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Sample records for radio astronomy

  1. Radio astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. M.; Manchester, R. N.

    1980-01-01

    The activities of the Deep Space Network in support of radio and radar astronomy operations during July and August 1980 are reported. A brief update on the OSS-sponsored planetary radio astronomy experiment is provided. Also included are two updates, one each from Spain and Australia on current host country activities.

  2. Radio astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellermann, Kenneth I.; Heeschen, David; Backer, Donald C.; Cohen, Marshall H.; Davis, Michael; Depater, Imke; Deyoung, David; Dulk, George A.; Fisher, J. R.; Goss, W. Miller

    1991-01-01

    The following subject areas are covered: (1) scientific opportunities (millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelength astronomy; meter to hectometer astronomy; the Sun, stars, pulsars, interstellar masers, and extrasolar planets; the planets, asteroids, and comets; radio galaxies, quasars, and cosmology; and challenges for radio astronomy in the 1990's); (2) recommendations for new facilities (the millimeter arrays, medium scale instruments, and small-scale projects); (3) continuing activities and maintenance, upgrading of telescopes and instrumentation; (4) long range programs and technology development; and (5) social, political, and organizational considerations.

  3. Radio Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolken, P. R.; Shaffer, R. D.

    1983-01-01

    Deep Space Network (DSN) 26- and 64-meter antenna stations were utilized in support of Radio Astronomy Experiment Selection Panel experiments. Within a time span of 10 days, in May 1983 (267.75 hours total), nine RAES experiments were supported. Most of these experiments involved multifacility interferometry using Mark 3 data recording terminals and as many as six non-DSN observatories. Investigations of black holes, quasars, galaxies, and radio sources are discussed.

  4. Learning radio astronomy by doing radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaquerizo Gallego, J. A.

    2011-11-01

    PARTNeR (Proyecto Académico con el Radio Telescopio de NASA en Robledo, Academic Project with the NASA Radio Telescope at Robledo) is an educational program that allows high school and undergraduate students to control a 34 meter radio telescope and conduct radio astronomical observations via the internet. High-school teachers who join the project take a course to learn about the science of radio astronomy and how to use the antenna as an educational resource. Also, teachers are provided with learning activities they can do with their students and focused on the classroom implementation of the project within an interdisciplinary framework. PARTNeR provides students with firsthand experience in radio astronomy science. Thus, remote radio astronomical observations allow students to learn with a first rate scientific equipment the basics of radio astronomy research, aiming to arouse scientific careers and positive attitudes toward science. In this contribution we show the current observational programs and some recent results.

  5. Torun Radio Astronomy Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Torun Center for Astronomy is located at Piwnice, 15 km north of Torun, Poland. A part of the Faculty of Physics and Astronomy of the Nicolaus Copernicus University, it was created by the union of Torun Radio Astronomy Observatory (TRAO) and the Institute of Astronomy on 1 January 1997....

  6. Radio astronomy with microspacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, D.

    2001-01-01

    A dynamic constellation of microspacecraft in lunar orbit can carry out valuable radio astronomy investigations in the frequency range of 30kHz--30MHz, a range that is difficult to explore from Earth. In contrast to the radio astronomy ivestigations that have flown on individual spacecraft, the four microspacecraft together with a carrier spacecraft, which transported them to lunar orbit, form an interferometer with far superior angular resolution. Use of microspacecraft allows the entire constellation to be launched with a Taurus-class vehicle. Also distinguishing this approach is that the Moon is used as needed to shield the constellation from RF interference from the Earth and Sun.

  7. The Radio JOVE Project - Shoestring Radio Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thieman, J.; Flagg, R.; Greenman, W.; Higgins, C.; Reyes, F.; Sky, J.

    2010-01-01

    Radio JOVE is an education and outreach project intended to give students and other interested individuals hands-on experience in learning radio astronomy. They can do this through building a radio telescope from a relatively inexpensive kit that includes the parts for a receiver and an antenna as well as software for a computer chart recorder emulator (Radio Skypipe) and other reference materials

  8. Historic Radio Astronomy Working Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-06-01

    This special issue of Astronomische Nachrichten contains the proceedings of a session of the Historic Radio Astronomy Working Group of the International Astronomical Union that took place during the 26th General Assembly of the IAU in Prague on 17th August 2006. In addition to the talks presented in Prague some contributions were solicited to give a more complete overview of `The Early History of European Radio Astronomy'.

  9. The future for radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breton, Rene P.; Hassall, Tom

    2013-12-01

    THE TRANSIENT UNIVERSE Rene P Breton and Tom Hassall argue that, while radio astronomy has always involved transient phenomena, exploration of this part of the electromagnetic spectrum has been falling behind because of the lack of data. But the advent of a new generation of radio telescopes such as LOFAR, could change that.

  10. The development of radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reich, W.; Wielebinski, R.

    2002-07-01

    Following the detection of extraterrestrial radio waves in 1932 by Karl Jansky, radio astronomy developed quickly after World War II. It established itself soon as a new branch of astronomy with today's outstanding record in the detection of new phenomena in space. These have been honoured by a number of Nobel prizes. Radio astronomy largely depends on technical developments in receiver technology, antenna systems, electronics and computing power. Ever shorter wavelengths down to the submm-wavelength range became accessible, resulting in new exciting discoveries. However, now and in future care must be taken, in particular for the lower frequency range, of harmful man-made interferences, which might mask the weak signals from space. New international facilities with orders-of-magnitude higher sensitivity like ALMA and SKA are planned or under construction. Space-borne observatories like PLANCK will detect weak fluctuations of the cosmic microwave background, which will constrain cosmological models with an unprecedented accuracy.

  11. Radio Astronomy for Amateurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, N.; Murdin, P.

    2003-04-01

    Karl Jansky is considered the father of RADIOASTRONOMY. During the 1930s, Jansky worked for the Bell Telephone Laboratories studying the origin of static noise from thunderstorms. During the course of this work he discovered that some signals had an extraterrestrial origin. However, it was Grote Reber, a professional radio engineer and radio amateur, who carried out further investigations. In 1937...

  12. The Helios radio astronomy experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kayser, S.; Stone, R.

    1984-01-01

    Radio bursts traveling between the Sun and the Earth were tracked by radio astronomy experiments on Helios 1 and 2. A relatively short dipole antenna with a well-defined toroidal reception pattern was flown. The antenna spins in the ecliptic at 60.3 rpm and 2 frequencies are measured in each revolution. The signal analysis determines the strength of the signal, the direction of the source in the ecliptic, and the degree of modulation, and estimates source size. The experiments provide three-dimensional direction finding in space. They extend the radio frequency window beyond what is observable on Earth, and offer a long triangulation baseline.

  13. Voyager planetary radio astronomy studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staelin, David H.; Eikenberry, Stephen S.

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of nonthermal radio emission data obtained by the Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) spectrometers on the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft was performed. This PRA data provided unique insights into the radio emission characteristics of the outer planets because of PRA's unique spectral response below the terrestrial ionospheric plasma frequency and its unprecedented proximity to the source. Of those results which were documented or published, this final report surveys only the highlights and cites references for more complete discussions. Unpublished results for Uranus, Neptune, and theoretical Ionian current distributions are presented at greater length. The most important conclusion to be drawn from these observations is that banded spectral emission is common to the radio emission below 1-2 MHz observed from all four Jovian planets. In every case multiple spectral features evolve on time scales of seconds to minutes. To the extent these features drift in frequency, they appear never to cross one another. The Neptunian spectral features appear to drift little or not at all, their evolution consisting principally of waxing and waning. Since other evidence strongly suggests that most or all of this radio emission is occurring near the local magnetospheric electron cyclotron frequency, this implies that this emission preferentially occurs at certain continually changing planetary radii. It remains unknown why certain radii might be favored, unless radial electric field components or other means serve to differentiate radially the magnetospheric plasma density, particle energy vectors, or particle coherence. Calculation of the spatial distribution and intensity of the Io-generated magnetospheric currents are also presented; these currents may be limited principally by wave impedance and local field strengths.

  14. Expanding radio astronomy in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaylard, M. J.

    2013-04-01

    The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) Organisation announced in May 2012 that its members had agreed on a dual site solution for the SKA [1]. South Africa's bid for hosting the SKA has caused a ramp up of radio astronomy in Africa. To develop technology towards the SKA, the South African SKA Project (SKA SA) built a protoype radio telescope in 2007, followed in 2010 the seven antenna Karoo Array Telescope (KAT-7). Next is the 64 antenna MeerKAT, which will merge into SKA Phase 1 in Africa. As SKA Phase 2 is intended to add a high resolution capability with baselines out to 3000 km, the SKA SA brought in partner countries in Africa to host outstations. South Africa has been working with the partners to build capacity to operate the SKA and to benefit from it. The SA Department of Science and Technology (DST) developed a proposal to establish radio telescopes in the partner countries to provide hands-on learning and a capability for Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) research. Redundant 30 m class satellite antennas are being incorporated in this project.

  15. A Radio Astronomy Curriculum for STARLAB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boltuch, D.; Hund, L.; Buck, S.; Fultz, C.; Smith, T.; Harris, R.; Castelaz, M. W.; Moffett, D.; LaFratta, M.; Walsh, L.

    2005-12-01

    We present elements of a curriculum that will accompany the STARLAB module "Sensing the Radio Sky" a portable planetarium program and projection of the radio sky. The curriculum will serve to familiarize high school students to a set of topics in radio astronomy. The curriculum includes lessons and activities addressing several topics related to radio astronomy and the Milky Way that consists of two main resources: a manual and a multimedia website. It is designed to accommodate a wide variety of possible uses and time constraints. The manufacturer of STARLAB, Learning Technologies, Inc. produces a short manual to accompany each presentation for the STARLAB. The "Sensing the Radio Sky" manual we have created includes the mandatory, minimum background information that students need to understand radio astronomy. It briefly discusses waves and electromagnetic radiation, similarities and differences between optical and radio astronomy, probable misconceptions about radio astronomy, how radio images are produced, synchrotron radiation in the Milky Way, and galactic coordinates. It also includes a script that presenters can choose to follow inside the STARLAB, a lesson plan for teachers, and activities for students to complete before and after the STARLAB experience that mirror the scientific method. The multimedia website includes more detailed information about electromagnetic radiation and a more detailed comparison of optical and radio astronomy. It also discusses the life cycles of stars, radiation from a variety of specific sources, and pulsars, as each relates to radio astronomy. The five highly detailed lessons are pulled together in sixth "overview lesson", intended for use by teachers who want to present more than the basic material in the manual, but do not have the classroom time to teach all five of the in-depth lessons. . We acknowledge support from the NSF Internship in Public Science Education Program grant number 0324729.

  16. The Golden Years of Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellermann, Kenneth I.

    2016-01-01

    The 1960s were the Golden Years of Radio Astronomy. During this decade a new generation of young scientists discovered quasars, pulsars, the cosmic microwave background, cosmic masers, giant molecular clouds, radio source variability, superluminal motion, radio recombination lines, the rotation of Mercury and Venus, the Venus Greenhouse effect, Jupiter's radiation belts, and opened up the high redshift Universe. On the technical side, the 1960s saw the completion of the NRAO 140-ft and 300-ft radio telescopes, the Haystack, Arecibo and Parkes antennas, the Owens Valley Interferometer, the first practical demonstrations of aperture synthesis, VLBI, and CLEAN, the Cambridge 1-mile radio telescope, the most precise tests of GR light bending, and the introduction of the 4th test of GR. Following sessions at the recent IAU 29th General Assembly on the "Golden Years of Radio Astronomy," we will discuss the circumstances surrounding these transformational discoveries which changed the course of modern astronomy.

  17. A Teaching Lab in Radio Astronomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kirk R.; Cudaback, David D.

    1976-01-01

    Describes a study in which participants in a summer institute for secondary science teachers performed a series of experiments with a radio telescope. Concludes that a radio astronomy teaching facility would encourage students to use their own initiative and strategy in working with the scientific concepts involved. (MLH)

  18. Grote Reber, Radio Astronomy Pioneer, Dies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-12-01

    Grote Reber, one of the earliest pioneers of radio astronomy, died in Tasmania on December 20, just two days shy of his 91st birthday. Reber was the first person to build a radio telescope dedicated to astronomy, opening up a whole new "window" on the Universe that eventually produced such landmark discoveries as quasars, pulsars and the remnant "afterglow" of the Big Bang. His self- financed experiments laid the foundation for today's advanced radio-astronomy facilities. Grote Reber Grote Reber NRAO/AUI photo "Radio astronomy has changed profoundly our understanding of the Universe and has earned the Nobel Prize for several major contributions. All radio astronomers who have followed him owe Grote Reber a deep debt for his pioneering work," said Dr. Fred Lo, director of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). "Reber was the first to systematically study the sky by observing something other than visible light. This gave astronomy a whole new view of the Universe. The continuing importance of new ways of looking at the Universe is emphasized by this year's Nobel Prizes in physics, which recognized scientists who pioneered X-ray and neutrino observations," Lo added. Reber was a radio engineer and avid amateur "ham" radio operator in Wheaton, Illinois, in the 1930s when he read about Karl Jansky's 1932 discovery of natural radio emissions coming from outer space. As an amateur operator, Reber had won awards and communicated with other amateurs around the world, and later wrote that he had concluded "there were no more worlds to conquer" in radio. Learning of Jansky's discovery gave Reber a whole new challenge that he attacked with vigor. Analyzing the problem as an engineer, Reber concluded that what he needed was a parabolic-dish antenna, something quite uncommon in the 1930s. In 1937, using his own funds, he constructed a 31.4-foot-diameter dish antenna in his back yard. The strange contraption attracted curious attention from his neighbors and became

  19. Technology Advances for Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Damon Stuart

    The field of radio astronomy continues to provide fundamental contributions to the understanding of the evolution, and inner workings of, our universe. It has done so from its humble beginnings, where single antennas and receivers were used for observation, to today's focal plane arrays and interferometers. The number of receiving elements (pixels) in these instruments is quickly growing, currently approaching one hundred. For the instruments of tomorrow, the number of receiving elements will be in the thousands. Such instruments will enable researchers to peer deeper into the fabric of our universe and do so at faster survey speeds. They will provide enormous capability, both for unraveling today's mysteries as well as for the discovery of new phenomena. Among other challenges, producing the large numbers of low-noise amplifiers required for these instruments will be no easy task. The work described in this thesis advances the state of the art in three critical areas, technological advancements necessary for the future design and manufacturing of thousands of low-noise amplifiers. These areas being: the automated, cryogenic, probing of diameter100 mm indium phosphide wafers; a system for measuring the noise parameters of devices at cryogenic temperatures; and the development of low-noise, silicon germanium amplifiers for terahertz mixer receivers. The four chapters that comprise the body of this work detail the background, design, assembly, and testing involved in these contributions. Also included is a brief survey of noise parameters, the knowledge of which is fundamental to the design of low-noise amplifiers and the optimization of the system noise temperature for large, dense, interferometers.

  20. Radio Jove: Jupiter Radio Astronomy for Citizens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, Charles; Thieman, J. R.; Flagg, R.; Reyes, F. J.; Sky, J.; Greenman, W.; Brown, J.; Typinski, D.; Ashcraft, T.; Mount, A.

    2014-01-01

    Radio JOVE is a hands-on educational activity that brings the radio sounds of the Sun, Jupiter, the Milky Way Galaxy, and terrestrial radio noise to students, teachers, and the general public. Participants may build a simple radio telescope kit, make scientific observations, and interact with professional radio observatories in real-time over the Internet. Our website (http://radiojove.gsfc.nasa.gov) includes science information, construction manuals, observing guides, and education resources for teachers and students. Radio Jove is continually expanding its participants with over 1800 kits sold to more than 70 countries worldwide. Recently some of our most dedicated observers have upgraded their Radio Jove antennas to semi-professional observatories. We have spectrographs and wide band antennas, some with 8 MHz bandwidth and some with dual polarization capabilities. In an effort to add to the science literature, these observers are coordinating their efforts to pursue some basic questions about Jupiter’s radio emissions (radio source locations, spectral structure, long term changes, etc.). We can compare signal and ionosphere variations using the many Radio Jove observers at different locations. Observers are also working with members of the Long Wavelength Array Station 1 (LWA1) radio telescope to coordinate observations of Jupiter; Radio Jove is planning to make coordinated observations while the Juno Mission is active beginning in 2015. The Radio Jove program is overviewed, its hardware and software are highlighted, recent sample observations are shown, and we demonstrate that we are capable of real citizen science.

  1. 47 CFR 2.107 - Radio astronomy station notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radio astronomy station notification. 2.107....107 Radio astronomy station notification. (a) Pursuant to No. 1492 of Article 13 and Section F of Appendix 3 to the international Radio Regulations (Geneva, 1982), operators of radio astronomy...

  2. 47 CFR 2.107 - Radio astronomy station notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radio astronomy station notification. 2.107....107 Radio astronomy station notification. (a) Pursuant to No. 1492 of Article 13 and Section F of Appendix 3 to the international Radio Regulations (Geneva, 1982), operators of radio astronomy...

  3. 47 CFR 2.107 - Radio astronomy station notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radio astronomy station notification. 2.107....107 Radio astronomy station notification. (a) Pursuant to No. 1492 of Article 13 and Section F of Appendix 3 to the international Radio Regulations (Geneva, 1982), operators of radio astronomy...

  4. 47 CFR 2.107 - Radio astronomy station notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radio astronomy station notification. 2.107....107 Radio astronomy station notification. (a) Pursuant to No. 1492 of Article 13 and Section F of Appendix 3 to the international Radio Regulations (Geneva, 1982), operators of radio astronomy...

  5. 47 CFR 2.107 - Radio astronomy station notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radio astronomy station notification. 2.107....107 Radio astronomy station notification. (a) Pursuant to No. 1492 of Article 13 and Section F of Appendix 3 to the international Radio Regulations (Geneva, 1982), operators of radio astronomy...

  6. Early Radio Astronomy in the USSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellermann, Kenneth I.

    2007-12-01

    As in many other countries, radio astronomy in the Soviet Union began as an outgrowth of wartime radar research. The early leaders of Soviet radio astronomy, including Simon Braude, Vladimir Kotelnikov, Vladimir Troitskii, and Viktor Vitkevitch, all began their careers during WWII. Although the theoretical contributions of people like Iosef Shklovsky and Vitaly Ginzburg were well known in the West, the early experimental and observational programs received much less attention, partially the result of cold war military secrecy. When they were noticed, the Soviet observations were largely ignored or declared wrong. We will discuss the controversial Soviet contributions to the detection of polarized cosmic radio emission, the development of very long baseline interferometry, the prediction and verification of radio recombination lines, and the first detection of variability in an extragalactic radio source.

  7. Iridium and Radio Astronomy in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, R. J.

    2004-06-01

    An account is given of the coordination of the Iridium mobile satellite system with the radio astronomy service in Europe, from the initial exploratory discussions at Jodrell Bank in 1991 to the signing of the so-called ``Interim Agreement'' in Paris in 1999. The technical issue of unwanted emissions from the Iridium downlink into the frequency band 1610.6-1613.8 MHz was not resolved, so the coordination agreement amounts to time sharing, albeit on more favourable terms for radio astronomy than agreements negotiated elsewhere. The European agreement fully recognizes the heavy use of the frequency band in European radio astronomy, and carries the promise that ``from 1 January 2006, European radioastronomers shall be able to collect measurement data consistent with the recommendation ITU-R RA.769-1.'' Some personal observations on the events are offered.

  8. Radio quiet, please! - protecting radio astronomy from interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Driel, W.

    2011-06-01

    The radio spectrum is a finite and increasingly precious resource for astronomical research, as well as for other spectrum users. Keeping the frequency bands used for radio astronomy as free as possible of unwanted Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) is crucial. The aim of spectrum management, one of the tools used towards achieving this goal, includes setting regulatory limits on RFI levels emitted by other spectrum users into the radio astronomy frequency bands. This involves discussions with regulatory bodies and other spectrum users at several levels - national, regional and worldwide. The global framework for spectrum management is set by the Radio Regulations of the International Telecommunication Union, which has defined that interference is detrimental to radio astronomy if it increases the uncertainty of a measurement by 10%. The Radio Regulations are revised every three to four years, a process in which four organisations representing the interests of the radio astronomical community in matters of spectrum management (IUCAF, CORF, CRAF and RAFCAP) participate actively. The current interests and activities of these four organisations range from preserving what has been achieved through regulatory measures, to looking far into the future of high frequency use and giant radio telescope use.

  9. The IAU Early French Radio Astronomy Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, Wayne; Boischot, A.; Delannoy, J.; Kundu, M.; Lequeux, J.; Pick, M.; Steinberg, J.

    2011-01-01

    In 2006 an ambitious project was launched under the auspices of the IAU Working Group on Historic Radio Astronomy to document important developments in French radio astronomy from 1901 through to the 1960s, in a series of papers published, in English, in the Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage. This successful project has now come to an end with the sixth and final paper in the series about to be published (and a new WG project, on the history of early Japanese radio astronomy, has just been launched). In this paper we discuss Nordmann's abortive attempt to detect solar radio emission in 1901, and the important roles played by staff from the École Normale Supérieure and the Institut d'Astrophysique in Paris during the 1940s through 60s in developing new radio astronomy instrumentation and pursuing a range of solar and non-solar research projects in Paris itself and at field stations established at Marcoussis, Nançay and the Haute Provence Observatory.

  10. Solar system radio astronomy at low frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desch, M. D.

    1987-01-01

    The planetary radio-astronomy observations obtained with the two Voyager spacecraft since their launch in 1977 are briefly characterized and illustrated with graphs, diagrams, and sample spectra. Topics addressed include the spacecraft designs and trajectories, the wavelength coverage of the radio instruments, the Io-controlled LF emission of Jupiter, the solar-wind effect on the Saturn kilometric radiation, the Saturn electrostatic discharges, and the use of the clocklike feature of the Uranus emission to measure the planet's rotation period.

  11. Internet Resources for Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andernach, H.

    A subjective overview of Internet resources for radio-astronomical information is presented. Basic observing techniques and their implications for the interpretation of publicly available radio data are described, followed by a discussion of existing radio surveys, their level of optical identification, and nomenclature of radio sources. Various collections of source catalogues and databases for integrated radio source parameters are reviewed and compared, as well as the web interfaces to interrogate the current and ongoing large-area surveys. Links to radio observatories with archives of raw (uv-) data are presented, as well as services providing images, both of individual objects or extracts (``cutouts'') from large-scale surveys. While the emphasis is on radio continuum data, a brief list of sites providing spectral line data, and atomic or molecular information is included. The major radio telescopes and surveys under construction or planning are outlined. A summary is given of a search for previously unknown optically bright radio sources, as performed by the students as an exercise, using Internet resources only. Over 200 different links are mentioned and were verified, but despite the attempt to make this report up-to-date, it can only provide a snapshot of the situation as of mid-1998.

  12. Radio astronomy - The next decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellermann, Kenneth I.

    1991-09-01

    Discoveries made over the past several decades by radio astronomers include radio galaxies, quasars, pulsars, gravitational lenses, energetic bursts from the sun and Jupiter, the greenhouse effect on Venus, the rotation of Mercury, giant molecular clouds, violent activity in galactic nuclei, and cosmic background radiation. This paper discusses the development of ever more powerful radio telescopes, which include the VLA operated by NRAO near Socorro (New Mexico); the new NRAO's 100-m Green Bank Telescope being constructed in Green Bank (West Virginia); and the proposed Millimeter Array, which will consist of 40 antennas, each 8-m across, arranged in any of four different ways depending on the size of the region under study. Consideration is also given to methods for increasing the resolving power and image quality of radio telescopes, with special attention given to very-long-baseline interferometry.

  13. Radio Astronomy Explorer /RAE/. I - Observations of terrestrial radio noise.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, J. R.; Caruso, J. A.; Stone, R. G.

    1973-01-01

    Radio Astronomy Explorer (RAE) I data are analyzed to establish characteristics of HF terrestrial radio noise at an altitude of about 6000 km. Time and frequency variations in amplitude of the observed noise well above cosmic noise background are explained on the basis of temporal and spatial variations in ionospheric critical frequency coupled with those in noise source distributions. It is shown that terrestrial radio noise regularly breaks through the ionosphere and reaches RAE with magnitudes 15 dB and more above cosmic noise background, on frequencies above the F-layer critical frequency.

  14. The first radio astronomy from space - RAE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, M. L.

    1987-01-01

    The spacecraft design, instrumentation, and performance of the Radio Astronomy Explorer (RAE) satellites (RAE-1 launched to earth orbit in 1968 and RAE-2 launched to lunar orbit in 1972) are reviewed and illustrated with drawings, diagrams, and graphs of typical data. Consideration is given to the three pairs of antennas, the Ryle-Vonberg and burst radiometers, and problems encountered with antenna deployment and observing patterns. Results summarized include observations of type III solar bursts, the spectral distribution of cosmic noise in broad sky regions, Jupiter at low frequencies, and auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) from the earth. The importance of avoiding the AKR bands in designing future space observatories is stressed.

  15. The first radio astronomy from space - RAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, M. L.

    The spacecraft design, instrumentation, and performance of the Radio Astronomy Explorer (RAE) satellites (RAE-1 launched to earth orbit in 1968 and RAE-2 launched to lunar orbit in 1972) are reviewed and illustrated with drawings, diagrams, and graphs of typical data. Consideration is given to the three pairs of antennas, the Ryle-Vonberg and burst radiometers, and problems encountered with antenna deployment and observing patterns. Results summarized include observations of type III solar bursts, the spectral distribution of cosmic noise in broad sky regions, Jupiter at low frequencies, and auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) from the earth. The importance of avoiding the AKR bands in designing future space observatories is stressed.

  16. On post-SKA radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parijskij, Yuri; Chernenkov, Vladimir

    It is suggested that the development of the SKA will drastically change the face of radio astronomy in the 21st Century. A FAST-style SKA would admit observations of low contrast features, and would be the best design for studying the `dark ages' of the Universe (x>> 1) where sub-arcmin total power instruments can usefully be employed. To date there have been no proposals for post-SKA, billion square-metra instruments; we speculate that mobile communication systems can be used. In the very distant future, SKA multi-beam systems could be used to collect signals reflected by Solar system bodies such as the asteroid belt.

  17. The Importance of Site Selection for Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umar, Roslan; Zainal Abidin, Zamri; Abidin Ibrahim, Zainol

    2014-10-01

    Radio sources are very weak since this object travel very far from outer space. Radio astronomy studies are limited due to radio frequency interference (RFI) that is made by man. If the harassment is not stopped, it will provide critical problems in their radio astronomy scientists research. The purpose of this study is to provide RFI map Peninsular Malaysia with a minimum mapping techniques RFI interference. RFI mapping technique using GIS is proposed as a tool in mapping techniques. Decision-making process for the selection requires gathering information from a variety of parameters. These factors affecting the selection process are also taken account. In this study, various factors or parameters involved such as availability of telecommunications transmission (including radio and television), rainfall, water line and human activity. This study will benefit radio astronomy research especially in the RFI profile in Malaysia. Keywords: Radio Astronomy, Radio Frequency Interference (RFI), RFI mapping technique : GIS.

  18. Large Instrument Development for Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, J. Richard; Warnick, Karl F.; Jeffs, Brian D.; Norrod, Roger D.; Lockman, Felix J.; Cordes, James M.; Giovanelli, Riccardo

    2009-03-01

    This white paper offers cautionary observations about the planning and development of new, large radio astronomy instruments. Complexity is a strong cost driver so every effort should be made to assign differing science requirements to different instruments and probably different sites. The appeal of shared resources is generally not realized in practice and can often be counterproductive. Instrument optimization is much more difficult with longer lists of requirements, and the development process is longer and less efficient. More complex instruments are necessarily further behind the technology state of the art because of longer development times. Including technology R&D in the construction phase of projects is a growing trend that leads to higher risks, cost overruns, schedule delays, and project de-scoping. There are no technology breakthroughs just over the horizon that will suddenly bring down the cost of collecting area. Advances come largely through careful attention to detail in the adoption of new technology provided by industry and the commercial market. Radio astronomy instrumentation has a very bright future, but a vigorous long-term R&D program not tied directly to specific projects needs to be restored, fostered, and preserved.

  19. Radio Astronomy Software Defined Receiver Project

    SciTech Connect

    Vacaliuc, Bogdan; Leech, Marcus; Oxley, Paul; Flagg, Richard; Fields, David

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes a Radio Astronomy Software Defined Receiver (RASDR) that is currently under development. RASDR is targeted for use by amateurs and small institutions where cost is a primary consideration. The receiver will operate from HF thru 2.8 GHz. Front-end components such as preamps, block down-converters and pre-select bandpass filters are outside the scope of this development and will be provided by the user. The receiver includes RF amplifiers and attenuators, synthesized LOs, quadrature down converters, dual 8 bit ADCs and a Signal Processor that provides firmware processing of the digital bit stream. RASDR will interface to a user s PC via a USB or higher speed Ethernet LAN connection. The PC will run software that provides processing of the bit stream, a graphical user interface, as well as data analysis and storage. Software should support MAC OS, Windows and Linux platforms and will focus on such radio astronomy applications as total power measurements, pulsar detection, and spectral line studies.

  20. Radio Astronomy: A Strong Link between Undergraduate Education and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratap, Preethi; Salah, Joseph E.

    2001-01-01

    Describes a successful pilot program to develop and test a program that facilitates the linking of undergraduate research and education through radio astronomy. Based on the pilot experiences, students everywhere should be able to exploit the opportunity to strengthen their education through practical research using radio astronomy. (Author/SAH)

  1. Highlighting the History of Japanese Radio Astronomy: 1: An Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiguro, Masato; Orchiston, Wayne; Akabane, Kenji; Kaifu, Norio; Hayashi, Masa; Nakamura, Tsuko; Stewart, Ronald; Yokoo, Hiromitsu

    2012-11-01

    Japan was one of a number of nations that made important contributions in the fledgling field of radio astronomy in the years immediately following WWII. In this paper we discuss the invention of the Yagi-Uda antenna and the detection of solar radio emission in 1938, before reviewing radio astronomical developments that occurred between 1948 and 1961 in Osaka, Nagoya, Tokyo and Hiraiso. In order to place these early Japanese experiments in a national and international context we briefly review the world-wide development of radio astronomy in the immediate post-War years before discussing the growth of optical astronomy in Japan at this time.

  2. The Deep Space Network: An instrument for radio astronomy research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renzetti, N. A.; Levy, G. S.; Kuiper, T. B. H.; Walken, P. R.; Chandlee, R. C.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Deep Space Network operates and maintains the Earth-based two-way communications link for unmanned spacecraft exploring the solar system. It is NASA's policy to also make the Network's facilities available for radio astronomy observations. The Network's microwave communication systems and facilities are being continually upgraded. This revised document, first published in 1982, describes the Network's current radio astronomy capabilities and future capabilities that will be made available by the ongoing Network upgrade. The Bibliography, which includes published papers and articles resulting from radio astronomy observations conducted with Network facilities, has been updated to include papers to May 1987.

  3. International Agreement Will Advance Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-12-01

    Two of the world's leading astronomical institutions have formalized an agreement to cooperate on joint efforts for the technical and scientific advancement of radio astronomy. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in the United States and the Max-Planck Institute for Radioastronomy (MPIfR) in Germany concluded a Memorandum of Understanding outlining planned collaborative efforts to enhance the capabilities of each other's telescopes and to expand their cooperation in scientific research. The VLBA The VLBA CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF In the first project pursued under this agreement, the MPIfR will contribute $299,000 to upgrade the continent-wide Very Long Baseline Array's (VLBA) capability to receive radio emissions at a frequency of 22 GHz. This improvement will enhance the VLBA's scientific productivity and will be particularly important for cutting-edge research in cosmology and enigmatic cosmic objects such as gamma-ray blazars. "This agreement follows many years of cooperation between our institutions and recognizes the importance of international collaboration for the future of astronomical research," said Fred K.Y. Lo, NRAO Director. "Our two institutions have many common research goals, and joining forces to keep all our telescopes at the forefront of technology will be highly beneficial for the science," said Anton Zensus, Director at MPIfR. In addition to the VLBA, the NRAO operates the Very Large Array (VLA) in New Mexico and the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia. The MPIfR operates the 100-meter Effelsberg Radio Telescope in Germany and the 12-meter APEX submillimeter telescope in 5100 m altitude in the Cilean Atacama desert (together with the European Southern Observatory and the Swedish Onsala Space Observatory). With the 100-meter telescope, it is part of the VLBA network in providing transatlantic baselines. Both institutions are members of a global network of telescopes (the Global VLBI Network) that uses simultaneous

  4. Communicating radio astronomy with the public: Another point of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varano, S.

    2008-06-01

    Radio waves cannot be sensed directly, but they are used in daily life by almost everybody. Even so, the majority of the general public do not even know that celestial bodies emit radio waves. Presenting invisible radiation to a general audience with little or no background knowledge in physics is a difficult task. In addition, much important technology now commonplace in many other scientific fields was pioneered by radio observatories in their efforts to detect and process radio signals from the Universe. Radio astronomy outreach does not have such a well-established background as optical astronomy outreach. In order to make radio astronomy accessible to the public, it is necessary either to add more scientific detail or to find a different way of communicating. In this paper we present examples from our work at the Visitor Centre "Marcello Ceccarelli", which is part of the Medicina Radio Observatory, operated by the Institute of Radio Astronomy (IRA) in Bologna, which in turn is part of the National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF).

  5. World War II Radar and Early Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, G.

    2005-08-01

    The pattern of radio astronomy which developed in Europe and Australia followed closely the development of metre wave radar in World War II. The leading pioneers, Ryle, Lovell, Hey and Pawsey, were all in radar research establishments in the UK and Australia. They returned to universities, recruited their colleagues into research groups and immediately started on some basic observations of solar radio waves, meteor echoes, and the galactic background. There was at first little contact with conventional astronomers. This paper traces the influence of the radar scientists and of several types of radar equipment developed during WW II, notably the German Wurzburg, which was adapted for radio research in several countries. The techniques of phased arrays and antenna switching were used in radar and aircraft installations. The influence of WW II radar can be traced at least up to 10 years after the War, when radio astronomy became accepted as a natural discipline within astronomy.

  6. Broadcasting Astronomy: The Stars Meet on the Radio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobili, L.; Masiero, S.

    2010-06-01

    In this paper we describe our project Tutti Dentro — Le Stelle si incontrano in Radio (Come in everybody! — The Stars meet on the Radio), an Italian radio show about astronomy and space. The format involved celebrities, young astronomers and a network of 95 FM and web radio stations during the period July 2007 - January 2009. We will explore its structure, the language and the strategies adopted, along with the technical equipment and the software for recording sessions and editing. Finally we will describe the response from celebrities, radio stations and listeners. Our results could be a useful reference for those wishing to create similar radio programmes to deliver astronomy to a wider audience.

  7. Radio astronomy aspects of the NASA SETI Sky Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Michael J.

    1986-01-01

    The application of SETI data to radio astronomy is studied. The number of continuum radio sources in the 1-10 GHz region to be counted and cataloged is predicted. The radio luminosity functions for steep and flat spectrum sources at 2, 8, and 22 GHz are derived using the model of Peacock and Gull (1981). The relation between source number and flux density is analyzed and the sensitivity of the system is evaluated.

  8. Planetary radio astronomy observations from Voyager 1 near Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warwick, J. W.; Pearce, J. B.; Evans, D. R.; Carr, T. D.; Schauble, J. J.; Alexander, J. K.; Kaiser, M. L.; Desch, M. D.; Pedersen, M.; Lecacheux, A.

    1981-01-01

    The Voyager 1 planetary radio astronomy experiment detected two distinct kinds of radio emissions from Saturn. The first, Saturn kilometric radiation, is strongly polarized, bursty, tightly correlated with Saturn's rotation, and exhibits complex dynamic spectral features somewhat reminiscent of those in Jupiter's radio emission. It appears in radio frequencies below about 1.2 megahertz. The second kind of radio emission, Saturn electrostatic discharge, is unpolarized, extremely impulsive, loosely correlated with Saturn's rotation, and very broadband, appearing throughout the observing range of the experiment (20.4 kilohertz to 40.2 megahertz). Its sources appear to lie in the planetary rings.

  9. A Radio Astronomy Curriculum for the Middle School Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, J.; Finley, D. G.

    2000-12-01

    In the summer of 2000, two teachers working on a Masters of Science Teaching program at New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, spent eight weeks as interns at the Array Operations Center for the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, New Mexico, under the auspices of the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Research Experience for Teachers (RET) program. The resulting projects will directly benefit students in the indvidual classrooms, as well as provide an easy-to-access resource for other educators. One of the products is a Radio Astronomy Curriculum for upper middle school classes. Radio astronomy images, based on scientific research results using NRAO's Very Large Array, are featured on trading cards which include an explanation, a ``web challenge'', and in some cases, a comparison of radio and optical images. Each trading card has corresponding lesson plans with background information about the images and astronomy concepts needed to do the lessons. Comparison of optical and radio astronomy is used as much as possible to explain the information from research using visible and radio wavelengths. New Mexico's Content Standards and Benchmarks (developed using national standards) for science education was used as a guide for the activities. The three strands of science listed in the standards, Unifying Concepts and Processes, Science as Inquiry, and Science Content are addressed in the lessons. Higher level thinking and problem solving skills are featured throughout the curriculum. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. The NSF's RET program is gratefully acknowledged.

  10. Statistical radio astronomy of the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pariiskii, Yu. N.; Berlin, A. B.; Bursov, N. N.; Nizhel'skii, N. A.; Semenova, T. A.; Temirova, A. V.; Tsybulev, P. G.

    2015-06-01

    The exponential development of radio-astronomy methods (sensitivity, resolution, depth of surveys, etc) has led to the need for new methods aimed at distinguishing weak signals in the midst of numerous background signals, as has long been the case for radio astronomy at meter wavelengths. Centimeter-wavelength data accumulated with existing radio telescopes (such as the RATAN-600 reflector—the largest radio telescope in Russia) are presented, and expected problems for major new radio telescopes of the 21st century, such as the Square Kilometer Array, are discussed. The effectiveness of using certain tested methods to derive astrophysically important results through reasonable statistical processing of large datasets is shown. In experiments conducted with RATAN-600, these methods lead to an enhancement in sensitivity by an order of magnitude compared with the sensitivity of a resolving element.

  11. The School of Galactic Radio Astronomy: An Internet Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelaz, M. W.; Cline, J. D.; Osborne, C. S.; Moffett, D. A.; Case, J.

    2001-12-01

    The School of Galactic Radio Astronomy (SGRA) takes its name from the source SGR-A, the center of the Milky Way Galaxy. SGRA is based at the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) as an experience-based school room for use by middle and high school teachers and their students. Their scientific educational experience at SGRA relies on Internet access to PARI's remote-controlled 4.6-m radio telescope which is equipped with a 1420 MHz receiver. The 1420 MHz signal may either be recorded as a spectrum over a 4 MHz bandpass, or mapped over extended regions. Teachers, classes, and Independent Study students access the 4.6-m radio telescope via the SGRA webpage. The SGRA webpage has four components: Radio Astronomy Basics, Observing, Guides, and Logbook. The Radio Astronomy Basics section summarizes the concepts of electromagnetic waves, detection of electromagnetic waves, sources of astronomical radio waves, and how astronomers use radio telescopes. The Observing section is the link to controlling the radio telescope and receiver. The Observing page is designed in the same way a control room at an observatory is designed. Controls include options of source selection, coordinate entry, slew, set, and guide selection, and tracking. Also within the Observing section is the curriculum which presents eight modules based on relevant radio astronomy topics and objects. The Guides webpage contains atlases of the astronomical sky, catalogs, examples of observing sessions, and data reduction software that can be downloaded for analysis offline. The LOGBOOK page is primarily a guestbook, and evaluation form. We acknowledge support from the Space Telescope Science Institute IDEAS Program, and the South Carolina State University PAIR Program.

  12. Current Status of Long Wavelengths Radio Astronomy in Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovalenko, A. A.; Melnik, V. N.; Falkovich, I. S.; Rashkovskij, S. L.; Brazhenko, A. I.; Koshevoj, V. V.; Lecacheux, A.; Rucker, H. O.

    2006-08-01

    In the given presentation we summarize the more then forty years experience in the field of decametre radio astronomy in Ukraine. Largest existing UTR-2 radio telescope (frequency range is 8-32 MHz, maximum effective area is near 150,000 m^2 , size of T-shape array is about 2×1 km) works in non-stop regime. VLBI system URAN (UTR-2, URAN-1…URAN-4 antennas) gives basis from 40 to 950 km, the maximum angular resolution is about 1s with the total maximum effective area near 200,000 m^2 . During last years the essential upgrade of these systems were carried out with including the installation of the high performance back-ends, new elements of antennas and effective methods of observations. A lot of obtained astrophysical results illustrate high informative and significance of extremely low frequency ground-based radio astronomy. Existing instruments, methodical and scientific results give useful lessons for the future perspective development of the low frequency radio astronomy. Without doubts, the creation of the new generation giant instruments like LOFAR and LWA is very actual and opens the possibility for the considerably improvement of the investigation capabilities. Low frequency radio astronomy in National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine has the high priority. Recently this activity is again supported by the special foundation for the perspective development of corresponding instrumentation, which also includes the construction of the additional large active element antenna array.

  13. 47 CFR 5.91 - Notification of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Notification of the National Radio Astronomy... Astronomy Observatory. In order to minimize possible harmful interference at the National Radio Astronomy... Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box NZ2, Green Bank, West Virginia, 24944, in writing, of the...

  14. 47 CFR 5.91 - Notification of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notification of the National Radio Astronomy... Astronomy Observatory. In order to minimize possible harmful interference at the National Radio Astronomy... Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box NZ2, Green Bank, West Virginia, 24944, in writing, of the...

  15. 47 CFR 5.91 - Notification of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Notification of the National Radio Astronomy... Astronomy Observatory. In order to minimize possible harmful interference at the National Radio Astronomy... Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box NZ2, Green Bank, West Virginia, 24944, in writing, of the...

  16. 47 CFR 73.1030 - Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... astronomy, research and receiving installations. 73.1030 Section 73.1030 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Broadcast Stations § 73.1030 Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations. (a)(1) Radio astronomy and radio research installations. In order to...

  17. 47 CFR 5.91 - Notification to the National Radio Astronomy Observatory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Notification to the National Radio Astronomy... SERVICE Applications and Licenses § 5.91 Notification to the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. In order to minimize possible harmful interference at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory site...

  18. 47 CFR 73.1030 - Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... astronomy, research and receiving installations. 73.1030 Section 73.1030 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Broadcast Stations § 73.1030 Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations. (a)(1) Radio astronomy and radio research installations. In order to...

  19. 47 CFR 73.1030 - Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... astronomy, research and receiving installations. 73.1030 Section 73.1030 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Broadcast Stations § 73.1030 Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations. (a)(1) Radio astronomy and radio research installations. In order to...

  20. 47 CFR 73.1030 - Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... astronomy, research and receiving installations. 73.1030 Section 73.1030 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Broadcast Stations § 73.1030 Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations. (a)(1) Radio astronomy and radio research installations. In order to...

  1. 47 CFR 5.91 - Notification to the National Radio Astronomy Observatory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Notification to the National Radio Astronomy... SERVICE Applications and Licenses § 5.91 Notification to the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. In order to minimize possible harmful interference at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory site...

  2. 47 CFR 73.1030 - Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... astronomy, research and receiving installations. 73.1030 Section 73.1030 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Broadcast Stations § 73.1030 Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations. (a)(1) Radio astronomy and radio research installations. In order to...

  3. Need a Classroom Stimulus? Introduce Radio Astronomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derman, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    Silently, invisibly, ceaselessly, our planet Earth is showered by radio waves from every direction and from every region of space. This radio energy originates in our solar system, throughout the Milky Way galaxy, and far beyond, out to the remotest reaches of the universe. Detecting and unraveling the origins of these invisible signals is what…

  4. Lunar Farside Radio Astronomy Base Facilitated by Lunar Elevator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eubanks, T. M.; Maccone, C.; Radley, C. F.

    2015-10-01

    Dr. JD-Wörner, DG of ESA intends to align ESA to develop a “Moon Village” on the far side for radio astronomy and other purposes. This would encourage new infrastructure reducing transport costs. A lunar lift greatly facilitates this vision.

  5. The importance of Radio Quiet Zone (RQZ) for radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umar, Roslan; Abidin, Zamri Zainal; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin

    2013-05-01

    Most of radio observatories are located in isolated areas. Since radio sources from the universe is very weak, astronomer need to avoid radio frequency interference (RFI) from active spectrum users and radio noise produced by human made (telecommunication, mobile phone, microwave user and many more. There are many observatories around the world are surrounded by a Radio Quiet Zone (RQZ), which is it was set up using public or state laws. A Radio Quiet Zone normally consists of two areas: an exclusive area in which totally radio emissions are forbidden, with restrictions for residents and business developments, and a larger (radius up to 100 km above) coordination area where the power of radio transmission limits to threshold levels. Geographical Information System (GIS) can be used as a powerful tool in mapping large areas with varying RQZ profiles. In this paper, we report the initial testing of the usage of this system in order to identify the areas were suitable for Radio Quiet Zone. Among the important parameters used to develop the database for our GIS are population density, information on TV and telecommunication (mobile phones) transmitters, road networks (highway), and contour shielding. We will also use other information gathered from on-site RFI level measurements on selected 'best' areas generated by the GIS. The intention is to find the best site for the purpose of establishing first radio quiet zones for radio telescope in Malaysia.

  6. Ionospheric wave and irregularity measurements using passive radio astronomy techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, W. C.; Mahoney, M. J.; Jacobson, A. R.; Knowles, S. H.

    1988-01-01

    The observation of midlatitude structures using passive radio astronomy techniques is discussed, with particular attention being given to the low-frequency radio telescope at the Clark Lake Radio Observatory. The present telescope operates in the 10-125-MHz frequency range. Observations of the ionosphere at separations of a few kilometers to a few hundreds of kilometers by the lines of sight to sources are possible, allowing the determination of the amplitude, wavelength, direction of propagation, and propagation speed of ionospheric waves. Data are considered on large-scale ionospheric gradients and the two-dimensional shapes and sizes of ionospheric irregularities.

  7. PARTNeR for Teaching and Learning Radio Astronomy Basics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaquerizo, Juan Ángel

    2010-10-01

    NASA has three satellite tracking stations around the world: CDSCC (Canberra, Australia), GDSCC (Goldstone, USA) and MDSCC (Madrid, Spain). One of the antennas located at MDSCC, DSS-61, is not used for satellite tracking any more and thanks to an agreement between INTA (Instituto Nacional de TA~l'cnica Aeroespacial) and NASA, it has been turned into an educational radio telescope. PARTNeR (Proyecto Académico con el RadioTelescopio de NASA en Robledo, Academic Project with the NASA Radio Telescope at Robledo) is a High School and University radio astronomy educational program that allows teachers and students to control this 34-meter radio telescope and conduct radio astronomical observations via the Internet. As radio astronomy is not a popular subject and astronomy has little presence in the High School Curriculum, teachers need specific training in those subjects to implement PARTNeR. Thus, High School teachers joining the project take a course to learn about the science of radio astronomy and how to use the antenna in their classrooms. Also, teachers are provided with some learning activities they can do with their students. These lesson plans are focused on the implementation of the project within an interdisciplinary framework. All educational resources are available on PARTNeR website. PARTNeR is an inquiry based approach to science education. Nowadays, students can join in three different observational programmes: variability studies in quasars, studies of radio-bursts in X-ray binaries (microquasars), and mapping of radio sources in the galactic plane. Nevertheless, any other project can be held after an evaluation by the scientific committee. The operational phase of the project started in the academic year 2003-04. Since then, 85 High Schools, seven Universities and six societies of amateur astronomers have been involved in the project. During the 2004-09 period, 103 High School teachers from Spain and Portugal have attended the training courses, and 105

  8. High-School Solar Radio Astronomy Project in Mexico Based on Radio Jove

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Cole, A.; Gonzalez-Esparza, J. A.; Andrade, E.; Carrillo, A.

    2007-05-01

    Inspired by the RADIO JOVE project (http:radiojove.gsfc.nasa.gov) we propose a curse in solar radio astronomy for the high school system (CCH) at UNAM. The aim of this curse is to introduce solar radio astronomy to students and teachers, building their own radio telescope, and participating in radio astronomical measurements becoming familiar with the emissions of the Sun and Jupiter. The project is also based on the observations from the Mexican Array Radio Telescope(www.mexart.unam.mx) and the real time data from the Virtual Earth Sun Observatory (www.veso.unam.mx) at the Instituto de Geofisica-UNAM. The aim of this Project is to adapt the materials to the high school system in Mexico.

  9. Solar radio astronomy at low frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulk, George A.

    1990-01-01

    The characteristics of solar radio emissions at decametric to kilometric wavelengths are reviewed. Special attention is given to the radiation of the quiet sun at several metric and decametric wavelengths and to nonthermal radiation from the active sun, including radio bursts of type III (electron beams), type-III bursts from behind the sun, storms of type III bursts, the flare-associated radio bursts, type II bursts (shock waves), and shock-associated bursts. It is pointed out that almost no observations have been made so far of solar radiation between about 20 MHz and about 2 MHz. Below about 2 MHz, dynamic spectra of flux densities of solar burst have been recorded in space and observations were made of the directions of centroids and characteristic sizes of the emitting sources.

  10. 47 CFR 73.6027 - Class A TV notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations. 73.6027 Section 73.6027... radio astronomy, research and receiving installations. An applicant for digital operation of an existing... astronomy, research and receiving installations....

  11. 47 CFR 73.6027 - Class A TV notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations. 73.6027 Section 73.6027... radio astronomy, research and receiving installations. An applicant for digital operation of an existing... astronomy, research and receiving installations. [69 FR 69331, Nov. 29, 2004]...

  12. 47 CFR 73.6027 - Class A TV notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations. 73.6027 Section 73.6027... radio astronomy, research and receiving installations. An applicant for digital operation of an existing... astronomy, research and receiving installations....

  13. 47 CFR 73.6027 - Class A TV notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations. 73.6027 Section 73.6027... radio astronomy, research and receiving installations. An applicant for digital operation of an existing... astronomy, research and receiving installations....

  14. 47 CFR 73.6027 - Class A TV notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations. 73.6027 Section 73.6027... radio astronomy, research and receiving installations. An applicant for digital operation of an existing... astronomy, research and receiving installations....

  15. Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory (HartRAO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickola, Marisa; Gaylard, Mike; Quick, Jonathan; Combrinck, Ludwig

    2013-01-01

    HartRAO provides the only fiducial geodetic site in Africa, and it participates in global networks for VLBI, GNSS, SLR, and DORIS. This report provides an overview of geodetic VLBI activities at HartRAO during 2012, including the conversion of a 15-m alt-az radio telescope to an operational geodetic VLBI antenna.

  16. Astronomy: Radio burst caught red-handed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcke, Heino

    2017-01-01

    For almost a decade, astronomers have observed intense bursts of radio waves from the distant cosmos whose origins were unknown. The source of one such burst has now been identified, but this has only deepened the mystery. See Letter p.58

  17. Wide field imaging problems in radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornwell, T. J.; Golap, K.; Bhatnagar, S.

    2005-03-01

    The new generation of synthesis radio telescopes now being proposed, designed, and constructed face substantial problems in making images over wide fields of view. Such observations are required either to achieve the full sensitivity limit in crowded fields or for surveys. The Square Kilometre Array (SKA Consortium, Tech. Rep., 2004), now being developed by an international consortium of 15 countries, will require advances well beyond the current state of the art. We review the theory of synthesis radio telescopes for large fields of view. We describe a new algorithm, W projection, for correcting the non-coplanar baselines aberration. This algorithm has improved performance over those previously used (typically an order of magnitude in speed). Despite the advent of W projection, the computing hardware required for SKA wide field imaging is estimated to cost up to $500M (2015 dollars). This is about half the target cost of the SKA. Reconfigurable computing is one way in which the costs can be decreased dramatically.

  18. Phenomenology of Neptune's radio emissions observed by the Voyager planetary radio astronomy experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedersen, B. M.; Lecacheux, A.; Zarka, P.; Aubier, M. G.; Kaiser, M. L.; Desch, M. D.

    1992-01-01

    The Neptune flyby in 1989 added a new planet to the known number of magnetized planets generating nonthermal radio emissions. We review the Neptunian radio emission morphology as observed by the planetary radio astronomy experiment on board Voyager 2 during a few weeks before and after closest approach. We present the characteristics of the two observed recurrent main components of the Neptunian kilometric radiation, i.e., the 'smooth' and the 'bursty' emissions, and we describe the many specific features of the radio spectrum during closest approach.

  19. The Lunar Observer Radio Astronomy Experiment (LORAE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Jack O.

    1990-01-01

    The paper proposes to place a simple low-frequency dipole antenna on board the Lunar Observer (LO) satellite. LO will orbit the moon in the mid-1990's, mapping the surface at high resolution and gathering new geophysical data. In its modest concept, LORAE will collect crucial data on the radio interference environment while on the near-side (to aid in planning future arrays) and will monitor bursts of emission from the sun and the Jovian planets. LORAE will also be capable of lunar occultation studies of greater than 100 of the brightest sources, gathering arcminute resolution data on sizes and measuring source fluxes. A low resolution all-sky map below 10 MHz, when combined with data from the Gamma-Ray Observatory, will uniquely determine the density of Galactic cosmic ray electrons and the strength of the Galaxy's magnetic field. LORAE also will be able to measure the density of the moon's ionosphere.

  20. On the Development of Radio Astronomy and Protected Astronomy Reserves in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiplady, Adrian John

    2015-08-01

    Recent initiatives to take advantage of various geographic locations in South Africa that exhibit excellent conditions for astronomical observations (optical and radio) has resulted in the establishment of a number of world class astronomical facilities. This includes the 10m class Southern African Large Telescope, the 64 dish MeerKAT radio telescope (under construction), and future Square Kilometre Array.To preserve these areas that exhibit natural astronomical advantage, unique legislation was promulgated to establish 'astronomy reserves'. These reserves are protected through a unique set of regulations that enable protection of astronomical facilities located in declared areas from any current, and future, sources of potential interference. This paper will look at the development and implementation of a protection regime, and review some of practical implications of the construction and operation of a radio telescope in what has become to be known as a 'radio quiet zone'.

  1. Space situational awareness applications for radio astronomy assets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, Galen; Ford, John M.; Ford, H. Alyson

    2015-05-01

    The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) builds, operates, and maintains a suite of premier radio antennas, including the 100m aperture Green Bank Telescope, the largest fully-steerable antenna in the world. For more than five decades the NRAO has focused on astrophysics, providing researchers with the most advanced instruments possible: large apertures, extremely low-noise receivers, and signal processors with high frequency and time resolution. These instruments are adaptable to Space Situational Awareness (SSA) tasks such as radar detection of objects in near-Earth and cis-Lunar space, high accuracy orbit determination, object surveillance with passive methods, and uplink and downlink communications. We present the capabilities of antennas and infrastructure at the NRAO Green Bank Observatory in the context of SSA tasks, and discuss what additions and modifications would be necessary to achieve SSA goals while preserving existing radio astronomy performance. We also discuss how the Green Bank Observatory's surrounding topography and location within the National Radio Quiet Zone will enhance SSA endeavors.

  2. Radio Astronomy Explorer (RAE) 1 observations of terrestrial radio noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, J. R.; Caruso, J. A.

    1971-01-01

    Radio Astonomy Explorer (RAE) 1 data are analyzed to establish characteristics of HF terrestrial radio noise at an altitude of about 6000 km. Time and frequency variations in amplitude of the observed noise well above cosmic noise background are explained on the basis of temporal and spatial variations in ionospheric critical frequency coupled with those in noise source distributions. It is shown that terrestrial noise regularly breaks through the ionosphere and reaches RAE with magnitudes 15 or more db higher than cosmic noise background. Maximum terrestrial noise is observed when RAE is over the dark side of the Earth in the neighborhood of equatorial continental land masses where thunderstorms occur most frequently. The observed noise level is 30-40 db lower with RAE over oceans.

  3. Voyager planetary radio astronomy at Neptune

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warwick, James W.; Evans, David R.; Peltzer, Gerard R.; Peltzer, Robert G.; Romig, Joseph H.; Sawyer, Constance B.; Riddle, Anthony C.; Schweitzer, Andrea E.; Desch, Michael D.; Kaiser, Michael L.

    1989-01-01

    Detection of very intense short radio bursts from Neptune was possible as early as 30 days before closest approach and at least 22 days after closest approach. The bursts lay at frequencies in the range 100 to 1300 kilohertz, were narrowband and strongly polarized, and presumably originated in southern polar regions of the planet. Episodes of smooth emissions in the frequency range from 20 to 865 kilohertz were detected during an interval of at least 10 days around closest approach. The bursts and the smooth emissions can be described in terms of rotation in a period of 16.11 + or - 0.05 hours. The bursts came at regular intervals throughout the encounter, including episodes both before and after closest approach. The smooth emissions showed a half-cycle phase shift between the five episodes before and after closest approach. This experiment detected the foreshock of Neptune's magnetosphere and the impacts of dust at the times of ring-plane crossings and also near the time of closest approach. Finally, there is no evidence for Neptunian electrostatic discharges.

  4. Millimeter Radio Astronomy and the Solar Convection Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhypov, O. V.; Antonov, O. V.; Khodachenko, M. L.

    The global distribution of solar surface activity (active regions) is connected with processes in the convection zone. To extract the information on large-scale motions in the convection zone, we study the solar synoptic charts (Mount Wilson 1998-2004, Fe I, 525.02 nm). The clear indication of large-scale ( ≥ 18 degree) turbulence is found. This may be a manifestations of the deep convection because there is no such global turbulent eddies in the solar photosphere. The preferred scales of longitudinal variations in surface solar activity are revealed. These correspond to about 15 degree to 51 degree (gigantic convection cells), 90 degree, 180 degree and 360 degree. Similar scales (e.g., 40 degree and 90 degree) are found in the millimeter radio-images (Metsahovi Radio Observatory 1994-1998, 37 and 87 GHz). Hence, the millimeter radio astronomy could prove useful for remote sensing of the solar convection zone.

  5. Reflections on the Radio Astronomy Explorer program of the 1960s and 70s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, M. L.

    1990-01-01

    The Radio Astronomy Explorer (RAE) program of the late 1960s and early 1970s is, to date, the only totally dedicated radio astronomy mission to have flown. However, only some of the prelaunch goals were achieved due to the unexpectedly high levels of interference from the earth in the form of both naturally occurring and man-made noise. Some important lessons in receiver design were learned which could and should be applied to any future radio astronomy missions.

  6. An evolutionary sequence of low frequency radio astronomy missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Dayton L.

    1990-01-01

    Many concepts for space-based low frequency radio astronomy missions are being developed, ranging from simple single-satellite experiments to large arrays on the far side of the moon. Each concept involves a different tradeoff between the range of scientific questions it can answer and the technical complexity of the experiment. Since complexity largely determines the development time, risk, launch vehicle requirements, cost, and probability of approval, it is important to see where the ability to expand the scientific return justifies a major increase in complexity. An evolutionary series of increasingly capable missions, similar to the series of missions for infrared or X-ray astronomy, is advocated. These would range from inexpensive 'piggy-back' experiments on near-future missions to a dedicated low frequency array in earth orbit (or possibly on the lunar nearside) and eventually to an array on the lunar farside.

  7. A Radio-Frequency-over-Fiber link for large-array radio astronomy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mena, J.; Bandura, K.; Cliche, J.-F.; Dobbs, M.; Gilbert, A.; Tang, Q. Y.

    2013-10-01

    A prototype 425-850 MHz Radio-Frequency-over-Fiber (RFoF) link for the Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment (CHIME) is presented. The design is based on a directly modulated Fabry-Perot (FP) laser, operating at ambient temperature, and a single-mode fiber. The dynamic performance, gain stability, and phase stability of the RFoF link are characterized. Tests on a two-element interferometer built at the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory for CHIME prototyping demonstrate that RFoF can be successfully used as a cost-effective solution for analog signal transport on the CHIME telescope and other large-array radio astronomy applications.

  8. RASDR: Benchtop Demonstration of SDR for Radio Astronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Vacaliuc, Bogdan; Oxley, Paul; Fields, David; Kurtz, Dr. Stan; Leech, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    The Society of Amateur Radio Astronomers (SARA) members present the benchtop version of RASDR, a Software Defined Radio (SDR) that is optimized for Radio Astronomy. RASDR has the potential to be a common digital receiver interface useful to many SARA members. This document describes the RASDR 0.0 , which provides digitized radio data to a backend computer through a USB 2.0 interface. A primary component of RASDR is the Lime Microsystems Femtocell chip which tunes from a 0.4-4 GHz center frequency with several selectable bandwidths from 0.75 MHz to 14 MHz. A second component is a board with a Complex Programmable Logic Device (CPLD) chip that connects to the Femtocell and provides two USB connections to the backend computer. A third component is an analog balanced mixer up conversion section. Together these three components enable RASDR to tune from 0.015 MHz thru 3.8GHz of the radio frequency (RF) spectrum. We will demonstrate and discuss capabilities of the breadboard system and SARA members will be able to operate the unit hands-on throughout the workshop.

  9. A review of decametric radio astronomy - Instruments and science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, W. C.; Cane, H. V.

    1987-01-01

    The techniques and instruments used in Galactic and extragalactic radio astronomy at dkm wavelengths are surveyed, and typical results are summarized. Consideration is given to the large specialized phased arrays used for early surveys, the use of wideband elements to increase frequency agility, experimental VLBI observations, and limitations on ground-based observations below about 10 MHz (where the proposed LF Space Array, with resolution 0.5-5 arcmin, could make a major contribution). Observations discussed cover the Galactic center, the Galactic background radiation, SNRs, compact Galactic sources, the ISM, and large extragalactic sources.

  10. Large-N correlator systems for low frequency radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Griffin

    Low frequency radio astronomy has entered a second golden age driven by the development of a new class of large-N interferometric arrays. The low frequency array (LOFAR) and a number of redshifted HI Epoch of Reionization (EoR) arrays are currently undergoing commission and regularly observing. Future arrays of unprecedented sensitivity and resolutions at low frequencies, such as the square kilometer array (SKA) and the hydrogen epoch of reionization array (HERA), are in development. The combination of advancements in specialized field programmable gate array (FPGA) hardware for signal processing, computing and graphics processing unit (GPU) resources, and new imaging and calibration algorithms has opened up the oft underused radio band below 300 MHz. These interferometric arrays require efficient implementation of digital signal processing (DSP) hardware to compute the baseline correlations. FPGA technology provides an optimal platform to develop new correlators. The significant growth in data rates from these systems requires automated software to reduce the correlations in real time before storing the data products to disk. Low frequency, widefield observations introduce a number of unique calibration and imaging challenges. The efficient implementation of FX correlators using FPGA hardware is presented. Two correlators have been developed, one for the 32 element BEST-2 array at Medicina Observatory and the other for the 96 element LOFAR station at Chilbolton Observatory. In addition, calibration and imaging software has been developed for each system which makes use of the radio interferometry measurement equation (RIME) to derive calibrations. A process for generating sky maps from widefield LOFAR station observations is presented. Shapelets, a method of modelling extended structures such as resolved sources and beam patterns has been adapted for radio astronomy use to further improve system calibration. Scaling of computing technology allows for the

  11. UniBoard: generic hardware for radio astronomy signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargreaves, J. E.

    2012-09-01

    UniBoard is a generic high-performance computing platform for radio astronomy, developed as a Joint Research Activity in the RadioNet FP7 Programme. The hardware comprises eight Altera Stratix IV Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) interconnected by a high speed transceiver mesh. Each FPGA is connected to two DDR3 memory modules and three external 10Gbps ports. In addition, a total of 128 low voltage differential input lines permit connection to external ADC cards. The DSP capability of the board exceeds 644E9 complex multiply-accumulate operations per second. The first production run of eight boards was distributed to partners in The Netherlands, France, Italy, UK, China and Korea in May 2011, with a further production runs completed in December 2011 and early 2012. The function of the board is determined by the firmware loaded into its FPGAs. Current applications include beamformers, correlators, digital receivers, RFI mitigation for pulsar astronomy, and pulsar gating and search machines The new UniBoard based correlator for the European VLBI network (EVN) uses an FX architecture with half the resources of the board devoted to station based processing: delay and phase correction and channelization, and half to the correlation function. A single UniBoard can process a 64MHz band from 32 stations, 2 polarizations, sampled at 8 bit. Adding more UniBoards can expand the total bandwidth of the correlator. The design is able to process both prerecorded and real time (eVLBI) data.

  12. Beyond Southern Skies: Radio Astronomy and the Parkes Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Peter

    1992-11-01

    Beyond Southern Skies tells the story of the planning and construction of the Parkes Telescope in rural New South Wales, Australia and surveys its achievements over the past thirty years. Around this central theme Peter Robertson presents a broader history of radio astronomy, describing its rapid rise to become the respected partner of traditional optical astronomy. The opening up of the radio window on the universe has been one of the most exciting developments in modern science. The technical achievements of the telescope outlined in Peter Robertson's very readable book will be accessible to a general audience. Readers will be fascinated by the lively account of the personalities, politics and controversy that lay behind the decision to build the Parkes Telescope. Since its completion in 1961, the telescope has contributed much to our knowledge of quasars, pulsars, masers, supernova remnants and molecular clouds, as well as the other unusual objects discovered in recent years. During the 1990s the telescope will continue to play a part in our quest to understand the origin and nature of the universe, and our place in it.

  13. Highlighting the history of Japanese radio astronomy. 3: Early solar radio research at the Tokyo Astronomical Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Hiroshi; Ishiguro, Masato; Orchiston, Wayne; Akabane, Kenji; Enome, Shinzo; Hayashi, Masa; Kaifu, Norio; Nakamura, Tsuko; Tsuchiya, Atsushi

    2014-03-01

    The radio astronomy group at the Tokyo Astronomical Observatory was founded in 1948 immediately after WWII, and decided to put its main research efforts into solar radio astronomy. The first radio telescope was completed in 1949 and started routine observations at 200 MHz. Since then, the group has placed its emphasis on observations at meter and decimeter wavelengths, and has constructed various kinds of radio telescopes and arrays operating at frequencies ranging from 60 to 800 MHz. In addition, radio telescopes operating at 3, 9.5 and 17 GMHz were constructed. In parallel with the observationally-based research, theoretical research on solar radio emission also was pursued. In this paper, we review the instrumental, observational and theoretical developments in solar radio astronomy at the Tokyo Astronomical Observatory in the important period from 1949 through to the 1960s.

  14. The 30-m radio telescope for millimeter astronomy - A new large instrument for German astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baars, J. W. M.; Mezger, P. G.; de Jonge, M. J.; Hooghoudt, B. G.

    1986-08-01

    The instrument considered represents currently the radio telescope with the best performance for astronomical studies involving the wavelength range in the vicinity of 1 mm. For a time of approximately one year, the telescope has been employed in astronomical observational programs. The time period between the planning stage and the beginning of the operational phase is considered. In connection with the opportunities for astronomical studies in the millimeter wavelength range, the new instrument was designed especially for observations involving the range from 0.8 mm to 3 mm. Planning operations for this telescope began already in 1972. Attention is given to discussions with French and British scientists, the selection of a location for the instrument in southern Spain, aspects of European cooperation regarding the instrument, the design of radio telescopes for millimeter astronomy, the characteristic features of the new instrument, data processing and evaluation, and the first results obtained with the telescope.

  15. The beginnings of radio astronomy in the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Woerden, Hugo; Strom, Richard G.

    2006-06-01

    The birth of Dutch radio astronomy can be rather precisely dated to 15 April 1944, when H.C. van de Hulst presented the results of his theoretical research into the origin of radio waves from space. We have investigated the events leading up to the momentous suggestion that hydrogen emission at 21 cm ought to be detectable. Both published material and letters from the Oort Archive have been consulted. Not having direct access to either radar technology or trained engineers, as was the case in countries like England and Australia, Jan Oort had to turn to a diversity of organizations: Philips Electronics Company, the Post Office, and academic colleagues in other disciplines. It was the Post Office's head of radio, A.H. de Voogt, who provided a 7.5 m Würzburg radar reflector and technical support at the Kootwijk station, starting in 1948. We trace the events leading up to the 21 cm line's detection in 1951, and discuss the early results. After a year spent rebuilding and thereby improving the receiver, C.A. Muller, together with Oort, Van de Hulst and others, was able to initiate an extensive HI survey of the Galaxy. The results fully justified the year's wait: a map of the Galaxy, spiral arms, the first rotation curve, and a much improved system of Galactic coordinates. We also present a discussion of Würzburg antennas used for research in the Netherlands, and a brief biography of A.H. de Voogt.

  16. Found: The Original 1945 Records of Australian Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goss, Miller; Ekers, Ron; Sim, Helen

    2015-08-01

    In July 2014, we found the original records of the first published Australian radio astronomy observations. These were obtained by Joseph L. Pawsey and Ruby Payne-Scott in early October 1945. The observations gave strong evidence of a million degree corona as well as frequent radio bursts.These observations followed earlier detections of the radio sun by Stanley Hey, George Southworth, Grote Reber and Elizabeth Alexander. The latter observations (the "Norfolk Island Effect" of March 1945) were the immediate motivation for the campaign carried out by Pawsey and Payne-Scott.These observations formed the basis for a number of pioneering publications: the 9 February 1946 Nature paper of Pawsey, Payne-Scott and McCready which was submitted on the last date on which data was obtained on 23 October 1945, the major publication of the initial Australian radio solar publication in the Proceedings of the Royal Society of London in August 1947 and Pawsey's presentation of the radio properties of the million degree corona in the Nature of 2 November 1946. Contemporaneously with these publications, D. F.Martyn was involved in an independent theoretical study of the properties of the solar corona.(Ginzburg and Shklovsky were also involved in this era in a study of the properties of the corona.) The back-to-back Martyn and Pawsey Nature papers were the first that described the radio properties of the hot corona, due to free-free emission. The division of the observed emission into "bursting" and "quiet" modes was challenging for the novice radio astronomers.These historical records had been recognized by Paul Wild in 1968, who instructed the CSIRO Division of Radiophysics secretary to E.("Taffy") G. Bowen, Ms. Sally Atkinson, to submit these to the Australian Academy of Science. Wild characterized these documents as "of considerable historical interest". Apparently the transmission of the documents was not done; a thorough search of the Australian Academy Library in August 2014

  17. Ultra low noise cryogenic amplifiers for radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryerton, E. W.; Morgan, Matthew Alexander; Pospieszalski, Marian W.

    2013-01-01

    Cryogenic cooling of receivers to reduce their noise temperature is especially important in radio astronomy, as the antenna noise temperature is determined by the cosmic microwave background radiation (2.725 K) modified by the presence of atmosphere. For frequencies up to 120 GHz direct amplification at cryogenic temperatures is typically employed using InP heterostructure field-effect transistors (HFETs) or, more recently, SiGe heterostructure bipolar transistors (HBTs). This article reviews developments in this field and presents the current state-of-the-art. Examples of noise performance of amplifiers using InP HFETs and SiGe HBTs are compared with the model predications. Some gaps in our current understanding of experimental results are emphasized, and some comments on possible future developments are offered.

  18. Planetary radio astronomy observations from Voyager 2 near Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warwick, J. W.; Pearce, J. B.; Riddle, A. C.; Alexander, J. K.; Desch, M. D.; Kaiser, M. L.; Thieman, J. R.; Carr, T. D.; Gulkis, S.; Boischot, A.

    1979-01-01

    The Voyager 2 Planetary Radio Astronomy experiment to Jupiter has confirmed and extended to higher zenomagnetic latitudes results from the identical experiment carried by Voyager 1. The kilometric emissions discovered by Voyager 1 often extended to 1 megahertz or higher on Voyager 2 and often consisted of negatively, or less frequently, positively drifting narrowband bursts. On the basis of tentative identification of plasma wave emissions similar to those detected by Voyager 1, the plasma torus associated with Io appeared somewhat denser to Voyager 2 than it did to Voyager 1. The paper reports on quasi-periodic sinusoidal or impulsive bursts in the broadcast band range of wavelengths (800 to 1800 kHz). A Faraday effect appears at decametric frequencies, which probably results from propagation of the radiation near its sources on Jupiter. Finally, the occurrence of decametric emission in homologous arc families is discussed.

  19. Matched wideband low-noise amplifiers for radio astronomy.

    PubMed

    Weinreb, S; Bardin, J; Mani, H; Jones, G

    2009-04-01

    Two packaged low noise amplifiers for the 0.3-4 GHz frequency range are described. The amplifiers can be operated at temperatures of 300-4 K and achieve noise temperatures in the 5 K range (<0.1 dB noise figure) at 15 K physical temperature. One amplifier utilizes commercially available, plastic-packaged SiGe transistors for first and second stages; the second amplifier is identical except it utilizes an experimental chip transistor as the first stage. Both amplifiers use resistive feedback to provide input reflection coefficient S11<-10 dB over a decade bandwidth with gain over 30 dB. The amplifiers can be used as rf amplifiers in very low noise radio astronomy systems or as i.f. amplifiers following superconducting mixers operating in the millimeter and submillimeter frequency range.

  20. User friendly database for Neptune planetary radio astronomy observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, David R.

    1993-01-01

    Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) data from the Voyager Neptune encounter were cleaned and reformatted in a variety of formats. Most of these formats are new and have been specifically designed to provide easy access and use of the data without the need to understand esoteric characteristics of the PRA instrument or the Voyager spacecraft. Several data sets were submitted to the Planetary Data System (PDS) and have either appeared already on peer reviewed CDROM's or are in the process of being reviewed for inclusion in forthcoming CD-ROM's. Many of the data sets are also available online electronically through computer networks; it is anticipated that as time permits, the PDS will make all the data sets that were a part of this contract available both online and on CD-ROM's.

  1. Molecules in Space: A Chemistry lab using Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekberg, M. J.; Pratap, P.

    2000-12-01

    We present the results of a laboratory exercise developed with the support of the NSF Research Experiences for Teachers program at MIT Haystack Observatory. The exercise takes the students beyond the traditional test tubes of a chemistry laboratory into the interstellar medium, where the same principles that they study about in the classroom are found to hold. It also utilizes the true multi-disciplinary nature of radio astronomy and allows the students to realize how much can be learnt by studying the universe at various wavelengths. The astronomical chemistry laboratory is presented wherein students from Chelmsford High School in Massachusetts operate the 37-m telescope at Haystack Observatory via the internet to observe radio signals from galactic chemicals. The laboratory is designed to be the means by which students witness physical evidence for molecular and orbital shapes by observing the radio emission from rotating dipoles. The laboratory described is a lynch pin activity for an integrated unit that moves from the valance shell electron configurations through molecular and orbital geometry to an understanding that many physical and chemical properties of chemicals are ultimately dependent upon the shape/geometry and consequently, dipole of the molecule. Students are expected to interpret and evaluate the nature of molecular dipoles and account for the diversity of rotational spectra using their conceptual knowledge of bonding orbital theory and their knowledge of the electronic atom. Flexibility in the lab allows students to identify individual chemicals by cross referencing radio emission from the galactic sources they have chosen against a prepared catalogue listing or by choosing to "listen" for specific chemicals at exact frequencies. A teacher resource manual containing information and data on a variety of daytime galactic source and individual chemical flux densities of molecular candidates has been prepared. Collaborative exercises and activities

  2. SwaMURAy - Swapping Memory Unit for Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winberg, Simon

    2016-03-01

    This paper concerns design and performance testing of an HDL module called SwaMURAy that is a configurable, high-speed data sequencing and flow control module serving as an intermediary between data acquisition and subsequent processing stages. While a FIFO suffices for many applications, our case needed a more elaborate solution to overcome legacy design limitations. The SwaMURAy is designed around a system where a block of sampled data is acquired at a fast rate and is then distributed among multiple processing paths to achieve a desired overall processing rate. This architecture provides an effective design pattern around which various software defined radio (SDR) and radio astronomy applications can be built. This solution was partly in response to legacy design restrictions of the SDR platform we used, a difficulty likely experienced by many developers whereby new sampling peripherals are inhibited by legacy characteristics of an underlying reconfigurable platform. Our SDR platform had a planned lifetime of at least five years as a complete redesign and refabrication would be too costly. While the SwaMURAy overcame some performance problems, other problems arose. This paper overviews the SwaMURAy design, performance improvements achieved in an SDR case study, and discusses remaining limitations and workarounds we expect will achieve further improvements.

  3. An Overview of W.N. Christiansen's Contribution to Australian Radio Astronomy, 1948-1960

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendt, Harry; Orchiston, Wayne; Slee, Bruce

    In 1948, an accomplished industrial physicist who had harboured a long-term ambition to become an astronomer joined the newly-formed Radio Astronomy Group in the CSIR's Division of Radiophysics in Sydney, Australia. Thus, W.N. (`Chris') Christiansen (1913-2007) began a new career in the fledgling field of radio astronomy. This paper reviews Christiansen's contribution to both instrumentation development and scientific research during the first phase of his career in radio astronomy, covering his work at the Potts Hill and Fleurs field stations prior to his resignation from the Division of Radiophysics in 1960.

  4. Jansky and Reber: Two Remarkable Stories in Early Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, W. T., III

    1996-05-01

    Extraterrestrial radio waves were first detected in 1931-32 by Karl Jansky at the Bell Telephone Labs in New Jersey while he was investigating sources of interference to recently opened, trans-Atlantic shortwave (20 MHz) radiotelephone circuits. At this time Jansky was only a few years beyond his physics degree from the University of Wisconsin, where his father was a professor of engineering. Jansky studied this "star noise" off and on until 1935, establishing that the emission came from the direction of the Milky Way and the galactic center, but did not pursue it in any further detail. The only other person to make a significant contribution to the nascent subject before World War II was Grote Reber, an electrical engineer who worked for several different radio firms in Chicago. After reading Jansky's articles, in 1937 Reber decided to build a 30-ft diameter dish antenna in the backyard of his suburban home in Wheaton, Illinois. By 1939 he had detected the Jansky radiation, which he called "cosmic noise", at 160 MHz and he comenced a long term program of mapping it in detail (with a 12 degree beam). Reber became a well-known figure to the astronomers at the University of Chicago and Yerkes Observatory (Struve, Greenstein, Kuiper, Henyey, Keenan) as he sought to learn astronomy and convince the staff that this cosmic noise was of importance. Struve, editor of the "Astrophysical Journal", was finally persuaded to publish Reber's articles. During and just after the war Reber extended his work to 480 MHz. He then sought funds to move his dish to a quieter locale and to build a second, much larger dish, but neither of these plans came to fruition. It is ironic that the remarkable contributions of these two pioneers to the field that would eventually become known as "radio astronomy" (a term only introduced in the late 1940s) had little influence on the spectacular growth of the field in the decade after World War II. The great bulk of the important work was done in

  5. Thunderstorms and ground-based radio noise as observed by radio astronomy Explorer 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caruso, J. A.; Herman, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    Radio Astronomy Explorer (RAE) data were analyzed to determine the frequency dependence of HF terrestrial radio noise power. RAE observations of individual thunderstorms, mid-ocean areas, and specific geographic regions for which concommitant ground based measurements are available indicate that noise power is a monotonically decreasing function of frequency which conforms to expectations over the geographic locations and time periods investigated. In all cases investigated, active thunderstorm regions emit slightly higher power as contrasted to RAE observations of the region during meteorologically quiet periods. Noise levels are some 15 db higher than predicted values over mid-ocean, while in locations where ground based measurements are available a maximum deviation of 5 db occurs. Worldwide contour mapping of the noise power at 6000 km for five individual months and four observing frequencies, examples of which are given, indicate high noise levels over continental land masses with corresponding lower levels over ocean regions.

  6. Radio Jupiter after Voyager: An overview of the Planetary Radio Astronomy observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boischot, A.; Lecacheux, A.; Kaiser, M. L.; Desch, M. D.; Alexander, J. K.; Warwick, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    Jupiter's low frequency radio emission morphology as observed by the Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) instrument onboard the Voyager spacecraft is reviewed. The PRA measurement capabilities and limitations are summarized following over two years of experience with the instrument. As a direct consequence of the PRA spacecraft observations, unprecedented in terms of their sensitivity and frequency coverage, at least three previous unrecognized emission components were discovered: broadband and narrow band kilometric emission and the lesser arc decametric emission. Their properties are reviewed. In addition, the fundamental structure of the decameter and hectometer wavelength emission, which is believed to be almost exclusively in the form of complex but repeating arc structures in the frequency time domain, is described. Dramatic changes in the emission morphology of some components as a function of Sun-Jupiter-spacecraft angle (local time) are described. Finally, the PRA in suit measurements of the Io plasma torus hot to cold electron density and temperature ratios are summarized.

  7. Under the Radar: The First Woman in Radio Astronomy, Ruby Payne-Scott

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller Goss, W.

    2012-05-01

    Under the Radar, the First Woman in Radio Astronomy, Ruby Payne-Scott W. Miller Goss, NRAO Socorro NM Ruby Payne-Scott (1912-1981) was an eminent Australian scientist who made major contributions to the WWII radar effort (CSIR) from 1941 to 1945. In late 1945, she pioneered radio astronomy efforts at Dover Heights in Sydney, Australia at a beautiful cliff top overlooking the Tasman Sea. Again at Dover Heights, Payne-Scott carried out the first interferometry in radio astronomy using an Australian Army radar antenna as a radio telescope at sun-rise, 26 January 1946. She continued these ground breaking activities until 1951. Ruby Payne-Scott played a major role in discovering and elucidating the properties of Type III bursts from the sun, the most common of the five classes of transient phenomena from the solar corona. These bursts are one of the most intensively studied forms of radio emission in all of astronomy. She is also one of the inventors of aperture synthesis in radio astronomy. I examine her career at the University of Sydney and her conflicts with the CSIR hierarchy concerning the rights of women in the work place, specifically equal wages and the lack of permanent status for married women. I also explore her membership in the Communist Party of Australia as well as her partially released Australian Scientific Intelligence Organization file. Payne-Scott’s role as a major participant in the flourishing radio astronomy research of the post war era remains a remarkable story. She had a number of strong collaborations with the pioneers of early radio astronomy in Australia: Pawsey, Mills, Christiansen, Bolton and Little. I am currently working on a popular version of the Payne-Scott story; “Making Waves, The Story of Ruby Payne-Scott: Australian Pioneer Radio Astronomer” will be published in 2013 by Springer in the Astronomers’ Universe Series.

  8. Planetary radio astronomy observations from Voyager-2 near Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warwick, J. W.; Evans, D. R.; Romig, J. H.; Alexander, J. K.; Desch, M. D.; Kaiser, M. L.; Aubier, M.; Leblanc, Y.; Lecacheux, A.; Pedersen, B. M.

    1981-01-01

    Voyager-2 planetry radio astronomy measurements obtained near Saturn are discussed. They indicate that Saturnian kilometric radiation is emitted by a strong, dayside source at auroral latitudes in the northern hemisphere and by a weaker (by more than an order of magnitude) source at complementary latitudes in the southern hemisphere. These emissions are variable both due to Saturn's rotation and, on longer time scales, probably due to influences of the solar wind and the satellite Dione. The Saturn electrostatic discharge bursts first discovered by Voyager-1 and attributed to emissions from the B-ring were again observed with the same broadband spectral properties and a 10(h)11(m) + or - 5(m) episodic recurrence period but with an occurrence frequency of only of about 30 percent of that detected with Voyager-1. During the crossing of the ring plane at a distance of 2.88 R sub S, an intense noise event is interpreted to be consequence of the impact/vaporization/ionization of charged micron-size G-ring particles distributed over a total vertical thickness of about 1500 km.

  9. Infrared Submillimeter and Radio Astronomy Research and Analysis Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traub, Wesley A.

    2000-01-01

    This program entitled "Infrared Submillimeter and Radio Astronomy Research and Analysis Program" with NASA-Ames Research Center (ARC) was proposed by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) to cover three years. Due to funding constraints only the first year installment of $18,436 was funded, but this funding was spread out over two years to try to maximize the benefit to the program. During the tenure of this contact, the investigators at the SAO, Drs. Wesley A. Traub and Nathaniel P. Carleton, worked with the investigators at ARC, Drs. Jesse Bregman and Fred Wittebom, on the following three main areas: 1. Rapid scanning SAO and ARC collaborated on purchasing and constructing a Rapid Scan Platform for the delay arm of the Infrared-Optical Telescope Array (IOTA) interferometer on Mt. Hopkins, Arizona. The Rapid Scan Platform was tested and improved by the addition of stiffening plates which eliminated a very small but noticeable bending of the metal platform at the micro-meter level. 2. Star tracking Bregman and Wittebom conducted a study of the IOTA CCD-based star tracker system, by constructing a device to simulate star motion having a specified frequency and amplitude of motion, and by examining the response of the tracker to this simulated star input. 3. Fringe tracking. ARC, and in particular Dr. Robert Mah, developed a fringe-packet tracking algorithm, based on data that Bregman and Witteborn obtained on IOTA. The algorithm was tested in the laboratory at ARC, and found to work well for both strong and weak fringes.

  10. Cosmic Noise: The Pioneers of Early Radio Astronomy and Their Discoveries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Woodruff T., III

    2012-01-01

    Extraterrestrial radio waves (the galactic background), often referred to as "cosmic noise", were first detected accidentally by Karl Jansky at a frequency of 20 MHz in 1932, with significant followup by Grote Reber. Yet after World War II it was England and Australia that dominated the field. An entirely different sky from that of visual astronomy was revealed by the discoveries of solar noise, "radio stars” (discrete sources such as Cas A, Tau A, Cyg A, Cen A and Vir A), galactic noise, lunar and meteor radar experiments, the detection of the 21 cm hydrogen line, and eventually optical identifications such as the Crab Nebula and M87. Key players included wartime radar experts such as Stanley Hey (the British Army's Operational Research Group), Martin Ryle (Cambridge University), Bernard Lovell (Jodrell Bank) and Joe Pawsey (Radiophysics Lab, Sydney). Younger leaders also emerged such as Graham Smith, Tony Hewish, John Davies, "Chris" Christiansen, Bernie Mills, Paul Wild, and John Bolton. Some optical astronomers (Jan Oort, Henk van de Hulst, Jesse Greenstein, Rudolph Minkowski, and Walter Baade) were also extremely supportive. By the end of the postwar decade, radio astronomy was firmly established within the gamut of astronomy, although very few of its practitioners had been trained as astronomers. I will also trace the technical and social aspects of this wholly new type of astronomy, with special attention on military and national influences. I argue that radio astronomy represents one of the key developments in twentieth century astronomy not only because of its own discoveries, but also its pathfinding for the further opening the electromagnetic spectrum. This study is based on exhaustive archival research and over one hundred interviews with pioneering radio astronomers. Full details are available in the book "Cosmic Noise: A History of Early Radio Astronomy" (Cambridge Univ. Pr.).

  11. Early Dutch radio astronomy (1940-1970) : the people and the politics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elbers, Astrid

    2015-12-01

    Radio astronomy was born during the Second World War. The early post-war radio astronomy group in the Netherlands was one of the most important radio astronomy groups in the world. There are several reasons for this. Firstly: Dutch radio astronomers were trained as (optical) astronomers, while in most countries engineers and physicists with a background in wartime radar research were the first radio 'astronomers'. This was because radio telescopes shared the technology of wartime radar installations. Because Dutch astronomers were not familiar with the new kind of instrumentation, they had to conclude strategic alliances with industrial partners such as Philips, the PTT and the KNMI. These alliances would offer much more than merely technical know-how, which means that the disadvantage would prove to be an advantage in the end. Secondly: astronomy was still a very small-scale undertaking in the early post-war period. Even so, ZWO was still a very small organisation. The fact that so few people were involved meant that the impact of a personal network could be enormous. Thirdly: the Dutch post-war context was remarkably favourable to science: it was considered to be a key factor in the rebuilding of the country.

  12. Investigation on the Frequency Allocation for Radio Astronomy at the L Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abidin, Z. Z.; Umar, R.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Rosli, Z.; Asanok, K.; Gasiprong, N.

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, the frequency allocation reserved for radio astronomy in the L band set by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), which is between 1400 and 1427 MHz, is reviewed. We argue that the nearby frequencies are still very important for radio astronomers on the ground by investigating radio objects (H i sources) around 1300-1500 MHz. The L-band window is separated into a group of four windows, namely 1400-1427 MHz (window A), 1380-1400 MHz (window B), 1350-1380 MHz (window C), and 1300-1350 MHz (window D). These windows are selected according to their redshifts from a rest frequency for hydrogen spectral line at 1420.4057 MHz. Radio objects up to z ≈ 0.1 or frequency down to 1300 MHz are examined. We argue that since window B has important radio objects within the four windows, this window should also be given to radio astronomy. They are galaxies, spiral galaxies, and galaxy clusters. This underlines the significance of window B for radio astronomers on the ground. By investigating the severeness of radio frequency interference (RFI) within these windows, we have determined that window B still has significant, consistent RFI. The main RFI sources in the four windows have also been identified. We also found that the Department of Civil Aviation of Malaysia is assigned a frequency range of 1215-1427 MHz, which is transmitted within the four windows and inside the protected frequency for radio astronomy. We also investigated the RFI in the four windows on proposed sites of future radio astronomy observatories in Malaysia and Thailand and found the two best sites as Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (UPSI) and Ubon Ratchathani, respectively. It has also been determined that RFI in window B increases with population density.

  13. Spectrum Management for Radio Astronomy, Proceedings of the IUCAF summer school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, B. M.; Emerson, D. T.

    2004-06-01

    Radio astronomers must use the radio spectrum, a resource that is also in demand for the radiocommunication and radio-location needs of our civilization. So use of the radio spectrum must be coordinated on the local, national, and international scenes. These proceedings cover much of the material that a spectrum manager for radio astronomy needs. These proceedings include an overview of the technical background, as well as of the organization of spectrum management in the US, Europe, the Asia-Pacific region, and at the ITU. There are in addition some case studies of situations radio astronomers face in coping with the problems posed by transmitters on earth satellites. These challenges have led to several approaches to quantifying and mitigating radio frequency interference.

  14. Outer planets grand tours: Planetary radio astronomy team report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warwick, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    Requirements related to scientific observations of planetary radio emissions during outer planets grand tours are discussed. Observations at low frequencies where non-thermal cooperative plasma phenomena play a major role are considered for determining dynamical processes and magnetic fields near a planet. Magnetic field measurements by spacecraft magnetometers, and by radio receivers in their harmonic modes are proposed for interpretation of planetary radio emission.

  15. Communicating astronomy in a small island state: The unique role of the Mauritius Radio Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saddul-Hauzaree, S.

    2008-06-01

    The Mauritius Radio Telescope (MRT) is a 2 km x 1 km T-shaped aperture synthesis array that can generate radio images of the southern sky at 151.6 MHz. The sky surveyed can be in the declination range of -70o to -10o. It is located at Bras d'Eau, northeast of Mauritius at latitude 20oS and longitude 60oE. The MRT is a joint project of the University of Mauritius, the Indian Institute of Astrophysics and the Raman Research Institute. One of the main objectives of the MRT is to generate public interest in astronomy. Thus, it is involved in a wide range of onsite outreach activities for young school children. More mature students visiting the telescope learn about sky observation with a radio telescope, get to explore some sets of data, interact with the scientific personnel, get the opportunity to have hands-on experience with image manipulation and can ask a lot of questions on astronomy. This poster gives an overview of the Mauritius Radio Telescope and the attempts of MRT ito communicate astronomy to students as a process and not just as a vast expanse of knowledge. The challenges and dilemmas faced by MRT in conveying astronomy to the general public in a small island state are investigated and presented.

  16. Cyclostationary approaches for spatial RFI mitigation in radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellbourg, Grégory; Weber, Rodolphe; Capdessus, Cécile; Boonstra, Albert-Jan

    2012-01-01

    Radio astronomical observations are increasingly corrupted by radio frequency interferences (RFIs), and real time filtering algorithms are becoming essential. In this article, it is shown how spatial processing techniques can limit the impact of the incoming RFIs for phased array radio telescopes. The proposed approaches are based on estimation of the RFI spatial signature. It requires the diagonalization of either the classic correlation matrix or the cyclic correlation matrix of the array. Different diagonalization techniques are compared. Then, RFI detection and RFI filtering techniques are illustrated through simulations on data acquired with the Low Frequency Array Radio telescope, LOFAR. The originality of the study is the use of the cyclostationarity property, in order to improve the spatial separation between cosmic sources and RFIs.

  17. Voyager 1 Planetary Radio Astronomy Observations Near Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warwick, J. W.; Pearce, J. B.; Riddle, A. C.; Alexander, J. K.; Desch, M. D.; Kaiser, M. L.; Thieman, J. R.; Carr, T. B.; Gulkis, S.; Boischot, A.

    1979-01-01

    Results are reported from the first low frequency radio receiver to be transported into the Jupiter magnetosphere. Dramatic new information was obtained both because Voyager was near or in Jupiter's radio emission sources and also because it was outside the relatively dense solar wind plasma of the inner solar system. Extensive radio arcs, from above 30 MHz to about 1 MHz, occurred in patterns correlated with planetary longitude. A newly discovered kilometric wavelength radio source may relate to the plasma torus near Io's orbit. In situ wave resonances near closest approach define an electron density profile along the Voyager trajectory and form the basis for a map of the torus. Studies in progress are outlined briefly.

  18. Voyager 1 planetary radio astronomy observations near Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warwick, J. W.; Pearce, J. B.; Riddle, A. C.; Alexander, J. K.; Desch, M. D.; Kaiser, M. L.; Thieman, J. R.; Carr, T. D.; Gulkis, S.; Boischot, A.

    1979-01-01

    Results from the first low-frequency radio receiver to be transported into the Jupiter magnetosphere are reported. Dramatic new information was obtained, both because Voyager was near or in Jupiter's radio emission sources and because it was outside the relatively dense solar wind plasma of the inner solar system. Extensive radio spectral arcs, from above 30 to about 1 MHz, occurred in patterns correlated with planetary longitude. A newly discovered kilometric wavelength radio source may relate to the plasma torus near Io's orbit. In situ wave resonances near closest approach define an electron density profile along the Voyager trajectory and form the basis for a map of the torus. Detailed studies are in progress and are outlined briefly.

  19. A Decade of Developing Radio-Astronomy Instrumentation using CASPER Open-Source Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickish, Jack; Abdurashidova, Zuhra; Ali, Zaki; Buch, Kaushal D.; Chaudhari, Sandeep C.; Chen, Hong; Dexter, Matthew; Domagalski, Rachel Simone; Ford, John; Foster, Griffin; George, David; Greenberg, Joe; Greenhill, Lincoln; Isaacson, Adam; Jiang, Homin; Jones, Glenn; Kapp, Francois; Kriel, Henno; Lacasse, Rich; Lutomirski, Andrew; MacMahon, David; Manley, Jason; Martens, Andrew; McCullough, Randy; Muley, Mekhala V.; New, Wesley; Parsons, Aaron; Price, Daniel C.; Primiani, Rurik A.; Ray, Jason; Siemion, Andrew; van Tonder, Vereesé; Vertatschitsch, Laura; Wagner, Mark; Weintroub, Jonathan; Werthimer, Dan

    The Collaboration for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER) has been working for a decade to reduce the time and cost of designing, building and deploying new digital radio-astronomy instruments. Today, CASPER open-source technology powers over 45 scientific instruments worldwide, and is used by scientists and engineers at dozens of academic institutions. In this paper, we catalog the current offerings of the CASPER collaboration, and instruments past and present built by CASPER users and developers. We describe the ongoing state of software development, as CASPER looks to support a broader range of programming environments and hardware and ensure compatibility with the latest vendor tools.

  20. The renaissance of radio astronomy: towards the Square Kilometre Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, C.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, I will give a brief overview of the largest radio telescope in the world, the Square Kilometre Array (SKA). The history of this instrument, its development as a huge international project, as well as its main scientific goals, will be summarised. I will then focus on a particular science case by presenting how the first phase of the SKA (SKA1), whose observations are expected to start in the early 2020's, will change our radio view of the largest gravitationally bound structures of the Universe: galaxy clusters.

  1. The time resolution domain of stellar radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bookbinder, J.

    1985-07-01

    High time resolution (HTR) radio observations of stellar sources is a very young technique. One of the main limitations on HTR observations is the refusal of stars to cooperate with the observer - i.e. low flare rates. Instrumental problems, obtaining the necessary sensitivity (i.e. low noise) on short integration times is also a major problem. Few instruments are likely to excel Arecibo or the VLA for this mode of observing. High time resolution observations are necessary to determine the nature of both the acceleration and emission mechanisms responsible for the short-lived radio phenomena that have already been observed.

  2. The radio astronomy explorer satellite, a low-frequency observatory.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, R. R.; Alexander, J. K.; Stone, R. G.

    1971-01-01

    The RAE-1 is the first spacecraft designed exclusively for radio astronomical studies. It is a small, but relatively complex, observatory including two 229-meter antennas, several radiometer systems covering a frequency range of 0.2 to 9.2 MHz, and a variety of supporting experiments such as antenna impedance probes and TV cameras to monitor antenna shape. Since its launch in July, 1968, RAE-1 has sent back some 10 billion data bits per year on measurements of long-wavelength radio phenomena in the magnetosphere, the solar corona, and the Galaxy. In this paper we describe the design, calibration, and performance of the RAE-1 experiments in detail.

  3. Probing the field of radio astronomy with the SKA and the Hartebeesthoek Radio observatory: an engineer's perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, Sunelle

    2011-07-01

    The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) is an international project to build the world's largest and most sensitive radio telescope interferometer. It will consist of thousands of antennas distributed over many kilometers, with the hosting country being either South Africa or Australia. This talk will give some background on the SKA technologies, pathfinders and Key Science Projects and also consider the system design options for the SKA Pulsar science case. The Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory (HartRAO) is the only major radio astronomy observatory in Africa; with KAT-7 in testing and the MeerKAT still in it's design phase. Some of my research work at HartRAO is presented, which includes data analysis of the pointing model for the 26m radio telescope and evaluating the performance of the GPS-disciplined Rubidium and Hydrogen Maser frequency standards. I will also talk about our project to build a 1.4GHz receiver for a commercial satellite TV antenna as well as calibrating data at 22GHz for observing water masers in Orion.

  4. The birthplace of planetary radio astronomy: The Seneca, Maryland observatory 50 years after Burke and Franklin's Jupiter radio emission discovery.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, L. N.; Thieman, J. R.; Higgins, C. A.

    2004-12-01

    Burke and Franklin's discovery of radio emissions from Jupiter in 1955 effectively marked the birth of the field of planetary radio astronomy. The discovery was made near Seneca, Maryland using the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism/Carnegie Institution of Washington's Mills Cross Array. Fifty years later there is very little evidence of this 96-acre X-shaped array of dipoles still in existence, nor evidence of any of the other antennas used at this site. The site, now known as the McKee Besher Wildlife Management Area, is owned by the State of Maryland Department of Natural Resources. Radio Jove, a NASA/GSFC education and public outreach project, will recognize the 50th anniversary of this discovery through an historic reenactment using their receiver and dual-dipole array system. Our search through the DTM/CIW archives, our visit to the site to look for evidence of this array, and other efforts at commemorating this anniversary will be described.

  5. Space-based aperture array for ultra-long wavelength radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajan, Raj Thilak; Boonstra, Albert-Jan; Bentum, Mark; Klein-Wolt, Marc; Belien, Frederik; Arts, Michel; Saks, Noah; van der Veen, Alle-Jan

    2016-02-01

    The past decade has seen the advent of various radio astronomy arrays, particularly for low-frequency observations below 100 MHz. These developments have been primarily driven by interesting and fundamental scientific questions, such as studying the dark ages and epoch of re-ionization, by detecting the highly red-shifted 21 cm line emission. However, Earth-based radio astronomy observations at frequencies below 30 MHz are severely restricted due to man-made interference, ionospheric distortion and almost complete non-transparency of the ionosphere below 10 MHz. Therefore, this narrow spectral band remains possibly the last unexplored frequency range in radio astronomy. A straightforward solution to study the universe at these frequencies is to deploy a space-based antenna array far away from Earths' ionosphere. In the past, such space-based radio astronomy studies were principally limited by technology and computing resources, however current processing and communication trends indicate otherwise. Furthermore, successful space-based missions which mapped the sky in this frequency regime, such as the lunar orbiter RAE-2, were restricted by very poor spatial resolution. Recently concluded studies, such as DARIS (Disturbuted Aperture Array for Radio Astronomy In Space) have shown the ready feasibility of a 9 satellite constellation using off the shelf components. The aim of this article is to discuss the current trends and technologies towards the feasibility of a space-based aperture array for astronomical observations in the Ultra-Long Wavelength (ULW) regime of greater than 10 m i.e., below 30 MHz. We briefly present the achievable science cases, and discuss the system design for selected scenarios such as extra-galactic surveys. An extensive discussion is presented on various sub-systems of the potential satellite array, such as radio astronomical antenna design, the on-board signal processing, communication architectures and joint space-time estimation of the

  6. Applications of Microwave Photonics in Radio Astronomy and Space Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Addario, Larry R.; Shillue, William P.

    2006-01-01

    An overview of narrow band vs wide band signals is given. Topics discussed included signal transmission, reference distribution and photonic antenna metrology. Examples of VLA, ALMA, ATA and DSN arrays are given. . Arrays of small antennas have become more cost-effective than large antennas for achieving large total aperture or gain, both for astronomy and for communication. It is concluded that emerging applications involving arrays of many antennas require low-cost optical communication of both wide bandwidth and narrow bandwidth; development of round-trip correction schemes enables timing precision; and free-space laser beams with microwave modulation allow structural metrology with approx 100 micrometer precision over distances of 200 meters.

  7. A very low frequency radio astronomy observatory on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, James N.; Smith, Harlan J.

    1988-01-01

    Because of terrestrial ionospheric absorption, very little is known of the radio sky beyond 10 m wavelength. An extremely simple, low cost very low frequency radio telescope is proposed, consisting of a large array of short wires laid on the lunar surface, each wire equipped with an amplifier and a digitizer, and connected to a common computer. The telescope could do simultaneous multifrequency observations of much of the visible sky with high resolution in the 10 to 100 m wavelength range, and with lower resolution in the 100 to 1000 m range. It would explore structure and spectra of galactic and extragalactic point sources, objects, and clouds, and would produce detailed quasi-three-dimensional mapping of interstellar matter within several thousand parsecs of the Sun.

  8. The time resolution domain of stellar radio astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bookbinder, J.

    1985-01-01

    The high time resolution (HTR) radio observation of late-type stars and RS CVn systems is discussed. Some examples of these sources are addressed, identifying what information HTR observations can provide. HTR can provide important information on flares in late-type stars, and can be used to study coronal structure and the particle acceleration mechanism in these stars. The possible use of HTR to establish the nature of quiescent emission form RS CVn systems is discussed.

  9. Multiphase Turbulent Interstellar Medium: Some Recent Results from Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Nirupam

    2015-06-01

    The radio frequency 1.4 GHz transition of the atomic hydrogen is one of the important tracers of the diffuse neutral interstellar medium. Radio astronomical observations of this transition, using either a single dish telescope or an array interferometer, reveal different properties of the interstellar medium. Such observations are particularly useful to study the multiphase nature and turbulence in the interstellar gas. Observations with multiple radio telescopes have recently been used to study these two closely related aspects in greater detail. This review article presents a brief outline of some of the basic ideas of radio astronomical observations and data analysis, summarizes the results from these recent observations, and discusses possible implications of the results. Using various observational techniques, the density and the velocity fluctuations in the Galactic interstellar medium was found to have a Kolmogorov-like power law power spectra. The observed power law scaling of the turbulent velocity dispersion with the length scale can be used to derive the true temperature distribution of the medium. Observations from a large ongoing atomic hydrogen absorption line survey have also been used to study the distribution of gas at different temperature. The thermal steady state model predicts that the multiphase neutral gas will exist in cold and warm phase with temperature below 200 K and above 5000 K respectively. However, these observations clearly show the presence of a large fraction of gas in the intermediate unstable phase. These results raise serious doubt about the validity of the standard model, and highlight the necessity of alternative theoretical models. Interestingly, numerical simulations suggest that some of the observational results can be explained consistently by including the effects of turbulence in the models of the multiphase medium.

  10. A New Approach to Interference Excision in Radio Astronomy: Real-Time Adaptive Cancellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnbaum, Cecilia; Bradley, Richard F.

    1998-11-01

    Every year, an increasing amount of radio-frequency (RF) spectrum in the VHF, UHF, and microwave bands is being utilized to support new commercial and military ventures, and all have the potential to interfere with radio astronomy observations. Such services already cause problems for radio astronomy even in very remote observing sites, and the potential for this form of light pollution to grow is alarming. Preventive measures to eliminate interference through FCC legislation and ITU agreements can be effective; however, many times this approach is inadequate and interference excision at the receiver is necessary. Conventional techniques such as RF filters, RF shielding, and postprocessing of data have been only somewhat successful, but none has been sufficient. Adaptive interference cancellation is a real-time approach to interference excision that has not been used before in radio astronomy. We describe here, for the first time, adaptive interference cancellation in the context of radio astronomy instrumentation, and we present initial results for our prototype receiver. In the 1960s, analog adaptive interference cancelers were developed that obtain a high degree of cancellation in problems of radio communications and radar. However, analog systems lack the dynamic range, noised performance, and versatility required by radio astronomy. The concept of digital adaptive interference cancellation was introduced in the mid-1960s as a way to reduce unwanted noise in low-frequency (audio) systems. Examples of such systems include the canceling of maternal ECG in fetal electrocardiography and the reduction of engine noise in the passenger compartments of automobiles. These audio-frequency applications require bandwidths of only a few tens of kilohertz. Only recently has high-speed digital filter technology made high dynamic range adaptive canceling possible in a bandwidth as large as a few megahertz, finally opening the door to application in radio astronomy. We have

  11. The history of early low frequency radio astronomy in Australia. 2: Tasmania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Martin; Orchiston, Wayne; Slee, Bruce; Wielebinski, Richard

    2015-03-01

    Significant contributions to low frequency radio astronomy were made in the Australian state of Tasmania after the arrival of Grote Reber in 1954. Initially, Reber teamed with Graeme Ellis, who was then working with the Ionospheric Prediction Service, and they carried out observations as low as 0.52 MHz during the 1955 period of exceptionally low sunspot activity. In the early 1960s, Reber established a 2.085 MHz array in the southern central region of the State and used this to make the first map of the southern sky at this frequency. In addition, in the 1960s the University of Tasmania constructed several low frequency arrays near Hobart, including a 609m × 609m array designed for operation between about 2 MHz and 20 MHz. In this paper we present an overview of the history of low frequency radio astronomy in Tasmania.

  12. Information Telecommunications of Pushchino Radio Astronomy Observatory, Astro Space Center of Lebedev Physical Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumsky, V.; Isaev, E. A.; Samodurov, V. A.; Likhachev, S. F.; Shatskaya, M. V.; Kitaeva, M. A.; Zaytcev, A. Yu.; Ovchinnikov, I. L.; Kornilov, V. V.

    Buffer data center was created in the territory of the Pushchino Radio Astronomy Observatory three years ago. The necessity of its creation was caused by the high requirements to the speed and quality of the transmission large amounts of scientific and telemetry data received by tracking station RT-22 from the space radio telescope of the international project "Radioastron". The transfer of this data is carried out over a long distance over 100 km from the Pushchino to Moscow center of processing and storage ASC FIAN. And now we use the data center as a center of local network of the Observatory.

  13. The history of early low frequency radio astronomy in Australia. 1: The CSIRO Division of Radiophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, Wayne; George, Martin; Slee, Bruce; Wielebinski, Richard

    2015-03-01

    During the 1950s and 1960s Australia was a world leader in the specialised field of low frequency radio astronomy, with two geographically-distinct areas of activity. One was in the Sydney region and the other in the island of Tasmania to the south of the Australian mainland. Research in the Sydney region began in 1949 through the CSIRO's Division of Radiophysics, and initially was carried out at the Hornsby Valley field station before later transferring to the Fleurs field station. In this paper we summarise the low frequency radio telescopes and research programs associated with the historic Hornsby Valley and Fleurs sites.

  14. Workshop on Satellite Power Systems (SPS) effects on optical and radio astronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Stokes, G.M.; Ekstrom, P.A.

    1980-04-01

    The impacts of the SPS on astronomy were concluded to be: increased sky brightness, reducing the effective aperture of terrestrial telescopes; microwave leakage radiation causing erroneous radioastronomical signals; direct overload of radioastronomical receivers at centimeter wavelengths; and unintentional radio emissions associated with massive amounts of microwave power or with the presence of large, warm structures in orbit causing the satellites to appear as individual stationary radio sources; finally, the fixed location of the geostationary satellite orbits would result in fixed regions of the sky being unusable for observations. (GHT)

  15. Fundamental experiments of radio astronomy by the paraboloidal antenna of 3.3 m diameter.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, K.; Kuji, S.; Hara, T.; Fujishita, M.; Horiai, K.; Iwadate, K.; Sato, K.; Tsubokawa, T.; Tamura, Y.; Takano, S.; Tsuruta, S.; Asari, K.

    The 3.3 m diameter paraboloidal antenna was moved at early 1985 for fundamental experiments of radio astronomy at the International Latitude Observatory of Mizusawa. The antenna was originally manufactured for the telecomunication experiments at 4 GHz. The authors fitted up a new feed horn of 8 GHz-band for their experiments. The driving system was renewed as suitable for astronomical use by using DC servomotors, optical encoders and a micro-computer.

  16. Scalable desktop visualisation of very large radio astronomy data cubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, Simon; Questiaux, Jacques; Finniss, Stephen; Tyler, Robin; Blyth, Sarah; Kuttel, Michelle M.

    2014-07-01

    Observation data from radio telescopes is typically stored in three (or higher) dimensional data cubes, the resolution, coverage and size of which continues to grow as ever larger radio telescopes come online. The Square Kilometre Array, tabled to be the largest radio telescope in the world, will generate multi-terabyte data cubes - several orders of magnitude larger than the current norm. Despite this imminent data deluge, scalable approaches to file access in Astronomical visualisation software are rare: most current software packages cannot read astronomical data cubes that do not fit into computer system memory, or else provide access only at a serious performance cost. In addition, there is little support for interactive exploration of 3D data. We describe a scalable, hierarchical approach to 3D visualisation of very large spectral data cubes to enable rapid visualisation of large data files on standard desktop hardware. Our hierarchical approach, embodied in the AstroVis prototype, aims to provide a means of viewing large datasets that do not fit into system memory. The focus is on rapid initial response: our system initially rapidly presents a reduced, coarse-grained 3D view of the data cube selected, which is gradually refined. The user may select sub-regions of the cube to be explored in more detail, or extracted for use in applications that do not support large files. We thus shift the focus from data analysis informed by narrow slices of detailed information, to analysis informed by overview information, with details on demand. Our hierarchical solution to the rendering of large data cubes reduces the overall time to complete file reading, provides user feedback during file processing and is memory efficient. This solution does not require high performance computing hardware and can be implemented on any platform supporting the OpenGL rendering library.

  17. Double plasma resonance and its manifestations in radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheleznyakov, V. V.; Zlotnik, E. Ya; Zaitsev, V. V.; Shaposhnikov, V. E.

    2016-10-01

    The double plasma resonance (DPR) effect is the phenomenon of a sharply increased instability of plasma waves in a magnetized plasma when the upper hybrid frequency coincides with the cyclotron harmonic frequency. A radiation mechanism associated with this effect provides an explanation for the origin of the ‘zebra pattern’ in radio spectra of the Sun, Jupiter, and the Crab pulsar. The diversity of these astronomical objects and the successful interpretation of their spectra in terms of the DPR effect point to the universal nature of this phenomenon and suggest that the same radiation mechanism can operate under a variety of astronomical conditions.

  18. Low-Power Architectures for Large Radio Astronomy Correlators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Addario, Larry R.

    2011-01-01

    The architecture of a cross-correlator for a synthesis radio telescope with N greater than 1000 antennas is studied with the objective of minimizing power consumption. It is found that the optimum architecture minimizes memory operations, and this implies preference for a matrix structure over a pipeline structure and avoiding the use of memory banks as accumulation registers when sharing multiply-accumulators among baselines. A straw-man design for N = 2000 and bandwidth of 1 GHz, based on ASICs fabricated in a 90 nm CMOS process, is presented. The cross-correlator proper (excluding per-antenna processing) is estimated to consume less than 35 kW.

  19. Electronic Multi-beam Radio Astronomy Concept: Embrace a Demonstrator for the European SKA Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardenne, A.; Wilkinson, P. N.; Patel, P. D.; Vaate, J. G. Bij

    2004-06-01

    ASTRON has demonstrated the capabilities of a 4 m2, dense phased array antenna (Bij de Vaate et al., 2002) for radio astronomy, as part of the Thousand Element Array project (ThEA). Although it proved the principle, a definitive answer related to the viability of the dense phased array approach for the SKA could not be given, due to the limited collecting area of the array considered. A larger demonstrator has therefore been defined, known as “Electronic Multi-Beam Radio Astronomy Concept”, EMBRACE, which will have an area of 625 m2, operate in the band 0.4 1.550 GHz and have at least two independent and steerable beams. With this collecting area EMBRACE can function as a radio astronomy instrument whose sensitivity is comparable to that of a 25-m diameter dish. The collecting area also represents a significant percentage area (˜10%) of an individual SKA “station.” This paper presents the plans for the realisation of the EMBRACE demonstrator.

  20. Instrumentation for Kinetic-Inductance-Detector-Based Submillimeter Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Ran

    A substantial amount of important scientific information is contained within astronomical data at the submillimeter and far-infrared (FIR) wavelengths, including information regarding dusty galaxies, galaxy clusters, and star-forming regions; however, these wavelengths are among the least-explored fields in astronomy because of the technological difficulties involved in such research. Over the past 20 years, considerable efforts have been devoted to developing submillimeter- and millimeter-wavelength astronomical instruments and telescopes. The number of detectors is an important property of such instruments and is the subject of the current study. Future telescopes will require as many as hundreds of thousands of detectors to meet the necessary requirements in terms of the field of view, scan speed, and resolution. A large pixel count is one benefit of the development of multiplexable detectors that use kinetic inductance detector (KID) technology. This dissertation presents the development of a KID-based instrument including a portion of the millimeter-wave bandpass filters and all aspects of the readout electronics, which together enabled one of the largest detector counts achieved to date in submillimeter-/millimeter-wavelength imaging arrays: a total of 2304 detectors. The work presented in this dissertation has been implemented in the MUltiwavelength Submillimeter Inductance Camera (MUSIC), a new instrument for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO).

  1. New results and techniques in space radio astronomy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, J. K.

    1971-01-01

    The methods and results of early space radioastronomy experiments are reviewed, with emphasis on the RAE 1 spacecraft which was designed specifically and exclusively for radio astronomical studies. The RAE 1 carries two gravity-gradient-stabilized 229-m traveling-wave V-antennas, a 37-m dipole antenna, and a number of radiometer systems to provide measurements over the 0.2 to 9.2 MHz frequency range with a time resolution of 0.5 sec and an absolute accuracy of plus or minus 25%. Observations of solar bursts at frequencies down to 0.2 MHz provide new information on the density, plasma velocity, and dynamics of coronal streamers out to distances greater than 50 solar radii. New information on the distribution of the ionized component of the interstellar medium is being obtained from galactic continuum background maps at frequencies around 4 MHz. Cosmic noise background spectra measured down to 0.5 MHz produce new estimates on the interstellar flux of cosmic rays, on magnetic fields in the galactic halo, and on distant extragalactic radio sources.

  2. Characterising the Venezuelan Troposphere for Radio-Astronomy Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco, R.; Muñoz, A. G.; Brito, A.; Cubillán, N.

    2009-05-01

    Venezuela possesses a very useful geographical location for doing Radioastronomy. Recently, the Venezuelan Government (via FIDETEL-Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnología) has aproved to the Laboratorio de Astronomía y Física Teórica (LAFT) of La Universidad del Zulia (Venezuela) the adquisition of four 3 meter diameter parabolic dishes that will be set as a radio-interferometer receiver and that can be used for certain Radioastronomy purposes. The specifications of the instrument will be treated elsewhere (Muñoz and Hernández 2007). To this aim, as ussually, the first step is to characterize the losses due to the atmosphere, and their evolution over time. In previous works (Muñoz et al. 2004, Memoires of V RIAO/VIII OPTILAS, M10-5 Modelling Tropospheric Radio-Attenuation Parameters for Venezuela, 359; Muñoz et al. 2006, CIENCIA, Vol. 14, 4, 428) we have studied some relevant electromagnetic (e-m) attenuation parameters dueto hydrometeors and absortion gases in the lower atmosphere, focused in local telecommunication applications (surface e-m trajectories). In this work we extend our results to include the cenital and quasi-cenital e-m trajectories, characterizing thus the medium losses in the 0.4-4.0 GHz spectral window for several Venezuelan locations. We report refractivity values and their gradients, tropospheric indexes, extinction coefficients and the total rain attenuation for the whole territory under study.

  3. Scientific Visualization of Radio Astronomy Data using Gesture Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulumba, P.; Gain, J.; Marais, P.; Woudt, P.

    2015-09-01

    MeerKAT in South Africa (Meer = More Karoo Array Telescope) will require software to help visualize, interpret and interact with multidimensional data. While visualization of multi-dimensional data is a well explored topic, little work has been published on the design of intuitive interfaces to such systems. More specifically, the use of non-traditional interfaces (such as motion tracking and multi-touch) has not been widely investigated within the context of visualizing astronomy data. We hypothesize that a natural user interface would allow for easier data exploration which would in turn lead to certain kinds of visualizations (volumetric, multidimensional). To this end, we have developed a multi-platform scientific visualization system for FITS spectral data cubes using VTK (Visualization Toolkit) and a natural user interface to explore the interaction between a gesture input device and multidimensional data space. Our system supports visual transformations (translation, rotation and scaling) as well as sub-volume extraction and arbitrary slicing of 3D volumetric data. These tasks were implemented across three prototypes aimed at exploring different interaction strategies: standard (mouse/keyboard) interaction, volumetric gesture tracking (Leap Motion controller) and multi-touch interaction (multi-touch monitor). A Heuristic Evaluation revealed that the volumetric gesture tracking prototype shows great promise for interfacing with the depth component (z-axis) of 3D volumetric space across multiple transformations. However, this is limited by users needing to remember the required gestures. In comparison, the touch-based gesture navigation is typically more familiar to users as these gestures were engineered from standard multi-touch actions. Future work will address a complete usability test to evaluate and compare the different interaction modalities against the different visualization tasks.

  4. Enhancing the Radio Astronomy Capabilities at NASA's Deep Space Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazio, Joseph; Teitelbaum, Lawrence; Franco, Manuel M.; Garcia-Miro, Cristina; Horiuchi, Shinji; Jacobs, Christopher; Kuiper, Thomas; Majid, Walid

    2015-08-01

    NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) is well known for its role in commanding and communicating with spacecraft across the solar system that produce a steady stream of new discoveries in Astrophysics, Heliophysics, and Planetary Science. Equipped with a number of large antennas distributed across the world, the DSN also has a history of contributing to a number of leading radio astronomical projects. This paper summarizes a number of enhancements that are being implemented currently and that are aimed at increasing its capabilities to engage in a wide range of science observations. These enhancements include* A dual-beam system operating between 18 and 27 GHz (~ 1 cm) capable of conducting a variety of molecular line observations, searches for pulsars in the Galactic center, and continuum flux density (photometry) of objects such as nearby protoplanetary disks* Enhanced spectroscopy and pulsar processing backends for use at 1.4--1.9 GHz (20 cm), 18--27 GHz (1 cm), and 38--50 GHz (0.7 cm)* The DSN Transient Observatory (DTN), an automated, non-invasive backend for transient searching* Larger bandwidths (>= 0.5 GHz) for pulsar searching and timing; and* Improved data rates (2048 Mbps) and better instrumental response for very long baseline interferometric (VLBI) observations with the new DSN VLBI processor (DVP), which is providing unprecedented sensitivity for maintenance of the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) and development of future versions.One of the results of these improvements is that the 70~m Deep Space Station 43 (DSS-43, Tidbinbilla antenna) is now the most sensitive radio antenna in the southern hemisphere. Proposals to use these systems are accepted from the international community.Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics & Space Administration.

  5. PARAS program: Phased array radio astronomy from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jakubowski, Antoni K.; Haynes, David A.; Nuss, Ken; Hoffmann, Chris; Madden, Michael; Dungan, Michael

    1992-01-01

    An orbiting radio telescope is proposed which, when operated in a Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBLI) scheme, would allow higher (than currently available) angular resolution and dynamic range in the maps, and the ability of observing rapidly changing astronomical sources. Using a passive phases array technology, the proposed design consists of 656 hexagonal modules forming a 150 meter diameter dish. Each observatory module is largely autonomous, having its own photovoltaic power supply and low-noise receiver and processor for phase shifting. The signals received by the modules are channeled via fiber optics to the central control computer in the central bus module. After processing and multiplexing, the data is transmitted to telemetry stations on the ground. The truss frame supporting each observatory pane is a hybrid structure consisting of a bottom graphite/epoxy tubular triangle and rigidized inflatable Kevlar tubes connecting the top observatory panel and bottom triangle. Attitude control and stationkeeping functions are performed by a system of momentum wheels in the bus and four propulsion modules located at the compass points on the periphery of the observatory dish. Each propulsion module has four monopropellant thrusters and six hydrazine arcjets, the latter supported by a nuclear reactor. The total mass of the spacecraft is 22,060 kg.

  6. Accelerating radio astronomy cross-correlation with graphics processing units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, M. A.; LaPlante, P. C.; Greenhill, L. J.

    2013-05-01

    We present a highly parallel implementation of the cross-correlation of time-series data using graphics processing units (GPUs), which is scalable to hundreds of independent inputs and suitable for the processing of signals from 'large-Formula' arrays of many radio antennas. The computational part of the algorithm, the X-engine, is implemented efficiently on NVIDIA's Fermi architecture, sustaining up to 79% of the peak single-precision floating-point throughput. We compare performance obtained for hardware- and software-managed caches, observing significantly better performance for the latter. The high performance reported involves use of a multi-level data tiling strategy in memory and use of a pipelined algorithm with simultaneous computation and transfer of data from host to device memory. The speed of code development, flexibility, and low cost of the GPU implementations compared with application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) and field programmable gate array (FPGA) implementations have the potential to greatly shorten the cycle of correlator development and deployment, for cases where some power-consumption penalty can be tolerated.

  7. Project PARAS: Phased array radio astronomy from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuss, Kenneth; Hoffmann, Christopher; Dungan, Michael; Madden, Michael; Bendakhlia, Monia

    1992-01-01

    An orbiting radio telescope is proposed which, when operated in a very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) scheme, would allow higher than currently available angular resolution and dynamic range in the maps and the ability to observe rapidly changing astronomical sources. Using passive phased array technology, the proposed design consists of 656 hexagonal modules forming a 150-m diameter antenna dish. Each observatory module is largely autonomous, having its own photovoltaic power supply and low-noise receiver and processor for phase shifting. The signals received by the modules are channeled via fiber optics to the central control computer in the central bus module. After processing and multiplexing, the data are transmitted to telemetry stations on the ground. The truss frame supporting each observatory panel is a novel hybrid structure consisting of a bottom graphite/epoxy tubular triangle and rigidized inflatable Kevlar tubes connecting the top observatory panel and the bottom triangle. Attitude control and station keeping functions will be performed by a system of momentum wheels in the bus and four propulsion modules located at the compass points on the periphery of the observatory dish. Each propulsion module has four monopropellant thrusters and four hydrazine arcjets, the latter supported by either a photovoltaic array or a radioisotope thermoelectric generator. The total mass of the spacecraft is about 20,500 kg.

  8. The Contribution of an Experimental WWII Radar Antenna to Australian Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, Wayne; Wendt, H.

    2011-01-01

    During the late 1940s and throughout the1950s Australia was one of the world's foremost astronomical nations owing primarily to the dynamic Radio Astronomy Group within the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Organisation's Division of Radiophysics. The earliest celestial observations were made with former WWII radar antennas and simple Yagi aerials, before more sophisticated purpose-built radio telescopes of various types were designed and developed. One of the recycled WWII antennas that was used extensively for pioneering radio astronomical research was an experimental radar antenna that initially was located at the Division's short-lived Georges Heights field station but in 1948 was relocated to the new Potts Hill field station in suburban Sydney. In this paper we describe this unique antenna, and discuss the wide-ranging solar, Galactic and extragalactic research programs that it was used for.

  9. Astronomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenstone, Sid; Smith, Murray

    Selected materials needed to teach an astronomy unit as well as suggested procedures, activities, ideas, and astronomy fact sheets published by the Manitoba Planetarium are provided. Subjects of the fact sheets include: publications and classroom picture sets available from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and facts and statistics…

  10. Introduction to the Special Issue on Digital Signal Processing in Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, D. C.; Kocz, J.; Bailes, M.; Greenhill, L. J.

    Advances in astronomy are intimately linked to advances in digital signal processing (DSP). This special issue is focused upon advances in DSP within radio astronomy. The trend within that community is to use off-the-shelf digital hardware where possible and leverage advances in high performance computing. In particular, graphics processing units (GPUs) and field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) are being used in place of application-specific circuits (ASICs); high-speed Ethernet and Infiniband are being used for interconnect in place of custom backplanes. Further, to lower hurdles in digital engineering, communities have designed and released general-purpose FPGA-based DSP systems, such as the CASPER ROACH board, ASTRON Uniboard, and CSIRO Redback board. In this introductory paper, we give a brief historical overview, a summary of recent trends, and provide an outlook on future directions.

  11. Pulsars in a Box: A Radio Astronomy Exercise for Windows from PROJECT CLEA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marschall, L. A.; Snyder, G. A.; Good, R. F.; Hayden, M. B.; Cooper, P. R.

    1996-12-01

    The latest astronomy laboratory exercise from PROJECT CLEA, "Radio Astronomy of Pulsars", is designed for use in introductory astronomy classes, but contains options and features that make it usable by upperclass astronomy students as well. The heart of the exercise is a simulated radio telescope, whose aperture, location, and beamwidth can be set by the instructor. It is steered by pushing buttons, but instead of seeing a star field on the field monitor,students see a projection of the sky showing, with a colored dot,where the beam is pointing. Large LED-like readouts display time and telescope coordinates. The telescope can be operated in either a tracking or transit mode. Using the telescope, students point to several pulsars suggested by the write-up (from an on-line catalog of over 500). Students can then use a multi-channel tunable receiver, with multiple oscilloscope displays, to view the incoming signal vs. time. The signal received is a combination of random receiver and background noise plus the pulsar signal (if it is in the beam) Receivers are tunable from 400 to 1400 MHz, and both the time and frequency behavior of signals can be studied. By measuring the dispersion delay at a number of different frequencies, students can determine the pulsar's distance. Data can be stored, displayed, and printed using a versatile measuring window. Though we provide a manual for a 2-3 hour lab exercise involving dispersion measures, the database and receivers can be used for a wide variety of other exercises, for instance the measurement of pulsar spin-down rates. We welcome suggestions for improvements and applications.

  12. DSN radio science system description and requirements. [for satellite radio astronomy experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulhall, B. D. L.

    1977-01-01

    The data system created to collect the functions performed by the Deep Space Network in support of spacecraft radio science experiments is described. Some of the major functional requirements presently being considered for the system are delineated.

  13. NASA IDEAS EPO Support of the School of Galactic Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelaz, M.; Daugherty, J.; Moffett, D.; Case, J.

    2005-05-01

    The Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) was awarded a STScI IDEAS Program grant to develop the School of Galactic Radio Astronomy (SGRA). SGRA enhances education of science, mathematics, and technology of students in grades 8-12. The purpose of SGRA is to teach the basics of scientific inquiry, which includes methodology, critical thinking, and communication of the results. To facilitate the excitement of science and discovery, teachers and students use the PARI 4.6m ``Smiley" radio telescope via the Internet. The IDEAS grant supported the development of the science curriculum and labs that use the 4.6m radio telescope, teacher workshops, and high speed internet service necessary for remote access to the radio telescope. Partnerships with Brevard High School , Furman University, and the University of North Carolina-Asheville have proven important to the success of the program. In addition, the IDEAS grant was important in our success in acquiring grants from the foundations at Z. Smith Reynolds and Progress Energy, a AAS Small Grant, and a STScI HST/EPO award to further enhance and continue the SGRA Program. More than 100 teachers are now involved in SGRA. To increase awareness of SGRA, we have presented the program at meetings of the AAS, North Carolina Science Teachers Association, the North Carolina Science Museum, and Pisgah Forest Institute summer workshops. Our experience in writing and carrying out the program, along with the NASA components in the program, teachers' comments, and lessons learned, will be presented. We are extremely grateful to the IDEAS Grant Program for helping PARI initiate and develop an exciting program of hands-on Internet radio astronomy from high school classrooms.

  14. Educational Programs for Graduate Level Learners and Professionals - National Radio Astronomy Observatory National and International Non-Traditional Exchange Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wingate, Lory Mitchell

    2017-01-01

    The National Radio Astronomy Observatory’s (NRAO) National and International Non-Traditional Exchange (NINE) Program teaches concepts of project management and systems engineering to chosen participants within a nine-week program held at NRAO in New Mexico. Participants are typically graduate level students or professionals. Participation in the NINE Program is through a competitive process. The program includes a hands-on service project designed to increase the participants knowledge of radio astronomy. The approach demonstrate clearly to the learner the positive net effects of following methodical approaches to achieving optimal science results.The NINE teaches participants important sustainable skills associated with constructing, operating and maintaining radio astronomy observatories. NINE Program learners are expected to return to their host sites and implement the program in their own location as a NINE Hub. This requires forming a committed relationship (through a formal Letter of Agreement), establishing a site location, and developing a program that takes into consideration the needs of the community they represent. The anticipated outcome of this program is worldwide partnerships with fast growing radio astronomy communities designed to facilitate the exchange of staff and the mentoring of under-represented groups of learners, thereby developing a strong pipeline of global talent to construct, operate and maintain radio astronomy observatories.

  15. Tectonic motion site survey of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Green Bank, West Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, W. J., Jr.; Allenby, R. J.; Hutton, L. K.; Lowman, P. D., Jr.; Tiedemann, H. A.

    1979-01-01

    A geological and geophysical site survey was made of the area around the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) to determine whether there are at present local tectonic movements that could introduce significant errors to Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) geodetic measurements. The site survey consisted of a literature search, photogeologic mapping with Landsat and Skylab photographs, a field reconnaissance, and installation of a seismometer at the NRAO. It is concluded that local tectonic movement will not contribute significantly to VLBI errors. It is recommended that similar site surveys be made of all locations used for VLBI or laser ranging.

  16. Mogadoc - a Personal Computer Database for Atmospheric and Interstellar Molecules in Microwave Spectroscopy and Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, J.

    1992-03-01

    MOGADOC is a comprehensive database for gas-phase molecules, investigated by microwave spectroscopy, radio astronomy and electron diffraction. It contains data on electrical, magnetic, dynamical and spectroscopic properties of inorganic, organic and organometallic compounds in the gas phase. As a special feature the in-house database, which can be run on a personal computer by means of the well known Messenger retrieval language, contains numerical data sets for structural parameters such as internuclear distances and bond angles. Key words: INTERSTELLAR MOLECULES - MOLECULAR PROCESSES - RADIOSOURCES: SPECTRA

  17. Radio astronomy Explorer-B in-flight mission control system development effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutsky, D. A.; Bjorkman, W. S.; Uphoff, C.

    1973-01-01

    A description is given of the development for the Mission Analysis Evaluation and Space Trajectory Operations (MAESTRO) program to be used for the in-flight decision making process during the translunar and lunar orbit adjustment phases of the flight of the Radio Astronomy Explorer-B. THe program serves two functions: performance and evaluation of preflight mission analysis, and in-flight support for the midcourse and lunar insertion command decisions that must be made by the flight director. The topics discussed include: analysis of program and midcourse guidance capabilities; methods for on-line control; printed displays of the MAESTRO program; and in-flight operational logistics and testing.

  18. Population density effect on radio frequencies interference (RFI) in radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umar, Roslan; Abidin, Zamri Zainal; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Hassan, Mohd Saiful Rizal; Rosli, Zulfazli; Hamidi, Zety Shahrizat

    2012-06-01

    Radio astronomical observation is infected by wide range of Radio Frequency Interference (RFI). We will also use information gathered from on-site RFI level measurements on selected 'good' areas generated by this study. After investigating a few suitable sites we will commence to the site and construct the RFI observation. Eventually, the best area we will be deciding from the observations soon. The result of this experiment will support our planning to build the first radio telescope in Malaysia. Radio observatories normally are located in remote area, in order to combat RFI from active spectrum users and radio noise produced in industrial or residential areas. The other solution for this problem is regulating the use of radio frequencies in the country (spectrum management). Measurement of RFI level on potential radio astronomical site can be done to measure the RFI levels at sites. Seven sites are chosen divide by three group, which is A, B and C. In this paper, we report the initial testing RFI survey for overall spectrum (0-2GHz) for those sites. The averaged RFI level above noise level at the three group sites are 19.0 (+/-1.79) dBm, 19.5 (+/-3.71) dBm and 17.0 (+/-3.71) dBm and the averaged RFI level above noise level for without main peaks are 20.1 (+/-1.77) dBm, 19.6 (+/-3.65) dBm and 17.2 (+/-1.43) dBm respectively.

  19. The impact of JPEG2000 lossy compression on the scientific quality of radio astronomy imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, S. M.; Kitaeff, V. V.

    2014-10-01

    The sheer volume of data anticipated to be captured by future radio telescopes, such as, the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) and its precursors present new data challenges, including the cost and technical feasibility of data transport and storage. Image and data compression are going to be important techniques to reduce the data size. We provide a quantitative analysis of the effects of JPEG2000's lossy wavelet image compression algorithm on the quality of the radio astronomy imagery data. This analysis is completed by evaluating the completeness, soundness and source parameterisation of the Duchamp source finder using compressed data. Here we found the JPEG2000 image compression has the potential to denoise image cubes, however this effect is only significant at high compression rates where the accuracy of source parameterisation is decreased.

  20. A Wide-Band, Active Antenna System for Long Wavelength Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, Brian C.; Paravastu-Dalal, Nagini; Stewart, Kenneth P.; Erickson, William C.; Ray, Paul S.; Kassim, Namir E.; Burns, Steve; Clarke, Tracy; Schmitt, Henrique; Craig, Joe; Hartman, Jake; Weiler, Kurt W.

    2012-10-01

    We describe an “active” antenna system for HF/VHF (long wavelength) radio astronomy that has been successfully deployed 256-fold as the first station (LWA1) of the planned Long Wavelength Array. The antenna system, consisting of crossed dipoles, an active balun/preamp, a support structure, and a ground screen has been shown to successfully operate over at least the band from 20 MHz (15 m wavelength) to 80 MHz (3.75 m wavelength) with a noise figure that is at least 6 dB better than the Galactic background emission-noise temperature over that band. Thus, we met the goal to design and construct a compact, inexpensive, rugged, and easily assembled antenna system that can be deployed many-fold to form numerous large individual “stations” for the purpose of building a large, long wavelength synthesis array telescope for radio astronomical and ionospheric observations.

  1. New Book Recounts Exciting, Colorful History Of Radio Astronomy in Green Bank, West Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-07-01

    A new book published by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) tells the story of the founding and early years of the Observatory at Green Bank, West Virginia. But it was Fun: the first forty years of radio astronomy at Green Bank, is not a formal history, but rather a scrapbook of early memos, recollections, anecdotes and reports. But it was Fun... is liberally illustrated with archival photographs. It includes historical and scientific papers from symposia held in 1987 and 1995 to celebrate the birthdays of two of the radio telescopes at the Observatory. Book cover The National Radio Astronomy Observatory was formed in 1956 after the National Science Foundation decided to establish an observatory in the eastern United States for the study of faint radio signals from distant objects in the Universe. But it was Fun... reprints early memos from the group of scientists who searched the mountains for a suitable site -- an area free from radio transmitters and other sources of radio interference -- "in a valley surrounded by as many ranges of high mountains in as many directions as possible," which was "at least 50 miles distant from any city or other concentration of people." The committee settled on Green Bank, a small village in West Virginia, and the book documents the struggles that followed to create a world-class scientific facility in an isolated area more accustomed to cows than computers. Groundbreaking at the Observatory, then a patchwork of farms and fields, took place in October 1957, only a few days after the launch of Sputnik by the Soviet Union. A year later, Green Bank's first telescope was dedicated, and the book contains a transcription of speeches given at that ceremony, when the Cold War, the space race and America's scientific stature were issues of the hour. The centerpiece of the new Observatory was to be a highly-precise radio telescope 140 feet in diameter, but it was expected that it would soon be surpassed by dishes of much greater

  2. A New Geodetic Research Data Management System at the Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coetzer, G. L.; Botha, R. C.; Combrinck, L.; Fourie, S. C.

    2015-04-01

    The Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory (HartRAO) hosts two research programmes: radio astronomy and space geodesy. The Space Geodesy programme has four main co-located space geodetic techniques, making HartRAO a true fiducial site. The HartRAO Space Geodesy Programme is expanding its geodetic techniques to include Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) as well as a network of seismometers, accelerometers, tide gauges, and gravimeters. These instruments will be installed across the southern African region and will generate large volumes of data that will be streamed to and stored at HartRAO. Our objective is to implement a complete Geodetic Research Data Management System (GRDMS) to handle all HartRAO's geodetic data on-site in terms of archiving, indexing, processing, and extraction. These datasets and subsequent data products will be accessible to both the scientific community and general public through an intuitive and easy to use web-based front-end. As the first step in this process, we are currently working on establishing a new data centre. This opens up the possibility for the librarian to provide data services and support by working together with researchers and information technology staff. We discuss the rationale, role players and top-level system design of this GRDMS, as well as the current status and planned products thereof.

  3. Research on Haystack radiometer, 20-24 GHz maser, and radio astronomy programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    During the first half of 1973, the Haystack antenna was utilized 76% of the time. Of this useful time, 72% was devoted to radio astronomy observing, 5% was spent on radar-related research and 23% went into maintenance and system improvements. Twenty-eight new radio astronomy programs were accepted, eight of which were completed during the period. One new radar program, topographic observations of Mars, was started in June and will be completed early in 1974. Fourteen programs continued from the previous period were also defined as complete. As of 1 July, 28 ratio observing programs were in a continuing status on the Haystack books. Four radar projects were also continuing. The 20-24 GHz maser development described in the preceding report progressed very well during an on-antenna test phase which began early in the year, but which terminated unfortunately in June with the complete loss of gain in the maser. Investigation of this problem is in progress. During this on-antenna test phase, the most sensitive water vapor observing capability which has yet become available was demonstrated.

  4. Development of a Multi-frequency Interferometer Telescope for Radio Astronomy (MITRA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingala, Dominique Guelord Kumamputu

    2015-03-01

    This dissertation describes the development and construction of the Multi-frequency Interferometer Telescope for Radio Astronomy (MITRA) at the Durban University of Technology. The MITRA station consists of 2 antenna arrays separated by a baseline distance of 8 m. Each array consists of 8 Log-Periodic Dipole Antennas (LPDAs) operating from 200 MHz to 800 MHz. The design and construction of the LPDA antenna and receiver system is described. The receiver topology provides an equivalent noise temperature of 113.1 K and 55.1 dB of gain. The Intermediate Frequency (IF) stage was designed to produce a fixed IF frequency of 800 MHz. The digital Back-End and correlator were implemented using a low cost Software Defined Radio (SDR) platform and Gnu-Radio software. Gnu-Octave was used for data analysis to generate the relevant received signal parameters including total power, real, and imaginary, magnitude and phase components. Measured results show that interference fringes were successfully detected within the bandwidth of the receiver using a Radio Frequency (RF) generator as a simulated source. This research was presented at the IEEE Africon 2013 / URSI Session Mauritius, and published in the proceedings.

  5. ASTRONOMY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana Arts and Science Center, Baton Rouge.

    THIS TEACHER'S GUIDE FOR A UNIT ON ASTRONOMY ESTABLISHES (1) UNDERSTANDINGS AND ATTITUDES, (2) SKILLS, AND (3) CONCEPTS TO BE GAINED IN THE STUDY. THE OVERVIEW EXPLAINS THE ORGANIZATION AND OBJECTIVES OF THE UNIT. TOPICAL DIVISIONS ARE (1) THE EARTH, (2) THE MOON, (3) THE SUN, (4) THE SOLAR SYSTEM, (5) THE STARS, (6) THE UNIVERSE, AND (7) SPACE…

  6. Estimating the size of a radio quiet zone for the radio astronomy service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Bo; Han, Wenjun

    2009-12-01

    The size of a radio quiet zone (RQZ) is largely determined by transmission losses of interfering signals, which can be divided into free space loss and diffraction loss. The free space loss is dominant. The diffraction loss presented in this paper is described as unified smooth spherical and knife edge diffractions, which is a function of minimum path clearance. We present a complete method to calculate the minimum path clearance. The cumulative distribution of the lapse rate of refractivity ( g n ), between the earth surface and 1 km above, is studied by using Chinese radio climate data. Because the size of an RQZ is proportional to g n , the cumulative distribution of g n can be used as an approximation for the size of the RQZ. When interference originates from mobile communication or television transmissions at a frequency of 408 MHz, and overline {g_n } is 40 N/km, where the refractivity N=left( {n-1} right) × 10^6, the size of the RQZ would be 180 km for a mobile source or 210 km for a television source, with a probability in the range of 15-100% in different months and for different stations. When speaking of the size of an RQZ, the radius in the case of a circular zone is implied. It results that a size of an RQZ is mainly influenced by transmission loss rather than effective radiated power. In the case where the distance between an interfering source and a radio astronomical observatory is about 100 km, at a frequency of 408 MHz, the allowable effective radiated power of the interfering source should be less than -30 dBW with a probability of about 85% for overline {g_n } equals 40 N/km, or -42 dBW with a probability less than 1 % for overline {g_n } equals 80 N/km.

  7. Explosive and Radio-Selected Transients: Transient Astronomy with Square Kilometre Array and its Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Poonam; Anupama, G. C.; Arun, K. G.; Iyyani, Shabnam; Misra, Kuntal; Narasimha, D.; Ray, Alak; Resmi, L.; Roy, Subhashis; Sutaria, Firoza

    2016-12-01

    With the high sensitivity and wide-field coverage of the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), large samples of explosive transients are expected to be discovered. Radio wavelengths, especially in commensal survey mode, are particularly well-suited for uncovering the complex transient phenomena. This is because observations at radio wavelengths may suffer less obscuration than in other bands (e.g. optical/IR or X-rays) due to dust absorption. At the same time, multiwaveband information often provides critical source classification rapidly than possible with only radio band data. Therefore, multiwaveband observational efforts with wide fields of view will be the key to progress of transients astronomy from the middle 2020s offering unprecedented deep images and high spatial and spectral resolutions. Radio observations of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) with SKA will uncover not only much fainter bursts and verifying claims of sensitivity-limited population versus intrinsically dim GRBs, they will also unravel the enigmatic population of orphan afterglows. The supernova rate problem caused by dust extinction in optical bands is expected to be lifted in the SKA era. In addition, the debate of single degenerate scenario versus double degenerate scenario will be put to rest for the progenitors of thermonuclear supernovae, since highly sensitive measurements will lead to very accurate mass loss estimation in these supernovae. One also expects to detect gravitationally lensed supernovae in far away Universe in the SKA bands. Radio counterparts of the gravitational waves are likely to become a reality once SKA comes online. In addition, SKA is likely to discover various new kinds of transients.

  8. Albrecht Unsöld: his role in the interpretation of the origin of cosmic radio emission and in the beginning of radio astronomy in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wielebinski, Richard

    2013-03-01

    Albrecht Unsöld's career spanned over 50 years at the beginning of the 20th century. In this period atomic physics made great advances and Unsöld applied this to astrophysical questions. He came in contact with the early radio astronomy observations and devoted part of his career to the interpretation of the origin of cosmic radio waves. Although hampered by the post-war situation, Unsöld's contributions to the interpretation of cosmic radio waves were important.

  9. Calibration of a cylindrical RF capacitance probe. [for ionospheric plasma effects on Radio Astronomy Explorer 1 antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mosier, S. R.; Kaiser, M. L.

    1975-01-01

    Ambient electron concentrations derived from observations with the Radio Astronomy Explorer 1 antenna capacitance probe have been compared with upper hybrid resonance measurements from the same spacecraft. From this comparison an empirical correction factor for the capacitance probe measurements has been derived. The differences between the two types of measurements is attributed to sheath effects.

  10. Thunderstorms observed by radio astronomy Explorer 1 over regions of low man made noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caruso, J. A.; Herman, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Radio Astronomy Explorer (RAE) I observations of thunderstorms over regions of low man-made noise levels are analyzed to assess the satellite's capability for noise source differentiation. The investigation of storms over Australia indicates that RAE can resolve noise generation due to thunderstorms from the general noise background over areas of low man-made noise activity. Noise temperatures observed by RAE over stormy regions are on the average 10DB higher than noise temperatures over the same regions in the absence of thunderstorms. In order to determine the extent of noise contamination due to distant transmitters comprehensive three dimensional computer ray tracings were generated. The results indicate that generally, distant transmitters contribute negligibly to the total noise power, being 30DB or more below contributions arriving from an area immediately below the satellite.

  11. Design of a wideband low noise amplifier for radio-astronomy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaizia, Z.; Sengouga, N.; Missous, M.; Yagoub, M. C. E.

    2010-04-01

    In this work, we discuss the design of two low noise amplifiers (LNA) based on 1μm gate-length pHEMT InP transistors using two topologies. Designed for radio-astronomy applications, the first is a cascode circuit with a maximum gain of 15dB and noise figure of 0.6dB, while the second is a 2-stage cascaded amplifier with 27 dB gain and 0.63dB noise figure. The two amplifiers exhibit an input 1-dB compression point of -22dBm and -26dBm respectively, and a third order input intercept point of -10dBm and -5dBm, respectively.

  12. Development of an Experimental Phased Array Feed System and Algorithms for Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landon, Jonathan C.

    Phased array feeds (PAFs) are a promising new technology for astronomical radio telescopes. While PAFs have been used in other fields, the demanding sensitivity and calibration requirements in astronomy present unique new challenges. This dissertation presents some of the first astronomical PAF results demonstrating the lowest noise temperature and highest sensitivity at the time (66 Kelvin and 3.3 m^2/K, respectively), obtained using a narrowband (425 kHz bandwidth)prototype array of 19 linear co-polarized L-band dipoles mounted at the focus of the Green Bank 20 Meter Telescope at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, West Virginia. Results include spectral line detection of hydroxyl (OH) sources W49N and W3OH, and some of the first radio camera images made using a PAF, including an image of the Cygnus X region. A novel array Y-factor technique for measuring the isotropic noise response of the array is shown along with experimental measurements for this PAF. Statistically optimal beamformers (Maximum SNR and MVDR) are used throughout the work. Radio-frequency interference (RFI) mitigation is demonstrated experimentally using spatial cancelation with the PAF. Improved RFI mitigation is achieved in the challenging cases of low interference-to-noise ratio (INR) and moving interference by combining subspace projection (SP) beamforming with a polynomial model to track a rank 1 subspace. Limiting factors in SP are investigated including sample estimation error, subspace smearing, noise bias, and spectral scooping; each of these factors is overcome with the polynomial model and prewhitening. Numerical optimization leads to the polynomial subspace projection (PSP) method, and least-squares fitting to the series of dominant eigenvectors over a series of short term integrations (STIs) leads to the eigenvector polynomial subspace projection (EPSP) method. Expressions for the gradient, Hessian, and Jacobian are given for use in numerical optimization

  13. Improvements to Host Country Radio Astronomy at Robledo: Another antenna, a new receiver, a new backend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, J. R.; García-Miró, G.

    2013-05-01

    NASA hosts three complexes worldwide built for spacecraft tracking, whose sensitive antennas are suitable for radio astronomy. Since more than a decade, INTA has managed guaranteed Spanish time at the complex located in Robledo de Chavela, in the frame of the Host Country Radio Astronomy (HCRA) program. Until now, the vast majority of the scientific results were achieved using a K-band (18 to 26 GHz) receiver, attached to the 70m antenna, and a narrow-band autocorrelator. In the recent years, we have undertaken two large instrumental projects: (1) the incorporation of a second antenna (34m in diameter), working in Q-band (38 to 50 GHz); and (2) the design and construction of a wideband backend, which may operate with both the Q- and K-band receivers, providing instantaneous bandwidths from 100 MHz to 6 GHz, and resolutions from 6 to 200 kHz. The new wideband backend is expanding the HCRA possibilities due its bandwidth, versatility, spectral resolution and stability of the baselines. Its IF processor splits each of the two circular-polarization signals, and downconverts them to four base-band channels, 1.5 GHz width. Two different frequencies may be tuned independently. Digitalisation is done through FPGA-based FFT spectrometers, which may be independently configured. Once end-to-end assembled, the commissioning of the new backend was done using the 34m antenna in Q-band. We report the main characteristics of both the antenna recently incorporated to HCRA, and the wideband backend.

  14. Next Generation Very Large Array: Centimeter Radio Astronomy in the 2020s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, A. Meredith; Beasley, Anthony; Carilli, Christopher

    2015-08-01

    We discuss the future scientific discovery and technical challenges for cm radio studies, presenting calculations and simulations of the science of a next generation VLA (ngVLA), an array with vastly improved resolution and sensitivity relative to ALMA and JVLA, operating from ~1 GHz to 115 GHz, with an enhanced ability to image thermal objects on milliarcsecond scales, spanning thermal and non-thermal radio astronomy and bridging SKA and ALMA capabilities.Key areas of astrophysics where ngVLA can make new contributions include:- Probing deep into dusty protoplanetary disks, revealing terrestrial planet formation on AU-scales — regions that are opaque at shorter wavelengths. Observations in this wavelength range are critically required to study the poorly understood growth of dust into rocks.- Providing a census and imaging at kpc-scale resolution, of the cool molecular gas in distant galaxies. The ngVLA will be able to observe the lower order molecular transitions in high redshift, normal star forming galaxies, a key diagnostic for understanding the fuel driving the star formation history of the Universe.- Enabling an unprecedented, wide field imaging capability for nearby galaxies, over the cm frequency range covering key astrochemical tracers, including both thermal/non-thermal radio continuum emission.- Exploring the otherwise-unobservable deep atmospheres of the giant planets. In addition, the subsurfaces of other solar system bodies (e.g. icy satellites, TNOs, comets, asteroids) can be probed via thermal emission and radar remote sensing.- Allowing major improvements in synoptic, astrometric and transient/time-domain measurements at cm wavelengths of a wide variety of active sources, including Fast Radio Bursts, AGNs, pulsars and x-ray binaries.Led by NRAO, work to address the technical challenges for the ngVLA is underway. Areas currently under investigation include: low cost antennas, ultra-wide band feeds and receivers, broad band data transmission, and

  15. PULSE@Parkes, Engaging Students through Hands-On Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollow, Robert; Hobbs, George; Shannon, Ryan M.; Kerr, Matthew

    2015-08-01

    PULSE@Parkes is an innovative, free educational program run by CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science (CASS) in which high school students use the 64m Parkes radio telescope remotely in real time to observe pulsars then analyse their data. The program caters for a range of student ability and introduces students to hands-on observing and radio astronomy. Students are guided by professional astronomers, educators and PhD students during an observing session. They have ample time to interact with the scientists and discuss astronomy, careers and general scientific questions. Students use a web-based module to analyse pulsar properties. All data from the program are streamed via a web browser and are freely available from the online archive and may be used for open-ended student investigations. The data are also used by the team for ongoing pulsar studies with two scientific papers published to date.Over 100 sessions have been held so far. Most sessions are held at CASS headquarters in Sydney, Australia but other sessions are regularly held in other states with partner institutions. The flexibility of the program means that it is also possible to run sessions in other countries. This aspect of the program is useful for demonstrating capability, engaging students in diverse settings and fostering collaborations. The use of Twitter (@pulseatparkes) during allows followers worldwide to participate and ask questions.Two tours of Japan plus sessions in the UK, Netherlands and Canada have reached a wide audience. Plans for collaborations in China are well underway with the possibility of use with other countries also being explored. The program has also been successfully used in helping to train international graduate students via the International Pulsar Timing Array Schools. We have identified strong demand and need for programs such as this for training undergraduate students in Asia and the North America in observing and data analysis techniques so one area of planned

  16. New Mexico Fiber-Optic Link Marks Giant Leap Toward Future of Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-12-01

    SOCORRO, NM -- Scientists and engineers at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) have made a giant leap toward the future of radio astronomy by successfully utilizing the Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope in conjunction with an antenna of the continent-wide Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) using the longest fiber-optic data link ever demonstrated in radio astronomy. The 65-mile fiber link will allow scientists to use the two National Science Foundation (NSF) facilities together in real time, and is the first step toward expanding the VLA to include eight proposed new radio-telescope antennas throughout New Mexico. LEFT: Miller Goss, NRAO's director of VLA/VLBA Operations, unveils graphic showing success of the Pie Town-VLA fiber link. The project, funded by the NSF and Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI), which operates NRAO for the NSF, links the VLA and the VLBA antenna in Pie Town, NM, using a Western New Mexico Telephone Co. fiber-optic cable. The successful hookup was announced at a ceremony that also marked the 10th anniversary of NRAO's Operations Center in Socorro. "Linking the Pie Town antenna to the VLA quadruples the VLA's ability to make detailed images of astronomical objects," said Paul Vanden Bout, NRAO's Director. "This alone makes the link an advance for science, but its greater importance is that it clearly demonstrates the technology for improving the VLA's capabilities even more in the future." "Clearly, the big skies and wide open spaces in New Mexico create near perfect conditions for the incredible astronomical assets located in our state. This new fiber-optic link paves the way for multiplying the already breathtaking scientific capabilities of the VLA," Senator Pete Domenici (R-NM) said. The VLA is a system of 27 radio-telescope antennas distributed over the high desert west of Socorro, NM, in the shape of a giant "Y." Made famous in movies, commercials and numerous published photos, the VLA has been one of the most productive

  17. Estimate of Interference from the Aeronautical Mobile Services of the Cities of Glendale and Pasadena to Goldstone Radio Astronomy Stations at 4.9 Gigahertz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, C.; Sue, M.; Manshadi, F.

    2006-05-01

    The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) recently allocated the 4.9-GHz band to public safety telecommunications services. Radio Astronomy Services (RAS) also has been using this frequency. NASA will primarily use Deep Space Station 28 (DSS 28) at Goldstone, California, for radio astronomy services that are sensitive to radio-frequency interference (RFI). This study is to determine the RFI potential of airborne transmission from two cities to radio astronomy sites in Goldstone. Propagation losses over the terrain between both cities and Goldstone are estimated using the Trans-Horizon Interference Propagation Loss (THIPL) software recently developed at JPL and high-resolution terrain data. The necessary coordination area for protecting the Goldstone radio astronomy station has been defined based on the minimum propagation loss required. Study results and suggestions for modification to the airborne areas proposed by both cities' police departments are presented.

  18. Designing a new Geodetic Research Data Management System for the Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coetzer, Glend Lorraine

    2015-08-01

    The Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory (HartRAO) participates in astronomic, astrometric and geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations using both 26- and 15-m diameter radio telescopes. Geodetic data from a Satellite Laser Ranger (SLR), Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), Met4 weather stations and a new seismic vault network must be stored at HartRAO and made available to the scientific community. Some data are e-transferred to correlators, analysis centres and space geodesy data providers, while some data are processed locally to produce basic data products. The new South African co-located seismology network of seismic and GNSS instrumentation will generate large volumes of raw data to be stored and archived at HartRAO. The current data storage systems are distributed and outdated, and management systems currently being used will also not be able to handle the additional large volumes of data. This necessitates the design and implementation of a new, modern research data management system which combines all the datasets into one database, as well as cater for current and future data volume requirements. The librarian’s expertise and knowledge will be used in the design and implementation of the new HartRAO Geodetic Research Data Management System (GRDMS). The librarian’s role and involvement in the design and implementation of the new GRDMS are presented here. Progress to date will also be discussed.

  19. Prototyping scalable digital signal processing systems for radio astronomy using dataflow models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sane, N.; Ford, J.; Harris, A. I.; Bhattacharyya, S. S.

    2012-05-01

    There is a growing trend toward using high-level tools for design and implementation of radio astronomy digital signal processing (DSP) systems. Such tools, for example, those from the Collaboration for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER), are usually platform-specific, and lack high-level, platform-independent, portable, scalable application specifications. This limits the designer's ability to experiment with designs at a high-level of abstraction and early in the development cycle. We address some of these issues using a model-based design approach employing dataflow models. We demonstrate this approach by applying it to the design of a tunable digital downconverter (TDD) used for narrow-bandwidth spectroscopy. Our design is targeted toward an FPGA platform, called the Interconnect Break-out Board (IBOB), that is available from the CASPER. We use the term TDD to refer to a digital downconverter for which the decimation factor and center frequency can be reconfigured without the need for regenerating the hardware code. Such a design is currently not available in the CASPER DSP library. The work presented in this paper focuses on two aspects. First, we introduce and demonstrate a dataflow-based design approach using the dataflow interchange format (DIF) tool for high-level application specification, and we integrate this approach with the CASPER tool flow. Secondly, we explore the trade-off between the flexibility of TDD designs and the low hardware cost of fixed-configuration digital downconverter (FDD) designs that use the available CASPER DSP library. We further explore this trade-off in the context of a two-stage downconversion scheme employing a combination of TDD or FDD designs.

  20. Applicability of radio astronomy techniques to the processing and interpretation of aperture synthesis passive millimetre-wave applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Christopher T.; Wilkinson, Peter N.; Salmon, Neil A.; Cameron, Colin D.

    2012-06-01

    This PhD programme is contributing to the development of Passive Millimetre-Wave Imagers (PMMWI) using the principles of interferometric aperture synthesis and digital signal processing. The principal applications are security screening, all-weather flight aids and earth observation. To enhance the cost-effectiveness of PMMWI systems the number of collecting elements must be minimised whilst maintaining adequate image fidelity. A wide range of techniques have been developed by the radio astronomy community for improving the fidelity of sparse interferometric array imagery. This paper brings to the attention of readers these techniques and discusses how they may be applied to imaging using software packages publicly available from the radio astronomy community. The intention of future work is to adapt these algorithms to process experimental data from a range of realistic simulations and real-world targets.

  1. The beginnings of decameter radio astronomy: pioneering works of Semen Ya. Braude and his followers in Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vavilova, I. B.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Megn, A. V.

    2007-06-01

    S.Ya. Braude (1911-2003) was the well-known radio astronomer, one of the founders of low-frequency astronomical research in the world, in particular in the former Soviet Union. He began to work in this field of science in 1957, in Kharkiv city (Ukraine), from the design and manufacturing small decameter interferometer ID-1 and ID-2. Since that time Braude and his team have developed more sophisticated radio decameter telescopes as UTR-1 and UTR-2 (the largest in the world till now) as well as the first decameter VLBI network URAN. They have obtained some important pioneering results about low-frequency radio emission of objects in our Solar system, Galaxy and Metagalaxy by means of these telescopes. In this paper the key events of early history of decameter radio astronomy research in the former USSR are mentioned with emphasizing the role of S. Braude. For the period of 1957-1962, the quotations of Braude's Personal Diary (2003) are first laying open to the public. The most important results obtained by S.Ya. Braude and his followers as well as perspectives of decameter radio astronomy in Ukraine and in the world are highlighted briefly.

  2. The Evolution of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory into a User Based Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellerman, Kenneth I.; Bouton, E.

    2006-12-01

    The NRAO was conceived in the mid 1950s as a state-of-the-art facility to allow the United States to compete in the exciting radio astronomy discoveries then taking place in the U.K., the Netherlands and Australia. Otto Struve, the first NRAO director in Green Bank, was chosen to lead the Observatory research program. During Struve's tenure as director, nearly all of the research was carried out by NRAO staff members resident at the Green Bank Observatory. However, under Dave Heeschen, who served as NRAO Director from 1961 to 1978, the number of visitor programs gradually increased; the NRAO scientific staff become more involved in visitor support than in doing their own research, and users became more dependent on instruments and techniques developed by NRAO, often not even coming to the Observatory for their observations. Currently, about half of the observing time on NRAO facilities is allocated to observers from foreign institutions -institutions with which NRAO was built to compete.

  3. Detection of dust impacts by the Voyager planetary radio astronomy experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, David R.

    1993-01-01

    The Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) instrument detected large numbers of dust particles during the Voyager 2 encounter with Neptune. The signatures of these impacts are analyzed in some detail. The major conclusions are described. PRA detects impacts from all over the spacecraft body, not just the PRA antennas. The signatures of individual impacts last substantially longer than was expected from complementary Plasma Wave Subsystem (PWS) data acquired by another Voyager experiment. The signatures of individual impacts demonstrate very rapid fluctuations in signal strength, so fast that the data are limited by the speed of response of the instrument. The PRA detects events at a rate consistently lower than does the Plasma Wave subsystem. Even so, the impact rate is so great near the inbound crossing of the ring plane that no reliable estimate of impact rate can be made for this period. The data are consistent with the presence of electrons accelerated by ions within an expanding plasma cloud from the point of impact. An ancillary conclusion is that the anomalous appearance of data acquired at 900 kHz appears to be due to an error in processing the PRA data prior to their delivery rather than due to overload of the PRA instrument.

  4. Low input reflection cryogenic low noise amplifier for Radio Astronomy multipixel receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amils, R. I.; Gallego, J. D.; Diez, C.; López Fernández, I.; Barcia, A.; Muñoz, S.; Sebastián, J. L.; Malo, I.

    2016-10-01

    The advancement of Radio Astronomy instruments pushes innovation in several fronts. Sensitivity aside, one way in which cryogenic receivers can be upgraded is by increasing the number of beams in single dish antennas, building what is commonly known as a Focal Plane Array (FPA). In this paper we present a novel reduced input reflection 4-12 GHz cryogenic Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) for the Intermediate Frequency (IF) of millimeter wave superheterodyne multipixel receivers with Superconductor-Insulator-Superconductor (SIS) mixers. The aim of this development is to reduce the input reflection of the amplifier to a level at which the bulky cryogenic isolators traditionally used in this type of receivers are no longer necessary and can be avoided. Ultimately this simplification would allow complying with the tight mass and volume restrictions imposed over FPAs. However, the improvement of the input reflection has a cost in terms of noise and gain performance. This effect is critically evaluated by comparing it with other alternative options built with devices of the same technology. The results show that this approach may have advantages in terms of sensitivity of the complete receiver.

  5. FANATIC: An SIS Radiometer for Radio Astronomy in the 660-690 GHz Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, A. I.; Schuster, K.-F.; Gundlach, K.-H.; Plathner, B.

    1994-05-01

    FANATIC is a compact radiometer optimized for radio astronomy from about 660 to 690 GHz (455-435 micron). We observed a large number of molecular and atomic spectral lines from galactic and extragalactic sources during FANATIC's first run on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope in early March 1994. Double sideband receiver temperatures during observations were about 800 K (25 hv/k). The heart of the receiver is a two-junction Nb/AlOx/Nb SIS array fed by a sandwiched V-Antenna. The junction array and antenna are fabricated together at IRAM's Grenoble SIS laboratory. Each junction has a normal resistance of Rn~10 ohm, an area of ~2 um^2 , an individual radial stub circuit to resonate the capacitance, and a 1/4-wavelength transformer to match to the antenna. The solid-state local oscillator is a mm-wave Gunn oscillator followed by a doubler and tripler. The LO diplexer is a Martin-Puplett interferometer, which insures that there is always abundant LO power for operation and speedy tuning. The receiver and telescope coupling optics, LO, dewar, and calibration system fit on an 0.6 x 0.8 m optical breadboard.

  6. FANATIC: an SIS radiometer for radio astronomy from 660 to 695 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, A. I.; Schuster, K.-F.; Genzel, R.; Plathner, B.; Gundlach, K.-H.

    1994-09-01

    FANATIC is a compact radiometer optimized for radio astronomy from about 660 to 695 GHz (lambda 455 - 432 micron). We observed a large number of molecular and atomic spectral lines from galactic and extragalactic sources during FANATIC's first run on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope in early March 1994. Double sideband receiver temperatures during observations were about 800 K (25 h nu/k). The heart of the receiver is a two-junction Nb/AlO(x)/Nb SIS array fed by a sandwiched V-antenna. The junction array and antenna are fabricated together at IRAM's Grenoble SIS laboratory. Each junction has a normal resistance of Rn approximately 10 Ohm, an area of approximately 2 sq micron, an individual radial stub circuit to resonate the capacitance, and a lambda/4 transformer to match to the antenna. The solid-state local oscillator is a mm-wave Gunn oscillator followed by a doubler and tripler. The LO diplexer is a Martin-Puplett interferometer, which insures that there is always abundant LO power for operation and speedy tuning. The receiver and telescope coupling optics, LO, dewar, and calibration system fit on an 0.6 x 0.8 m optical breadboard.

  7. Radio Telescopes Extend Astronomy's Best "Yardstick," Provide Vital Tool for Unraveling Dark Energy Mystery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-06-01

    Radio astronomers have directly measured the distance to a faraway galaxy, providing a valuable "yardstick" for calibrating large astronomical distances and demonstrating a vital method that could help determine the elusive nature of the mysterious Dark Energy that pervades the Universe. Galaxy UGC 3789 Visible-light image of UGC 3789 CREDIT: STScI "We measured a direct, geometric distance to the galaxy, independent of the complications and assumptions inherent in other techniques. The measurement highlights a valuable method that can be used to determine the local expansion rate of the Universe, which is essential in our quest to find the nature of Dark Energy," said James Braatz, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), who presented the work to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Pasadena, California. Braatz and his colleagues used the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) and Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT), and the Effelsberg Radio Telescope of the Max Planck Institute for Radioastronomy (MPIfR) in Germany to determine that a galaxy dubbed UGC 3789 is 160 million light-years from Earth. To do this, they precisely measured both the linear and angular size of a disk of material orbiting the galaxy's central black hole. Water molecules in the disk act as masers to amplify, or strengthen, radio waves the way lasers amplify light waves. The observation is a key element of a major effort to measure the expansion rate of the Universe, known as the Hubble Constant, with greatly improved precision. That effort, cosmologists say, is the best way to narrow down possible explanations for the nature of Dark Energy. "The new measurement is important because it demonstrates a one-step, geometric technique for measuring distances to galaxies far enough to infer the expansion rate of the Universe," said Braatz. The GBT Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF The VLBA Very Long Baseline Array CREDIT: NRAO

  8. National Radio Astronomy Observatory Announces Closure of Millimeter-Wave Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-02-01

    The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) will close down its millimeter-wavelength telescope on Kitt Peak, Arizona, in July 2000, Director Paul Vanden Bout announced today. The closure will affect the activities of 24 NRAO employees. The Arizona telescope, known as the 12 Meter Telescope because of the diameter of its dish antenna, is the only millimeter-wavelength instrument in the U.S. that is operated full-time as a national facility, open to all scientists. The action was made necessary by the current and anticipated budget for the Observatory, Vanden Bout said. "We are forced to reduce the scope of our activities," Vanden Bout said. The NRAO also operates the Very Large Array and Very Long Baseline Array from its facilities in New Mexico and is completing construction of the Green Bank Telescope in West Virginia. The 12 Meter Telescope is used to observe electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths of a few millimeters down to one millimeter, a region that lies between what is traditionally considered radio waves and infrared radiation. The NRAO is currently participating in an international partnership to develop the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), an array of 64 antennas to observe at millimeter wavelengths from a 16,500-foot-high location in northern Chile. "We understood that ALMA eventually would replace the 12 Meter Telescope, but we had hoped to continue operating the 12 Meter until ALMA began interim operations, probably sometime in 2005. That is not possible, and we are forced to close the 12 Meter this year," Vanden Bout said. More than 150 scientists use the 12 Meter Telescope for their research every year. The NRAO's Tucson-based employees have been notified of the Observatory's decision. Some of the NRAO employees in Tucson already are working on the ALMA project. Over the next few months, the NRAO will seek to transfer 12 Meter staff to the ALMA project or to other positions within the Observatory, where that is possible. Where

  9. Investigation of radio astronomy image processing techniques for use in the passive millimetre-wave security screening environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Christopher T.; Hutchinson, Simon; Salmon, Neil A.; Wilkinson, Peter N.; Cameron, Colin D.

    2014-06-01

    Image processing techniques can be used to improve the cost-effectiveness of future interferometric Passive MilliMetre Wave (PMMW) imagers. The implementation of such techniques will allow for a reduction in the number of collecting elements whilst ensuring adequate image fidelity is maintained. Various techniques have been developed by the radio astronomy community to enhance the imaging capability of sparse interferometric arrays. The most prominent are Multi- Frequency Synthesis (MFS) and non-linear deconvolution algorithms, such as the Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) and variations of the CLEAN algorithm. This investigation focuses on the implementation of these methods in the defacto standard for radio astronomy image processing, the Common Astronomy Software Applications (CASA) package, building upon the discussion presented in Taylor et al., SPIE 8362-0F. We describe the image conversion process into a CASA suitable format, followed by a series of simulations that exploit the highlighted deconvolution and MFS algorithms assuming far-field imagery. The primary target application used for this investigation is an outdoor security scanner for soft-sided Heavy Goods Vehicles. A quantitative analysis of the effectiveness of the aforementioned image processing techniques is presented, with thoughts on the potential cost-savings such an approach could yield. Consideration is also given to how the implementation of these techniques in CASA might be adapted to operate in a near-field target environment. This may enable a much wider usability by the imaging community outside of radio astronomy and thus would be directly relevant to portal screening security systems in the microwave and millimetre wave bands.

  10. Ambient and Cryogenic, Decade Bandwidth, Low Noise Receiving System for Radio Astronomy Using Sinuous Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gawande, Rohit Sudhir

    Traditionally, radio astronomy receivers have been limited to bandwidths less than an octave, and as a result multiple feeds and receivers are necessary to observe over a wide bandwidth. Next generation of instruments for radio astronomy will benefit greatly from reflector antenna feeds that demonstrate very wide instantaneous bandwidth, and exhibit low noise behavior. There is an increasing interest in wideband systems from both the cost and science point of view. A wideband feed will allow simultaneous observations or sweeps over a decade or more bandwidth. Instantaneous wide bandwidth is necessary for detection of short duration pulses. Future telescopes like square kilometer array (SKA), consisting of 2000 to 3000 coherently connected antennas and covering a frequency range of 70 MHz to 30 GHz, will need decade bandwidth single pixel feeds (SPFs) along with integrated LNAs to achieve the scientific objectives in a cost effective way. This dissertation focuses on the design and measurement of a novel decade bandwidth sinuous-type, dual linear polarized, fixed phase center, low loss feed with an integrated LNA. A decade bandwidth, low noise amplifier is specially designed for noise match to the higher terminal impedance encountered by this antenna yielding an improved sensitivity over what is possible with conventional 50 O amplifiers. The self-complementary, frequency independent nature of the planar sinuous geometry results in a nearly constant beam pattern and fixed phase center over more than a 10:1 operating frequency range. In order to eliminate the back-lobe response over such a wide frequency range, we have projected the sinuous pattern onto a cone, and a ground plane is placed directly behind the cone's apex. This inverted, conical geometry assures wide bandwidth operation by locating each sinuous resonator a quarter wavelength above the ground plane. The presence of a ground plane near a self complementary antenna destroys the self complementary nature

  11. MULTI-MESSENGER ASTRONOMY OF GRAVITATIONAL-WAVE SOURCES WITH FLEXIBLE WIDE-AREA RADIO TRANSIENT SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect

    Yancey, Cregg C.; Shawhan, Peter; Bear, Brandon E.; Akukwe, Bernadine; Simonetti, John H.; Tsai, Jr-Wei; Chen, Kevin; Dowell, Jayce; Obenberger, Kenneth; Taylor, Gregory B.; Gough, Jonathan D.; Kanner, Jonah; Kavic, Michael

    2015-10-20

    We explore opportunities for multi-messenger astronomy using gravitational waves (GWs) and prompt, transient low-frequency radio emission to study highly energetic astrophysical events. We review the literature on possible sources of correlated emission of GWs and radio transients, highlighting proposed mechanisms that lead to a short-duration, high-flux radio pulse originating from the merger of two neutron stars or from a superconducting cosmic string cusp. We discuss the detection prospects for each of these mechanisms by low-frequency dipole array instruments such as LWA1, the Low Frequency Array and the Murchison Widefield Array. We find that a broad range of models may be tested by searching for radio pulses that, when de-dispersed, are temporally and spatially coincident with a LIGO/Virgo GW trigger within a ∼30 s time window and ∼200–500 deg{sup 2} sky region. We consider various possible observing strategies and discuss their advantages and disadvantages. Uniquely, for low-frequency radio arrays, dispersion can delay the radio pulse until after low-latency GW data analysis has identified and reported an event candidate, enabling a prompt radio signal to be captured by a deliberately targeted beam. If neutron star mergers do have detectable prompt radio emissions, a coincident search with the GW detector network and low-frequency radio arrays could increase the LIGO/Virgo effective search volume by up to a factor of ∼2. For some models, we also map the parameter space that may be constrained by non-detections.

  12. The Contribution of the Division of Radiophysics Murraybank Field Station to International Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendt, Harry; Orchiston, Wayne; Slee, Bruce

    During the 1950s Australia was one of the world's foremost astronomical nations owing primarily to the work of the dynamic radio astronomy group within the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation's Division of Radiophysics. Most of the observations were made at the network of field stations maintained by the Division in or near Sydney, and one of these field stations was Murraybank in the north-western suburbs of Sydney. GVaucouleursDe1954The Magellanic Clouds and the GalaxyThe Observatory7423311954Obs....74...23DDe Vaucouleurs, G., 1954a. The Magellanic Clouds and the Galaxy. The Observatory, 74, 23-31. GVaucouleursDe1954The Magellanic Clouds and the Galaxy, IIThe Observatory741581641954Obs....74..158DDe Vaucouleurs, G., 1954b. The Magellanic Clouds and the Galaxy, II. The Observatory, 74, 158-164. GVaucouleursDe1961Classification and radial velocities of bright southern galaxiesMemoirs of the Royal Astronomical Society68

  13. The history of early low frequency radio astronomy in Australia. 3: Ellis, Reber and the Cambridge field station near Hobart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Martin; Orchiston, Wayne; Slee, Bruce; Wielebinski, Richard

    2015-07-01

    Low frequency radio astronomy in Tasmania began with the arrival of Grote Reber to the State in 1954. After analysing ionospheric data from around the world, he concluded that Tasmania would be a very suitable place to carry out low frequency observations. Communications with Graeme Ellis in Tasmania, who had spent several years studying the ionosphere, led to a collaboration between the two in 1955 during which year they made observations at Cambridge, near Hobart. Their observations took place at four frequencies between 2.13 MHz and 0.52 MHz inclusive, with the results at the higher frequencies revealing a clear celestial component

  14. Indexing data cubes for content-based searches in radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araya, M.; Candia, G.; Gregorio, R.; Mendoza, M.; Solar, M.

    2016-01-01

    Methods for observing space have changed profoundly in the past few decades. The methods needed to detect and record astronomical objects have shifted from conventional observations in the optical range to more sophisticated methods which permit the detection of not only the shape of an object but also the velocity and frequency of emissions in the millimeter-scale wavelength range and the chemical substances from which they originate. The consolidation of radio astronomy through a range of global-scale projects such as the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) and the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) reinforces the need to develop better methods of data processing that can automatically detect regions of interest (ROIs) within data cubes (position-position-velocity), index them and facilitate subsequent searches via methods based on queries using spatial coordinates and/or velocity ranges. In this article, we present the development of an automatic system for indexing ROIs in data cubes that is capable of automatically detecting and recording ROIs while reducing the necessary storage space. The system is able to process data cubes containing megabytes of data in fractions of a second without human supervision, thus allowing it to be incorporated into a production line for displaying objects in a virtual observatory. We conducted a set of comprehensive experiments to illustrate how our system works. As a result, an index of 3% of the input size was stored in a spatial database, representing a compression ratio equal to 33:1 over an input of 20.875 GB, achieving an index of 773 MB approximately. On the other hand, a single query can be evaluated over our system in a fraction of second, showing that the indexing step works as a shock-absorber of the computational time involved in data cube processing. The system forms part of the Chilean Virtual Observatory (ChiVO), an initiative which belongs to the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) that

  15. An antenna, a radio and a microprocessor: which kinds of observation are possible in meteor radio astronomy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbieri, L.

    2016-01-01

    Radio meteors are usually investigated by professional radars. Amateur astronomers cannot have transmitters, so usually they can only listen to sounds generated by a radio tuned to a TV or military transmitter. Until recently, this kind of observation has not produced good data. The experience of "RAMBo" (Radar Astrofilo Meteorico Bolognese) shows which data can be extracted from an amateur meteor scatter observatory and the results which can be achieved.

  16. System integration and radiation pattern measurements of a phased array antenna employing an integrated photonic beamformer for radio astronomy applications.

    PubMed

    Burla, Maurizio; Roeloffzen, Chris G H; Zhuang, Leimeng; Marpaung, David; Khan, Muhammad Rezaul; Maat, Peter; Dijkstra, Klaas; Leinse, Arne; Hoekman, Marcel; Heideman, René

    2012-03-01

    In this paper we describe the system integration and the experimental demonstration of a photonically beamformed four-element receiving array antenna for radio astronomy applications. To our knowledge, the work described here is the first demonstration of the squint-free, continuously tunable beamsteering capability offered by an integrated photonic beamformer based on optical ring resonator true-time-delay units, with measured radiation patterns. The integrated beamformer is realized in a low loss, complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) compatible optical waveguide technology. The measurements show a wideband, continuous beamsteering operation over a steering angle of 23.5 degrees and an instantaneous bandwidth of 500 MHz limited only by the measurement setup.

  17. Discovering the invisible universe. [Historical survey of electromagnetic (IR, UV, radio and x-ray) astronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, H. )

    1991-02-01

    The history of astronomical observations outside the visible range is surveyed in a review for general readers. Consideration is given to Jansky's discovery of cosmic radio emission, the pioneering radio observers of the 1940s, the larger radio telescopes built since 1950, aperture synthesis and the Very Large Array, terrestrial and space VLBI networks, ground-based and satellite observations in the IR band, the discovery and early laboratory characterization of X-rays, and X-ray observations from sounding rockets and satellites. Extensive photographs, drawings, diagrams, and sample images are provided.

  18. Discovering astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, R. D.

    1978-01-01

    An overview of basic astronomical knowledge is presented with attention to the structure and dynamics of the stars and planets. Also dealt with are techniques of astronomical measurement, e.g., stellar spectrometry, radio astronomy, star catalogs, etc. Basic physical principles as they pertain to astronomy are reviewed, including the nature of light, gravitation, and electromagnetism. Finally, stellar evolution and cosmology are discussed with reference to the possibility of life elsewhere in the universe.

  19. The Astronomical Low Frequency Array: A Proposed Explorer Mission for Radio Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, D.; Allen, R.; Basart, J.; Bastian, T.; Bougeret, J. L.; Dennison, B.; Desch, M.; Dwarakanath, K.; Erickson, W.; Finley, D.; Kaiser, M.; Kassim, N.; Kuiper, T.; MacDowall, R.; Mahoney, M.; Perley, R.; Preston, R.; Reiner, M.; Rodriguez, P.; Stone, R.; Unwin, S.; Weiler, K.; Woan, G.; Woo, R.

    1999-01-01

    A radio interferometer array in space providing high dynamic range images with unprecedented angular resolution over the broad frequency range from 0.030 - 30 MHz will open new vistas in solar, terrestial, galactic, and extragalactic astrophysics.

  20. Source counts at 5 gigahertz from the MG survey. [radio astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, C. L.; Lawrence, C. R.; Burke, B. F.

    1985-01-01

    The MIT-Green Bank (MG) radio survey (reported by Bennett and colleagues in 1984 and 1985) is the largest 5 GHz survey to date. In this paper the source counts from the MG survey are examined. They are consistent with past measurements, but due to the large size of the MG survey the Poisson errors have been reduced. Radio source evolution models (such as that reported by Condon in 1984) are consistent with these new measurements.

  1. Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) earth physics. [application to radio astronomy and interferometric earth surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdoran, P. F.

    1972-01-01

    The characteristics of the Michelson/Pease stellar interferometer are discussed. An analog of the interferometer using radio waves is described. The use of a conventional hard-wired interferometer with very long base line interferometry (VLBI) is analyzed. Mathematical models are developed to analyze the VLBI techniques. A summary of VLBI geodetic experiments is tabulated. The concept and application of the astronomical radio interferometric earth surveys (ARIES) are reported. A schematic diagram of ARIES implementation is provided.

  2. Characterizing Interference in Radio Astronomy Observations through Active and Unsupervised Learning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doran, G.

    2013-01-01

    In the process of observing signals from astronomical sources, radio astronomers must mitigate the effects of manmade radio sources such as cell phones, satellites, aircraft, and observatory equipment. Radio frequency interference (RFI) often occurs as short bursts (< 1 ms) across a broad range of frequencies, and can be confused with signals from sources of interest such as pulsars. With ever-increasing volumes of data being produced by observatories, automated strategies are required to detect, classify, and characterize these short "transient" RFI events. We investigate an active learning approach in which an astronomer labels events that are most confusing to a classifier, minimizing the human effort required for classification. We also explore the use of unsupervised clustering techniques, which automatically group events into classes without user input. We apply these techniques to data from the Parkes Multibeam Pulsar Survey to characterize several million detected RFI events from over a thousand hours of observation.

  3. Solar system and related topics study by the methods of the low-frequency radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovalenko, A. A.; Rucker, H. O.; Melnik, V. N.; Falkovich, I. S.; Litvinenko, G. V.; Kolyadin, V. L.; Zakharenko, V. V.; Lecacheux, A.; Zarka, Ph.; Reznik, A. P.

    2010-05-01

    In the present report the possibilities and some results of the high sensitive investigations of the Solar system objects at lowest frequencies have been reviewed. The Sun, Jupiter, Saturn, interplanetary medium, and other objects have been considered. Special attention has been paid to the space weather problem. The stellar-planetary relations have been also investigated, particularly a search of active stars and exo-planets radio emission. During the last years many observations have been performed with the largest decameter arrays UTR-2 (Kharkov, Ukraine) and URAN system (Ukraine) and new receiving equipment. These investigations provided the possibility to get the important information about the fine time-frequency structures of the weak sporadic radio emission. Very good perspectives come into existence in connection to the creation and implementation of the new generation of low-frequency radio telescopes, i.e. LOFAR (the Netherlands), E-LOFAR (European countries), LWA (USA), LSS (France), GURT (Ukraine), etc.

  4. Analysis of the Capability and Limitations of Relativistic Gravity Measurements Using Radio Astronomy Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, I. I.; Counselman, C. C., III

    1975-01-01

    The uses of radar observations of planets and very-long-baseline radio interferometric observations of extragalactic objects to test theories of gravitation are described in detail with special emphasis on sources of error. The accuracy achievable in these tests with data already obtained, can be summarized in terms of: retardation of signal propagation (radar), deflection of radio waves (interferometry), advance of planetary perihelia (radar), gravitational quadrupole moment of sun (radar), and time variation of gravitational constant (radar). The analyses completed to date have yielded no significant disagreement with the predictions of general relativity.

  5. Study of the magnetospheres of active regions on the sun by radio astronomy techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogod, V. M.; Kal'tman, T. I.; Peterova, N. G.; Yasnov, L. V.

    2017-01-01

    In the 1990s, based on detailed studies of the structure of active regions (AR), the concept of the magnetosphere of the active region was proposed. This includes almost all known structures presented in the active region, ranging from the radio granulation up to noise storms, the radiation of which manifests on the radio waves. The magnetosphere concept, which, from a common point of view, considers the manifestations of the radio emission of the active region as a single active complex, allows one to shed light on the relation between stable and active processes and their interrelations. It is especially important to identify the basic ways of transforming nonthermal energy into thermal energy. A dominant role in all processes is attributed to the magnetic field, the measurement of which on the coronal levels can be performed by radio-astronomical techniques. The extension of the wavelength range and the introduction of new tools and advanced modeling capabilities makes it possible to analyze the physical properties of plasma structures in the AR magnetosphere and to evaluate the coronal magnetic fields at the levels of the chromosphere-corona transition zone and the lower corona. The features and characteristics of the transition region from the S component to the B component have been estimated.

  6. The modern radio astronomy network in Ukraine: UTR-2, URAN and GURT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovalenko, A.; Sodin, L.; Zakharenko, V.; Zarka, P.; Ulyanov, O.; Sidorchuk, M.; Stepkin, S.; Tokarsky, P.; Melnik, V.; Kalinichenko, N.; Stanislavsky, A.; Koliadin, V.; Shepelev, V.; Dorovskyy, V.; Ryabov, V.; Koval, A.; Bubnov, I.; Yerin, S.; Gridin, A.; Kulishenko, V.; Reznichenko, A.; Bortsov, V.; Lisachenko, V.; Reznik, A.; Kvasov, G.; Mukha, D.; Litvinenko, G.; Khristenko, A.; Shevchenko, V. V.; Shevchenko, V. A.; Belov, A.; Rudavin, E.; Vasylieva, I.; Miroshnichenko, A.; Vasilenko, N.; Olyak, M.; Mylostna, K.; Skoryk, A.; Shevtsova, A.; Plakhov, M.; Kravtsov, I.; Volvach, Y.; Lytvinenko, O.; Shevchuk, N.; Zhouk, I.; Bovkun, V.; Antonov, A.; Vavriv, D.; Vinogradov, V.; Kozhin, R.; Kravtsov, A.; Bulakh, E.; Kuzin, A.; Vasilyev, A.; Brazhenko, A.; Vashchishin, R.; Pylaev, O.; Koshovyy, V.; Lozinsky, A.; Ivantyshin, O.; Rucker, H. O.; Panchenko, M.; Fischer, G.; Lecacheux, A.; Denis, L.; Coffre, A.; Grießmeier, J.-M.; Tagger, M.; Girard, J.; Charrier, D.; Briand, C.; Mann, G.

    2016-08-01

    The current status of the large decameter radio telescope UTR-2 (Ukrainian T-shaped Radio telescope) together with its VLBI system called URAN is described in detail. By modernization of these instruments through implementation of novel versatile analog and digital devices as well as new observation techniques, the observational capabilities of UTR-2 have been substantially enhanced. The total effective area of UTR-2 and URAN arrays reaches 200 000 m2, with 24 MHz observational bandwidth (within the 8-32 MHz frequency range), spectral and temporal resolutions down to 4 kHz and 0.5 msec in dynamic spectrum mode or virtually unlimited in waveform mode. Depending on the spectral and temporal resolutions and confusion effects, the sensitivity of UTR-2 varies from a few Jy to a few mJy, and the angular resolution ranges from ~ 30 arcminutes (with a single antenna array) to a few arcseconds (in VLBI mode). In the framework of national and international research projects conducted in recent years, many new results on Solar system objects, the Galaxy and Metagalaxy have been obtained. In order to extend the observation frequency range to 8-80 MHz and enlarge the dimensions of the UTR-2 array, a new instrument - GURT (Giant Ukrainian Radio Telescope) - is now under construction. The radio telescope systems described herein can be used in synergy with other existing low-frequency arrays such as LOFAR, LWA, NenuFAR, as well as provide ground-based support for space-based instruments.

  7. The Hitachi and Takahagi 32 m radio telescopes: Upgrade of the antennas from satellite communication to radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonekura, Yoshinori; Saito, Yu; Sugiyama, Koichiro; Soon, Kang Lou; Momose, Munetake; Yokosawa, Masayoshi; Ogawa, Hideo; Kimura, Kimihiro; Abe, Yasuhiro; Nishimura, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Yutaka; Fujisawa, Kenta; Ohyama, Tomoaki; Kono, Yusuke; Miyamoto, Yusuke; Sawada-Satoh, Satoko; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Kawaguchi, Noriyuki; Honma, Mareki; Shibata, Katsunori M.; Sato, Katsuhisa; Ueno, Yuji; Jike, Takaaki; Tamura, Yoshiaki; Hirota, Tomoya; Miyazaki, Atsushi; Niinuma, Kotaro; Sorai, Kazuo; Takaba, Hiroshi; Hachisuka, Kazuya; Kondo, Tetsuro; Sekido, Mamoru; Murata, Yasuhiro; Nakai, Naomasa; Omodaka, Toshihiro

    2016-10-01

    The Hitachi and Takahagi 32 m radio telescopes (former satellite communication antennas) were so upgraded as to work at 6, 8, and 22 GHz. We developed the receiver systems, IF systems, back-end systems (including samplers and recorders), and reference systems. We measured the performance of the antennas. The system temperature including the atmosphere toward the zenith, T_sys^{ast }, is measured to be ˜30-40 K for 6 GHz and ˜25-35 K for 8 GHz. T_sys^{ast } for 22 GHz is measured to be ˜40-100 K in winter and ˜150-500 K in summer seasons, respectively. The aperture efficiency is 55%-75% for Hitachi at 6 GHz and 8 GHz, and 55%-65% for Takahagi at 8 GHz. The beam sizes at 6 GHz and 8 GHz are ˜4.6° and ˜3.8°, respectively. The side-lobe level is less than 3%-4% at 6 and 8 GHz. Pointing accuracy was measured to be better than ˜0.3° for Hitachi and ˜0.6° for Takahagi. We succeeded in VLBI observations in 2010 August, indicating good performance of the antenna. We started single-dish monitoring observations of 6.7 GHz methanol maser sources in 2012 December, and found several new sources showing short-term periodic variation of the flux density.

  8. Radio Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Radio science experiments use electromagnetic waves to probe or study the solar system. Three major research areas were identified within this discipline: radio astronomy, radar astronomy, and celestial mechanics. Radio astronomy (or radiometry) is the detection and measurement of naturally produced radio frequency emissions. Sources include surfaces, atmospheres, rings, and plasmas. Radar astronomy is the observation of man-made signals after their interaction with a target. Both imaging and non-imaging results. Celestial mechanics includes all studies related to the motions of (and gravity fields of) bodies within the solar system. These should not be considered rigid separations, but aid in the discussion of the data sets.

  9. RESOLVE: A new algorithm for aperture synthesis imaging of extended emission in radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junklewitz, H.; Bell, M. R.; Selig, M.; Enßlin, T. A.

    2016-02-01

    We present resolve, a new algorithm for radio aperture synthesis imaging of extended and diffuse emission in total intensity. The algorithm is derived using Bayesian statistical inference techniques, estimating the surface brightness in the sky assuming a priori log-normal statistics. resolve estimates the measured sky brightness in total intensity, and the spatial correlation structure in the sky, which is used to guide the algorithm to an optimal reconstruction of extended and diffuse sources. During this process, the algorithm succeeds in deconvolving the effects of the radio interferometric point spread function. Additionally, resolve provides a map with an uncertainty estimate of the reconstructed surface brightness. Furthermore, with resolve we introduce a new, optimal visibility weighting scheme that can be viewed as an extension to robust weighting. In tests using simulated observations, the algorithm shows improved performance against two standard imaging approaches for extended sources, Multiscale-CLEAN and the Maximum Entropy Method.

  10. Low noise, 0.4-3 GHz cryogenic receiver for radio astronomy.

    PubMed

    Gawande, R; Bradley, R; Langston, G

    2014-10-01

    We present the design and measurement of a radio telescope receiver front end cooled to 100 K physical temperature, and working over 400 MHz to 3 GHz frequency band. The system uses a frequency independent feed developed for operation as a feed for parabola using sinuous elements and integrated with an ultra-wideband low noise amplifier. The ambient temperature system is tested on the 43 m radio telescope in Green Bank, WV and the system verification results on the sky are presented. The cryogenic receiver is developed using a Stirling cycle, one stage cryocooler. The measured far field patterns and the system noise less than 80 K over a 5:1 bandwidth are presented.

  11. Low noise, 0.4-3 GHz cryogenic receiver for radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gawande, R.; Bradley, R.; Langston, G.

    2014-10-01

    We present the design and measurement of a radio telescope receiver front end cooled to 100 K physical temperature, and working over 400 MHz to 3 GHz frequency band. The system uses a frequency independent feed developed for operation as a feed for parabola using sinuous elements and integrated with an ultra-wideband low noise amplifier. The ambient temperature system is tested on the 43 m radio telescope in Green Bank, WV and the system verification results on the sky are presented. The cryogenic receiver is developed using a Stirling cycle, one stage cryocooler. The measured far field patterns and the system noise less than 80 K over a 5:1 bandwidth are presented.

  12. Gravity-gradient dynamics experiments performed in orbit utilizing the Radio Astronomy Explorer (RAE-1) spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walden, H.

    1973-01-01

    Six dynamic experiments were performed in earth orbit utilizing the RAE spacecraft in order to test the accuracy of the mathematical model of RAE dynamics. The spacecraft consisted of four flexible antenna booms, mounted on a rigid cylindrical spacecraft hub at center, for measuring radio emissions from extraterrestrial sources. Attitude control of the gravity stabilized spacecraft was tested by using damper clamping, single lower leading boom operations, and double lower boom operations. Results and conclusions of the in-orbit dynamic experiments proved the accuracy of the analytic techniques used to model RAE dynamical behavior.

  13. Controller-area-network bus control and monitor system for a radio astronomy interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woody, David P.; Wiitala, Bradley; Scott, Stephen L.; Lamb, James W.; Lawrence, Ronald P.; Giovanine, Curt; Fredsti, Sancar J.; Beard, Andrew; Pryke, Clem; Loh, Michael; Greer, Christopher H.; Cartwright, John K.; Gutierrez-Kraybill, Colby; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Muchovej, Stephen J. C.

    2007-09-01

    We describe the design and implementation of a controller-area-network bus (CANbus) monitor and control system for a millimeter wave interferometer. The Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) is a 15-antenna connected-element interferometer for astronomical imaging, created by the merger of two university observatories. Its new control system relies on a central computer supervising a variety of subsystem computers, many of which control distributed intelligent nodes over CANbus. Subsystems are located in the control building and in individual antennas and communicate with the central computer via Ethernet. Each of the CAN modules has a very specific function, such as reading an antenna encoder or tuning an oscillator. Hardware for the modules was based on a core design including a commercial CANbus-enabled single-board computer and some standard circuitry for interfacing to peripherals. Hardware elements were added or changed as necessary for the specific module types. Similarly, a base set of embedded code was implemented for essential common functions such as CAN message handling and time keeping and extended to implement the required functionality for the different hardware. Using a standard CAN messaging protocol designed to fit the requirements of CARMA and a well-defined interface to the high-level software allowed separate development of high-level code and embedded code with minimal integration problems. Over 30 module types have been implemented and successfully deployed in CARMA, which is now delivering excellent new science data.

  14. Controller-area-network bus control and monitor system for a radio astronomy interferometer.

    PubMed

    Woody, David P; Wiitala, Bradley; Scott, Stephen L; Lamb, James W; Lawrence, Ronald P; Giovanine, Curt; Fredsti, Sancar J; Beard, Andrew; Pryke, Clem; Loh, Michael; Greer, Christopher H; Cartwright, John K; Gutierrez-Kraybill, Colby; Bolatto, Alberto D; Muchovej, Stephen J C

    2007-09-01

    We describe the design and implementation of a controller-area-network bus (CANbus) monitor and control system for a millimeter wave interferometer. The Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) is a 15-antenna connected-element interferometer for astronomical imaging, created by the merger of two university observatories. Its new control system relies on a central computer supervising a variety of subsystem computers, many of which control distributed intelligent nodes over CANbus. Subsystems are located in the control building and in individual antennas and communicate with the central computer via Ethernet. Each of the CAN modules has a very specific function, such as reading an antenna encoder or tuning an oscillator. Hardware for the modules was based on a core design including a commercial CANbus-enabled single-board computer and some standard circuitry for interfacing to peripherals. Hardware elements were added or changed as necessary for the specific module types. Similarly, a base set of embedded code was implemented for essential common functions such as CAN message handling and time keeping and extended to implement the required functionality for the different hardware. Using a standard CAN messaging protocol designed to fit the requirements of CARMA and a well-defined interface to the high-level software allowed separate development of high-level code and embedded code with minimal integration problems. Over 30 module types have been implemented and successfully deployed in CARMA, which is now delivering excellent new science data.

  15. Solar maximum mission: Ground support programs at the Harvard Radio Astronomy Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maxwell, A.

    1983-01-01

    Observations of the spectral characteristics of solar radio bursts were made with new dynamic spectrum analyzers of high sensitivity and high reliability, over the frequency range 25-580 MHz. The observations also covered the maximum period of the current solar cycle and the period of international cooperative programs designated as the Solar Maximum Year. Radio data on shock waves generated by solar flares were combined with optical data on coronal transients, taken with equipment on the SMM and other satellites, and then incorporated into computer models for the outward passage of fast-mode MHD shocks through the solar corona. The MHD models are non-linear, time-dependent and for the most recent models, quasi-three-dimensional. They examine the global response of the corona for different types of input pulses (thermal, magnetic, etc.) and for different magnetic topologies (for example, open and closed fields). Data on coronal shocks and high-velocity material ejected from solar flares have been interpreted in terms of a model consisting of three main velocity regimes.

  16. Observations of electron gyroharmonic waves and the structure of the Io torus. [jupiter 1 spacecraft radio astronomy experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birmingham, T. J.; Alexander, J. K.; Desch, M. D.; Hubbard, R. F.; Pedersen, B. M.

    1980-01-01

    Narrow-banded emissions were observed by the Planetary Radio Astronomy experiment on the Voyager 1 spacecraft as it traversed the Io plasma torus. These waves occur between harmonics of the electron gyrofrequency and are the Jovian analogue of electrostatic emissions observed and theoretically studied for the terrestrial magnetosphere. The observed frequencies always include the component near the upper hybrid resonant frequency, (fuhr) but the distribution of the other observed emissions varies in a systematic way with position in the torus. A refined model of the electron density variation, based on identification of the fuhr line, is included. Spectra of the observed waves are analyzed in terms of the linear instability of an electron distribution function consisting of isotropic cold electrons and hot losscone electrons. The positioning of the observed auxiliary harmonics with respect to fuhr is shown to be an indicator of the cold to hot temperature ratio. It is concluded that this ratio increases systematically by an overall factor of perhaps 4 or 5 between the inner and outer portions of the torus.

  17. MOLECULAR CLOUDS AND CLUMPS IN THE BOSTON UNIVERSITY-FIVE COLLEGE RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY GALACTIC RING SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Rathborne, J. M.; Johnson, A. M.; Jackson, J. M.; Shah, R. Y.; Simon, R. E-mail: alexj@bu.edu E-mail: ronak@bu.edu

    2009-05-15

    The Boston University-Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory (BU-FCRAO) Galactic Ring Survey (GRS) of {sup 13}CO J = 1 {yields} 0 emission covers Galactic longitudes 18{sup 0} < l < 55.{sup 0}7 and Galactic latitudes |b| {<=} 1{sup 0}. Using the SEQUOIA array on the FCRAO 14 m telescope, the GRS fully sampled the {sup 13}CO Galactic emission (46'' angular resolution on a 22'' grid) and achieved a spectral resolution of 0.21 km s{sup -1}. Because the GRS uses {sup 13}CO, an optically thin tracer, rather than {sup 12}CO, an optically thick tracer, the GRS allows a much better determination of column density and also a cleaner separation of velocity components along a line of sight. With this homogeneous, fully sampled survey of {sup 13}CO emission, we have identified 829 molecular clouds and 6124 clumps throughout the inner Galaxy using the CLUMPFIND algorithm. Here we present details of the catalog and a preliminary analysis of the properties of the molecular clouds and their clumps. Moreover, we compare clouds inside and outside of the 5 kpc ring and find that clouds within the ring typically have warmer temperatures, higher column densities, larger areas, and more clumps compared with clouds located outside the ring. This is expected if these clouds are actively forming stars. This catalog provides a useful tool for the study of molecular clouds and their embedded young stellar objects.

  18. Highlighting the history of Japanese radio astronomy. 4: early solar research in Osaka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, Wayne; Nakamura, Tsuko; Ishiguro, Masato

    2016-12-01

    For about two years, from late 1949, Minoru Oda and Tatsuo Takakura carried out solar observations from Osaka, initially with a hand-made horn and later with a small parabolic antenna connected to a 3.3 GHz receiver, but they only published one short paper on this work. At about the same time, Ojio and others at Osaka City University presented the concept of a solar grating array at a meeting of the Japan Physical Society, but this was never built. In this paper, we provide brief biographical accounts of Oda and Takakura before examining their radio telescopes and the observations that they made. We also briefly discuss the proposed Japanese solar grating array.

  19. ICE-Based Custom Full-Mesh Network for the CHIME High Bandwidth Radio Astronomy Correlator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandura, K.; Cliche, J. F.; Dobbs, M. A.; Gilbert, A. J.; Ittah, D.; Mena Parra, J.; Smecher, G.

    New generation radio interferometers encode signals from thousands of antenna feeds across large bandwidth. Channelizing and correlating this data requires networking capabilities that can handle unprecedented data rates with reasonable cost. The Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment (CHIME) correlator processes 8-bits from N=2,048 digitizer inputs across 400MHz of bandwidth. Measured in N2× bandwidth, it is the largest radio correlator that is currently commissioning. Its digital back-end must exchange and reorganize the 6.6terabit/s produced by its 128 digitizing and channelizing nodes, and feed it to the 256 graphics processing unit (GPU) node spatial correlator in a way that each node obtains data from all digitizer inputs but across a small fraction of the bandwidth (i.e. ‘corner-turn’). In order to maximize performance and reliability of the corner-turn system while minimizing cost, a custom networking solution has been implemented. The system makes use of Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) transceivers to implement direct, passive copper, full-mesh, high speed serial connections between sixteen circuit boards in a crate, to exchange data between crates, and to offload the data to a cluster of 256 GPU nodes using standard 10Gbit/s Ethernet links. The GPU nodes complete the corner-turn by combining data from all crates and then computing visibilities. Eye diagrams and frame error counters confirm error-free operation of the corner-turn network in both the currently operating CHIME Pathfinder telescope (a prototype for the full CHIME telescope) and a representative fraction of the full CHIME hardware providing an end-to-end system validation. An analysis of an equivalent corner-turn system built with Ethernet switches instead of custom passive data links is provided.

  20. Digital Signal Processing Using Stream High Performance Computing: A 512-Input Broadband Correlator for Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocz, J.; Greenhill, L. J.; Barsdell, B. R.; Price, D.; Bernardi, G.; Bourke, S.; Clark, M. A.; Craig, J.; Dexter, M.; Dowell, J.; Eftekhari, T.; Ellingson, S.; Hallinan, G.; Hartman, J.; Jameson, A.; MacMahon, D.; Taylor, G.; Schinzel, F.; Werthimer, D.

    2015-03-01

    A "large-N" correlator that makes use of Field Programmable Gate Arrays and Graphics Processing Units has been deployed as the digital signal processing system for the Long Wavelength Array station at Owens Valley Radio Observatory (LWA-OV), to enable the Large Aperture Experiment to Detect the Dark Ages (LEDA). The system samples a ˜ 100 MHz baseband and processes signals from 512 antennas (256 dual polarization) over a ˜ 58 MHz instantaneous sub-band, achieving 16.8 Tops s-1 and 0.236 Tbit s-1 throughput in a 9 kW envelope and single rack footprint. The output data rate is 260 MB s-1 for 9-s time averaging of cross-power and 1 s averaging of total power data. At deployment, the LWA-OV correlator was the largest in production in terms of N and is the third largest in terms of complex multiply accumulations, after the Very Large Array and Atacama Large Millimeter Array. The correlator's comparatively fast development time and low cost establish a practical foundation for the scalability of a modular, heterogeneous, computing architecture.

  1. Absolute Calibration of the Radio Astronomy Flux Density Scale at 22 to 43 GHz Using Planck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partridge, B.; López-Caniego, M.; Perley, R. A.; Stevens, J.; Butler, B. J.; Rocha, G.; Walter, B.; Zacchei, A.

    2016-04-01

    The Planck mission detected thousands of extragalactic radio sources at frequencies from 28 to 857 GHz. Planck's calibration is absolute (in the sense that it is based on the satellite’s annual motion around the Sun and the temperature of the cosmic microwave background), and its beams are well characterized at sub-percent levels. Thus, Planck's flux density measurements of compact sources are absolute in the same sense. We have made coordinated Very Large Array (VLA) and Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) observations of 65 strong, unresolved Planck sources in order to transfer Planck's calibration to ground-based instruments at 22, 28, and 43 GHz. The results are compared to microwave flux density scales currently based on planetary observations. Despite the scatter introduced by the variability of many of the sources, the flux density scales are determined to 1%-2% accuracy. At 28 GHz, the flux density scale used by the VLA runs 2%-3% ± 1.0% below Planck values with an uncertainty of +/- 1.0%; at 43 GHz, the discrepancy increases to 5%-6% ± 1.4% for both ATCA and the VLA.

  2. Peta-Flop Real Time Radio Astronomy Signal Processing Instrumentation and the CASPER Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werthimer, Dan

    2014-04-01

    I will briefly describe next generation radio telescopes, such as HERA and the Square Kilometer Array (SKA), which will require 1E15 to 1E17 operations per second of real time processing. I'll present some of the new architectures we've used to develop a variety of heterogeneous FPGA-GPU-CPU based signal processing systems for such telescopes, including spectrometers, correlators, and beam formers. I will also describe the CASPER collaboration, which has developed architectures, open source programming tools, libraries and reference designs that make it relatively easy to develop a variety of scalable, upgradeable, fault tolerant, low power, real time digital signal processing instrumentation. CASPER utilizes commercial 10Gbit and 40 Gbit ethernet switches to interconnect open source general purpose field programmable gate array (FPGA) boards with GPUs and software modules. CASPER collaborators at hundreds of universities, government labs and observatories have used these techniques to rapidly develop and deploy a variety of correlators, beamformers, spectrometers, pulsar/transient machines, and VLBI instrumentation. CASPER instrumentation is also utilized in physics, medicine, genomics and engineering. Open source source hardware, software, libraries, tools, tutorials, reference designs, information about workshops, and how to join the collaboration are available at http://casper.berkeley.edu

  3. Millimetre-Wave Spectrum of Isotopologues of Ethanol for Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, Adam; Schäfer, Mirko; Ordu, Matthias H.; Lewen, Frank; Schlemmer, Stephan; Müller, Holger S. P.

    2015-06-01

    Complex molecules have been identified in star-forming regions and their formation is linked to the specific physical and chemical conditions there. They are suspected to form a role in the origins of life. Amongst these, ethanol is a fairly abundant molecule in warmer regions. For this reason, we have recently carried out laboratory measurements and analyses of the rotational spectra of the three mono-substituted deuterium isotopologues of ethanol (one of which, CH_2DCH_2OH, exists as two distinct conformers according to the position of the deuterium atom with respect to the molecular skeleton). Measurements were taken between 35-500 GHz, allowing accurate predictions in the range of radio telescopes. We have concentrated on the lowest energy anti conformers. The dataset was constrained for fitting with a standard Watson-S reduction Hamiltonian by rejecting transitions from high-lying states, which appear to be perturbed by the gauche states, and by averaging some small methyl torsional splits. This treatment is compatible with the needs for a first search in the interstellar medium, in particular in spectra taken by ALMA. For this purpose an appropriate set of predictions will be included on the Cologne Database for Molecular Spectroscopy. Previous results on the two mono-substituted 13C isotopologues which led to a tentative detection in Sgr B2(N) will be briefly summarized and compared with the latest measurements. The usefulness of studying different isotopologues in the interstellar medium will also be rapidly addressed. Bouchez et al, JQSRT 113 (11), pp. 1148-1154, 2012. Belloche et al. A&A 559, id.A47, 187pp., 2013.

  4. The NSF Undergraduate ALFALFA Team: Partnering with Arecibo Observatory to Offer Undergraduate and Faculty Extragalactic Radio Astronomy Research Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribaudo, Joseph; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Haynes, Martha P.; Balonek, Thomas J.; Cannon, John M.; Coble, Kimberly A.; Craig, David W.; Denn, Grant R.; Durbala, Adriana; Finn, Rose; Hallenbeck, Gregory L.; Hoffman, G. Lyle; Lebron, Mayra E.; Miller, Brendan P.; Crone-Odekon, Mary; O'Donoghue, Aileen A.; Olowin, Ronald Paul; Pantoja, Carmen; Pisano, Daniel J.; Rosenberg, Jessica L.; Troischt, Parker; Venkatesan, Aparna; Wilcots, Eric M.; ALFALFA Team

    2017-01-01

    The NSF-sponsored Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team (UAT) is a consortium of 20 institutions across the US and Puerto Rico, founded to promote undergraduate research and faculty development within the extragalactic ALFALFA HI blind survey project and follow-up programs. The objective of the UAT is to provide opportunities for its members to develop expertise in the technical aspects of observational radio spectroscopy, its associated data analysis, and the motivating science. Partnering with Arecibo Observatory, the UAT has worked with more than 280 undergraduates and 26 faculty to date, offering 8 workshops onsite at Arecibo (148 undergraduates), observing runs at Arecibo (69 undergraduates), remote observing runs on campus, undergraduate research projects based on Arecibo science (120 academic year and 185 summer projects), and presentation of results at national meetings such as the AAS (at AAS229: Ball et al., Collova et al., Davis et al., Miazzo et al., Ruvolo et al, Singer et al., Cannon et al., Craig et al., Koopmann et al., O'Donoghue et al.). 40% of the students and 45% of the faculty participants have been women and members of underrepresented groups. More than 90% of student alumni are attending graduate school and/or pursuing a career in STEM. 42% of those pursuing graduate degrees in Physics or Astronomy are women.In this presentation, we summarize the UAT program and the current research efforts of UAT members based on Arecibo science, including multiwavelength followup observations of ALFALFA sources, the UAT Collaborative Groups Project, the Survey of HI in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs (SHIELD), and the Arecibo Pisces-Perseus Supercluster Survey (APPSS). This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918/0902211, AST-075267/0903394, AST-0725380, AST-121105, and AST-1637339.

  5. Astronomy, technology development and industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigroux, Laurent

    2011-06-01

    Astronomy is perhaps the best example of fundamental research aiming to increase our knowledge well beyond our human neighborhood. But astronomy is also a Big Science, which is partly technology-driven. Progress in observational capabilities is due to progress in detectors, telescopes, satellites, etc. I use three examples -radio astronomy, adaptive optics and detectors- to describe the complex interactions between astronomy, technology development and industry. I conclude by a short description of the global economic impact of astronomy.

  6. An Integrated Circuit for Radio Astronomy Correlators Supporting Large Arrays of Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Addario, Larry R.; Wang, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Radio telescopes that employ arrays of many antennas are in operation, and ever larger ones are being designed and proposed. Signals from the antennas are combined by cross-correlation. While the cost of most components of the telescope is proportional to the number of antennas N, the cost and power consumption of cross-correlationare proportional to N2 and dominate at sufficiently large N. Here we report the design of an integrated circuit (IC) that performs digital cross-correlations for arbitrarily many antennas in a power-efficient way. It uses an intrinsically low-power architecture in which the movement of data between devices is minimized. In a large system, each IC performs correlations for all pairs of antennas but for a portion of the telescope's bandwidth (the so-called "FX" structure). In our design, the correlations are performed in an array of 4096 complex multiply-accumulate (CMAC) units. This is sufficient to perform all correlations in parallel for 64 signals (N=32 antennas with 2 opposite-polarization signals per antenna). When N is larger, the input data are buffered in an on-chipmemory and the CMACs are re-used as many times as needed to compute all correlations. The design has been synthesized and simulated so as to obtain accurate estimates of the IC's size and power consumption. It isintended for fabrication in a 32 nm silicon-on-insulator process, where it will require less than 12mm2 of silicon area and achieve an energy efficiency of 1.76 to 3.3 pJ per CMAC operation, depending on the number of antennas. Operation has been analyzed in detail up to N = 4096. The system-level energy efficiency, including board-levelI/O, power supplies, and controls, is expected to be 5 to 7 pJ per CMAC operation. Existing correlators for the JVLA (N = 32) and ALMA (N = 64) telescopes achieve about 5000 pJ and 1000 pJ respectively usingapplication-specific ICs in older technologies. To our knowledge, the largest-N existing correlator is LEDA atN = 256; it

  7. An Integrated Circuit for Radio Astronomy Correlators Supporting Large Arrays of Antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Addario, Larry R.; Wang, Douglas

    2016-03-01

    Radio telescopes that employ arrays of many antennas are in operation, and ever larger ones are being designed and proposed. Signals from the antennas are combined by cross-correlation. While the cost of most components of the telescope is proportional to the number of antennas N, the cost and power consumption of cross-correlation are proportional to N2 and dominate at sufficiently large N. Here, we report the design of an integrated circuit (IC) that performs digital cross-correlations for arbitrarily many antennas in a power-efficient way. It uses an intrinsically low-power architecture in which the movement of data between devices is minimized. In a large system, each IC performs correlations for all pairs of antennas but for a portion of the telescope’s bandwidth (the so-called “FX” structure). In our design, the correlations are performed in an array of 4096 complex multiply-accumulate (CMAC) units. This is sufficient to perform all correlations in parallel for 64 signals (N=32 antennas with two opposite-polarization signals per antenna). When N is larger, the input data are buffered in an on-chip memory and the CMACs are reused as many times as needed to compute all correlations. The design has been synthesized and simulated so as to obtain accurate estimates of the ICs size and power consumption. It is intended for fabrication in a 32nm silicon-on-insulator process, where it will require less than 12mm2 of silicon area and achieve an energy efficiency of 1.76-3.3pJ per CMAC operation, depending on the number of antennas. Operation has been analyzed in detail up to N=4096. The system-level energy efficiency, including board-level I/O, power supplies, and controls, is expected to be 5-7pJ per CMAC operation. Existing correlators for the JVLA (N=32) and ALMA (N=64) telescopes achieve about 5000pJ and 1000pJ, respectively using application-specific ICs (ASICs) in older technologies. To our knowledge, the largest-N existing correlator is LEDA at N=256; it

  8. Society News: Monica Grady awarded CBE; Grubb Parsons Lecture 2012; Join the RAS; Astronomy on radio for kids; New Fellows; Peter D Hingley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-08-01

    RAS Fellow Prof. Monica Grady has been made a Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire (CBE), in recognition of her services to space science. The RAS sponsors the annual Grubb Parsons Lecture, which this year took place on 6 June at the University of Durham. If you are a professional astronomer, geophysicist, or similar, a student studying these disciplines, or simply someone with a serious interest in them, we urge you to apply for membership of the RAS. Outreach is an important activity for the RAS. We recently supported an astronomy series called Deep Space High on the digital radio channel Fun Kids.

  9. Transforming African astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalloo, Manisha

    2016-10-01

    As South Africa's MeerKAT radio telescope begins producing its first results, Manisha Lalloo meets physicist Nithaya Chetty, deputy chief executive officer of astronomy for the country's National Research Foundation, about how it can boost research in the region

  10. Recycling for radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoare, Melvin

    2012-02-01

    Melvin Hoare, Steve Rawlings and the CUGA consortium look forward to the potential offered by recycling the ˜30 m class antennas at Goonhilly Earth Station in Cornwall, including a new deep-space tracking facility, research and training, and the possibility of enhancing the e-MERLIN array.

  11. Astronomy research at the Aerospace Corporation. [research projects - NASA programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulikas, G. A.

    1974-01-01

    This report reviews the astronomy research carried out at The Aerospace Corporation during 1974. The report describes the activities of the San Fernando Observatory, the research in millimeter wave radio astronomy as well as the space astronomy research.

  12. Research Experience for Teachers at NRAO-Green Bank: Calibration of Data from the Green Bank Telescope and Classroom Activities in Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, C. H.; Maddalena, R. J.

    2002-12-01

    The NSF-funded "Research Experience for Teachers" project provides teachers an opportunity to work on a current scientific or engineering research project. This paper will present the results of research conducted with the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) as well as classroom activities that will use GBT data. In order to determine the accuracy of the calibration of receivers on cm-wave radio telescopes, engineers must periodically determine the equivalent temperature of a receiver's calibration noise diode. The traditional methods utilize hot-cold loads and usually achieve an accuracy of no better than 5%, have a very coarse frequency resolution, and require days of labor. Using observations with the GBT of standard astronomical flux calibrators, we measured the noise diode temperatures for four receivers that cover 1 to 10 GHz. By comparing the detected power from the calibrators to that generated by the noise diodes we were able to determine the temperature of the noise diodes to an accuracy of 1% with very good frequency resolution (1 MHz). The astronomically determined values agree, with few exceptions, to the less accurate values generated by the receiver engineer. In contrast to the methods employed by engineers, the astronomical determinations took only a few hours. Using data collected from the GBT and the NRAO 140-foot telescope, high-school students at Breck School in Golden Valley, MN will use the Hands-On Universe (HOU) software to analyze fits files containing data from a 100 square-degree region of the Orion Nebula. Instead of always relying on optical images from personal observations or the HOU groups at Lawrence Hall of Science or Yerkes, students can now use radio images. Comparing radio images with those derived at optical wavelengths should prove enlightening for students, many of whom have misconceptions concerning radio astronomy.

  13. OBSERVATIONS OF PLANETS AND QUASI-STELLAR RADIO SOURCES AT 3 MM.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    EXTRATERRESTRIAL RADIO WAVES), (* PLANETS , STARS, VENUS( PLANET ), MARS( PLANET ), MERCURY ( PLANET ), PLANETARY ATMOSPHERES, GALAXIES, ASTROPHYSICS, TEMPERATURE, MEASUREMENT, MICROWAVE FREQUENCY, ASTRONOMY, RADIO ASTRONOMY.

  14. Deconvolution of images in centimeter-band radio astronomy for the exploitation of new radio interferometers: characterization of non thermal components in galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabbech, A.

    2015-04-01

    Within the framework of the preparation for the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), that is the world largest radio telescope, new imaging challenges has to be conquered. The data acquired by SKA will have to be processed on real time because of their huge rate. In addition, thanks to its unprecedented resolution and sensitivity, SKA images will have very high dynamic range over wide fields of view. Hence, there is an urgent need for the design of new imaging techniques that are robust and efficient and fully automated. The goal of this thesis is to develop a new technique aiming to reconstruct a model image of the radio sky from the radio observations. The method have been designed to estimate images with high dynamic range with a particular attention to recover faint extended emission usually completely buried in the PSF sidelobes of the brighter sources and the noise. We propose a new approach, based on sparse representations, called MORESANE. The radio sky is assumed to be a summation of sources, considered as atoms of an unknown synthesis dictionary. These atoms are learned using analysis priors from the observed image. Results obtained on realistic simulations show that MORESANE is very promising in the restoration of radio images; it is outperforming the standard tools and very competitive with the newly proposed methods in the literature. MORESANE is also applied on simulations of observations using the SKA1 with the aim to investigate the detectability of the intracluster non thermal component. Our results indicate that these diffuse sources, characterized by very low surface brightness will be investigated up to the epoch of massive cluster formation with the SKA.

  15. A New Approach to Suppress the Effect of Machining Error for Waveguide Septum Circular Polarizer at 230 GHz Band in Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Yutaka; Harada, Ryohei; Tokuda, Kazuki; Kimura, Kimihiro; Ogawa, Hideo; Onishi, Toshikazu; Nishimura, Atsushi; Han, Johnson; Inoue, Makoto

    2017-02-01

    A new stepped septum-type waveguide circular polarizer (SST-CP) was developed to operate in the 230 GHz band for radio astronomy, especially submillimeter-band VLBI observations. For previously reported SST-CP models, the 230 GHz band is too high to achieve the design characteristics in manufactured devices because of unexpected machining errors. To realize a functional SST-CP that can operate in the submillimeter band, a new method was developed, in which the division surface is shifted from the top step of the septum to the second step from the top, and we simulated the expected machining error. The SST-CP using this method can compensate for specified machining errors and suppress serious deterioration. To verify the proposed method, several test pieces were manufactured, and their characteristics were measured using a VNA. These results indicated that the insertion losses were approximately 0.75 dB, and the input return losses and the crosstalk of the left- and right-hand circular polarization were greater than 20 dB at 220-245 GHz on 300 K. Moreover, a 230 GHz SST-CP was developed by the proposed method and installed in a 1.85-m radio telescope receiver systems, and then had used for scientific observations during one observation season without any problems. These achievements demonstrate the successful development of a 230 GHz SST-CP for radio astronomical observations. Furthermore, the proposed method can be applicable for observations in higher frequency bands, such as 345 GHz.

  16. A scientific program for infrared, submillimeter and radio astronomy from space: A report by the Management Operations Working Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Important and fundamental scientific progress can be attained through space observations in the wavelengths longward of 1 micron. The formation of galaxies, stars, and planets, the origin of quasars and the nature of active galactic nuclei, the large scale structure of the Universe, and the problem of the missing mass, are among the major scientific issues that can be addressed by these observations. Significant advances in many areas of astrophysics can be made over the next 20 years by implementing the outlined program. This program combines large observatories with smaller projects to create an overall scheme that emphasized complementarity and synergy, advanced technology, community support and development, and the training of the next generation of scientists. Key aspects of the program include: the Space Infrared Telescope Facility; the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy; a robust program of small missions; and the creation of the technology base for future major observatories.

  17. A Voyage through the Radio Universe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spuck, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    Each year, professionals and amateurs alike make significant contributions to the field of astronomy. High school students can also conduct astronomy research. Since 1992, the Radio Astronomy Research Team from Oil City Area Senior High School (OCHS) in Oil City, Pennsylvania, has traveled each year to the National Radio Astronomy Observatory…

  18. A Multi-Feed Receiver in the 18 to 26.5 GHz Band for Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orfei, A.; Carbonaro, L.; Cattani, A.; Cremonini, A.; Cresci, L.; Fiocchi, F.; Maccaferri, A.; Maccaferri, G.; Mariotti, S.; Monari, J.; Morsiani, M.; Natale, V.; Nesti, R.; Panella, D.; Poloni, M.; Roda, J.; Scalambra, A.; Tofani, G.

    2010-08-01

    A large-bandwidth, state-of-the-art multi-feed receiver has been constructed to be used on the new 64 m Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) (http://www.srt.inaf.itl), an antenna aiming to work from 300 MHz to 100 GHz with an almost continuous frequency coverage. The goal of this new receiver is to speed up the survey of the sky with high sensitivity in a frequency band that is very interesting to radio astronomers. In the meantime, the antenna erection has been finalized, and the receiver has been mounted on the Medicina 32 m antenna to be tested (http://www.med.ira.inaf.itl). We present a complete description of the system, including a dedicated backend, and the results of the tests.

  19. Elementary astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fierro, J.

    2006-08-01

    In developing nations such as Mexico, basic science education has scarcely improved. There are multiple reasons for this problem; they include poor teacher training and curricula that are not challenging for students. I shall suggest ways in which astronomy can be used to improve basic education, it is so attractive that it can be employed to teach how to read and write, learn a second language, mathematics, physics, as well as geography. If third world nations do not teach science in an adequate way, they will be in serious problems when they will try to achieve a better standard of living for their population. I shall also address informal education, it is by this means that most adults learn and keep up to date with subjects that are not their specialty. If we provide good outreach programs in developing nations we can aid adult training; astronomy is ideal since it is particularly multidisciplinary. In particular radio and television programs are useful for popularization since they reach such wide audiences.

  20. Working Papers: Astronomy and Astrophysics Panel Reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahcall, John N.; Beichman, Charles A.; Canizares, Claude; Cronin, James; Heeschen, David; Houck, James; Hunten, Donald; Mckee, Christopher F.; Noyes, Robert; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    1991-01-01

    The papers of the panels appointed by the Astronomy and Astrophysics survey Committee are compiled. These papers were advisory to the survey committee and represent the opinions of the members of each panel in the context of their individual charges. The following subject areas are covered: radio astronomy, infrared astronomy, optical/IR from ground, UV-optical from space, interferometry, high energy from space, particle astrophysics, theory and laboratory astrophysics, solar astronomy, planetary astronomy, computing and data processing, policy opportunities, benefits to the nation from astronomy and astrophysics, status of the profession, and science opportunities.

  1. Radio astronomy ultra-low-noise amplifier for operation at 91 cm wavelength in high RFI environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolev, A. M.; Zakharenko, V. V.; Ulyanov, O. M.

    2016-02-01

    An ultra-low-noise input amplifier intended for a use in a radio telescope operating at 91 cm wavelength is presented. The amplifier noise temperatures are 12.8 ± 1.5 and 10.0 ± 1.5 K at ambient temperatures of 293 and 263 K respectively. The amplifier does not require cryogenic cooling. It can be quickly put in operation thus shortening losses in the telescope observation time. High linearity of the amplifier (output power at 1 dB gain compression P1dB ≥ 22 dBm, output third order intercept point OIP3 ≥ 37 dBm) enables the telescope operation in highly urbanized and industrialized regions. To obtain low noise characteristics along with high linearity, high-electron-mobility field-effect transistors were used in parallel in the circuit developed. The transistors used in the amplifier are cost-effective and commercially available. The circuit solution is recommended for similar devices working in ultra-high frequency band.

  2. FPGA-based digital signal processing for the next generation radio astronomy instruments: ultra-pure sideband separation and polarization detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvear, Andrés.; Finger, Ricardo; Fuentes, Roberto; Sapunar, Raúl; Geelen, Tom; Curotto, Franco; Rodríguez, Rafael; Monasterio, David; Reyes, Nicolás.; Mena, Patricio; Bronfman, Leonardo

    2016-07-01

    Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) capacity and Analog to Digital Converters (ADCs) speed have largely increased in the last decade. Nowadays we can find one million or more logic blocks (slices) as well as several thousand arithmetic units (ALUs/DSP) available on a single FPGA chip. We can also commercially procure ADC chips reaching 10 GSPS, with 8 bits resolution or more. This unprecedented power of computing hardware has allowed the digitalization of signal processes traditionally performed by analog components. In radio astronomy, the clearest example has been the development of digital sideband separating receivers which, by replacing the IF hybrid and calibrating the system imbalances, have exhibited a sideband rejection above 40dB; this is 20 to 30dB higher than traditional analog sideband separating (2SB) receivers. In Rodriguez et al.,1 and Finger et al.,2 we have demonstrated very high digital sideband separation at 3mm and 1mm wavelengths, using laboratory setups. We here show the first implementation of such technique with a 3mm receiver integrated into a telescope, where the calibration was performed by quasi-optical injection of the test tone in front of the Cassegrain antenna. We also reported progress in digital polarization synthesis, particularly in the implementation of a calibrated Digital Ortho-Mode Transducer (DOMT) based on the Morgan et al. proof of concept.3 They showed off- line synthesis of polarization with isolation higher than 40dB. We plan to implement a digital polarimeter in a real-time FPGA-based (ROACH-2) platform, to show ultra-pure polarization isolation in a non-stop integrating spectrometer.

  3. PARTNeR: Radio astromony for students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasco, C.; Vaquerizo, J. A.

    2008-06-01

    PARTNeR stands for Proyecto Academico con el Radiotelescopio de NASA en Robledo (the Academic Project with NASA's radio telescope at Robledo), and allows students to perform radio astronomy observations. High school and university students can access the PARTNeR radio telescope via the internet. The students can operate the antenna from their own school or university and perform radio astronomy observations.

  4. FURTHER OBSERVATIONS OF PLANETS AND QUASI-STELLAR RADIO SOURCES AT 3 MM.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    EXTRATERRESTRIAL RADIO WAVES), (* MERCURY ( PLANET ), (*RADIO ASTRONOMY, EXTRATERRESTRIAL RADIO WAVES), PLANETARY ATMOSPHERES, SKY BRIGHTNESS, ANTENNAS...EPHEMERIDES, ASTROPHYSICS, JUPITER( PLANET ), VENUS( PLANET ), BRIGHTNESS, ATMOSPHERIC TEMPERATURE, INTENSITY, MEASUREMENT.

  5. Astronomy Across Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Ted

    2014-01-01

    African astronomy is growing rapidly. The Southern African Large Telescope is the largest optical telescope in the southern hemisphere, MeerKat and the Square Kilometer Array will revolutionize radio astronomy in the coming decade, and Namibia hosts HESS II, the world’s largest gamma-ray telescope. A growing community of observational and theoretical astronomers utilizes these multi-wavelength observational facilities. The largest concentrations of researchers are in southern Africa, but the community is now expanding across the continent. Substantial resources are being invested in developing the next generation of African astronomers. The African Astronomical Society was formed in 2011 to foster and coordinate the growth of the science in Africa. The IAU has located its global Office of Astronomy for Development in South Africa, with the mandate to find innovative ways of using astronomy to promote social and educational development around the world. African astronomy offers abundant opportunities for collaborative research with colleagues from across the globe. This special session will introduce many of the aspects of African astronomy to the US community, with the aim of engendering new partnerships and strengthening existing ones.

  6. Early Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurston, Hugh

    The earliest investigations that can be called scientific are concerned with the sky: they are the beginnings of astronomy. Many early civilizations produced astronomical texts, and several cultures that left no written records left monuments and artifacts-ranging from rock paintings to Stonehenge-that show a clear interest in astronomy. Civilizations in China, Mesopotamia, India and Greece had highly developed astronomies, and the astronomy of the Mayas was by no means negligible. Greek astronomy, as developed by the medieval Arab philosophers, evolved into the astronomy of Copernicus. This displaced the earth from the central stationary position that almost all earlier astronomies had assumed. Soon thereafter, in the first decades of the seventeenth century, Kepler found the true shape of the planetary orbits and Galileo introduced the telescope for astronomical observations.

  7. Intermediate Astronomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenstone, Sid; Smith, Murray

    Selected materials needed to teach an astronomy unit as well as suggested procedures, activities, ideas, and astronomy fact sheets published by the Manitoba Planetarium are provided. Subjects of the fact sheets include: publications and classroom picture sets available from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and facts and statistics…

  8. Primary Astronomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenstone, Sid; Smith, Murray

    Selected materials needed to teach an astronomy unit as well as suggested procedures, activities, ideas, and astronomy fact sheets published by the Manitoba Planetarium are provided. Subjects of the fact sheets include: publications and classroom picture sets available from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and facts and statistics…

  9. The New Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henbest, Nigel; Marten, Michael

    1996-08-01

    There's more to the Universe than meets the eye. In a marvelous review of multi-wavelength astronomy, The New Astronomy compares traditional optical images to infrared, ultraviolet, radio, and X-ray astronomical observations of a staggering variety of cosmic objects. With over 300 photographs and images obtained by telescopes and detectors operating at different wavelengths, the authors present startlingly different views of the solar system, stars, galaxies and, in this new edition, Halley's Comet and Supernova 1987A. Specially processed by astronomers worldwide, these images reveal in spectacular detail otherwise invisible events such as starbirth, stardeath, and distant quasar eruptions. Emphasizing the physical processes that produce astronomical radiation, they explain how the observations have expanded our existing knowledge and provided new discoveries. They also describe the new techniques in nontechnical language. By giving equal weight to observations at all wavelengths, this book corrects the bias toward optical astronomy and objectively presents all views of the Universe. It will appeal to everyone interested in the mysteries of astronomy. Nigel Henbest and Michael Marten previously collaborated (along with Heather Couper) on The Guide to the Galaxy (CUP, 1994).

  10. Astronomy Week in Madeira, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augusto, P.; Sobrinho, J. L.

    2012-05-01

    The outreach programme Semanas da Astronomia (Astronomy Weeks) is held in late spring or summer on the island of Madeira, Portugal. This programme has been attracting enough interest to be mentioned in the regional press/TV/radio every year and is now, without doubt, the astronomical highlight of the year on Madeira. We believe that this programme is a good case study for showing how to attract the general public to astronomy in a small (population 250 000, area 900 km2) and fairly isolated place such as Madeira. Our Astronomy Weeks have been different each year and have so far included exhibitions, courses, talks, a forum, documentaries, observing sessions (some with blackouts), music and an astro party. These efforts may contribute towards putting Madeira on the map with respect to observational astronomy, and have also contributed to the planned installation of two observatories in the island.

  11. Planetary astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Harlan J.

    1991-01-01

    Lunar-based astronomy offers major prospects for solar system research in the coming century. In addition to active advocacy of both ground-based and Lunar-based astronomy, a workshop on the value of asteroids as a resource for man is being organized. The following subject areas are also covered: (1) astrophysics from the Moon (composition and structure of planetary atmospheres); (2) a decade of cost-reduction in Very Large Telescopes (the SST as prototype of special-purpose telescopes); and (3) a plan for development of lunar astronomy.

  12. Radio stars.

    PubMed

    Hjellming, R M; Wade, C M

    1971-09-17

    Up to the present time six classes of radio stars have been established. The signals are almost always very faint and drastically variable. Hence their discovery has owed as much to serendipity as to the highly sophisticated equipment and techniques that have been used. When the variations are regular, as with the pulsars, this characteristic can be exploited very successfully in the search for new objects as well as in the detailed study of those that are already known. The detection of the most erratically variable radio stars, the flare stars and the x-ray stars, is primarily a matter of luck and patience. In the case of the novas, one at least knows where and oughly when to look for radio emission. A very sensitive interferometer is clearly the best instrument to use in the initial detection of a radio star. The fact that weak background sources are frequently present makes it essential to prove that the position of a radio source agrees with that of a star to within a few arc seconds. The potential of radio astronomy for the study of radio stars will not be realized until more powerful instruments than those that are available today can be utilized. So far, we have been able to see only the most luminous of the radio stars.

  13. Astronomy Development in Nigeria: Challenges and Advances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okwe Chibueze, James

    2015-01-01

    Nigeria evidently has huge potentials to develop a strong astronomy community. Much of the strength lies in the great number of intelligent students with the potential of becoming good astronomers. Sadly, astronomy development in Nigeria has stagnated in the past decades owing to poor funding and/or indifferent attitude of the funding bodies, research-unfriendly environment, and non-existence of facilities. Currently, efforts toward fuelling advancement in astronomy are focused on building 'critical mass', establishing collaborations with universities/astronomy institutes outside Nigeria, converting out-of-use communication antennas into radio telescopes, and acquiring out-of-use telescopes for educational and low-level research purposes.

  14. Astronomy in Iraq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsabti, A. W.

    2006-08-01

    The history of modern Iraqi astronomy is reviewed. During the early 1970's Iraqi astronomy witnessed significant growth through the introduction of the subject at university level and extensively within the school curriculum. In addition, astronomy was popularised in the media, a large planetarium was built in Baghdad, plus a smaller one in Basra. Late 1970 witnessed the construction of the Iraqi National Observatory at Mount Korek in Iraqi Kurdistan. The core facilities of the Observatory included 3.5-meter and 1.25-meter optical telescopes, and a 30-meter radio telescope for millimetre wavelength astronomy. The Iraqi Astronomical Society was founded and Iraq joined the IAU in 1976. During the regime of Saddam Hussain in the 1980's, the Observatory was attacked by Iranian artillery during the Iraq-Iran war, and then again during the second Gulf war by the US air force. Years of sanctions during the 1990's left Iraq cut off from the rest of the international scientific community. Subscriptions to astronomical journals were halted and travel to conferences abroad was virtually non-existent. Most senior astronomers left the country for one reason or another. Support from expatriate Iraqi astronomers existed (and still exists) however, this is not sufficient. Recent changes in Iraq, and the fall of Saddam's regime, has meant that scientific communication with the outside world has resumed to a limited degree. The Ministry of Higher Education in Baghdad, Baghdad University and the Iraqi National Academy of Science, have all played active roles in re-establishing Iraqi astronomy and re-building the damaged Observatory at Mount Korek. More importantly the University of Sallahudin in Erbil, capital of Iraqi Kurdistan, has taken particular interest in astronomy and the Observatory. Organized visits to the universities, and also to the Observatory, have given us a first-hand assessment of the scale of the damage to the Observatory, as well as the needs of astronomy teaching

  15. Astronomy CATS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brissenden, Gina; Prather, Edward E.; Impey, Chris

    2012-08-01

    The Center for Astronomy Education's (CAE's) NSF-funded Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program is a grassroots multi-institutional effort to increase the capacity for astronomy education research and improve science literacy in the United States.Our primary target population is the 500,000 college students who each year enroll in an introductory general education (a breadth requirement for non-science majors) Earth, Astronomy, and Space Science (EASS) course (Fraknoi 2001, AGI 2006).An equally important population for our efforts is the individuals who are, or will be, teaching these students. In this chapter, we will briefly discuss the goals of CAE and CATS, the varied personnel that make up the CATS collective, the diverse projects we've undertaken, and the many challenges we have had to work through to make CATS a success.

  16. Modern astronomy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimishin, I. A.

    This introductory textbook is an English translation, by E. Yankovsky, of the third, revised and extended Russian edition "Astronomiya nashikh dnej", published in 1986 (see 42.003.118). Contents: 1. Introduction. 2. The elements of classical astronomy. 3. The basics of astrophysics. 4. The instruments and methods of optical astronomy. 5. To see the invisible. 6. The solar system. 7. The physics of stars. 8. Our Galaxy. 9. In the expanses of the universe. 10. Everything under the Sun.

  17. Astronomy Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, A.; Madsen, C.

    2003-07-01

    Astronomers communicate all the time, with colleagues of course, but also with managers and administrators, with decision makers and takers, with social representatives, with the news media, and with the society at large. Education is naturally part of the process. Astronomy communication must take into account several specificities: the astronomy community is rather compact and well organized world-wide; astronomy has penetrated the general public remarkably well with an extensive network of associations and organizations of aficionados all over the world. Also, as a result of the huge amount of data accumulated and by necessity for their extensive international collaborations, astronomers have pioneered the development of distributed resources, electronic communications and networks coupled to advanced methodologies and technologies, often much before they become of common world-wide usage. This book is filling up a gap in the astronomy-related literature by providing a set of chapters not only of direct interest to astronomy communication, but also well beyond it. The experts contributing to this book have done their best to write in a way understandable to readers not necessarily hyperspecialized in astronomy nor in communication techniques while providing specific detailed information, as well as plenty of pointers and bibliographic elements. This book will be very useful for researchers, teachers, editors, publishers, librarians, computer scientists, sociologists of science, research planners and strategists, project managers, public-relations officers, plus those in charge of astronomy-related organizations, as well as for students aiming at a career in astronomy or related space science. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1345-0

  18. Fractal astronomy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beech, M.

    1989-02-01

    The author discusses some of the more recent research on fractal astronomy and results presented in several astronomical studies. First, the large-scale structure of the universe is considered, while in another section one drops in scale to examine some of the smallest bodies in our solar system; the comets and meteoroids. The final section presents some thoughts on what influence the fractal ideology might have on astronomy, focusing particularly on the question recently raised by Kadanoff, "Fractals: where's the physics?"

  19. ADDITIONAL OBSERVATIONS OF PLANETS AND QUASI-STELLAR RADIO SOURCES AT 3 MM,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    MERCURY ( PLANET ), VENUS( PLANET ), PERIODIC VARIATIONS, RADIO ASTRONOMY, SPECTRUM SIGNATURES...EXTRATERRESTRIAL RADIO WAVES, SOURCES), GALAXIES, BLACKBODY RADIATION, BRIGHTNESS, TEMPERATURE, MARS( PLANET ), JUPITER( PLANET ), SATURN( PLANET

  20. Multiverso: Rock'n'Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero, J. A.

    2012-05-01

    In the last few years, there have been several projects involving astronomy and classical music. But have a rock band ever appeared at a science conference or an astronomer at a rock concert? We present a project, Multiverso, in which we mix rock and astronomy, together with poetry and video art (Caballero, 2010). The project started in late 2009 and has already reached tens of thousands people in Spain through the release of an album, several concert-talks, television, radio, newspapers and the internet.

  1. Astronomy Explained

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    North, Gerald

    Every year large numbers of people take up the study of astronomy, mostly at amateur level. There are plenty of elementary books on the market, full of colourful photographs, but lacking in proper explanations of how and why things are as they are. Many people eventually wish to go beyond the 'coffee-table book' stage and study this fascinating subject in greater depth. This book is written for them. In addition, many people sit for public examinations in this subject each year and this book is also intended to be of use to them. All the topics from the GCSE syllabus are covered here, with sample questions at the end of each chapter. Astronomy Explained provides a comprehensive treatment of the subject in more depth than is usually found in elementary works, and will be of interest to both amateur astronomers and students of astronomy.

  2. Minoan Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blomberg, Mary; Henriksson, Göran

    Of the three great cultures of the ancient eastern Mediterranean — the Babylonian, Egyptian, and Minoan — we have considerable knowledge of the astronomy of the first two through their documents (see relevant sections of this Handbook). Very little written material, however, has survived from Minoan Crete, but the evidence of other impressive archaeological discoveries implies that the inhabitants were on a par with their neighbors and had made similar advances in astronomy. In lieu of written sources, we have used the methods of archaeoastronomy to recover as much as possible about Minoan astronomy. In short, these are measuring the orientations of walls and their opposite horizons at a representative selection of monuments, analyzing the measurements statistically, and comparing the results with digital reconstruction of the positions of significant celestial bodies for the time when the walls were built.

  3. Astronomy Allies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flewelling, Heather; Alatalo, Katherine A.

    2017-01-01

    Imagine you are a grad student, at your first conference, and a prominent senior scientist shows interest in your work, and he makes things get way too personal? What would you do? Would you report it? Or would you decide, after a few other instances of harassment, that maybe you shouldn't pursue astronomy? Harassment is under-reported, the policies can be difficult to understand or hard to find, and it can be very intimidating as a young scientist to report it to the proper individuals. The Astronomy Allies Program is designed to help you with these sorts of problems. We are a group of volunteers that will help by doing the following: provide safe walks home during the conference, someone to talk to confidentially, as an intervener, as a resource to report harassment. The Allies are a diverse group of scientists committed to acting as mentors, advocates, and liaisons. The Winter 2015 AAS meeting was the first meeting that had Astronomy Allies, and Astronomy Allies provided a website for information, as well as a twitter, email, and phone number for anyone who needs our help or would like more information. We posted about the Astronomy Allies on the Women In Astronomy blog, and this program resonates with many people: either they want to help, or they have experienced harassment in the past and don't want to see it in the future. Harassment may not happen to most conference participants, but it's wrong, it's against the AAS anti-harassment policy ( http://aas.org/policies/anti-harassment-policy ), it can be very damaging, and if it happens to even one person, that is unacceptable. We intend to improve the culture at conferences to make it so that harassers feel they can't get away with their unprofessional behavior.

  4. Astronomy Allies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flewelling, Heather; Alatalo, Katherine

    2015-08-01

    Imagine you are a grad student, at your first conference, and a prominent senior scientist shows interest in your work, and he makes things get way too personal? What would you do? Would you report it? Or would you decide, after a few other instances of harassment, that maybe you shouldn't pursue astronomy? Harassment is under-reported, the policies can be difficult to understand or hard to find, and it can be very intimidating as a young scientist to report it to the proper individuals. The Astronomy Allies Program is designed to help you with these sorts of problems. We are a group of volunteers that will help by doing the following: provide safe walks home during the conference, someone to talk to confidentially, as an intervener, as a resource to report harassment. The Allies are a diverse group of scientists committed to acting as mentors, advocates, and liaisons. The Winter 2015 AAS meeting was the first meeting that had Astronomy Allies, and Astronomy Allies provided a website for information, as well as a twitter, email, and phone number for anyone who needs our help or would like more information. We posted about the Astronomy Allies on the Women In Astronomy blog, and this program resonates with many people: either they want to help, or they have experienced harassment in the past and don't want to see it in the future. Harassment may not happen to most conference participants, but it's wrong, it's against the AAS anti-harassment policy ( http://aas.org/policies/anti-harassment-policy ), it can be very damaging, and if it happens to even one person, that is unacceptable. We intend to improve the culture at conferences to make it so that harassers feel they can't get away with their unprofessional behavior.

  5. Astronomy Allies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flewelling, Heather; Alatalo, Katherine A.

    2016-01-01

    Imagine you are a grad student, at your first conference, and a prominent senior scientist shows interest in your work, and he makes things get way too personal? What would you do? Would you report it? Or would you decide, after a few other instances of harassment, that maybe you shouldn't pursue astronomy? Harassment is under-reported, the policies can be difficult to understand or hard to find, and it can be very intimidating as a young scientist to report it to the proper individuals. The Astronomy Allies Program is designed to help you with these sorts of problems. We are a group of volunteers that will help by doing the following: provide safe walks home during the conference, someone to talk to confidentially, as an intervener, as a resource to report harassment. The Allies are a diverse group of scientists committed to acting as mentors, advocates, and liaisons. The Winter 2015 AAS meeting was the first meeting that had Astronomy Allies, and Astronomy Allies provided a website for information, as well as a twitter, email, and phone number for anyone who needs our help or would like more information. We posted about the Astronomy Allies on the Women In Astronomy blog, and this program resonates with many people: either they want to help, or they have experienced harassment in the past and don't want to see it in the future. Harassment may not happen to most conference participants, but it's wrong, it's against the AAS anti-harassment policy ( http://aas.org/policies/anti-harassment-policy ), it can be very damaging, and if it happens to even one person, that is unacceptable. We intend to improve the culture at conferences to make it so that harassers feel they can't get away with their unprofessional behavior.

  6. Radio observations of solar eclipse.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuying; Fu, Qijun

    1998-09-01

    For radio astronomy, a solar eclipse provides an opportunity for making solar radio observations with high one-dimension spatial resolution. The radio observation of a solar eclipse has played an important role in solar radio physics. Some important factors for radio observation of a solar eclipse are introduced and analysed. Solar eclipse radio observation has also played an important role in the progress of solar radio atronomy in China. The solar eclipses of 1958, 1968, 1980 and 1987, which were observed in China, are introduced, and the main results of these observations are briefly shown.

  7. Civic Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wise, George

    2004-10-01

    The founding of the Dudley Observatory at Albany, N.Y., in 1852 was a milestone in humanity's age-old quest to understand the heavens. As the best equipped astronomical observatory in the U.S. led by the first American to hold a Ph.D. in astronomy, Benjamin Apthorp Gould Jr., the observatory helped pioneer world-class astronomy in America. It also proclaimed Albany's status as a major national center of culture, knowledge and affluence. This book explores the story of the Dudley Observatory as a 150 year long episode in civic astronomy. The story ranges from a bitter civic controversy to a venture into space, from the banks of the Hudson River to the highlands of Argentina. It is a unique glimpse at a path not taken, a way of doing science once promising, now vanished. As discoveries by the Dudley Observatory's astronomers, especially its second director Lewis Boss, made significant contributions to the modern vision of our Milky Way galaxy as a rotating spiral of more than a million stars, the advance of astronomy left that little observatory behind.

  8. Astronomy Adventures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braus, Judy, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Astronomy Adventures." Contents are organized into the following…

  9. Lithuanian Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudzius, J.; Murdin, P.

    2002-01-01

    Lithuanian folklore, archaic calendars and terminology show that Lithuanians were interested in astronomy from ancient times. A lot of celestial bodies have names of Lithuanian origin that are not related to widely accepted ancient Greek mythology. For example, the Milky Way is named `Pauksciu Takas' (literally the way of birds), the constellation of the Great Bear `Didieji Grizulo Ratai' (literal...

  10. Astronomy Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenstone, Sid

    This document consists of activities and references for teaching astronomy. The activities (which include objectives, list of materials needed, and procedures) focus on: observing the Big Dipper and locating the North Star; examining the Big Dipper's stars; making and using an astrolabe; examining retograde motion of Mars; measuring the Sun's…

  11. The National Astronomy Consortium (NAC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Von Schill, Lyndele; Ivory, Joyce

    2017-01-01

    The National Astronomy Consortium (NAC) program is designed to increase the number of underrepresented minority students into STEM and STEM careers by providing unique summer research experiences followed by long-term mentoring and cohort support. Hallmarks of the NAC program include: research or internship opportunities at one of the NAC partner sites, a framework to continue research over the academic year, peer and faculty mentoring, monthly virtual hangouts, and much more. NAC students also participate in two professional travel opportunities each year: the annual NAC conference at Howard University and poster presentation at the annual AAS winter meeting following their summer internship.The National Astronomy Consortium (NAC) is a program led by the National Radio Astronomy Consortium (NRAO) and Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI), in partnership with the National Society of Black Physicist (NSBP), along with a number of minority and majority universities.

  12. Policy: Australian astronomy looks forward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhathal, Ragbir

    2005-12-01

    Over the next decade, a new generation of instruments will come into being for the benefit of astronomers across the world. Australian astronomers hope to build on their strong astronomical heritage and continue to take part in astronomy at the highest international level. To this end, they have prepared a Decadal Plan that envisages building, with international partners, a world-class radio telescope, greater invovlement with 8 metre telescopes, as well as making the most of the Antarctic opportunities that Australia offers.

  13. Inuit Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, John

    Inuit live mainly in the treeless Arctic regions of North America, Greenland, and parts of northeastern Siberia. Their cosmology, based on shamanistic belief, constructed a view of the sky and its contents distinctively suited to their spiritual and pragmatic needs. Their astronomy, particularly for those groups living far above the Arctic Circle, reflects the unique appearance of the celestial sphere at high northerly latitudes, demonstrated most noticeably in the annual disappearance of the sun during midwinter months.

  14. Chaco astronomies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín López, Alejandro

    2015-08-01

    This presentation discusses the result of 18 years of ethnographic and ethnohistorical studies on Chaco astronomies. The main features of the systems of astronomical knowledge of the Chaco Aboriginal groups will be discussed. In particular we will discuss the relevance of the Milky Way, the role of the visibility of the Pleiades, the ways in which the celestial space is represented, the constitution of astronomical orientations in geographic space, etc. We also address a key feature of their vision of the cosmos: the universe is seen by these groups as a socio-cosmos, where humans and non-humans are related. These are therefore actually socio-cosmologies. We will link this to the theories of Chaco Aboriginal groups about power and political relations.We will discuss how the study of Aboriginal astronomies must be performed along with the studies about astronomies of Creole people and European migrants, as well as anthropological studies about the science teaching in the formal education system and by the mass media. In this form we will discuss the relevance of a very complex system of interethnic relations for the conformation of these astronomical representations and practices.We will also discuss the general methodological implications of this case for the ethnoastronomy studies. In particular we will talk about the advantages of a study of regional scope and about the key importance of put in contact the ethnoastronomy with contemporary issues in social sciences.We also analyze the importance of ethnoastronomy studies in relation to studies of sociology of science, especially astronomy. We also study the potential impact on improving formal and informal science curricula and in shaping effective policies to protect the tangible and intangible astronomical heritage in a context of respect for the rights of Aboriginal groups.

  15. Humanising Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, S.

    2008-06-01

    Universe Awareness (UNAWE) is an international programme that aims to expose underprivileged children (in the age group 4-10) to the inspirational aspects of astronomy. We are currently at the stage of developing materials that will be utilised in a diverse range of environments. This paper explores UNAWE's particular approach to developing tools which includes not only indigenous and folkloric astronomical knowledge, but also the culture of transmission of such knowledge. A specific understanding and explanation of the Universe, the Sun, Moon and stars is present in every culture and can be found contained in its history, legends and belief systems. By consciously embracing different ways of knowing the Universe and not uniquely the rational model, UNAWE places the humanising potential of astronomy at the centre of its purpose. Whilst inspiring curiosity, pride and a sense of ownership in one's own cultural identity, such an approach also exposes children to the diversity of other peoples and their cultures as well as the unifying aspects of our common scientific heritage. The means of creating and delivering the astronomy programme are as relevant to the desired educational outcomes as the content. The challenge in the design of materials is to communicate this stimulating message to the very young. Respect for alternative values systems, the need for dialogue and community participation, and where possible the production of materials using local resources is emphasised. This paper touches recent experiences liaising with communities in India, South Africa, Tunisia, Venezuela and Colombia.

  16. Planetary astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, David; Hunten, Donald; Ahearn, Michael F.; Belton, Michael J. S.; Black, David; Brown, Robert A.; Brown, Robert Hamilton; Cochran, Anita L.; Cruikshank, Dale P.; Depater, Imke

    1991-01-01

    The authors profile the field of astronomy, identify some of the key scientific questions that can be addressed during the decade of the 1990's, and recommend several facilities that are critically important for answering these questions. Scientific opportunities for the 1990' are discussed. Areas discussed include protoplanetary disks, an inventory of the solar system, primitive material in the solar system, the dynamics of planetary atmospheres, planetary rings and ring dynamics, the composition and structure of the atmospheres of giant planets, the volcanoes of IO, and the mineralogy of the Martian surface. Critical technology developments, proposed projects and facilities, and recommendations for research and facilities are discussed.

  17. Infrared astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillett, Frederick; Houck, James; Bally, John; Becklin, Eric; Brown, Robert Hamilton; Draine, Bruce; Frogel, Jay; Gatley, Ian; Gehrz, Robert; Hildebrand, Roger

    1991-01-01

    The decade of 1990's presents an opportunity to address fundamental astrophysical issues through observations at IR wavelengths made possible by technological and scientific advances during the last decade. The major elements of recommended program are: the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), the Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) and the IR Optimized 8-m Telescope (IRO), a detector and instrumentation program, the SubMilliMeter Mission (SMMM), the 2 Microns All Sky Survey (2MASS), a sound infrastructure, and technology development programs. Also presented are: perspective, science opportunities, technical overview, project recommendations, future directions, and infrastructure.

  18. Planetary Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, S. Alan

    1998-01-01

    This 1-year project was an augmentation grant to my NASA Planetary Astronomy grant. With the awarded funding, we accomplished the following tasks: (1) Conducted two NVK imaging runs in conjunction with the ILAW (International Lunar Atmosphere Week) Observing Campaigns in 1995 and 1997. In the first run, we obtained repeated imaging sequences of lunar Na D-line emission to better quantify the temporal variations detected in earlier runs. In the second run we obtained extremely high resolution (R=960.000) Na line profiles using the 4m AAT in Australia. These data are being analyzed under our new 3-year Planetary Astronomy grant. (2) Reduced, analyzed, and published our March 1995 spectroscopic dataset to detect (or set stringent upper limits on) Rb. Cs, Mg. Al. Fe, Ba, Ba. OH, and several other species. These results were reported in a talk at the LPSC and in two papers: (1) A Spectroscopic Survey of Metallic Abundances in the Lunar Atmosphere. and (2) A Search for Magnesium in the Lunar Atmosphere. Both reprints are attached. Wrote up an extensive, invited Reviews of Geophysics review article on advances in the study of the lunar atmosphere. This 70-page article, which is expected to appear in print in 1999, is also attached.

  19. Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope System Theory of Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephan, George R.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this learning module is to enable learners to describe how the Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) system functions in support of Apple Valley Science and Technology Center's (AVSTC) client schools' radio astronomy activities.

  20. The General History of Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gingerich, Owen

    2010-04-01

    Foreword; Preface; Acknowledgements; Part I. The Birth of Astrophysics and Other Late Nineteenth-Century Trends (c.1850-c.1920); 1. The origins of astrophysics A. J. Meadows; 2. The impact of photography on astronomy John Lankford; 3. Telescope building, 1850-1900 Albert Van Helden; 4. The new astronomy A. J. Meadows; 5. Variable stars Helen Sawyer Hogg; 6. Stellar evolution and the origin of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram David DeVorkin; Part II. Observatories and Instrumentation: 7. Astronomical institutions. Introduction Owen Gingerich, Greenwich Observatory Philip S. Laurie, Paris Observatory Jacques Lévy, Pulkovo Observatory Aleksandr A. Mikhailov, Harvard College Observatory Howard Plotkin, United States Naval Observatory Deborah Warner, Lick Observatory Trudy E. Bell, Potsdam Astrophysical Observatory Dieter B. Herrmann; 8. Building large telescopes, 1900-1950 Albert Van Helden; 9. Astronomical institutions in the southern hemisphere, 1850-1950 David S. Evans; 10. Twentieth-century instrumentation Charles Fehrenbach, with a section on 'Early rockets in astronomy' Herbert Friedman; 11. Early radio astronomy Woodruff T. Sullivan III; Appendix: The world's largest telescopes, 1850-1950 Barbara L. Welther; Illustrations: acknowledgements and sources; Index.

  1. Astronomy Education Challenges in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Fady Beshara Morcos, Abd

    2015-08-01

    One of the major challenges in Egypt is the quality of education. Egypt has made significant progress towards achieving the Education for All and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Many associations and committees as education reform program and education support programs did high efforts in supporting scientific thinking through the scientific clubs. The current state of astronomical education in Egypt has been developed. Astronomy became a part in both science and geography courses of primary, preparatory and secondary stages. Nowadays the Egyptian National Committee for Astronomy, put on its shoulders the responsibility of revising of astronomy parts in the education courses, beside preparation of some training programs for teachers of different stages of educations, in collaboration with ministry of education. General lectures program has been prepared and started in public places , schools and universities. Many TV and Radio programs aiming to spread astronomical culture were presented. In the university stage new astronomy departments are established and astrophysics courses are imbedded in physics courses even in some private universities.

  2. Astronomy Books of 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercury, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Provides annotated listing of books in 16 areas: (1) amateur astromony; (2) children's books; (3) comets; (4) cosmology; (5) education in astronomy; (6) general astronomy; (7) history of astronomy; (8) life in the universe; (9) miscellaneous; (10) physics and astronomy; (11) pseudo-science; (12) space exploration; (13) stars and stellar evolution;…

  3. TeachAstronomy.com - Digitizing Astronomy Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardegree-Ullman, Kevin; Impey, C. D.; Austin, C.; Patikkal, A.; Paul, M.; Ganesan, N.

    2013-06-01

    Teach Astronomy—a new, free online resource—can be used as a teaching tool in non-science major introductory college level astronomy courses, and as a reference guide for casual learners and hobbyists. Digital content available on Teach Astronomy includes: a comprehensive introductory astronomy textbook by Chris Impey, Wikipedia astronomy articles, images from Astronomy Picture of the Day archives and (new) AstroPix database, two to three minute topical video clips by Chris Impey, podcasts from 365 Days of Astronomy archives, and an RSS feed of astronomy news from Science Daily. Teach Astronomy features an original technology called the Wikimap to cluster, display, and navigate site search results. Development of Teach Astronomy was motivated by steep increases in textbook prices, the rapid adoption of digital resources by students and the public, and the modern capabilities of digital technology. This past spring semester Teach Astronomy was used as content supplement to lectures in a massive, open, online course (MOOC) taught by Chris Impey. Usage of Teach Astronomy has been steadily growing since its initial release in August of 2012. The site has users in all corners of the country and is being used as a primary teaching tool in at least four states.

  4. Multiwavelength astronomy and big data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.

    2016-09-01

    Two major characteristics of modern astronomy are multiwavelength (MW) studies (fromγ-ray to radio) and big data (data acquisition, storage and analysis). Present astronomical databases and archives contain billions of objects observed at various wavelengths, both galactic and extragalactic, and the vast amount of data on them allows new studies and discoveries. Astronomers deal with big numbers. Surveys are the main source for discovery of astronomical objects and accumulation of observational data for further analysis, interpretation, and achieving scientific results. We review the main characteristics of astronomical surveys, compare photographic and digital eras of astronomical studies (including the development of wide-field observations), describe the present state of MW surveys, and discuss the Big Data in astronomy and related topics of Virtual Observatories and Computational Astrophysics. The review includes many numbers and data that can be compared to have a possibly overall understanding on the Universe, cosmic numbers and their relationship to modern computational facilities.

  5. The Radio JOVE Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, L.; Thieman, J.; Higgins, C.

    1999-09-01

    Radio JOVE is an interactive educational activity which brings the radio sounds of Jupiter and the Sun to students, teachers, and the general public. This is accomplished through the construction of a simple radio telescope kit and the use of a real-time radio observatory on the Internet. Our website (http://radiojove.gsfc.nasa.gov/) will contain science information, instruction manuals, observing guides, and education resources for students and teachers. Our target audience is high school science classes, but subjects can be tailored to college undergraduate physics and astronomy courses or even to middle school science classes. The goals of the project are: 1) Educate people about planetary and solar radio astronomy, space physics, and the scientific method 2) Provide teachers and students with a hands-on radio astronomy exercise as a science curriculum support activity by building and using a simple radio telescope receiver/antenna kit 3) Create the first ever online radio observatory which provides real-time data for those with internet access 4) Allow interactions among participating schools by facilitating exchanges of ideas, data, and observing experiences. Our current funding will allow us to impact 100 schools by partially subsidizing their participation in the program. We expect to expand well beyond this number as publicity and general interest increase. Additional schools are welcome to fully participate, but we will not be able to subsidize their kit purchases. We hope to make a wide impact among the schools by advertising through appropriate newsletters, space grant consortia, the INSPIRE project (http://image.gsfc.nasa.gov/poetry/inspire/), electronic links, and science and education meetings. We would like to acknoledge support from the NASA/GSFC Director's Discretionary Fund, the STScI IDEAS grant program and the NASA/GSFC Space Science Data Operations Office.

  6. Astronomy Looks Different When You Listen to It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Richard C.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the use of a radio telescope to arouse new interest among students. The article partitions into the following sections: (1) Radio Astronomy--Which Level; (2) First Steps: The Site--The Antenna; (3) The Electronics: Do It Yourself, or Store Bought; (4) Field Test: Music of the Spheres; (5) Getting Started: Entry Level Projects; and (6)…

  7. Highlights of Astronomy, Vol. 16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montmerle, Thierry

    2015-04-01

    Part I. Invited Discourses: 1. The Herschel view of star formation; 2. Past, present and future of Chinese astronomy; 3. The zoo of galaxies; 4. Supernovae, the accelerating cosmos, and dark energy; Part II. Joint Discussion: 5. Very massive stars in the local universe; 6. 3-D views of the cycling Sun in stellar context; 7. Ultraviolet emission in early-type galaxies; 8. From meteors and meteorites to their parent bodies: current status and future developments; 9. The connection between radio properties and high-energy emission in AGNs; 10. Space-time reference systems for future research; Part III. Special Sessions: 11. Origin and complexity of massive star clusters; 12. Cosmic evolution of groups and clusters of galaxies; 13. Galaxy evolution through secular processes; 14. New era for studying interstellar and intergalactic magnetic fields; 15. The IR view of massive stars: the main sequence and beyond; 16. Science with large solar telescopes; 17. The impact hazard: current activities and future plans; 18. Calibration of star-formation rate measurements across the electromagnetic spectrum; 19. Future large scale facilities; 20. Dynamics of the star-planet relations strategic plan and the Global Office of Astronomy for Development; 21. Strategic plan and the Global Office of Astronomy for Development; 22. Modern views of the interstellar medium; 23. High-precision tests of stellar physics from high-precision photometry; 24. Communicating astronomy with the public for scientists; 25. Data intensive astronomy; 26. Unexplained spectral phenomena in the interstellar medium; 27. Light pollution: protecting astronomical sites and increasing global awareness through education.

  8. Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibe, Mary; MacLaren, Dave

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) project as a way of teaching astronomy concepts to middle school students. The project provides students opportunities to work with professional scientists. (SOE)

  9. Astronomy for teachers: A South African Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Witt, Aletha; West, Marion; Leeuw, Lerothodi; Gouws, Eldrie

    2015-08-01

    South Africa has nominated Astronomy as a “flagship science” and aims to be an international Astronomy hub through projects such as the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) and the South African Large Telescope (SALT). These projects open up career opportunities in maths, science and engineering and therefore offers a very real door for learners to enter into careers in science and technology through Astronomy. However, the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Survey (TIMSS), the Global Competitiveness Report (GCR) and Annual National Assessment (ANA) have highlighted that South Africa’s Science and Mathematics education is in a critical condition and that South African learners score amongst the worst in the world in both these subjects. In South Africa Astronomy is generally regarded as the worst taught and most avoided Natural Science knowledge strand, and most teachers that specialised in Natural Sciences, never covered Astronomy in their training.In order to address these issues a collaborative project between the University of South Africa (UNISA) and the Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory (HartRAO) was initiated, which aims to assist teachers to gain more knowledge and skills so that they can teach Astronomy with confidence. By collaborating we aim to ensure that the level of astronomy development will be raised in both South Africa and the rest of Africa.With the focus on Teaching and Learning, the research was conducted within a quantitative paradigm and 600 structured questionnaires were administered to Natural Science teachers in Public primary schools in Gauteng, South Africa. This paper reports the findings of this research and makes recommendations on how to assist teachers to teach Astronomy with confidence.

  10. Successful Innovative Methods in Introducing Astronomy Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattejee, T. K. C.

    2006-08-01

    Innovating new informative methods to induce interest in students has permitted us to introduce astronomy in several universities and institutes in Mexico. As a prelude, we gave a popular course in the history of astronomy. This was very easy as astronomy seems to be the most ancient of sciences and relating the achievements of the ancient philosophers/scientists was very enlightening. Then we put up an amateur show of the sky every week (subject to climatic conditions for observability). We showed how to take photographs and make telescopic observations. We enlightened the students of the special missions of NASA and took them to museums for space exploration. We gave a popular seminar on "Astrodynamics," highlighting its importance. We gave a series of introductory talks in radio and T.V. Finally we exposed them to electronic circulars, like "Universe Today" and "World Science." The last mentioned strategy had the most electrifying effect. We may not have been successful without it, as the students began to take the matter seriously only after reading numerous electronic circulars. In this respect, these circulars are not only informative about the latest news in astronomy, but highlight the role of astronomy in the modern world. Without it, students seem to relate astronomy to astrology; it is due to this misconception that they are not attracted to astronomy. Students were hardly convinced of the need for an astronomy course, as they did not know about the scope and development of the subject. This awakened the interests of students and they themselves proposed the initiation of an elementary course in astronomy to have a feel of the subject. Later on they proposed a course on "Rocket Dynamics." We will discuss our methods and their impact in detail.

  11. Astronomy in the City for Astronomy Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ros, Rosa M.; Garc, Beatriz

    2016-10-01

    Astronomy is part of our culture. Astronomy cannot be isolated in a classroom, it has to be integrated in the normal life of teachers and students. ``Astronomy in the city'' is an important part of NASE (Network for Astronomy School Education) (Ros & Hemenway 2012). In each NASE course we introduce a ``working group session'' chaired by a local expert in cultural astronomy. The chair introduces several examples of astronomy in their city and after that, the participants have the opportunity to discuss and mention several similar examples. After this session all participants visit one or two sites proposed and introduced by the chair. After more than 5 years using this method we visited and discovered several examples of astronomy in the city: •Astronomy in ancient typical clothes. •Archaeological temples oriented according to the sunrise or set. •Petroglyphs with astronomical meaning. •Astronomy in monuments. •Sundials. •Oriented Colonial churches. •Astronomy in Souvenirs. In any case, teachers and students discover that Astronomy is part of their everyday life. They can take into account the Sun's path when they park their car or when they take a bus ``what is the best part in order to be seat in the shadow during the journey?'' The result is motivation to go with ``open eyes'' when they are in the street and they try to get more and more information about their surroundings. In summary, one of the main activities is to introduce local cultural aspects in NASE astronomy courses. The participants can discover a new approach to local culture from an astronomical point of view.

  12. Innovation in Astronomy Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Ros, Rosa M.; Pasachoff, Naomi

    2008-07-01

    Preface; Part I. General Strategies for Effective Teaching: Introduction; 1. Main objectives of SpS2; 2. Learning astronomy by doing astronomy; 3. Hands-on Universe-Europe; 4. Life on Earth in the atmosphere of the Sun; 5. A model of teaching astronomy to pre-service teachers; 6. How to teach, learn about, and enjoy astronomy; 7. Clickers: a new teaching tool of exceptional promise; 8. Educational opportunities in pro-am collaboration; 9. Teaching history of astronomy to second-year engineering students; 10. Teaching the evolution of stellar and Milky Way concepts through the ages; 11. Educational efforts of the International Astronomical Union; 12. Astronomy in culture; 13. Light pollution: a tool for astronomy education; 14. Astronomy by distance learning; 15. Edible astronomy demonstrations; 16. Amateur astronomers as public outreach partners; 17. Does the Sun rotate around Earth or Earth rotate around the Sun?; 18. Using sounds and sonifications for astronomy outreach; 19. Teaching astronomy and the crisis in science education; 20. Astronomy for all as part of a general education; Poster abstracts; Part II. Connecting Astronomy with the Public: Introduction; 21. A status report from the Division XII working group; 22. Outreach using media; 23. Astronomy podcasting; 24. IAU's communication strategy, hands-on science communication, and the communication of the planet definition discussion; 25. Getting a word in edgeways: the survival of discourse in audiovisual astronomy; 26. Critical evaluation of the new Hall of Astronomy; 27. Revitalizing astronomy teaching through research on student understanding; Poster abstracts; Part III. Effective Use of Instruction and Information Technology: Introduction; 28. ESO's astronomy education program; 29. U.S. student astronomy research and remote observing projects; 30. Global network of autonomous observatories dedicated to student research; 31. Remote telescopes in education: report of an Australian study; 32. Visualizing

  13. Innovation in Astronomy Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Ros, Rosa M.; Pasachoff, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Preface; Part I. General Strategies for Effective Teaching: Introduction; 1. Main objectives of SpS2; 2. Learning astronomy by doing astronomy; 3. Hands-on Universe-Europe; 4. Life on Earth in the atmosphere of the Sun; 5. A model of teaching astronomy to pre-service teachers; 6. How to teach, learn about, and enjoy astronomy; 7. Clickers: a new teaching tool of exceptional promise; 8. Educational opportunities in pro-am collaboration; 9. Teaching history of astronomy to second-year engineering students; 10. Teaching the evolution of stellar and Milky Way concepts through the ages; 11. Educational efforts of the International Astronomical Union; 12. Astronomy in culture; 13. Light pollution: a tool for astronomy education; 14. Astronomy by distance learning; 15. Edible astronomy demonstrations; 16. Amateur astronomers as public outreach partners; 17. Does the Sun rotate around Earth or Earth rotate around the Sun?; 18. Using sounds and sonifications for astronomy outreach; 19. Teaching astronomy and the crisis in science education; 20. Astronomy for all as part of a general education; Poster abstracts; Part II. Connecting Astronomy with the Public: Introduction; 21. A status report from the Division XII working group; 22. Outreach using media; 23. Astronomy podcasting; 24. IAU's communication strategy, hands-on science communication, and the communication of the planet definition discussion; 25. Getting a word in edgeways: the survival of discourse in audiovisual astronomy; 26. Critical evaluation of the new Hall of Astronomy; 27. Revitalizing astronomy teaching through research on student understanding; Poster abstracts; Part III. Effective Use of Instruction and Information Technology: Introduction; 28. ESO's astronomy education program; 29. U.S. student astronomy research and remote observing projects; 30. Global network of autonomous observatories dedicated to student research; 31. Remote telescopes in education: report of an Australian study; 32. Visualizing

  14. Encyclopedia of the History of Astronomy and Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leverington, David

    2013-06-01

    Preface; Part I. General Astronomy: 1. Ancient (pre-telescopy) astronomy; 2. Period overviews; 3. International Astronomical Union; Part II. The Solar System: 4. Overview - the Solar System; 5. Sun, Earth, and Moon; 6. Inner Solar System; 7. Giant planets; 8. Smaller objects; 9. Exoplanets; Part III. Stars: 10. Stars considered individually; 11. Stars considered as a group; 12. Types of stars; Part IV. Galaxies and Cosmology: 13. Milky Way; 14. Other galaxies and cosmology; Part V. General Astronomical Tools and Techniques (After 1600); Part VI. Optical Telescopes and Observatories: 15. Overview - optical telescopes and observatories; 16. Optical observatories; Part VII. Radio Telescopes, Observatories and Radar: 17. Overview - radio telescopes and observatories; 18. Early radio astronomy and observatories; 19. Later radio observatories; Part VIII. Other Ground-Based Observatories; Part IX. Solar System Exploration Spacecraft: 20. Overview - Solar System exploration spacecraft; 21. Individual Solar System spacecraft; Part X. Selected Observatory Spacecraft: 22. Overview - spacecraft observatories; 23. Individual spacecraft observatories; Name index; Subject index.

  15. Nontechnical Astronomy Books of 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercury, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Presented are 126 reviews. Categories include amateur astronomy, children's books, computers and astronomy, cosmic rays, cosmology, education in astronomy, galaxies, general astronomy, history of astronomy, life in the universe, physics and astronomy, pseudoscience, quasars and active galaxies, reference, solar system, space exploration, stars and…

  16. Acousto-optic spectrometer for radio astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, G.; Buhl, D.; Florez, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    A prototype acousto-optic spectrometer which uses a discrete bulk acoustic wave Itek Bragg cell, 5 mW Helium Neon laser, and a 1024 element Reticon charge coupled photodiode array is described. The analog signals from the photodiode array are digitized, added, and stored in a very high speed custom built multiplexer board which allows synchronous detection of weak signals to be performed. The experiment is controlled and the data are displayed and stored with an LSI-2 microcomputer system with dual floppy discs. The performance of the prototype acousto-optic spectrometer obtained from initial tests is reported.

  17. Tools of Radio Astronomy, 5th edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Thomas L.; Rohlfs, Kristian; Huttemeister, Susanne

    2012-12-01

    New 5th corrected edition of the book http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009tra..book.....W in Russian, translated by O. Verkhodanov and S. Trushkin, editing S.A. Trushkin from Special astrophysical observatory RAS. This edition contains the translation of the 5th Springer edition of 2009 and new additional chapter (wrote by authors) of Solutions of the problems.

  18. The Early Years of Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, W. T.

    2005-09-01

    Frontispiece; Preface; 1. The earliest years W. T. Sullivan, III, G. Reber and J. L. Greenstein; 2. Australia E. G. Bowen, W. N. Christiansen, F. J. Kerr, B. Y. Mills and R. N. Bracewell; 3. England A. C. B. Lovell, R. Hanbury Brown, F. G. Smith and P. A. G. Scheuer; 4. The rest of the world A. E. Salomonovich, V. L. Ginzburg, J. F. Denisse, A. E. Covington and H. Tanaka; 5. Broader reflections D. O. Edge, W. H. McCrea, H. C. van de Hulst and O. Gingerich; Bibliographical notes; Name index; Subject index.

  19. Radio Astronomy Antennas by the Thousands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Roger

    2004-06-01

    Large number of microwave antennas of size and surface accuracy appropriate for the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) have not been manufactured previously. To minimize total cost, the design needs to be much more carefully considered and optimized than would be affordable for a small number of antennas. The required surface area requires new methods of manufacture and production-line type assembly to be considered. A blend of past antenna construction technology, creativity, and new technology is needed to provide the best possible telescope for the proposed SKA science goals. The following key concepts will be discussed with respect to reflector antennas and many supporting photographs, figures and drawings will be included. Surface and supporting structure comparison of panels with a one-piece shell as produced by hydroforming.

  20. Early infrared astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lequeux, James

    2009-07-01

    I present a short history of infrared astronomy, from the first scientific approaches of the ‘radiant heat’ in the seventeenth century to the 1970's, the time when space infrared astronomy was developing very rapidly. The beginning of millimeter and submillimeter astronomy is also covered. As the progress of infrared astronomy was strongly dependent on detectors, some details are given on their development.

  1. Astronomy in the City for Astronomy Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ros, Rosa Maria; García, Beatriz

    2015-08-01

    Astronomy is part of our culture. Astronomy cannot be isolated in a classroom, it has to be integrated in the normal life of teachers and students. “Astronomy in the city” is an important part of NASE (Network for Astronomy School Education). In each NASE course we introduce a “working group session” chaired by a local expert in cultural astronomy. The chair introduces several examples of astronomy in their city and after that, the participants have the opportunity to discuss and mention several similar examples. After this session all participants visit one or two sites proposed and introduced by the chair.After more than 5 years using this method we visited and discovered several examples of astronomy in the city:• Astronomy in ancient typical cloths• Archeological temples oriented according the Sun rise or set.• Petroglyphs with astronomical meaning.• Astronomy in monuments.• Sundials.• Oriented Colonial churches• Astronomy in SouvenirsIn any case, teachers and students discover that Astronomy is part of their everyday life. They can take into account the Sun's path when they park their car or when they take a bus "what is the best part in order to be seat in the shadow during the journey?" The result is motivation to go with “open eyes” when they are in the street and they try to get more and more information about their surroundings.The most significant characteristic of NASE is that the ”Local NASE Working Group” (LWG) in each country continues with astronomy activities using our materials and new materials created by them. These LWG are integrated by 6 to 8 teachers and professors that participated actively in NASE courses. They maintains alive the program and increases the number of students which can learn through our didactical proposal. There are more than 25 LWG that teach and organize activities on astronomy (education and/or communication) in about 20 countries.In summary, one of the main activities is to introduce local

  2. Astronomy and Politics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, John M.

    The relationship between astronomy and politics is a complex but important part of understanding the practice of astronomy throughout history. This chapter explores some of the ways that astronomy, astrology, and politics have interacted, placing particular focus on the way that astronomy and astrology have been used for political purposes by both people in power and people who wish to influence a ruler's policy. Also discussed are the effects that politics has had on the development of astronomy and, in particular, upon the recording and preservation of astronomical knowledge.

  3. Radio Galaxies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downes, Ann

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information on radio galaxies. Topic areas addressed include: what produces the radio emission; radio telescopes; locating radio galaxies; how distances to radio galaxies are found; physics of radio galaxies; computer simulations of radio galaxies; and the evolution of radio galaxies with cosmic time. (JN)

  4. History of infrared telescopes and astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieke, G. H.

    2009-08-01

    The first attempts to measure the infrared outputs of stars preceded by nearly a century the permanent establishment of infrared astronomy as an important aspect of the field. There were a number of false starts in that century, significant efforts that had little impact on the astronomical community at large. Why did these efforts fizzle out? What was different in the start that did not fizzle, in the 1960s? I suggest that the most important advances were the success of radio astronomy in demonstrating interesting phenomena outside of the optical regime, and the establishment virtually simultaneously in the United States of a number of research groups that could support each other and compete against one another in their approach to infrared astronomy.

  5. The Radio Jove Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thieman, J. R.

    2010-01-01

    The Radio love Project is a hands-on education and outreach project in which students, or any other interested individuals or groups build a radio telescope from a kit, operate the radio telescope, transmit the resulting signals through the internet if desired, analyze the results, and share the results with others through archives or general discussions among the observers. Radio love is intended to provide an introduction to radio astronomy for the observer. The equipment allows the user to observe radio signals from Jupiter, the Sun, the galaxy, and Earth-based radiation both natural and man-made. The project was started through a NASA Director's Discretionary Fund grant more than ten years ago. it has continued to be carried out through the dedicated efforts of a group of mainly volunteers. Dearly 1500 kits have been distributed throughout the world. Participation can also be done without building a kit. Pre-built kits are available. Users can also monitor remote radio telescopes through the internet using free downloadable software available through the radiosky.com website. There have been many stories of prize-winning projects, inspirational results, collaborative efforts, etc. We continue to build the community of observers and are always open to new thoughts about how to inspire the observers to still greater involvement in the science and technology associated with Radio Jove.

  6. Astronomy at the University of South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smits, D. P.

    2000-12-01

    Unisa is the largest correspondence university in Africa and the only South African university currently offering a BSc in Astronomy. The astronomy modules can be included in any standard BSc Physics programme. Besides using the radio and optical telescopes at HartRAO and SAAO, Unisa also has its own Observatory on the main campus equipped with modern instrumentation for training students and doing niche research projects. Unisa est la plus importante université d'enseignement par correspondance en Afrique et la seule université d'Afrique du Sud qui forme des licenciés ès sciences (BSc) en Astronomie. Les modules d'astronomie peuvent être inclus dans tout programme standard de Physique pour BSc. En plus d'utiliser les télescopes radio et optiques à HartRAO et SAAO, Unisa a aussi sur le campus principal son propre Observatoire équipé d'une instrumentation moderne pour la formation des étudiants et pour mener à bien des projets de recherche dans des niches scientifiques modernes.

  7. African Astronomy and the Square Kilometre Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLeod, Gordon

    2010-02-01

    We highlight the growth of astronomy across Africa and the effect of hosting the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) will have on this growth. From the construction of a new 25m radio telescope in Nigeria, to new university astronomy programmes in Kenya, the HESS in Namibia and the Mauritian Radio Telescope, to the world class projects being developed in South Africa (Southern African Large Telescope and Karoo Array Telescope) astronomy is re-emerging across the continent. The SKA will represent the pinnacle of technological advancement in astronomy when constructed; requiring ultra high speed data transmission lines over 3000 km baselines and the World's fastest computer for correlation purposes. The investment alone to build the SKA on African soil will be of great economic benefit to its people, but the required network connectivity will significantly drive commercial expansion far beyond the initial value of the SKA investment. The most important consequence of hosting the SKA in Africa would be the impact on Human Capital Development (HCD) on the continent. Major HCD projects already underway producing excellent results will be presented. )

  8. On the Detection of Magnetospheric Radio Bursts from Uranus and Neptune.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    NEPTUNE(PLANET), *RADIO ASTRONOMY, *EXTRATERRESTRIAL RADIO WAVES, * URANUS (PLANET), MAGNETIC FIELDS, FLUX(RATE), COMPARISON, POWER SPECTRA, SATURN(PLANET), EARTH(PLANET), MAGNETOSPHERE, JUPITER(PLANET), SOLAR WIND.

  9. Armenian Cultural Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmanyan, S. V.; Mickaelian, A. M.

    2015-07-01

    Cultural Astronomy is the reflection of sky events in various fields of nations' culture. In foreign literature this field is also called "Astronomy in Culture" or "Astronomy and Culture". Cultural astronomy is the set of interdisciplinary fields studying the astronomical systems of current or ancient societies and cultures. It is manifested in Religion, Mythology, Folklore, Poetry, Art, Linguistics and other fields. In recent years, considerable attention has been paid to this sphere, particularly international organizations were established, conferences are held and journals are published. Armenia is also rich in cultural astronomy. The present paper focuses on Armenian archaeoastronomy and cultural astronomy, including many creations related to astronomical knowledge; calendars, rock art, mythology, etc. On the other hand, this subject is rather poorly developed in Armenia; there are only individual studies on various related issues (especially many studies related to Anania Shirakatsi) but not coordinated actions to manage this important field of investigation.

  10. Astronomy in Indian Schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatia, V. B.

    Tradition of astronomy in India goes back to ancient times. Many festivals and rituals are associated with astronomical phenomena. Indian children start learning rudiments of astronomy from primary classes. But primary teachers are not equipped to handle this subject so not much learning actually takes place. The first serious interface with astronomy occurs when children reach class X when they are 15 years old. Till last year astronomy was there in class XII also but it has now been dropped. This is a serious setback for the study of astronomy. In class X astronomy forms part of general science. Since children at this stage are not proficient in physics and mathematics the subject remains descriptive though there are useful activities for children to do. However the teachers are not equipped to handle this subject and there is no help in the form of visual material. So the subject remains neglected. The Indian astronomical community can help by training teachers and providing visual material. It must also urge authorities to reintroduce astronomy in class XII if astronomy is to flourish in India. Moreover India needs to network with developing countries share experiences with them and evolve a strategy that promotes astronomy.

  11. Journey of Ethiopia Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belay Tessema, Solomon

    2015-08-01

    Ancient astronomy had contributed away for the modern development of astronomy. The history of astronomy development in Ethiopian was liked with different beliefs and culture of the society. The Ethiopians were the first who invented the science of stars, and gave names to the planets, not at random and without meaning, but descriptive of the qualities which they conceived them to possess; and it was from them that this art passed, still in an imperfect state, to the Egyptians. Even though, Ethiopian’s contributions for astronomy in the world were immense but the journey of modern astronomy is still in the infant stage. The modern astronomy and space program in Ethiopia was started in 2004 in well organized form from three individuals to the public. In the past eleven years of journey of astronomy development in Ethiopia was the most challenging from national to international level. After strong struggle of a few committed individuals for the past eleven years the development of astronomy is completely changed from dark age to bright age. This paper will try to address the details of journey of astronomy in Ethiopia.

  12. Some innovative programmes in Astronomy education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, G. S. D.; Sujatha, S.

    In order to inculcate a systematic scientific awareness of the subject of Astronomy among the students and to motivate them to pursue careers in Astronomy and Astrophysics, various innovative educational programmes have been designed at MPBIFR. Among them, the main programme is termed as the ``100-hour Certificate Course in Astronomy and Astrophysics'' which has been designed basically for the students of the undergraduate level of B.Sc. and B.E. streams. The time duration of the 100 hours in this course is partitioned as 36 hours of classroom lectures, 34 hours of practicals and field trips and the remaining 30 hours being dedicated to dissertation writing and seminar presentations by the students. In addition, after the 100-hour course, the students have the option to take up specialized advance courses in the topics of Astrobiology, Astrochemistry, Radio Astronomy, Solar Astronomy and Cosmology as week-end classes. These courses are at the post graduate level and are covered in a span of 18 to 20 hours spread over a period of 9 to 10 weeks. As a preparatory programme, short-term introductory courses in the same subject are conducted for the high school students during the summer vacation period. Along with this, a three-week programme in basic Astronomy is also designed as an educational package for the general public. The students of these courses have the opportunity of being taken on field trips to various astronomical centers as well as the Radio, Solar and the Optical Observatories as part of their curriculum. The guided trips to the ISRO’s Satellite Centre at Bangalore and the Satellite Launching Station at SHAR provide high degree of motivation apart from giving thrilling experiences to the students. Further, the motivated students are encouraged to involve themselves in regular research programmes in Astronomy at MPBIFR for publishing research papers in national and international journals. The teaching and mentoring faculty for all these programmes

  13. Random time series in astronomy.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Simon

    2013-02-13

    Progress in astronomy comes from interpreting the signals encoded in the light received from distant objects: the distribution of light over the sky (images), over photon wavelength (spectrum), over polarization angle and over time (usually called light curves by astronomers). In the time domain, we see transient events such as supernovae, gamma-ray bursts and other powerful explosions; we see periodic phenomena such as the orbits of planets around nearby stars, radio pulsars and pulsations of stars in nearby galaxies; and we see persistent aperiodic variations ('noise') from powerful systems such as accreting black holes. I review just a few of the recent and future challenges in the burgeoning area of time domain astrophysics, with particular attention to persistently variable sources, the recovery of reliable noise power spectra from sparsely sampled time series, higher order properties of accreting black holes, and time delays and correlations in multi-variate time series.

  14. Multiversos: Rock'n'Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero, J. A.; Arias, A.; García, N.

    2011-11-01

    Imagine that you can use your fingers only for typing target coordinates at thetelescope, reduce images and spectra with IRAF, or write papers for Astronomy &Astrophysics, but you would never be able to play an electric guitar.Imagine that you love music, work in front of the computer always withheadphones, and dream of playing with your favourite rock band in a tumultuousconcert.Imagine that you are an astronomer who, after a "cosmic fluke", share stagewith the band which themes you have always hummed since you were a teenager.Imagine that you were born for rock, played a main role in the best Spanishalbum of the 90s (Omega, with Enrique Morente), and your songs arerutinary played by Radio 3, but you would never be able to detect an exoplanetor a galaxy at a high redshift.Imagine that you love Astronomy, try to see the Moon craters and Andromeda withyour small telescope through the light pollution of your city, and explain yourdaughter that Pluto is not a planet any longer. Imagine that you are a musician who, after a "cosmic fluke", give a talk justafter a Nobel laureate that discovered the cosmic microwave backgroundradiation.Such "cosmic flukes" sometimes happen. If you were not at the dinner of the SEA meeting and do not believe us, visithttp://www.myspace.com/antonioariasmultiverso or open the proceedings DVD andlisten "El ordenador simula el nacimiento de las estrella...".

  15. Astronomical Book Trek: Astronomy Books of 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    1983-01-01

    Provided in two separate annotated lists are technical and nontechnical astronomy books. Categories in the latter group include: general astronomy; astronomy textbooks; amateur astronomy; astronomy history; life on other worlds; astrophysics; the solar system; space exploration; and the sun. (JN)

  16. High Energy Astronomy Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    An overview of the High Energy Astronomy Observatory 2 contributions to X-ray astronomy is presented along with a brief description of the satellite and onboard telescope. Observations relating to galaxies and galactic clusters, black holes, supernova remnants, quasars, and cosmology are discussed.

  17. Junior High Astronomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenstone, Sid; Smith, Murray

    Selected materials needed to teach an astronomy unit as well as suggested procedures, activities, ideas, and astronomy fact sheets published by the Manitoba Planetarium are provided. Subjects of the fact sheets include: publications and classroom picture sets available from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and facts and statistics…

  18. High energy particle astronomy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffington, A.; Muller, R. A.; Smith, L. H.; Smoot, G. F.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of techniques currently used in high energy particle astronomy for measuring charged and neutral cosmic rays and their isotope and momentum distribution. Derived from methods developed for accelerator experiments in particle physics, these techniques help perform important particle astronomy experiments pertaining to nuclear cosmic ray and gamma ray research, electron and position probes, and antimatter searches.

  19. Towards ``Astronomy for Development''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govender, Kevin

    2016-10-01

    The ambition of the IAU's decadal strategic plan is to use astronomy to stimulate development globally. The Office of Astronomy for Development was established in 2011 to implement this visionary plan. This talk will reflect on the past, present and future activities of the office, and describe the status of implementation of the plan at this halfway point in the 2010- decade.

  20. A Basic Astronomy Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    This bibliography lists the most useful and scientifically accurate astronomy books published in the 1980s for beginners and students. The books are categorized under the topics of: (1) astronomy in general; (2) solar system as a whole; (3) planets; (4) asteroids, comets, and meteorites; (5) the sun; (6) stars and their evolution; (7) mikly way…

  1. Environmental Threat to Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNally, D.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Astronomy is fortunate in being one of those sciences currently making important advances in understanding, well supported by superb, advanced, technology. Revolutionary new data are being acquired which are radically impacting upon our cherished concepts from the solar system to the depths of the universe. Sadly, the state of astronomy at the dawn of the twenty-first century is not one of unboun...

  2. Astronomy and Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavinschi, M.

    2006-08-01

    Astronomy is, by definition, the sum of the material and spiritual values created by mankind and of the institutions necessary to communicate these values. Consequently, astronomy belongs to the culture of each society and its scientific progress does nothing but underline its role in culture. It is interesting that there is even a European society which bears this name "Astronomy for Culture" (SEAC). Its main goal is "the study of calendric and astronomical aspects of culture". Owning ancient evidence of astronomical knowledge, dating from the dawn of the first millennium, Romania is interested in this topic. But Astronomy has a much deeper role in culture and civilization. There are many aspects that deserve to be discussed. Examples? The progress of astronomy in a certain society, in connection with its evolution; the place held by the astronomy in literature and, generally, in art; the role of the SF in the epoch of super-mediatization; astronomy and belief; astronomy and astrology in the modern society, and so forth. These are problems that can be of interest for IAU, but the most important one could be her educational role, in the formation of the culture of the new generation, in the education of the population for the protection of our planet, in the ensuring of a high level of spiritual development of the society in the present epoch.

  3. Astronomy in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayakawa, S.; Saito, M.

    1984-02-01

    The research activity in Japanese astronomy is described, taking into account the social and historical background. The trend in the last two decades is illustrated by the numbers of papers in 13 branches of astronomy. Major research facilities and international collaboration programs are summarized. Future programs under consideration are briefly discussed.

  4. Indian Astronomy: History of

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercier, R.; Murdin, P.

    2002-01-01

    From the time of A macronryabhat under dota (ca AD 500) there appeared in India a series of Sanskrit treatises on astronomy. Written always in verse, and normally accompanied by prose commentaries, these served to create an Indian tradition of mathematical astronomy which continued into the 18th century. There are as well texts from earlier centuries, grouped under the name Jyotishaveda macronn d...

  5. Astronomy in Mozambique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Valério A. R. M.; Paulo, Cláudio M.

    2015-03-01

    We present the state of Astronomy in Mozambique and how it has evolved since 2009 following the International Year of Astronomy. Activities have been lead by staff at University Eduardo Mondlane and several outreach activities have also flourished. In 2010 the University introduced its first astronomy module, Introduction to Astronomy and Astrophysics, for the second year students in the Department of Physics. The course has now produced the first students who will be graduating in late 2012 with some astronomy content. Some of these students will now be looking for further studies and those who have been keen in astronomy have been recommended to pursue this as a career. At the university level we have also discussed on the possibility to introduce a whole astronomy course by 2016 which falls well within the HCD that the university is now investing in. With the announcement that the SKA will be split between South Africa with its partner countries (including Mozambique), and Australia we have been working closely with the Ministry of Science and Technology to make astronomy a priority on its agenda. In this respect, an old telecommunications antenna is being converted by the South Africa SKA Project Office, and donated to Mozambique for educational purposes. It will be situated in Maluana, Mozambique.

  6. Astronomy Demonstrations and Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckroth, Charles A.

    Demonstrations in astronomy classes seem to be more necessary than in physics classes for three reasons. First, many of the events are very large scale and impossibly remote from human senses. Secondly, while physics courses use discussions of one- and two-dimensional motion, three-dimensional motion is the normal situation in astronomy; thus,…

  7. Astronomy in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beet, E. A.

    1973-01-01

    Summarizes practical projects, science activities, and teaching aids usable in teaching of the astronomy section of physics courses at the pre-O, O and A-level stages. Indicates that the teacher interest is the decisive factor influencing introduction of astronomy into schools. (CC)

  8. Towards "Astronomy for Development"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govender, Kevindran

    2015-08-01

    The ambition of the IAU's decadal strategic plan is to use astronomy to stimulate development globally. The Office of Astronomy for Development was established in 2011 to implement this visionary plan. This talk will reflect on the past, present and future activities of the office, and describe the status of implementation of the plan at this halfway point in the 2010-2020 decade.

  9. Peer Instruction for Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Paul

    Peer Instruction for Astronomy is an instructor's guide to an exciting and easily-implemented enhancement for lecture classes in introductory astronomy. Application of this powerful and efficient teaching technique requires that the instructor have on hand a large number of thought-provoking, conceptual short answer questions aimed at a variety of levels. While significant numbers of such questions have been published for use in Physics, Peer Instruction for Astronomy provides the first such compilation for Astronomy, and includes hints on use of the technique and applications of the method. KEY TOPICS: Covers peer instruction, incentives, a large database of conceptual questions for use in class, and a list of readings and resources. MARKET: Ideal for introductory astronomy instructors at the undergraduate or advanced high school level.

  10. Joseph Henry and Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothenberg, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Joseph Henry (1797-1878) is best known for his work in electromagnetism and as the first secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. But he was also a pioneer solar physicist, an early advocate of US participation in astrophysics, and a facilitator of international cooperation in astronomy. This paper will briefly trace his role in the development of the US astronomical community from the time he taught astronomy at Princeton in the 1830s through his death, focusing on failed efforts to persuade US astronomers and patrons of astronomy that the best path for US astronomy should be astrophysics. He thought that the US could make a more significant contribution to astronomy science by striking out on a less travelled path rather than competing with the established European observatories.

  11. Compendium of Practical Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Günter D.; Augensen, H. J.; Heintz, W. D.

    The Compendium of Practical Astronomy is a revised and enlarged English version of the fourth edition of G. Roth's famous handbook for stargazers. In three volumes 28 carefully edited articles aimed especially at amateur astronomers and students and teachers of astronomy in high schools and colleges cover the length and breadth of practical astronomy. Volume 1 contains information on modern instrumentation and reduction techniques, including spherical astronomy, error estimations, telescope mountings, astrophotography, and more. Volume 2 covers the planetary system, with contributions on artificial satellites, comets, the polar aurorae, and the effects of the atmophere on observational data. Volume 3 is devoted to stellar objects, variable stars and binary stars in particular, the Milky Way and Galaxies. An introduction to the astronomical literature and a comprehensive chapter on astronomy education and instructional aids make the Compendium a useful complement to any college library.

  12. Developing Astronomy in Cuba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez Taboada, R. E.

    2006-08-01

    Introduction Beginning from a brief historical introduction the up to day situation is presented and the topics relevant to Astronomy development analyzed from the view point of a person actually working in Astrophysics. Arising from national needs, Astronomical Calculations is the only "native-born" branch of astronomy in Cuba. Cuba was an observational platform capable to provide the Soviet Union with the 24 hours solar patrol needed by its Space Agency System to protect the men in orbit. This was the beginning of a very fruitful development of solar research in Cuba. Russia installed the instruments, trained the people to operate them, and gives the academic environment to develop the scientific work in solar physics, space weather, and related topics. What about Stellar Astronomy? The Cuban astro-climate is not good to develop an observational base. We are trying to develop stellar astronomy in collaboration with institutions capable to provide both, the academic and technical environment; but to continue developing Stellar Astronomy we need to influence the public opinion and convince people they need groups working in Astronomy. How to do that? Publishing. Giving conferences talking about OUR work, not only like spectators of the science. Showing science is culture in modern times. Showing projects in Astronomy can be cheap. ¡This is very important! Astronomy is not a luxury. Real possibilities I consider the Virtual Observatory concept the more appropriate in the near future, but it is necessary to have a connectivity level that is not commonly provided in Cuba, and to train the people. Concluding remarks From my experience "engagement" is the key word for Astronomy development in developing countries. Astronomy can not be developed without an appropriate academic environment, and we have not it. It is not "only" about financial resources, it is about "real collaboration" with a mature partner and common research goals.

  13. NASA IDEAS to Improve Instruction in Astronomy and Space Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malphrus, B.; Kidwell, K.

    1999-12-01

    The IDEAS to Improve Instructional Competencies in Astronomy and Space Science project is intended to develop and/or enhance teacher competencies in astronomy and space sciences of teacher participants (Grades 5-12) in Kentucky. The project is being implemented through a two-week summer workshop, a series of five follow-up meetings, and an academic year research project. The resources of Kentucky's only Radio Astronomy Observatory- the Morehead Radio Telescope (MRT), Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) (via remote observing using the Internet), and the Kentucky Department of Education regional service centers are combined to provide a unique educational experience. The project is designed to improve science teacher's instructional methodologies by providing pedagogical assistance, content training, involving the teachers and their students in research in radio astronomy, providing access to the facilities of the Morehead Astrophysical Observatory, and by working closely with a NASA-JOVE research astronomer. Participating teachers will ultimately produce curriculum units and research projects, the results of which will be published on the WWW. A major goal of this project is to share with teachers and ultimately students the excitement and importance of scientific research. The project represents a partnership of five agencies, each matching the commitment both financially and/or personnel. This project is funded by the NASA IDEAS initiative administered by the Space Telescope Science Institute and the National Air and Space Administration (NASA).

  14. Naming asteroids for the popularisation of astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naranjo, O. A.

    2008-06-01

    We give a detailed description of how the naming of asteroids was used as a prize in competitions run by educational institutions and museums. There were two events, one in Venezuela and one in Brazil, which used this as an attractive alternative method for the popularisation of astronomy. The first competition, named Bautizo Espacial (Space Baptism), consisted of scientific stories written by high school students. The second, called Grande Desafio (Big Challenge), was a competition where teams of students were challenged to design and build prototype equipment to fight forest fires. Nationally, both events received wide publicity through newspapers, radio, TV and web pages, reaching many people in both countries. As part of both the events, several activities promoting the public knowledge of astronomy were held. The asteroids that were named in these competitions are just some of the many discovered in a search programme developed by the Group of Theoretical Astrophysics of University of Los Andes in Mérida, Venezuela (Grupo de Astrofisica Teórica de la Universidad de Los Andes) as a mainstream research programme. Finally, Asteroids for the Popularisation of Astronomy has been formally proposed to the IAU as a worldwide programme during the celebration of the International Year of Astronomy in 2009 (IYA2009).

  15. Astronomy Landscape in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemaungani, Takalani

    2015-01-01

    The vision for astronomy in Africa is embedded in the African Space Policy of the African Union in early 2014. The vision is about positioning Africa as an emerging hub for astronomy sciences and facilities. Africa recognized the need to take advantage of its natural resource, the geographical advantage of the clear southern skies and pristine sites for astronomy. The Pan African University (PAU) initiative also presents an opportunity as a post-graduate training and research network of university nodes in five regions of Africa and supported by the African Union. The Southern African node based in South Africa concentrates on space sciences which also includes astronomy. The PAU aims to provide the opportunity for advanced graduate training and postgraduate research to high-performing African students. Objectives also include promoting mobility of students and teachers and harmonizing programs and degrees.A number of astronomy initiatives have burgeoned in the Southern African region and these include the Southern Africa Largest Optical Telescope (SALT), HESS (High Energy Stereoscopic System), the SKA (Square Kilometre Array) and the AVN (African Very Long Baseline Interferometer Network). There is a growing appetite for astronomy sciences in Africa. In East Africa, the astronomy community is well organized and is growing - the East African Astronomical society (EAAS) held its successful fourth annual conference since 2010 on 30 June to 04 July 2014 at the University of Rwanda. Centred around the 'Role of Astronomy in Socio-Economic Transformation,' this conference aimed at strengthening capacity building in Astronomy, Astrophysics and Space Science in general, while providing a forum for astronomers from the region to train young and upcoming scientists.

  16. The Astronomy Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, D. P.; Asbury, M. L.; Proctor, A.

    2001-12-01

    The Astronomy Workshop (http://janus.astro.umd.edu) is an interactive online astronomy resource developed, and maintained at the University of Maryland, for use by students, educators and the general public. The Astronomy Workshop has been extensively tested and used successfully at many different levels, including High School and Junior High School science classes, University introductory astronomy courses, and University intermediate and advanced astronomy courses. Some topics currently covered in the Astronomy Workshop are: Animated Orbits of Planets and Moons: The orbits of the nine planets and 91 known planetary satellites are shown in animated, to-scale drawings. The orbiting bodies move at their correct relative speeds about their parent, which is rendered as an attractive, to-scale gif image. Solar System Collisions: This most popular of our applications shows what happens when an asteroid or comet with user-defined size and speed impacts a given planet. The program calculates many effects, including the country impacted (if Earth is the target), energy of the explosion, crater size, magnitude of the planetquake generated. It also displays a relevant image (e.g. terrestrial crater, lunar crater, etc.). Planetary and Satellite Data Calculators: These tools allow the user to easily calculate physical data for all of the planets or satellites simultaneously, making comparison very easy. Orbital Simulations: These tools allow the student to investigate different aspects of the three-body problem of celestial mechanics. Astronomy Workshop Bulletin Board: Get innovative teaching ideas and read about in-class experiences with the Astronomy Workshop. Share your ideas with other educators by posting on the Bulletin Board. Funding for the Astronomy Workshop is provided by the National Science Foundation.

  17. The Astronomy Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, D. P.; Asbury, M. L.

    2000-05-01

    The Astronomy Workshop (http://janus.astro.umd.edu) is an interactive online astronomy resource developed and maintained at the University of Maryland for use by students, educators and the general public. The Astronomy Workshop has been extensively tested and used successfully at many different levels, including High School and Junior High School science classes, University introductory astronomy courses, and University intermediate and advanced astronomy courses. Some topics currently covered in the Astronomy Workshop are: ANIMATED ORBITS OF PLANETS AND MOONS: The orbits of the nine planets and 63 known planetary satellites are shown in animated, to-scale drawings. The orbiting bodies move at their correct relative speeds about their parent, which is rendered as an attractive, to-scale gif image. SOLAR SYSTEM COLLISIONS: This most popular of our applications shows what happens when an asteroid or comet with user-defined size and speed impacts a given planet. The program calculates many effects, including the country impacted (if Earth is the target), energy of explosion, crater size, and magnitude of the ``planetquake'' generated. It also displays a relevant image (e.g. terrestrial crater, lunar crater, etc.). SCALE OF THE UNIVERSE: Travel away from the Earth at a chosen speed and see how long it takes to reach other planets, stars and galaxies. This tool helps students visualize astronomical distances in an intuitive way. SCIENTIFIC NOTATION: Students are interactively guided through conversions between scientific notation and regular numbers. ORBITAL SIMULATIONS: These tools allow the student to investigate different aspects of the three-body problem of celestial mechanics. ASTRONOMY WORKSHOP BULLETIN BOARD: Get innovative teaching ideas and read about in-class experiences with the Astronomy Workshop. Share your ideas with other educators by posting on the Bulletin Board. Funding for the Astronomy Workshop is provided by NSF.

  18. The Astronomy Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, D. P.; Asbury, M. L.

    1999-12-01

    The Astronomy Workshop (http://janus.astro.umd.edu) is an interactive online astronomy resource developed and maintained at the University of Maryland for use by students, educators and the general public. The Astronomy Workshop has been extensively tested and used successfully at many different levels, including High School and Junior High School science classes, University introductory astronomy courses, and University intermediate and advanced astronomy courses. Some topics currently covered in the Astronomy Workshop are: Animated Orbits of Planets and Moons: The orbits of the nine planets and 63 known planetary satellites are shown in animated, to-scale drawings. The orbiting bodies move at their correct relative speeds about their parent, which is rendered as an attractive, to-scale gif image. Solar System Collisions: This most popular of our applications shows what happens when an asteroid or comet with user-defined size and speed impacts a given planet. The program calculates many effects, including the country impacted (if Earth is the target), energy of explosion, crater size, and magnitude of the ``planetquake'' generated. It also displays a relevant image (e.g. terrestrial crater, lunar crater, etc.). Scale of the Universe: Travel away from the Earth at a chosen speed and see how long it takes to reach other planets, stars and galaxies. This tool helps students visualize astronomical distances in an intuitive way. Scientific Notation: Students are interactively guided through conversions between scientific notation and regular numbers. Orbital Simulations: These tools allow the student to investigate different aspects of the three-body problem of celestial mechanics. Astronomy Workshop Bulletin Board: Get innovative teaching ideas and read about in-class experiences with the Astronomy Workshop. Share your ideas with other educators by posting on the Bulletin Board. Funding for the Astronomy Workshop is provided by NSF.

  19. The Astronomy Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, D. P.; Asbury, M. L.

    1999-09-01

    The Astronomy Workshop (http://janus.astro.umd.edu) is an interactive online astronomy resource developed and maintained at the University of Maryland for use by students, educators and the general public. The Astronomy Workshop has been extensively tested and used successfully at many different levels, including High School and Junior High School science classes, University introductory astronomy courses, and University intermediate and advanced astronomy courses. Some topics currently covered in the Astronomy Workshop are: Animated Orbits of Planets and Moons: The orbits of the nine planets and 63 known planetary satellites are shown in animated, to-scale drawings. The orbiting bodies move at their correct relative speeds about their parent, which is rendered as an attractive, to-scale gif image. Solar System Collisions: This most popular of our applications shows what happens when an asteroid or comet with user-defined size and speed impacts a given planet. The program calculates many effects, including the country impacted (if Earth is the target), energy of explosion, crater size, and magnitude of the ``planetquake'' generated. It also displays a relevant image (e.g. terrestrial crater, lunar crater, etc.). Scale of the Universe: Travel away from the Earth at a chosen speed and see how long it takes to reach other planets, stars and galaxies. This tool helps students visualize astronomical distances in an intuitive way. Scientific Notation: Students are interactively guided through conversions between scientific notation and regular numbers. Orbital Simulations: These tools allow the student to investigate different aspects of the three-body problem of celestial mechanics. Astronomy Workshop Bulletin Board: Get innovative teaching ideas and read about in-class experiences with the Astronomy Workshop. Share your ideas with other educators by posting on the Bulletin Board. Funding for the Astronomy Workshop is provided by NSF.

  20. Teaching Astronomy with Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, Carmen; Impey, Chris David; Wenger, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Students today are expected to have access to computers and the Internet. Students young and old, in school and out of school, are interested in learning about astronomy, and have computers to use for this. Teach Astronomy is a website with a comprehensive digital astronomy textbook freely available to students and educators. In addition to the textbook, there are astronomy Wikipedia articles, image archives from Astronomy Picture of the Day and AstroPix, and video lectures covering all topics of astronomy. Teach Astronomy has a unique search tool called the wikimap that can be used to search through all of the resources on the site. Astronomy: State of the Art (ASOTA) is a massive, open, online course (MOOC). Over 18,000 students have enrolled over the past year and half. This MOOC has been presented in various forms. First, only to students on the web, with content released weekly on host site Udemy. Then to university students who met formally in the classroom for educational activities, but were also expected to watch lectures online on their own time. Presently, it is available online for students to go at their own pace. In the future it will be available in an extended format on a new host site, Coursera. ASOTA instructors use social media to interact with students. Students ask questions via the course host site, Udemy. Live question and answer sessions are conducted using Google Hangouts on Air, and interesting and relevant astronomy news, or supplementary educational content is shared via the ASOTA Facebook page. Teaching on the Internet may seem impersonal and impractical, but by learning to use all of these tools, instructors have the ability to interact with students, and keep them engaged.

  1. The Future of Space Astronomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, George B.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various aspects of space astronomy, considering advantages, the space telescope and ground-based astronomy, an orbiting astrophysics facility, solar physics, and other areas. Indicates that earth-based astronomy will continue to be carried out there and space astronomy will be limited to observations that can be carried out only from…

  2. The Network for Astronomy in Education in Southwest New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neely, B.

    1998-12-01

    The Network for Astronomy in Education was organized to use astronomy as a motivational tool to teach science methods and principles in the public schools. NFO is a small private research observatory, associated with the local University, Western New Mexico. We started our program in 1996 with an IDEA grant by introducing local teachers to the Internet, funding a portable planetarium (Starlab) for the students, and upgrading our local radio linked computer network. Grant County is a rural mining and ranching county in Southwest New Mexico. It is ethnically diverse and has a large portion of the population below the poverty line. It's dryness and 6000' foot elevation, along with dark skies, suite it to the appreciation of astronomy. We now have 8 local schools involved in astronomy at some level. Our main programs are the Starlab and Project Astro, and we will soon install a Sidewalk Solar System in the center of Silver City.

  3. Mathematical Astronomy in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plofker, Kim

    Astronomy in South Asia's Sanskrit tradition, apparently originating in simple calendric computations regulating the timing of ancient ritual practices, expanded over the course of two or three millennia to include detailed spherical models, an endless variety of astrological systems, and academic mathematics in general. Assimilating various technical models, methods, and genres from the astronomy of neighboring cultures, Indian astronomers created new forms that were in turn borrowed by their foreign counterparts. Always recognizably related to the main themes of Eurasian geocentric mathematical astronomy, Indian astral science nonetheless maintained its culturally distinct character until Keplerian heliocentrism and Newtonian mechanics replaced it in colonial South Asia's academic mainstream.

  4. Discovering Astronomy Through Poetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannone, John C.

    2011-05-01

    The literature is replete with astronomical references. And much of that literature is poetry. Using this fact, not only can the teacher infuse a new appreciation of astronomy, but also, the student has the opportunity to rediscover history through astronomy. Poetry can be an effective icebreaker in the introduction of new topics in physics and astronomy, as well as a point of conclusion to a lecture. This presentation will give examples of these things from the ancient literature (sacred Hebraic texts), classical literature (Homer's Iliad and Odyssey), traditional poetry (Longfellow, Tennyson and Poe) and modern literature (Frost, Kooser, and others, including the contemporary work of this author).

  5. To See the Unseen: A History of Planetary Radar Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butrica, Andrew J.

    1996-01-01

    This book relates the history of planetary radar astronomy from its origins in radar to the present day and secondarily to bring to light that history as a case of 'Big Equipment but not Big Science'. Chapter One sketches the emergence of radar astronomy as an ongoing scientific activity at Jodrell Bank, where radar research revealed that meteors were part of the solar system. The chief Big Science driving early radar astronomy experiments was ionospheric research. Chapter Two links the Cold War and the Space Race to the first radar experiments attempted on planetary targets, while recounting the initial achievements of planetary radar, namely, the refinement of the astronomical unit and the rotational rate and direction of Venus. Chapter Three discusses early attempts to organize radar astronomy and the efforts at MIT's Lincoln Laboratory, in conjunction with Harvard radio astronomers, to acquire antenna time unfettered by military priorities. Here, the chief Big Science influencing the development of planetary radar astronomy was radio astronomy. Chapter Four spotlights the evolution of planetary radar astronomy at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a NASA facility, at Cornell University's Arecibo Observatory, and at Jodrell Bank. A congeries of funding from the military, the National Science Foundation, and finally NASA marked that evolution, which culminated in planetary radar astronomy finding a single Big Science patron, NASA. Chapter Five analyzes planetary radar astronomy as a science using the theoretical framework provided by philosopher of science Thomas Kuhn. Chapter Six explores the shift in planetary radar astronomy beginning in the 1970s that resulted from its financial and institutional relationship with NASA Big Science. Chapter Seven addresses the Magellan mission and its relation to the evolution of planetary radar astronomy from a ground-based to a space-based activity. Chapters Eight and Nine discuss the research carried out at ground

  6. Gravitational Waves and Time Domain Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Centrella, Joan; Nissanke, Samaya; Williams, Roy

    2012-01-01

    The gravitational wave window onto the universe will open in roughly five years, when Advanced LIGO and Virgo achieve the first detections of high frequency gravitational waves, most likely coming from compact binary mergers. Electromagnetic follow-up of these triggers, using radio, optical, and high energy telescopes, promises exciting opportunities in multi-messenger time domain astronomy. In the decade, space-based observations of low frequency gravitational waves from massive black hole mergers, and their electromagnetic counterparts, will open up further vistas for discovery. This two-part workshop featured brief presentations and stimulating discussions on the challenges and opportunities presented by gravitational wave astronomy. Highlights from the workshop, with the emphasis on strategies for electromagnetic follow-up, are presented in this report.

  7. Overview of lunar-based astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Harlan J.

    1988-01-01

    The opportunities along with the advantages and disadvantages of the Moon for astronomical observatories are carefully and methodically considered. Taking a relatively unbiased approach, it was concluded that lunar observatories will clearly be a major factor in the future of astronomy in the next century. He concludes that ground based work will continue because of its accessibility and that Earth orbital work will remain useful, primarily for convenience of access in constructing and operating very large space systems. Deep space studies will feature not only probes but extensive systems for extremely long baseline studies at wavelengths from gamma rays through visible and IR out to radio is also a conclusion drawn, along with the consideration that lunar astronomy will have found important permanent applications along lines such as are discussed at the present symposium and others quite unsuspected today.

  8. Astronomy without astronomers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavinschi, Magdalena

    Astronomy in Romania has an old tradition. After half a century of privations and isolation from the rest of the world, we believed that the changes undergone by our country in 1989 (and by the neighbour countries, as well) will be benefit for the Romanian astronomy, too. Indeed, it was, but for a very short period. The young people left the country, one by one, and others cannot accept the low salary offered by a research institute. The economy doesn't allow us to enrich the astronomical endowment. Of course, we cannot close the observatories. We have to find other ways to save the astronomy in this part of Europe, especially in the epoch of the space astronomy.

  9. Astronomy, Astrology, and Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenbaum, Dorian Gieseler

    Astronomy and astrology were combined with medicine for thousands of years. Beginning in Mesopotamia in the second millennium BCE and continuing into the eighteenth century, medical practitioners used astronomy/astrology as an important part of diagnosis and prescription. Throughout this time frame, scientists cited the similarities between medicine and astrology, in addition to combining the two in practice. Hippocrates and Galen based medical theories on the relationship between heavenly bodies and human bodies. In an enduring cultural phenomenon, parts of the body as well as diseases were linked to zodiac signs and planets. In Renaissance universities, astronomy and astrology were studied by students of medicine. History records a long tradition of astrologer-physicians. This chapter covers the topic of astronomy, astrology, and medicine from the Old Babylonian period to the Enlightenment.

  10. Women in Astronomy 2009

    NASA Video Gallery

    Space science research institutions have traditionally been populated by a strong male workforce, but this structure is rapidly changing. To help meet these challenges, the "Women in Astronomy and ...

  11. 100 Hours of Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Michael

    2009-05-01

    The 100 Hours of Astronomy Cornerstone Project is a worldwide event consisting of a wide range of public outreach activities, live science center, research observatory webcasts and sidewalk astronomy events. One of the key goals of 100 Hours of Astronomy is to have as many people as possible look through a telescope as Galileo did for the first time 400 years ago. 100 Hours of Astronomy will take place from 2-5 April when the Moon goes from first quarter to gibbous, good phases for early evening observing. Saturn will be the other highlight of early evening observing events. This presentation will report on this worldwide public outreach event, its successes and lessons learned, participation and possible follow-up projects and activities.

  12. Cultural Astronomy in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renshaw, Steven L.

    While Japan is known more for its contributions to modern astronomy than its archaeoastronomical sites, there is still much about the culture's heritage that is of interest in the study of cultural astronomy. This case study provides an overview of historical considerations necessary to understand the place of astronomy in Japanese society as well as methodological considerations that highlight traditional approaches that have at times been a barrier to interdisciplinary research. Some specific areas of study in the cultural astronomy of Japan are discussed including examples of contemporary research based on interdisciplinary approaches. Japan provides a fascinating background for scholars who are willing to go beyond their curiosity for sites of alignment and approach the culture with a desire to place astronomical iconography in social context.

  13. NASA thesaurus: Astronomy vocabulary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A terminology of descriptors used by the NASA Scientific and Technical information effort to index documents in the area of astronomy is presented. The terms are listed in hierarchical format derived from the 1988 edition of the NASA Thesaurus Volume 1 -- Hierarchical Listing. Over 1600 terms are included. In addition to astronomy, space sciences covered include astrophysics, cosmology, lunar flight and exploration, meteors and meteorites, celestial mechanics, planetary flight and exploration, and planetary science.

  14. Popularising astronomy in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tafreshi, Babak A.

    2011-06-01

    The interest to astronomy has incredibly risen in the younger generation of Iranians during the last two decades. By the end of the devastating war with Iraq, science popularisation activities started again in Iran and with only a handful of astronomers and few dozens of serious amateur astronomers in the whole country in late 1980s now there are thousands of amateur astronomers (60% female on average) and over 100 professional astronomers propelling the fun and science of astronomy in the society.

  15. Rethinking the Astronomy Major

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, S.

    2001-12-01

    The Five College Astronomy Department has designed several curricular offerings that use the discipline of Astronomy to provide project-based classes that enhance critical thinking and quantitative reasoning and emphasize development of both oral and written communication skills. We incorporate these classes with more traditional lecture-format astrophysics courses to offer a science major that will provide a firm foundation in a quantitative discipline that could lead to many career paths.

  16. Astronomy in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, William H.

    2013-01-01

    Mexican astronomy has a long standing tradition of excellence in research. After a brief review of its history, I outline the current profile of the community, the available infrastructure and participating institutions, and give a glimpse into the future through current projects. The development of astronomy can serve as a powerful lever for science, technological development, education and outreach, as well as for improving the much needed link between basic research and industry development.

  17. Big Computing in Astronomy: Perspectives and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratius, Victor

    2014-06-01

    Hardware progress in recent years has led to astronomical instruments gathering large volumes of data. In radio astronomy for instance, the current generation of antenna arrays produces data at Tbits per second, and forthcoming instruments will expand these rates much further. As instruments are increasingly becoming software-based, astronomers will get more exposed to computer science. This talk therefore outlines key challenges that arise at the intersection of computer science and astronomy and presents perspectives on how both communities can collaborate to overcome these challenges.Major problems are emerging due to increases in data rates that are much larger than in storage and transmission capacity, as well as humans being cognitively overwhelmed when attempting to opportunistically scan through Big Data. As a consequence, the generation of scientific insight will become more dependent on automation and algorithmic instrument control. Intelligent data reduction will have to be considered across the entire acquisition pipeline. In this context, the presentation will outline the enabling role of machine learning and parallel computing.BioVictor Pankratius is a computer scientist who joined MIT Haystack Observatory following his passion for astronomy. He is currently leading efforts to advance astronomy through cutting-edge computer science and parallel computing. Victor is also involved in projects such as ALMA Phasing to enhance the ALMA Observatory with Very-Long Baseline Interferometry capabilities, the Event Horizon Telescope, as well as in the Radio Array of Portable Interferometric Detectors (RAPID) to create an analysis environment using parallel computing in the cloud. He has an extensive track record of research in parallel multicore systems and software engineering, with contributions to auto-tuning, debugging, and empirical experiments studying programmers. Victor has worked with major industry partners such as Intel, Sun Labs, and Oracle. He holds

  18. Astronomy and Mathematics Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ros, Rosa M.

    There are many European countries where Astronomy does not appear as a specific course on the secondary school. In these cases Astronomy content can be introduced by means of other subjects. There are some astronomical topics within the subject of Physics but this talk concerns introducing Astronomy in Mathematics classes. Teaching Astronomy through Mathematics would result in more exposure than through Physics as Mathematics is more prevalent in the curriculum. Generally it is not easy to motivate students in Mathematics but they are motivated to find out more about the universe and Astronomy current events than appears in the media. This situation can be an excellent introduction to several mathematics topics. The teachers in secondary and high school can use this idea in order to present more attractive mathematics courses. In particular some different examples will be offered regarding * Angles and spherical coordinates considering star traces * Logarithms and visual magnitudes * Plane trigonometry related orbital movements * Spherical trigonometry in connection with ecliptic obliquity * Conic curves related to sundial at several latitudes Some students do not enjoy studying Mathematics but they can be attracted by practical situations using Applied Mathematics: Astronomy is always very attractive to teenagers.

  19. Bad Astronomy Goes Hollywood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plait, P.

    2003-05-01

    It can be argued that astronomy is the oldest of all the sciences, so you'd think that after all this time people would have a pretty good understanding of it. In reality, however, misconceptions about astronomy abound, and even basic concepts are misunderstood. There are many sources of these cosmic misconceptions, including incorrect textbooks, parents and/or teachers who don't understand astronomy and therefore spread misinformation, urban legends, and so on. Perhaps the most pervasive source of bad astronomy is Hollywood. Science fiction movies are enormously popular, but are commonly written and directed by people who don't have even a passing familiarity with astronomy. The smash hit "Armageddon" (the number one box office movie of 1998), for example, used vast quantities of incorrect astronomy in the plot. It reinforced such popular misconceptions as huge asteroids impacting the Earth with little warning, small meteorites being hot when they impact, air existing in space, and that a simple bomb can blow up an asteroid the size of a small moon (even when the bomb is buried only 800 feet deep!). However, movie scenes can be used as a hook that engages the student, helping them learn and remember the correct science. In this talk, I will light-heartedly discuss specific examples of common misinformation, using movie clips, diagrams, and a splash of common sense to show just where Hollywood gets it wrong, and what you can do to help students and the public get it right.

  20. Conceptual frameworks in astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pundak, David

    2016-06-01

    How to evaluate students' astronomy understanding is still an open question. Even though some methods and tools to help students have already been developed, the sources of students' difficulties and misunderstanding in astronomy is still unclear. This paper presents an investigation of the development of conceptual systems in astronomy by 50 engineering students, as a result of learning a general course on astronomy. A special tool called Conceptual Frameworks in Astronomy (CFA) that was initially used in 1989, was adapted to gather data for the present research. In its new version, the tool included 23 questions, and five to six optional answers were given for each question. Each of the answers was characterized by one of the four conceptual astronomical frameworks: pre-scientific, geocentric, heliocentric and sidereal or scientific. The paper describes the development of the tool and discusses its validity and reliability. Using the CFA we were able to identify the conceptual frameworks of the students at the beginning of the course and at its end. CFA enabled us to evaluate the paradigmatic change of students following the course and also the extent of the general improvement in astronomical knowledge. It was found that the measure of the students’ improvement (gain index) was g = 0.37. Approximately 45% of the students in the course improved their understanding of conceptual frameworks in astronomy and 26% deepened their understanding of the heliocentric or sidereal conceptual frameworks.

  1. Monitoring Radio Frequency Interference in Southwest Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapp, Steve

    2010-01-01

    The radio signals received from astronomical objects are extremely weak. Because of this, radio sources are easily shrouded by interference from devices such as satellites and cell phone towers. Radio astronomy is very susceptible to this radio frequency interference (RFI). Possibly even worse than complete veiling, weaker interfering signals can contaminate the data collected by radio telescopes, possibly leading astronomers to mistaken interpretations. To help promote student awareness of the connection between radio astronomy and RFI, an inquiry-based science curriculum was developed to allow high school students to determine RFI levels in their communities. The Quiet Skies Project_the result of a collaboration between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO)_encourages students to collect and analyze RFI data and develop conclusions as a team. Because the project focuses on electromagnetic radiation, it is appropriate for physics, physical science, chemistry, or general science classes. My class-about 50 students from 15 southwest Virginia high schools-participated in the Quiet Skies Project and were pioneers in the use of the beta version of the Quiet Skies Detector (QSD), which is used to detect RFI. Students have been involved with the project since 2005 and have collected and shared data with NRAO. In analyzing the data they have noted some trends in RFI in Southwest Virginia.

  2. Infrared Astronomy in the Past Half Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwit, M.

    Infrared astronomy has greatly changed in the past four decades. From a small extension to optical astronomy that stretched out to slightly longer wavelengths, infrared astronomy gradually reached out to cover the entire wavelength range to the radio regime, and established itself as a field of importance in its own right. These efforts required the development of new detection techniques that permitted access to ever larger portions of the near-,mid and far-infrared regime and extended out into the submillimeter domain. Infrared and submillimeter techniques became essential for the investigations of star formation processes that took place at such low temperatures that no optical emission could be expected. The new observations pierced the dark dust clouds populating the Milky Way to provide a clear view of the Galaxy's center. In the distant Universe startlingly luminous merging galaxies came into view. We were beginning to look far back in time to perceive the gradual evolution of galaxies over the aeons. A serious drawback, however, persisted. At progressively longer wavelengths the view of the Universe became increasingly blurred. Ordinary telescopes no longer provided sharp views. Interferometers would have to be pioneered and constructed at great cost. Major investments led to the construction of dedicated facilities, on the ground, in the air and in space. The increased funding, however, also dictated that infrared astronomers reorganize themselves.Initially started by a few individuals working with their students and a few technicians, infrared astronomy had to change as increasing numbers of scientists entered the field and began to erect facilities that required the dedicated efforts of hundreds of astronomers on a single project. Infrared astronomy has evolved into Big Science, a limit at which increasing budgets threaten to become an unacceptable burden on society. Members of our discipline will need to think carefully how we may continue to pursue

  3. Astronomy Students Learn to Think Big.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somerville, W. B.

    1989-01-01

    Presents background information related to astronomy for high school students. Discusses the differences between astronomy and astrophysics, and the employment of the astronomy graduates. Lists degree programs in astronomy and related subjects in an appendix. (YP)

  4. Rescuing Middle School Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, L. A.; Janney, D.

    2010-12-01

    There is a crisis in education at the middle school level (Spellings, 2006). Recent studies point to large disparities in middle school performance in schools with high minority populations. The largest disparities exist in areas of math and science. Astronomy has a universal appeal for K-12 students but is rarely taught at the middle school level. When it is taught at all it is usually taught in isolation with few references in other classes such as other sciences (e.g. physics, biology, and chemistry), math, history, geography, music, art, or English. The problem is greatest in our most challenged school districts. With scores in reading and math below national averages in these schools and with most state achievement tests ignoring subjects like astronomy, there is little room in the school day to teach about the world outside our atmosphere. Add to this the exceedingly minimal training and education in astronomy that most middle school teachers have and it is a rare school that includes any astronomy teaching at all. In this presentation, we show how to develop and offer an astronomy education training program for middle school teachers encompassing a wide range of educational disciplines that are frequently taught at the middle school level. The prototype for this program was developed and launched in two of the most challenged and diverse school systems in the country; D.C. Public Schools, and Montgomery County (MD) Public Schools.

  5. Easy PC Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffett-Smith, Peter

    1996-11-01

    Easy PC Astronomy is the perfect book for everyone who wants to make easy and accurate astronomical calculations. The author supplies a simple but powerful script language called AstroScript on a disk, ready to use on any IBM PC-type computer. Equipped with this software, readers can compute complex but interesting astronomical results within minutes: from the time of moonrise or moonset anywhere in the world on any date, to the display of a lunar or solar eclipse on the computer screen--all within a few minutes of opening the book! The Sky Graphics feature of the software displays a detailed image of the sky as seen from any point on earth--at any time in the future or past--showing the constellations, planets, and a host of other features. Readers need no expert knowledge of astronomy, math or programming; the author provides full details of the calculations and formulas, which the reader can absorb or ignore as desired, and a comprehensive glossary of astronomical terms. Easy PC Astronomy is of immediate practical use to beginning and advanced amateur astronomers, students at all levels, science teachers, and research astronomers. Peter Duffett-Smith is at the Cavendish Laboratory of the University of Cambridge and is the author of Astronomy with Your Personal Computer (Cambridge University Press, 1990) and Practical Astronomy with Your Calculator (Cambridge University Press, 1989).

  6. Astronomy in Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavinschi, M.

    2010-07-01

    Which is more appropriate? “Astronomy in culture,” or “Astronomy and culture,” or “Culture without astronomy?” These are only few variants, each with its own sense. I guess the last question is the most pertinent. Does culture really exist without astronomy? The existence and evolution of the human civilization answer NO! But what “culture” means? When we are thinking of a culture (the Hellenistic one, for instance), we mean a set of customs, artistic, religious, intellectual manifestations that differentiate one group or society from another. On the other hand, we often use the notion of culture in a different sense: shared beliefs, ways of regarding and doing, which orient more or less consciously the behavior of an individual or a group. An example would be the laic culture. Moreover, the set of knowledge acquired in one or several domains also constitutes a culture, for instance the scientific culture of an individual or a group. Finally, the set of cultures is nothing else but the civilization. Now, if we come back in time into the history of civilization, we find a permanent component, which was never missing and often played a decisive part in its evolution: the Astronomy.

  7. Reports on Astronomy 2006-2009 (IAU XXVIIA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Hucht, Karel A.

    2009-04-01

    Preface; Division I. Fundamental Astronomy Jan Vondrák; Division II. Sun and Heliosphere Donald B. Melrose; Division III. Planetary Systems Sciences Edward L. G. Bowell; Division IV. Stars Monique Spite; Division V. Variable Stars Alvaro Giménez; Division VI. Interstellar Matter Thomas J. Miller; Division VII. Galactic System Ortwin Gerhard; Division VIII. Galaxies and the Universe Sadanori Okamura; Division IX. Optical and Infrared Techniques Andreas Quirrenbach; Division X. Radio Astronomy Ren-Dong Nan; Division XI. Space and High-Energy Astrophysics Günther Hasinger; Division XII. Union-wide Activities Malcolm G. Smith; EC Service. Press Office Lars Lindberg Christensen; Author index.

  8. Big Data Challenges for Large Radio Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Dayton L.; Wagstaff, Kiri; Thompson, David; D'Addario, Larry; Navarro, Robert; Mattmann, Chris; Majid, Walid; Lazio, Joseph; Preston, Robert; Rebbapragada, Umaa

    2012-01-01

    Future large radio astronomy arrays, particularly the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), will be able to generate data at rates far higher than can be analyzed or stored affordably with current practices. This is, by definition, a "big data" problem, and requires an end-to-end solution if future radio arrays are to reach their full scientific potential. Similar data processing, transport, storage, and management challenges face next-generation facilities in many other fields.

  9. What next for astronomy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Robert

    2009-12-01

    "Astronomy is in the midst of a golden age," wrote Catherine Cesarsky, my predecessor as president of the International Astronomical Union (IAU), earlier this year in Physics World (March pp22-24). I believe that is certainly true and it is an opportunity that we must take full advantage of. Astronomy is one of the great ways to bring science to the public - the images of the universe obtained using the Hubble Space Telescope, for example, are full of beauty. Astronomy is all about us. Indeed, the Earth and the life on it have developed from the cosmos, and the sky is the one laboratory that all humanity shares equally and that is accessible to all. There is little about the subject that appeals to fear - except, perhaps, the occasional killer asteroid. So what better science to inspire and educate people that what we do not know is definitely worth knowing?

  10. Teaching Astronomy Online

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radnofsky, Mary L.; Bobrowsky, Matthew

    This article is intended to provide an overview of the practical, pedagogical, and philosophical considerations in designing a Web-based astronomy course, and to demonstrate the educational benefits that such online courses can afford students. Because online students need to take more responsibility for their learning, faculty must make course expectations extremely clear. Online education allows for increased student participation and equal access to college by such groups as the military, the handicapped, full-time employees, and rural and senior citizens. Teaching the sciences online--especially astronomy--gives students more time to think critically about new information. This article also includes tools, checklists, and resources helpful for introducing faculty to online course development in astronomy.

  11. Astronomy Librarian - Quo Vadis?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagerstrom, Jill; Grothkopf, Uta

    "You don't look like a librarian" is a phrase we often hear in the astronomy department or observatory library. Astronomy librarians are a breed apart, and are taking on new and non-traditional roles as information technology evolves. This talk will explore the future of librarians and librarianship through the lens of some of the recent talks given at the sixth "Libraries and Information Services in Astronomy" conference held in Pune, India in February 2010. We will explore the librarian's universe, illustrating how librarians use new technologies to perform such tasks as bibliometrics, how we are re-fashioning our library spaces in an increasingly digital world and how we are confronting the brave new world of Open Access, to name but a few topics.

  12. A year of astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dench, Paul; Htoon, Sein

    2009-03-01

    The opening sentence of your news story "Let the global astronomy celebrations begin" (January pp12-13) implies that the prime anchor for the International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009) is the efforts of Galileo Galilei. If this is the case, then we must be careful how much credit we give him. A more accurate opening sentence would have referred to the first publication of the use of an astronomical telescope by Galileo, following its first known use by the British scientist Thomas Harriot, whose diaries include sketches of the Moon made on 26 July 1609 - a few months before Galileo. Unfortunately, Harriot never published his observations; an article by Allan Chapman in Astronomy and Geophysics (2009 50 1.27) describes the events in more detail.

  13. Python in Astronomy 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenness, Tim; Robitaille, Thomas; Tollerud, Erik; Mumford, Stuart; Cruz, Kelle

    2016-04-01

    The second Python in Astronomy conference will be held from 21-25 March 2016 at the University of Washington eScience Institute in Seattle, WA, USA. Similarly to the 2015 meeting (which was held at the Lorentz Center), we are aiming to bring together researchers, Python developers, users, and educators. The conference will include presentations, tutorials, unconference sessions, and coding sprints. In addition to sharing information about state-of-the art Python Astronomy packages, the workshop will focus on improving interoperability between astronomical Python packages, providing training for new open-source contributors, and developing educational materials for Python in Astronomy. The meeting is therefore not only aimed at current developers, but also users and educators who are interested in being involved in these efforts.

  14. Berkeley's Advanced Labs for Undergraduate Astronomy Majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiles, C.

    1998-12-01

    We currently offer three advanced laboratory courses for undergraduate majors: optical, IR, and radio. These courses contain both intellectual and practical content; in this talk we focus on the radio lab as a representative example. The first half of the semester concentrates on fundamentals of microwave electronics and radio astronomy techniques in four formal laboratory exercises which emphasize hands-on use of microwave devices, laboratory instruments, and computer-controlled data taking. The second half of the course emphasizes astronomy, using a horn with ~ 1 m(2) aperture to map the HI in the Galaxy and a two-element interferometer composed of ~ 1 m diameter dishes on a ~ 10 m baseline to measure accurate positions of radio sources and accurate diameters for the Sun and Moon. These experiments and observations offer ideal opportunities for teaching coordinates, time, rotation matrices, data reduction techniques, least squares, signal processing, image processing, Fourier transforms, and laboratory and astronomical instrumentation. The students can't get along without using computers as actually used by astronomers. We stay away from packaged software such as IRAF, which are ``black boxes''; rather, students learn far more by writing their own software, usually for the first time. They use the IDL language to take and reduce data and prepare them for the lab reports. We insist on quality reports---including tables, postscript graphs and images, correct grammar, spelling, and all the rest---and we strongly urge (successfully!) the students to use LATEX. The other two lab courses have the same emphasis: the guiding spirit is to place the students in a real-life research-like situation. There is too much to do, so students perform the work in small groups of 3 or 4 and groups are encouraged to share their knowledge. Lab reports are written individually. These courses are very demanding, requiring an average of 20 hours per week from the students (and probably

  15. 100 Hours of Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The 100 Hours of Astronomy cornerstone project (100HA) is a round-the-clock, worldwide event with 100 continuous hours of a wide range of public outreach activities including live webcasts, observing events and more. One of the key goals of 100HA is to have as many people as possible look through a telescope as Galileo did for the first time 400 years ago. 100HA will take place from 2-5 April when the Moon goes from first quarter to gibbous, good phases for early evening observing. Saturn will be the other highlight of early evening observing events. 100 Hours of Astronomy consists of five main events: 1. An opening event featuring the telescope that Galileo used to make his groundbreaking observations. 2. Activities at science centres, planetariums and science museums including live webcasts, live observations by visitors using remotely-operated telescopes, and enhanced outreach programs including public observing sessions held by amateur astronomy groups. 3. Observing sessions and other educational activities in schools groups held by astronomy clubs and others. 4. 24 hours of live webcasts from research observatories around the world, along with observing events and other outreach activities at participating observatories. 5. 24 hours of sidewalk astronomy - public observing sessions in population centres to bring the opportunity to view the Moon, Saturn and other objects to as many people as possible. The annual International Sidewalk Astronomy Night will be held during this event. These primary activities will be scheduled so that each supports the other, leading in order from one to the next and culminating in the world's greatest public observing event. A wrap-up will be held at the IAU General Assembly in 2009 to recognize all participants’ contributions to this unique global event.

  16. Analysis of Jovian decamteric data: Study of radio emission mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staelin, D. H.; Rosenkranz, P. W.; Arias, T. A.; Garnavich, P. N.; Hammerschlag, R.

    1986-01-01

    This research effort involved careful examination of Jovian radio emission data below 40 MHz, with emphasis on the informative observations of the Planetary Radio Astronomy experiment (PRA) on the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft. The work is divided into three sections, decametric arcs, decametric V bursts, and hectometric modulated spectral activity (MSA).

  17. Ultra-stable radio frequency dissemination in free space.

    PubMed

    Miao, J; Wang, B; Gao, C; Bai, Y; Zhu, X; Wang, L J

    2013-10-01

    We demonstrate an ultra-stable radio frequency (RF) dissemination scheme over 80 m free space. The frequency dissemination stability is 3.2 × 10(-13)/s and 4.4 × 10(-17)/day, which can be applied to transfer frequency signal without compromising its stability in a global navigation satellite system (GNSS) or radio astronomy.

  18. Babylonian Mathematical Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ossendrijver, Mathieu

    The earliest known form of mathematical astronomy of the ancient world was developed in Babylonia in the 5th century BCE. It was used for predicting a wide range of phenomena of the Moon, the Sun, and the planets. After a brief discussion of the material evidence and historical context of Babylonian mathematical astronomy, its main concepts and methods are illustrated on the basis of a tablet with computed data for Jupiter. Finally, the past, present, and future directions of research are briefly addressed.

  19. Rocket astronomy - an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, H.

    The history of rocket astronomy is retold, with emphasis on solar investigations. The use of captured V-2 rockets after World War II was followed by the Aerobee, which exceeded the V-2's altitude and was more reliable. The V-2 has made first-generation investigations in X-ray and UV photometry, which was followed by studies of the solar cycle X-ray variablity, the X-ray corona, and solar flares. Nike rockets played an important role in these investigations. The role of rockets in galactic X-ray astronomy is briefly described.

  20. Development of Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieke, George

    2012-01-01

    We are only two years from celebrating the hundredth anniversary of William Coblentz's first extensive measurements of stars in the infrared. However, his work was followed for fifty years by ---- almost nothing. I will describe the few initiatives in those fifty years and compare them with the dramatic beginning of modern infrared astronomy in the 1960s. I will also quantify the explosive progress of this area since then. The comparison allows us to speculate on the real prerequisites for successful breakthroughs in astronomy and astronomical technology.

  1. Astronomy and Poetry (overview)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samvelyan, David

    2016-12-01

    Through this work we have tried to show how astronomy penetrates into the poetry of different periods in time and in various poets' works all over the world. The following work has significant cognitive value, demonstrates and reveals the general nature of certain poets' astronomical ideas and provides a brief analysis in some cases. As a result, we have come to the conclusion that astronomy with all its components such as the sky, our solar system and phenomena such as these have always been a source of inspiration for those who create works of art, moreover some of them have even gained actual astronomical knowledge.

  2. Dr Elizabeth Alexander: First Female Radio Astronomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, Wayne

    2005-01-01

    During March-April 1945, solar radio emission was detected at 200 MHz by operators of a Royal New Zealand Air Force radar unit located on Norfolk Island. Initially dubbed the `Norfolk Island Effect', this anomalous radiation was investigated throughout 1945 by British-born Elizabeth Alexander, head of the Operational Research Section of the Radio Development Laboratory in New Zealand. Alexander prepared a number of reports on this work, and in early 1946 she published a short paper in the newly-launched journal, Radio & Electronics. A geologist by training, Elizabeth Alexander happened to be in the right place at the right time, and unwittingly became the first woman in the world to work in the field that would later become known as radio astronomy. Her research also led to further solar radio astronomy projects in New Zealand in the immediate post-war year, and in part was responsible for the launch of the radio astronomy program at the Division of Radiophysics, CSIRO, in Sydney.

  3. Quickly Creating Interactive Astronomy Illustrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Timothy F.

    2015-01-01

    An innate advantage for astronomy teachers is having numerous breathtaking images of the cosmos available to capture students' curiosity, imagination, and wonder. Internet-based astronomy image libraries are numerous and easy to navigate. The Astronomy Picture of the Day, the Hubble Space Telescope image archive, and the NASA Planetary…

  4. School-Based Extracurricular Astronomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanger, Jeffrey J.

    2010-01-01

    The International Year of Astronomy in 2009 focused considerable public attention on Astronomy and generated valuable resources for educators. These activities are an effective vehicle for promoting Science to students and to the wider school community. The most engaging practical astronomy activities are best delivered with sustained support from…

  5. Teaching Astronomy in UK Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roche, Paul; Roberts, Sarah; Newsam, Andy; Barclay, Charles

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to summarise the good, bad and (occasionally) ugly aspects of teaching astronomy in UK schools. It covers the most common problems reported by teachers when asked about covering the astronomy/space topics in school. Particular focus is given to the GCSE Astronomy qualification offered by Edexcel (which is currently the…

  6. Exploring Systems Engineering (and the Universe) Through the RadioJOVE telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aditi Raj, Anya

    2017-01-01

    Amateur projects in radio astronomy are popular methods to engage in what often seems to be an inaccessible field, and pre-made kits are becoming increasingly available to hobbyists and educators. One such kit is the RadioJOVE, which is attractive due to its simplicity, accessibility and its extensive support network and community of users. When coupled with an education in project management, building the RadioJOVE provides a perfect framework to learn about best practices in completing a project. We will primarily discuss the use of the RadioJOVE project to enhance study in project management and systems engineering. We also intend to discuss the importance of amateur projects such as the RadioJOVE in gaining a holistic understanding of radio astronomy and the project’s potential to spark interest in radio astronomy in students of various disciplines.

  7. Forthcoming Occultations of Astrometric Radio Sources by Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    L'vov, Victor; Malkin, Zinovy; Tsekmeister, Svetlana

    2010-01-01

    Astrometric observations of radio source occultations by solar system bodies may be of large interest for testing gravity theories, dynamical astronomy, and planetary physics. In this paper, we present an updated list of the occultations of astrometric radio sources by planets expected in the coming years. Such events, like solar eclipses, generally speaking can only be observed in a limited region. A map of the shadow path is provided for the events that will occurr in regions with several VLBI stations and hence will be the most interesting for radio astronomy experiments.

  8. Teaching Astronomy at SRTM University, Nanded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Madhav Khushalrao

    School of Physical Sciences of SRTM University, Nanded, Maharashtra offers Astronomy & Astrophysics as one of the specializations at postgraduate (M. Sc) level. With a view to provide training in astronomical observations, data analysis and interpretation of the data; the school has incorporated a set of observational as well as data analysis exercises as a part of this course. The school at present is having observing facilities like, two 8 inch aperture Meade optical telescopes equipped with SSP-3 and SSP-3A photometers, 416-XT CCD camera and is in the process of procurement of Advanced Coma Free 16 inch (40cm) aperture Meade LX-200 optical telescope along with ST-10XME CCD camera and SBIG spectrograph. In addition to these facilities, with an objective of spreading the joy and excitement of radio astronomy among the postgraduate and research students, the school is procuring one 10-feet diameter dish antenna and 1420 MHz Hydrogen Line Spectrometer (radio observation setup). For the solar irradiance measurement, the school is also procuring one StellarNetUV-VIS-NIR Spectro-Radiometer. These facilities are quite suitable for continuous monitoring of a variety of variable stars, carrying out spectroscopic observations of a variety of objects, 21-cm observations of star-forming regions, solar irradiance measurement etc. This presentation is aimed to give a brief summary of various activities that are conducted at M Sc. level using the facilities available in our university department.

  9. Applications of correlator chips in radio science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagen, John B.

    1992-01-01

    Spectral line observations in radio astronomy require simultaneous power estimation in many (often hundreds to thousands) frequency bins. Digital autocorrelation spectrometers, which appeared thirty years ago, are now being implemented in VLSI. The same architecture can be used to implement transversal digital filters. This was done at the Arecibo Observatory for pulse compression in radar observations of Venus.

  10. New Technology Lunar Astronomy Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, P. C.; Oliversen, R. J.; Barry, R. K.; Romeo, R.; Pitts, R.; Ma, K. B.

    1995-12-01

    A scientifically productive Moon-based observatory can be established in the near term (3-5 years) by robotic spacecraft. Such a project is affordable even taking into account NASA's currently very tight budget. In fact the estimated cost of a lunar telescope is sufficiently low that it can be financed by private industry, foundations, or wealthy individuals. The key factor is imaginative use of new technologies and new materials. Since the Apollo era, many new areas of space technology have been developed in the US by NASA, the military, academic and industry sectors, ESA, Japan, and others. These include ultralite optics, radiation tolerant detectors, precision telescope drives incorporating high temperature superconductors, smart materials, active optics, dust and thermal control structures, subminiature spectrometers, tiny radio transmitters and receivers, small rockets, innovative fuel saving trajectories, and small precision landers. The combination of these elements makes possible a lunar observatory capable of front line astrophysical research in UV-Vis-IR imaging, spectrometry, and optical interferometry, at a per unit cost comparable to that of Small Explorer (SMEX) class missions. We describe work in progress at NASA GSFC and elsewhere, applications to other space projects, and spinoff benefits to ground-based astronomy, industry, and education.

  11. High-energy neutrino astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montaruli, Teresa

    2012-07-01

    Neutrino astronomy, conceptually conceived four decades ago, has entered an exciting phase for providing results on the quest for the sources of the observed highest energy particles. IceCube and ANTARES are now completed and are scanning in space and time possible signals of high energy neutrinos indicating the existence of such sources. DeepCore, inside IceCube, is a playground for vetoed neutrino measurement with better potential below 1 TeV. A larger and denser detector is now being discussed. ARA, now in test phase, will be composed by radio stations that could cover up to ~ 100 km2 and aims at the highest energy region of cosmogenic neutrinos. The non observation of cosmic events is on one side a source of disappointment, on the other it represents by itself an important result. If seen in the context of a multi-messenger science, the combination of photon and cosmic ray experiment results brings invaluable information. The experimental upper bounds of the cubic-kilometer telescope IceCube are now below the theoretical upper bounds for extragalactic fluxes of neutrinos from optically thin sources. These are responsible for accelerating the extragalactic cosmic rays. Such limits constrain the role of gamma-ray bursts, described by the fireball picture, as sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. Neutrino telescopes are exciting running multi-task experiments that produce astrophysics and particle physics results some of which have been illustrated at this conference and are summarized in this report.

  12. Astronomy in Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenzweig, Patricia

    Since the installation of the Observatorio Cagigal in Caracas, astronomy in Venezuela has developed steadily, and, in the last few decades, has been strong. Both theoretical and observational astronomy now flourish in Venezuela. A research group, Grupo de Astrofísica (GA) at the Universidad de Los Andes (ULA) in Mérida, started with few members but now has increased its numbers and undergone many transformations, promoting the creation of the Grupo de Astrofísica Teórica (CAT), and with other collaborators initiated the creation of a graduate study program (that offers master's and doctor's degrees) in the Postgrado de Física Fundamental of ULA. With the financial support of domestic Science Foundations such as CONICIT, CDCHT, Fundacite, and individual and collective grants, many research projects have been started and many others are planned. Venezuelan astronomy has benefitted from the interest of researchers in other countries, who have helped to improve our scientific output and instrumentation. With the important collaboration of national and foreign institutions, astronomy is becoming one of the strongest disciplines of the next decade in Venezuela.

  13. Astronomy on the Walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santascoy, J.

    2016-01-01

    Many of us are interested in increasing youth and minority involvement in the sciences. Using art that integrates images of space exploration with ethnic astronomical mythology may increase participation in astronomy in general, while also forming a bridge to underrepresented communities. This paper describes a freely available presentation of Carlos Callejo's Discover the Secrets of the Universe Through the Library for outreach.

  14. Strategies For Teaching Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Jeffrey O.

    1999-11-01

    To be an effective astronomy teacher, one cannot simply rely on the subject's subtle beauty or wow!-factor. It takes dedication and hard work to bring the science alive and to make it meaningful in the classroom and throughout life.

  15. Astronomy Video Contest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarland, John

    2008-05-01

    One of Galileo's staunchest supporters during his lifetime was Johannes Kepler, Imperial Mathematician to the Holy Roman Emperor. Johannes Kepler will be in St. Louis to personally offer a tribute to Galileo. Set Galileo's astronomy discoveries to music and you get the newest song by the well known acappella group, THE CHROMATICS. The song, entitled "Shoulders of Giants” was written specifically for IYA-2009 and will be debuted at this conference. The song will also be used as a base to create a music video by synchronizing a person's own images to the song's lyrics and tempo. Thousands of people already do this for fun and post their videos on YOU TUBE and other sites. The ASTRONOMY VIDEO CONTEST will be launched as a vehicle to excite, enthuse and educate people about astronomy and science. It will be an annual event administered by the Johannes Kepler Project and will continue to foster the goals of IYA-2009 for years to come. The Astronomy Video poster will contain all the basic information about the contest including: categories, rules, prizes, web address for more info and how to download the new song, "Shoulders of Giants.”

  16. Astronomy Video Contest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarland, John

    2008-05-01

    During Galileo's lifetime his staunchest supporter was Johannes Kepler, Imperial Mathematician to the Holy Roman Emperor. Johannes Kepler will be in St. Louis to personally offer a tribute to Galileo. Set Galileo's astronomy discoveries to music and you get the newest song by the well known acappella group, THE CHROMATICS. The song, entitled "Shoulders of Giants” was written specifically for IYA-2009 and will be debuted at this conference. The song will also be used as a base to create a music video by synchronizing a person's own images to the song's lyrics and tempo. Thousands of people already do this for fun and post their videos on YOU TUBE and other sites. The ASTRONOMY VIDEO CONTEST will be launched as a vehicle to excite, enthuse and educate people about astronomy and science. It will be an annual event administered by the Johannes Kepler Project and will continue to foster the goals of IYA-2009 for years to come. During this presentation the basic categories, rules, and prizes for the Astronomy Video Contest will be covered and finally the new song "Shoulders of Giants” by THE CHROMATICS will be unveiled

  17. Teaching Astronomy Using Tracker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belloni, Mario; Christian, Wolfgang; Brown, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    A recent paper in this journal presented a set of innovative uses of video analysis for introductory physics using Tracker. In addition, numerous other papers have described how video analysis can be a meaningful part of introductory courses. Yet despite this, there are few resources for using video analysis in introductory astronomy classes. In…

  18. Outlook for ultraviolet astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehm-Vitense, E.

    1981-01-01

    A brief overview of galactic and extragalactic research is given with emphasis on the problems of temperature determination, chemical abundance determination, and the question about the energy sources for the high temperature regions. Stellar astronomy, stellar winds, and the interstellar medium are among the topics covered.

  19. Teaching Astronomy in Schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agar Beet, Ernest

    2016-02-01

    Preface; Preface to the second edition; Introduction. Teaching astronomy in the past: the case against teaching it; Addenda; 1. Why, when, and how?; 2. In the classroom; 3. In the open air; 4. The school telescope; 5. Teaching aids; Bibliography; Index.

  20. The Future of Astronomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenstein, Jesse L.

    1973-01-01

    Presents a summary of the Reports of the Panels'' published by the Astronomy Survey Committee of the National Academy of Sciences in 1973, involving aspects of cosmology, quasars, exploding galaxies, stars, stellar evolution, solar system, organic molecules, life, and interstellar communication. Included are recommendations for scientific…

  1. The International Astronomy Olympiad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilov, Michael G.

    2011-06-01

    The International Astronomy Olympiad (IAO) is an annual scientific-educating event for students of the junior high-school classes, aged 14-18 years. The Euro-Asian Astronomical Society founded the IAO in 1996. The Olympiad includes an intellectual competition between these students. The style of the problems is aimed at developping the imagination, creativity and independent thinking.

  2. Astronomy and Public Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suntzeff, Nicholas B.

    2014-01-01

    Astronomy is an unusual science in that almost all of what we study can only be passively observed. We enjoy tremendous public support for our research and education, both domestically and abroad. Our discoveries in cosmology and exoplanets have captured world-wide attention, as have stunning images from the Great Observatories of NASA, and ground based telescopes. Despite the passive nature of our science, it touches humanity profoundly. There are groups of amateur astronomers in every conceivable country who meet to look at the sky. Almost one billion people from 150 countries participated in The International Year of Astronomy 2009. No other science reaches humanity as ours does. In a recent poll, it was found that the among all the things the US does abroad, US science is seen by the world as our most positive face. We as astronomers can use this good will to affect positive changes in the world through public policy. I would like to explore how astronomy has impacted public policy, especially foreign policy, and what more we can do in the future. I also hope to encourage astronomers that a career path into public policy is an excellent use of a Ph.D. in astronomy.

  3. Resources for Teaching Astronomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grafton, Teresa; Suggett, Martin

    1991-01-01

    Resources that are available for teachers presenting astronomy in the National Curriculum are listed. Included are societies and organizations, resource centers and places to visit, planetaria, telescopes and binoculars, planispheres, star charts, night sky diaries, equipment, audiovisual materials, computer software, books, and magazines. (KR)

  4. Strategies for Teaching Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, J.

    2000-12-01

    No matter whether you are teaching school children, undergraduates, or colleagues, a few key strategies are always useful. I will present and give examples for the following five key strategies for teaching astronomy. 1. Provide a Contextual Framework: It is much easier to learn new facts or concepts if they can be ``binned" into some kind of pre-existing mental framework. Unless your listeners are already familiar with the basic ideas of modern astronomy (such as the hierarchy of structure in the universe, the scale of the universe, and the origin of the universe), you must provide this before going into the details of how we've developed this modern picture through history. 2. Create Conditions for Conceptual Change: Many people hold misconceptions about astronomical ideas. Therefore we cannot teach them the correct ideas unless we first help them unlearn their prior misconceptions. 3. Make the Material Relevant: It's human nature to be more interested in subjects that seem relevant to our lives. Therefore we must always show students the many connections between astronomy and their personal concerns, such as emphasizing how we are ``star stuff" (in the words of Carl Sagan), how studying other planets helps us understand our own, and so on. 4. Limit Use of Jargon: The number of new terms in many introductory astronomy books is larger than the number of words taught in many first courses in foreign language. This means the books are essentially teaching astronomy in a foreign language, which is a clear recipe for failure. We must find ways to replace jargon with plain language. 5. Challenge Your Students: Don't dumb your teaching down; by and large, students will rise to meet your expectations, as long as you follow the other strategies and practice good teaching.

  5. The Astronomy Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, D. P.; Asbury, M. L.

    2000-10-01

    The Astronomy Workshop (http://janus.astro.umd.edu) is an interactive online astronomy resource developed and maintained at the University of Maryland for use by students, educators and the general public. The Astronomy Workshop has been extensively tested in large university survey courses, as well as smaller classes for undergraduate majors and graduate students. It has also been used in High School and Junior High School science classes. Below are some tools in the Astronomy Workshop. Animated Orbits of Planets and Moons: The orbits of the nine planets and 63 known planetary satellites are shown in animated, to-scale drawings. The orbiting bodies move at their correct relative speeds about their parent, which is rendered as an attractive, to-scale gif image. Planetary Calculators (New!): Calculate a simple formula, e.g. the escape velocity, simultaneously for all planets and moons in the Solar System. Solar System Collisions: This most popular of our applications shows what happens when an asteroid or comet with user-defined size and speed impacts a given planet. The program calculates many effects, including the country impacted (if Earth is the target), energy of explosion, crater size, and magnitude of the ``planetquake'' generated. It also displays a relevant image (e.g. terrestrial crater, lunar crater, etc.). Build Your Own Solar System (New!): Choose the masses of up to four planets, and their orbital sizes and shapes, and explore the prospects for life in your creation. Astronomical Distances: Travel away from the Earth at a chosen speed and see how long it takes to reach other planets, stars and galaxies. This tool helps students visualize astronomical distances in an intuitive way. Funding for the Astronomy Workshop is provided by NSF.

  6. Session 21.3 - Radio and Optical Site Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sefako, Ramotholo

    2016-10-01

    Advancement in radio technology means that radio astronomy has to share the radio spectrum with many other non-astronomical activities, majority of which increase radio frequency interference (RFI), and therefore detrimentally affecting the radio observations at the observatory sites. Major radio facilities such as the SKA, in both South Africa and Australia, and the Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST) in China will be very sensitive, and therefore require protection against RFI. In the case of optical astronomy, the growing urbanisation and industrialisation led to optical astronomy becoming impossible near major cities due to light and dust pollution. Major optical and IR observatories are forced to be far away in remote areas, where light pollution is not yet extreme. The same is true for radio observatories, which have to be sited away from highly RFI affected areas near populated regions and major cities. In this review, based on the Focus Meeting 21 (FM21) oral presentations at the IAU General Assembly on 11 August 2015, we give an overview of the mechanisms that have evolved to provide statutory protection for radio astronomy observing, successes (e.g at 21 cm HI line), defeats and challenges at other parts of the spectrum. We discuss the available legislative initiatives to protect the radio astronomy sites for large projects like SKA (in Australia and South Africa), and FAST against the RFI. For optical protection, we look at light pollution with examples of its effect at Xinglong observing station of the National Astronomical Observatories of China (NAOC), Ali Observatory in Tibet, and Asiago Observatory in Italy, as well as the effect of conversion from low pressure sodium lighting to LEDs in the County of Hawaii.

  7. The African Cultural Astronomy Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urama, Johnson O.; Holbrook, Jarita C.

    2011-06-01

    Indigenous, endogenous, traditional, or cultural astronomy focuses on the many ways that people and cultures interact with celestial bodies. In most parts of Africa, there is very little or no awareness about modern astronomy. However, like ancient people everywhere, Africans wondered at the sky and struggled to make sense of it. The African Cultural Astronomy Project aims to unearth the body of traditional knowledge of astronomy possessed by peoples of the different ethnic groups in Africa and to consider scientific interpretations when appropriate for cosmogonies and ancient astronomical practices. Regardless of scientific validity, every scientist can relate to the process of making observations and creating theoretical mechanisms for explaining what is observed. Through linking the traditional and the scientific, it is believed that this would be used to create awareness and interest in astronomy in most parts of Africa. This paper discusses the vision, challenges and prospects of the African Cultural Astronomy Project in her quest to popularize astronomy in Africa.

  8. Voyager spacecraft radio observations of Jupiter: Initial cruise results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, M. L.; Desch, M. D.; Riddle, A. C.; Lecacheux, A.; Pearce, J. B.; Alexander, J. K.; Warwick, J. W.; Thieman, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    Jupiter's low-frequency radio emission were detected by the planetary radio astronomy instruments onboard the two Voyager spacecraft. The emission is surprisingly similar in morphology but opposite in polarization to the high-frequency Jovian radio noise that were observed with ground-based telescopes for more than two decades. Several possible explanations for the behavior of the low-frequency emission are examined, but none of them is completely satisfactory.

  9. Plasma and radio waves from Neptune: Source mechamisms and propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menietti, J. Douglas

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to conduct a comprehensive investigation of the radio wave emission observed by the planetary radio astronomy (PRA) instrument on board Voyager 2 as it flew by Neptune. The study has included data analysis, theoretical and numerical calculations, and ray tracing to determine the possible source mechanisms and locations of the radiation, including the narrowband bursty and smooth components of the Neptune radio emission.

  10. MPS Internships in Public Science Education: Sensing the Radio Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Melvin; Castelaz, M. W.; Moffett, D.; Walsh, L.; LaFratta, M.

    2006-12-01

    The intent of the “Sensing the Radio Sky” program is to teach high school students the concepts and relevance of radio astronomy through presentations in STARLAB portable planetariums. The two year program began in the summer of 2004 and was completed in December 2006. The program involved a team of 12 undergraduate physics and multimedia majors and four faculty mentors from Furman University, University of North Carolina-Asheville and Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI). One component of the program is the development and production of a projection cylinder for the portable STARLAB planetariums. The cylinder gives a thorough view of the Milky Way and of several other celestial sources in radio wavelengths, yet these images are difficult to perceive without prior knowledge of radio astronomy. Consequently, the Radio Sky team created a multimedia presentation to accompany the cylinder. This multimedia component contains six informative lessons on radio astronomy assembled by the physics interns and numerous illustrations and animations created by the multimedia interns. The cylinder and multimedia components complement each other and provide a unique, thorough, and highly intelligible perspective on radio astronomy. The final draft is complete and will be sent to Learning Technologies, Inc., for marketing to owners of STARLAB planetariums throughout the world. We acknowledge support from the NSF Internship in Public Science Education Program grant number 0324729.

  11. PARTNeR: A Tool for Outreach and Teaching Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego, Juan Ángel Vaquerizo; Fuertes, Carmen Blasco

    PARTNeR is an acronym for Proyecto Académico con el Radio Telescopio de NASA en Robledo (Academic Project with the NASA Radio Telescope at Robledo). It is intended for general Astronomy outreach and, in particular, radioastronomy, throughout Spanish educational centres. To satisfy this target, a new educational material has been developed in 2007 to help not only teachers but also students. This material supports cross curricular programs and provides with the possibility of including Astronomy in related subjects like Physics, Chemistry, Technology, Mathematics or even English language. In this paper, the material that has been developed will be shown in detail and how it can be adapted to the disciplines from 4th year ESO (Enseñanza Secundaria Obligatoria-Compulsory Secondary Education) to High School. The pedagogic results obtained for the first year it has been implemented with students in classrooms will also be presented.

  12. Radio Days.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Neil

    1998-01-01

    Thousands of today's high school students run FM radio stations at school, carrying on a tradition that began 50 years ago. Radio helps students learn to work with others and develop a strong sense of responsibility. A sidebar gives advice on starting a high school radio station. (MLF)

  13. Using the Teach Astronomy Website to Enrich Introductory Astronomy Classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardegree-Ullman, K. K.; Impey, C. D.; Patikkal, A.; Austin, C. L.

    2013-04-01

    This year we implemented Teach Astronomy as a free online resource to be used as a teaching tool for non-science major astronomy courses and for a general audience interested in the subject. The comprehensive astronomy content of the website includes: an introductory text book, encyclopedia articles, images, two to three minute topical video clips, podcasts, and news articles. Teach Astronomy utilizes a novel technology to cluster, display, and navigate search results, called a Wikimap. We will present an overview of how Teach Astronomy works and how instructors can use it as an effective teaching tool in the classroom. Additionally, we will gather feedback from science instructors on how to improve the features and functionality of the website, as well as develop new assignment ideas using Teach Astronomy.

  14. Astronomy Olympiad: An Initiative To Promote Astronomy Education In Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattarai, Suresh

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents National Astronomy Olympiad Program as a new initiative towards the development of astronomy education in Nepal by Nepal Astronomical Society (NASO).Innovoative components of the olympiad programs designed by NASO to engage both scince and non-science backgound people will be discussed in detail. It will discuss the first National Astronomy Olympiad 2014 and Second National Astronomy Olympiad 2015 in details. It will also present crowd funding, its effectiveness to outreach as well as collecting funds from around the world will be presented in brief. Proposed module of astronomy olympiad to promote astronnomy in the countries without formal astronomy education in high school like Nepal,will be presented in dedail. Possible strategry to strengthen such programs in developing nations and role of IAU to promote such educational program will be explored in detail.

  15. Peer Instruction for Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, P. J.; Morgan, W. A., Jr.

    2000-12-01

    How can instructors achieve real-time pace matching with students during large class lectures? How can students become more invested in their own in-class learning? Peer Instruction, coming into widespread use for undergraduate physics courses across the U.S., and now for astronomy as well, can help resolve these perennial questions. As a crucial part of Peer Instruction, teachers pose a question that probes students' conceptual understanding and may also highlight common misconceptions (a ConcepTest). The ConcepTests become the subject of small interactive peer group debates in class. We are compiling a library of ConcepTests to facilitate the implementation of Peer Instruction in introductory undergraduate astronomy. We describe the ConcepTest library, tell you how to access it, and discuss modes of evaluation.

  16. Astronomy in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Michael G.

    2010-10-01

    Antarctica provides a unique environment for astronomers to practice their trade. The cold, dry and stable air found above the high Antarctic plateau, as well as the pure ice below, offers new opportunities for the conduct of observational astronomy across both the photon and the particle spectrum. The summits of the Antarctic plateau provide the best seeing conditions, the darkest skies and the most transparent atmosphere of any earth-based observing site. Astronomical activities are now underway at four plateau sites: the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, Concordia Station at Dome C, Kunlun Station at Dome A and Fuji Station at Dome F, in addition to long duration ballooning from the coastal station of McMurdo, at stations run by the USA, France/Italy, China, Japan and the USA, respectively. The astronomy conducted from Antarctica includes optical, infrared, terahertz and sub-millimetre astronomy, measurements of cosmic microwave background anisotropies, solar astronomy, as well as high energy astrophysics involving the measurement of cosmic rays, gamma rays and neutrinos. Antarctica is also the richest source of meteorites on our planet. An extensive range of site testing measurements have been made over the high plateau sites. In this article, we summarise the facets of Antarctica that are driving developments in astronomy there, and review the results of the site testing experiments undertaken to quantify those characteristics of the Antarctic plateau relevant for astronomical observation. We also outline the historical development of the astronomy on the continent, and then review the principal scientific results to have emerged over the past three decades of activity in the discipline. These range from determination of the dominant frequencies of the 5 min solar oscillation in 1979 to the highest angular scale measurements yet made of the power spectrum of the CMBR anisotropies in 2010. They span through infrared views of the galactic ecology in star

  17. Astronomy and astrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarka, Philippe

    2011-06-01

    Astrology meets a large success in our societies, from the private to the political sphere as well as in the media, in spite of the demonstrated inaccuracy of its psychological as well as operational predictions. We analyse here the relations between astrology and astronomy, as well as the criticisms opposed by the latter to the former. We show that most of these criticisms are weak. Much stronger ones emerge from the analysis of the astrological practice compared to the scientific method, leading us to conclude to the non-scientificity of astrology. Then we return to the success of astrology, and from its analysis we propose a renewed (and prophylactic) rôle for astronomy in society.

  18. Infrared Astronomy After IRAS.

    PubMed

    Rieke, G H; Werner, M W; Thompson, R I; Becklin, E E; Hoffmann, W F; Houck, J R; Low, F J; Stein, W A; Witteborn, F C

    1986-02-21

    The 250,000 sources in the recently issued Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) all-sky infrared catalog are a challenge to astronomy. Many of these sources will be studied with existing and planned ground-based and airborne telescopes, but many others can no longer even be detected now that IRAS has ceased to operate. As anticipated by advisory panels of the National Academy of Sciences for a decade, study of the IRAS sources will require the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), a cooled, pointed telescope in space. This instrument may be the key to our understanding of cosmic birth-the formation of planets, stars, galaxies, active galactic nuclei, and quasars. Compared with IRAS and existing telescopes, SIRTF's power derives from a thousandfold gain in sensitivity over five octaves of the spectrum.

  19. Life after Introductory Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, B.; Hameed, S.

    2000-12-01

    Beginning astronomy is a popular class for undergraduates, and a fair percentage of these students would take another nontechnical class in this field if one were available. What other courses exist for students to take after introductory astronomy? At NMSU we offer three classes that enroll large numbers of juniors/seniors who are nonscience majors. These classes are (1) Into the Final Frontier: the Human Exploration of Space, (2) The Search for Life in the Universe, (3) and Revolutionary Ideas in Science. Curricula for these classes, teaching strategies, and course materials will be provided in this poster presentation for those wishing to offer similar classes at their institutions. Some of th work presented in this poster was support by the NSF and NASA

  20. Astronomy on a Landfill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venner, Laura

    2008-09-01

    Engaging "K-to-Gray” audiences (children, families, and older adults) in astronomical activities is one of the main goals of the NJMC Center for Environmental and Scientific Education and the William D. McDowell Observatory located in Lyndhurst, NJ. Perched atop a closed and reclaimed municipal solid waste landfill, our new LEED - certified building (certification pending) and William D. McDowell observatory will assist in bringing the goals of IYA 2009 to the approximately 25,000 students and 15,000 adults that visit our site from the NY/NJ region each year. Diversifying our traditional environmental science offerings, we have incorporated astronomy into our repertoire with "The Sun Through Time” module, which includes storytelling, cultural astronomy, telescope anatomy, and other activities that are based on the electromagnetic spectrum and our current knowledge of the sun. These lessons have also been modified to bring astronomy to underserved communities, specifically those individuals that have dexterity or cognitive ability differences. The program is conducted in a classroom setting and is designed to meet New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards. With the installation of our new 20” telescope, students and amateur astronomers will be given the opportunity to perform rudimentary research. In addition, a program is in development that will allow individuals to measure local sky brightness and understand the effects of light pollution on astronomical viewing. Teaching astronomy in an urban setting presents many challenges. All individuals, regardless of ability level or location, should be given the opportunity to be exposed to the wonders of the universe and the MEC/CESE has been successful in providing those opportunities.

  1. Astronomy on a Landfill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venner, Laura

    2008-05-01

    Engaging "K-to-Gray” audiences (children, families, and older adults) in astronomical activities is one of the main goals of the NJMC Center for Environmental and Scientific Education and the William D. McDowell Observatory located in Lyndhurst, NJ. Perched atop a closed and reclaimed municipal solid waste landfill, our new LEED - certified building (certification pending) and William D. McDowell observatory will assist in bringing the goals of IYA 2009 to the approximately 25,000 students and 3,000 adults that visit our site from the NY/NJ region each year. Diversifying our traditional environmental science offerings, we have incorporated astronomy into our repertoire with "The Sun Through Time” module, which includes storytelling, cultural astronomy, telescope anatomy, and other activities that are based on the electromagnetic spectrum and our current knowledge of the sun. These lessons have also been modified to bring astronomy to underserved communities, specifically those individuals that have dexterity or cognitive ability differences. The program is conducted in a classroom setting and is designed to meet New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards. With the installation of our new 20” telescope, students and amateur astronomers will be given the opportunity to perform rudimentary research. In addition, a program is in development that will allow individuals to measure local sky brightness and understand the effects of light pollution on astronomical viewing. Teaching astronomy in an urban setting presents many challenges. All individuals, regardless of ability level or location, should be given the opportunity to be exposed to the wonders of the universe and the MEC/CESE has been successful in providing those opportunities.

  2. Astronomy in Romanian universities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosu, Mihail

    In this work we present characteristics of the Romanian higher education related to the study of Astronomy. In spite of Romanian economic problems, opportunities for Bachelor's degree, Master's degree (at "Babes-Bolyai" University of Cluj-Napoca) and Ph.D. degree are provided for students enrolled at the faculties of Mathematics or Physics. General regulations, description of courses, research resources and job opportunities are also described and discussed in this paper.

  3. SPAN: Astronomy and astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Valerie L.; Green, James L.; Warren, Wayne H., Jr.; Lopez-Swafford, Brian

    1987-01-01

    The Space Physics Analysis Network (SPAN) is a multi-mission, correlative data comparison network which links science research and data analysis computers in the U.S., Canada, and Europe. The purpose of this document is to provide Astronomy and Astrophysics scientists, currently reachable on SPAN, with basic information and contacts for access to correlative data bases, star catalogs, and other astrophysic facilities accessible over SPAN.

  4. Astronomy in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarna, M.; Stępień, K.

    2015-09-01

    Polish post-war astronomy was built virtually from nothing. Currently, about 250 astronomers are employed in seven academic institutes and a few smaller units across Poland. Broad areas of astrophysics are covered and the level of astronomical research in Poland is higher than the world average. Joining ESO has created an atmosphere that is conducive to further improvements in the quality of Polish research, and it marks an important step towards the full integration of Polish astronomers into the international scientific community.

  5. Evangelista Torricelli and Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, Rosa María

    2015-05-01

    In the classical History of Science, Evangelista Torricelli (1608-1649) appears inextricably linked to the "origin of modern science" and so he is the prototype of the pure Galilean. As the court mathematician in Florence, academic, lecturer and prestigious scientist, he combined these activities with the task of telescopic lens maker. His theoretical ideas in Astronomy were nearer to those of Descartes than of his mentor, Galileo. Here, I summarize the two sides.

  6. Archaeology and astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-10-01

    MEETING REPORT The interaction between archaeology and astronomy has a long, tangled and not entirely creditable history, marred by misunderstandings on both sides. But statistics and cultural awareness are bringing a better picture of how and why lasting monuments such as Stonehenge were built. Sue Bowler reports on a joint meeting of the Royal Astronomical Society and the Prehistoric Society, held at Jodrell Bank on 17 July 2009.

  7. Firefighters' Radios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Public Technology Inc. asked for NASA assistance to devise the original firefighter's radio. Good short-range radio communications are essential during a fire to coordinate hose lines, rescue victims, and otherwise increase efficiency. Useful firefighting tool is lower cost, more rugged short range two-way radio. Inductorless electronic circuit replaced inductances and coils in radio circuits with combination of transistors and other low-cost components. Substitution promises reduced circuit size and cost. Enhanced electrical performance made radio more durable and improved maintainability by incorporating modular construction.

  8. Astronomy in the streets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kebe, Fatoumata

    2015-08-01

    The Ephemerides Association was founded last year by a PhD student in Astronomy. The association is devoted to the promotion and advancement of knowledge of the universe through research and education.The main activities of the association are scientific meetings, the planning and realization of scientific projects, the support of the scientific activities of its members, and the dissemination of related information among members and other interested persons.The association targets the disadvantaged zones of the Paris suburbs.The main issue was how to bring astronomy in those places. In the suburbs, since most of the youth are poor, most leisure activities like cinema are out of your reach. Thus, mostly of them will play football or basketball outside.We decided to go to meet young people who find themselves together in the evening. We prepare the telescope as well as the fasicules to start the observation of the planets. The discussion finally lead to their career plans and aspirations. Astronomy has become a tool to address societal issues. We present our results after one year of activity.

  9. Syllabus Computer in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hojaev, Alisher S.

    2015-08-01

    One of the most important and actual subjects and training courses in the curricula for undergraduate level students at the National university of Uzbekistan is ‘Computer Methods in Astronomy’. It covers two semesters and includes both lecture and practice classes. Based on the long term experience we prepared the tutorial for students which contain the description of modern computer applications in astronomy.The main directions of computer application in field of astronomy briefly as follows:1) Automating the process of observation, data acquisition and processing2) Create and store databases (the results of observations, experiments and theoretical calculations) their generalization, classification and cataloging, working with large databases3) The decisions of the theoretical problems (physical modeling, mathematical modeling of astronomical objects and phenomena, derivation of model parameters to obtain a solution of the corresponding equations, numerical simulations), appropriate software creation4) The utilization in the educational process (e-text books, presentations, virtual labs, remote education, testing), amateur astronomy and popularization of the science5) The use as a means of communication and data transfer, research result presenting and dissemination (web-journals), the creation of a virtual information system (local and global computer networks).During the classes the special attention is drawn on the practical training and individual work of students including the independent one.

  10. The Astronomy Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, D. P.; Malayeri, M. L.; Pahlevan, K. M. A.; Jacobson, W. C.

    2004-05-01

    The Astronomy Workshop (http://janus.astro.umd.edu) is a collection of interactive online educational tools developed for use by students, educators, and the general public. The more than 20 tools in the Astronomy Workshop are rated for ease-of-use, and have been extensively tested in large university survey courses, classes for undergraduate majors, and High Schools. Here we briefly describe a few of the more popular tools. The Life of the Sun (New!): The history of the Sun is animated as a movie, showing students how the size and color of our star has evolved and will evolve in time. Animated Orbits of Planets and Moons: The orbital motions of planets, moons, asteroids, and comets are animated at their correct relative speeds in accurate to-scale drawings. Solar System Collisions: This most popular of our applications shows what happens when an asteroid or comet with user-defined size and speed impacts a given planet. The program calculates many effects, including the country of impact (if Earth is the target), energy of explosion, crater size, and magnitude of the ``planetquake'' generated. It also displays a relevant image (e.g. terrestrial crater, lunar crater, etc.). Astronomical Distances: Travel away from the Earth at a chosen speed and see how long it takes to reach other planets, stars and galaxies. This tool helps students visualize astronomical distances in an intuitive way. Funding for the Astronomy Workshop is provided by NSF.

  11. The Astronomy Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, D. P.

    2005-05-01

    The Astronomy Workshop (http://janus.astro.umd.edu) is a collection of interactive online educational tools developed for use by students, educators, and the general public. The more than 20 tools in the Astronomy Workshop are rated for ease-of-use, and have been extensively tested in large university survey courses, classes for undergraduate majors, and High Schools. Here we briefly describe a few of the more popular tools. The Life of the Sun (New!): The history of the Sun is animated as a movie, showing students how the size and color of our star has evolved and will evolve in time. Animated Orbits of Planets and Moons: The orbital motions of planets, moons, asteroids, and comets are animated at their correct relative speeds in accurate to-scale drawings. Solar System Collisions: This most popular of our applications shows what happens when an asteroid or comet with user-defined size and speed impacts a given planet. The program calculates many effects, including the country of impact (if Earth is the target), energy of explosion, crater size, and magnitude of the ``planetquake'' generated. It also displays a relevant image (e.g. terrestrial crater, lunar crater, etc.). Astronomical Distances: Travel away from the Earth at a chosen speed and see how long it takes to reach other planets, stars and galaxies. This tool helps students visualize astronomical distances in an intuitive way. Funding for the Astronomy Workshop is provided by a NASA EPO grant.

  12. Resources for College Libraries: Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmquist, J. E.

    2007-10-01

    Most of us have built library collections of books to serve researchers -- graduate students and post-doctoral researchers in astronomy and astrophysics, and the Core List of Astronomy Books project, coordinated by Liz Bryson, exemplifies our collaborative efforts to identify the best books available at the research level. As the editor of the astronomy section of the Resources for College Libraries: A Core List for the Undergraduate Curriculum project, I have tried to ascertain what books college-age students of astronomy are actually reading (or should be reading!). To aid in this endeavor, I have obtained astronomy course reserve lists from colleagues at several U.S. colleges and universities, and regularly obtain lists of the astronomy books currently charged out to undergraduates at Princeton. I shall describe the RCL project, some of the book usage data I collected, and finally, give a brief update on the status of the Astrophysics Library at Princeton.

  13. Highlights of Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Hucht, Karel

    2008-02-01

    Preface Karel A. van der Hucht; Part I. Invited Discourses: Part II. Joint Discussions: 1. Particle acceleration - from Solar System to AGN Marian Karlicky and John C. Brown; 2. Pulsar emission and related phenomena Werner Becker, Janusz A. Gil and Bronislaw Rudak; 3. Solar activity regions and magnetic structure Debi Prasad Choudhary and Michal Sobotka; 4. The ultraviolet universe: Stars from birth to death Ana I. Gomez de Castro and Martin A. Barstow; 5. Calibrating the top of the stellar M-L relationship Claus Leitherer, Anthony F. J. Moat and Joachim Puls; 6. Neutron stars and black holes in star clusters Frederic A. Rasio; 7. The Universe at z > 6 Daniel Schaerer and Andrea Ferrara; 8. Solar and stellar activity cycles Klaus G. Strassmeier and Alexander Kosovichev; 9. Supernovae: One millennium after SN 1006 P. Frank Winkler, Wolfgang Hillebrandt and Brian P. Schmidt; 10. Progress in planetary exploration missions Guy J. Consolmagno; 11. Pre-solar grains as astrophysical tools Anja C. Andersen and John C. Lattanzio; 12. Long wavelength astrophysics T. Joseph W. Lazio and Namir E. Kassim; 13. Exploiting large surveys for galactic astronomy Christopher J. Corbally, Coryn A. L. Bailer-Jones, Sunetra Giridhar and Thomas H. Lloyd Evans; 14. Modeling dense stellar systems Alison I. Sills, Ladislav Subr and Simon F. Portegies Zwart; 15. New cosmology results from the Spitzer Space Telescope George Helou and David T. Frayer; 16. Nomenclature, precession and new models in fundamental astronomy Nicole Capitaine, Jan Vondrak & James L. Hilton; 17. Highlights of recent progress in seismology of the Sun and Sun-like stars John W. Leibacher and Michael J. Thompson; Part III. Special Sessions: SpS 1. Large astronomical facilities of the next decade Gerard F. Gilmore and Richard T. Schilizzi; SpS 2. Innovation in teaching and learning astronomy methods Rosa M. Ros and Jay M. Pasachoff; SpS 3. The Virtual Observatory in action: New science, new technology and next

  14. A Radio Astronomical Star Party for those "On The Verge"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirström, E. S.; Cumming, R. J.

    2013-04-01

    Here we describe the Onsala Stjärnträff (Onsala Star Party), an unconventional outreach event that was held during Sweden's inaugural Day and Night of Astronomy in October 2012. The target group consisted of individuals who are "on the verge" of discovering astronomy; individuals who have a spark of enthusiasm for astronomy, but who have not yet taken this passive interest to the next level. For the event, we adapted the concept of a star party to provide insight, inspiration, hands-on experience and networking opportunities for the participants. Furthermore, the Onsala Space Observatory's radio telescopes allowed us to compensate for poor weather and to fulfil our role in communicating radio astronomy to a wider public.

  15. Transmission of Babylonian Astronomy to Other Cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Alexander

    Babylonian astronomy and astrology were extensively transmitted to other civilizations in the second and first millennia BC. Greek astronomy in particular was largely shaped by knowledge of Babylonian observations and mathematical astronomy.

  16. Astronomy and astrophysics for the 1980's. Volume 1 - Report of the Astronomy Survey Committee. Volume 2 - Reports of the Panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recommended priorities for astronomy and astrophysics in the 1980s are considered along with the frontiers of astrophysics, taking into account large-scale structure in the universe, the evolution of galaxies, violent events, the formation of stars and planets, solar and stellar activity, astronomy and the forces of nature, and planets, life, and intelligence. Approved, continuing, and previously recommended programs are related to the Space Telescope and the associated Space Telescope Science Institute, second-generation instrumentation for the Space Telescope, and Gamma Ray Observatory, facilities for the detection of solar neutrinos, and the Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility. Attention is given to the prerequisites for new research initiatives, new programs, programs for study and development, high-energy astrophysics, radio astronomy, theoretical and laboratory astrophysics, data processing and computational facilities, organization and education, and ultraviolet, optical, and infrared astronomy.

  17. Astronomy Camp = IYA x 22: 22 Years of International Astronomy Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, Eric Jon; McCarthy, D. W.; Camp Staff, Astronomy

    2010-01-01

    Do you remember childhood dreams of being an astronomer, or the ravenous desire for ever larger glass and better equipment as an amateur astronomer? What if your child or the person down the street could live that dream for a weekend or a week? The University of Arizona Astronomy Camp continues to substantiate those dreams after more than two decades in existence. Astronomy Camp is an immersion hands-on field experience in astronomy, ranging from two to eight nights, occurring a few times per year. Participants span an age range from elementary students to octogenarians. The three basic offerings include adult camps, a beginning Camp for teenagers, and an advanced teen Camp. Several variants of the basic Camp model have evolved, including an ongoing decade long series of specialized Camps for Girl Scout leaders from across the country, funded by the NIRCam instrument development program for the James Webb Space Telescope. The advanced teen Camp is a microcosm of the entire research arc: the participants propose projects, spend the week collecting and analyzing data using research grade CCDs, infrared arrays, and radio/sub-millimeter telescopes, and finish with a presentation of the results. This past summer the Camps moved to Kitt Peak National Observatory for the first time, providing access to a vast and diverse collection of research instruments, including the 0.9-meter WIYN and 2.3-meter Bok telescopes, the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope, and the 12-meter ARO radio telescope. Education research into the Camp's impact indicates that reasons for its appeal to youth include a learner-centered and personal approach with a fun attitude toward learning, authentic scientific inquiry led by mentors who are real scientists, a peer group with common interests in science and engineering, and the emotional appeal of spending time on a dark "sky island" devoted to the exploration of nature.

  18. Nanotube Radio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Kenneth; Weldon, Jeff; Garcia, Henry; Zettl, Alex

    2008-03-01

    We have constructed a fully functional, fully integrated radio receiver from a single carbon nanotube. The nanotube serves simultaneously as all essential components of a radio: antenna, tunable band-pass filter, amplifier, and demodulator. A direct current voltage source, as supplied by a battery, powers the radio. Using carrier waves in the commercially relevant 40-400 MHz range and both frequency and amplitude modulation techniques, we demonstrate successful music and voice reception.

  19. Frequency allocations for passive use of the radio spectrum to make scientific studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stull, M. A.; Alexander, G.

    1976-01-01

    The paper examines the legal implications of frequency allocations for passive use of the radio spectrum, which refer to receive-only radio services. Such receive-only services refer to the reception of radio signals generated by nonhuman agencies as in radio astronomy or in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. Juridical interpretations of the public interest and of necessity are applied to these passive services.

  20. Dyslexia and Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneps, Matthew H.; Greenhill, L. J.; Rose, L. T.

    2007-12-01

    Dyslexia is a hereditary neurological disability that impairs reading. It is believed that anywhere from 5% to 20% of all people in the US may have dyslexia to a greater or lesser degree. Though dyslexia is common, it is a "silent disability" in the sense that it is not easy to tell which individuals suffer from dyslexia and which do not. There is a substantial body of evidence to suggest that people with dyslexia tend to do well in science. For example, Baruj Benacerraf, a Nobel laureate in medicine, is among those whose impairments have been documented and studied. Given that dyslexia was not diagnosed in schools prior to the late 1970's, many established science researchers may have dyslexia and be unaware of their impairment. Therefore, it would not be surprising to find that substantial numbers of scientists working in the fields of astronomy and astrophysics have dyslexia, and yet be unaware of the effects this disability has had on their research. A recently proposed theory by the authors suggests that there may be specific neurological reasons why those with dyslexia may be predisposed to science, and predicts that dyslexia may be associated with enhanced abilities for certain types of visual processing, with special implications for image processing. Our study, funded by the NSF, investigates this hypothesis in the context of astronomy and astrophysics. We expect this work will uncover and document challenges faced by scientists with dyslexia, but perhaps more importantly, lead to an understanding of the strengths these scientists bring to research. The program will serve as a clearing-house of information for scientists and students with dyslexia, and begin to provide mentoring for young people with dyslexia interested in astronomy. Scientists who have reason to believe they may have dyslexia are encouraged to contact the authors.

  1. Towards Gravitational Wave Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losurdo, Giovanni

    This chapter is meant to introduce the reader to the forthcoming network of second-generation interferometric detectors of gravitational waves, at a time when their construction is close to completion and there is the ambition to detect gravitational waves for the first time in the next few years and open the way to gravitational wave astronomy. The legacy of first-generation detectors is discussed before giving an overview of the technology challenges that have been faced to make advanced detectors possible. The various aspects outlined here are then discussed in more detail in the subsequent chapters of the book.

  2. Astronomy in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbuy, Beatriz; Maciel, Walter J.

    2013-01-01

    A historical background combined with political decisions along time explain the increasing importance of Brazil in the world's astronomical scenario. Professional astronomy was triggered in the late sixties and early seventies by the two main historical institutions then existing (ON and IAG/USP), together with the creation of agencies for research and combined with individual actions. There are presently 670 astronomers working in the country, including permanent jobs and graduate students. A brief description of observational facilities and plans to increase access to other facilities is presented.

  3. Edible Astronomy Demonstrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubowich, D. A.

    2006-08-01

    By using astronomy demonstrations with edible ingredients, I have been able to increase student interest and knowledge of astronomical concepts. This approach has been successful with all age groups from elementary school through college students. I will present some of the edible demonstrations I have created including using popcorn to simulate radioactivity; using chocolate, nuts, and marshmallows to illustrate density and differentiation during the formation of the planets; and making big-bang brownies or chocolate chip-cookies to illustrate the expansion of the Universe. Sometimes the students eat the results of the astronomical demonstrations. These demonstrations are an effective teaching tool and the students remember these demonstrations after they are presented.

  4. Astrology as Cultural Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campion, Nicholas

    The practice of astrology can be traced in most if not all human societies, in most time periods. Astrology has prehistoric origins and flourishes in the modern world, where it may be understood as a form of ethnoastronomy - astronomy practiced by the people. The Western tradition, which originated in Mesopotamia and was developed in the Greek world, has been most studied by academics. However, India is also home to a tradition which has survived in a continuous lineage for 2,000 years. Complex systems of astrology also developed in China and Mesoamerica, while all other human societies appear to seek social and religious meaning in the stars.

  5. Lighting and Astronomy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    ago. Bright light is becoming a form of advertising. Figure 1. The sky over Mauna Kea , Hawaii, is affected by outdoor lighting in communit ies from...8217 chris Luginbuhl is an astronomer at the US Naval observatory Flagstaff station in Arizona. connie walker is an associate scientist and education...specialist " tf," N"iio".iOpalut-nraronomy Observatory in Arizona and director of both the lnternational Year of Astrono.my , ;il;;;;i; n*ui"n"rt

  6. Gravitational-Wave Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Bernard J.

    2010-01-01

    Einstein's General Theory of Relativity is our best classical description of gravity, and informs modern astronomy and astrophysics at all scales: stellar, galactic, and cosmological. Among its surprising predictions is the existence of gravitational waves -- ripples in space-time that carry energy and momentum away from strongly interacting gravitating sources. In my talk, I will give an overview of the properties of this radiation, recent breakthroughs in computational physics allowing us to calculate the waveforms from galactic mergers, and the prospect of direct observation with interferometric detectors such as LIGO and LISA.

  7. Astronomy in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobouti, Y.

    2006-08-01

    Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, Zanjan, Iran In spite of her renowned pivotal role in the advancement of astronomy on the world scale during 9th to 15th centuries, Iran's rekindled interest in modern astronomy is a recent happening. Serious attempts to introduce astronomy into university curricula and to develop it into a respectable and worthwhile field of research began in the mid 60's. The pioneer was Shiraz University. It should be credited for the first few dozens of astronomy- and astrophysics- related research papers in international journals, for training the first half a dozen of professional astronomers and for creating the Biruni Observatory. Here, I take this opportunity to acknowledge the valuable advice of Bob Koch and Ed Guinan, then of the University of Pennsylvania, in the course of the establishment of this observatory. At present the astronomical community of Iran consists of about 65 professionals, half university faculty members and half MS and PhD students. The yearly scientific contribution of its members has, in the past three years, averaged to about 15 papers in reputable international journals, and presently has a healthy growth rate. Among the existing observational facilities, Biruni Observatory with its 51 cm Cassegrain, CCD cameras, photometers and other smaller educational telescopes, is by far the most active place. Tusi Observatory of Tabriz University has 60 and 40 cm Cassegrains, and a small solar telescope. A number of smaller observing facilities exist in Meshed, Zanjan, Tehran, Babol and other places. The Astronomical Society of Iran (ASI), though some 30 years old, has expanded and institutionalized its activities since early 1990's. ASI sets up seasonal schools for novices, organizes annual colloquia and seminars for professionals and supports a huge body of amateur astronomers from among high school and university students. Over twenty of ASI members are also members of IAU and take active part in its

  8. Islamic Mathematical Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montelle, Clemency

    A short survey on Islamic mathematical astronomy practiced during the period running from the eight century until the fifteenth is presented. Various pertinent themes, such as the translation of foreign scientific works and their impact on the tradition; the introduction, assimilation, and critique of the Ptolemaic model; and the role of observations, will be covered. In addition, the zīj, the dominant format for astronomical works, will be briefly explained as well as the legacy of the Islamic tradition of astral sciences to other cultures.

  9. Robots in astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baruch, John E. F.

    A development history and a development trends evaluation are presented for the growth of automation and robotics in industry and in observational astronomy, with a view to the distinctive problems of each field of application. Recent concepts concerning the astronomical use of robots as personal assistants are noted, and an effort is made to discern ways in which technology guides both methods and perceptions. Current programs for robotic and automated telescope development are noted, and it is argued that international standards should soon be formulated for this technology.

  10. Astronomy in the classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiteiro, Bárbara; Rodrigues, Berta

    2016-04-01

    The motivation of young students to science is much higher when the theoretical teaching is accompanied by practice and these are engaged in activities that involve real problems of their society and requiring a scientific basis for its discussion. Several activities such as collaboration on current scientific experiments, direct contact with scientists, participation in science competitions, visits to Science Museums, artistic and craft activities, the use of simulators and virtual laboratories, increase the degree of student satisfaction and motivate them in their learning processes. This poster shows some of Astronomy activities with students of schools Agrupamento de Escolas José Belchior Viegas within the Physics and Chemistry classes.

  11. Ondvrejov solar radio WWW page

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jivrivcka, Karel; Meszarosova, Hana

    Since mid 1997 the Solar Radio Astronomy Group of the Astronomical Institute in Ondvrejov has been running a new WWW page. You can find us at the address --- http://sunkl.asu.cas.cz/radio/ --- where information about our instruments, observed frequencies, as well as about our data archive is available. The home page includes four main topics: 1. Observation & Instrumentation --- here you can find information about which instruments are currently in use, observed frequencies, time resolutions etc. Presently we use for solar radio observations three dedicated instruments: RT3 -- single frequency 3 GHz receiver with 10 ms time resolution RT4 -- radio spectrograph 2.0--4.5 GHz with 100 ms time resolution RT5 -- radio spectrograph 0.8--2.0 GHz with 100 ms time resolution The observations are run daily, while the Sun is higher then 5 degrees above the horizon. Because of the tremendous amount of data, only chosen time intervals with radio events are archived. Event Archive Info: --- here you can find information about archived data (date, time interval) as well as overall images of individual events in GIF format (the image names are at the same time hyperlinks for direct loading) sorted by date and time of observation. Gallery: --- here you can find some representative examples of spectra of solar radio events, recorded by our instruments. Anonymous FTP Server: --- enables direct FTP access to our image archive. This WWW page should give you an insight, what data are available and what the events look roughly like. The uncalibrated rough data from our archive can be processed only by special programs and are not generally free. But if you are interested in a particular event from our archive, you can contact us via e-mail address: radio@asu.cas.cz This work has been supported by the Czech Academy of Sciences through grant no.A3003707.

  12. Pioneering a new astronomy; John G. Bolton Memorial Symposium, Parkes, New South Wales, Australia, Dec. 9-10, 1993

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddard, Dorothy; Haynes, Raymond

    A conference in memory of John Bolton produced papers in the field of radio astronomy from a biographical and historial perspective of Bolton's contributions. These papers focused especially on extragalactic radio sources such as quasars and radio galaxies; ground stations Bolton worked at, and the Yagi antennas and sea-interferometers used there; and the early sky surveys made with optical telescopes. There is also mention of COSMOS, the astronomical catalog or data base Bolton developed. In addition, papers covered radio jets and discussed classifications of radio sources. For individual titles, see A95-84037 through A95-84049.

  13. Astronomy Matters for Chemistry Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huebner, Jay S.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes basic misconceptions about the origin of elements and forms of matter found in chemistry texts that need modification in light of modern observational data and interpretations given in astronomy. Notes that there are forms of matter other than elements and compounds. Confounding examples from astronomy include white dwarfs, neutron…

  14. Reports of planetary astronomy, 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A collection is presented of summaries designed to provide information about scientific research projects conducted in the Planetary Astronomy Program in 1990 and 1991, and to facilitate communication and coordination among concerned scientists and interested persons in universities, government, and industry. Highlights of recent accomplishments in planetary astronomy are included.

  15. Science and Mathematics in Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolack, Edward

    2009-01-01

    A brief historical introduction to the development of observational astronomy will be presented. The close historical relationship between the successful application of mathematical concepts and advances in astronomy will be presented. A variety of simple physical demonstrations, hands-on group activities, and puzzles will be used to understand how the properties of light can be used to understand the contents of our universe.

  16. How Create an Astronomy Outreach Program to Bring Astronomy to Thousands of People at Outdoor Concerts Astronomy Festivals, or Tourist Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubowich, Donald

    2015-08-01

    I describe how to create an astronomy program for thousands of people at outdoor concerts based on my $308,000 NASA-funded Music and Astronomy Under the Stars (MAUS) program (60 events 2009 - 2013), and the Astronomy Festival on the National Mall (AFNM, 10,000 people/yr).MAUS reached 50,000 music lovers at local parks and at the Central Park Jazz, Newport Folk, Ravinia, or Tanglewood Music Festivals with classical, folk, pop/rock, opera, Caribbean, or county-western concerts assisted by astronomy clubs. Yo-Yo-Ma, the Chicago and Boston Symphony Orchestras, Ravi Coltrane, Esperanza Spalding, Phish, Blood Sweat and Tears, Deep Purple, Tony Orlando, and Wilco performed at these events. AFNM was started in 2010 with co-sponsorship by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy. MAUS and AFMN combine solar, optical, and radio telescope observations; large posters/banners; hands-on activities, imaging with a cell phone mount; citizen science activities; hand-outs; and teacher info packet. Representatives from scientific institutions participated. Tyco Brahe, Johannes Kepler, and Caroline Herschel made guest appearances.MAUS reached underserved groups and attracted large crowds. Young kids participated in this family learning experience-often the first time they looked through a telescope. While < 50% of the participants took part in a science activity in the past year, they found MAUS enjoyable and understandable; learned about astronomy; wanted to learn more; and increased their interest in science (ave. rating 3.6/4). MAUS is effective in promoting science education!Lessons learned: plan early; create partnerships with parks, concert organizers, and astronomy clubs; test equipment; have backup equipment; create professional displays; select the best location to obtain a largest number of participants; use social media/www sites to promote the events; use many telescopes for multiple targets; project a live image or video; select equipment that is easy to

  17. Teaching Astronomy at CUSAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuriakose, V. C.

    The Department offers a one semester course in Astronomy for PG students. The paper is titled as `Relativity and Astrophysics’ and content of the course is: Tensor Analysis, General Relativity, Cosmology and Astrophysics. From 2009-10 academic year onwards, two experiments: (1) Determination of apparent mass of a star and (2) Measurements of lunar topography are included in the M. Sc. practicals. Students are also given training in sky watching. Since 2006 onwards the department is conducting a summer programme for school children for 10 days during vacation and two days are set apart for Astronomy related topics. We give training to students to make small telescopes and they are also introduced to wonders of the sky. This is now an annual programme of the department. From last year onwards we visit schools especially in villages and students were given training in making small telescopes and a sky watching programme is also held for the benefit of the students. We also conduct sky watching programme in the campus for the benefit of students and the public.

  18. Astronomy books in Spanish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fierro, Julieta

    Great cultures have created language. They have discovered its strength among other reasons for education. For a long time the Bible was one of the few books available in western culture, its influence is beyond any doubt. Many developing nations have no science books in their mother tongue. They might carry a few translations but these do not convey the local culture so it is harder for students to grasp the concepts and to build on what they know. Books, even if they are extremely simple, should be written in local languages because that will facilitate the conveying of knowledge and the creation of scientific culture. In the books examples that pertain to every day local life must be given, in particular examples that have to do with women. Women play a central role in developing nations by child bearing; if they become literate they will influence enormously the quality of their children's education, in particular their science comprehension. In Mexico a collection that includes astronomy books has recently been edited by the National Council for Culture and Arts. The books are small and light, which encourages middle-school students to carry them around and read them while traveling in public transportation, such as the subway. Every other page is a new subject, that carries illustrations, abstracts and conclusions. The astronomy books are on search for extraterrestrial life, the stars and the universe. These books are distributed nation-wide and are inexpensive. They have been written by Mexican astronomers.

  19. The Astronomy Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Douglas P.

    2012-05-01

    {\\bf The Astronomy Workshop} (http://janus.astro.umd.edu) is a collection of interactive online educational tools developed for use by students, educators, professional astronomers, and the general public. The more than 20 tools in the Astronomy workshop are rated for ease-of-use, and have been extensively tested in large university survey courses as well as more specialized classes for undergraduate majors and graduate students. Here we briefly describe a few of the available tools. {\\bf Solar Systems Visualizer}: The orbital motions of planets, moons, and asteroids in the Solar System as well as many of the planets in exoplanetary systems are animated at their correct relative speeds in accurate to-scale drawings. Zoom in from the chaotic outer satellite systems of the giant planets all the way to their innermost ring systems. {\\bf Solar System Calculators}: These tools calculate a user-defined mathematical expression simultaneously for all of the Solar System's planets (Planetary Calculator) or moons (Satellite Calculator). Key physical and orbital data are automatically accessed as needed. {\\bf Stellar Evolution}: The "Life of the Sun" tool animates the history of the Sun as a movie, showing students how the size and color of our star has evolved and will evolve over billions of years. In "Star Race," the user selects two stars of different masses and watches their evolution in a split-screeen format that emphasizes the great differences in stellar lifetimes and fates.

  20. Astronomy Education in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metaxa, M.

    Basic education is fundamental to higher education and scientific and technological literacy. We can confront the widespread adult ignorance and apathy about science and technology. Astronomy, an interdisciplinary science, enhances students' interest and overcomes educational problems. Three years ago, we developed astronomy education in these ways: 1. Summer School for School Students. (50 students from Athens came to the first Summer School in Astrophysics at the National Observatory, September 2-5, 1996, for lectures by professional astronomers and to be familiarized with observatory instruments. 2. Introducing Students to Research. (This teaches students more about science so they are more confident about it. Our students have won top prizes in European research contests for their studies of objects on Schmidt plates and computations on PCs.) 3. Hands-on Activities. (Very important because they bring students close to their natural environment. Activities are: variable-star observations (AAVSO), Eratosthenes project, solar-eclipse, sunspot and comet studies. 4. Contact with Professional Astronomers and Institutes. (These help students reach their social environment and motivate them as "science carriers". We try to make contacts at astronomical events, and through visits to appropriate institutions.) 5. Internet Programs. (Students learn about and familiarize themselves with their technological environment.) 6. Laboratory exercises. (Students should do science, not just learn about it We introduced the following lab. exercises: supernova remnants, galaxy classification, both from Schmidt plates, celestial sphere.

  1. Ancient Astronomy in Armenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsamian, Elma S.

    2007-08-01

    The most important discovery, which enriched our knowledge of ancient astronomy in Armenia, was the complex of platforms for astronomical observations on the Small Hill of Metzamor, which may be called an ancient “observatory”. Investigations on that Hill show that the ancient inhabitants of the Armenian Highlands have left us not only pictures of celestial bodies, but a very ancient complex of platforms for observing the sky. Among the ancient monuments in Armenia there is a megalithic monument, probably, being connected with astronomy. 250km South-East of Yerevan there is a structure Zorats Kar (Karahunge) dating back to II millennium B.C. Vertical megaliths many of which are more than two meters high form stone rings resembling ancient stone monuments - henges in Great Britain and Brittany. Medieval observations of comets and novas by data in ancient Armenian manuscripts are found. In the collection of ancient Armenian manuscripts (Matenadaran) in Yerevan there are many manuscripts with information about observations of astronomical events as: solar and lunar eclipses, comets and novas, bolides and meteorites etc. in medieval Armenia.

  2. Active Astronomy Roadshow Haiti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laycock, Silas; Oram, Kathleen; Alabre, Dayana; Douyon, Ralph; UMass Lowell Haiti Development Studies Center

    2016-01-01

    College-age Haitian students working with advisors and volunteers from UMass Lowell in 2015 developed and tested an activity-based K-8 curriculum in astronomy, space, and earth science. Our partner school is located in Les Cayes, Haiti a city where only 65% of children attend school, and only half of those will complete 6th grade. Astronomy provides an accessible and non-intimidating entry into science, and activity-based learning contrasts with the predominant traditional teaching techniques in use in Haiti, to reach and inspire a different cohort of learners. Teachers are predominantly women in Haiti, so part of the effort involves connecting them with scientists, engineers and teacher peers in the US. As a developing nation, it is vital for Haitian (as for all) children to grow up viewing women as leaders in science. Meanwhile in the US, few are aware of the reality of getting an education in a 3rd world nation (i.e. most of the world), so we also joined with teachers in Massachusetts to give US school children a peek at what daily life is like for their peers living in our vibrant but impoverished neighbor. Our Haitian partners are committed to helping their sister-schools with curriculum and educator workshops, so that the overall quality of education can rise, and not be limited to the very few schools with access to resources. We will describe the activites, motivation, and and the lessons learned from our first year of the project.

  3. The Astronomy Genealogy Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenn, Joseph S.

    2014-01-01

    The Astronomy Genealogy Project, to be known as AstroGen, will list as many as possible of the world's astronomers with their academic parents (aka thesis advisors) and enable the reader to trace both academic ancestors and descendants. It will be very similar to the highly successful Mathematics Genealogy Project (MGP), available at http://genealogy.math.ndsu.nodak.edu. The MGP, which has been in operation since 1996, now contains the names of about 170,000 "mathematicians." These include many physicists and astronomers, as well as practitioners of related sciences. Mitchel Keller, the director of the MGP, has generously shared the software used in that project, and the American Astronomical Society (AAS) will host AstroGen, a project of the Historical Astronomy Division, on its website. We expect to start seeking entries soon, depending on the availability of computational assistance from the AAS IT department. We are seeking volunteers to help run the project. If you are interested, please contact me at joe.tenn@sonoma.edu.

  4. Astronomy. Inspiration. Art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanic, N.

    2008-10-01

    This paper speculates how poetry and other kind of arts are tightly related to astronomy. Hence the connection between art and natural sciences in general will be discussed in the frame of ongoing multidisciplinary project `Astronomy. Inspiration. Art' at Public Observatory in Belgrade (started in 2004). This project tends to inspire (better to say `infect') artist with a cosmic themes and fantastic sceneries of the Universe. At the very beginning of the project, Serbian poet and philosopher Laza Lazić (who published 49 books of poetry, stories and novels), as well as writer Gordana Maletić (with 25 published novels for children) were interested to work on The Inspiration by Astronomical Phenomena in Serbian Literature. Five young artists and scientists include their new ideas and new approach to multidisciplinary studies too (Srdjan Djukić, Nenad Jeremić, Olivera Obradović, Romana Vujasinović, Elena Dimoski). Two books that will be presented in details in the frame of this Project, "STARRY CITIES" (http://zavod.co.yu) and "ASTROLIES", don't offer only interesting illustrations, images from the latest astronomical observations and currently accepted cosmological theories -- those books induces, provoking curiosity in a specific and witty way, an adventure and challenge to explore and create.

  5. Astronomy. Internet site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksimenko, Anatoly Vasilievich

    The Internet site covers a wide area of actual astronomical topics, including 1) Astronomical News 2) Didactics of Astronomy 3) Space Research (Cosmonautics) 4) That's interesting 5) A Handbook of an astronomer 6) The Solar system 7) A Photogalery 8) Works of Schoolars 9) History of Astronomy The most important of them is the section concerning Space Research (Cosmonautics). This section covers a wide range of topics, beginning with very complete Illustrated History of Soviet Space research , the building of Soviet Rockets, a complete list of Cosmonauts with biographies, a list of all the flies. The author of the site concerns much ineterest to recent and extraordinary astronomiucal phenomena, such as Hazardous asteroids, Comets, Solar and Moon Eclipses, Meteorites, as well as to correct from the scientifical point of view interpretation of the extraordinary astronomical phenomena. The section concerning the Solar system is richly illustrated and give detailed explanations to Solar System evolution and actual state, explains many phenomena in the Solar system. THe Internet site is designed for schoolars as well as to amateur and professional astronomers.

  6. Making Astronomy Accessible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grice, Noreen A.

    2011-05-01

    A new semester begins, and your students enter the classroom for the first time. You notice a student sitting in a wheelchair or walking with assistance from a cane. Maybe you see a student with a guide dog or carrying a Braille computer. Another student gestures "hello” but then continues hand motions, and you realize the person is actually signing. You wonder why another student is using an electronic device to speak. Think this can't happen in your class? According to the U.S. Census, one out of every five Americans has a disability. And some disabilities, such as autism, dyslexia and arthritis, are considered "invisible” disabilities. This means you have a high probability that one of your students will have a disability. As an astronomy instructor, you have the opportunity to reach a wide variety of learners by using creative teaching strategies. I will share some suggestions on how to make astronomy and your part of the universe more accessible for everyone.

  7. Astronomy in Syria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Mousli, A. T.

    2006-11-01

    Syria has been involved in the field of astronomy since 1997, when Prof. F.R. QUERCI, France, visited Syria and made a presentation on the International NORT project; (NORT: the Network of Oriental Robotic Telescope), which was a selected project of the sixth United Nations/ European Space Agency Workshop on Basic Space Science (document no. A/AC.105/657 dated 13/12/1996). NORT aims to establish a robotic telescope network on high mountain peaks around the Tropic of Cancer, from Morocco in the west to the desert of China in the east. The purposes for establishing this network are technical and educational. The General Organization of Remote Sensing (GORS) has carried out a pilot study using remote sensing techniques and has selected four sites in order to determine the best location for the astronomical observatory the within NORT programme. Following this project, GORS decided to establish an office for astronomical studies, one of the earliest works of GORS in astronomy was an initiative to establish a planetarium within the GORS campus, to accommodate approximately 120 observers. A contest to choose the best planetarium design, for the Arab World, took place at GORS.

  8. The Slacker Astronomy Podcast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, A.; Gay, P.; Searle, T.

    2005-05-01

    The Slacker Astronomy podcast is a weekly audio show about astronomy. Available in MP3 format, it is syndicated using RSS and XML feeds that make downloading snap. Each show presents a recent astronomical news item in an entertaining, humorous, and easy-to-understand manner that informs yet respects the intelligence of the listener. First launched on 05 Feb 14, the show has grown to over 5,000 weekly subscribers as of 05 April 01 without any formal publicity. Response has been over overwhelmingly positive, with strong reviews coming from other popular podcasts and coverage on the front page of the MSNBC.com science section. Our only consistent negative feedback is that the show is too short and too infrequent. This demonstrates a strong need to add content. We believe podcasting provides a unique mechanism to extend astronomical outreach to the younger generations and to those who lead busy lifestyles. Our formula is proving successful and we are looking for ways to quantify our impact and measure our demographic so that we can serve them better.

  9. College Radio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauls, Samuel J.

    As with commercial stations, the underlying premise of the college radio station is to serve the community, whether it be the campus community or the community at large, but in unique ways often geared to underserved niches of the population. Much of college radio's charm lies in its unpredictable nature and constant mutations. The stations give…

  10. Harmonization based on regulatory science between scientific and commercial radio uses in a case of ultrawideband radio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohno, Ryuji; Iinatti, Jari; Sameshima, Keiko

    2016-12-01

    Harmonization for scientific and commercial radio uses is one of the unsolved problems in academia, industry, and regulatory bodies. The demands for commercial radio, mobile communications, and broadcasting have significantly increased over the past few decades; therefore, interference has become a major concern. There is an increasing need to prevent such interferences, for example, between commercial radio systems and other potentially sensitive radio systems such as those used for radio astronomy or studies. When discussing the fairness in resolving such conflicts, regulatory science may be a useful multidisciplinary approach as it scientifically investigates the advantages and disadvantages of a new application or technology for conflicts between different stakeholders through a mathematical analysis of risks versus benefits of the given technology. Such an analysis enables fair rules or regulations to be made. In this study, we apply the above-mentioned concept to harmonize the scientific and commercial uses of radio. After a brief introduction to regulatory science, a case study about the coexistence between ultrawideband commercial radio systems and radio astronomy is considered. Finally, a proposal by International Union of Radio Science, Japan, to the Science Council of Japan in the Cabinet Office to establish a "Center for Coexistence and Harmonization of Scientific and Commercial Uses of Radio Waves" is explained.

  11. Theory of optimum radio reception methods in random noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutkin, L. S.

    1982-09-01

    The theory of optimum methods of reception of signals on the background of random noise, widely used in development of any radioelectronic systems and devices based on reception and transmission of information (radar and radio controlled, radio communications, radio telemetry, radio astronomy, television, and other systems), as well as electroacoustical and wire communications sytems, is presented. Optimum linear and nonlinear filtration, binary and comples signal detection and discrimination, estimation of signal parameters, receiver synthesis for incomplete a priori data, special features of synthesis with respect to certain quality indicators, and other problems are examined.

  12. South African Student Constructed Indlebe Radio Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGruder, Charles H.; MacPherson, Stuart; Janse Van Vuuren, Gary Peter

    2017-01-01

    The Indlebe Radio Telescope (IRT) is a small transit telescope with a 5 m diameter parabolic reflector working at 21 cm. It was completely constructed by South African (SA) students from the Durban University of Technology (DUT), where it is located. First light occurred on 28 July 2008, when the galactic center, Sagittarius A, was detected. As a contribution to the International Year of Astronomy in 2009, staff members in the Department of Electronic Engineering at DUT in 2006 decided to have their students create a fully functional radio telescope by 2009. The specific project aims are to provide a visible project that could generate interest in science and technology in high school students and to provide a real world system for research in radio astronomy in general and an optimization of low noise radio frequency receiver systems in particular. These aims must be understood in terms of the SA’s government interests in radio astronomy. SA is a partner in the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) project, has constructed the Karoo Array Telescope (KAT) and MeerKat, which is the largest and most sensitive radio telescope in the southern hemisphere. SA and its partners in Africa are investing in the construction of the African Very Long Baseline Interferometry Network (AVN), an array of radio telescopes throughout Africa as an extension of the existing global Very Long Baseline Interferometry Network (VLBI). These projects will allow SA to make significant contributions to astronomy and enable astronomy to contribute to the scientific education and development goals of the country. The IRT sees on a daily basis the transit of Sag A. The transit time is influenced by precession, nutation, polar motion, aberration, celestial pole offset, proper motion, length of the terrestrial day and variable ionospheric refraction. Of these eight factors six are either predictable or measureable. To date neither celestial pole offset nor variable ionospheric refraction are predicable

  13. NSF Internships in Public Science Education: Sensing the Radio Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hund, L.; Boltuch, D.; Fultz, C.; Buck, S.; Smith, T.; Harris, R.; Moffett, D.; LaFratta, M.; Walsh, L.; Castelaz, M. W.

    2005-12-01

    The intent of the "Sensing the Radio Sky" project is to teach high school students the concepts and relevance of radio astronomy through presentations in STARLAB portable planetariums. The two year project began in the summer of 2004. A total of twelve interns and four faculty mentors from Furman University and UNCA have participated at the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute to develop the Radio Sky project. The project united physics and multimedia majors and allowed these students to apply their knowledge of different disciplines to a common goal. One component of the project is the development and production of a cylinder to be displayed in portable STARLAB planetariums. The cylinder gives a thorough view of the Milky Way and of several other celestial sources in radio wavelengths, yet these images are difficult to perceive without prior knowledge of radio astronomy. Consequently, the Radio Sky team created a multimedia presentation to accompany the cylinder. This multimedia component contains six informative lessons on radio astronomy assembled by the physics interns and numerous illustrations and animations created by the multimedia interns. The cylinder and multimedia components complement each other and provide a unique, thorough, and highly intelligible perspective on radio astronomy. The project is near completion and the final draft will be sent to Learning Technologies, Inc., for marketing to owners of STARLAB planetariums throughout the world. The development of the Radio Sky project has also provided a template for potential similar projects that examine our universe in different wavelengths, such as gamma ray, x-ray, and infrared. We acknowledge support from the NSF Internship in Public Science Education Program grant number 0324729.

  14. Indian Astronomy: the missing link in Eurocentric history of Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haque, Shirin; Sharma, Deva

    2016-06-01

    A comprehensive history of Astronomy should show in reasonable chronological order, the contributions from wherever they arise in the world, once they are reliably documented. However, the authors note that consistently, the extremely rich contributions from Ancient Indian scholars like Aryabatha and Bhramagupta are omitted in Eurocentric education and syllabi. It is speculated whether religious underpinnings could have been responsible for its suppression in the past. An appeal is made to represent the history of Astronomy in Eurocentric versions, to be inclusive of Indian Astronomy as accurately and completely as possible in science education.

  15. Solar radio observations and radio interference monitoring in Roztoky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monstein, C.; Baluďanský, D.

    2013-10-01

    This paper is part of a planned measurement campaign in which spectrum measurements were carried out at different locations worldwide within potential locations of the e-Callisto network. The results of measurements at the Callisto observing station in Roztoky, which took place at the beginning of May 2013, are presented. Measurements were made out with a special low cost broadband logarithmic periodic antenna connected to a Callisto spectrometer designed and built at ETH Zurich (Benz, 2004). This study provides the technical basis to decide whether it is possible to make solar spectroscopic measurements below 1 GHz (λ>30 cm) at the observing station. In terms of electromagnetic interference, Roztoky is not perfect for broadband spectroscopic solar radio astronomy observations due to non negligible radio interference level from the nearby FM-transmitters. Nevertheless, low frequency observations below 80 MHz, as well as observations in some small bands above 116 MHz can be done.

  16. The history of radio telescopes, 1945-1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Woodruff T.

    2009-08-01

    Forged by the development of radar during World War II, radio astronomy revolutionized astronomy during the decade after the war. A new universe was revealed, centered not on stars and planets, but on the gas between the stars, on explosive sources of unprecedented luminosity, and on hundreds of mysterious discrete sources with no optical identifications. Using “radio telescopes” that looked nothing like traditional (optical) telescopes, radio astronomers were a very different breed from traditional (optical) astronomers. This pathbreaking of radio astronomy also made it much easier for later “astronomies” and their “telescopes” (X-ray, ultraviolet, infrared, gamma-ray) to become integrated into astronomy after the launch of the space age in the 1960s. This paper traces the history of radio telescopes from 1945 through about 1990, from the era of converted small-sized, military radar antennas to that of large interferometric arrays connected by complex electronics and computers; from the era of strip-chart recordings measured by rulers to powerful computers and display graphics; from the era of individuals and small groups building their own equipment to that of Big Science, large collaborations and national observatories.

  17. Millisecond solar radio spikes observed at 1420 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabrowski, B. P.; Kus, A. J.

    We present results from observations of narrowband solar millisecond radio spikes at 1420 MHz. Observing data were collected between February 2000 and December 2001 with the 15-m radio telescope at the Centre for Astronomy Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, Poland, equipped with a radio spectrograph that covered the 1352-1490 MHz frequency band. The radio spectrograph has 3 MHz frequency resolution and 80 microsecond time resolution. We analyzed the individual radio spike duration, bandwidth and rate of frequency drift. A part of the observed spikes showed well-outlined subtle structures. On dynamic radio spectrograms of the investigated events we notice complex structures formed by numerous individual spikes known as chains of spikes and distinctly different structure of columns. Positions of active regions connected with radio spikes emission were investigated. It turns out that most of them are located near the center of the solar disk, suggesting strong beaming of the spikes emission.

  18. Reminiscence of my Sixty-five year Voyage in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shouguan

    2016-06-01

    I returned to China from the United Kingdom in 1953, then worked in Purple Mountain Observatory. It was the early days of new China. The elder generation of astronomers was undertaking an effort of “repairing broken and filling defect” during those post-war years, and started planning and laying the foundation of modern astronomy. Under their leadership, I started a journey of astronomy whose main task was construction. The journey has been full of twists and turns. As a result of the “Great Leap Forward” in 1958 and the 1966 launch of the decade-long “Cultural Revolution” period, the situation of construction in astronomy was similar to that in other sciences, suffering bad effects. Not until the “Reform and Opening up” period after those events was construction able to continue, and various disciplines and international connections began to open. A “passage” had gradually developed. In this new circumstance, I kept pursuing the pioneers to explore a forward direction. Looking back today, this journey has been three periods of a four generation relay. This article is divided into three sections that describe my research work in these times that I recall: (1) Looking back at the beginning of the return and tracing the footprints of the founders. (2) Recalling my radio astronomy tour. (3) Retrospection and expectation of LAMOST.

  19. Gravitational wave astronomy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finn, L. S.

    Astronomers rely on a multiplicity of observational perspectives in order to infer the nature of the Universe. Progress in astronomy has historically been associated with new or improved observational perspectives. Gravitational wave detectors now under construction will provide us with a perspective on the Universe fundamentally different from any we have come to know. With this new perspective comes the hope of new insights and understanding, not just of exotic astrophysical processes, but of "bread-and-butter" astrophysics: e.g., stars and stellar evolution, galaxy formation and evolution, neutron star structure, and cosmology. In this report the author discusses briefly a small subset of the areas of conventional, "bread-and-butter" astrophysics where we can reasonably hope that gravitational wave observations will provide us with valuable new insights and understandings.

  20. Astronomy on a Landfill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venner, L.

    2008-11-01

    Engaging ``K-to-Gray'' audiences (children, families, and older adults) in astronomical activities is one of the main goals of the New Jersey Meadowlands Commission Center for Environmental and Scientific Education (CESE) and the William D. McDowell Observatory located in Lyndhurst, NJ, operated by Ramapo College of New Jersey. Perched atop a closed and reclaimed municipal solid waste landfill, our new LEED--certified building (certification pending) and William D. McDowell observatory will assist in bringing the goals of the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009) to the ˜25,000 students and ˜15,000 visitors that visit our site from the NY/NJ region each year.

  1. Evaluating Astronomy Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zirbel, E. L.

    2002-12-01

    A set of non-traditional astronomy laboratories for non-science majors will be presented along with evaluations of lab technicians (these labs were originally developed at the College of Staten Island of the City University of New York). The goal of these labs is twofold: (a) to provide the students with hands-on experiences of scientific methodology and (b) to provoke critical thinking. Because non-science majors are often rather resistant to learning the relevant methodology - and especially to thinking critically - this manual is structured differently. It does not only provide traditional cook-book recipes but also contains several leading questions to make the students realize why they are doing what. The students are encouraged to write full sentences and explain how they reach which conclusions. This poster summarizes the experiences of the laboratory assistants that worked with the instructor and presents how they judge the effectiveness of the laboratories.

  2. Ancient Hawaiian Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    The Hawaiian Islands provide a cultural setting where the prominent place of astronomy within religious, navigational, and calendrical traditions is evident from a rich ethnohistoric record. The many hundreds of temple platforms and enclosures (heiau) whose remains survive across the archipelago have provided a natural focus for archaeoastronomers not only to examine orientations and structural alignments but to explore a range of issues relating to field method and practice in a context where spatially patterned archaeological data and ethnohistorical evidence exist in relatively fine balance. As archaeoastronomy has developed within the islands, it has become better integrated into archaeological investigations tackling questions of broader anthropological significance, one of the most fascinating being when, how, and why Polynesian chiefdoms became transformed into archaic states, something that happened here but nowhere else in Polynesia.

  3. Infrared astronomy after IRAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieke, G. H.; Thompson, R. I.; Werner, M. W.; Witteborn, F. C.; Becklin, E. E.

    1986-01-01

    The development of infrared astronomy in the wake of IRAS is discussed. Attention is given to an overview of next generation infrared telescope technology, with emphasis on the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) which has been built to replace IRAS in the 1990s. Among the instruments to be included on SIRTF are: a wide-field high-resolution camera covering the infrared range 3-30 microns with large arrays of detectors; an imaging photometer operating in the range 3-700 microns; and a spectrograph covering the range 2.5-200 microns with resolutions of 2 and 0.1 percent. Observational missions for the SIRTF are proposed in connection with: planetary formation; star formation; cosmic energy sources; active galactic nuclei; and quasars.

  4. Astronomy and political theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campion, Nicholas

    2011-06-01

    This paper will argue that astronomical models have long been applied to political theory, from the use of the Sun as a symbol of the emperor in Rome to the application of Copernican theory to the needs of absolute monarchy. We will begin with consideration of astral divination (the use of astronomy to ascertain divine intentions) in the ancient Near East. Particular attention will be paid to the use of Newton's discovery that the universe operates according to a single set of laws in order to support concepts of political quality and eighteenth century Natural Rights theory. We will conclude with consideration of arguments that the discovery of the expanding, multi-galaxy universe, stimulated political uncertainty in the 1930s, and that photographs of the Earth from Apollo spacecraft encouraged concepts of the `global village'.

  5. Gravity-Wave astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grishchuk, Leonid Petrovich

    The article concerns astronomical phenomena , related with discovery of gravitational waves of various nature: 1) primordial (relic) gravitational waves, analogous to MWBR 2) gravitational waves due to giant collisions in the Universe between 2a) Macroscopic black Holes in the centers of Galaxies 2b) Tidal disruption of neutron stars by Black holes 2c) deformations of the space-time by stellar mass Black Holes moving near giant Black Holes in the centers of Galaxies 2d) Supernovae phenomena 2e) accretion phenomena on Black Holes and Neutron stars. The Earth based interferometric technics (LIGO Project) to detect gravitational waves is described as well as the perspectiva for a space Laser Interferometric Antena (LISA)is discussed. The article represents a modified text of the Plenary talk "Gravity-Wave astronomy" given at the XI International gravitational Conference (July 1986, Stockholm, Sweden).

  6. Promoting Mental Model Building in Astronomy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ian; Barker, Miles; Jones, Alister

    2003-01-01

    While astronomy has recently re-emerged in many science curricula, there remain unresolved teaching and learning difficulties peculiar to astronomy education. This paper argues that mental model building, the core process in astronomy itself, should be reflected in astronomy education. Also, this crucial skill may promote a better understanding of…

  7. Conceptual Astronomy Knowledge among Amateur Astronomers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berendsen, Margaret L.

    2005-01-01

    Amateur astronomers regularly serve as informal astronomy educators for their communities. This research inquires into the level of knowledge of basic astronomy concepts among amateur astronomers and examines factors related to amateur astronomy that affect that knowledge. Using the concept questions from the Astronomy Diagnostic Test Version 2,…

  8. Astronomy Enrollments and Degrees: Results from the 2012 Survey of Astronomy Enrollments and Degrees. Focus On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvey, Patrick; Nicholson, Starr

    2014-01-01

    Interest in astronomy degrees in the U.S. remains strong, with astronomy enrollments at or near all-time highs for the 2012-13 academic year. The total number of students taking an introductory astronomy course at a degree-granting physics or astronomy department is approaching 200,000. Enrollments in introductory astronomy courses have been…

  9. Astronomy Education. Third Newsletter of the TGEA (Task Group on Education in Astronomy).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wentzel, Donat G., Comp.

    This newsletter, published by the Task Group on Education in Astronomy, focuses on astronomy education both for the public and for schools. Topics in this issue include new publications related to astronomy education; a roster of consultants on astronomy education; a collection of course syllabuses (college level); teaching astronomy in schools,…

  10. Impulsive radio discharges near Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, D. R.; Warwick, J. W.; Pearce, J. B.; Carr, T. D.; Schauble, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    Nonthermal radio emissions from the Saturn system were first detected by the Voyager planetary radio astronomy (PRA) experiment on board Voyager 1 in January 1980. Since then emission between 100 kHz and 1 MHz from the planet, termed Saturn kilometric radiation (SKR), has been received almost continuously. A description is presented of eight characteristics which have been fairly well defined by the Voyager 1 encounter. These include a very flat broadband frequency spectrum, a period of approximately 10 h 10 min, a change in the envelope shape of episodes between pre and postencounter, an intensity population structure typical of plural populations, and an episodic structure of a width of approximately 180 deg. It was found that postencounter episodes continue for about three times as long as preencounter ones, and that postencounter bursts are left-circularly polarized at high frequencies. At least one episode shows the onset of high frequency events some time before that of lower frequency ones.

  11. Alaska Athabascan stellar astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Stellar astronomy is a fundamental component of Alaska Athabascan cultures that facilitates time-reckoning, navigation, weather forecasting, and cosmology. Evidence from the linguistic record suggests that a group of stars corresponding to the Big Dipper is the only widely attested constellation across the Northern Athabascan languages. However, instruction from expert Athabascan consultants shows that the correlation of these names with the Big Dipper is only partial. In Alaska Gwich'in, Ahtna, and Upper Tanana languages the Big Dipper is identified as one part of a much larger circumpolar humanoid constellation that spans more than 133 degrees across the sky. The Big Dipper is identified as a tail, while the other remaining asterisms within the humanoid constellation are named using other body part terms. The concept of a whole-sky humanoid constellation provides a single unifying system for mapping the night sky, and the reliance on body-part metaphors renders the system highly mnemonic. By recognizing one part of the constellation the stargazer is immediately able to identify the remaining parts based on an existing mental map of the human body. The circumpolar position of a whole-sky constellation yields a highly functional system that facilitates both navigation and time-reckoning in the subarctic. Northern Athabascan astronomy is not only much richer than previously described; it also provides evidence for a completely novel and previously undocumented way of conceptualizing the sky---one that is unique to the subarctic and uniquely adapted to northern cultures. The concept of a large humanoid constellation may be widespread across the entire subarctic and have great antiquity. In addition, the use of cognate body part terms describing asterisms within humanoid constellations is similarly found in Navajo, suggesting a common ancestor from which Northern and Southern Athabascan stellar naming strategies derived.

  12. The Astronomy Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Douglas P.

    2012-05-01

    The Astronomy Workshop (http://janus.astro.umd.edu) is a collection of interactive online educational tools developed for use by students, educators, professional astronomers, and the general public. The more than 20 tools in the Astronomy Workshop are rated for ease-of-use, and have been extensively tested in large university survey courses as well as more specialized classes for undergraduate majors and graduate students. Here we briefly describe the tools most relevant for the Professional Dynamical Astronomer. Solar Systems Visualizer: The orbital motions of planets, moons, and asteroids in the Solar System as well as many of the planets in exoplanetary systems are animated at their correct relative speeds in accurate to-scale drawings. Zoom in from the chaotic outer satellite systems of the giant planets all the way to their innermost ring systems. Orbital Integrators: Determine the orbital evolution of your initial conditions for a number of different scenarios including motions subject to general central forces, the classic three-body problem, and satellites of planets and exoplanets. Zero velocity curves are calculated and automatically included on relevant plots. Orbital Elements: Convert quickly and easily between state vectors and orbital elements with Changing the Elements. Use other routines to visualize your three-dimensional orbit and to convert between the different commonly used sets of orbital elements including the true, mean, and eccentric anomalies. Solar System Calculators: These tools calculate a user-defined mathematical expression simultaneously for all of the Solar System's planets (Planetary Calculator) or moons (Satellite Calculator). Key physical and orbital data are automatically accessed as needed.

  13. Interdisciplinary Astronomy Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nerantzis, Nikolaos; Mitrouda, Aikaterini; Reizopoulou, Ioanna; Sidiropoulou, Eirini; Hatzidimitriou, Antonios

    2016-04-01

    On November 9th, 2015, three didactical hours were dedicated to Interdisciplinary Astronomy Activities (http://wp.me/p6Hte2-1I). Our students and their teachers formed three groups and in rotation, were engaged with the following activities: (a) viewing unique images of the Cosmos in the mobile planetarium STARLAB (http://www.planitario.gr/tholos-starlab-classic-standard.html), (b) watching the following videos: Journey to the end of the universe (https://youtu.be/Ufl_Nwbl8xs), Rosetta update (https://youtu.be/nQ9ivd7wv30), The Solar System (https://youtu.be/d66dsagrTa0), Ambition the film (https://youtu.be/H08tGjXNHO4) in the school's library. Students and teachers were informed about our solar system, the Rosetta mission, the universe, etc. and (c) tactile activities such as Meet our home and Meet our neighbors (http://astroedu.iau.org, http://nuclio.org/astroneighbours/resources) and the creation of planets' 3D models (Geology-Geography A' Class Student's book, pg.15). With the activities above we had the pleasure to join the Cosmic Light Edu Kit / International Year of Light 2015 program. After our Interdisciplinary Astronomy Activities, we did a "small" research: our students had to fill an evaluation about their educational gains and the results can be found here http://wp.me/p6Hte2-2q. Moreover, we discussed about Big Ideas of Science (http://wp.me/p3oRiZ-dm) and through the "big" impact of the Rosetta mission & the infinity of our universe, we print posters with relevant topics and place them to the classrooms. We thank Rosa Doran (Nuclio - President of the Executive Council) for her continuous assistance and support on innovative science teaching proposals. She is an inspiration.

  14. The Astronomy Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Douglas P.

    2013-05-01

    Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): The Astronomy Workshop (http://janus.astro.umd.edu) is a collection of interactive online educational tools developed for use by students, educators, professional astronomers, and the general public. The more than 20 tools in the Astronomy Workshop are rated for ease-of-use, and have been extensively tested in large university survey courses as well as more specialized classes for undergraduate majors and graduate students. Here we briefly describe the tools most relevant for the Professional Dynamical Astronomer. Solar Systems Visualizer: The orbital motions of planets, moons, and asteroids in the Solar System as well as many of the planets in exoplanetary systems are animated at their correct relative speeds in accurate to-scale drawings. Zoom in from the chaotic outer satellite systems of the giant planets all the way to their innermost ring systems. Orbital Integrators: Determine the orbital evolution of your initial conditions for a number of different scenarios including motions subject to general central forces, the classic three-body problem, and satellites of planets and exoplanets. Zero velocity curves are calculated and automatically included on relevant plots. Orbital Elements: Convert quickly and easily between state vectors and orbital elements with Changing the Elements. Use other routines to visualize your three-dimensional orbit and to convert between the different commonly used sets of orbital elements including the true, mean, and eccentric anomalies. Solar System Calculators: These tools calculate a user-defined mathematical expression simultaneously for all of the Solar System's planets (Planetary Calculator) or moons (Satellite Calculator). Key physical and orbital data are automatically accessed as needed.

  15. Applied Historical Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, F. Richard

    2014-01-01

    F. Richard Stephenson has spent most of his research career -- spanning more than 45 years -- studying various aspects of Applied Historical Astronomy. The aim of this interdisciplinary subject is the application of historical astronomical records to the investigation of problems in modern astronomy and geophysics. Stephenson has almost exclusively concentrated on pre-telescopic records, especially those preserved from ancient and medieval times -- the earliest reliable observations dating from around 700 BC. The records which have mainly interested him are of eclipses (both solar and lunar), supernovae, sunspots and aurorae, and Halley's Comet. The main sources of early astronomical data are fourfold: records from ancient and medieval East Asia (China, together with Korea and Japan); ancient Babylon; ancient and medieval Europe; and the medieval Arab world. A feature of Stephenson's research is the direct consultation of early astronomical texts in their original language -- either working unaided or with the help of colleagues. He has also developed a variety of techniques to help interpret the various observations. Most pre-telescopic observations are very crude by present-day standards. In addition, early motives for skywatching were more often astrological rather than scientific. Despite these drawbacks, ancient and medieval astronomical records have two remarkable advantages over modern data. Firstly, they can enable the investigation of long-term trends (e.g. in the terrestrial rate of rotation), which in the relatively short period covered by telescopic observations are obscured by short-term fluctuations. Secondly, over the lengthy time-scale which they cover, significant numbers of very rare events (such as Galactic supernovae) were reported, which have few -- if any-- counterparts in the telescopic record. In his various researches, Stephenson has mainly focused his attention on two specific topics. These are: (i) long-term changes in the Earth's rate of

  16. Art & Astronomie - impressions celestes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazé, Yaël

    2015-10-01

    Ce livre revisite l'histoire de l'art dans ce qu'elle a de plus universel : son rapport au ciel. De l'Orient à l'Occident, de l'Antiquité à l'époque contemporaine, du classique au plus inattendu, il crée un espace singulier où se mêlent art et science, un musée imaginaire croisant sensibilité intime et compréhension du Cosmos, un jeu sans cesse réinventé...; car il n'y a pas une seule manière de regarder les étoiles. Bien sûr, le ciel possède un énorme pouvoir évocateur, une force inspiratrice à nulle autre pareille, mais l'inspiration n'est pas la seule des relations entre l'art et l'astronomie. En effet, les artistes peuvent apporter leur grain de sel aux révolutions scientifiques, tandis que l'astronomie peut aider à comprendre certaines œuvres. Avec près de 600 illustrations, cet ouvrage n'a pas pour but d'égrener la liste exhaustive des représentations de ciel étoilé, clair de lune, ambiance crépusculaire ou soleil de midi, mais plutôt d'aborder les multiples relations entre l'art et la science. Il s'agit d'une invitation à un voyage aux frontières mouvantes et incertaines des plus belles réalisations de l'esprit humain.

  17. Color in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecher, K.

    2002-05-01

    The vocabulary of astronomy is riddled with color terms. Stars are referred to as red or blue - even brown -- though rarely green. Astronomers say light from a star can be "blueshifted" or that it can be "reddened". Color, however, is not a simple one-dimensional physical parameter equal to wavelength or frequency. It is a complex, psychophysical phenomenon involving at least three degrees of freedom - hue, saturation and brightness -- as well as observational context. Nonetheless, many astronomers treat hue alone or hue plus saturation as the same thing as color. A recent report on "the color of the universe" is a case in point (Baldry and Glazebrook, Bull. Am. As. Soc., 34, No. 1, 571, 2002). Even discounting the authors' initial and (possibly) subsequent errors in arriving at a "color" associated with the composite spectrum derived from the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (first reported as "pale turquoise", then "beige"), the method of viewing the light was left vague, and context is important. For example, consider the question "What color is the Moon?" When viewed from Earth, the Moon appears white against the black sky. Place a piece of "average" lunar material in a lighted room, and it will appear dark gray. To most human observers, the 2000 or so naked eye stars observable from the northern hemisphere all appear white, with the few exceptions which look reddish/orange such as Betelgeuse, Arcturus, Aldeberan, Antares and Pollux. Yet the dimmer double star companion to Alberio can appear bluish when viewed beside its much brighter yellowish/orange neighbor if both are viewed by eye through a small aperture, slightly defocused telescope. This presentation will explore several visual phenomena that can help clarify the concept of color in astronomy. Supported in part by NSF grant # DUE-9950551 for "Project LITE: Light Inquiry Through Experiments".

  18. Chinese Calendar and Mathematical Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaochun

    The Chinese calendar (li 历) was a system of mathematical astronomy that included mathematical techniques for the computation of celestial movements. It was the basis for producing astronomical ephemerides and annual almanacs. Calendar making started early in China. Since the Great Inception calendar reform in 104 BC, China has produced about 100 calendars (astronomical systems). The focus of calendar making was the prediction of solar, lunar, and planetary motions. As astronomy developed, new observational discoveries were incorporated into the calendar to make the system more precise. The history of astronomy in ancient China was largely a history of calendar making.

  19. Astronomy and Culture in Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urama, J. O.

    Astronomy cannot be said to be entirely new in Nigeria. There are hundreds of cosmogony and ancient astronomical practices in Nigeria, but these need to be studied systematically. Nigerian ethnoastronomy is revealed in the folklore, ancient architecture, religious practices, traditional poetry and art works of the different ethnic groups. Though expressed within a cultural framework, much of Nigerian ethnoastronomy contains scientific principles of astronomy. This paper discusses the need to bridge the gap between ethnoastronomy in Nigeria and modern astronomy by providing scientific interpretation to such cosmogonies and ancient astronomical practices.

  20. Voyager 2 radio observations of uranus.

    PubMed

    Warwick, J W; Evans, D R; Romig, J H; Sawyer, C B; Desch, M D; Kaiser, M L; Alexander, J K; Carr, T D; Staelin, D H; Gulkis, S; Poynter, R L; Aubier, M; Boischot, A; Leblanc, Y; Lecacheux, A; Pedersen, B M; Zarka, P

    1986-07-04

    Within distances to Uranus of about 6 x 10(6) kilometers (inbound) and 35 x 10(6) kilometers (outbound), the planetary radio astronomy experiment aboard Voyager 2 detected a wide variety of radio emissions. The emission was modulated in a period of 17.24 +/- 0.01 hours, which is identified as the rotation period of Uranus' magnetic field. Of the two poles where the axis of the off-center magnetic dipole (measured by the magnetometer experiment aboard Voyager 2) meets the planetary surface, the one closer to dipole center is now located on the nightside of the planet. The radio emission generally had maximum power and bandwidth when this pole was tipped toward the spacecraft. When the spacecraft entered the nightside hemisphere, which contains the stronger surface magnetic pole, the bandwidth increased dramatically and thereafter remained large. Dynamically evolving radio events of various kinds embedded in these emissions suggest a Uranian magnetosphere rich in magnetohydrodynamic phenomena.