Science.gov

Sample records for radio frequency device

  1. High-power radio-frequency attenuation device

    DOEpatents

    Kerns, Q.A.; Miller, H.W.

    1981-12-30

    A resistor device for attenuating radio frequency power includes a radio frequency conductor connected to a series of fins formed of high relative magnetic permeability material. The fins are dimensional to accommodate the skin depth of the current conduction therethrough, as well as an inner heat conducting portion where current does not travel. Thermal connections for air or water cooling are provided for the inner heat conducting portions of each fin. Also disclosed is a resistor device to selectively alternate unwanted radio frequency energy in a resonant cavity.

  2. High power radio frequency attenuation device

    DOEpatents

    Kerns, Quentin A.; Miller, Harold W.

    1984-01-01

    A resistor device for attenuating radio frequency power includes a radio frequency conductor connected to a series of fins formed of high relative magnetic permeability material. The fins are dimensional to accommodate the skin depth of the current conduction therethrough, as well as an inner heat conducting portion where current does not travel. Thermal connections for air or water cooling are provided for the inner heat conducting portions of each fin. Also disclosed is a resistor device to selectively alternate unwanted radio frequency energy in a resonant cavity.

  3. Multi-mode radio frequency device

    DOEpatents

    Gilbert, Ronald W [Morgan Hill, CA; Carrender, Curtis Lee [Morgan Hill, CA; Anderson, Gordon A [Benton City, WA; Steele, Kerry D [Kennewick, WA

    2007-02-13

    A transponder device having multiple modes of operation, such as an active mode and a passive mode, wherein the modes of operation are selected in response to the strength of a received radio frequency signal. A communication system is also provided having a transceiver configured to transmit a radio frequency signal and to receive a responsive signal, and a transponder configured to operate in a plurality of modes and to activate modes of operation in response to the radio frequency signal. Ideally, each mode of operation is activated and deactivated independent of the other modes, although two or more modes may be concurrently operational.

  4. Radio frequency coaxial feedthrough device

    DOEpatents

    Owens, Thomas L.; Baity, Frederick W.; Hoffman, Daniel J.; Whealton, John H.

    1987-01-01

    A radio frequency coaxial vacuum feedthrough is provided which utilizes a cylindrical ceramic vacuum break formed of an alumina ceramic. The cylinder is coaxially disposed and brazed between tapered coaxial conductors to form a vacuum sealed connection between a pressurized upstream coaxial transmission line and a utilization device located within a vacuum container. The feedthrough provides 50 ohm matched impedance RF feedthrough up to about 500 MHz at power levels in the multimegawatt range.

  5. Authentication of Radio Frequency Identification Devices Using Electronic Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinnappa Gounder Periaswamy, Senthilkumar

    2010-01-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) tags are low-cost devices that are used to uniquely identify the objects to which they are attached. Due to the low cost and size that is driving the technology, a tag has limited computational capabilities and resources. This limitation makes the implementation of conventional security protocols to prevent…

  6. Flexible GaN for High Performance, Strainable Radio Frequency Devices (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-11-02

    devices on van der Waals (vdW) layers has been facilitated by the recent avail - ability of high -quality atomically smooth BN and graphene epi- taxial...AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2017-0333 FLEXIBLE GaN FOR HIGH PERFORMANCE, STRAINABLE RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES (POSTPRINT) Elizabeth A. Moore and Timothy...2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 5 April 2017 Interim 8 September 2014 – 5 March 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE FLEXIBLE GaN FOR HIGH

  7. High spectral purity Kerr frequency comb radio frequency photonic oscillator

    PubMed Central

    Liang, W.; Eliyahu, D.; Ilchenko, V. S.; Savchenkov, A. A.; Matsko, A. B.; Seidel, D.; Maleki, L.

    2015-01-01

    Femtosecond laser-based generation of radio frequency signals has produced astonishing improvements in achievable spectral purity, one of the basic features characterizing the performance of an radio frequency oscillator. Kerr frequency combs hold promise for transforming these lab-scale oscillators to chip-scale level. In this work we demonstrate a miniature 10 GHz radio frequency photonic oscillator characterized with phase noise better than −60 dBc Hz−1 at 10 Hz, −90 dBc Hz−1 at 100 Hz and −170 dBc Hz−1 at 10 MHz. The frequency stability of this device, as represented by Allan deviation measurements, is at the level of 10−10 at 1–100 s integration time—orders of magnitude better than existing radio frequency photonic devices of similar size, weight and power consumption. PMID:26260955

  8. Radio frequency detection assembly and method for detecting radio frequencies

    DOEpatents

    Cown, Steven H.; Derr, Kurt Warren

    2010-03-16

    A radio frequency detection assembly is described and which includes a radio frequency detector which detects a radio frequency emission produced by a radio frequency emitter from a given location which is remote relative to the radio frequency detector; a location assembly electrically coupled with the radio frequency detector and which is operable to estimate the location of the radio frequency emitter from the radio frequency emission which has been received; and a radio frequency transmitter electrically coupled with the radio frequency detector and the location assembly, and which transmits a radio frequency signal which reports the presence of the radio frequency emitter.

  9. 47 CFR 2.815 - External radio frequency power amplifiers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false External radio frequency power amplifiers. 2.815 Section 2.815 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Marketing of Radio-frequency Devices § 2.815...

  10. 47 CFR 2.815 - External radio frequency power amplifiers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External radio frequency power amplifiers. 2.815 Section 2.815 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Marketing of Radio-frequency Devices § 2.815...

  11. Portable Wireless LAN Device and Two-way Radio Threat Assessment for Aircraft Navigation Radios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Ely, Jay J.; Williams, Reuben A.; Smith, Laura J.; Salud, Maria Theresa P.

    2003-01-01

    Measurement processes, data and analysis are provided to address the concern for Wireless Local Area Network devices and two-way radios to cause electromagnetic interference to aircraft navigation radio systems. A radiated emission measurement process is developed and spurious radiated emissions from various devices are characterized using reverberation chambers. Spurious radiated emissions in aircraft radio frequency bands from several wireless network devices are compared with baseline emissions from standard computer laptops and personal digital assistants. In addition, spurious radiated emission data in aircraft radio frequency bands from seven pairs of two-way radios are provided, A description of the measurement process, device modes of operation and the measurement results are reported. Aircraft interference path loss measurements were conducted on four Boeing 747 and Boeing 737 aircraft for several aircraft radio systems. The measurement approach is described and the path loss results are compared with existing data from reference documents, standards, and NASA partnerships. In-band on-channel interference thresholds are compiled from an existing reference document. Using these data, a risk assessment is provided for interference from wireless network devices and two-way radios to aircraft systems, including Localizer, Glideslope, Very High Frequency Omnidirectional Range, Microwave Landing System and Global Positioning System. The report compares the interference risks associated with emissions from wireless network devices and two-way radios against standard laptops and personal digital assistants. Existing receiver interference threshold references are identified as to require more data for better interference risk assessments.

  12. 47 CFR 80.927 - Antenna radio frequency indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna radio frequency indicator. 80.927... Boats § 80.927 Antenna radio frequency indicator. The transmitter must be equipped with a device which provides visual indication whenever the transmitter is supplying power to the antenna. ...

  13. 47 CFR 80.927 - Antenna radio frequency indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna radio frequency indicator. 80.927... Boats § 80.927 Antenna radio frequency indicator. The transmitter must be equipped with a device which provides visual indication whenever the transmitter is supplying power to the antenna. ...

  14. 47 CFR 80.927 - Antenna radio frequency indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna radio frequency indicator. 80.927... Boats § 80.927 Antenna radio frequency indicator. The transmitter must be equipped with a device which provides visual indication whenever the transmitter is supplying power to the antenna. ...

  15. 47 CFR 80.927 - Antenna radio frequency indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna radio frequency indicator. 80.927... Boats § 80.927 Antenna radio frequency indicator. The transmitter must be equipped with a device which provides visual indication whenever the transmitter is supplying power to the antenna. ...

  16. 47 CFR 80.927 - Antenna radio frequency indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna radio frequency indicator. 80.927... Boats § 80.927 Antenna radio frequency indicator. The transmitter must be equipped with a device which provides visual indication whenever the transmitter is supplying power to the antenna. ...

  17. Interference with the operation of medical devices resulting from the use of radio frequency identification technology.

    PubMed

    Houliston, Bryan; Parry, David; Webster, Craig S; Merry, Alan F

    2009-06-19

    To replicate electromagnetic interference (EMI) with a common drug infusion device resulting from the use of radio frequency identification (RFID) technology in a simulated operating theatre environment. An infusion pump, of a type previously reported as having failed due to RFID EMI, was placed in radio frequency (RF) fields of various strengths, and its operation observed. Different strength RF fields were created by varying the number of RFID readers, the use of a high-gain RFID antenna, the distance between the reader(s) and the infusion pump, and the presence of an RFID tag on the infusion pump. The infusion pump was not affected by low-power RFID readers, even when in direct contact. The pump was disrupted by a high-power reader at 10 cm distance when an RFID tag was attached, and by a combination of high-power and low-power readers at 10 cm distance. Electronic medical devices may fail in the presence of high-power RFID readers, especially if the device is tagged. However, low-power RFID readers appear to be safer.

  18. Electromagnetic interference of cardiac rhythmic monitoring devices to radio frequency identification: analytical analysis and mitigation methodology.

    PubMed

    Ogirala, Ajay; Stachel, Joshua R; Mickle, Marlin H

    2011-11-01

    Increasing density of wireless communication and development of radio frequency identification (RFID) technology in particular have increased the susceptibility of patients equipped with cardiac rhythmic monitoring devices (CRMD) to environmental electro magnetic interference (EMI). Several organizations reported observing CRMD EMI from different sources. This paper focuses on mathematically analyzing the energy as perceived by the implanted device, i.e., voltage. Radio frequency (RF) energy transmitted by RFID interrogators is considered as an example. A simplified front-end equivalent circuit of a CRMD sensing circuitry is proposed for the analysis following extensive black-box testing of several commercial pacemakers and implantable defibrillators. After careful understanding of the mechanics of the CRMD signal processing in identifying the QRS complex of the heart-beat, a mitigation technique is proposed. The mitigation methodology introduced in this paper is logical in approach, simple to implement and is therefore applicable to all wireless communication protocols.

  19. Spatial transformation-enabled electromagnetic devices: from radio frequencies to optical wavelengths

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhi Hao; Turpin, Jeremy P.; Morgan, Kennith; Lu, Bingqian; Werner, Douglas H.

    2015-01-01

    Transformation optics provides scientists and engineers with a new powerful design paradigm to manipulate the flow of electromagnetic waves in a user-defined manner and with unprecedented flexibility, by controlling the spatial distribution of the electromagnetic properties of a medium. Using this approach, over the past decade, various previously undiscovered physical wave phenomena have been revealed and novel electromagnetic devices have been demonstrated throughout the electromagnetic spectrum. In this paper, we present versatile theoretical and experimental investigations on designing transformation optics-enabled devices for shaping electromagnetic wave radiation and guidance, at both radio frequencies and optical wavelengths. Different from conventional coordinate transformations, more advanced and versatile coordinate transformations are exploited here to benefit diverse applications, thereby providing expanded design flexibility, enhanced device performance, as well as reduced implementation complexity. These design examples demonstrate the comprehensive capability of transformation optics in controlling electromagnetic waves, while the associated novel devices will open up new paths towards future integrated electromagnetic component synthesis and design, from microwave to optical spectral regimes. PMID:26217054

  20. Spatial transformation-enabled electromagnetic devices: from radio frequencies to optical wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhi Hao; Turpin, Jeremy P; Morgan, Kennith; Lu, Bingqian; Werner, Douglas H

    2015-08-28

    Transformation optics provides scientists and engineers with a new powerful design paradigm to manipulate the flow of electromagnetic waves in a user-defined manner and with unprecedented flexibility, by controlling the spatial distribution of the electromagnetic properties of a medium. Using this approach, over the past decade, various previously undiscovered physical wave phenomena have been revealed and novel electromagnetic devices have been demonstrated throughout the electromagnetic spectrum. In this paper, we present versatile theoretical and experimental investigations on designing transformation optics-enabled devices for shaping electromagnetic wave radiation and guidance, at both radio frequencies and optical wavelengths. Different from conventional coordinate transformations, more advanced and versatile coordinate transformations are exploited here to benefit diverse applications, thereby providing expanded design flexibility, enhanced device performance, as well as reduced implementation complexity. These design examples demonstrate the comprehensive capability of transformation optics in controlling electromagnetic waves, while the associated novel devices will open up new paths towards future integrated electromagnetic component synthesis and design, from microwave to optical spectral regimes. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Adhoc electromagnetic compatibility testing of non-implantable medical devices and radio frequency identification

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of radiofrequency identification (RFID) in healthcare is increasing and concerns for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) pose one of the biggest obstacles for widespread adoption. Numerous studies have documented that RFID can interfere with medical devices. The majority of past studies have concentrated on implantable medical devices such as implantable pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs). This study examined EMC between RFID systems and non-implantable medical devices. Methods Medical devices were exposed to 19 different RFID readers and one RFID active tag. The RFID systems used covered 5 different frequency bands: 125–134 kHz (low frequency (LF)); 13.56 MHz (high frequency (HF)); 433 MHz; 915 MHz (ultra high frequency (UHF])) and 2.4 GHz. We tested three syringe pumps, three infusion pumps, four automatic external defibrillators (AEDs), and one ventilator. The testing procedure is modified from American National Standards Institute (ANSI) C63.18, Recommended Practice for an On-Site, Ad Hoc Test Method for Estimating Radiated Electromagnetic Immunity of Medical Devices to Specific Radio-Frequency Transmitters. Results For syringe pumps, we observed electromagnetic interference (EMI) during 13 of 60 experiments (22%) at a maximum distance of 59 cm. For infusion pumps, we observed EMI during 10 of 60 experiments (17%) at a maximum distance of 136 cm. For AEDs, we observed EMI during 18 of 75 experiments (24%) at a maximum distance of 51 cm. The majority of the EMI observed was classified as probably clinically significant or left the device inoperable. No EMI was observed for all medical devices tested during exposure to 433 MHz (two readers, one active tag) or 2.4 GHz RFID (two readers). Conclusion Testing confirms that RFID has the ability to interfere with critical medical equipment. Hospital staff should be aware of the potential for medical device EMI caused by RFID systems and should be encouraged to

  2. Adhoc electromagnetic compatibility testing of non-implantable medical devices and radio frequency identification.

    PubMed

    Seidman, Seth J; Guag, Joshua W

    2013-07-11

    The use of radiofrequency identification (RFID) in healthcare is increasing and concerns for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) pose one of the biggest obstacles for widespread adoption. Numerous studies have documented that RFID can interfere with medical devices. The majority of past studies have concentrated on implantable medical devices such as implantable pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs). This study examined EMC between RFID systems and non-implantable medical devices. Medical devices were exposed to 19 different RFID readers and one RFID active tag. The RFID systems used covered 5 different frequency bands: 125-134 kHz (low frequency (LF)); 13.56 MHz (high frequency (HF)); 433 MHz; 915 MHz (ultra high frequency (UHF])) and 2.4 GHz. We tested three syringe pumps, three infusion pumps, four automatic external defibrillators (AEDs), and one ventilator. The testing procedure is modified from American National Standards Institute (ANSI) C63.18, Recommended Practice for an On-Site, Ad Hoc Test Method for Estimating Radiated Electromagnetic Immunity of Medical Devices to Specific Radio-Frequency Transmitters. For syringe pumps, we observed electromagnetic interference (EMI) during 13 of 60 experiments (22%) at a maximum distance of 59 cm. For infusion pumps, we observed EMI during 10 of 60 experiments (17%) at a maximum distance of 136 cm. For AEDs, we observed EMI during 18 of 75 experiments (24%) at a maximum distance of 51 cm. The majority of the EMI observed was classified as probably clinically significant or left the device inoperable. No EMI was observed for all medical devices tested during exposure to 433 MHz (two readers, one active tag) or 2.4 GHz RFID (two readers). Testing confirms that RFID has the ability to interfere with critical medical equipment. Hospital staff should be aware of the potential for medical device EMI caused by RFID systems and should be encouraged to perform on-site RF immunity tests prior

  3. 47 CFR 2.815 - External radio frequency power amplifiers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... amplifier is any device which, (1) when used in conjunction with a radio transmitter as a signal source is capable of amplification of that signal, and (2) is not an integral part of a radio transmitter as... following: (1) The external radio frequency power amplifier shall not be capable of amplification in the...

  4. 47 CFR 2.815 - External radio frequency power amplifiers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... amplifier is any device which, (1) when used in conjunction with a radio transmitter as a signal source is capable of amplification of that signal, and (2) is not an integral part of a radio transmitter as... following: (1) The external radio frequency power amplifier shall not be capable of amplification in the...

  5. 47 CFR 2.815 - External radio frequency power amplifiers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... amplifier is any device which, (1) when used in conjunction with a radio transmitter as a signal source is capable of amplification of that signal, and (2) is not an integral part of a radio transmitter as... following: (1) The external radio frequency power amplifier shall not be capable of amplification in the...

  6. An investigation into the feasibility of locating portable medical devices using radio frequency identification devices and technology.

    PubMed

    Britton, J

    2007-01-01

    Portable medical devices represent an important resource for assisting healthcare delivery. The movement of portable devices often results in them being unavailable when needed. Tracking equipment using radiofrequency identification technology/devices (RFID) may provide a promising solution to the problems encountered in locating portable equipment. An RFID technology trial was undertaken at Royal Alexandra Hospital, Paisley. This involved the temporary installation of three active readers and attaching actively transmitting radio frequency tags to different portable medical devices. The active readers and computer system were linked using a bespoke data network. Tags and readers from two separate manufacturers were tested. Reliability difficulties were encountered when testing the technology from the first manufacturer, probably due to the casing of the medical device interfering with the signal from the tag. Improved results were obtained when using equipment from the second manufacturer with an overall error rate of 12.3%. Tags from this manufacturer were specifically designed to overcome problems observed with the first system tested. Findings from this proof of concept trial suggest that RFID technology could be used to track the location of equipment in a hospital.

  7. Portable Integrated Wireless Device Threat Assessment to Aircraft Radio Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salud, Maria Theresa P.; Williams, Reuben A. (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    An assessment was conducted on multiple wireless local area network (WLAN) devices using the three wireless standards for spurious radiated emissions to determine their threat to aircraft radio navigation systems. The measurement process, data and analysis are provided for devices tested using IEEE 802.11a, IEEE 802.11b, and Bluetooth as well as data from portable laptops/tablet PCs and PDAs (grouping known as PEDs). A comparison was made between wireless LAN devices and portable electronic devices. Spurious radiated emissions were investigated in the radio frequency bands for the following aircraft systems: Instrument Landing System Localizer and Glideslope, Very High Frequency (VHF) Communication, VHF Omnidirectional Range, Traffic Collision Avoidance System, Air Traffic Control Radar Beacon System, Microwave Landing System and Global Positioning System. Since several of the contiguous navigation systems were grouped under one encompassing measurement frequency band, there were five measurement frequency bands where spurious radiated emissions data were collected for the PEDs and WLAN devices. The report also provides a comparison between emissions data and regulatory emission limit.

  8. A new method of radio frequency links by coplanar coils for implantable medical devices.

    PubMed

    Xue, L; Hao, H W; Li, L; Ma, B Z

    2005-01-01

    A new method based on coplanar coils for the design of radio frequency links has been developed, to realize the communication between the programming wand and the implantable medical devices with shielding container simply and reliably. With the analysis of electronic and magnetic field theory, the communication model has been established and simulated, and the circuit has been designed and tested. The experimental results are consistent with the simulation fairly well. The voltage transfer ratio of the typical circuit with present parameters can reach as high as 0.02, which can fulfill the requirements of communication.

  9. Reconfigurable radio-frequency arbitrary waveforms synthesized in a silicon photonic chip.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Shen, Hao; Fan, Li; Wu, Rui; Niu, Ben; Varghese, Leo T; Xuan, Yi; Leaird, Daniel E; Wang, Xi; Gan, Fuwan; Weiner, Andrew M; Qi, Minghao

    2015-01-12

    Photonic methods of radio-frequency waveform generation and processing can provide performance advantages and flexibility over electronic methods due to the ultrawide bandwidth offered by the optical carriers. However, bulk optics implementations suffer from the lack of integration and slow reconfiguration speed. Here we propose an architecture of integrated photonic radio-frequency generation and processing and implement it on a silicon chip fabricated in a semiconductor manufacturing foundry. Our device can generate programmable radio-frequency bursts or continuous waveforms with only the light source, electrical drives/controls and detectors being off-chip. It modulates an individual pulse in a radio-frequency burst within 4 ns, achieving a reconfiguration speed three orders of magnitude faster than thermal tuning. The on-chip optical delay elements offer an integrated approach to accurately manipulating individual radio-frequency waveform features without constraints set by the speed and timing jitter of electronics, and should find applications ranging from high-speed wireless to defence electronics.

  10. Reconfigurable radio-frequency arbitrary waveforms synthesized in a silicon photonic chip

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian; Shen, Hao; Fan, Li; Wu, Rui; Niu, Ben; Varghese, Leo T.; Xuan, Yi; Leaird, Daniel E.; Wang, Xi; Gan, Fuwan; Weiner, Andrew M.; Qi, Minghao

    2015-01-01

    Photonic methods of radio-frequency waveform generation and processing can provide performance advantages and flexibility over electronic methods due to the ultrawide bandwidth offered by the optical carriers. However, bulk optics implementations suffer from the lack of integration and slow reconfiguration speed. Here we propose an architecture of integrated photonic radio-frequency generation and processing and implement it on a silicon chip fabricated in a semiconductor manufacturing foundry. Our device can generate programmable radio-frequency bursts or continuous waveforms with only the light source, electrical drives/controls and detectors being off-chip. It modulates an individual pulse in a radio-frequency burst within 4 ns, achieving a reconfiguration speed three orders of magnitude faster than thermal tuning. The on-chip optical delay elements offer an integrated approach to accurately manipulating individual radio-frequency waveform features without constraints set by the speed and timing jitter of electronics, and should find applications ranging from high-speed wireless to defence electronics. PMID:25581847

  11. Radio Frequency Microelectromechanical Systems [Book Chapter Manuscript

    SciTech Connect

    Nordquist, Christopher; Olsson, Roy H.

    2014-12-15

    Radio frequency microelectromechanical system (RF MEMS) devices are microscale devices that achieve superior performance relative to other technologies by taking advantage of the accuracy, precision, materials, and miniaturization available through microfabrication. To do this, these devices use their mechanical and electrical properties to perform a specific RF electrical function such as switching, transmission, or filtering. RF MEMS has been a popular area of research since the early 1990s, and within the last several years, the technology has matured sufficiently for commercialization and use in commercial market systems.

  12. Radio frequency spectrum management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sujdak, E. J., Jr.

    1980-03-01

    This thesis is a study of radio frequency spectrum management as practiced by agencies and departments of the Federal Government. After a brief introduction to the international agency involved in radio frequency spectrum management, the author concentrates on Federal agencies engaged in frequency management. These agencies include the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA), the Interdepartment Radio Advisory Committee (IRAC), and the Department of Defense (DoD). Based on an analysis of Department of Defense frequency assignment procedures, recommendations are given concerning decentralizing military frequency assignment by delegating broader authority to unified commanders. This proposal includes a recommendation to colocate the individual Service frequency management offices at the Washington level. This would result in reduced travel costs, lower manpower requirements, and a common tri-Service frequency management data base.

  13. Zero-Power Radio Device.

    SciTech Connect

    Brocato, Robert W.

    This report describes an unpowered radio receiver capable of detecting and responding to weak signals transmit ted from comparatively long distances . This radio receiver offers key advantages over a short range zero - power radio receiver previously described in SAND2004 - 4610, A Zero - Power Radio Receiver . The device described here can be fabricated as an integrated circuit for use in portable wireless devices, as a wake - up circuit, or a s a stand - alone receiver operating in conjunction with identification decoders or other electroni cs. It builds on key sub - components developed atmore » Sandia National Laboratories over many years. It uses surface acoustic wave (SAW) filter technology. It uses custom component design to enable the efficient use of small aperture antennas. This device uses a key component, the pyroelectric demodulator , covered by Sandia owned U.S. Patent 7397301, Pyroelectric Demodulating Detector [1] . This device is also described in Sandia owned U.S. Patent 97266446, Zero Power Receiver [2].« less

  14. Radio-frequency reflectometry on an undoped AlGaAs/GaAs single electron transistor

    SciTech Connect

    MacLeod, S. J.; See, A. M.; Keane, Z. K.

    2014-01-06

    Radio frequency reflectometry is demonstrated in a sub-micron undoped AlGaAs/GaAs device. Undoped single electron transistors (SETs) are attractive candidates to study single electron phenomena, due to their charge stability and robust electronic properties after thermal cycling. However, these devices require a large top-gate, which is unsuitable for the fast and sensitive radio frequency reflectometry technique. Here, we demonstrate that rf reflectometry is possible in an undoped SET.

  15. Implantation of radio frequency identification device (RFID) microchip in disaster victim identification (DVI).

    PubMed

    Meyer, Harald J; Chansue, Nantarika; Monticelli, Fabio

    2006-03-10

    The tsunami catastrophe of December 2004 left more than 200,000 dead. Disaster victim identification (DVI) teams were presented with the unprecedented challenge of identifying thousands of mostly markedly putrefied and partially skeletised bodies. To this end, an adequate body tagging method is essential. Conventional body bag tagging in terms of writing on body bags and placing of tags inside body bags proved unsatisfactory and problem prone due to consequences of cold storage, formalin (formaldehyde) embalming and body numbers inside storage facilities. The placement of radio frequency identification device (RFID) microchips inside victim bodies provided a practical solution to problems of body tagging and attribution in the DVI setting encountered by the Austrian DVI team in Thailand in early 2005.

  16. Feasibility results of an electromagnetic compatibility test protocol to evaluate medical devices to radio frequency identification exposure.

    PubMed

    Seidman, Seth J; Bekdash, Omar; Guag, Joshua; Mehryar, Maryam; Booth, Paul; Frisch, Paul

    2014-08-03

    The use of radio frequency identification (RFID) systems in healthcare is increasing, and concerns for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) pose one of the biggest obstacles for widespread adoption. Numerous studies have demonstrated that RFID systems can interfere with medical devices; however, the majority of past studies relied on time-consuming and burdensome test schemes based on ad hoc test methods applied to individual RFID systems. This paper presents the results of using an RFID simulator that allows for faster evaluation of RFID-medical device EMC against a library of RFID test signals at various field strengths. The results of these tests demonstrate the feasibility and adequacy of simulator testing and can be used to support its incorporation into applicable consensus standards. This work can aid the medical device community in better assessing the risks associated with medical device exposure to RFID.

  17. Feature Selection and Classifier Development for Radio Frequency Device Identification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    adds important background knowledge for this research . 41 Four leading RF-based device identification methods have been proposed: Radio...appropriate level of dimensionality. Both qualitative and quantitative DRA dimensionality assessment methods are possible. Prior RF-DNA DRA research , e.g...Employing experimental designs to find optimal algorithm settings has been seen in hyperspectral anomaly detection research , c.f. [513–520], but not

  18. Radio frequency power load and associated method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, III, William Herbert (Inventor); Chavers, Donald Gregory (Inventor); Richeson, James J. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A radio frequency power load and associated method. A radio frequency power load apparatus includes a container and a fluid having an ion source therein, the fluid being contained in the container. Two conductors are immersed in the fluid. A radio frequency transmission system includes a radio frequency transmitter, a radio frequency amplifier connected to the transmitter and a radio frequency power load apparatus connected to the amplifier. The apparatus includes a fluid having an ion source therein, and two conductors immersed in the fluid. A method of dissipating power generated by a radio frequency transmission system includes the steps of: immersing two conductors of a radio frequency power load apparatus in a fluid having an ion source therein; and connecting the apparatus to an amplifier of the transmission system.

  19. Cumulative Interference to Aircraft Radios from Multiple Portable Electronic Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Truong X.

    2005-01-01

    Cumulative interference effects from portable electronic devices (PEDs) located inside a passenger cabin are conservatively estimated for aircraft radio receivers. PEDs' emission powers in an aircraft radio frequency band are first scaled according to their locations' interference path loss (IPL) values, and the results are summed to determine the total interference power. The multiple-equipment-factor (MEF) is determined by normalizing the result against the worst case contribution from a single device. Conservative assumptions were made and MEF calculations were performed for Boeing 737's Localizer, Glide-slope, Traffic Collision Avoidance System, and Very High Frequency Communication radio systems where full-aircraft IPL data were available. The results show MEF for the systems to vary between 10 and 14 dB. The same process was also used on the more popular window/door IPL data, and the comparison show the multiple-equipment-factor results came within one decibel (dB) of each other.

  20. Radio Frequency Interference: Radio Astronomy's Biggest Enemy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acevedo, F.; Ghosh, Tapasi

    1997-12-01

    As technology progresses, the demand for the usage of the electromagnetic spectrum increases with it. The development is so fast and prolific that clean band space for passive users such as Radio Astronomy is becoming ever so scarce. Even though, several spectral bands have been protected for Radio Astronomy by Federal Communication Commission (in the USA) under the recommendations of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), pressure for making more spectral space commercially usable is extreme. Although these commercial usages make our modern living at all possible, often the extreme vulnerability of passive users are are not fully appreciated, resulting in unwanted emissions (RFI) in the Radio Astronomy Bands. Another source of RFI is the fact that many of the electronic devices used in the observatories themselves generate radio waves. If proper precautions are not taken, these can be received back through the Radio Telescope itself. This problem is referred to as internal RFI. The focus of this paper is the search and diminution of internal RFI in the Arecibo Observatory in Arecibo, Puerto Rico. Using a simple setup of a log-periodic antenna and a Spectrum Analyzer, spectra spanning a frequency range of 100 - 1800 MHZ were recorded in some areas of the Observatory and the new Visitor Center (AOVEF). The measurements disclosed sources of radio emission among some of the digital electronic equipment in the Equipment room and a few displays in the AOVEF. Most prominent of these was a 2.5 MHz comb spanning the entire range of the measurements emitted from the SRENDIP and AOFTM machines. The respective groups were informed and corrective shielding & isolations were implemented immediately. In AOVEF, three displays, some audio-visual equipment, and video/digital cameras used by the visitors were found to be "leaky". In future, the use of such cameras will be prohibited and the exhibits will be screened appropriately.

  1. The Frequency Spectrum Radio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howkins, John, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    This journal issue focuses on the frequency spectrum used in radio communication and on the World Administrative Radio Conference, sponsored by the International Telecommunication Union, held in Geneva, Switzerland, in the fall of 1979. Articles describe the World Administrative Radio Conference as the most important radio communication conference…

  2. HIGH CURRENT RADIO FREQUENCY ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Abdelaziz, M.E.

    1963-04-01

    This patent relates to a high current radio frequency ion source. A cylindrical plasma container has a coil disposed around the exterior surface thereof along the longitudinal axis. Means are provided for the injection of an unionized gas into the container and for applying a radio frequency signal to the coil whereby a radio frequency field is generated within the container parallel to the longitudinal axis thereof to ionize the injected gas. Cathode and anode means are provided for extracting transverse to the radio frequency field from an area midway between the ends of the container along the longitudinal axis thereof the ions created by said radio frequency field. (AEC)

  3. Radio frequency analog electronics based on carbon nanotube transistors

    PubMed Central

    Kocabas, Coskun; Kim, Hoon-sik; Banks, Tony; Rogers, John A.; Pesetski, Aaron A.; Baumgardner, James E.; Krishnaswamy, S. V.; Zhang, Hong

    2008-01-01

    The potential to exploit single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in advanced electronics represents a continuing, major source of interest in these materials. However, scalable integration of SWNTs into circuits is challenging because of difficulties in controlling the geometries, spatial positions, and electronic properties of individual tubes. We have implemented solutions to some of these challenges to yield radio frequency (RF) SWNT analog electronic devices, such as narrow band amplifiers operating in the VHF frequency band with power gains as high as 14 dB. As a demonstration, we fabricated nanotube transistor radios, in which SWNT devices provide all of the key functions, including resonant antennas, fixed RF amplifiers, RF mixers, and audio amplifiers. These results represent important first steps to practical implementation of SWNTs in high-speed analog circuits. Comparison studies indicate certain performance advantages over silicon and capabilities that complement those in existing compound semiconductor technologies. PMID:18227509

  4. System-on-fluidics immunoassay device integrating wireless radio-frequency-identification sensor chips.

    PubMed

    Yazawa, Yoshiaki; Oonishi, Tadashi; Watanabe, Kazuki; Shiratori, Akiko; Funaoka, Sohei; Fukushima, Masao

    2014-09-01

    A simple and sensitive point-of-care-test (POCT) device for chemiluminescence (CL) immunoassay was devised and tested. The device consists of a plastic flow-channel reactor and two wireless-communication sensor chips, namely, a photo-sensor chip and a temperature-sensor chip. In the flow-channel reactor, a target antigen is captured by an antibody immobilized on the inner wall of the flow-channel and detected with enzyme labeled antibody by using CL substrate. The CL signal corresponding to the amount of antigen is measured by a newly developed radio-frequency-identification (RFID) sensor, which enables batteryless operation and wireless data communication with an external reader. As for the POCT device, its usage environment, especially temperature, varies for each measurement. Hence, temperature compensation is a key issue in regard to eliminating dark-signal fluctuation, which is a major factor in deterioration of the precision of the POCT device. A two-stage temperature-compensation scheme was adopted. As for the first stage, the signals of two photodiodes, one with an open window and one with a sealed window, integrated on the photo-sensor chip are differentiated to delete the dark signal. As for the second stage, the differentiated signal fluctuation caused by a temperature variation is compensated by using the other sensor chip (equipped with a temperature sensor). The dark-level fluctuation caused by temperature was reduced from 0.24 to 0.02 pA/°C. The POCT device was evaluated as a CL immunoassay of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). The flow rate of the CL reagent in the flow channel was optimized. As a result, the detection limit of the POCT device was 0.08 ng/ml (i.e., 0.4 μIU/ml). Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Stabilized radio-frequency quadrupole

    DOEpatents

    Lancaster, H.D.; Fugitt, J.A.; Howard, D.R.

    1982-09-29

    A long-vane stabilized radio frequency resonator for accelerating charged particles and including means defining a radio frequency resonator cavity, a plurality of long vanes mounted in the defining means for dividing the cavity into sections, and means interconnecting opposing ones of the plurality of vanes for stabilizing the resonator.

  6. Stabilized radio frequency quadrupole

    DOEpatents

    Lancaster, Henry D.; Fugitt, Jock A.; Howard, Donald R.

    1984-01-01

    A long-vane stabilized radio frequency resonator for accelerating charged particles and including means defining a radio frequency resonator cavity, a plurality of long vanes mounted in the defining means for dividing the cavity into sections, and means interconnecting opposing ones of the plurality of vanes for stabilizing the resonator.

  7. Two-Way Radio Modem Data Transfer for Newborn Hearing Screening Devices.

    PubMed

    Matulat, Peter; Lepper, Ingo; Böttcher, Peter; Parfitt, Ross; Oswald, Hans; Am Zehnhoff-Dinnesen, Antoinette; Deuster, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    The success of a newborn hearing screening program depends on successful tracking and follow-up to ensure that children who have had positive screening results in the first few days of life receive appropriate and timely diagnostic and intervention services. The easy availability, through a suitable infrastructure, of the data necessary for the tracking, diagnosis, and care of children concerned is a major key to enhancing the quality and efficiency of newborn hearing screening programs. Two systems for the automated two-way transmission of newborn hearing screening and configuration data, based on mobile communication technology, for the screening devices MADSEN AccuScreen ® and Natus Echo-Screen ® were developed and tested in a field study. Radio modem connections were compared with conventional analogue modem transmissions from Natus Echo-Screen devices for duration, transmission rate, number of lost connections, and frequency of use. The average session duration was significantly lower with the MADSEN AccuScreen (12 s) and Natus Echo-Screen both with radio modem (15 s) than the Natus Echo-Screen with analogue modem (108 s). The transmission rate was significantly higher (898 and 1,758 vs. 181 bytes/s) for the devices with radio modems. Both radio modem devices had significantly lower rates of broken connections after initial connection (2.1 and 0.9 vs. 5.5%). An increase in the frequency of data transmission from the clinics with mobile radio devices was found. The use of mobile communication technology in newborn hearing screening devices offers improvements in the average session duration, transmission rate, and reliability of the connection over analogue solutions. We observed a behavioral change in clinical staff using the new technology: the data exchange with the tracking center is more often used. The requirements for on-site support were reduced. These savings outweigh the small increase in costs for the Internet service provider.

  8. Feasibility results of an electromagnetic compatibility test protocol to evaluate medical devices to radio frequency identification exposure

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of radio frequency identification (RFID) systems in healthcare is increasing, and concerns for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) pose one of the biggest obstacles for widespread adoption. Numerous studies have demonstrated that RFID systems can interfere with medical devices; however, the majority of past studies relied on time-consuming and burdensome test schemes based on ad hoc test methods applied to individual RFID systems. Methods This paper presents the results of using an RFID simulator that allows for faster evaluation of RFID-medical device EMC against a library of RFID test signals at various field strengths. Results The results of these tests demonstrate the feasibility and adequacy of simulator testing and can be used to support its incorporation into applicable consensus standards. Conclusions This work can aid the medical device community in better assessing the risks associated with medical device exposure to RFID. PMID:25086451

  9. Radio Frequency Power Load and Associated Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, V. Karthik (Inventor); Freestone, Todd M. (Inventor); Sims, William Herbert, III (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A radio frequency power load and associated method. A radio frequency power load apparatus may include a container with an ionized fluid therein. The apparatus may include one conductor immersed in a fluid and another conductor electrically connected to the container. A radio frequency transmission system may include a radio frequency transmitter, a radio frequency amplifier connected to the transmitter and a radio frequency power load apparatus connected to the amplifier. The apparatus may include a fluid having an ion source therein, one conductor immersed in a fluid, and another conductor electrically connected to the container. A method of dissipating power generated by a radio frequency transmission system may include constructing a waveguide with ionized fluid in a container and connecting the waveguide to an amplifier of the transmission system.

  10. Stabilized radio frequency quadrupole

    DOEpatents

    Lancaster, H.D.; Fugitt, J.A.; Howard, D.R.

    1984-12-25

    Disclosed is a long-vane stabilized radio frequency resonator for accelerating charged particles and including means defining a radio frequency resonator cavity, a plurality of long vanes mounted in the defining means for dividing the cavity into sections, and means interconnecting opposing ones of the plurality of vanes for stabilizing the resonator. 5 figs.

  11. Rydberg-atom based radio-frequency electrometry using frequency modulation spectroscopy in room temperature vapor cells.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Santosh; Fan, Haoquan; Kübler, Harald; Jahangiri, Akbar J; Shaffer, James P

    2017-04-17

    Rydberg atom-based electrometry enables traceable electric field measurements with high sensitivity over a large frequency range, from gigahertz to terahertz. Such measurements are particularly useful for the calibration of radio frequency and terahertz devices, as well as other applications like near field imaging of electric fields. We utilize frequency modulated spectroscopy with active control of residual amplitude modulation to improve the signal to noise ratio of the optical readout of Rydberg atom-based radio frequency electrometry. Matched filtering of the signal is also implemented. Although we have reached similarly, high sensitivity with other read-out methods, frequency modulated spectroscopy is advantageous because it is well-suited for building a compact, portable sensor. In the current experiment, ∼3 µV cm-1 Hz-1/2 sensitivity is achieved and is found to be photon shot noise limited.

  12. Radio frequency telemetry system for sensors and actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N. (Inventor); Miranda, Felix A. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention discloses and teaches apparatus for combining Radio Frequency (RF) technology with novel micro-inductor antennas and signal processing circuits for RF telemetry of real time, measured data, from microelectromechanical system (MEMS) sensors, through electromagnetic coupling with a remote powering/receiving device. Such technology has many applications, but is especially useful in the biomedical area.

  13. Radio Frequency Telemetry System for Sensors and Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N. (Inventor); Miranda, Felix A. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention discloses and teaches apparatus for combining Radio Frequency (RF) technology with novel micro-inductor antennas and signal processing circuits for RF telemetry of real time, measured data, from microelectromechanical system (MEMS) sensors, through electromagnetic coupling with a remote poweringheceiving device. Such technology has many applications, but is especially useful in the biomedical area.

  14. Development progresses of radio frequency ion source for neutral beam injector in fusion devices.

    PubMed

    Chang, D H; Jeong, S H; Kim, T S; Park, M; Lee, K W; In, S R

    2014-02-01

    A large-area RF (radio frequency)-driven ion source is being developed in Germany for the heating and current drive of an ITER device. Negative hydrogen ion sources are the major components of neutral beam injection systems in future large-scale fusion experiments such as ITER and DEMO. RF ion sources for the production of positive hydrogen (deuterium) ions have been successfully developed for the neutral beam heating systems at IPP (Max-Planck-Institute for Plasma Physics) in Germany. The first long-pulse ion source has been developed successfully with a magnetic bucket plasma generator including a filament heating structure for the first NBI system of the KSTAR tokamak. There is a development plan for an RF ion source at KAERI to extract the positive ions, which can be applied for the KSTAR NBI system and to extract the negative ions for future fusion devices such as the Fusion Neutron Source and Korea-DEMO. The characteristics of RF-driven plasmas and the uniformity of the plasma parameters in the test-RF ion source were investigated initially using an electrostatic probe.

  15. Monitoring Radio Frequency Interference in Southwest Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapp, Steve

    2010-01-01

    The radio signals received from astronomical objects are extremely weak. Because of this, radio sources are easily shrouded by interference from devices such as satellites and cell phone towers. Radio astronomy is very susceptible to this radio frequency interference (RFI). Possibly even worse than complete veiling, weaker interfering signals can contaminate the data collected by radio telescopes, possibly leading astronomers to mistaken interpretations. To help promote student awareness of the connection between radio astronomy and RFI, an inquiry-based science curriculum was developed to allow high school students to determine RFI levels in their communities. The Quiet Skies Project_the result of a collaboration between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO)_encourages students to collect and analyze RFI data and develop conclusions as a team. Because the project focuses on electromagnetic radiation, it is appropriate for physics, physical science, chemistry, or general science classes. My class-about 50 students from 15 southwest Virginia high schools-participated in the Quiet Skies Project and were pioneers in the use of the beta version of the Quiet Skies Detector (QSD), which is used to detect RFI. Students have been involved with the project since 2005 and have collected and shared data with NRAO. In analyzing the data they have noted some trends in RFI in Southwest Virginia.

  16. Radio-frequency-assisted current startup in the fusion engineering device

    SciTech Connect

    Borowski, S. K.; Peng, Yueng Kay Martin; Kammash, T.

    1984-01-01

    Auxiliary radio-frequency (RF) heating of electrons before and during the current rise phase of a large tokamak, such as the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) (R{sub 0} = 4.8 m, a = 1.3 m, sigma = 1.6, B(R{sub 0}) = 3.62 T), is examined as a means of reducing both the initiation loop voltage and resistive flux expenditure during startup. Prior to current initiation, 1 to 2 MW of electron cyclotron resonance heating power at about90 GHz is used to create a small volume of high conductivity plasma (T {sub e} approx. = 100 eV, n {sub e} approx. = 10{supmore » 19} m{sup -3}) near the upper hybrid resonance (UHR) region. This plasma conditioning, referred to as preheating, permits a small radius (a{sub 0} approx. = 0.2 to 0.4 m) current channel to be established with a relatively low initial loop voltage (less than or equal to 25 V as opposed to about 100 V without rf assist). During the subsequent plasma expansion and current rise phase, a combination of rf heating (up to 5 MW) and linear current ramping leads to a substantial savings in voltseconds by (a) minimizing the resistive flux consumption and (b) producing broad current density profiles. (With such broad profiles, the internal flux requirements are maintained at or near the flat profile limit.)« less

  17. Radio-frequency-assisted current startup in the Fusion Engineering Device

    SciTech Connect

    Borowski, S.K.; Kammash, T.; Martin Peng, Y.K.

    1984-07-01

    Auxiliary radio-frequency (RF) heating of electrons before and during the current rise phase of a large tokamak, such as the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) (R/sub 0/ = 4.8 m, a = 1.3 m, sigma = 1.6, B(R/sub 0/) = 3.62 T), is examined as a means of reducing both the initiation loop voltage and resistive flux expenditure during startup. Prior to current initiation, 1 to 2 MW of electron cyclotron resonance heating power at about90 GHz is used to create a small volume of high conductivity plasma (T /sub e/ approx. = 100 eV, n /sub e/ approx. = 10/supmore » 19/ m/sup -3/) near the upper hybrid resonance (UHR) region. This plasma conditioning, referred to as preheating, permits a small radius (a/sub 0/ approx. = 0.2 to 0.4 m) current channel to be established with a relatively low initial loop voltage (less than or equal to 25 V as opposed to about 100 V without rf assist). During the subsequent plasma expansion and current rise phase, a combination of rf heating (up to 5 MW) and linear current ramping leads to a substantial savings in voltseconds by (a) minimizing the resistive flux consumption and (b) producing broad current density profiles. (With such broad profiles, the internal flux requirements are maintained at or near the flat profile limit.)« less

  18. NASA Radio Frequency Spectrum Management Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Radio Frequency (RF) Spectrum Management Manual sets forth procedures and guidelines for the management requirements for controlling the use of radio frequencies by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. It is applicable to NASA Headquarters and field installations. NASA Management Instruction 1102.3 assigns the authority for management of radio frequencies for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to the Associate Administrator for Space Operations, NASA Headquarters. This manual is issued in loose-leaf form and will be revised by page changes.

  19. Radio-frequency measurement in semiconductor quantum computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, TianYi; Chen, MingBo; Cao, Gang; Li, HaiOu; Xiao, Ming; Guo, GuoPing

    2017-05-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots have attracted wide interest for the potential realization of quantum computation. To realize efficient quantum computation, fast manipulation and the corresponding readout are necessary. In the past few decades, considerable progress of quantum manipulation has been achieved experimentally. To meet the requirements of high-speed readout, radio-frequency (RF) measurement has been developed in recent years, such as RF-QPC (radio-frequency quantum point contact) and RF-DGS (radio-frequency dispersive gate sensor). Here we specifically demonstrate the principle of the radio-frequency reflectometry, then review the development and applications of RF measurement, which provides a feasible way to achieve high-bandwidth readout in quantum coherent control and also enriches the methods to study these artificial mesoscopic quantum systems. Finally, we prospect the future usage of radio-frequency reflectometry in scaling-up of the quantum computing models.

  20. Radio Frequency Transistors and Circuits Based on CVD MoS2.

    PubMed

    Sanne, Atresh; Ghosh, Rudresh; Rai, Amritesh; Yogeesh, Maruthi Nagavalli; Shin, Seung Heon; Sharma, Ankit; Jarvis, Karalee; Mathew, Leo; Rao, Rajesh; Akinwande, Deji; Banerjee, Sanjay

    2015-08-12

    We report on the gigahertz radio frequency (RF) performance of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) monolayer MoS2 field-effect transistors (FETs). Initial DC characterizations of fabricated MoS2 FETs yielded current densities exceeding 200 μA/μm and maximum transconductance of 38 μS/μm. A contact resistance corrected low-field mobility of 55 cm(2)/(V s) was achieved. Radio frequency FETs were fabricated in the ground-signal-ground (GSG) layout, and standard de-embedding techniques were applied. Operating at the peak transconductance, we obtain short-circuit current-gain intrinsic cutoff frequency, fT, of 6.7 GHz and maximum intrinsic oscillation frequency, fmax, of 5.3 GHz for a device with a gate length of 250 nm. The MoS2 device afforded an extrinsic voltage gain Av of 6 dB at 100 MHz with voltage amplification until 3 GHz. With the as-measured frequency performance of CVD MoS2, we provide the first demonstration of a common-source (CS) amplifier with voltage gain of 14 dB and an active frequency mixer with conversion gain of -15 dB. Our results of gigahertz frequency performance as well as analog circuit operation show that large area CVD MoS2 may be suitable for industrial-scale electronic applications.

  1. Electrokinetic actuation of liquid metal for reconfigurable radio frequency devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gough, Ryan C.

    Liquid metals are an attractive material choice for designers wishing to combine the advantages of metals, such as high electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and reflectivity, with the inherently dynamic nature of fluids. Liquid metals have been utilized for a wide variety of applications, but their high electrical conductivity, surface smoothness, and linear response makes them especially attractive as tuning elements within reconfigurable radio frequency (RF) devices. The recent introduction of non-toxic liquid metal alloys onto the commercial market has further fueled interest in this versatile material. Early experiments with liquid metal as an RF tuning element have yielded promising results, but have largely depended on externally applied pressure to actuate the liquid metal. For commercial implementation this would necessitate the use of clunky and inefficient micro-pumps, which can require both high voltages and high power consumption. This reliance on hydraulic pumping has been a significant barrier to the incorporation of liquid metal as an RF tuning element in applications outside of a laboratory setting. Here, several electrical actuation techniques are demonstrated that allow for the rapid and repeatable actuation of non-toxic gallium alloys as tuning elements within reconfigurable RF devices. These techniques leverage the naturally high surface tension of liquid metals, as well as the unique electrochemistry of gallium-based alloys, to exercise wide-ranging and high fidelity control over both the metal's shape and position. Furthermore, this control is exercised with voltage and power levels that are each better than an order of magnitude below that achievable with conventional micro-pumps. This control does not require the constant application of actuation signals in order to maintain an actuated state, and can even be 'self-actuated', with the liquid metal supplying its own kinetic energy via the electrochemical conversion of its native

  2. MicroElectroMechanical devices and fabrication technologies for radio-frequency analog signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Darrin Jun

    The proliferation of wireless services creates a pressing need for compact and low cost RF transceivers. Modern sub-micron technologies provide the active components needed for miniaturization but fail to deliver high quality passives needed in oscillators and filters. This dissertation demonstrates procedures for adding high quality inductors and tunable capacitors to a standard silicon integrated circuits. Several voltage-controlled oscillators operating in the low Giga-Hertz range demonstrate the suitability of these components for high performance RF building blocks. Two low-temperature processes are described to add inductors and capacitors to silicon ICs. A 3-D coil geometry is used for the inductors rather than the conventional planar spiral to substantially reduce substrate loss and hence improve the quality factor and self-resonant frequency. Measured Q-factors at 1 GHz are 30 for a 4.8 nH device, 16 for 8.2 nH and 13.8 nH inductors. Several enhancements are proposed that are expected to result in a further improvement of the achievable Q-factor. This research investigates the design and fabrication of silicon-based IC-compatible high-Q tunable capacitors and inductors. The goal of this investigation is to develop a monolithic low phase noise radio-frequency voltage-controlled oscillator using these high-performance passive components for wireless communication applications. Monolithic VCOs will help the miniaturization of current radio transceivers, which offers a potential solution to achieve a single hand-held wireless phone with multistandard capabilities. IC-compatible micromachining fabrication technologies have been developed to realize on-chip high-Q RF tunable capacitors and 3-D coil inductors. The capacitors achieve a nominal capacitance value of 2 pF and can be tuned over 15% with 3 V. A quality factor over 60 has been measured at 1 GHz. 3-D coil inductors obtain values of 4.8 nH, 8.2 nH and 13.8 nH. At 1 GHz a Q factor of 30 has been achieved

  3. Time-Frequency and Non-Laplacian Phenomena at Radio Frequencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-22

    Unlimited UU UU UU UU 22-01-2017 30-Sep-2012 30-Sep-2016 Final Report: Time -Frequency and Non-Laplacian Phenomena at Radio Frequencies The views...average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data... Time ‐Frequency and Non‐Laplacian Phenomena at Radio Frequencies  U.S. Army Research Office grant W911NF‐12‐1‐0526  Michael B. Steer  Department of

  4. Nanoionics-Based Switches for Radio-Frequency Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nessel, James; Lee, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Nanoionics-based devices have shown promise as alternatives to microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and semiconductor diode devices for switching radio-frequency (RF) signals in diverse systems. Examples of systems that utilize RF switches include phase shifters for electronically steerable phased-array antennas, multiplexers, cellular telephones and other radio transceivers, and other portable electronic devices. Semiconductor diode switches can operate at low potentials (about 1 to 3 V) and high speeds (switching times of the order of nanoseconds) but are characterized by significant insertion loss, high DC power consumption, low isolation, and generation of third-order harmonics and intermodulation distortion (IMD). MEMS-based switches feature low insertion loss (of the order of 0.2 dB), low DC power consumption (picowatts), high isolation (>30 dB), and low IMD, but contain moving parts, are not highly reliable, and must be operated at high actuation potentials (20 to 60 V) generated and applied by use of complex circuitry. In addition, fabrication of MEMS is complex, involving many processing steps. Nanoionics-based switches offer the superior RF performance and low power consumption of MEMS switches, without need for the high potentials and complex circuitry necessary for operation of MEMS switches. At the same time, nanoionics-based switches offer the high switching speed of semiconductor devices. Also, like semiconductor devices, nanoionics-based switches can be fabricated relatively inexpensively by use of conventional integrated-circuit fabrication techniques. More over, nanoionics-based switches have simple planar structures that can easily be integrated into RF power-distribution circuits.

  5. RADIO RANGING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Nieset, R.T.

    1961-05-16

    A radio ranging device is described. It utilizes a super regenerative detector-oscillator in which echoes of transmitted pulses are received in proper phase to reduce noise energy at a selected range and also at multiples of the selected range.

  6. Low Frequency Radio Experiment (LORE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manoharan, P. K.; Naidu, Arun; Joshi, B. C.; Roy, Jayashree; Kate, G.; Pethe, Kaiwalya; Galande, Shridhar; Jamadar, Sachin; Mahajan, S. P.; Patil, R. A.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we present a case study of Low Frequency Radio Experiment (LORE) payload to probe the corona and the solar disturbances at solar offsets greater than 2 solar radii, i.e., at frequencies below 30 MHz. The LORE can be complimentary to the planned Indian solar mission, “Aditya-L1” and its other payloads as well as synergistic to ground-based interplanetary scintillation (IPS) observations, which are routinely carried out by the Ooty Radio Telescope. We discuss the baseline design and technical details of the proposed LORE and its particular suitability for providing measurements on the detailed time and frequency structure of fast drifting type-III and slow drifting type-II radio bursts with unprecedented time and frequency resolutions. We also brief the gonio-polarimetry, which is possible with better-designed antennas and state-of-the-art electronics, employing FPGAs and an intelligent data management system. These would enable us to make a wide range of studies, such as nonlinear plasma processes in the Sun-Earth distance, in-situ radio emission from coronal mass ejections (CMEs), interplanetary CME driven shocks, nature of ICMEs driving decelerating IP shocks and space weather effects of solar wind interaction regions.

  7. I. S. Shklovsky and Low-Frequency Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovalenko, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    Purpose: Proving of the high astrophysical significance of the low-frequency radio astronomy (decameter and adjacent hectometer and meter wavelengths), demonstration of the priority results of the Ukrainian low-frequency radio astronomy as well as significant contribution of I. S. Shklovsky to its development. Design/methodology/approach: The requirements to characteristics of high efficiency radio telescopes UTR-2, URAN, GURT and to sensitive and interference immune observational methods at low frequencies are formulated by using the theoretical analysis and astrophysical predictions including those I. S. Shklovsky’s. Findings: New generation radio telescopes UTR-2, URAN, GURT are created and modernized. New observational methods at low frequencies are introduced. Large-scale investigations of the Solar system, Galaxy and Methagalaxy are carried out. They have allowed to detect new objects and phenomena for the continuum, monochromatic, pulse and sporadic cosmic radio emission. The role of I. S. Shklovsky in the development of many low-frequency radio astronomy directions is noted, too. Conclusions: The unique possibilities of the low-frequency radio astronomy which gives new information about the Universe, inaccessible with the other astrophysical methods, are shown. The progress of the low-frequency radio astronomy opens the impressive possibilities for the future. It includes modernization of the largest radio telescopes UTR-2, URAN, NDA and creation of new instruments GURT, NenuFAR, LOFAR, LWA, MWA, SKA as well as making multi-antenna and ground-space experiments. The contribution of outstanding astrophysicist of the XX century I. S. Shklovsky to this part of actual astronomical science is evident, claiming for attention and will never be forgotten.

  8. Extremely Bendable, High-Performance Integrated Circuits Using Semiconducting Carbon Nanotube Networks for Digital, Analog, and Radio-Frequency Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-07

    circuits on mechanically flexible substrates for digital, analog and radio frequency applications. The asobtained thin-film transistors ( TFTs ) exhibit... flexible substrates for digital, analog and radio frequency applications. The as- obtained thin-film transistors ( TFTs ) exhibit highly uniform device...LCD) and organic light- emitting diode ( OLED ) displays lack the transparency and flexibility and are thus unsuitable for flexible electronic

  9. 48 CFR 211.275 - Radio frequency identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radio frequency identification. 211.275 Section 211.275 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... Requirements Documents 211.275 Radio frequency identification. ...

  10. Stable radio frequency dissemination by simple hybrid frequency modulation scheme.

    PubMed

    Yu, Longqiang; Wang, Rong; Lu, Lin; Zhu, Yong; Wu, Chuanxin; Zhang, Baofu; Wang, Peizhang

    2014-09-15

    In this Letter, we propose a fiber-based stable radio frequency transfer system by a hybrid frequency modulation scheme. Creatively, two radio frequency signals are combined and simultaneously transferred by only one laser diode. One frequency component is used to detect the phase fluctuation, and the other one is the derivative compensated signal providing a stable frequency for the remote end. A proper ratio of the frequencies of the components is well maintained by parameter m to avoid interference between them. Experimentally, a stable 200 MHz signal is transferred over 100 km optical fiber with the help of a 1 GHz detecting signal, and fractional instability of 2×10(-17) at 10(5) s is achieved.

  11. Implanting inequality: empirical evidence of social and ethical risks of implantable radio-frequency identification (RFID) devices.

    PubMed

    Monahan, Torin; Fisher, Jill A

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess empirically the social and ethical risks associated with implantable radio-frequency identification (RFID) devices. Qualitative research included observational studies in twenty-three U.S. hospitals that have implemented new patient identification systems and eighty semi-structured interviews about the social and ethical implications of new patient identification systems, including RFID implants. The study identified three primary social and ethical risks associated with RFID implants: (i) unfair prioritization of patients based on their participation in the system, (ii) diminished trust of patients by care providers, and (iii) endangerment of patients who misunderstand the capabilities of the systems. RFID implants may aggravate inequalities in access to care without any clear health benefits. This research underscores the importance of critically evaluating new healthcare technologies from the perspective of both normative ethics and empirical ethics.

  12. Exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields from wireless computer networks: duty factors of Wi-Fi devices operating in schools.

    PubMed

    Khalid, M; Mee, T; Peyman, A; Addison, D; Calderon, C; Maslanyj, M; Mann, S

    2011-12-01

    The growing use of wireless local area networks (WLAN) in schools has prompted a study to investigate exposure to the radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields from Wi-Fi devices. International guidelines on limiting the adverse health effects of RF, such as those of ICNIRP, allow for time-averaging of exposure. Thus, as Wi-Fi signals consist of intermittent bursts of RF energy, it is important to consider the duty factors of devices in assessing the extent of exposure and compliance with guidelines. Using radio packet capture methods, the duty factor of Wi-Fi devices has been assessed in a sample of 6 primary and secondary schools during classroom lessons. For the 146 individual laptops investigated, the range of duty factors was from 0.02 to 0.91%, with a mean of 0.08% (SD 0.10%). The duty factors of access points from 7 networks ranged from 1.0% to 11.7% with a mean of 4.79% (SD 3.76%). Data gathered with transmit time measuring devices attached to laptops also showed similar results. Within the present limited sample, the range of duty factors from laptops and access points were found to be broadly similar for primary and secondary schools. Applying these duty factors to previously published results from this project, the maximum time-averaged power density from a laptop would be 220 μW m(-2), at a distance of 0.5 m and the peak localised SAR predicted in the torso region of a 10 year old child model, at 34 cm from the antenna, would be 80 μW kg(-1). Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Portable Wireless Device Threat Assessment for Aircraft Navigation Radios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Ely, Jay J.; Williams, Reuben A.; Smith, Laura J.; Salud, Maria Theresa P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses the concern for Wireless Local Area Network devices and two-way radios to cause electromagnetic interference to aircraft navigation radio systems. Spurious radiated emissions from various IEEE 802.11a, 802.11b, and Bluetooth devices are characterized using reverberation chambers. The results are compared with baseline emissions from standard laptop computer and personal digital assistants (PDAs) that are currently allowed for use on aircraft. The results indicate that the WLAN devices tested are not more of a threat to aircraft navigation radios than standard laptop computers and PDAs in most aircraft bands. In addition, spurious radiated emission data from seven pairs of two-way radios are provided. These two-way radios emit at much higher levels in the bands considered. A description of the measurement process, device modes of operation and the measurement results are reported.

  14. Frequency Allocation; The Radio Spectrum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) assigns segments of the radio spectrum to categories of users, and specific frequencies within each segment to individual users. Since demand for channel space exceeds supply, the process is complex. The radio spectrum can be compared to a long ruler: the portion from 10-540 kiloHertz has been set aside…

  15. Method and apparatus for radio frequency ceramic sintering

    DOEpatents

    Hoffman, Daniel J.; Kimrey, Jr., Harold D.

    1993-01-01

    Radio frequency energy is used to sinter ceramic materials. A coaxial waveguide resonator produces a TEM mode wave which generates a high field capacitive region in which a sample of the ceramic material is located. Frequency of the power source is kept in the range of radio frequency, and preferably between 60-80 MHz. An alternative embodiment provides a tunable radio frequency circuit which includes a series input capacitor and a parallel capacitor, with the sintered ceramic connected by an inductive lead. This arrangement permits matching of impedance over a wide range of dielectric constants, ceramic volumes, and loss tangents.

  16. Method and apparatus for radio frequency ceramic sintering

    DOEpatents

    Hoffman, D.J.; Kimrey, H.D. Jr.

    1993-11-30

    Radio frequency energy is used to sinter ceramic materials. A coaxial waveguide resonator produces a TEM mode wave which generates a high field capacitive region in which a sample of the ceramic material is located. Frequency of the power source is kept in the range of radio frequency, and preferably between 60-80 MHz. An alternative embodiment provides a tunable radio frequency circuit which includes a series input capacitor and a parallel capacitor, with the sintered ceramic connected by an inductive lead. This arrangement permits matching of impedance over a wide range of dielectric constants, ceramic volumes, and loss tangents. 6 figures.

  17. 48 CFR 211.275 - Passive radio frequency identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Passive radio frequency identification. 211.275 Section 211.275 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... Requirements Documents 211.275 Passive radio frequency identification. ...

  18. Solar observations with a low frequency radio telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myserlis, I.; Seiradakis, J.; Dogramatzidis, M.

    2012-01-01

    We have set up a low frequency radio monitoring station for solar bursts at the Observatory of the Aristotle University in Thessaloniki. The station consists of a dual dipole phased array, a radio receiver and a dedicated computer with the necessary software installed. The constructed radio receiver is based on NASA's Radio Jove project. It operates continuously, since July 2010, at 20.1 MHz (close to the long-wavelength ionospheric cut-off of the radio window) with a narrow bandwidth (~5 kHz). The system is properly calibrated, so that the recorded data are expressed in antenna temperature. Despite the high interference level of an urban region like Thessaloniki (strong broadcasting shortwave radio stations, periodic experimental signals, CBs, etc), we have detected several low frequency solar radio bursts and correlated them with solar flares, X-ray events and other low frequency solar observations. The received signal is monitored in ordinary ASCII format and as audio signal, in order to investigate and exclude man-made radio interference. In order to exclude narrow band interference and calculate the spectral indices of the observed events, a second monitoring station, working at 36 MHz, is under construction at the village of Nikiforos near the town of Drama, about 130 km away of Thessaloniki. Finally, we plan to construct a third monitoring station at 58 MHz, in Thessaloniki. This frequency was revealed to be relatively free of interference, after a thorough investigation of the region.

  19. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: IITRI RADIO FREQUENCY HEATING TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Radio frequency heating (RFH) technologies use electromagnetic energy in the radio frequency i(RF) band to heat soil in-situ, thereby potentially enhancing the performances of standard soil vapor extraction (SVE) technologies. ontaminants are removed from in situ soils and transf...

  20. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: IITRI RADIO FREQUENCY HEATING TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Radio frequency heating (RFH) technologies use electromagnetic energy in the radio frequency (RF) band to heat soil in situ, thereby potentially enhancing the performance of standard soil vapor extraction (SVE) technologies. Contaminants are removed from in situ soils and transfe...

  1. Spectral Energy Distribution and Radio Halo of NGC 253 at Low Radio Frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Kapińska, A. D.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Meurer, G. R.

    We present new radio continuum observations of NGC 253 from the Murchison Widefield Array at frequencies between 76 and 227 MHz. We model the broadband radio spectral energy distribution for the total flux density of NGC 253 between 76 MHz and 11 GHz. The spectrum is best described as a sum of a central starburst and extended emission. The central component, corresponding to the inner 500 pc of the starburst region of the galaxy, is best modeled as an internally free–free absorbed synchrotron plasma, with a turnover frequency around 230 MHz. The extended emission component of the spectrum of NGCmore » 253 is best described as a synchrotron emission flattening at low radio frequencies. We find that 34% of the extended emission (outside the central starburst region) at 1 GHz becomes partially absorbed at low radio frequencies. Most of this flattening occurs in the western region of the southeast halo, and may be indicative of synchrotron self-absorption of shock-reaccelerated electrons or an intrinsic low-energy cutoff of the electron distribution. Furthermore, we detect the large-scale synchrotron radio halo of NGC 253 in our radio images. At 154–231 MHz the halo displays the well known X-shaped/horn-like structure, and extends out to ∼8 kpc in the z -direction (from the major axis).« less

  2. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: RADIO FREQUENCY HEATING - KAI TECHNOLOGIES, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Radio frequency heating (RFH) is a process that uses electromagnetic energy in the radio frequency (RF) band to heat soil in situ, thereby potentially enhancing the performance of standard soil vapor extraction (SVE) technologies. An RFH system developed by KAI Technologies, I...

  3. Radio Frequency Signals in Jupiter's Atmosphere

    PubMed

    Lanzerotti; Rinnert; Dehmel; Gliem; Krider; Uman; Bach

    1996-05-10

    During the Galileo probe's descent through Jupiter's atmosphere, under the ionosphere, the lightning and radio emission detector measured radio frequency signals at levels significantly above the probe's electromagnetic noise. The signal strengths at 3 and 15 kilohertz were relatively large at the beginning of the descent, decreased with depth to a pressure level of about 5 bars, and then increased slowly until the end of the mission. The 15-kilohertz signals show arrival direction anisotropies. Measurements of radio frequency wave forms show that the probe passed through an atmospheric region that did not support lightning within at least 100 kilometers and more likely a few thousand kilometers of the descent trajectory. The apparent opacity of the jovian atmosphere increases sharply at pressures greater than about 4 bars.

  4. Homogeneous spectral spanning of terahertz semiconductor lasers with radio frequency modulation.

    PubMed

    Wan, W J; Li, H; Zhou, T; Cao, J C

    2017-03-08

    Homogeneous broadband and electrically pumped semiconductor radiation sources emitting in the terahertz regime are highly desirable for various applications, including spectroscopy, chemical sensing, and gas identification. In the frequency range between 1 and 5 THz, unipolar quantum cascade lasers employing electron inter-subband transitions in multiple-quantum-well structures are the most powerful semiconductor light sources. However, these devices are normally characterized by either a narrow emission spectrum due to the narrow gain bandwidth of the inter-subband optical transitions or an inhomogeneous broad terahertz spectrum from lasers with heterogeneous stacks of active regions. Here, we report the demonstration of homogeneous spectral spanning of long-cavity terahertz semiconductor quantum cascade lasers based on a bound-to-continuum and resonant phonon design under radio frequency modulation. At a single drive current, the terahertz spectrum under radio frequency modulation continuously spans 330 GHz (~8% of the central frequency), which is the record for single plasmon waveguide terahertz lasers with a bound-to-continuum design. The homogeneous broadband terahertz sources can be used for spectroscopic applications, i.e., GaAs etalon transmission measurement and ammonia gas identification.

  5. Homogeneous spectral spanning of terahertz semiconductor lasers with radio frequency modulation

    PubMed Central

    Wan, W. J.; Li, H.; Zhou, T.; Cao, J. C.

    2017-01-01

    Homogeneous broadband and electrically pumped semiconductor radiation sources emitting in the terahertz regime are highly desirable for various applications, including spectroscopy, chemical sensing, and gas identification. In the frequency range between 1 and 5 THz, unipolar quantum cascade lasers employing electron inter-subband transitions in multiple-quantum-well structures are the most powerful semiconductor light sources. However, these devices are normally characterized by either a narrow emission spectrum due to the narrow gain bandwidth of the inter-subband optical transitions or an inhomogeneous broad terahertz spectrum from lasers with heterogeneous stacks of active regions. Here, we report the demonstration of homogeneous spectral spanning of long-cavity terahertz semiconductor quantum cascade lasers based on a bound-to-continuum and resonant phonon design under radio frequency modulation. At a single drive current, the terahertz spectrum under radio frequency modulation continuously spans 330 GHz (~8% of the central frequency), which is the record for single plasmon waveguide terahertz lasers with a bound-to-continuum design. The homogeneous broadband terahertz sources can be used for spectroscopic applications, i.e., GaAs etalon transmission measurement and ammonia gas identification. PMID:28272492

  6. Single-crystalline graphene radio-frequency nanoswitches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peng; Cui, Tianhong

    2015-07-01

    Growth of monolayer single-crystalline graphene (SCG) using the low-pressure chemical vapor deposition method is reported. Graphene’s superb quality and single-crystalline nature were characterized and verified by Raman microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and carrier mobility measurement. Radio-frequency (RF) nanoelectromechanical switches based on coplanar waveguide double-clamped SCG membrane were achieved, and the superb properties of SCG enable the switches to operate at a pull-in voltage as low as 1 V, with switch time in the nanosecond regime. Owing to their single-crystalline nature, the switches’ lifetime (>5000 times) is much longer than that of polycrystalline graphene ones reported. The RF devices exhibit good isolation (-30 dB at 40 GHz (Ka band)), which can be further improved by SCG’s conductivity variation due to actuation voltage.

  7. THE LOW-FREQUENCY RADIO CATALOG OF FLAT-SPECTRUM SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Massaro, F.; Giroletti, M.; D'Abrusco, R.

    A well known property of the γ-ray sources detected by Cos-B in the 1970s, by the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory in the 1990s, and recently by the Fermi observations is the presence of radio counterparts, particularly for those associated with extragalactic objects. This observational evidence is the basis of the radio-γ-ray connection established for the class of active galactic nuclei known as blazars. In particular, the main spectral property of the radio counterparts associated with γ-ray blazars is that they show a flat spectrum in the GHz frequency range. Our recent analysis dedicated to search blazar-like candidates as potential counterparts formore » the unidentified γ-ray sources allowed us to extend the radio-γ-ray connection in the MHz regime. We also showed that blazars below 1 GHz maintain flat radio spectra. Thus, on the basis of these new results, we assembled a low-frequency radio catalog of flat-spectrum sources built by combining the radio observations of the Westerbork Northern Sky Survey and of the Westerbork in the southern hemisphere catalog with those of the NRAO Very Large Array Sky survey (NVSS). This could be used in the future to search for new, unknown blazar-like counterparts of γ-ray sources. First, we found NVSS counterparts of Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope radio sources, and then we selected flat-spectrum radio sources according to a new spectral criterion, specifically defined for radio observations performed below 1 GHz. We also described the main properties of the catalog listing 28,358 radio sources and their logN-logS distributions. Finally, a comparison with the Green Bank 6 cm radio source catalog was performed to investigate the spectral shape of the low-frequency flat-spectrum radio sources at higher frequencies.« less

  8. Radio Frequency Interference Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, T.; Chen, X.; Mohan, P.; Lao, B. Q.

    2017-09-01

    The observational facilities of radio astronomy keep constant upgrades and developments to achieve better capabilities including increasing the time of the data recording and frequency resolutions, and increasing the receiving and recording bandwidth. However in contrast, only a limited spectrum resource has been allocated to radio astronomy by the International Telecommunication Union, resulting in that the radio observational instrumentations are inevitably exposed to undesirable radio frequency interference (RFI) signals which originate mainly from the terrestrial human activity and are becoming stronger with time. RFIs degrade the quality of data and even lead to invalid data. The impact of RFIs on scientific outcome becomes more and more serious. In this article, the requirement for RFI mitigation is motivated, and the RFI characteristics, mitigation techniques, and strategies are reviewed. The mitigation strategies adopted at some representative observatories, telescopes, and arrays are also introduced. The advantages and shortcomings of the four classes of RFI mitigation strategies are discussed and presented, applicable at the connected causal stages: preventive, pre-detection, pre-correlation, and post-correlation. The proper identification and flagging of RFI is the key to the reduction of data loss and improvement in data quality, and is also the ultimate goal of developing RFI mitigation technique. This can be achieved through a strategy involving a combination of the discussed techniques in stages. The recent advances in the high speed digital signal processing and high performance computing allow for performing RFI excision of the large data volumes generated from large telescopes or arrays in both real time and offline modes, aiding the proposed strategy.

  9. 47 CFR 80.1019 - Antenna radio frequency indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna radio frequency indicator. 80.1019... Act § 80.1019 Antenna radio frequency indicator. Each nonportable bridge-to-bridge transmitter must be... indication when the transmitter is supplying power to the antenna transmission line or, in lieu thereof, a...

  10. 47 CFR 80.1019 - Antenna radio frequency indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna radio frequency indicator. 80.1019... Act § 80.1019 Antenna radio frequency indicator. Each nonportable bridge-to-bridge transmitter must be... indication when the transmitter is supplying power to the antenna transmission line or, in lieu thereof, a...

  11. 47 CFR 80.1019 - Antenna radio frequency indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna radio frequency indicator. 80.1019... Act § 80.1019 Antenna radio frequency indicator. Each nonportable bridge-to-bridge transmitter must be... indication when the transmitter is supplying power to the antenna transmission line or, in lieu thereof, a...

  12. 47 CFR 80.1019 - Antenna radio frequency indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna radio frequency indicator. 80.1019... Act § 80.1019 Antenna radio frequency indicator. Each nonportable bridge-to-bridge transmitter must be... indication when the transmitter is supplying power to the antenna transmission line or, in lieu thereof, a...

  13. 47 CFR 80.1019 - Antenna radio frequency indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna radio frequency indicator. 80.1019... Act § 80.1019 Antenna radio frequency indicator. Each nonportable bridge-to-bridge transmitter must be... indication when the transmitter is supplying power to the antenna transmission line or, in lieu thereof, a...

  14. Population density effect on radio frequencies interference (RFI) in radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umar, Roslan; Abidin, Zamri Zainal; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Hassan, Mohd Saiful Rizal; Rosli, Zulfazli; Hamidi, Zety Shahrizat

    2012-06-01

    Radio astronomical observation is infected by wide range of Radio Frequency Interference (RFI). We will also use information gathered from on-site RFI level measurements on selected 'good' areas generated by this study. After investigating a few suitable sites we will commence to the site and construct the RFI observation. Eventually, the best area we will be deciding from the observations soon. The result of this experiment will support our planning to build the first radio telescope in Malaysia. Radio observatories normally are located in remote area, in order to combat RFI from active spectrum users and radio noise produced in industrial or residential areas. The other solution for this problem is regulating the use of radio frequencies in the country (spectrum management). Measurement of RFI level on potential radio astronomical site can be done to measure the RFI levels at sites. Seven sites are chosen divide by three group, which is A, B and C. In this paper, we report the initial testing RFI survey for overall spectrum (0-2GHz) for those sites. The averaged RFI level above noise level at the three group sites are 19.0 (+/-1.79) dBm, 19.5 (+/-3.71) dBm and 17.0 (+/-3.71) dBm and the averaged RFI level above noise level for without main peaks are 20.1 (+/-1.77) dBm, 19.6 (+/-3.65) dBm and 17.2 (+/-1.43) dBm respectively.

  15. Improved Wireless Security through Physical Layer Protocol Manipulation and Radio Frequency Fingerprinting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-18

    radios in a cognitive radio network using a radio frequency fingerprinting based method. In IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC...IMPROVEDWIRELESS SECURITY THROUGH PHYSICAL LAYER PROTOCOL MANIPULATION AND RADIO FREQUENCY FINGERPRINTING DISSERTATION Benjamin W. Ramsey, Captain...PHYSICAL LAYER PROTOCOL MANIPULATION AND RADIO FREQUENCY FINGERPRINTING DISSERTATION Presented to the Faculty Graduate School of Engineering and

  16. Water based fluidic radio frequency metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Xiaobing; Zhao, Shaolin; Hu, Mingjun; Xiao, Junfeng; Zhang, Naibo; Yang, Jun

    2017-11-01

    Electromagnetic metamaterials offer great flexibility for wave manipulation and enable exceptional functionality design, ranging from negative refraction, anomalous reflection, super-resolution imaging, transformation optics to cloaking, etc. However, demonstration of metamaterials with unprecedented functionalities is still challenging and costly due to the structural complexity or special material properties. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the versatile fluidic radio frequency metamaterials with negative refraction using a water-embedded and metal-coated 3D architecture. Effective medium analysis confirms that metallic frames create an evanescent environment while simultaneously water cylinders produce negative permeability under Mie resonance. The water-metal coupled 3D architectures and the accessory devices for measurement are fabricated by 3D printing with post electroless deposition. Our study also reveals the great potential of fluidic metamaterials and versatility of the 3D printing process in rapid prototyping of customized metamaterials.

  17. 47 CFR 2.801 - Radiofrequency device defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....801 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Marketing of Radio-frequency Devices § 2.801 Radiofrequency device..., but are not limited to: (a) The various types of radio communication transmitting devices described...

  18. Optical Tunable-Based Transmitter for Multiple Radio Frequency Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Hung (Inventor); Simons, Rainee N. (Inventor); Wintucky, Edwin G. (Inventor); Freeman, Jon C. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An optical tunable transmitter is used to transmit multiple radio frequency bands on a single beam. More specifically, a tunable laser is configured to generate a plurality of optical wavelengths, and an optical tunable transmitter is configured to modulate each of the plurality of optical wavelengths with a corresponding radio frequency band. The optical tunable transmitter is also configured to encode each of the plurality of modulated optical wavelengths onto a single laser beam for transmission of a plurality of radio frequency bands using the single laser beam.

  19. The role of creep in the time-dependent resistance of Ohmic gold contacts in radio frequency microelectromechanical system devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezvanian, O.; Brown, C.; Zikry, M. A.; Kingon, A. I.; Krim, J.; Irving, D. L.; Brenner, D. W.

    2008-07-01

    It is shown that measured and calculated time-dependent electrical resistances of closed gold Ohmic switches in radio frequency microelectromechanical system (rf-MEMS) devices are well described by a power law that can be derived from a single asperity creep model. The analysis reveals that the exponent and prefactor in the power law arise, respectively, from the coefficient relating creep rate to applied stress and the initial surface roughness. The analysis also shows that resistance plateaus are not, in fact, limiting resistances but rather result from the small coefficient in the power law. The model predicts that it will take a longer time for the contact resistance to attain a power law relation with each successive closing of the switch due to asperity blunting. Analysis of the first few seconds of the measured resistance for three successive openings and closings of one of the MEMS devices supports this prediction. This work thus provides guidance toward the rational design of Ohmic contacts with enhanced reliabilities by better defining variables that can be controlled through material selection, interface processing, and switch operation.

  20. Electromagnetic induction imaging with a radio-frequency atomic magnetometer

    SciTech Connect

    Deans, Cameron; Marmugi, Luca, E-mail: l.marmugi@ucl.ac.uk; Hussain, Sarah

    2016-03-07

    We report on a compact, tunable, and scalable to large arrays imaging device, based on a radio-frequency optically pumped atomic magnetometer operating in magnetic induction tomography modality. Imaging of conductive objects is performed at room temperature, in an unshielded environment and without background subtraction. Conductivity maps of target objects exhibit not only excellent performance in terms of shape reconstruction but also demonstrate detection of sub-millimetric cracks and penetration of conductive barriers. The results presented here demonstrate the potential of a future generation of imaging instruments, which combine magnetic induction tomography and the unmatched performance of atomic magnetometers.

  1. Directional Radio-Frequency Identification Tag Reader

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medelius, Pedro J.; Taylor, John D.; Henderson, John J.

    2004-01-01

    A directional radio-frequency identification (RFID) tag reader has been designed to facilitate finding a specific object among many objects in a crowded room. The device could be an adjunct to an electronic inventory system that tracks RFID-tagged objects as they move through reader-equipped doorways. Whereas commercial RFID-tag readers do not measure directions to tagged objects, the device is equipped with a phased-array antenna and a received signal-strength indicator (RSSI) circuit for measuring direction. At the beginning of operation, it is set to address only the RFID tag of interest. It then continuously transmits a signal to interrogate that tag while varying the radiation pattern of the antenna. It identifies the direction to the tag as the radiation pattern direction of peak strength of the signal returned by the tag. An approximate distance to the tag is calculated from the peak signal strength. The direction and distance can be displayed on a screen. A prototype containing a Yagi antenna was found to be capable of detecting a 915.5-MHz tag at a distance of approximately equal to 15 ft (approximately equal to 4.6 m).

  2. Noninvasive radio frequency for skin tightening and body contouring.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Robert A

    2013-03-01

    The medical use of radio frequency (RF) is based on an oscillating electrical current forcing collisions between charged molecules and ions, which are then transformed into heat. RF heating occurs irrespective of chromophore or skin type and is not dependent on selective photothermolysis. RF can be delivered using monopolar, bipolar, and unipolar devices, and each method has theoretical limits of depth penetration. A variant of bipolar delivery is fractional RF delivery. In monopolar configurations, RF will penetrate deeply and return via a grounding electrode. Multiple devices are available and are detailed later in the text. RF thermal stimulation is believed to result in a microinflammatory process that promotes new collagen. By manipulating skin cooling, RF can also be used for heating and reduction of fat. Currently, the most common uses of RF-based devices are to noninvasively manage and treat skin tightening of lax skin (including sagging jowls, abdomen, thighs, and arms), as well as wrinkle reduction, cellulite improvement, and body contouring.

  3. IN SITU AND SOIL DECONTAMINATION BY RADIO FREQUENCY HEATING

    EPA Science Inventory

    In situ radio frequency heating is performed by applying electromagnetic energy in the radio frequency band to an array of electrodes placed in bore holes drilled through the contaminated soil. he process removes organic contaminants from large volumes of soil by volatilization, ...

  4. The Mobile Laboratory for Radio-Frequency Interference Monitoring at the Sardinia Radio Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolli, Pietro; Gaudiomonte, Francesco; Ambrosini, Roberto; Bortolotti, Claudio; Roma, Mauro; Barberi, Carlo; Piccoli, Fabrizio

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, a quite unique mobile laboratory for monitoring radio-frequency interference with a radio-astronomical observatory is described. The unit is fully operational at the new Sardinia Radio Telescope, a 64-m antenna now in the commissioning phase in Italy. The mobile laboratory is mainly used to identify the source of interference with the radio astronomy service using iterative triangulations in the azimuth directions. Both the design and realization of this prototype were handled with outstanding care to limit the emission of self-interference as much as possible. The laboratory was equipped with excellent microwave instruments in terms of sensitivity, frequency coverage, dynamic range, and various demodulation and signal-analysis facilities. The unit can be quickly switched to different RF and power-supply configurations, while offering operators a safe and efficient workplace, even in adverse meteorological and driving conditions. In the past months, the mobile laboratory has proven to be successful in detecting and identifying many radio interferers. Two examples of measurement campaigns are described.

  5. Characterization of an Outdoor Ambient Radio Frequency Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-16

    radio frequency noise ”) prior to testing of a specific system under test (SUT). With this characterization, locations can be selected to avoid RF...spectrum analyzer, ambient RF noise floor, RF interference 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT SAR 18...environment (sometimes referred to as “radio frequency noise ”) prior to testing of a specific system under test (SUT). With this characterization

  6. Effects of radio frequency identification-related radiation on in vitro biologics.

    PubMed

    Uysal, Ismail; Hohberger, Clive; Rasmussen, R Scott; Ulrich, David A; Emond, Jean-Pierre; Gutierrez, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    The recent developments on the use of e-pedigree to identify the chain of custody of drugs suggests the use of advanced track and trace technologies such as two-dimensional barcodes and radio frequency identification (RFID) tags. RFID technology is used mainly for valuable commodities such as pharmaceutical products while incorporating additional functionalities like monitoring environmental variables to ensure product safety and quality. In its guidance for the use of RFID technologies for drugs (Compliance Policy Guide Section 400.210), the Food and Drug Administration outlined multiple parameters that would apply to any study or application using RFID. However, drugs approved under a Biologics License Application or protein drugs covered by a New Drug Application were excluded mainly due to concerns about the effects of radio frequency radiation (thermal and/or non-thermal) on biologics. Even though the thermal effects of radio frequency on biologics are relatively well understood, there are few studies in the literature about the non-thermal effects of radio frequency with regards to the protein structure integrity. In this paper, we analyze the non-thermal effects of radio frequency radiation by exposing a wide variety of biologics including biopharmaceuticals with vaccines, hormones, and immunoglobulins, as well as cellular blood products such as red blood cells and whole blood-derived platelets as well as fresh frozen plasma. In order to represent the majority of the frequency spectrum used in RFID applications, five different frequencies (13.56 MHz, 433 MHz, 868 MHz, 915 MHz, and 2.4 GHz) are used to account for the most commonly used international frequency bands for RFID. With the help of specialized radio frequency signal-generating hardware, magnetic and electromagnetic fields are created around the exposed products with power levels greater than Federal Communications Commission-regulated limits. The in vitro test results on more than 100

  7. Radio Frequency Interference Site Survey for Thai Radio Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaroenjittichai, P.; Punyawarin, S.; Singwong, D.; Somboonpon, P.; Prasert, N.; Bandudej, K.; Kempet, P.; Leckngam, A.; Poshyachinda, S.; Soonthornthum, B.; Kramer, B.

    2017-09-01

    Radio astronomical observations have increasingly been threaten by the march of today telecommunication and wireless technology. Performance of radio telescopes lies within the fact that astronomical sources are extremely weak. National Astronomy Research Institute of Thailand (NARIT) has initiated a 5-year project, known as the Radio Astronomy Network and Geodesy for Development (RANGD), which includes the establishment of 40-meter and 13-meter radio telescopes. Possible locations have been narrowed down to three candidates, situated in the Northern part of Thailand, where the atmosphere is sufficiently dry and suitable for 22 and 43 GHz observations. The Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) measurements were carried out with a DC spectrum analyzer and directional antennas at 1.5 meter above ground, from 20 MHz to 6 GHz with full azimuth coverage. The data from a 3-minute pointing were recorded for both horizontal and vertical polarizations, in maxhold and average modes. The results, for which we used to make preliminary site selection, show signals from typical broadcast and telecommunication services and aeronautics applications. The signal intensity varies accordingly to the presence of nearby population and topography of the region.

  8. Review of Radio Frequency Photonics Basics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-09-06

    essentially from “Direct Current to Daylight,” allowing use for high frequency applications. This report covers some needs and advantages of radio...operate essentially from “Direct Current (DC) to Daylight,” allowing use for high frequency applications. The following sections of this report cover...spectrum leaving higher frequencies open for new uses. Frequency bands from 600 MHz to 5 GHz are used for commercial communications in the US. The future

  9. Characteristics of Radio-Frequency Circuits Utilizing Ferroelectric Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eskridge, Michael; Gui, Xiao; MacLeod, Todd; Ho, Fat D.

    2011-01-01

    Ferroelectric capacitors, most commonly used in memory circuits and variable components, were studied in simple analog radio-frequency circuits such as the RLC resonator and Colpitts oscillator. The goal was to characterize the RF circuits in terms of frequency of oscillation, gain, etc, using ferroelectric capacitors. Frequencies of oscillation of both circuits were measured and studied a more accurate resonant frequency can be obtained using the ferroelectric capacitors. Many experiments were conducted and data collected. A model to simulate the experimental results will be developed. Discrepancies in gain and frequency in these RF circuits when conventional capacitors are replaced with ferroelectric ones were studied. These results will enable circuit designers to anticipate the effects of using ferroelectric components in their radio- frequency applications.

  10. Implantable radio frequency identification sensors: wireless power and communication.

    PubMed

    Hutchens, Chriswell; Rennaker, Robert L; Venkataraman, Srinivasan; Ahmed, Rehan; Liao, Ran; Ibrahim, Tamer

    2011-01-01

    There are significant technical challenges in the development of a fully implantable wirelessly powered neural interface. Challenges include wireless transmission of sufficient power to the implanted device to ensure reliable operation for decades without replacement, minimizing tissue heating, and adequate reliable communications bandwidth. Overcoming these challenges is essential for the development of implantable closed loop system for the treatment of disorders ranging from epilepsy, incontinence, stroke and spinal cord injury. We discuss the development of the wireless power, communication and control for a Radio-Frequency Identification Sensor (RFIDS) system with targeted power range for a 700 mV, 30 to 40 uA load attained at -2 dBm.

  11. Design and Development of a Clinical Risk Management Tool Using Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)

    PubMed Central

    Pourasghar, Faramarz; Tabrizi, Jafar Sadegh; Yarifard, Khadijeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Patient safety is one of the most important elements of quality of healthcare. It means preventing any harm to the patients during medical care process. Objective: This paper introduces a cost-effective tool in which the Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology is used to identify medical errors in hospital. Methods: The proposed clinical error management system (CEMS) is consisted of a reader device, a transfer/receiver device, a database and managing software. The reader device works using radio waves and is wireless. The reader sends and receives data to/from the database via the transfer/receiver device which is connected to the computer via USB port. The database contains data about patients’ medication orders. Results: The CEMS has the ability to identify the clinical errors before they occur and then warns the care-giver with voice and visual messages to prevent the error. This device reduces the errors and thus improves the patient safety. Conclusion: A new tool including software and hardware was developed in this study. Application of this tool in clinical settings can help the nurses prevent medical errors. It can also be a useful tool for clinical risk management. Using this device can improve the patient safety to a considerable extent and thus improve the quality of healthcare. PMID:27147802

  12. Design and Development of a Clinical Risk Management Tool Using Radio Frequency Identification (RFID).

    PubMed

    Pourasghar, Faramarz; Tabrizi, Jafar Sadegh; Yarifard, Khadijeh

    2016-04-01

    Patient safety is one of the most important elements of quality of healthcare. It means preventing any harm to the patients during medical care process. This paper introduces a cost-effective tool in which the Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology is used to identify medical errors in hospital. The proposed clinical error management system (CEMS) is consisted of a reader device, a transfer/receiver device, a database and managing software. The reader device works using radio waves and is wireless. The reader sends and receives data to/from the database via the transfer/receiver device which is connected to the computer via USB port. The database contains data about patients' medication orders. The CEMS has the ability to identify the clinical errors before they occur and then warns the care-giver with voice and visual messages to prevent the error. This device reduces the errors and thus improves the patient safety. A new tool including software and hardware was developed in this study. Application of this tool in clinical settings can help the nurses prevent medical errors. It can also be a useful tool for clinical risk management. Using this device can improve the patient safety to a considerable extent and thus improve the quality of healthcare.

  13. Radio-frequency flexible and stretchable electronics: the need, challenges and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Yei Hwan; Seo, Jung-Hun; Zhang, Huilong; Lee, Juhwan; Cho, Sang June; Chang, Tzu-Hsuan; Ma, Zhenqiang

    2017-05-01

    Successful integration of ultrathin flexible or stretchable systems with new applications, such as medical devices and biodegradable electronics, have intrigued many researchers and industries around the globe to seek materials and processes to create high-performance, non-invasive and cost-effective electronics to match those of state-of-the-art devices. Nevertheless, the crucial concept of transmitting data or power wirelessly for such unconventional devices has been difficult to realize due to limitations of radio-frequency (RF) electronics in individual components that form a wireless circuitry, such as antenna, transmission line, active devices, passive devices etc. To overcome such challenges, these components must be developed in a step-by-step manner, as each component faces a number of different challenges in ultrathin formats. Here, we report on materials and design considerations for fabricating flexible and stretchable electronics systems that operate in the microwave level. High-speed flexible active devices, including cost effective Si-based strained MOSFETs, GaAs-based HBTs and GaN-based HEMTs, performing at multi-gigahertz frequencies are presented. Furthermore, flexible or stretchable passive devices, including capacitors, inductors and transmission lines that are vital parts of a microwave circuitry are also demonstrated. We also present unique applications using the presented flexible or stretchable RF components, including wearable RF electronics and biodegradable RF electronics, which were impossible to achieve using conventional rigid, wafer-based technology. Further opportunities like implantable systems exist utilizing such ultrathin RF components, which are discussed in this report as well.

  14. Relativistic runaway breakdown in low-frequency radio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Füllekrug, Martin; Roussel-Dupré, Robert; Symbalisty, Eugene M. D.; Chanrion, Olivier; Odzimek, Anna; van der Velde, Oscar; Neubert, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    The electromagnetic radiation emitted by an electron avalanche beam resulting from relativistic runaway breakdown within the Earth's atmosphere is investigated. It is found from theoretical modeling with a computer simulation that the electron beam emits electromagnetic radiation which is characterized by consecutive broadband pulses in the low-frequency radio range from ˜10 to 300 kHz at a distance of ˜800 km. Experimental evidence for the existence of consecutive broadband pulses is provided by low-frequency radio observations of sprite-producing lightning discharges at a distance of ˜550 km. The measured broadband pulses occur ˜4-9 ms after the sprite-producing lightning discharge, they exhibit electromagnetic radiation which mainly spans the frequency range from ˜50 to 350 kHz, and they exhibit complex waveforms without the typical ionospheric reflection of the first hop sky wave. Two consecutive pulses occur ˜4.5 ms and ˜3 ms after the causative lightning discharge and coincide with the sprite luminosity. It is concluded that relativistic runaway breakdown within the Earth's atmosphere can emit broadband electromagnetic pulses and possibly generates sprites. The source location of the broadband pulses can be determined with an interferometric network of wideband low-frequency radio receivers to lend further experimental support to the relativistic runaway breakdown theory.

  15. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: RADIO FREQUENCY HEATING - IIT RESEARCH INSTITUTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Radio frequency heating (RFH) is a process that uses electromagnetic energy generated by radio waves to heat soil in situ, thereby potentially enhancing the performance of standard soil vapor extraction (SVE) technologies. An RFH system developed by the IIT Research Institute ...

  16. Tracked 3D ultrasound in radio-frequency liver ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boctor, Emad M.; Fichtinger, Gabor; Taylor, Russell H.; Choti, Michael A.

    2003-05-01

    Recent studies have shown that radio frequency (RF) ablation is a simple, safe and potentially effective treatment for selected patients with liver metastases. Despite all recent therapeutic advancements, however, intra-procedural target localization and precise and consistent placement of the tissue ablator device are still unsolved problems. Various imaging modalities, including ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) have been tried as guidance modalities. Transcutaneous US imaging, due to its real-time nature, may be beneficial in many cases, but unfortunately, fails to adequately visualize the tumor in many cases. Intraoperative or laparoscopic US, on the other hand, provides improved visualization and target imaging. This paper describes a system for computer-assisted RF ablation of liver tumors, combining navigational tracking of a conventional imaging ultrasound probe to produce 3D ultrasound imaging with a tracked RF ablation device supported by a passive mechanical arm and spatially registered to the ultrasound volume.

  17. Conveyorized Radio Frequency Cure of Epoxy Glass Composites.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    a conveyorized radio frequency oven. The conveyorized radio frequency 20-kilowatt (90-100 megahertz) dielectric heater was de - designed and...Process were de - termined with reference to property requirements specified in Table three of 8MS-8-196A. Although the BM-8,196A relates to material...requirements of the 8MS and agree with the values contained in the 3M certifying report. De - tailed test results are presented as Appendix J. In addition

  18. On High and Low Starting Frequencies of Type II Radio Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, J.; Mittal, N.

    2017-06-01

    We have studied the characteristics of type II radio burst during the period May 1996 to March 2015, for the solar cycle 23 and 24, observed by WIND/WAVES radio instrument. A total of 642 events were recorded by the instrument during the study period. We have divided the events with two starting frequency range (high > 1 MHz; low ≤ 1MHz) as type II1 (i.e., 1-16 MHz) radio burst and type II2 (i.e., 20 KHz - 1020 KHz) radio burst which constitute the DH and km type II radio burst observed by WIND spacecraft, and determined their time and frequency characteristics. The mean drift rate of type II1 and type II2 radio bursts is 29.76 × 10-4 MHz/s and 0.17 × 10-4 MHz/s respectively, which shows that type II1 with high start frequency hase larger drift rate than the type II2 with low starting frequencies. We have also reported that the start frequency and the drift rate of type II1 are in good correlation, with a linear correlation coefficient of 0.58.

  19. Radio frequency identification-enabled capabilities in a healthcare context: An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Hornyak, Rob; Lewis, Mark; Sankaranarayan, Balaji

    2016-09-01

    Increasingly, the adoption and use of radio frequency identification systems in hospital settings is gaining prominence. However, despite the transformative impact that radio frequency identification has in healthcare settings, few studies have examined how and why this change may occur. The purpose of this study is to systematically understand how radio frequency identification can transform work practices in an operational process that directly impacts cost and operational efficiency and indirectly contributes to impacting patient safety and quality of care. We leverage an interdisciplinary framework to explore the contextual characteristics that shape the assimilation of radio frequency identification in healthcare settings. By linking the use of radio frequency identification with specific contextual dimensions in healthcare settings, we provide a data-driven account of how and why radio frequency identification can be useful in inventory management in this setting. In doing so, we also contribute to recent work by information systems scholars who argue for a reconfiguration of conventional assumptions regarding the role of technology in contemporary organizations. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. High-performance radio frequency transistors based on diameter-separated semiconducting carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Yu; Che, Yuchi; Zhou, Chongwu, E-mail: chongwuz@usc.edu

    In this paper, we report the high-performance radio-frequency transistors based on the single-walled semiconducting carbon nanotubes with a refined average diameter of ∼1.6 nm. These diameter-separated carbon nanotube transistors show excellent transconductance of 55 μS/μm and desirable drain current saturation with an output resistance of ∼100 KΩ μm. An exceptional radio-frequency performance is also achieved with current gain and power gain cut-off frequencies of 23 GHz and 20 GHz (extrinsic) and 65 GHz and 35 GHz (intrinsic), respectively. These radio-frequency metrics are among the highest reported for the carbon nanotube thin-film transistors. This study provides demonstration of radio frequency transistors based on carbon nanotubes with tailoredmore » diameter distributions, which will guide the future application of carbon nanotubes in radio-frequency electronics.« less

  1. Low-Frequency Radio Bursts and Space Weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, N.

    2016-01-01

    Low-frequency radio phenomena are due to the presence of nonthermal electrons in the interplanetary (IP) medium. Understanding these phenomena is important in characterizing the space environment near Earth and other destinations in the solar system. Substantial progress has been made in the past two decades, because of the continuous and uniform data sets available from space-based radio and white-light instrumentation. This paper highlights some recent results obtained on IP radio phenomena. In particular, the source of type IV radio bursts, the behavior of type III storms, shock propagation in the IP medium, and the solar-cycle variation of type II radio bursts are considered. All these phenomena are closely related to solar eruptions and active region evolution. The results presented were obtained by combining data from the Wind and SOHO missions.

  2. Zero-static power radio-frequency switches based on MoS2 atomristors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myungsoo; Ge, Ruijing; Wu, Xiaohan; Lan, Xing; Tice, Jesse; Lee, Jack C; Akinwande, Deji

    2018-06-28

    Recently, non-volatile resistance switching or memristor (equivalently, atomristor in atomic layers) effect was discovered in transitional metal dichalcogenides (TMD) vertical devices. Owing to the monolayer-thin transport and high crystalline quality, ON-state resistances below 10 Ω are achievable, making MoS 2 atomristors suitable as energy-efficient radio-frequency (RF) switches. MoS 2 RF switches afford zero-hold voltage, hence, zero-static power dissipation, overcoming the limitation of transistor and mechanical switches. Furthermore, MoS 2 switches are fully electronic and can be integrated on arbitrary substrates unlike phase-change RF switches. High-frequency results reveal that a key figure of merit, the cutoff frequency (f c ), is about 10 THz for sub-μm 2 switches with favorable scaling that can afford f c above 100 THz for nanoscale devices, exceeding the performance of contemporary switches that suffer from an area-invariant scaling. These results indicate a new electronic application of TMDs as non-volatile switches for communication platforms, including mobile systems, low-power internet-of-things, and THz beam steering.

  3. Titanium dioxide thin films deposited by pulsed laser deposition and integration in radio frequency devices: Study of structure, optical and dielectric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlianges, Jean-Christophe; Crunteanu, Aurelian; Pothier, Arnaud; Merle-Mejean, Therese; Blondy, Pierre; Champeaux, Corinne

    2012-12-01

    Titanium dioxide presents a wide range of technological application possibilities due to its dielectric, electrochemical, photocatalytic and optical properties. The three TiO2 allotropic forms: anatase, rutile and brookite are also interesting, since they exhibit different properties, stabilities and growth modes. For instance, rutile has a high dielectric permittivity, of particular interest for the integration as dielectric in components such as microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) for radio frequency (RF) devices. In this study, titanium dioxide thin films are deposited by pulsed laser deposition. Characterizations by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction show the evolution of the structural properties. Thin films optical properties are investigated using spectroscopic ellipsometry and transmission measurements from UV to IR range. Co-planar waveguide (CPW) devices are fabricated based on these films. Their performances are measured in the RF domain and compared to simulation, leading to relative permittivity values in the range 30-120, showing the potentialities of the deposited material for capacitive switches applications.

  4. Radio Frequency Identification Applications in Pavements

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-08-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology is widely used for inventory control, tool and material tracking, and other similar applications where line-of-sight optical bar codes are inconvenient or impractical. Several applications of RFID tech...

  5. Investigation on the Frequency Allocation for Radio Astronomy at the L Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abidin, Z. Z.; Umar, R.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Rosli, Z.; Asanok, K.; Gasiprong, N.

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, the frequency allocation reserved for radio astronomy in the L band set by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), which is between 1400 and 1427 MHz, is reviewed. We argue that the nearby frequencies are still very important for radio astronomers on the ground by investigating radio objects (H i sources) around 1300-1500 MHz. The L-band window is separated into a group of four windows, namely 1400-1427 MHz (window A), 1380-1400 MHz (window B), 1350-1380 MHz (window C), and 1300-1350 MHz (window D). These windows are selected according to their redshifts from a rest frequency for hydrogen spectral line at 1420.4057 MHz. Radio objects up to z ≈ 0.1 or frequency down to 1300 MHz are examined. We argue that since window B has important radio objects within the four windows, this window should also be given to radio astronomy. They are galaxies, spiral galaxies, and galaxy clusters. This underlines the significance of window B for radio astronomers on the ground. By investigating the severeness of radio frequency interference (RFI) within these windows, we have determined that window B still has significant, consistent RFI. The main RFI sources in the four windows have also been identified. We also found that the Department of Civil Aviation of Malaysia is assigned a frequency range of 1215-1427 MHz, which is transmitted within the four windows and inside the protected frequency for radio astronomy. We also investigated the RFI in the four windows on proposed sites of future radio astronomy observatories in Malaysia and Thailand and found the two best sites as Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (UPSI) and Ubon Ratchathani, respectively. It has also been determined that RFI in window B increases with population density.

  6. Computationally Efficient Radio Frequency Source Localization for Radio Interferometric Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steeb, J.-W.; Davidson, David B.; Wijnholds, Stefan J.

    2018-03-01

    Radio frequency interference (RFI) is an ever-increasing problem for remote sensing and radio astronomy, with radio telescope arrays especially vulnerable to RFI. Localizing the RFI source is the first step to dealing with the culprit system. In this paper, a new localization algorithm for interferometric arrays with low array beam sidelobes is presented. The algorithm has been adapted to work both in the near field and far field (only the direction of arrival can be recovered when the source is in the far field). In the near field the computational complexity of the algorithm is linear with search grid size compared to cubic scaling of the state-of-the-art 3-D MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) method. The new method is as accurate as 3-D MUSIC. The trade-off is that the proposed algorithm requires a once-off a priori calculation and storing of weighting matrices. The accuracy of the algorithm is validated using data generated by low-frequency array while a hexacopter was flying around it and broadcasting a continuous-wave signal. For the flight, the mean distance between the differential GPS positions and the corresponding estimated positions of the hexacopter is 2 m at a wavelength of 6.7 m.

  7. A Radio-Frequency-over-Fiber link for large-array radio astronomy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mena, J.; Bandura, K.; Cliche, J.-F.; Dobbs, M.; Gilbert, A.; Tang, Q. Y.

    2013-10-01

    A prototype 425-850 MHz Radio-Frequency-over-Fiber (RFoF) link for the Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment (CHIME) is presented. The design is based on a directly modulated Fabry-Perot (FP) laser, operating at ambient temperature, and a single-mode fiber. The dynamic performance, gain stability, and phase stability of the RFoF link are characterized. Tests on a two-element interferometer built at the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory for CHIME prototyping demonstrate that RFoF can be successfully used as a cost-effective solution for analog signal transport on the CHIME telescope and other large-array radio astronomy applications.

  8. Conversion of Radio-Frequency Pulses to Continuous-Wave Sinusoids by Fast Switching and Narrowband Filtering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    Switching and Narrowband Filtering by Gregory J Mazzaro, Andrew J Sherbondy, Kenneth I Ranney, and Kelly D Sherbondy...Switching and Narrowband Filtering by Gregory J Mazzaro, Andrew J Sherbondy, Kenneth I Ranney, and Kelly D Sherbondy Sensors and Electron Devices...08/2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Conversion of Radio-Frequency Pulses to Continuous-Wave Sinusoids by Fast Switching and Narrowband Filtering 5a

  9. Radio Frequency Based Programmable Logic Controller Anomaly Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    include wireless radios, IEEE 802.15 Blue- tooth devices, cellular phones, and IEEE 802.11 WiFi networking devices. While wireless communication...MacKenzie, H. Shamoon Malware and SCADA Security What are the Im- pacts? . Technical Report, Tofino Security, Sep 2012. 61. Mateti,P. Hacking Techniques

  10. RFID Transponders' Radio Frequency Emissions in Aircraft Communication and Navigation Radio Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Ely, Jay J.; Williams, Reuben A.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Salud, Maria Theresa P.

    2006-01-01

    Radiated emissions in aircraft communication and navigation bands are measured from several active radio frequency identification (RFID) tags. The individual tags are different in design and operations. They may also operate in different frequency bands. The process for measuring the emissions is discussed, and includes tag interrogation, reverberation chamber testing, and instrument settings selection. The measurement results are described and compared against aircraft emission limits. In addition, interference path loss for the cargo bays of passenger aircraft is measured. Cargo bay path loss is more appropriate for RFID tags than passenger cabin path loss. The path loss data are reported for several aircraft radio systems on a Boeing 747 and an Airbus A320.

  11. Energetic ion mass analysis using a radio-frequency quadrupole filter.

    PubMed

    Medley, S S

    1978-06-01

    In conventional applications of the radio-frequency quadrupole mass analyzer, the ion injection energy is usually limited to less than the order of 100 eV due to constraints on the dimensions and power supply of the device. However, requirements often arise, for example in fusion plasma ion diagnostics, for mass analysis of much more energetic ions. A technique easily adaptable to any conventional quadrupole analyzer which circumvents the limitation on injection energy is documented in this paper. Briefly, a retarding potential applied to the pole assembly is shown to facilitate mass analysis of multikiloelectron volt ions without altering the salient characteristics of either the quadrupole filter or the ion beam.

  12. Stable radio-frequency transfer over optical fiber by phase-conjugate frequency mixing.

    PubMed

    He, Yabai; Orr, Brian J; Baldwin, Kenneth G H; Wouters, Michael J; Luiten, Andre N; Aben, Guido; Warrington, R Bruce

    2013-08-12

    We demonstrate long-distance (≥100-km) synchronization of the phase of a radio-frequency reference over an optical-fiber network without needing to actively stabilize the optical path length. Frequency mixing is used to achieve passive phase-conjugate cancellation of fiber-length fluctuations, ensuring that the phase difference between the reference and synchronized oscillators is independent of the link length. The fractional radio-frequency-transfer stability through a 100-km "real-world" urban optical-fiber network is 6 × 10(-17) with an averaging time of 10(4) s. Our compensation technique is robust, providing long-term stability superior to that of a hydrogen maser. By combining our technique with the short-term stability provided by a remote, high-quality quartz oscillator, this system is potentially applicable to transcontinental optical-fiber time and frequency dissemination where the optical round-trip propagation time is significant.

  13. MASER: A Tool Box for Solar System Low Frequency Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecconi, B.; Le Sidaner, P.; Savalle, R.; Bonnin, X.; Zarka, P.; Louis, C.; Coffre, A.; Lamy, L.; Denis, L.; Griessmeier, J.-M.; Faden, J.; Piker, C.; André, N.; Génot, V.; Erard, S.; King, T. A.; Mafi, J. N.; Sharlow, M.; Sky, J.; Demleitner, M.

    2018-04-01

    MASER (Measuring, Analysing, and Simulating Radio Emissions) is a toolbox for solar system radio astronomy. It provides tools for reading, displaying, finding, and modeling low frequency radio datasets.

  14. Low-frequency Radio Observatory on the Lunar Surface (LROLS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDowall, Robert; Network for Exploration and Space Science (NESS)

    2018-06-01

    A radio observatory on the lunar surface will provide the capability to image solar radio bursts and other sources. Radio burst imaging will improve understanding of radio burst mechanisms, particle acceleration, and space weather. Low-frequency observations (less than ~20 MHz) must be made from space, because lower frequencies are blocked by Earth’s ionosphere. Solar radio observations do not mandate an observatory on the farside of the Moon, although such a location would permit study of less intense solar bursts because the Moon occults the terrestrial radio frequency interference. The components of the lunar radio observatory array are: the antenna system consisting of 10 – 100 antennas distributed over a square kilometer or more; the system to transfer the radio signals from the antennas to the central processing unit; electronics to digitize the signals and possibly to calculate correlations; storage for the data until it is down-linked to Earth. Such transmission requires amplification and a high-gain antenna system or possibly laser comm. For observatories on the lunar farside a satellite or other intermediate transfer system is required to direct the signal to Earth. On the ground, the aperture synthesis analysis is completed to display the radio image as a function of time. Other requirements for lunar surface systems include the power supply, utilizing solar arrays with batteries to maintain the system at adequate thermal levels during the lunar night. An alternative would be a radioisotope thermoelectric generator requiring less mass. The individual antennas might be designed with their own solar arrays and electronics to transmit data to the central processing unit, but surviving lunar night would be a challenge. Harnesses for power and data transfer from the central processing unit to the antennas are an alternative, but a harness-based system complicates deployment. The concept of placing the antennas and harnesses on rolls of polyimide and

  15. Resonant-frequency discharge in a multi-cell radio frequency cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Popovic, S; Upadhyay, J; Mammosser, J

    2014-11-07

    We are reporting experimental results on microwave discharge operating at resonant frequency in a multi-cell radio frequency (RF) accelerator cavity. Although the discharge operated at room temperature, the setup was constructed so that it could be used for plasma generation and processing in fully assembled active superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cryomodule (in situ operation). This discharge offers an efficient mechanism for removal of a variety of contaminants, organic or oxide layers, and residual particulates from the interior surface of RF cavities through the interaction of plasma-generated radicals with the cavity walls. We describe resonant RF breakdown conditions and address the problemsmore » related to generation and sustaining the multi-cell cavity plasma, which are breakdown and resonant detuning. We have determined breakdown conditions in the cavity, which was acting as a plasma vessel with distorted cylindrical geometry. We discuss the spectroscopic data taken during plasma removal of contaminants and use them to evaluate plasma parameters, characterize the process, and estimate the volatile contaminant product removal.« less

  16. Radio-Frequency and Wideband Modulation Arraying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brockman, M. H.

    1984-01-01

    Summing network receives coherent signals from all receivers in array. Method sums narrow-band radio-frequency (RF) carrier powers and wide-band spectrum powers of array of separate antenna/receiver systems designed for phase-locked-loop or suppressed-carrier operation.

  17. Non-contact radio frequency shielding and wave guiding by multi-folded transformation optics method

    PubMed Central

    Madni, Hamza Ahmad; Zheng, Bin; Yang, Yihao; Wang, Huaping; Zhang, Xianmin; Yin, Wenyan; Li, Erping; Chen, Hongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Compared with conventional radio frequency (RF) shielding methods in which the conductive coating material encloses the circuits design and the leakage problem occurs due to the gap in such conductive material, non-contact RF shielding at a distance is very promising but still impossible to achieve so far. In this paper, a multi-folded transformation optics method is proposed to design a non-contact device for RF shielding. This “open-shielded” device can shield any object at a distance from the electromagnetic waves at the operating frequency, while the object is still physically open to the outer space. Based on this, an open-carpet cloak is proposed and the functionality of the open-carpet cloak is demonstrated. Furthermore, we investigate a scheme of non-contact wave guiding to remotely control the propagation of surface waves over any obstacles. The flexibilities of such multi-folded transformation optics method demonstrate the powerfulness of the method in the design of novel remote devices with impressive new functionalities. PMID:27841358

  18. Signal Identification and Isolation Utilizing Radio Frequency Photonics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-09-01

    analyzers can measure the frequency of signals and filters can be used to separate the signals apart from one another. This report will review...different techniques for spectrum analysis and isolation. 15. SUBJECT TERMS radio frequency, photonics, spectrum analyzer, filters 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...Analyzers .......................................................................................... 3 3.2 Frequency Identification using Filters

  19. Low frequency radio synthesis imaging of the galactic center region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nord, Michael Evans

    2005-11-01

    The Very Large Array radio interferometer has been equipped with new receivers to allow observations at 330 and 74 MHz, frequencies much lower than were previously possible with this instrument. Though the VLA dishes are not optimal for working at these frequencies, the system is successful and regular observations are now taken at these frequencies. However, new data analysis techniques are required to work at these frequencies. The technique of self- calibration, used to remove small atmospheric effects at higher frequencies, has been adapted to compensate for ionospheric turbulence in much the same way that adaptive optics is used in the optical regime. Faceted imaging techniques are required to compensate for the noncoplanar image distortion that affects the system due to the wide fields of view at these frequencies (~2.3° at 330 MHz and ~11° at 74 MHz). Furthermore, radio frequency interference is a much larger problem at these frequencies than in higher frequencies and novel approaches to its mitigation are required. These new techniques and new system are allowing for imaging of the radio sky at sensitivities and resolutions orders of magnitude higher than were possible with the low frequency systems of decades past. In this work I discuss the advancements in low frequency data techniques required to make high resolution, high sensitivity, large field of view measurements with the new Very Large Array low frequency system and then detail the results of turning this new system and techniques on the center of our Milky Way Galaxy. At 330 MHz I image the Galactic center region with roughly 10 inches resolution and 1.6 mJy beam -1 sensitivity. New Galactic center nonthermal filaments, new pulsar candidates, and the lowest frequency detection to date of the radio source associated with our Galaxy's central massive black hole result. At 74 MHz I image a region of the sky roughly 40° x 6° with, ~10 feet resolution. I use the high opacity of H II regions at 74

  20. Electron capture dissociation in a branched radio-frequency ion trap.

    PubMed

    Baba, Takashi; Campbell, J Larry; Le Blanc, J C Yves; Hager, James W; Thomson, Bruce A

    2015-01-06

    We have developed a high-throughput electron capture dissociation (ECD) device coupled to a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer using novel branched radio frequency ion trap architecture. With this device, a low-energy electron beam can be injected orthogonally into the analytical ion beam with independent control of both the ion and electron beams. While ions and electrons can interact in a "flow-through" mode, we observed a large enhancement in ECD efficiency by introducing a short ion trapping period at the region of ion and electron beam intersection. This simultaneous trapping mode still provides up to five ECD spectra per second while operating in an information-dependent acquisition workflow. Coupled to liquid chromatography (LC), this LC-ECD workflow provides good sequence coverage for both trypsin and Lys C digests of bovine serum albumin, providing ECD spectra for doubly charged precursor ions with very good efficiency.

  1. 47 CFR 2.701 - Prohibition against use of a radio device for eavesdropping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibition against use of a radio device for... ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Prohibition Against Eavesdropping § 2.701 Prohibition against use of a radio device for eavesdropping. (a) No person shall use, either directly or...

  2. Graphene radio frequency receiver integrated circuit.

    PubMed

    Han, Shu-Jen; Garcia, Alberto Valdes; Oida, Satoshi; Jenkins, Keith A; Haensch, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Graphene has attracted much interest as a future channel material in radio frequency electronics because of its superior electrical properties. Fabrication of a graphene integrated circuit without significantly degrading transistor performance has proven to be challenging, posing one of the major bottlenecks to compete with existing technologies. Here we present a fabrication method fully preserving graphene transistor quality, demonstrated with the implementation of a high-performance three-stage graphene integrated circuit. The circuit operates as a radio frequency receiver performing signal amplification, filtering and downconversion mixing. All circuit components are integrated into 0.6 mm(2) area and fabricated on 200 mm silicon wafers, showing the unprecedented graphene circuit complexity and silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process compatibility. The demonstrated circuit performance allow us to use graphene integrated circuit to perform practical wireless communication functions, receiving and restoring digital text transmitted on a 4.3-GHz carrier signal.

  3. Radio frequency-assisted fast superconducting switch

    SciTech Connect

    Solovyov, Vyacheslav; Li, Qiang

    A radio frequency-assisted fast superconducting switch is described. A superconductor is closely coupled to a radio frequency (RF) coil. To turn the switch "off," i.e., to induce a transition to the normal, resistive state in the superconductor, a voltage burst is applied to the RF coil. This voltage burst is sufficient to induce a current in the coupled superconductor. The combination of the induced current with any other direct current flowing through the superconductor is sufficient to exceed the critical current of the superconductor at the operating temperature, inducing a transition to the normal, resistive state. A by-pass MOSFET maymore » be configured in parallel with the superconductor to act as a current shunt, allowing the voltage across the superconductor to drop below a certain value, at which time the superconductor undergoes a transition to the superconducting state and the switch is reset.« less

  4. Graphene radio frequency receiver integrated circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Shu-Jen; Garcia, Alberto Valdes; Oida, Satoshi; Jenkins, Keith A.; Haensch, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Graphene has attracted much interest as a future channel material in radio frequency electronics because of its superior electrical properties. Fabrication of a graphene integrated circuit without significantly degrading transistor performance has proven to be challenging, posing one of the major bottlenecks to compete with existing technologies. Here we present a fabrication method fully preserving graphene transistor quality, demonstrated with the implementation of a high-performance three-stage graphene integrated circuit. The circuit operates as a radio frequency receiver performing signal amplification, filtering and downconversion mixing. All circuit components are integrated into 0.6 mm2 area and fabricated on 200 mm silicon wafers, showing the unprecedented graphene circuit complexity and silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process compatibility. The demonstrated circuit performance allow us to use graphene integrated circuit to perform practical wireless communication functions, receiving and restoring digital text transmitted on a 4.3-GHz carrier signal.

  5. Radio Frequency Ablation Registration, Segmentation, and Fusion Tool

    PubMed Central

    McCreedy, Evan S.; Cheng, Ruida; Hemler, Paul F.; Viswanathan, Anand; Wood, Bradford J.; McAuliffe, Matthew J.

    2008-01-01

    The Radio Frequency Ablation Segmentation Tool (RFAST) is a software application developed using NIH's Medical Image Processing Analysis and Visualization (MIPAV) API for the specific purpose of assisting physicians in the planning of radio frequency ablation (RFA) procedures. The RFAST application sequentially leads the physician through the steps necessary to register, fuse, segment, visualize and plan the RFA treatment. Three-dimensional volume visualization of the CT dataset with segmented 3D surface models enables the physician to interactively position the ablation probe to simulate burns and to semi-manually simulate sphere packing in an attempt to optimize probe placement. PMID:16871716

  6. 47 CFR 76.616 - Operation near certain aeronautical and marine emergency radio frequencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... emergency radio frequencies. 76.616 Section 76.616 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Technical Standards § 76.616 Operation near certain aeronautical and marine emergency radio frequencies. (a) The transmission...

  7. Review on analog/radio frequency performance of advanced silicon MOSFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passi, Vikram; Raskin, Jean-Pierre

    2017-12-01

    Aggressive gate-length downscaling of the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) has been the main stimulus for the growth of the integrated circuit industry. This downscaling, which has proved beneficial to digital circuits, is primarily the result of the need for improved circuit performance and cost reduction and has resulted in tremendous reduction of the carrier transit time across the channel, thereby resulting in very high cut-off frequencies. It is only in recent decades that complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) field-effect transistor (FET) has been considered as the radio frequency (RF) technology of choice. In this review, the status of the digital, analog and RF figures of merit (FoM) of silicon-based FETs is presented. State-of-the-art devices with very good performance showing low values of drain-induced barrier lowering, sub-threshold swing, high values of gate transconductance, Early voltage, cut-off frequencies, and low minimum noise figure, and good low-frequency noise characteristic values are reported. The dependence of these FoM on the device gate length is also shown, helping the readers to understand the trends and challenges faced by shorter CMOS nodes. Device performance boosters including silicon-on-insulator substrates, multiple-gate architectures, strain engineering, ultra-thin body and buried-oxide and also III-V and 2D materials are discussed, highlighting the transistor characteristics that are influenced by these boosters. A brief comparison of the two main contenders in continuing Moore’s law, ultra-thin body buried-oxide and fin field-effect transistors are also presented. The authors would like to mention that despite extensive research carried out in the semiconductor industry, silicon-based MOSFET will continue to be the driving force in the foreseeable future.

  8. RADIO FREQUENCY ATTENUATOR

    DOEpatents

    Giordano, S.

    1963-11-12

    A high peak power level r-f attenuator that is readily and easily insertable along a coaxial cable having an inner conductor and an outer annular conductor without breaking the ends thereof is presented. Spaced first and second flares in the outer conductor face each other with a slidable cylindrical outer conductor portion therebetween. Dielectric means, such as water, contact the cable between the flares to attenuate the radio-frequency energy received thereby. The cylindrical outer conductor portion is slidable to adjust the voltage standing wave ratio to a low level, and one of the flares is slidable to adjust the attenuation level. An integral dielectric container is also provided. (AFC)

  9. Radio Frequency Interference Detection using Machine Learning.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosiane, Olorato; Oozeer, Nadeem; Aniyan, Arun; Bassett, Bruce A.

    2017-05-01

    Radio frequency interference (RFI) has plagued radio astronomy which potentially might be as bad or worse by the time the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) comes up. RFI can be either internal (generated by instruments) or external that originates from intentional or unintentional radio emission generated by man. With the huge amount of data that will be available with up coming radio telescopes, an automated aproach will be required to detect RFI. In this paper to try automate this process we present the result of applying machine learning techniques to cross match RFI from the Karoo Array Telescope (KAT-7) data. We found that not all the features selected to characterise RFI are always important. We further investigated 3 machine learning techniques and conclude that the Random forest classifier performs with a 98% Area Under Curve and 91% recall in detecting RFI.

  10. Security risks associated with radio frequency identification in medical environments.

    PubMed

    Hawrylak, Peter J; Schimke, Nakeisha; Hale, John; Papa, Mauricio

    2012-12-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) is a form of wireless communication that is used to identify assets and people. RFID has significant benefits to the medical environment. However, serious security threats are present in RFID systems that must be addressed in a medical environment. Of particular interest are threats to patient privacy and safety based on interception of messages, interruption of communication, modification of data, and fabrication of messages and devices. This paper presents an overview of these security threats present in RFID systems in a medical environment and provides guidance on potential solutions to these threats. This paper provides a roadmap for researchers and implementers to address the security issues facing RFID in the medical space.

  11. Recent research trends of radio-frequency biosensors for biomolecular detection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee-Jo; Yook, Jong-Gwan

    2014-11-15

    This article reviews radio-frequency (RF) biosensors based on passive and/or active devices and circuits. In particular, we focus on RF biosensors designed for detection of various biomolecules such as biotin-streptavidin, DNA hybridization, IgG, and glucose. The performance of these biosensors has been enhanced by the introduction of various sensing schemes with diverse nanomaterials (e.g., carbon nanotubes, graphene oxide, magnetic and gold nanoparticles, etc.). In addition, the RF biosensing platforms that can be associated with an RF active system are discussed. Finally, the challenges of RF biosensors are presented and suggestions are made for their future direction and prospects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Wavelet Based Characterization of Low Radio Frequency Solar Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, A.; Sharma, R.; Das, S. B.; Oberoi, D.; Pankratius, V.; Lonsdale, C.

    2016-12-01

    Low-frequency solar radio observations with the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) have revealed the presence of numerous short-lived, narrow-band weak radio features, even during quiet solar conditions. In their appearance in in the frequency-time plane, they come closest to the solar type III bursts, but with much shorter spectral spans and flux densities, so much so that they are not detectable with the usual swept frequency radio spectrographs. These features occur at rates of many thousand features per hour in the 30.72 MHz MWA bandwidth, and hence necessarily require an automated approach to determine robust statistical estimates of their properties, e.g., distributions of spectral widths, temporal spans, flux densities, slopes in the time-frequency plane and distribution over frequency. To achieve this, a wavelet decomposition approach has been developed for feature recognition and subsequent parameter extraction from the MWA dynamic spectrum. This work builds on earlier work by the members of this team to achieve a reliable flux calibration in a computationally efficient manner. Preliminary results show that the distribution of spectral span of these features peaks around 3 MHz, most of them last for less than two seconds and are characterized by flux densities of about 60% of the background solar emission. In analogy with the solar type III bursts, this non-thermal emission is envisaged to arise via coherent emission processes. There is also an exciting possibility that these features might correspond to radio signatures of nanoflares, hypothesized (Gold, 1964; Parker, 1972) to explain coronal heating.

  13. Radio-frequency energy harvesting for wearable sensors.

    PubMed

    Borges, Luís M; Chávez-Santiago, Raul; Barroca, Norberto; Velez, Fernando José; Balasingham, Ilangko

    2015-02-01

    The use of wearable biomedical sensors for the continuous monitoring of physiological signals will facilitate the involvement of the patients in the prevention and management of chronic diseases. The fabrication of small biomedical sensors transmitting physiological data wirelessly is possible as a result of the tremendous advances in ultra-low power electronics and radio communications. However, the widespread adoption of these devices depends very much on their ability to operate for long periods of time without the need to frequently change, recharge or even use batteries. In this context, energy harvesting (EH) is the disruptive technology that can pave the road towards the massive utilisation of wireless wearable sensors for patient self-monitoring and daily healthcare. Radio-frequency (RF) transmissions from commercial telecommunication networks represent reliable ambient energy that can be harvested as they are ubiquitous in urban and suburban areas. The state-of-the-art in RF EH for wearable biomedical sensors specifically targeting the global system of mobile 900/1800 cellular and 700 MHz digital terrestrial television networks as ambient RF energy sources are showcased. Furthermore, guidelines for the choice of the number of stages for the RF energy harvester are presented, depending on the requirements from the embedded system to power supply, which is useful for other researchers that work in the same area. The present authors' recent advances towards the development of an efficient RF energy harvester and storing system are presented and thoroughly discussed too.

  14. [Microstrip antenna design and system research of radio frequency identification temperature sensor].

    PubMed

    Yang, Hao; Yang, Xiaohe; Chen, Yuquan; Pan, Min

    2008-12-01

    Radio frequency identification sensor network, which is a product of integrating radio frequency identification (RFID) with wireless sensor network (WSN), is introduced in this paper. The principle of radio frequency identification sensor is analyzed, and the importance of the antenna is emphasized. Then three kinds of common antennae, namely coil antenna, dipole antenna and microstrip antenna, are discussed. Subsequently, according to requirement, we have designed a microstrip antenna in a wireless temperature-monitoring and controlling system. The measurement of factual effect showed the requirement was fulfilled.

  15. First muon acceleration using a radio-frequency accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, S.; Choi, H.; Choi, S.; Fukao, Y.; Futatsukawa, K.; Hasegawa, K.; Iijima, T.; Iinuma, H.; Ishida, K.; Kawamura, N.; Kim, B.; Kitamura, R.; Ko, H. S.; Kondo, Y.; Li, S.; Mibe, T.; Miyake, Y.; Morishita, T.; Nakazawa, Y.; Otani, M.; Razuvaev, G. P.; Saito, N.; Shimomura, K.; Sue, Y.; Won, E.; Yamazaki, T.

    2018-05-01

    Muons have been accelerated by using a radio-frequency accelerator for the first time. Negative muonium atoms (Mu- ), which are bound states of positive muons (μ+) and two electrons, are generated from μ+'s through the electron capture process in an aluminum degrader. The generated Mu- 's are initially electrostatically accelerated and injected into a radio-frequency quadrupole linac (RFQ). In the RFQ, the Mu- 's are accelerated to 89 keV. The accelerated Mu- 's are identified by momentum measurement and time of flight. This compact muon linac opens the door to various muon accelerator applications including particle physics measurements and the construction of a transmission muon microscope.

  16. Methods, Systems and Apparatuses for Radio Frequency Identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Chu, Andrew W. (Inventor); Lin, Gregory Y. (Inventor); Kennedy, Timothy F. (Inventor); Ngo, Phong H. (Inventor); Brown, Dewey T. (Inventor); Byerly, Diane (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A system for radio frequency identification (RFID) includes an enclosure defining an interior region interior to the enclosure, and a feed for generating an electromagnetic field in the interior region in response to a signal received from an RFID reader via a radio frequency (RF) transmission line and, in response to the electromagnetic field, receiving a signal from an RFID sensor attached to an item in the interior region. The structure of the enclosure may be conductive and may include a metamaterial portion, an electromagnetically absorbing portion, or a wall extending in the interior region. Related apparatuses and methods for performing RFID are provided.

  17. Methods, Systems and Apparatuses for Radio Frequency Identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Chu, Andrew W. (Inventor); Lin, Gregory Y. (Inventor); Kennedy, Timothy F. (Inventor); Ngo, Phong H. (Inventor); Brown, Dewey T. (Inventor); Byerly, Diane (Inventor); Boose, Haley C. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A system for radio frequency identification (RFID) includes an enclosure defining an interior region interior to the enclosure, and a feed for generating an electromagnetic field in the interior region in response to a signal received from an RFID reader via a radio frequency (RF) transmission line and, in response to the electromagnetic field, receiving a signal from an RFID sensor attached to an item in the interior region. The structure of the enclosure may be conductive and may include a metamaterial portion, an electromagnetically absorbing portion, or a wall extending in the interior region. Related apparatuses and methods for performing RFID are provided.

  18. Methods, Systems and Apparatuses for Radio Frequency Identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Dewey T. (Inventor); Lin, Gregory Y. (Inventor); Kennedy, Timothy F. (Inventor); Byerly, Diane (Inventor); Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Chu, Andrew W. (Inventor); Ngo, Phong H. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A system for radio frequency identification (RFID) includes an enclosure defining an interior region interior to the enclosure, and a feed for generating an electromagnetic field in the interior region in response to a signal received from an RFID reader via a radio frequency (RF) transmission line and, in response to the electromagnetic field, receiving a signal from an RFID sensor attached to an item in the interior region. The structure of the enclosure may be conductive and may include a metamaterial portion, an electromagnetically absorbing portion, or a wall extending in the interior region. Related apparatuses and methods for performing RFID are provided.

  19. A radio-frequency sheath model for complex waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, M. M.; Chabert, P.

    2014-04-01

    Plasma sheaths driven by radio-frequency voltages occur in contexts ranging from plasma processing to magnetically confined fusion experiments. An analytical understanding of such sheaths is therefore important, both intrinsically and as an element in more elaborate theoretical structures. Radio-frequency sheaths are commonly excited by highly anharmonic waveforms, but no analytical model exists for this general case. We present a mathematically simple sheath model that is in good agreement with earlier models for single frequency excitation, yet can be solved for arbitrary excitation waveforms. As examples, we discuss dual-frequency and pulse-like waveforms. The model employs the ansatz that the time-averaged electron density is a constant fraction of the ion density. In the cases we discuss, the error introduced by this approximation is small, and in general it can be quantified through an internal consistency condition of the model. This simple and accurate model is likely to have wide application.

  20. Determination of Receiver Susceptibility to Radio Frequency Interference from Portable Electronic Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Ely, Jay J.

    2002-01-01

    With the increasing pressures to allow wireless devices on aircraft, the susceptibility of aircraft receivers to interference from Portable Electronic Devices (PEDs) becomes an increasing concern. Many investigations were conducted in the past, with limited success, to quantify device emissions, path loss, and receiver interference susceptibility thresholds. This paper outlines the recent effort in determining the receiver susceptibility thresholds for ILS, VOR and GPS systems. The effort primarily consists of analysis of data available openly as reported in many RTCA and ICAO documents as well as manufacturers data on receiver sensitivity. Shortcomings with the susceptibility threshold data reported in the RTCA documents are presented, and an approach for an in-depth study is suggested. In addition, intermodulation products were observed and demonstrated in a laboratory experiment when multiple PEDs were in the proximity of each other. These intermodulation effects generate spurious frequencies that may fall within aircraft communication or navigation bands causing undesirable effects. Results from a preliminary analysis are presented that show possible harmful combinations of PEDs and the potentially affected aircraft bands.

  1. Radio telemetry devices to monitor breathing in non-sedated animals.

    PubMed

    Samson, Nathalie; Dumont, Sylvain; Specq, Marie-Laure; Praud, Jean-Paul

    2011-12-15

    Radio telemetry equipment has significantly improved over the last 10-15 years and is increasingly being used in research for monitoring a variety of physiological parameters in non-sedated animals. The aim of this review is to provide an update on the current state of development of radio telemetry for recording respiration. Our literature review found only rare reports of respiratory studies via radio telemetry. Much of this article will hence report our experience with our custom-built radio telemetry devices designed for recording respiratory signals, together with numerous other physiological signals in lambs. Our current radio telemetry system allows to record 24 simultaneous signals 24h/day for several days. To our knowledge, this is the highest number of physiological signals, which can be recorded wirelessly. Our devices have been invaluable for studying respiration in our ovine models of preterm birth, reflux laryngitis, postnatal exposure to cigarette smoke, respiratory syncytial virus infection and nasal ventilation, all of which are relevant to neonatal respiratory problems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Wireless Chalcogenide Nanoionic-Based Radio-Frequency Switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nessel, James; Miranda, Felix

    2013-01-01

    A new nonvolatile nanoionic switch is powered and controlled through wireless radio-frequency (RF) transmission. A thin layer of chalcogenide glass doped with a metal ion, such as silver, comprises the operational portion of the switch. For the switch to function, an oxidizable electrode is made positive (anode) with respect to an opposing electrode (cathode) when sufficient bias, typically on the order of a few tenths of a volt or more, is applied. This action causes the metal ions to flow toward the cathode through a coordinated hopping mechanism. At the cathode, a reduction reaction occurs to form a metal deposit. This metal deposit creates a conductive path that bridges the gap between electrodes to turn the switch on. Once this conductive path is formed, no further power is required to maintain it. To reverse this process, the metal deposit is made positive with respect to the original oxidizable electrode, causing the dissolution of the metal bridge thereby turning the switch off. Once the metal deposit has been completely dissolved, the process self-terminates. This switching process features the following attributes. It requires very little to change states (i.e., on and off). Furthermore, no power is required to maintain the states; hence, the state of the switch is nonvolatile. Because of these attributes the integration of a rectenna to provide the necessary power and control is unique to this embodiment. A rectenna, or rectifying antenna, generates DC power from an incident RF signal. The low voltages and power required for the nanoionic switch control are easily generated from this system and provide the switch with a novel capability to be operated and powered from an external wireless device. In one realization, an RF signal of a specific frequency can be used to set the switch into an off state, while another frequency can be used to set the switch to an on state. The wireless, miniaturized, and nomoving- part features of this switch make it

  3. LOFAR/H-ATLAS: the low-frequency radio luminosity-star formation rate relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürkan, G.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Smith, D. J. B.; Best, P. N.; Bourne, N.; Calistro-Rivera, G.; Heald, G.; Jarvis, M. J.; Prandoni, I.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Sabater, J.; Shimwell, T.; Tasse, C.; Williams, W. L.

    2018-04-01

    Radio emission is a key indicator of star formation activity in galaxies, but the radio luminosity-star formation relation has to date been studied almost exclusively at frequencies of 1.4 GHz or above. At lower radio frequencies, the effects of thermal radio emission are greatly reduced, and so we would expect the radio emission observed to be completely dominated by synchrotron radiation from supernova-generated cosmic rays. As part of the LOFAR Surveys Key Science project, the Herschel-ATLAS NGP field has been surveyed with LOFAR at an effective frequency of 150 MHz. We select a sample from the MPA-JHU catalogue of Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies in this area: the combination of Herschel, optical and mid-infrared data enable us to derive star formation rates (SFRs) for our sources using spectral energy distribution fitting, allowing a detailed study of the low-frequency radio luminosity-star formation relation in the nearby Universe. For those objects selected as star-forming galaxies (SFGs) using optical emission line diagnostics, we find a tight relationship between the 150 MHz radio luminosity (L150) and SFR. Interestingly, we find that a single power-law relationship between L150 and SFR is not a good description of all SFGs: a broken power-law model provides a better fit. This may indicate an additional mechanism for the generation of radio-emitting cosmic rays. Also, at given SFR, the radio luminosity depends on the stellar mass of the galaxy. Objects that were not classified as SFGs have higher 150-MHz radio luminosity than would be expected given their SFR, implying an important role for low-level active galactic nucleus activity.

  4. High-energy sources at low radio frequency: the Murchison Widefield Array view of Fermi blazars

    DOE PAGES

    Giroletti, M.; Massaro, F.; D’Abrusco, R.; ...

    2016-04-01

    Low-frequency radio arrays are opening a new window for the study of the sky, both to study new phenomena and to better characterize known source classes. Being flat-spectrum sources, blazars are so far poorly studied at low radio frequencies. In this paper, we characterize the spectral properties of the blazar population at low radio frequency, compare the radio and high-energy properties of the gamma-ray blazar population, and search for radio counterparts of unidentified gamma-ray sources. We cross-correlated the 6100 deg 2 Murchison Widefield Array Commissioning Survey catalogue with the Roma blazar catalogue, the third catalogue of active galactic nuclei detectedmore » by Fermi-LAT, and the unidentified members of the entire third catalogue of gamma-ray sources detected by Fermi-LAT. When available, we also added high-frequency radio data from the Australia Telescope 20 GHz catalogue. We find low-frequency counterparts for 186 out of 517 (36%) blazars, 79 out of 174 (45%) gamma-ray blazars, and 8 out of 73 (11%) gamma-ray blazar candidates. The mean low-frequency (120–180 MHz) blazar spectral index is (α low) = 0.57 ± 0.02: blazar spectra are flatter than the rest of the population of low-frequency sources, but are steeper than at ~GHz frequencies. Low-frequency radio flux density and gamma-ray energy flux display a mildly significant and broadly scattered correlation. Ten unidentified gamma-ray sources have a (probably fortuitous) positional match with low radio frequency sources. Low-frequency radio astronomy provides important information about sources with a flat radio spectrum and high energy. However, the relatively low sensitivity of the present surveys still misses a significant fraction of these objects. Finally, upcoming deeper surveys, such as the GaLactic and Extragalactic All-Sky MWA (GLEAM) survey, will provide further insight into this population.« less

  5. High-energy sources at low radio frequency: the Murchison Widefield Array view of Fermi blazars

    SciTech Connect

    Giroletti, M.; Massaro, F.; D’Abrusco, R.

    Low-frequency radio arrays are opening a new window for the study of the sky, both to study new phenomena and to better characterize known source classes. Being flat-spectrum sources, blazars are so far poorly studied at low radio frequencies. In this paper, we characterize the spectral properties of the blazar population at low radio frequency, compare the radio and high-energy properties of the gamma-ray blazar population, and search for radio counterparts of unidentified gamma-ray sources. We cross-correlated the 6100 deg 2 Murchison Widefield Array Commissioning Survey catalogue with the Roma blazar catalogue, the third catalogue of active galactic nuclei detectedmore » by Fermi-LAT, and the unidentified members of the entire third catalogue of gamma-ray sources detected by Fermi-LAT. When available, we also added high-frequency radio data from the Australia Telescope 20 GHz catalogue. We find low-frequency counterparts for 186 out of 517 (36%) blazars, 79 out of 174 (45%) gamma-ray blazars, and 8 out of 73 (11%) gamma-ray blazar candidates. The mean low-frequency (120–180 MHz) blazar spectral index is (α low) = 0.57 ± 0.02: blazar spectra are flatter than the rest of the population of low-frequency sources, but are steeper than at ~GHz frequencies. Low-frequency radio flux density and gamma-ray energy flux display a mildly significant and broadly scattered correlation. Ten unidentified gamma-ray sources have a (probably fortuitous) positional match with low radio frequency sources. Low-frequency radio astronomy provides important information about sources with a flat radio spectrum and high energy. However, the relatively low sensitivity of the present surveys still misses a significant fraction of these objects. Finally, upcoming deeper surveys, such as the GaLactic and Extragalactic All-Sky MWA (GLEAM) survey, will provide further insight into this population.« less

  6. Characterization of a Prototype Radio Frequency Space Environment Path Emulator for Evaluating Spacecraft Ranging Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Jason W.; Baldwin, Philip J.; Kurichh, Rishi; Naasz, Bo J.; Luquette, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    The Formation Flying Testbed (FFTB) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) provides a hardware-in-the-loop test environment for formation navigation and control. The facility is evolving as a modular, hybrid, dynamic simulation facility for end-to-end guidance, navigation and control (GN&C) design and analysis of formation flying spacecraft. The core capabilities of the FFTB, as a platform for testing critical hardware and software algorithms in-the-loop, have expanded to include S-band Radio Frequency (RF) modems for interspacecraft communication and ranging. To enable realistic simulations that require RF ranging sensors for relative navigation, a mechanism is needed to buffer the RF signals exchanged between spacecraft that accurately emulates the dynamic environment through which the RF signals travel, including the effects of the medium, moving platforms, and radiated power. The Path Emulator for Radio Frequency Signals (PERFS), currently under development at NASA GSFC, provides this capability. The function and performance of a prototype device are presented.

  7. Improved fire resistant radio frequency anechoic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, D. A.

    1969-01-01

    Protective, flameproof foam covering improves the resistance to fire and surface contamination of low-cost radio frequency absorbing and shielding anechoic materials. This promotes safety of operating personnel and equipment being tested in an otherwise combustible anechoic chamber.

  8. MASER: Measuring, Analysing, Simulating low frequency Radio Emissions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecconi, B.; Le Sidaner, P.; Savalle, R.; Bonnin, X.; Zarka, P. M.; Louis, C.; Coffre, A.; Lamy, L.; Denis, L.; Griessmeier, J. M.; Faden, J.; Piker, C.; André, N.; Genot, V. N.; Erard, S.; King, T. A.; Mafi, J. N.; Sharlow, M.; Sky, J.; Demleitner, M.

    2017-12-01

    The MASER (Measuring, Analysing and Simulating Radio Emissions) project provides a comprehensive infrastructure dedicated to low frequency radio emissions (typically < 50 to 100 MHz). The four main radio sources observed in this frequency are the Earth, the Sun, Jupiter and Saturn. They are observed either from ground (down to 10 MHz) or from space. Ground observatories are more sensitive than space observatories and capture high resolution data streams (up to a few TB per day for modern instruments). Conversely, space-borne instruments can observe below the ionospheric cut-off (10 MHz) and can be placed closer to the studied object. Several tools have been developed in the last decade for sharing space physcis data. Data visualization tools developed by The CDPP (http://cdpp.eu, Centre de Données de la Physique des Plasmas, in Toulouse, France) and the University of Iowa (Autoplot, http://autoplot.org) are available to display and analyse space physics time series and spectrograms. A planetary radio emission simulation software is developed in LESIA (ExPRES: Exoplanetary and Planetary Radio Emission Simulator). The VESPA (Virtual European Solar and Planetary Access) provides a search interface that allows to discover data of interest for scientific users, and is based on IVOA standards (astronomical International Virtual Observatory Alliance). The University of Iowa also develops Das2server that allows to distribute data with adjustable temporal resolution. MASER is making use of all these tools and standards to distribute datasets from space and ground radio instruments available from the Observatoire de Paris, the Station de Radioastronomie de Nançay and the CDPP deep archive. These datasets include Cassini/RPWS, STEREO/Waves, WIND/Waves, Ulysses/URAP, ISEE3/SBH, Voyager/PRA, Nançay Decameter Array (Routine, NewRoutine, JunoN), RadioJove archive, swedish Viking mission, Interball/POLRAD... MASER also includes a Python software library for reading raw data.

  9. Pulsed radio frequency energy in the treatment of complex diabetic foot wounds: two cases.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Jerrie A; Overstreet, Julia

    2008-01-01

    The use of radio waves (pulsed radio frequency energy) has become well accepted in the treatment of chronic wounds. We present 2 cases of complex diabetic foot wounds treated adjunctively with outpatient pulsed radio frequency energy using a solid-state, 27.12 MHz fixed power output radio frequency generator that transmits a fixed dose of nonionizing, nonthermal electromagnetic energy through an applicator pad. This therapy, in combination with offloading, debridement and advanced dressings, resulted in closure of both wounds in approximately 16 weeks.

  10. Low-frequency radio absorption in Cassiopeia A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, M.; Vink, J.; de Gasperin, F.; Salas, P.; Oonk, J. B. R.; van Weeren, R. J.; van Amesfoort, A. S.; Anderson, J.; Beck, R.; Bell, M. E.; Bentum, M. J.; Best, P.; Blaauw, R.; Breitling, F.; Broderick, J. W.; Brouw, W. N.; Brüggen, M.; Butcher, H. R.; Ciardi, B.; de Geus, E.; Deller, A.; van Dijk, P. C. G.; Duscha, S.; Eislöffel, J.; Garrett, M. A.; Grießmeier, J. M.; Gunst, A. W.; van Haarlem, M. P.; Heald, G.; Hessels, J.; Hörandel, J.; Holties, H. A.; van der Horst, A. J.; Iacobelli, M.; Juette, E.; Krankowski, A.; van Leeuwen, J.; Mann, G.; McKay-Bukowski, D.; McKean, J. P.; Mulder, H.; Nelles, A.; Orru, E.; Paas, H.; Pandey-Pommier, M.; Pandey, V. N.; Pekal, R.; Pizzo, R.; Polatidis, A. G.; Reich, W.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Rothkaehl, H.; Schwarz, D. J.; Smirnov, O.; Soida, M.; Steinmetz, M.; Tagger, M.; Thoudam, S.; Toribio, M. C.; Vocks, C.; van der Wiel, M. H. D.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Wucknitz, O.; Zarka, P.; Zucca, P.

    2018-05-01

    Context. Cassiopeia A is one of the best-studied supernova remnants. Its bright radio and X-ray emission is due to shocked ejecta. Cas A is rather unique in that the unshocked ejecta can also be studied: through emission in the infrared, the radio-active decay of 44Ti, and the low-frequency free-free absorption caused by cold ionised gas, which is the topic of this paper. Aims: Free-free absorption processes are affected by the mass, geometry, temperature, and ionisation conditions in the absorbing gas. Observations at the lowest radio frequencies can constrain a combination of these properties. Methods: We used Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) Low Band Antenna observations at 30-77 MHz and Very Large Array (VLA) L-band observations at 1-2 GHz to fit for internal absorption as parametrised by the emission measure. We simultaneously fit multiple UV-matched images with a common resolution of 17″ (this corresponds to 0.25 pc for a source at the distance of Cas A). The ample frequency coverage allows us separate the relative contributions from the absorbing gas, the unabsorbed front of the shell, and the absorbed back of the shell to the emission spectrum. We explored the effects that a temperature lower than the 100-500 K proposed from infrared observations and a high degree of clumping can have on the derived physical properties of the unshocked material, such as its mass and density. We also compiled integrated radio flux density measurements, fit for the absorption processes that occur in the radio band, and considered their effect on the secular decline of the source. Results: We find a mass in the unshocked ejecta of M = 2.95 ± 0.48 M⊙ for an assumed gas temperatureof T = 100 K. This estimate is reduced for colder gas temperatures and, most significantly, if the ejecta are clumped. We measure the reverse shock to have a radius of 114″± 6″ and be centred at 23:23:26, +58:48:54 (J2000). We also find that a decrease in the amount of mass in the unshocked ejecta

  11. Technique for Predicting the Radio Frequency Field Strength Inside an Enclosure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallett, Michael P.; Reddell, Jerry P.

    1997-01-01

    This technical memo represents a simple analytical technique for predicting the Radio Frequency (RF) field inside an enclosed volume in which radio frequency occurs. The technique was developed to predict the RF field strength within a launch vehicle fairing in which some payloads desire to launch with their telemetry transmitter radiating. This technique considers both the launch vehicle and the payload aspects.

  12. Radio frequency charge parity meter.

    PubMed

    Schroer, M D; Jung, M; Petersson, K D; Petta, J R

    2012-10-19

    We demonstrate a total charge parity measurement by detecting the radio frequency signal that is reflected by a lumped-element resonator coupled to a single InAs nanowire double quantum dot. The high frequency response of the circuit is used to probe the effects of the Pauli exclusion principle at interdot charge transitions. Even parity charge transitions show a striking magnetic field dependence that is due to a singlet-triplet transition, while odd parity transitions are relatively insensitive to a magnetic field. The measured response agrees well with cavity input-output theory, allowing accurate measurements of the interdot tunnel coupling and the resonator-charge coupling rate g(c)/2π~17 MHz.

  13. 48 CFR 552.211-92 - Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) using passive tags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Identification (RFID) using passive tags. 552.211-92 Section 552.211-92 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Provisions and Clauses 552.211-92 Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) using passive tags. As prescribed in 511.204(b)(11), insert the following clause: Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Using Passive Tags...

  14. 48 CFR 552.211-92 - Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) using passive tags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Identification (RFID) using passive tags. 552.211-92 Section 552.211-92 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Provisions and Clauses 552.211-92 Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) using passive tags. As prescribed in 511.204(b)(11), insert the following clause: Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Using Passive Tags...

  15. Supplying the power requirements to a sensor network using radio frequency power transfer.

    PubMed

    Percy, Steven; Knight, Chris; Cooray, Francis; Smart, Ken

    2012-01-01

    Wireless power transmission is a method of supplying power to small electronic devices when there is no wired connection. One way to increase the range of these systems is to use a directional transmitting antenna, the problem with this approach is that power can only be transmitted through a narrow beam and directly forward, requiring the transmitter to always be aligned with the sensor node position. The work outlined in this article describes the design and testing of an autonomous radio frequency power transfer system that is capable of rotating the base transmitter to track the position of sensor nodes and transferring power to that sensor node. The system's base station monitors the node's energy levels and forms a charge queue to plan charging order and maintain energy levels of the nodes. Results show a radio frequency harvesting circuit with a measured S11 value of -31.5 dB and a conversion efficiency of 39.1%. Simulation and experimentation verified the level of power transfer and efficiency. The results of this work show a small network of three nodes with different storage types powered by a central base node.

  16. Coping with Radio Frequency Interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, B. M.

    2009-01-01

    The radio spectrum is a finite resource, on which humanity makes many demands. And pressure on it is ever increasing with the development of new technology and ideas for radio services. After all, we all benefit from wifi and cell phones. Radio astronomers have a small percentage of the spectrum allocated to them at octave intervals in the metre-centimetre bands, and at important frequencies, such as that of the 21cm line of HI. Signals from other services, as well as from our own poorly-engineered equipment, sometimes contaminate our bands: these signals constitute RFI. These may totally obliterate the astronomical signal, or, in the case of CLOUDSAT, may be capable of completely destroying a receiver, which introduces us to the new possibility of 'destructive interference'. A geo-stationary satellite can block access to a piece of sky from one site. Good equipment design eliminates self-inflicted interference, while physical separation often provides adequate practical mitigation at many frequencies. However, new observatories end up being located in the West Australian desert or Antarctica. In future they may be on the back side of the Moon. But there is no Earth-bound protection via physical separation against satellite signals. Some mitigation can be achieved by frequent data dumps and the excision of RFI, or by real-time detection and blanking of the receiver, or by more sophisticated algoriths. Astronomers of necessity aim to achieve mitigation via coordination, at the local level, and by participating in spectrum management at the national and international levels. This involves them spending a lot of time in Geneva at the International Telegraphic Union protecting their access to spectrum, and access to clean spectrum from the L3 point and the far side of the Moon.

  17. Time and Frequency Synchronization on the Virac Radio Telescope RT-32

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezrukovs, V.

    2016-04-01

    One of the main research directions of Ventspils International Radio Astronomy Centre (VIRAC) is radio astronomy and astrophysics. The instrumental base for the centre comprised two fully steerable parabolic antennas, RT-16 and RT-32 (i.e. with the mirror diameter of 16 m and 32 m). After long reconstruction, radio telescope RT-32 is currently equipped with the receiving and data acquisition systems that allow observing in a wide frequency range from 327 MHz to 9 GHz. New Antenna Control Unit (ACU) allows stable, fast and precise pointing of antenna. Time and frequency distribution service provide 5, 10 and 100 MHz reference frequency, 1PPS signals and precise time stamps by NTP protocol and in the IRIG-B format by coaxial cable. For the radio astronomical observations, main requirement of spatially Very Long Base Line Interferometric (VLBI) observations for the observatory is precise synchronization of the received and sampled data and linking to the exact time stamps. During October 2015, radio telescope RT-32 performance was tested in several successful VLBI experiments. The obtained results confirm the efficiency of the chosen methods of synchronization and the ability to reproduce them on similar antennas.

  18. Development of a Multi-frequency Interferometer Telescope for Radio Astronomy (MITRA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingala, Dominique Guelord Kumamputu

    2015-03-01

    This dissertation describes the development and construction of the Multi-frequency Interferometer Telescope for Radio Astronomy (MITRA) at the Durban University of Technology. The MITRA station consists of 2 antenna arrays separated by a baseline distance of 8 m. Each array consists of 8 Log-Periodic Dipole Antennas (LPDAs) operating from 200 MHz to 800 MHz. The design and construction of the LPDA antenna and receiver system is described. The receiver topology provides an equivalent noise temperature of 113.1 K and 55.1 dB of gain. The Intermediate Frequency (IF) stage was designed to produce a fixed IF frequency of 800 MHz. The digital Back-End and correlator were implemented using a low cost Software Defined Radio (SDR) platform and Gnu-Radio software. Gnu-Octave was used for data analysis to generate the relevant received signal parameters including total power, real, and imaginary, magnitude and phase components. Measured results show that interference fringes were successfully detected within the bandwidth of the receiver using a Radio Frequency (RF) generator as a simulated source. This research was presented at the IEEE Africon 2013 / URSI Session Mauritius, and published in the proceedings.

  19. Directions for Space-Based Low-Frequency Radio Astronomy 2. Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basart, J. P.; Burns, J. O.; Dennison, B. K.; Weiler, K. W.; Kassim, N. E.; Castillo, S. P.; McCune, B. M.

    Astronomical studies of celestial sources at low radio frequencies (0.3 to 30 MHz) lag far behind the investigations of celestial sources at high radio frequencies. In a companion paper [Basart et al., this issue] we discussed the need for low-frequency investigations, and in this paper we discuss the telescopes required to make the observations. Radio telescopes for use in the low-frequency range can be built principally from ``off-the-shelf'' components. For relatively little cost for a space mission, great strides can be made in deploying arrays of antennas and receivers in space that would produce data contributing significantly to our understanding of galaxies and galactic nebulae. In this paper we discuss an evolutionary sequence of telescopes, antenna systems, receivers, and (u,v) plane coverage. The telescopes are space-based because of the disruptive aspects of the Earth's ionosphere on low-frequency celestial signals traveling to the Earth's surface. Orbiting antennas consisting of array elements deposited on a Kevlar balloon have strong advantages of nearly identical multiple beams over 4π steradians and few mechanical aspects in deployment and operation. The relatively narrow beam width of these antennas can significantly help reduce the ``confusion'' problem. The evolutionary sequence of telescopes starts with an Earth-orbiting spectrometer to measure the low-frequency radio environment in space, proceeds to a two-element interferometer, then to an orbiting array, and ends with a telescope on the lunar farside. The sequence is in the order of increasing capability which is also the order of increasing complexity and cost. All the missions can be accomplished with current technology.

  20. Assessment of Safety and Interference Issues of Radio Frequency Identification Devices in 0.3 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Periyasamy, M.; Dhanasekaran, R.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate two issues regarding magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including device functionality and image artifacts for the presence of radio frequency identification devices (RFID) in association with 0.3 Tesla at 12.7 MHz MRI and computed tomography (CT) scanning. Fifteen samples of RFID tags with two different sizes (wristband and ID card types) were tested. The tags were exposed to several MR-imaging conditions during MRI examination and X-rays of CT scan. Throughout the test, the tags were oriented in three different directions (axial, coronal, and sagittal) relative to MRI system in order to cover all possible situations with respect to the patient undergoing MRI and CT scanning, wearing a RFID tag on wrist. We observed that the tags did not sustain physical damage with their functionality remaining unaffected even after MRI and CT scanning, and there was no alternation in previously stored data as well. In addition, no evidence of either signal loss or artifact was seen in the acquired MR and CT images. Therefore, we can conclude that the use of this passive RFID tag is safe for a patient undergoing MRI at 0.3 T/12.7 MHz and CT Scanning. PMID:24701187

  1. System Control Applications of Low-Power Radio Frequency Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rensburg, Roger

    2017-09-01

    This paper conceptualizes a low-power wireless sensor network design for application employment to reduce theft of portable computer devices used in educational institutions today. The aim of this study is to design and develop a reliable and robust wireless network that can eradicate accessibility of a device’s human interface. An embedded system supplied by an energy harvesting source, installed on the portable computer device, may represent one of multiple slave nodes which request regular updates from a standalone master station. A portable computer device which is operated in an undesignated area or in a field perimeter where master to slave communication is restricted, indicating a possible theft scenario, will initiate a shutdown of its operating system and render the device unusable. Consequently, an algorithm in the device firmware may ensure the necessary steps are executed to track the device, irrespective whether the device is enabled. Design outcomes thus far indicate that a wireless network using low-power embedded hardware, is feasible for anti-theft applications. By incorporating one of the latest Bluetooth low-energy, ANT+, ZigBee or Thread wireless technologies, an anti-theft system may be implemented that has the potential to reduce major portable computer device theft in institutions of digitized learning.

  2. Satellite observations of type III solar radio bursts at low frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fainberg, J.; Stone, R. G.

    1974-01-01

    Type III solar radio bursts have been observed from 10 MHz to 10 kHz by satellite experiments above the terrestrial plasmasphere. Solar radio emission in this frequency range results from excitation of the interplanetary plasma by energetic particles propagating outward along open field lines over distances from 5 earth radii to at least 1 AU from the sun. This review summarizes the morphology, characteristics, and analysis of individual as well as storms of bursts. Substantial evidence is available to show that the radio emission is observed at the second harmonic instead of the fundamental of the plasma frequency. This brings the density scale derived by radio observations into better agreement with direct solar wind density measurements at 1 AU and relaxes the requirement for type III propagation along large density-enhanced regions. This density scale with the measured direction of arrival of the radio burst allows the trajectory of the exciter path to be determined from 10 earth radii to 1 AU.

  3. Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation From Streamer Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luque, Alejandro

    2017-10-01

    We present a full electromagnetic model of streamer propagation where the Maxwell equations are solved self-consistently together with electron transport and reactions including photoionization. We apply this model to the collision of counter-propagating streamers in gaps tens of centimeters wide and with large potential differences of hundreds of kilovolts. Our results show that streamer collisions emit electromagnetic pulses that, at atmospheric pressure, dominate the radio frequency spectrum of an extended corona in the range from about 100 MHz to a few gigahertz. We also investigate the fast penetration, after a collision, of electromagnetic fields into the streamer heads and show that these fields are capable of accelerating electrons up to about 100 keV. By substantiating the link between X-rays and high-frequency radio emissions and by describing a mechanism for the early acceleration of runaway electrons, our results support the hypothesis that streamer collisions are essential precursors of high-energy processes in electric discharges.

  4. Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation From Streamer Collisions.

    PubMed

    Luque, Alejandro

    2017-10-16

    We present a full electromagnetic model of streamer propagation where the Maxwell equations are solved self-consistently together with electron transport and reactions including photoionization. We apply this model to the collision of counter-propagating streamers in gaps tens of centimeters wide and with large potential differences of hundreds of kilovolts. Our results show that streamer collisions emit electromagnetic pulses that, at atmospheric pressure, dominate the radio frequency spectrum of an extended corona in the range from about 100 MHz to a few gigahertz. We also investigate the fast penetration, after a collision, of electromagnetic fields into the streamer heads and show that these fields are capable of accelerating electrons up to about 100 keV. By substantiating the link between X-rays and high-frequency radio emissions and by describing a mechanism for the early acceleration of runaway electrons, our results support the hypothesis that streamer collisions are essential precursors of high-energy processes in electric discharges.

  5. Validation of Radio Frequency Telemetry Concept in the Presence of Biological Tissue-Like Stratified Media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix A.; Simons, Rainee N.; Haal, David G.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a novel radio frequency (RF) telemetry concept for biomedical applications. The concept consists of a miniaturized spiral inductor/antenna for bio-MEMS sensors and an external pick-up antenna integrated into a handheld device. The measured relative signal strength in the presence of biological phantoms ranged from 5.9 to 7.5 dB for antenna separations of 5 and 10 cm. These relative signal strengths are easily measurable, therefore validating the RF telemetry concept for biomedical applications.

  6. Micro-scale piezoelectric vibration energy harvesting: From fixed-frequency to adaptable-frequency devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Lindsay Margaret

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have the potential to transform engineering infrastructure, manufacturing, and building controls by allowing condition monitoring, asset tracking, demand response, and other intelligent feedback systems. A wireless sensor node consists of a power supply, sensor(s), power conditioning circuitry, radio transmitter and/or receiver, and a micro controller. Such sensor nodes are used for collecting and communicating data regarding the state of a machine, system, or process. The increasing demand for better ways to power wireless devices and increase operation time on a single battery charge drives an interest in energy harvesting research. Today, wireless sensor nodes are typically powered by a standard single-charge battery, which becomes depleted within a relatively short timeframe depending on the application. This introduces tremendous labor costs associated with battery replacement, especially when there are thousands of nodes in a network, the nodes are remotely located, or widely-distributed. Piezoelectric vibration energy harvesting presents a potential solution to the problems associated with too-short battery life and high maintenance requirements, especially in industrial environments where vibrations are ubiquitous. Energy harvester designs typically use the harvester to trickle charge a rechargeable energy storage device rather than directly powering the electronics with the harvested energy. This allows a buffer between the energy harvester supply and the load where energy can be stored in a "tank". Therefore, the harvester does not need to produce the full required power at every instant to successfully power the node. In general, there are tens of microwatts of power available to be harvested from ambient vibrations using micro scale devices and tens of milliwatts available from ambient vibrations using meso scale devices. Given that the power requirements of wireless sensor nodes range from several microwatts to about one

  7. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) in medical environment: Gaussian Derivative Frequency Modulation (GDFM) as a novel modulation technique with minimal interference properties.

    PubMed

    Rieche, Marie; Komenský, Tomás; Husar, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems in healthcare facilitate the possibility of contact-free identification and tracking of patients, medical equipment and medication. Thereby, patient safety will be improved and costs as well as medication errors will be reduced considerably. However, the application of RFID and other wireless communication systems has the potential to cause harmful electromagnetic disturbances on sensitive medical devices. This risk mainly depends on the transmission power and the method of data communication. In this contribution we point out the reasons for such incidents and give proposals to overcome these problems. Therefore a novel modulation and transmission technique called Gaussian Derivative Frequency Modulation (GDFM) is developed. Moreover, we carry out measurements to show the inteference properties of different modulation schemes in comparison to our GDFM.

  8. Numerical model study of radio frequency vessel sealing thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, John

    2015-03-01

    Several clinically successful clinical radio frequency vessel-sealing devices are currently available. The dominant thermodynamic principles at work involve tissue water vaporization processes. It is necessary to thermally denature vessel collagen, elastin and their adherent proteins to achieve a successful fusion. Collagens denature at middle temperatures, between about 60 and 90 C depending on heating time and rate. Elastin, and its adherent proteins, are more thermally robust, and require temperatures in excess of the boiling point of water at atmospheric pressure to thermally fuse. Rapid boiling at low apposition pressures leads to steam vacuole formation, brittle tissue remnants and frequently to substantial disruption in the vessel wall, particularly in high elastin-content arteries. High apposition pressures substantially increase the equilibrium boiling point of tissue water and are necessary to ensure a high probability of a successful seal. The FDM numerical models illustrate the beneficial effects of high apposition pressures.

  9. Calculus, Radio Dials and the Straight-Line Frequency Variable Capacitor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyadzhiev, Khristo N.

    2010-01-01

    Most often radio dials of analogue radios are not uniformly graded; the frequencies are cramped on the left side or on the right side. This makes tuning more difficult. Why are dials made this way? We shall see here that simple calculus can help understand this problem and solve it. (Contains 7 figures.)

  10. Numerical simulations of particle acceleration and low frequency radio emission in stellar environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paraskevi Moschou, Sofia; Sokolov, Igor; Cohen, Ofer; Drake, Jeremy J.; Borovikov, Dmitry; Alvarado-Gomez, Julian D.; Garraffo, Cecilia

    2018-06-01

    Due to their favorable atmospheric window radio waves are a useful tool for ground-based observations of astrophysical systems throughout a plethora of scales, from cosmological down to planetary ones. A wide range of physical mechanisms, from thermal processes to eruptive events linked to magnetic reconnection, can generate emission in radio frequencies. Radio waves have the distinct characteristic that they follow curved paths as they propagate in stratified environments, such as the solar corona, due to their dependence on the refraction index. Low frequency radio rays in particular are affected the most by refraction.Solar radio observations are of particular importance, since it is possible to spatially resolve the Sun and its corona and gain insights on highly dynamic and complex radio-emitting phenomena. The multi-scale problem of particle acceleration and energy partition between CMEs, flares and SEPs requires both MHD and kinetic considerations to account for the emission and mass propagation through the interplanetary space.Radio observations can play a significant role in the rapidly developing area of exoplanetary research and provide insights on the stellar environments of those systems. Even though a large number of flares has been observed for different stellar types, nevertheless there is a lack of stellar CME observations. Currently, the most promising method to incontrovertibly observe stellar CMEs is through Type II radio bursts. Low frequency radio emission can also be produced by the interaction of a magnetized planet with the stellar wind of the host star.The above mentioned characteristics of radio-waves make their integration into numerical simulations imperative for capturing and disentangling the complex radio emitting processes along the actual radio paths and provide the observers with detection limits for future Earth- and space-based missions. Radio synthetic imaging tools incorporated in realistic computational codes are already

  11. Monochromatic radio frequency accelerating cavity

    DOEpatents

    Giordano, S.

    1984-02-09

    A radio frequency resonant cavity having a fundamental resonant frequency and characterized by being free of spurious modes. A plurality of spaced electrically conductive bars are arranged in a generally cylindrical array within the cavity to define a chamber between the bars and an outer solid cylindrically shaped wall of the cavity. A first and second plurality of mode perturbing rods are mounted in two groups at determined random locations to extend radially and axially into the cavity thereby to perturb spurious modes and cause their fields to extend through passageways between the bars and into the chamber. At least one body of lossy material is disposed within the chamber to damp all spurious modes that do extend into the chamber thereby enabling the cavity to operate free of undesired spurious modes.

  12. Monochromatic radio frequency accelerating cavity

    DOEpatents

    Giordano, Salvatore

    1985-01-01

    A radio frequency resonant cavity having a fundamental resonant frequency and characterized by being free of spurious modes. A plurality of spaced electrically conductive bars are arranged in a generally cylindrical array within the cavity to define a chamber between the bars and an outer solid cylindrically shaped wall of the cavity. A first and second plurality of mode perturbing rods are mounted in two groups at determined random locations to extend radially and axially into the cavity thereby to perturb spurious modes and cause their fields to extend through passageways between the bars and into the chamber. At least one body of lossy material is disposed within the chamber to damp all spurious modes that do extend into the chamber thereby enabling the cavity to operate free of undesired spurious modes.

  13. Studies of radio frequency interference at Parkes Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backus, Peter R.; Laroque, Sam; Tarter, Jill C.; Dreher, John; Gullers, Kent; Patrick, Alan; Heiligman, Gary

    1997-01-01

    From February through early June 1995, Project Phoenix conducted SETI observations of 209 stars over the frequency range from 1195 to 3005 MHz. A byproduct of this search is a unique data set suitable for studying the Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) environment at the Parkes 64-m telescope in New South Wales, Australia. RFI is an increasing problem for SETI and other radio astronomy observations conducted outside of the 'protected' frequency bands. The data analyzed for this paper were 'mean baseline' spectra in Left and Right Circular Polarization (LCP, RCP), integrated for either 138 or 276 s, covering a 10-MHz bandwidth with 15,552 channels at a resolution of 643 Hz. Channels were identified as contaminated by RFI when the power in the channel exceeded the mean noise by 3 percent. The 'spectral occupancy', the fraction of time RFI was seen, was determined for each channel. The RFI occupancy for LCP and RCP are distinctly different. Approximately 100 MHz of the spectrum was too heavily contaminated for SETI observations.

  14. Multiplexing of Radio-Frequency Single Electron Transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, Thomas R.; Pellerano, F. A.; Stahle, C. M.; Aidala, K.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We present results on wavelength division multiplexing of radio-frequency single electron transistors. We use a network of resonant impedance matching circuits to direct applied rf carrier waves to different transistors depending on carrier frequency. A two-channel demonstration of this concept using discrete components successfully reconstructed input signals with small levels of cross coupling. A lithographic version of the rf circuits had measured parameters in agreement with electromagnetic modeling, with reduced cross capacitance and inductance, and should allow 20 to 50 channels to be multiplexed.

  15. Chasing Low Frequency Radio Bursts from Magnetically Active Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Christene; Murphy, Tara; Kaplan, David

    2017-05-01

    Flaring activity is a common characteristic of magnetically active stars. These events produce emission throughout the electromagnetic spectrum, implying a range of physical processes. A number of objects exhibit short-duration, narrow band, and highly circularly polarised (reaching 100%) radio bursts. The observed polarisation and frequency-time structure of these bursts points to a coherent emission mechanism such as the electron cyclotron maser. Due to the stochastic nature of these bursts and the sensitivity of current instruments, the number of stars where coherent emission has been detected is few, with numbers limited to a few tens of objects. Observations of a wider sample of active stars are necessary in order to establish the percentage that exhibit coherent radio bursts and to relate the observed emission characteristics to stellar magnetic properties. New wide-field, low frequency radio telescopes will probe a frequency regime that is mostly unexplored for many magnetically active stars and where coherent radio emissions are expected to be more numerous. M dwarf stars are of particular interest as they are currently favoured as most likely to host habitable planets. Yet the extreme magnetic activity observed for some M dwarf stars places some doubt on the ability of orbiting planets to host life. This presentation reports the first results from a targeted Murchison Widefield Array survey of M dwarf stars that were previously detected at 100 - 200 MHz using single dish telescopes. We will discuss robust flare-rate measurements over a high dynamic range of flare properties, as well as investigate the physical mechanism(s) behind the flares.

  16. Radio frequency interference mitigation using deep convolutional neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akeret, J.; Chang, C.; Lucchi, A.; Refregier, A.

    2017-01-01

    We propose a novel approach for mitigating radio frequency interference (RFI) signals in radio data using the latest advances in deep learning. We employ a special type of Convolutional Neural Network, the U-Net, that enables the classification of clean signal and RFI signatures in 2D time-ordered data acquired from a radio telescope. We train and assess the performance of this network using the HIDE &SEEK radio data simulation and processing packages, as well as early Science Verification data acquired with the 7m single-dish telescope at the Bleien Observatory. We find that our U-Net implementation is showing competitive accuracy to classical RFI mitigation algorithms such as SEEK's SUMTHRESHOLD implementation. We publish our U-Net software package on GitHub under GPLv3 license.

  17. Simulating 3D Spacecraft Constellations for Low Frequency Radio Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegedus, A. M.; Amiri, N.; Lazio, J.; Belov, K.; Kasper, J. C.

    2016-12-01

    Constellations of small spacecraft could be used to realize a low-frequency phased array for either heliophysics or astrophysics observations. However, there are issues that arise with an orbiting array that do not occur on the ground, thus rendering much of the existing radio astronomy software inadequate for data analysis and simulation. In this work we address these issues and consider the performance of two constellation concepts. The first is a 32-spacecraft constellation for astrophysical observations, and the second is a 5-element concept for pointing to the location of radio emission from coronal mass ejections (CMEs). For the first, we fill the software gap by extending the APSYNSIM software to simulate the aperture synthesis for a radio interferometer in orbit. This involves using the dynamic baselines from the relative motion of the individual spacecraft as well as the capability to add galactic noise. The ability to simulate phase errors corresponding to positional uncertainty of the antennas was also added. The upgraded software was then used to model the imaging of a 32 spacecraft constellation that would orbit the moon to image radio galaxies like Cygnus A at .3-30 MHz. Animated images showing the improvement of the dirty image as the orbits progressed were made. RMSE plots that show how well the dirty image matches the input image as a function of integration time were made. For the second concept we performed radio interferometric simulations of the Sun Radio Interferometer Space Experiment (SunRISE) using the Common Astronomy Software Applications (CASA) package. SunRISE is a five spacecraft phased array that would orbit Earth to localize the low frequency radio emission from CMEs. This involved simulating the array in CASA, creating truth images for the CMEs over the entire frequency band of SunRISE, and observing them with the simulated array to see how well it could localize the true position of the CME. The results of our analysis show that we

  18. Radio frequency coaxial feedthrough

    DOEpatents

    Owens, Thomas L.

    1989-01-17

    An improved radio frequency coaxial transmission line vacuum feed-through provided based on the use of a half-wavelength annular dielectric pressure barrier disk, or multiple disks comprising an effective half wavelength structure to eliminate reflections from the barrier surfaces. Gas-tight seals are formed about the outer and inner diameter surfaces of the barrier disk using a sealing technique which generates radial forces sufficient to form seals by forcing the conductor walls against the surfaces of the barrier disks in a manner which does not deform the radii of the inner and outer conductors, thereby preventing enhancement of the electric field at the barrier faces which limits voltage and power handling capabilities of a feedthrough.

  19. Fast shut-down protection system for radio frequency breakdown and multipactor testing.

    PubMed

    Graves, T P; Hanson, P; Michaelson, J M; Farkas, A D; Hubble, A A

    2014-02-01

    Radio frequency (RF) breakdown such as multipactor or ionization breakdown is a device-limiting phenomenon for on-orbit spacecraft used for communication, navigation, or other RF payloads. Ground testing is therefore part of the qualification process for all high power components used in these space systems. This paper illustrates a shut-down protection system to be incorporated into multipactor/ionization breakdown ground testing for susceptible RF devices. This 8 channel system allows simultaneous use of different diagnostic classes and different noise floors. With initiation of a breakdown event, diagnostic signals increase above a user-specified level, which then opens an RF switch to eliminate RF power from the high power amplifier. Examples of this system in use are shown for a typical setup, illustrating the reproducibility of breakdown threshold voltages and the lack of multipactor conditioning. This system can also be utilized to prevent excessive damage to RF components in tests with sensitive or flight hardware.

  20. Radio frequency communication system utilizing radiating transmission lines

    DOEpatents

    Struven, Warren C.

    1984-01-01

    A radio communication system for use in tunnels, mines, buildings or other shielded locations in which a pair of radiating transmission lines (30), (31) extend through such location in spaced coextensive relation to each other. Each transmission line (30), (31) has at least one unidirectional amplifier (32), (33) interposed therein with the sense of the unidirectional amplifier (32) of one transmission line (30) being opposite to the sense of the unidirectional amplifier (33) of the other transmission line (31). Each of the amplifiers (32), (33) has a gain which is less than the coupling loss between the transmission lines (30), (31). Two or more mobile transceivers (35) in the location served by the system are coupled to the transmission lines (30), (31) by electromagnetic wave propagation in space in order to communicate directly with each other at a given radio frequency within the frequency range of the system.

  1. Computer simulations of ions in radio-frequency traps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, A.; Prestage, J. D.; Maleki, L.; Djomehri, J.; Harabetian, E.

    1990-01-01

    The motion of ions in a trapped-ion frequency standard affects the stability of the standard. In order to study the motion and structures of large ion clouds in a radio-frequency (RF) trap, a computer simulation of the system that incorporates the effect of thermal excitation of the ions was developed. Results are presented from the simulation for cloud sizes up to 512 ions, emphasizing cloud structures in the low-temperature regime.

  2. Development of a wearable multi-frequency impedance cardiography device.

    PubMed

    Weyer, Sören; Menden, Tobias; Leicht, Lennart; Leonhardt, Steffen; Wartzek, Tobias

    2015-02-01

    Cardiovascular diseases as well as pulmonary oedema can be early diagnosed using vital signs and thoracic bio-impedance. By recording the electrocardiogram (ECG) and the impedance cardiogram (ICG), vital parameters are captured continuously. The aim of this study is the continuous monitoring of ECG and multi-frequency ICG by a mobile system. A mobile measuring system, based on 'low-power' ECG, ICG and an included radio transmission is described. Due to the high component integration, a board size of only 6.5 cm×5 cm could be realized. The measured data can be transmitted via Bluetooth and visualized on a portable monitor. By using energy-efficient hardware, the system can operate for up to 18 hs with a 3 V battery, continuously sending data via Bluetooth. Longer operating times can be realized by decreased transfer rates. The relative error of the impedance measurement was less than 1%. The ECG and ICG measurements allow an approximate calculation of the heart stroke volume. The ECG and the measured impedance showed a high correlation to commercial devices (r=0.83, p<0.05). In addition to commercial devices, the developed system allows a multi-frequency measurement of the thoracic impedance between 5-150 kHz.

  3. Gigahertz Electromagnetic Structures via Direct Ink Writing for Radio-Frequency Oscillator and Transmitter Applications.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Nanjia; Liu, Chengye; Lewis, Jennifer A; Ham, Donhee

    2017-04-01

    Radio-frequency (RF) electronics, which combine passive electromagnetic devices and active transistors to generate and process gigahertz (GHz) signals, provide a critical basis of ever-pervasive wireless networks. While transistors are best realized by top-down fabrication, relatively larger electromagnetic passives are within the reach of printing techniques. Here, direct writing of viscoelastic silver-nanoparticle inks is used to produce a broad array of RF passives operating up to 45 GHz. These include lumped devices such as inductors and capacitors, and wave-based devices such as transmission lines, their resonant networks, and antennas. Moreover, to demonstrate the utility of these printed RF passive structures in active RF electronic circuits, they are combined with discrete transistors to fabricate GHz self-sustained oscillators and synchronized oscillator arrays that provide RF references, and wireless transmitters clocked by the oscillators. This work demonstrates the synergy of direct ink writing and RF electronics for wireless applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Radio-Frequency-Controlled Cold Collisions and Universal Properties of Unitary Bose Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yijue

    This thesis investigates two topics: ultracold atomic collisions in a radio-frequency field and universal properties of a degenerate unitary Bose gas. One interesting point of the unitary Bose gas is that the system has only one length scale, that is, the average interparticle distance. This single parameter determines all properties of the gas, which is called the universality of the system. We first introduce a renormalized contact interaction to extend the validity of the zero-range interaction to large scattering lengths. Then this renormalized interaction is applied to many-body theories to determined those universal relations of the system. From the few-body perspective, we discuss the scattering between atoms in a single-color radio-frequency field. Our motivation is proposing the radio-frequency field as an effective tool to control interactions between cold atoms. Such a technique may be useful in future experiments such as creating phase transitions in spinor condensates. We also discuss the formation of ultracold molecules using radio-freqency fields from a time-dependent approach.

  5. Detection of low frequency external electronic identification devices using commercial panel readers.

    PubMed

    Stewart, S C; Rapnicki, P; Lewis, J R; Perala, M

    2007-09-01

    The ability of a commercially available panel reader system to read International Standards Organization-compliant electronic identification devices under commercial dairy conditions was examined. Full duplex (FDX-B) and half-duplex (HDX) low frequency radio-frequency identification external ear tags were utilized. The study involved 498 Holstein cows in the final 6 wk of gestation. There were 516 total electronic identification devices (n = 334 HDX and n = 182 FDX-B). Eighteen FDX-B were replaced with HDX during the study due to repeated detection failure. There were 6,679 HDX and 3,401 FDX-B device detection attempts. There were 220 (2.2%) unsuccessful and 9,860 (97.8%) successful identification detection attempts. There were 9 unsuccessful detection attempts for HDX (6,670/6,679 = 99.9% successful detection attempts) and 211 unsuccessful detection attempts for FDX-B (3,190/3,401 = 93.8% successful detection attempts). These results demonstrate that this panel system can achieve high detection rates of HDX devices and meet the needs of the most demanding management applications. The FDX-B detection rate was not sufficient for the most demanding applications, requiring a high degree of detection by panel readers. The lower FDX-B rate may not be inherent in the device technology itself, but could be due to other factors, including the particular panel reader utilized or the tuning of the panel reader.

  6. Large-N correlator systems for low frequency radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Griffin

    Low frequency radio astronomy has entered a second golden age driven by the development of a new class of large-N interferometric arrays. The low frequency array (LOFAR) and a number of redshifted HI Epoch of Reionization (EoR) arrays are currently undergoing commission and regularly observing. Future arrays of unprecedented sensitivity and resolutions at low frequencies, such as the square kilometer array (SKA) and the hydrogen epoch of reionization array (HERA), are in development. The combination of advancements in specialized field programmable gate array (FPGA) hardware for signal processing, computing and graphics processing unit (GPU) resources, and new imaging and calibration algorithms has opened up the oft underused radio band below 300 MHz. These interferometric arrays require efficient implementation of digital signal processing (DSP) hardware to compute the baseline correlations. FPGA technology provides an optimal platform to develop new correlators. The significant growth in data rates from these systems requires automated software to reduce the correlations in real time before storing the data products to disk. Low frequency, widefield observations introduce a number of unique calibration and imaging challenges. The efficient implementation of FX correlators using FPGA hardware is presented. Two correlators have been developed, one for the 32 element BEST-2 array at Medicina Observatory and the other for the 96 element LOFAR station at Chilbolton Observatory. In addition, calibration and imaging software has been developed for each system which makes use of the radio interferometry measurement equation (RIME) to derive calibrations. A process for generating sky maps from widefield LOFAR station observations is presented. Shapelets, a method of modelling extended structures such as resolved sources and beam patterns has been adapted for radio astronomy use to further improve system calibration. Scaling of computing technology allows for the

  7. Sensor Research Targets Smart Building Technology Using Radio-Frequency

    Science.gov Websites

    a battery-free radio-frequency identification (RFID) sensor network with spatiotemporal pattern network based data fusion system for human presence sensing, with ARPA-E awarding the team $2 million over

  8. Likelihood of Incomplete Kidney Tumor Ablation with Radio Frequency Energy: Degree of Enhancement Matters.

    PubMed

    Lay, Aaron H; Stewart, Jeremy; Canvasser, Noah E; Cadeddu, Jeffrey A; Gahan, Jeffrey C

    2016-07-01

    Larger size and clear cell histopathology are associated with worse outcomes for malignant renal tumors treated with radio frequency ablation. We hypothesize that greater tumor enhancement may be a risk factor for radio frequency ablation failure due to increased vascularity. A retrospective review of patients who underwent radio frequency ablation for renal tumors with contrast enhanced imaging available was performed. The change in Hounsfield units (HU) of the tumor from the noncontrast phase to the contrast enhanced arterial phase was calculated. Radio frequency ablation failure rates for biopsy confirmed malignant tumors were compared using the chi-squared test. Multivariate logistic analysis was performed to assess predictive variables for radio frequency ablation failure. Disease-free survival was calculated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. A total of 99 patients with biopsy confirmed malignant renal tumors and contrast enhanced imaging were identified. The incomplete ablation rate was significantly lower for tumors with enhancement less than 60 vs 60 HU or greater (0.0% vs 14.6%, p=0.005). On multivariate logistic regression analysis tumor enhancement 60 HU or greater (OR 1.14, p=0.008) remained a significant predictor of incomplete initial ablation. The 5-year disease-free survival for size less than 3 cm was 100% vs 69.2% for size 3 cm or greater (p <0.01), while 5-year disease-free survival for HU change less than 60 was 100% vs 92.4% for HU change 60 or greater (p=0.24). Biopsy confirmed malignant renal tumors, which exhibit a change in enhancement of 60 HU or greater, experience a higher rate of incomplete initial tumor ablation than tumors with enhancement less than 60 HU. Size 3 cm or greater portends worse 5-year disease-free survival after radio frequency ablation. The degree of enhancement should be considered when counseling patients before radio frequency ablation. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc

  9. Design and Validation of a Radio-Frequency Identification-Based Device for Routinely Assessing Gait Speed in a Geriatrics Clinic.

    PubMed

    Barry, Lisa C; Hatchman, Laura; Fan, Zhaoyan; Guralnik, Jack M; Gao, Robert X; Kuchel, George A

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and validity of a radio-frequency identification (RFID)-based system to measure gait speed in a clinical setting as a first step to using unobtrusive gait speed assessment in routine clinical care. Feasibility study comparing gait speed assessed using an RFID-based system with gait speed assessed using handheld stopwatch, the criterion standard. Outpatient geriatrics clinic at a Connecticut-based academic medical center. Clinic attendees who could walk independently with or without an assistive device (N=50) and healthcare providers (N=9). Gait speed was measured in twice using 2 methods each time before participants entered an examination room. Participants walked at their usual pace while gait speed was recorded simultaneously using the RFID-based system and a handheld stopwatch operated by a trained study investigator. After 2 trials, participants completed a brief survey regarding their experience. At the end of the study period, clinic healthcare providers completed a separate survey. Test-retest reliability of the RFID-based system was high (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.953). The mean difference ± standard deviation in gait speed between the RFID-based system and the stopwatch was -0.003±0.035 m/s (p=.53) and did not differ significantly according to age, sex, or use of an assistive walking aid. Acceptability of the device was high, and 8 of 9 providers indicated that measuring gait speed using the RFID-based system should be a part of routine clinical care. RFID technology may offer a practical means of overcoming barriers to routine measurement of gait speed in real-world outpatient clinical settings. © 2018, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2018, The American Geriatrics Society.

  10. Radio-frequency energy quantification in magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alon, Leeor

    Mapping of radio frequency (RF) energy deposition has been challenging for 50+ years, especially, when scanning patients in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) environment. As result, electromagnetic simulation software is often used for estimating the specific absorption rate (SAR), the rate of RF energy deposition in tissue. The thesis work presents challenges associated with aligning information provided by electromagnetic simulation and MRI experiments. As result of the limitations of simulations, experimental methods for the quantification of SAR were established. A system for quantification of the total RF energy deposition was developed for parallel transmit MRI (a system that uses multiple antennas to excite and image the body). The system is capable of monitoring and predicting channel-by-channel RF energy deposition, whole body SAR and capable of tracking potential hardware failures that occur in the transmit chain and may cause the deposition of excessive energy into patients. Similarly, we demonstrated that local RF power deposition can be mapped and predicted for parallel transmit systems based on a series of MRI temperature mapping acquisitions. Resulting from the work, we developed tools for optimal reconstruction temperature maps from MRI acquisitions. The tools developed for temperature mapping paved the way for utilizing MRI as a diagnostic tool for evaluation of RF/microwave emitting device safety. Quantification of the RF energy was demonstrated for both MRI compatible and non-MRI-compatible devices (such as cell phones), while having the advantage of being noninvasive, of providing millimeter resolution and high accuracy.

  11. 47 CFR 15.202 - Certified operating frequency range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certified operating frequency range. 15.202 Section 15.202 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Intentional Radiators § 15.202 Certified operating frequency range. Client devices that operate in a master...

  12. Passive radio frequency peak power multiplier

    DOEpatents

    Farkas, Zoltan D.; Wilson, Perry B.

    1977-01-01

    Peak power multiplication of a radio frequency source by simultaneous charging of two high-Q resonant microwave cavities by applying the source output through a directional coupler to the cavities and then reversing the phase of the source power to the coupler, thereby permitting the power in the cavities to simultaneously discharge through the coupler to the load in combination with power from the source to apply a peak power to the load that is a multiplication of the source peak power.

  13. Perforated-Layer Implementation Of Radio-Frequency Lenses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolgin, Benjamin P.

    1996-01-01

    Luneberg-type radio-frequency dielectric lenses made of stacked perforated circular dielectric sheets, according to proposal. Perforation pattern designed to achieve required spatial variation of permittivity. Consists of round holes distributed across face of each sheet in "Swiss-cheese" pattern, plus straight or curved slots that break up outer parts into petals in "daisy-wheel" pattern. Holes and slots made by numerically controlled machining.

  14. 78 FR 19311 - Certain Radio Frequency Identification (“RFID”) Products And Components Thereof; Institution of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... Identification (``RFID'') Products And Components Thereof; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to 19 U.S.C... sale within the United States after importation of certain radio frequency identification (``RFID... after importation of certain radio frequency identification (``RFID'') products and components thereof...

  15. Simple surgical approach with high-frequency radio-wave electrosurgery for conjunctivochalasis.

    PubMed

    Youm, Dong Ju; Kim, Joon Mo; Choi, Chul Young

    2010-11-01

    To introduce a new simple surgical approach with high-frequency radio-wave electrosurgery to reduce conjunctivochalasis (CCh). Prospective, noncomparative, interventional case series analysis. Twelve patients (20 eyes) with CCh were recruited from the outpatient service of the Department of Ophthalmology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul, Korea. On the inferior bulbar conjunctiva, subconjunctival coagulation was performed with a fine-needle electrode using a high-frequency radio-wave electrosurgical unit (Ellman Surgitron; Ellman International, Inc., Hewlett, NY) in coagulation mode. Conjunctivochalasis grade; epiphora and dry eye symptoms (the Ocular Surface Disease Index [OSDI]; Allergan Inc., Irvine, CA, holds the copyright); and intraoperative and postoperative complications. Eighteen eyes (90%) recovered a smooth, wet, and noninflamed conjunctival surface within 1 month and remained stable for a follow-up period of 3 months. At 3 months postoperatively, 18 eyes (90%) had grade 0 CCh. There was a statistically significant decrease of the OSDI score at 3 months postoperatively (P < 0.001). A surgical approach with high-frequency radio-wave electrosurgery produced a significant reduction in CCh and an improvement in symptoms. Radio-wave surgical techniques represent a favorable alternative to surgical treatment of CCh. The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Radio frequency sustained ion energy

    DOEpatents

    Jassby, Daniel L.; Hooke, William M.

    1977-01-01

    Electromagnetic (E.M.) energy injection method and apparatus for producing and sustaining suprathermal ordered ions in a neutral, two-ion-species, toroidal, bulk equilibrium plasma. More particularly, the ions are produced and sustained in an ordered suprathermal state of existence above the average energy and velocity of the bulk equilibrium plasma by resonant rf energy injection in resonance with the natural frequency of one of the ion species. In one embodiment, the electromagnetic energy is injected to clamp the energy and velocity of one of the ion species so that the ion energy is increased, sustained, prolonged and continued in a suprathermal ordered state of existence containing appreciable stored energy that counteracts the slowing down effects of the bulk equilibrium plasma drag. Thus, selective deuteron absorption may be used for ion-tail creation by radio-frequency excitation alone. Also, the rf can be used to increase the fusion output of a two-component neutral injected plasma by selective heating of the injected deuterons.

  17. Non-exponential decoherence of radio-frequency resonance rotation of spin in storage rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleev, A.; Nikolaev, N. N.; Rathmann, F.; Hinder, F.; Pretz, J.; Rosenthal, M.

    2017-08-01

    Precision experiments, such as the search for electric dipole moments of charged particles using radio-frequency spin rotators in storage rings, demand for maintaining the exact spin resonance condition for several thousand seconds. Synchrotron oscillations in the stored beam modulate the spin tune of off-central particles, moving it off the perfect resonance condition set for central particles on the reference orbit. Here, we report an analytic description of how synchrotron oscillations lead to non-exponential decoherence of the radio-frequency resonance driven up-down spin rotations. This non-exponential decoherence is shown to be accompanied by a nontrivial walk of the spin phase. We also comment on sensitivity of the decoherence rate to the harmonics of the radio-frequency spin rotator and a possibility to check predictions of decoherence-free magic energies.

  18. Coupled microwave ECR and radio-frequency plasma source for plasma processing

    DOEpatents

    Tsai, Chin-Chi; Haselton, Halsey H.

    1994-01-01

    In a dual plasma device, the first plasma is a microwave discharge having its own means of plasma initiation and control. The microwave discharge operates at electron cyclotron resonance (ECR), and generates a uniform plasma over a large area of about 1000 cm.sup.2 at low pressures below 0.1 mtorr. The ECR microwave plasma initiates the second plasma, a radio frequency (RF) plasma maintained between parallel plates. The ECR microwave plasma acts as a source of charged particles, supplying copious amounts of a desired charged excited species in uniform manner to the RF plasma. The parallel plate portion of the apparatus includes a magnetic filter with static magnetic field structure that aids the formation of ECR zones in the two plasma regions, and also assists in the RF plasma also operating at electron cyclotron resonance.

  19. Coupled microwave ECR and radio-frequency plasma source for plasma processing

    DOEpatents

    Tsai, C.C.; Haselton, H.H.

    1994-03-08

    In a dual plasma device, the first plasma is a microwave discharge having its own means of plasma initiation and control. The microwave discharge operates at electron cyclotron resonance (ECR), and generates a uniform plasma over a large area of about 1000 cm[sup 2] at low pressures below 0.1 mtorr. The ECR microwave plasma initiates the second plasma, a radio frequency (RF) plasma maintained between parallel plates. The ECR microwave plasma acts as a source of charged particles, supplying copious amounts of a desired charged excited species in uniform manner to the RF plasma. The parallel plate portion of the apparatus includes a magnetic filter with static magnetic field structure that aids the formation of ECR zones in the two plasma regions, and also assists in the RF plasma also operating at electron cyclotron resonance. 4 figures.

  20. A reusable robust radio frequency biosensor using microwave resonator by integrated passive device technology for quantitative detection of glucose level.

    PubMed

    Kim, N Y; Dhakal, R; Adhikari, K K; Kim, E S; Wang, C

    2015-05-15

    A reusable robust radio frequency (RF) biosensor with a rectangular meandered line (RML) resonator on a gallium arsenide substrate by integrated passive device (IPD) technology was designed, fabricated and tested to enable the real-time identification of the glucose level in human serum. The air-bridge structure fabricated by an IPD technology was applied to the RML resonator to improve its sensitivity by increasing the magnitude of the return loss (S21). The resonance behaviour, based on S21 characteristics of the biosensor, was analysed at 9.20 GHz with human serum containing different glucose concentration ranging from 148-268 mg dl(-1), 105-225 mg dl(-1) and at a deionised (D) water glucose concentration in the range of 25- 500 mg dl(-1) for seven different samples. A calibration analysis was performed for the human serum from two different subjects and for D-glucose at a response time of 60 s; the reproducibility, the minimum shift in resonance frequency and the long-term stability of the signal were investigated. The feature characteristics based on the resonance concept after the use of serum as an analyte are modelled as an inductor, capacitor and resistor. The findings support the development of resonance-based sensing with an excellent sensitivity of 1.08 MHz per 1 mg dl(-1), a detection limit of 8.01 mg dl(-1), and a limit of quantisation of 24.30 mg dl(-1). Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Distributions of solar drift-pair bursts in frequency from decameter radio observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanislavsky, Aleksander; Volvach, Yaroslav

    2017-04-01

    Statement of the Problem: Solar drift-pair (DP) bursts are one of interesting manifestations of solar activity. Observed during the solar storms of type III bursts, they demonstrate a very simple form on dynamic radio spectra as two short components separated in time, often the second component being the full repetition of the first. As is well known, type III bursts are produced by the accelerated electrons propagating along open magnetic field lines in solar corona. However, no each storm of type III bursts leads to any DP. The role of electron beams in the generation of DPs remains unclear. Solar DPs are detected by ground-based instruments at decameter and meter wavelengths, but each individual DP occupies only a limited bandwidth in the frequency range. The bursts drift in frequency, and their frequency drift rate can be both negative and positive (so-called the forward and reverse DPs), from -2 MHz/s to 6 MHz/s [1]. Besides, there are cases of vertical DPs, which occur simultaneously in all the frequencies within their bandwidth. It is difficult to interpret them by means of a moving source, as any exciting agent responsible for such bursts would travel with velocities faster than velocity of light [2]. Methodology & Experimental Orientation: New features of modern low-frequency radio astronomy allow us to study the empirical properties of DPs more deeply than ever before. Our results are based on the recent radio data (during 10-12 July of 2015) obtained with help of the UTR-2 radio telescope at frequencies 9-33 MHz with the time resolution of 50 ms and the frequency resolution of 4 kHz. We have identified 301 DP bursts in which 209 events were forward (FDP), and the rest were reverse (RDP). Results & Significance: According to the data, the occurrence of FDPs decreased at high frequencies, whereas the number of RDPs had an opposite tendency, they rarely occured at lower frequencies. During the observational session, at 20-25 MHz almost the same amount of

  2. Development of a Branched Radio-Frequency Ion Trap for Electron Based Dissociation and Related Applications

    PubMed Central

    Baba, Takashi; Campbell, J. Larry; Le Blanc, J. C. Yves; Baker, Paul R. S.; Hager, James W.; Thomson, Bruce A.

    2017-01-01

    Collision-induced dissociation (CID) is the most common tool for molecular analysis in mass spectrometry to date. However, there are difficulties associated with many applications because CID does not provide sufficient information to permit details of the molecular structures to be elucidated, including post-translational-modifications in proteomics, as well as isomer differentiation in metabolomics and lipidomics. To face these challenges, we are developing fast electron-based dissociation devices using a novel radio-frequency ion trap (i.e., a branched ion trap). These devices have the ability to perform electron capture dissociation (ECD) on multiply protonated peptide/proteins; in addition, the electron impact excitation of ions from organics (EIEIO) can be also performed on singly charged molecules using such a device. In this article, we review the development of this technology, in particular on how reaction speed for EIEIO analyses on singly charged ions can be improved. We also overview some unique, recently reported applications in both lipidomics and glycoproteomics. PMID:28630811

  3. Development of a Branched Radio-Frequency Ion Trap for Electron Based Dissociation and Related Applications.

    PubMed

    Baba, Takashi; Campbell, J Larry; Le Blanc, J C Yves; Baker, Paul R S; Hager, James W; Thomson, Bruce A

    2017-01-01

    Collision-induced dissociation (CID) is the most common tool for molecular analysis in mass spectrometry to date. However, there are difficulties associated with many applications because CID does not provide sufficient information to permit details of the molecular structures to be elucidated, including post-translational-modifications in proteomics, as well as isomer differentiation in metabolomics and lipidomics. To face these challenges, we are developing fast electron-based dissociation devices using a novel radio-frequency ion trap ( i.e. , a branched ion trap). These devices have the ability to perform electron capture dissociation (ECD) on multiply protonated peptide/proteins; in addition, the electron impact excitation of ions from organics (EIEIO) can be also performed on singly charged molecules using such a device. In this article, we review the development of this technology, in particular on how reaction speed for EIEIO analyses on singly charged ions can be improved. We also overview some unique, recently reported applications in both lipidomics and glycoproteomics.

  4. 48 CFR 252.211-7006 - Passive Radio Frequency Identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... radio frequency identification (RFID) or item unique identification (IUID) information, order... CodeTM (EPC®) means an identification scheme for universally identifying physical objects via RFID tags... passive RFID technology. Exterior container means a MIL-STD-129 defined container, bundle, or assembly...

  5. 48 CFR 252.211-7006 - Passive Radio Frequency Identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... radio frequency identification (RFID) or item unique identification (IUID) information, order... CodeTM (EPC®) means an identification scheme for universally identifying physical objects via RFID tags... passive RFID technology. Exterior container means a MIL-STD-129 defined container, bundle, or assembly...

  6. 48 CFR 252.211-7006 - Passive Radio Frequency Identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... radio frequency identification (RFID) or item unique identification (IUID) information, order... CodeTM (EPC®) means an identification scheme for universally identifying physical objects via RFID tags... passive RFID technology. Exterior container means a MIL-STD-129 defined container, bundle, or assembly...

  7. Localized electrical fine tuning of passive microwave and radio frequency devices

    DOEpatents

    Findikoglu, Alp T.

    2001-04-10

    A method and apparatus for the localized electrical fine tuning of passive multiple element microwave or RF devices in which a nonlinear dielectric material is deposited onto predetermined areas of a substrate containing the device. An appropriate electrically conductive material is deposited over predetermined areas of the nonlinear dielectric and the signal line of the device for providing electrical contact with the nonlinear dielectric. Individual, adjustable bias voltages are applied to the electrically conductive material allowing localized electrical fine tuning of the devices. The method of the present invention can be applied to manufactured devices, or can be incorporated into the design of the devices so that it is applied at the time the devices are manufactured. The invention can be configured to provide localized fine tuning for devices including but not limited to coplanar waveguides, slotline devices, stripline devices, and microstrip devices.

  8. Characteristics of type III exciters derived from low frequency radio observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, L. G.; Fainberg, J.; Stone, R. G.

    1973-01-01

    Low-frequency radio observations (2.8 MHz to 67 kHz) from the RAE-1 and IMP-6 satellites allow the tracking of type III solar burst exciters out to large distances from the sun (of the order of 1 AU). A study of the interaction processes between the exciter and the interplanetary medium was made using the time-intensity profiles of the radio emission. The change in exciter length with distance from the sun, and the resulting exciter velocity dispersion which can be deduced from this change are investigated. From detailed measurements on 35 simple bursts it is found that the exciter length increases at a faster rate than a constant velocity dispersion would give. The damping of the radio emission is also investigated, and it is concluded that some current theories of the damping mechanism give results which are not consistent with the low-frequency observations.

  9. Radio frequency ablation of small renal tumors:: intermediate results.

    PubMed

    Hwang, J J; Walther, M M; Pautler, S E; Coleman, J A; Hvizda, J; Peterson, James; Linehan, W M; Wood, B J

    2004-05-01

    With evolving radio frequency technology, the clinical application of radio frequency ablation (RFA) has been actively investigated in the treatment for small renal tumors. We present our intermediate patient outcomes after RFA. Since January 2001, 17 patients with a total of 24 hereditary renal tumors ranging from 1.2 to 2.85 cm were treated with RFA using the 200 W Cool-tip RF System (Radionics, Burlington, Massachusetts) under laparoscopic (9) or percutaneous (8) guidance and had a minimum 1-year followup. A percutaneous approach was considered unsuitable if kidney tumors were contiguous to bowel, ureter or large vessels. Treatment eligibility criteria included an average tumor diameter of less than 3.0 cm, tumor growth during 1 year and solid appearance with contrast enhancement (HU change greater than 20) on computerized tomography (CT). Postoperative followup consisted of CT with and without intravenous contrast, and renal function assessment at regular intervals. Median patient age was 38 years (range 20 to 51). At a median followup of 385 days (range 342 to 691), median tumor or thermal lesion diameter decreased from 2.26 to 1.62 cm (p = 0.0013), and only 1 lesion (4%), which was located centrally near the hilum, exhibited contrast enhancement (HU change greater than 10) on CT at 12 months. Of the 15 renal tumors ablated laparoscopically, 13 were in direct contact with the bowel and 2 were abutting the ureter, necessitating mobilization before RFA. Laparoscopic ultrasound was used to guide radio frequency electrode placement and monitor the ablation process in these cases. Operative time and intraoperative blood loss (mean +/- standard mean of error) were 243 +/- 29 minutes and 67 +/- 9 cc, respectively. In 1 patient whose ureter was adherent to the tumor a ureteropelvic junction obstruction developed after laparoscopic RFA, requiring open repair. At the minimum 1-year followup 23 of 24 ablated tumors lacked contrast uptake on CT, meeting our radiographic

  10. A Radio Frequency Electric Current Enhances Antibiotic Efficacy against Bacterial Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Caubet, R.; Pedarros-Caubet, F.; Chu, M.; Freye, E.; de Belém Rodrigues, M.; Moreau, J. M.; Ellison, W. J.

    2004-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are notably resistant to antibiotic prophylaxis. The concentration of antibiotic necessary to significantly reduce the number of bacteria in the biofilm matrix can be several hundred times the MIC for the same bacteria in a planktonic phase. It has been observed that the addition of a weak continuous direct electric current to the liquid surrounding the biofilm can dramatically increase the efficacy of the antibiotic. This phenomenon, known as the bioelectric effect, has only been partially elucidated, and it is not certain that the electrical parameters are optimal. We confirm here the bioelectric effect for Escherichia coli biofilms treated with gentamicin and with oxytetracycline, and we report a new bioelectric effect with a radio frequency alternating electric current (10 MHz) instead of the usual direct current. None of the proposed explanations (transport of ions within the biofilm, production of additional biocides by electrolysis, etc.) of the direct current bioelectric effect are applicable to the radio frequency bioelectric effect. We suggest that this new phenomenon may be due to a specific action of the radio frequency electromagnetic field upon the polar parts of the molecules forming the biofilm matrix. PMID:15561841

  11. Searching for giga-Jansky fast radio bursts from the Milky Way with a global array of low-cost radio receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maoz, Dan; Loeb, Abraham

    2017-06-01

    If fast radio bursts (FRBs) originate from galaxies at cosmological distances, then their all-sky rate implies that the Milky Way may host an FRB every 30-1500 yr, on average. If many FRBs persistently repeat for decades or more, a local giant FRB could be active now, with 1 GHz radio pulses of flux ˜3 × 1010 Jy, comparable with the fluxes and frequencies detectable by cellular communication devices (cell phones, Wi-Fi and GPS). We propose searching for Galactic FRBs using a global array of low-cost radio receivers. One possibility is the ˜1 GHz communication channel in cellular phones, through a Citizens-Science downloadable application. Participating phones would continuously listen for and record candidate FRBs and would periodically upload information to a central data-processing website which will identify the signature of a real, globe-encompassing, FRB from an astronomical distance. Triangulation of the GPS-based pulse arrival times reported from different Earth locations will provide the FRB sky position, potentially to arcsecond accuracy. Pulse arrival times versus frequency, from reports from phones operating at diverse frequencies, or from fast signal de-dispersion by the application, will yield the dispersion measure (DM). Compared to a Galactic DM model, it will indicate the source distance within the Galaxy. A variant approach uses the built-in ˜100 MHz FM-radio receivers present in cell phones for an FRB search at lower frequencies. Alternatively, numerous 'software-defined radio' devices, costing ˜$10 US each, could be deployed and plugged into USB ports of personal computers (particularly in radio-quiet locations) to establish the global network of receivers.

  12. Eddy current imaging with an atomic radio-frequency magnetometer

    SciTech Connect

    Wickenbrock, Arne, E-mail: wickenbr@uni-mainz.de; Leefer, Nathan; Blanchard, John W.

    2016-05-02

    We use a radio-frequency {sup 85}Rb alkali-vapor cell magnetometer based on a paraffin-coated cell with long spin-coherence time and a small, low-inductance driving coil to create highly resolved conductivity maps of different objects. We resolve sub-mm features in conductive objects, we characterize the frequency response of our technique, and by operating at frequencies up to 250 kHz we are able to discriminate between differently conductive materials based on the induced response. The method is suited to cover a wide range of driving frequencies and can potentially be used for detecting non-metallic objects with low DC conductivity.

  13. [Inefficiency of electrosmog-shielding mats. Part 2: radio frequency range].

    PubMed

    Leitgeb, N; Cech, R

    2005-09-01

    It could already be shown that electromagnetic shielding mats do not reduce but even enhance electric field exposure in daily life situations. By measurements and numerical simulations the claims of manufacturers were checked who pretend that radio frequency electromagnetic fields can be shielded to 99% and more, and transferred to earth by earth cables (if attached). It could be shown that in the radio frequency range such products do not fulfil the justified expectations of customers, but in most cases even cause the opposite. The results depend on the electric properties of the material. Good electric conductivity of shielding mats even considerably increases electromagnetic field exposure. To connect the mats with earth potential by an attached cable might increase the beliefs on a protective effect, however, this is not capable to enhance the shielding effect. The investigation demonstrates that in spite of references made to experts opinions manufacturers claims about the shielding efficiency of radio frequency fields are misleading and fool clients about the real situation. Overall, acquisition and use of electrosmog shielding mats must be discouraged. If at all, shielding can be reached by placing a shielding cover between the source and the person. However, even in this case, efficiency is much lower than promised by manufacturers and decreases even more if it is taken into account that the head naturally remains uncovered and hence unshielded.

  14. Tunable radio-frequency photonic filter based on an actively mode-locked fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Ortigosa-Blanch, A; Mora, J; Capmany, J; Ortega, B; Pastor, D

    2006-03-15

    We propose the use of an actively mode-locked fiber laser as a multitap optical source for a microwave photonic filter. The fiber laser provides multiple optical taps with an optical frequency separation equal to the external driving radio-frequency signal of the laser that governs its repetition rate. All the optical taps show equal polarization and an overall Gaussian apodization, which reduces the sidelobes. We demonstrate continuous tunability of the filter by changing the external driving radio-frequency signal of the laser, which shows good fine tunability in the operating range of the laser from 5 to 10 GHz.

  15. A radio frequency coaxial feedthrough

    DOEpatents

    Owens, T.L.

    1987-12-07

    An improved radio frequency coaxial transmission line vacuum feedthrough is provided based on the use of a half-wavelength annular dielectric pressure barrier disk, or multiple disks comprising an effective half wavelength structure to eliminate reflection from the barrier surfaces. Gas-tight seals are formed about the outer and inner diameter surfaces of the barrier disk using a sealing technique which generates radial forces sufficient to form seals by forcing the conductor walls against the surfaces of the barrier disks in a manner which does not deform the radii of the inner and outer conductors, thereby preventing enhancement of the electric field at the barrier faces which limits the voltage and power handling capabilities of a feedthrough.

  16. Detection of NMR signals with a radio-frequency atomic magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Savukov, I M; Seltzer, S J; Romalis, M V

    2007-04-01

    We demonstrate detection of proton NMR signals with a radio-frequency (rf) atomic magnetometer tuned to the NMR frequency of 62 kHz. High-frequency operation of the atomic magnetometer makes it relatively insensitive to ambient magnetic field noise. We obtain magnetic field sensitivity of 7 fT/Hz1/2 using only a thin aluminum shield. We also derive an expression for the fundamental sensitivity limit of a surface inductive pick-up coil as a function of frequency and find that an atomic rf magnetometer is intrinsically more sensitive than a coil of comparable size for frequencies below about 50 MHz.

  17. High-resolution radio study of SNR IC 443 at low radio frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelletti, G.; Dubner, G.; Clarke, T.; Kassim, N. E.

    2011-10-01

    Aims: We investigate the morphology at low radio frequencies of the supernova remnant (SNR) IC 443 in detail and accurately establish its radio continuum spectral properties. Methods: We used the VLA in multiple configurations to produce high-resolution radio images of IC 443 at 74 and 330 MHz. From these data we produced the first sensitive, spatially resolved spectral analysis of the radio emission at long wavelengths. The changes with position in the radio spectral index were correlated with data in near infrared (NIR) from 2MASS, in gamma-rays from VERITAS, and with the molecular 12CO (J = 1 - 0) line emission. Results: The new image at 74 MHz has HPBW = 35'' and rms = 30 mJy beam-1 and at 330 MHz HPBW = 17'' and rms = 1.7 mJy beam-1. The integrated flux densities for the whole SNR are S74 MHzSNR=470±51 Jy and S330 MHzSNR=248±15 Jy. Improved estimates of the integrated spectrum were derived taking a turnover into account to fit the lowest frequency measurements in the literature. Combining our measurements with existing data, we derive an integrated spectral index α10 MHz10700 MHz=-0.39±0.01 with a free-free continuum optical depth at 330 MHz τ330 ~ 7 × 10-4 (τ10 = 1.07); all measurements above ~ 10 MHz are equally consistent with a power law spectrum. For the pulsar wind nebula associated with the compact source CXOU J061705.3+222127, we calculated S330 MHzPWN=0.23±0.05 Jy, S1420 MHzPWN=0.20±0.04 Jy, and α330 MHz8460 MHz˜ 0.0. Substantial variations are observed in spectral index between 74 and 330 MHz across IC 443. The flattest spectral components ( - 0.25 ≤ α ≤ - 0.05) coincide with the brightest parts of the SNR along the eastern border, with an impressive agreement with ionic lines as observed in the 2MASS J and H bands. The diffuse interior of IC 443 has a spectrum steeper than found anywhere in the SNR ( - 0.85 ≤ α ≤ - 0.6), while the southern ridge again has a flatter spectrum (α ~ -0.4). With the available statistics the VERITAS

  18. 47 CFR 76.616 - Operation near certain aeronautical and marine emergency radio frequencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Operation near certain aeronautical and marine emergency radio frequencies. 76.616 Section 76.616 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Technical Standards § 76...

  19. Low frequency spectra of type III solar radio bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, R. R.

    1978-01-01

    Flux density spectra have been determined for 91 simple type III solar bursts observed by the Goddard Space Flight Center radio astronomy experiment on the IMP-6 spacecraft during 1971 and 1972. Spectral peaks were found to occur at frequencies ranging from 44 kHz up to 2500 kHz. Half of the bursts peaked between 250 kHz and 900 kHz, corresponding to emission at solar distances of about 0.3 to 0.1 AU. Maximum burst flux density sometimes exceeds 10 to the -14th W/sq m/Hz. The primary factor controlling the spectral peak frequency of these bursts appears to be a variation in intrinsic power radiated by the source as the exciter moves outward from the sun, rather than radio propagation effects between the source and IMP-6. Thus, a burst spectrum strongly reflects the evolution of the properties of the exciting electron beam, and according to current theory, beam deceleration could help account for the observations.

  20. Digital avionics susceptibility to high energy radio frequency fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, William E.

    Generally, noncritical avionic systems for transport category aircraft have been designed to meet radio frequency (RF) susceptibility requirements set forth in RTCA DO 160B, environmental conditions and test procedures for airborne equipment. Section 20 of this document controls the electromagnetic interference (EMI) hardening for avionics equipment to levels of 1 and 2 V/m. Currently, US equipment manufacturers are designing flight-critical fly-by-wire avionics to a much higher level. The US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has requested that the RTCA SC-135 high-energy radio frequency (HERF) working group develop appropriate testing procedures for section 20 of RTCA DO 160B for radiated and conducted susceptibility at the box and systems level. The FAA has also requested the SAE AE4R committee to address installed systems testing, airframe shielding effects and RF environment monitoring. Emitters of interest include radar (ground, ship, and aircraft) commercial broadcast and TV station, mobile communication, and other transmitters that could possibly affect commercial aircraft.

  1. Real-Time RF-DNA Fingerprinting of ZigBee Devices Using a Software-Defined Radio with FPGA Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    REAL-TIME RF-DNA FINGERPRINTING OF ZIGBEE DEVICES USING A SOFTWARE-DEFINED RADIO WITH FPGA...not subject to copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENG-MS-15-M-054 REAL-TIME RF-DNA FINGERPRINTING OF ZIGBEE DEVICES USING A...REAL-TIME RF-DNA FINGERPRINTING OF ZIGBEE DEVICES USING A SOFTWARE-DEFINED RADIO WITH FPGA PROCESSING William M. Lowder, BSEE, BSCPE

  2. Homogeneous spectral broadening of pulsed terahertz quantum cascade lasers by radio frequency modulation.

    PubMed

    Wan, W J; Li, H; Cao, J C

    2018-01-22

    The authors present an experimental investigation of radio frequency modulation on pulsed terahertz quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) emitting around 4.3 THz. The QCL chip used in this work is based on a resonant phonon design which is able to generate a 1.2 W peak power at 10 K from a 400-µm-wide and 4-mm-long laser with a single plasmon waveguide. To enhance the radio frequency modulation efficiency and significantly broaden the terahertz spectra, the QCLs are also processed into a double-metal waveguide geometry with a Silicon lens out-coupler to improve the far-field beam quality. The measured beam patterns of the double-metal QCL show a record low divergence of 2.6° in vertical direction and 2.4° in horizontal direction. Finally we perform the inter-mode beat note and terahertz spectra measurements for both single plasmon and double-metal QCLs working in pulsed mode. Since the double-metal waveguide is more suitable for microwave signal transmission, the radio frequency modulation shows stronger effects on the spectral broadening for the double-metal QCL. Although we are not able to achieve comb operation in this work for the pulsed lasers due to the large phase noise, the homogeneous spectral broadening resulted from the radio frequency modulation can be potentially used for spectroscopic applications.

  3. Radio frequency measurements of tunnel couplings and singlet–triplet spin states in Si:P quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    House, M. G.; Kobayashi, T.; Weber, B.; Hile, S. J.; Watson, T. F.; van der Heijden, J.; Rogge, S.; Simmons, M. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Spin states of the electrons and nuclei of phosphorus donors in silicon are strong candidates for quantum information processing applications given their excellent coherence times. Designing a scalable donor-based quantum computer will require both knowledge of the relationship between device geometry and electron tunnel couplings, and a spin readout strategy that uses minimal physical space in the device. Here we use radio frequency reflectometry to measure singlet–triplet states of a few-donor Si:P double quantum dot and demonstrate that the exchange energy can be tuned by at least two orders of magnitude, from 20 μeV to 8 meV. We measure dot–lead tunnel rates by analysis of the reflected signal and show that they change from 100 MHz to 22 GHz as the number of electrons on a quantum dot is increased from 1 to 4. These techniques present an approach for characterizing, operating and engineering scalable qubit devices based on donors in silicon. PMID:26548556

  4. Radio frequency diodes and circuits fabricated via adhesion lithography (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiadou, Dimitra G.; Semple, James; Wyatt-Moon, Gwenhivir; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.

    2016-09-01

    The commercial interest in Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags keeps growing, as new application sectors, spanning from healthcare to electronic article surveillance (EAS) and personal identification, are constantly emerging for these types of electronic devices. The increasing demand for the so-called "smart labels" necessitates their high throughput manufacturing, and indeed on thin flexible substrates, that will reduce the cost and render them competitive to the currently widely employed barcodes. Adhesion Lithography (a-Lith) is a novel patterning technique that allows the facile high yield fabrication of co-planar large aspect ratio (<100,000) metal electrodes separated by a sub-20 nm gap on large area substrates of any type. Deposition of high mobility semiconductors from their solution at low, compatible with plastic substrates, temperatures and application of specific processing protocols can dramatically improve the performance of the fabricated Schottky diodes. It will be shown that in this manner both organic and inorganic high speed diodes and rectifiers can be obtained, operating at frequencies much higher than the 13.56 MHz benchmark, currently employed in passive RFID tags and near filed communications (NFC). This showcases the universality of this method towards fabricating high speed p- and n-type diodes, irrespective of the substrate, simply based on the extreme downscaling of key device dimensions obtained in these nanoscale structures. The potential for scaling up this technique at low cost, combined with the significant performance optimisation and improved functionality that can be attained through intelligent material selection, render a-Lith unique within the field of plastic electronics.

  5. Characterization of In-Body to On-Body Wireless Radio Frequency Link for Upper Limb Prostheses.

    PubMed

    Stango, Antonietta; Yazdandoost, Kamya Yekeh; Negro, Francesco; Farina, Dario

    2016-01-01

    Wireless implanted devices can be used to interface patients with disabilities with the aim of restoring impaired motor functions. Implanted devices that record and transmit electromyographic (EMG) signals have been applied for the control of active prostheses. This simulation study investigates the propagation losses and the absorption rate of a wireless radio frequency link for in-to-on body communication in the medical implant communication service (MICS) frequency band to control myoelectric upper limb prostheses. The implanted antenna is selected and a suitable external antenna is designed. The characterization of both antennas is done by numerical simulations. A heterogeneous 3D body model and a 3D electromagnetic solver have been used to model the path loss and to characterize the specific absorption rate (SAR). The path loss parameters were extracted and the SAR was characterized, verifying the compliance with the guideline limits. The path loss model has been also used for a preliminary link budget analysis to determine the feasibility of such system compliant with the IEEE 802.15.6 standard. The resulting link margin of 11 dB confirms the feasibility of the system proposed.

  6. Characterization of In-Body to On-Body Wireless Radio Frequency Link for Upper Limb Prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Stango, Antonietta; Yazdandoost, Kamya Yekeh; Negro, Francesco; Farina, Dario

    2016-01-01

    Wireless implanted devices can be used to interface patients with disabilities with the aim of restoring impaired motor functions. Implanted devices that record and transmit electromyographic (EMG) signals have been applied for the control of active prostheses. This simulation study investigates the propagation losses and the absorption rate of a wireless radio frequency link for in-to-on body communication in the medical implant communication service (MICS) frequency band to control myoelectric upper limb prostheses. The implanted antenna is selected and a suitable external antenna is designed. The characterization of both antennas is done by numerical simulations. A heterogeneous 3D body model and a 3D electromagnetic solver have been used to model the path loss and to characterize the specific absorption rate (SAR). The path loss parameters were extracted and the SAR was characterized, verifying the compliance with the guideline limits. The path loss model has been also used for a preliminary link budget analysis to determine the feasibility of such system compliant with the IEEE 802.15.6 standard. The resulting link margin of 11 dB confirms the feasibility of the system proposed. PMID:27764182

  7. Experimental study of a high intensity radio-frequency cooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boussaid, Ramzi; Ban, G.; Cam, J. F.

    2015-07-01

    Within the framework of the DESIR/SPIRAL-2 project, a radio-frequency quadrupole cooler named SHIRaC has been studied. SHIRaC is a key device of SPIRAL-2, designed to enhance the beam quality required by DESIR. The preliminary study and development of this device has been carried out at Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire de CAEN (LPC Caen), France. The goal of this paper is to present the experimental studies conducted on a SHIRaC prototype. The main peculiarity of this cooler is its efficient handling and cooling of ion beams with currents going up as high as 1 μ A which has never before been achieved in any of the previous coolers. Much effort has been made lately into these studies for development of appropriate optics, vacuum and rf systems which allow cooling of beams of large emittance (˜80 π mm mrad ) and high current. The dependencies of SHIRaC's transmission and the cooled beam parameters in terms of geometrical transverse emittance and the longitudinal energy spread have also been discussed. Investigation of beam purity at optimum cooling condition has also been done. Results from the experiments indicate that an emittance reduction of less than 2.5 π mm mrad and a longitudinal energy spread reduction of less than 4 eV are obtained with more than 70% of ion transmission. The emittance is at expected values whereas the energy spread is not.

  8. Nanotube resonator devices

    DOEpatents

    Jensen, Kenneth J; Zettl, Alexander K; Weldon, Jeffrey A

    2014-05-06

    A fully-functional radio receiver fabricated from a single nanotube is being disclosed. Simultaneously, a single nanotube can perform the functions of all major components of a radio: antenna, tunable band-pass filter, amplifier, and demodulator. A DC voltage source, as supplied by a battery, can power the radio. Using carrier waves in the commercially relevant 40-400 MHz range and both frequency and amplitude modulation techniques, successful music and voice reception has been demonstrated. Also disclosed are a radio transmitter and a mass sensor using a nanotube resonator device.

  9. Complex Signal Kurtosis and Independent Component Analysis for Wideband Radio Frequency Interference Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenwald, Adam; Mohammed, Priscilla; Bradley, Damon; Piepmeier, Jeffrey; Wong, Englin; Gholian, Armen

    2016-01-01

    Radio-frequency interference (RFI) has negatively implicated scientific measurements across a wide variation passive remote sensing satellites. This has been observed in the L-band radiometers SMOS, Aquarius and more recently, SMAP [1, 2]. RFI has also been observed at higher frequencies such as K band [3]. Improvements in technology have allowed wider bandwidth digital back ends for passive microwave radiometry. A complex signal kurtosis radio frequency interference detector was developed to help identify corrupted measurements [4]. This work explores the use of ICA (Independent Component Analysis) as a blind source separation technique to pre-process radiometric signals for use with the previously developed real and complex signal kurtosis detectors.

  10. Investigation of high sensitivity radio-frequency readout circuit based on AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Tan, Ren-Bing; Sun, Jian-Dong; Li, Xin-Xing; Zhou, Yu; Lü, Li; Qin, Hua

    2015-10-01

    An AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) device is prepared by using a semiconductor nanofabrication process. A reflective radio-frequency (RF) readout circuit is designed and the HEMT device is assembled in an RF circuit through a coplanar waveguide transmission line. A gate capacitor of the HEMT and a surface-mounted inductor on the transmission line are formed to generate LC resonance. By tuning the gate voltage Vg, the variations of gate capacitance and conductance of the HEMT are reflected sensitively from the resonance frequency and the magnitude of the RF reflection signal. The aim of the designed RF readout setup is to develop a highly sensitive HEMT-based detector. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61107093), the Suzhou Science and Technology Project, China (Grant No. ZXG2012024), and the Youth Innovation Promotion Association, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. 2012243).

  11. Preface to Special Topic: Advances in Radio Frequency Physics in Fusion Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuccillo, Angelo A.; Phillips, Cynthia K.; Ceccuzzi, Silvio

    2014-06-01

    It has long been recognized that auxiliary plasma heating will be required to achieve the high temperature, high density conditions within a magnetically confined plasma in which a fusion "burn" may be sustained by copious fusion reactions. Consequently, the application of radio and microwave frequency electromagnetic waves to magnetically confined plasma, commonly referred to as RF, has been a major part of the program almost since its inception in the 1950s. These RF waves provide heating, current drive, plasma profile control, and Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) stabilization. Fusion experiments employ electromagnetic radiation in a wide range of frequencies, from tens of MHz to hundreds of GHz. The fusion devices containing the plasma are typically tori, axisymmetric or non, in which the equilibrium magnetic fields are composed of a strong toroidal magnetic field generated by external coils, and a poloidal field created, at least in the symmetric configurations, by currents flowing in the plasma. The waves are excited in the peripheral regions of the plasma, by specially designed launching structures, and subsequently propagate into the core regions, where resonant wave-plasma interactions produce localized heating or other modification of the local equilibrium profiles. Experimental studies coupled with the development of theoretical models and advanced simulation codes over the past 40+ years have led to an unprecedented understanding of the physics of RF heating and current drive in the core of magnetic fusion devices. Nevertheless, there are serious gaps in our knowledge base that continue to have a negative impact on the success of ongoing experiments and that must be resolved as the program progresses to the next generation devices and ultimately to "demo" and "fusion power plant." A serious gap, at least in the ion cyclotron (IC) range of frequencies and partially in the lower hybrid frequency ranges, is the difficulty in coupling large amount of power to the

  12. The radio astronomy explorer satellite, a low-frequency observatory.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, R. R.; Alexander, J. K.; Stone, R. G.

    1971-01-01

    The RAE-1 is the first spacecraft designed exclusively for radio astronomical studies. It is a small, but relatively complex, observatory including two 229-meter antennas, several radiometer systems covering a frequency range of 0.2 to 9.2 MHz, and a variety of supporting experiments such as antenna impedance probes and TV cameras to monitor antenna shape. Since its launch in July, 1968, RAE-1 has sent back some 10 billion data bits per year on measurements of long-wavelength radio phenomena in the magnetosphere, the solar corona, and the Galaxy. In this paper we describe the design, calibration, and performance of the RAE-1 experiments in detail.

  13. Unprecedentedly Strong and Narrow Electromagnetic Emissions Stimulated by High-Frequency Radio Waves in the Ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Norin, L.; Leyser, T. B.; Nordblad, E.

    2009-02-13

    Experimental results of secondary electromagnetic radiation, stimulated by high-frequency radio waves irradiating the ionosphere, are reported. We have observed emission peaks, shifted in frequency up to a few tens of Hertz from radio waves transmitted at several megahertz. These emission peaks are by far the strongest spectral features of secondary radiation that have been reported. The emissions are attributed to stimulated Brillouin scattering, long predicted but hitherto never unambiguously identified in high-frequency ionospheric interaction experiments. The experiments were performed at the High-Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP), Alaska, USA.

  14. Unprecedentedly strong and narrow electromagnetic emissions stimulated by high-frequency radio waves in the ionosphere.

    PubMed

    Norin, L; Leyser, T B; Nordblad, E; Thidé, B; McCarrick, M

    2009-02-13

    Experimental results of secondary electromagnetic radiation, stimulated by high-frequency radio waves irradiating the ionosphere, are reported. We have observed emission peaks, shifted in frequency up to a few tens of Hertz from radio waves transmitted at several megahertz. These emission peaks are by far the strongest spectral features of secondary radiation that have been reported. The emissions are attributed to stimulated Brillouin scattering, long predicted but hitherto never unambiguously identified in high-frequency ionospheric interaction experiments. The experiments were performed at the High-Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP), Alaska, USA.

  15. Absorption models for low-frequency variability in compact radio sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marscher, A. P.

    1979-01-01

    The consequences of the most plausible version of the absorption model for low-frequency variability in compact extragalactic radio sources are considered. The general restrictions placed on such a model are determined, and observational tests are suggested that can be used either to support the model or to discriminate among its various versions. It is shown that low-frequency variability in compact radio sources can be successfully explained by a class of models in which the flux is modulated by changes in free-free optical depth within an intervening ionized medium. Two versions of such a model are distinguished, one involving large changes in optical depth and the other, small changes. It is noted that while absorption effects are capable of causing rapid flux and structural variations at centimetric wavelengths, the models predict detailed behavior that is in direct conflict with observational data.

  16. Radio-frequency low-coherence interferometry.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Pousa, Carlos R; Mora, José; Maestre, Haroldo; Corral, Pablo

    2014-06-15

    A method for retrieving low-coherence interferograms, based on the use of a microwave photonics filter, is proposed and demonstrated. The method is equivalent to the double-interferometer technique, with the scanning interferometer replaced by an analog fiber-optics link and the visibility recorded as the amplitude of its radio-frequency (RF) response. As a low-coherence interferometry system, it shows a decrease of resolution induced by the fiber's third-order dispersion (β3). As a displacement sensor, it provides highly linear and slope-scalable readouts of the interferometer's optical path difference in terms of RF, even in the presence of third-order dispersion. In a proof-of-concept experiment, we demonstrate 20-μm displacement readouts using C-band EDFA sources and standard single-mode fiber.

  17. How can radio frequency identification technology impact nursing practice?

    PubMed

    Billingsley, Luanne; Wyld, David

    2014-12-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology can save nurses time, improve quality of care, en hance patient and staff safety, and decrease costs. However, without a better understanding of these systems and their benefits to patients and hospitals, nurses may be slower to recommend, implement, or adopt RFID technology into practice.

  18. Extragalactic Peaked-spectrum Radio Sources at Low Frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Callingham, J. R.; Gaensler, B. M.; Sadler, E. M.

    We present a sample of 1483 sources that display spectral peaks between 72 MHz and 1.4 GHz, selected from the GaLactic and Extragalactic All-sky Murchison Widefield Array (GLEAM) survey. The GLEAM survey is the widest fractional bandwidth all-sky survey to date, ideal for identifying peaked-spectrum sources at low radio frequencies. Our peaked-spectrum sources are the low-frequency analogs of gigahertz-peaked spectrum (GPS) and compact-steep spectrum (CSS) sources, which have been hypothesized to be the precursors to massive radio galaxies. Our sample more than doubles the number of known peaked-spectrum candidates, and 95% of our sample have a newly characterized spectral peak.more » We highlight that some GPS sources peaking above 5 GHz have had multiple epochs of nuclear activity, and we demonstrate the possibility of identifying high-redshift ( z > 2) galaxies via steep optically thin spectral indices and low observed peak frequencies. The distribution of the optically thick spectral indices of our sample is consistent with past GPS/CSS samples but with a large dispersion, suggesting that the spectral peak is a product of an inhomogeneous environment that is individualistic. We find no dependence of observed peak frequency with redshift, consistent with the peaked-spectrum sample comprising both local CSS sources and high-redshift GPS sources. The 5 GHz luminosity distribution lacks the brightest GPS and CSS sources of previous samples, implying that a convolution of source evolution and redshift influences the type of peaked-spectrum sources identified below 1 GHz. Finally, we discuss sources with optically thick spectral indices that exceed the synchrotron self-absorption limit.« less

  19. Direct detection of a transport-blocking trap in a nanoscaled silicon single-electron transistor by radio-frequency reflectometry

    SciTech Connect

    Villis, B. J.; Sanquer, M.; Jehl, X.

    2014-06-09

    The continuous downscaling of transistors results in nanoscale devices which require fewer and fewer charged carriers for their operation. The ultimate charge controlled device, the single-electron transistor (SET), controls the transfer of individual electrons. It is also the most sensitive electrometer, and as a result the electron transport through it can be dramatically affected by nearby charges. Standard direct-current characterization techniques, however, are often unable to unambiguously detect and resolve the origin of the observed changes in SET behavior arising from changes in the charge state of a capacitively coupled trap. Using a radio-frequency (RF) reflectometry technique, we are ablemore » to unequivocally detect this process, in very close agreement with modeling of the trap's occupation probability.« less

  20. Remote Sensing: Radio Frequency Detection for High School Physics Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huggett, Daniel; Jeandron, Michael; Maddox, Larry; Yoshida, Sanichiro

    2011-10-01

    In an effort to give high school students experience in real world science applications, we have partnered with Loranger High School in Loranger, LA to mentor 9 senior physics students in radio frequency electromagnetic detection. The effort consists of two projects: Mapping of 60 Hz noise around the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO), and the construction of a 20 MHz radio telescope for observations of the Sun and Jupiter (Radio Jove, NASA). The results of the LIGO mapping will aid in strategies to reduce the 60 Hz line noise in the LIGO noise spectrum. The Radio Jove project will introduce students to the field of radio astronomy and give them better insight into the dynamic nature of large solar system objects. Both groups will work together in the early stages as they learn the basics of electromagnetic transmission and detection. The groups will document and report their progress regularly. The students will work under the supervision of three undergraduate mentors. Our program is designed to give them theoretical and practical knowledge in radiation and electronics. The students will learn how to design and test receiver in the lab and field settings.

  1. Measuring changes of radio-frequency dielectric properties of chicken meat during storage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Changes in dielectric properties of stored chicken meat were tracked by using a radio-frequency dielectric spectroscopy method. For this purpose, the dielectric properties were measured with an open-ended coaxial-line probe and vector network analyzer over a broad frequency range from 200 MHz to 20...

  2. Electron current extraction from radio frequency excited micro-dielectric barrier discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jun-Chieh; Kushner, Mark J.; Leoni, Napoleon

    Micro dielectric barrier discharges (mDBDs) consist of micro-plasma devices (10-100 {mu}m diameter) in which the electrodes are fully or partially covered by dielectrics, and often operate at atmospheric pressure driven with radio frequency (rf) waveforms. In certain applications, it may be desirable to extract electron current out of the mDBD plasma, which necessitates a third electrode. As a result, the physical structure of the m-DBD and the electron emitting properties of its materials are important to its operation. In this paper, results from a two-dimensional computer simulation of current extraction from mDBDs sustained in atmospheric pressure N{sub 2} will bemore » discussed. The mDBDs are sandwich structures with an opening of tens-of-microns excited with rf voltage waveforms of up to 25 MHz. Following avalanche by electron impact ionization in the mDBD cavity, the plasma can be expelled from the cavity towards the extraction electrode during the part of the rf cycle when the extraction electrode appears anodic. The electron current extraction can be enhanced by biasing this electrode. The charge collection can be controlled by choice of rf frequency, rf driving voltage, and permittivity of the dielectric barrier.« less

  3. Hermetic aluminum radio frequency interconnection and method for making

    DOEpatents

    Kilgo, Riley D.; Kovacic, Larry; Brow, Richard K.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a light-weight, hermetic coaxial radio-frequency (RF) interconnection having an electrically conductive outer housing made of aluminum or an aluminum alloy, a central electrical conductor made of ferrous or non-ferrous material, and a cylinder of dielectric material comprising a low-melting-temperature, high-thermal-expansion aluminophosphate glass composition for hermetically sealing between the aluminum-alloy outer housing and the ferrous or non-ferrous center conductor. The entire RF interconnection assembly is made permanently hermetic by thermally fusing the center conductor, glass, and housing concurrently by bringing the glass to the melt point by way of exposure to an atmospheric temperature sufficient to melt the glass, less than 540.degree. C., but that does not melt the center conductor or the outer aluminum or aluminum alloy housing. The composition of the glass used is controlled to provide a suitable low dielectric constant so that an appropriate electrical characteristic impedance, for example 50 ohms, can be achieved for an electrical interconnection that performs well at high radio frequencies and also provides an interconnection maintaining a relatively small physical size.

  4. Radio Frequency (RF) Trap for Confinement of Antimatter Plasmas Using Rotating Wall Electric Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, William Herbert, III; Pearson, J. Boise

    2004-01-01

    Perturbations associated with a rotating wall electric field enable the confinement of ions for periods approaching weeks. This steady state confinement is a result of a radio frequency manipulation of the ions. Using state-of-the-art techniques it is shown that radio frequency energy can produce useable manipulation of the ion cloud (matter or antimatter) for use in containment experiments. The current research focuses on the improvement of confinement systems capable of containing and transporting antimatter.

  5. Integrated optical modulator for signal up-conversion over radio-on-fiber link.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woo-Kyung; Kwon, Soon-Woo; Jeong, Woo-Jin; Son, Geun-Sik; Lee, Kwang-Hyun; Choi, Woo-Young; Yang, Woo-Seok; Lee, Hyung-Man; Lee, Han-Young

    2009-02-16

    An integrated optical modulator, which consists of a dual-sideband suppressed carrier (DSB-SC) modulator cascaded with a single-sideband (SSB) modulator, is proposed for signal up-conversion over Radio-on-Fiber. Utilizing a single-drive domain inverted structure in both modulators, balanced modulations were obtained without complicated radio frequency (RF) driving circuits and delicate RF phase adjustments. Intermediate frequency (IF) band signal was up-conversed to 60GHz band by using the fabricated device and was transmitted over optical fiber. Experiment results show that the proposed device enables millimeter wave generation and signal transmission without any power penalty caused by chromatic dispersion.

  6. Base-level management of radio-frequency radiation-protection program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rademacher, S.E.; Montgomery, N.D.

    1989-04-01

    AFOEHL developed this report to assist the base-level aerospace medical team manage their radio-frequency radiation-protection program. This report supersedes USAFOEHL Report 80-42, 'A Practical R-F Guide for BEES.'

  7. Base-level management of radio-frequency radiation-protection program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rademacher, S.E.; Montgomery, N.D.

    1989-04-01

    AFOEHL developed this report to assist the base-level aerospace medical team manage their radio-frequency radiation protection program. This report supersedes USAFOEHL Report 80-42, 'A practical R-F Guide for BEES.'

  8. Effect of pulsed discharge on the ignition of pulse modulated radio frequency glow discharge at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Shenjie; Guo, Ying; Han, Qianhan; Bao, Yun; Zhang, Jing; Shi, J. J.

    2018-01-01

    A pulsed discharge is introduced between two sequential pulse-modulated radio frequency glow discharges in atmospheric helium. The dependence of radio frequency discharge ignition on pulsed discharge intensity is investigated experimentally with the pulse voltage amplitudes of 650, 850, and 1250 V. The discharge characteristics and dynamics are studied in terms of voltage and current waveforms, and spatial-temporal evolution of optical emission. With the elevated pulsed discharge intensity of two orders of magnitude, the ignition of radio frequency discharge is enhanced by reducing the ignition time and achieving the stable operation with a double-hump spatial profile. The ignition time of radio frequency discharge is estimated to be 2.0 μs, 1.5 μs, and 1.0 μs with the pulse voltage amplitudes of 650, 850, and 1250 V, respectively, which is also demonstrated by the spatial-temporal evolution of optical emission at 706 and 777 nm.

  9. A new method for finding and characterizing galaxy groups via low-frequency radio surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croston, J. H.; Ineson, J.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Mingo, B.

    2017-09-01

    We describe a new method for identifying and characterizing the thermodynamic state of large samples of evolved galaxy groups at high redshifts using high-resolution, low-frequency radio surveys, such as those that will be carried out with LOFAR and the Square Kilometre Array. We identify a sub-population of morphologically regular powerful [Fanaroff-Riley type II (FR II)] radio galaxies and demonstrate that, for this sub-population, the internal pressure of the radio lobes is a reliable tracer of the external intragroup/intracluster medium (ICM) pressure, and that the assumption of a universal pressure profile for relaxed groups enables the total mass and X-ray luminosity to be estimated. Using a sample of well-studied FR II radio galaxies, we demonstrate that our method enables the estimation of group/cluster X-ray luminosities over three orders of magnitude in luminosity to within a factor of ˜2 from low-frequency radio properties alone. Our method could provide a powerful new tool for building samples of thousands of evolved galaxy groups at z > 1 and characterizing their ICM.

  10. Radio Frequency Mass Gauging of Propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerli, Gregory A.; Vaden, Karl R.; Herlacher, Michael D.; Buchanan, David A.; VanDresar, Neil T.

    2007-01-01

    A combined experimental and computer simulation effort was conducted to measure radio frequency (RF) tank resonance modes in a dewar partially filled with liquid oxygen, and compare the measurements with numerical simulations. The goal of the effort was to demonstrate that computer simulations of a tank's electromagnetic eigenmodes can be used to accurately predict ground-based measurements, thereby providing a computational tool for predicting tank modes in a low-gravity environment. Matching the measured resonant frequencies of several tank modes with computer simulations can be used to gauge the amount of liquid in a tank, thus providing a possible method to gauge cryogenic propellant tanks in low-gravity. Using a handheld RF spectrum analyzer and a small antenna in a 46 liter capacity dewar for experimental measurements, we have verified that the four lowest transverse magnetic eigenmodes can be accurately predicted as a function of liquid oxygen fill level using computer simulations. The input to the computer simulations consisted of tank dimensions, and the dielectric constant of the fluid. Without using any adjustable parameters, the calculated and measured frequencies agree such that the liquid oxygen fill level was gauged to within 2 percent full scale uncertainty. These results demonstrate the utility of using electromagnetic simulations to form the basis of an RF mass gauging technology with the power to simulate tank resonance frequencies from arbitrary fluid configurations.

  11. Industrial-scale radio frequency treatments for insect control in lentils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Radio frequency (RF) treatments are considered to be a potential postharvest technology for disinfesting legumes of internal seed pests such as the cowpea weevil. After treatment protocols are shown to control postharvest insects without significant quality degradation, it is important to scale-up l...

  12. Transvaginal radio frequency treatment of the endopelvic fascia: a prospective evaluation for the treatment of genuine stress urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Dmochowski, Roger R; Avon, Mark; Ross, James; Cooper, Jay M; Kaplan, Richard; Love, Beverly; Kohli, NeeraJ; Albala, David; Shingleton, Bruce

    2003-03-01

    months 57%, 66% and 59% of patients, respectively, averaged 1 or no daily episodes of urinary incontinence. At 12-month followup 79 of 109 patients (73%) reported being continent or improved. Preoperatively, 43% of patients reported using 1 or no pads daily. At 3, 6 and 12 months 69%, 70% and 72% of patients, respectively, required 1 or no pads daily. On urodynamic evaluation at 12-month followup 76.0% of the patients did not leak with a Valsalva maneuver. A total of 30 cases were classified as failures and 11 women were lost to followup. There were no intraoperative complications, 3 (4%) minor postoperative complications which resolved, and no device related complications. The transvaginal radio frequency applicator demonstrated good efficacy and excellent safety at 1-year followup. Ongoing analysis of the data has indicated opportunities for improvement of this new surgical technique that could result in higher efficacy rates without compromising safety. Further long-term evaluation is being conducted to assess chronic durability of the procedure.

  13. 47 CFR 2.801 - Radiofrequency device defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radiofrequency device defined. 2.801 Section 2... MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Marketing of Radio-frequency Devices § 2.801 Radiofrequency device defined. As used in this part, a radiofrequency device is any device which in its operation is capable of...

  14. Applications of software-defined radio (SDR) technology in hospital environments.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Santiago, Raúl; Mateska, Aleksandra; Chomu, Konstantin; Gavrilovska, Liljana; Balasingham, Ilangko

    2013-01-01

    A software-defined radio (SDR) is a radio communication system where the major part of its functionality is implemented by means of software in a personal computer or embedded system. Such a design paradigm has the major advantage of producing devices that can receive and transmit widely different radio protocols based solely on the software used. This flexibility opens several application opportunities in hospital environments, where a large number of wired and wireless electronic devices must coexist in confined areas like operating rooms and intensive care units. This paper outlines some possible applications in the 2360-2500 MHz frequency band. These applications include the integration of wireless medical devices in a common communication platform for seamless interoperability, and cognitive radio (CR) for body area networks (BANs) and wireless sensor networks (WSNs) for medical environmental surveillance. The description of a proof-of-concept CR prototype is also presented.

  15. VibeComm: radio-free wireless communication for smart devices using vibration.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Inhwan; Cho, Jungchan; Oh, Songhwai

    2014-11-10

    This paper proposes VibeComm, a novel communication method for smart devices using a built-in vibrator and accelerometer. The proposed approach is ideal for low-rate off-line communication, and its communication medium is an object on which smart devices are placed, such as tables and desks. When more than two smart devices are placed on an object and one device wants to transmit a message to the other devices, the transmitting device generates a sequence of vibrations. The vibrations are propagated through the object on which the devices are placed. The receiving devices analyze their accelerometer readings to decode incoming messages. The proposed method can be the alternative communication method when general types of radio communication methods are not available. VibeComm is implemented on Android smartphones, and a comprehensive set of experiments is conducted to show its feasibility.

  16. Dispersive detection of radio-frequency-dressed states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jammi, Sindhu; Pyragius, Tadas; Bason, Mark G.; Florez, Hans Marin; Fernholz, Thomas

    2018-04-01

    We introduce a method to dispersively detect alkali-metal atoms in radio-frequency-dressed states. In particular, we use dressed detection to measure populations and population differences of atoms prepared in their clock states. Linear birefringence of the atomic medium enables atom number detection via polarization homodyning, a form of common path interferometry. In order to achieve low technical noise levels, we perform optical sideband detection after adiabatic transformation of bare states into dressed states. The balanced homodyne signal then oscillates independently of field fluctuations at twice the dressing frequency, thus allowing for robust, phase-locked detection that circumvents low-frequency noise. Using probe pulses of two optical frequencies, we can detect both clock states simultaneously and obtain population difference as well as the total atom number. The scheme also allows for difference measurements by direct subtraction of the homodyne signals at the balanced detector, which should technically enable quantum noise limited measurements with prospects for the preparation of spin squeezed states. The method extends to other Zeeman sublevels and can be employed in a range of atomic clock schemes, atom interferometers, and other experiments using dressed atoms.

  17. WWVB: A Half Century of Delivering Accurate Frequency and Time by Radio

    PubMed Central

    Lombardi, Michael A; Nelson, Glenn K

    2014-01-01

    In commemoration of its 50th anniversary of broadcasting from Fort Collins, Colorado, this paper provides a history of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) radio station WWVB. The narrative describes the evolution of the station, from its origins as a source of standard frequency, to its current role as the source of time-of-day synchronization for many millions of radio controlled clocks. PMID:26601026

  18. INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: RADIO FREQUENCY HEATING, KAI TECHNOLOGIES, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    A demonstration of KAI Technologies in-situ radio frequency heating system for soil treatment was conducted from January 1994 to July 1994 at Kelly Air Force Base in San Antonio, Texas. This demonstration was conducted as a joint effort between the USEPA and the USAF. The technol...

  19. Modification of the DSN radio frequency angular tropospheric refraction model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berman, A. L.

    1977-01-01

    The previously derived DSN Radio Frequency Angular Tropospheric Refraction Model contained an assumption which was subsequently seen to be at a variance with the theoretical basis of angular refraction. The modification necessary to correct the model is minor in that the value of a constant is changed.

  20. Read distance performance and variation of 5 low-frequency radio frequency identification panel transceiver manufacturers.

    PubMed

    Ryan, S E; Blasi, D A; Anglin, C O; Bryant, A M; Rickard, B A; Anderson, M P; Fike, K E

    2010-07-01

    Use of electronic animal identification technologies by livestock managers is increasing, but performance of these technologies can be variable when used in livestock production environments. This study was conducted to determine whether 1) read distance of low-frequency radio frequency identification (RFID) transceivers is affected by type of transponder being interrogated; 2) read distance variation of low-frequency RFID transceivers is affected by transceiver manufacturer; and 3) read distance of various transponder-transceiver manufacturer combinations meet the 2004 United States Animal Identification Plan (USAIP) bovine standards subcommittee minimum read distance recommendation of 60 cm. Twenty-four transceivers (n = 5 transceivers per manufacturer for Allflex, Boontech, Farnam, and Osborne; n = 4 transceivers for Destron Fearing) were tested with 60 transponders [n = 10 transponders per type for Allflex full duplex B (FDX-B), Allflex half duplex (HDX), Destron Fearing FDX-B, Farnam FDX-B, and Y-Tex FDX-B; n = 6 for Temple FDX-B (EM Microelectronic chip); and n = 4 for Temple FDX-B (HiTag chip)] presented in the parallel orientation. All transceivers and transponders met International Organization for Standardization 11784 and 11785 standards. Transponders represented both one-half duplex and full duplex low-frequency air interface technologies. Use of a mechanical trolley device enabled the transponders to be presented to the center of each transceiver at a constant rate, thereby reducing human error. Transponder and transceiver manufacturer interacted (P < 0.0001) to affect read distance, indicating that transceiver performance was greatly dependent upon the transponder type being interrogated. Twenty-eight of 30 combinations of transceivers and transponders evaluated met the minimum recommended USAIP read distance. The mean read distance across all 30 combinations was 45.1 to 129.4 cm. Transceiver manufacturer and transponder type interacted to affect read

  1. The Radio Frequency Environment at 240-270 MHz with Application to Signal-of-Opportunity Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.; Vega, Manuel; Fritts, Matthew; Du Toit, Cornelis; Knuble, Joseph; Lin, Yao-Cheng; Nold, Benjamin; Garrison, James

    2017-01-01

    Low frequency observations are desired for soil moisture and biomass remote sensing. Long wavelengths are needed to penetrate vegetation and Earths land surface. In addition to the technical challenges of developing Earth observing spaceflight instruments operating at low frequencies, the radio frequency spectrum allocated to remote sensing is limited. Signal-of-opportunity remote sensing offers the chance to use existing signals exploiting their allocated spectrum to make Earth science measurements. We have made observations of the radio frequency environment around 240-270 MHz and discuss properties of desired and undesired signals.

  2. High–frequency cluster radio galaxies: Luminosity functions and implications for SZE–selected cluster samples

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Nikhel; Saro, A.; Mohr, J. J.

    We study the overdensity of point sources in the direction of X-ray-selected galaxy clusters from the meta-catalogue of X-ray-detected clusters of galaxies (MCXC; < z > = 0.14) at South Pole Telescope (SPT) and Sydney University Molonglo Sky Survey (SUMSS) frequencies. Flux densities at 95, 150 and 220 GHz are extracted from the 2500 deg 2 SPT-SZ survey maps at the locations of SUMSS sources, producing a multifrequency catalogue of radio galaxies. In the direction of massive galaxy clusters, the radio galaxy flux densities at 95 and 150 GHz are biased low by the cluster Sunyaev–Zel’dovich Effect (SZE) signal, whichmore » is negative at these frequencies. We employ a cluster SZE model to remove the expected flux bias and then study these corrected source catalogues. We find that the high-frequency radio galaxies are centrally concentrated within the clusters and that their luminosity functions (LFs) exhibit amplitudes that are characteristically an order of magnitude lower than the cluster LF at 843 MHz. We use the 150 GHz LF to estimate the impact of cluster radio galaxies on an SPT-SZ like survey. The radio galaxy flux typically produces a small bias on the SZE signal and has negligible impact on the observed scatter in the SZE mass–observable relation. If we assume there is no redshift evolution in the radio galaxy LF then 1.8 ± 0.7 per cent of the clusters with detection significance ξ ≥ 4.5 would be lost from the sample. As a result, allowing for redshift evolution of the form (1 + z) 2.5 increases the incompleteness to 5.6 ± 1.0 per cent. Improved constraints on the evolution of the cluster radio galaxy LF require a larger cluster sample extending to higher redshift.« less

  3. High–frequency cluster radio galaxies: Luminosity functions and implications for SZE–selected cluster samples

    DOE PAGES

    Gupta, Nikhel; Saro, A.; Mohr, J. J.; ...

    2017-01-15

    We study the overdensity of point sources in the direction of X-ray-selected galaxy clusters from the meta-catalogue of X-ray-detected clusters of galaxies (MCXC; < z > = 0.14) at South Pole Telescope (SPT) and Sydney University Molonglo Sky Survey (SUMSS) frequencies. Flux densities at 95, 150 and 220 GHz are extracted from the 2500 deg 2 SPT-SZ survey maps at the locations of SUMSS sources, producing a multifrequency catalogue of radio galaxies. In the direction of massive galaxy clusters, the radio galaxy flux densities at 95 and 150 GHz are biased low by the cluster Sunyaev–Zel’dovich Effect (SZE) signal, whichmore » is negative at these frequencies. We employ a cluster SZE model to remove the expected flux bias and then study these corrected source catalogues. We find that the high-frequency radio galaxies are centrally concentrated within the clusters and that their luminosity functions (LFs) exhibit amplitudes that are characteristically an order of magnitude lower than the cluster LF at 843 MHz. We use the 150 GHz LF to estimate the impact of cluster radio galaxies on an SPT-SZ like survey. The radio galaxy flux typically produces a small bias on the SZE signal and has negligible impact on the observed scatter in the SZE mass–observable relation. If we assume there is no redshift evolution in the radio galaxy LF then 1.8 ± 0.7 per cent of the clusters with detection significance ξ ≥ 4.5 would be lost from the sample. As a result, allowing for redshift evolution of the form (1 + z) 2.5 increases the incompleteness to 5.6 ± 1.0 per cent. Improved constraints on the evolution of the cluster radio galaxy LF require a larger cluster sample extending to higher redshift.« less

  4. Radio-frequency and microwave energies, magnetic and electric fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaelson, S. M.

    1975-01-01

    The biological effects of radio frequency, including microwave, radiation are considered. Effects on body temperature, the eye, reproductive systems, internal organs, blood cells, the cardiovascular system, and the central nervous system are included. Generalized effects of electric and magnetic fields are also discussed. Experimentation with animals and clinical studies on humans are cited, and possible mechanisms of the effects observed are suggested.

  5. Localized radio frequency communication using asynchronous transfer mode protocol

    DOEpatents

    Witzke, Edward L [Edgewood, NM; Robertson, Perry J [Albuquerque, NM; Pierson, Lyndon G [Albuquerque, NM

    2007-08-14

    A localized wireless communication system for communication between a plurality of circuit boards, and between electronic components on the circuit boards. Transceivers are located on each circuit board and electronic component. The transceivers communicate with one another over spread spectrum radio frequencies. An asynchronous transfer mode protocol controls communication flow with asynchronous transfer mode switches located on the circuit boards.

  6. An assessment of the impact of radio frequency interference on microwave SETI searches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, M. J.; Gulkis, S.; Olsen, E. T.; Armstrong, E. F.; Jackson, E. B.

    1987-01-01

    The problem posed for SETI by radio frequency interference (RFI) is briefly discussed. The degree to which various frequencies are subject to RFI is indicated, and predictions about the future of such interference are made. Suggestions for coping with the problem are given.

  7. Radio controlled release apparatus for animal data acquisition devices

    DOEpatents

    Stamps, James Frederick

    2000-01-01

    A novel apparatus for reliably and selectively releasing a data acquisition package from an animal for recovery. The data package comprises two parts: 1) an animal data acquisition device and 2) a co-located release apparatus. One embodiment, which is useful for land animals, the release apparatus includes two major components: 1) an electronics package, comprising a receiver; a decoder comparator, having at plurality of individually selectable codes; and an actuator circuit and 2) a release device, which can be a mechanical device, which acts to release the data package from the animal. To release a data package from a particular animal, a radio transmitter sends a coded signal which is decoded to determine if the code is valid for that animal data package. Having received a valid code, the release device is activated to release the data package from the animal for subsequent recovery. A second embodiment includes floatation means and is useful for releasing animal data acquisition devices attached to sea animals. This embodiment further provides for releasing a data package underwater by employing an acoustic signal.

  8. Cleaning of HT-7 Tokamak Exposed First Mirrors by Radio Frequency Magnetron Sputtering Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Rong; Chen, Junling; Chen, Longwei; Ding, Rui; Zhu, Dahuan

    2014-12-01

    The stainless steel (SS) first mirror pre-exposed in the deposition-dominated environment of the HT-7 tokamak was cleaned in the newly built radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering plasma device. The deposition layer on the FM surface formed during the exposure was successfully removed by argon plasma with a RF power of about 80 W and a gas pressure of 0.087 Pa for 30 min. The total reflectivity of the mirrors was recovered up to 90% in the wavelength range of 300-800 nm, while the diffuse reflectivity showed a little increase, which was attributed to the increase of surface roughness in sputtering, and residual contaminants. The FMs made from single crystal materials could help to achieve a desired recovery of specular reflectivity in the future.

  9. BioRadioTransmitter: a self-powered wireless glucose-sensing system.

    PubMed

    Hanashi, Takuya; Yamazaki, Tomohiko; Tsugawa, Wakako; Ikebukuro, Kazunori; Sode, Koji

    2011-09-01

    Although an enzyme fuel cell can be utilized as a glucose sensor, the output power generated is too low to power a device such as a currently available transmitter and operating system, and an external power source is required for operating an enzyme-fuel-cell-based biosensing system. We proposed a novel biosensor that we named BioCapacitor, in which a capacitor serves as a transducer. In this study, we constructed a new BioCapacitor-based system with an added radio-transmitter circuit and a miniaturized enzyme fuel cell. A miniaturized direct-electron-transfer-type compartmentless enzyme fuel cell was constructed with flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent glucose dehydrogenase complex-based anode and a bilirubin-oxidase-based cathode. For construction of a BioRadioTransmitter wireless sensing system, a capacitor, an ultra-low-voltage charge-pump-integrated circuit, and Hartley oscillator circuit were connected to the miniaturized enzyme fuel cell. A radio-receiver circuit, comprising two field-effect transistors and a coil as an antenna, was used to amplify the signal generated from the biofuel cells. Radio wave signals generated by the BioRadioTransmitter were received, amplified, and converted from alternate to direct current by the radio receiver. When the capacitor discharges in the presence of glucose, the BioRadioTransmitter generates a radio wave, which is monitored by a radio receiver connected wirelessly to the sensing device. Magnitude of the radio wave transmission frequency change observed at the radio receiver was correlated to glucose concentration in the fuel cells. We constructed a stand-alone, self-powered, wireless glucose-sensing system called a BioRadioTransmitter by using a radio transmitter in which the radio wave transmission frequency changes with the glucose concentration in the fuel cell. The BioRadioTransmitter is a significant advance toward construction of an implantable continuous glucose monitor. © 2011 Diabetes Technology Society.

  10. The effects of radio-frequency electromagnetic fields on T cell function during development

    PubMed Central

    Ohtani, Shin; Ushiyama, Akira; Maeda, Machiko; Ogasawara, Yuki; Wang, Jianqing; Kunugita, Naoki; Ishii, Kazuyuki

    2015-01-01

    With the widespread use of radio-frequency devices, it is increasingly important to understand the biological effects of the associated electromagnetic fields. Thus, we investigated the effects of radio-frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) on T cell responses during development due to the lack of science-based evidence for RF-EMF effects on developmental immune systems. Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were exposed to 2.14-GHz wideband code division multiple-access (W-CDMA) RF signals at a whole-body specific absorption rate (SAR) of 0.2 W/kg. Exposures were performed for a total of 9 weeks spanning in utero development, lactation and the juvenile period. Rats were continuously exposed to RF-EMF for 20 h/day, 7 days/week. Comparisons of control and exposed rats using flow cytometry revealed no changes in the numbers of CD4/CD8 T cells, activated T cells or regulatory T cells among peripheral blood cells, splenocytes and thymocytes. Expression levels of 16 genes that regulate the immunological Th1/Th2 paradigm were analyzed using real-time PCR in the spleen and thymus tissues of control and RF-EMF–exposed rats. Although only the Il5 gene was significantly regulated in spleen tissues, Il4, Il5 and Il23a genes were significantly upregulated in thymus tissues following exposure to RF-EMF. However, ELISAs showed no changes in serum IL-4 protein concentrations. These data indicate no adverse effects of long-term RF-EMF exposure on immune-like T cell populations, T cell activation, or Th1/Th2 balance in developing rats, although significant transcriptional effects were observed. PMID:25835473

  11. Ultraminiaturized photovoltaic and radio frequency powered optoelectronic systems for wireless optogenetics.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Il; Shin, Gunchul; Banks, Anthony; McCall, Jordan G; Siuda, Edward R; Schmidt, Martin J; Chung, Ha Uk; Noh, Kyung Nim; Mun, Jonathan Guo-Han; Rhodes, Justin; Bruchas, Michael R; Rogers, John A

    2015-10-01

    Wireless control and power harvesting systems that operate injectable, cellular-scale optoelectronic components provide important demonstrated capabilities in neuromodulatory techniques such as optogenetics. Here, we report a radio frequency (RF) control/harvesting device that offers dramatically reduced size, decreased weight and improved efficiency compared to previously reported technologies. Combined use of this platform with ultrathin, multijunction, high efficiency solar cells allows for hundred-fold reduction of transmitted RF power, which greatly enhances the wireless coverage. Fabrication involves separate construction of the harvester and the injectable µ-ILEDs. To test whether the presence of the implantable device alters behavior, we implanted one group of wild type mice and compared sociability behavior to unaltered controls. Social interaction experiments followed protocols defined by Silverman et al. with minor modifications. The results presented here demonstrate that miniaturized RF harvesters, and RF control strategies with photovoltaic harvesters can, when combined with injectable µ-ILEDs, offer versatile capabilities in optogenetics. Experimental and modeling studies establish a range of effective operating conditions for these two approaches. Optogenetics studies with social groups of mice demonstrate the utility of these systems. The addition of miniaturized, high performance photovoltaic cells significantly expands the operating range and reduces the required RF power. The platform can offer capabilities to modulate signaling path in the brain region of freely-behaving animals. These suggest its potential for widespread use in neuroscience.

  12. Performance of an iodine-fueled radio-frequency ion-thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holste, Kristof; Gärtner, Waldemar; Zschätzsch, Daniel; Scharmann, Steffen; Köhler, Peter; Dietz, Patrick; Klar, Peter J.

    2018-01-01

    Two sets of performance data of the same radio-frequency ion-thruster (RIT) have been recorded using iodine and xenon, respectively, as propellant. To characterize the thruster's performance, we have recorded the radio-frequency DC-power, required for yielding preset values of the extracted ion-beam currents, as a function of mass flow. For that purpose, an iodine mass flow system had to be developed, calibrated, and integrated into a newly-built test facility for studying corrosive propellants. The performance mappings for iodine and xenon differ significantly despite comparable operation conditions. At low mass flows, iodine exhibits the better performance. The situation changes at higher mass flows where the performance of iodine is significantly poorer than that of xenon. The reason is very likely related to the molecular nature of iodine. Our results show that iodine as propellant is compatible with RIT technology. Furthermore, it is a viable alternative as propellant for dedicated space missions. In particular, when taking into account additional benefits such as possible storage as a solid and its low price the use of iodine as propellant in ion thrusters is competitive.

  13. 29. View of typical radio frequency monitor group electronic tubetype ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. View of typical radio frequency monitor group electronic tube-type cabinet. System is water-cooled with antenna assist. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  14. Radio frequency measurements and tuning of the China Material Irradiation Facility RFQ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chenxing; He, Yuan; Wang, Fengfeng; Yu, Peiyan; Yang, Lei; Li, Chunlong; Wang, Wenbin; Xu, Xianbo; Shi, Longbo; Ma, Wei; Sun, Liepeng; Lu, Liang; Wang, Zhijun; Shi, Aimin; Wang, Tieshan

    2018-05-01

    The full assembly and alignment of the China Material Irradiation Facility RFQ have been completed. Before the completion, the assembly and braze of single segments had been done. Radio frequency measurements of each module with dummy extension undercuts were performed before and after braze. The results reveal that there is no unexpected deformation after braze. After the full assembly, RF measurements and tuning have been performed in order to compensate the errors originated from the fabrication, braze and assembly. The impact of these errors on the field distribution is depressed to a level that is restricted by beam dynamics simulation. In this paper, the procedure of radio frequency measurement and tuning will be expatiated and the ultimate RF parameters of the cavity after tuning will be presented.

  15. REGENERATION AND REACTIVATION OF CARBON ADSORBENTS BY RADIO FREQUENCY INDUCTION HEATING

    EPA Science Inventory

    1. Electrical Properties of Adsorbents: We measured the electric permittivity of four commercially available carbon adsorbents (supplied by Wesvaco Inc) over the radio frequency range (1 to 40 MHz). Westvaco is by far the largest volume supplier of activated carbon...

  16. Radio frequency electromagnetic field compliance assessment of multi-band and MIMO equipped radio base stations.

    PubMed

    Thors, Björn; Thielens, Arno; Fridén, Jonas; Colombi, Davide; Törnevik, Christer; Vermeeren, Günter; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, different methods for practical numerical radio frequency exposure compliance assessments of radio base station products were investigated. Both multi-band base station antennas and antennas designed for multiple input multiple output (MIMO) transmission schemes were considered. For the multi-band case, various standardized assessment methods were evaluated in terms of resulting compliance distance with respect to the reference levels and basic restrictions of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. Both single frequency and multiple frequency (cumulative) compliance distances were determined using numerical simulations for a mobile communication base station antenna transmitting in four frequency bands between 800 and 2600 MHz. The assessments were conducted in terms of root-mean-squared electromagnetic fields, whole-body averaged specific absorption rate (SAR) and peak 10 g averaged SAR. In general, assessments based on peak field strengths were found to be less computationally intensive, but lead to larger compliance distances than spatial averaging of electromagnetic fields used in combination with localized SAR assessments. For adult exposure, the results indicated that even shorter compliance distances were obtained by using assessments based on localized and whole-body SAR. Numerical simulations, using base station products employing MIMO transmission schemes, were performed as well and were in agreement with reference measurements. The applicability of various field combination methods for correlated exposure was investigated, and best estimate methods were proposed. Our results showed that field combining methods generally considered as conservative could be used to efficiently assess compliance boundary dimensions of single- and dual-polarized multicolumn base station antennas with only minor increases in compliance distances. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. FR II radio galaxies at low frequencies - I. Morphology, magnetic field strength and energetics.

    PubMed

    Harwood, Jeremy J; Croston, Judith H; Intema, Huib T; Stewart, Adam J; Ineson, Judith; Hardcastle, Martin J; Godfrey, Leith; Best, Philip; Brienza, Marisa; Heesen, Volker; Mahony, Elizabeth K; Morganti, Raffaella; Murgia, Matteo; Orrú, Emanuela; Röttgering, Huub; Shulevski, Aleksandar; Wise, Michael W

    2016-06-01

    Due to their steep spectra, low-frequency observations of Fanaroff-Riley type II (FR II) radio galaxies potentially provide key insights in to the morphology, energetics and spectrum of these powerful radio sources. However, limitations imposed by the previous generation of radio interferometers at metre wavelengths have meant that this region of parameter space remains largely unexplored. In this paper, the first in a series examining FR IIs at low frequencies, we use LOFAR (LOw Frequency ARray) observations between 50 and 160 MHz, along with complementary archival radio and X-ray data, to explore the properties of two FR II sources, 3C 452 and 3C 223. We find that the morphology of 3C 452 is that of a standard FR II rather than of a double-double radio galaxy as had previously been suggested, with no remnant emission being observed beyond the active lobes. We find that the low-frequency integrated spectra of both sources are much steeper than expected based on traditional assumptions and, using synchrotron/inverse-Compton model fitting, show that the total energy content of the lobes is greater than previous estimates by a factor of around 5 for 3C 452 and 2 for 3C 223. We go on to discuss possible causes of these steeper-than-expected spectra and provide revised estimates of the internal pressures and magnetic field strengths for the intrinsically steep case. We find that the ratio between the equipartition magnetic field strengths and those derived through synchrotron/inverse-Compton model fitting remains consistent with previous findings and show that the observed departure from equipartition may in some cases provide a solution to the spectral versus dynamical age disparity.

  18. Electrical switching dynamics and broadband microwave characteristics of VO2 radio frequency devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Sieu D.; Zhou, You; Fisher, Christopher J.; Ramanathan, Shriram; Treadway, Jacob P.

    2013-05-01

    Vanadium dioxide (VO2) is a correlated electron system that features a metal-insulator phase transition (MIT) above room temperature and is of interest in high speed switching devices. Here, we integrate VO2 into two-terminal coplanar waveguides and demonstrate a large resistance modulation of the same magnitude (>103) in both electrically (i.e., by bias voltage, referred to as E-MIT) and thermally (T-MIT) driven transitions. We examine transient switching characteristics of the E-MIT and observe two distinguishable time scales for switching. We find an abrupt jump in conductivity with a rise time of the order of 10 ns followed by an oscillatory damping to steady state on the order of several μs. We characterize the RF power response in the On state and find that high RF input power drives VO2 further into the metallic phase, indicating that electromagnetic radiation-switching of the phase transition may be possible. We measure S-parameter RF properties up to 13.5 GHz. Insertion loss is markedly flat at 2.95 dB across the frequency range in the On state, and sufficient isolation of over 25 dB is observed in the Off state. We are able to simulate the RF response accurately using both lumped element and 3D electromagnetic models. Extrapolation of our results suggests that optimizing device geometry can reduce insertion loss further and maintain broadband flatness up to 40 GHz.

  19. High efficiency, oxidation resistant radio frequency susceptor

    DOEpatents

    Besmann, Theodore M.; Klett, James W.

    2004-10-26

    An article and method of producing an article for converting energy from one form to another having a pitch-derived graphitic foam carbon foam substrate and a single layer coating applied to all exposed surfaces wherein the coating is either silicon carbide or carbides formed from a Group IVA metal. The article is used as fully coated carbon foam susceptors that more effectively absorb radio frequency (RF) band energy and more effectively convert the RF energy into thermal band energy or sensible heat. The essentially non-permeable coatings also serve as corrosion or oxidation resistant barriers.

  20. 47 CFR 2.805 - Operation of radio frequency devices prior to equipment authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of performance and determination of customer acceptability, during developmental, design, or pre... performance and determination of customer acceptability, during developmental, design, or pre-production... authority of an experimental radio service authorization issued under part 5 of this chapter. (c) Operation...

  1. Tracking blood products in blood centres using radio frequency identification: a comprehensive assessment.

    PubMed

    Davis, Rodeina; Geiger, Bradley; Gutierrez, Alfonso; Heaser, Julie; Veeramani, Dharmaraj

    2009-07-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) can be a key enabler for enhancing productivity and safety of the blood product supply chain. This article describes a systematic approach developed by the RFID Blood Consortium for a comprehensive feasibility and impact assessment of RFID application in blood centre operations. Our comprehensive assessment approach incorporates process-orientated and technological perspectives as well as impact analysis. Assessment of RFID-enabled process redesign is based on generic core processes derived from the three participating blood centres. The technological assessment includes RFID tag readability and performance evaluation, testing of temperature and biological effects of RF energy on blood products, and RFID system architecture design and standards. The scope of this article is limited to blood centre processes (from donation to manufacturing/distribution) for selected mainstream blood products (red blood cells and platelets). Radio frequency identification can help overcome a number of common challenges and process inefficiencies associated with identification and tracking of blood products. High frequency-based RFID technology performs adequately and safely for red blood cell and platelet products. Productivity and quality improvements in RFID-enabled blood centre processes can recoup investment cost in a 4-year payback period. Radio frequency identification application has significant process-orientated and technological implications. It is feasible and economically justifiable to incorporate RFID into blood centre processes.

  2. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Based Corrosion Monitoring Sensors. Part 2: Application and Testing of the Coating Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-22

    Radio frequency identification ( RFID ) based corrosion monitoring sensors: Part II Application and testing of the coating materials Youliang He1...email: yohe@nrcan.gc.ca Keywords: Corrosion monitoring; Wireless sensor; RFID ; Electromagnetic interference; Coating. Abstract Cost-effective...Radio Frequency Identification ( RFID ) transponders (tags) were investigated for wireless corrosion monitoring by applying a metal-filled conductive

  3. Imaging interplanetary CMEs at radio frequency from solar polar orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ji; Sun, Weiying; Zheng, Jianhua; Zhang, Cheng; Liu, Hao; Yan, Jingye; Wang, Chi; Wang, Chuanbing; Wang, Shui

    2011-09-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) represent a great concentration of mass and energy input into the lower corona. They have come to be recognized as the major driver of physical conditions change in the Sun-Earth system. Consequently, observations of CMEs are important for understanding and ultimately predicting space weather conditions. This paper discusses a proposed mission, the Solar Polar Orbit Radio Telescope (SPORT) mission, which will observe the propagation of interplanetary CMEs to distances of near 0.35 AU from the Sun. The orbit of SPORT is an elliptical solar polar orbit. The inclination angle between the orbit and ecliptic plane should be about 90°. The main payload on board SPORT will be an imaging radiometer working at the meter wavelength band (radio telescope), which can follow the propagation of interplanetary CMEs. The images that are obtained by the radio telescope embody the brightness temperature of the objectives. Due to the very large size required for the antenna aperture of the radio telescope, we adopt interferometric imaging technology to reduce it. Interferometric imaging technology is based on indirect spatial frequency domain measurements plus Fourier transformation. The SPORT spacecraft will also be equipped with a set of optical and in situ measurement instruments such as a EUV solar telescope, a solar wind ion instrument, an energetic particle detector, a magnetometer, a wave detector and a solar radio burst spectrometer.

  4. Radio Frequency Heat Treatments to Disinfest Dried Pulses of Cowpea Weevil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To explore the potential of radio frequency (RF) heat treatments as an alternative to chemical fumigants for disinfestation of dried pulses, the relative heat tolerance and dielectric properties of different stages of the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) was determined. Among the immature st...

  5. Radio Frequency Scanning and Simulation of Oriented Strand Board Material Property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaojian; Zhang, Jilei; Steele, Philip. H.; Donohoe, J. Patrick

    2008-02-01

    Oriented strandboard (OSB) is a wood composite product with the largest market share in U.S. residential and commercial construction. Wood specific gravity (SG) and moisture content (MC) play an important role in the OSB manufacturing process. They are the two of the critical variables that manufacturers are required to monitor, locate, and control in order to produce a product with consistent quality. In this study, radio frequency scanning nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technologies evaluated the local area MC and SG of OSB panels following panel production by hot pressing. A finite element software simulation tool was used to optimize the sensor geometry and for investigating the interaction between electromagnetic field and wood dielectric properties. Our results indicate the RF scanning response is closely correlated to the MC and SG variations in OSB panels. Radio frequency NDE appears to have potential as an effective method for insuring OSB panel quality during manufacturing.

  6. Challenges and opportunities for multi-functional oxide thin films for voltage tunable radio frequency/microwave components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanyam, Guru; Cole, M. W.; Sun, Nian X.; Kalkur, Thottam S.; Sbrockey, Nick M.; Tompa, Gary S.; Guo, Xiaomei; Chen, Chonglin; Alpay, S. P.; Rossetti, G. A.; Dayal, Kaushik; Chen, Long-Qing; Schlom, Darrell G.

    2013-11-01

    There has been significant progress on the fundamental science and technological applications of complex oxides and multiferroics. Among complex oxide thin films, barium strontium titanate (BST) has become the material of choice for room-temperature-based voltage-tunable dielectric thin films, due to its large dielectric tunability and low microwave loss at room temperature. BST thin film varactor technology based reconfigurable radio frequency (RF)/microwave components have been demonstrated with the potential to lower the size, weight, and power needs of a future generation of communication and radar systems. Low-power multiferroic devices have also been recently demonstrated. Strong magneto-electric coupling has also been demonstrated in different multiferroic heterostructures, which show giant voltage control of the ferromagnetic resonance frequency of more than two octaves. This manuscript reviews recent advances in the processing, and application development for the complex oxides and multiferroics, with the focus on voltage tunable RF/microwave components. The over-arching goal of this review is to provide a synopsis of the current state-of the-art of complex oxide and multiferroic thin film materials and devices, identify technical issues and technical challenges that need to be overcome for successful insertion of the technology for both military and commercial applications, and provide mitigation strategies to address these technical challenges.

  7. Wavelength Division Multiplexing Scheme for Radio-Frequency Single Electron Transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, Thomas R.; Pellerano, F. A.; Stahle, C. M.; Aidala, K.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We describe work on a wavelength division multiplexing scheme for radio-frequency single electron transistors. We use a network of resonant impedance matching circuits to direct applied rf carrier waves to different transistors depending on carrier frequency. Using discrete components, we made a two-channel demonstration of this concept and successfully reconstructed input signals with small levels of cross coupling. A lithographic version of the rf circuits had measured parameters in agreement with electromagnetic modeling, with reduced cross capacitance and inductance, and should allow 20 to 50 channels to be multiplexed.

  8. Flexible and reversibly deformable radio-frequency antenna based on stretchable SWCNTs/PANI/Lycra conductive fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaohui; Huang, Ying; Wu, Can; Mao, Leidong; Wang, Yue; Xie, Zhicheng; Liu, Caixia; Zhang, Yugang

    2017-10-01

    We demonstrated a flexible and reversibly deformable radio-frequency antenna based on SWCNTs/PANI/Lycra conductive fabric and semipermeable film for wireless wearable communications applications. The conductive fabric fabricated by using the ‘dip and dry’ process exhibits good flexibility, electrical stability, stretchability and mechanical properties, and a high electrical conductivity (with low sheet resistance of ˜35 Ω/sq) was obtained based on the SWCNTs/PANI synergistic conductive network. The morphology of the semipermeable film was investigated to further illustrate the waterproof breathable features. Meanwhile, the modeling, fabrication procedure and radiating properties of the radio-frequency textile antenna worked at 2.45 GHz were systematically illustrated. The measured reflection coefficient, VSWR and the -10 dB bandwidth is ˜-18.6 dB, 1.58 and ˜270 MHz respectively, which agreed well with the simulation results. Furthermore, the results indicate that the design methodology for the radio-frequency textile antenna could have promising applications in flexible and reversibly deformable antennas for wearable wireless communications systems.

  9. Relations among low ionosphere parameters and high frequency radio wave absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cipriano, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    Charged particle conductivities measured in the very low ionosphere at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, and Wallops Island, Virginia, are compared with atmospheric parameters and high frequency radio wave absorption measurements. Charged particle densities are derived from the conductivity data. Between 33 and 58 km, positive conductivity correlated well with neutral atmospheric temperature, with temperature coefficients as large as 4.6%/deg K. Good correlations were also found between HF radio wave absorption and negative conductivity at altitudes as low as 53 km, indicating that the day-to-day absorption variations were principally due to variations in electron loss rate.

  10. 75. Transmitter building no. 102, view of typical radio frequency ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    75. Transmitter building no. 102, view of typical radio frequency switching group for lower antenna A & B and upper antenna A & B and MIP/MWOC automated interface cabinet. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  11. Possible Explanation for Cancer in Rats due to Cell Phone Radio Frequency Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    Very recently, the National Toxicology Program reported a correlation between exposure to whole body 900 MHz radio frequency radiation and cancer in the brains and hearts of Sprague Dawley male rats. Assuming that the National Toxicology Program is statistically significant, I propose the following explanation for these results. The neurons around the brain and heart form closed electrical circuits and, following Faraday's Law, 900 MHz radio frequency radiation induces 900 MHz electrical currents in these neural circuits. In turn, these 900 MHz currents in the neural circuits generate sufficient localized heat in the neural cells to shift the equilibrium concentration of carcinogenic radicals to higher levels and thus, to higher incidences of cancer.

  12. A Frequency Reconfigurable MIMO Antenna System for Cognitive Radio Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raza, A.; Khan, Muhammad U.; Tahir, Farooq A.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, a two element frequency reconfigurable multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) antenna system is presented. The proposed antenna consists of miniaturized patch antenna elements, loaded with varactor diodes to achieve frequency reconfigurability. The antenna has bandwidth of 30 MHz and provides a smooth frequency sweep from 2.12 GHz to 2.4 GHz by varying the reverse bias voltage of varactor diode. The antenna is designed on an FR4 substrate and occupies a space of 50×100 × 0.8 mm3. The antenna is analyzed for its far-field characteristics as well as for MIMO performance parameters. Designed antenna showed good performance and is suitable for cognitive radios (CR) applications.

  13. The Astronomical Low Frequency Array: A Proposed Explorer Mission for Radio Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, D.; Allen, R.; Basart, J.; Bastian, T.; Bougeret, J. L.; Dennison, B.; Desch, M.; Dwarakanath, K.; Erickson, W.; Finley, D.; hide

    1999-01-01

    A radio interferometer array in space providing high dynamic range images with unprecedented angular resolution over the broad frequency range from 0.030 - 30 MHz will open new vistas in solar, terrestial, galactic, and extragalactic astrophysics.

  14. A review of organizations influencing radio frequency allocations to deep space research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The charters and functions of various national and international scientific organizations were examined to identify those which have a direct or indirect influence on the allocation of radio frequencies for use in deep space research. Those organizations identified as having the ability to influence frequency allocations are described. A brief description of each organization is provided, and the members who are influential specifically in frequency allocations are listed. The interrelations between the organizations and how they influence allocations are explained.

  15. Experimental research of radio-frequency ion thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antropov, N. N.; Akhmetzhanov, R. V.; Bogatyy, A. V.; Grishin, R. A.; Kozhevnikov, V. V.; Plokhikh, A. P.; Popov, G. A.; Khartov, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    The article is devoted to the research of low-power (300 W) radio-frequency ion thruster designed at the Moscow Aviation Institute. The main results of experimental research of the thruster using the testfacility power supplies and the power processing unit of their own design are presented. The dependence of the working fluid ionization cost on its mass flow rate at the constant ion beam current was investigated experimentally. The influence of the shape and material of the discharge chamber on the integral characteristics of the thruster was studied. The recommendations on the optimization of the thruster primary performance were developed based on the results of experimental studies.

  16. The Mariner Mars 1971 radio frequency subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    The radio frequency subsystem (RFS) for the Mariner Mars 1971 (MM'71) spacecraft is described. The MM'69 RFS was used as the baseline design for the MM'71 RFS, and the report describes the design changes made to the 1969 RFS for use on MM'71. It also cites various problems encountered during the fabrication and testing of the RFS, as well as the types of tests to which the RFS was subjected. In areas where significant problems were encountered, a detailed description of the problem and its solution is presented. In addition, some recommendations are given for modifications to the RFS and test techniques for future programs.

  17. Integrally formed radio frequency quadrupole

    DOEpatents

    Abbott, Steven R.

    1989-01-01

    An improved radio frequency quadrupole (10) is provided having an elongate housing (11) with an elongate central axis (12) and top, bottom and two side walls (13a-d) symmetrically disposed about the axis, and vanes (14a-d) formed integrally with the walls (13a-d), the vanes (14a-d) each having a cross-section at right angles to the central axis (12) which tapers inwardly toward the axis to form electrode tips (15a-d) spaced from each other by predetermined distances. Each of the four walls (13a-d), and the vanes (14a-d) integral therewith, is a separate structural element having a central lengthwise plane (16) passing through the tip of the vane, the walls (13a-d) having flat mounting surfaces (17, 18) at right angles to and parallel to the control plane (16), respectively, which are butted together to position the walls and vane tips relative to each other.

  18. A call for safer utilization of radio frequency identification in the e-health era.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chung-Feng; Hwang, Hsin-Ginn; Kuo, Kuang-Ming; Hung, Won-Fu

    2011-10-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of the electromagnetic interference (EMI) caused by radio frequency identification (RFID) with medical devices among hospitals as well as to call the attention of medical institutions to the development of RFID applications. A survey sponsored by the Department of Health of Taiwan was conducted and the target subjects were every hospital in Taiwan (486 in total). The survey topics included testing of RFID interference with medical devices and perceptions of safety issues of RFID. The main targets of the survey were the Chief Information Officers (CIOs) or the main person responsible for RFID systems in each hospital. Of the original 486 questionnaires mailed, 273 were returned. A return rate of 56.17% was obtained. The survey results revealed that only six hospitals had carried out tests on interference by RFID with medical devices, and the results of these tests indicated that RFID does not interfere with medical devices. A majority of hospitals understood that RFID may interfere with medical devices but did not think that this would seriously harm patients. The application of RFID in the healthcare industry is certainly promising; however, EMI issues must be appropriately handled. This study asserts that most hospitals do not understand or pay insufficient attention to the issue of RFID interference with patient safety or medical devices. In addition, most hospitals believe that the problem of RFID should be resolved by RFID vendors. Therefore, this study argues that medical institutions should develop more understanding of RFID issues and that more attention should be given to the potential problems of RFID interference when developing RFID applications.

  19. Imaging Interplanetary CMEs at Radio Frequency From Solar Polar Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ji; Sun, Weiying; Zheng, Jianhua; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Chi; Wang, C. B.; Wang, S.

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are violent discharges of plasma and magnetic fields from the Sun's corona. They have come to be recognized as the major driver of physical conditions in the Sun-Earth system. Consequently, the detection of CMEs is important for un-derstanding and ultimately predicting space weather conditions. The Solar Polar Orbit Radio Telescope (SPORT) is a proposed mission to observe the propagation of interplanetary CMEs from solar polar orbit. The main payload (radio telescope) on board SPORT will be an in-terferometric imaging radiometer working at the meter wavelength band, which will follow the propagation of interplanetary CMEs from a distance of a few solar radii to near 1 AU from solar polar orbit. The SPORT spacecraft will also be equipped with a set of optical and in situ measurement instruments such as a EUV solar telescope, a solar wind plasma experiment, a solar wind ion composition instrument, an energetic particle detector, a wave detector, a mag-netometer and an interplanetary radio burst tracker. In this paper, we first describe the current shortage of interplanetary CME observations. Next, the scientific motivation and objectives of SPORT are introduced. We discuss the basic specifications of the main radio telescope of SPORT with reference to the radio emission mechanisms and the radio frequency band to be observed. Finally, we discuss the key technologies of the SPORT mission, including the con-ceptual design of the main telescope, the image retrieval algorithm and the solar polar orbit injection. Other payloads and their respective observation objectives are also briefly discussed. Key words: Interplanetary CMEs; Interferometric imaging; Solar polar orbit; Radiometer.

  20. Relics in galaxy clusters at high radio frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kierdorf, M.; Beck, R.; Hoeft, M.; Klein, U.; van Weeren, R. J.; Forman, W. R.; Jones, C.

    2017-04-01

    Aims: We investigated the magnetic properties of radio relics located at the peripheries of galaxy clusters at high radio frequencies, where the emission is expected to be free of Faraday depolarization. The degree of polarization is a measure of the magnetic field compression and, hence, the Mach number. Polarization observations can also be used to confirm relic candidates. Methods: We observed three radio relics in galaxy clusters and one radio relic candidate at 4.85 and 8.35 GHz in total emission and linearly polarized emission with the Effelsberg 100-m telescope. In addition, we observed one radio relic candidate in X-rays with the Chandra telescope. We derived maps of polarization angle, polarization degree, and Faraday rotation measures. Results: The radio spectra of the integrated emission below 8.35 GHz can be well fitted by single power laws for all four relics. The flat spectra (spectral indices of 0.9 and 1.0) for the so-called Sausage relic in cluster CIZA J2242+53 and the so-called Toothbrush relic in cluster 1RXS 06+42 indicate that models describing the origin of relics have to include effects beyond the assumptions of diffuse shock acceleration. The spectra of the radio relics in ZwCl 0008+52 and in Abell 1612 are steep, as expected from weak shocks (Mach number ≈2.4). Polarization observations of radio relics offer a method of measuring the strength and geometry of the shock front. We find polarization degrees of more than 50% in the two prominent Mpc-sized radio relics, the Sausage and the Toothbrush, which are among the highest percentages of linear polarization detected in any extragalactic radio source to date. This is remarkable because the large beam size of the Effelsberg single-dish telescope corresponds to linear extensions of about 300 kpc at 8.35 GHz at the distances of the relics. The high degree of polarization indicates that the magnetic field vectors are almost perfectly aligned along the relic structure, as expected for shock

  1. 48 CFR 252.235-7003 - Frequency authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Officer during the initial planning, experimental, or developmental phase of contract performance. (c) The... development, production, construction, testing, or operation of a device for which a radio frequency...

  2. 48 CFR 252.235-7003 - Frequency authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Officer during the initial planning, experimental, or developmental phase of contract performance. (c) The... development, production, construction, testing, or operation of a device for which a radio frequency...

  3. 48 CFR 252.235-7003 - Frequency authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Officer during the initial planning, experimental, or developmental phase of contract performance. (c) The... development, production, construction, testing, or operation of a device for which a radio frequency...

  4. Quantifying Weak Nonthermal Solar Radio Emission at Low Radio Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Rohit; Oberoi, Divya; Arjunwadkar, Mihir

    2018-01-01

    The recent availability of fine-grained high-sensitivity data from the new generation of low radio frequency instruments such as the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) has opened up opportunities for using novel techniques for characterizing the nature of solar emission at these frequencies. Here we use this opportunity to look for evidence for the presence of weak nonthermal emissions in the 100–240 MHz band, at levels weaker than have been probed so far. The presence of such features is believed to be a necessary consequence of nanoflare-based coronal and chromospheric heating theories. We separate the calibrated MWA solar dynamic spectra into a slowly varying and an impulsive, and hence nonthermal, component. We demonstrate that Gaussian mixture modeling can be used to robustly model the latter, and we estimate the flux density distribution as well as the prevalence of impulsive nonthermal emission in the frequency-time plane. Evidence for the presence of nonthermal emission at levels down to ∼0.2 SFU (1 SFU = 104 Jy) is reported, making them the weakest reported emissions of this nature. Our work shows the fractional occupancy of the nonthermal impulsive emission to lie in the 17%–45% range during a period of medium solar activity. We also find that the flux density radiated in the impulsive nonthermal emission is very similar in strength to that of the slowly varying component, which is dominated by thermal bremsstrahlung. Such significant prevalence and strength of the weak impulsive nonthermal emission has not been appreciated before.

  5. Respiratory motion influence on catheter contact force during radio frequency ablation procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Martin; Brost, Alexander; Hornegger, Joachim; Strobel, Norbert

    2013-03-01

    Minimally invasive catheter ablation is a common treatment option for atrial fibrillation. A common treatment strategy is pulmonary vein isolation. In this case, individual ablation points need to be placed around the ostia of the pulmonary veins attached to the left atrium to generate transmural lesions and thereby block electric signals. To achieve a durable transmural lesion, the tip of the catheter has to be stable with a sufficient tissue contact during radio-frequency ablation. Besides the steerable interface operated by the physician, the movement of the catheter is also influenced by the heart and breathing motion - particularly during ablation. In this paper we investigate the influence of breathing motion on different areas of the endocardium during radio frequency ablation. To this end, we analyze the frequency spectrum of the continuous catheter contact force to identify areas with increased breathing motion using a classification method. This approach has been applied to clinical patient data acquired during three pulmonary vein isolation procedures. Initial findings show that motion due to respiration is more pronounced at the roof and around the right pulmonary veins.

  6. Source location of the smooth high-frequency radio emissions from Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, W. M.; Calvert, W.

    1989-01-01

    The source location of the smooth high-frequency radio emissions from Uranus has been determined. Specifically, by fitting the signal dropouts which occurred as Voyager traversed the hollow center of the emission pattern to a symmetrical cone centered on the source magnetic field direction at the cyclotron frequency, a southern-hemisphere (nightside) source was found at approximately 56 deg S, 219 deg W. The half-angle for the hollow portion of the emission pattern was found to be 13 deg.

  7. The Spectrum Landscape: Prospects for Terrestrial Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liszt, Harvey Steven

    2018-01-01

    Radio astronomers work within broad constraints imposed by commercial and other non-astronomical uses of the radio spectrum, somewhat modified to accommodate astronomy’s particular needs through the provision of radio quiet zones, radio frequency allocations, coordination agreements and other devices of spectrum management. As radio astronomers increase the instantaneous bandwidth, frequency coverage and sensitivity of their instruments, these external constraints, and not the limitations of their own instruments, will increasingly be the greatest obstacles to radio astronomy’s ability to observe the cosmos from the surface of the Earth. Therefore, prospects for future radio astronomy operations are contingent on situational awareness and planning for the impact of non-astronomical uses of the radio frequency spectrum. New radio astronomy instruments will have to incorporate adaptive reactions to external developments, and radio astronomers should be encouraged to think in untraditional ways. Increased attention to spectrum management is one of these. In this talk I’ll recap some recent developments such as the proliferation of 76 – 81 GHz car radar and orbiting earth-mapping radars, either of which can burn out a radio astronomy receiver. I’ll summarize present trends for non-astronomical radio spectrum use that will be coming to fruition in the next decade or so, categorized into terrestrial fixed and mobile, airborne and space-borne uses, sub-divided by waveband from the cm to the sub-mm. I’ll discuss how they will impact terrestrial radio astronomy and the various ways in which radio astronomy should be prepared to react. Protective developments must occur both within radio astronomy’s own domain – designing, siting and constructing its instruments and mitigating unavoidable RFI – and facing outward toward the community of other spectrum users. Engagement with spectrum management is no panacea but it is an important means, and perhaps the only

  8. Dielectric properties of almond shells in the development of radio frequency and microwave pasteurization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To develop pasteurization treatments based on radio frequency (RF) or microwave energy, dielectric properties of almond shells were determined using an open-ended coaxial-probe with an impedance analyzer over a frequency range of 10 to 1800 MHz. Both the dielectric constant and loss factor of almond...

  9. Theoretical Feasibility of Digital Communication Over Ocean Areas by High Frequency Radio

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1979-11-01

    The theoretical reliability of digital data transmission via high frequency radio is examined for typical air traffic routes in the Atlantic and Pacific areas to assist the U.S. Department of Transportation in the evaluation of a system for improving...

  10. Evaluation of power transfer efficiency for a high power inductively coupled radio-frequency hydrogen ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, P.; Recchia, M.; Cavenago, M.; Fantz, U.; Gaio, E.; Kraus, W.; Maistrello, A.; Veltri, P.

    2018-04-01

    Neutral beam injection (NBI) for plasma heating and current drive is necessary for International Thermonuclear Experimental reactor (ITER) tokamak. Due to its various advantages, a radio frequency (RF) driven plasma source type was selected as a reference ion source for the ITER heating NBI. The ITER relevant RF negative ion sources are inductively coupled (IC) devices whose operational working frequency has been chosen to be 1 MHz and are characterized by high RF power density (˜9.4 W cm-3) and low operational pressure (around 0.3 Pa). The RF field is produced by a coil in a cylindrical chamber leading to a plasma generation followed by its expansion inside the chamber. This paper recalls different concepts based on which a methodology is developed to evaluate the efficiency of the RF power transfer to hydrogen plasma. This efficiency is then analyzed as a function of the working frequency and in dependence of other operating source and plasma parameters. The study is applied to a high power IC RF hydrogen ion source which is similar to one simplified driver of the ELISE source (half the size of the ITER NBI source).

  11. Providing hydrogen maser timing stability to orbiting VLBI radio telescope observations by post-measurement compensation of linked frequency standard imperfections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springett, James C.

    1994-05-01

    Orbiting VLBI (OVLBI) astronomical observations are based upon measurements acquired simultaneously from ground-based and earth-orbiting radio telescopes. By the mid-1990s, two orbiting VLBI observatories, Russia's Radioastron and Japan's VSOP, will augment the worldwide VLBI network, providing baselines to earth radio telescopes as large as 80,000 km. The challenge for OVLBI is to effectuate space to ground radio telescope data cross-correlation (the observation) to a level of integrity currently achieved between ground radio telescopes. VLBI radio telescopes require ultrastable frequency and timing references in order that long term observations may be made without serious cross-correlation loss due to frequency source drift and phase noise. For this reason, such instruments make use of hydrogen maser frequency standards. Unfortunately, space-qualified hydrogen maser oscillators are currently not available for use on OVLBI satellites. Thus, the necessary long-term stability needed by the orbiting radio telescope may only be obtained by microwave uplinking a ground-based hydrogen maser derived frequency to the satellite. Although the idea of uplinking the frequency standard intrinsically seems simple, there are many 'contaminations' which degrade both the long and short term stability of the transmitted reference. Factors which corrupt frequency and timing accuracy include additive radio and electronic circuit thermal noise, slow or systematic phase migration due to changes of electronic circuit temporal operating conditions (especially temperature), ionosphere and troposphere induced scintillations, residual Doppler-incited components, and microwave signal multipath propagation. What is important, though, is to realize that ultimate stability does not have to be achieved in real-time. Instead, information needed to produce a high degree of coherence in the subsequent cross-correlation operation may be derived from a two-way coherent radio link, recorded and later

  12. Providing hydrogen maser timing stability to orbiting VLBI radio telescope observations by post-measurement compensation of linked frequency standard imperfections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springett, James C.

    1994-01-01

    Orbiting VLBI (OVLBI) astronomical observations are based upon measurements acquired simultaneously from ground-based and earth-orbiting radio telescopes. By the mid-1990s, two orbiting VLBI observatories, Russia's Radioastron and Japan's VSOP, will augment the worldwide VLBI network, providing baselines to earth radio telescopes as large as 80,000 km. The challenge for OVLBI is to effectuate space to ground radio telescope data cross-correlation (the observation) to a level of integrity currently achieved between ground radio telescopes. VLBI radio telescopes require ultrastable frequency and timing references in order that long term observations may be made without serious cross-correlation loss due to frequency source drift and phase noise. For this reason, such instruments make use of hydrogen maser frequency standards. Unfortunately, space-qualified hydrogen maser oscillators are currently not available for use on OVLBI satellites. Thus, the necessary long-term stability needed by the orbiting radio telescope may only be obtained by microwave uplinking a ground-based hydrogen maser derived frequency to the satellite. Although the idea of uplinking the frequency standard intrinsically seems simple, there are many 'contaminations' which degrade both the long and short term stability of the transmitted reference. Factors which corrupt frequency and timing accuracy include additive radio and electronic circuit thermal noise, slow or systematic phase migration due to changes of electronic circuit temporal operating conditions (especially temperature), ionosphere and troposphere induced scintillations, residual Doppler-incited components, and microwave signal multipath propagation. What is important, though, is to realize that ultimate stability does not have to be achieved in real-time. Instead, information needed to produce a high degree of coherence in the subsequent cross-correlation operation may be derived from a two-way coherent radio link, recorded and later

  13. Enhanced Radio Frequency Biosensor for Food Quality Detection Using Functionalized Carbon Nanofillers.

    PubMed

    Tanguy, Nicolas R; Fiddes, Lindsey K; Yan, Ning

    2015-06-10

    This paper outlines an improved design of inexpensive, wireless and battery free biosensors for in situ monitoring of food quality. This type of device has an additional advantage of being operated remotely. To make the device, a portion of an antenna of a passive 13.56 MHz radio frequency identification (RFID) tag was altered with a sensing element composed of conductive nanofillers/particles, a binding agent, and a polymer matrix. These novel RFID tags were exposed to biogenic amine putrescine, commonly used as a marker for food spoilage, and their response was monitored over time using a general-purpose network analyzer. The effect of conductive filler properties, including conductivity and morphology, and filler functionalization was investigated by preparing sensing composites containing carbon particles (CPs), multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), and binding agent grafted-multiwall carbon nanotubes (g-MWCNTs), respectively. During exposure to putrescine, the amount of reflected waves, frequency at resonance, and quality factor of the novel RFID tags decreased in response. The use of MWCNTs reduced tag cutoff time (i.e., faster response time) as compared with the use of CPs, which highlighted the effectiveness of the conductive nanofiller morphology, while the addition of g-MWCNTs further accelerated the sensor response time as a result of localized binding on the conductive nanofiller surface. Microstructural investigation of the film morphology indicated a better dispersion of g-MWCNTs in the sensing composite as compared to MWCNTs and CPs, as well as a smoother texture of the surface of the resulting coating. These results demonstrated that grafting of the binding agent onto the conductive particles in the sensing composite is an effective way to further enhance the detection sensitivity of the RFID tag based sensor.

  14. Low-frequency polarization measurements of the diffuse radio emission of the galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinyaikin, E. N.; Paseka, A. M.

    2015-07-01

    Polarization measurements of diffuse Galactic radio emission at 151.5, 198, 217, 237, and 290 MHz have been carried out in the direction of the North Celestial Pole, North Galactic Pole, one region of the North Polar Spur, minimum radio brightness of the Northern sky ( l = 190°, b = 50°), and in the direction l = 147°, b = 9° in the so-called FAN region with enhanced polarization. The results obtained testify to the presence of low spatial frequencies in the angular distribution of the Stokes parameters Q and U of the diffuse Galactic synchrotron emission that are not detectable in interferometric observations. The spectra of the brightness temperature of the polarized component, rotation measures, and intrinsic polarization position angles of the radio emission in the studied regions are presented.

  15. Inverse Source Data-Processing Strategies for Radio-Frequency Localization in Indoor Environments.

    PubMed

    Gennarelli, Gianluca; Al Khatib, Obada; Soldovieri, Francesco

    2017-10-27

    Indoor positioning of mobile devices plays a key role in many aspects of our daily life. These include real-time people tracking and monitoring, activity recognition, emergency detection, navigation, and numerous location based services. Despite many wireless technologies and data-processing algorithms have been developed in recent years, indoor positioning is still a problem subject of intensive research. This paper deals with the active radio-frequency (RF) source localization in indoor scenarios. The localization task is carried out at the physical layer thanks to receiving sensor arrays which are deployed on the border of the surveillance region to record the signal emitted by the source. The localization problem is formulated as an imaging one by taking advantage of the inverse source approach. Different measurement configurations and data-processing/fusion strategies are examined to investigate their effectiveness in terms of localization accuracy under both line-of-sight (LOS) and non-line of sight (NLOS) conditions. Numerical results based on full-wave synthetic data are reported to support the analysis.

  16. Inverse Source Data-Processing Strategies for Radio-Frequency Localization in Indoor Environments

    PubMed Central

    Gennarelli, Gianluca; Al Khatib, Obada; Soldovieri, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Indoor positioning of mobile devices plays a key role in many aspects of our daily life. These include real-time people tracking and monitoring, activity recognition, emergency detection, navigation, and numerous location based services. Despite many wireless technologies and data-processing algorithms have been developed in recent years, indoor positioning is still a problem subject of intensive research. This paper deals with the active radio-frequency (RF) source localization in indoor scenarios. The localization task is carried out at the physical layer thanks to receiving sensor arrays which are deployed on the border of the surveillance region to record the signal emitted by the source. The localization problem is formulated as an imaging one by taking advantage of the inverse source approach. Different measurement configurations and data-processing/fusion strategies are examined to investigate their effectiveness in terms of localization accuracy under both line-of-sight (LOS) and non-line of sight (NLOS) conditions. Numerical results based on full-wave synthetic data are reported to support the analysis. PMID:29077071

  17. System and method for controlling remote devices

    DOEpatents

    Carrender, Curtis Lee [Richland, WA; Gilbert, Ronald W [Benton City, WA; Scott, Jeff W [Pasco, WA; Clark, David A [Kennewick, WA

    2006-02-07

    A system and method for controlling remote devices utilizing a radio frequency identification (RFID) tag device having a control circuit adapted to render the tag device, and associated objects, permanently inoperable in response to radio-frequency control signals. The control circuit is configured to receive the control signals that can include an enable signal, and in response thereto enable an associated object, such as a weapon; and in response to a disable signal, to disable the tag itself, or, if desired, to disable the associated weapon or both the device and the weapon. Permanent disabling of the tag can be accomplished by several methods, including, but not limited to, fusing a fusable link, breaking an electrically conductive path, permanently altering the modulation or backscattering characteristics of the antenna circuit, and permanently erasing an associated memory. In this manner, tags in the possession of unauthorized employees can be remotely disabled, and weapons lost on a battlefield can be easily tracked and enabled or disabled automatically or at will.

  18. Radio Gaga? Intra-team communication of Australian Rules Football umpires - effect of radio communication on content, structure and frequency.

    PubMed

    Neville, Timothy J; Salmon, Paul M; Read, Gemma J M

    2018-02-01

    Intra-team communication plays an important role in team effectiveness in various domains including sport. As such, it is a key consideration when introducing new tools within systems that utilise teams. The difference in intra-team communication of Australian Rules Football (AFL) umpiring teams was studied when umpiring with or without radio communications technology. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted to analyse the verbal communication of seven umpiring teams (20 participants) grouped according to their experience with radio communication. The results identified that radio communication technology increased the frequency and altered the structure of intra-team communication. Examination of the content of the intra-team communication identified impacts on the 'Big Five' teamwork behaviours and associated coordinating mechanisms. Analysis revealed that the communications utilised did not align with the closed-loop form of communication described in the Big Five model. Implications for teamwork models, coaching and training of AFL umpires are discussed. Practitioner Summary: Assessing the impact of technology on performance is of interest to ergonomics practitioners. The impact of radio communications on teamwork is explored in the highly dynamic domain of AFL umpiring. When given radio technology, intra-team communication increased which supported teamwork behaviours, such as backup behaviour and mutual performance monitoring.

  19. Calculations of low-frequency radio emission by cosmic-ray-induced particle showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Fernández, Daniel; Revenu, Benoît; Charrier, Didier; Dallier, Richard; Escudie, Antony; Martin, Lilian

    2018-05-01

    The radio technique for the detection of high-energy cosmic rays consists in measuring the electric field created by the particle showers created inside a medium by the primary cosmic ray. The electric field is then used to infer the properties of the primary particle. Nowadays, the radio technique is a standard, well-established technique. While most current experiments measure the field at frequencies above 20 MHz, several experiments have reported a large emission at low frequencies, below 10 MHz. The EXTASIS experiment aims at measuring again and understanding this low-frequency electric field. Since at low frequencies the standard far-field approximation for the calculation of the electric field does not necessarily hold, in order to comprehend the low-frequency emission we need to go beyond the far-field approximation. We present in this work a formula for the electric field created by a particle track inside a dielectric medium that is valid for all frequencies. We then implement this formula in the SELFAS Monte Carlo code and calculate the low-frequency electric field of the extensive air shower (EAS). We also study the electric field of a special case of the transition radiation mechanism when the EAS particles cross the air-soil boundary. We introduce the sudden death pulse, the direct emission caused by the coherent deceleration of the shower front at the boundary, as a first approximation to the whole electric field for the air-soil transition, and study its properties. We show that at frequencies larger than 20 MHz and distances larger than 100 m, the standard far-field approximation for the horizontal polarizations of the field is always accurate at the 1% level.

  20. Challenges and opportunities for multi-functional oxide thin films for voltage tunable radio frequency/microwave components

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanyam, Guru, E-mail: gsubramanyam1@udayton.edu; Cole, M. W., E-mail: melanie.w.cole.civ@mail.mil; Sun, Nian X.

    2013-11-21

    There has been significant progress on the fundamental science and technological applications of complex oxides and multiferroics. Among complex oxide thin films, barium strontium titanate (BST) has become the material of choice for room-temperature-based voltage-tunable dielectric thin films, due to its large dielectric tunability and low microwave loss at room temperature. BST thin film varactor technology based reconfigurable radio frequency (RF)/microwave components have been demonstrated with the potential to lower the size, weight, and power needs of a future generation of communication and radar systems. Low-power multiferroic devices have also been recently demonstrated. Strong magneto-electric coupling has also been demonstratedmore » in different multiferroic heterostructures, which show giant voltage control of the ferromagnetic resonance frequency of more than two octaves. This manuscript reviews recent advances in the processing, and application development for the complex oxides and multiferroics, with the focus on voltage tunable RF/microwave components. The over-arching goal of this review is to provide a synopsis of the current state-of the-art of complex oxide and multiferroic thin film materials and devices, identify technical issues and technical challenges that need to be overcome for successful insertion of the technology for both military and commercial applications, and provide mitigation strategies to address these technical challenges.« less

  1. Temporal frequency of radio emissions for the April 25, 1984 flare

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, G. D.; Hausman, B. A.; Kroehl, H. W.

    1986-01-01

    The National Geophysical Data Center archives data of the solar-terrestrial environment. The USAF Radio Solar Telescope Network (RSTN) data allow performance of time series analysis to determine temporal oscillations as low as three seconds. The X13/3B flare which erupted in region 4474 (S12E43) on the 24 to 25 of April 1984, was selected. The soft X-rays, 1 to 8 A, remained above X-levels for 50 minutes and the radio emissions measured at Learmonth Solar Observatory reached a maximum of 3.15 x 10 to the 5th power SFUs at 410 MHz at 0000UT. A power spectral analysis of the fixed frequency RSTN data from Learmonth shows possible quasi-periodic fluctuations in the range two to ten seconds. Repetition rates or quasi-periodicities, in the case of the power spectral analysis, generally showed the same trends as the average solar radio flux at 245 and 8800 MHz. The quasi-periodicities at 1415 MHz showed no such trends.

  2. Radio emission of extensive air showers at microwave frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filonenko, A. D.

    2016-05-01

    It is found that the power of the incoherent radiation of ionization electrons of an extensive air shower in the frequency range of 150 GHz is more than 10-24 W/m2Hz, with the shower energy ~1018 eV at a distance of 5 km from its axis. This means that, unlike fluorescent detectors, a radio telescope with an effective area of more than 300 m2 can monitor the trajectory of showers with an energy higher than 1018 eV at any time of the day regardless of the weather. The spectrum maximum near the frequency of 150 GHz is roughly three orders of magnitude higher than the value experimentally measured in the characteristic band (~5-10 GHz).

  3. Trirotron: triode rotating beam radio frequency amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Lebacqz, Jean V.

    1980-01-01

    High efficiency amplification of radio frequencies to very high power levels including: establishing a cylindrical cloud of electrons; establishing an electrical field surrounding and coaxial with the electron cloud to bias the electrons to remain in the cloud; establishing a rotating electrical field that surrounds and is coaxial with the steady field, the circular path of the rotating field being one wavelength long, whereby the peak of one phase of the rotating field is used to accelerate electrons in a beam through the bias field in synchronism with the peak of the rotating field so that there is a beam of electrons continuously extracted from the cloud and rotating with the peak; establishing a steady electrical field that surrounds and is coaxial with the rotating field for high-energy radial acceleration of the rotating beam of electrons; and resonating the rotating beam of electrons within a space surrounding the second field, the space being selected to have a phase velocity equal to that of the rotating field to thereby produce a high-power output at the frequency of the rotating field.

  4. High-frequency (13.56-MHz) and ultrahigh-frequency (915-MHz) radio identification systems do not affect platelet activation and functions.

    PubMed

    Rogowska, Anna; Chabowska, Anna Małgorzata; Lipska, Alina; Boczkowska-Radziwon, Barbara; Bujno, Magdalena; Rusak, Tomasz; Dziemianczuk, Mateusz; Radziwon, Piotr

    2016-05-01

    In radiofrequency identification (RFID) systems used in labeling of blood components, blood cells are subjected to the direct influence of electromagnetic waves throughout the storage period. The aim of this study was to prove the safety of storage of platelet concentrates (PCs) in containers labeled with RFID tags. Ten pooled PCs obtained from 12 buffy coats each suspended in additive solution were divided into three separate containers that were assigned to three groups: control, PCs labeled with ultrahigh frequency (UHF) range tags and exposed to 915-MHz radio waves, and PCs labeled with high-frequency (HF) range tags and exposed to 13.56-MHz radio waves. PCs were stored at 20 to 24°C for 7 days. In vitro tests of platelet (PLT) function were performed on the first, fifth, and seventh days of storage. There were no significant differences in pH; hypotonic shock resistance; surface expression of CD62P, CD42a, or CD63; release of PLT-derived microparticles; PLT aggregation; and number of PLTs between PCs stored at a constant exposure to radio waves of two different frequencies and the control group on the first, fifth, and seventh days of storage. The results of the study indicate no impact of electromagnetic radiation generated in HF and UHF RFID systems and constant contact with the tags on the quality of stored PCs. © 2016 AABB.

  5. Fabrication and radio frequency test of large-area MgB 2 films on niobium substrates

    DOE PAGES

    Ni, Zhimao; Guo, Xin; Welander, Paul B.; ...

    2017-01-19

    Magnesium diboride (MgB 2) is a promising candidate material for superconducting radio frequency (RF) cavities because of its higher transition temperature and critical field compared with niobium. To meet the demand of RF test devices, the fabrication of large-area MgB 2 films on metal substrates is needed. Here, in this work, high quality MgB 2 films with 50 mm diameter were fabricated on niobium by using an improved HPCVD system at Peking University, and RF tests were carried out at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The transition temperature is approximately 39.6 K and the RF surface resistance is about 120 μΩmore » at 4 K and 11.4 GHz. Finally, the fabrication processes, surface morphology, DC superconducting properties and RF tests of these large-area MgB 2 films are presented.« less

  6. Fabrication and radio frequency test of large-area MgB 2 films on niobium substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Ni, Zhimao; Guo, Xin; Welander, Paul B.

    Magnesium diboride (MgB 2) is a promising candidate material for superconducting radio frequency (RF) cavities because of its higher transition temperature and critical field compared with niobium. To meet the demand of RF test devices, the fabrication of large-area MgB 2 films on metal substrates is needed. Here, in this work, high quality MgB 2 films with 50 mm diameter were fabricated on niobium by using an improved HPCVD system at Peking University, and RF tests were carried out at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The transition temperature is approximately 39.6 K and the RF surface resistance is about 120 μΩmore » at 4 K and 11.4 GHz. Finally, the fabrication processes, surface morphology, DC superconducting properties and RF tests of these large-area MgB 2 films are presented.« less

  7. Radio Frequency Magnetron Sputtering Deposition of TiO2 Thin Films and Their Perovskite Solar Cell Applications

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cong; Cheng, Yu; Dai, Qilin; Song, Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we report a physical deposition based, compact (cp) layer synthesis for planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells. Typical solution-based synthesis of cp layer for perovskite solar cells involves low-quality of thin films, high-temperature annealing, non-flexible devices, limitation of large-scale production and that the effects of the cp layer on carrier transport have not been fully understood. In this research, using radio frequency magnetron sputtering (RFMS), TiO2 cp layers were fabricated and the thickness could be controlled by deposition time; CH3NH3PbI3 films were prepared by evaporation & immersion (E & I) method, in which PbI2 films made by thermal evaporation technique were immersed in CH3NH3I solution. The devices exhibit power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 12.1% and the photovoltaic performance can maintain 77% of its initial PCE after 1440 h. The method developed in this study has the capability of fabricating large active area devices (40 × 40 mm2) showing a promising PCE of 4.8%. Low temperature and flexible devices were realized and a PCE of 8.9% was obtained on the PET/ITO substrates. These approaches could be used in thin film based solar cells which require high-quality films leading to reduced fabrication cost and improved device performance. PMID:26631493

  8. Wireless actuation of piezoelectric coupled micromembrane using radio frequency magnetic field for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Dhiraj

    2017-04-01

    We report on a novel technique of wireless actuation of a micromembrane mounted on a piezoelectric stack using radio frequency magnetic fields. The magnetic field component of the radio frequency field induces time varying voltage across the leads of the piezoelectric stack which results in vibrations of the piezoelectric stack which are eventually transferred to a micromembrane of silicon nitride mounted on top of it. Thus, wireless actuation of micromembranes is achieved which is measured using a laser-photodetector system. Wireless actuation of micromembranes has applications in controlled drug delivery with rates of the order of tens of nanolitres per second. It can also be used in controlling capsule endoscopes, in vivo sensors, and micromachines for biomedical applications.

  9. Radio frequency heating for in-situ remediation of DNAPL

    SciTech Connect

    Kasevich, R.S.

    1996-08-01

    In-situ radio frequency (RF) heating technology for treating soils contaminated with dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) is described. RF imparts heat to non-conducting materials through the application of carefully controlled RF transmissions, improving contaminant flow characteristics and facilitating separation and removal from subsurface soils. The paper outlines advantages and limitations of RF remediation, process operations, general technology considerations, low permeability media considerations, commercial availability, and costs. Two case histories of RF remediation are briefly summarized. 13 refs., 10 figs.

  10. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) in healthcare: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Kolokathi, Aikaterini; Rallis, Panagiotis

    2013-01-01

    Creating and maintaining a safe and high-quality health care environment is of great importance for global community. New technologies and their applications can help us achieve this goal. Radio-Frequency Identification (RIFD) technology is considered one of those technologies and even today there are some interesting deployments in the health industry. As a result, this work aims to present the basic idea behind RFID solutions, problems that can be addressed with the adoption of RFID and the benefits of relative applications.

  11. Inactivation of Lactobacillus plantarum in apple cider using radio frequency electric fields

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Radio frequency electric fields (RFEF) processing is effective at inactivating Gram negative bacteria in fruit juices at moderately low temperatures, but has yet to be shown to be effective at reducing Gram positive bacteria. Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 49445, a Gram positive bacterium, was inocula...

  12. 47 CFR 15.23 - Home-built devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Home-built devices. 15.23 Section 15.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES General § 15.23 Home-built... that the individual builder of home-built equipment may not possess the means to perform the...

  13. 47 CFR 15.23 - Home-built devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Home-built devices. 15.23 Section 15.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES General § 15.23 Home-built... that the individual builder of home-built equipment may not possess the means to perform the...

  14. 47 CFR 15.23 - Home-built devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Home-built devices. 15.23 Section 15.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES General § 15.23 Home-built... that the individual builder of home-built equipment may not possess the means to perform the...

  15. 47 CFR 15.23 - Home-built devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Home-built devices. 15.23 Section 15.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES General § 15.23 Home-built... that the individual builder of home-built equipment may not possess the means to perform the...

  16. 47 CFR 15.23 - Home-built devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Home-built devices. 15.23 Section 15.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES General § 15.23 Home-built... that the individual builder of home-built equipment may not possess the means to perform the...

  17. e-POP RRI provides new opportunities for space-based, high-frequency radio science experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrell, Angeline G.

    2017-04-01

    Perry et al. (2016, https://doi.org/10.1002/2017JG003855) present the first results of the Radio Receiver Instrument (RRI), a part of the enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (e-POP) that flies on board the CAScade, Smallsat and IOnospheric Polar Explorer satellite. Using a matched filter technique, e-POP RRI was able to observe individual radio pulses transmitted by a ground-based radar. These results were used to examine the temporal variations in the dispersion, polarization, and power of the pulses, demonstrating the capacity for e-POP RRI to contribute to studies of radio propagation at high-frequency (HF) ranges. Understanding radio propagation in the presence and absence of ionospheric irregularities is crucial for ionospheric physics, as well as commercial and military radio applications. Conjunctions between e-POP RRI and ground- or space-based HF transmitters offer a new opportunity for coherent scatter experiments.

  18. Flexible radio-frequency single-crystal germanium switch on plastic substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Guoxuan; Cai, Tianhao; Yuan, Hao-Chih; Seo, Jung-Hun; Ma, Jianguo; Ma, Zhenqiang

    2014-04-01

    This Letter presents the realization and characterizations of the flexible radio-frequency (RF)/microwave switches on plastic substrates employing single-crystal germanium (Ge) nanomembranes. The fabricated flexible Ge single-pole, single-throw (SPST) switches display high frequency responses (e.g., insertion loss of <1.3 dB at up to 30 GHz and isolation >10 dB at up to ˜13 GHz). RF performance tradeoff exists for the flexible Ge switches and the major affecting parameters are determined. The flexible Ge SPST switch shows better RF property to that of the flexible Si SPST switch. Underlying mechanism is investigated by theoretical analysis and modeling of switches with different structures.

  19. RASDR: Benchtop Demonstration of SDR for Radio Astronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Vacaliuc, Bogdan; Oxley, Paul; Fields, David

    The Society of Amateur Radio Astronomers (SARA) members present the benchtop version of RASDR, a Software Defined Radio (SDR) that is optimized for Radio Astronomy. RASDR has the potential to be a common digital receiver interface useful to many SARA members. This document describes the RASDR 0.0 , which provides digitized radio data to a backend computer through a USB 2.0 interface. A primary component of RASDR is the Lime Microsystems Femtocell chip which tunes from a 0.4-4 GHz center frequency with several selectable bandwidths from 0.75 MHz to 14 MHz. A second component is a board with a Complexmore » Programmable Logic Device (CPLD) chip that connects to the Femtocell and provides two USB connections to the backend computer. A third component is an analog balanced mixer up conversion section. Together these three components enable RASDR to tune from 0.015 MHz thru 3.8GHz of the radio frequency (RF) spectrum. We will demonstrate and discuss capabilities of the breadboard system and SARA members will be able to operate the unit hands-on throughout the workshop.« less

  20. Very High Frequency Radio Emissions Associated With the Production of Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Fanchao; Cummer, Steven A.; Krehbiel, Paul R.; Rison, William; Briggs, Michael S.; Cramer, Eric; Roberts, Oliver; Stanbro, Matthew

    2018-02-01

    Recent studies of the close association between terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) production and simultaneous lightning processes have shown that many TGFs are produced during the initial leader of intracloud flashes and that some low-frequency (LF) radio emissions may directly come from TGF itself. Measurements of any simultaneous very high frequency (VHF) radio emissions would give important insight into any lightning leader dynamics that are associated with TGF generation, and thus, such measurements are needed. Here we report on coordinated observations of TGFs detected simultaneously by Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor, two VHF lightning mapping arrays, and Duke ground-based LF radio sensors to investigate more on the close association between TGFs and LF and VHF radio emissions. Three TGFs are analyzed here and confirm previous findings on the close association between TGF generation and lightning processes and, for the first time, provide time-aligned measurements of the VHF radio signature within a few tens of microseconds of TGF generation. Strong VHF emissions were observed essentially simultaneously with two TGFs and within a few tens of microseconds of a third TGF. Equally importantly, the VHF measurement details indicate that the TGF-associated emissions are nonimpulsive and extended in time. We conclude that the TGF-producing process is at least sometimes closely associated with strong VHF emissions, and thus, there may be a link between the generation of TGFs and active lightning streamer dynamics.

  1. A graphene based frequency quadrupler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Chuantong; Huang, Beiju; Mao, Xurui; Zhang, Zanyun; Zhang, Zan; Geng, Zhaoxin; Xue, Ping; Chen, Hongda

    2017-04-01

    Benefit from exceptional electrical transport properties, graphene receives worldwide attentions, especially in the domain of high frequency electronics. Due to absence of effective bandgap causing off-state the device, graphene material is extraordinarily suitable for analog circuits rather than digital applications. With this unique ambipolar behavior, graphene can be exploited and utilized to achieve high performance for frequency multipliers. Here, dual-gated graphene field-effect transistors have been firstly used to achieve frequency quadrupling. Two Dirac points in the transfer curves of the designed GFETs can be observed by tuning top-gate voltages, which is essential to generate the fourth harmonic. By applying 200 kHz sinusoid input, arround 50% of the output signal radio frequency power is concentrated at the desired frequency of 800 kHz. Additionally, in suitable operation areas, our devices can work as high performance frequency doublers and frequency triplers. Considered both simple device structure and potential superhigh carrier mobility of graphene material, graphene-based frequency quadruplers may have lots of superiorities in regards to ultrahigh frequency electronic applications in near future. Moreover, versatility of carbon material system is far-reaching for realization of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor compatible electrically active devices.

  2. Radio-frequency dielectric drying of short lengths of northern red oak

    Treesearch

    William T. Simpson

    1980-01-01

    For most uses hardwoods are dried as entire boards that include all defective portions discarded after drying. The United States has a large resource of low-quality hardwoods and the potential exists for significant savings in energy and in dryer capacity by cutting out defects before drying. One approach could use radio frequency drying. In this investigation short...

  3. Aircraft measurement of radio frequency noise at 121.5 MHz, 243 MHz and 406 MHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. E.; Hill, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    An airborne survey measurement of terrestrial radio-frequency noise over U.S. metropolitan areas was carried out at 121.5, 243 and 406 MHz with horizontal-polarization monopole antennas. Flights were at 25,000 feet altitude. Radio-noise measurements, expressed in equivalent antenna-noise temperature, indicate a steady-background noise temperature of 572,000 K, at 121.5 MHz, during daylight over New York City. This data is helpful in compiling radio-noise temperature maps; in turn useful for designing satellite-aided, emergency-distress search and rescue communication systems.

  4. Application of Au-Sn eutectic bonding in hermetic radio-frequency microelectromechanical system wafer level packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qian; Choa, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Woonbae; Hwang, Junsik; Ham, Sukjin; Moon, Changyoul

    2006-03-01

    Development of packaging is one of the critical issues toward realizing commercialization of radio-frequency-microelectromechanical system (RF-MEMS) devices. The RF-MEMS package should be designed to have small size, hermetic protection, good RF performance, and high reliability. In addition, packaging should be conducted at sufficiently low temperature. In this paper, a low-temperature hermetic wafer level packaging scheme for the RF-MEMS devices is presented. For hermetic sealing, Au-Sn eutectic bonding technology at temperatures below 300°C is used. Au-Sn multilayer metallization with a square loop of 70 µm in width is performed. The electrical feed-through is achieved by the vertical through-hole via filling with electroplated Cu. The size of the MEMS package is 1 mm × 1 mm × 700 µm. The shear strength and hermeticity of the package satisfies the requirements of MIL-STD-883F. Any organic gases or contamination are not observed inside the package. The total insertion loss for the packaging is 0.075 dB at 2 GHz. Furthermore, the robustness of the package is demonstrated by observing no performance degradation and physical damage of the package after several reliability tests.

  5. A Semianalytical Ion Current Model for Radio Frequency Driven Collisionless Sheaths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bose, Deepak; Govindan, T. R.; Meyyappan, M.; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We propose a semianalytical ion dynamics model for a collisionless radio frequency biased sheath. The model uses bulk plasma conditions and electrode boundary condition to predict ion impact energy distribution and electrical properties of the sheath. The proposed model accounts for ion inertia and ion current modulation at bias frequencies that are of the same order of magnitude as the ion plasma frequency. A relaxation equation for ion current oscillations is derived which is coupled with a damped potential equation in order to model ion inertia effects. We find that inclusion of ion current modulation in the sheath model shows marked improvements in the predictions of sheath electrical properties and ion energy distribution function.

  6. Ion trap device

    DOEpatents

    Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Smith, Richard D.

    2016-01-26

    An ion trap device is disclosed. The device includes a series of electrodes that define an ion flow path. A radio frequency (RF) field is applied to the series of electrodes such that each electrode is phase shifted approximately 180 degrees from an adjacent electrode. A DC voltage is superimposed with the RF field to create a DC gradient to drive ions in the direction of the gradient. A second RF field or DC voltage is applied to selectively trap and release the ions from the device. Further, the device may be gridless and utilized at high pressure.

  7. Large-signal model of the bilayer graphene field-effect transistor targeting radio-frequency applications: Theory versus experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Pasadas, Francisco, E-mail: Francisco.Pasadas@uab.cat; Jiménez, David

    2015-12-28

    Bilayer graphene is a promising material for radio-frequency transistors because its energy gap might result in a better current saturation than the monolayer graphene. Because the great deal of interest in this technology, especially for flexible radio-frequency applications, gaining control of it requires the formulation of appropriate models for the drain current, charge, and capacitance. In this work, we have developed them for a dual-gated bilayer graphene field-effect transistor. A drift-diffusion mechanism for the carrier transport has been considered coupled with an appropriate field-effect model taking into account the electronic properties of the bilayer graphene. Extrinsic resistances have been includedmore » considering the formation of a Schottky barrier at the metal-bilayer graphene interface. The proposed model has been benchmarked against experimental prototype transistors, discussing the main figures of merit targeting radio-frequency applications.« less

  8. Momentum-resolved radio-frequency spectroscopy of a spin-orbit-coupled atomic Fermi gas near a Feshbach resonance in harmonic traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Shi-Guo; Liu, Xia-Ji; Hu, Hui; Jiang, Kaijun

    2012-12-01

    We theoretically investigate the momentum-resolved radio-frequency spectroscopy of a harmonically trapped atomic Fermi gas near a Feshbach resonance in the presence of equal Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling. The system is qualitatively modeled as an ideal gas mixture of atoms and molecules, in which the properties of molecules, such as the wave function, binding energy, and effective mass, are determined from the two-particle solution of two interacting atoms. We calculate separately the radio-frequency response from atoms and molecules at finite temperatures by using the standard Fermi golden rule and take into account the effect of harmonic traps within local density approximation. The total radio-frequency spectroscopy is discussed as functions of temperature and spin-orbit coupling strength. Our results give a qualitative picture of radio-frequency spectroscopy of a resonantly interacting spin-orbit-coupled Fermi gas and can be directly tested in atomic Fermi gases of 40K atoms at Shanxi University and 6Li atoms at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

  9. Optimization of Vertical Double-Diffused Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (VDMOS) Power Transistor Structure for Use in High Frequencies and Medical Devices

    PubMed Central

    Farhadi, Rozita; Farhadi, Bita

    2014-01-01

    Power transistors, such as the vertical, double-diffused, metal-oxide semiconductor (VDMOS), are used extensively in the amplifier circuits of medical devices. The aim of this research was to construct a VDMOS power transistor with an optimized structure to enhance the operation of medical devices. First, boron was implanted in silicon by implanting unclamped inductive switching (UIS) and a Faraday shield. The Faraday shield was implanted in order to replace the gate-field parasitic capacitor on the entry part of the device. Also, implanting the UIS was used in order to decrease the effect of parasitic bipolar junction transistor (BJT) of the VDMOS power transistor. The research tool used in this study was Silvaco software. By decreasing the transistor entry resistance in the optimized VDMOS structure, power losses and noise at the entry of the transistor were decreased, and, by increasing the breakdown voltage, the lifetime of the VDMOS transistor lifetime was increased, which resulted in increasing drain flow and decreasing Ron. This consequently resulted in enhancing the operation of high-frequency medical devices that use transistors, such as Radio Frequency (RF) and electrocardiograph machines. PMID:25763152

  10. Optimization of Vertical Double-Diffused Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (VDMOS) Power Transistor Structure for Use in High Frequencies and Medical Devices.

    PubMed

    Farhadi, Rozita; Farhadi, Bita

    2014-01-01

    Power transistors, such as the vertical, double-diffused, metal-oxide semiconductor (VDMOS), are used extensively in the amplifier circuits of medical devices. The aim of this research was to construct a VDMOS power transistor with an optimized structure to enhance the operation of medical devices. First, boron was implanted in silicon by implanting unclamped inductive switching (UIS) and a Faraday shield. The Faraday shield was implanted in order to replace the gate-field parasitic capacitor on the entry part of the device. Also, implanting the UIS was used in order to decrease the effect of parasitic bipolar junction transistor (BJT) of the VDMOS power transistor. The research tool used in this study was Silvaco software. By decreasing the transistor entry resistance in the optimized VDMOS structure, power losses and noise at the entry of the transistor were decreased, and, by increasing the breakdown voltage, the lifetime of the VDMOS transistor lifetime was increased, which resulted in increasing drain flow and decreasing Ron. This consequently resulted in enhancing the operation of high-frequency medical devices that use transistors, such as Radio Frequency (RF) and electrocardiograph machines.

  11. Dual-frequency radio soundings of planetary ionospheres avoid misinterpretations of ionospheric features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paetzold, M.; Andert, T.; Bird, M. K.; Häusler, B.; Hinson, D. P.; Peter, K.; Tellmann, S.

    2017-12-01

    Planetary ionospheres are usually sounded at single frequency, e.g. S-band or X-band, or at dual-frequencies, e.g. simultaneous S-band and X-band frequencies. The differential Doppler is computed from the received dual-frequency sounding and it has the advantage that any residual motion by the spaceraft body is compensated. The electron density profile is derived from the propagation of the two radio signals through the ionospheric plasma. Vibrational motion of small amplitude by the spacecraft body may still be contained in the single frequency residuals and may be translated into electron densities. Examples from Mars Express and Venus Express shall be presented. Cases from other missions shall be presented where wave-like structures in the upper ionosphere may be a misinterpretation.

  12. Electromagnetic interference from radio frequency identification inducing potentially hazardous incidents in critical care medical equipment.

    PubMed

    van der Togt, Remko; van Lieshout, Erik Jan; Hensbroek, Reinout; Beinat, E; Binnekade, J M; Bakker, P J M

    2008-06-25

    Health care applications of autoidentification technologies, such as radio frequency identification (RFID), have been proposed to improve patient safety and also the tracking and tracing of medical equipment. However, electromagnetic interference (EMI) by RFID on medical devices has never been reported. To assess and classify incidents of EMI by RFID on critical care equipment. Without a patient being connected, EMI by 2 RFID systems (active 125 kHz and passive 868 MHz) was assessed under controlled conditions during May 2006, in the proximity of 41 medical devices (in 17 categories, 22 different manufacturers) at the Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Assessment took place according to an international test protocol. Incidents of EMI were classified according to a critical care adverse events scale as hazardous, significant, or light. In 123 EMI tests (3 per medical device), RFID induced 34 EMI incidents: 22 were classified as hazardous, 2 as significant, and 10 as light. The passive 868-MHz RFID signal induced a higher number of incidents (26 incidents in 41 EMI tests; 63%) compared with the active 125-kHz RFID signal (8 incidents in 41 EMI tests; 20%); difference 44% (95% confidence interval, 27%-53%; P < .001). The passive 868-MHz RFID signal induced EMI in 26 medical devices, including 8 that were also affected by the active 125-kHz RFID signal (26 in 41 devices; 63%). The median distance between the RFID reader and the medical device in all EMI incidents was 30 cm (range, 0.1-600 cm). In a controlled nonclinical setting, RFID induced potentially hazardous incidents in medical devices. Implementation of RFID in the critical care environment should require on-site EMI tests and updates of international standards.

  13. Radio frequency multicusp ion source development (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, K. N.

    1996-03-01

    The radio-frequency (rf) driven multicusp source was originally developed for use in the Superconducting Super Collider injector. It has been demonstrated that the source can meet the H- beam current and emittance requirements for this application. By employing a porcelain-coated antenna, a clean plasma discharge with very long-life operation can be achieved. Today, the rf source is used to generate both positive and negative hydrogen ion beams and has been tested in various particle accelerator laboratories throughout the world. Applications of this ion source have been extended to other fields such as ion beam lithography, oil-well logging, ion implantation, accelerator mass spectrometry and medical therapy machines. This paper summarizes the latest rf ion source technology and development at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  14. An improved integrally formed radio frequency quadrupole

    DOEpatents

    Abbott, S.R.

    1987-10-05

    An improved radio frequency quadrupole is provided having an elongate housing with an elongate central axis and top, bottom and two side walls symmetrically disposed about the axis, and vanes formed integrally with the walls, the vanes each having a cross-section at right angles to the central axis which tapers inwardly toward the axis to form electrode tips spaced from each other by predetermined distances. Each of the four walls, and the vanes integral therewith, is a separate structural element having a central lengthwise plane passing through the tip of the vane, the walls having flat mounting surfaces at right angles to and parallel to the control plane, respectively, which are butted together to position the walls and vane tips relative to each other. 4 figs.

  15. Low-radio-frequency eclipses of the redback pulsar J2215+5135 observed in the image plane with LOFAR.

    PubMed

    Broderick, J W; Fender, R P; Breton, R P; Stewart, A J; Rowlinson, A; Swinbank, J D; Hessels, J W T; Staley, T D; van der Horst, A J; Bell, M E; Carbone, D; Cendes, Y; Corbel, S; Eislöffel, J; Falcke, H; Grießmeier, J-M; Hassall, T E; Jonker, P; Kramer, M; Kuniyoshi, M; Law, C J; Markoff, S; Molenaar, G J; Pietka, M; Scheers, L H A; Serylak, M; Stappers, B W; Ter Veen, S; van Leeuwen, J; Wijers, R A M J; Wijnands, R; Wise, M W; Zarka, P

    2016-07-01

    The eclipses of certain types of binary millisecond pulsars (i.e. 'black widows' and 'redbacks') are often studied using high-time-resolution, 'beamformed' radio observations. However, they may also be detected in images generated from interferometric data. As part of a larger imaging project to characterize the variable and transient sky at radio frequencies <200 MHz, we have blindly detected the redback system PSR J2215+5135 as a variable source of interest with the Low-Frequency Array (LOFAR). Using observations with cadences of two weeks - six months, we find preliminary evidence that the eclipse duration is frequency dependent (∝ν -0.4 ), such that the pulsar is eclipsed for longer at lower frequencies, in broad agreement with beamformed studies of other similar sources. Furthermore, the detection of the eclipses in imaging data suggests an eclipsing medium that absorbs the pulsed emission, rather than scattering it. Our study is also a demonstration of the prospects of finding pulsars in wide-field imaging surveys with the current generation of low-frequency radio telescopes.

  16. T-gate aligned nanotube radio frequency transistors and circuits with superior performance.

    PubMed

    Che, Yuchi; Lin, Yung-Chen; Kim, Pyojae; Zhou, Chongwu

    2013-05-28

    In this paper, we applied self-aligned T-gate design to aligned carbon nanotube array transistors and achieved an extrinsic current-gain cutoff frequency (ft) of 25 GHz, which is the best on-chip performance for nanotube radio frequency (RF) transistors reported to date. Meanwhile, an intrinsic current-gain cutoff frequency up to 102 GHz is obtained, comparable to the best value reported for nanotube RF transistors. Armed with the excellent extrinsic RF performance, we performed both single-tone and two-tone measurements for aligned nanotube transistors at a frequency up to 8 GHz. Furthermore, we utilized T-gate aligned nanotube transistors to construct mixing and frequency doubling analog circuits operated in gigahertz frequency regime. Our results confirm the great potential of nanotube-based circuit applications and indicate that nanotube transistors are promising building blocks in high-frequency electronics.

  17. Micro-miniature radio frequency transmitter for communication and tracking applications

    SciTech Connect

    Crutcher, R.I.; Emery, M.S.; Falter, K.G.

    1996-12-31

    A micro-miniature radio frequency (rf) transmitter has been developed and demonstrated by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The objective of the rf transmitter development was to maximize the transmission distance while drastically shrinking the overall transmitter size, including antenna. Based on analysis and testing, an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) with a 16-GHz gallium arsenide (GaAs) oscillator and integrated on-chip antenna was designed and fabricated using microwave monolithic integrated circuit (MMIC) technology. Details of the development and the results of various field tests will be discussed. The rf transmitter is applicable to covert surveillance and tracking scenarios due to its smallmore » size of 2.2 x 2.2 mm, including the antenna. Additionally, the 16-GHz frequency is well above the operational range of consumer-grade radio scanners, providing a degree of protection from unauthorized interception. Variations of the transmitter design have been demonstrated for tracking and tagging beacons, transmission of digital data, and transmission of real-time analog video from a surveillance camera. Preliminary laboratory measurements indicate adaptability to direct-sequence spread-spectrum transmission, providing a low probability of intercept and/or detection. Concepts related to law enforcement applications will be presented.« less

  18. A Stretchable Radio-Frequency Strain Sensor Using Screen Printing Technology

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Heijun; Lim, Sungjoon

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a stretchable radio-frequency (RF) strain sensor fabricated with screen printing technology. The RF sensor is designed using a half-wavelength patch that resonates at 3.7 GHz. The resonant frequency is determined by the length of the patch, and it therefore changes when the patch is stretched. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is used to create the substrate, because of its stretchable and screen-printable surface. In addition, Dupont PE872 (Dupont, NC, American) silver conductive ink is used to create the stretchable conductive patterns. The sensor performance is demonstrated both with full-wave simulations and with measurements carried out on a fabricated sample. When the length of the patch sensor is increased by a 7.8% stretch, the resonant frequency decreases from 3.7 GHz to 3.43 GHz, evidencing a sensitivity of 3.43 × 107 Hz/%. Stretching the patch along its width does not change the resonant frequency. PMID:27827833

  19. LOFAR reveals the giant: a low-frequency radio continuum study of the outflow in the nearby FR I radio galaxy 3C 31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heesen, V.; Croston, J. H.; Morganti, R.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Stewart, A. J.; Best, P. N.; Broderick, J. W.; Brüggen, M.; Brunetti, G.; ChyŻy, K. T.; Harwood, J. J.; Haverkorn, M.; Hess, K. M.; Intema, H. T.; Jamrozy, M.; Kunert-Bajraszewska, M.; McKean, J. P.; Orrú, E.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Shimwell, T. W.; Shulevski, A.; White, G. J.; Wilcots, E. M.; Williams, W. L.

    2018-03-01

    We present a deep, low-frequency radio continuum study of the nearby Fanaroff-Riley class I (FR I) radio galaxy 3C 31 using a combination of LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR; 30-85 and 115-178 MHz), Very Large Array (VLA; 290-420 MHz), Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT; 609 MHz) and Giant Metre Radio Telescope (GMRT; 615 MHz) observations. Our new LOFAR 145-MHz map shows that 3C 31 has a largest physical size of 1.1 Mpc in projection, which means 3C 31 now falls in the class of giant radio galaxies. We model the radio continuum intensities with advective cosmic ray transport, evolving the cosmic ray electron population and magnetic field strength in the tails as functions of distance to the nucleus. We find that if there is no in situ particle acceleration in the tails, then decelerating flows are required that depend on radius r as v∝rβ (β ≈ -1). This then compensates for the strong adiabatic losses due to the lateral expansion of the tails. We are able to find self-consistent solutions in agreement with the entrainment model of Croston & Hardcastle, where the magnetic field provides ≈1/3 of the pressure needed for equilibrium with the surrounding intracluster medium. We obtain an advective time-scale of ≈190 Myr, which, if equated to the source age, would require an average expansion Mach number M ≈ 5 over the source lifetime. Dynamical arguments suggest that instead either the outer tail material does not represent the oldest jet plasma or else the particle ages are underestimated due to the effects of particle acceleration on large scales.

  20. Low-frequency 1/f noise in graphene devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balandin, Alexander A.

    2013-08-01

    Low-frequency noise with a spectral density that depends inversely on frequency has been observed in a wide variety of systems including current fluctuations in resistors, intensity fluctuations in music and signals in human cognition. In electronics, the phenomenon, which is known as 1/f noise, flicker noise or excess noise, hampers the operation of numerous devices and circuits, and can be a significant impediment to the development of practical applications from new materials. Graphene offers unique opportunities for studying 1/f noise because of its two-dimensional structure and widely tunable two-dimensional carrier concentration. The creation of practical graphene-based devices will also depend on our ability to understand and control the low-frequency noise in this material system. Here, the characteristic features of 1/f noise in graphene and few-layer graphene are reviewed, and the implications of such noise for the development of graphene-based electronics including high-frequency devices and sensors are examined.

  1. Low-frequency 1/f noise in graphene devices.

    PubMed

    Balandin, Alexander A

    2013-08-01

    Low-frequency noise with a spectral density that depends inversely on frequency has been observed in a wide variety of systems including current fluctuations in resistors, intensity fluctuations in music and signals in human cognition. In electronics, the phenomenon, which is known as 1/f noise, flicker noise or excess noise, hampers the operation of numerous devices and circuits, and can be a significant impediment to the development of practical applications from new materials. Graphene offers unique opportunities for studying 1/f noise because of its two-dimensional structure and widely tunable two-dimensional carrier concentration. The creation of practical graphene-based devices will also depend on our ability to understand and control the low-frequency noise in this material system. Here, the characteristic features of 1/f noise in graphene and few-layer graphene are reviewed, and the implications of such noise for the development of graphene-based electronics including high-frequency devices and sensors are examined.

  2. Technical specifications of low-frequency radio identification bedload tracking from field experiments: Differences in antennas, tags and operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnaud, F.; Piégay, H.; Vaudor, L.; Bultingaire, L.; Fantino, G.

    2015-06-01

    Low-frequency passive integrated transponders (PIT tags) have been increasingly used for tracking bedload transport in gravel-bed rivers. Prior studies have reported high recovery rates in small streams, while recovery rates remained much lower in large systems, in large part because of the limited reading distance of the tags (< 1 m). Some laboratory tests have identified controlling factors for detection ranges (tag and antenna size, tag orientation, burial, submergence, etc.). Beyond these tests, improving our understanding of PIT tag functioning, using different equipment within different environments, is still needed in order to select the most suitable device for each geomorphic context. We address this knowledge gap with technical specifications for a low-frequency radio identification (RFID) device by working for the first time with real fluvial constraints, i.e., the gravel deposits and the aquatic channel. The three-dimensional detection envelopes of two types of tags and three types of antennas are quantified as well as the effect of practices (interoperator bias, battery power) on the detection. The interoperator variability and the intertag variability can be considered as negligible. The influence of burial in dry and water-saturated sediment and the influence of water immersion are shown to be minor. Finally, we summarize practical implications for RFID bedload tracking through these experiments.

  3. Development of a Radio Frequency Space Environment Path Emulator for Evaluating Spacecraft Ranging Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Jason W.; Baldwin, Philip J.; Kurichh, Rishi; Naasz, Bo J.; Luquette, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    The Formation Flying Testbed (FFTB) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) provides a hardware-in-the-loop test environment for formation navigation and control. The facility is evolving as a modular, hybrid, dynamic simulation facility for end-to-end guidance, navigation and. control (GN&C) design and analysis of formation flying spacecraft. The core capabilities of the FFTB, as a platform for testing critical hardware and software algorithms in-the-loop, have expanded to include S-band Radio Frequency (RF) modems for inter-spacecraft communication and ranging. To enable realistic simulations that require RF ranging sensors for relative navigation, a mechanism is needed to buffer the RF signals exchanged between spacecraft that accurately emulates the dynamic environment through which the RF signals travel, including the effects of medium, moving platforms, and radiated power. The Path Emulator for RF Signals (PERFS), currently under development at NASA GSFC, provides this capability. The function and performance of a prototype device are presented.

  4. An amplitude modulated radio frequency plasma generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Fan; Li, Xiaoping; Liu, Yanming; Liu, Donglin; Yang, Min; Xie, Kai; Yao, Bo

    2017-04-01

    A glow discharge plasma generator and diagnostic system has been developed to study the effects of rapidly variable plasmas on electromagnetic wave propagation, mimicking the plasma sheath conditions encountered in space vehicle reentry. The plasma chamber is 400 mm in diameter and 240 mm in length, with a 300-mm-diameter unobstructed clear aperture. Electron densities produced are in the mid 1010 electrons/cm3. An 800 W radio frequency (RF) generator is capacitively coupled through an RF matcher to an internally cooled stainless steel electrode to form the plasma. The RF power is amplitude modulated by a waveform generator that operates at different frequencies. The resulting plasma contains electron density modulations caused by the varying power levels. A 10 GHz microwave horn antenna pair situated on opposite sides of the chamber serves as the source and detector of probe radiation. The microwave power feed to the source horn is split and one portion is sent directly to a high-speed recording oscilloscope. On mixing this with the signal from the pickup horn antenna, the plasma-induced phase shift between the two signals gives the path-integrated electron density with its complete time dependent variation. Care is taken to avoid microwave reflections and extensive shielding is in place to minimize electronic pickup. Data clearly show the low frequency modulation of the electron density as well as higher harmonics and plasma fluctuations.

  5. Developing hot air assisted radio frequency drying for in-shell Macadamia nuts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dehydration offers a means of preserving foods in a stable and safe condition as it reduces water activity and extends shelf-life of perishable agricultural products. The purpose of this study was to develop radio frequency (RF) drying protocols for in-shell macadamia nuts based on conventional hot ...

  6. High-Frequency Spin-Based Devices for Nanoscale Signal Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-20

    feedback on the devices in order to improve their spectral properties . Deliverable: Microwave signals without an Applied Field. We have successfully...additionally have the advantage of higher operating frequencies than the more conventional devices based on NiFe alloys. By combining several of...Output from a Co/Ni based STNO. Corresponds to approximately 20 nW, about 10 times larger than typical NiFe .device. 6 High-Frequency Spin-Based

  7. Numerical research of a 2D axial symmetry hybrid model for the radio-frequency ion thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenchen, WU; Xinfeng, SUN; Zuo, GU; Yanhui, JIA

    2018-04-01

    Since the high efficiency discharge is critical to the radio-frequency ion thruster (RIT), a 2D axial symmetry hybrid model has been developed to study the plasma evolution of RIT. The fluid method and the drift energy correction of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) are applied to the analysis of the RIT discharge. In the meantime, the PIC-MCC method is used to investigate the ion beam current extraction character for the plasma plume region. The beam current simulation results, with the hybrid model, agree well with the experimental results, and the error is lower than 11%, which shows the validity of the model. The further study shows there is an optimal ratio for the radio-frequency (RF) power and the beam current extraction power under the fixed RIT configuration. And the beam extraction efficiency will decrease when the discharge efficiency beyond a certain threshold (about 87 W). As the input parameters of the hybrid model are all the design values, it can be directly used to the optimum design for other kinds of RITs and radio-frequency ion sources.

  8. Ground and space observations of medium frequency auroral radio emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broughton, Matthew C.

    The auroral zone is a rich source of natural radio emissions that can be observed in space and at ground-level. By studying these waves, scientists can gain insight into the plasma processes that generate them and use the near-Earth space environment as a large-scale plasma physics laboratory. This thesis uses both ground-level and in situ observations to study two kinds of natural radio emissions. First, we report observations of a new kind of auroral radio emission. The waves have frequencies ranging from 1.3-2.2 MHz, bandwidths ranging from 90-272 kHz, and durations ranging from 16-355 s. Spectral analysis of the waveform data has revealed that the emission has a complex combination of at least three kinds of fine structures. For model auroral electron distributions, calculations indicate that Langmuir waves could be excited at frequencies consistent with observations. The remainder of the thesis discusses auroral medium frequency (MF) burst, an impulsive, broadband natural radio emission observed at ground-level within a few minutes of local substorm onset. LaBelle [2011] proposed that MF burst originates as Langmuir/Z-mode waves on the topside of the ionosphere that subsequently mode convert to L-mode waves and propagate to ground-level. Using continuous waveform measurements and combined observations with the Sondrestrom Incoherent Scatter Radar, we have performed two tests of this mechanism. The results of these tests are consistent with the mechanism described in LaBelle [2011]. A survey of 8,624 half-orbits of the DEMETER spacecraft has revealed 68 observations of bursty MF waves. We have compared the wave properties of these waves to those of MF burst and have found that although it is uncertain, the balance of the evidence suggests that the bursty MF waves observed with DEMETER are the same phenomenon as the ground-level MF burst. Finally, we have used numerical simulations to model both the fine structure of MF burst and to estimate the attenuation the

  9. Broadband linear high-voltage amplifier for radio frequency ion traps.

    PubMed

    Kuhlicke, Alexander; Palis, Klaus; Benson, Oliver

    2014-11-01

    We developed a linear high-voltage amplifier for small capacitive loads consisting of a high-voltage power supply and a transistor amplifier. With this cost-effective circuit including only standard parts sinusoidal signals with a few volts can be amplified to 1.7 kVpp over a usable frequency range at large-signal response spanning four orders of magnitude from 20 Hz to 100 kHz under a load of 10 pF. For smaller output voltages the maximum frequency shifts up to megahertz. We test different capacitive loads to probe the influence on the performance. The presented amplifier is sustained short-circuit proof on the output side, which is a significant advantage over other amplifier concepts. The amplifier can be used to drive radio frequency ion traps for single charged nano- and microparticles, which will be presented in brief.

  10. Frequency Domain Modeling of SAW Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, W. C.; Atkinson, G. M.

    2007-01-01

    New SAW sensors for integrated vehicle health monitoring of aerospace vehicles are being investigated. SAW technology is low cost, rugged, lightweight, and extremely low power. However, the lack of design tools for MEMS devices in general, and for Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) devices specifically, has led to the development of tools that will enable integrated design, modeling, simulation, analysis and automatic layout generation of SAW devices. A frequency domain model has been created. The model is mainly first order, but it includes second order effects from triple transit echoes. This paper presents the model and results from the model for a SAW delay line device.

  11. Diamond deposition using a planar radio frequency inductively coupled plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozeman, S. P.; Tucker, D. A.; Stoner, B. R.; Glass, J. T.; Hooke, W. M.

    1995-06-01

    A planar radio frequency inductively coupled plasma has been used to deposit diamond onto scratched silicon. This plasma source has been developed recently for use in large area semiconductor processing and holds promise as a method for scale up of diamond growth reactors. Deposition occurs in an annulus which coincides with the area of most intense optical emission from the plasma. Well-faceted diamond particles are produced when the substrate is immersed in the plasma.

  12. Surface processing for bulk niobium superconducting radio frequency cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, M. P.; Reid, T.

    2017-04-01

    The majority of niobium cavities for superconducting particle accelerators continue to be fabricated from thin-walled (2-4 mm) polycrystalline niobium sheet and, as a final step, require material removal from the radio frequency (RF) surface in order to achieve performance needed for use as practical accelerator devices. More recently bulk niobium in the form of, single- or large-grain slices cut from an ingot has become a viable alternative for some cavity types. In both cases the so-called damaged layer must be chemically etched or electrochemically polished away. The methods for doing this date back at least four decades, however, vigorous empirical studies on real cavities and more fundamental studies on niobium samples at laboratories worldwide have led to seemingly modest improvements that, when taken together, constitute a substantial advance in the reproducibility for surface processing techniques and overall cavity performance. This article reviews the development of niobium cavity surface processing, and summarizes results of recent studies. We place some emphasis on practical details for real cavity processing systems which are difficult to find in the literature but are, nonetheless, crucial for achieving the good and reproducible cavity performance. New approaches for bulk niobium surface treatment which aim to reduce cost or increase performance, including alternate chemical recipes, barrel polishing and ‘nitrogen doping’ of the RF surface, continue to be pursued and are closely linked to the requirements for surface processing.

  13. Surface processing for bulk niobium superconducting radio frequency cavities

    DOE PAGES

    Kelly, M. P.; Reid, T.

    2017-02-21

    The majority of niobium cavities for superconducting particle accelerators continue to be fabricated from thin-walled (2-4mm) polycrystalline niobium sheet and, as a final step, require material removal from the radio frequency (RF) surface in order to achieve performance needed for use as practical accelerator devices. More recently bulk niobium in the form of, single-or large-grain slices cut from an ingot has become a viable alternative for some cavity types. In both cases the so-called damaged layer must be chemically etched or electrochemically polished away. The methods for doing this date back at least four decades, however, vigorous empirical studies onmore » real cavities and more fundamental studies on niobium samples at laboratories worldwide have led to seemingly modest improvements that, when taken together, constitute a substantial advance in the reproducibility for surface processing techniques and overall cavity performance. This article reviews the development of niobium cavity surface processing, and summarizes results of recent studies. We place some emphasis on practical details for real cavity processing systems which are difficult to find in the literature but are, nonetheless, crucial for achieving the good and reproducible cavity performance. New approaches for bulk niobium surface treatment which aim to reduce cost or increase performance, including alternate chemical recipes, barrel polishing and 'nitrogen doping' of the RF surface, continue to be pursued and are closely linked to the requirements for surface processing.« less

  14. Surface processing for bulk niobium superconducting radio frequency cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, M. P.; Reid, T.

    The majority of niobium cavities for superconducting particle accelerators continue to be fabricated from thin-walled (2-4mm) polycrystalline niobium sheet and, as a final step, require material removal from the radio frequency (RF) surface in order to achieve performance needed for use as practical accelerator devices. More recently bulk niobium in the form of, single-or large-grain slices cut from an ingot has become a viable alternative for some cavity types. In both cases the so-called damaged layer must be chemically etched or electrochemically polished away. The methods for doing this date back at least four decades, however, vigorous empirical studies onmore » real cavities and more fundamental studies on niobium samples at laboratories worldwide have led to seemingly modest improvements that, when taken together, constitute a substantial advance in the reproducibility for surface processing techniques and overall cavity performance. This article reviews the development of niobium cavity surface processing, and summarizes results of recent studies. We place some emphasis on practical details for real cavity processing systems which are difficult to find in the literature but are, nonetheless, crucial for achieving the good and reproducible cavity performance. New approaches for bulk niobium surface treatment which aim to reduce cost or increase performance, including alternate chemical recipes, barrel polishing and 'nitrogen doping' of the RF surface, continue to be pursued and are closely linked to the requirements for surface processing.« less

  15. Time frequency requirements for radio interferometric earth physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, J. B.; Fliegel, H. F.

    1973-01-01

    Two systems of VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry) are now applicable to earth physics: an intercontinental baseline system using antennas of the NASA Deep Space Network, now observing at one-month intervals to determine UTI for spacecraft navigation; and a shorter baseline system called ARIES (Astronomical Radio Interferometric Earth Surveying), to be used to measure crustal movement in California for earthquake hazards estimation. On the basis of experience with the existing DSN system, a careful study has been made to estimate the time and frequency requirements of both the improved intercontinental system and of ARIES. Requirements for the two systems are compared and contrasted.

  16. Low temperature laser scanning microscopy of a superconducting radio-frequency cavity

    DOE PAGES

    Ciovati, G.; Anlage, Steven M.; Baldwin, C.; ...

    2012-03-16

    An apparatus was created to obtain, for the first time, 2D maps of the surface resistance of the inner surface of an operating superconducting radio-frequency niobium cavity by a low-temperature laser scanning microscopy technique. This allows identifying non-uniformities of the surface resistance with a spatial resolution of about one order of magnitude better than with earlier methods. A signal-to-noise ratio of about 10 dB was obtained with 240 mW laser power and 1 Hz modulation frequency. The various components of the apparatus, the experimental procedure and results are discussed in details in this contribution.

  17. mDARAL: A Multi-Radio Version for the DARAL Routing Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Estévez, Francisco José; Castillo-Secilla, José María; González, Jesús; Olivares, Joaquín; Glösekötter, Peter

    2017-02-09

    Smart Cities are called to change the daily life of human beings. This concept permits improving the efficiency of our cities in several areas such as the use of water, energy consumption, waste treatment, and mobility both for people as well as vehicles throughout the city. This represents an interconnected scenario in which thousands of embedded devices need to work in a collaborative way both for sensing and modifying the environment properly. Under this scenario, the majority of devices will use wireless protocols for communicating among them, representing a challenge for optimizing the use of the electromagnetic spectrum. When the density of deployed nodes increases, the competition for using the physical medium becomes harder and, in consequence, traffic collisions will be higher, affecting data-rates in the communication process. This work presents mDARAL , a multi-radio routing algorithm based on the Dynamic and Adaptive Radio Algorithm ( DARAL ), which has the capability of isolating groups of nodes into sub-networks. The nodes of each sub-network will communicate among them using a dedicated radio frequency, thus isolating the use of the radio channel to a reduced number of nodes. Each sub-network will have a master node with two physical radios, one for communicating with its neighbours and the other for being the contact point among its group and other sub-networks. The communication among sub-networks is done through master nodes in a dedicated radio frequency. The algorithm works to maximize the overall performance of the network through the distribution of the traffic messages into unoccupied frequencies. The obtained results show that mDARAL achieves great improvement in terms of the number of control messages necessary to connect a node to the network, convergence time and energy consumption during the connection phase compared to DARAL .

  18. mDARAL: A Multi-Radio Version for the DARAL Routing Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Estévez, Francisco José; Castillo-Secilla, José María; González, Jesús; Olivares, Joaquín; Glösekötter, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Smart Cities are called to change the daily life of human beings. This concept permits improving the efficiency of our cities in several areas such as the use of water, energy consumption, waste treatment, and mobility both for people as well as vehicles throughout the city. This represents an interconnected scenario in which thousands of embedded devices need to work in a collaborative way both for sensing and modifying the environment properly. Under this scenario, the majority of devices will use wireless protocols for communicating among them, representing a challenge for optimizing the use of the electromagnetic spectrum. When the density of deployed nodes increases, the competition for using the physical medium becomes harder and, in consequence, traffic collisions will be higher, affecting data-rates in the communication process. This work presents mDARAL, a multi-radio routing algorithm based on the Dynamic and Adaptive Radio Algorithm (DARAL), which has the capability of isolating groups of nodes into sub-networks. The nodes of each sub-network will communicate among them using a dedicated radio frequency, thus isolating the use of the radio channel to a reduced number of nodes. Each sub-network will have a master node with two physical radios, one for communicating with its neighbours and the other for being the contact point among its group and other sub-networks. The communication among sub-networks is done through master nodes in a dedicated radio frequency. The algorithm works to maximize the overall performance of the network through the distribution of the traffic messages into unoccupied frequencies. The obtained results show that mDARAL achieves great improvement in terms of the number of control messages necessary to connect a node to the network, convergence time and energy consumption during the connection phase compared to DARAL. PMID:28208760

  19. High Frequency Radio Observations of the Reactivated Magnetar PSR J1622-4950

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearlman, Aaron B.; Majid, Walid A.; Prince, Thomas A.; Horiuchi, Shinji; Kocz, Jonathon; Lazio, T. J. W.; Naudet, Charles J.

    2017-07-01

    Radio emission from the magnetar PSR J1622-4950 was recently reported to have resumed (Camilo et al., ATel #10346). We have carried out Target of Opportunity (ToO) radio observations of PSR J1622-4950 at S-band (2.3 GHz) and X-band (8.4 GHz) using the 70-m diameter Deep Space Network (DSN) radio dish (DSS-43) in Canberra, Australia. We report on our single polarization mode observations of PSR J1622-4950 spanning 5 hours on 23 May 2017 starting at 16:03:32 UTC. Pulsations were detected at a period of 4.327308(1) s. We measure a mean flux density of 3.8(8)/0.41(8) mJy at S/X-band, from which we derive a spectral index of -1.7(2). We note that PSR J1622-4950's spectral behavior is now consistent with the majority of pulsars, which have a mean spectral index of -1.8(2) (Maron et al. (2000)). The result by Maron et al. (2000) is used here because they included more high frequency pulsar spectra than other studies to characterize the underlying spectral index distribution over a wide frequency range. The mean flux density at S-band has now increased by an order of magnitude compared to previous flux density measurements by Scholz et al. (2017) during the magnetar's quiescent state. Furthermore, the spectral index has steepened compared to a nearly flat spectral index from flux density measurements between 1.4 and 24 GHz prior to the disappearance of the radio emission (Levin et al. (2010); Keith et al. (2011); Levin et al. (2012); Anderson et al. (2012); Scholz et al. (2017)). We are continuing to monitor changes in PSR J1622-4950's radio spectrum at both S-band and X-band. We thank the DSN (Deep Space Network) and Canberra Deep Space Communication Complex (CDSCC) teams for scheduling these observations.

  20. Optoelectronic Infrastructure for Radio Frequency and Optical Phased Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cai, Jianhong

    2015-01-01

    Optoelectronic integrated circuits offer radiation-hardened solutions for satellite systems in addition to improved size, weight, power, and bandwidth characteristics. ODIS, Inc., has developed optoelectronic integrated circuit technology for sensing and data transfer in phased arrays. The technology applies integrated components (lasers, amplifiers, modulators, detectors, and optical waveguide switches) to a radio frequency (RF) array with true time delay for beamsteering. Optical beamsteering is achieved by controlling the current in a two-dimensional (2D) array. In this project, ODIS integrated key components to produce common RF-optical aperture operation.

  1. Influence of bending strains on radio frequency characteristics of flexible microwave switches using single-crystal silicon nanomembranes on plastic substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Guoxuan; Yuan, Hao-Chih; Celler, George K.; Ma, Jianguo; Ma, Zhenqiang

    2011-10-01

    This letter presents radio frequency (RF) characterization of flexible microwave switches using single-crystal silicon nanomembranes (SiNMs) on plastic substrate under various uniaxial mechanical tensile bending strains. The flexible switches shows significant/negligible performance enhancement on strains under on/off states from dc to 10 GHz. Furthermore, an RF/microwave strain equivalent circuit model is developed and reveals the most influential factors, and un-proportional device parameters change with bending strains. The study demonstrates that flexible microwave single-crystal SiNM switches, as a simple circuit example towards the goal of flexible monolithic microwave integrated circuits, can be properly operated and modeled under mechanical bending conditions.

  2. Ultra-wideband technology radio frequency interference effects to GPS and interference scenario development : first interim report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-09-12

    In October, 1999, at the request of the Department of Transportation (DoT), the RTCA undertook an effort to investigate the radio frequency interference (RFI) environment in the vicinity of the new Global Positioning System (GPS) L5 frequency (1176.4...

  3. Radio frequency radiation (RFR) from TV and radio transmitters at a pilot region in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sirav, Bahriye; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2009-09-01

    For the last 30 y, the biological effects of non-ionising radiation (NIR: 0-300 GHz) have been a major topic in bioelectromagnetism. Since the number of radiofrequency (RF) systems operating in this frequency range has shown an incredible increase over the last few decades, the dangers of exposure to the fields generated thereby has become an important public health issue. In this study, the aim was to evaluate the level of RF electromagnetic radiation in Yenimahalle Sentepe Dededoruk Hill in Ankara, Turkey that is a multiple-transmitter site hosting 64 different TV and radio towers and one base station for mobile phone communication. The site has been of interest as it is nearby a residential community. Within the technical input data available on 31 of the radio and TV transmitters, the calculated radiation level in this particular region was found to be approximately four times higher than the permitted standards of Turkey, which are the same as the ICNIRP standards. Electromagnetic field measurement is needed in the site.

  4. Programmable Logic Device (PLD) Design Description for the Integrated Power, Avionics, and Software (iPAS) Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Radio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shalkhauser, Mary Jo W.

    2017-01-01

    The Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) provides a common, consistent framework for software defined radios (SDRs) to abstract the application software from the radio platform hardware. The STRS standard aims to reduce the cost and risk of using complex, configurable and reprogrammable radio systems across NASA missions. To promote the use of the STRS architecture for future NASA advanced exploration missions, NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) developed an STRS compliant SDR on a radio platform used by the Advance Exploration System program at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in their Integrated Power, Avionics, and Software (iPAS) laboratory. At the conclusion of the development, the software and hardware description language (HDL) code was delivered to JSC for their use in their iPAS test bed to get hands-on experience with the STRS standard, and for development of their own STRS Waveforms on the now STRS compliant platform.The iPAS STRS Radio was implemented on the Reconfigurable, Intelligently-Adaptive Communication System (RIACS) platform, currently being used for radio development at JSC. The platform consists of a Xilinx ML605 Virtex-6 FPGA board, an Analog Devices FMCOMMS1-EBZ RF transceiver board, and an Embedded PC (Axiomtek eBox 620-110-FL) running the Ubuntu 12.4 operating system. Figure 1 shows the RIACS platform hardware. The result of this development is a very low cost STRS compliant platform that can be used for waveform developments for multiple applications.The purpose of this document is to describe the design of the HDL code for the FPGA portion of the iPAS STRS Radio particularly the design of the FPGA wrapper and the test waveform.

  5. Causes and mitigation of radio frequency (RF) blackout during reentry of reusable launch vehicles

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2007-01-26

    The Aerospace Corporation was tasked to assess radio frequency (RF) blackout phenomena caused by plasma generation around vehicles during reentry and presently known methodologies for mitigation of this condition inhibiting communications. The purpos...

  6. Detection of Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances by Medium Frequency Doppler Sounding Using AM Radio Transmissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilcote, M. A.; Labelle, J. W.; Lind, F. D.; Coster, A. J.; Galkin, I. A.; Miller, E.; Weatherwax, A. T.

    2013-12-01

    Nighttime traveling ionosphere disturbances (TIDs) propagating in the lower F region of the ionosphere were detected from time variations in the Doppler shifts of commercial AM radio broadcast stations. Three separately deployed receivers, components of the Intercepted Signals for Ionospheric Science (ISIS) Array software radio instrumentation network, recorded signals from two radio stations during eleven nights in March-April, 2012. Combining these measurements established that variations in the frequencies of the received signals, with amplitudes up to a few tenths of a Hertz, resulted from Doppler shifts produced by the ionosphere. At times, TIDs were detected as large amplitude variations in the Doppler shift with approximately 40-minute period correlated across the array. For one study interval, 0000-0400 UT on April 13, 2012, simultaneous GPS-TEC, digisonde, and superDARN coherent backscatter radar measurements confirmed the detection of TIDs with the same period. Detection of the AM signals at widely spaced receivers allowed the phase velocity and wavelength of the TIDs to be inferred, with some limitations due to differing reflection heights for the different frequencies. These measurements will be compared to phase velocities and wavelengths determined from combining an array of GPS receivers; discrepancies due to the altitude sensitivity of the techniques or other effects will be discussed. These results demonstrate that AM radio signals can be used for detection of nighttime TIDs.

  7. Mechanical properties of niobium radio-frequency cavities

    DOE PAGES

    Ciovati, Gianluigi; Dhakal, Pashupati; Matalevich, Joseph R.; ...

    2015-07-02

    Radio-frequency cavities made of bulk niobium are one of the components used in modern particle accelerators. The mechanical stability is an important aspect of cavity design, which typically relies on finite-element analysis simulations using material properties from tensile tests on sample. This contribution presents the results of strain and resonant frequency measurements as a function of a uniform pressure up to 722 kPa, applied to single-cell niobium cavities with different crystallographic structure, purity and treatments. In addition, burst tests of high-purity multi-cell cavities with different crystallographic structure have been conducted up to the tensile strength of the material. Finite-element analysismore » of the single-cell cavity geometry is in good agreement with the observed behavior in the elastic regime assuming a Young's modulus value of 88.5 GPa and a Poisson's ratio of 0.4, regardless of crystallographic structure, purity or treatment. However, the measured yield strength and tensile strength depend on crystallographic structure, material purity and treatment. In particular, the results from this study show that the mechanical properties of niobium cavities with large crystals are comparable to those of cavities made of fine-grain niobium.« less

  8. Generating multiple orbital angular momentum vortex beams using a metasurface in radio frequency domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shixing; Li, Long; Shi, Guangming; Zhu, Cheng; Shi, Yan

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, an electromagnetic metasurface is designed, fabricated, and experimentally demonstrated to generate multiple orbital angular momentum (OAM) vortex beams in radio frequency domain. Theoretical formula of compensated phase-shift distribution is deduced and used to design the metasurface to produce multiple vortex radio waves in different directions with different OAM modes. The prototype of a practical configuration of square-patch metasurface is designed, fabricated, and measured to validate the theoretical analysis at 5.8 GHz. The simulated and experimental results verify that multiple OAM vortex waves can be simultaneously generated by using a single electromagnetic metasurface. The proposed method paves an effective way to generate multiple OAM vortex waves in radio and microwave wireless communication applications.

  9. 47 CFR 5.403 - Frequencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frequencies. 5.403 Section 5.403 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EXPERIMENTAL RADIO SERVICE Medical Testing Experimental... in § 15.205(a) of this chapter if the device under test is designed to comply with all applicable...

  10. 47 CFR 5.403 - Frequencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frequencies. 5.403 Section 5.403 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EXPERIMENTAL RADIO SERVICE Medical Testing Experimental... in § 15.205(a) of this chapter if the device under test is designed to comply with all applicable...

  11. Comparison of capacitive and radio frequency resonator sensors for monitoring parallelized droplet microfluidic production.

    PubMed

    Conchouso, David; McKerricher, Garret; Arevalo, Arpys; Castro, David; Shamim, Atif; Foulds, Ian G

    2016-08-16

    Scaled-up production of microfluidic droplets, through the parallelization of hundreds of droplet generators, has received a lot of attention to bring novel multiphase microfluidics research to industrial applications. However, apart from droplet generation, other significant challenges relevant to this goal have never been discussed. Examples include monitoring systems, high-throughput processing of droplets and quality control procedures among others. In this paper, we present and compare capacitive and radio frequency (RF) resonator sensors as two candidates that can measure the dielectric properties of emulsions in microfluidic channels. By placing several of these sensors in a parallelization device, the stability of the droplet generation at different locations can be compared, and potential malfunctions can be detected. This strategy enables for the first time the monitoring of scaled-up microfluidic droplet production. Both sensors were prototyped and characterized using emulsions with droplets of 100-150 μm in diameter, which were generated in parallelization devices at water-in-oil volume fractions (φ) between 11.1% and 33.3%.Using these sensors, we were able to measure accurately increments as small as 2.4% in the water volume fraction of the emulsions. Although both methods rely on the dielectric properties of the emulsions, the main advantage of the RF resonator sensors is the fact that they can be designed to resonate at multiple frequencies of the broadband transmission line. Consequently with careful design, two or more sensors can be parallelized and read out by a single signal. Finally, a comparison between these sensors based on their sensitivity, readout cost and simplicity, and design flexibility is also discussed.

  12. Occupational exposure of personnel operating military radio equipment: measurements and simulation.

    PubMed

    Paljanos, Annamaria; Miclaus, Simona; Munteanu, Calin

    2015-09-01

    Technical literature provides numerous studies concerning radiofrequency exposure measurements for various radio communication devices, but there are few studies related to exposure of personnel operating military radio equipment. In order to evaluate exposure and identify cases when safety requirements are not entirely met, both measurements and simulations are needed for accurate results. Moreover, given the technical characteristics of the radio devices used in the military, personnel mainly operate in the near-field region so both measurements and simulation becomes more complex. Measurements were made in situ using a broadband personal exposimeter equipped with two isotropic probes for both electric and magnetic components of the field. The experiment was designed for three different operating frequencies of the same radio equipment, while simulations were made in FEKO software using hybrid numerical methods to solve complex electromagnetic field problems. The paper aims to discuss the comparative results of the measurements and simulation, as well as comparing them to reference levels specified in military or civilian radiofrequency exposure standards.

  13. Equivalent circuit of radio frequency-plasma with the transformer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, K.; Mochizuki, S.; Ohta, M.; Yasumoto, M.; Lettry, J.; Mattei, S.; Hatayama, A.

    2014-02-01

    LINAC4 H- source is radio frequency (RF) driven type source. In the RF system, it is required to match the load impedance, which includes H- source, to that of final amplifier. We model RF plasma inside the H- source as circuit elements using transformer model so that characteristics of the load impedance become calculable. It has been shown that the modeling based on the transformer model works well to predict the resistance and inductance of the plasma.

  14. Radio-frequency-modulated Rydberg states in a vapor cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, S. A.; Anderson, D. A.; Raithel, G.

    2016-05-01

    We measure strong radio-frequency (RF) electric fields using rubidium Rydberg atoms prepared in a room-temperature vapor cell as field sensors. Electromagnetically induced transparency is employed as an optical readout. We RF-modulate the 60{{{S}}}1/2 and 58{{{D}}}5/2 Rydberg states with 50 and 100 MHz fields, respectively. For weak to moderate RF fields, the Rydberg levels become Stark-shifted, and sidebands appear at even multiples of the driving frequency. In high fields, the adjacent hydrogenic manifold begins to intersect the shifted levels, providing rich spectroscopic structure suitable for precision field measurements. A quantitative description of strong-field level modulation and mixing of S and D states with hydrogenic states is provided by Floquet theory. Additionally, we estimate the shielding of DC electric fields in the interior of the glass vapor cell.

  15. Effects of GSM modulated radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation on permeability of blood-brain barrier in male & female rats.

    PubMed

    Sırav, Bahriye; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2016-09-01

    With the increased use of mobile phones, their biological and health effects have become more important. Usage of mobile phones near the head increases the possibility of effects on brain tissue. This study was designed to investigate the possible effects of pulse modulated 900MHz and 1800MHz radio-frequency radiation on the permeability of blood-brain barrier of rats. Study was performed with 6 groups of young adult male and female wistar albino rats. The permeability of blood-brain barrier to intravenously injected evans blue dye was quantitatively examined for both control and radio-frequency radiarion exposed groups. For male groups; Evans blue content in the whole brain was found to be 0.08±0.01mg% in the control, 0.13±0.03mg% in 900MHz exposed and 0.26±0.05mg% in 1800MHz exposed animals. In both male radio-frequency radiation exposed groups, the permeability of blood-brain barrier found to be increased with respect to the controls (p<0.01). 1800MHz pulse modulated radio-frequency radiation exposure was found more effective on the male animals (p<0.01). For female groups; dye contents in the whole brains were 0.14±0.01mg% in the control, 0.24±0.03mg% in 900MHz exposed and 0.14±0.02mg% in 1800MHz exposed animals. No statistical variance found between the control and 1800MHz exposed animals (p>0.01). However 900MHz pulse modulated radio-frequency exposure was found effective on the permeability of blood-brain barrier of female animals. Results have shown that 20min pulse modulated radio-frequency radiation exposure of 900MHz and 1800MHz induces an effect and increases the permeability of blood-brain barrier of male rats. For females, 900MHz was found effective and it could be concluded that this result may due to the physiological differences between female and male animals. The results of this study suggest that mobile phone radation could lead to increase the permeability of blood-brain barrier under non-thermal exposure levels. More studies are needed

  16. Radio frequency phototube and optical clock: High resolution, high rate and highly stable single photon timing technique

    SciTech Connect

    Margaryan, Amur

    2011-10-01

    A new timing technique for single photons based on the radio frequency phototube and optical clock or femtosecond optical frequency comb generator is proposed. The technique has a 20 ps resolution for single photons, is capable of operating with MHz frequencies and achieving 10 fs instability level.

  17. A graphene based frequency quadrupler

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chuantong; Huang, Beiju; Mao, Xurui; Zhang, Zanyun; Zhang, Zan; Geng, Zhaoxin; Xue, Ping; Chen, Hongda

    2017-01-01

    Benefit from exceptional electrical transport properties, graphene receives worldwide attentions, especially in the domain of high frequency electronics. Due to absence of effective bandgap causing off-state the device, graphene material is extraordinarily suitable for analog circuits rather than digital applications. With this unique ambipolar behavior, graphene can be exploited and utilized to achieve high performance for frequency multipliers. Here, dual-gated graphene field-effect transistors have been firstly used to achieve frequency quadrupling. Two Dirac points in the transfer curves of the designed GFETs can be observed by tuning top-gate voltages, which is essential to generate the fourth harmonic. By applying 200 kHz sinusoid input, arround 50% of the output signal radio frequency power is concentrated at the desired frequency of 800 kHz. Additionally, in suitable operation areas, our devices can work as high performance frequency doublers and frequency triplers. Considered both simple device structure and potential superhigh carrier mobility of graphene material, graphene-based frequency quadruplers may have lots of superiorities in regards to ultrahigh frequency electronic applications in near future. Moreover, versatility of carbon material system is far-reaching for realization of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor compatible electrically active devices. PMID:28418013

  18. [Radio and microwave frequency radiation and health--an analysis of the literature].

    PubMed

    Röösli, M; Rapp, R; Braun-Fahrländer, C

    2003-06-01

    This paper gives an overview of present scientific knowledge in health research on the effects from radio and microwave frequency radiation, at levels to which the general population is typically exposed. The review is based on human experimental and epidemiological studies investigating the effects of radiation in the frequency range between 100 kHz and 10 GHz. The relevant studies were identified via systematic searches of the databases Medline and ISI Web of Science. The review concludes that the existing scientific knowledge base is too limited to draw final conclusions on the health risk from exposure in the low-dose range. Only few studies have investigated the effect of long-term exposure on the general population in the normal environment. Accordingly, little can be predicted regarding long-term health risks. Various studies observed an increased risk for tumours in the hematopoietic and lymphatic tissue of people living in the proximity of TV and radio broadcast transmitters. However, methodological limitations to these studies have been identified and their findings are controversial. In studies of a possible association between brain tumours and mobile phone use, the average period mobile phones use was short compared to the known latency period of brain tumours. Although these studies did not establish an overall increased risk of brain tumours associated with mobile phone use, there were some indications of an association. Immediate effects associated with mobile phone use have been observed in human experimental studies that cannot be explained by conventional thermal mechanisms. The observed effects are within the normal physiological range and are therefore hard to interpret with respect to an increased risk to health. However, it can be concluded that mechanisms other than the established thermal mechanisms exist. Because of the present fragmentary scientific database, a precautionary approach when dealing with radio and microwave frequency

  19. Do radio frequencies of medical instruments common in the operating room interfere with near-infrared spectroscopy signals?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadgan, Babak; Molavi, Behnam; Reid, W. D.; Dumont, Guy; Macnab, Andrew J.

    2010-02-01

    Background: Medical and diagnostic applications of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) are increasing, especially in operating rooms (OR). Since NIRS is an optical technique, radio frequency (RF) interference from other instruments is unlikely to affect the raw optical data, however, NIRS data processing and signal output could be affected. Methods: We investigated the potential for three common OR instruments: an electrical cautery, an orthopaedic drill and an imaging system, to generate electromagnetic interference (EMI) that could potentially influence NIRS signals. The time of onset and duration of every operation of each device was recorded during surgery. To remove the effects of slow changing physiological variables, we first used a lowpass filter and then selected 2 windows with variable lengths around the moment of device onset. For each instant, variances (energy) and means of the signals in the 2 windows were compared. Results: Twenty patients were studied during ankle surgery. Analysis shows no statistically significant difference in the means and variance of the NIRS signals (p < 0.01) during operation of any of the three devices for all surgeries. Conclusion: This method confirms the instruments evaluated caused no significant interference. NIRS can potentially be used without EMI in clinical environments such as the OR.

  20. The Frequency Evolution of Interstellar Pulse Broadening from Radio Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löhmer, O.; Mitra, D.; Gupta, Y.; Kramer, M.; Ahuja, A.

    2004-10-01

    Using radio pulsars as probes of the interstellar medium (ISM) we study the frequency evolution of interstellar scattering. The frequency dependence of scatter broadening times, τsc, for most of the pulsars with low and intermediate dispersion measures (DM ≲ 400 pc cm-3) is consistent with the Kolmogorov spectrum of electron density fluctuations in a turbulent medium. In contrast, the measured τsc's for highly dispersed pulsars in the central region of the Galaxy are larger than expected and show a spectrum which is flatter than the Kolmogorov law. We analyse the first measurements of spectral indices of scatter broadening over the full known DM range and discuss possible explanations for the anomalous scattering behaviour along peculiar lines of sight (LOS).

  1. Radio frequency sheaths in an oblique magnetic field

    DOE PAGES

    Myra, James R.; D'Ippolito, Daniel A.

    2015-06-01

    The physics of radio-frequency (rf) sheaths near a conducting surface is studied for plasmas immersed in a magnetic field that makes an oblique angle θ with the surface. A set of one-dimensional equations is developed that describe the dynamics of the time-dependent magnetic presheath and non-neutral Debye sheath. The model employs Maxwell-Boltzmann electrons, and the magnetization and mobility of the ions is determined by the magnetic field strength, and wave frequency, respectively. The angle, θ assumed to be large enough to insure an electron-poor sheath, is otherwise arbitrary. Concentrating on the ion-cyclotron range of frequencies, the equations are solved numericallymore » to obtain the rectified (dc) voltage, the rf voltage across the sheath and the rf current flowing through the sheath. As an application of this model, the sheath voltage-current relation is used to obtain the rf sheath impedance, which in turn gives an rf sheath boundary condition for the electric field at the sheath-plasma interface that can be used in rf wave codes. In general the impedance has both resistive and capacitive contributions, and generalizes previous sheath boundary condition models. The resistive part contributes to parasitic power dissipation at the wall.« less

  2. Propagation of radio frequency waves through density fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valvis, S. I.; Papagiannis, P.; Papadopoulos, A.; Hizanidis, K.; Glytsis, E.; Bairaktaris, F.; Zisis, A.; Tigelis, I.; Ram, A. K.

    2017-10-01

    On their way to the core of a tokamak plasma, radio frequency (RF) waves, excited in the vacuum region, have to propagate through a variety of density fluctuations in the edge region. These fluctuations include coherent structures, like blobs that can be field aligned or not, as well as turbulent and filamentary structures. We have been studying the effect of fluctuations on RF propagation using both theoretical (analytical) and computational models. The theoretical results are being compared with those obtained by two different numerical codes ``a Finite Difference Frequency Domain code and the commercial COMSOL package. For plasmas with arbitrary distribution of coherent and turbulent fluctuations, we have formulated an effective dielectric permittivity of the edge plasma. This permittivity tensor is then used in numerical simulations to study the effect of multi-scale turbulence on RF waves. We not only consider plane waves but also Gaussian beams in the electron cyclotron and lower hybrid range of frequencies. The analytical theory and results from simulations on the propagation of RF waves will be presented. Supported in part by the Hellenic National Programme on Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion associated with the EUROfusion Consortium and by DoE Grant DE-FG02-91ER-54109.

  3. Transition from Townsend to radio-frequency homogeneous dielectric barrier discharge in a roll-to-roll configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Bazinette, R.; SIAME, Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour, Pau; Paillol, J.

    The aim of this paper is to better understand the transition from Townsend to radio-frequency homogeneous dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) at atmospheric pressure. The study is done in an Ar/NH{sub 3} Penning mixture for an electrode configuration adapted to roll-to-roll plasma surface treatment. The study was led in a frequency range running from 50 kHz up to 8.3 MHz leading to different DBD modes with a 1 mm gas gap: Glow (GDBD), Townsend (TDBD), and Radio-frequency (RF-DBD). In the frequency range between TDBD and RF-DBD, from 250 kHz to 2.3 MHz, additional discharges are observed outside the inter-electrode gas gap. Because each high voltagemore » electrode are inside a dielectric barrel, these additional discharges occur on the side of the barrel where the gap is larger. They disappear when the RF-DBD mode is attained in the 1 mm inter-electrode gas gap, i.e., for frequencies equal or higher than 3 MHz. Fast imaging and optical emission spectroscopy show that the additional discharges are radio-frequency DBDs while the inter-electrode discharge is a TDBD. The RF-DBD discharge mode is attained when electrons drift becomes low enough compared to the voltage oscillation frequency to limit electron loss at the anode. To check that the additional discharges are due to a larger gas gap and a lower voltage amplitude, the TDBD/RF-DBD transition is investigated as a function of the gas gap and the applied voltage frequency and amplitude. Results show that the increase in the frequency at constant gas gap or in the gas gap at constant frequency allows to obtain RF-DBD instead of TDBD. At low frequency and large gap, the increase in the applied voltage allows RF-DBD/TDBD transition. As a consequence, an electrode configuration allowing different gap values is a solution to successively have different discharge modes with the same applied voltage.« less

  4. Looking for radio waves with a simple radio wave detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto (Stray Cats), Norihiro

    2011-11-01

    I created a simple device that can detect radio waves in a classroom. In physics classes I tell students that we live in a sea of radio waves. They come from TV, radio, and cell phone signals as well as other sources. Students don't realize this because those electromagnetic waves are invisible. So, I wondered if I could come up with a way to detect the waves and help students to understand them better. Electromagnetic wave meters, which measure intensity of radio waves quantitatively, are commercially available. However, to students most of these are black boxes, and at the introductory level it is more effective to detect radio waves in a simpler way. This paper describes my device and how I have used it in my classes.

  5. Generating multiple orbital angular momentum vortex beams using a metasurface in radio frequency domain

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Shixing; Li, Long, E-mail: lilong@mail.xidian.edu.cn, E-mail: gmshi@xidian.edu.cn; Shi, Guangming, E-mail: lilong@mail.xidian.edu.cn, E-mail: gmshi@xidian.edu.cn

    In this paper, an electromagnetic metasurface is designed, fabricated, and experimentally demonstrated to generate multiple orbital angular momentum (OAM) vortex beams in radio frequency domain. Theoretical formula of compensated phase-shift distribution is deduced and used to design the metasurface to produce multiple vortex radio waves in different directions with different OAM modes. The prototype of a practical configuration of square-patch metasurface is designed, fabricated, and measured to validate the theoretical analysis at 5.8 GHz. The simulated and experimental results verify that multiple OAM vortex waves can be simultaneously generated by using a single electromagnetic metasurface. The proposed method paves an effectivemore » way to generate multiple OAM vortex waves in radio and microwave wireless communication applications.« less

  6. Low Frequency Radio-wave System for subsurface investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldovieri, Francesco; Gennarelli, Gianluca; Kudelya, Anatoliy; Denisov, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Low frequency radio-wave methods (RWM) allow subsurface investigations in terms of lithological structure characterization, detection of filtration flows of ground water, anthropogenic and natural cavities. In this contribution, we present a RWM that exploits two coils working at frequencies of few MHz as transmitting and receiving antennas. The basic principle of this inductive method is as follows. The primary alternating electromagnetic field radiated by the transmitting coil induces eddy currents in the subsurface mainly due to the conductivity anomalies. These eddy currents generate a secondary (scattered) magnetic field which overlaps to the incident magnetic field and is detected by the receiving coil. Despite the simple operation of the system, the complexity of the electromagnetic scattering phenomenon at hand must be properly modeled to achieve adequate performance. Therefore, an advanced data processing technique, belonging to the class of the inverse scattering approaches, has been developed by the authors in a full 3D geometry. The proposed method allows to deal with data collected on a scanning surface under a dipole inductive profiling (DIP) modality, where the transmitting/receiving coils are moved simultaneously with fixed offset (multi-bistatic configuration). The hardware, called Dipole Inductive Radio-wave System (DIRS), is composed by an electronic unit and transmitting and receiving loop antennas radiating at frequencies of few MHz (2-4 MHz), which are installed on theodolite supports. The compactness of DIRS and its robustness to external electromagnetic interference offers the possibility to perform geophysical research up to the depth of some tens of meters and under several types of ground and water surfaces, vegetation, and weather conditions. The light weight and small size of system (the single antenna with support weights about 5 kg and has a diameter of 0.5m) allows two operators to perform geophysical research without disturbing the

  7. FIBER AND INTEGRATED OPTICS: Radio-frequency electrooptic modulation in optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulyuk, A. N.

    1992-10-01

    The electrooptic interaction in single-mode optical fibers with both linear and circular birefringe is analyzed. In most cases, a large interaction length imposes a limit on the modulation frequency. A circular birefringence in an optical fiber may lead to an effective coupling of polarization normal modes if a phase-matching condition is satisfied. Through an appropriate choice of polarization states of the light at the entrance and exit of the device, one can achieve a polarization modulation or a frequency shift of the light. There are possible applications in rf polarization modulators, devices for shifting the frequency of light, and detectors of electromagnetic fields.

  8. Synchronous radio-frequency FM signal generator using direct digital synthesizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arablu, Masoud; Kafashi, Sajad; Smith, Stuart T.

    2018-04-01

    A novel Radio-Frequency Frequency-Modulated (RF-FM) signal generation method is introduced and a prototype circuit developed to evaluate its functionality and performance. The RF-FM signal generator uses a modulated, voltage-controlled time delay to correspondingly modulate the phase of a 10 MHz sinusoidal reference signal. This modulated reference signal is, in turn, used to clock a Direct Digital Synthesizer (DDS) circuit resulting in an FM signal at its output. The modulating signal that is input to the voltage-controlled time delay circuit is generated by another DDS that is synchronously clocked by the same 10 MHz sine wave signal before modulation. As a consequence, all of the digital components are timed from a single sine wave oscillator that forms the basis of all timing. The resultant output signal comprises a center, or carrier, frequency plus a series of phase-synchronized sidebands having exact integer harmonic frequency separation. In this study, carrier frequencies ranging from 10 MHz to 70 MHz are generated with modulation frequencies ranging from 10 kHz to 300 kHz. The captured spectra show that the FM signal characteristics, amplitude and phase, of the sidebands and the modulation depth are consistent with the Jacobi-Anger expansion for modulated harmonic signals.

  9. Non-Destructive Testing with Atmospheric Pressure Radio-Frequency Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, A.; Andarawis, E.

    2007-03-01

    We summarize our recent work using radio-frequency (RF) atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) for non-destructive evaluation (NDE), specifically for: (1) Clearance sensing (0-5mm) on rotating components, and (2) Generation of broadband ultrasound in air at 900kHz. RF-APP showed potential in both of these common NDE requirements, but further work is required to better characterize and optimize the performance of the new techniques. Application of RF-APP to other NDE disciplines, such as plasma spectroscopy and gas flow measurement, is also likely to be advantageous, especially in harsh environments where existing approaches are prohibitively expensive or complex.

  10. Medical Equipment Management through the Use of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    Report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE: Medical Equipment Management Through the Use of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) 6. AUTHOR( S ) Joaquín A...Sánchez, Sergio Chávez, Richard A. Nixon 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA...93943-5000 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) N/A 10. SPONSORING

  11. Characterization of a commercial software defined radio as high frequency lock-in amplifier for FM spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mahnke, Peter

    2018-01-01

    A commercial software defined radio based on a Rafael Micro R820T2 tuner is characterized for the use as a high-frequency lock-in amplifier for frequency modulation spectroscopy. The sensitivity limit of the receiver is 1.6 nV/Hz. Frequency modulation spectroscopy is demonstrated on the 6406.69 cm -1 absorption line of carbon monoxide.

  12. Characterization of a commercial software defined radio as high frequency lock-in amplifier for FM spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahnke, Peter

    2018-01-01

    A commercial software defined radio based on a Rafael Micro R820T2 tuner is characterized for the use as a high-frequency lock-in amplifier for frequency modulation spectroscopy. The sensitivity limit of the receiver is 1.6 nV/√{Hz }. Frequency modulation spectroscopy is demonstrated on the 6406.69 cm-1 absorption line of carbon monoxide.

  13. ISM band to U-NII band frequency transverter and method of frequency transversion

    DOEpatents

    Stepp, Jeffrey David [Grandview, MO; Hensley, Dale [Grandview, MO

    2006-04-04

    A frequency transverter (10) and method for enabling bi-frequency dual-directional transfer of digitally encoded data on an RF carrier by translating between a crowded or otherwise undesirable first frequency band, such as the 2.4 GHz ISM band, and a less-crowded or otherwise desirable second frequency band, such as the 5.0 GHz-6.0 GHz U-NII band. In a preferred embodiment, the transverter (10) connects between an existing data radio (11) and its existing antenna (30), and comprises a bandswitch (12); an input RF isolating device (14); a transmuter (16); a converter (18); a dual output local oscillator (20); an output RF isolating device (22); and an antenna (24) tuned to the second frequency band. The bandswitch (12) allows for bypassing the transverter (10), thereby facilitating its use with legacy systems. The transmuter (14) and converter (16) are adapted to convert to and from, respectively, the second frequency band.

  14. ISM band to U-NII band frequency transverter and method of frequency transversion

    DOEpatents

    Stepp, Jeffrey David [Grandview, MO; Hensley, Dale [Grandview, MO

    2006-09-12

    A frequency transverter (10) and method for enabling bi-frequency dual-directional transfer of digitally encoded data on an RF carrier by translating between a crowded or otherwise undesirable first frequency band, such as the 2.4 GHz ISM band, and a less-crowded or otherwise desirable second frequency band, such as the 5.0 GHz 6.0 GHz U-NII band. In a preferred embodiment, the transverter (10) connects between an existing data radio (11) and its existing antenna (30), and comprises a bandswitch (12); an input RF isolating device (14); a transmuter (16); a converter (18); a dual output local oscillator (20); an output RF isolating device (22); and an antenna (24) tuned to the second frequency band. The bandswitch (12) allows for bypassing the transverter (10), thereby facilitating its use with legacy systems. The transmuter (14) and converter (16) are adapted to convert to and from, respectively, the second frequency band.

  15. Lightning detection from Space Science and Applications Team review. [optical and radio frequency sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Few, A. A., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The various needs for lightning data that exist among potential users of satellite lightning data were identified and systems were defined which utilize the optical and radio frequency radiations from lightning to serve as the satellite based lightning mapper. Three teams worked interactively with NASA to develop a system concept. An assessment of the results may be summarized as follows: (1) a small sensor system can be easily designed to operate on a geostationary satellite that can provide the bulk of the real time user requirements; (2) radio frequency systems in space may be feasible but would be much larger and more costly; RF technology for this problem lags the optical technology by years; and (3) a hybrid approach (optical in space and RF on the ground) would provide the most complete information but is probably unreasonably complex and costly at this time.

  16. Monolithic device for modelocking and stabilization of frequency combs.

    PubMed

    Lee, C-C; Hayashi, Y; Silverman, K L; Feldman, A; Harvey, T; Mirin, R P; Schibli, T R

    2015-12-28

    We demonstrate a device that integrates a III-V semiconductor saturable absorber mirror with a graphene electro-optic modulator, which provides a monolithic solution to modelocking and noise suppression in a frequency comb. The device offers a pure loss modulation bandwidth exceeding 5 MHz and only requires a low voltage driver. This hybrid device provides not only compactness and simplicity in laser cavity design, but also small insertion loss, compared to the previous metallic-mirror-based modulators. We believe this work paves the way to portable and fieldable phase-coherent frequency combs.

  17. Radio Frequency Compatibility of an RFID Tag on Glideslope Navigation Receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Mielnik, John J.

    2008-01-01

    A process is demonstrated to show compatibility between a radio frequency identification (RFID) tag and an aircraft glideslope (GS) radio receiver. The particular tag chosen was previously shown to have significant peak spurious emission levels that far exceeded the emission limits in the GS aeronautical band. The spurious emissions are emulated in the study by capturing the RFID fundamental transmission and playing back the signal in the GS band. The signal capturing and playback are achieved with a vector signal generator and a spectrum analyzer that can output the in-phase and quadrature components (IQ). The simulated interference signal is combined with a desired GS signal before being injected into a GS receiver s antenna port for interference threshold determination. Minimum desired propagation loss values to avoid interference are then computed and compared against actual propagation losses for several aircraft.

  18. Radio Frequency Compatibility of an RFID Tag on Glideslope Navigation Receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Mielnik, John J.

    2008-01-01

    A process is demonstrated to show compatibility between a radio frequency identification (RFID) tag and an aircraft glideslope (GS) radio r eceiver. The particular tag chosen was previously shown to have significant spurious emission levels that exceeded the emission limit in th e GS aeronautical band. The spurious emissions are emulated in the study by capturing the RFID fundamental transmission and playing back th e signal in the GS band. The signal capturing and playback are achiev ed with a vector signal generator and a spectrum analyzer that can output the in-phase and quadrature components (IQ). The simulated interf erence signal is combined with a GS signal before being injected into a GS receiver#s antenna port for interference threshold determination . Minimum desired propagation loss values to avoid interference are then computed and compared against actual propagation losses for severa l aircraft.

  19. Prediction of scour depth in gravel bed rivers using radio frequency IDs : application to the Skagit River.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-10-01

    The overarching goal of the proposed research was to develop, test and verify a robust system based on the Low Frequency (134.2 : kHz), passive Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology to be ultimately used for determining the maximum scour d...

  20. Heating uniformity and differential heating of insects in almonds associated with radio frequency energy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Radio frequency (RF) treatments have potential as alternatives to chemical fumigation for phytosanitary disinfestation treatments in the dried nut industry. To develop effective RF treatment protocols for almonds, it is desirable to determine heating uniformity and the occurrence of differential hea...

  1. Detection of radio-frequency modulated optical signals by two and three terminal microwave devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, K. B.; Simons, R. N.; Wojtczuk, S.

    1987-01-01

    An interdigitated photoconductor (two terminal device) on GaAlAs/GaAs heterostructure was fabricated and tested by an electro-optical sampling technique. Further, the photoresponse of GaAlAs/GaAs HEMT (three terminal device) was obtained by illuminating the device with an optical signal modulated up to 8 GHz. Gain-bandwidth product, response time, and noise properties of photoconductor and HEMT devices were obtained. Monolithic integration of these photodetectors with GaAs microwave devices for optically controlled phased array antenna applications is discussed.

  2. Applications of surface acoustic and shallow bulk acoustic wave devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Colin K.

    1989-10-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) device coverage includes delay lines and filters operating at selected frequencies in the range from about 10 MHz to 11 GHz; modeling with single-crystal piezoelectrics and layered structures; resonators and low-loss filters; comb filters and multiplexers; antenna duplexers; harmonic devices; chirp filters for pulse compression; coding with fixed and programmable transversal filters; Barker and quadraphase coding; adaptive filters; acoustic and acoustoelectric convolvers and correlators for radar, spread spectrum, and packet radio; acoustooptic processors for Bragg modulation and spectrum analysis; real-time Fourier-transform and cepstrum processors for radar and sonar; compressive receivers; Nyquist filters for microwave digital radio; clock-recovery filters for fiber communications; fixed-, tunable-, and multimode oscillators and frequency synthesizers; acoustic charge transport; and other SAW devices for signal processing on gallium arsenide. Shallow bulk acoustic wave device applications include gigahertz delay lines, surface-transverse-wave resonators employing energy-trapping gratings, and oscillators with enhanced performance and capability.

  3. Optimizing electrical conductivity and optical transparency of IZO thin film deposited by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei

    Transparent conducting oxide (TCO) thin films of In2O3, SnO2, ZnO, and their mixtures have been extensively used in optoelectronic applications such as transparent electrodes in solar photovoltaic devices. In this project I deposited amorphous indium-zinc oxide (IZO) thin films by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering from a In2O3-10 wt.% ZnO sintered ceramic target to optimize the RF power, argon gas flowing rate, and the thickness of film to reach the maximum conductivity and transparency in visible spectrum. The results indicated optimized conductivity and transparency of IZO thin film is closer to ITO's conductivity and transparency, and is even better when the film was deposited with one specific tilted angle. National Science Foundation (NSF) MRSEC program at University of Nebraska Lincoln, and was hosted by Professor Jeff Shields lab.

  4. New optical and radio frequency angular tropospheric refraction models for deep space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berman, A. L.; Rockwell, S. T.

    1976-01-01

    The development of angular tropospheric refraction models for optical and radio frequency usage is presented. The models are compact analytic functions, finite over the entire domain of elevation angle, and accurate over large ranges of pressure, temperature, and relative humidity. Additionally, FORTRAN subroutines for each of the models are included.

  5. Radio Frequency Detection and Characterization of Water-Ethanol Solution through Spiral-Coupled Passive Micro-Resonator Sensor.

    PubMed

    Koirala, Gyan Raj; Dhakal, Rajendra; Kim, Eun-Seong; Yao, Zhao; Kim, Nam-Young

    2018-04-03

    We present a microfabricated spiral-coupled passive resonator sensor realized through integrated passive device (IPD) technology for the sensitive detection and characterization of water-ethanol solutions. In order to validate the performance of the proposed device, we explicitly measured and analyzed the radio frequency (RF) characteristics of various water-ethanol solution compositions. The measured results showed a drift in the resonance frequency from 1.16 GHz for deionized (DI) water to 1.68 GHz for the solution containing 50% ethanol, whereas the rejection level given by the reflection coefficient decreased from -29.74 dB to -14.81 dB. The obtained limit of detection was 3.82% volume composition of ethanol in solution. The derived loaded capacitance was 21.76 pF for DI water, which gradually decreased to 8.70 pF for the 50% ethanol solution, and the corresponding relative permittivity of the solution decreased from 80.14 to 47.79. The dissipation factor increased with the concentration of ethanol in the solution. We demonstrated the reproducibility of the proposed sensor through iterative measures of the samples and the study of surface morphology. Successive measurement of different samples had no overlapping and had very minimum bias between RF characteristics for each measured sample. The surface profile for bare sensors was retained after the sample test, resulting a root mean square (RMS) value of 11.416 nm as compared to 10.902 nm for the bare test. The proposed sensor was shown to be a viable alternative to existing sensors for highly sensitive water-ethanol concentration detection.

  6. Radio-Frequency Applications for Food Processing and Safety.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yang; Tang, Juming; Wang, Yifen; Koral, Tony L

    2018-03-25

    Radio-frequency (RF) heating, as a thermal-processing technology, has been extending its applications in the food industry. Although RF has shown some unique advantages over conventional methods in industrial drying and frozen food thawing, more research is needed to make it applicable for food safety applications because of its complex heating mechanism. This review provides comprehensive information regarding RF-heating history, mechanism, fundamentals, and applications that have already been fully developed or are still under research. The application of mathematical modeling as a useful tool in RF food processing is also reviewed in detail. At the end of the review, we summarize the active research groups in the RF food thermal-processing field, and address the current problems that still need to be overcome.

  7. Scaling of graphene field-effect transistors supported on hexagonal boron nitride: radio-frequency stability as a limiting factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feijoo, Pedro C.; Pasadas, Francisco; Iglesias, José M.; Martín, María J.; Rengel, Raúl; Li, Changfeng; Kim, Wonjae; Riikonen, Juha; Lipsanen, Harri; Jiménez, David

    2017-12-01

    The quality of graphene in nanodevices has increased hugely thanks to the use of hexagonal boron nitride as a supporting layer. This paper studies to which extent hBN together with channel length scaling can be exploited in graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs) to get a competitive radio-frequency (RF) performance. Carrier mobility and saturation velocity were obtained from an ensemble Monte Carlo simulator that accounted for the relevant scattering mechanisms (intrinsic phonons, scattering with impurities and defects, etc). This information is fed into a self-consistent simulator, which solves the drift-diffusion equation coupled with the two-dimensional Poisson’s equation to take full account of short channel effects. Simulated GFET characteristics were benchmarked against experimental data from our fabricated devices. Our simulations show that scalability is supposed to bring to RF performance an improvement that is, however, highly limited by instability. Despite the possibility of a lower performance, a careful choice of the bias point can avoid instability. Nevertheless, maximum oscillation frequencies are still achievable in the THz region for channel lengths of a few hundreds of nanometers.

  8. Radio-frequency response of single pores and artificial ion channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H. S.; Ramachandran, S.; Stava, E.; van der Weide, D. W.; Blick, R. H.

    2011-09-01

    Intercellular communication relies on ion channels and pores in cell membranes. These protein-formed channels enable the exchange of ions and small molecules to electrically and/or chemically interact with the cells. Traditionally, recordings on single-ion channels and pores are performed in the dc regime, due to the extremely high impedance of these molecular junctions. This paper is intended as an introduction to radio-frequency (RF) recordings of single-molecule junctions in bilipid membranes. First, we demonstrate how early approaches to using microwave circuitry as readout devices for ion channel formation were realized. The second step will then focus on how to engineer microwave coupling into the high-impedance channel by making use of bio-compatible micro-coaxial lines. We then demonstrate integration of an ultra-broadband microwave circuit for the direct sampling of single α-hemolysin pores in a suspended bilipid membrane. Simultaneous direct current recordings reveal that we can monitor and correlate the RF transmission signal. This enables us to relate the open-close states of the direct current to the RF signal. Altogether, our experiments lay the ground for an RF-readout technique to perform real-time in vitro recordings of pores. The technique thus holds great promise for research and drug screening applications. The possible enhancement of sampling rates of single channels and pores by the large recording bandwidth will allow us to track the passage of single ions.

  9. Measurements and modeling of radio frequency field structures in a helicon plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C. A.; Chen, Guangye; Arefiev, A. V.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of the radio frequency (rf) field structure, plasma density, and electron temperature are presented for a 1 kW argon helicon plasma source. The measured profiles change considerably when the equilibrium magnetic field is reversed. The measured rf fields are identified as fields of radially localized helicon waves, which propagate in the axial direction. The rf field structure is compared to the results of two-dimensional cold plasma full-wave simulations for the measured density profiles. Electron collision frequency is adjusted in the simulations to match the simulated and measured field profiles. The resulting frequency is anomalously high, which is attributed tomore » the excitation of an ion-acoustic instability. The calculated power deposition is insensitive to the collision frequency and accounts for most of the power supplied by the rf-generator.« less

  10. Field stabilization studies for a radio frequency quadrupole accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaur, R.; Kumar, V.

    2014-07-01

    The Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) linear accelerator is an accelerator that efficiently focuses, bunches and accelerates a high intensity DC beam from an ion source, for various applications. Unlike other conventional RF linear accelerators, the electromagnetic mode used for its operation is not the lowest frequency mode supported by the structure. In a four vane type RFQ, there are several undesired electromagnetic modes having frequency close to that of the operating mode. While designing an RFQ accelerator, care must be taken to ensure that the frequencies of these nearby modes are sufficiently separated from the operating mode. If the undesired nearby modes have frequencies close to the operating mode, the electromagnetic field pattern in the presence of geometrical errors will not be stabilized to the desired field profile, and will be perturbed by the nearby modes. This will affect the beam dynamics and reduce the beam transmission. In this paper, we present a detailed study of the electromagnetic modes supported, which is followed by calculations for implementation of suitable techniques to make the desired operating mode stable against mixing with unwanted modes for an RFQ being designed for the proposed Indian Spallation Neutron Source (ISNS) project at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore. Resonant coupling scheme, along with dipole stabilization rods has been proposed to increase the mode separation. The paper discusses the details of a generalized optimization procedure that has been used for the design of mode stabilization scheme.

  11. The radio spectral energy distribution of infrared-faint radio sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzog, A.; Norris, R. P.; Middelberg, E.; Seymour, N.; Spitler, L. R.; Emonts, B. H. C.; Franzen, T. M. O.; Hunstead, R.; Intema, H. T.; Marvil, J.; Parker, Q. A.; Sirothia, S. K.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Bell, M.; Bernardi, G.; Bowman, J. D.; Briggs, F.; Cappallo, R. J.; Callingham, J. R.; Deshpande, A. A.; Dwarakanath, K. S.; For, B.-Q.; Greenhill, L. J.; Hancock, P.; Hazelton, B. J.; Hindson, L.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Kapińska, A. D.; Kaplan, D. L.; Lenc, E.; Lonsdale, C. J.; McKinley, B.; McWhirter, S. R.; Mitchell, D. A.; Morales, M. F.; Morgan, E.; Morgan, J.; Oberoi, D.; Offringa, A.; Ord, S. M.; Prabu, T.; Procopio, P.; Udaya Shankar, N.; Srivani, K. S.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Tingay, S. J.; Wayth, R. B.; Webster, R. L.; Williams, A.; Williams, C. L.; Wu, C.; Zheng, Q.; Bannister, K. W.; Chippendale, A. P.; Harvey-Smith, L.; Heywood, I.; Indermuehle, B.; Popping, A.; Sault, R. J.; Whiting, M. T.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) are a class of radio-loud (RL) active galactic nuclei (AGN) at high redshifts (z ≥ 1.7) that are characterised by their relative infrared faintness, resulting in enormous radio-to-infrared flux density ratios of up to several thousand. Aims: Because of their optical and infrared faintness, it is very challenging to study IFRS at these wavelengths. However, IFRS are relatively bright in the radio regime with 1.4 GHz flux densities of a few to a few tens of mJy. Therefore, the radio regime is the most promising wavelength regime in which to constrain their nature. We aim to test the hypothesis that IFRS are young AGN, particularly GHz peaked-spectrum (GPS) and compact steep-spectrum (CSS) sources that have a low frequency turnover. Methods: We use the rich radio data set available for the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey fields, covering the frequency range between 150 MHz and 34 GHz with up to 19 wavebands from different telescopes, and build radio spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for 34 IFRS. We then study the radio properties of this class of object with respect to turnover, spectral index, and behaviour towards higher frequencies. We also present the highest-frequency radio observations of an IFRS, observed with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer at 105 GHz, and model the multi-wavelength and radio-far-infrared SED of this source. Results: We find IFRS usually follow single power laws down to observed frequencies of around 150 MHz. Mostly, the radio SEDs are steep (α < -0.8; %), but we also find ultra-steep SEDs (α < -1.3; %). In particular, IFRS show statistically significantly steeper radio SEDs than the broader RL AGN population. Our analysis reveals that the fractions of GPS and CSS sources in the population of IFRS are consistent with the fractions in the broader RL AGN population. We find that at least % of IFRS contain young AGN, although the fraction might be significantly higher as suggested by

  12. 47 CFR 76.616 - Operation near certain aeronautical and marine emergency radio frequencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Technical Standards § 76... of carriers or other signal components capable of delivering peak power levels equal to or greater than 10−5 watts at any point in a cable television system is prohibited within 100 kHz of the frequency...

  13. 47 CFR 76.616 - Operation near certain aeronautical and marine emergency radio frequencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Technical Standards § 76... of carriers or other signal components capable of delivering peak power levels equal to or greater than 10−5 watts at any point in a cable television system is prohibited within 100 kHz of the frequency...

  14. Single particle dynamics in a radio-frequency produced plasma sheath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin-Zuzic, M.; Nosenko, V.; Zhdanov, S.; Ivlev, A.; Thomas, H.; Khrapak, S.; Couedel, L.

    2018-01-01

    Recently different research groups have investigated the motion of a single dust particle levitated in a rf plasma. Here we describe a highly resolved experiment where a single spherical melamine formaldehyde microparticle is suspended in the plasma sheath above the lower electrode of a capacitively coupled radio-frequency discharge at controlled pressure, power and neutral gas flow rate. The particle's horizontal oscillation is investigated, from which its neutral gas damping rate, kinetic temperature and eigenfrequency of the potential trap are measured. Compared to prior experiments we report about inhomogeneous and anisotropic velocity variations.

  15. Hard X-ray and high-frequency decimetric radio observations of the 4 April 2002 solar flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, S. R.; Sawant, H. S.; Cecatto, J. R.; Andrade, M. C.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Karlicky, M.; Meszarosova, H.

    Hard X-ray and high frequency decimetric type III radio bursts have been observed in association with the soft X-raysolar flare (GOES class M 6.1) on 4 April 2002 (˜1532 UT). The flare apparently occurred ˜ 6 degrees behind the east limb of the Sun in the active region NOAA 9898. Hard X-ray spectra and images were obtained by the X-ray imager on RHESSI during the impulsive phase of the flare. The Brazilian Solar Spectroscope and Ondrejov Radio Telescopes recorded type III bursts in 800-1400 MHz range in association with the flare. The images of the 3-6, 6-12, 12-25, and 25-50 keV X-ray sources, obtained simultaneously by RHESSI during the early impulsive phase of the flare, show that all the four X-ray sources were essentially at the same location well above the limb of the Sun. During the early impulsive phase, the X-ray spectrum over 8-30 keV range was consistent with a power law with a negative exponent of ˜ 6. The radio spectra show drifting radio structures with emission in a relatively narrow (Δf ≤ 200 MHz) frequency range indicating injection of energetic electrons into a plasmoid which is slowly drifting upwards in the corona.

  16. A digital low-level radio-frequency system R&D for a 1.3 GHz nine-cell cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Feng; Gao, Jie; Lin, Hai-Ying; Liu, Rong; Ma, Xin-Peng; Sha, Peng; Sun, Yi; Wang, Guang-Wei; Wang, Qun-Yao; Xu, Bo

    2012-03-01

    To test and verify the performance of the digital low-level radio-frequency (LLRF) and tuner system designed by the IHEP RF group, an experimental platform with a retired KEK 1.3 GHz nine-cell cavity is set up. A radio-frequency (RF) field is established successfully in the cavity and the frequency of the cavity is locked by the tuner in ±0.5° (about ±1.2 kHz) at room temperature. The digital LLRF system performs well in a five-hour experiment, and the results show that the system achieves field stability at amplitude <0.1% (peak to peak) and phase <0.1° (peak to peak). This index satisfies the requirements of the International Linear Collider (ILC), and this paper describes this closed-loop experiment of the LLRF system.

  17. The search for radio emission from exoplanets using LOFAR low-frequency beam-formed observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Jake D.; Griessmeier, Jean-Mathias; Zarka, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    Detection of radio emission from exoplanets can provide information on the star-planet system that is very difficult or impossible to study otherwise, such as the planet’s magnetic field, magnetosphere, rotation period, orbit inclination, and star-planet interactions. Such a detection in the radio domain would open up a whole new field in the study of exoplanets, however, currently there are no confirmed detections of an exoplanet at radio frequencies. In this study, we discuss our ongoing observational campaign searching for exoplanetary radio emissions using beam-formed observations within the Low Band of the Low-Frequency Array (LOFAR). To date we have observed three exoplanets: 55 Cnc, Upsilon Andromedae, and Tau Boötis. These planets were selected according to theoretical predictions, which indicated them as among the best candidates for an observation. During the observations we usually recorded three beams simultaneously, one on the exoplanet and two on patches of nearby “empty” sky. An automatic pipeline was created to automatically find RFI, calibrate the data due to instrumental effects, and to search for emission in the exoplanet beam. Additionally, we observed Jupiter with LOFAR with the same exact observational setup as the exoplanet observations. The main goals of the Jupiter observations are to train the detection algorithm and to calculate upper limits in the case of a non-detection. Data analysis is currently ongoing. Conclusions reached at the time of the meeting, about detection of or upper limit to the planetary signal, will be presented.

  18. Development of models simulating operation of elements of radio devices, for solving problems of ensuring electromagnetic compatibility of radio electronic means

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glotov, V. V.; Ostroumov, I. V.; Romashchenko, M. A.

    2018-05-01

    To study the effect of phase-shift signals parameters on EMC of REM, a generalized signal generation model in a radio transmitter was developed which allows obtaining digital representations of phase-shift signals, which are a continuous pulse in the time domain and on the frequency axis with different signal element envelope shapes.

  19. Dielectric properties of dried vegetable powders and their temperature profile during radio frequency heating

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recently, Salmonella contamination was identified in low-moisture foods including dried vegetable powder. Radio Frequency (RF) dielectric heating is a potential alternative pasteurization method with short heating time. Dielectric properties of broccoli powder with 6.9, 9.1, 12.2, and 14.9%, w. b....

  20. New Antennas and Methods for the Low Frequency Stellar and Planetary Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovalenko, A. A.; Falkovich, I. S.; Rucker, H. O.; Lecacheux, A.; Zarka, Ph.; Koliadin, V. L.; Zakharenko, V. V.; Stanislavsky, A. A.; Melnik, V. N.; Litvinenko, G. V.; Gridin, A. A.; Bubnov, I. N.; Kalinichenko, N. N.; Reznik, A. P.; Sidorchuk, M. A.; Stepkin, S. V.; Mukha, D. V.; Nikolajenko, V. S.; Karlsson, R.; Thide, B.

    According to the special Program of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, creation of the new giant Ukrainian radio telescope (GURT) was started a few years ago on the UTR-2 radio telescope observatory. The main goal is to reach maximum band at the lowest frequencies (10-70 MHz), effective area (step-by-step up to 100,000 sq.m), and high interference immunity for resolving many astrophysical tasks when the sensitivity is less limited by the confusion effects. These tasks include stellar radio astronomy (the Sun, solar wind, flare stars, pulsars, transients) and planetary one (Jupiter, planetary lightnings, Earth ionosphere, the Moon, exoplanets). This array should be complementary to the LOFAR, E-LOFAR systems. The first stages of the GURT (6 x 25 cross dipole active elements) and broad-band digital registration of the impulsive and sporadic events were tested in comparison with the existing largest decameter array UTR-2.

  1. The Engineering Development Array: A Low Frequency Radio Telescope Utilising SKA Precursor Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wayth, Randall; Sokolowski, Marcin; Booler, Tom; Crosse, Brian; Emrich, David; Grootjans, Robert; Hall, Peter J.; Horsley, Luke; Juswardy, Budi; Kenney, David; Steele, Kim; Sutinjo, Adrian; Tingay, Steven J.; Ung, Daniel; Walker, Mia; Williams, Andrew; Beardsley, A.; Franzen, T. M. O.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Kaplan, D. L.; Morales, M. F.; Pallot, D.; Trott, C. M.; Wu, C.

    2017-08-01

    We describe the design and performance of the Engineering Development Array, which is a low-frequency radio telescope comprising 256 dual-polarisation dipole antennas working as a phased array. The Engineering Development Array was conceived of, developed, and deployed in just 18 months via re-use of Square Kilometre Array precursor technology and expertise, specifically from the Murchison Widefield Array radio telescope. Using drift scans and a model for the sky brightness temperature at low frequencies, we have derived the Engineering Development Array's receiver temperature as a function of frequency. The Engineering Development Array is shown to be sky-noise limited over most of the frequency range measured between 60 and 240 MHz. By using the Engineering Development Array in interferometric mode with the Murchison Widefield Array, we used calibrated visibilities to measure the absolute sensitivity of the array. The measured array sensitivity matches very well with a model based on the array layout and measured receiver temperature. The results demonstrate the practicality and feasibility of using Murchison Widefield Array-style precursor technology for Square Kilometre Array-scale stations. The modular architecture of the Engineering Development Array allows upgrades to the array to be rolled out in a staged approach. Future improvements to the Engineering Development Array include replacing the second stage beamformer with a fully digital system, and to transition to using RF-over-fibre for the signal output from first stage beamformers.

  2. Radio frequency interference at Jodrell Bank Observatory within the protected 21 cm band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarter, J.

    1989-01-01

    Radio frequency interference (RFI) will provide one of the most difficult challenges to systematic Searches for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) at microwave frequencies. The SETI-specific equipment is being optimized for the detection of signals generated by a technology rather than those generated by natural processes in the universe. If this equipment performs as expected, then it will inevitably detect many signals originating from terrestrial technology. If these terrestrial signals are too numerous and/or strong, the equipment will effectively be blinded to the (presumably) weaker extraterrestrial signals being sought. It is very difficult to assess how much of a problem RFI will actually represent to future observations, without employing the equipment and beginning the search. In 1983 a very high resolution spectrometer was placed at the Nuffield Radio Astronomy Laboratories at Jodrell Bank, England. This equipment permitted an investigation of the interference environment at Jodrell Bank, at that epoch, and at frequencies within the 21 cm band. This band was chosen because it has long been "protected" by international agreement; no transmitters should have been operating at those frequencies. The data collected at Jodrell Bank were expected to serve as a "best case" interference scenario and provide the minimum design requirements for SETI equipment that must function in the real and noisy environment. This paper describes the data collection and analysis along with some preliminary conclusions concerning the nature of the interference environment at Jodrell Bank.

  3. Radio frequency interference at Jodrell Bank Observatory within the protected 21 cm band.

    PubMed

    Tarter, J

    1989-01-01

    Radio frequency interference (RFI) will provide one of the most difficult challenges to systematic Searches for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) at microwave frequencies. The SETI-specific equipment is being optimized for the detection of signals generated by a technology rather than those generated by natural processes in the universe. If this equipment performs as expected, then it will inevitably detect many signals originating from terrestrial technology. If these terrestrial signals are too numerous and/or strong, the equipment will effectively be blinded to the (presumably) weaker extraterrestrial signals being sought. It is very difficult to assess how much of a problem RFI will actually represent to future observations, without employing the equipment and beginning the search. In 1983 a very high resolution spectrometer was placed at the Nuffield Radio Astronomy Laboratories at Jodrell Bank, England. This equipment permitted an investigation of the interference environment at Jodrell Bank, at that epoch, and at frequencies within the 21 cm band. This band was chosen because it has long been "protected" by international agreement; no transmitters should have been operating at those frequencies. The data collected at Jodrell Bank were expected to serve as a "best case" interference scenario and provide the minimum design requirements for SETI equipment that must function in the real and noisy environment. This paper describes the data collection and analysis along with some preliminary conclusions concerning the nature of the interference environment at Jodrell Bank.

  4. Radio System for Locating Emergency Workers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, William; Medelius, Pedro; Starr, Stan; Bedette, Guy; Taylor, John; Moerk, Steve

    2003-01-01

    A system based on low-power radio transponders and associated analog and digital electronic circuitry has been developed for locating firefighters and other emergency workers deployed in a building or other structure. The system has obvious potential for saving lives and reducing the risk of injuries. The system includes (1) a central station equipped with a computer and a transceiver; (2) active radio-frequency (RF) identification tags, each placed in a different room or region of the structure; and (3) transponder units worn by the emergency workers. The RF identification tags can be installed in a new building as built-in components of standard fire-detection devices or ground-fault electrical outlets or can be attached to such devices in a previously constructed building, without need for rewiring the building. Each RF identification tag contains information that uniquely identifies it. When each tag is installed, information on its location and identity are reported to, and stored at, the central station. In an emergency, if a building has not been prewired with RF identification tags, leading emergency workers could drop sequentially numbered portable tags in the rooms of the building, reporting the tag numbers and locations by radio to the central station as they proceed.

  5. Electro-opto-mechanical radio-frequency oscillator driven by guided acoustic waves in standard single-mode fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    London, Yosef; Diamandi, Hilel Hagai; Zadok, Avi

    2017-04-01

    An opto-electronic radio-frequency oscillator that is based on forward scattering by the guided acoustic modes of a standard single-mode optical fiber is proposed and demonstrated. An optical pump wave is used to stimulate narrowband, resonant guided acoustic modes, which introduce phase modulation to a co-propagating optical probe wave. The phase modulation is converted to an intensity signal at the output of a Sagnac interferometer loop. The intensity waveform is detected, amplified, and driven back to modulate the optical pump. Oscillations are achieved at a frequency of 319 MHz, which matches the resonance of the acoustic mode that provides the largest phase modulation of the probe wave. Oscillations at the frequencies of competing acoustic modes are suppressed by at least 40 dB. The linewidth of the acoustic resonance is sufficiently narrow to provide oscillations at a single longitudinal mode of the hybrid cavity. Competing longitudinal modes are suppressed by at least 38 dB as well. Unlike other opto-electronic oscillators, no radio-frequency filtering is required within the hybrid cavity. The frequency of oscillations is entirely determined by the fiber opto-mechanics.

  6. Direction of Arrival Studies of Medium Frequency Burst Radio Emissions at Toolik Lake, AK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunch, N.; Labelle, J.; Weatherwax, A.; Lummerzheim, D.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H.

    2008-05-01

    MF burst is an impulsive radio emission of auroral origin, which can be detected by ground-based instruments at frequencies between 1,300 and 4,500kHz. MF burst has been shown to be associated with substorm onset, but its exact generation mechanism remains unknown, although it is thought to arise from mode conversion radiation [see review by LaBelle and Treumann, 2002] . In search of the generation mechanism of this emission, Dartmouth College has deployed radio interferometers in Alaska, Northern Canada, Greenland, and Antarctica, including a three-element interferometer deployed to Toolik Field Station in Alaska during the summer of 2006. This instrument measured spectra, amplitudes and directions of arrival (DOA's) of over 47 MF burst events between November 30, 2006 and May 26, 2007. These data represent the first DOA measurements of impulsive MF burst, of which selected case studies were presented at the Fall 2007 AGU conference. Here we present a statistical survey of all 47 events as well as detailed analysis of three events occurring on: Mar 5, Mar 23, and Nov 20, 2007. For the statistical survey, we present distributions of DOA as a function of local time and frequency. In each case study we analyze the direction of arrival of the emissions as a function of both time and frequency within each event. The time variations will be compared with the time variations of optical auroral forms simultaneously measured with all-sky cameras. The dependence of the arrival direction on frequency enables a significant test of the generation mechanism whereby the waves are emitted at the local plasma or upper hybrid frequency in the topside ionosphere, predicting that higher frequencies should originate at lower altitudes. These three events have been selected because All-Sky camera data are available at these times from Toolik Lake and Fort Yukon, Alaska. These are critical both for identifying which optical features are associated with the radio emissions as well as for

  7. Radio frequency reflectometry and charge sensing of a precision placed donor in silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Hile, Samuel J., E-mail: samhile@gmail.com; House, Matthew G.; Peretz, Eldad

    2015-08-31

    We compare charge transitions on a deterministic single P donor in silicon using radio frequency reflectometry measurements with a tunnel coupled reservoir and DC charge sensing using a capacitively coupled single electron transistor (SET). By measuring the conductance through the SET and comparing this with the phase shift of the reflected radio frequency (RF) excitation from the reservoir, we can discriminate between charge transfer within the SET channel and tunneling between the donor and reservoir. The RF measurement allows observation of donor electron transitions at every charge degeneracy point in contrast to the SET conductance signal where charge transitions aremore » only observed at triple points. The tunnel coupled reservoir has the advantage of a large effective lever arm (∼35%), allowing us to independently extract a neutral donor charging energy ∼62 ± 17 meV. These results demonstrate that we can replace three terminal transistors by a single terminal dispersive reservoir, promising for high bandwidth scalable donor control and readout.« less

  8. Stamp transferred suspended graphene mechanical resonators for radio frequency electrical readout.

    PubMed

    Song, Xuefeng; Oksanen, Mika; Sillanpää, Mika A; Craighead, H G; Parpia, J M; Hakonen, Pertti J

    2012-01-11

    We present a simple micromanipulation technique to transfer suspended graphene flakes onto any substrate and to assemble them with small localized gates into mechanical resonators. The mechanical motion of the graphene is detected using an electrical, radio frequency (RF) reflection readout scheme where the time-varying graphene capacitor reflects a RF carrier at f = 5-6 GHz producing modulation sidebands at f ± f(m). A mechanical resonance frequency up to f(m) = 178 MHz is demonstrated. We find both hardening/softening Duffing effects on different samples and obtain a critical amplitude of ~40 pm for the onset of nonlinearity in graphene mechanical resonators. Measurements of the quality factor of the mechanical resonance as a function of dc bias voltage V(dc) indicates that dissipation due to motion-induced displacement currents in graphene electrode is important at high frequencies and large V(dc). © 2011 American Chemical Society

  9. On Frequency Combs in Monolithic Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savchenkov, A. A.; Matsko, A. B.; Maleki, L.

    2016-06-01

    Optical frequency combs have become indispensable in astronomical measurements, biological fingerprinting, optical metrology, and radio frequency photonic signal generation. Recently demonstrated microring resonator-based Kerr frequency combs point the way towards chip scale optical frequency comb generator retaining major properties of the lab scale devices. This technique is promising for integrated miniature radiofrequency and microwave sources, atomic clocks, optical references and femtosecond pulse generators. Here we present Kerr frequency comb development in a historical perspective emphasizing its similarities and differences with other physical phenomena. We elucidate fundamental principles and describe practical implementations of Kerr comb oscillators, highlighting associated solved and unsolved problems.

  10. Latitudinal beaming of Jupiter's low frequency radio emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, J.K.; Desch, M.D.; Kaiser, M.L.

    1979-09-01

    By comparing Rae 1 and Imp 6 satelite measurements of Jupiter's radio emissions near 1 MHz with recent Voyager 1 and 2 observations in the same frequency range it is now possible to study the properties of the low frequency radiation pattern over a 10/sup 0/ range of latitudes with respect to the Jovian rotation equator. These observations, which cover a wider latitudinal range than is possible from the earth, are consistent with many aspect of earlier ground-based measurements that have been used to infer a sharp beaming pattern for the decameter wavelength emissions. We find marked, systematic changes inmore » the statistical occurrence probability distributions with system III central meridian longitude as the Jovigraphic latitude of the observer changes over this range. Moreover, simultaneous observations by the two Voyager spacecraft, which are separated by up to 3/sup 0/ in Jovigraphic latitude, suggest that the instantaneous beam width may be no more than a few degrees at times. The new hectometer wave results can be interpreted in terms of a narrow, curved sheet at a fixed magnetic latitude into which the emission is beamed to escape the planet.« less

  11. Technologies for Low Frequency Radio Observations of the Cosmic Dawn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Dayton L.

    2014-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is developing concepts and technologies for low frequency radio astronomy space missions aimed at observing highly redshifted neutral Hydrogen from the Dark Ages. This is the period of cosmic history between the recombination epoch when the microwave background radiation was produced and the re-ionization of the intergalactic medium by the first generation of stars (Cosmic Dawn). This period, at redshifts greater than about 20, is a critical epoch for the formation and evolution of large-scale structure in the universe. The 21-cm spectral line of Hydrogen provides the most promising method for directly studying the Dark Ages, but the corresponding frequencies at such large redshifts are only tens of MHz and thus require space-based observations to avoid terrestrial RFI and ionospheric absorption and refraction. This paper reports on the status of several low frequency technology development activities at JPL, including deployable bi-conical dipoles for a planned lunar-orbiting mission, and both rover-deployed and inflation-deployed long dipole antennas for use on the lunar surface.

  12. Planck intermediate results. XLV. Radio spectra of northern extragalactic radio sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.; Arnaud, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Burigana, C.; Calabrese, E.; Catalano, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gruppuso, A.; Gurwell, M. A.; Hansen, F. K.; Harrison, D. L.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hobson, M.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovatta, T.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Järvelä, E.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mingaliev, M.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Nieppola, E.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G. W.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Rastorgueva-Foi, E. A.; S Readhead, A. C.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Richards, J. L.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Sotnikova, Y.; Stolyarov, V.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tammi, J.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tornikoski, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Türler, M.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Valtaoja, E.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wehrle, A. E.; Wehus, I. K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-12-01

    Continuum spectra covering centimetre to submillimetre wavelengths are presented for a northern sample of 104 extragalactic radio sources, mainly active galactic nuclei, based on four-epoch Planck data. The nine Planck frequencies, from 30 to 857 GHz, are complemented by a set of simultaneous ground-based radio observations between 1.1 and 37 GHz. The single-survey Planck data confirm that the flattest high-frequency radio spectral indices are close to zero, indicating that the original accelerated electron energy spectrum is much harder than commonly thought, with power-law index around 1.5 instead of the canonical 2.5. The radio spectra peak at high frequencies and exhibit a variety of shapes. For a small set of low-z sources, we find a spectral upturn at high frequencies, indicating the presence of intrinsic cold dust. Variability can generally be approximated by achromatic variations, while sources with clear signatures of evolving shocks appear to be limited to the strongest outbursts.

  13. Radio frequency energy harvesting from a feeding source in a passive deep brain stimulation device for murine preclinical research.

    PubMed

    Hosain, Md Kamal; Kouzani, Abbas Z; Tye, Susannah J; Samad, Mst Fateha; Kale, Rajas P; Bennet, Kevin E; Manciu, Felicia S; Berk, Michael

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the development of an energy harvesting circuit for use with a head-mountable deep brain stimulation (DBS) device. It consists of a circular planar inverted-F antenna (PIFA) and a Schottky diode-based Cockcroft-Walton 4-voltage rectifier. The PIFA has the volume of π × 10(2) × 1.5 mm(3), resonance frequency of 915 MHz, and bandwidth of 16 MHz (909-925 MHz) at a return loss of -10 dB. The rectifier offers maximum efficiency of 78% for the input power of -5 dBm at a 5 kΩ load resistance. The developed rectenna operates efficiently at 915 MHz for the input power within -15 dBm to +5 dBm. For operating a DBS device, the DC voltage of 2 V is recorded from the rectenna terminal at a distance of 55 cm away from a 26.77 dBm transmitter in free space. An in-vitro test of the DBS device is presented. Copyright © 2015 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Radio frequency magnetic field effects on molecular dynamics and iron uptake in cage proteins.

    PubMed

    Céspedes, Oscar; Inomoto, Osamu; Kai, Shoichi; Nibu, Yoshinori; Yamaguchi, Toshio; Sakamoto, Nobuyoshi; Akune, Tadahiro; Inoue, Masayoshi; Kiss, Takanobu; Ueno, Shoogo

    2010-05-01

    The protein ferritin has a natural ferrihydrite nanoparticle that is superparamagnetic at room temperature. For native horse spleen ferritin, we measure the low field magnetic susceptibility of the nanoparticle as 2.2 x 10(-6) m(3) kg(-1) and its Néel relaxation time at about 10(-10) s. Superparamagnetic nanoparticles increase their internal energy when exposed to radio frequency magnetic fields due to the lag between magnetization and applied field. The energy is dissipated to the surrounding peptidic cage, altering the molecular dynamics and functioning of the protein. This leads to an increased population of low energy vibrational states under a magnetic field of 30 microT at 1 MHz, as measured via Raman spectroscopy. After 2 h of exposure, the proteins have a reduced iron intake rate of about 20%. Our results open a new path for the study of non-thermal bioeffects of radio frequency magnetic fields at the molecular scale.

  15. Multi-Band (K- Q- and E-Band) Multi-Tone Millimeter-Wave Frequency Synthesizer for Radio Wave Propagation Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Wintucky, Edwin G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design and test results of a multi-band multi-tone millimeter-wave frequency synthesizer, based on a solid-state frequency comb generator. The intended application of the synthesizer is in a space-borne transmitter for radio wave atmospheric studies at K-band (18 to 26.5 GHz), Q-band (37 to 42 GHz), and E-band (71 to 76 GHz). These studies would enable the design of robust multi-Gbps data rate space-to-ground satellite communication links. Lastly, the architecture for a compact multi-tone beacon transmitter, which includes a high frequency synthesizer, a polarizer, and a conical horn antenna, has been investigated for a notional CubeSat based space-to-ground radio wave propagation experiment.

  16. The Radio Frequency Health Node Wireless Sensor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valencia, J. Emilio; Stanley, Priscilla C.; Mackey, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    The Radio Frequency Health Node (RFHN) wireless sensor system differs from other wireless sensor systems in ways originally intended to enhance utility as an instrumentation system for a spacecraft. The RFHN can also be adapted to use in terrestrial applications in which there are requirements for operational flexibility and integrability into higher-level instrumentation and data acquisition systems. As shown in the figure, the heart of the system is the RFHN, which is a unit that passes commands and data between (1) one or more commercially available wireless sensor units (optionally, also including wired sensor units) and (2) command and data interfaces with a local control computer that may be part of the spacecraft or other engineering system in which the wireless sensor system is installed. In turn, the local control computer can be in radio or wire communication with a remote control computer that may be part of a higher-level system. The remote control computer, acting via the local control computer and the RFHN, cannot only monitor readout data from the sensor units but can also remotely configure (program or reprogram) the RFHN and the sensor units during operation. In a spacecraft application, the RFHN and the sensor units can also be configured more nearly directly, prior to launch, via a serial interface that includes an umbilical cable between the spacecraft and ground support equipment. In either case, the RFHN wireless sensor system has the flexibility to be configured, as required, with different numbers and types of sensors for different applications. The RFHN can be used to effect realtime transfer of data from, and commands to, the wireless sensor units. It can also store data for later retrieval by an external computer. The RFHN communicates with the wireless sensor units via a radio transceiver module. The modular design of the RFHN makes it possible to add radio transceiver modules as needed to accommodate additional sets of wireless sensor

  17. An animal tracking system for behavior analysis using radio frequency identification.

    PubMed

    Catarinucci, Luca; Colella, Riccardo; Mainetti, Luca; Patrono, Luigi; Pieretti, Stefano; Secco, Andrea; Sergi, Ilaria

    2014-09-01

    Evaluating the behavior of mice and rats has substantially contributed to the progress of research in many scientific fields. Researchers commonly observe recorded video of animal behavior and manually record their observations for later analysis, but this approach has several limitations. The authors developed an automated system for tracking and analyzing the behavior of rodents that is based on radio frequency identification (RFID) in an ultra-high-frequency bandwidth. They provide an overview of the system's hardware and software components as well as describe their technique for surgically implanting passive RFID tags in mice. Finally, the authors present the findings of two validation studies to compare the accuracy of the RFID system versus commonly used approaches for evaluating the locomotor activity and object exploration of mice.

  18. Radio-Frequency Emissions from Streamer Collisions: Implications for High-Energy Processes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luque, A.

    2017-12-01

    The production of energetic particles in a discharge corona is possibly linked to the collision of streamers of opposite polarities [Cooray et al. (2009), Kochkin et al. (2012), Østgaard et al. (2016)]. There is also experimental evidence linking it to radio-frequency emissions in the UHF frequency range (300 MHz-3 GHz) [Montanyà et al. (2015), Petersen and Beasley (2014)]. Here we investigate these two links by modeling the radio-frequency emissions emanating from an encounter between two counter-propagating streamers. Our numerical model combines self-consistently a conservative, high-order Finite-Volume scheme for electron transport with a Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method for electromagnetic propagation. We also include the most relevant reactions for streamer propagation: impact ionization, dissociative attachment and photo-ionization. Our implementation benefits from massive parallelization by running on a General-Purpose Graphical Processing Unit (GPGPU). With this code we found that streamer encounters emit electromagnetic waves predominantly in the UHF range, supporting the hypothesis that streamer collisions are essential precursors of high-energy processes in electric discharges. References Cooray, V., et al., J. Atm. Sol.-Terr. Phys., 71, 1890, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2009.07.010 (2009). Kochkin, P. O., et al., J. Phys. D, 45, 425202, doi: 10.1088/0022-3727/45/42/425202 (2012). Montanyà, J., et al., J. Atm. Sol.-Terr. Phys., 136, 94, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2015.06.009, (2015). Østgaard, N., et al., J. Geophys. Res. (Atmos.), 121, 2939, doi:10.1002/2015JD024394 (2016). Petersen, D., and W. Beasley, Atmospheric Research, 135, 314, doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2013.02.006 (2014).

  19. A Multi-resolution, Multi-epoch Low Radio Frequency Survey of the Kepler K2 Mission Campaign 1 Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tingay, S. J.; Hancock, P. J.; Wayth, R. B.; Intema, H.; Jagannathan, P.; Mooley, K.

    2016-10-01

    We present the first dedicated radio continuum survey of a Kepler K2 mission field, Field 1, covering the North Galactic Cap. The survey is wide field, contemporaneous, multi-epoch, and multi-resolution in nature and was conducted at low radio frequencies between 140 and 200 MHz. The multi-epoch and ultra wide field (but relatively low resolution) part of the survey was provided by 15 nights of observation using the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) over a period of approximately a month, contemporaneous with K2 observations of the field. The multi-resolution aspect of the survey was provided by the low resolution (4‧) MWA imaging, complemented by non-contemporaneous but much higher resolution (20″) observations using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT). The survey is, therefore, sensitive to the details of radio structures across a wide range of angular scales. Consistent with other recent low radio frequency surveys, no significant radio transients or variables were detected in the survey. The resulting source catalogs consist of 1085 and 1468 detections in the two MWA observation bands (centered at 154 and 185 MHz, respectively) and 7445 detections in the GMRT observation band (centered at 148 MHz), over 314 square degrees. The survey is presented as a significant resource for multi-wavelength investigations of the more than 21,000 target objects in the K2 field. We briefly examine our survey data against K2 target lists for dwarf star types (stellar types M and L) that have been known to produce radio flares.

  20. Impact of imaging landmark on the risk of MRI-related heating near implanted medical devices like cardiac pacemaker leads.

    PubMed

    Nordbeck, Peter; Ritter, Oliver; Weiss, Ingo; Warmuth, Marcus; Gensler, Daniel; Burkard, Natalie; Herold, Volker; Jakob, Peter M; Ertl, Georg; Ladd, Mark E; Quick, Harald H; Bauer, Wolfgang R

    2011-01-01

    Implanted medical devices such as cardiac pacemakers pose a potential hazard in magnetic resonance imaging. Electromagnetic fields have been shown to cause severe radio frequency-induced tissue heating in some cases. Imaging exclusion zones have been proposed as an instrument to reduce patient risk. The purpose of this study was to further assess the impact of the imaging landmark on the risk for unintended implant heating by measuring the radio frequency-induced electric fields in a body phantom under several imaging conditions at 1.5T. The results show that global radio frequency-induced coupling is highest with the torso centered along the superior-inferior direction of the transmit coil. The induced E-fields inside the body shift when changing body positioning, reducing both global and local radio frequency coupling if body and/or conductive implant are moved out from the transmit coil center along the z-direction. Adequate selection of magnetic resonance imaging landmark can significantly reduce potential hazards in patients with implanted medical devices. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. A search for long-time-scale, low-frequency radio transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Tara; Kaplan, David L.; Croft, Steve; Lynch, Christene; Callingham, J. R.; Bannister, Keith; Bell, Martin E.; Hurley-Walker, Natasha; Hancock, Paul; Line, Jack; Rowlinson, Antonia; Lenc, Emil; Intema, H. T.; Jagannathan, P.; Ekers, Ronald D.; Tingay, Steven; Yuan, Fang; Wolf, Christian; Onken, Christopher A.; Dwarakanath, K. S.; For, B.-Q.; Gaensler, B. M.; Hindson, L.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Kapińska, A. D.; McKinley, B.; Morgan, J.; Offringa, A. R.; Procopio, P.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Wayth, R.; Wu, C.; Zheng, Q.

    2017-04-01

    We present a search for transient and highly variable sources at low radio frequencies (150-200 MHz) that explores long time-scales of 1-3 yr. We conducted this search by comparing the TIFR GMRT Sky Survey Alternative Data Release 1 (TGSS ADR1) and the GaLactic and Extragalactic All-sky Murchison Widefield Array (GLEAM) survey catalogues. To account for the different completeness thresholds in the individual surveys, we searched for compact GLEAM sources above a flux density limit of 100 mJy that were not present in the TGSS ADR1; and also for compact TGSS ADR1 sources above a flux density limit of 200 mJy that had no counterpart in GLEAM. From a total sample of 234 333 GLEAM sources and 275 612 TGSS ADR1 sources in the overlap region between the two surveys, there were 99 658 GLEAM sources and 38 978 TGSS ADR sources that passed our flux density cut-off and compactness criteria. Analysis of these sources resulted in three candidate transient sources. Further analysis ruled out two candidates as imaging artefacts. We analyse the third candidate and show it is likely to be real, with a flux density of 182 ± 26 mJy at 147.5 MHz. This gives a transient surface density of ρ = (6.2 ± 6) × 10-5 deg-2. We present initial follow-up observations and discuss possible causes for this candidate. The small number of spurious sources from this search demonstrates the high reliability of these two new low-frequency radio catalogues.

  2. Lamination of Hardwood Composite Framing With an Emulsion Polymer-lsocyanate Adhesive and Radio-Frequency Curing

    Treesearch

    Charles B. Vick

    1987-01-01

    Composite framing msde from yellow-poplar and sweetgum parallel-laminated veneer and oriented flakeboard was effectively laminated with an emulsion polymer/isocyanate adhesive and radio-frequency curing at an assumed but typical range of material surface characteristics and factory assembly conditions.

  3. Radio Frequency Interference Detection and Mitigation Techniques Using Data from Ecosar 2014 Flight Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osmanoglu, Batuhan; Rincon, Rafael F.; Lee, SeungKuk; Fatoyinb, Temilola; Bollian, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Radio frequency interference (RFI) has strong influence on wide band airborne radar systems, especially operaingat L-band (1-2 GHz) or lower frequencies. EcoSAR is a P-band digital beamforming radar system, and RFI has tobe removed from raw echoes to obtain science quality data. In this paper we describe the current methodologyused to tackle RFI with EcoSAR, and provide an example on its performance. Finally, we discuss the advantagesand disadvantages of the method and mention potential improvements.

  4. Frequency behavior of the residual current devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdei, Z.; Horgos, M.; Lung, C.; Pop-Vadean, A.; Muresan, R.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation into the operating characteristic of residual current devices when in presence of a residual current at a frequency of 60Hz. In order to protect persons and equipment effectively the residual current devices are made to be very sensitive to the ground fault current or the touch current. Because of their high sensitivity the residual current circuit breakers are prone to tripping under no-fault conditions.

  5. Generation of constant-amplitude radio-frequency sweeps at a tunnel junction for spin resonance STM

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, William; Lutz, Christopher P.; Heinrich, Andreas J.

    2016-07-15

    We describe the measurement and successful compensation of the radio-frequency transfer function of a scanning tunneling microscope over a wide frequency range (15.5–35.5 GHz) and with high dynamic range (>50 dB). The precise compensation of cabling resonances and attenuations is critical for the production of constant-voltage frequency sweeps for electric-field driven electron spin resonance (ESR) experiments. We also demonstrate that a well-calibrated tunnel junction voltage is necessary to avoid spurious ESR peaks that can arise due to a non-flat transfer function.

  6. A new laboratory radio frequency identification (RFID) system for behavioural tracking of marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Aguzzi, Jacopo; Sbragaglia, Valerio; Sarriá, David; García, José Antonio; Costa, Corrado; del Río, Joaquín; Mànuel, Antoni; Menesatti, Paolo; Sardà, Francesc

    2011-01-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) devices are currently used to quantify several traits of animal behaviour with potential applications for the study of marine organisms. To date, behavioural studies with marine organisms are rare because of the technical difficulty of propagating radio waves within the saltwater medium. We present a novel RFID tracking system to study the burrowing behaviour of a valuable fishery resource, the Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus L.). The system consists of a network of six controllers, each handling a group of seven antennas. That network was placed below a microcosm tank that recreated important features typical of Nephrops' grounds, such as the presence of multiple burrows. The animals carried a passive transponder attached to their telson, operating at 13.56 MHz. The tracking system was implemented to concurrently report the behaviour of up to three individuals, in terms of their travelled distances in a specified unit of time and their preferential positioning within the antenna network. To do so, the controllers worked in parallel to send the antenna data to a computer via a USB connection. The tracking accuracy of the system was evaluated by concurrently recording the animals' behaviour with automated video imaging. During the two experiments, each lasting approximately one week, two different groups of three animals each showed a variable burrow occupancy and a nocturnal displacement under a standard photoperiod regime (12 h light:12 h dark), measured using the RFID method. Similar results were obtained with the video imaging. Our implemented RFID system was therefore capable of efficiently tracking the tested organisms and has a good potential for use on a wide variety of other marine organisms of commercial, aquaculture, and ecological interest.

  7. Adoption of radio-frequency identification to establish traceability in Taiwanese eel exported to the Japanese market.

    PubMed

    Jeng, Shu-Ching; Wu, Chun-Lung; Yang, I-Da

    2013-01-01

    Eel culture and export to the Japanese market is an important industry in Taiwan; however, the average amount produced by each farm is small. Eels from different farms might be mixed before export, making it difficult to determine which farm is responsible for eels containing drug residues. Therefore, the Taiwanese government uses a two-stage procedure of inspection and accreditation for validating the use of good practice in aquaculture farming. Nevertheless, it is still difficult to trace any farm that has produced eels containing drug residues. Radio-frequency identification has the potential to establish traceability in eel products. Here we suggest that Japanese eel importers should insist on the use of radio-frequency identification by Taiwanese eel exporters to enable verification of the safety of eel products being exported to the Japanese market.

  8. Breakdown Characteristics of a Radio-Frequency Atmospheric Glow Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jianjun; Kong, Michael

    2004-09-01

    Radio-frequency (rf) atmospheric pressure glow discharges (APGD) are a capacitive nonthermal plasma with distinct advantage of low gas temperature and long-term stability. In practice their ignition is challenging particularly when they are generated at large electrode gaps. To this end, this contribution reports a one-dimensional fluid simulation of gas breakdown over a large pressure range of 100 - 760 Torr so that key physical processes can be understood in the ignition phase of rf APGD. Our model is an electron-hybrid model in which electrons are treated kinetically and all other plasma species are treated hydrodynamically. Computational results suggest that as the pressure-distance product increases from 25 Torr cm upwards the breakdown voltage increases in a way that resembles the right-hand-side branch of a Pachen curve. Importance of secondary electron emission is shown as well as its dependence on gas pressure even though identical electrode material is assumed. With these factors considered, excellent agreement with experimental data is achieved. Finally frequency dependence of the breakdown voltage is calculated and again found to agree with experimental data.

  9. Ultra High-Speed Radio Frequency Switch Based on Photonics.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jia; Fok, Mable P

    2015-11-26

    Microwave switches, or Radio Frequency (RF) switches have been intensively used in microwave systems for signal routing. Compared with the fast development of microwave and wireless systems, RF switches have been underdeveloped particularly in terms of switching speed and operating bandwidth. In this paper, we propose a photonics based RF switch that is capable of switching at tens of picoseconds speed, which is hundreds of times faster than any existing RF switch technologies. The high-speed switching property is achieved with the use of a rapidly tunable microwave photonic filter with tens of gigahertz frequency tuning speed, where the tuning mechanism is based on the ultra-fast electro-optics Pockels effect. The RF switch has a wide operation bandwidth of 12 GHz and can go up to 40 GHz, depending on the bandwidth of the modulator used in the scheme. The proposed RF switch can either work as an ON/OFF switch or a two-channel switch, tens of picoseconds switching speed is experimentally observed for both type of switches.

  10. Project Radio JOVE: Hands-On Radio Astronomy for the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thieman, J. R.; Higgins, C. A.

    2000-10-01

    Radio Jove is a relatively new educational project to involve secondary school students in collecting and analyzing observations of the natural radio emissions of the planet Jupiter and the Sun. Participating students get hands-on experience in gathering and working with space science data. They obtain the data by either building a radio receiver and antenna and making observations with their equipment, or by remotely using professional radio telescopes through the web. They can then compare their results with other schools who had also observed and come to conclusions concerning the nature of the radio sources and how the radio waves propagate to Earth. Thus, they fully follow the method of scientific inquiry used by radio astronomers to study our solar system. (National Science Content Standard A: Science as Inquiry) More than 200 kits have been distributed thus far to schools and individuals as a result of the project. With the coming Cassini flyby of Jupiter we will be advocating a campaign in which many of the schools involved in the project will be observing at times of scientific interest. While Galileo and Cassini are monitoring Jovian radio emissions at lower frequencies, the schools will be observing at frequencies of 20.1 MHz (kit-based observations) or the frequencies available through the professional radio telescopes connected on-line. The aim will be to get a thorough picture of the levels of activity at Jupiter during the flyby period and how the radio signals are received at different observing stations around the world. An archive of observations submitted by the schools will be maintained at Goddard Space Flight Center and there will also be an archive of the professional telescopes data at the University of Florida. We hope that many students will have the feeling of being a part of the planetary exploration program as a result.

  11. Photonic chirped radio-frequency generator with ultra-fast sweeping rate and ultra-wide sweeping range.

    PubMed

    Wun, Jhih-Min; Wei, Chia-Chien; Chen, Jyehong; Goh, Chee Seong; Set, S Y; Shi, Jin-Wei

    2013-05-06

    A high-performance photonic sweeping-frequency (chirped) radio-frequency (RF) generator has been demonstrated. By use of a novel wavelength sweeping distributed-feedback (DFB) laser, which is operated based on the linewidth enhancement effect, a fixed wavelength narrow-linewidth DFB laser, and a wideband (dc to 50 GHz) photodiode module for the hetero-dyne beating RF signal generation, a very clear chirped RF waveform can be captured by a fast real-time scope. A very-high frequency sweeping rate (10.3 GHz/μs) with an ultra-wide RF frequency sweeping range (~40 GHz) have been demonstrated. The high-repeatability (~97%) in sweeping frequency has been verified by analyzing tens of repetitive chirped waveforms.

  12. Radio-frequency capacitive discharge with flowing liquid electrodes at reduced gas pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaisin, Al. F.; Son, E. E.; Petryakov, S. Yu.

    2017-07-01

    Results are presented from experimental studies of the electrophysical and spectral characteristics of the low-temperature plasma of a radio-frequency capacitive discharge excited between two flowing liquid electrodes at gas pressures of 103-105 Pa. The plasma composition, the electron density, and the vibrational and rotational temperatures of gas molecules are estimated. The types and shapes of discharge are described, and the thermal and gas-hydrodynamic processes in the discharge zone are analyzed.

  13. Solar radio continuum storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Radio noise continuum emission observed in metric and decametric wave frequencies is discussed. The radio noise is associated with actively varying sunspot groups accompanied by the S-component of microwave radio emissions. It is shown that the S-component emission in microwave frequencies generally occurs several days before the emission of the noise continuum storms of lower frequencies. It is likely that energetic electrons, 10 to 100 Kev, accelerated in association with the variation of sunspot magnetic fields, are the sources of the radio emissions. A model is considered to explain the relation of burst storms on radio noise. An analysis of the role of energetic electrons on the emissions of both noise continuum and type III burst storms is presented. It is shown that instabilities associated with the electrons and their relation to their own stabilizing effects are important in interpreting both of these storms.

  14. Physics-based parametrization of the surface impedance for radio frequency sheaths

    DOE PAGES

    Myra, J. R.

    2017-07-07

    The properties of sheaths near conducting surfaces are studied for the case where both magnetized plasma and intense radio frequency (rf) waves coexist. The work is motivated primarily by the need to understand, predict and control ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) interactions with tokamak scrape-off layer plasmas, and is expected to be useful in modeling rf sheath interactions in global ICRF codes. Here, employing a previously developed model for oblique angle magnetized rf sheaths [J. R. Myra and D. A. D’Ippolito, Phys. Plasmas 22, 062507 (2015)], an investigation of the four-dimensional parameter space governing these sheath is carried out.more » By combining numerical and analytical results, a parametrization of the surface impedance and voltage rectification for rf sheaths in the entire four-dimensional space is obtained.« less

  15. Physics-based parametrization of the surface impedance for radio frequency sheaths

    SciTech Connect

    Myra, J. R.

    The properties of sheaths near conducting surfaces are studied for the case where both magnetized plasma and intense radio frequency (rf) waves coexist. The work is motivated primarily by the need to understand, predict and control ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) interactions with tokamak scrape-off layer plasmas, and is expected to be useful in modeling rf sheath interactions in global ICRF codes. Here, employing a previously developed model for oblique angle magnetized rf sheaths [J. R. Myra and D. A. D’Ippolito, Phys. Plasmas 22, 062507 (2015)], an investigation of the four-dimensional parameter space governing these sheath is carried out.more » By combining numerical and analytical results, a parametrization of the surface impedance and voltage rectification for rf sheaths in the entire four-dimensional space is obtained.« less

  16. Model of the Radio Frequency (RF) Excitation Response from Monopole and Dipole Antennas in a Large Scale Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Zimmerli, Gregory A.

    2012-01-01

    Good antenna-mode coupling is needed for determining the amount of propellant in a tank through the method of radio frequency mass gauging (RFMG). The antenna configuration and position in a tank are important factors in coupling the antenna to the natural electromagnetic modes. In this study, different monopole and dipole antenna mounting configurations and positions were modeled and responses simulated in a full-scale tank model with the transient solver of CST Microwave Studio (CST Computer Simulation Technology of America, Inc.). The study was undertaken to qualitatively understand the effect of antenna design and placement within a tank on the resulting radio frequency (RF) tank spectrum.

  17. Planck intermediate results: XLV. Radio spectra of northern extragalactic radio sources

    DOE PAGES

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Aller, H. D.; ...

    2016-12-12

    Continuum spectra covering centimetre to submillimetre wavelengths are presented in this paper for a northern sample of 104 extragalactic radio sources, mainly active galactic nuclei, based on four-epoch Planck data. The nine Planck frequencies, from 30 to 857 GHz, are complemented by a set of simultaneous ground-based radio observations between 1.1 and 37 GHz. The single-survey Planck data confirm that the flattest high-frequency radio spectral indices are close to zero, indicating that the original accelerated electron energy spectrum is much harder than commonly thought, with power-law index around 1.5 instead of the canonical 2.5. The radio spectra peak at highmore » frequencies and exhibit a variety of shapes. For a small set of low-z sources, we find a spectral upturn at high frequencies, indicating the presence of intrinsic cold dust. Finally, variability can generally be approximated by achromatic variations, while sources with clear signatures of evolving shocks appear to be limited to the strongest outbursts.« less

  18. Planck intermediate results: XLV. Radio spectra of northern extragalactic radio sources

    SciTech Connect

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Aller, H. D.

    Continuum spectra covering centimetre to submillimetre wavelengths are presented in this paper for a northern sample of 104 extragalactic radio sources, mainly active galactic nuclei, based on four-epoch Planck data. The nine Planck frequencies, from 30 to 857 GHz, are complemented by a set of simultaneous ground-based radio observations between 1.1 and 37 GHz. The single-survey Planck data confirm that the flattest high-frequency radio spectral indices are close to zero, indicating that the original accelerated electron energy spectrum is much harder than commonly thought, with power-law index around 1.5 instead of the canonical 2.5. The radio spectra peak at highmore » frequencies and exhibit a variety of shapes. For a small set of low-z sources, we find a spectral upturn at high frequencies, indicating the presence of intrinsic cold dust. Finally, variability can generally be approximated by achromatic variations, while sources with clear signatures of evolving shocks appear to be limited to the strongest outbursts.« less

  19. Effects of radio frequency magnetic fields on iron release from cage proteins.

    PubMed

    Céspedes, Oscar; Ueno, Shoogo

    2009-07-01

    Ferritin, the iron cage protein, contains a superparamagnetic ferrihydrite nanoparticle formed from the oxidation and absorption of Fe(2+) ions. This nanoparticle increases its internal energy when exposed to alternating magnetic fields due to magnetization lag. The energy is then dissipated to the surrounding proteic cage, affecting its functioning. In this article we show that the rates of iron chelation with ferrozine, an optical marker, are reduced by up to a factor of 3 in proteins previously exposed to radio frequency magnetic fields of 1 MHz and 30 microT for several hours. The effect is non-thermal and depends on the frequency-amplitude product of the magnetic field. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. 47 CFR 15.124 - DTV transition notices by manufacturers of televisions and related devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DTV transition notices by manufacturers of televisions and related devices. 15.124 Section 15.124 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Unintentional Radiators § 15.124 DTV transition notices by manufacturers...