occurs. The analyte quantitation procedure relies on the MBs redispersion rate within the droplet. The influence of different parameters such as magnetic field intensity, flow rate and MBs concentration on the agglutination performances have been investigated and optimized. Although the immuno-agglutination assay described in this work may not compete with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in terms of sensitivity, it offers major advantages regarding the reagents consumption (analysis is performed in sub microliter droplet) and the platform cost that yields to very cheap analyses. Moreover the fully automated analysis procedure provides reproducible analyses with throughput well above those of existing technologies. We demonstrated the detection of biotinylated phosphatase alkaline in 100 nL sample volumes with an analysis rate of 300 assays per hour and a limit of detection of 100 pM.

  15. Applied immuno-epidemiological research: an approach for integrating existing knowledge into the statistical analysis of multiple immune markers.

    PubMed

    Genser, Bernd; Fischer, Joachim E; Figueiredo, Camila A; Alcântara-Neves, Neuza; Barreto, Mauricio L; Cooper, Philip J; Amorim, Leila D; Saemann, Marcus D; Weichhart, Thomas; Rodrigues, Laura C

    2016-05-20

    Immunologists often measure several correlated immunological markers, such as concentrations of different cytokines produced by different immune cells and/or measured under different conditions, to draw insights from complex immunological mechanisms. Although there have been recent methodological efforts to improve the statistical analysis of immunological data, a framework is still needed for the simultaneous analysis of multiple, often correlated, immune markers. This framework would allow the immunologists' hypotheses about the underlying biological mechanisms to be integrated. We present an analytical approach for statistical analysis of correlated immune markers, such as those commonly collected in modern immuno-epidemiological studies. We demonstrate i) how to deal with interdependencies among multiple measurements of the same immune marker, ii) how to analyse association patterns among different markers, iii) how to aggregate different measures and/or markers to immunological summary scores, iv) how to model the inter-relationships among these scores, and v) how to use these scores in epidemiological association analyses. We illustrate the application of our approach to multiple cytokine measurements from 818 children enrolled in a large immuno-epidemiological study (SCAALA Salvador), which aimed to quantify the major immunological mechanisms underlying atopic diseases or asthma. We demonstrate how to aggregate systematically the information captured in multiple cytokine measurements to immunological summary scores aimed at reflecting the presumed underlying immunological mechanisms (Th1/Th2 balance and immune regulatory network). We show how these aggregated immune scores can be used as predictors in regression models with outcomes of immunological studies (e.g. specific IgE) and compare the results to those obtained by a traditional multivariate regression approach. The proposed analytical approach may be especially useful to quantify complex immune

  16. Matching the decay half-life with the biological half-life: ImmunoPET imaging with 44 Sc-labeled Cetuximab Fab fragment

    DOE PAGES

    Chakravarty, Rubel; Goel, Shreya; Valdovinos, Hector F.; ...

    2014-11-11

    Scandium-44 (t 1/2 = 3.9 h) is a relatively new radioisotope of potential interest for use in clinical positron emission tomography (PET). Herein, we report, for the first time, the room-temperature radiolabeling of proteins with 44Sc for in vivo PET imaging. For this purpose, the Fab fragment of Cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody that binds with high affinity to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), was generated and conjugated with N-[(R)-2-amino-3-( para-isothiocyanato-phenyl)propyl]- trans-(S,S)-cyclohexane-1,2-diamine- N,N,N',N'',N''-pentaacetic acid (CHX-A"-DTPA). The high purity of Cetuximab-Fab was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry. The potential of the bioconjugate for PET imaging of EGFR expression in human glioblastomamore » (U87MG) tumor-bearing mice was investigated after 44Sc labeling. PET imaging revealed rapid tumor uptake (maximum uptake of ~12% ID/g at 4 h postinjection) of 44Sc–CHX-A"-DTPA–Cetuximab-Fab with excellent tumor-to-background ratio, which might allow for same day PET imaging in future clinical studies. Immunofluorescence staining was conducted to correlate tracer uptake in the tumor and normal tissues with EGFR expression. As a result, this successful strategy for immunoPET imaging of EGFR expression using 44Sc–CHX-''-DTPA–Cetuximab-Fab can make clinically translatable advances to select the right population of patients for EGFR-targeted therapy and also to monitor the therapeutic efficacy of anti-EGFR treatments.« less

  17. Matching the Decay Half-Life with the Biological Half-Life: ImmunoPET Imaging with 44Sc-Labeled Cetuximab Fab Fragment

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Scandium-44 (t1/2 = 3.9 h) is a relatively new radioisotope of potential interest for use in clinical positron emission tomography (PET). Herein, we report, for the first time, the room-temperature radiolabeling of proteins with 44Sc for in vivo PET imaging. For this purpose, the Fab fragment of Cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody that binds with high affinity to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), was generated and conjugated with N-[(R)-2-amino-3-(para-isothiocyanato-phenyl)propyl]-trans-(S,S)-cyclohexane-1,2-diamine-N,N,N′,N″,N″-pentaacetic acid (CHX-A″-DTPA). The high purity of Cetuximab-Fab was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry. The potential of the bioconjugate for PET imaging of EGFR expression in human glioblastoma (U87MG) tumor-bearing mice was investigated after 44Sc labeling. PET imaging revealed rapid tumor uptake (maximum uptake of ∼12% ID/g at 4 h postinjection) of 44Sc–CHX-A″-DTPA–Cetuximab-Fab with excellent tumor-to-background ratio, which might allow for same day PET imaging in future clinical studies. Immunofluorescence staining was conducted to correlate tracer uptake in the tumor and normal tissues with EGFR expression. This successful strategy for immunoPET imaging of EGFR expression using 44Sc–CHX-A″-DTPA–Cetuximab-Fab can make clinically translatable advances to select the right population of patients for EGFR-targeted therapy and also to monitor the therapeutic efficacy of anti-EGFR treatments. PMID:25389697

  18. Queen's Solar Radio Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardiner, B. L.; Thomson, D. J.

    2006-12-01

    Starting with the designs of earlier solar radio telescopes, particularly the one at Bell Labs, Murray Hill, we have built a new instrument. The major differences between this telescope and its predecessors are that it has: 1) parallel low and high gain channels for both polarizations; 2) four additional channels for active interference cancellation; and 3) all eight IF strips terminating in 100 MHz, 14--bit analog--to--digital converters with synchronized sampling. The advantages of such a configuration are: a) The parallel low and high gain channels allow a higher dynamic range without saturating than a single channel. b) Estimating bispectra between the channels gives a sensitive test for saturation in the higher gain channel. c) In the usual case, when both channels are in their linear region, one can use them with a noise injection diode to track the amplifier noise figures. d) With the noise diode off, the two channels can be used in a mode similar to remote reference. As the telescope is operating in a small city we anticipate that more than 90% of the measurements will be contaminated by various communications signals and impulsive noise. Thus all the signal processing will build on various robust statistical procedures that have proven effective in other applications. The best mode of operating the four active interference cancelling channels is still under study

  19. EVA Radio DRATS 2011 Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swank, Aaron J.; Bakula, Casey J.

    2012-01-01

    In the Fall of 2011, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) participated in the Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) field experiments held near Flagstaff, Arizona. The objective of the DRATS outing is to provide analog mission testing of candidate technologies for space exploration, especially those technologies applicable to human exploration of extra- terrestrial rocky bodies. These activities are performed at locations with similarities to extra-terrestrial conditions. This report describes the Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Dual-Band Radio Communication System which was demonstrated during the 2011 outing. The EVA radio system is designed to transport both voice and telemetry data through a mobile ad hoc wireless network and employs a dual-band radio configuration. Some key characteristics of this system include: 1. Dual-band radio configuration. 2. Intelligent switching between two different capability wireless networks. 3. Self-healing network. 4. Simultaneous data and voice communication.

  20. Dietary zinc promotes immuno-biochemical plasticity and protects fish against multiple stresses.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Neeraj; Krishnani, K K; Kumar, Paritosh; Jha, Ashish Kumar; Gupta, Sanjay Kumar; Singh, N P

    2017-03-01

    The abiotic and biotic stress is an episode that effect on regulatory, neuro-endocrine and immune systems of animals including fish. The stress creates stimulatory and suppressive of immune system resulting in increases the incidence of infection. In view of these points, we have conducted an experiment to mitigate the stress through a nutritional approach through Zinc (Zn) supplementation in Pangasius hypophthalmus (initial weight-3.65 ± 0.75 g). Three isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets with graded levels of zinc 0, 10 and 20 mg/kg were prepared and fed to seven different groups with each in triplicate. The experimental group as follows as normal water with control diet (Ctr/Ctr), lead (Pb) exposed and fed with control diet (Ctr/Pb), control diet and exposed to Pb and temperature (Ctr/Pb-T), Zn 10 mg/kg fed without stressors (Zn- 10 mg/kg), Zn 20 mg/kg fed without stressors (Zn-20 mg/kg), Zn 10 mg/kg fed and Pb and temperature exposed (Pb-T/Zn 10 mg/kg) and Zn 20 mg/kg fed and exposed to Pb and temperature (Pb-T/Zn 20 mg/kg). The Pb in treated water was maintained at the level of 1/20th of LC 50 (4 ppm) and temperature at 34  ° C in exposure groups. The neutraceuticals role of dietary Zn was studied in terms of antioxidative enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase), stress markers (Heat shock protein 70, cortisol, acetylcholine esterase, blood glucose, Vitamin C), immunological parameters (Total protein, albumin, globulin, A/G ratio and NBT) and subsequent challenge with Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria. The antioxidative enzymes, stress markers, albumin were significantly (p < 0.01) elevated, brain AChE and immuno-hematological parameters were significantly (p < 0.01) decreased due to lead (Pb) and temperature exposure. The relative survival (%) was reduced due to the concurrent effect of Pb, high temperature stress and bacterial challenge. Zinc at the rate of 10 and 20 mg/kg was found to be restore the biochemical

  1. Reducing WBC background in cancer cell separation products by negative acoustic contrast particle immuno-acoustophoresis.

    PubMed

    Cushing, Kevin; Undvall, Eva; Ceder, Yvonne; Lilja, Hans; Laurell, Thomas

    2018-02-13

    Cancer cells display acoustic properties enabling acoustophoretic separation from white blood cells (WBCs) with 2-3 log suppression of the WBC background. However, a subset of WBCs has overlapping acoustic properties with cancer cells, which is why label-free acoustophoretic cancer cell isolation needs additional purification prior to analysis. This paper reports for the first time a proof of concept for continuous flow acoustophoretic negative selection of WBCs from cancer cells using negative acoustic contrast elastomeric particles (EPs) activated with CD45-antibodies that specifically bind to WBCs. The EP/WBC complexes align at the acoustic pressure anti-nodes along the channel walls while unbound cancer cells focus to the pressure node in the channel center, enabling continuous flow based depletion of WBC background in a cancer cell product. The method does not provide a single process solution for the CTC separation challenge, but provides an elegant part to a multi-step process by further reducing the WBC background in cancer cell separation products derived from an initial step of label-free acoustophoresis. We report the recorded performance of the negative selection immuno-acoustophoretic WBC depletion and cancer cell recovery. To eliminate the negative impact of the separation due to the known problems of aggregation of negative acoustic contrast particles along the sidewalls of the acoustophoresis channel and to enable continuous separation of EP/WBC complexes from cancer cells, a new acoustic actuation method has been implemented where the ultrasound frequency is scanned (1.991MHz ± 100 kHz, scan rate 200 kHz ms -1 ). Using this frequency scanning strategy EP/WBC complexes were acoustophoretically separated from mixtures of WBCs spiked with breast and prostate cancer cells (DU145 and MCF-7). An 86-fold (MCF-7) and 52-fold (DU145) reduction of WBCs in the cancer cell fractions were recorded with separation efficiencies of 98.6% (MCF-7) and 99

  2. Silk fibroin-chondroitin sulfate scaffold with immuno-inhibition property for articular cartilage repair.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Feifei; Zhang, Xianzhu; Cai, Dandan; Li, Jun; Mu, Qin; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Shouan; Jiang, Yangzi; Shen, Weiliang; Zhang, Shufang; Ouyang, Hong Wei

    2017-11-01

    The demand of favorable scaffolds has increased for the emerging cartilage tissue engineering. Chondroitin sulfate (CS) and silk fibroin have been investigated and reported with safety and excellent biocompatibility as tissue engineering scaffolds. However, the rapid degradation rate of pure CS scaffolds presents a challenge to effectively recreate neo-tissue similar to natural articular cartilage. Meanwhile the silk fibroin is well used as a structural constituent material because its remarkable mechanical properties, long-lasting in vivo stability and hypoimmunity. The application of composite silk fibroin and CS scaffolds for joint cartilage repair has not been well studied. Here we report that the combination of silk fibroin and CS could synergistically promote articular cartilage defect repair. The silk fibroin (silk) and silk fibroin/CS (silk-CS) scaffolds were fabricated with salt-leaching, freeze-drying and crosslinking methodologies. The biocompatibility of the scaffolds was investigated in vitro by cell adhesion, proliferation and migration with human articular chondrocytes. We found that silk-CS scaffold maintained better chondrocyte phenotype than silk scaffold; moreover, the silk-CS scaffolds reduced chondrocyte inflammatory response that was induced by interleukin (IL)-1β, which is in consistent with the well-documented anti-inflammatory activities of CS. The in vivo cartilage repair was evaluated with a rabbit osteochondral defect model. Silk-CS scaffold induced more neo-tissue formation and better structural restoration than silk scaffold after 6 and 12weeks of implantation in ICRS histological evaluations. In conclusion, we have developed a silk fibroin/ chondroitin sulfate scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering that exhibits immuno-inhibition property and can improve the self-repair capacity of cartilage. Severe cartilage defect such as osteoarthritis (OA) is difficult to self-repair because of its avascular, aneural and alymphatic nature

  3. A genome-wide association study by ImmunoChip reveals potential modifiers in myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Danjou, Fabrice; Fozza, Claudio; Zoledziewska, Magdalena; Mulas, Antonella; Corda, Giovanna; Contini, Salvatore; Dore, Fausto; Galleu, Antonio; Di Tucci, Anna Angela; Caocci, Giovanni; Gaviano, Eleonora; Latte, Giancarlo; Gabbas, Attilio; Casula, Paolo; Delogu, Lucia Gemma; La Nasa, Giorgio; Angelucci, Emanuele; Cucca, Francesco; Longinotti, Maurizio

    2016-11-01

    Because different findings suggest that an immune dysregulation plays a role in the pathogenesis of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), we analyzed a large cohort of patients from a homogeneous Sardinian population using ImmunoChip, a genotyping array exploring 147,954 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) localized in genomic regions displaying some degree of association with immune-mediated diseases or pathways. The population studied included 133 cases and 3,894 controls, and a total of 153,978 autosomal markers and 971 non-autosomal markers were genotyped. After association analysis, only one variant passed the genome-wide significance threshold: rs71325459 (p = 1.16 × 10 -12 ), which is situated on chromosome 20. The variant is in high linkage disequilibrium with rs35640778, an untested missense variant situated in the RTEL1 gene, an interesting candidate that encodes for an ATP-dependent DNA helicase implicated in telomere-length regulation, DNA repair, and maintenance of genomic stability. The second most associated signal is composed of five variants that fall slightly below the genome-wide significance threshold but point out another interesting gene candidate. These SNPs, with p values between 2.53 × 10 -6 and 3.34 × 10 -6 , are situated in the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene. The most associated of these variants, rs1537514, presents an increased frequency of the derived C allele in cases, with 11.4% versus 4.4% in controls. MTHFR is the rate-limiting enzyme in the methyl cycle and genetic variations in this gene have been strongly associated with the risk of neoplastic diseases. The current understanding of the MDS biology, which is based on the hypothesis of the sequential development of multiple subclonal molecular lesions, fits very well with the demonstration of a possible role for RTEL1 and MTHFR gene polymorphisms, both of which are related to a variable risk of genomic instability. Copyright © 2016 ISEH - International

  4. Historic Radio Astronomy Working Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-06-01

    This special issue of Astronomische Nachrichten contains the proceedings of a session of the Historic Radio Astronomy Working Group of the International Astronomical Union that took place during the 26th General Assembly of the IAU in Prague on 17th August 2006. In addition to the talks presented in Prague some contributions were solicited to give a more complete overview of `The Early History of European Radio Astronomy'.

  5. Radio Transients and their Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajwade, Kaustubh

    The interstellar medium is the principal ingredient for star formation and hence, it is necessary to study the properties of the interstellar medium. Radio sources in our Galaxy and beyond can be used as a probe of the intervening medium. In this dissertation, I present an attempt to use radio transients like pulsars and fast radio bursts and their interactions with the environment around them to study interstellar medium. We show that radio emission from pulsars is absorbed by dense ionized gas in their surroundings, causing a turnover in their flux density spectrum that can be used to reveal information about the absorbing medium. We carried out a multi-wavelength observation campaign of PSR B0611+22. The pulsar shows peculiar emission variability that is broadband in nature. Moreover, we show that the flux density spectrum of B0611+22 is unusual which can be attributed to the environment it lies in. We also present predictions of fast radio burst detections from upcoming low frequency surveys. We show that future surveys with the Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment (CHIME) will be able to detect 1 radio burst per hour even if the radio burst undergoes significant absorption and scattering. Finally, we present our results of pulsar population synthesis to understand the pulsar population in the Galactic Centre (GC) and place conservative upper limits on the GC pulsar population. We obtain an upper limit of 52 CPs and 10,000 MSPs in the GC. The dense, ionized environment of the GC gives us the opportunity to predict the probability of detection by considering scattering and absorption as the principle sources of flux mitigation. Our results suggest that the optimal frequency range for a pulsar survey in the GC is 9-14 GHz. A larger sample of absorbed spectrum pulsars and fast radio bursts will be beneficial not only for the study of emission processes but also for discerning the properties of the material permeating through space.

  6. The Radio JOVE Project - An Inexpensive Introduction to Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thieman, J. R.; Higgins, C.

    2004-12-01

    The Radio JOVE project began over six years ago as an education-centered program to inspire secondary school students' interest in space science through hands-on radio astronomy. The project was begun on small grants from the Goddard Space Flight Center Director's Discretionary Fund, the Initiative to Develop Education through Astronomy and Space Science (IDEAS) program, and the American Astronomical Society. Students build a radio receiver and antenna kit capable of receiving Jovian, solar, and galactic emissions at a frequency of 20.1 MHz. More than 600 of these kits have been distributed to students and interested observers (ages 10 through adult) in over 30 countries. For those who are not comfortable building their own kit, the Radio JOVE project has made it possible to monitor real-time data and streaming audio online from professional radio telescopes in Florida (http://jupiter.kochi-ct.jp) and Hawaii http://jupiter.wcc.hawaii.edu/newradiojove/main.html). Freely downloadable software called Radio-Skypipe (http://radiosky.com) emulates a chart recorder to monitor ones own radio telescope or the telescopes of other observers worldwide who send out their data over the Internet. Inexpensive spectrographs have been developed for the professional telescopes in Hawaii and Florida and freely downloadable spectrograph display software is available to receive this research-quality data. We believe the amateur network data to be of value to the research community and would like to have students more directly connected to ongoing research projects to enhance their interest in participating. Results of the project and plans for the future will be highlighted.

  7. Information Content in Radio Waves: Student Investigations in Radio Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, K.; Scaduto, T.

    2013-12-01

    We describe an inquiry-based instructional unit on information content in radio waves, created in the summer of 2013 as part of a MIT Haystack Observatory (Westford, MA) NSF Research Experiences for Teachers (RET) program. This topic is current and highly relevant, addressing science and technical aspects from radio astronomy, geodesy, and atmospheric research areas as well as Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). Projects and activities range from simple classroom demonstrations and group investigations, to long term research projects incorporating data acquisition from both student-built instrumentation as well as online databases. Each of the core lessons is applied to one of the primary research centers at Haystack through an inquiry project that builds on previously developed units through the MIT Haystack RET program. In radio astronomy, students investigate the application of a simple and inexpensive software defined radio chip (RTL-SDR) for use in systems implementing a small and very small radio telescope (SRT and VSRT). Both of these systems allow students to explore fundamental principles of radio waves and interferometry as applied to radio astronomy. In ionospheric research, students track solar storms from the initial coronal mass ejection (using Solar Dynamics Observatory images) to the resulting variability in total electron density concentrations using data from the community standard Madrigal distributed database system maintained by MIT Haystack. Finally, students get to explore very long-baseline interferometry as it is used in geodetic studies by measuring crustal plate displacements over time. Alignment to NextGen standards is provided for each lesson and activity with emphasis on HS-PS4 'Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer'.

  8. The radio properties of infrared-faint radio sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middelberg, E.; Norris, R. P.; Hales, C. A.; Seymour, N.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Huynh, M. T.; Lenc, E.; Mao, M. Y.

    2011-02-01

    Context. Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) are objects that have flux densities of several mJy at 1.4 GHz, but that are invisible at 3.6 μm when using sensitive Spitzer observations with μJy sensitivities. Their nature is unclear and difficult to investigate since they are only visible in the radio. Aims: High-resolution radio images and comprehensive spectral coverage can yield constraints on the emission mechanisms of IFRS and can give hints to similarities with known objects. Methods: We imaged a sample of 17 IFRS at 4.8 GHz and 8.6 GHz with the Australia Telescope Compact Array to determine the structures on arcsecond scales. We added radio data from other observing projects and from the literature to obtain broad-band radio spectra. Results: We find that the sources in our sample are either resolved out at the higher frequencies or are compact at resolutions of a few arcsec, which implies that they are smaller than a typical galaxy. The spectra of IFRS are remarkably steep, with a median spectral index of -1.4 and a prominent lack of spectral indices larger than -0.7. We also find that, given the IR non-detections, the ratio of 1.4 GHz flux density to 3.6 μm flux density is very high, and this puts them into the same regime as high-redshift radio galaxies. Conclusions: The evidence that IFRS are predominantly high-redshift sources driven by active galactic nuclei (AGN) is strong, even though not all IFRS may be caused by the same phenomenon. Compared to the rare and painstakingly collected high-redshift radio galaxies, IFRS appear to be much more abundant, but less luminous, AGN-driven galaxies at similar cosmological distances.

  9. Chemiluminometric Immuno-Analysis of Innate Immune Response against Repetitive Bacterial Stimulations for the Same Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Jin-Woo; Cho, Il-Hoon; Ha, Un-Hwan; Seo, Sung-Kyu; Paek, Se-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    For monitoring of human cellular response to repetitive bacterial stimulations (e.g., Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a lysate form), we devised a chemiluminescent immuno-analytical system for toll-like receptor 1 (TLR1) as marker present on cell surfaces (e.g., A549). Upon stimulation, TLR1 recognizes pathogen-associated molecular patterns of the infectious agent and are then up-regulated via activation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway. In this study, the receptor density was quantified by employing an antibody specific to the target receptor and by producing a chemiluminometric signal from an enzyme labeled to the binder. The activated status was then switched back to normal down-regulated stage, by changing the culture medium to one containing animal serum. The major factors affecting activation were the stimulation dose of the bacterial lysate, stimulation timing during starvation, and up- and down-regulation time intervals. Reiterative TLR regulation switching up to three times was not affected by either antibody remained after immunoassay or enzyme substrate (e.g., hydrogen peroxide) in solution. This immuno-analysis for TLRs could be unique to acquire accumulated response of the human cells to repeated stimulations and, therefore, can eventually apply to persistency testing of the cellular regulation in screening of anti-inflammatory substances. PMID:25109895

  10. Detection of measles, mumps and rubella viruses by immuno-colorimetric assay and its application in focus reduction neutralization tests.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Sunil R; Kumbhar, Neelakshi S; Bhide, Vandana S

    2014-12-01

    Measles, mumps and rubella are vaccine-preventable diseases; however limited epidemiological data are available from low-income or developing countries. Thus, it is important to investigate the transmission of these viruses in different geographical regions. In this context, a cell culture-based rapid and reliable immuno-colorimetric assay (ICA) was established and its utility studied. Twenty-three measles, six mumps and six rubella virus isolates and three vaccine strains were studied. Detection by ICA was compared with plaque and RT-PCR assays. In addition, ICA was used to detect viruses in throat swabs (n = 24) collected from patients with suspected measles or mumps. Similarly, ICA was used in a focus reduction neutralization test (FRNT) and the results compared with those obtained by a commercial IgG enzyme immuno assay. Measles and mumps virus were detected 2 days post-infection in Vero or Vero-human signaling lymphocytic activation molecule cells, whereas rubella virus was detected 3 days post-infection in Vero cells. The blue stained viral foci were visible by the naked eye or through a magnifying glass. In conclusion, ICA was successfully used on 35 virus isolates, three vaccine strains and clinical specimens collected from suspected cases of measles and mumps. Furthermore, an application of ICA in a neutralization test (i.e., FRNT) was documented; this may be useful for sero-epidemiological, cross-neutralization and pre/post-vaccine studies. © 2014 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Technical Advances in Intracellular Detection Using Immuno-Gold Particles: Simple Cryofixation with Metal Contact Quick Freezing.

    PubMed

    Song, Chihong; Lee, Ju Huck; Jun, Sangmi; Chung, Jeong Min; Hyun, Jaekyung; Jung, Hyun Suk

    2016-05-01

    The preparation of biological specimens using cryofixation techniques ensures excellent visibility of intracellular structures and preserves the antigenic sites of subcellular molecules. Hence, cryofixation is an effective method of preparing samples for analyses using antibodies conjugated to gold nanoparticles that are designed to detect the localization of specific target molecules within cells. However, cryofixation cannot be utilized easily because it requires expensive equipment and skilled technologists, resulting in a high level of expense for researchers. Here, we describe a simple technical approach to cryofixation that uses metal contact quick freezing followed by a modified freeze substitution technique and immuno-gold labeling electron microscopy. Micrograph images of cells prepared using this modified cryofixation method demonstrated its superiority over chemical fixation for high contrast visualization of the morphologies of cellular components and preservation of antigenicity for immuno-gold labeling. This report provides valuable technical information related to the advancement of metal contact quick freezing techniques, which can be used to visualize biomedical events of interest in an easy, simple, and rapid manner.

  12. Detection of hepatitis B virus core antigen by phage display mediated TaqMan real-time immuno-PCR.

    PubMed

    Monjezi, Razieh; Tan, Sheau Wei; Tey, Beng Ti; Sieo, Chin Chin; Tan, Wen Siang

    2013-01-01

    The core antigen (HBcAg) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the markers for the identification of the viral infection. The main purpose of this study was to develop a TaqMan real-time detection assay based on the concept of phage display mediated immuno-PCR (PD-IPCR) for the detection of HBcAg. PD-IPCR combines the advantages of immuno-PCR (IPCR) and phage display technology. IPCR integrates the versatility of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with the sensitivity and signal generation power of PCR. Whereas, phage display technology exploits the physical association between the displayed peptide and the encoding DNA within the same phage particle. In this study, a constrained peptide displayed on the surface of an M13 recombinant bacteriophage that interacts tightly with HBcAg was applied as a diagnostic reagent in IPCR. The phage displayed peptide and its encoding DNA can be used to replace monoclonal antibody (mAb) and chemically bound DNA, respectively. This method is able to detect as low as 10ng of HBcAg with 10(8)pfu/ml of the recombinant phage which is about 10,000 times more sensitive than the phage-ELISA. The PD-IPCR provides an alternative means for the detection of HBcAg in human serum samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Radio Frequency Interference Site Survey for Thai Radio Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaroenjittichai, P.; Punyawarin, S.; Singwong, D.; Somboonpon, P.; Prasert, N.; Bandudej, K.; Kempet, P.; Leckngam, A.; Poshyachinda, S.; Soonthornthum, B.; Kramer, B.

    2017-09-01

    Radio astronomical observations have increasingly been threaten by the march of today telecommunication and wireless technology. Performance of radio telescopes lies within the fact that astronomical sources are extremely weak. National Astronomy Research Institute of Thailand (NARIT) has initiated a 5-year project, known as the Radio Astronomy Network and Geodesy for Development (RANGD), which includes the establishment of 40-meter and 13-meter radio telescopes. Possible locations have been narrowed down to three candidates, situated in the Northern part of Thailand, where the atmosphere is sufficiently dry and suitable for 22 and 43 GHz observations. The Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) measurements were carried out with a DC spectrum analyzer and directional antennas at 1.5 meter above ground, from 20 MHz to 6 GHz with full azimuth coverage. The data from a 3-minute pointing were recorded for both horizontal and vertical polarizations, in maxhold and average modes. The results, for which we used to make preliminary site selection, show signals from typical broadcast and telecommunication services and aeronautics applications. The signal intensity varies accordingly to the presence of nearby population and topography of the region.

  14. Diffuse Interplanetary Radio Emission (DIRE) Accompanying Type II Radio Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teklu, T. B.; Gopalswamy, N.; Makela, P. A.; Yashiro, S.; Akiyama, S.; Xie, H.

    2015-12-01

    We report on an unusual drifting feature in the radio dynamic spectra at frequencies below 14 MHz observed by the Radio and Plasma Wave (WAVES) experiment on board the Wind spacecraft. We call this feature as "Diffuse Interplanetary Radio Emission (DIRE)". The DIRE events are generally associated with intense interplanetary type II radio bursts produced by shocks driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs). DIREs drift like type II bursts in the dynamic spectra, but the drifting feature consist of a series of short-duration spikes (similar to a type I chain). DIREs occur at higher frequencies than the associated type II bursts, with no harmonic relationship with the type II burst. The onset of DIREs is delayed by several hours from the onset of the eruption. Comparing the radio dynamic spectra with white-light observations from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) mission, we find that the CMEs are generally very energetic (fast and mostly halos). We suggest that the DIRE source is typically located at the flanks of the CME-driven shock that is still at lower heliocentric distances.

  15. Radio frequency multicusp ion source development (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, K. N.

    1996-03-01

    The radio-frequency (rf) driven multicusp source was originally developed for use in the Superconducting Super Collider injector. It has been demonstrated that the source can meet the H- beam current and emittance requirements for this application. By employing a porcelain-coated antenna, a clean plasma discharge with very long-life operation can be achieved. Today, the rf source is used to generate both positive and negative hydrogen ion beams and has been tested in various particle accelerator laboratories throughout the world. Applications of this ion source have been extended to other fields such as ion beam lithography, oil-well logging, ion implantation, accelerator mass spectrometry and medical therapy machines. This paper summarizes the latest rf ion source technology and development at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  16. IA-Regional-Radio - Social Network for Radio Recommendation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziczkowski, Grzegorz; Bougueroua, Lamine; Wegrzyn-Wolska, Katarzyna

    This chapter describes the functions of a system proposed for the music hit recommendation from social network data base. This system carries out the automatic collection, evaluation and rating of music reviewers and the possibility for listeners to rate musical hits and recommendations deduced from auditor's profiles in the form of regional Internet radio. First, the system searches and retrieves probable music reviews from the Internet. Subsequently, the system carries out an evaluation and rating of those reviews. From this list of music hits, the system directly allows notation from our application. Finally, the system automatically creates the record list diffused each day depending on the region, the year season, the day hours and the age of listeners. Our system uses linguistics and statistic methods for classifying music opinions and data mining techniques for recommendation part needed for recorded list creation. The principal task is the creation of popular intelligent radio adaptive on auditor's age and region - IA-Regional-Radio.

  17. Does Music Therapy Improve Anxiety and Depression in Alzheimer's Patients?

    PubMed

    de la Rubia Ortí, José Enrique; García-Pardo, María Pilar; Iranzo, Carmen Cabañés; Madrigal, José Joaquin Cerón; Castillo, Sandra Sancho; Rochina, Mariano Julián; Gascó, Vicente Javier Prado

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the implementation of a short protocol of music therapy as a tool to reduce stress and improve the emotional state in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease. A sample of 25 patients with mild Alzheimer's received therapy based on the application of a music therapy session lasting 60 min. Before and after the therapy, patient saliva was collected to quantify the level of salivary cortisol using the Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA) immunoassay technique and a questionnaire was completed to measure anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). The results show that the application of this therapy lowers the level of stress and decreases significantly depression and anxiety, establishing a linear correlation between the variation of these variables and the variation of cortisol. A short protocol of music therapy can be an alternative medicine to improve emotional variables in Alzheimer patients.

  18. Miniature EVA Software Defined Radio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pozhidaev, Aleksey

    2012-01-01

    As NASA embarks upon developing the Next-Generation Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) Radio for deep space exploration, the demands on EVA battery life will substantially increase. The number of modes and frequency bands required will continue to grow in order to enable efficient and complex multi-mode operations including communications, navigation, and tracking applications. Whether conducting astronaut excursions, communicating to soldiers, or first responders responding to emergency hazards, NASA has developed an innovative, affordable, miniaturized, power-efficient software defined radio that offers unprecedented power-efficient flexibility. This lightweight, programmable, S-band, multi-service, frequency- agile EVA software defined radio (SDR) supports data, telemetry, voice, and both standard and high-definition video. Features include a modular design, an easily scalable architecture, and the EVA SDR allows for both stationary and mobile battery powered handheld operations. Currently, the radio is equipped with an S-band RF section. However, its scalable architecture can accommodate multiple RF sections simultaneously to cover multiple frequency bands. The EVA SDR also supports multiple network protocols. It currently implements a Hybrid Mesh Network based on the 802.11s open standard protocol. The radio targets RF channel data rates up to 20 Mbps and can be equipped with a real-time operating system (RTOS) that can be switched off for power-aware applications. The EVA SDR's modular design permits implementation of the same hardware at all Network Nodes concept. This approach assures the portability of the same software into any radio in the system. It also brings several benefits to the entire system including reducing system maintenance, system complexity, and development cost.

  19. Mobile radio interferometric geodetic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdoran, P. F.; Niell, A. E.; Ong, K. M.; Resch, G. M.; Morabito, D. D.; Claflin, E. S.; Lockhart, T. G.

    1978-01-01

    Operation of the Astronomical Radio Interferometric Earth Surveying (ARIES) in a proof of concept mode is discussed. Accuracy demonstrations over a short baseline, a 180 km baseline, and a 380 km baseline are documented. Use of ARIES in the Sea Slope Experiment of the National Geodetic Survey to study the apparent differences between oceanographic and geodetic leveling determinations of the sea surface along the Pacific Coast is described. Intergration of the NAVSTAR Global Positioning System and a concept called SERIES (Satellite Emission Radio Interferometric Earth Surveying) is briefly reviewed.

  20. Radio Relays Improve Wireless Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Signal Hill, California-based XCOM Wireless Inc. developed radio frequency micromachine (RF MEMS) relays with a Phase II Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract through NASA?s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. In order to improve satellite communication systems, XCOM produced wireless RF MEMS relays and tunable capacitors that use metal-to-metal contact and have the potential to outperform most semiconductor technologies while using less power. These relays are used in high-frequency test equipment and instrumentation, where increased speed can mean significant cost savings. Applications now also include mainstream wireless applications and greatly improved tactical radios.

  1. Dosimetry for electron Intra-Operative RadioTherapy: Comparison of output factors obtained through alanine/EPR pellets, ionization chamber and Monte Carlo-GEANT4 simulations for IORT mobile dedicate accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrale, Maurizio; Longo, Anna; Russo, Giorgio; Casarino, Carlo; Candiano, Giuliana; Gallo, Salvatore; Carlino, Antonio; Brai, Maria

    2015-09-01

    In this work a comparison between the response of alanine and Markus ionization chamber was carried out for measurements of the output factors (OF) of electron beams produced by a linear accelerator used for Intra-Operative Radiation Therapy (IORT). Output factors (OF) for conventional high-energy electron beams are normally measured using ionization chamber according to international dosimetry protocols. However, the electron beams used in IORT have characteristics of dose per pulse, energy spectrum and angular distribution quite different from beams usually used in external radiotherapy, so the direct application of international dosimetry protocols may introduce additional uncertainties in dosimetric determinations. The high dose per pulse could lead to an inaccuracy in dose measurements with ionization chamber, due to overestimation of ks recombination factor. Furthermore, the electron fields obtained with IORT-dedicated applicators have a wider energy spectrum and a wider angular distribution than the conventional fields, due to the presence of electrons scattered by the applicator's wall. For this reason, a dosimetry system should be characterized by a minimum dependence from the beam energy and from angle of incidence of electrons. This become particularly critical for small and bevelled applicators. All of these reasons lead to investigate the use of detectors different from the ionization chamber for measuring the OFs. Furthermore, the complete characterization of the radiation field could be accomplished also by the use of Monte Carlo simulations which allows to obtain detailed information on dose distributions. In this work we compare the output factors obtained by means of alanine dosimeters and Markus ionization chamber. The comparison is completed by the Monte Carlo calculations of OFs determined through the use of the Geant4 application "iort _ therapy" . The results are characterized by a good agreement of response of alanine pellets and Markus

  2. P02.03INCREASED COUNTS OF NK AND NKT CELLS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH PROLONGED SURVIVAL IN PRIMARY GLIOBLASTOMA PATIENTS TREATED WITH DENDRITIC CELL IMMUNOTHERAPY IN COMBINATION WITH RADIO- AND CHEMO-THERAPY

    PubMed Central

    Pellegatta, S.; Eoli, M.; Cantini, G.; Anghileri, E.; Antozzi, C.; Frigerio, S.; Bruzzone, M.; Pollo, B.; Parati, E.; Finocchiaro, G.

    2014-01-01

    -γ were observed in the other patients. After a median follow up of 14 months (6-27), the median progression-free survival (PFS) was 9 mo, with PFS6 90% (C. I. 0.78-1.029%) and PFS12 42% (C. I: 0.20-0.64) at Kaplan Meier analysis. Median overall survival (OS) was 22 mo with OS 12 70%. (C. I. 0.50-0.9). 2/4 patients with MGMT methylation were in the group of high V/B ratio. Our results show a positive association between increased peripheral NK and NKT cells response and prolonged survival. Further investigations are required on possible interference of radio-chemotherapy on activation of CD8+ T cells.

  3. Radio Galaxy Zoo: cosmological alignment of radio sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contigiani, O.; de Gasperin, F.; Miley, G. K.; Rudnick, L.; Andernach, H.; Banfield, J. K.; Kapińska, A. D.; Shabala, S. S.; Wong, O. I.

    2017-11-01

    We study the mutual alignment of radio sources within two surveys, Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-centimetres (FIRST) and TIFR GMRT Sky Survey (TGSS). This is done by producing two position angle catalogues containing the preferential directions of respectively 30 059 and 11 674 extended sources distributed over more than 7000 and 17 000 deg2. The identification of the sources in the FIRST sample was performed in advance by volunteers of the Radio Galaxy Zoo (RGZ) project, while for the TGSS sample it is the result of an automated process presented here. After taking into account systematic effects, marginal evidence of a local alignment on scales smaller than 2.5 deg is found in the FIRST sample. The probability of this happening by chance is found to be less than 2 per cent. Further study suggests that on scales up to 1.5 deg the alignment is maximal. For one third of the sources, the RGZ volunteers identified an optical counterpart. Assuming a flat Λ cold dark matter cosmology with Ω _m = 0.31, Ω _Λ = 0.69, we convert the maximum angular scale on which alignment is seen into a physical scale in the range [19, 38] Mpc h_{70}^{-1}. This result supports recent evidence reported by Taylor and Jagannathan of radio jet alignment in the 1.4 deg2 ELAIS N1 field observed with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope. The TGSS sample is found to be too sparsely populated to manifest a similar signal.

  4. ImmunoRatio: a publicly available web application for quantitative image analysis of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and Ki-67

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Accurate assessment of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and Ki-67 is essential in the histopathologic diagnostics of breast cancer. Commercially available image analysis systems are usually bundled with dedicated analysis hardware and, to our knowledge, no easily installable, free software for immunostained slide scoring has been described. In this study, we describe a free, Internet-based web application for quantitative image analysis of ER, PR, and Ki-67 immunohistochemistry in breast cancer tissue sections. Methods The application, named ImmunoRatio, calculates the percentage of positively stained nuclear area (labeling index) by using a color deconvolution algorithm for separating the staining components (diaminobenzidine and hematoxylin) and adaptive thresholding for nuclear area segmentation. ImmunoRatio was calibrated using cell counts defined visually as the gold standard (training set, n = 50). Validation was done using a separate set of 50 ER, PR, and Ki-67 stained slides (test set, n = 50). In addition, Ki-67 labeling indexes determined by ImmunoRatio were studied for their prognostic value in a retrospective cohort of 123 breast cancer patients. Results The labeling indexes by calibrated ImmunoRatio analyses correlated well with those defined visually in the test set (correlation coefficient r = 0.98). Using the median Ki-67 labeling index (20%) as a cutoff, a hazard ratio of 2.2 was obtained in the survival analysis (n = 123, P = 0.01). ImmunoRatio was shown to adapt to various staining protocols, microscope setups, digital camera models, and image acquisition settings. The application can be used directly with web browsers running on modern operating systems (e.g., Microsoft Windows, Linux distributions, and Mac OS). No software downloads or installations are required. ImmunoRatio is open source software, and the web application is publicly accessible on our website. Conclusions We anticipate that free web applications

  5. ImmunoRatio: a publicly available web application for quantitative image analysis of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and Ki-67.

    PubMed

    Tuominen, Vilppu J; Ruotoistenmäki, Sanna; Viitanen, Arttu; Jumppanen, Mervi; Isola, Jorma

    2010-01-01

    Accurate assessment of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and Ki-67 is essential in the histopathologic diagnostics of breast cancer. Commercially available image analysis systems are usually bundled with dedicated analysis hardware and, to our knowledge, no easily installable, free software for immunostained slide scoring has been described. In this study, we describe a free, Internet-based web application for quantitative image analysis of ER, PR, and Ki-67 immunohistochemistry in breast cancer tissue sections. The application, named ImmunoRatio, calculates the percentage of positively stained nuclear area (labeling index) by using a color deconvolution algorithm for separating the staining components (diaminobenzidine and hematoxylin) and adaptive thresholding for nuclear area segmentation. ImmunoRatio was calibrated using cell counts defined visually as the gold standard (training set, n = 50). Validation was done using a separate set of 50 ER, PR, and Ki-67 stained slides (test set, n = 50). In addition, Ki-67 labeling indexes determined by ImmunoRatio were studied for their prognostic value in a retrospective cohort of 123 breast cancer patients. The labeling indexes by calibrated ImmunoRatio analyses correlated well with those defined visually in the test set (correlation coefficient r = 0.98). Using the median Ki-67 labeling index (20%) as a cutoff, a hazard ratio of 2.2 was obtained in the survival analysis (n = 123, P = 0.01). ImmunoRatio was shown to adapt to various staining protocols, microscope setups, digital camera models, and image acquisition settings. The application can be used directly with web browsers running on modern operating systems (e.g., Microsoft Windows, Linux distributions, and Mac OS). No software downloads or installations are required. ImmunoRatio is open source software, and the web application is publicly accessible on our website. We anticipate that free web applications, such as ImmunoRatio, will make the

  6. Radio frequency power load and associated method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, III, William Herbert (Inventor); Chavers, Donald Gregory (Inventor); Richeson, James J. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A radio frequency power load and associated method. A radio frequency power load apparatus includes a container and a fluid having an ion source therein, the fluid being contained in the container. Two conductors are immersed in the fluid. A radio frequency transmission system includes a radio frequency transmitter, a radio frequency amplifier connected to the transmitter and a radio frequency power load apparatus connected to the amplifier. The apparatus includes a fluid having an ion source therein, and two conductors immersed in the fluid. A method of dissipating power generated by a radio frequency transmission system includes the steps of: immersing two conductors of a radio frequency power load apparatus in a fluid having an ion source therein; and connecting the apparatus to an amplifier of the transmission system.

  7. Educational Radio: Directions in the Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Sachida

    1986-01-01

    This personal perspective on developments in educational radio broadcasting in some small island nations of the South Pacific discusses radio as a powerful teaching aid, curriculum development, educational communicators, printed support materials, costs, facilities duplication, and future trends. (MBR)

  8. Allergy Diagnosis in Children and Adults: Performance of a New Point-of-Care Device, ImmunoCAP Rapid.

    PubMed

    Hedlin, Gunilla; Moreno, Carmen; Petersson, Carl Johan; Lilja, Gunnar; Toledano, Félix Lorente; García, Antonio Nieto; Nordvall, Lennart; Palmqvist, Mona; Rak, Sabina; Ahlstedt, Staffan; Borres, Magnus P

    2009-07-01

    : Allergy is a serious problem affecting approximately 1 of 4 individuals. The symptoms with and without allergy etiology are often difficult to distinguish from each other without using an IgE antibody test. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of a new point-of-care (POC) test for IgE antibodies to relevant allergens in Europe. : IgE antibodies from children and adults with allergies recruited from allergy clinics in Sweden and Spain were analyzed for 10 allergens, suitable for the age groups, using the new POC test and ImmunoCAP laboratory test. The IgE antibody level best discriminating between positive and negative results (the cutoff point) for the different allergens of the POC test and the efficacy of the POC and the ImmunoCAP laboratory tests for diagnosing allergy compared with that of clinical diagnosis were investigated. : The estimated cutoffs for the different allergens in the POC test ranged from 0.70 to 2.56 kUA/L. Taking into account all positive allergen results in a given patient, the POC test could identify 95% of the patients with allergies. Seventy-eight percent of the allergen-specific physicians' diagnoses were identified and 97% of the negative ones. Most allergens exhibited good performance, identifying about 80% of clinically relevant cases. However, dog, mugwort, and wall pellitory would benefit from improvement. : The POC test will be a valuable adjunct in the identification or exclusion of patients with allergies and their most likely offending allergens, both in specialist and general care settings.

  9. Allergy Diagnosis in Children and Adults: Performance of a New Point-of-Care Device, ImmunoCAP Rapid

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Allergy is a serious problem affecting approximately 1 of 4 individuals. The symptoms with and without allergy etiology are often difficult to distinguish from each other without using an IgE antibody test. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of a new point-of-care (POC) test for IgE antibodies to relevant allergens in Europe. Methods IgE antibodies from children and adults with allergies recruited from allergy clinics in Sweden and Spain were analyzed for 10 allergens, suitable for the age groups, using the new POC test and ImmunoCAP laboratory test. The IgE antibody level best discriminating between positive and negative results (the cutoff point) for the different allergens of the POC test and the efficacy of the POC and the ImmunoCAP laboratory tests for diagnosing allergy compared with that of clinical diagnosis were investigated. Results The estimated cutoffs for the different allergens in the POC test ranged from 0.70 to 2.56 kUA/L. Taking into account all positive allergen results in a given patient, the POC test could identify 95% of the patients with allergies. Seventy-eight percent of the allergen-specific physicians' diagnoses were identified and 97% of the negative ones. Most allergens exhibited good performance, identifying about 80% of clinically relevant cases. However, dog, mugwort, and wall pellitory would benefit from improvement. Conclusions The POC test will be a valuable adjunct in the identification or exclusion of patients with allergies and their most likely offending allergens, both in specialist and general care settings. PMID:23283063

  10. Immuno-Navigator, a batch-corrected coexpression database, reveals cell type-specific gene networks in the immune system

    PubMed Central

    Vandenbon, Alexis; Dinh, Viet H.; Mikami, Norihisa; Kitagawa, Yohko; Teraguchi, Shunsuke; Ohkura, Naganari; Sakaguchi, Shimon

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput gene expression data are one of the primary resources for exploring complex intracellular dynamics in modern biology. The integration of large amounts of public data may allow us to examine general dynamical relationships between regulators and target genes. However, obstacles for such analyses are study-specific biases or batch effects in the original data. Here we present Immuno-Navigator, a batch-corrected gene expression and coexpression database for 24 cell types of the mouse immune system. We systematically removed batch effects from the underlying gene expression data and showed that this removal considerably improved the consistency between inferred correlations and prior knowledge. The data revealed widespread cell type-specific correlation of expression. Integrated analysis tools allow users to use this correlation of expression for the generation of hypotheses about biological networks and candidate regulators in specific cell types. We show several applications of Immuno-Navigator as examples. In one application we successfully predicted known regulators of importance in naturally occurring Treg cells from their expression correlation with a set of Treg-specific genes. For one high-scoring gene, integrin β8 (Itgb8), we confirmed an association between Itgb8 expression in forkhead box P3 (Foxp3)-positive T cells and Treg-specific epigenetic remodeling. Our results also suggest that the regulation of Treg-specific genes within Treg cells is relatively independent of Foxp3 expression, supporting recent results pointing to a Foxp3-independent component in the development of Treg cells. PMID:27078110

  11. Rapid immuno-analytical system physically integrated with lens-free CMOS image sensor for food-borne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jin-Woo; Kim, Jee-Hyun; Lee, Jong-Mook; Lee, Won-Ho; Lee, Do-Young; Paek, Se-Hwan

    2014-02-15

    To realize an inexpensive, pocket-sized immunosensor system, a rapid test devise based on cross-flow immuno-chromatography was physically combined with a lens-free CMOS image sensor (CIS), which was then applied to the detection of the food-borne pathogen, Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium). Two CISs, each retaining 1.3 mega pixel array, were mounted on a printed circuit board to fabricate a disposable sensing module, being connectable with a signal detection system. For the bacterial analysis, a cellulose membrane-based immunosensing platform, ELISA-on-a-chip (EOC), was employed, being integrated with the CIS module, and the antigen-antibody reaction sites were aligned with the respective sensor. In such sensor construction, the chemiluminescent signals produced from the EOC are transferred directly into the sensors and are converted to electric signals on the detector. The EOC-CIS integrated sensor was capable of detecting a traceable amount of the bacterium (4.22 × 10(3)CFU/mL), nearly comparable to that adopting a sophisticated detector such as cooled-charge-coupled device, while having greatly reduced dimensions and cost. Upon coupling with immuno-magnetic separation, the sensor showed an additional 67-fold enhancement in the detection limit. Furthermore, a real sample test was carried out for fish muscles inoculated with a sample of 3.3CFU S. typhimurium per 10 g, which was able to be detected earlier than 6h after the onset of pre-enrichment by culture. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The role of Vitamin D in immuno-inflammatory responses in Ankylosing Spondylitis patients with and without Acute Anterior Uveitis.

    PubMed

    Mitulescu, T C; Stavaru, C; Voinea, L M; Banica, L M; Matache, C; Predeteanu, D

    2016-01-01

    Hypothesis: Abnormal Vitamin D (Vit D) level could have consequences on the immuno-inflammatory processes in Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS). Aim: The purpose of this study was to analyze the role of Vitamin D in the interplay between immune and inflammation effectors in AS associated-Acute Anterior Uveitis (AAU). Methods and Results: 25-hydroxyvitamin D (Vit D), LL-37 peptide, IL-8 and Serum Amyloid A (SAA) were identified and quantified in the serum/ plasma of thirty-four AS patients [eleven AS patients presenting AAU (AAU AS patients) and twenty-three AS patients without AAU (wAAU AS patients)] and eighteen healthy individuals (Control) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Acute-phase SAA level was significantly higher in AS patients compared to Controls. Contrary with wAAU AS patients, significantly elevated levels of IL-8, and diminished levels of Vit D characterized AAU AS patients. Regarding LL-37, its level decreased concomitantly with the level of Vit D. When AS patients were subgrouped based on AAU presence or on Vit D level, important associations between immuno-inflammatory assessed markers and AS features were noticed. Generally, Vit D levels were associated indirectly with leukocytes/ neutrophils number or with ESR, CRP, and Fibrinogen levels. The levels of SAA and IL-8 associated directly with AAU or with AAU relapses, especially in AS patients with Vit D insufficiency, while SAA associated directly with infection/ inflammatory markers and with disease activity indexes or with the degree of functional limitation. Discussion: Altered levels of Vit D affect the balance between LL-37, IL-8 and SAA, suggesting an association with AAU, an extra-articular manifestation of AS. Abbreviations: Vit D = Vitamin D, AS = Ankylosing Spondylitis, AAU = Acute Anterior Uveitis, AAU AS = AS patients with AAU, wAAU AS = AS patients without AAU, SSZ = Sulphasalazine, Leu = Leukocytes, Neu = Neutrophils.

  13. An enzyme-linked immuno-filtration assay used to compare infant and maternal antibody profiles in toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Pinon, J M; Thoannes, H; Gruson, N

    1985-02-28

    Enzyme-linked immuno-filtration assay is carried out on a micropore membrane. This doubly analytical technique permits simultaneous study of antibody specificity by immunoprecipitation and characterisation of antibody isotypes by immuno-filtration with enzyme-labelled antibodies. Recognition of the same T. gondii antigenic constituent by IgG, IgA, IgM or IgE antibodies produces couplets (IgG-IgM; IgG-IgA) or triplets (IgG-IgM-IgA; IgG-IgM-IgE) which identify the functional fractions of the toxoplasmosis antigen. In acquired toxoplasmosis, the persistence of IgM antibody long after infestation puts in question the implication of recent infestation normally linked to detection of this isotype. For sera of comparable titres, comparison of immunological profiles by the method described demonstrates disparities in the composition of the specific antibody content as expressed in international units. Use of the same method to detect IgM antibodies or distinguish between transmitted maternal IgG and IgG antibodies synthesised by the foetus or neonate makes a diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis possible in 85% of cases during the first few days of life. With the method described the diagnosis may be made on average 5 months earlier than with classical techniques. In the course of surveillance for latent congenital toxoplasmosis, the appearance of IgM or IgE antibodies raises the possibility of complications (hydrocephalus, chorioretinitis). After cessation of treatment, a rise in IgG antibodies indicating persistence of infection is detected earlier by the present than by classical methods.

  14. Theoretical and experimental analysis of analyte transport in a fiber-optic, protein C immuno-biosensor.

    PubMed

    Tang, Liang; Kwon, Hyun J; Kang, Kyung A

    2004-12-30

    Protein C (PC) is an important anticoagulant in human blood plasma, and early diagnosis of PC deficiency is critical for preventing dangerous thromboembolic complications. A fiber-optic PC immuno-biosensor has been under development in our research group for real-time PC-deficiency diagnosis. The sensor has demonstrated a good sensitivity and specificity for quantifying PC in buffered solutions. However, for plasma samples, with a limited sample reaction time, the sensor produced only 30% of the signal intensity of PC in buffer. The high plasma viscosity (1.9 cP) was speculated as the major reason for signal intensity reduction. In this investigation, the sensing performance of the fiber-optic PC biosensor is systematically characterized in terms of physical and chemical properties of the sample media. Theoretical and experimental analyses indicate that the reduced diffusion rate of PC molecules in viscous samples caused the sensing system to be more mass-transfer-limited. Convective flow of sample/reagent solutions during immunoreactions can increase the rate of the analyte mass transport from the bulk solution to the sensor surface, with reaction kinetics changing from mass-transfer-limited to reaction-limited as flow velocity increases. It was shown that PC sensor performance was significantly improved for plasma samples with convection. The effect of the flow velocity and incubation times for samples and reagents on the sensor performance was also systematically analyzed to optimize the assay protocol for PC sensing. Currently, a 6-cm-long immuno-biosensor is capable of quantifying PC in plasma (1 mL) in the heterozygous PC deficiency range (0.5 to 2.5 microg/mL) within 5 minutes, at an average signal-to-noise ratio of 50. 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Structural and Practical Identifiability Issues of Immuno-Epidemiological Vector-Host Models with Application to Rift Valley Fever.

    PubMed

    Tuncer, Necibe; Gulbudak, Hayriye; Cannataro, Vincent L; Martcheva, Maia

    2016-09-01

    In this article, we discuss the structural and practical identifiability of a nested immuno-epidemiological model of arbovirus diseases, where host-vector transmission rate, host recovery, and disease-induced death rates are governed by the within-host immune system. We incorporate the newest ideas and the most up-to-date features of numerical methods to fit multi-scale models to multi-scale data. For an immunological model, we use Rift Valley Fever Virus (RVFV) time-series data obtained from livestock under laboratory experiments, and for an epidemiological model we incorporate a human compartment to the nested model and use the number of human RVFV cases reported by the CDC during the 2006-2007 Kenya outbreak. We show that the immunological model is not structurally identifiable for the measurements of time-series viremia concentrations in the host. Thus, we study the non-dimensionalized and scaled versions of the immunological model and prove that both are structurally globally identifiable. After fixing estimated parameter values for the immunological model derived from the scaled model, we develop a numerical method to fit observable RVFV epidemiological data to the nested model for the remaining parameter values of the multi-scale system. For the given (CDC) data set, Monte Carlo simulations indicate that only three parameters of the epidemiological model are practically identifiable when the immune model parameters are fixed. Alternatively, we fit the multi-scale data to the multi-scale model simultaneously. Monte Carlo simulations for the simultaneous fitting suggest that the parameters of the immunological model and the parameters of the immuno-epidemiological model are practically identifiable. We suggest that analytic approaches for studying the structural identifiability of nested models are a necessity, so that identifiable parameter combinations can be derived to reparameterize the nested model to obtain an identifiable one. This is a crucial step in

  16. Genetic basis for loss of immuno-reactive O-chain in Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis veterinary isolates.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Istvan; Grafe, Marianne; Kemper, Nicole; Junker, Ernst; Malorny, Burkhard

    2017-05-01

    Fifty-two rough Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) isolates from broilers and the environment were characterized for their serological and genotypic properties. Under routine diagnostic serotyping methods such isolates lack the immuno-reactivity of the O-chain of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and are referred to as non-typeable. Using a modified slide agglutination method, the isolates could be differentiated into three different serological variants. Twenty-six isolates (50%) were defined as semi-rough, nineteen isolates (37%) as deep-rough, four isolates (8%) as rough and three isolates could not be assigned. Genetically, all semi-rough isolates lacked the wzyB gene encoding the O-antigen polymerase. Two isolates carried a frameshift mutation in wzyB. In 15 of 23 cases deep-rough or rough isolates had a single point mutation, a single - or double-nucleotide insert or deletion in the wbaP gene. The mutational changes lead to expression of truncated (premature) protein, resulting in the loss of the immuno-reactive O-chain. Both rough and smooth S. Enteritidis isolates showed identical or highly similar XbaI-PFGE profiles. Our results indicate that the loss of a functional LPS in S. Enteritidis isolates is caused by a variety of different mutation events within the wzyB (semi-rough) or the wbaP (deep-rough) gene and is not a result of a vertical spread of a specific S. Enteritidis subtype. The defect of the LPS may be a common evolutionary mechanism through which host defence can be escaped. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. High-dose methotrexate-based immuno-chemotherapy for elderly primary CNS lymphoma patients (PRIMAIN study).

    PubMed

    Fritsch, K; Kasenda, B; Schorb, E; Hau, P; Bloehdorn, J; Möhle, R; Löw, S; Binder, M; Atta, J; Keller, U; Wolf, H-H; Krause, S W; Heß, G; Naumann, R; Sasse, S; Hirt, C; Lamprecht, M; Martens, U; Morgner, A; Panse, J; Frickhofen, N; Röth, A; Hader, C; Deckert, M; Fricker, H; Ihorst, G; Finke, J; Illerhaus, G

    2017-04-01

    To investigate immuno-chemotherapy for elderly immuno-competent patients (⩾65 years) with newly diagnosed primary central nervous system lymphoma, we conducted a multicentre single-arm trial. One cycle consisted of rituximab (375 mg/m 2 , days 1, 15, 29), high-dose methotrexate (3 g/m 2 days 2, 16, 30), procarbazine (60 mg/m 2 days 2-11) and lomustine (110 mg/m 2 , day 2)-R-MPL protocol. Owing to infectious complications, we omitted lomustine during the study and consecutive patients were treated with the R-MP protocol. Three cycles were scheduled and repeated on day 43. Subsequently, patients commenced 4 weekly maintenance treatment with procarbazine (100 mg for 5 days). Primary end point was complete remission (CR) after 3 cycles. We included 107 patients (69 treated with R-MPL and 38 with R-MP). In all, 38/107 patients achieved CR (35.5%) and 15 (14.0%) achieved partial remission. R-MP was associated with a lower CR rate (31.6%) compared with R-MPL (37.7%), but respective 2-year progression-free survival (All 37.3%; R-MP 34.9%; R-MPL 38.8%) and overall survival (All 47.0%; R-MP 47.7%; R-MPL 46.0%) rates were similar. R-MP was associated with less ⩾grade 3 toxicities compared with R-MPL (71.1% vs 87.0%). R-MP is more feasible while still associated with similar efficacy compared with R-MPL and warrants further improvement in future studies.

  18. Insights into the immuno-molecular biology of Angiostrongylus vasorum through transcriptomics--prospects for new interventions.

    PubMed

    Ansell, Brendan R E; Schnyder, Manuela; Deplazes, Peter; Korhonen, Pasi K; Young, Neil D; Hall, Ross S; Mangiola, Stefano; Boag, Peter R; Hofmann, Andreas; Sternberg, Paul W; Jex, Aaron R; Gasser, Robin B

    2013-12-01

    Angiostrongylus vasorum is a metastrongyloid nematode of dogs and other canids of major clinical importance in many countries. In order to gain first insights into the molecular biology of this worm, we conducted the first large-scale exploration of its transcriptome, and predicted essential molecules linked to metabolic and biological processes as well as host immune responses. We also predicted and prioritized drug targets and drug candidates. Following Illumina sequencing (RNA-seq), 52.3 million sequence reads representing adult A. vasorum were assembled and annotated. The assembly yielded 20,033 contigs, which encoded proteins with 11,505 homologues in Caenorhabditis elegans, and additional 2252 homologues in various other parasitic helminths for which curated data sets were publicly available. Functional annotation was achieved for 11,752 (58.6%) proteins predicted for A. vasorum, including peptidases (4.5%) and peptidase inhibitors (1.6%), protein kinases (1.7%), G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) (1.5%) and phosphatases (1.2%). Contigs encoding excretory/secretory and immuno-modulatory proteins represented some of the most highly transcribed molecules, and encoded enzymes that digest haemoglobin were conserved between A. vasorum and other blood-feeding nematodes. Using an essentiality-based approach, drug targets, including neurotransmitter receptors, an important chemosensory ion channel and cysteine proteinase-3 were predicted in A. vasorum, as were associated small molecular inhibitors/activators. Future transcriptomic analyses of all developmental stages of A. vasorum should facilitate deep explorations of the molecular biology of this important parasitic nematode and support the sequencing of its genome. These advances will provide a foundation for exploring immuno-molecular aspects of angiostrongylosis and have the potential to underpin the discovery of new methods of intervention. © 2013.

  19. The role of Vitamin D in immuno-inflammatory responses in Ankylosing Spondylitis patients with and without Acute Anterior Uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Mitulescu, TC; Stavaru, C; Voinea, LM; Banica, LM; Matache, C; Predeteanu, D

    2016-01-01

    Hypothesis:Abnormal Vitamin D (Vit D) level could have consequences on the immuno-inflammatory processes in Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS). Aim:The purpose of this study was to analyze the role of Vitamin D in the interplay between immune and inflammation effectors in AS associated-Acute Anterior Uveitis (AAU). Methods and Results:25-hydroxyvitamin D (Vit D), LL-37 peptide, IL-8 and Serum Amyloid A (SAA) were identified and quantified in the serum/ plasma of thirty-four AS patients [eleven AS patients presenting AAU (AAU AS patients) and twenty-three AS patients without AAU (wAAU AS patients)] and eighteen healthy individuals (Control) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Acute-phase SAA level was significantly higher in AS patients compared to Controls. Contrary with wAAU AS patients, significantly elevated levels of IL-8, and diminished levels of Vit D characterized AAU AS patients. Regarding LL-37, its level decreased concomitantly with the level of Vit D. When AS patients were subgrouped based on AAU presence or on Vit D level, important associations between immuno-inflammatory assessed markers and AS features were noticed. Generally, Vit D levels were associated indirectly with leukocytes/ neutrophils number or with ESR, CRP, and Fibrinogen levels. The levels of SAA and IL-8 associated directly with AAU or with AAU relapses, especially in AS patients with Vit D insufficiency, while SAA associated directly with infection/ inflammatory markers and with disease activity indexes or with the degree of functional limitation. Discussion:Altered levels of Vit D affect the balance between LL-37, IL-8 and SAA, suggesting an association with AAU, an extra-articular manifestation of AS. Abbreviations:Vit D = Vitamin D, AS = Ankylosing Spondylitis, AAU = Acute Anterior Uveitis, AAU AS = AS patients with AAU, wAAU AS = AS patients without AAU, SSZ = Sulphasalazine, Leu = Leukocytes, Neu = Neutrophils. PMID:27713770

  20. Immuno-detection of OCTN1 (SLC22A4) in HeLa cells and characterization of transport function.

    PubMed

    Pochini, Lorena; Scalise, Mariafrancesca; Indiveri, Cesare

    2015-11-01

    OCTN1 was immuno-detected in the cervical cancer cell HeLa, in which the complete pattern of acetylcholine metabolizing enzymes is expressed. Comparison of immuno-staining intensity of HeLa OCTN1 with the purified recombinant human OCTN1 allowed measuring the specific OCTN1 concentration in the HeLa cell extract and, hence calculating the HeLa OCTN1 specific transport activity that was about 10 nmol×min(-1)×mg protein(-1), measured as uptake of [(3)H]acetylcholine in proteoliposomes reconstituted with HeLa extract. This value was very similar to the specific activity of the recombinant protein. Acetylcholine transport was suppressed by incubation of the protein or proteoliposomes with the anti-OCTN1 antibody and was strongly inhibited by PLP and MTSEA, known inhibitors of OCTN1. The absence of ATP in the internal side of proteoliposomes strongly impaired transport function of both the HeLa and, as expected, the recombinant OCTN1. HeLa OCTN1 was inhibited by spermine, NaCl (Na(+)), TEA, γ-butyrobetaine, choline, acetylcarnitine and ipratropium but not by neostigmine. Besides acetylcholine, choline was taken up by HeLa OCTN1 proteoliposomes. The transporter catalyzed also acetylcholine and choline efflux which, differently from uptake, was not inhibited by MTSEA. Time course of [(3)H]acetylcholine uptake in intact HeLa cells was measured. As in proteoliposomes, acetylcholine transport in intact cells was inhibited by TEA and NaCl. Efflux of [(3)H]acetylcholine occurred in intact cells, as well. The experimental data concur in demonstrating a role of OCTN1 in transporting acetylcholine and choline in HeLa cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Hybrid spread spectrum radio system

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Stephen F [London, TN; Dress, William B [Camas, WA

    2010-02-09

    Systems and methods are described for hybrid spread spectrum radio systems. A method, includes receiving a hybrid spread spectrum signal including: fast frequency hopping demodulating and direct sequence demodulating a direct sequence spread spectrum signal, wherein multiple frequency hops occur within a single data-bit time and each bit is represented by chip transmissions at multiple frequencies.

  2. RadioActive101 Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brites, Maria José; Ravenscroft, Andrew; Dellow, James; Rainey, Colin; Jorge, Ana; Santos, Sílvio Correia; Rees, Angela; Auwärter, Andreas; Catalão, Daniel; Balica, Magda; Camilleri, Anthony F.

    2014-01-01

    In keeping with the overarching RadioActive101 (RA101) spirit and ethos, this report is the product of collaborative and joined-up thinking from within the European consortium spread across five countries. As such, it is not simply a single voice reporting on the experiences and knowledge gained during the project. Rather it is a range of…

  3. Digital Audio Radio Field Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollansworth, James E.

    1997-01-01

    Radio history continues to be made at the NASA Lewis Research Center with the beginning of phase two of Digital Audio Radio testing conducted by the Consumer Electronic Manufacturers Association (a sector of the Electronic Industries Association and the National Radio Systems Committee) and cosponsored by the Electronic Industries Association and the National Association of Broadcasters. The bulk of the field testing of the four systems should be complete by the end of October 1996, with results available soon thereafter. Lewis hosted phase one of the testing process, which included laboratory testing of seven proposed digital audio radio systems and modes (see the following table). Two of the proposed systems operate in two modes, thus making a total of nine systems for testing. These nine systems are divided into the following types of transmission: in-band on channel (IBOC), in-band adjacent channel (IBAC), and new bands - the L-band (1452 to 1492 MHz) and the S-band (2310 to 2360 MHz).

  4. Low Frequency Radio Experiment (LORE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manoharan, P. K.; Naidu, Arun; Joshi, B. C.; Roy, Jayashree; Kate, G.; Pethe, Kaiwalya; Galande, Shridhar; Jamadar, Sachin; Mahajan, S. P.; Patil, R. A.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we present a case study of Low Frequency Radio Experiment (LORE) payload to probe the corona and the solar disturbances at solar offsets greater than 2 solar radii, i.e., at frequencies below 30 MHz. The LORE can be complimentary to the planned Indian solar mission, “Aditya-L1” and its other payloads as well as synergistic to ground-based interplanetary scintillation (IPS) observations, which are routinely carried out by the Ooty Radio Telescope. We discuss the baseline design and technical details of the proposed LORE and its particular suitability for providing measurements on the detailed time and frequency structure of fast drifting type-III and slow drifting type-II radio bursts with unprecedented time and frequency resolutions. We also brief the gonio-polarimetry, which is possible with better-designed antennas and state-of-the-art electronics, employing FPGAs and an intelligent data management system. These would enable us to make a wide range of studies, such as nonlinear plasma processes in the Sun-Earth distance, in-situ radio emission from coronal mass ejections (CMEs), interplanetary CME driven shocks, nature of ICMEs driving decelerating IP shocks and space weather effects of solar wind interaction regions.

  5. A repeating fast radio burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitler, L. G.; Scholz, P.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Bogdanov, S.; Brazier, A.; Camilo, F.; Chatterjee, S.; Cordes, J. M.; Crawford, F.; Deneva, J.; Ferdman, R. D.; Freire, P. C. C.; Kaspi, V. M.; Lazarus, P.; Lynch, R.; Madsen, E. C.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Patel, C.; Ransom, S. M.; Seymour, A.; Stairs, I. H.; Stappers, B. W.; van Leeuwen, J.; Zhu, W. W.

    2016-03-01

    Fast radio bursts are millisecond-duration astronomical radio pulses of unknown physical origin that appear to come from extragalactic distances. Previous follow-up observations have failed to find additional bursts at the same dispersion measure (that is, the integrated column density of free electrons between source and telescope) and sky position as the original detections. The apparent non-repeating nature of these bursts has led to the suggestion that they originate in cataclysmic events. Here we report observations of ten additional bursts from the direction of the fast radio burst FRB 121102. These bursts have dispersion measures and sky positions consistent with the original burst. This unambiguously identifies FRB 121102 as repeating and demonstrates that its source survives the energetic events that cause the bursts. Additionally, the bursts from FRB 121102 show a wide range of spectral shapes that appear to be predominantly intrinsic to the source and which vary on timescales of minutes or less. Although there may be multiple physical origins for the population of fast radio bursts, these repeat bursts with high dispersion measure and variable spectra specifically seen from the direction of FRB 121102 support an origin in a young, highly magnetized, extragalactic neutron star.

  6. Educational Radio--Still Alive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engberg-Pedersen, H.

    1976-01-01

    Educational radio has some advantages over television--lower costs, easier accessibility for users, use as a medium for local democracy, use with separate visuals (radiovision), applicability to aural communications such as stories or music, and incorporation into multi-media projects. (LS)

  7. The isotropic radio background revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornengo, Nicolao; Lineros, Roberto A.; Regis, Marco; Taoso, Marco

    2014-04-01

    We present an extensive analysis on the determination of the isotropic radio background. We consider six different radio maps, ranging from 22 MHz to 2.3 GHz and covering a large fraction of the sky. The large scale emission is modeled as a linear combination of an isotropic component plus the Galactic synchrotron radiation and thermal bremsstrahlung. Point-like and extended sources are either masked or accounted for by means of a template. We find a robust estimate of the isotropic radio background, with limited scatter among different Galactic models. The level of the isotropic background lies significantly above the contribution obtained by integrating the number counts of observed extragalactic sources. Since the isotropic component dominates at high latitudes, thus making the profile of the total emission flat, a Galactic origin for such excess appears unlikely. We conclude that, unless a systematic offset is present in the maps, and provided that our current understanding of the Galactic synchrotron emission is reasonable, extragalactic sources well below the current experimental threshold seem to account for the majority of the brightness of the extragalactic radio sky.

  8. Zero-Power Radio Device.

    SciTech Connect

    Brocato, Robert W.

    This report describes an unpowered radio receiver capable of detecting and responding to weak signals transmit ted from comparatively long distances . This radio receiver offers key advantages over a short range zero - power radio receiver previously described in SAND2004 - 4610, A Zero - Power Radio Receiver . The device described here can be fabricated as an integrated circuit for use in portable wireless devices, as a wake - up circuit, or a s a stand - alone receiver operating in conjunction with identification decoders or other electroni cs. It builds on key sub - components developed atmore » Sandia National Laboratories over many years. It uses surface acoustic wave (SAW) filter technology. It uses custom component design to enable the efficient use of small aperture antennas. This device uses a key component, the pyroelectric demodulator , covered by Sandia owned U.S. Patent 7397301, Pyroelectric Demodulating Detector [1] . This device is also described in Sandia owned U.S. Patent 97266446, Zero Power Receiver [2].« less

  9. Kashima 34-m Radio Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekido, Mamoru; Kawai, Eiji

    2013-01-01

    The Kashima 34-m radio telescope has been continuously operated and maintained by the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) as a facility of the Kashima Space Technology Center (KSTC) in Japan. This brief report summarizes the status of this telescope, the staff, and activities during 2012.

  10. Counselor Effectiveness Through Radio Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tentoni, Stuart C.

    This study determined the effectiveness of the use of radio as a means of providing immediate feedback on student counselors in a practicum setting. Using a non-equivalent group experimental design, 10 experimental subjects were compared to 10 control subjects with respect to counselor effectiveness. The experimental subjects were given immediate…

  11. Dictionary of Radio and Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pannett, W. E.

    This dictionary presents definitions of both the well-established terms and many new ones that have come into use with the advances that have taken place in the fields of radio and television. In many cases extended definitions are given in order to describe briefly elementary principles and circuits, while newer and more complex devices and…

  12. LOFAR Searches for Radio Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Jake; Griessmeier, Jean-Mathias; Zarka, Philippe; Vasylieva, Iaroslavna

    2018-06-01

    Detection of radio emission from exoplanets can provide information on the star-planet system that is very difficult or impossible to study otherwise, such as the planet’s magnetic field, magnetosphere, rotation period, orbit inclination, and star-planet interactions. Such a detection in the radio domain would open up a whole new field in the study of exoplanets, however, currently there are no confirmed detections of an exoplanet at radio frequencies. In this study, we discuss our ongoing observational campaign searching for exoplanetary radio emissions using beam-formed observations within the Low Band of the Low-Frequency Array (LOFAR). To date we have observed three exoplanets: 55 Cnc, Upsilon Andromedae, and Tau Boötis. These planets were selected according to theoretical predictions, which indicated them as among the best candidates for an observation. During the observations we usually recorded three beams simultaneously, one on the exoplanet and two on patches of nearby “empty” sky. An automatic pipeline was created to automatically find RFI, calibrate the data due to instrumental effects, and to search for emission in the exoplanet beam. Additionally, we observed Jupiter with LOFAR with the same exact observational setup as the exoplanet observations. The main goals of the Jupiter observations are to train the detection algorithm and to calculate upper limits in the case of a non-detection. Data analysis is currently ongoing. Conclusions reached at the time of the meeting, about detection of or upper limit to the planetary signal, will be presented.

  13. Educational Radio: The Brazilian Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speyer, Anne Marie

    1983-01-01

    Explains the value of radio for literacy education, gives a synopsis of the development of educational broadcasting in Brazil, and describes the Movement of Basic Education, a program designed to meet the needs of members of rural communities in their daily working lives. (EAO)

  14. Radio monitoring of protoplanetary discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubach, C.; Maddison, S. T.; Wright, C. M.; Wilner, D. J.; Lommen, D. J. P.; Koribalski, B.

    2017-04-01

    Protoplanetary disc systems observed at radio wavelengths often show excess emission above that expected from a simple extrapolation of thermal dust emission observed at short millimetre wavelengths. Monitoring the emission at radio wavelengths can be used to help disentangle the physical mechanisms responsible for this excess, including free-free emission from a wind or jet, and chromospheric emission associated with stellar activity. We present new results from a radio monitoring survey conducted with Australia Telescope Compact Array over the course of several years with observation intervals spanning days, months and years, where the flux variability of 11 T Tauri stars in the Chamaeleon and Lupus star-forming regions was measured at 7 and 15 mm, and 3 and 6 cm. Results show that most sources are variable to some degree at 7 mm, indicating the presence of emission mechanisms other than thermal dust in some sources. Additionally, evidence of grain growth to centimetre-sized pebbles was found for some sources that also have signs of variable flux at 7 mm. We conclude that multiple processes contributing to the emission are common in T Tauri stars at 7 mm and beyond, and that a detection at a single epoch at radio wavelengths should not be used to determine all processes contributing to the emission.

  15. A repeating fast radio burst.

    PubMed

    Spitler, L G; Scholz, P; Hessels, J W T; Bogdanov, S; Brazier, A; Camilo, F; Chatterjee, S; Cordes, J M; Crawford, F; Deneva, J; Ferdman, R D; Freire, P C C; Kaspi, V M; Lazarus, P; Lynch, R; Madsen, E C; McLaughlin, M A; Patel, C; Ransom, S M; Seymour, A; Stairs, I H; Stappers, B W; van Leeuwen, J; Zhu, W W

    2016-03-10

    Fast radio bursts are millisecond-duration astronomical radio pulses of unknown physical origin that appear to come from extragalactic distances. Previous follow-up observations have failed to find additional bursts at the same dispersion measure (that is, the integrated column density of free electrons between source and telescope) and sky position as the original detections. The apparent non-repeating nature of these bursts has led to the suggestion that they originate in cataclysmic events. Here we report observations of ten additional bursts from the direction of the fast radio burst FRB 121102. These bursts have dispersion measures and sky positions consistent with the original burst. This unambiguously identifies FRB 121102 as repeating and demonstrates that its source survives the energetic events that cause the bursts. Additionally, the bursts from FRB 121102 show a wide range of spectral shapes that appear to be predominantly intrinsic to the source and which vary on timescales of minutes or less. Although there may be multiple physical origins for the population of fast radio bursts, these repeat bursts with high dispersion measure and variable spectra specifically seen from the direction of FRB 121102 support an origin in a young, highly magnetized, extragalactic neutron star.

  16. IRAS observations of radio-quiet and radio-loud quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neugebauer, G.; Soifer, B. T.; Miley, G.; Habing, H. J.; Young, E.; Low, F. J.; Beichman, C. A.; Clegg, P. E.; Harris, S.; Rowan-Robinson, M.

    1984-01-01

    Observations from 12 to 100 microns are presented of two radio-quiet and three radio-loud quasars. Over this wavelength range, all five have grossly similar continuum energy distributions. The continua of the radio-loud quasars are consistent with synchrotron radiation. There is an indication, however, of excess 100 micron emission in the two radio-quiet quasars.

  17. Voyager planetary radio astronomy studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staelin, David H.; Eikenberry, Stephen S.

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of nonthermal radio emission data obtained by the Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) spectrometers on the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft was performed. This PRA data provided unique insights into the radio emission characteristics of the outer planets because of PRA's unique spectral response below the terrestrial ionospheric plasma frequency and its unprecedented proximity to the source. Of those results which were documented or published, this final report surveys only the highlights and cites references for more complete discussions. Unpublished results for Uranus, Neptune, and theoretical Ionian current distributions are presented at greater length. The most important conclusion to be drawn from these observations is that banded spectral emission is common to the radio emission below 1-2 MHz observed from all four Jovian planets. In every case multiple spectral features evolve on time scales of seconds to minutes. To the extent these features drift in frequency, they appear never to cross one another. The Neptunian spectral features appear to drift little or not at all, their evolution consisting principally of waxing and waning. Since other evidence strongly suggests that most or all of this radio emission is occurring near the local magnetospheric electron cyclotron frequency, this implies that this emission preferentially occurs at certain continually changing planetary radii. It remains unknown why certain radii might be favored, unless radial electric field components or other means serve to differentiate radially the magnetospheric plasma density, particle energy vectors, or particle coherence. Calculation of the spatial distribution and intensity of the Io-generated magnetospheric currents are also presented; these currents may be limited principally by wave impedance and local field strengths.

  18. Making Waves: Pirate Radio and Popular Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Steve

    The history of pirate radio--radio broadcasts offered by unlicensed broadcasters as alternatives to licensed, commercial radio programming--is difficult to trace, both in America and the United Kingdom (UK) since mention of pirate broadcasts of a less-then-thrilling nature are rarely found. Also, until 1927, the U.S. government did not formally…

  19. 78 FR 32165 - Commercial Radio Operators; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 0 [WT Docket No. 10-177; FCC 13-4] Commercial Radio... Federal Register of April 18, 2013. The document amended the FCC rules concerning radio operator licenses... follows: Sec. 0.131 Functions of the Bureau. * * * * * (j) Administers the Commission's commercial radio...

  20. 14 CFR 121.345 - Radio equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radio equipment. 121.345 Section 121.345..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.345 Radio equipment. (a) No person may operate an airplane unless it is equipped with radio equipment required for the kind of...

  1. Very large radio surveys of the sky

    PubMed Central

    Condon, J. J.

    1999-01-01

    Recent advances in electronics and computing have made possible a new generation of large radio surveys of the sky that yield an order-of-magnitude higher sensitivity and positional accuracy. Combined with the unique properties of the radio universe, these quantitative improvements open up qualitatively different and exciting new scientific applications of radio surveys. PMID:10220365

  2. 62. The Return of Educational Radio?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Sally D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines one of the traditional technologies of distance education, radio, and presents examples of educational and community radio usage in Asia and Africa. Instead of merely transposing western approaches to distance education in developing countries, it is suggested that the developed world can learn from uses of radio in developing…

  3. 46 CFR 169.715 - Radio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radio. 169.715 Section 169.715 Shipping COAST GUARD..., Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.715 Radio. (a) Radiotelegraph and radiotelephone installations are... Regulations, part 83. (b) A valid certificate issued by the FCC is evidence that the radio installation is in...

  4. 33 CFR 401.63 - Radio procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Radio procedures. 401.63 Section 401.63 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Radio Communications § 401.63 Radio procedures. Every...

  5. 46 CFR 129.395 - Radio installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radio installations. 129.395 Section 129.395 Shipping... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.395 Radio installations. A separate circuit, with overcurrent protection at the switchboard, must be provided for at least one radio installation. Additional...

  6. 47 CFR 80.1075 - Radio records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radio records. 80.1075 Section 80.1075 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) General Provisions § 80.1075 Radio...

  7. 46 CFR 129.395 - Radio installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.395 Radio installations. A separate circuit, with... radios, if installed, may be powered from a local lighting power source, such as the pilothouse lighting panel, provided each radio power source has a separate overcurrent protection device. ...

  8. 46 CFR 129.395 - Radio installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.395 Radio installations. A separate circuit, with... radios, if installed, may be powered from a local lighting power source, such as the pilothouse lighting panel, provided each radio power source has a separate overcurrent protection device. ...

  9. 46 CFR 129.395 - Radio installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.395 Radio installations. A separate circuit, with... radios, if installed, may be powered from a local lighting power source, such as the pilothouse lighting panel, provided each radio power source has a separate overcurrent protection device. ...

  10. 46 CFR 129.395 - Radio installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.395 Radio installations. A separate circuit, with... radios, if installed, may be powered from a local lighting power source, such as the pilothouse lighting panel, provided each radio power source has a separate overcurrent protection device. ...

  11. 47 CFR 80.1075 - Radio records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radio records. 80.1075 Section 80.1075 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) General Provisions § 80.1075 Radio...

  12. 47 CFR 80.1075 - Radio records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radio records. 80.1075 Section 80.1075 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) General Provisions § 80.1075 Radio...

  13. 47 CFR 80.1075 - Radio records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radio records. 80.1075 Section 80.1075 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) General Provisions § 80.1075 Radio...

  14. 47 CFR 80.1075 - Radio records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radio records. 80.1075 Section 80.1075 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) General Provisions § 80.1075 Radio...

  15. Bases of Radio Direction Finding, Part II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-12-22

    of H-shaped system . Fundamental ind the equivalent diagrams of the piir of antennas are given in Fig. 7.12. For -alculation is assigned the frejuency...Geographic Names Transliteration System ......... ii Preface ...................................................... 2 Chapter 1. Problems of Radio Traffic...4 Chapter 2. Principles and Methods of Radio Traffic ......... 14 Chapter 3. Antenna Systems of Radio Direction Finders

  16. 46 CFR 15.830 - Radio officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radio officers. 15.830 Section 15.830 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN MANNING REQUIREMENTS Computations § 15.830 Radio officers. Radio officers are required on certain merchant vessels of the United...

  17. 46 CFR 15.830 - Radio officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radio officers. 15.830 Section 15.830 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN MANNING REQUIREMENTS Computations § 15.830 Radio officers. Radio officers are required on certain merchant vessels of the United...

  18. 46 CFR 15.830 - Radio officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radio officers. 15.830 Section 15.830 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN MANNING REQUIREMENTS Computations § 15.830 Radio officers. Radio officers are required on certain merchant vessels of the United...

  19. 46 CFR 15.830 - Radio officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radio officers. 15.830 Section 15.830 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN MANNING REQUIREMENTS Computations § 15.830 Radio officers. Radio officers are required on certain merchant vessels of the United...

  20. 46 CFR 15.830 - Radio officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radio officers. 15.830 Section 15.830 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN MANNING REQUIREMENTS Computations § 15.830 Radio officers. Radio officers are required on certain merchant vessels of the United...

  1. A Select Survey of Campus Radio Stations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, H.

    To ascertain the continued need for a campus radio station at 10 watts and to justify a subsequent increase in power, the student radio station at Auburn University (Alabama) conducted surveys of college radio stations, emphasizing facilities in the southeast United States. Some of the findings of the surveys indicated that in the southeast and…

  2. Politics and Radio in the 1924 Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkman, Dave

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the relation between radio broadcasting and politics in the 1924 presidential campaign, focusing on newspaper and magazine coverage. Notes radio's influence on candidate image, the aspect of censorship, and the use of radio during the campaign and after the election. (MM)

  3. Phase 3 trial of domiciliary humidification to mitigate acute mucosal toxicity during radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer: first report of Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG) 07.03 RadioHUM study.

    PubMed

    Macann, Andrew; Fua, Tsien; Milross, Chris G; Porceddu, Sandro V; Penniment, Michael; Wratten, Chris; Krawitz, Hedley; Poulsen, Michael; Tang, Colin I; Morton, Randall P; Hay, K David; Thomson, Vicki; Bell, Melanie L; King, Madeleine T; Fraser-Browne, Carol L; Hockey, Hans-Ulrich P

    2014-03-01

    To assess the impact of domicile-based humidification on symptom burden during radiation therapy (RT) for head-and-neck (H&N) cancer. From June 2007 through June 2011, 210 patients with H&N cancer receiving RT were randomized to either a control arm or to receive humidification using the Fisher & Paykel Healthcare MR880 humidifier. Humidification commenced on day 1 of RT and continued until Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), version 3.0, clinical mucositis (CMuc) grade ≤1 occurred. Forty-three patients (42%) met a defined benchmark for humidification compliance and contributed to per protocol (PP) analysis. Acute toxicities, hospitalizations, and feeding tube events were recorded prospectively. The McMaster University Head and Neck Radiotherapy Questionnaire (HNRQ) was used for patient-reported outcomes. The primary endpoint was area under the curve (AUC) for CMuc grade ≥2. There were no significant differences in AUC for CMuc ≥2 between the 2 arms. Humidification patients had significantly fewer days in hospital (P=.017). In compliant PP patients, the AUC for CTCAE functional mucositis score (FMuc) ≥2 was significantly reduced (P=.009), and the proportion who never required a feeding tube was significantly greater (P=.04). HNRQ PP analysis estimates also in the direction favoring humidification with less symptom severity, although differences at most time points did not reach significance. TROG 07.03 has provided efficacy signals consistent with a role for humidification in reducing symptom burden from mucositis, but the influence of humidification compliance on the results moderates recommendations regarding its practical utility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A general method for radio spectrum efficiency defining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadanovic, Ljubomir M.

    1986-08-01

    A general method for radio spectrum efficiency defining is proposed. Although simple it can be applied to various radio services. The concept of spectral elements, as information carriers, is introduced to enable the organization of larger spectral spaces - radio network models - characteristic for a particular radio network. The method is applied to some radio network models, concerning cellular radio telephone systems and digital radio relay systems, to verify its unified approach capability. All discussed radio services operate continuously.

  5. Development of a novel immunoPET tracer to image human PD-1 checkpoint expression on tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in a humanized mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Arutselvan; Mayer, Aaron T; Reeves, Robert E; Nagamine, Claude M; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose It is well known that cancers exploit immune checkpoints (programmed death 1 receptor (PD-1) and its ligand (PD-L1)) to evade anti-tumor immune responses. Although immune checkpoint (IC) blockade is a promising approach, not all patients respond. Hence, the purpose of this study is imaging of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), as they are known to express PD-1 during activation and subsequent exhaustion in the tumor microenvironment and are thought to be potentially predictive of therapeutic responses to IC blockade. Procedures We developed immunoPET tracers to image hPD-1 status of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMC) adoptively transferred to NOD-scid IL-2Rγnull (NSG) mice (hNSG) bearing A375 human skin melanoma tumors. The anti-PD-1 human antibody (IgG; keytruda) labeled with either [89Zr]- or [64Cu]- radiometals to image PD-1 expressing human TILs in vivo. Results [89Zr]keytruda (groups = 2; NSG-ctl [control] and hNSG-nblk [non-blocking], n=3-5, 3.2 ± 0.4 MBq/15-16 μg/200 μL, and [64Cu]keytruda (groups = 3; NSG-ctl, NSG-blk [blocking], and hNSG-nblk) n=4, 7.4 ± 0.4 MBq /20-25μg/200 μL) were administered in mice. PET-CT scans were performed over 1-144 h ([89Zr]keytruda) and 1-48 h ([64Cu]keytruda) on mice. hNSG mice exhibited a high tracer uptake in the spleen lymphoid organs and tumors. At 24h, human TILs homing into melanoma of hNSG-nblk mice exhibited high signal (mean %ID/g ± SD) of 3.8 ± 0.4 ([89Zr]keytruda), and 6.4 ± 0.7 ([64Cu]keytruda), which was 1.5- and 3-fold higher uptake compared to NSG-ctl mice (p = 0.01), respectively. Biodistribution measurements of hNSG-nblk mice performed at 144 h ([89Zr]keytruda), and 48 h ([64Cu]keytruda) p.i. revealed tumor to muscle ratios as high as 45 and 12-fold, respectively. Conclusion This study clearly demonstrates specific imaging of human PD-1 expressing TILs within the tumor and lymphoid tissues. This suggests anti-human-PD-1 tracer could be clinically translatable to monitor

  6. Radio Astronomy Explorer (RAE) 1 observations of terrestrial radio noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, J. R.; Caruso, J. A.

    1971-01-01

    Radio Astonomy Explorer (RAE) 1 data are analyzed to establish characteristics of HF terrestrial radio noise at an altitude of about 6000 km. Time and frequency variations in amplitude of the observed noise well above cosmic noise background are explained on the basis of temporal and spatial variations in ionospheric critical frequency coupled with those in noise source distributions. It is shown that terrestrial noise regularly breaks through the ionosphere and reaches RAE with magnitudes 15 or more db higher than cosmic noise background. Maximum terrestrial noise is observed when RAE is over the dark side of the Earth in the neighborhood of equatorial continental land masses where thunderstorms occur most frequently. The observed noise level is 30-40 db lower with RAE over oceans.

  7. Solar radio observations and radio interference monitoring in Roztoky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monstein, C.; Baluďanský, D.

    2013-10-01

    This paper is part of a planned measurement campaign in which spectrum measurements were carried out at different locations worldwide within potential locations of the e-Callisto network. The results of measurements at the Callisto observing station in Roztoky, which took place at the beginning of May 2013, are presented. Measurements were made out with a special low cost broadband logarithmic periodic antenna connected to a Callisto spectrometer designed and built at ETH Zurich (Benz, 2004). This study provides the technical basis to decide whether it is possible to make solar spectroscopic measurements below 1 GHz (λ>30 cm) at the observing station. In terms of electromagnetic interference, Roztoky is not perfect for broadband spectroscopic solar radio astronomy observations due to non negligible radio interference level from the nearby FM-transmitters. Nevertheless, low frequency observations below 80 MHz, as well as observations in some small bands above 116 MHz can be done.

  8. The Role of Alternative Programming in College Radio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauls, Samuel J.

    College radio is quite often viewed as the true alternative to commercial radio. However, what is alternative radio and how does college radio factor into the ideal? To further understand this concept, this paper focuses on the role of alternative programming in college radio. Areas discussed include alternative radio as a non-mainstream form of…

  9. Radios in the Classroom: Curriculum Integration and Communication Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ninno, Anton

    2000-01-01

    Describes radio applications for education and summarizes radio activities for elementary and secondary school classrooms. Discusses teaching the history of radio communications; AM-FM radio; international shortwave broadcasts; NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) weather service broadcasts; scanner radios; and amateur radios.…

  10. Computationally Efficient Radio Frequency Source Localization for Radio Interferometric Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steeb, J.-W.; Davidson, David B.; Wijnholds, Stefan J.

    2018-03-01

    Radio frequency interference (RFI) is an ever-increasing problem for remote sensing and radio astronomy, with radio telescope arrays especially vulnerable to RFI. Localizing the RFI source is the first step to dealing with the culprit system. In this paper, a new localization algorithm for interferometric arrays with low array beam sidelobes is presented. The algorithm has been adapted to work both in the near field and far field (only the direction of arrival can be recovered when the source is in the far field). In the near field the computational complexity of the algorithm is linear with search grid size compared to cubic scaling of the state-of-the-art 3-D MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) method. The new method is as accurate as 3-D MUSIC. The trade-off is that the proposed algorithm requires a once-off a priori calculation and storing of weighting matrices. The accuracy of the algorithm is validated using data generated by low-frequency array while a hexacopter was flying around it and broadcasting a continuous-wave signal. For the flight, the mean distance between the differential GPS positions and the corresponding estimated positions of the hexacopter is 2 m at a wavelength of 6.7 m.

  11. HIGH CURRENT RADIO FREQUENCY ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Abdelaziz, M.E.

    1963-04-01

    This patent relates to a high current radio frequency ion source. A cylindrical plasma container has a coil disposed around the exterior surface thereof along the longitudinal axis. Means are provided for the injection of an unionized gas into the container and for applying a radio frequency signal to the coil whereby a radio frequency field is generated within the container parallel to the longitudinal axis thereof to ionize the injected gas. Cathode and anode means are provided for extracting transverse to the radio frequency field from an area midway between the ends of the container along the longitudinal axis thereof the ions created by said radio frequency field. (AEC)

  12. Radio detections of southern ultracool dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, C.; Murphy, T.; Ravi, V.; Hobbs, G.; Lo, K.; Ward, C.

    2016-04-01

    We report the results of a volume-limited survey using the Australia Telescope Compact Array to search for transient and quiescent radio emission from 15 Southern hemisphere ultracool dwarfs. We detect radio emission from 2MASSW J0004348-404405 increasing the number of radio loud ultracool dwarfs to 22. We also observe radio emission from 2MASS J10481463-3956062 and 2MASSI J0339352-352544, two sources with previous radio detections. The radio emission from the three detected sources shows no variability or flare emission. Modelling this quiescent emission we find that it is consistent with optically thin gyrosynchrotron emission from a magnetosphere with an emitting region radius of (1-2)R*, magnetic field inclination 20°-80°, field strength ˜10-200 G, and power-law electron density ˜104-108 cm-3. Additionally, we place upper limits on four ultracool dwarfs with no previous radio observations. This increases the number of ultracool dwarfs studied at radio frequencies to 222. Analysing general trends of the radio emission for this sample of 15 sources, we find that the radio activity increases for later spectral types and more rapidly rotating objects. Furthermore, comparing the ratio of the radio to X-ray luminosities for these sources, we find 2MASS J10481463-3956062 and 2MASSI J0339352-352544 violate the Güdel-Benz relation by more than two orders of magnitude.

  13. Radio Frequency Power Load and Associated Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, V. Karthik (Inventor); Freestone, Todd M. (Inventor); Sims, William Herbert, III (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A radio frequency power load and associated method. A radio frequency power load apparatus may include a container with an ionized fluid therein. The apparatus may include one conductor immersed in a fluid and another conductor electrically connected to the container. A radio frequency transmission system may include a radio frequency transmitter, a radio frequency amplifier connected to the transmitter and a radio frequency power load apparatus connected to the amplifier. The apparatus may include a fluid having an ion source therein, one conductor immersed in a fluid, and another conductor electrically connected to the container. A method of dissipating power generated by a radio frequency transmission system may include constructing a waveguide with ionized fluid in a container and connecting the waveguide to an amplifier of the transmission system.

  14. A galactic microquasar mimicking winged radio galaxies.

    PubMed

    Martí, Josep; Luque-Escamilla, Pedro L; Bosch-Ramon, Valentí; Paredes, Josep M

    2017-11-24

    A subclass of extragalactic radio sources known as winged radio galaxies has puzzled astronomers for many years. The wing features are detected at radio wavelengths as low-surface-brightness radio lobes that are clearly misaligned with respect to the main lobe axis. Different models compete to account for these peculiar structures. Here, we report observational evidence that the parsec-scale radio jets in the Galactic microquasar GRS 1758-258 give rise to a Z-shaped radio emission strongly reminiscent of the X and Z-shaped morphologies found in winged radio galaxies. This is the first time that such extended emission features are observed in a microquasar, providing a new analogy for its extragalactic relatives. From our observations, we can clearly favour the hydrodynamic backflow interpretation against other possible wing formation scenarios. Assuming that physical processes are similar, we can extrapolate this conclusion and suggest that this mechanism could also be at work in many extragalactic cases.

  15. 47 CFR 95.201 - (R/C Rule 1) What is the Radio Control (R/C) Radio Service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false (R/C Rule 1) What is the Radio Control (R/C) Radio Service? 95.201 Section 95.201 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Radio Control (R/C) Radio Service General...

  16. Precision Geodesy via Radio Interferometry.

    PubMed

    Hinteregger, H F; Shapiro, I I; Robertson, D S; Knight, C A; Ergas, R A; Whitney, A R; Rogers, A E; Moran, J M; Clark, T A; Burke, B F

    1972-10-27

    Very-long-baseline interferometry experiments, involving observations of extragalactic radio sources, were performed in 1969 to determine the vector separations between antenna sites in Massachusetts and West Virginia. The 845.130-kilometer baseline was estimated from two separate experiments. The results agreed with each other to within 2 meters in all three components and with a special geodetic survey to within 2 meters in length; the differences in baseline direction as determined by the survey and by interferometry corresponded to discrepancies of about 5 meters. The experiments also yielded positions for nine extragalactic radio sources, most to within 1 arc second, and allowed the hydrogen maser clocks at the two sites to be synchronized a posteriori with an uncertainty of only a few nanoseconds.

  17. Human immunodeficiency virus-associated depression: contributions of immuno-inflammatory, monoaminergic, neurodegenerative, and neurotrophic pathways.

    PubMed

    Del Guerra, F B; Fonseca, J L I; Figueiredo, V M; Ziff, E B; Konkiewitz, E Castelon

    2013-08-01

    In the era of greatly improved pharmacological treatment of HIV infection through highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), HIV patients experience reduced viral loads, reduced opportunistic infections, increased CD4+ T cell count, and greater life expectancy. Although life expectancy is increased, patients often develop neurological disturbances that may persist for long periods, seriously jeopardizing quality of life and adherence to the medication protocols of HAART. For these reasons, HIV-associated neurological disorders have gained importance in both clinical and basic investigations of HIV infection. Depression is the most prevalent neuropsychiatric disorder among people living with HIV. In this review, we discuss how HIV can predispose infected individuals to depression by several interrelated mechanisms. These include inducing chronic elevation of cytokines through activation of microglia and astrocytes; decreasing monoaminergic function; inducing neurotoxicity, especially in dopaminergic neurons; and reducing brain-derived neurotrophic factor. These viral pathways interact with psychosocial factors to create the depressive state. HIV depression has a great impact on quality of life and implementation of antiretroviral therapy, and thus, recognition of these modes of action is significant for understanding HIV neuropathology and for selecting modalities for pharmacologic treatment.

  18. Radio frequency coaxial feedthrough device

    DOEpatents

    Owens, Thomas L.; Baity, Frederick W.; Hoffman, Daniel J.; Whealton, John H.

    1987-01-01

    A radio frequency coaxial vacuum feedthrough is provided which utilizes a cylindrical ceramic vacuum break formed of an alumina ceramic. The cylinder is coaxially disposed and brazed between tapered coaxial conductors to form a vacuum sealed connection between a pressurized upstream coaxial transmission line and a utilization device located within a vacuum container. The feedthrough provides 50 ohm matched impedance RF feedthrough up to about 500 MHz at power levels in the multimegawatt range.

  19. Program on Resorbable Radio Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-05

    radio circuit - + PDMS Copper Mg PBS Buffer 1© 2013 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim wileyonlinelibrary.com Transient, Biocompatible...way, ZnO provides an alternative to silicon [ 16 ] or organic semi- conductors [ 17–20 ] for physically transient forms of electronics and sensors...immersion in several different types of solutions, such as phosphate buffer saline (PBS, pH 4.0, Sigma- Figure 1 . Materials and designs for

  20. Advances in solar radio astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundu, M. R.

    1982-01-01

    The status of the observations and interpretations of the sun's radio emission covering the entire radio spectrum from millimeter wavelengths to hectometer and kilometer wavelengths is reviewed. Emphasis is given to the progress made in solar radio physics as a result of recent advances in plasma and radiation theory. It is noted that the capability now exists of observing the sun with a spatial resolution of approximately a second of arc and a temporal resolution of about a millisecond at centimeter wavelengths and of obtaining fast multifrequency two-dimensional pictures of the sun at meter and decameter wavelengths. A summary is given of the properties of nonflaring active regions at millimeter, centimeter, and meter-decameter wavelengths. The properties of centimeter wave bursts are discussed in connection with the high spatial resolution observations. The observations of the preflare build-up of an active region are reviewed. High spatial resolution observations (a few seconds of arc to approximately 1 arcsec) are discussed, with particular attention given to the one- and two-dimensional maps of centimeter-wavelength burst sources.

  1. Radio outbursts in extragalactic sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinzel, Wayne Morris

    Three aspects of the flux density variability of extragalactic radio sources were examined: millimeter wavelength short timescale variability, the spectral evolution of outbursts, and whether the outbursts are periodically spaced. Observations of extragalactic radio sources were conducted using the Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory between January and June 1985 at 88.2 GHz and during June and July 1985 at 40.0 GHz. Many of the sources exhibited significant flux density variations during the observing span. In addition, the most rapid variations observed were comparable with those reported in previous works. Two sources, 0355+50 and OJ287, both exhibited outbursts whose rise and fall timescales were less than a month. An anomalous flux density dropout was observed in 3C446 and was interpreted as an occultation event. Data at five frequencies between 2.7 and 89.6 GHz from the Dent-Balonek monitoring program were used to investigate the spectral evolution of eight outbursts. Outburst profile fitting was used to deconvolve the individual outbursts from one another at each frequency. The fit profiles were used to generate multiple epoch spectra to investigate the evolution of the outbursts. A phase residual minimization method was used to examine four sources for periodic behavior.

  2. Protocol for the CONVERT trial-Concurrent ONce-daily VErsus twice-daily RadioTherapy: an international 2-arm randomised controlled trial of concurrent chemoradiotherapy comparing twice-daily and once-daily radiotherapy schedules in patients with limited stage small cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC) and good performance status.

    PubMed

    Faivre-Finn, Corinne; Falk, Sally; Ashcroft, Linda; Bewley, Michelle; Lorigan, Paul; Wilson, Elena; Groom, Nicki; Snee, Michael; Fournel, Pierre; Cardenal, Felipe; Bezjak, Andrea; Blackhall, Fiona

    2016-01-20

    Concurrent ONce-daily VErsus twice-daily RadioTherapy (CONVERT) is the only multicentre, international, randomised, phase III trial open in Europe and Canada looking at optimisation of chemoradiotherapy (RT) in limited stage small cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC). Following on from the Turrisi trial of once-daily versus twice-daily (BD) concurrent chemoradiotherapy, there is a real need for a new phase III trial using modern conformal RT techniques and investigating higher once-daily radiation dose. This trial has the potential to define a new standard chemo-RT regimen for patients with LS-SCLC and good performance status. 447 patients with histologically or cytologically proven diagnosis of SCLC were recruited from 74 centres in eight countries between 2008 and 2013. Patients were randomised to receive either concurrent twice-daily RT(45 Gy in 30 twice-daily fractions over 3 weeks) or concurrent once-daily RT(66 Gy in 33 once-daily fractions over 6.5 weeks) both starting on day 22 of cycle 1. Patients are followed up until death. The primary end point of the study is overall survival and secondary end points include local progression-free survival, metastasis-free survival, acute and late toxicity based on the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events V.3.0, chemotherapy and RTdose intensity. The trial received ethical approval from NRES Committee North West-Greater Manchester Central (07/H1008/229). There is a trial steering committee, including independent members and an independent data monitoring committee. Results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at international conferences. ISRCTN91927162; Pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Fast Radio Bursts and Radio Transients from Black Hole Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mingarelli, Chiara M. F.; Levin, Janna; Lazio, T. Joseph W.

    2015-12-01

    Most black holes (BHs) will absorb a neutron star (NS) companion fully intact without tidal disruption, suggesting the pair will remain dark to telescopes. Even without tidal disruption, electromagnetic (EM) luminosity is generated from the battery phase of the binary when the BH interacts with the NS magnetic field. Originally, the luminosity was expected to be in high-energy X-rays or gamma-rays, however, we conjecture that some of the battery power is emitted in the radio bandwidth. While the luminosity and timescale are suggestive of fast radio bursts (FRBs; millisecond-scale radio transients) NS-BH coalescence rates are too low to make these a primary FRB source. Instead, we propose that the transients form a FRB sub-population, distinguishable by a double peak with a precursor. The rapid ramp-up in luminosity manifests as a precursor to the burst which is 20%-80% as luminous given 0.5 ms timing resolution. The main burst arises from the peak luminosity before the merger. The post-merger burst follows from the NS magnetic field migration to the BH, causing a shock. NS-BH pairs are especially desirable for ground-based gravitational wave (GW) observatories since the pair might not otherwise be detected, with EM counterparts greatly augmenting the scientific leverage beyond the GW signal. The EM signal’s ability to break degeneracies in the parameters encoded in the GW and probe the NS magnetic field strength is quite valuable, yielding insights into open problems in NS magnetic field decay.

  4. Cancer immunotherapy without frontiers: 2nd Annual Immuno-Oncology Meeting of the Centro de Investigación de Cancer en Sonora (CICS), Ciudad Obregón, Sonora México, Dec 2-4, 2016.

    PubMed

    Gallardo-Rincón, Dolores; Marquez, Juan Pablo; Celis, Esteban

    2017-09-01

    This meeting in immuno-oncology brought together clinicians and scientists from United States, Canada, and México with the goal of breaking down international walls and establishing new collaborations.

  5. Study of the temperature dependent immuno-reaction kinetics for the bio-functionalized magnetic nanoparticle assay of bio-markers of colorectal cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, S. Y.; Chang, J. F.; Chen, T. C.; Yang, C. C.; Ho, C. S.

    2014-01-01

    By conjugating antibodies on magnetic nanoparticles, target antigens can be quantitatively detected by measuring the magnetic signals of the magnetic nanoparticles due to their association with target antigens. This method of detection is called magnetically labeled immunoassay. The assay characteristics of magnetically labeled immunoassay have been reported widely. However, the immuno-reaction kinetics of magnetically labeled immunoassay has not been studied. In this work, the reaction rates between magnetic nanoparticles and target antigens are measured at various temperatures. It is found that the temperature dependent reaction rate obeys Arrhenius's equation, which shows the collision frequency and activation energy for the immuno-reaction between antibody-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles and target antigens. The carcinoembryonic antigen, which is a regular blood bio-marker for in-vitro diagnosis of colorectal cancer, is used as a target antigen for the example.

  6. Comparison of the skin-prick test and Phadia ImmunoCAP as tools to diagnose house-dust mite allergy.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yong Gi; Cho, Hyun-Jin; Park, Ga Young; Min, Jin-Young; Kim, Hyo Yeol; Dhong, Hun-Jong; Chung, Seung Kyu; Kim, Seon Woo

    2010-01-01

    When the skin-prick test (SPT) and in vitro test such as ImmunoCAP assay are performed simultaneously, results do not always coincide in some patients. Our objectives, therefore, were (1) to assess differences in allergic test results according to age group and (2) to establish appropriate guidelines for diagnosing mite allergy according to age. A total of 692 participants complaining of allergic rhinitis symptoms participated. Patients were divided according to age; the mean age was 32 years (range, 8-76 years). The SPT and ImmunoCAP assays were performed to detect allergies to house-dust mites (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae). The association between age and the result of each allergy test were examined, and a cutoff age for proper application of each test was than estimated. Three hundred thirty-six patients (48.6%) were allergic to D. pteronyssinus and 350 patients (50.6%) were allergic to D. farinae. In the case of D. pteronyssinus, SPT was proved to be more useful in detecting allergy for subjects <50 years old (p < 0.0001). However in case of D. farinae, ImmunoCAP was useful for all age groups, but SPT showed decreased ratio of positive result for subjects >30 years old (p < 0.0001). This study was the first to compare results of allergy tests according to age using true allergens. For patients >50 years of age, the ImmunoCAP was found to be the preferred method for detecting allergy to house-dust mites and for patients <30 years old, SPT is the recommended first choice.

  7. An overview and guide: planning instructional radio.

    PubMed

    Imhoof, M

    1984-03-01

    Successful instructional radio projects require both comprehensive and complex planning. The instructional radio planning team needs to have knowledge and capabilities in several technical, social, and educational areas. Among other skills, the team must understand radio, curriculum design, the subject matter being taught, research and evaluation, and the environment in which the project operates. Once a basic approach to educational planning has been selected and broad educational goals set, radio may be selected as a cost effective means of achieving some of the goals. Assuming radio is a wise choice, there are still several factors which must be analyzed by a team member who is a radio specialist. The most obvious consideration is the inventory and evaluation of the facilities: studios; broadcast, recording, and transmission equipment; classroom radios; and so on. Capabilities of broadcast personnel are another consideration. Initial radio lessons need to teach the learners how to listen to the radio if they have no previous experience with institutional radio broadcasts. A captive, inschool audience ready to listen to radio instructions requires a different use of the medium than a noncaptive audience. With the noncaptive audience, the educational broadcaster must compete with entertaining choices from other media and popular activities and pastimes of the community. The most complex knowledge and analysis required in planning instructional radio concerns the relationship of the content to the medium. Environmental factors are important in planning educational programs. The physical environment may present several constraints on the learning experience and the use of radio. The most obvious is the effect of climate and terrain on the quality of radio reception. The physical environment is easily studied through experience in the target area, but this knowledge plays a significant role in designing effective learning materials for specific learners. Social

  8. Radio triangulation - mapping the 3D position of the solar radio emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magdalenic, Jasmina

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the relative position of the sources of the radio emission and the associated solar eruptive phenomena (CME and the associated shock wave) has always been a challenge. While ground-based radio interferometer observations provide us with the 2D position information for the radio emission originating from the low corona (up to 2.5 Ro), this is not the case for the radio emission originating at larger heights. The radio triangulation measurements (also referred to as direction-finding or goniopolarimetric measurements) from two or more widely separated spacecraft can provide information on the 3D positions of the sources of the radio emission. This type of interplanetary radio observations are currently performed by STEREO WAVES and WIND WAVES instruments, providing a unique possibility for up to three simultaneous radio triangulations (using up to three different pairs of spacecraft). The recent results of the radio triangulation studies bring new insight into the causal relationship of the solar radio emission and CMEs. In this presentation I will discuss some of the most intriguing results on the source positions of: a) type III radio bursts indicating propagation of the fast electrons accelerated along the open field lines, b) type II radio bursts indicating interaction of the CME-driven shocks and other coronal structures e.g. streamers and c) type IV-like radio bursts possibly associated with CME-CME interaction.

  9. Three-Dimensional Hierarchical Plasmonic Nano-Architecture Enhanced Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Immuno-Sensor for Cancer Biomarker Detection in Blood Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming; Cushing, Scott K.; Zhang, Jianming; Suri, Savan; Evans, Rebecca; Petros, William P.; Gibson, Laura F.; Ma, Dongling; Liu, Yuxin; Wu, Nianqiang

    2013-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical plasmonic nano-architecture has been designed for a sensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) immuno-sensor for protein biomarker detection. The capture antibody molecules are immobilized on a plasmonic gold triangle nano-array pattern. On the other hand, the detection antibody molecules are linked to the gold nano-star@Raman-reporter@silica sandwich nanoparticles. When protein biomarkers are present, the sandwich nanoparticles are captured over the gold triangle nano-array, forming a confined 3D plasmonic field, leading to the enhanced electromagnetic field in intensity and in 3D space. As a result, the Raman reporter molecules are exposed to a high density of “hot spots”, which amplifies the Raman signal remarkably, improving the sensitivity of the SERS immuno-sensor. This SERS immuno-sensor exhibits a wide linear range (0.1 pg/mL to 10 ng/mL), and a low limit of detection (7 fg/mL) toward human immunoglobulin G (IgG) protein in the buffer solution. This biosensor has been successfully used for detection of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the human blood plasma from clinical breast cancer patient samples. PMID:23659430

  10. Immuno-PCR for one step detection of H5N1 avian influenza virus and Newcastle disease virus using magnetic gold particles as carriers.

    PubMed

    Deng, MingJun; Long, Ling; Xiao, XiZhi; Wu, ZhenXing; Zhang, FengJuan; Zhang, YanMing; Zheng, XiaoLong; Xin, XueQian; Wang, Qun; Wu, DongLai

    2011-06-15

    Detecting avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) at low concentrations from tracheal and cloacal swabs of avian influenza- and Newcastle disease-infected poultry was carried out using a highly sensitive immunological-polymerase chain reaction (immuno-PCR) method. Magnetic gold particles were pre-coated with a capture antibody, either a monoclonal anti-AIV/H5 or monoclonal anti-NDV/F and viruses serially diluted ten-fold from 10(2) to 10(-5)EID(50)/ml. A biotinylated detection antibody bound to the viral antigen was then linked via a streptavidin bridge to biotinylated reporter DNA. After extensive washing, reporter DNA was released by denaturation, transferred to PCR tubes, amplified, electrophoresed and visualized. An optimized immuno-PCR method was able to detect as little as 10(-4)EID(50)/ml AIV and NDV. To further evaluate the specificity and the clinical application of this IPCR assay for AIV H5N1 and NDV, the tracheal swab specimens, taken from chickens which were infected with H5N1/AIV, H9N2/AIV, H7N2/AIV, NDV, IBDV, IBV/H(120), were detected by IPCR. Our data demonstrated that this monoclonal antibody-based immuno-PCR method provides a platform capable of rapid screening of clinical samples for trace levels of AIV H5 and NDV in one step. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Preclinical Evaluation of an Anti-Nectin-4 ImmunoPET Reagent in Tumor-Bearing Mice and Biodistribution Studies in Cynomolgus Monkeys.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Dean O; Noda, Akihiro; Verlinsky, Alla; Snyder, Josh; Fujita, Yuji; Murakami, Yoshihiro; Fushiki, Hiroshi; Miyoshi, Sosuke; Lacayo, Sergio; Cabral, Edward; Yang, Peng; Stover, David R; Joseph, Ingrid B J K

    2016-10-01

    Nectin-4 is selectively overexpressed in a variety of cancers and is currently under clinical investigation as a therapeutic target. A monoclonal antibody against nectin-4 (AGS-22M6) was evaluated as an Immuno-positron emission tomography (ImmunoPET) reagent. Its ability to assay nectin-4 expression as well as detect nectin-4 positive tumors in the liver and bone was evaluated using mouse models. The biodistribution of [(89)Zr]AGS-22M6 was evaluated in mice bearing tumors with varying levels of nectin-4 expression. An isogenic breast cancer tumor line was used to model metastatic liver and bone disease in mice. The biodistribution of [(18)F]AGS-22M6 in cynomolgus monkeys was evaluated. A positive correlation was demonstrated between tumor nectin-4 expression and [(89)Zr]AGS-22M6 uptake. Tumors in the liver and bone were detected and differentiated based on nectin-4 expression. [(18)F]AGS-22M6 showed limited uptake in cynomolgus monkey tissues. [(89)Zr]AGS-22M6 is a promising ImmunoPET reagent that can assay nectin-4 expression in both primary and metastatic lesions.

  12. Oncolytic Adenovirus: Strategies and Insights for Vector Design and Immuno-Oncolytic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Uusi-Kerttula, Hanni; Hulin-Curtis, Sarah; Davies, James; Parker, Alan L.

    2015-01-01

    Adenoviruses (Ad) are commonly used both experimentally and clinically, including oncolytic virotherapy applications. In the clinical area, efficacy is frequently hampered by the high rates of neutralizing immunity, estimated as high as 90% in some populations that promote vector clearance and limit bioavailability for tumor targeting following systemic delivery. Active tumor targeting is also hampered by the ubiquitous nature of the Ad5 receptor, hCAR, as well as the lack of highly tumor-selective targeting ligands and suitable targeting strategies. Furthermore, significant off-target interactions between the viral vector and cellular and proteinaceous components of the bloodstream have been documented that promote uptake into non-target cells and determine dose-limiting toxicities. Novel strategies are therefore needed to overcome the obstacles that prevent efficacious Ad deployment for wider clinical applications. The use of less seroprevalent Ad serotypes, non-human serotypes, capsid pseudotyping, chemical shielding and genetic masking by heterologous peptide incorporation are all potential strategies to achieve efficient vector escape from humoral immune recognition. Conversely, selective vector arming with immunostimulatory agents can be utilized to enhance their oncolytic potential by activation of cancer-specific immune responses against the malignant tissues. This review presents recent advantages and pitfalls occurring in the field of adenoviral oncolytic therapies. PMID:26610547

  13. Studies on glycoxidatively modified human IgG: Implications in immuno-pathology of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Islam, Sidra; Moinuddin; Mir, Abdul Rouf; Arfat, Mir Yasir; Alam, Khursheed; Ali, Asif

    2017-11-01

    Structural rearrangements and condensations of proteins under hyperglycemic stress have been implicated in various pathological disorders. This study aims to probe the role of methylglyoxal (MG) modified human immunoglobulin G (MG-IgG) in immuno-pathology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). MG was found to perturb the structural integrity of IgG, affect its aromatic micro-environment and cause the generation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and aggregate adducts. It liberated the hydrophobic pockets of the protein, reduced its β pleated sheet structure and affected its tertiary conformation. Transition from β sheet to α helix and random coil was also observed in IgG upon modification by MG. It acted with strong oxidative potential and caused oligomerisation and disordered or amorphous type aggregation in the modified protein. Modified IgG had a cytotoxic and genotoxic impact. The MG modified IgG presented novel antigenic determinants that lead to an aggressive immune response. The antibodies had high affinity towards the immunogen. Auto-antibodies derived from T2DM patients exhibited strong affinity towards the modified IgG in comparison to the unmodified protein. Specificity of serum antibodies from T2DM patients was further confirmed by competitive-inhibition ELISA. The potential role of MG-IgG in the immunopathogenesis of T2DM has been discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. In vivo detection of free radicals in mouse septic encephalopathy using molecular MRI and immuno-spin trapping.

    PubMed

    Towner, Rheal A; Garteiser, Philippe; Bozza, Fernando; Smith, Nataliya; Saunders, Debra; d' Avila, Joana C P; Magno, Flora; Oliveira, Marcus F; Ehrenshaft, Marilyn; Lupu, Florea; Silasi-Mansat, Robert; Ramirez, Dario C; Gomez-Mejiba, Sandra E; Mason, Ronald P; Castro Faria-Neto, Hugo C

    2013-12-01

    Free radicals are known to play a major role in sepsis. Combined immuno-spin trapping and molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to detect in vivo and in situ levels of free radicals in murine septic encephalopathy after cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). DMPO (5,5-dimethyl pyrroline N-oxide) was injected over 6h after CLP, before administration of an anti-DMPO probe (anti-DMPO antibody bound to albumin-gadolinium-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid-biotin MRI targeting contrast agent). In vitro assessment of the anti-DMPO probe in oxidatively stressed mouse astrocytes significantly decreased T1 relaxation (p < 0.0001) compared to controls. MRI detected the presence of anti-DMPO adducts via a substantial decrease in %T1 change within the hippocampus, striatum, occipital, and medial cortex brain regions (p < 0.01 for all) in septic animals compared to shams, which was sustained for over 60 min (p < 0.05 for all). Fluorescently labeled streptavidin was used to target the anti-DMPO probe biotin, which was elevated in septic brain, liver, and lungs compared to sham. Ex vivo DMPO adducts (qualitative) and oxidative products, including 4-hydroxynonenal and 3-nitrotyrosine (quantitative, p < 0.05 for both), were elevated in septic brains compared to shams. This is the first study that has reported on the detection of in vivo and in situ levels of free radicals in murine septic encephalopathy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Rapidly evolving conjunctivitis due to Pasteurella multocida, occurring after direct inoculation with animal droplets in an immuno-compromised host.

    PubMed

    Corchia, Anthony; Limelette, Anne; Hubault, Béatrice; Robbins, Ailsa; Quinquenel, Anne; Bani-Sadr, Firouze; N'Guyen, Yohan

    2015-03-08

    The rare descriptions, in the literature, of ocular infections due to Pasteurella multocida include: endophtalmitis, keratitis and corneal ulcers, Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome, and conjunctivitis. Here, we report a rare case of rapidly evolving conjunctivitis due to Pasteurella multocida, occurring after direct inoculation with animal droplets in an immuno-compromised host. A 69-year-old, Caucasian male was referred to our department with purulent conjunctivitis, occurring five days after chemotherapy for an angioimmunoblastic-T-cell-lymphoma, and thirty-three hours after being struck in his right eye by his sneezing Dachshund dog. Physical examination revealed purulent conjunctivitis of the right eye associated with inflammatory edema of both lids. Direct bacteriological examination of conjunctival secretions showed gram-negative bacilli and regular, grey non-hemolytic colonies appearing the next day on blood agar. The oxidase test was positive for these colonies. An antibiotherapy associating intravenous amoxicillin and amoxicillin/clavulanate was administered. The outcome was favorable in the next three days allowing discharge of the patient with amoxicillin (2 g tid per os). This case report may be of interest for infectious diseases, ophthalmology or oncology specialists, especially nowadays with chemotherapy being administered in day care centres, where unusual home pathogens can be encountered in health related infections. In this case, previous animal contact and conjunctival samples showing Enterobacteriaceae like colonies with positive oxidase test were two important clues which could help clinicians to make the diagnosis of Pasteurella conjunctivitis in every day practice.

  16. Unusual immuno-modulatory triterpene-caffeates in the skins of russeted varieties of apples and pears.

    PubMed

    Andre, Christelle M; Larsen, Lesley; Burgess, Elaine J; Jensen, Dwayne J; Cooney, Janine M; Evers, Danièle; Zhang, Jingli; Perry, Nigel B; Laing, William A

    2013-03-20

    Three triterpene-caffeates have been isolated from skins of a russeted apple cultivar "Merton Russet" and identified by LC-MS and NMR as betulinic acid-3-cis-caffeate, betulinic acid-3-trans-caffeate, and oleanolic acid-3-trans-caffeate. Betulinic acid-3-trans-caffeate and oleanolic acid-3-trans-caffeate were also found in russeted pear skins. These compounds have not been previously reported in apples or pears, or in any other foods. Their presence was related to suberized tissue as they were only found in russet portions of the partially russeted apple cultivar "Cox's Orange Pippin" and were not detected in the waxy apple cultivar "Royal Gala". High concentrations of betulinic acid-3-trans-caffeate were found in the bark of both "Merton Russet" and "Royal Gala" trees. The three triterpene-caffeates showed anti-inflammatory activity in vitro, inhibiting NF-κB activation with IC50's of 6-9 μM. Betulinic acid-3-trans-caffeate, the predominant compound in the apples, was immuno-modulatory at around 10 μM in the in vitro and ex vivo bioassays, boosting production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFα in cells stimulated with bacterial lipopolysaccharides.

  17. Quantification of (1→4)-β-d-Galactans in Compression Wood Using an Immuno-Dot Assay

    PubMed Central

    Chavan, Ramesh R.; Fahey, Leona M.; Harris, Philip J.

    2015-01-01

    Compression wood is a type of reaction wood formed on the underside of softwood stems when they are tilted from the vertical and on the underside of branches. Its quantification is still a matter of some scientific debate. We developed a new technique that has the potential to do this based on the higher proportions of (1→4)-β-d-galactans that occur in tracheid cell walls of compression wood. Wood was milled, partially delignified, and the non-cellulosic polysaccharides, including the (1→4)-β-d-galactans, extracted with 6 M sodium hydroxide. After neutralizing, the solution was serially diluted, and the (1→4)-β-d-galactans determined by an immuno-dot assay using the monoclonal antibody LM5, which specifically recognizes this polysaccharide. Spots were quantified using a dilution series of a commercially available (1→4)-β-d-galactan from lupin seeds. Using this method, compression and opposite woods from radiata pine (Pinus radiata) were easily distinguished based on the amounts of (1→4)-β-d-galactans extracted. The non-cellulosic polysaccharides in the milled wood samples were also hydrolysed using 2 M trifluoroacetic acid followed by the separation and quantification of the released neutral monosaccharides by high performance anion exchange chromatography. This confirmed that the compression woods contained higher proportions of galactose-containing polysaccharides than the opposite woods. PMID:27135316

  18. Structural Analysis and Immuno-Stimulating Activity of an Acidic Polysaccharide from the Stems of Dendrobium nobile Lindl.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun-Hui; Zuo, Shu-Rong; Luo, Jian-Ping

    2017-04-10

    Dendrobium nobile Lindl., an epiphytic herb distributed in the Southeast Asia, is used as a tonic and antipyretic herbal medicine in China. In this study, a water-soluble acidic heteropolysaccharide, DNP-W4, containing mannose, glucose, galactose, xylose, rhamnose, and galacturonic acid, in the molar ratios of 1.0:4.9:2.5:0.5:1.0:0.9, was obtained from the stems of Dendrobium nobile Lindl. Using methylation analysis, partial acid hydrolysis, pectolyase treatment, NMR, and ESI-MS, the structure of DNP-W4 was elucidated. The obtained data indicated that DNP-W4 was a complex heteropolysaccharide and possessed a backbone composed of (1→4)-linked β-d-Glcp, (1→6)-linked β-d-Glcp, and (1→6)-linked β-d-Galp, with substitutes at O-4/6 of Glcp residues and O-3 of Galp. The branches of DNP-W4 were composed of terminal Manp, (1→6)-linked β-d-Manp, (1→3)-linked β-d-Glcp, β-d-Glcp, β-d-Galp, (1→4)-linked α-d-GalAp, (1→2)-linked α-L-Rhap, and Xylp. DNP-W4 had little immunological activities, but its derivatives had immuno-stimulating activities to some extent.

  19. Thermal Stress Triggers Broad Pocillopora damicornis Transcriptomic Remodeling, while Vibrio coralliilyticus Infection Induces a More Targeted Immuno-Suppression Response

    PubMed Central

    Vidal-Dupiol, Jeremie; Dheilly, Nolwenn M.; Rondon, Rodolfo; Grunau, Christoph; Cosseau, Céline; Smith, Kristina M.; Freitag, Michael; Adjeroud, Mehdi; Mitta, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Global change and its associated temperature increase has directly or indirectly changed the distributions of hosts and pathogens, and has affected host immunity, pathogen virulence and growth rates. This has resulted in increased disease in natural plant and animal populations worldwide, including scleractinian corals. While the effects of temperature increase on immunity and pathogen virulence have been clearly identified, their interaction, synergy and relative weight during pathogenesis remain poorly documented. We investigated these phenomena in the interaction between the coral Pocillopora damicornis and the bacterium Vibrio coralliilyticus, for which the infection process is temperature-dependent. We developed an experimental model that enabled unraveling the effects of thermal stress, and virulence vs. non-virulence of the bacterium. The physiological impacts of various treatments were quantified at the transcriptome level using a combination of RNA sequencing and targeted approaches. The results showed that thermal stress triggered a general weakening of the coral, making it more prone to infection, non-virulent bacterium induced an ‘efficient’ immune response, whereas virulent bacterium caused immuno-suppression in its host. PMID:25259845

  20. Application of immuno-PCR assay for the detection of serum IgE specific to Bermuda allergen.

    PubMed

    Rahmatpour, Samine; Khan, Amjad Hayat; Nasiri Kalmarzi, Rasoul; Rajabibazl, Masoumeh; Tavoosidana, Gholamreza; Motevaseli, Elahe; Zarghami, Nosratollah; Sadroddiny, Esmaeil

    2017-04-01

    In vivo and in vitro tests are the two major ways of identifying the triggering allergens in sensitized individuals with allergic symptoms. Both methods are equally significant in terms of sensitivity and specificity. However, in certain circumstances, in vitro methods are highly preferred because they circumvent the use of sensitizing drugs in patients. In current study, we described a highly sensitive immuno-PCR (iPCR) assay for serum IgE specific to Bermuda allergens. Using oligonucleotide-labelled antibody, we used iPCR for the sensitive detection of serum IgE. The nucleotide sequence was amplified using conventional PCR and the bands were visualized on 2.5% agarose gel. Results demonstrated a 100-fold enhancement in sensitivity of iPCR over commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Our iPCR method was highly sensitive for Bermuda-specific serum IgE and could be beneficial in allergy clinics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Impact of Radio Interference on Future Radio Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Daniel A.; Robertson, Gordon J.; Sault, Robert J.

    While future radio telescopes will require technological advances from the communications industry interference from sources such as satellites and mobile phones is a serious concern. In addition to the fact that the level of interference is growing constantly the increased capabilities of next generation instruments make them more prone to harmful interference. These facilities must have mechanisms to allow operation in a crowded spectrum. In this report some of the factors which may limit the effectiveness of these mechanisms are investigated. Radio astronomy is unique among other observing wavelengths in that the radiation can be fully sampled at a rate which completely specifies the electromagnetic environment. Knowledge of phases and antennae gain factors affords one the opportunity to attempt to mitigate interference from the astronomical data. At present several interference mitigation techniques have been demonstrated to be extremely effective. However the observational scales of the new facilities will push the techniques to their limits. Processes such as signal decorrelation varying antenna gain and instabilities in the primary beam will have a serious effect on some of the algorithms. In addition the sheer volume of data produced will render some techniques computationally and financially impossible.

  2. Fast Radio Bursts and Radio Transients from Black Hole Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mingarelli, Chiara; Levin, Janna; Lazio, Joseph

    2016-03-01

    Most black holes (BHs) will absorb a neutron star (NS) companion fully intact, without tidal disruption, suggesting the pair will remain dark to telescopes. Even without tidal disruption, electromagnetic (EM) luminosity is generated from the battery phase of the binary when the BH interacts with the NS magnetic field. Originally the luminosity was expected in high-energy X-rays or gamma-rays, however we conjecture that some of the battery power is emitted in the radio bandwidth. While the luminosity and timescale are suggestive of fast radio bursts (FRBs), NS-BH coalescence rates are too low to make these a primary FRB source. Instead, we propose the transients form a FRB sub-population, distinguishable by a double peak. The main burst is from the peak luminosity before merger, while the post-merger burst follows from the NS magnetic field migration to the BH, causing a shock. NS-BH pairs are desirable for ground-based gravitational wave (GW) observatories since the pair might not be detected any other way, with EM counterparts augmenting the scientific leverage beyond the GW signal. Valuably, EM signal can break degeneracies in the parameters encoded in the GW as well as probe the NS magnetic field strength, yielding insights into open problems in NS magnetic field decay.

  3. Coping with Radio Frequency Interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, B. M.

    2009-01-01

    The radio spectrum is a finite resource, on which humanity makes many demands. And pressure on it is ever increasing with the development of new technology and ideas for radio services. After all, we all benefit from wifi and cell phones. Radio astronomers have a small percentage of the spectrum allocated to them at octave intervals in the metre-centimetre bands, and at important frequencies, such as that of the 21cm line of HI. Signals from other services, as well as from our own poorly-engineered equipment, sometimes contaminate our bands: these signals constitute RFI. These may totally obliterate the astronomical signal, or, in the case of CLOUDSAT, may be capable of completely destroying a receiver, which introduces us to the new possibility of 'destructive interference'. A geo-stationary satellite can block access to a piece of sky from one site. Good equipment design eliminates self-inflicted interference, while physical separation often provides adequate practical mitigation at many frequencies. However, new observatories end up being located in the West Australian desert or Antarctica. In future they may be on the back side of the Moon. But there is no Earth-bound protection via physical separation against satellite signals. Some mitigation can be achieved by frequent data dumps and the excision of RFI, or by real-time detection and blanking of the receiver, or by more sophisticated algoriths. Astronomers of necessity aim to achieve mitigation via coordination, at the local level, and by participating in spectrum management at the national and international levels. This involves them spending a lot of time in Geneva at the International Telegraphic Union protecting their access to spectrum, and access to clean spectrum from the L3 point and the far side of the Moon.

  4. Radio emission in peculiar galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demellorabaca, Dulia F.; Abraham, Zulema

    1990-01-01

    During the last decades a number of surveys of peculiar galaxies have been carried out and accurate positions become available. Since peculiarities are a possible evidence of radio emission (Wright, 1974; Sulentic, 1976; Stocke et al., 1978), the authors selected a sample of 24 peculiar galaxies with optical jet-like features or extensions in different optical catalogues, mainly the Catalogue of Southern Peculiar Galaxies and Associations (Arp and Madore, 1987) and the ESO/Uppsala Survey of the ESO(B) Atlas (Lauberts, 1982) for observation at the radio continuum frequency of 22 GHz. The sample is listed in a table. Sol (1987) studied this sample and concluded that the majority of the jet-like features seem to admit an explanation in terms of interactive galaxies with bridges and/or tails due to tidal effects. Only in a few cases do the jets seem to be possibly linked to some nuclear activity of the host galaxy. The observations were made with the 13.7m-radome enclosed Itapetinga Radiotelescope (HPBW of 4.3 arcmin), in Brazil. The receiver was a 1 GHz d.s.b. super-heterodine mixer operated in total-power mode, with a system temperature of approximately 800 K. The observational technique consisted in scans in right ascention, centralized in the optical position of the galaxy. The amplitude of one scan was 43 arcmin, and its duration time was 20 seconds. The integration time was at least 2 hours (12 ten-minute observations) and the sensibility limit adopted was an antenna temperature greater than 3 times the r.m.s. error of the baseline determination. Virgo A was used as the calibrator source. Three galaxies were detected for the first time as radio sources and four other known galaxies at low frequencies had their flux densities measured at 22 GHz. The results for these sources are presented.

  5. Radio Counterparts to SXR Transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gary, D. E.

    1999-12-01

    By now several studies have been done on small-scale brightenings seen at radio, UV, EUV, and soft X-ray wavelengths. These are to be reviewed by Kundu in these proceedings. In this talk we concentrate on the radio counterpart of a particular type of brightening---the soft X-ray transient brightenings of Shimizu. These brightenings are associated with active regions, and a study of radio counterparts by White et al. (1995) using Nobeyama data found an excellent correspondence between the 17 GHz and SXR brightenings, both spatially and temporally. However, this study found that both the SXR and microwave emissions could be satisfactorily explained as purely thermal emission, and a search of BATSE hard X-ray data showed no nonthermal counterpart. White et al. (1995) were forced to conclude that the events may be different from flares. A more sensitive search for nonthermal emission was needed, in particular using lower frequency microwaves where the influence of nonthermal electrons would be more easily detected. Gary, Hartl and Shimizu (1997) found 34 SXR transient brightenings over a 10-day period in May 1992, for which OVRO (1-18 GHz) total power data were available. A comparison of the data showed a number of clear nonthermal signatures. In addition, one of the events was seen in the lowest energy (6-9.3 keV) channel of the BATSE SPEC detector, suggesting a connection between the microflares discovered in hard X-rays by Lin et al. (1984). The evidence that SXR transient brightenings are microflares is reviewed in this talk. We also attempt to place other small-scale brightenings in context with regard to SXR transient brightenings and microflares.

  6. A Practical Terrestrial Packet Radio Network.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    12 Howard Frank, Israel Gitman and Richard Van Slyke , "Packet Radio System--Network Considerations," AFIPS Conference Proceedings, Anaheim, 1975...p, 1396. 33 Howard Frank, Israel Gitman and Richard Van Slyke, "Packet Radio System--Network Considerations," AFIPS...44, 1975 NCC, Anaheim, pp. 233-242. J 149 I : Frank, Howard, Israel Gitman and Richard Van Slyke, "Packet Radio System — Network

  7. Hierarchical Organization for Large, Dynamic Radio Networks.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    January 1985. [3] N. Shacharm and J. Tornow . Future Directions in Packet Radio Technology. In - Proc. of IEEE INFOCOM󈨙, Washington, D.C., 1985. [4] J.J...Freeman and Company, 1979. [7] J. Jubin and J. Tornow . The DARPA Packet Radio Network Protocols. Proceed- inga of the IEEE, 75(1):21-32, January 1987... Tornow . Future Directions in Packet Radio Technology. In Proc. of IEEE INFOCOM󈨙, Washington, D.C., 1985. [28] N. Shacham and J. Westcott. Future

  8. Metals as radio-enhancers in oncology: The industry perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Pottier, Agnés, E-mail: agnes.pottier@nanobiotix.com; Borghi, Elsa; Levy, Laurent

    Radio-enhancers, metal-based nanosized agents, could play a key role in oncology. They may unlock the potential of radiotherapy by enhancing the radiation dose deposit within tumors when the ionizing radiation source is ‘on’, while exhibiting chemically inert behavior in cellular and subcellular systems when the radiation beam is ‘off’. Important decision points support the development of these new type of therapeutic agents originated from nanotechnology. Here, we discuss from an industry perspective, the interest of developing radio-enhancer agents to improve tumor control, the relevance of nanotechnology to achieve adequate therapeutic attributes, and present some considerations for their development in oncology.more » - Highlights: • Oncology is a field of high unmet medical need. • Despites of its widespread usage, radiation therapy presents a narrow therapeutic window. • High density material at the nanoscale may enhance radiation dose deposit from cancer cells. • Metal-based nanosized radio-enhancers could unlock the potential of radiotherapy.« less

  9. Hybrid spread spectrum radio system

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Stephen F.; Dress, William B.

    2010-02-02

    Systems and methods are described for hybrid spread spectrum radio systems. A method includes modulating a signal by utilizing a subset of bits from a pseudo-random code generator to control an amplification circuit that provides a gain to the signal. Another method includes: modulating a signal by utilizing a subset of bits from a pseudo-random code generator to control a fast hopping frequency synthesizer; and fast frequency hopping the signal with the fast hopping frequency synthesizer, wherein multiple frequency hops occur within a single data-bit time.

  10. Packet Radio Temporary Note Index.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-07

    Dynamic Control in Carrier Sense Multiple Access 180 Cross-Radio Debugger Beeler 06/76 BBN 179 New Capabilities of the PR Gitman 05/76 NAC Simulation...Program 178 An Approximate Analytical Model for Gitman 05/76 NAC Initialization of Single Hop PRNETs 177 SPP Definition Beeler 04/76 BBN 176 PR Protocol...Sussman 03/79 BBN Labeling Process (Revision 7) 173 Interfacing Terminals to the PRN Fralick 04/76 BBN 172 Connectivity Issues in Mobile PR Gitman 03/76

  11. Millisecond radio pulsars in globular clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verbunt, Frank; Lewin, Walter H. G.; Vanparadijs, Jan

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that the number of millisecond radio pulsars, in globular clusters, should be larger than 100, applying the standard scenario that all the pulsars descend from low-mass X-ray binaries. Moreover, most of the pulsars are located in a small number of clusters. The prediction that Teran 5 and Liller 1 contain at least about a dozen millisecond radio pulsars each is made. The observations of millisecond radio pulsars in globular clusters to date, in particular the discovery of two millisecond radio pulsars in 47 Tuc, are in agreement with the standard scenario, in which the neutron star is spun up during the mass transfer phase.

  12. The Origin of Powerful Radio Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, A. S.; Colbert, E. J. M.

    1995-05-01

    Radio-loud active galaxies are associated with elliptical or elliptical-like galaxies, many of which appear to be the result of a recent merger. In contrast, radio-quiet active galaxies prefer spiral hosts. Despite the very large difference in radio luminosities between the two classes, their continua and line spectra from infrared through X-ray frequencies are very similar. In this paper, we describe recent developments of our model (Ap. J. 438, 62 1995) in which the radio-loud phenomenon is the result of a merger of two galaxies, with each galaxy nucleus containing a slowly (or non-) rotating supermassive black hole. It is envisaged that the two black holes eventually coalesce. For the small fraction of mergers in which the two holes are both massive and of comparable mass, a rapidly-spinning, high-mass hole results. The spin energy of a rapidly rotating 10(8-9) solar mass hole suffices to provide the ~ 10(60) ergs in relativistic particles and magnetic fields in the most energetic radio sources. Luminous radio-quiet active galaxies contain high-mass, slowly-rotating holes, with the infrared through X-ray emission of both classes being fuelled by accretion as commonly assumed. We discuss constraints on the model from the luminosity functions of radio-loud and radio-quiet galaxies and from the known cosmological evolution of the radio source population; this evolution is assumed to reflect higher galaxy merger rates in the past.

  13. Abell 1033: birth of a radio phoenix

    DOE PAGES

    de Gasperin, F.; Ogrean, G. A.; van Weeren, R. J.; ...

    2015-02-26

    We report that extended steep-spectrum radio emission in a galaxy cluster is usually associated with a recent merger. However, given the complex scenario of galaxy cluster mergers, many of the discovered sources hardly fit into the strict boundaries of a precise taxonomy. This is especially true for radio phoenixes that do not have very well defined observational criteria. Radio phoenixes are aged radio galaxy lobes whose emission is reactivated by compression or other mechanisms. Here in this paper, we present the detection of a radio phoenix close to the moment of its formation. The source is located in Abell 1033,more » a peculiar galaxy cluster which underwent a recent merger. To support our claim, we present unpublished Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope and Chandra observations together with archival data from the Very Large Array and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We discover the presence of two subclusters displaced along the N–S direction. The two subclusters probably underwent a recent merger which is the cause of a moderately perturbed X-ray brightness distribution. A steep-spectrum extended radio source very close to an active galactic nucleus (AGN) is proposed to be a newly born radio phoenix: the AGN lobes have been displaced/compressed by shocks formed during the merger event. This scenario explains the source location, morphology, spectral index, and brightness. Finally, we show evidence of a density discontinuity close to the radio phoenix and discuss the consequences of its presence.« less

  14. Computing angle of arrival of radio signals

    SciTech Connect

    Borchardt, John J.; Steele, David K.

    Various technologies pertaining to computing angle of arrival of radio signals are described. A system that is configured for computing the angle of arrival of a radio signal includes a cylindrical sheath wrapped around a cylindrical object, where the cylindrical sheath acts as a ground plane. The system further includes a plurality of antennas that are positioned about an exterior surface of the cylindrical sheath, and receivers respectively coupled to the antennas. The receivers output measurements pertaining to the radio signal. A processing circuit receives the measurements and computes the angle of arrival of the radio signal based upon themore » measurements.« less

  15. Gamma-ray burster counterparts - Radio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.; Cline, Thomas L.; Desai, U. D.; Teegarden, B. J.; Atteia, J.-L.; Barat, C.; Estulin, I. V.; Evans, W. D.; Fenimore, E. E.; Hurley, K.

    1989-01-01

    Many observers and theorists have suggested that gamma-ray bursters (GRBs) are related to highly magnetized rotating, neutron stars, in which case an analogy with pulsars implies that GRBs would be prodigious emitters of polarized radio emission during quiescence. The paper reports on a survey conducted with the Very Large Array radio telescope of 10 small GRB error regions for quiescent radio emission at wavelengths of 2, 6, and 20 cm. The sensitivity of the survey varied from 0.1 to 0.8 mJy. The observations did indeed reveal four radio sources inside the GRB error regions.

  16. Radio detection of extensive air showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huege, Tim

    2017-12-01

    Radio detection of extensive air showers initiated in the Earth's atmosphere has made tremendous progress in the last decade. Today, radio detection is routinely used in several cosmic-ray observatories. The physics of the radio emission in air showers is well-understood, and analysis techniques have been developed to determine the arrival direction, the energy and an estimate for the mass of the primary particle from the radio measurements. The achieved resolutions are competitive with those of more traditional techniques. In this article, I shortly review the most important achievements and discuss the potential for future applications.

  17. Immunologic mapping of glycomes: implications for cancer diagnosis and therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dapeng; Levery, Steven B; Hsu, Fong-Fu; Wang, Peng G; Teneberg, Susann; Almeida, Igor C; Li, Yunsen; Xu, Huaxi; Wang, Lai-Xi; Xia, Chengfeng; Ibrahim, Nuhad K; Michael, Katja

    2011-06-01

    Cancer associated glycoconjugates are important biomarkers, as exemplified by globo-H, CA125, CA15.3 and CA27.29. However, the exact chemical structures of many such biomarkers remain unknown because of technological limitations. In this article, we propose the "immunologic mapping" of cancer glycomes based on specific immune recognition of glycan structures, which can be hypothesized theoretically, produced chemically, and examined biologically by immuno-assays. Immunologic mapping of glycans not only provides a unique perspective on cancer glycomes, but also may lead to the invention of powerful reagents for diagnosis and therapy.

  18. Immunologic mapping of glycomes: implications for cancer diagnosis and therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Dapeng; Levery, Steven B.; Hsu, Fong-Fu; Wang, Peng G.; Teneberg, Susann; Almeida, Igor C.; Li, Yunsen; Xu, Huaxi; Wang, Lai-Xi; Xia, Chengfeng; Ibrahim, Nuhad K; Michael, Katja

    2013-01-01

    Cancer associated glycoconjugates are important biomarkers, as exemplified by globo-H, CA125, CA15.3 and CA27.29. However, the exact chemical structures of many such biomarkers remain unknown because of technological limitations. In this article, we propose the “immunologic mapping” of cancer glycomes based on specific immune recognition of glycan structures, which can be hypothesized theoretically, produced chemically, and examined biologically by immuno-assays. Immunologic mapping of glycans not only provides a unique perspective on cancer glycomes, but also may lead to the invention of powerful reagents for diagnosis and therapy. PMID:21622287

  19. A Profile of Independent Local Radio (Commercial Radio in Great Britain).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidel, M. Kent

    Commercial and noncommercial radio in the United States and Great Britain have followed opposite paths of development. Unlike the United States, where commercial radio was the historical cornerstone of the broadcasting system, the Independent Local Radio (ILR) of Britain is the newcomer into an environment heavy with the heritage of the…

  20. Kothmale Community Radio Interorg Project: True Community Radio or Feel-Good Propaganda?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey-Carter, Liz

    2009-01-01

    The Kothmale Community Radio and Interorg project in Sri Lanka has been hailed as an example of how a community radio initiative should function in a developing nation. However, there is some question about whether the Kothmale Community Interorg Project is a true community radio initiative that empowers local communities to access ICT services…

  1. Joint Tactical Radio System Handheld, Manpack, and Small Form Fit Radios (JTRS HMS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    requisitions through the Standard Army Supply System ( SASS ). All radios procured under the Full Rate Production (FRP) phase that become unserviceable...will be turned-in to TYAD through the SASS . Radios will be returned to the original equipment manufacturer vendor for warranty repair, or replacement...procure sustainment spares to replace unserviceable radios and ancillary items requisitioned through SASS , operations, maintenance, training

  2. Integral luminosities of radio pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malov, I.; Malov, O.

    The integral radio luminosities L for 311 normal pulsars and for 27 ones with the rotation period P<0.1 s (fast pulsars) are calculated using new data on their compilated spectra. The values of L lie in the range 10^27-10^30 erg/s for 88% of the normal pulsars and in the range 10^28-10^31 erg/s for 88% of the fast objects. The high correlation between L and estimates l=S x d^2 from the known catalogues is detected. It is shown that the coefficient K of a transformation of the neutron star rotation energy into radio emission increases when P grows for normal pulsars and falls for fast ones. The mean values of K are -3.73 and -4.85 for normal and fast pulsars, respectively. There are no changes of L with the kinematic age T = z/V, where z is the pulsar height over the Galactic plane and V = 300 km/s is its mean velocity. The correlation between L and the rate of the rotation energy losses E is detected for both pulsar groups under consideration. It is shown that L= A E^(1/3) for the whole sample. The total number of pulsars in the Galaxy and their birth rate are in agreement with data on the rate of supernova explosions.

  3. The current preference for the immuno-analytical ELISA method for quantitation of steroid hormones (endocrine disruptor compounds) in wastewater in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Manickum, Thavrin; John, Wilson

    2015-07-01

    The availability of national test centers to offer a routine service for analysis and quantitation of some selected steroid hormones [natural estrogens (17-β-estradiol, E2; estrone, E1; estriol, E3), synthetic estrogen (17-α-ethinylestradiol, EE2), androgen (testosterone), and progestogen (progesterone)] in wastewater matrix was investigated; corresponding internationally used chemical- and immuno-analytical test methods were reviewed. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (immuno-analytical technique) was also assessed for its suitability as a routine test method to quantitate the levels of these hormones at a sewage/wastewater treatment plant (WTP) (Darvill, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa), over a 2-year period. The method performance and other relevant characteristics of the immuno-analytical ELISA method were compared to the conventional chemical-analytical methodology, like gas/liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/LC-MS), and GC-LC/tandem mass spectrometry (MSMS), for quantitation of the steroid hormones in wastewater and environmental waters. The national immuno-analytical ELISA technique was found to be sensitive (LOQ 5 ng/L, LOD 0.2-5 ng/L), accurate (mean recovery 96%), precise (RSD 7-10%), and cost-effective for screening and quantitation of these steroid hormones in wastewater and environmental water matrix. A survey of the most current international literature indicates a fairly equal use of the LC-MS/MS, GC-MS/MS (chemical-analytical), and ELISA (immuno-analytical) test methods for screening and quantitation of the target steroid hormones in both water and wastewater matrix. Internationally, the observed sensitivity, based on LOQ (ng/L), for the steroid estrogens E1, E2, EE2, is, in decreasing order: LC-MSMS (0.08-9.54) > GC-MS (1) > ELISA (5) (chemical-analytical > immuno-analytical). At the national level, the routine, unoptimized chemical-analytical LC-MSMS method was found to lack the required sensitivity for meeting environmental

  4. A Radio Astronomy Curriculum for STARLAB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boltuch, D.; Hund, L.; Buck, S.; Fultz, C.; Smith, T.; Harris, R.; Castelaz, M. W.; Moffett, D.; LaFratta, M.; Walsh, L.

    2005-12-01

    We present elements of a curriculum that will accompany the STARLAB module "Sensing the Radio Sky" a portable planetarium program and projection of the radio sky. The curriculum will serve to familiarize high school students to a set of topics in radio astronomy. The curriculum includes lessons and activities addressing several topics related to radio astronomy and the Milky Way that consists of two main resources: a manual and a multimedia website. It is designed to accommodate a wide variety of possible uses and time constraints. The manufacturer of STARLAB, Learning Technologies, Inc. produces a short manual to accompany each presentation for the STARLAB. The "Sensing the Radio Sky" manual we have created includes the mandatory, minimum background information that students need to understand radio astronomy. It briefly discusses waves and electromagnetic radiation, similarities and differences between optical and radio astronomy, probable misconceptions about radio astronomy, how radio images are produced, synchrotron radiation in the Milky Way, and galactic coordinates. It also includes a script that presenters can choose to follow inside the STARLAB, a lesson plan for teachers, and activities for students to complete before and after the STARLAB experience that mirror the scientific method. The multimedia website includes more detailed information about electromagnetic radiation and a more detailed comparison of optical and radio astronomy. It also discusses the life cycles of stars, radiation from a variety of specific sources, and pulsars, as each relates to radio astronomy. The five highly detailed lessons are pulled together in sixth "overview lesson", intended for use by teachers who want to present more than the basic material in the manual, but do not have the classroom time to teach all five of the in-depth lessons. . We acknowledge support from the NSF Internship in Public Science Education Program grant number 0324729.

  5. The detectability of radio emission from exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, C. R.; Murphy, Tara; Lenc, E.; Kaplan, D. L.

    2018-05-01

    Like the magnetised planets in our Solar System, magnetised exoplanets should emit strongly at radio wavelengths. Radio emission directly traces the planetary magnetic fields and radio detections can place constraints on the physical parameters of these features. Large comparative studies of predicted radio emission characteristics for the known population of exoplanets help to identify what physical parameters could be key for producing bright, observable radio emission. Since the last comparative study, many thousands of exoplanets have been discovered. We report new estimates for the radio flux densities and maximum emission frequencies for the current population of known exoplanets orbiting pre-main sequence and main-sequence stars with spectral types F-M. The set of exoplanets predicted to produce observable radio emission are Hot Jupiters orbiting young stars. The youth of these system predicts strong stellar magnetic fields and/or dense winds, which are key for producing bright, observable radio emission. We use a new all-sky circular polarisation Murchison Widefield Array survey to place sensitive limits on 200 MHz emission from exoplanets, with 3σ values ranging from 4.0 - 45.0 mJy. Using a targeted Giant Metre Wave Radio Telescope observing campaign, we also report a 3σ upper limit of 4.5 mJy on the radio emission from V830 Tau b, the first Hot Jupiter to be discovered orbiting a pre-main sequence star. Our limit is the first to be reported for the low-frequency radio emission from this source.

  6. Radio and Television Servicing. Intermediate Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Guy; And Others

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 32 terminal objectives for an intermediate (second year) radio/TV servicing course. This 1-year course (3 hours daily) was designed to provide the student with the basic skills and knowledges necessary for entry level employment in the Radio/TV…

  7. Interactive radio: distance education in the classroom.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    The Honduran Association for Socioeconomic Growth and Development (AVANCE) in conjunction with the U.S. Agency for International Development's Radio Learning Project has developed and promoted programs for radio that encourage interactive learning in Latin America. The Second Interamerican Conference on Interactive Radio was recently held in Tela, Honduras where educators and participants came to attend workshops on scriptwriting, instructional design, community support and other related topics. The participants had the opportunity to study the second generation of interactive radio. Beginning in 1973, Nicaragua began an interactive radio program written for early grade mathematics students. Currently, Honduras is marketing a mathematics program entitled, La Familia de los Numeros," or the Family of Numbers to other countries. In Bolivia, an organization called, "Fe y Alegria," or Faith and Happiness is broadcasting educational programs through the use of interactive radio. In Ecuador, testing has begun to study the viability of interactive radio for their educational system, and in Costa Rica, replication of Honduras' "Familia de los Numeros" has begun. Teachers have noted an improved grasp of subject matter and better attentiveness through the use of interactive radio programs. The programs present 30 minutes of mathematics information and 30 minutes of language information. For each grade, 170 programs have been developed.

  8. The Importance of Radio News to Listeners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ernie

    While the news is considered a vitally important aspect of most radio stations' formats, broadcasters need to determine what a listener wants from the news-listening experience and how a station can program news in the form most desirable for the listener. This study, based on a Lawrence, Kansas, telephone survey of radio listeners, found that…

  9. The Joe Show on Third Rock Radio

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-01

    Tune into Third Rock Radio for The Joe Show starring Joe Acaba as Guest DJ on Thursday, December 7th at 5pm ET. Third Rock Radio's Guest DJ series spotlights NASA astronauts aboard the International Space Station, playing music and sharing their experiences. For more information visit: thirdrockradio.rfcmedia.com

  10. School Radio: Children's Attention and Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armour, Charles

    1978-01-01

    Three phases of pupil involvement with school radio are considered: (1) pre-listening preparatory phase, (2) listening phase, and (3) post-listening. The importance of the teachers role in creating an atmosphere conducive to children's enjoyment of school radio is stressed. (Author/STS)

  11. 50 CFR 300.37 - Radio monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radio monitoring. 300.37 Section 300.37 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS South Pacific Tuna Fisheries § 300.37 Radio monitoring. The international distress frequency, 2.182 mHz...

  12. 50 CFR 300.37 - Radio monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radio monitoring. 300.37 Section 300.37 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS South Pacific Tuna Fisheries § 300.37 Radio monitoring. The international distress frequency, 2.182 mHz...

  13. 50 CFR 300.37 - Radio monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radio monitoring. 300.37 Section 300.37 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS South Pacific Tuna Fisheries § 300.37 Radio monitoring. The international distress frequency, 2.182 mHz...

  14. 50 CFR 300.37 - Radio monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radio monitoring. 300.37 Section 300.37 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS South Pacific Tuna Fisheries § 300.37 Radio monitoring. The international distress frequency, 2.182 mHz...

  15. 50 CFR 300.37 - Radio monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radio monitoring. 300.37 Section 300.37 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS South Pacific Tuna Fisheries § 300.37 Radio monitoring. The international distress frequency, 2.182 mHz...

  16. rfpipe: Radio interferometric transient search pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Casey J.

    2017-10-01

    rfpipe supports Python-based analysis of radio interferometric data (especially from the Very Large Array) and searches for fast radio transients. This extends on the rtpipe library (ascl:1706.002) with new approaches to parallelization, acceleration, and more portable data products. rfpipe can run in standalone mode or be in a cluster environment.

  17. Interference Cancellation System Design Using GNU Radio

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    ARL-TR-7546 ● DEC 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Interference Cancellation System Design Using GNU Radio by Jan Paolo...Interference Cancellation System Design Using GNU Radio by Jan Paolo Acosta Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate, ARL...REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) December 2015 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Interference Cancellation System

  18. A Radio-Controlled Car Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    Watching a radio-controlled car zip along a sidewalk or street has become a common sight. Within this toy are the basic ingredients of a mobile robot, used by industry for a variety of important and potentially dangerous tasks. In this challenge, students consider modifying an of-the-shelf, radio-controlled car, adapting it for a robotic task.

  19. The RadioSat (sm) network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noreen, Gary K.

    1991-01-01

    The RadioSat network under development by radio Satellite Corporation will use mobile satellite (MSAT) technology to provide diverse personal communications, broadcast, and navigation services. The network will support these services simultaneously for integrated mobile radios throughout Canada and the United States. The RadioSat network takes advantage of several technological breakthroughs, all coming to fruition by the time the first MSAT satellite is launched in 1994. The most important of these breakthroughs is the enormous radiated power of each MSAT spacecraft - orders of magnitude greater than the radiated power of previous L-band spacecraft. Another important breakthrough is the development of advanced digital audio compression algorithms, enabling the transmission of broadcast quality music at moderate data rates. Finally, continuing dramatic increases in VLSI capabilities permit the production of complex, multi-function mobile satellite radios in very large quantities at prices little more than those of conventional car radios. In addition to performance breakthroughs and their economic implications to RadioSat, the design of the RadioSat network is reviewed.

  20. Ionospheric Caustics in Solar Radio Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koval, A.; Chen, Y.; Stanislavsky, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Earth ionosphere possesses by natural focusing and defocusing effects on radio waves due to presence of variable ionospheric irregularities which could act like convergent and divergent lenses on incident radiation. In particular, the focusing of emission from the Sun was firstly detected on the Nançay Decameter Array dynamic spectra in the 1980s. On time-frequency spectrograms the intensity variations form specific structures different from well-known solar radio bursts and clearly distinguishing on a background of solar radiation. Such structures have been identified as ionospheric caustics (ICs) and considered to be the result of radio waves refraction on medium scale travelling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs). Although nowadays the ICs are registered by different radio observatories due to augmentation of low-frequency radio telescopes, the most recent papers devoted to ICs in solar radio records date back to the 1980s. In this study, we revisit the ICs issue with some new results by conducting a statistical analysis of occurrence rate of ICs in solar dynamic spectra in meter-decameter wavelength range for long continuous period (15 years). The seasonal variations in ICs appearance have been found for the first time. Besides, we report the possible solar cycle dependence of ICs emergence. The radio waves propagation in the ionosphere comprising MSTIDs will be considered. The present research renews the subject of ICs in the low-frequency solar radio astronomy after about 35-year letup.

  1. Health Education by Radio: A Zambian Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitanda, Rackson

    Zambia's Health Education News radio program, which was launched in 1982, features 15-minute broadcasts in English and several local languages. The primary objectives of the radio program are to encourage individuals to attend various health clinics and get their children immunized, teach communities to value their health, make people accept…

  2. The Fascinating World of Radio Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Wayne, Ed.

    Intended mainly for the amateur radio operator, or "ham," this book outlines some of the pleasures to be had in amateur radio, including DXing (calling distant stations) and helping in emergencies. The steps in starting out on this hobby, including getting Citizens' Band (CB) gear, a CB license, and a receiver and antenna, are described.…

  3. Antenna Construction and Propagation of Radio Waves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on antenna construction and propagation of radio waves is designed to provide communicators with instructions in the selection and/or construction of the proper antenna(s) for use with current field radio equipment. Introductory materials include…

  4. Principles of Radio: A Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2002-01-01

    An experiment is proposed for learning the principles of radio. A simple radio receiver illustrates amplitude modulation and demodulation, the selectivity of a receiver and the features of a directional antenna. Both normal and computerized versions of the experiment are described. The computerized experiment employs the "ScienceWorkshop"…

  5. Need a Classroom Stimulus? Introduce Radio Astronomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derman, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    Silently, invisibly, ceaselessly, our planet Earth is showered by radio waves from every direction and from every region of space. This radio energy originates in our solar system, throughout the Milky Way galaxy, and far beyond, out to the remotest reaches of the universe. Detecting and unraveling the origins of these invisible signals is what…

  6. Instructional Radio Reconsidered; An International Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theroux, James M.

    Though the use of educational radio has fallen from fashion, for three reasons it deserves reconsideration as a valuable educational tool: 1) it is economical, costing only a fraction of the required expense to deliver the same material via television; 2) the effectiveness of radio-based instruction has been shown to be equal to that of…

  7. Space Telecommunications Radio Architecture (STRS): Technical Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, Richard C.

    2006-01-01

    A software defined radio (SDR) architecture used in space-based platforms proposes to standardize certain aspects of radio development such as interface definitions, functional control and execution, and application software and firmware development. NASA has charted a team to develop an open software defined radio hardware and software architecture to support NASA missions and determine the viability of an Agency-wide Standard. A draft concept of the proposed standard has been released and discussed among organizations in the SDR community. Appropriate leveraging of the JTRS SCA, OMG s SWRadio Architecture and other aspects are considered. A standard radio architecture offers potential value by employing common waveform software instantiation, operation, testing and software maintenance. While software defined radios offer greater flexibility, they also poses challenges to the radio development for the space environment in terms of size, mass and power consumption and available technology. An SDR architecture for space must recognize and address the constraints of space flight hardware, and systems along with flight heritage and culture. NASA is actively participating in the development of technology and standards related to software defined radios. As NASA considers a standard radio architecture for space communications, input and coordination from government agencies, the industry, academia, and standards bodies is key to a successful architecture. The unique aspects of space require thorough investigation of relevant terrestrial technologies properly adapted to space. The talk will describe NASA's current effort to investigate SDR applications to space missions and a brief overview of a candidate architecture under consideration for space based platforms.

  8. 14 CFR 99.9 - Radio requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radio requirements. 99.9 Section 99.9 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SECURITY CONTROL OF AIR TRAFFIC General § 99.9 Radio requirements. (a) A...

  9. A Voyage through the Radio Universe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spuck, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    Each year, professionals and amateurs alike make significant contributions to the field of astronomy. High school students can also conduct astronomy research. Since 1992, the Radio Astronomy Research Team from Oil City Area Senior High School (OCHS) in Oil City, Pennsylvania, has traveled each year to the National Radio Astronomy Observatory…

  10. Radio Map of the Andromeda Galaxy.

    PubMed

    Macleod, J M

    1964-07-24

    The University of Illinois radio telescope has resolved the 610.5 Mcy/sec disk component of radio emission from the large galaxy M 31 into several discrete concentrations. In two cases, these correspond to the crossing of the optical major axis by spiral arms. A spur of emission extends southeast from the galaxy near the minor axis.

  11. Voyager Signal Spotted By Earth Radio Telescopes

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-09-12

    Radio telescopes cannot see Voyager 1 in visible light, but rather see the spacecraft signal in radio light. This image of Voyager 1 signal on Feb. 21, 2013. At the time, Voyager 1 was 11.5 billion miles 18.5 billion kilometers away.

  12. 47 CFR 32.2231 - Radio systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radio systems. 32.2231 Section 32.2231 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2231 Radio systems. (a...

  13. 47 CFR 32.2231 - Radio systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radio systems. 32.2231 Section 32.2231 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2231 Radio systems. (a...

  14. 47 CFR 32.2231 - Radio systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radio systems. 32.2231 Section 32.2231 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2231 Radio systems. (a...

  15. 47 CFR 32.2231 - Radio systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radio systems. 32.2231 Section 32.2231 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2231 Radio systems. (a...

  16. In Vivo and In Situ Detection of Macromolecular Free Radicals Using Immuno-Spin Trapping and Molecular Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Towner, Rheal A; Smith, Nataliya

    2018-05-20

    In vivo free radical imaging in preclinical models of disease has become a reality. Free radicals have traditionally been characterized by electron spin resonance (ESR) or electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy coupled with spin trapping. The disadvantage of the ESR/EPR approach is that spin adducts are short-lived due to biological reductive and/or oxidative processes. Immuno-spin trapping (IST) involves the use of an antibody that recognizes macromolecular 5,5-dimethyl-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) spin adducts (anti-DMPO antibody), regardless of the oxidative/reductive state of trapped radical adducts. Recent Advances: The IST approach has been extended to an in vivo application that combines IST with molecular magnetic resonance imaging (mMRI). This combined IST-mMRI approach involves the use of a spin-trapping agent, DMPO, to trap free radicals in disease models, and administration of an mMRI probe, an anti-DMPO probe, which combines an antibody against DMPO-radical adducts and an MRI contrast agent, resulting in targeted free radical adduct detection. The combined IST-mMRI approach has been used in several rodent disease models, including diabetes, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), gliomas, and septic encephalopathy. The advantage of this approach is that heterogeneous levels of trapped free radicals can be detected directly in vivo and in situ to pin point where free radicals are formed in different tissues. The approach can also be used to assess therapeutic agents that are either free radical scavengers or generate free radicals. Smaller probe constructs and radical identification approaches are being considered. The focus of this review is on the different applications that have been studied, advantages and limitations, and future directions. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 28, 1404-1415.

  17. [Immuno-affinity chromatographic purification: the study of methods to test citrinin in monascus products by high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Wen-qian; Liu, Xiao-xia; Zheng, Kui-cheng; Fu, Wu-sheng

    2012-08-01

    To establish a method to test citrinin (CIT) in monascus products by immuno-affinity chromatography (IAC)-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and to detect the content of CIT in monascus products in Fujian province. IAC-HPLC was applied to detect the CIT content in monascus products. The conditions to use HPLC were as follows: C(18) reversed-phase chromatographic column, 150.0 mm×4.6mm×3 µm; mobile phase: the volume ratio of acetonitrile and 0.1% phosphoric acid solution at 65:35; isocratic elution; column temperature: 28°C; flow velocity: 0.8 ml/min; fluorescence detector, excitation wavelength (λ(ex)) was 331 nm and emission wavelength (λ(em)) was 500 nm. The standard curved was established by the linear regression of peak area (Y) to CIT content (X, ng/ml). The accuracy and precision of the method would then be verified. And 32 kinds of monascus products were determined and their color values were compared by this method. The standard curve established in this study was Y = 4634.8X-136.42, r = 1.000; whose limits of detection was 20 µg/kg and the limits of qualification was 64 µg/kg. In the range between 200 and 800 µg/kg, the standard recovery rate was 98.9% - 110.0% (n = 3), and the relative standard deviation (RSD) was 0.51% - 1.76%. Out of the 32 samples, CIT was detected from 11 samples of monascus rice, 9 samples of monascus powder and 5 samples of monascus pigments, the content was around 0.212 - 14.500 mg/kg. 4 out of 7 functional monascus samples were detected out CIT, whose content at 0.142 - 0.275 mg/kg. The method to detect CIT in monascus products by IAC-HPLC has been established.

  18. Demonstration of IgG Subclass (IgG1 and IgG3) in Immuno-Related Hemocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yuanyuan; Qi, Xiao; Fu, Rong; Liu, Hui; Wang, Yihao; Ding, Shaoxue; Wang, Huaquan; Li, Lijuan; Shao, Zonghong

    2018-06-01

    Immuno-related hemocytopenia (IRH) is defined as idiopathic cytopenia of undetermined significance (ICUS) patients with autoantibodies. In our previous studies, we found that IgG1 levels were increased in IRH patients and might cause the destruction of hematopoietic cells. In this study, we analyzed IgG subclasses in 30 IRH patients (male:female = 13:17, median age 32 years, range 18 - 56), 15 IRH remission patients (IRH-R) (male:female = 6:9, median age 34, range 20 - 52) and 20 normal controls (male:female = 8:12, median age 27, range 24 - 36) by Cytometric Bead Array, Flow Cytometry and Immunohistochemical staining. Levels of IgG1/IgG3 in the bone marrow supernatant of IRH patents, as well as the proportion of CD5+ B lymphocytes and Th2 cells (CD3+CD8-IL-4+) were higher than those of IRH-R patients and normal controls, and IgG1 levels had a positive correlation with the proportion of Th2 cells. In IRH patients, IgG1 and IgG3 were positive on nucleated erythrocytes and granulocytes, which were negative in IRH-R patients and healthy controls and had inverse correlations with hematopoietic function. Using immunohistochemical staining, IgG1 were also detected on bone marrow biopsies of IRH patients. The results indicated that IgG1 and IgG3 autoantibodies in IRH patients might play a key role in the IRH pathogenesis and in the abnormal immune function of IRH patients.

  19. Clinical utility of serum HER-2/neu testing on the Bayer Immuno 1 automated system in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Cook, G B; Neaman, I E; Goldblatt, J L; Cambetas, D R; Hussain, M; Lüftner, D; Yeung, K K; Chan, D W; Schwartz, M K; Allard, W J

    2001-01-01

    The clinical utility of automated serum HER-2/neu measurements in breast cancer run on the Bayer random analyzer Immuno 1 was analyzed in several steps: [a] The reference interval was determined for 242 normal healthy pre- and postmenopausal females. [b] The clinical specificity of serum HER-2/neu to separate healthy controls from 210 patients with non-malignant breast--and non-breast diseases was calculated. [c] The clinical sensitivity of cross-sectional serum HER-2/neu values for 204 patients (pts) with stage I-IV breast cancer was established. [d] Specimens from 103 stage IV breast cancer pts were tested for their parallel between serial serum HER-2/neu results and disease course. [a] The value of 13.03 ng/ml exceeded 95% of the results from the healthy female population. Based on the mean +2 standard deviations value of 14.7 ng/dl, the upper limit of normal was established at 15 ng/ml. [b] The specificity for benign breast diseases and other benign non-breast diseases was 98.0% and 94.6%, respectively. [c] The correlation of increased serum HER-2/neu levels and stage of breast cancer revealed the best sensitivity of 40% for stage IV disease. [4] Thirty-eight (36.9%) of 103 stage IV patients had initial HER-2/neu values > 15 ng/ml, 33 of whom showed longitudinal HER-2/neu concentrations which paralleled the clinical course of the disease giving a sensitivity of 86.8%.

  20. Simple Objective Detection of Human Lyme Disease Infection Using Immuno-PCR and a Single Recombinant Hybrid Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Halpern, Micah D.; Molins, Claudia R.; Schriefer, Martin

    2014-01-01

    A serology-based tiered approach has, to date, provided the most effective means of laboratory confirmation of clinically suspected cases of Lyme disease, but it lacks sensitivity in the early stages of disease and is often dependent on subjectively scored immunoblots. We recently demonstrated the use of immuno-PCR (iPCR) for detecting Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in patient serum samples that were positive for Lyme disease. To better understand the performance of the Lyme disease iPCR assay, the repeatability and variability of the background of the assay across samples from a healthy population (n = 36) were analyzed. Both of these parameters were found to have coefficients of variation of <3%. Using eight antigen-specific iPCR assays and positive call thresholds established for each assay, iPCR IgM and/or IgG diagnosis from Lyme disease patient serum samples (n = 12) demonstrated a strong correlation with that of 2-tier testing. Furthermore, a simplified iPCR approach using a single hybrid antigen and detecting only IgG antibodies confirmed the 2-tier diagnosis in the Lyme disease patient serum samples (n = 12). Validation of the hybrid antigen IgG iPCR assay using a blinded panel of Lyme disease and non-Lyme disease patient serum samples (n = 92) resulted in a sensitivity of 69% (95% confidence interval [CI], 50% to 84%), compared to that of the 2-tier analysis at 59% (95% CI, 41% to 76%), and a specificity of 98% (95% CI, 91% to 100%) compared to that of the 2-tier analysis at 97% (95% CI, 88% to 100%). A single-tier hybrid antigen iPCR assay has the potential to be an improved method for detecting host-generated antibodies against B. burgdorferi. PMID:24899074

  1. Orientation of Myosin Binding Protein C in the Cardiac Muscle Sarcomere Determined by Domain-Specific Immuno-EM

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyounghwan; Harris, Samantha P.; Sadayappan, Sakthivel; Craig, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Myosin binding protein-C is a thick filament protein of vertebrate striated muscle. The cardiac isoform (cMyBP-C) is essential for normal cardiac function, and mutations in cMyBP-C cause cardiac muscle disease. The rod-shaped molecule is composed primarily of 11 immunoglobulin- or fibronectin-like domains, and is located at 9 sites, 43 nm apart, in each half of the A-band. To understand how cMyBP-C functions, it is important to know its structural organization in the sarcomere, as this will affect its ability to interact with other sarcomeric proteins. Several models have been proposed, in which cMyBP-C wraps around, extends radially from, or runs axially along the thick filament. Our goal was to define cMyBP-C orientation by determining the relative axial positions of different cMyBP-C domains. Immuno-electron microscopy was performed using mouse cardiac myofibrils labeled with antibodies specific to the N- and C-terminal domains and to the middle of cMyBP-C. Antibodies to all regions of the molecule, except the C-terminus, labeled at the same nine axial positions in each half A-band, consistent with a circumferential and/or radial rather than an axial orientation of the bulk of the molecule. The C-terminal antibody stripes were slightly displaced axially, demonstrating an axial orientation of the C-terminal 3 domains, with the C-terminus closer to the M-line. These results, combined with previous studies, suggest that the C-terminal domains of cMyBP-C run along the thick filament surface, while the N-terminus extends towards neighboring thin filaments. This organization provides a structural framework for understanding cMyBP-C’s modulation of cardiac muscle contraction. PMID:25451032

  2. Correlation between CD16a binding and immuno effector functionality of an antigen specific immunoglobulin Fc fragment (Fcab).

    PubMed

    Kainer, Manuela; Antes, Bernhard; Wiederkum, Susanne; Wozniak-Knopp, Gordana; Bauer, Anton; Rüker, Florian; Woisetschläger, Max

    2012-10-15

    Antigen binding immunoglobulin Fc fragments (Fcab) are generated by engineering loop regions in the CH3 domain of human IgG1 Fc. Variants of an Fcab specific for Her-2 were designed to display either enhanced (S239D:A330L:I332E) or diminished (L234A:L235A) binding affinities to the Fc receptor CD16a based on mutations described previously. The two mutant Fcab proteins demonstrated the expected modulation of CD16a binding. Interaction with recombinant or cell surface expressed Her-2 was unaffected in both mutants compared to the parental Fcab. Binding affinities for CD16a correlated with the ADCC-potencies of the Fcab variants. Additional studies indicated that the L234A:L235A variant Fcab had equivalent structural features as the unmodified Fcab since their DSC profiles were similar and antigen binding after re-folding upon partial heat denaturation had not changed. Introduction of the S239D:A330L:I332E mutations resulted in a significant reduction of the CH2 domain melting temperature, a moderate decrease of the thermal transition of the CH3 domain and lower antigen binding after thermal stress compared to the parental Fcab. We conclude that the known correlation between CD16a binding affinity and ADCC potency is also valid in Fcab proteins and that antigen specific Fcab molecules can be further engineered for fine tuning of immuno effector functions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 3D biomaterial matrix to support long term, full thickness, immuno-competent human skin equivalents with nervous system components.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Sarah E Lightfoot; Tamamoto, Kasey A; Nguyen, Hanh; Abbott, Rosalyn D; Cairns, Dana M; Kaplan, David L

    2018-04-24

    Current commercially available human skin equivalents (HSEs) are used for relatively short term studies (∼1 week) due in part to the time-dependent contraction of the collagen gel-based matrix and the limited cell types and skin tissue components utilized. In contrast, here we describe a new matrix consisting of a silk-collagen composite system that provides long term, stable cultivation with reduced contraction and degradation over time. This matrix supports full thickness skin equivalents which include nerves. The unique silk-collagen composite system preserves cell-binding domains of collagen while maintaining the stability and mechanics of the skin system for long-term culture with silk. The utility of this new composite protein-based biomaterial was demonstrated by bioengineering full thickness human skin systems using primary cells, including nerves and immune cells to establish an HSE with a neuro-immuno-cutaneous system. The HSEs with neurons and hypodermis, compared to in vitro skin-only HSEs controls, demonstrated higher secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Proteomics analysis confirmed the presence of several proteins associated with inflammation across all sample groups, but HSEs with neurons had the highest amount of detected protein due to the complexity of the model. This improved, in vitro full thickness HSE model system utilizes cross-linked silk-collagen as the biomaterial and allows reduced reliance on animal models and provides a new in vitro tissue system for the assessment of chronic responses related to skin diseases and drug discovery. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Infrared imaging of WENSS radio sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villani, D.; di Serego Alighieri, S.

    1999-03-01

    We have performed deep imaging in the IR J- and K- bands for three sub-samples of radio sources extracted from the Westerbork Northern Sky Survey, a large low-frequency radio survey containing Ultra Steep Spectrum (USS), Gigahertz Peaked Spectrum (GPS) and Flat Spectrum (FS) sources. We present the results of these IR observations, carried out with the ARcetri Near Infrared CAmera (ARNICA) at the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT), providing photometric and morphologic information on high redshift radio galaxies and quasars. We find that the radio galaxies contained in our sample do not show the pronounced radio/IR alignment claimed for 3CR sources. IR photometric measurements of the gravitational lens system 1600+434 are also presented. % This paper is based on data obtained at the Nordic Optical Telescope on La Palma (Canary Islands).

  5. Monochromatic radio frequency accelerating cavity

    DOEpatents

    Giordano, Salvatore

    1985-01-01

    A radio frequency resonant cavity having a fundamental resonant frequency and characterized by being free of spurious modes. A plurality of spaced electrically conductive bars are arranged in a generally cylindrical array within the cavity to define a chamber between the bars and an outer solid cylindrically shaped wall of the cavity. A first and second plurality of mode perturbing rods are mounted in two groups at determined random locations to extend radially and axially into the cavity thereby to perturb spurious modes and cause their fields to extend through passageways between the bars and into the chamber. At least one body of lossy material is disposed within the chamber to damp all spurious modes that do extend into the chamber thereby enabling the cavity to operate free of undesired spurious modes.

  6. A radio frequency coaxial feedthrough

    DOEpatents

    Owens, T.L.

    1987-12-07

    An improved radio frequency coaxial transmission line vacuum feedthrough is provided based on the use of a half-wavelength annular dielectric pressure barrier disk, or multiple disks comprising an effective half wavelength structure to eliminate reflection from the barrier surfaces. Gas-tight seals are formed about the outer and inner diameter surfaces of the barrier disk using a sealing technique which generates radial forces sufficient to form seals by forcing the conductor walls against the surfaces of the barrier disks in a manner which does not deform the radii of the inner and outer conductors, thereby preventing enhancement of the electric field at the barrier faces which limits the voltage and power handling capabilities of a feedthrough.

  7. Direct Broadcast Satellite: Radio Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollansworth, James E.

    1992-10-01

    NASA is committed to providing technology development that leads to the introduction of new commercial applications for communications satellites. The Direct Broadcast Satellite-Radio (DBS-R) Program is a joint effort between The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and The United States Information Agency/Voice of America (USIA/VOA) directed at this objective. The purpose of this program is to define the service and develop the technology for a direct-to-listener satellite sound broadcasting system. The DBS-R Program, as structured by NASA and VOA, is now a three-phase program designed to help the U.S. commercial communications satellite and receiver industry bring about this new communications service. Major efforts are being directed towards frequency planning hardware and service development, service demonstration, and experimentation with new satellite and receiver technology.

  8. Monochromatic radio frequency accelerating cavity

    DOEpatents

    Giordano, S.

    1984-02-09

    A radio frequency resonant cavity having a fundamental resonant frequency and characterized by being free of spurious modes. A plurality of spaced electrically conductive bars are arranged in a generally cylindrical array within the cavity to define a chamber between the bars and an outer solid cylindrically shaped wall of the cavity. A first and second plurality of mode perturbing rods are mounted in two groups at determined random locations to extend radially and axially into the cavity thereby to perturb spurious modes and cause their fields to extend through passageways between the bars and into the chamber. At least one body of lossy material is disposed within the chamber to damp all spurious modes that do extend into the chamber thereby enabling the cavity to operate free of undesired spurious modes.

  9. Can Radio Telescopes Find Axions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-08-01

    axions. Now scientists Katharine Kelley and Peter Quinn at ICRAR, University of Western Australia, have explored how we might use next-generation radio telescopes to search for photons that were created by axions interacting with the magnetic fields of our galaxy.Hope for Next-Gen TelescopesPotential axion coupling strengths vs. mass (click for a closer look). The axion mass is thought to lie between a eV and a meV; two theoretical models are shown with dashed lines. The plot shows the sensitivity of the upcoming SKA and its precursors, ASKAP and MEERKAT. [KelleyQuinn 2017]By using a simple galactic halo model and reasonable assumptions for the central galactic magnetic field even taking into account the time dependence of the field Kelley and Quinn estimate the radio-frequency power density that we would observe at Earth from axions being converted to photons within the Milky Ways magnetic field.The authors then compare this signature to the detection capabilities of upcoming radio telescope arrays. They show that the upcoming Square Kilometer Array and its precursors should have the capability to detect signs of axions across large parts of parameter space.Kelley and Quinn conclude that theres good cause for optimism about future radio telescopes ability to detect axions. And if we did succeed in making a detection, it would be a triumph for both particle physics and astrophysics, finally providing an explanation for the universes dark matter.CitationKatharine Kelley and P. J. Quinn 2017 ApJL 845 L4. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aa808d

  10. VLSI Technology for Cognitive Radio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VIJAYALAKSHMI, B.; SIDDAIAH, P.

    2017-08-01

    One of the most challenging tasks of cognitive radio is the efficiency in the spectrum sensing scheme to overcome the spectrum scarcity problem. The popular and widely used spectrum sensing technique is the energy detection scheme as it is very simple and doesn’t require any previous information related to the signal. We propose one such approach which is an optimised spectrum sensing scheme with reduced filter structure. The optimisation is done in terms of area and power performance of the spectrum. The simulations of the VLSI structure of the optimised flexible spectrum is done using verilog coding by using the XILINX ISE software. Our method produces performance with 13% reduction in area and 66% reduction in power consumption in comparison to the flexible spectrum sensing scheme. All the results are tabulated and comparisons are made. A new scheme for optimised and effective spectrum sensing opens up with our model.

  11. Radio frequency charge parity meter.

    PubMed

    Schroer, M D; Jung, M; Petersson, K D; Petta, J R

    2012-10-19

    We demonstrate a total charge parity measurement by detecting the radio frequency signal that is reflected by a lumped-element resonator coupled to a single InAs nanowire double quantum dot. The high frequency response of the circuit is used to probe the effects of the Pauli exclusion principle at interdot charge transitions. Even parity charge transitions show a striking magnetic field dependence that is due to a singlet-triplet transition, while odd parity transitions are relatively insensitive to a magnetic field. The measured response agrees well with cavity input-output theory, allowing accurate measurements of the interdot tunnel coupling and the resonator-charge coupling rate g(c)/2π~17 MHz.

  12. Grote Reber, Radio Astronomy Pioneer, Dies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-12-01

    Grote Reber, one of the earliest pioneers of radio astronomy, died in Tasmania on December 20, just two days shy of his 91st birthday. Reber was the first person to build a radio telescope dedicated to astronomy, opening up a whole new "window" on the Universe that eventually produced such landmark discoveries as quasars, pulsars and the remnant "afterglow" of the Big Bang. His self- financed experiments laid the foundation for today's advanced radio-astronomy facilities. Grote Reber Grote Reber NRAO/AUI photo "Radio astronomy has changed profoundly our understanding of the Universe and has earned the Nobel Prize for several major contributions. All radio astronomers who have followed him owe Grote Reber a deep debt for his pioneering work," said Dr. Fred Lo, director of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). "Reber was the first to systematically study the sky by observing something other than visible light. This gave astronomy a whole new view of the Universe. The continuing importance of new ways of looking at the Universe is emphasized by this year's Nobel Prizes in physics, which recognized scientists who pioneered X-ray and neutrino observations," Lo added. Reber was a radio engineer and avid amateur "ham" radio operator in Wheaton, Illinois, in the 1930s when he read about Karl Jansky's 1932 discovery of natural radio emissions coming from outer space. As an amateur operator, Reber had won awards and communicated with other amateurs around the world, and later wrote that he had concluded "there were no more worlds to conquer" in radio. Learning of Jansky's discovery gave Reber a whole new challenge that he attacked with vigor. Analyzing the problem as an engineer, Reber concluded that what he needed was a parabolic-dish antenna, something quite uncommon in the 1930s. In 1937, using his own funds, he constructed a 31.4-foot-diameter dish antenna in his back yard. The strange contraption attracted curious attention from his neighbors and became

  13. DIFFUSIVE SHOCK ACCELERATION SIMULATIONS OF RADIO RELICS

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Hyesung; Ryu, Dongsu; Jones, T. W., E-mail: kang@uju.es.pusan.ac.kr, E-mail: ryu@canopus.cnu.ac.kr, E-mail: twj@msi.umn.edu

    2012-09-01

    Recent radio observations have identified a class of structures, so-called radio relics, in clusters of galaxies. The radio emission from these sources is interpreted as synchrotron radiation from GeV electrons gyrating in {mu}G-level magnetic fields. Radio relics, located mostly in the outskirts of clusters, seem to associate with shock waves, especially those developed during mergers. In fact, they seem to be good structures to identify and probe such shocks in intracluster media (ICMs), provided we understand the electron acceleration and re-acceleration at those shocks. In this paper, we describe time-dependent simulations for diffusive shock acceleration at weak shocks that aremore » expected to be found in ICMs. Freshly injected as well as pre-existing populations of cosmic-ray (CR) electrons are considered, and energy losses via synchrotron and inverse Compton are included. We then compare the synchrotron flux and spectral distributions estimated from the simulations with those in two well-observed radio relics in CIZA J2242.8+5301 and ZwCl0008.8+5215. Considering that CR electron injection is expected to be rather inefficient at weak shocks with Mach number M {approx}< a few, the existence of radio relics could indicate the pre-existing population of low-energy CR electrons in ICMs. The implication of our results on the merger shock scenario of radio relics is discussed.« less

  14. Radio Science Measurements with Suppressed Carrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asmar, Sami; Divsalar, Dariush; Oudrhiri, Kamal

    2013-01-01

    Radio Science started when it became apparent with early Solar missions that occultations by planetary atmospheres would affect the quality of radio communications. Since then the atmospheric properties and other aspects of planetary science, solar science, and fundamental physics were studied by scientists. Radio Science data was always extracted from a received pure residual carrier (without data modulation). For some missions, it is very desirable to obtain Radio Science data from a suppressed carrier modulation. In this paper we propose a method to extract Radio Science data when a coded suppressed carrier modulation is used in deep space communications. Type of modulation can be BPSK, QPSK, OQPSK, MPSK or even GMSK. However we concentrate mostly on BPSK modulation. The proposed method for suppressed carrier simply tries to wipe out data that acts as an interference for Radio Science measurements. In order to measure the estimation errors in amplitude and phase of the Radio Science data we use Cramer-Rao bound (CRB). The CRB for the suppressed carrier modulation with non-ideal data wiping is then compared with residual carrier modulation under the same noise condition. The method of derivation of CRB for non-ideal data wiping is an innovative method that presented here. Some numerical results are provided for coded system.

  15. Radio Measurements of Air Showers with LOPES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, F. G.; Apel, W. D.; Arteaga-Velazquez, J. C.; Bähren, L.; Bekk, K.; Bertaina, M.; Biermann, P. L.; Blümer, J.; Bozdog, H.; Brancus, I. M.; Cantoni, E.; Chiavassa, A.; Daumiller, K.; de Souza, V.; Di Pierro, F.; Doll, P.; Engel, R.; Falcke, H.; Fuchs, B.; Fuhrmann, D.; Gemmeke, H.; Grupen, C.; Haungs, A.; Heck, D.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Isar, P. G.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kang, D.; Krömer, O.; Kuijpers, J.; Link, K.; Łuczak, P.; Ludwig, M.; Mathes, H. J.; Melissas, M.; Morello, C.; Oehlschläger, J.; Palmieri, N.; Pierog, T.; Rautenberg, J.; Rebel, H.; Roth, M.; Rühle, C.; Saftoiu, A.; Schieler, H.; Schmidt, A.; Sima, O.; Toma, G.; Trinchero, G. C.; Weindl, A.; Wochele, J.; Zabierowski, J.; Zensus, J. A.

    2013-02-01

    LOPES is a digital antenna array for the radio measurement of cosmic-ray air showers at energies around 1017 eV. It is triggered by the KASCADE-Grande air-shower array at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Germany. Because of an absolute amplitude calibration and a sophisticated data analysis, LOPES can test models for the radio emission to an up-to-now unachieved level, thus improving our understanding of the radio emission mechanisms. Recent REAS simulations of the air-shower radio emission come closer to the measurements than any previously tested simulations. We have determined the radio-reconstruction precision of interesting air-shower parameters by comparing LOPES reconstructions to both REAS simulations and KASCADE-Grande measurements, and present our latest results for the angular resolution, the energy and the Xmax reconstruction based on the radio measurement of about 500 air showers. Although the precision of LOPES is limited by the high level of anthropogenic noise at KIT, it opens a promising perspective for next-generation radio arrays in regions with a lower ambient noise level.

  16. Monitoring Radio Frequency Interference in Southwest Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapp, Steve

    2010-01-01

    The radio signals received from astronomical objects are extremely weak. Because of this, radio sources are easily shrouded by interference from devices such as satellites and cell phone towers. Radio astronomy is very susceptible to this radio frequency interference (RFI). Possibly even worse than complete veiling, weaker interfering signals can contaminate the data collected by radio telescopes, possibly leading astronomers to mistaken interpretations. To help promote student awareness of the connection between radio astronomy and RFI, an inquiry-based science curriculum was developed to allow high school students to determine RFI levels in their communities. The Quiet Skies Project_the result of a collaboration between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO)_encourages students to collect and analyze RFI data and develop conclusions as a team. Because the project focuses on electromagnetic radiation, it is appropriate for physics, physical science, chemistry, or general science classes. My class-about 50 students from 15 southwest Virginia high schools-participated in the Quiet Skies Project and were pioneers in the use of the beta version of the Quiet Skies Detector (QSD), which is used to detect RFI. Students have been involved with the project since 2005 and have collected and shared data with NRAO. In analyzing the data they have noted some trends in RFI in Southwest Virginia.

  17. Radio Flares from Gamma-ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopač, D.; Mundell, C. G.; Kobayashi, S.; Virgili, F. J.; Harrison, R.; Japelj, J.; Guidorzi, C.; Melandri, A.; Gomboc, A.

    2015-06-01

    We present predictions of centimeter and millimeter radio emission from reverse shocks (RSs) in the early afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with the goal of determining their detectability with current and future radio facilities. Using a range of GRB properties, such as peak optical brightness and time, isotropic equivalent gamma-ray energy, and redshift, we simulate radio light curves in a framework generalized for any circumburst medium structure and including a parameterization of the shell thickness regime that is more realistic than the simple assumption of thick- or thin-shell approximations. Building on earlier work by Mundell et al. and Melandri et al. in which the typical frequency of the RS was suggested to lie at radio rather than optical wavelengths at early times, we show that the brightest and most distinct RS radio signatures are detectable up to 0.1-1 day after the burst, emphasizing the need for rapid radio follow-up. Detection is easier for bursts with later optical peaks, high isotropic energies, lower circumburst medium densities, and at observing frequencies that are less prone to synchrotron self-absorption effects—typically above a few GHz. Given recent detections of polarized prompt gamma-ray and optical RS emission, we suggest that detection of polarized radio/millimeter emission will unambiguously confirm the presence of low-frequency RSs at early time.

  18. An immuno-wall microdevice exhibits rapid and sensitive detection of IDH1-R132H mutation specific to grade II and III gliomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamichi, Akane; Kasama, Toshihiro; Ohka, Fumiharu; Suzuki, Hiromichi; Kato, Akira; Motomura, Kazuya; Hirano, Masaki; Ranjit, Melissa; Chalise, Lushun; Kurimoto, Michihiro; Kondo, Goro; Aoki, Kosuke; Kaji, Noritada; Tokeshi, Manabu; Matsubara, Toshio; Senga, Takeshi; Kaneko, Mika K.; Suzuki, Hidenori; Hara, Masahito; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko; Baba, Yoshinobu; Kato, Yukinari; Natsume, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    World Health Organization grade II and III gliomas most frequently occur in the central nervous system (CNS) in adults. Gliomas are not circumscribed; tumor edges are irregular and consist of tumor cells, normal brain tissue, and hyperplastic reactive glial cells. Therefore, the tumors are not fully resectable, resulting in recurrence, malignant progression, and eventual death. Approximately 69-80% of grade II and III gliomas harbor mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 gene (IDH1), of which 83-90% are found to be the IDH1-R132H mutation. Detection of the IDH1-R132H mutation should help in the differential diagnosis of grade II and III gliomas from other types of CNS tumors and help determine the boundary between the tumor and normal brain tissue. In this study, we established a highly sensitive antibody-based device, referred to as the immuno-wall, to detect the IDH1-R132H mutation in gliomas. The immuno-wall causes an immunoreaction in microchannels fabricated using a photo-polymerizing polymer. This microdevice enables the analysis of the IDH1 status with a small sample within 15 min with substantially high sensitivity. Our results suggested that 10% content of the IDH1-R132H mutation in a sample of 0.33 μl volume, with 500 ng protein, or from 500 cells is theoretically sufficient for the analysis. The immuno-wall device will enable the rapid and highly sensitive detection of the IDH1-R132H mutation in routine clinical practice.

  19. Relationship Between Preoperative Sarcopenia Status and Immuno-nutritional Parameters in Patients with Early-stage Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Fumihiro; Matsubara, Taichi; Kozuma, Yuka; Haratake, Naoki; Akamine, Takaki; Takamori, Shinkichi; Katsura, Masakazu; Toyokawa, Gouji; Okamoto, Tatsuro; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2017-12-01

    Although the skeletal muscle in the region of the third lumbar vertebra (L3) is generally assessed in order to judge sarcopenia, not every patient with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) undergoes computed tomography including the L3 region. We hypothesized that immuno-nutritional parameters could predict the existence of sarcopenia in patients with NSCLC. The aim of this study was to retrospectively investigate the correlation between preoperative sarcopenia and immuno-nutritional parameters in patients with early-stage NSCLC. We selected 147 of patients with pathological stage I NSCLC who underwent preoperative measurement of immuno-nutritional parameters and CT including the L3 region. Preoperative sarcopenia was significantly associated with female gender (p=0.0003) and poor prognosis (p=0.0322). In Kaplan-Meier analysis of overall survival (OS) by preoperative sarcopenia status, the sarcopenic group had significantly shorter OS than the non-sarcopenic group (5-year OS: 87.27% vs. 77.37%, p=0.0131, log-rank test). In multivariate analysis, the preoperative sarcopenia status (hazard ratio=5.138; 95% confidence interval=2.305-11.676; p<0.0001) was an independent prognostic factor. Preoperative sarcopenia status was significantly related to controlling nutritional status score (p=0.0071) and Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI) (p<0.0001). Spearman's correlation test showed good significant correlation between preoperative sarcopenia status and GNRI (r=0.348, p<0.0001). The preoperative GNRI is a simple and useful predictor for existence of preoperative sarcopenia which was associated with poor outcome in patients with early-stage NSCLC. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  20. An immuno-wall microdevice exhibits rapid and sensitive detection of IDH1-R132H mutation specific to grade II and III gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Yamamichi, Akane; Kasama, Toshihiro; Ohka, Fumiharu; Suzuki, Hiromichi; Kato, Akira; Motomura, Kazuya; Hirano, Masaki; Ranjit, Melissa; Chalise, Lushun; Kurimoto, Michihiro; Kondo, Goro; Aoki, Kosuke; Kaji, Noritada; Tokeshi, Manabu; Matsubara, Toshio; Senga, Takeshi; Kaneko, Mika K.; Suzuki, Hidenori; Hara, Masahito; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko; Baba, Yoshinobu; Kato, Yukinari; Natsume, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract World Health Organization grade II and III gliomas most frequently occur in the central nervous system (CNS) in adults. Gliomas are not circumscribed; tumor edges are irregular and consist of tumor cells, normal brain tissue, and hyperplastic reactive glial cells. Therefore, the tumors are not fully resectable, resulting in recurrence, malignant progression, and eventual death. Approximately 69–80% of grade II and III gliomas harbor mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 gene (IDH1), of which 83–90% are found to be the IDH1-R132H mutation. Detection of the IDH1-R132H mutation should help in the differential diagnosis of grade II and III gliomas from other types of CNS tumors and help determine the boundary between the tumor and normal brain tissue. In this study, we established a highly sensitive antibody-based device, referred to as the immuno-wall, to detect the IDH1-R132H mutation in gliomas. The immuno-wall causes an immunoreaction in microchannels fabricated using a photo-polymerizing polymer. This microdevice enables the analysis of the IDH1 status with a small sample within 15 min with substantially high sensitivity. Our results suggested that 10% content of the IDH1-R132H mutation in a sample of 0.33 μl volume, with 500 ng protein, or from 500 cells is theoretically sufficient for the analysis. The immuno-wall device will enable the rapid and highly sensitive detection of the IDH1-R132H mutation in routine clinical practice. PMID:27877908