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Sample records for radio location fingerprinting

  1. Reference Device-Assisted Adaptive Location Fingerprinting

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Dongjin; Xia, Linyuan

    2016-01-01

    Location fingerprinting suffers in dynamic environments and needs recalibration from time to time to maintain system performance. This paper proposes an adaptive approach for location fingerprinting. Based on real-time received signal strength indicator (RSSI) samples measured by a group of reference devices, the approach applies a modified Universal Kriging (UK) interpolant to estimate adaptive temporal and environmental radio maps. The modified UK can take the spatial distribution characteristics of RSSI into account. In addition, the issue of device heterogeneity caused by multiple reference devices is further addressed. To compensate the measuring differences of heterogeneous reference devices, differential RSSI metric is employed. Extensive experiments were conducted in an indoor field and the results demonstrate that the proposed approach not only adapts to dynamic environments and the situation of changing APs’ positions, but it is also robust toward measuring differences of heterogeneous reference devices. PMID:27258284

  2. Sensors Locate Radio Interference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    After receiving a NASA Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract from Kennedy Space Center, Soneticom Inc., based in West Melbourne, Florida, created algorithms for time difference of arrival and radio interferometry, which it used in its Lynx Location System (LLS) to locate electromagnetic interference that can disrupt radio communications. Soneticom is collaborating with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to install and test the LLS at its field test center in New Jersey in preparation for deploying the LLS at commercial airports. The software collects data from each sensor in order to compute the location of the interfering emitter.

  3. RF-Based Location Using Interpolation Functions to Reduce Fingerprint Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Ezpeleta, Santiago; Claver, José M.; Pérez-Solano, Juan J.; Martí, José V.

    2015-01-01

    Indoor RF-based localization using fingerprint mapping requires an initial training step, which represents a time consuming process. This location methodology needs a database conformed with RSSI (Radio Signal Strength Indicator) measures from the communication transceivers taken at specific locations within the localization area. But, the real world localization environment is dynamic and it is necessary to rebuild the fingerprint database when some environmental changes are made. This paper explores the use of different interpolation functions to complete the fingerprint mapping needed to achieve the sought accuracy, thereby reducing the effort in the training step. Also, different distributions of test maps and reference points have been evaluated, showing the validity of this proposal and necessary trade-offs. Results reported show that the same or similar localization accuracy can be achieved even when only 50% of the initial fingerprint reference points are taken. PMID:26516862

  4. RF-Based Location Using Interpolation Functions to Reduce Fingerprint Mapping.

    PubMed

    Ezpeleta, Santiago; Claver, José M; Pérez-Solano, Juan J; Martí, José V

    2015-10-27

    Indoor RF-based localization using fingerprint mapping requires an initial training step, which represents a time consuming process. This location methodology needs a database conformed with RSSI (Radio Signal Strength Indicator) measures from the communication transceivers taken at specific locations within the localization area. But, the real world localization environment is dynamic and it is necessary to rebuild the fingerprint database when some environmental changes are made. This paper explores the use of different interpolation functions to complete the fingerprint mapping needed to achieve the sought accuracy, thereby reducing the effort in the training step. Also, different distributions of test maps and reference points have been evaluated, showing the validity of this proposal and necessary trade-offs. Results reported show that the same or similar localization accuracy can be achieved even when only 50% of the initial fingerprint reference points are taken.

  5. Short range radio locator system

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1996-01-01

    A radio location system comprises a wireless transmitter that outputs two megahertz period bursts of two gigahertz radar carrier signals. A receiver system determines the position of the transmitter by the relative arrival of the radar bursts at several component receivers set up to have a favorable geometry and each one having a known location. One receiver provides a synchronizing gating pulse to itself and all the other receivers to sample the ether for the radar pulse. The rate of the synchronizing gating pulse is slightly offset from the rate of the radar bursts themselves, so that each sample collects one finely-detailed piece of information about the time-of-flight of the radar pulse to each receiver each pulse period. Thousands of sequential pulse periods provide corresponding thousand of pieces of information about the time-of-flight of the radar pulse to each receiver, in expanded, not real time. Therefore the signal processing can be done with relatively low-frequency, inexpensive components. A conventional microcomputer is then used to find the position of the transmitter by geometric triangulation based on the relative time-of-flight information.

  6. Short range radio locator system

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-12-31

    A radio location system comprises a wireless transmitter that outputs two megahertz period bursts of two gigahertz radar carrier signals. A receiver system determines the position of the transmitter by the relative arrival of the radar bursts at several component receivers set up to have a favorable geometry and each one having a known location. One receiver provides a synchronizing gating pulse to itself and all the other receivers. The rate of the synchronizing gating pulse is slightly offset from the rate of the radar bursts themselves, so that each sample collects one finely-detailed piece of information about the time-of-flight of the radar pulse to each receiver each pulse period. Thousands of sequential pulse periods provide corresponding thousand of pieces of information about the time-of-flight of the radar pulse to each receiver, in expanded, not real time. Therefore the signal processing can be done with relatively low-frequency, inexpensive components. A conventional microcomputer is then used to find the position of the transmitter by geometric triangulation based on the relative time-of-flight information. 5 figs.

  7. Indoor location estimation using radio beacons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Uzair; Lee, Young-Koo; Lee, Sungyoug; Park, Chongkug

    2007-12-01

    We present a simple location estimation method for developing radio beacon based location system in the indoor environments. It employs an online learning approach for making large scale location systems in a short time collaboratively. The salient features of our method are low memory requirements and simple computations which make it suitable for both distributed location-aware applications based on client-server model as well as privacy sensitive applications residing on stand alone devices.

  8. Fusion of Location Fingerprinting and Trilateration Based on the Example of Differential Wi-Fi Positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retscher, G.

    2017-09-01

    Positioning of mobile users in indoor environments with Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) has become very popular whereby location fingerprinting and trilateration are the most commonly employed methods. In both the received signal strength (RSS) of the surrounding access points (APs) are scanned and used to estimate the user's position. Within the scope of this study the advantageous qualities of both methods are identified and selected to benefit their combination. By a fusion of these technologies a higher performance for Wi-Fi positioning is achievable. For that purpose, a novel approach based on the well-known Differential GPS (DGPS) principle of operation is developed and applied. This approach for user localization and tracking is termed Differential Wi-Fi (DWi-Fi) by analogy with DGPS. From reference stations deployed in the area of interest differential measurement corrections are derived and applied at the mobile user side. Hence, range or coordinate corrections can be estimated from a network of reference station observations as it is done in common CORS GNSS networks. A low-cost realization with Raspberry Pi units is employed for these reference stations. These units serve at the same time as APs broadcasting Wi-Fi signals as well as reference stations scanning the receivable Wi-Fi signals of the surrounding APs. As the RSS measurements are carried out continuously at the reference stations dynamically changing maps of RSS distributions, so-called radio maps, are derived. Similar as in location fingerprinting this radio maps represent the RSS fingerprints at certain locations. From the areal modelling of the correction parameters in combination with the dynamically updated radio maps the location of the user can be estimated in real-time. The novel approach is presented and its performance demonstrated in this paper.

  9. Improved Wireless Security through Physical Layer Protocol Manipulation and Radio Frequency Fingerprinting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-18

    receiver. A useful technique for visually representing RF fingerprints is through RF- DNA (Radio Frequency - Distinct Native Attributes) markers, adopted...of RF- DNA fingerprinting techniques to IEEE 802.15.4 PHY responses for device classification was presented in [RTM12]. The addition of device...ensemble decision tree classifiers to zigbee device network authentication using rf- dna fingerprinting . In 9th International Conference on Cyber Warfare

  10. Radio System for Locating Emergency Workers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, William; Medelius, Pedro; Starr, Stan; Bedette, Guy; Taylor, John; Moerk, Steve

    2003-01-01

    A system based on low-power radio transponders and associated analog and digital electronic circuitry has been developed for locating firefighters and other emergency workers deployed in a building or other structure. The system has obvious potential for saving lives and reducing the risk of injuries. The system includes (1) a central station equipped with a computer and a transceiver; (2) active radio-frequency (RF) identification tags, each placed in a different room or region of the structure; and (3) transponder units worn by the emergency workers. The RF identification tags can be installed in a new building as built-in components of standard fire-detection devices or ground-fault electrical outlets or can be attached to such devices in a previously constructed building, without need for rewiring the building. Each RF identification tag contains information that uniquely identifies it. When each tag is installed, information on its location and identity are reported to, and stored at, the central station. In an emergency, if a building has not been prewired with RF identification tags, leading emergency workers could drop sequentially numbered portable tags in the rooms of the building, reporting the tag numbers and locations by radio to the central station as they proceed.

  11. MagicFinger: 3D Magnetic Fingerprints for Indoor Location

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo, Daniel; Moreno, Victoria; Úbeda, Benito; Skarmeta, Antonio F.

    2015-01-01

    Given the indispensable role of mobile phones in everyday life, phone-centric sensing systems are ideal candidates for ubiquitous observation purposes. This paper presents a novel approach for mobile phone-centric observation applied to indoor location. The approach involves a location fingerprinting methodology that takes advantage of the presence of magnetic field anomalies inside buildings. Unlike existing work on the subject, which uses the intensity of magnetic field for fingerprinting, our approach uses all three components of the measured magnetic field vectors to improve accuracy. By using adequate soft computing techniques, it is possible to adequately balance the constraints of common solutions. The resulting system does not rely on any infrastructure devices and therefore is easy to manage and deploy. The proposed system consists of two phases: the offline phase and the online phase. In the offline phase, magnetic field measurements are taken throughout the building, and 3D maps are generated. Then, during the online phase, the user's location is estimated through the best estimator for each zone of the building. Experimental evaluations carried out in two different buildings confirm the satisfactory performance of indoor location based on magnetic field vectors. These evaluations provided an error of (11.34 m, 4.78 m) in the (x, y) components of the estimated positions in the first building where the experiments were carried out, with a standard deviation of (3.41 m, 4.68 m); and in the second building, an error of (4 m, 2.98 m) with a deviation of (2.64 m, 2.33 m). PMID:26184230

  12. The Korean Solar Radio Burst Locator (KSRBL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Yujiang; Gary, Dale E.; Liu, Zhiwei; Nita, Gelu M.; Bong, Su-Chan; Cho, Kyung-Suk; Park, Young-Deuk; Moon, Yong-Jae

    2009-05-01

    This paper describes the design and operation of the Korean Solar Radio Burst Locator (KSRBL). The KSRBL is a radio spectrometer designed to observe solar decimeter and microwave bursts over a wide band (0.245–18 GHz) as well as to detect the burst locations without interferometry or mechanical sweeping. As a prototype, it is temporarily observing at the Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO), California, USA, and after commissioning will be operated at the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), Daejeon, Republic of Korea. The control system can agilely choose four 500 MHz intermediate frequency (IF) bands (2 GHz instantaneous bandwidth) from the entire 0.245–18 GHz band, with a standard time resolution of 100 ms, although higher time resolution is possible subject to data-rate constraints. To cover the entire band requires 10 tunings, which are therefore completed in 1 s. Each 500 MHz band is sampled at a 1 GS s-1 (gigasample per second) rate, and 4096 time samples are Fast Fourier transformed (FFT) to 2048 subchannels for a frequency resolution of 0.24 MHz. To cover the entire range also requires two different feeds, a dual-frequency Yagi centered at 245 and 410 MHz, and a broadband spiral feed covering 0.5–18 GHz. The dynamic range is 35 dB over the 0.5–18 GHz band, and 55 dB in the 245 and 410 MHz bands, set by using switchable attenuators in steps of 5 dB. Each 500 MHz IF has a further 63 dB of settable analog attenuation. The characteristics of the spiral feed provide the ability to locate flaring sources on the Sun to typically 2‧. The KSRBL will provide a broadband view of solar bursts for the purposes of studying solar activity for basic research, and for monitoring solar activity as the source of Space Weather and solar-terrestrial effects.

  13. 75 FR 82279 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Various Locations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Various Locations AGENCY: Federal Communications... Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. 0 As stated in the preamble, the Federal Communications Commission amends 47 CFR part 73 as follows: PART 73--RADIO BROADCASTING SERVICES 0 1. The...

  14. Wi-Fi location fingerprinting using an intelligent checkpoint sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retscher, Günther; Hofer, Hannes

    2017-09-01

    For Wi-Fi positioning location fingerprinting is very common but has the disadvantage that it is very labour consuming for the establishment of a database (DB) with received signal strength (RSS) scans measured on a large number of known reference points (RPs). To overcome this drawback a novel approach is developed which uses a logical sequence of intelligent checkpoints (iCPs) instead of RPs distributed in a regular grid. The iCPs are the selected RPs which have to be passed along the way for navigation from a start point A to the destination B. They are twofold intelligent because of the fact that they depend on their meaningful selection and because of their logical sequence in their correct order. Thus, always the following iCP is known due to a vector graph allocation in the DB and only a small limited number of iCPs needs to be tested when matching the current RSS scans. This reduces the required processing time significantly. It is proven that the iCP approach achieves a higher success rate than conventional approaches. In average correct matching results of 90.0% were achieved using a joint DB including RSS scans of all employed smartphones. An even higher success rate is achieved if the same mobile device is used in both the training and positioning phase.

  15. 76 FR 67375 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Various Locations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Various Locations AGENCY: Federal Communications... the new application procedures for radio stations to change their communities of license. However...)(A), because these allotments were previously reported. List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio...

  16. Cloud Fingerprinting: Using Clock Skews To Determine Co Location Of Virtual Machines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS CLOUD FINGERPRINTING: USING CLOCK SKEWS TO DETERMINE CO-LOCATION OF VIRTUAL MACHINES by...9/17/2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CLOUD FINGERPRINTING: USING CLOCK SKEWS TO DETERMINE CO- LOCATION OF VIRTUAL MACHINES 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S...hardware hosting virtual machines for multiple businesses and organizations. Current cloud security methods, such as Amazon’s Virtual Private Cloud, have

  17. Radio Frequency Fingerprinting Techniques Through Preamble Modification in IEEE 802.11B

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-30

    David Bull, and Joseph McGeehan. “A Comparison of the HIPERLAN/2 and IEEE 802.11a Wireless LAN Standards”, Communications Magazine , IEEE , vol. 40, no...RADIO FREQUENCY FINGERPRINTING TECHNIQUES THROUGH PREAMBLE MODIFICATION IN IEEE 802.11B THESIS Nicholas J. Kulesza, Captain, USAF AFIT–ENG–T–14–J–8...MODIFICATION IN IEEE 802.11B THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Graduate School of Engineering and Management

  18. 78 FR 42700 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Various Locations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Various Locations AGENCY: Federal Communications... the FM Table of Allotments. DATES: Effective July 17, 2013. ADDRESSES: Federal...

  19. Using Dimensionality Reduction Techniques for Refining Passive Indoor Positioning Systems Based on Radio Fingerprinting

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-de-Teruel, Pedro E.; Canovas, Oscar; Garcia, Felix J.

    2017-01-01

    Indoor positioning methods based on fingerprinting and radio signals rely on the quality of the radio map. For example, for room-level classification purposes, it is required that the signal observations related to each room exhibit significant differences in their RSSI values. However, it is difficult to verify and visualize that separability since radio maps are constituted by multi-dimensional observations whose dimension is directly related to the number of access points or monitors being employed for localization purposes. In this paper, we propose a refinement cycle for passive indoor positioning systems, which is based on dimensionality reduction techniques, to evaluate the quality of a radio map. By means of these techniques and our own data representation, we have defined two different visualization methods to obtain graphical information about the quality of a particular radio map in terms of overlapping areas and outliers. That information will be useful to determine whether new monitors are required or some existing ones should be moved. We have performed an exhaustive experimental analysis based on a variety of different scenarios, some deployed by our own research group and others corresponding to a well-known existing dataset widely analyzed by the community, in order to validate our proposal. As we will show, among the different combinations of data representation methods and dimensionality reduction techniques that we discuss, we have found that there are some specific configurations that are more useful in order to perform the refinement process. PMID:28420133

  20. Neptune's non-thermal radio emissions - Phenomenology and source locations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabl, Gerald K. F.; Ladreiter, H.-P.; Rucker, Helmut O.; Kaiser, Michael L.

    1992-01-01

    During the inbound and the outbound leg of Voyager 2's encounter with Neptune, the Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) experiment aboard the spacecraft detected short radio bursts at frequencies within the range of about 500-1300 kHz, and broad-banded smoothly varying emission patterns within the frequency range from about 40-800 kHz. Both emissions can be described in terms of a period of 16.1 hours determining Neptune's rotation period. Furthermore, just near closest approach, a narrow-banded smoothly varying radio component was observed occurring between 600 and 800 kHz. After giving a brief overview about some general characteristics of Neptune's nonthermal radio emission, the source locations of Neptune's emission components are determined, using an offset tilted dipole model for Neptune's magnetic field. Assuming that the emission originates near the electron gyrofrequency a geometrical beaming model is developed in order to fit the observed emission episodes.

  1. Autonomous robotic platforms for locating radio sources buried under rubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasu, A. S.; Anchidin, L.; Tamas, R.; Paun, M.; Danisor, A.; Petrescu, T.

    2016-12-01

    This paper deals with the use of autonomous robotic platforms able to locate radio signal sources such as mobile phones, buried under collapsed buildings as a result of earthquakes, natural disasters, terrorism, war, etc. This technique relies on averaging position data resulting from a propagation model implemented on the platform and the data acquired by robotic platforms at the disaster site. That allows us to calculate the approximate position of radio sources buried under the rubble. Based on measurements, a radio map of the disaster site is made, very useful for locating victims and for guiding specific rubble lifting machinery, by assuming that there is a victim next to a mobile device detected by the robotic platform; by knowing the approximate position, the lifting machinery does not risk to further hurt the victims. Moreover, by knowing the positions of the victims, the reaction time is decreased, and the chances of survival for the victims buried under the rubble, are obviously increased.

  2. Reliable Location-Based Services from Radio Navigation Systems

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Di; Boneh, Dan; Lo, Sherman; Enge, Per

    2010-01-01

    Loran is a radio-based navigation system originally designed for naval applications. We show that Loran-C’s high-power and high repeatable accuracy are fantastic for security applications. First, we show how to derive a precise location tag—with a sensitivity of about 20 meters—that is difficult to project to an exact location. A device can use our location tag to block or allow certain actions, without knowing its precise location. To ensure that our tag is reproducible we make use of fuzzy extractors, a mechanism originally designed for biometric authentication. We build a fuzzy extractor specifically designed for radio-type errors and give experimental evidence to show its effectiveness. Second, we show that our location tag is difficult to predict from a distance. For example, an observer cannot predict the location tag inside a guarded data center from a few hundreds of meters away. As an application, consider a location-aware disk drive that will only work inside the data center. An attacker who steals the device and is capable of spoofing Loran-C signals, still cannot make the device work since he does not know what location tag to spoof. We provide experimental data supporting our unpredictability claim. PMID:22163532

  3. Reliable location-based services from radio navigation systems.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Di; Boneh, Dan; Lo, Sherman; Enge, Per

    2010-01-01

    Loran is a radio-based navigation system originally designed for naval applications. We show that Loran-C's high-power and high repeatable accuracy are fantastic for security applications. First, we show how to derive a precise location tag--with a sensitivity of about 20 meters--that is difficult to project to an exact location. A device can use our location tag to block or allow certain actions, without knowing its precise location. To ensure that our tag is reproducible we make use of fuzzy extractors, a mechanism originally designed for biometric authentication. We build a fuzzy extractor specifically designed for radio-type errors and give experimental evidence to show its effectiveness. Second, we show that our location tag is difficult to predict from a distance. For example, an observer cannot predict the location tag inside a guarded data center from a few hundreds of meters away. As an application, consider a location-aware disk drive that will only work inside the data center. An attacker who steals the device and is capable of spoofing Loran-C signals, still cannot make the device work since he does not know what location tag to spoof. We provide experimental data supporting our unpredictability claim.

  4. Indoor Location Sensing with Invariant Wi-Fi Received Signal Strength Fingerprinting

    PubMed Central

    Husen, Mohd Nizam; Lee, Sukhan

    2016-01-01

    A method of location fingerprinting based on the Wi-Fi received signal strength (RSS) in an indoor environment is presented. The method aims to overcome the RSS instability due to varying channel disturbances in time by introducing the concept of invariant RSS statistics. The invariant RSS statistics represent here the RSS distributions collected at individual calibration locations under minimal random spatiotemporal disturbances in time. The invariant RSS statistics thus collected serve as the reference pattern classes for fingerprinting. Fingerprinting is carried out at an unknown location by identifying the reference pattern class that maximally supports the spontaneous RSS sensed from individual Wi-Fi sources. A design guideline is also presented as a rule of thumb for estimating the number of Wi-Fi signal sources required to be available for any given number of calibration locations under a certain level of random spatiotemporal disturbances. Experimental results show that the proposed method not only provides 17% higher success rate than conventional ones but also removes the need for recalibration. Furthermore, the resolution is shown finer by 40% with the execution time more than an order of magnitude faster than the conventional methods. These results are also backed up by theoretical analysis. PMID:27845711

  5. Indoor Location Sensing with Invariant Wi-Fi Received Signal Strength Fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Husen, Mohd Nizam; Lee, Sukhan

    2016-11-11

    A method of location fingerprinting based on the Wi-Fi received signal strength (RSS) in an indoor environment is presented. The method aims to overcome the RSS instability due to varying channel disturbances in time by introducing the concept of invariant RSS statistics. The invariant RSS statistics represent here the RSS distributions collected at individual calibration locations under minimal random spatiotemporal disturbances in time. The invariant RSS statistics thus collected serve as the reference pattern classes for fingerprinting. Fingerprinting is carried out at an unknown location by identifying the reference pattern class that maximally supports the spontaneous RSS sensed from individual Wi-Fi sources. A design guideline is also presented as a rule of thumb for estimating the number of Wi-Fi signal sources required to be available for any given number of calibration locations under a certain level of random spatiotemporal disturbances. Experimental results show that the proposed method not only provides 17% higher success rate than conventional ones but also removes the need for recalibration. Furthermore, the resolution is shown finer by 40% with the execution time more than an order of magnitude faster than the conventional methods. These results are also backed up by theoretical analysis.

  6. Lightning location with variable radio wave propagation velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhongjian; Koh, Kuang Liang; Mezentsev, Andrew; Sugier, Jacqueline; Fullekrug, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Lightning discharges can be located by triangulation of their broadband electromagnetic pulses in long-baseline (~500 km) radio receiver networks. Here we apply the time of arrival difference (TOA) method to electric field recordings with a low frequency radio receiver array consisting of four stations in western Europe. The electromagnetic wave propagation velocity at low radio frequencies is an important input parameter for the TOA calculation and it is normally assumed to be equal to the speed of light. However, the radio wave propagation depends for example on the frequency, ground conductivity and the ionospheric height and small variations can cause location differences from hundreds to thousands of meters, as demonstrated in this study. The radio wave propagation from two VLF transmissions at 20.9 kHz and 23.4 kHz are compared. The results show that the apparent phase velocities are 0.6% slower and 0.5% faster than the speed of light respectively. As a result, a variable velocity is implemented in the TOA method using continuously recorded data on the 8th August 2014, when a mesoscale convective system developed over central France. The lightning locations inferred with a variable wave propagation velocity are more clustered than those using a fixed velocity. The distribution of the lightning velocities in a given geographic area fits a normal distribution that is not centred at the speed of light. As a result, representative velocities can be calculated for smaller regions to generate a velocity map over a larger area of enhanced lightning activity. These results suggest a connection with the ground elevation and/or surface conductivity that might have an impact on the observed wave propagation velocities.

  7. Person-Locator System Based On Wristband Radio Transponders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mintz, Frederick W.; Blaes, Brent R.; Chandler, Charles W.

    1995-01-01

    Computerized system based on wristband radio frequency (RF), passive transponders is being developed for use in real-time tracking of individuals in custodial institutions like prisons and mental hospitals. Includes monitoring system that contains central computer connected to low-power, high-frequency central transceiver. Transceiver connected to miniature transceiver nodes mounted unobtrusively at known locations throughout the institution. Wristband transponders embedded in common hospital wristbands. Wristbands tamperproof: each contains embedded wire loop which, when broken or torn off and discarded, causes wristband to disappear from system, thus causing alarm. Individuals could be located in a timely fashion at relatively low cost.

  8. Person-Locator System Based On Wristband Radio Transponders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mintz, Frederick W.; Blaes, Brent R.; Chandler, Charles W.

    1995-01-01

    Computerized system based on wristband radio frequency (RF), passive transponders is being developed for use in real-time tracking of individuals in custodial institutions like prisons and mental hospitals. Includes monitoring system that contains central computer connected to low-power, high-frequency central transceiver. Transceiver connected to miniature transceiver nodes mounted unobtrusively at known locations throughout the institution. Wristband transponders embedded in common hospital wristbands. Wristbands tamperproof: each contains embedded wire loop which, when broken or torn off and discarded, causes wristband to disappear from system, thus causing alarm. Individuals could be located in a timely fashion at relatively low cost.

  9. On the Statistical Errors of RADAR Location Sensor Networks with Built-In Wi-Fi Gaussian Linear Fingerprints

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Mu; Xu, Yu Bin; Ma, Lin; Tian, Shuo

    2012-01-01

    The expected errors of RADAR sensor networks with linear probabilistic location fingerprints inside buildings with varying Wi-Fi Gaussian strength are discussed. As far as we know, the statistical errors of equal and unequal-weighted RADAR networks have been suggested as a better way to evaluate the behavior of different system parameters and the deployment of reference points (RPs). However, up to now, there is still not enough related work on the relations between the statistical errors, system parameters, number and interval of the RPs, let alone calculating the correlated analytical expressions of concern. Therefore, in response to this compelling problem, under a simple linear distribution model, much attention will be paid to the mathematical relations of the linear expected errors, number of neighbors, number and interval of RPs, parameters in logarithmic attenuation model and variations of radio signal strength (RSS) at the test point (TP) with the purpose of constructing more practical and reliable RADAR location sensor networks (RLSNs) and also guaranteeing the accuracy requirements for the location based services in future ubiquitous context-awareness environments. Moreover, the numerical results and some real experimental evaluations of the error theories addressed in this paper will also be presented for our future extended analysis. PMID:22737027

  10. Type II Radio Bursts as an Indicator of CME Location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quirk, C. A.; St Cyr, O. C.; Henning, C.; Xie, H.; Gilbert, H. R.; Orlove, M.; Gopalswamy, N.; Odstrcil, D.

    2011-12-01

    We examined a subset of nine low-frequency radio events with type II radio bursts that drifted below 2 megahertz and were detected by the WAVES investigation on the WIND spacecraft. For each event, we identified the associated coronal mass ejection (CME) and derived the electron density using a model of solar wind plasma frequency (fp ≈ 9 * ne1/2, where fp is plasma frequency in kHz and ne is electron density in cm-3) . We also used the pb_inverter program in SolarSoft developed by Howard and Hayes to examine the electron density structure. Expanding on the Van De Hulst process of inverting polarized brightness measurements, the program inverts total brightness measurements from SOHO LASCO images to extract electron density information. From the electron density inferred from radio spectra, we derived the location of the CME using five standard electron density to height models (Leblanc, 1996; Saito, 1977; Bougeret, 1984; Alvarez, 1973; and Fainberg, 1971). Using images from the LASCO instrument on SOHO and the SECCHI instrument on STEREO, we extracted locations of the leading edge of the CME and compared the heights and velocities to those found using the frequency data. For the lowest frequency events, we also compared our results to the outputs of ENLIL, a time-dependent, three-dimensional, MHD model of the heliosphere hosted by the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

  11. Conditional Entropy and Location Error in Indoor Localization Using Probabilistic Wi-Fi Fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Berkvens, Rafael; Peremans, Herbert; Weyn, Maarten

    2016-10-02

    Localization systems are increasingly valuable, but their location estimates are only useful when the uncertainty of the estimate is known. This uncertainty is currently calculated as the location error given a ground truth, which is then used as a static measure in sometimes very different environments. In contrast, we propose the use of the conditional entropy of a posterior probability distribution as a complementary measure of uncertainty. This measure has the advantage of being dynamic, i.e., it can be calculated during localization based on individual sensor measurements, does not require a ground truth, and can be applied to discrete localization algorithms. Furthermore, for every consistent location estimation algorithm, both the location error and the conditional entropy measures must be related, i.e., a low entropy should always correspond with a small location error, while a high entropy can correspond with either a small or large location error. We validate this relationship experimentally by calculating both measures of uncertainty in three publicly available datasets using probabilistic Wi-Fi fingerprinting with eight different implementations of the sensor model. We show that the discrepancy between these measures, i.e., many location estimates having a high location error while simultaneously having a low conditional entropy, is largest for the least realistic implementations of the probabilistic sensor model. Based on the results presented in this paper, we conclude that conditional entropy, being dynamic, complementary to location error, and applicable to both continuous and discrete localization, provides an important extra means of characterizing a localization method.

  12. Possible Source Location of the Terrestrial Myriametric Radio Burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, S. F.; Shao, X.; Frey, H. U.; Garcia, L. N.

    2013-12-01

    Fung et al. [2013] reported recently the identification of a terrestrial myriametric radio burst (TMRB) that was possibly a result from a dayside high latitude reconnection process. The TMRB was observed simultaneously by the IMAGE and Geotail satellites when the satellites were located at widely different latitudes on opposite sides of the Earth in nearly the same meridional plane. The TMRB was observed when the interplanetary field was northward. Its intensity seemed to be modulated by the IMF Bz component while the source directions (relative to the Geotail positions over the TMRB interval) also seemed to respond to the changes in the IMF By component. In this paper, we will present further observations from the IMAGE FUV data during the TMRB interval, revealing the presence of a bright proton aurora spot at the cusp foot print and thus confirming the presence of high-latitude dayside reconnection at the time. We have also performed a CCMC run-on-request of a global magnetospheric simulation for a time period over the TMRB interval. We will present the CCMC results and discuss the possible identification of the location of the TMRB source. Fung, S. F., K. Hashimoto, H. Kojima, S. A. Boardsen, L. N. Garcia, H. Matsumoto, J. L. Green, and B. W. Reinisch (2013), Terrestrial myriametric radio burst observed by IMAGE and Geotail satellites, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 118, 1101-1111, doi:10.1002/jgra.50149.

  13. Location and detection of explosive-contaminated human fingerprints on distant targets using standoff laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucena, P.; Gaona, I.; Moros, J.; Laserna, J. J.

    2013-07-01

    Detection of explosive-contaminated human fingerprints constitutes an analytical challenge of high significance in security issues and in forensic sciences. The use of a laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) sensor working at 31 m distance to the target, fitted with 2D scanning capabilities and designed for capturing spectral information from laser-induced plasmas of fingerprints is presented. Distribution chemical maps based on Na and CN emissions are used to locate and detect chloratite, DNT, TNT, RDX and PETN residues that have been deposited on the surface of aluminum and glass substrates. An effectiveness of 100% on fingerprints detection, regardless the substrate scanned, is reached. Environmental factors that affect the prevalence of the fingerprint LIBS response are discussed.

  14. Conditional Entropy and Location Error in Indoor Localization Using Probabilistic Wi-Fi Fingerprinting

    PubMed Central

    Berkvens, Rafael; Peremans, Herbert; Weyn, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    Localization systems are increasingly valuable, but their location estimates are only useful when the uncertainty of the estimate is known. This uncertainty is currently calculated as the location error given a ground truth, which is then used as a static measure in sometimes very different environments. In contrast, we propose the use of the conditional entropy of a posterior probability distribution as a complementary measure of uncertainty. This measure has the advantage of being dynamic, i.e., it can be calculated during localization based on individual sensor measurements, does not require a ground truth, and can be applied to discrete localization algorithms. Furthermore, for every consistent location estimation algorithm, both the location error and the conditional entropy measures must be related, i.e., a low entropy should always correspond with a small location error, while a high entropy can correspond with either a small or large location error. We validate this relationship experimentally by calculating both measures of uncertainty in three publicly available datasets using probabilistic Wi-Fi fingerprinting with eight different implementations of the sensor model. We show that the discrepancy between these measures, i.e., many location estimates having a high location error while simultaneously having a low conditional entropy, is largest for the least realistic implementations of the probabilistic sensor model. Based on the results presented in this paper, we conclude that conditional entropy, being dynamic, complementary to location error, and applicable to both continuous and discrete localization, provides an important extra means of characterizing a localization method. PMID:27706099

  15. Trace element fingerprinting of cockle (Cerastoderma edule) shells can reveal harvesting location in adjacent areas

    PubMed Central

    Ricardo, Fernando; Génio, Luciana; Costa Leal, Miguel; Albuquerque, Rui; Queiroga, Henrique; Rosa, Rui; Calado, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Determining seafood geographic origin is critical for controlling its quality and safeguarding the interest of consumers. Here, we use trace element fingerprinting (TEF) of bivalve shells to discriminate the geographic origin of specimens. Barium (Ba), manganese (Mn), magnesium (Mg), strontium (Sr) and lead (Pb) were quantified in cockle shells (Cerastoderma edule) captured with two fishing methods (by hand and by hand-raking) and from five adjacent fishing locations within an estuarine system (Ria de Aveiro, Portugal). Results suggest no differences in TEF of cockle shells captured by hand or by hand-raking, thus confirming that metal rakes do not act as a potential source of metal contamination that could somehow bias TEF results. In contrast, significant differences were recorded among locations for all trace elements analysed. A Canonical Analysis of Principal Coordinates (CAP) revealed that 92% of the samples could be successfully classified according to their fishing location using TEF. We show that TEF can be an accurate, fast and reliable method to determine the geographic origin of bivalves, even among locations separated less than 1 km apart within the same estuarine system. Nonetheless, follow up studies are needed to determine if TEF can reliably discriminate between bivalves originating from different ecosystems. PMID:26149418

  16. Trace element fingerprinting of cockle (Cerastoderma edule) shells can reveal harvesting location in adjacent areas.

    PubMed

    Ricardo, Fernando; Génio, Luciana; Costa Leal, Miguel; Albuquerque, Rui; Queiroga, Henrique; Rosa, Rui; Calado, Ricardo

    2015-07-07

    Determining seafood geographic origin is critical for controlling its quality and safeguarding the interest of consumers. Here, we use trace element fingerprinting (TEF) of bivalve shells to discriminate the geographic origin of specimens. Barium (Ba), manganese (Mn), magnesium (Mg), strontium (Sr) and lead (Pb) were quantified in cockle shells (Cerastoderma edule) captured with two fishing methods (by hand and by hand-raking) and from five adjacent fishing locations within an estuarine system (Ria de Aveiro, Portugal). Results suggest no differences in TEF of cockle shells captured by hand or by hand-raking, thus confirming that metal rakes do not act as a potential source of metal contamination that could somehow bias TEF results. In contrast, significant differences were recorded among locations for all trace elements analysed. A Canonical Analysis of Principal Coordinates (CAP) revealed that 92% of the samples could be successfully classified according to their fishing location using TEF. We show that TEF can be an accurate, fast and reliable method to determine the geographic origin of bivalves, even among locations separated less than 1 km apart within the same estuarine system. Nonetheless, follow up studies are needed to determine if TEF can reliably discriminate between bivalves originating from different ecosystems.

  17. Kalman/Map filtering-aided fast normalized cross correlation-based Wi-Fi fingerprinting location sensing.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yongliang; Xu, Yubin; Li, Cheng; Ma, Lin

    2013-11-13

    A Kalman/map filtering (KMF)-aided fast normalized cross correlation (FNCC)-based Wi-Fi fingerprinting location sensing system is proposed in this paper. Compared with conventional neighbor selection algorithms that calculate localization results with received signal strength (RSS) mean samples, the proposed FNCC algorithm makes use of all the on-line RSS samples and reference point RSS variations to achieve higher fingerprinting accuracy. The FNCC computes efficiently while maintaining the same accuracy as the basic normalized cross correlation. Additionally, a KMF is also proposed to process fingerprinting localization results. It employs a new map matching algorithm to nonlinearize the linear location prediction process of Kalman filtering (KF) that takes advantage of spatial proximities of consecutive localization results. With a calibration model integrated into an indoor map, the map matching algorithm corrects unreasonable prediction locations of the KF according to the building interior structure. Thus, more accurate prediction locations are obtained. Using these locations, the KMF considerably improves fingerprinting algorithm performance. Experimental results demonstrate that the FNCC algorithm with reduced computational complexity outperforms other neighbor selection algorithms and the KMF effectively improves location sensing accuracy by using indoor map information and spatial proximities of consecutive localization results.

  18. A kind of improved fingerprinting indoor location method based on WiFi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xi; Lin, Wei

    2017-08-01

    In the prior inventions, because of the complexity of the indoor environment, it is hard to guarantee position precision. In this paper provides an improved method that can be adopted to increase the indoor positioning accuracy of handheld positioning device. This method will be the direction of the handheld device position Angle and number of access points two characteristics to join the fingerprint. The two parameters make our normal fingerprint database more abundant. The positioning test results from comparing the normal fingerprint database with the improved fingerprint database prove the later positioning more accurate.

  19. Kinematics and shock locations of a spatial resolved solar type II radio burst with LOFAR.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucca, Pietro; Morosan, Diana; Gallagher, Peter T.; Fallows, Richard; Rouillard, Alexis; Magdalenić, Jasmina; Vocks, Christian; Marqué, Christophe; Klein, Karl-Ludwig; Mann, Gottfried

    2017-04-01

    Type II radio bursts are evidence of shocks in the solar atmosphere emitting radio waves ranging from metric to kilometric lengths. These shocks may be associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs) reaching super-Alfvènic speeds. Radio imaging of the decameter wavelengths is now possible with the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR), opening a new radio window to study coronal radio shocks leaving the inner solar corona and entering the interplanetary medium and understand their association with CMEs. Here, we study a coronal shock associated with a CME and type II radio burst to determine the location where the shock is triggered in relation to the propagating CME, the ambient medium Alfvèn speed and the orientation of the coronal magnetic field. The type II shock imaging and spectra were obtained using 91 simultaneous tied-array beams of LOFAR while the CME was observed by the Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). Using the tied array beam observing mode of LOFAR we were able to locate the type II radio shock position between 45 and 75 MHz and relate it to the expanding flank of a CME leaving the inner corona. The radio emission associated with the type II shock was found to be located at the flank of the CME in a region where the mach number is between 1.5 to 2.0 and the shock geometry is quasi-perpendicular.

  20. Radio frequency sensing measurements and methods for location classification in wireless networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maas, Dustin C.

    The wireless radio channel is typically thought of as a means to move information from transmitter to receiver, but the radio channel can also be used to detect changes in the environment of the radio link. This dissertation is focused on the measurements we can make at the physical layer of wireless networks, and how we can use those measurements to obtain information about the locations of transceivers and people. The first contribution of this work is the development and testing of an open source, 802.11b sounder and receiver, which is capable of decoding packets and using them to estimate the channel impulse response (CIR) of a radio link at a fraction of the cost of traditional channel sounders. This receiver improves on previous implementations by performing optimized matched filtering on the field-programmable gate array (FPGA) of the Universal Software Radio Peripheral (USRP), allowing it to operate at full bandwidth. The second contribution of this work is an extensive experimental evaluation of a technology called location distinction, i.e., the ability to identify changes in radio transceiver position, via CIR measurements. Previous location distinction work has focused on single-input single-output (SISO) radio links. We extend this work to the context of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radio links, and study system design trade-offs which affect the performance of MIMO location distinction. The third contribution of this work introduces the "exploiting radio windows" (ERW) attack, in which an attacker outside of a building surreptitiously uses the transmissions of an otherwise secure wireless network inside of the building to infer location information about people inside the building. This is possible because of the relative transparency of external walls to radio transmissions. The final contribution of this dissertation is a feasibility study for building a rapidly deployable radio tomographic (RTI) imaging system for special operations forces

  1. Legislated emergency locating transmitters and emergency position indicating radio beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, William R. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    An emergency locating transmitting (ELT) system is disclosed which comprises a legislated ELT modified with an interface unit and connected by a multiwire cable to a remote control monitor (RCM), typically located at the pilot position. The RCM can remotely test the ELT by disabling the legislated swept tone and allowing transmission of a single tone, turn the ELT on for legislated ELT transmission, and reset the ELT to an armed condition. The RCM also provides visual and audio indications of transmitter operating condition as well as ELT battery condition. Removing the RCM or shorting or opening the interface input connections will not affect traditional ELT operation.

  2. Legislated emergency locating transmitters and emergency position indicating radio beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, William R. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    An emergency locating transmitting (ELT) system is disclosed which comprises a legislated ELT modified with an interface unit and connected by a multiwire cable to a remote control monitor (RCM), typically located at the pilot position. The RCM can remotely test the ELT by disabling the legislated swept tone and allowing transmission of a single tone, turn the ELT on for legislated ELT transmission, and reset the ELT to an armed condition. The RCM also provides visual and audio indications of transmitter operating condition as well as ELT battery condition. Removing the RCM or shorting or opening the interface input connections will not affect traditional ELT operation.

  3. `Fingerprint' Fine Structure in the Solar Decametric Radio Spectrum Solar Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlotnik, E. Y.; Zaitsev, V. V.; Melnik, V. N.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Dorovskyy, V. V.

    2015-07-01

    We study a unique fine structure in the dynamic spectrum of the solar radio emission discovered by the UTR-2 radio telescope (Kharkiv, Ukraine) in the frequency band of 20 - 30 MHz. The structure was observed against the background of a broadband type IV radio burst and consisted of parallel drifting narrow bands of enhanced emission and absorption on the background emission. The observed structure differs from the widely known zebra pattern at meter and decimeter wavelengths by the opposite directions of the frequency drift within a single stripe at a given time. We show that the observed properties can be understood in the framework of the radiation mechanism by virtue of the double plasma resonance effect in a nonuniform coronal magnetic trap. We propose a source model providing the observed frequency drift of the stripes.

  4. A Radio-Map Automatic Construction Algorithm Based on Crowdsourcing

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ning; Xiao, Chenxian; Wu, Yinfeng; Feng, Renjian

    2016-01-01

    Traditional radio-map-based localization methods need to sample a large number of location fingerprints offline, which requires huge amount of human and material resources. To solve the high sampling cost problem, an automatic radio-map construction algorithm based on crowdsourcing is proposed. The algorithm employs the crowd-sourced information provided by a large number of users when they are walking in the buildings as the source of location fingerprint data. Through the variation characteristics of users’ smartphone sensors, the indoor anchors (doors) are identified and their locations are regarded as reference positions of the whole radio-map. The AP-Cluster method is used to cluster the crowdsourced fingerprints to acquire the representative fingerprints. According to the reference positions and the similarity between fingerprints, the representative fingerprints are linked to their corresponding physical locations and the radio-map is generated. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm reduces the cost of fingerprint sampling and radio-map construction and guarantees the localization accuracy. The proposed method does not require users’ explicit participation, which effectively solves the resource-consumption problem when a location fingerprint database is established. PMID:27070623

  5. Analytical method for determining the location of ionospheric and atmospheric layers from radio occultation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavelyev, A. G.; Zhang, K.; Wang, C. S.; Liou, Y. A.; Kuleshov, Yu.

    2012-08-01

    We generalize the fundamental principle of the radio-occultation method for studying the atmospheres and ionospheres of planets and the Earth. The criterion containing the necessary and sufficient condition under which the tangential point, at which the refractive-index gradient is normal to the ray trajectory coincides with the radio-ray perigee, is obtained. The method for determining the location and parameters of ionospheric and ionospheric layers, which is based on the relationship between the amplitudes and phases of the analytic functions determined from variations in the phase path (eikonal) and intensity of the radio-occultation signal, is proposed. This method yields qualitative and quantitative estimations of the value of the spatial displacement of the ionospheric or ionospheric layer with respect to the radio-ray perigee and allows one to determine the altitude and inclination of the ionospheric layer. The developed method is, in particular, required for determining the location and inclination of the wind-shear region and the direction of propagation of internal waves in the ionosphere and the atmosphere. This method is simpler and more accurate than the back-propagation, radio-holographic method which was previously used for determining the location of the ionospheric irregularities.

  6. Estimating Single and Multiple Target Locations Using K-Means Clustering with Radio Tomographic Imaging in Wireless Sensor Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    ESTIMATING SINGLE AND MULTIPLE TARGET LOCATIONS USING K-MEANS CLUSTERING WITH RADIO TOMOGRAPHIC IMAGING IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS THESIS Jeffrey K...AND MULTIPLE TARGET LOCATIONS USING K-MEANS CLUSTERING WITH RADIO TOMOGRAPHIC IMAGING IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS THESIS Presented to the Faculty...SINGLE AND MULTIPLE TARGET LOCATIONS USING K-MEANS CLUSTERING WITH RADIO TOMOGRAPHIC IMAGING IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS Jeffrey K. Nishida, B.S.E.E

  7. 47 CFR 1.1152 - Schedule of annual regulatory fees and filing locations for wireless radio services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... locations for wireless radio services. 1.1152 Section 1.1152 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Schedule of Statutory Charges and Procedures for Payment § 1.1152 Schedule of annual regulatory fees and filing locations for wireless radio services. Exclusive use services...

  8. 47 CFR 1.1152 - Schedule of annual regulatory fees and filing locations for wireless radio services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... locations for wireless radio services. 1.1152 Section 1.1152 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Schedule of Statutory Charges and Procedures for Payment § 1.1152 Schedule of annual regulatory fees and filing locations for wireless radio...

  9. 47 CFR 1.1152 - Schedule of annual regulatory fees and filing locations for wireless radio services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... locations for wireless radio services. 1.1152 Section 1.1152 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Schedule of Statutory Charges and Procedures for Payment § 1.1152 Schedule of annual regulatory fees and filing locations for wireless radio...

  10. 47 CFR 1.1152 - Schedule of annual regulatory fees and filing locations for wireless radio services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... locations for wireless radio services. 1.1152 Section 1.1152 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Schedule of Statutory Charges and Procedures for Payment § 1.1152 Schedule of annual regulatory fees and filing locations for wireless radio...

  11. Source location of the narrowbanded radio bursts at Uranus: Evidence of a cusp source

    SciTech Connect

    Farrell, W.M.; Desch, M.D.; Kaiser, M.L. ); Kurth, W.S. )

    1990-03-01

    While Voyager 2 was inbound to Uranus, radio bursts of narrow bandwidth (< 5 kHz) were detected between 17-116 kHz by both the Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) and Plasma Wave (PWS) experiments. These R-X mode bursts, designated n-bursts, were of short duration (about 250 msec), tended to occur when the north magnetic pole tipped toward the spacecraft, and increased in occurrence with increasing solar wind density. In this report, the authors present an explicit determination of the burst source location based upon fitting the region of detection at high and low frequencies to field-aligned, symmetric cones. The region of good fits was located between the north magnetic pole an the rotational pole, corresponding approximately to the northern polar cusp. Based upon the emission power, it is suspected that at certain times large amounts of auroral input power may originate in this cusp.

  12. Source location of the smooth high-frequency radio emissions from Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, W. M.; Calvert, W.

    1989-01-01

    The source location of the smooth high-frequency radio emissions from Uranus has been determined. Specifically, by fitting the signal dropouts which occurred as Voyager traversed the hollow center of the emission pattern to a symmetrical cone centered on the source magnetic field direction at the cyclotron frequency, a southern-hemisphere (nightside) source was found at approximately 56 deg S, 219 deg W. The half-angle for the hollow portion of the emission pattern was found to be 13 deg.

  13. Source location of the narrowbanded radio bursts at Uranus - Evidence of a cusp source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, W. M.; Desch, M. D.; Kaiser, M. L.; Kurth, W. S.

    1990-03-01

    While Voyager 2 was inbound to Uranus, radio bursts of narrow bandwidth (less than 5 kHz) were detected between 17-116 kHz. These R-X mode bursts, designated n-bursts, were of short duration, tended to occur when the north magnetic pole tipped toward the spacecraft, and increased in occurrence with increasing solar wind density. An explicit determination of the burst source location is presented, based upon fitting the region of detection at high and low frequencies to field-aligned, symmetric cones. The region of good fits was located between the north magnetic pole and the rotational pole, corresponding approximately to the northern polar cusp.

  14. Simultaneous chemical fingerprinting and quantitative analysis of crude and processed Radix Scrophulariae from different locations in China by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun; Cao, Gang; Ji, Jinyu; Cong, Xiaodong; Wang, Shengbo; Cai, Baochang

    2011-06-01

    A validated liquid chromatography method was first developed to evaluate the quality of crude and processed Radix Scrophulariae extracts through establishing chromatographic fingerprint and simultaneous determination of five bioactive compounds, namely 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), acteoside, angroside C, harpagoside and cinnamic acid. The chromatographic were separated on an Agilent Zorbax Extend C(18) column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) and detected by diode array detector (DAD). Mobile phase was composed of (A) aqueous phosphoric acid (0.03%, v/v) and (B) acetonitrile using a gradient elution. Analytes were performed at 30 °C with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and UV detection at 280 nm. All calibration curves showed good linear regression (r(2) ≥0.9996) within the tested ranges, and the recovery of the method was in the range of 98.12-103.38%, with RSD values ranging from 0.6 to 2.8%. In addition, the contents of those five bioactive compounds in crude and processed Radix Scrophulariae prepared by different locations of China were determined to establish the effectiveness of the method. The results demonstrate that the developed method is accurate and reproducible and could be readily utilized as a suitable quality control method for the quantification of Radix Scrophulariae.

  15. A Smartphone Indoor Localization Algorithm Based on WLAN Location Fingerprinting with Feature Extraction and Clustering

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Junhai; Fu, Liang

    2017-01-01

    With the development of communication technology, the demand for location-based services is growing rapidly. This paper presents an algorithm for indoor localization based on Received Signal Strength (RSS), which is collected from Access Points (APs). The proposed localization algorithm contains the offline information acquisition phase and online positioning phase. Firstly, the AP selection algorithm is reviewed and improved based on the stability of signals to remove useless AP; secondly, Kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA) is analyzed and used to remove the data redundancy and maintain useful characteristics for nonlinear feature extraction; thirdly, the Affinity Propagation Clustering (APC) algorithm utilizes RSS values to classify data samples and narrow the positioning range. In the online positioning phase, the classified data will be matched with the testing data to determine the position area, and the Maximum Likelihood (ML) estimate will be employed for precise positioning. Eventually, the proposed algorithm is implemented in a real-world environment for performance evaluation. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm improves the accuracy and computational complexity. PMID:28598358

  16. Radio Galaxies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downes, Ann

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information on radio galaxies. Topic areas addressed include: what produces the radio emission; radio telescopes; locating radio galaxies; how distances to radio galaxies are found; physics of radio galaxies; computer simulations of radio galaxies; and the evolution of radio galaxies with cosmic time. (JN)

  17. Radio Galaxies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downes, Ann

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information on radio galaxies. Topic areas addressed include: what produces the radio emission; radio telescopes; locating radio galaxies; how distances to radio galaxies are found; physics of radio galaxies; computer simulations of radio galaxies; and the evolution of radio galaxies with cosmic time. (JN)

  18. Source location of the smooth high-frequency radio emissions from Uranus

    SciTech Connect

    Farrell, W.M.; Calvert, W. )

    1989-05-01

    The source location of the smooth high-frequency (SHF) radio emissions from Uranus has been determined using a technique differing from those applied previously. Specifically, by fitting the signal dropouts which occurred as Voyager traversed the hollow center for the emission pattern to a symmetrical cone centered on the source magnetic field direction at the cyclotron frequency, a southern-hemisphere (nightside) source was found at approximately 56{degree} S, 219{degree} W. The half-angle for the hollow portion of the emission pattern was found to be 13{degree}.

  19. Spread-sprectrum rf platforms and protocols for mobile data messaging and radio location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jandrell, Louis; Stargardt, Wayne

    1996-01-01

    Many alternatives currently exist for voice-channel bandwidth systems capable of delivering wireless data. However, almost all of them are oriented around the voice-circuit paradigm. While this paradigm is eminently suitable for the voice links it was designed to serve, it is quite inefficient for the relatively short, bursty messages that characterize the majority of mobile digital-messaging. Moreover, these narrow-band technologies only provide a part of the mobile resource management communication solution. A very large number of mobile applications benefit greatly from knowledge of the mobile's location. This has typically been supplied by secondary technologies, such as Dead-Reckoning, LORAN or more recently GPS. This paper will introduce a new technology that can provide fast, high-capacity, low-cost, mobile packet-data and simultaneous high-resolution radio-location from a single message stream transmitted by the vehicular mobile radio. It is based on an RF technology evolved from modern spread spectrum radar and on a unique airtime management protocol.

  20. Indoor localization using FM radio and DTMB signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, H.; Wang, Q.; Zhao, Y.; Ma, X.; Yang, M.; Liu, B.; Tang, R.; Xu, X.

    2016-07-01

    Indoor localization systems based on Wi-Fi signal strength fingerprinting techniques are widely used in office buildings. However, a general problem of these systems pertains to Wi-Fi signal degradation due to the environmental factors. And also, these systems cannot be used in the environments not covered with Wi-Fi signals or the environments with only a single Wi-Fi access point. In this paper, a new indoor location fingerprinting system using both FM radio and Digital Television Terrestrial Multimedia Broadcasting (DTMB) signals is proposed. First, the indoor location fingerprinting using FM radio and DTMB signals is theoretically analyzed to confirm its feasibility. Then, a specially designed combined strength fingerprinting location algorithm is proposed for the location system, which is achieved on the USRP2 platform. Finally, the system is tested in a typical indoor environment. The theoretical analysis and the tests show that the indoor location fingerprinting system using FM radio and DTMB signals has a similar localization accuracy to the Wi-Fi signal strength fingerprinting location system, while it has a wider coverage area, a lower maintenance cost, and more stable signal strength, which makes it a practical indoor positioning method.

  1. An origin of the radio jet in M87 at the location of the central black hole.

    PubMed

    Hada, Kazuhiro; Doi, Akihiro; Kino, Motoki; Nagai, Hiroshi; Hagiwara, Yoshiaki; Kawaguchi, Noriyuki

    2011-09-07

    Powerful radio jets from active galactic nuclei are thought to be powered by the accretion of material onto the supermassive black hole (the 'central engine'). M87 is one of the closest examples of this phenomenon, and the structure of its jet has been probed on a scale of about 100 Schwarzschild radii (R(s), the radius of the event horizon). However, the location of the central black hole relative to the jet base (a bright compact radio 'core') remains elusive. Observations of other jets indicate that the central engines are located about 10(4)-10(6)R(s) upstream from the radio core. Here we report radio observations of M87 at six frequencies that allow us to achieve a positional accuracy of about 20 microarcseconds. As the jet base becomes more transparent at higher frequencies, the multifrequency position measurements of the radio core enable us to determine the upstream end of the jet. The data reveal that the central engine of M87 is located within 14-23R(s) of the radio core at 43 GHz. This implies that the site of material infall onto the black hole and the eventual origin of the jet reside in the bright compact region seen on the image at 43 GHz.

  2. Evidence for ultrafast outflows in radio-quiet AGNs - III. Location and energetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tombesi, F.; Cappi, M.; Reeves, J. N.; Braito, V.

    2012-05-01

    Using the results of a previous X-ray photoionization modelling of blueshifted Fe K absorption lines on a sample of 42 local radio-quiet AGNs observed with XMM-Newton, in this Letter we estimate the location and energetics of the associated ultrafast outflows (UFOs). Due to significant uncertainties, we are essentially able to place only lower/upper limits. On average, their location is in the interval ˜0.0003-0.03 pc (˜ 102-104rs) from the central black hole, consistent with what is expected for accretion disc winds/outflows. The mass outflow rates are constrained between ˜0.01 and 1 M⊙ yr-1, corresponding to >rsim5-10 per cent of the accretion rates. The average lower/upper limits on the mechanical power are log? 42.6-44.6 erg s-1. However, the minimum possible value of the ratio between the mechanical power and bolometric luminosity is constrained to be comparable or higher than the minimum required by simulations of feedback induced by winds/outflows. Therefore, this work demonstrates that UFOs are indeed capable to provide a significant contribution to the AGN cosmological feedback, in agreement with theoretical expectations and the recent observation of interactions between AGN outflows and the interstellar medium in several Seyfert galaxies.

  3. Evidence for Ultra-Fast Outflows in Radio-Quiet AGNs: III - Location and Energetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tombesi, F.; Cappi, M.; Reeves, J. N.; Braito, V.

    2012-01-01

    Using the results of a previous X-ray photo-ionization modelling of blue-shifted Fe K absorption lines on a sample of 42 local radio-quiet AGNs observed with XMM-Newton, in this letter we estimate the location and energetics of the associated ultrafast outflows (UFOs). Due to significant uncertainties, we are essentially able to place only lower/upper limits. On average, their location is in the interval approx.0.0003-0.03pc (approx.10(exp 2)-10(exp 4)tau(sub s) from the central black hole, consistent with what is expected for accretion disk winds/outflows. The mass outflow rates are constrained between approx.0.01- 1 Stellar Mass/y, corresponding to approx. or >5-10% of the accretion rates. The average lower-upper limits on the mechanical power are logE(sub K) approx. or = 42.6-44.6 erg/s. However, the minimum possible value of the ratio between the mechanical power and bolometric luminosity is constrained to be comparable or higher than the minimum required by simulations of feedback induced by winds/outflows. Therefore, this work demonstrates that UFOs are indeed capable to provide a significant contribution to the AGN r.osmological feedback, in agreement with theoretical expectations and the recent observation of interactions between AGN outflows and the interstellar medium in several Seyferts galaxies .

  4. Location of the emitting regions in the mode-switching radio pulsar PSR 1926 + 18

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowakowski, L. A.

    1994-01-01

    We present an analysis of average single-frequency profiles of the radio pulsar PSR 1926 + 18 in two different modes. Assuming a purely dipolar field and taking into account retardation, aberration, magnetic line curvature, and ignoring the magnetic field line sweepback, we come to the following conclusions: (1) mode switching in PSR 1926 + 18 at 430 MHz may be understood in terms of different emission heights of the two modes; (2) the weaker mode appears when regions emitting the first two components move away from the star by an additional distance of not more than several kilometers from their original locations; (3) the trailing conal component is emitted essentially from the same layer of the magnetosphere in both modes, in contrast to the first conal component, which appears to change its location in the magnetosphere; (4) core and conal components are emitted from distinctly different emission heights: core components not more than 75 km, and conal components not less than 215 km from the surface of the star. Our model infers three-dimensional information about the emitting region from single-frequency observations. It has been tested previously with a mode switching pulsar that had one component in the average profile in two modes. This paper shows that the same model can explain positions and widths of the components in a more complex profile during mode switching, provided that the components can be traced from one mode to another.

  5. A Design of Irregular Grid Map for Large-Scale Wi-Fi LAN Fingerprint Positioning Systems

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Hoon; Min, Kyoung Sik; Yeo, Woon-Young

    2014-01-01

    The rapid growth of mobile communication and the proliferation of smartphones have drawn significant attention to location-based services (LBSs). One of the most important factors in the vitalization of LBSs is the accurate position estimation of a mobile device. The Wi-Fi positioning system (WPS) is a new positioning method that measures received signal strength indication (RSSI) data from all Wi-Fi access points (APs) and stores them in a large database as a form of radio fingerprint map. Because of the millions of APs in urban areas, radio fingerprints are seriously contaminated and confused. Moreover, the algorithmic advances for positioning face computational limitation. Therefore, we present a novel irregular grid structure and data analytics for efficient fingerprint map management. The usefulness of the proposed methodology is presented using the actual radio fingerprint measurements taken throughout Seoul, Korea. PMID:25302315

  6. The enhanced locating performance of an integrated cross-correlation and genetic algorithm for radio monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yao-Tang; Wu, Chi-Lin; Cheng, Hsu-Chih

    2014-04-24

    The rapid development of wireless broadband communication technology has affected the location accuracy of worldwide radio monitoring stations that employ time-difference-of-arrival (TDOA) location technology. In this study, TDOA-based location technology was implemented in Taiwan for the first time according to International Telecommunications Union Radiocommunication (ITU-R) recommendations regarding monitoring and location applications. To improve location accuracy, various scenarios, such as a three-dimensional environment (considering an unequal locating antenna configuration), were investigated. Subsequently, the proposed integrated cross-correlation and genetic algorithm was evaluated in the metropolitan area of Tainan. The results indicated that the location accuracy at a circular error probability of 50% was less than 60 m when a multipath effect was present in the area. Moreover, compared with hyperbolic algorithms that have been applied in conventional TDOA-based location systems, the proposed algorithm yielded 17-fold and 19-fold improvements in the mean difference when the location position of the interference station was favorable and unfavorable, respectively. Hence, the various forms of radio interference, such as low transmission power, burst and weak signals, and metropolitan interference, was proved to be easily identified, located, and removed.

  7. The Enhanced Locating Performance of an Integrated Cross-Correlation and Genetic Algorithm for Radio Monitoring Systems

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yao-Tang; Wu, Chi-Lin; Cheng, Hsu-Chih

    2014-01-01

    The rapid development of wireless broadband communication technology has affected the location accuracy of worldwide radio monitoring stations that employ time-difference-of-arrival (TDOA) location technology. In this study, TDOA-based location technology was implemented in Taiwan for the first time according to International Telecommunications Union Radiocommunication (ITU-R) recommendations regarding monitoring and location applications. To improve location accuracy, various scenarios, such as a three-dimensional environment (considering an unequal locating antenna configuration), were investigated. Subsequently, the proposed integrated cross-correlation and genetic algorithm was evaluated in the metropolitan area of Tainan. The results indicated that the location accuracy at a circular error probability of 50% was less than 60 m when a multipath effect was present in the area. Moreover, compared with hyperbolic algorithms that have been applied in conventional TDOA-based location systems, the proposed algorithm yielded 17-fold and 19-fold improvements in the mean difference when the location position of the interference station was favorable and unfavorable, respectively. Hence, the various forms of radio interference, such as low transmission power, burst and weak signals, and metropolitan interference, was proved to be easily identified, located, and removed. PMID:24763254

  8. Technique to determine location of radio sources from measurements taken on spinning spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fainberg, J.

    1979-01-01

    The procedure developed to extract average source direction and average source size from spin-modulated radio astronomy data measured on the IMP-6 spacecraft is described. Because all measurements are used, rather than just finding maxima or minima in the data, the method is very sensitive, even in the presence of large amounts of noise. The technique is applicable to all experiments with directivity characteristics. It is suitable for onboard processing on satellites to reduce the data flow to Earth. The application to spin-modulated nonpolarized radio astronomy data is made and includes the effects of noise, background, and second source interference. The analysis was tested with computer simulated data and the results agree with analytic predictions. Applications of this method with IMP-6 radio data have led to: (1) determination of source positions of traveling solar radio bursts at large distances from the Sun; (2) mapping of magnetospheric radio emissions by radio triangulation; and (3) detection of low frequency radio emissions from Jupiter and Saturn.

  9. Real-Time RF-DNA Fingerprinting of ZigBee Devices Using a Software-Defined Radio with FPGA Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    there is no multiplication required in the CIC design . This makes the CIC a particularly attractive option for FPGA -based SDR systems where hardware...classification performance of . As designed and implemented, the full- dimensional FPGA fingerprint generator only utilized approximately 7% of the X310...Generator Design ............................................................. 29 3.3.2 Simulated FPGA Fingerprint Generation

  10. Source characteristics and locations of hectometric radio emissions from the northern Jovian hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiner, M. J.; Fainberg, J.; Stone, R. G.

    1993-01-01

    Northern Jovian hectometric (HOM) radio emissions, detected from high Jovian latitudes by the Unified Radio and Plasma Wave experiment on the Ulysses spacecraft, were observed at all Jovian longitudes. This emission was observed to be predominantly right-hand circularly polarized, but some left-hand circular polarization was observed implying the presence of O mode emissions from the northern Jovian hemisphere. Intense HOM emissions, with well-defined directions and polarizations, were often confined to similar longitudinal regions where intense HOM emissions were previously observed at low latitudes. The present analysis confirms that these northern HOM sources lie in the Jovian polar regions on magnetic field lines that pass through the Io plasma torus. The observations may be consistent with emission from either a filled cone beam or a longitudinal distribution of thin hollow cones.

  11. Viking lander location and spin axis of Mars - Determination from radio tracking data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michael, W. H., Jr.; Tolson, R. H.; Mayo, A. P.; Blackshear, W. T.; Kelly, G. M.; Cain, D. L.; Brenkle, J. P.; Shapiro, I. I.; Reasenberg, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    Radio tracking data from the Viking lander have been used to determine the lander position and the orientation of the spin axis of Mars. The areocentric coordinates of the lander are 22.27 deg N, 48.00 deg W, and 3389.5 kilometers from the center of mass; the spin axis orientation, referred to earth's mean equator and equinox of 1950.0, is 317.35 deg right ascension and 52.71 deg declination.

  12. Viking lander location and spin axis of Mars: determination from radio tracking data.

    PubMed

    Michael, W H; Tolson, R H; Mayo, A P; Blackshear, W T; Kelly, G M; Cain, D L; Brenkle, J P; Shapiro, I I; Reasenberg, R D

    1976-08-27

    Radio tracking data from the Viking lander have been used to determine the lander position and the orientation of the spin axis of Mars. The areocentric coordinates of the lander are 22.27 degrees N, 48.00 degrees W, and 3389.5 kilometers from the center of mass; the spin axis orientation, referred to Earth's mean equator and equinox of 1950.0, is 317.35 degrees right ascension and 52.71 degrees declination.

  13. Accurate and efficient long-range lightning geo-location using a VLF radio atmospheric waveform bank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Said, Ryan Khalil

    2009-07-01

    On average there are ˜50 lightning flashes worldwide every second, with activity varying by region and season. Many systems currently exist that detect and locate lightning flashes for a broad range of commercial and scientific applications, including air traffic control, insurance claims, climate modeling, and the investigation of secondary atmospheric and magnetospheric electrical phenomena. These lightning detection systems have varying degrees of coverage area and location accuracy. Commercial ground-based systems that excel at locating return strokes in cloud-to-ground lightning use radio detection in the LF (30-300 kHz) band to provide very accurate location data, with a typical accuracy of ˜0.5 km, but they require a dense network of receivers separated by ˜400 km and are therefore primarily limited to monitoring the land areas within the network. In addition to radiating in the LF band, each lightning strike generates a broadband electromagnetic pulse containing frequencies from a few Hz through to the optical band with a peak component at VLF (3-30 kHz). Radio waves at VLF propagate through the waveguide formed by the Earth and the ionosphere with relatively low attenuation (˜3 dB per 1000 km), enabling the detection of these pulses, called radio atmospherics, at great distances from the lightning strike. Several existing networks utilize this efficient guiding to geo-locate lightning strikes often at distances greater than 5000 km from a given receiver. However, the Earth-ionosphere waveguide also presents a complex and time-varying channel that heavily disperses the pulse as it propagates away from the strike location. These networks fail to adequately address the path-dependence of the received impulse and suffer a lower location accuracy as a result (˜20 km). A new technique of long-range global lightning location is presented that both takes advantage of the efficient propagation at VLF and addresses the path-dependence of the propagation channel

  14. Fingerprint Recognition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    their central lines. The rule- based algorithm developed for character recognition by Ahmed and Ward (2002) can be applied to a fingerprint image...REFERENCES Ahmed, M., & Ward, R. (2002). A rotation invariant rule- based thinning algorithm for character recognition . IEEE Transactions on Pattern...various steps present in a fingerprint recognition system. The study develops a working algorithm to extract fingerprint minutiae from an input

  15. Betrayal: radio-tagged Burmese pythons reveal locations of conspecifics in Everglades National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Brian J.; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Hart, Kristen M.; Rochford, Michael R.; Selby, Thomas H.; Snow, Ray W; Mazzotti, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    The “Judas” technique is based on the idea that a radio-tagged individual can be used to “betray” conspecifics during the course of its routine social behavior. The Burmese python (Python bivittatus) is an invasive constrictor in southern Florida, and few methods are available for its control. Pythons are normally solitary, but from December–April in southern Florida, they form breeding aggregations containing up to 8 individuals, providing an opportunity to apply the technique. We radio-tracked 25 individual adult pythons of both sexes during the breeding season from 2007–2012. Our goals were to (1) characterize python movements and determine habitat selection for betrayal events, (2) quantify betrayal rates of Judas pythons, and (3) compare the efficacy of this tool with current tools for capturing pythons, both in terms of cost per python removed (CPP) and catch per unit effort (CPUE). In a total of 33 python-seasons, we had 8 betrayal events (24 %) in which a Judas python led us to new pythons. Betrayal events occurred more frequently in lowland forest (including tree islands) than would be expected by chance alone. These 8 events resulted in the capture of 14 new individuals (1–4 new pythons per event). Our effort comparison shows that while the Judas technique is more costly than road cruising surveys per python removed, the Judas technique yields more large, reproductive females and is effective at a time of year that road cruising is not, making it a potential complement to the status quo removal effort.

  16. Method of and system for classifying emergency locating transmitters and emergency positions indicating radio beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wren, Paul E. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    During a distress call, a distress location transmitter 10 generates a high frequency carrier signal 40 that is modulated by a predetermined distress waveform characteristic 29. The classification of user associated with the distress call is identified by periodically interrupting modulation 42; user classification is determined by the repetition rate of the interruptions, the interruption periods, or both.

  17. On the spatial distribution of fingerprint singularities.

    PubMed

    Cappelli, Raffaele; Maltoni, Davide

    2009-04-01

    Fingerprint singularities play an important role in several fingerprint recognition and classification systems. Although some general relationships and constraints about the location of singularities in the different fingerprint classes are well known, to the best of our knowledge no statistical models have been developed until now. This paper studies the spatial distributions of singularity locations in nature and derives, from a representative dataset of labelled samples, the probability density functions of the four main fingerprint classes. The results obtained can be directly exploited to improve the accuracy of many techniques relying on the position of singularities, as confirmed by the results of two experiments on fingerprint classification and synthesis.

  18. An investigation into the feasibility of locating portable medical devices using radio frequency identification devices and technology.

    PubMed

    Britton, J

    2007-01-01

    Portable medical devices represent an important resource for assisting healthcare delivery. The movement of portable devices often results in them being unavailable when needed. Tracking equipment using radiofrequency identification technology/devices (RFID) may provide a promising solution to the problems encountered in locating portable equipment. An RFID technology trial was undertaken at Royal Alexandra Hospital, Paisley. This involved the temporary installation of three active readers and attaching actively transmitting radio frequency tags to different portable medical devices. The active readers and computer system were linked using a bespoke data network. Tags and readers from two separate manufacturers were tested. Reliability difficulties were encountered when testing the technology from the first manufacturer, probably due to the casing of the medical device interfering with the signal from the tag. Improved results were obtained when using equipment from the second manufacturer with an overall error rate of 12.3%. Tags from this manufacturer were specifically designed to overcome problems observed with the first system tested. Findings from this proof of concept trial suggest that RFID technology could be used to track the location of equipment in a hospital.

  19. Automatic Construction of Wi-Fi Radio Map Using Smartphones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tao; Li, Qingquan; Zhang, Xing

    2016-06-01

    Indoor positioning could provide interesting services and applications. As one of the most popular indoor positioning methods, location fingerprinting determines the location of mobile users by matching the received signal strength (RSS) which is location dependent. However, fingerprinting-based indoor positioning requires calibration and updating of the fingerprints which is labor-intensive and time-consuming. In this paper, we propose a visual-based approach for the construction of radio map for anonymous indoor environments without any prior knowledge. This approach collects multi-sensors data, e.g. video, accelerometer, gyroscope, Wi-Fi signals, etc., when people (with smartphones) walks freely in indoor environments. Then, it uses the multi-sensor data to restore the trajectories of people based on an integrated structure from motion (SFM) and image matching method, and finally estimates location of sampling points on the trajectories and construct Wi-Fi radio map. Experiment results show that the average location error of the fingerprints is about 0.53 m.

  20. Radio frequency detection assembly and method for detecting radio frequencies

    DOEpatents

    Cown, Steven H.; Derr, Kurt Warren

    2010-03-16

    A radio frequency detection assembly is described and which includes a radio frequency detector which detects a radio frequency emission produced by a radio frequency emitter from a given location which is remote relative to the radio frequency detector; a location assembly electrically coupled with the radio frequency detector and which is operable to estimate the location of the radio frequency emitter from the radio frequency emission which has been received; and a radio frequency transmitter electrically coupled with the radio frequency detector and the location assembly, and which transmits a radio frequency signal which reports the presence of the radio frequency emitter.

  1. A experiment on radio location of objects in the near-Earth space with VLBI in 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nechaeva, M.; Antipenko, A.; Bezrukovs, V.; Bezrukov, D.; Dementjev, A.; Dugin, N.; Konovalenko, A.; Kulishenko, V.; Liu, X.; Nabatov, A.; Nesteruk, V.; Pupillo, G.; Reznichenko, A.; Salerno, E.; Shmeld, I.; Shulga, O.; Sybiryakova, Y.; Tikhomirov, Yu.; Tkachenko, A.; Volvach, A.; Yang, W.-J.

    An experiment on radar location of space debris objects using of the method of VLBI was carried out in April, 2012. The radar VLBI experiment consisted in irradiation of some space debris objects (4 rocket stages and 5 inactive satellites) with a signal of the transmitter with RT-70 in Evpatoria, Ukraine. Reflected signals were received by a complex of radio telescopes in the VLBI mode. The following VLBI stations took part in the observations: Ventspils (RT-32), Urumqi (RT-25), Medicina (RT-32) and Simeiz (RT-22). The experiment included measurements of the Doppler frequency shift and the delay for orbit refining, and measurements of the rotation period and sizes of objects by the amplitudes of output interferometer signals. The cross-correlation of VLBI-data is performed at a correlator NIRFI-4 of Radiophysical Research Institute (Nizhny Novgorod). Preliminary data processing resulted in the series of Doppler frequency shifts, which comprised the information on radial velocities of the objects. Some results of the experiment are presented.

  2. Radio Frequency Identification Queuing & Geo-Location (RAQGEO): A spatial solution to inventory management at XYZ Logistics, Inc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Bradley Joseph

    New supply chain management methods using radio frequency identification (RFID) and global positioning system (GPS) technology are quickly being adopted by companies as various inventory management benefits are being realized. For example, companies such as Nippon Yusen Kaisha (NYK) Logistics use the technology coupled with geospatial support systems for distributors to quickly find and manage freight containers. Traditional supply chain management methods require pen-to-paper reporting, searching inventory on foot, and human data entry. Some companies that prioritize supply chain management have not adopted the new technology, because they may feel that their traditional methods save the company expenses. This thesis serves as a pilot study that examines how information technology (IT) utilizing RFID and GPS technology can serve to increase workplace productivity, decrease human labor associated with inventorying, plus be used for spatial analysis by management. This pilot study represents the first attempt to couple RFID technology with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in supply chain management efforts to analyze and locate mobile assets by exploring costs and benefits of implementation plus how the technology can be employed. This pilot study identified a candidate to implement a new inventory management method as XYZ Logistics, Inc. XYZ Logistics, Inc. is a fictitious company but represents a factual corporation. The name has been changed to provide the company with anonymity and to not disclose confidential business information. XYZ Logistics, Inc., is a nation-wide company that specializes in providing space solutions for customers including portable offices, storage containers, and customizable buildings.

  3. Fingerprint detection

    DOEpatents

    Saunders, George C.

    1992-01-01

    A method for detection and visualization of latent fingerprints is provided and includes contacting a substrate containing a latent print thereon with a colloidal metal composition for time sufficient to allow reaction of said colloidal metal composition with said latent print, and preserving or recording the observable print. Further, the method for detection and visualization of latent fingerprints can include contacting the metal composition-latent print reaction product with a secondary metal-containing solution for time sufficient to allow precipitation of said secondary metal thereby enhancing the visibility of the latent print, and preserving or recording the observable print.

  4. Localized Dictionaries Based Orientation Field Estimation for Latent Fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Xiao Yang; Jianjiang Feng; Jie Zhou

    2014-05-01

    Dictionary based orientation field estimation approach has shown promising performance for latent fingerprints. In this paper, we seek to exploit stronger prior knowledge of fingerprints in order to further improve the performance. Realizing that ridge orientations at different locations of fingerprints have different characteristics, we propose a localized dictionaries-based orientation field estimation algorithm, in which noisy orientation patch at a location output by a local estimation approach is replaced by real orientation patch in the local dictionary at the same location. The precondition of applying localized dictionaries is that the pose of the latent fingerprint needs to be estimated. We propose a Hough transform-based fingerprint pose estimation algorithm, in which the predictions about fingerprint pose made by all orientation patches in the latent fingerprint are accumulated. Experimental results on challenging latent fingerprint datasets show the proposed method outperforms previous ones markedly.

  5. A Visual-Based Approach for Indoor Radio Map Construction Using Smartphones.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Zhang, Xing; Li, Qingquan; Fang, Zhixiang

    2017-08-04

    Localization of users in indoor spaces is a common issue in many applications. Among various technologies, a Wi-Fi fingerprinting based localization solution has attracted much attention, since it can be easily deployed using the existing off-the-shelf mobile devices and wireless networks. However, the collection of the Wi-Fi radio map is quite labor-intensive, which limits its potential for large-scale application. In this paper, a visual-based approach is proposed for the construction of a radio map in anonymous indoor environments. This approach collects multi-sensor data, e.g., Wi-Fi signals, video frames, inertial readings, when people are walking in indoor environments with smartphones in their hands. Then, it spatially recovers the trajectories of people by using both visual and inertial information. Finally, it estimates the location of fingerprints from the trajectories and constructs a Wi-Fi radio map. Experiment results show that the average location error of the fingerprints is about 0.53 m. A weighted k-nearest neighbor method is also used to evaluate the constructed radio map. The average localization error is about 3.2 m, indicating that the quality of the constructed radio map is at the same level as those constructed by site surveying. However, this approach can greatly reduce the human labor cost, which increases the potential for applying it to large indoor environments.

  6. A Visual-Based Approach for Indoor Radio Map Construction Using Smartphones

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xing; Li, Qingquan; Fang, Zhixiang

    2017-01-01

    Localization of users in indoor spaces is a common issue in many applications. Among various technologies, a Wi-Fi fingerprinting based localization solution has attracted much attention, since it can be easily deployed using the existing off-the-shelf mobile devices and wireless networks. However, the collection of the Wi-Fi radio map is quite labor-intensive, which limits its potential for large-scale application. In this paper, a visual-based approach is proposed for the construction of a radio map in anonymous indoor environments. This approach collects multi-sensor data, e.g., Wi-Fi signals, video frames, inertial readings, when people are walking in indoor environments with smartphones in their hands. Then, it spatially recovers the trajectories of people by using both visual and inertial information. Finally, it estimates the location of fingerprints from the trajectories and constructs a Wi-Fi radio map. Experiment results show that the average location error of the fingerprints is about 0.53 m. A weighted k-nearest neighbor method is also used to evaluate the constructed radio map. The average localization error is about 3.2 m, indicating that the quality of the constructed radio map is at the same level as those constructed by site surveying. However, this approach can greatly reduce the human labor cost, which increases the potential for applying it to large indoor environments. PMID:28777300

  7. Fingerprints selection for topological localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Vladimir

    2017-07-01

    Problems of visual navigation are extensively studied in contemporary robotics. In particular, we can mention different problems of visual landmarks selection, the problem of selection of a minimal set of visual landmarks, selection of partially distinguishable guards, the problem of placement of visual landmarks. In this paper, we consider one-dimensional color panoramas. Such panoramas can be used for creating fingerprints. Fingerprints give us unique identifiers for visually distinct locations by recovering statistically significant features. Fingerprints can be used as visual landmarks for the solution of various problems of mobile robot navigation. In this paper, we consider a method for automatic generation of fingerprints. In particular, we consider the bounded Post correspondence problem and applications of the problem to consensus fingerprints and topological localization. We propose an efficient approach to solve the bounded Post correspondence problem. In particular, we use an explicit reduction from the decision version of the problem to the satisfiability problem. We present the results of computational experiments for different satisfiability algorithms. In robotic experiments, we consider the average accuracy of reaching of the target point for different lengths of routes and types of fingerprints.

  8. Indoor positioning system using WLAN channel estimates as fingerprints for mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Erick; Akopian, David

    2015-03-01

    With the growing integration of location based services (LBS) such as GPS in mobile devices, indoor position systems (IPS) have become an important role for research. There are several IPS methods such as AOA, TOA, TDOA, which use trilateration for indoor location estimation but are generally based on line-of-sight. Other methods rely on classification such as fingerprinting which uses WLAN indoor signals. This paper re-examines the classical WLAN fingerprinting accuracy which uses received signal strength (RSS) measurements by introducing channel estimates for improvements in the classification of indoor locations. The purpose of this paper is to improve existing classification algorithms used in fingerprinting by introducing channel estimates when there are a low number of APs available. The channel impulse response, or in this case the channel estimation from the receiver, should characterize a complex indoor area which usually has multipath, thus providing a unique signature for each location which proves useful for better pattern recognition. In this experiment, channel estimates are extracted from a Software-Defined Radio (SDR) environment, thus exploiting the benefits of SDR from a NI-USRP model and LabVIEW software. Measurements are taken from a known building, and several scenarios with one and two access points (APs) are used in this experiment. Also, three granularities in distance between locations are analyzed. A Support Vector Machine (SVM) is used as the algorithm for pattern recognition of different locations based on the samples taken from RSS and channel estimation coefficients.

  9. Fingerprints in the Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    This graph, or spectrum, shows the light from a dusty, distant galaxy located 11 billion light-years away. The galaxy is invisible to optical telescopes, but NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope was able to capture the light from it and dozens of other similar galaxies using heat-seeking infrared eyes.

    Spectra are created when an instrument called a spectrograph spreads light out into its basic parts, like a prism turning sunlight into a rainbow. They contain the signatures, or 'fingerprints,' of molecules that contribute to an object's light.

    In this case, the galaxy's spectrum reveals the fingerprint for silicate dust (large dip at right), a planetary building block like sand, only smaller. This particular fingerprint is important because it helped astronomers determine how far away the galaxy lies, or more specifically, how much the galaxy's light had stretched, or 'redshifted,' during its journey to Spitzer's eyes. Because the universe is expanding, a galaxy's light will shift toward reddish wavelengths as it moves away from us. This galaxy was found to have a redshift of 1.95, which means that its light took about 11 billion years to get here.

    The presence of the silicate fingerprint is also significant because it implies that galaxies were ripe for planetary formation 11 billion years ago - back to a time when the universe was 3 billion years old. The universe is currently believed to be 13.5 billion years old. This is the furthest back in time that silicate dust has been detected around a galaxy.

    These data were taken by Spitzer's infrared spectrograph in July, 2004.

  10. Fingerprints in the Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    This graph, or spectrum, shows the light from a dusty, distant galaxy located 11 billion light-years away. The galaxy is invisible to optical telescopes, but NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope was able to capture the light from it and dozens of other similar galaxies using heat-seeking infrared eyes.

    Spectra are created when an instrument called a spectrograph spreads light out into its basic parts, like a prism turning sunlight into a rainbow. They contain the signatures, or 'fingerprints,' of molecules that contribute to an object's light.

    In this case, the galaxy's spectrum reveals the fingerprint for silicate dust (large dip at right), a planetary building block like sand, only smaller. This particular fingerprint is important because it helped astronomers determine how far away the galaxy lies, or more specifically, how much the galaxy's light had stretched, or 'redshifted,' during its journey to Spitzer's eyes. Because the universe is expanding, a galaxy's light will shift toward reddish wavelengths as it moves away from us. This galaxy was found to have a redshift of 1.95, which means that its light took about 11 billion years to get here.

    The presence of the silicate fingerprint is also significant because it implies that galaxies were ripe for planetary formation 11 billion years ago - back to a time when the universe was 3 billion years old. The universe is currently believed to be 13.5 billion years old. This is the furthest back in time that silicate dust has been detected around a galaxy.

    These data were taken by Spitzer's infrared spectrograph in July, 2004.

  11. Fingerprint recognition with identical twin fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Tao, Xunqiang; Chen, Xinjian; Yang, Xin; Tian, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Fingerprint recognition with identical twins is a challenging task due to the closest genetics-based relationship existing in the identical twins. Several pioneers have analyzed the similarity between twins' fingerprints. In this work we continue to investigate the topic of the similarity of identical twin fingerprints. Our study was tested based on a large identical twin fingerprint database that contains 83 twin pairs, 4 fingers per individual and six impressions per finger: 3984 (83*2*4*6) images. Compared to the previous work, our contributions are summarized as follows: (1) Two state-of-the-art fingerprint identification methods: P071 and VeriFinger 6.1 were used, rather than one fingerprint identification method in previous studies. (2) Six impressions per finger were captured, rather than just one impression, which makes the genuine distribution of matching scores more realistic. (3) A larger sample (83 pairs) was collected. (4) A novel statistical analysis, which aims at showing the probability distribution of the fingerprint types for the corresponding fingers of identical twins which have same fingerprint type, has been conducted. (5) A novel analysis, which aims at showing which finger from identical twins has higher probability of having same fingerprint type, has been conducted. Our results showed that: (a) A state-of-the-art automatic fingerprint verification system can distinguish identical twins without drastic degradation in performance. (b) The chance that the fingerprints have the same type from identical twins is 0.7440, comparing to 0.3215 from non-identical twins. (c) For the corresponding fingers of identical twins which have same fingerprint type, the probability distribution of five major fingerprint types is similar to the probability distribution for all the fingers' fingerprint type. (d) For each of four fingers of identical twins, the probability of having same fingerprint type is similar.

  12. Fingerprint Recognition with Identical Twin Fingerprints

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xin; Tian, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Fingerprint recognition with identical twins is a challenging task due to the closest genetics-based relationship existing in the identical twins. Several pioneers have analyzed the similarity between twins' fingerprints. In this work we continue to investigate the topic of the similarity of identical twin fingerprints. Our study was tested based on a large identical twin fingerprint database that contains 83 twin pairs, 4 fingers per individual and six impressions per finger: 3984 (83*2*4*6) images. Compared to the previous work, our contributions are summarized as follows: (1) Two state-of-the-art fingerprint identification methods: P071 and VeriFinger 6.1 were used, rather than one fingerprint identification method in previous studies. (2) Six impressions per finger were captured, rather than just one impression, which makes the genuine distribution of matching scores more realistic. (3) A larger sample (83 pairs) was collected. (4) A novel statistical analysis, which aims at showing the probability distribution of the fingerprint types for the corresponding fingers of identical twins which have same fingerprint type, has been conducted. (5) A novel analysis, which aims at showing which finger from identical twins has higher probability of having same fingerprint type, has been conducted. Our results showed that: (a) A state-of-the-art automatic fingerprint verification system can distinguish identical twins without drastic degradation in performance. (b) The chance that the fingerprints have the same type from identical twins is 0.7440, comparing to 0.3215 from non-identical twins. (c) For the corresponding fingers of identical twins which have same fingerprint type, the probability distribution of five major fingerprint types is similar to the probability distribution for all the fingers' fingerprint type. (d) For each of four fingers of identical twins, the probability of having same fingerprint type is similar. PMID:22558204

  13. Aerogel Fingerprint Media

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Fred S.; Andresen, Brian D.

    1999-09-21

    A fingerprint medium which is made of an aerogel having a predetermined density. The fingerprint medium may have a midrange density for forming plates or may be crushed forming a powder. The fingerprint medium may further include at least one of a metal and metal oxide to enhance characteristics desirable in a fingerprint medium.

  14. Analysis of Fingerprint Image to Verify a Person

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahankhani, Hossein; Mohid, Maktuba

    Identification and authentication technologies are increasing day by day to protect people and goods from crime and terrorism. This paper is aimed to discuss fingerprint technology in depth and analysis of fingerprint image. Verify a person with a highlight on fingerprint matching. Some fingerprint matching algorithms are analysed and compared. The outcomes of the analysis has identified some major issues or factors of fingerprinting, which are location, rotation, clipping, noise, non-linear distortion sensitiveness/ insensitiveness properties, computational cost and accuracy level of fingerprint matching algorithms. Also a new fingerprint matching algorithm proposed in this research work. The proposed algorithm has used Euclidean distance, angle difference, type as matching parameters instead of specific location parameter (like, x or y coordinates), which makes the algorithm location and rotation insensitive. The matching of local neighbourhoods at each stage makes the algorithm non-linear distortion insensitive.

  15. Multidimensional evaluation of a radio frequency identification wi-fi location tracking system in an acute-care hospital setting

    PubMed Central

    Okoniewska, Barbara; Graham, Alecia; Gavrilova, Marina; Wah, Dannel; Gilgen, Jonathan; Coke, Jason; Burden, Jack; Nayyar, Shikha; Kaunda, Joseph; Yergens, Dean; Baylis, Barry

    2012-01-01

    Real-time locating systems (RTLS) have the potential to enhance healthcare systems through the live tracking of assets, patients and staff. This study evaluated a commercially available RTLS system deployed in a clinical setting, with three objectives: (1) assessment of the location accuracy of the technology in a clinical setting; (2) assessment of the value of asset tracking to staff; and (3) assessment of threshold monitoring applications developed for patient tracking and inventory control. Simulated daily activities were monitored by RTLS and compared with direct research team observations. Staff surveys and interviews concerning the system's effectiveness and accuracy were also conducted and analyzed. The study showed only modest location accuracy, and mixed reactions in staff interviews. These findings reveal that the technology needs to be refined further for better specific location accuracy before full-scale implementation can be recommended. PMID:22298566

  16. Advanced Fingerprint Analysis Project Fingerprint Constituents

    SciTech Connect

    GM Mong; CE Petersen; TRW Clauss

    1999-10-29

    The work described in this report was focused on generating fundamental data on fingerprint components which will be used to develop advanced forensic techniques to enhance fluorescent detection, and visualization of latent fingerprints. Chemical components of sweat gland secretions are well documented in the medical literature and many chemical techniques are available to develop latent prints, but there have been no systematic forensic studies of fingerprint sweat components or of the chemical and physical changes these substances undergo over time.

  17. Fingerprint comparison. I: Similarity of fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Lin, C H; Liu, J H; Osterburg, J W; Nicol, J D

    1982-04-01

    Fingerprints from 61 pairs of male monozygotic twins (MZ), 47 pairs of female MZ, 40 pairs of same-sex male dizygotic twins (DZ), 44 pairs of same-sex female DZ, 4 pairs of opposite-sex DZ, and 28 brothers and 31 sisters of those twins are used for the study of fingerprint similarities. Similarities of fingerprint pattern, ridge count, and minutiae are evaluated for two population groups genetically related to each other in different degrees. It is concluded that fingerprint similarities, including pattern, ridge count, and possibly minutiae, between MZ individuals are significantly higher than those between other population groups, including DZ twins.

  18. The detection of drugs of abuse in fingerprints using Raman spectroscopy I: latent fingerprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Joanna S.; Edwards, Howell G. M.; Dobrowski, Steven A.; Voice, Alison M.

    2004-02-01

    This paper describes the application of Raman spectroscopy to the detection of exogenous substances in latent fingerprints. The scenario considered was that of an individual handling a substance and subsequently depositing a contaminated fingerprint. Five drugs of abuse (codeine phosphate, cocaine hydrochloride, amphetamine sulphate, barbital and nitrazepam) and five non-controlled substances of similar appearance, which may be used in the adulteration of drugs of abuse (caffeine, aspirin, paracetamol, starch and talc), were studied in both sweat-rich and sebum-rich latent fingerprints. The substances studied could be clearly distinguished using their Raman spectra and were all successfully detected in latent fingerprints. Photobleaching was necessary to reduce the fluorescence background in the spectra of some substances. Raman spectra obtained from the substances in sweat-rich latent fingerprints were of a similar quality to spectra that obtained from the substances under normal sampling conditions. Interfering Raman bands arising from latent fingerprint material were present in the spectra obtained from the substances in sebum-rich fingerprints. These bands did not prevent identification of the substances and could be successfully removed by spectral subtraction. The most difficult aspect of the detection of these substances in latent fingerprints was visually locating the substance in the fingerprint in order to obtain a Raman spectrum.

  19. Determination of locational error associated with global positioning system (GPS) radio collars in relation to vegetation and topography in north-central New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, K.; Biggs, J.; Fresquez, P.R.

    1997-02-01

    In 1996, a study was initiated to assess seasonal habitat use and movement patterns of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) using global positioning system (GPS) radio collars. As part of this study, the authors attempted to assess the accuracies of GPS (non-differentially corrected) positions under various vegetation canopies and terrain conditions with the use of a GPS ``test`` collar. The test collar was activated every twenty minutes to obtain a position location and continuously uplinked to Argos satellites to transfer position data files. They used a Telonics, Inc. uplink receiver to intercept the transmission and view the results of the collar in real time. They placed the collar on a stand equivalent to the neck height of an adult elk and then placed the stand within three different treatment categories: (1) topographical influence (canyon and mesa tops), (2) canopy influence (open and closed canopy), and (3) vegetation type influence (ponderosa pine and pinion pine-juniper). The collar was kept at each location for one hour (usually obtaining three fixes). In addition, the authors used a hand-held GPS to obtain a position of the test collar at the same time and location.

  20. On the location of the γ-ray emission region for 21 flat spectrum radio quasars with quasi-simultaneous observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Gang; Wang, Jian-Cheng

    2013-12-01

    We try to infer the location of the GeV emission region for 21 flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) with quasi-simultaneous spectral energy distributions (SEDs), in which the SEDs of 21 FSRQs are reproduced by the one-zone leptonic model including the synchrotron-self Compton (SSC) and external Compton (EC) processes. We suggest that the X-ray emission could be produced by the SSC process and the GeV emission could come from the EC process. The EC emission could originate from the inverse Compton (IC) scattering of photons from the broad-line region (BLR) and accretion disc or dust torus by the same electron population, which mainly depend on the location of the γ-ray emission region. We propose a method to constrain the location of the GeV emission region based on the spectral shapes. When the GeV emission is located within the BLR, the IC scattering could occur at the Klein-Nishina regime and produce a broken/steep spectrum in the GeV energy band. When the GeV emission is produced outside the BLR, the IC scattering could take place at the Thomson regime and the GeV spectrum would have the same spectral index as the optical-infrared spectrum. We infer that the location of the GeV emission region is inside the BLR for 5 FSRQs and beyond the BLR for 16 FSRQs. Our results show that the ratio of the magnetic field and electron energy density is close to equipartition condition for 21 FSRQs.

  1. Radio Jove: Jupiter Radio Astronomy for Citizens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, Charles; Thieman, J. R.; Flagg, R.; Reyes, F. J.; Sky, J.; Greenman, W.; Brown, J.; Typinski, D.; Ashcraft, T.; Mount, A.

    2014-01-01

    Radio JOVE is a hands-on educational activity that brings the radio sounds of the Sun, Jupiter, the Milky Way Galaxy, and terrestrial radio noise to students, teachers, and the general public. Participants may build a simple radio telescope kit, make scientific observations, and interact with professional radio observatories in real-time over the Internet. Our website (http://radiojove.gsfc.nasa.gov) includes science information, construction manuals, observing guides, and education resources for teachers and students. Radio Jove is continually expanding its participants with over 1800 kits sold to more than 70 countries worldwide. Recently some of our most dedicated observers have upgraded their Radio Jove antennas to semi-professional observatories. We have spectrographs and wide band antennas, some with 8 MHz bandwidth and some with dual polarization capabilities. In an effort to add to the science literature, these observers are coordinating their efforts to pursue some basic questions about Jupiter’s radio emissions (radio source locations, spectral structure, long term changes, etc.). We can compare signal and ionosphere variations using the many Radio Jove observers at different locations. Observers are also working with members of the Long Wavelength Array Station 1 (LWA1) radio telescope to coordinate observations of Jupiter; Radio Jove is planning to make coordinated observations while the Juno Mission is active beginning in 2015. The Radio Jove program is overviewed, its hardware and software are highlighted, recent sample observations are shown, and we demonstrate that we are capable of real citizen science.

  2. Radio Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beskin, V. S.; Chernov, S. V.; Gwinn, C. R.; Tchekhovskoy, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    Almost 50 years after radio pulsars were discovered in 1967, our understanding of these objects remains incomplete. On the one hand, within a few years it became clear that neutron star rotation gives rise to the extremely stable sequence of radio pulses, that the kinetic energy of rotation provides the reservoir of energy, and that electromagnetic fields are the braking mechanism. On the other hand, no consensus regarding the mechanism of coherent radio emission or the conversion of electromagnetic energy to particle energy yet exists. In this review, we report on three aspects of pulsar structure that have seen recent progress: the self-consistent theory of the magnetosphere of an oblique magnetic rotator; the location, geometry, and optics of radio emission; and evolution of the angle between spin and magnetic axes. These allow us to take the next step in understanding the physical nature of the pulsar activity.

  3. Constraining the location of rapid gamma-ray flares in the flat spectrum radio quasar 3C 273 [Constraining the location of rapid gamma-ray flares in the FSRQ 3C 273

    DOE PAGES

    Rani, B.; Lott, B.; Krichbaum, T. P.; ...

    2013-09-02

    Here, we present a γ-ray photon flux and spectral variability study of the flat-spectrum radio quasar 3C 273 over a rapid flaring activity period between September 2009 to April 2010. Five major flares were observed in the source during this period. The most rapid flare observed in the source has a flux doubling time of 1.1 hr. The rapid γ-ray flares allow us to constrain the location and size of the γ-ray emission region in the source. The γγ-opacity constrains the Doppler factor δγ ≥ 10 for the highest energy (15 GeV) photon observed by the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT).more » Causality arguments constrain the size of the emission region to 1.6 × 1015 cm. The γ-ray spectra measured over this period show clear deviations from a simple power law with a break in the 1–2 GeV energy range. We discuss possible explanations for the origin of the γ-ray spectral breaks. Our study suggests that the γ-ray emission region in 3C 273 is located within the broad line region (< 1.6 pc). As a result, the spectral behavior and temporal characteristics of the individual flares indicate the presence of multiple shock scenarios at the base of the jet.« less

  4. Constraining the location of rapid gamma-ray flares in the flat spectrum radio quasar 3C 273 [Constraining the location of rapid gamma-ray flares in the FSRQ 3C 273

    SciTech Connect

    Rani, B.; Lott, B.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Fuhrmann, L.; Zensus, J. A.

    2013-09-02

    Here, we present a γ-ray photon flux and spectral variability study of the flat-spectrum radio quasar 3C 273 over a rapid flaring activity period between September 2009 to April 2010. Five major flares were observed in the source during this period. The most rapid flare observed in the source has a flux doubling time of 1.1 hr. The rapid γ-ray flares allow us to constrain the location and size of the γ-ray emission region in the source. The γγ-opacity constrains the Doppler factor δγ ≥ 10 for the highest energy (15 GeV) photon observed by the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT). Causality arguments constrain the size of the emission region to 1.6 × 1015 cm. The γ-ray spectra measured over this period show clear deviations from a simple power law with a break in the 1–2 GeV energy range. We discuss possible explanations for the origin of the γ-ray spectral breaks. Our study suggests that the γ-ray emission region in 3C 273 is located within the broad line region (< 1.6 pc). As a result, the spectral behavior and temporal characteristics of the individual flares indicate the presence of multiple shock scenarios at the base of the jet.

  5. Location, Location, Location!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsdell, Kristin

    2004-01-01

    Of prime importance in real estate, location is also a key element in the appeal of romances. Popular geographic settings and historical periods sell, unpopular ones do not--not always with a logical explanation, as the author discovered when she conducted a survey on this topic last year. (Why, for example, are the French Revolution and the…

  6. Location, Location, Location!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsdell, Kristin

    2004-01-01

    Of prime importance in real estate, location is also a key element in the appeal of romances. Popular geographic settings and historical periods sell, unpopular ones do not--not always with a logical explanation, as the author discovered when she conducted a survey on this topic last year. (Why, for example, are the French Revolution and the…

  7. Martian Fingerprints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    9 April 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows patterned ground on the martian northern plains. The circular features are buried meteor impact craters; the small dark dots associated with them are boulders. The dark feature at left center is a wind streak.

    Location near: 75.1oN, 303.0oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Summer

  8. Martian Fingerprints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    9 April 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows patterned ground on the martian northern plains. The circular features are buried meteor impact craters; the small dark dots associated with them are boulders. The dark feature at left center is a wind streak.

    Location near: 75.1oN, 303.0oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Summer

  9. The detection of drugs of abuse in fingerprints using Raman spectroscopy II: cyanoacrylate-fumed fingerprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Joanna S.; Edwards, Howell G. M.; Dobrowski, Steven A.; Voice, Alison M.

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes the application of Raman spectroscopy to the detection of exogenous substances in cyanoacrylate-fumed fingerprints. The scenario considered was that of an individual handling a substance and subsequently depositing a contaminated fingerprint. These fingerprints were enhanced by cyanoacrylate fuming, a process in which a layer of white cyanoacrylate polymer is deposited on the fingerprint material, enabling visual detection. Five drugs of abuse (codeine phosphate, cocaine hydrochloride, amphetamine sulphate, barbital and nitrazepam) and five non-controlled substances of similar appearance, which may be used in the adulteration of drugs of abuse (caffeine, aspirin, paracetamol, starch and talc), were used. The substances studied could be clearly distinguished using their Raman spectra and were all successfully detected in cyanoacrylate-fumed fingerprints. Photobleaching was necessary to reduce the fluorescence background in the spectra of some substances. Raman spectra obtained from the substances in cyanoacrylate-fumed fingerprints were of a similar quality to spectra obtained from the substances under normal sampling conditions, however, interfering Raman bands arising from the cyanoacrylate polymer were present in the spectra. In most cases the only interfering band was the CN stretching mode of the polymer, and there were no cases where the interfering bands prevented identification of the substances. If necessary, the interfering bands could be successfully removed by spectral subtraction. The most difficult aspect of the detection of these substances in cyanoacrylate-fumed fingerprints was visually locating the substance in the fingerprint beneath the polymer layer in order to obtain a Raman spectrum.

  10. Constraints on the Location of the Gamma-Ray Emission Region for the Gamma-Ray-loud Radio Source GB 1310+487

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Shi-Ju

    2017-03-01

    We employ a single-zone leptonic jet model, with synchrotron, synchrotron self-Compton, and external Compton (EC) processes, to reproduce the quasi-simultaneous multi-wavelength spectral energy distributions in active and quiescent states of the narrow-line gamma-ray-loud radio source GB 1310+487. In the case of the EC process, the external seed photons from both the broad line region (BLR) and the dust torus are considered by assuming that the gamma-ray emission region is located at the outside boundary of the BLR and inside the dust torus. Comparing the energy density of external photon fields {U}{BLR} obtained by model fitting with that constrained from the BLR observations. We find that the location of the gamma-ray-emitting region of GB 1310+487 can be tightly constrained at the outer edge of the BLR (the dissipation distance of the γ-ray emission region from central black hole {r}{diss}∼ {{a}} {few} {times} {of} {R}{BLR}). The ratio of magnetic energy and emitting-electron energy in the radiation blob ({ε }B={L}B/{L}{{e}}) is gradually increased from Flare 1, to Flare 2, to Post-flare, where the magnetic energy increases and the matter energy decreases. These results suggest that the conversion of the magnetic field and the matter (radiation electrons) energy and the location of the γ-ray emission region (or ambient photon field) may play an important role in different radiation states of GB 1310+487.

  11. FROG - Fingerprinting Genomic Variation Ontology.

    PubMed

    Abinaya, E; Narang, Pankaj; Bhardwaj, Anshu

    2015-01-01

    Genetic variations play a crucial role in differential phenotypic outcomes. Given the complexity in establishing this correlation and the enormous data available today, it is imperative to design machine-readable, efficient methods to store, label, search and analyze this data. A semantic approach, FROG: "FingeRprinting Ontology of Genomic variations" is implemented to label variation data, based on its location, function and interactions. FROG has six levels to describe the variation annotation, namely, chromosome, DNA, RNA, protein, variations and interactions. Each level is a conceptual aggregation of logically connected attributes each of which comprises of various properties for the variant. For example, in chromosome level, one of the attributes is location of variation and which has two properties, allosomes or autosomes. Another attribute is variation kind which has four properties, namely, indel, deletion, insertion, substitution. Likewise, there are 48 attributes and 278 properties to capture the variation annotation across six levels. Each property is then assigned a bit score which in turn leads to generation of a binary fingerprint based on the combination of these properties (mostly taken from existing variation ontologies). FROG is a novel and unique method designed for the purpose of labeling the entire variation data generated till date for efficient storage, search and analysis. A web-based platform is designed as a test case for users to navigate sample datasets and generate fingerprints. The platform is available at http://ab-openlab.csir.res.in/frog.

  12. Latent fingerprint matching.

    PubMed

    Jain, Anil K; Feng, Jianjiang

    2011-01-01

    Latent fingerprint identification is of critical importance to law enforcement agencies in identifying suspects: Latent fingerprints are inadvertent impressions left by fingers on surfaces of objects. While tremendous progress has been made in plain and rolled fingerprint matching, latent fingerprint matching continues to be a difficult problem. Poor quality of ridge impressions, small finger area, and large nonlinear distortion are the main difficulties in latent fingerprint matching compared to plain or rolled fingerprint matching. We propose a system for matching latent fingerprints found at crime scenes to rolled fingerprints enrolled in law enforcement databases. In addition to minutiae, we also use extended features, including singularity, ridge quality map, ridge flow map, ridge wavelength map, and skeleton. We tested our system by matching 258 latents in the NIST SD27 database against a background database of 29,257 rolled fingerprints obtained by combining the NIST SD4, SD14, and SD27 databases. The minutiae-based baseline rank-1 identification rate of 34.9 percent was improved to 74 percent when extended features were used. In order to evaluate the relative importance of each extended feature, these features were incrementally used in the order of their cost in marking by latent experts. The experimental results indicate that singularity, ridge quality map, and ridge flow map are the most effective features in improving the matching accuracy.

  13. Enhancing security of fingerprints through contextual biometric watermarking.

    PubMed

    Noore, Afzel; Singh, Richa; Vatsa, Mayank; Houck, Max M

    2007-07-04

    This paper presents a novel digital watermarking technique using face and demographic text data as multiple watermarks for verifying the chain of custody and protecting the integrity of a fingerprint image. The watermarks are embedded in selected texture regions of a fingerprint image using discrete wavelet transform. Experimental results show that modifications in these locations are visually imperceptible and maintain the minutiae details. The integrity of the fingerprint image is verified through the high matching scores obtained from an automatic fingerprint identification system. There is also a high degree of visual correlation between the embedded images, and the extracted images from the watermarked fingerprint. The degree of similarity is computed using pixel-based metrics and human visual system metrics. The results also show that the proposed watermarked fingerprint and the extracted images are resilient to common attacks such as compression, filtering, and noise.

  14. Quantifying the limits of fingerprint variability.

    PubMed

    Fagert, Michael; Morris, Keith

    2015-09-01

    The comparison and identification of fingerprints are made difficult by fingerprint variability arising from distortion. This study seeks to quantify both the limits of fingerprint variability when subject to heavy distortion, and the variability observed in repeated inked planar impressions. A total of 30 fingers were studied: 10 right slant loops, 10 plain whorls, and 10 plain arches. Fingers were video recorded performing several distortion movements under heavy deposition pressure: left, right, up, and down translation of the finger, clockwise and counter-clockwise torque of the finger, and planar impressions. Fingerprint templates, containing 'true' minutiae locations, were created for each finger using 10 repeated inked planar impressions. A minimal amount of variability, 0.18mm globally, was observed for minutiae in repeated inked planar impressions. When subject to heavy distortion minutiae can be displaced by upwards of 3mm and their orientation altered by as much as 30° in relation to their template positions. Minutiae displacements of 1mm and 10° changes in orientation are readily observed. The results of this study will allow fingerprint examiners to identify and understand the degree of variability that can be reasonably expected throughout the various regions of fingerprints.

  15. Physics and fingerprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss-de Haan, Patrick

    2006-08-01

    This article discusses a variety of aspects in the detection and development of fingerprints and the physics involved in it. It gives an introduction to some basic issues like composition and properties of fingerprint deposits and a rudimentary framework of dactyloscopy; it covers various techniques for the visualization of latent fingerprints; and it concludes with a view of current research topics. The techniques range from very common procedures, such as powdering and cyanoacrylate fuming, to more demanding methods, for example luminescence and vacuum metal deposition, to fairly unusual approaches like autoradiography. The emphasis is placed on the physical rather than the forensic aspects of these topics while trying to give the physicist—who is not dealing with fingerprinting and forensic science on a daily basis—a feeling for the problems and solutions in the visualization of latent fingerprints.

  16. Image and video fingerprinting: forensic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefebvre, Frédéric; Chupeau, Bertrand; Massoudi, Ayoub; Diehl, Eric

    2009-02-01

    Fighting movie piracy often requires automatic content identification. The most common technique to achieve this uses watermarking, but not all copyrighted content is watermarked. Video fingerprinting is an efficient alternative solution to identify content, to manage multimedia files in UGC sites or P2P networks and to register pirated copies with master content. When registering by matching copy fingerprints with master ones, a model of distortion can be estimated. In case of in-theater piracy, the model of geometric distortion allows the estimation of the capture location. A step even further is to determine, from passive image analysis only, whether different pirated versions were captured with the same camcorder. In this paper we present three such fingerprinting-based forensic applications: UGC filtering, estimation of capture location and source identification.

  17. Advanced fingerprint verification software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baradarani, A.; Taylor, J. R. B.; Severin, F.; Maev, R. Gr.

    2016-05-01

    We have developed a fingerprint software package that can be used in a wide range of applications from law enforcement to public and private security systems, and to personal devices such as laptops, vehicles, and door- locks. The software and processing units are a unique implementation of new and sophisticated algorithms that compete with the current best systems in the world. Development of the software package has been in line with the third generation of our ultrasonic fingerprinting machine1. Solid and robust performance is achieved in the presence of misplaced and low quality fingerprints.

  18. Longitudinal study of fingerprint recognition.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Soweon; Jain, Anil K

    2015-07-14

    Human identification by fingerprints is based on the fundamental premise that ridge patterns from distinct fingers are different (uniqueness) and a fingerprint pattern does not change over time (persistence). Although the uniqueness of fingerprints has been investigated by developing statistical models to estimate the probability of error in comparing two random samples of fingerprints, the persistence of fingerprints has remained a general belief based on only a few case studies. In this study, fingerprint match (similarity) scores are analyzed by multilevel statistical models with covariates such as time interval between two fingerprints in comparison, subject's age, and fingerprint image quality. Longitudinal fingerprint records of 15,597 subjects are sampled from an operational fingerprint database such that each individual has at least five 10-print records over a minimum time span of 5 y. In regard to the persistence of fingerprints, the longitudinal analysis on a single (right index) finger demonstrates that (i) genuine match scores tend to significantly decrease when time interval between two fingerprints in comparison increases, whereas the change in impostor match scores is negligible; and (ii) fingerprint recognition accuracy at operational settings, nevertheless, tends to be stable as the time interval increases up to 12 y, the maximum time span in the dataset. However, the uncertainty of temporal stability of fingerprint recognition accuracy becomes substantially large if either of the two fingerprints being compared is of poor quality. The conclusions drawn from 10-finger fusion analysis coincide with the conclusions from single-finger analysis.

  19. Longitudinal study of fingerprint recognition

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Soweon; Jain, Anil K.

    2015-01-01

    Human identification by fingerprints is based on the fundamental premise that ridge patterns from distinct fingers are different (uniqueness) and a fingerprint pattern does not change over time (persistence). Although the uniqueness of fingerprints has been investigated by developing statistical models to estimate the probability of error in comparing two random samples of fingerprints, the persistence of fingerprints has remained a general belief based on only a few case studies. In this study, fingerprint match (similarity) scores are analyzed by multilevel statistical models with covariates such as time interval between two fingerprints in comparison, subject’s age, and fingerprint image quality. Longitudinal fingerprint records of 15,597 subjects are sampled from an operational fingerprint database such that each individual has at least five 10-print records over a minimum time span of 5 y. In regard to the persistence of fingerprints, the longitudinal analysis on a single (right index) finger demonstrates that (i) genuine match scores tend to significantly decrease when time interval between two fingerprints in comparison increases, whereas the change in impostor match scores is negligible; and (ii) fingerprint recognition accuracy at operational settings, nevertheless, tends to be stable as the time interval increases up to 12 y, the maximum time span in the dataset. However, the uncertainty of temporal stability of fingerprint recognition accuracy becomes substantially large if either of the two fingerprints being compared is of poor quality. The conclusions drawn from 10-finger fusion analysis coincide with the conclusions from single-finger analysis. PMID:26124106

  20. Altered fingerprints: analysis and detection.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Soweon; Feng, Jianjiang; Jain, Anil K

    2012-03-01

    The widespread deployment of Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS) in law enforcement and border control applications has heightened the need for ensuring that these systems are not compromised. While several issues related to fingerprint system security have been investigated, including the use of fake fingerprints for masquerading identity, the problem of fingerprint alteration or obfuscation has received very little attention. Fingerprint obfuscation refers to the deliberate alteration of the fingerprint pattern by an individual for the purpose of masking his identity. Several cases of fingerprint obfuscation have been reported in the press. Fingerprint image quality assessment software (e.g., NFIQ) cannot always detect altered fingerprints since the implicit image quality due to alteration may not change significantly. The main contributions of this paper are: 1) compiling case studies of incidents where individuals were found to have altered their fingerprints for circumventing AFIS, 2) investigating the impact of fingerprint alteration on the accuracy of a commercial fingerprint matcher, 3) classifying the alterations into three major categories and suggesting possible countermeasures, 4) developing a technique to automatically detect altered fingerprints based on analyzing orientation field and minutiae distribution, and 5) evaluating the proposed technique and the NFIQ algorithm on a large database of altered fingerprints provided by a law enforcement agency. Experimental results show the feasibility of the proposed approach in detecting altered fingerprints and highlight the need to further pursue this problem.

  1. Expertise in fingerprint identification.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Matthew B; Tangen, Jason M; McCarthy, Duncan J

    2013-11-01

    Although fingerprint experts have presented evidence in criminal courts for more than a century, there have been few scientific investigations of the human capacity to discriminate these patterns. A recent latent print matching experiment shows that qualified, court-practicing fingerprint experts are exceedingly accurate (and more conservative) compared with novices, but they do make errors. Here, a rationale for the design of this experiment is provided. We argue that fidelity, generalizability, and control must be balanced to answer important research questions; that the proficiency and competence of fingerprint examiners are best determined when experiments include highly similar print pairs, in a signal detection paradigm, where the ground truth is known; and that inferring from this experiment the statement "The error rate of fingerprint identification is 0.68%" would be unjustified. In closing, the ramifications of these findings for the future psychological study of forensic expertise and the implications for expert testimony and public policy are considered.

  2. Making DNA Fingerprints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunley, Kathie F.

    1996-01-01

    Presents an activity to simulate electrophoresis using everyday items. Uses adding machine paper to construct a set of DNA fingerprints that can be used to solve crime cases designed by students in any biology class. (JRH)

  3. Online fingerprint verification.

    PubMed

    Upendra, K; Singh, S; Kumar, V; Verma, H K

    2007-01-01

    As organizations search for more secure authentication methods for user access, e-commerce, and other security applications, biometrics is gaining increasing attention. With an increasing emphasis on the emerging automatic personal identification applications, fingerprint based identification is becoming more popular. The most widely used fingerprint representation is the minutiae based representation. The main drawback with this representation is that it does not utilize a significant component of the rich discriminatory information available in the fingerprints. Local ridge structures cannot be completely characterized by minutiae. Also, it is difficult quickly to match two fingerprint images containing different number of unregistered minutiae points. In this study filter bank based representation, which eliminates these weakness, is implemented and the overall performance of the developed system is tested. The results have shown that this system can be used effectively for secure online verification applications.

  4. Fingerprinting of music scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irons, Jonathan; Schmucker, Martin

    2004-06-01

    Publishers of sheet music are generally reluctant in distributing their content via the Internet. Although online sheet music distribution's advantages are numerous the potential risk of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) infringement, e.g. illegal online distributions, disables any innovation propensity. While active protection techniques only deter external risk factors, additional technology is necessary to adequately treat further risk factors. For several media types including music scores watermarking technology has been developed, which ebeds information in data by suitable data modifications. Furthermore, fingerprinting or perceptual hasing methods have been developed and are being applied especially for audio. These methods allow the identification of content without prior modifications. In this article we motivate the development of watermarking and fingerprinting technologies for sheet music. Outgoing from potential limitations of watermarking methods we explain why fingerprinting methods are important for sheet music and address potential applications. Finally we introduce a condept for fingerprinting of sheet music.

  5. Making DNA Fingerprints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunley, Kathie F.

    1996-01-01

    Presents an activity to simulate electrophoresis using everyday items. Uses adding machine paper to construct a set of DNA fingerprints that can be used to solve crime cases designed by students in any biology class. (JRH)

  6. Adaptive Indoor Positioning Model Based on WLAN-Fingerprinting for Dynamic and Multi-Floor Environments

    PubMed Central

    Alshami, Iyad Husni; Sahibuddin, Shamsul; Firdaus, Firdaus

    2017-01-01

    The Global Positioning System demonstrates the significance of Location Based Services but it cannot be used indoors due to the lack of line of sight between satellites and receivers. Indoor Positioning Systems are needed to provide indoor Location Based Services. Wireless LAN fingerprints are one of the best choices for Indoor Positioning Systems because of their low cost, and high accuracy, however they have many drawbacks: creating radio maps is time consuming, the radio maps will become outdated with any environmental change, different mobile devices read the received signal strength (RSS) differently, and peoples’ presence in LOS between access points and mobile device affects the RSS. This research proposes a new Adaptive Indoor Positioning System model (called DIPS) based on: a dynamic radio map generator, RSS certainty technique and peoples’ presence effect integration for dynamic and multi-floor environments. Dynamic in our context refers to the effects of people and device heterogeneity. DIPS can achieve 98% and 92% positioning accuracy for floor and room positioning, and it achieves 1.2 m for point positioning error. RSS certainty enhanced the positioning accuracy for floor and room for different mobile devices by 11% and 9%. Then by considering the peoples’ presence effect, the error is reduced by 0.2 m. In comparison with other works, DIPS achieves better positioning without extra devices. PMID:28783047

  7. Probing the precise location of the radio core in the TeV blazar Mrk 501 with VERA at 43 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, Shoko; Kino, Motoki; Doi, Akihiro; Niinuma, Kotaro; Hada, Kazuhiro; Nagai, Hiroshi; Honma, Mareki; Akiyama, Kazunori; Giroletti, Marcello; Giovannini, Gabriele; Orienti, Monica; Isobe, Naoki; Kataoka, Jun; Paneque, David; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Asada, Keiichi

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the position of the radio core in a blazar by multi-epoch astrometric observations at 43 GHz. Using the VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA), we have conducted four adjacent observations in 2011 February and another four in 2011 October, and succeeded in measuring the position of the radio core in the TeV blazar Mrk 501 relative to a distant compact quasar NRAO 512. During our observations, we find that (1) there is no positional change within ˜0.2 mas or ˜2.0 pc de-projected with ±1 σ error for the weighted-mean phase-referenced positions of the Mrk 501 core relative to NRAO 512 over four adjacent days, and (2) there is an indication of position change for the 3C 345 core relative to NRAO 512. By applying our results to the standard internal shock model for blazars, we constrain the bulk Lorenz factors of the ejecta.

  8. FROG - Fingerprinting Genomic Variation Ontology

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Anshu

    2015-01-01

    Genetic variations play a crucial role in differential phenotypic outcomes. Given the complexity in establishing this correlation and the enormous data available today, it is imperative to design machine-readable, efficient methods to store, label, search and analyze this data. A semantic approach, FROG: “FingeRprinting Ontology of Genomic variations” is implemented to label variation data, based on its location, function and interactions. FROG has six levels to describe the variation annotation, namely, chromosome, DNA, RNA, protein, variations and interactions. Each level is a conceptual aggregation of logically connected attributes each of which comprises of various properties for the variant. For example, in chromosome level, one of the attributes is location of variation and which has two properties, allosomes or autosomes. Another attribute is variation kind which has four properties, namely, indel, deletion, insertion, substitution. Likewise, there are 48 attributes and 278 properties to capture the variation annotation across six levels. Each property is then assigned a bit score which in turn leads to generation of a binary fingerprint based on the combination of these properties (mostly taken from existing variation ontologies). FROG is a novel and unique method designed for the purpose of labeling the entire variation data generated till date for efficient storage, search and analysis. A web-based platform is designed as a test case for users to navigate sample datasets and generate fingerprints. The platform is available at http://ab-openlab.csir.res.in/frog. PMID:26244889

  9. DISCOVERY OF PULSED gamma-RAYS FROM PSR J0034-0534 WITH THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE: A CASE FOR CO-LOCATED RADIO AND gamma-RAY EMISSION REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Ballet, J.; Bastieri, D.; Bonamente, E.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P. E-mail: Tyrel.J.Johnson@nasa.go E-mail: Christo.Venter@nwu.ac.z

    2010-04-01

    Millisecond pulsars (MSPs) have been firmly established as a class of gamma-ray emitters via the detection of pulsations above 0.1 GeV from eight MSPs by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). Using 13 months of LAT data, significant gamma-ray pulsations at the radio period have been detected from the MSP PSR J0034-0534, making it the ninth clear MSP detection by the LAT. The gamma-ray light curve shows two peaks separated by 0.274 +- 0.015 in phase which are very nearly aligned with the radio peaks, a phenomenon seen only in the Crab pulsar until now. The >=0.1 GeV spectrum of this pulsar is well fit by an exponentially cutoff power law with a cutoff energy of 1.8 +- 0.6 +- 0.1 GeV and a photon index of 1.5 +- 0.2 +- 0.1, first errors are statistical and second are systematic. The near-alignment of the radio and gamma-ray peaks strongly suggests that the radio and gamma-ray emission regions are co-located and both are the result of caustic formation.

  10. Discovery of Pulsed γ-rays from PSR J0034-0534 with the Fermi Large Area Telescope: A Case for Co-located Radio and γ-ray Emission Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Burnett, T. H.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Camilo, F.; Caraveo, P. A.; Carrigan, S.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö.; Chekhtman, A.; Cheung, C. C.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cognard, I.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; Corbet, R.; DeCesar, M. E.; Dermer, C. D.; Desvignes, G.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Digel, S. W.; Dormody, M.; do Couto e Silva, E.; Drell, P. S.; Dubois, R.; Dumora, D.; Espinoza, C.; Farnier, C.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Focke, W. B.; Frailis, M.; Freire, P. C. C.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Giavitto, G.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Grondin, M. -H.; Grove, J. E.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Harding, A. K.; Hays, E.; Hobbs, G.; Horan, D.; Hughes, R. E.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, T. J.; Johnson, W. N.; Johnston, S.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Kawai, N.; Kerr, M.; Knödlseder, J.; Kramer, M.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Latronico, L.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Garde, M. Llena; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Lyne, A. G.; Makeev, A.; Manchester, R. N.; Marelli, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McConville, W.; McEnery, J. E.; McGlynn, S.; Meurer, C.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nolan, P. L.; Norris, J. P.; Noutsos, A.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozaki, M.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Pelassa, V.; Pepe, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Pierbattista, M.; Piron, F.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Ransom, S. M.; Razzano, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reposeur, T.; Ripken, J.; Ritz, S.; Rochester, L. S.; Rodriguez, A. Y.; Romani, R. W.; Roth, M.; Ryde, F.; Sadrozinski, H. F. -W.; Sander, A.; Parkinson, P. M. Saz; Scargle, J. D.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, D. A.; Smith, P. D.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stappers, B. W.; Starck, J. -L.; Strickman, M. S.; Suson, D. J.; Takahashi, H.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. B.; Thayer, J. G.; Theureau, G.; Thompson, D. J.; Thorsett, S. E.; Tibaldo, L.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Tramacere, A.; Usher, T. L.; Van Etten, A.; Vasileiou, V.; Venter, C.; Vilchez, N.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Wallace, E.; Wang, P.; Weltevrede, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Ylinen, T.; Ziegler, M.

    2010-03-09

    Millisecond pulsars (MSPs) have been firmly established as a class of γ-ray emitters via the detection of pulsations above 0.1 GeV from eight MSPs by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). Here, using 13 months of LAT data, significant γ-ray pulsations at the radio period have been detected from the MSP PSR J0034–0534, making it the ninth clear MSP detection by the LAT. The γ-ray light curve shows two peaks separated by 0.274 ± 0.015 in phase which are very nearly aligned with the radio peaks, a phenomenon seen only in the Crab pulsar until now. The ≥0.1 GeV spectrum of this pulsar is well fit by an exponentially cutoff power law with a cutoff energy of 1.8 ± 0.6 ± 0.1 GeV and a photon index of 1.5 ± 0.2 ± 0.1, first errors are statistical and second are systematic. Lastly, the near-alignment of the radio and γ-ray peaks strongly suggests that the radio and γ-ray emission regions are co-located and both are the result of caustic formation.

  11. Discovery of Pulsed γ-rays from PSR J0034-0534 with the Fermi Large Area Telescope: A Case for Co-located Radio and γ-ray Emission Regions

    DOE PAGES

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; ...

    2010-03-09

    Millisecond pulsars (MSPs) have been firmly established as a class of γ-ray emitters via the detection of pulsations above 0.1 GeV from eight MSPs by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). Here, using 13 months of LAT data, significant γ-ray pulsations at the radio period have been detected from the MSP PSR J0034–0534, making it the ninth clear MSP detection by the LAT. The γ-ray light curve shows two peaks separated by 0.274 ± 0.015 in phase which are very nearly aligned with the radio peaks, a phenomenon seen only in the Crab pulsar until now. The ≥0.1 GeV spectrummore » of this pulsar is well fit by an exponentially cutoff power law with a cutoff energy of 1.8 ± 0.6 ± 0.1 GeV and a photon index of 1.5 ± 0.2 ± 0.1, first errors are statistical and second are systematic. Lastly, the near-alignment of the radio and γ-ray peaks strongly suggests that the radio and γ-ray emission regions are co-located and both are the result of caustic formation.« less

  12. Locating the γ-ray emission site in Fermi/LAT blazars from correlation analysis between 37 GHz radio and γ-ray light curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramakrishnan, V.; Hovatta, T.; Nieppola, E.; Tornikoski, M.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Valtaoja, E.

    2015-09-01

    We address the highly debated issue of constraining the γ-ray emission region in blazars from cross-correlation analysis using discrete correlation function between radio and γ-ray light curves. The significance of the correlations is evaluated using two different approaches: simulating light curves and mixed source correlations. The cross-correlation analysis yielded 26 sources with significant correlations. In most of the sources, the γ-ray peaks lead the radio with time lags in the range +20 and +690 d, whereas in sources 1633+382 and 3C 345 we find the radio emission to lead the γ-rays by -15 and -40 d, respectively. Apart from the individual source study, we stacked the correlations of all sources and also those based on subsamples. The time lag from the stacked correlation is +80 d for the whole sample and the distance travelled by the emission region corresponds to 7 pc. We also compared the start times of activity in radio and γ-rays of the correlated flares using Bayesian block representation. This shows that most of the flares at both wavebands start at almost the same time, implying a co-spatial origin of the activity. The correlated sources show more flares and are brighter in both bands than the uncorrelated ones.

  13. Perspective automated inkless fingerprinting imaging software for fingerprint research.

    PubMed

    Nanakorn, Somsong; Poosankam, Pongsakorn; Mongconthawornchai, Paiboon

    2008-01-01

    Fingerprint collection using ink-and-paper image is a conventional method i.e. an ink-print, transparent-adhesive tape techniques which are slower and cumbersome. This is a pilot research for software development aimed at imaging an automated, inkless fingerprint using a fingerprint sensor, a development kit of the IT WORKS Company Limited, PC camera, and printer The development of software was performed to connect with the fingerprint sensor for collection of fingerprint images and recorded into a hard disk. It was also developed to connect with the PC camera for recording a face image of persons' fingerprints or identification card images. These images had been appropriately arranged in a PDF file prior to printing. This software is able to scan ten fingerprints and store high-quality electronics fingertip images with rapid, large, and clear images without dirt of ink or carbon. This fingerprint technology is helpful in a potential application in public health and clinical medicine research.

  14. Utilizing AFIS searching tools to reduce errors in fingerprint casework.

    PubMed

    Langenburg, Glenn; Hall, Carey; Rosemarie, Quincy

    2015-12-01

    Fifty-six (56) adjudicated, property crime cases involving fingerprint evidence were reviewed using a case-specific AFIS database tool. This tool allowed fingerprint experts to search latent prints in the cases against a database of friction ridge exemplars limited to only the individuals specific to that particular case. We utilized three different methods to encode and search the latent prints: automatic feature extraction, manual encoding performed by a student intern, and manual encoding performed by a fingerprint expert. Performance in the study was strongest when the encoding was conducted by the fingerprint expert. The results of the study showed that while the AFIS tools failed to locate all of the identifications originally reported by the initial fingerprint expert that worked the case, the AFIS tools helped to identify 7 additional latent prints that were not reported by the initial fingerprint expert. We conclude that this technology, when combined with fingerprint expertise, will reduce the number of instances where an erroneous exclusion could occur, increase the efficiency of a fingerprint unit, and be a useful tool for reviewing active or cold cases for missed opportunities to report identifications.

  15. From template to image: reconstructing fingerprints from minutiae points.

    PubMed

    Ross, Arun; Shah, Jidnya; Jain, Anil K

    2007-04-01

    Most fingerprint-based biometric systems store the minutiae template of a user in the database. It has been traditionally assumed that the minutiae template of a user does not reveal any information about the original fingerprint. In this paper, we challenge this notion and show that three levels of information about the parent fingerprint can be elicited from the minutiae template alone, viz., 1) the orientation field information, 2) the class or type information, and 3) the friction ridge structure. The orientation estimation algorithm determines the direction of local ridges using the evidence of minutiae triplets. The estimated orientation field, along with the given minutiae distribution, is then used to predict the class of the fingerprint. Finally, the ridge structure of the parent fingerprint is generated using streamlines that are based on the estimated orientation field. Line Integral Convolution is used to impart texture to the ensuing ridges, resulting in a ridge map resembling the parent fingerprint. The salient feature of this noniterative method to generate ridges is its ability to preserve the minutiae at specified locations in the reconstructed ridge map. Experiments using a commercial fingerprint matcher suggest that the reconstructed ridge structure bears close resemblance to the parent fingerprint.

  16. Performance evaluation of an acoustic indoor localization system based on a fingerprinting technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aloui, Nadia; Raoof, Kosai; Bouallegue, Ammar; Letourneur, Stephane; Zaibi, Sonia

    2014-12-01

    We present an acoustic location system that adopts the time of arrival of the path of maximum amplitude as a signature and estimates the target position through nonparametric kernel regression. The system was evaluated in experiments for two main configurations: a privacy-oriented configuration with code division multiple access operation and a centralized configuration with time division multiple access operation. The effects of the number and positions of sources on the performance of the privacy-oriented system was studied. Moreover, the effect of the number of fingerprint positions on the performance of both systems was investigated. Results showed that our privacy-oriented scheme provides an accuracy of 8.5 cm with 87% precision, whereas our centralized system provides an accuracy of 2.7 cm for 93% of measurements. A comparison between our privacy-oriented system and another acoustic location system based on code division multiple access operation and lateration was conducted on our test bench and revealed that the cumulative error distribution function of the fingerprint-based system is better than that of the lateration-based system. This result is similar to that found for Wi-Fi radio-based localization. However, our experiments are the first to demonstrate the detrimental effect that reverberation has on naive acoustic localization approaches.

  17. An Introduction to DNA Fingerprinting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepfer, Carol Ely; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Provides background information on DNA fingerprinting, and describes exercises for introducing general biology students at the high school or college level to the methodology and applications of DNA fingerprinting. (PR)

  18. An Introduction to DNA Fingerprinting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepfer, Carol Ely; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Provides background information on DNA fingerprinting, and describes exercises for introducing general biology students at the high school or college level to the methodology and applications of DNA fingerprinting. (PR)

  19. Fingerprinting with Wow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Eugene; Craver, Scott

    2006-02-01

    Wow, or time warping caused by speed fluctuations in analog audio equipment, provides a wealth of applications in watermarking. Very subtle temporal distortion has been used to defeat watermarks, and as components in watermarking systems. In the image domain, the analogous warping of an image's canvas has been used both to defeat watermarks and also proposed to prevent collusion attacks on fingerprinting systems. In this paper, we explore how subliminal levels of wow can be used for steganography and fingerprinting. We present both a low-bitrate robust solution and a higher-bitrate solution intended for steganographic communication. As already observed, such a fingerprinting algorithm naturally discourages collusion by averaging, owing to flanging effects when misaligned audio is averaged. Another advantage of warping is that even when imperceptible, it can be beyond the reach of compression algorithms. We use this opportunity to debunk the common misconception that steganography is impossible under "perfect compression."

  20. Evolutionary Fingerprinting of Genes

    PubMed Central

    Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L.; Scheffler, Konrad; Gravenor, Michael B.; Poon, Art F.Y.; Frost, Simon D.W.

    2010-01-01

    Over time, natural selection molds every gene into a unique mosaic of sites evolving rapidly or resisting change—an “evolutionary fingerprint” of the gene. Aspects of this evolutionary fingerprint, such as the site-specific ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitution rates (dN/dS), are commonly used to identify genetic features of potential biological interest; however, no framework exists for comparing evolutionary fingerprints between genes. We hypothesize that protein-coding genes with similar protein structure and/or function tend to have similar evolutionary fingerprints and that comparing evolutionary fingerprints can be useful for discovering similarities between genes in a way that is analogous to, but independent of, discovery of similarity via sequence-based comparison tools such as Blast. To test this hypothesis, we develop a novel model of coding sequence evolution that uses a general bivariate discrete parameterization of the evolutionary rates. We show that this approach provides a better fit to the data using a smaller number of parameters than existing models. Next, we use the model to represent evolutionary fingerprints as probability distributions and present a methodology for comparing these distributions in a way that is robust against variations in data set size and divergence. Finally, using sequences of three rapidly evolving RNA viruses (HIV-1, hepatitis C virus, and influenza A virus), we demonstrate that genes within the same functional group tend to have similar evolutionary fingerprints. Our framework provides a sound statistical foundation for efficient inference and comparison of evolutionary rate patterns in arbitrary collections of gene alignments, clustering homologous and nonhomologous genes, and investigation of biological and functional correlates of evolutionary rates. PMID:19864470

  1. 47 CFR 95.1203 - Authorized locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authorized locations. 95.1203 Section 95.1203 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Medical Device Radiocommunication Service (MedRadio) § 95.1203 Authorized locations. MedRadio...

  2. Fingerprinting Of Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.

    1994-01-01

    Collection of three reports surveys emerging technology of chemical fingerprinting, which can be defined, loosely, as systematic application of modern methods of analysis to determine elemental or molecular compositions of materials, measure relative amounts of constituents of materials, and/or measure other relevant properties of materials.

  3. Radio stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hjellming, Robert M.

    The state of knowledge on continuum radio emission from the stars is considered. Fundamental radio emission process and stellar radiative transfer are reviewed, and solar radio emission is examined. Flare stars and active binaries are addressed, and stellar winds and cataclysmic variables are considered. Radio-emitting X-ray binaries are discussed.

  4. A Clock Fingerprints-Based Approach for Wireless Transmitter Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Caidan; Xie, Liang; Huang, Lianfen; Yao, Yan

    Cognitive radio (CR) was proposed as one of the promising solutions for low spectrum utilization. However, security problems such as the primary user emulation (PUE) attack severely limit its applications. In this paper, we propose a clock fingerprints-based authentication approach to prevent PUE attacks in CR networks with the help of curve fitting and classifier. An experimental setup was constructed using the WLAN cards and software radio devices, and the corresponding results show that satisfied identification can be achieved for wireless transmitters.

  5. Fingerprinting of Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L

    1992-01-01

    Recent issues emerging in our fiscal and ecological environments have promulgated that federal agencies shall promote activities which respond to the improvement of both. In response to these developments, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has undertaken an innovative approach to improve the control of materials used in all NASA manufacturing activities. In concert with this goal, NASA is requiring that its contractors and their sub-contractors perform a more intensive consolidation of technologies that can provide an accounting of materials, which includes in-coming materials, materials in process, end-products and waste materials. The purpose of this handbook is to provide guidelines to NASA and its contractor personnel for the planning and implementation of chemical fingerprinting programs and to illustrate the chemical and statistical fundamentals needed for successful use of chemical fingerprinting.

  6. Peptide mass fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Thiede, Bernd; Höhenwarter, Wolfgang; Krah, Alexander; Mattow, Jens; Schmid, Monika; Schmidt, Frank; Jungblut, Peter R

    2005-03-01

    Peptide mass fingerprinting by MALDI-MS and sequencing by tandem mass spectrometry have evolved into the major methods for identification of proteins following separation by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, SDS-PAGE or liquid chromatography. One main technological goal of proteome analyses beside high sensitivity and automation was the comprehensive analysis of proteins. Therefore, the protein species level with the essential information on co- and post-translational modifications must be achieved. The power of peptide mass fingerprinting for protein identification was described here, as exemplified by the identification of protein species with high molecular masses (spectrin alpha and beta), low molecular masses (elongation factor EF-TU fragments), splice variants (alpha A crystallin), aggregates with disulfide bridges (alkylhydroperoxide reductase), and phosphorylated proteins (heat shock protein 27). Helpful tools for these analyses were the use of the minimal protein identifier concept and the software program MS-Screener to remove mass peaks assignable to contaminants and neighbor spots.

  7. Chemical characterization of fingerprints from adults and children

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, M.V.; Asano, K.; Bohanon, A.

    1996-12-31

    Observation that children`s fingerprints disappear from surfaces more quickly than adults`, initiated a study to characterize the chemical components in fingerprints. Samples were obtained from about 50 individuals ranging in age from 3 to 64 by extracting chemicals from the fingertips using rubbing alcohol. Using combined gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, a wide range of compounds were identified. Samples from children contained higher levels of relatively volatile free fatty acids, while those from adults had higher levels of less volatile long chain esters of fatty acids. These esters are thought to originate from sebaceous glands located on the face and levels of these compounds increase substantially after puberty. Also, other compounds were observed that could be used to develop improved methods for fingerprint detection at a crime scene. Further, observation of specific compounds raises the possibility of being able to identify personal traits (gender, habits, diseases, etc. ) via analysis of components in fingerprints and/or skin.

  8. Probing with and into fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Dahiya, Ravinder S; Gori, Monica

    2010-07-01

    A recent report by Scheibert et al. highlights the role of fingerprints in enhancing tactile sensitivity. By scanning a surface with a biometric force sensor they demonstrate the dominance of the frequencies that fall within the optimal sensitivity range of Pacinian afferents. The sensor, in this study, has a soft cover patterned with parallel ridges-mimicking the fingerprints. However, the skin structure is quite complex. Elasticity of the skin varies with depth and the ridge like pattern is comprised of not just papillary ridges or fingerprints. Besides fingerprints there exist intermediate ridges, positioned exactly under the papillary ridges, and limiting ridges at dermis-epidermis junction. These structures are usually considered as single unit. If so, it is important to revisit and see if the role of fingerprints remains the same, should the sensor cover have both fingerprints and intermediate ridges.

  9. Diversity of DNA Fingerprints of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhenhua; Barnes, Peter F.; Chaves, Fernando; Eisenach, Kathleen D.; Weis, Stephen E.; Bates, Joseph H.; Cave, M. Donald

    1998-01-01

    To investigate the diversity of IS6110 fingerprints of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in the United States and to determine if matching IS6110 fingerprints represent recent interstate tuberculosis transmission, we performed restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of M. tuberculosis isolates from 1,326 patients in three geographically separated states. Seven hundred ninety-five different IS6110 fingerprint patterns were generated, and pattern diversity was similar in each state. Ninety-six percent of the fingerprint patterns were observed in only one state, demonstrating that most IS6110 fingerprint patterns are confined to a single geographic location. Of the IS6110 fingerprint patterns that were shared by isolates from more than one state, most isolates with 1 to 5 IS6110 copies were separable by pTBN12 fingerprinting whereas those with >15 copies were not. One high-copy-number M. tuberculosis strain had identical IS6110 and pTBN12 fingerprints and included 57 isolates from three states. Epidemiological data demonstrated significant recent transmission of tuberculosis within each city but not among the states. This suggests that identical fingerprints of isolates from geographically separate locations most likely reflect interstate tuberculosis transmission in the past, with subsequent intrastate spread of disease. Further evaluation of M. tuberculosis strains that cause outbreaks in different geographic locations will provide insight into the epidemiological and bacteriological factors that facilitate the spread of tuberculosis. PMID:9542926

  10. Petroleum fingerprinting with organic markers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hostettler, Frances D.; Lorenson, T.D.; Bekins, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    Petroleum fingerprinting is an invaluable tool in forensic geochemistry. This article summarizes applications of fingerprinting in several oil spills and natural oil seepages that we have studied during the last 25 years. It shows how each unique chemical fingerprint can be used to correlate or differentiate oils. Fingerprints can provide information about processes in the environment that impact oils such as weathering and microbial degradation. They can be used to evaluate organic matter that contributed to oils, and classify oils with regard to the geological framework of their source, such as evaluating geological facies, age, lithology, and depositional environment.

  11. Fingerprinting of Materials: Technical Supplement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.

    1992-01-01

    This supplement to the Guidelines for Maintaining a Chemical Fingerprinting Program has been developed to assist NASA personnel, contractors, and sub-contractors in defining the technical aspects and basic concepts which can be used in chemical fingerprinting programs. This material is not meant to be totally inclusive to all chemical fingerprinting programs, but merely to present current concepts. Each program will be tailored to meet the needs of the individual organizations using chemical fingerprinting to improve their quality and reliability in the production of aerospace systems.

  12. e-POP Radio Science Using Amateur Radio Transmissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frissell, N. A.; Perry, G. W.; Miller, E. S.; Shovkoplyas, A.; Moses, M. L.; James, H. G.; Yau, A. W.

    2015-12-01

    A major component of the enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (e-POP) Radio Receiver Instrument (RRI) mission is to utilize artificially generated radio emissions to study High Frequency (HF) radio wave propagation in the ionosphere. In the North American and European sectors, communications between amateur radio operators are a persistent and abundant source source of HF transmissions. We present the results of HF radio wave propagation experiments using amateur radio transmissions as an HF source for e-POP RRI. We detail how a distributed and autonomously operated amateur radio network can be leveraged to study HF radio wave propagation as well as the structuring and dynamics of the ionosphere over a large geographic region. In one case, the sudden disappearance of nearly two-dozen amateur radio HF sources located in the midwestern United States was used to detect a enhancement in foF2 in that same region. We compare our results to those from other more conventional radio instruments and models of the ionosphere to demonstrate the scientific merit of incorporating amateur radio networks for radio science at HF.

  13. 3D matching techniques using OCT fingerprint point clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez da Costa, Henrique S.; Silva, Luciano; Bellon, Olga R. P.; Bowden, Audrey K.; Czovny, Raphael K.

    2017-02-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) makes viable acquisition of 3D fingerprints from both dermis and epidermis skin layers and their interfaces, exposing features that can be explored to improve biometric identification such as the curvatures and distinctive 3D regions. Scanned images from eleven volunteers allowed the construction of the first OCT 3D fingerprint database, to our knowledge, containing epidermal and dermal fingerprints. 3D dermal fingerprints can be used to overcome cases of Failure to Enroll (FTE) due to poor ridge image quality and skin alterations, cases that affect 2D matching performance. We evaluate three matching techniques, including the well-established Iterative Closest Points algorithm (ICP), Surface Interpenetration Measure (SIM) and the well-known KH Curvature Maps, all assessed using a 3D OCT fingerprint database, the first one for this purpose. Two of these techniques are based on registration techniques and one on curvatures. These were evaluated, compared and the fusion of matching scores assessed. We applied a sequence of steps to extract regions of interest named (ROI) minutiae clouds, representing small regions around distinctive minutia, usually located at ridges/valleys endings or bifurcations. The obtained ROI is acquired from the epidermis and dermis-epidermis interface by OCT imaging. A comparative analysis of identification accuracy was explored using different scenarios and the obtained results shows improvements for biometric identification. A comparison against 2D fingerprint matching algorithms is also presented to assess the improvements.

  14. Evaluation of fingerprint deformation using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez da Costa, Henrique S.; Maxey, Jessica R.; Silva, Luciano; Ellerbee, Audrey K.

    2014-02-01

    Biometric identification systems have important applications to privacy and security. The most widely used of these, print identification, is based on imaging patterns present in the fingers, hands and feet that are formed by the ridges, valleys and pores of the skin. Most modern print sensors acquire images of the finger when pressed against a sensor surface. Unfortunately, this pressure may result in deformations, characterized by changes in the sizes and relative distances of the print patterns, and such changes have been shown to negatively affect the performance of fingerprint identification algorithms. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a novel imaging technique that is capable of imaging the subsurface of biological tissue. Hence, OCT may be used to obtain images of subdermal skin structures from which one can extract an internal fingerprint. The internal fingerprint is very similar in structure to the commonly used external fingerprint and is of increasing interest in investigations of identify fraud. We proposed and tested metrics based on measurements calculated from external and internal fingerprints to evaluate the amount of deformation of the skin. Such metrics were used to test hypotheses about the differences of deformation between the internal and external images, variations with the type of finger and location inside the fingerprint.

  15. Radio Days.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Neil

    1998-01-01

    Thousands of today's high school students run FM radio stations at school, carrying on a tradition that began 50 years ago. Radio helps students learn to work with others and develop a strong sense of responsibility. A sidebar gives advice on starting a high school radio station. (MLF)

  16. Wavelet Features Based Fingerprint Verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagadi, Shweta U.; Thalange, Asha V.; Jain, Giridhar P.

    2010-11-01

    In this work; we present a automatic fingerprint identification system based on Level 3 features. Systems based only on minutiae features do not perform well for poor quality images. In practice, we often encounter extremely dry, wet fingerprint images with cuts, warts, etc. Due to such fingerprints, minutiae based systems show poor performance for real time authentication applications. To alleviate the problem of poor quality fingerprints, and to improve overall performance of the system, this paper proposes fingerprint verification based on wavelet statistical features & co-occurrence matrix features. The features include mean, standard deviation, energy, entropy, contrast, local homogeneity, cluster shade, cluster prominence, Information measure of correlation. In this method, matching can be done between the input image and the stored template without exhaustive search using the extracted feature. The wavelet transform based approach is better than the existing minutiae based method and it takes less response time and hence suitable for on-line verification, with high accuracy.

  17. One-qubit fingerprinting schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Beaudrap, J. Niel de

    2004-02-01

    Fingerprinting is a technique in communication complexity in which two parties (Alice and Bob) with large data sets send short messages to a third party (a referee), who attempts to compute some function of the larger data sets. For the equality function, the referee attempts to determine whether Alice's data and Bob's data are the same. In this paper, we consider the extreme scenario of performing fingerprinting where Alice and Bob both send either one bit (classically) or one qubit (in the quantum regime) messages to the referee for the equality problem. Restrictive bounds are demonstrated for the error probability of one-bit fingerprinting schemes, and show that it is easy to construct one-qubit fingerprinting schemes which can outperform any one-bit fingerprinting scheme. The author hopes that this analysis will provide results useful for performing physical experiments, which may help to advance implementations for more general quantum communication protocols.

  18. Detection of Fingerprints Based on Elemental Composition Using Micro-X-Ray Fluorescence.

    SciTech Connect

    Worley, C. G.; Wiltshire, S.; Miller, T. C.; Havrilla, G. J.; Majidi, V.

    2005-01-01

    A method was developed to detect fingerprints using a technique known as micro-X-ray fluorescence. The traditional method of detecting fingerprints involves treating the sample with certain powders, liquids, or vapors to add color to the fingerprint so that it can be easily seen and photographed for forensic purposes. This is known as contrast enhancement, and a multitude of chemical processing methods have been developed in the past century to render fingerprints visible. However, fingerprints present on certain substances such as fibrous papers and textiles, wood, leather, plastic, adhesives, and human skin can sometimes be difficult to detect by contrast enhancement. Children's fingerprints are also difficult to detect due to the absence of sebum on their skin, and detection of prints left on certain colored backgrounds can sometimes be problematic. Micro-X-ray fluorescence (MXRF) was studied here as a method to detect fingerprints based on chemical elements present in fingerprint residue. For example, salts such as sodium chloride and potassium chloride excreted in sweat are sometimes present in detectable quantities in fingerprints. We demonstrated that MXRF can be used to detect this sodium, potassium, and chlorine from such salts. Furthermore, using MXRF, each of these elements (and many other elements if present) can be detected as a function of location on a surface, so we were able to 'see' a fingerprint because these salts are deposited mainly along the patterns present in a fingerprint (traditionally called friction ridges in forensic science). MXRF is not a panacea for detecting all fingerprints; some prints will not contain enough detectable material to be 'seen'; however, determining an effective means of coloring a fingerprint with traditional contrast enhancement methods can sometimes be an arduous process with limited success. Thus, MXRF offers a possible alternative for detecting fingerprints, and it does not require any additional chemical

  19. Fingerprints of Life?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittman, Cheryl

    Pioneered by NASA-JSC scientists, Marilyn Lindstorm and Jaclyn Allen, the partnering of teachers with scientists has ventured into the realms of the extreme... extreme life, that is. In 1998, two years after the announcement that possible evidence of life had been discovered within a Martian rock, teachers from region served by JSC were brought together with the Mars Meteorite research team. The goal was to familiarize the teachers with research being done in the search for evidence of extra-terrestrial life and Earth analogues. The teachers would then design curriculum to translate the research into a format that could be utilized in the classroom. "Fingerprints of Life", a work-in-progress, is a CD-rom /web-based curriculum derived from that collaboration. Modeling the actual science being done, the CD contains laboratory and classroom activities utilizing Astrobiology as the 'hook' to teach basic science skills of observation, description, communication of ideas and laboratory techniques. In addition, electron microscopy images and video clips give background information for the uninitiated. From "Wold Trap", which is based upon an actual experiment designed for the Mars Viking missions, to "Creature Feature", which deals with observation and communication, the labs and activities are appropriate for multiple grade levels. Designed to be user-friendly and tested in the classroom, "Fingerprints" uses materials that can be purchased inexpensively at the grocery store, or recycled from other sources.

  20. Firefighters' Radios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Public Technology Inc. asked for NASA assistance to devise the original firefighter's radio. Good short-range radio communications are essential during a fire to coordinate hose lines, rescue victims, and otherwise increase efficiency. Useful firefighting tool is lower cost, more rugged short range two-way radio. Inductorless electronic circuit replaced inductances and coils in radio circuits with combination of transistors and other low-cost components. Substitution promises reduced circuit size and cost. Enhanced electrical performance made radio more durable and improved maintainability by incorporating modular construction.

  1. Vulnerabilities of fingerprint reader to fake fingerprints attacks.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Marcela; Champod, Christophe; Margot, Pierre

    2011-01-30

    The purpose of this research is to assess the vulnerabilities of a high resolution fingerprint sensor when confronted with fake fingerprints. The study has not been focused on the decision outcome of the biometric device, but essentially on the scores obtained following the comparison between a query (genuine or fake) and a template using an AFIS system. To do this, fake fingerprints of 12 subjects have been produced with and without their cooperation. These fake fingerprints have been used alongside with real fingers. The study led to three major observations: First, genuine fingerprints produced scores higher than fake fingers (translating a closer proximity) and this tendency is observed considering each subject separately. Second, scores are however not sufficient as a single measure to differentiate these samples (fake from genuine) given the variation due to the donors themselves. That explains why fingerprint readers without vitality detection can be fooled. Third, production methods and subjects greatly influence the scores obtained for fake fingerprints. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. GenomeFingerprinter: the genome fingerprint and the universal genome fingerprint analysis for systematic comparative genomics.

    PubMed

    Ai, Yuncan; Ai, Hannan; Meng, Fanmei; Zhao, Lei

    2013-01-01

    No attention has been paid on comparing a set of genome sequences crossing genetic components and biological categories with far divergence over large size range. We define it as the systematic comparative genomics and aim to develop the methodology. First, we create a method, GenomeFingerprinter, to unambiguously produce a set of three-dimensional coordinates from a sequence, followed by one three-dimensional plot and six two-dimensional trajectory projections, to illustrate the genome fingerprint of a given genome sequence. Second, we develop a set of concepts and tools, and thereby establish a method called the universal genome fingerprint analysis (UGFA). Particularly, we define the total genetic component configuration (TGCC) (including chromosome, plasmid, and phage) for describing a strain as a systematic unit, the universal genome fingerprint map (UGFM) of TGCC for differentiating strains as a universal system, and the systematic comparative genomics (SCG) for comparing a set of genomes crossing genetic components and biological categories. Third, we construct a method of quantitative analysis to compare two genomes by using the outcome dataset of genome fingerprint analysis. Specifically, we define the geometric center and its geometric mean for a given genome fingerprint map, followed by the Euclidean distance, the differentiate rate, and the weighted differentiate rate to quantitatively describe the difference between two genomes of comparison. Moreover, we demonstrate the applications through case studies on various genome sequences, giving tremendous insights into the critical issues in microbial genomics and taxonomy. We have created a method, GenomeFingerprinter, for rapidly computing, geometrically visualizing, intuitively comparing a set of genomes at genome fingerprint level, and hence established a method called the universal genome fingerprint analysis, as well as developed a method of quantitative analysis of the outcome dataset. These have set

  3. GenomeFingerprinter: The Genome Fingerprint and the Universal Genome Fingerprint Analysis for Systematic Comparative Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Yuncan; Ai, Hannan; Meng, Fanmei; Zhao, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Background No attention has been paid on comparing a set of genome sequences crossing genetic components and biological categories with far divergence over large size range. We define it as the systematic comparative genomics and aim to develop the methodology. Results First, we create a method, GenomeFingerprinter, to unambiguously produce a set of three-dimensional coordinates from a sequence, followed by one three-dimensional plot and six two-dimensional trajectory projections, to illustrate the genome fingerprint of a given genome sequence. Second, we develop a set of concepts and tools, and thereby establish a method called the universal genome fingerprint analysis (UGFA). Particularly, we define the total genetic component configuration (TGCC) (including chromosome, plasmid, and phage) for describing a strain as a systematic unit, the universal genome fingerprint map (UGFM) of TGCC for differentiating strains as a universal system, and the systematic comparative genomics (SCG) for comparing a set of genomes crossing genetic components and biological categories. Third, we construct a method of quantitative analysis to compare two genomes by using the outcome dataset of genome fingerprint analysis. Specifically, we define the geometric center and its geometric mean for a given genome fingerprint map, followed by the Euclidean distance, the differentiate rate, and the weighted differentiate rate to quantitatively describe the difference between two genomes of comparison. Moreover, we demonstrate the applications through case studies on various genome sequences, giving tremendous insights into the critical issues in microbial genomics and taxonomy. Conclusions We have created a method, GenomeFingerprinter, for rapidly computing, geometrically visualizing, intuitively comparing a set of genomes at genome fingerprint level, and hence established a method called the universal genome fingerprint analysis, as well as developed a method of quantitative analysis of the

  4. The importance of Radio Quiet Zone (RQZ) for radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umar, Roslan; Abidin, Zamri Zainal; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin

    2013-05-01

    Most of radio observatories are located in isolated areas. Since radio sources from the universe is very weak, astronomer need to avoid radio frequency interference (RFI) from active spectrum users and radio noise produced by human made (telecommunication, mobile phone, microwave user and many more. There are many observatories around the world are surrounded by a Radio Quiet Zone (RQZ), which is it was set up using public or state laws. A Radio Quiet Zone normally consists of two areas: an exclusive area in which totally radio emissions are forbidden, with restrictions for residents and business developments, and a larger (radius up to 100 km above) coordination area where the power of radio transmission limits to threshold levels. Geographical Information System (GIS) can be used as a powerful tool in mapping large areas with varying RQZ profiles. In this paper, we report the initial testing of the usage of this system in order to identify the areas were suitable for Radio Quiet Zone. Among the important parameters used to develop the database for our GIS are population density, information on TV and telecommunication (mobile phones) transmitters, road networks (highway), and contour shielding. We will also use other information gathered from on-site RFI level measurements on selected 'best' areas generated by the GIS. The intention is to find the best site for the purpose of establishing first radio quiet zones for radio telescope in Malaysia.

  5. Video-based fingerprint verification.

    PubMed

    Qin, Wei; Yin, Yilong; Liu, Lili

    2013-09-04

    Conventional fingerprint verification systems use only static information. In this paper, fingerprint videos, which contain dynamic information, are utilized for verification. Fingerprint videos are acquired by the same capture device that acquires conventional fingerprint images, and the user experience of providing a fingerprint video is the same as that of providing a single impression. After preprocessing and aligning processes, "inside similarity" and "outside similarity" are defined and calculated to take advantage of both dynamic and static information contained in fingerprint videos. Match scores between two matching fingerprint videos are then calculated by combining the two kinds of similarity. Experimental results show that the proposed video-based method leads to a relative reduction of 60 percent in the equal error rate (EER) in comparison to the conventional single impression-based method. We also analyze the time complexity of our method when different combinations of strategies are used. Our method still outperforms the conventional method, even if both methods have the same time complexity. Finally, experimental results demonstrate that the proposed video-based method can lead to better accuracy than the multiple impressions fusion method, and the proposed method has a much lower false acceptance rate (FAR) when the false rejection rate (FRR) is quite low.

  6. Video-Based Fingerprint Verification

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Wei; Yin, Yilong; Liu, Lili

    2013-01-01

    Conventional fingerprint verification systems use only static information. In this paper, fingerprint videos, which contain dynamic information, are utilized for verification. Fingerprint videos are acquired by the same capture device that acquires conventional fingerprint images, and the user experience of providing a fingerprint video is the same as that of providing a single impression. After preprocessing and aligning processes, “inside similarity” and “outside similarity” are defined and calculated to take advantage of both dynamic and static information contained in fingerprint videos. Match scores between two matching fingerprint videos are then calculated by combining the two kinds of similarity. Experimental results show that the proposed video-based method leads to a relative reduction of 60 percent in the equal error rate (EER) in comparison to the conventional single impression-based method. We also analyze the time complexity of our method when different combinations of strategies are used. Our method still outperforms the conventional method, even if both methods have the same time complexity. Finally, experimental results demonstrate that the proposed video-based method can lead to better accuracy than the multiple impressions fusion method, and the proposed method has a much lower false acceptance rate (FAR) when the false rejection rate (FRR) is quite low. PMID:24008283

  7. Social media fingerprints of unemployment.

    PubMed

    Llorente, Alejandro; Garcia-Herranz, Manuel; Cebrian, Manuel; Moro, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    Recent widespread adoption of electronic and pervasive technologies has enabled the study of human behavior at an unprecedented level, uncovering universal patterns underlying human activity, mobility, and interpersonal communication. In the present work, we investigate whether deviations from these universal patterns may reveal information about the socio-economical status of geographical regions. We quantify the extent to which deviations in diurnal rhythm, mobility patterns, and communication styles across regions relate to their unemployment incidence. For this we examine a country-scale publicly articulated social media dataset, where we quantify individual behavioral features from over 19 million geo-located messages distributed among more than 340 different Spanish economic regions, inferred by computing communities of cohesive mobility fluxes. We find that regions exhibiting more diverse mobility fluxes, earlier diurnal rhythms, and more correct grammatical styles display lower unemployment rates. As a result, we provide a simple model able to produce accurate, easily interpretable reconstruction of regional unemployment incidence from their social-media digital fingerprints alone. Our results show that cost-effective economical indicators can be built based on publicly-available social media datasets.

  8. Social Media Fingerprints of Unemployment

    PubMed Central

    Llorente, Alejandro; Garcia-Herranz, Manuel; Cebrian, Manuel; Moro, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    Recent widespread adoption of electronic and pervasive technologies has enabled the study of human behavior at an unprecedented level, uncovering universal patterns underlying human activity, mobility, and interpersonal communication. In the present work, we investigate whether deviations from these universal patterns may reveal information about the socio-economical status of geographical regions. We quantify the extent to which deviations in diurnal rhythm, mobility patterns, and communication styles across regions relate to their unemployment incidence. For this we examine a country-scale publicly articulated social media dataset, where we quantify individual behavioral features from over 19 million geo-located messages distributed among more than 340 different Spanish economic regions, inferred by computing communities of cohesive mobility fluxes. We find that regions exhibiting more diverse mobility fluxes, earlier diurnal rhythms, and more correct grammatical styles display lower unemployment rates. As a result, we provide a simple model able to produce accurate, easily interpretable reconstruction of regional unemployment incidence from their social-media digital fingerprints alone. Our results show that cost-effective economical indicators can be built based on publicly-available social media datasets. PMID:26020628

  9. Influence of skin diseases on fingerprint recognition.

    PubMed

    Drahansky, Martin; Dolezel, Michal; Urbanek, Jaroslav; Brezinova, Eva; Kim, Tai-hoon

    2012-01-01

    There are many people who suffer from some of the skin diseases. These diseases have a strong influence on the process of fingerprint recognition. People with fingerprint diseases are unable to use fingerprint scanners, which is discriminating for them, since they are not allowed to use their fingerprints for the authentication purposes. First in this paper the various diseases, which might influence functionality of the fingerprint-based systems, are introduced, mainly from the medical point of view. This overview is followed by some examples of diseased finger fingerprints, acquired both from dactyloscopic card and electronic sensors. At the end of this paper the proposed fingerprint image enhancement algorithm is described.

  10. Influence of Skin Diseases on Fingerprint Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Drahansky, Martin; Dolezel, Michal; Urbanek, Jaroslav; Brezinova, Eva; Kim, Tai-hoon

    2012-01-01

    There are many people who suffer from some of the skin diseases. These diseases have a strong influence on the process of fingerprint recognition. People with fingerprint diseases are unable to use fingerprint scanners, which is discriminating for them, since they are not allowed to use their fingerprints for the authentication purposes. First in this paper the various diseases, which might influence functionality of the fingerprint-based systems, are introduced, mainly from the medical point of view. This overview is followed by some examples of diseased finger fingerprints, acquired both from dactyloscopic card and electronic sensors. At the end of this paper the proposed fingerprint image enhancement algorithm is described. PMID:22654483

  11. Fingerprinting dark energy

    SciTech Connect

    Sapone, Domenico; Kunz, Martin

    2009-10-15

    Dark energy perturbations are normally either neglected or else included in a purely numerical way, obscuring their dependence on underlying parameters like the equation of state or the sound speed. However, while many different explanations for the dark energy can have the same equation of state, they usually differ in their perturbations so that these provide a fingerprint for distinguishing between different models with the same equation of state. In this paper we derive simple yet accurate approximations that are able to characterize a specific class of models (encompassing most scalar-field models) which is often generically called 'dark energy'. We then use the approximate solutions to look at the impact of the dark energy perturbations on the dark matter power spectrum and on the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect in the cosmic microwave background radiation.

  12. Nanotube radio.

    PubMed

    Jensen, K; Weldon, J; Garcia, H; Zettl, A

    2007-11-01

    We have constructed a fully functional, fully integrated radio receiver from a single carbon nanotube. The nanotube serves simultaneously as all essential components of a radio: antenna, tunable band-pass filter, amplifier, and demodulator. A direct current voltage source, as supplied by a battery, powers the radio. Using carrier waves in the commercially relevant 40-400 MHz range and both frequency and amplitude modulation techniques, we demonstrate successful music and voice reception.

  13. Nanotube Radio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Kenneth; Weldon, Jeff; Garcia, Henry; Zettl, Alex

    2008-03-01

    We have constructed a fully functional, fully integrated radio receiver from a single carbon nanotube. The nanotube serves simultaneously as all essential components of a radio: antenna, tunable band-pass filter, amplifier, and demodulator. A direct current voltage source, as supplied by a battery, powers the radio. Using carrier waves in the commercially relevant 40-400 MHz range and both frequency and amplitude modulation techniques, we demonstrate successful music and voice reception.

  14. Radio Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Radio science experiments use electromagnetic waves to probe or study the solar system. Three major research areas were identified within this discipline: radio astronomy, radar astronomy, and celestial mechanics. Radio astronomy (or radiometry) is the detection and measurement of naturally produced radio frequency emissions. Sources include surfaces, atmospheres, rings, and plasmas. Radar astronomy is the observation of man-made signals after their interaction with a target. Both imaging and non-imaging results. Celestial mechanics includes all studies related to the motions of (and gravity fields of) bodies within the solar system. These should not be considered rigid separations, but aid in the discussion of the data sets.

  15. Fingerprint Changes in Coeliac Disease

    PubMed Central

    David, T. J.; Ajdukiewicz, A. B.; Read, A. E.

    1970-01-01

    Study of the fingerprints of 73 patients with coeliac disease, taken carefully, showed changes varying between moderate epidermal ridge atrophy and actual loss of fingerprint patterns. Of the patients 63 had these abnormalities, compared with 3 out of 485 controls. A high degree of correlation existed between ridge atrophy and changes in the clinical state of patients with coeliac disease. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:5488703

  16. A hybrid TOA-fingerprinting based localization of mobile nodes using UWB signaling for Non-line-of-sight conditions.

    PubMed

    Kabir, Md Humayun; Kohno, Ryuji

    2012-01-01

    Recently, Impulse Radio Ultra Wideband (IR-UWB) signaling has become popular for providing precise location accuracy for mobile and wireless sensor node localization in the indoor environment due to its large bandwidth and high time resolution while providing ultra-high transmission capacity. However, the Non-line-of-sight (NLOS) error mitigation has considerable importance in localization of wireless nodes. In order to mitigate NLOS errors in indoor localization this paper proposes and investigates a novel approach which creates a hybrid combination of channel impulse response (CIR)-based fingerprinting (FP) positioning and an iterative Time of Arrival (TOA) real time positioning method using Ultra Wideband (UWB) signaling. Besides, to reduce the calculation complexities in FP method, this paper also introduces a unique idea for the arrangement of reference nodes (or tags) to create a fingerprinting database. The simulation results confirm that the proposed hybrid method yields better positioning accuracies and is much more robust in NLOS error mitigation than TOA only and FP only and a conventional iterative positioning method.

  17. Torun Radio Astronomy Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Torun Center for Astronomy is located at Piwnice, 15 km north of Torun, Poland. A part of the Faculty of Physics and Astronomy of the Nicolaus Copernicus University, it was created by the union of Torun Radio Astronomy Observatory (TRAO) and the Institute of Astronomy on 1 January 1997....

  18. Radio Channel Simulator (RCSM)

    SciTech Connect

    2007-01-31

    This is a simulation package for making site specific predictions of radio signal strength. The software computes received power at discrete grid points as a function of the transmitter location and propagation environment. It is intended for use with wireless network simulation packages and to support wireless network deployments.

  19. Chemical characterization of fingerprints from adults and children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchanan, Michelle V.; Asano, Keiji; Bohanon, Arthur

    1997-02-01

    The observation that the fingerprints of children disappear from surfaces more quickly than those of adults initiated a study to characterize the chemical components in fingerprints. Samples were obtained from about 50 individuals ranging in age from three to 64 by extracting chemicals from the fintertips using rubbing alcohol. Using combined gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, a wide range of compounds were identified. It was found that the chemical compositions of fingerprints were quite different in children and adults. In general, the samples obtained from children contained higher levels of relatively volatile free fatty acids. Samples from adults were found to have higher concentrations of less volatile long chain esters of fatty acids. These esters are thought to originate from sebaceous glands located on the face and the levels of these compounds increase substantially after puberty. In addition to these compounds, a variety of other compounds were observed that could be used to develop improved methods for fingerprint detection at a crime scene. Further, the observation of specific compounds raises the possibility of being able to identify personal traits (gender, habits, diseases, etc.) via the analysis of components in fingerprints and/or skin.

  20. Radio emision from supernova remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubner, G.

    2016-06-01

    The vast majority of supernova remnants (SNRs) in our Galaxy and nearby galaxies have been discovered through radio observations, and only a very small number of the SNRs catalogued in the Milky Way have not been detected in the radio band, or are poorly defined by current radio observations. The study of the radio emission from SNRs is an excellent tool to investigate morphological characteristics, marking the location of shock fronts and contact discontinuities; the presence, orientation and intensity of the magnetic field; the energy spectrum of the emitting particles; and the dynamical consequences of the interaction with the circumstellar and interstellar medium. I will review the present knowledge of different important aspects of radio remnants and their impact on the interstellar gas. Also, new radio studies of the Crab Nebula carried out with the Karl Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA) at 3 GHz and with ALMA at 100 GHz, will be presented.

  1. Radio astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. M.; Manchester, R. N.

    1980-01-01

    The activities of the Deep Space Network in support of radio and radar astronomy operations during July and August 1980 are reported. A brief update on the OSS-sponsored planetary radio astronomy experiment is provided. Also included are two updates, one each from Spain and Australia on current host country activities.

  2. College Radio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauls, Samuel J.

    As with commercial stations, the underlying premise of the college radio station is to serve the community, whether it be the campus community or the community at large, but in unique ways often geared to underserved niches of the population. Much of college radio's charm lies in its unpredictable nature and constant mutations. The stations give…

  3. Radio stars.

    PubMed

    Hjellming, R M; Wade, C M

    1971-09-17

    Up to the present time six classes of radio stars have been established. The signals are almost always very faint and drastically variable. Hence their discovery has owed as much to serendipity as to the highly sophisticated equipment and techniques that have been used. When the variations are regular, as with the pulsars, this characteristic can be exploited very successfully in the search for new objects as well as in the detailed study of those that are already known. The detection of the most erratically variable radio stars, the flare stars and the x-ray stars, is primarily a matter of luck and patience. In the case of the novas, one at least knows where and oughly when to look for radio emission. A very sensitive interferometer is clearly the best instrument to use in the initial detection of a radio star. The fact that weak background sources are frequently present makes it essential to prove that the position of a radio source agrees with that of a star to within a few arc seconds. The potential of radio astronomy for the study of radio stars will not be realized until more powerful instruments than those that are available today can be utilized. So far, we have been able to see only the most luminous of the radio stars.

  4. Generating cancelable fingerprint templates.

    PubMed

    Ratha, Nalini K; Chikkerur, Sharat; Connell, Jonathan H; Bolle, Ruud M

    2007-04-01

    Biometrics-based authentication systems offer obvious usability advantages over traditional password and token-based authentication schemes. However, biometrics raises several privacy concerns. A biometric is permanently associated with a user and cannot be changed. Hence, if a biometric identifier is compromised, it is lost forever and possibly for every application where the biometric is used. Moreover, if the same biometric is used in multiple applications, a user can potentially be tracked from one application to the next by cross-matching biometric databases. In this paper, we demonstrate several methods to generate multiple cancelable identifiers from fingerprint images to overcome these problems. In essence, a user can be given as many biometric identifiers as needed by issuing a new transformation "key." The identifiers can be cancelled and replaced when compromised. We empirically compare the performance of several algorithms such as Cartesian, polar, and surface folding transformations of the minutiae positions. It is demonstrated through multiple experiments that we can achieve revocability and prevent cross-matching of biometric databases. It is also shown that the transforms are noninvertible by demonstrating that it is computationally as hard to recover the original biometric identifier from a transformed version as by randomly guessing. Based on these empirical results and a theoretical analysis we conclude that feature-level cancelable biometric construction is practicable in large biometric deployments.

  5. Time-of-flight radio location system

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1997-01-01

    A bi-static radar configuration measures the direct time-of-flight of a transmitted RF pulse and is capable of measuring this time-of-flight with a jitter on the order of about one pico-second, or about 0.01 inch of free space distance for an electromagnetic pulse over a range of about one to ten feet. A transmitter transmits a sequence of electromagnetic pulses in response to a transmit timing signal, and a receiver samples the sequence of electromagnetic pulses with controlled timing in response to a receive timing signal, and generates a sample signal in response to the samples. A timing circuit supplies the transmit timing signal to the transmitter and supplies the receive timing signal to the receiver. The receive timing signal causes the receiver to sample the sequence of electromagnetic pulses such that the time between transmission of pulses in the sequence and sampling by the receiver sweeps over a range of delays. The receive timing signal sweeps over the range of delays in a sweep cycle such that pulses in the sequence are sampled at the pulse repetition rate, and with different delays in the range of delays to produce a sample signal representing magnitude of a received pulse in equivalent time. Automatic gain control circuitry in the receiver controls the magnitude of the equivalent time sample signal. A signal processor analyzes the sample signal to indicate the time-of-flight of the electromagnetic pulses in the sequence. The sample signal in equivalent time is passed through an envelope detection circuit, formed of an absolute value circuit followed by a low pass filter, to convert the sample signal to a unipolar signal to eliminate effects of antenna misorientation.

  6. Time-of-flight radio location system

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1996-01-01

    A bi-static radar configuration measures the direct time-of-flight of a transmitted RF pulse and is capable of measuring this time-of-flight with a jitter on the order of about one pico-second, or about 0.01 inch of free space distance for an electromagnetic pulse over a range of about one to ten feet. A transmitter transmits a sequence of electromagnetic pulses in response to a transmit timing signal, and a receiver samples the sequence of electromagnetic pulses with controlled timing in response to a receive timing signal, and generates a sample signal in response to the samples. A timing circuit supplies the transmit timing signal to the transmitter and supplies the receive timing signal to the receiver. The receive timing signal causes the receiver to sample the sequence of electromagnetic pulses such that the time between transmission of pulses in the sequence and sampling by the receiver sweeps over a range of delays. The receive timing signal sweeps over the range of delays in a sweep cycle such that pulses in the sequence are sampled at the pulse repetition rate, and with different delays in the range of delays to produce a sample signal representing magnitude of a received pulse in equivalent time. Automatic gain control circuitry in the receiver controls the magnitude of the equivalent time sample signal. A signal processor analyzes the sample signal to indicate the time-of-flight of the electromagnetic pulses in the sequence.

  7. Time-of-flight radio location system

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-04-23

    A bi-static radar configuration measures the direct time-of-flight of a transmitted RF pulse and is capable of measuring this time-of-flight with a jitter on the order of about one pico-second, or about 0.01 inch of free space distance for an electromagnetic pulse over a range of about one to ten feet. A transmitter transmits a sequence of electromagnetic pulses in response to a transmit timing signal, and a receiver samples the sequence of electromagnetic pulses with controlled timing in response to a receive timing signal, and generates a sample signal in response to the samples. A timing circuit supplies the transmit timing signal to the transmitter and supplies the receive timing signal to the receiver. The receive timing signal causes the receiver to sample the sequence of electromagnetic pulses such that the time between transmission of pulses in the sequence and sampling by the receiver sweeps over a range of delays. The receive timing signal sweeps over the range of delays in a sweep cycle such that pulses in the sequence are sampled at the pulse repetition rate, and with different delays in the range of delays to produce a sample signal representing magnitude of a received pulse in equivalent time. Automatic gain control circuitry in the receiver controls the magnitude of the equivalent time sample signal. A signal processor analyzes the sample signal to indicate the time-of-flight of the electromagnetic pulses in the sequence. 7 figs.

  8. Time-of-flight radio location system

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1997-08-26

    A bi-static radar configuration measures the direct time-of-flight of a transmitted RF pulse and is capable of measuring this time-of-flight with a jitter on the order of about one pico-second, or about 0.01 inch of free space distance for an electromagnetic pulse over a range of about one to ten feet. A transmitter transmits a sequence of electromagnetic pulses in response to a transmit timing signal, and a receiver samples the sequence of electromagnetic pulses with controlled timing in response to a receive timing signal, and generates a sample signal in response to the samples. A timing circuit supplies the transmit timing signal to the transmitter and supplies the receive timing signal to the receiver. The receive timing signal causes the receiver to sample the sequence of electromagnetic pulses such that the time between transmission of pulses in the sequence and sampling by the receiver sweeps over a range of delays. The receive timing signal sweeps over the range of delays in a sweep cycle such that pulses in the sequence are sampled at the pulse repetition rate, and with different delays in the range of delays to produce a sample signal representing magnitude of a received pulse in equivalent time. Automatic gain control circuitry in the receiver controls the magnitude of the equivalent time sample signal. A signal processor analyzes the sample signal to indicate the time-of-flight of the electromagnetic pulses in the sequence. The sample signal in equivalent time is passed through an envelope detection circuit, formed of an absolute value circuit followed by a low pass filter, to convert the sample signal to a unipolar signal to eliminate effects of antenna misorientation. 8 figs.

  9. Studies on chromatographic fingerprint and fingerprinting profile-efficacy relationship of polygoni perfoliati herba.

    PubMed

    Tian, Li; Zhao, Yang; Zhou, Xin; Chen, Hua-Guo; Zhao, Chao; Gong, Xiao-Jian

    2013-01-01

    Polygoni Perfoliati Herba is widely used in China with antibacterium, anti-inflammatory, expectorant, antitumor, and antivirus activities. To reveal the mechanisms of the activities of Polygoni Perfoliati Herba, the relationship between the fingerprinting profile and its bioactivities was investigated. In the present study, high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) fingerprinting method was developed. The established method was applied to analyze 51 batches of Polygoni Perfoliati Herba samples collected from different locations or in different harvesting times in China. Chemometrics, including similarity analysis, hierarchical clustering analysis, and principal component analysis, were used to express their similarities. It was found that similarity values of the samples were in the range of 0.432-0.998. The results of analgesic tests indicated that Polygoni Perfoliati Herba could significantly inhibit pain induced by hot plate and acetic acid in mice. The results of anti-inflammatory tests showed that Polygoni Perfoliati Herba had good anti-inflammatory effects (P < 0.01) in two models including dimethyl benzene-induced ear edema and acetic acid-induced peritoneal permeability in mice. Combining the results from chromatographic fingerprints with those from bioactivities, we found that seven peaks from Polygoni Perfoliati Herba were mainly responsible for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities.

  10. Fake fingerprint detection based on image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Sang-il; Bae, You-suk; Maeng, Hyun-ju; Lee, Hyun-suk

    2010-01-01

    Fingerprint recognition systems have become prevalent in various security applications. However, recent studies have shown that it is not difficult to deceive the system with fake fingerprints made of silicon or gelatin. The fake fingerprints have almost the same ridge-valley patterns as ones of genuine fingerprints so that conventional systems are unable to detect fake fingerprints without a particular detection method. Many previous works against fake fingers required extra sensors; thus, they lacked practicality. This paper proposes a practical and effective method that detects fake fingerprints, using only an image sensor. Two criteria are introduced to differentiate genuine and fake fingerprints: the histogram distance and Fourier spectrum distance. In the proposed method, after identifying an input fingerprint of a user, the system computes two distances between the input and the reference that comes from the registered fingerprints of the user. Depending on the two distances, the system classifies the input as a genuine fingerprint or a fake. In the experiment, 2,400 fingerprint images including 1,600 fakes were tested, and the proposed method has shown a high recognition rate of 95%. The fake fingerprints were all accepted by a commercial system; thus, the use of these fake fingerprints qualifies the experiment.

  11. Determination of latent fingerprint degradation patterns-a real fieldwork study.

    PubMed

    De Alcaraz-Fossoul, Josep; Mestres Patris, Cristina; Balaciart Muntaner, Antoni; Barrot Feixat, Carme; Gené Badia, Manel

    2013-07-01

    For over a century, law enforcement agencies, forensic laboratories, and penal courts worldwide have used fingerprint impressions as reliable and conclusive evidence to identify perpetrators of criminal activity. Although fingerprint identification has been repeatedly proven as one of the most robust and definite forensic techniques, a measure of the rate at which latent fingerprints degrade over time has not been established effectively. Ideally, criminal investigators should be able not only to place any given individual at a crime scene but also be able to date the moment any latent fingerprints were deposited at the location. The present report aims to determine particular visual patterns of degradation of latent fingerprints exposed to certain monitored laboratory conditions simulating those in the field. Factors considered include temperature, relative humidity, air currents, composition of fingerprint depositions (sebaceous and eccrine), various exposures to daylight (direct, penumbra, and darkness), and type of physical substrate (glass and plastic) over a period of 6 months. The study employs a titanium dioxide-based powder as developer. Our results indicate that, contrary to common belief, certain latent fingerprints exposed to direct sunlight indoors degrade similarly to those in the dark where environmental conditions are more constant. While all sebaceous latent fingerprints on glass are still useful for identification after 6 months, diverse results are obtained with impressions on plastic; these demonstrate a much higher and faster degree of decay, making identification difficult or impossible, especially for eccrine depositions.

  12. Electronic fingerprinting of the dead.

    PubMed

    Rutty, G N; Stringer, K; Turk, E E

    2008-01-01

    To date, a number of methods exist for the capture of fingerprints from cadavers that can then be used in isolation as a primary method for the identification of the dead. We report the use of a handheld, mobile wireless unit used in conjunction with a personal digital assistant (PDA) device for the capture of fingerprints from the dead. We also consider a handheld single-digit fingerprint scanner that utilises a USB laptop connection for the electronic capture of cadaveric fingerprints. Both are single-operator units that, if ridge detail is preserved, can collect a 10-set of finger pad prints in approximately 45 and 90 s, respectively. We present our observations on the restrictions as to when such devices can be used with cadavers. We do, however, illustrate that the images are of sufficient quality to allow positive identification from finger pad prints of the dead. With the development of mobile, handheld, biometric, PDA-based units for the police, we hypothesize that, under certain circumstances, devices such as these could be used for the accelerated acquisition of fingerprint identification data with the potential for rapid near-patient identification in the future.

  13. Video fingerprinting for live events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celik, Mehmet; Haitsma, Jaap; Barvinko, Pavlo; Langelaar, Gerhard; Maas, Martijn

    2009-02-01

    Multimedia fingerprinting (robust hashing) as a content identification technology is emerging as an effective tool for preventing unauthorized distribution of commercial content through user generated content (UGC) sites. Research in the field has mainly considered content types with slow distribution cycles, e.g. feature films, for which reference fingerprint ingestion and database indexing can be performed offline. As a result, research focus has been on improving the robustness and search speed. Live events, such as live sports broadcasts, impose new challenges on a fingerprinting system. For instance, highlights from a soccer match are often available-and viewed-on UGC sites well before the end of the match. In this scenario, the fingerprinting system should be able to ingest and index live content online and offer continuous search capability, where new material is identifiable within minutes of broadcast. In this paper, we concentrate on algorithmic and architectural challenges we faced when developing a video fingerprinting solution for live events. In particular, we discuss how to effectively utilize fast sorting algorithms and a master-slave architecture for fast and continuous ingestion of live broadcasts.

  14. 47 CFR 90.351 - Location and Monitoring Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Intelligent Transportation Systems Radio Service § 90.351 Location and Monitoring Service. These provisions authorize the licensing of systems in the Location and Monitoring Service (LMS). LMS systems utilize non-voice radio techniques to determine the location and status...

  15. 47 CFR 90.351 - Location and Monitoring Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Intelligent Transportation Systems Radio Service § 90.351 Location and Monitoring Service. These provisions authorize the licensing of systems in the Location and Monitoring Service (LMS). LMS systems utilize non-voice radio techniques to determine the location and status...

  16. 47 CFR 90.351 - Location and Monitoring Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Intelligent Transportation Systems Radio Service § 90.351 Location and Monitoring Service. These provisions authorize the licensing of systems in the Location and Monitoring Service (LMS). LMS systems utilize non-voice radio techniques to determine the location and...

  17. 47 CFR 90.351 - Location and Monitoring Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Intelligent Transportation Systems Radio Service § 90.351 Location and Monitoring Service. These provisions authorize the licensing of systems in the Location and Monitoring Service (LMS). LMS systems utilize non-voice radio techniques to determine the location and...

  18. Why Radio?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josephson, Larry

    1979-01-01

    Addresses such broad issues as the function of public radio in contemporary American culture, and how its public service justifies the public money it now receives, or any increased amounts it might receive in the future. (Author/CMV)

  19. Radio Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolken, P. R.; Shaffer, R. D.

    1983-01-01

    Deep Space Network (DSN) 26- and 64-meter antenna stations were utilized in support of Radio Astronomy Experiment Selection Panel experiments. Within a time span of 10 days, in May 1983 (267.75 hours total), nine RAES experiments were supported. Most of these experiments involved multifacility interferometry using Mark 3 data recording terminals and as many as six non-DSN observatories. Investigations of black holes, quasars, galaxies, and radio sources are discussed.

  20. Fingerprint fake detection by optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meissner, Sven; Breithaupt, Ralph; Koch, Edmund

    2013-03-01

    The most established technique for the identification at biometric access control systems is the human fingerprint. While every human fingerprint is unique, fingerprints can be faked very easily by using thin layer fakes. Because commercial fingerprint scanners use only a two-dimensional image acquisition of the finger surface, they can only hardly differentiate between real fingerprints and fingerprint fakes applied on thin layer materials. A Swept Source OCT system with an A-line rate of 20 kHz and a lateral and axial resolution of approximately 13 μm, a centre wavelength of 1320 nm and a band width of 120 nm (FWHM) was used to acquire fingerprints and finger tips with overlying fakes. Three-dimensional volume stacks with dimensions of 4.5 mm x 4 mm x 2 mm were acquired. The layering arrangement of the imaged finger tips and faked finger tips was analyzed and subsequently classified into real and faked fingerprints. Additionally, sweat gland ducts were detected and consulted for the classification. The manual classification between real fingerprints and faked fingerprints results in almost 100 % correctness. The outer as well as the internal fingerprint can be recognized in all real human fingers, whereby this was not possible in the image stacks of the faked fingerprints. Furthermore, in all image stacks of real human fingers the sweat gland ducts were detected. The number of sweat gland ducts differs between the test persons. The typical helix shape of the ducts was observed. In contrast, in images of faked fingerprints we observe abnormal layer arrangements and no sweat gland ducts connecting the papillae of the outer fingerprint and the internal fingerprint. We demonstrated that OCT is a very useful tool to enhance the performance of biometric control systems concerning attacks by thin layer fingerprint fakes.

  1. Secure Fingerprint Identification of High Accuracy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    work on secure face recognition ([12], [29] and others), DNA matching ([35], [6], and others), iris code comparisons ([9], [7]), fingerprint ...1 Secure Fingerprint Identification of High Accuracy Marina Blanton and Siddharth Saraph Department of Computer Science and Engineering University of...In this work, we treat the problem of privacy- preserving matching of two fingerprints , which can be used for secure fingerprint authentication and

  2. Fingerprints in the Light

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-03-01

    This spectrum shows the light from a dusty, distant galaxy located 11 billion light-years away. The galaxy is invisible to optical telescopes, but NASA Spitzer Space Telescope captured the light from it and dozens of other similar galaxies.

  3. The spectroscopic detection of drugs of abuse in fingerprints after development with powders and recovery with adhesive lifters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Matthew J.; Went, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    powders did not interfere with the detection process the time taken to locate the contaminant was increased due to the physical presence of more material within the fingerprint.

  4. The spectroscopic detection of drugs of abuse in fingerprints after development with powders and recovery with adhesive lifters.

    PubMed

    West, Matthew J; Went, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    powders did not interfere with the detection process the time taken to locate the contaminant was increased due to the physical presence of more material within the fingerprint.

  5. 47 CFR 0.484 - Amateur radio operator examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Amateur radio operator examinations. 0.484....484 Amateur radio operator examinations. Generally, examinations for amateur radio operation licenses... FCC conducts examinations for amateur radio operator licenses, they shall take place at locations and...

  6. 47 CFR 0.484 - Amateur radio operator examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Amateur radio operator examinations. 0.484....484 Amateur radio operator examinations. Generally, examinations for amateur radio operation licenses... FCC conducts examinations for amateur radio operator licenses, they shall take place at locations and...

  7. 47 CFR 0.484 - Amateur radio operator examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amateur radio operator examinations. 0.484....484 Amateur radio operator examinations. Generally, examinations for amateur radio operation licenses... FCC conducts examinations for amateur radio operator licenses, they shall take place at locations and...

  8. 47 CFR 0.484 - Amateur radio operator examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amateur radio operator examinations. 0.484....484 Amateur radio operator examinations. Generally, examinations for amateur radio operation licenses... FCC conducts examinations for amateur radio operator licenses, they shall take place at locations and...

  9. 47 CFR 0.484 - Amateur radio operator examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Amateur radio operator examinations. 0.484....484 Amateur radio operator examinations. Generally, examinations for amateur radio operation licenses... FCC conducts examinations for amateur radio operator licenses, they shall take place at locations and...

  10. Optical Wavelet Transform for Fingerprint Identification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-15

    requirements of digitized fingerprints. This research implements an optical wavelet transform of a fingerprint image, as the first step in an optical... wavelet transform is implemented with continuous shift using an optical correlation between binarized fingerprints written on a Magneto-Optic Spatial

  11. Group-Oriented Fingerprinting for Multimedia Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. Jane; Wu, Min; Trappe, Wade; Liu, K. J. Ray

    2004-12-01

    Digital fingerprinting of multimedia data involves embedding information in the content signal and offers protection to the digital rights of the content by allowing illegitimate usage of the content to be identified by authorized parties. One potential threat to fingerprinting is collusion, whereby a group of adversaries combine their individual copies in an attempt to remove the underlying fingerprints. Former studies indicate that collusion attacks based on a few dozen independent copies can confound a fingerprinting system that employs orthogonal modulation. However, in practice an adversary is more likely to collude with some users than with other users due to geographic or social circumstances. To take advantage of prior knowledge of the collusion pattern, we propose a two-tier group-oriented fingerprinting scheme where users likely to collude with each other are assigned correlated fingerprints. Additionally, we extend our construction to represent the natural social and geographic hierarchical relationships between users by developing a more flexible tree-structure-based fingerprinting system. We also propose a multistage colluder identification scheme by taking advantage of the hierarchial nature of the fingerprints. We evaluate the performance of the proposed fingerprinting scheme by studying the collusion resistance of a fingerprinting system employing Gaussian-distributed fingerprints. Our results show that the group-oriented fingerprinting system provides the superior collusion resistance over a system employing orthogonal modulation when knowledge of the potential collusion pattern is available.

  12. Forensic Chemistry: The Revelation of Latent Fingerprints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesen, J. Brent

    2015-01-01

    The visualization of latent fingerprints often involves the use of a chemical substance that creates a contrast between the fingerprint residues and the surface on which the print was deposited. The chemical-aided visualization techniques can be divided into two main categories: those that chemically react with the fingerprint residue and those…

  13. Entropy based fingerprint for local crystalline order.

    PubMed

    Piaggi, Pablo M; Parrinello, Michele

    2017-09-21

    We introduce a new fingerprint that allows distinguishing between liquid-like and solid-like atomic environments. This fingerprint is based on an approximate expression for the entropy projected on individual atoms. When combined with local enthalpy, this fingerprint acquires an even finer resolution and it is capable of discriminating between different crystal structures.

  14. Entropy based fingerprint for local crystalline order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piaggi, Pablo M.; Parrinello, Michele

    2017-09-01

    We introduce a new fingerprint that allows distinguishing between liquid-like and solid-like atomic environments. This fingerprint is based on an approximate expression for the entropy projected on individual atoms. When combined with local enthalpy, this fingerprint acquires an even finer resolution and it is capable of discriminating between different crystal structures.

  15. Forensic Chemistry: The Revelation of Latent Fingerprints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesen, J. Brent

    2015-01-01

    The visualization of latent fingerprints often involves the use of a chemical substance that creates a contrast between the fingerprint residues and the surface on which the print was deposited. The chemical-aided visualization techniques can be divided into two main categories: those that chemically react with the fingerprint residue and those…

  16. Detection and Rectification of Distorted Fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Si, Xuanbin; Feng, Jianjiang; Zhou, Jie; Luo, Yuxuan

    2015-03-01

    Elastic distortion of fingerprints is one of the major causes for false non-match. While this problem affects all fingerprint recognition applications, it is especially dangerous in negative recognition applications, such as watchlist and deduplication applications. In such applications, malicious users may purposely distort their fingerprints to evade identification. In this paper, we proposed novel algorithms to detect and rectify skin distortion based on a single fingerprint image. Distortion detection is viewed as a two-class classification problem, for which the registered ridge orientation map and period map of a fingerprint are used as the feature vector and a SVM classifier is trained to perform the classification task. Distortion rectification (or equivalently distortion field estimation) is viewed as a regression problem, where the input is a distorted fingerprint and the output is the distortion field. To solve this problem, a database (called reference database) of various distorted reference fingerprints and corresponding distortion fields is built in the offline stage, and then in the online stage, the nearest neighbor of the input fingerprint is found in the reference database and the corresponding distortion field is used to transform the input fingerprint into a normal one. Promising results have been obtained on three databases containing many distorted fingerprints, namely FVC2004 DB1, Tsinghua Distorted Fingerprint database, and the NIST SD27 latent fingerprint database.

  17. Fingerprints in the Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    These MISR nadir-camera images of eastern China compare a somewhat hazy summer view from July 9, 2000 (left) with a spectacularly dusty spring view from April 7, 2001 (middle). The left-hand and middle images are from Terra orbits 2967 and 6928, respectively, and extend from central Manchuria near the top to portions of North and South Korea at the bottom. They are approximately 380 kilometers in width.

    Asia's desert areas are prone to soil erosion, as underground water tables are lowered by prolonged drought and by industrial and agricultural water use. Heavy winds blowing eastward across the arid and sparsely vegetated surfaces of Mongolia and western China pick up large quantities of yellow dust. Airborne dust clouds from the April 2001 storm blew across the Pacific Ocean and were carried as far as North America. The minerals transported in this manner are believed to provide nutrients for both oceanic and land ecosystems.

    According to the Xinhua News Agency in China, nearly one million tons of Gobi Desert dust blow into Beijing each year. During a similar dust outbreak last year, the Associated Press reported that the visibility in Beijing had been reduced the point where buildings were barely visible across city streets, and airline schedules were significantly disrupted. The dust has also been implicated in adverse health effects such as respiratory discomfort and eye irritation.

    The image on the right is a higher resolution MISR nadir-camera view of a portion of the April 7, 2001 dust cloud. It covers an area roughly 250 kilometers wide by 470 kilometers high. When viewed at full magnification, a number of atmospheric wave features, like the ridges and valleys of a fingerprint, are apparent. These are probably induced by surface topography, which can disturb the wind flow. A few small cumulus clouds are also visible, and are casting shadows on the thick lower dust layer.

    Analyses of images such as these constitute one phase of MISR

  18. Fingerprints in the Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    These MISR nadir-camera images of eastern China compare a somewhat hazy summer view from July 9, 2000 (left) with a spectacularly dusty spring view from April 7, 2001 (middle). The left-hand and middle images are from Terra orbits 2967 and 6928, respectively, and extend from central Manchuria near the top to portions of North and South Korea at the bottom. They are approximately 380 kilometers in width.

    Asia's desert areas are prone to soil erosion, as underground water tables are lowered by prolonged drought and by industrial and agricultural water use. Heavy winds blowing eastward across the arid and sparsely vegetated surfaces of Mongolia and western China pick up large quantities of yellow dust. Airborne dust clouds from the April 2001 storm blew across the Pacific Ocean and were carried as far as North America. The minerals transported in this manner are believed to provide nutrients for both oceanic and land ecosystems.

    According to the Xinhua News Agency in China, nearly one million tons of Gobi Desert dust blow into Beijing each year. During a similar dust outbreak last year, the Associated Press reported that the visibility in Beijing had been reduced the point where buildings were barely visible across city streets, and airline schedules were significantly disrupted. The dust has also been implicated in adverse health effects such as respiratory discomfort and eye irritation.

    The image on the right is a higher resolution MISR nadir-camera view of a portion of the April 7, 2001 dust cloud. It covers an area roughly 250 kilometers wide by 470 kilometers high. When viewed at full magnification, a number of atmospheric wave features, like the ridges and valleys of a fingerprint, are apparent. These are probably induced by surface topography, which can disturb the wind flow. A few small cumulus clouds are also visible, and are casting shadows on the thick lower dust layer.

    Analyses of images such as these constitute one phase of MISR

  19. Fingerprinting profile of polysaccharides from Lycium barbarum using multiplex approaches and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Xu, Jinnan; Zhu, Rui; Zhu, Yiqing; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Pei; Pan, Chun; Yao, Wenbing; Gao, Xiangdong

    2015-07-01

    Techniques including ultraviolet-visible spectra (UV), high performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and pre-column derivatization high-performance liquid chromatography (PCD-HPLC) were used in the fingerprinting analysis of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs) from different locations and varieties. Multiple fingerprinting profiles were used to evaluate the similarity and classification of different LBPs with the help of chemometrics. The results indicated that sixteen batches of LBPs had good consistency, and fingerprinting techniques were simple and robust for quality control of LBPs as well as related products. In addition, fingerprinting techniques combined with chemometrics could also be used to identify different cultivation locations of LBPs samples. Finally, four monosaccharides (galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose and arabinose) and the absorptions of stretching vibration of ester carbonyl groups as well as NH variable angle vibration of -CONH- could be selected as herbal markers to distinguish different samples.

  20. Radio protection zone evaluation at the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapping, Ken

    Increasing use of the radio spectrum by licensed and unlicensed devices, together with the encroachment of housing developments are an issue facing many radio observatories, including the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory (DRAO), located near Penticton in Southern British Columbia. A joint study by Industry Canada (Canada's national spectrum manager), and the National Research Council (Operator of DRAO) is currently in progress to examine protection zone needs and the reliability of the definitions of the zone, and the general level of background noise from growing local communities. The objectives are to produce a definition of a protection zone that is useful in spectrum management to protect the observatory, and to establish how much local community development is acceptable if the observatory is to remain a viable location for radio astronomical observations. This presentation will summarize the results so far in this ongoing study.

  1. Enhancing contrast of fingerprints on plastic tape.

    PubMed

    Steele, Charles A; Ball, Mikki S

    2003-11-01

    Many of the currently available fingerprinting methods have limited ability to visualize fingerprints on plastic tape without expensive equipment or significant handling of the sample. This is especially true for visualizing fingerprints on black electrical tape. This study sought a hands-off method to produce easy visualization of fingerprints on different types of plastic tape, including black electrical tape, without the need for expensive equipment. The methods selected were to sublime disperse dyes into the tape, both with and without the fuming of cyanoacrylate, everywhere except for where the fingerprint was applied. The resulting color contrasts provided enough differentiation to visualize fingerprints on plastic tape under ambient light. Sequential fuming with cyanoacrylate followed by disperse dyes provided the best visualizations on all tapes, and cyanoacrylate followed by disperse yellow 211 clearly visualized fingerprints on black electrical tape.

  2. National Centre for Radio Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    India's National Centre for Radio Astrophysics (NCRA), located on the Pune University Campus, is part of the TATA INSTITUTE OF FUNDAMENTAL RESEARCH. At Khodad, 80 km from Pune, NCRA has set up the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT), the world's largest telescope operating at meter wavelengths. GMRT consists of 30 fully steerable dishes of 45 m diameter, spread over a 25 km area. Another meter...

  3. Radio astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellermann, Kenneth I.; Heeschen, David; Backer, Donald C.; Cohen, Marshall H.; Davis, Michael; Depater, Imke; Deyoung, David; Dulk, George A.; Fisher, J. R.; Goss, W. Miller

    1991-01-01

    The following subject areas are covered: (1) scientific opportunities (millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelength astronomy; meter to hectometer astronomy; the Sun, stars, pulsars, interstellar masers, and extrasolar planets; the planets, asteroids, and comets; radio galaxies, quasars, and cosmology; and challenges for radio astronomy in the 1990's); (2) recommendations for new facilities (the millimeter arrays, medium scale instruments, and small-scale projects); (3) continuing activities and maintenance, upgrading of telescopes and instrumentation; (4) long range programs and technology development; and (5) social, political, and organizational considerations.

  4. Fingerprint reconstruction: from minutiae to phase.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jianjiang; Jain, Anil K

    2011-02-01

    Fingerprint matching systems generally use four types of representation schemes: grayscale image, phase image, skeleton image, and minutiae, among which minutiae-based representation is the most widely adopted one. The compactness of minutiae representation has created an impression that the minutiae template does not contain sufficient information to allow the reconstruction of the original grayscale fingerprint image. This belief has now been shown to be false; several algorithms have been proposed that can reconstruct fingerprint images from minutiae templates. These techniques try to either reconstruct the skeleton image, which is then converted into the grayscale image, or reconstruct the grayscale image directly from the minutiae template. However, they have a common drawback: Many spurious minutiae not included in the original minutiae template are generated in the reconstructed image. Moreover, some of these reconstruction techniques can only generate a partial fingerprint. In this paper, a novel fingerprint reconstruction algorithm is proposed to reconstruct the phase image, which is then converted into the grayscale image. The proposed reconstruction algorithm not only gives the whole fingerprint, but the reconstructed fingerprint contains very few spurious minutiae. Specifically, a fingerprint image is represented as a phase image which consists of the continuous phase and the spiral phase (which corresponds to minutiae). An algorithm is proposed to reconstruct the continuous phase from minutiae. The proposed reconstruction algorithm has been evaluated with respect to the success rates of type-I attack (match the reconstructed fingerprint against the original fingerprint) and type-II attack (match the reconstructed fingerprint against different impressions of the original fingerprint) using a commercial fingerprint recognition system. Given the reconstructed image from our algorithm, we show that both types of attacks can be successfully launched against

  5. 47 CFR 95.1505 - Authorized locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authorized locations. 95.1505 Section 95.1505 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO... locations. Operation of DSRCS On-Board Units is authorized anywhere CB station operation is permitted under...

  6. 47 CFR 95.1107 - Authorized locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authorized locations. 95.1107 Section 95.1107 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Wireless Medical Telemetry Service (WMTS) General Provisions § 95.1107 Authorized locations. The...

  7. An Indoor Space Partition Method and its Fingerprint Positioning Optimization Considering Pedestrian Accessibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yue; Shi, Yong; Zheng, Xingyu; Long, Yi

    2016-06-01

    Fingerprint positioning method is generally the first choice in indoor navigation system due to its high accuracy and low cost. The accuracy depends on partition density to the indoor space. The accuracy will be higher with higher grid resolution. But the high grid resolution leads to significantly increasing work of the fingerprint data collection, processing and maintenance. This also might decrease the performance, portability and robustness of the navigation system. Meanwhile, traditional fingerprint positioning method use equational grid to partition the indoor space. While used for pedestrian navigation, sometimes a person can be located at the area where he or she cannot access. This paper studied these two issues, proposed a new indoor space partition method considering pedestrian accessibility, which can increase the accuracy of pedestrian position, and decrease the volume of the fingerprint data. Based on this proposed partition method, an optimized algorithm for fingerprint position was also designed. A across linker structure was used for fingerprint point index and matching. Experiment based on the proposed method and algorithm showed that the workload of fingerprint collection and maintenance were effectively decreased, and poisoning efficiency and accuracy was effectively increased

  8. Radio Implementation of a Testbed For Cognitive Radio Source Localization Using USRPS and GNU Radio

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    received- signal -strength-based (CRSSB) localization schemes are proposed to overcome the challenge of identifying and locating a cognitive radio over time...14. SUBJECT TERMS cognitive radio, source localization, extended semi range-based localization, cooperative received signal strength based...extended semi-range-based (ESRB) and cooperative-received- signal -strength-based (CRSSB) localization schemes are proposed to overcome the challenge of

  9. DNA decontamination of fingerprint brushes.

    PubMed

    Szkuta, Bianca; Oorschot, Roland A H van; Ballantyne, Kaye N

    2017-08-01

    Genetic profiling of DNA collected from fingerprints that have been exposed to various enhancement techniques is routine in many forensic laboratories. As a result of direct contact with fingermark residues during treatment, there is concern around the DNA contamination risk of dusting fingermarks with fingerprint brushes. Previous studies have demonstrated the potential for cross-contamination between evidentiary items through various mechanisms, highlighting the risk of using the same fingerprint brush to powder multiple surfaces within and between crime-scenes. Experiments were performed to assess the contamination risk of reused fingerprint brushes through the transfer of dried saliva and skin deposits from and to glass surfaces with new unused squirrel hair and fiberglass brushes. Additional new unused brushes and brushes previously used in casework were also tested for their ability to contaminate samples. In addition, the ability to eradicate DNA from used squirrel hair and fiberglass fingerprint brushes was assessed using a 1% sodium hypochlorite solution and a 5% solution of a commercially available alternative, Virkon. DNA profiling results from surfaces contacted by treated and untreated brushes were compared to determine the effectiveness of the devised cleaning protocol. Brush durability was also assessed over multiple wash/rinse/dry cycles with both agents. Varying amounts of DNA-containing material were collected and transferred by squirrel hair and fiberglass brushes, with detectability on the secondary surface dependent on the biological nature of the material being transferred. The impact of DNA contamination from dirty fingerprint brushes was most apparent in simulations involving the transfer of dried saliva and brushes previously used in casework, while minimal transfer of touch DNA was observed. Alarmingly, large quantities of DNA were found to reside on new unused squirrel hair brushes, while no DNA was detected on new unused fiberglass

  10. Orientation field estimation for latent fingerprint enhancement.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jianjiang; Zhou, Jie; Jain, Anil K

    2013-04-01

    Identifying latent fingerprints is of vital importance for law enforcement agencies to apprehend criminals and terrorists. Compared to live-scan and inked fingerprints, the image quality of latent fingerprints is much lower, with complex image background, unclear ridge structure, and even overlapping patterns. A robust orientation field estimation algorithm is indispensable for enhancing and recognizing poor quality latents. However, conventional orientation field estimation algorithms, which can satisfactorily process most live-scan and inked fingerprints, do not provide acceptable results for most latents. We believe that a major limitation of conventional algorithms is that they do not utilize prior knowledge of the ridge structure in fingerprints. Inspired by spelling correction techniques in natural language processing, we propose a novel fingerprint orientation field estimation algorithm based on prior knowledge of fingerprint structure. We represent prior knowledge of fingerprints using a dictionary of reference orientation patches. which is constructed using a set of true orientation fields, and the compatibility constraint between neighboring orientation patches. Orientation field estimation for latents is posed as an energy minimization problem, which is solved by loopy belief propagation. Experimental results on the challenging NIST SD27 latent fingerprint database and an overlapped latent fingerprint database demonstrate the advantages of the proposed orientation field estimation algorithm over conventional algorithms.

  11. Fingerprint verification prediction model in hand dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chew K; Chang, Choong C; Johor, Asmah; Othman, Puwira; Baba, Roshidah

    2015-07-01

    Hand dermatitis associated fingerprint changes is a significant problem and affects fingerprint verification processes. This study was done to develop a clinically useful prediction model for fingerprint verification in patients with hand dermatitis. A case-control study involving 100 patients with hand dermatitis. All patients verified their thumbprints against their identity card. Registered fingerprints were randomized into a model derivation and model validation group. Predictive model was derived using multiple logistic regression. Validation was done using the goodness-of-fit test. The fingerprint verification prediction model consists of a major criterion (fingerprint dystrophy area of ≥ 25%) and two minor criteria (long horizontal lines and long vertical lines). The presence of the major criterion predicts it will almost always fail verification, while presence of both minor criteria and presence of one minor criterion predict high and low risk of fingerprint verification failure, respectively. When none of the criteria are met, the fingerprint almost always passes the verification. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.937, and the goodness-of-fit test showed agreement between the observed and expected number (P = 0.26). The derived fingerprint verification failure prediction model is validated and highly discriminatory in predicting risk of fingerprint verification in patients with hand dermatitis. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  12. Optical wavelet transform for fingerprint identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, Robert P.; Rogers, Steven K.; Burns, Thomas J.; Fielding, Kenneth H.; Warhola, Gregory T.; Ruck, Dennis W.

    1994-03-01

    The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) has recently sanctioned a wavelet fingerprint image compression algorithm developed for reducing storage requirements of digitized fingerprints. This research implements an optical wavelet transform of a fingerprint image, as the first step in an optical fingerprint identification process. Wavelet filters are created from computer- generated holograms of biorthogonal wavelets, the same wavelets implemented in the FBI algorithm. Using a detour phase holographic technique, a complex binary filter mask is created with both symmetry and linear phase. The wavelet transform is implemented with continuous shift using an optical correlation between binarized fingerprints written on a Magneto-Optic Spatial Light Modulator and the biorthogonal wavelet filters. A telescopic lens combination scales the transformed fingerprint onto the filters, providing a means of adjusting the biorthogonal wavelet filter dilation continuously. The wavelet transformed fingerprint is then applied to an optical fingerprint identification process. Comparison between normal fingerprints and wavelet transformed fingerprints shows improvement in the optical identification process, in terms of rotational invariance.

  13. A Support Vector Machine Approach for Truncated Fingerprint Image Detection from Sweeping Fingerprint Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chi-Jim; Pai, Tun-Wen; Cheng, Mox

    2015-01-01

    A sweeping fingerprint sensor converts fingerprints on a row by row basis through image reconstruction techniques. However, a built fingerprint image might appear to be truncated and distorted when the finger was swept across a fingerprint sensor at a non-linear speed. If the truncated fingerprint images were enrolled as reference targets and collected by any automated fingerprint identification system (AFIS), successful prediction rates for fingerprint matching applications would be decreased significantly. In this paper, a novel and effective methodology with low time computational complexity was developed for detecting truncated fingerprints in a real time manner. Several filtering rules were implemented to validate existences of truncated fingerprints. In addition, a machine learning method of supported vector machine (SVM), based on the principle of structural risk minimization, was applied to reject pseudo truncated fingerprints containing similar characteristics of truncated ones. The experimental result has shown that an accuracy rate of 90.7% was achieved by successfully identifying truncated fingerprint images from testing images before AFIS enrollment procedures. The proposed effective and efficient methodology can be extensively applied to all existing fingerprint matching systems as a preliminary quality control prior to construction of fingerprint templates. PMID:25835186

  14. A support vector machine approach for truncated fingerprint image detection from sweeping fingerprint sensors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chi-Jim; Pai, Tun-Wen; Cheng, Mox

    2015-03-31

    A sweeping fingerprint sensor converts fingerprints on a row by row basis through image reconstruction techniques. However, a built fingerprint image might appear to be truncated and distorted when the finger was swept across a fingerprint sensor at a non-linear speed. If the truncated fingerprint images were enrolled as reference targets and collected by any automated fingerprint identification system (AFIS), successful prediction rates for fingerprint matching applications would be decreased significantly. In this paper, a novel and effective methodology with low time computational complexity was developed for detecting truncated fingerprints in a real time manner. Several filtering rules were implemented to validate existences of truncated fingerprints. In addition, a machine learning method of supported vector machine (SVM), based on the principle of structural risk minimization, was applied to reject pseudo truncated fingerprints containing similar characteristics of truncated ones. The experimental result has shown that an accuracy rate of 90.7% was achieved by successfully identifying truncated fingerprint images from testing images before AFIS enrollment procedures. The proposed effective and efficient methodology can be extensively applied to all existing fingerprint matching systems as a preliminary quality control prior to construction of fingerprint templates.

  15. Detection of illicit substances in fingerprints by infrared spectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Ng, Ping Hei Ronnie; Walker, Sarah; Tahtouh, Mark; Reedy, Brian

    2009-08-01

    FTIR and Raman spectral imaging can be used to simultaneously image a latent fingerprint and detect exogenous substances deposited within it. These substances might include drugs of abuse or traces of explosives or gunshot residue. In this work, spectral searching algorithms were tested for their efficacy in finding targeted substances deposited within fingerprints. "Reverse" library searching, where a large number of possibly poor-quality spectra from a spectral image are searched against a small number of high-quality reference spectra, poses problems for common search algorithms as they are usually implemented. Out of a range of algorithms which included conventional Euclidean distance searching, the spectral angle mapper (SAM) and correlation algorithms gave the best results when used with second-derivative image and reference spectra. All methods tested gave poorer performances with first derivative and undifferentiated spectra. In a search against a caffeine reference, the SAM and correlation methods were able to correctly rank a set of 40 confirmed but poor-quality caffeine spectra at the top of a dataset which also contained 4,096 spectra from an image of an uncontaminated latent fingerprint. These methods also successfully and individually detected aspirin, diazepam and caffeine that had been deposited together in another fingerprint, and they did not indicate any of these substances as a match in a search for another substance which was known not to be present. The SAM was used to successfully locate explosive components in fingerprints deposited on silicon windows. The potential of other spectral searching algorithms used in the field of remote sensing is considered, and the applicability of the methods tested in this work to other modes of spectral imaging is discussed.

  16. CURIE: Cubesat Radio Interferometry Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundkvist, D. J.; Saint-Hilaire, P.; Bain, H. M.; Bale, S. D.; Bonnell, J. W.; Hurford, G. J.; Maruca, B.; Martinez Oliveros, J. C.; Pulupa, M.

    2016-12-01

    The CUbesat Radio Interferometry Experiment (CURIE) is a proposed two-element radio interferometer, based on proven and developed digital radio receivers and designed to fit within a Cubesat platform. CURIE will launch as a 6U Cubesat and then separate into two 3U Cubesats once in orbit. CURIE measures radio waves from 0.1-19MHz, which must be measured from space, as those frequencies fall below the cutoff imposed by Earth's ionosphere. The principal science objective for CURIE is to use radio interferometry to study radio burst emissions from solar eruptive events such as flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in the inner heliosphere, providing observations important for our understanding of the heliospheric space weather environment. The influence of space weather can be felt at Earth and other planets, as radiation levels increase and lead to auroral activity and geomagnetic effects. CURIE will be able to determine the location and size of radio burst source regions and then to track their movement outward from the Sun. In addition to the primary objective CURIE will measure the gradients of the local ionospheric density and electron temperature on the spatial scale of a few kilometers, as well as create an improved map of the radio sky at these unexplored frequencies. A space based radio interferometry observatory has long been envisioned, in orbit around the Earth or the Moon, or on the far side of the Moon. Beyond its important science objectives, CURIE will prove that the concept of a dedicated space-based interferometer can be realized by using relatively cheap Cubesats. CURIE will therefore not only provide new important science results but also serve as a pathfinder in the development of new space-based radio observation techniques for helio- and astro-physics.

  17. Graphene Nanopres for DNA Fingerprinting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Towfiq; Balatsky, Alexander V.; Haraldsen, J. T.; Schuller, Ivan K.; di Ventra, M.; Wikfeldt, K. T.

    2013-03-01

    The recent progress in nanopore experiments with transverse current is important for the development of fast, accurate and cheap finger-printing techniques for single nucleotide. Despite its enormous potential for the next generation DNA sequencing technology, the presence of large noise in the temporal spectrum of transverse current remains a big challenge for getting highly accurate interpretation of data. In this paper we present our abinitio calculations, and propose graphene based device for DNA fingerprinting. We calculate transmission current through graphene for each DNA base (A,C,G,T). As shown in our work, a proper time-series analysis of a signal provides a higher quality information in identifying single bio-molecule is translocating through the nanopores. This work is supported by LANL, Nordita, US DOE, AFOSR, and NIH.

  18. [Genetic fingerprints and computerised databases].

    PubMed

    Sabatier, Myriam

    2003-01-01

    The computerised databases of genetic fingerprints are laboratory tools and by extension law enforcement tools, for which the European Union has defined the applications. As these genetic profiles give no information on specific hereditary characteristics, these bases have been established in order to respect the rights and fundamental liberties of each individual. Compatible at the international level, nobody contests today their rewards in the fight against crime.

  19. Comparing Bacterial DNA Microarray Fingerprints

    SciTech Connect

    Willse, Alan R.; Chandler, Darrell P.; White, Amanda M.; Protic, Miroslava; Daly, Don S.; Wunschel, Sharon C.

    2005-08-15

    Detecting subtle genetic differences between microorganisms is an important problem in molecular epidemiology and microbial forensics. In a typical investigation, gel electrophoresis is used to compare randomly amplified DNA fragments between microbial strains, where the patterns of DNA fragment sizes are proxies for a microbe's genotype. The limited genomic sample captured on a gel is often insufficient to discriminate nearly identical strains. This paper examines the application of microarray technology to DNA fingerprinting as a high-resolution alternative to gel-based methods. The so-called universal microarray, which uses short oligonucleotide probes that do not target specific genes or species, is intended to be applicable to all microorganisms because it does not require prior knowledge of genomic sequence. In principle, closely related strains can be distinguished if the number of probes on the microarray is sufficiently large, i.e., if the genome is sufficiently sampled. In practice, we confront noisy data, imperfectly matched hybridizations, and a high-dimensional inference problem. We describe the statistical problems of microarray fingerprinting, outline similarities with and differences from more conventional microarray applications, and illustrate the statistical fingerprinting problem for 10 closely related strains from three Bacillus species, and 3 strains from non-Bacillus species.

  20. What is the difference between radio-loud and radio-quiet quasi-stellar objects?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchings, J. B.; Janson, T.; Neff, S. G.

    1989-01-01

    Measures of the nuclear and host galaxy luminosities and colors and a morphological discussion of the host galaxies are presented for a sample of low-redshift, high-luminosity, radio-quiet QSOs whose redshift and luminosity distribution matches that of a radio-loud sample previously discussed. Radio-quiet QSOs are found to reside in galaxies which are smaller, fainter, and redder than the host galaxies of radio-loud QSOs. These properties are generally consistent with the suggestion that radio-quiet QSOs are located in spiral-type galaxies and radio-loud QSOs are located in more elliptical-type galaxies. Significantly less evidence is found for tidal interactions among the radio-quiet objects, although they appear to reside in somewhat richer environments in terms of nearby companions.

  1. A novel approach for fingerprinting mummified hands.

    PubMed

    Fields, Roy; Molina, D Kimberley

    2008-07-01

    Fingerprinting has long been used as a method for identifying bodies and, since first discovered, many advances have been made in both fingerprint acquisition and interpretation. However, in the field of forensic pathology, the attainment of fingerprints from mummified bodies has remained difficult. The most common technique historically used to obtain fingerprints in these cases usually employs the amputation of the fingers combined with soaking and/or injecting the fingers with various solutions in order to enhance the fingerprints. A novel approach to fingerprinting mummified fingers is presented which involves removal and rehydration of the fingerpads (including the epidermal, dermal, and adipose tissues) followed by inking and rolling, using a gloved finger for support. The technique presented produces a superior quality of print without amputation of the finger, yielding excellent results and assisting in obtaining positive identification.

  2. A Computational Discriminability Analysis on Twin Fingerprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu; Srihari, Sargur N.

    Sharing similar genetic traits makes the investigation of twins an important study in forensics and biometrics. Fingerprints are one of the most commonly found types of forensic evidence. The similarity between twins’ prints is critical establish to the reliability of fingerprint identification. We present a quantitative analysis of the discriminability of twin fingerprints on a new data set (227 pairs of identical twins and fraternal twins) recently collected from a twin population using both level 1 and level 2 features. Although the patterns of minutiae among twins are more similar than in the general population, the similarity of fingerprints of twins is significantly different from that between genuine prints of the same finger. Twins fingerprints are discriminable with a 1.5%~1.7% higher EER than non-twins. And identical twins can be distinguished by examine fingerprint with a slightly higher error rate than fraternal twins.

  3. An objective fingerprint quality-grading system.

    PubMed

    Pulsifer, Drew P; Muhlberger, Sarah A; Williams, Stephanie F; Shaler, Robert C; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2013-09-10

    The grading of fingerprint quality by fingerprint examiners as currently practised is a subjective process. Therefore, an objective system was devised to remove the subjectivity. The devised grading system is quantitative and uses three separate, easily available, software packages to ultimately identify the portions of a fingerprint that correspond to low-, medium-, and high-quality definitive minutiae as defined on the Universal Latent Workstation of the US Federal Bureau of Investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Automated FingerPrint Background removal: FPB.

    PubMed

    Scalabrin, Simone; Morgante, Michele; Policriti, Alberto

    2009-04-30

    The construction of a whole-genome physical map has been an essential component of numerous genome projects initiated since the inception of the Human Genome Project. Its usefulness has been proved for whole-genome shotgun projects as a post-assembly validation and recently it has also been used in the assembly step to constrain on BACs positions. Fingerprinting is usually the method of choice for construction of physical maps. A clone fingerprint is composed of true peaks representing real fragments and background peaks, mainly composed of E. coli genomic DNA, partial digestions, star activity by-products, and machine background. High-throughput fingerprinting leads to the production of thousands of BAC clone fingerprints per day. That is why background peaks removal has become an important issue and needs to be automatized, especially in capillary electrophoresis based fingerprints. At the moment, the only tools available for such a task are GenoProfiler and its descendant FPMiner. The large variation in the quality of fingerprints that is usually present in large fingerprinting projects represents a major difficulty in the correct removal of background peaks that has only been partially addressed by the methods so far adopted that all require a long manual optimization of parameters. Thus, we implemented a new data-independent tool, FPB (FingerPrint Background removal), suitable for large scale projects as well as mapping of few clones. FPB is freely available at http://www.appliedgenomics.org/tools.php. FPB was used to remove the background from all fingerprints of three grapevine physical map projects. The first project consists of about 50,000 fingerprints, the second one consists of about 70,000 fingerprints, and the third one consists of about 45,000 fingerprints. In all cases a successful assembly was built.

  5. A stellar fingerprint

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-02-29

    Showcased at the centre of this NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image is an emission-line star known as IRAS 12196-6300. Located just under 2300 light-years from Earth, this star displays prominent emission lines, meaning that the star’s light, dispersed into a spectrum, shows up as a rainbow of colours marked with a characteristic pattern of dark and bright lines. The characteristics of these lines, when compared to the “fingerprints” left by particular atoms and molecules, can be used to reveal IRAS 12196-6300’s chemical composition. Under 10 million years old and not yet burning hydrogen at its core, unlike the Sun, this star is still in its infancy. Further evidence of IRAS 12196-6300’s youth is provided by the presence of reflection nebulae. These hazy clouds, pictured floating above and below IRAS 12196-6300, are created when light from a star reflects off a high concentration of nearby dust, such as the dusty material still remaining from IRAS 12196-6300’s formation.

  6. The Radio JOVE Project - Shoestring Radio Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thieman, J.; Flagg, R.; Greenman, W.; Higgins, C.; Reyes, F.; Sky, J.

    2010-01-01

    Radio JOVE is an education and outreach project intended to give students and other interested individuals hands-on experience in learning radio astronomy. They can do this through building a radio telescope from a relatively inexpensive kit that includes the parts for a receiver and an antenna as well as software for a computer chart recorder emulator (Radio Skypipe) and other reference materials

  7. The Radio JOVE Project - Shoestring Radio Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thieman, J.; Flagg, R.; Greenman, W.; Higgins, C.; Reyes, F.; Sky, J.

    2010-01-01

    Radio JOVE is an education and outreach project intended to give students and other interested individuals hands-on experience in learning radio astronomy. They can do this through building a radio telescope from a relatively inexpensive kit that includes the parts for a receiver and an antenna as well as software for a computer chart recorder emulator (Radio Skypipe) and other reference materials

  8. EVA Radio DRATS 2011 Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swank, Aaron J.; Bakula, Casey J.

    2012-01-01

    In the Fall of 2011, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) participated in the Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) field experiments held near Flagstaff, Arizona. The objective of the DRATS outing is to provide analog mission testing of candidate technologies for space exploration, especially those technologies applicable to human exploration of extra- terrestrial rocky bodies. These activities are performed at locations with similarities to extra-terrestrial conditions. This report describes the Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Dual-Band Radio Communication System which was demonstrated during the 2011 outing. The EVA radio system is designed to transport both voice and telemetry data through a mobile ad hoc wireless network and employs a dual-band radio configuration. Some key characteristics of this system include: 1. Dual-band radio configuration. 2. Intelligent switching between two different capability wireless networks. 3. Self-healing network. 4. Simultaneous data and voice communication.

  9. On relative distortion in fingerprint comparison.

    PubMed

    Kalka, Nathan D; Hicklin, R Austin

    2014-11-01

    When fingerprints are deposited, non-uniform pressure in conjunction with the inherent elasticity of friction ridge skin often causes linear and non-linear distortions in the ridge and valley structure. The effects of these distortions must be considered during analysis of fingerprint images. Even when individual prints are not notably distorted, relative distortion between two prints can have a serious impact on comparison. In this paper we discuss several metrics for quantifying and visualizing linear and non-linear fingerprint deformations, and software tools to assist examiners in accounting for distortion in fingerprint comparisons.

  10. The connecting link! Lip prints and fingerprints

    PubMed Central

    Negi, Amita; Negi, Anurag

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lip prints and fingerprints are considered to be unique to each individual. The study of fingerprints and lip prints is very popular in personal identification of the deceased and in criminal investigations. Aims: This study was done to find the predominant lip and fingerprint patterns in males and females in the North Indian population and also to find any correlation between lip print and fingerprint patterns within a gender. Materials and Methods: Two hundred students (100 males, 100 females) were included in the study. Lip prints were recorded for each individual using a dark-colored lipstick and the right thumb impression was recorded using an ink pad. The lip prints and fingerprints were analyzed using a magnifying glass. The Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Results: The branched pattern in males and the vertical pattern in females were the predominant lip print patterns. The predominant fingerprint pattern in both males and females was found to be the loop pattern, followed by the whorl pattern and then the arch pattern. No statistically significant correlation was found between lip prints and fingeprints. However, the arch type of fingerprint was found to be associated with different lip print patterns in males and females. Conclusion: Lip prints and fingerprints can be used for personal identification in a forensic scenario. Further correlative studies between lip prints and fingerprints could be useful in forensic science for gender identification. PMID:28123281

  11. Fingerprint imaging of dry finger using photoacoustics.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won Young; Park, Kwan Kyu

    2017-03-01

    Fingerprint imaging has been widely used in biometric identification systems. This work presents a photoacoustic (PA) fingerprint imaging system that provides acoustic resolution using a pulsed laser and focused ultrasound transducer operating as a receiver. This PA system can measure dry fingers with a wide-range laser field based on the differences in the ultrasound coupling between the fingertip areas contacting and not contacting a solid plate. To demonstrate and validate the image accuracy of the PA system, PA fingerprint images were compared to images captured using a pulse-echo ultrasound system and an ink-pressed fingerprint scan.

  12. The use of fingerprints available on the web in false identity documents: Analysis from a forensic intelligence perspective.

    PubMed

    Girelli, Carlos Magno Alves

    2016-05-01

    Fingerprints present in false identity documents were found on the web. In some cases, laterally reversed (mirrored) images of a same fingerprint were observed in different documents. In the present work, 100 fingerprints images downloaded from the web, as well as their reversals obtained by image editing, were compared between themselves and against the database of the Brazilian Federal Police AFIS, in order to better understand trends about this kind of forgery in Brazil. Some image editing effects were observed in the analyzed fingerprints: addition of artifacts (such as watermarks), image rotation, image stylization, lateral reversal and tonal reversal. Discussion about lateral reversals' detection is presented in this article, as well as suggestion to reduce errors due to missed HIT decisions between reversed fingerprints. The present work aims to highlight the importance of the fingerprints' analysis when performing document examination, especially when only copies of documents are available, something very common in Brazil. Besides the intrinsic features of the fingermarks considered in three levels of details by ACE-V methodology, some visual features of the fingerprints images can be helpful to identify sources of forgeries and modus operandi, such as: limits and image contours, fails in the friction ridges caused by excess or lack of inking and presence of watermarks and artifacts arising from the background. Based on the agreement of such features in fingerprints present in different identity documents and also on the analysis of the time and location where the documents were seized, it is possible to highlight potential links between apparently unconnected crimes. Therefore, fingerprints have potential to reduce linkage blindness and the present work suggests the analysis of fingerprints when profiling false identity documents, as well as the inclusion of fingerprints features in the profile of the documents.

  13. Space Telecommunications Radio System STRS Cognitive Radio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briones, Janette C.; Handler, Louis M.

    2013-01-01

    Radios today are evolving from awareness toward cognition. A software defined radio (SDR) provides the most capability for integrating autonomic decision making ability and allows the incremental evolution toward a cognitive radio. This cognitive radio technology will impact NASA space communications in areas such as spectrum utilization, interoperability, network operations, and radio resource management over a wide range of operating conditions. NASAs cognitive radio will build upon the infrastructure being developed by Space Telecommunication Radio System (STRS) SDR technology. This paper explores the feasibility of inserting cognitive capabilities in the NASA STRS architecture and the interfaces between the cognitive engine and the STRS radio. The STRS architecture defines methods that can inform the cognitive engine about the radio environment so that the cognitive engine can learn autonomously from experience, and take appropriate actions to adapt the radio operating characteristics and optimize performance.

  14. RFI emitter location techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, B. L. J.

    1973-01-01

    The possibility is discussed of using Doppler techniques for determining the location of ground based emitters causing radio frequency interference with low orbiting satellites. An error analysis indicates that it is possible to find the emitter location within an error range of 2 n.mi. The parameters which determine the required satellite receiver characteristic are discussed briefly along with the non-real time signal processing which may by used in obtaining the Doppler curve. Finally, the required characteristics of the satellite antenna are analyzed.

  15. Fingerprinting the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-03-01

    -known Pleiades, also called the Seven Sisters, is a young bright open cluster. Conversely, Collinder 261, which was the target of the present team of astronomers, is among the oldest. It can therefore provide useful information on the early days in the existence of our Galaxy. The astronomers used UVES to observe a dozen red giants in the open cluster Collinder 261, located about 25,000 light years from the Galactic Centre. Giants are more luminous, hence they are well suited for high-precision measurements. From these observations, the abundances of a large set of chemical elements could be determined for each star, demonstrating convincingly that all stars in the cluster share the same chemical signature. "This high level of homogeneity indicates that the chemical information survived through several billion years," explains De Silva. "Thus all the stars in the cluster can be associated to the same prehistoric cloud. This corroborates what we had found for two other groups of stars." But this is not all. A comparison with the open cluster called the Hyades, and the group of stars moving with the bright star HR 1614, shows that each of them contains the same elements in different proportions. This indicates that each star cluster formed in a different primordial region, from a different cloud with a different chemical composition. "The consequences of these observations are thrilling," says Freeman. "The ages of open clusters cover the entire life of the Galaxy and each of them is expected to originate from a different patch of 'dough'. Seeing how much sodium, magnesium, calcium, iron and many other elements are present in each star cluster, we are like accurate cooks who can tell the amount of salt, sugar, eggs and flour used in different cookies. Each of them has a unique chemical signature." The astronomers will now aim to measure the chemical abundances in a larger sample of open clusters. Once the "DNA" of each star cluster is inferred, it will be possible to trace the

  16. RADIO ALTIMETERS

    DOEpatents

    Bogle, R.W.

    1960-11-22

    A radio ranging device is described which utilizes a superregenerative oscillator having alternate sending and receiving phases with an intervening ranging interval between said phases, means for varying said ranging interval, means responsive to an on-range noise reduction condition for stopping said means for varying the ranging interval and indicating means coupled to the ranging interval varying means and calibrated in accordance with one-half the product of the ranging interval times the velocity of light whereby the range is indicated.

  17. Millisecond radio pulsars in globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbunt, Frank; Lewin, Walter H. G.; van Paradijs, Jan

    1989-04-01

    It is shown that the number of millisecond radio pulsars, in globular clusters, should be larger than 100, applying the standard scenario that all the pulsars descend from low-mass X-ray binaries. Moreover, most of the pulsars are located in a small number of clusters. The prediction that Teran 5 and Liller 1 contain at least about a dozen millisecond radio pulsars each is made. The observations of millisecond radio pulsars in globular clusters to date, in particular the discovery of two millisecond radio pulsars in 47 Tuc, are in agreement with the standard scenario, in which the neutron star is spun up during the mass transfer phase.

  18. Millisecond radio pulsars in globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbunt, Frank; Lewin, Walter H. G.; van Paradijs, Jan

    1989-11-01

    It is shown that the number of millisecond radio pulsars, in globular clusters, should be larger than 100, applying the standard scenario that all the pulsars descend from low-mass X-ray binaries. Moreover, most of the pulsars are located in a small number of clusters. The prediction that Teran 5 and Liller 1 contain at least about a dozen millisecond radio pulsars each is made. The observations of millisecond radio pulsars in globular clusters to date, in particular the discovery of two millisecond radio pulsars in 47 Tuc, are in agreement with the standard scenario, in which the neutron star is spun up during the mass transfer phase.

  19. Millisecond radio pulsars in globular clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verbunt, Frank; Lewin, Walter H. G.; Vanparadijs, Jan

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that the number of millisecond radio pulsars, in globular clusters, should be larger than 100, applying the standard scenario that all the pulsars descend from low-mass X-ray binaries. Moreover, most of the pulsars are located in a small number of clusters. The prediction that Teran 5 and Liller 1 contain at least about a dozen millisecond radio pulsars each is made. The observations of millisecond radio pulsars in globular clusters to date, in particular the discovery of two millisecond radio pulsars in 47 Tuc, are in agreement with the standard scenario, in which the neutron star is spun up during the mass transfer phase.

  20. Air shower radio detection with LOPES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blümer, J.; Apel, W. D.; Arteaga, J. C.; Asch, T.; Auffenberg, J.; Badea, F.; Bähren, L.; Bekk, K.; Bertaina, M.; Biermann, P. L.; Bozdog, H.; Brancus, I. M.; Brüggemann, M.; Buchholz, P.; Buitink, S.; Butcher, H.; Chiavassa, A.; Cossavella, F.; Daumiller, K.; de Souza, V.; Di Pierro, F.; Doll, P.; Engel, R.; Falcke, H.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Glasstetter, R.; Grupen, C.; Haungs, A.; Heck, D.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Huege, T.; Isar, P. G.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kickelbick, D.; Kolotaev, Y.; Krömer, O.; Kuijpers, J.; Lafebre, S.; Luczak, P.; Mathes, H. J.; Mayer, H. J.; Meurer, C.; Milke, J.; Mitrica, B.; Morello, C.; Navarra, G.; Nehls, S.; Nigl, A.; Oehlschläger, J.; Ostapchenko, S.; Over, S.; Petcu, M.; Petrovic, J.; Pierog, T.; Plewnia, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Rebel, H.; Roth, M.; Saftoiu, A.; Schieler, H.; Sima, O.; Singh, K.; Stümpert, M.; Toma, G.; Trinchero, G. C.; Ulrich, H.; van Buren, J.; Walkowiak, W.; Weindl, A.; Wochele, J.; Zabierowski, J.; Zensus, J. A.; LOPES Collaboration

    2008-07-01

    LOPES is an array of 30 radio antenna co-located with the KASCADE-Grande extensive air shower detector in Karlsruhe, Germany. It is designed as a digital radio interferometer for the detection of radio emission from extensive air showers. LOPES features high bandwidth and fast data processing. A unique asset is the concurrent operation with KASCADE-Grande. We report about the progress in understanding the radio signals measured by LOPES. In addition, the status and further perspectives of LOPES and the large scale application of this novel detection technique are sketched.

  1. Blind camera fingerprinting and image clustering.

    PubMed

    Bloy, Greg J

    2008-03-01

    Previous studies have shown how to "fingerprint" a digital camera given a set of images known to come from the camera. A clustering technique is proposed to construct such fingerprints from a mixed set of images, enabling identification of each image's source camera without any prior knowledge of source.

  2. DNA Fingerprinting in a Forensic Teaching Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagoner, Stacy A.; Carlson, Kimberly A.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an experiment designed to provide students, in a classroom laboratory setting, a hands-on demonstration of the steps used in DNA forensic analysis by performing DNA extraction, DNA fingerprinting, and statistical analysis of the data. This experiment demonstrates how DNA fingerprinting is performed and how long it takes. It…

  3. Tools for quality control of fingerprint databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swann, B. Scott; Libert, John M.; Lepley, Margaret A.

    2010-04-01

    Integrity of fingerprint data is essential to biometric and forensic applications. Accordingly, the FBI's Criminal Justice Information Services (CJIS) Division has sponsored development of software tools to facilitate quality control functions relative to maintaining its fingerprint data assets inherent to the Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System (IAFIS) and Next Generation Identification (NGI). This paper provides an introduction of two such tools. The first FBI-sponsored tool was developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and examines and detects the spectral signature of the ridge-flow structure characteristic of friction ridge skin. The Spectral Image Validation/Verification (SIVV) utility differentiates fingerprints from non-fingerprints, including blank frames or segmentation failures erroneously included in data; provides a "first look" at image quality; and can identify anomalies in sample rates of scanned images. The SIVV utility might detect errors in individual 10-print fingerprints inaccurately segmented from the flat, multi-finger image acquired by one of the automated collection systems increasing in availability and usage. In such cases, the lost fingerprint can be recovered by re-segmentation from the now compressed multi-finger image record. The second FBI-sponsored tool, CropCoeff was developed by MITRE and thoroughly tested via NIST. CropCoeff enables cropping of the replacement single print directly from the compressed data file, thus avoiding decompression and recompression of images that might degrade fingerprint features necessary for matching.

  4. Chemical Fingerprinting Program for RSRM Critical Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClennen, William H.; Fife, Dennis J.; Killpack, Michael O.; Golde, Rick P.; Cash, Steve (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on the chemical fingerprinting of RSRM (Reusable Sold Rocket Motor) components. A chemical fingerprint can be used to identify a material, to differentiate it from similar looking materials, or lead to its source. It can also identify unexpected changes to a vendor or supplier's material, and monitor aging.

  5. DNA Fingerprinting in a Forensic Teaching Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagoner, Stacy A.; Carlson, Kimberly A.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an experiment designed to provide students, in a classroom laboratory setting, a hands-on demonstration of the steps used in DNA forensic analysis by performing DNA extraction, DNA fingerprinting, and statistical analysis of the data. This experiment demonstrates how DNA fingerprinting is performed and how long it takes. It…

  6. RF slice profile effects in magnetic resonance fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Hong, Taehwa; Han, Dongyeob; Kim, Min-Oh; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2017-09-01

    The radio frequency (RF) slice profile effects on T1 and T2 estimation in magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF) are investigated with respect to time-bandwidth product (TBW), flip angle (FA) level and field inhomogeneities. Signal evolutions are generated incorporating the non-ideal slice selective excitation process using Bloch simulation and matched to the original dictionary with and without the non-ideal slice profile taken into account. For validation, phantom and in vivo experiments are performed at 3T. Both simulations and experiments results show that T1 and T2 error from non-ideal slice profile increases with increasing FA level, off-resonance, and low TBW values. Therefore, RF slice profile effects should be compensated for accurate determination of the MR parameters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Fingerprint Compression Based on Sparse Representation.

    PubMed

    Shao, Guangqi; Wu, Yanping; A, Yong; Liu, Xiao; Guo, Tiande

    2014-02-01

    A new fingerprint compression algorithm based on sparse representation is introduced. Obtaining an overcomplete dictionary from a set of fingerprint patches allows us to represent them as a sparse linear combination of dictionary atoms. In the algorithm, we first construct a dictionary for predefined fingerprint image patches. For a new given fingerprint images, represent its patches according to the dictionary by computing l(0)-minimization and then quantize and encode the representation. In this paper, we consider the effect of various factors on compression results. Three groups of fingerprint images are tested. The experiments demonstrate that our algorithm is efficient compared with several competing compression techniques (JPEG, JPEG 2000, and WSQ), especially at high compression ratios. The experiments also illustrate that the proposed algorithm is robust to extract minutiae.

  8. Integrated fingerprinting in secure digital cinema projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delannay, Damien; Delaigle, Jean-Francois; Macq, Benoit M. M.; Quisquater, Jean-Jacques; Mas Ribes, Joan M.; Boucqueau, Jean M.; Nivart, Jean-Francois

    2001-12-01

    This paper describes the functional model of a combined conditional access and fingerprinting copyright (-or projectionright) protection system in a digital cinema framework. In the cinema industry, a large part of early movie piracy comes from copies made in the theater itself with a camera. The evolution towards digital cinema broadcast enables watermark based fingerprinting protection systems. Besides an appropriate fingerprinting technology, a number of well defined security/cryptographic tools are integrated in order to guaranty the integrity of the whole system. The requirements are two-fold: On one side, we must ensure that the media content is only accessible at exhibition time (under specific authorization obtained after an ad-hoc film rental agreement) and contains the related exhibition fingerprint. At the other end, we must prove our ability to retrieve the fingerprint information from an illegal copy of the media.

  9. 47 CFR 0.485 - Commercial radio operator examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commercial radio operator examinations. 0.485....485 Commercial radio operator examinations. Generally, written and telegraphy examinations for commercial radio operator licenses shall be conducted at locations and times specified by commercial operator...

  10. 47 CFR 0.485 - Commercial radio operator examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Commercial radio operator examinations. 0.485....485 Commercial radio operator examinations. Generally, written and telegraphy examinations for commercial radio operator licenses shall be conducted at locations and times specified by commercial operator...

  11. 47 CFR 0.485 - Commercial radio operator examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Commercial radio operator examinations. 0.485....485 Commercial radio operator examinations. Generally, written and telegraphy examinations for commercial radio operator licenses shall be conducted at locations and times specified by commercial operator...

  12. 47 CFR 0.485 - Commercial radio operator examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Commercial radio operator examinations. 0.485....485 Commercial radio operator examinations. Generally, written and telegraphy examinations for commercial radio operator licenses shall be conducted at locations and times specified by commercial operator...

  13. 47 CFR 0.485 - Commercial radio operator examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Commercial radio operator examinations. 0.485....485 Commercial radio operator examinations. Generally, written and telegraphy examinations for commercial radio operator licenses shall be conducted at locations and times specified by commercial operator...

  14. Determination of the Effective Areas of the Decameter Radio Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashkovskiy, S. L.; Shepelev, V. A.; Inyutin, G. A.; Vashchshin, R. V.

    A method of a calibration of arrays of the URAN radio telescopes is presented. A number of powerful discrete radio sources located on different declinations were observed with the radio telescopes to obtain dependence of their normalized affective area from a beam orientation. Absolute value of the effective area of each antenna was found by observations of the calibrator 3C405.

  15. DNA fingerprints come to court

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-04-15

    DNA fingerprinting, a new technique, which produces a visual representation of a person's genome, enables the identification of perpetrators from as little as a single hair root, providing they have left some biologic evidence-hair, skin cells, blood, or semen-at the scene of the crime. DNA fingerprinting was developed by British geneticist Alec Jeffreys, PhD, in 1985. Jeffreys, professor genetics at the University of Leicester, built upon a discovery, five years earlier, of certain hypervariable regions called minisatellites in unexpressed areas of DNA. The hypervariability was evidenced in the number of repetitions of certain sequences of base pairs. It was this aspect that revealed to Jeffreys something that had eluded other investigators. He realized that these minisatellite regions had a potential for identification far greater than that of conventional genetic markers, which are defined by restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs). RFLPs are characterized by the substitution of one base pair for another, resulting in the presence or absence of a restriction enzyme site. Thus, each offers a limited number of alleles. In contrast, minisatellite regions have an accordion-like range of length, as the number of repetitions of a given sequence varies widely from person to person.

  16. Slowflow fingerprints of urban hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Stuart S.; Smith, Brennan

    2014-07-01

    Urban streamflow is commonly characterized by increased peak discharges and runoff volumes. Slowflow integrates altered storage and transit times affecting urban recharge and drainage, resulting in a highly variable indeterminate urban slowflow response. This study introduces the use of multiple baseflow metrics to characterize and interpret the dominant processes driving urban slowflow response. Slowflow characteristics derived from USGS streamflow records are used to quantify the patterns of hydrologic alteration across the rural-to-urban landuse gradient in the Piedmont watersheds of the Baltimore Ecosystem Study (BES), an NSF Urban Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site in the Baltimore Metropolitan area. We interpret multimetric slowflow response from a top-down perspective, learning from data, in order to draw dominant process inferences from observed slowflow. When characterized by a single slowflow metric such as the baseflow index, urban slowflow response can exhibit equifinality and is not reliably predicted a priori. Multimetric analysis quantifies distinct differences in urban slowflow response, framing testable hypotheses and refined experimental designs to elucidate the dominant processes driving urban slowflow. Multimetric fingerprinting offers a consistent framework for interpreting urban slowflow response, constrained by the equifinality of single slowflow metrics and the inherent limitations on process inferences that can be drawn from gauged streamflow alone. Heterogeneity of observed slowflow belies the simple paradigm of a single consistent type of urban slowflow response. In contrast, we suggest a conceptual typology of urban slowflow response, framing a conceptual mixing model of dominant process endpoints that shape the slowflow fingerprints of urban hydrology.

  17. Metabolite fingerprinting in transgenic lettuce.

    PubMed

    Garratt, Lee C; Linforth, Robert; Taylor, Andrew J; Lowe, Kenneth C; Power, J Brian; Davey, Michael R

    2005-03-01

    Metabolite fingerprinting has been achieved using direct atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (APCI-MS) and linked gas chromatography (GC-APCI/EI-MS) for transgenic lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Evola) plants expressing an IPT gene under the control of the senescence-specific SAG12 promoter from Arabidopsis thaliana (P(SAG12)-IPT). Mature heads of transgenic lettuce and their azygous controls were maintained under defined conditions to assess their shelf life. Transgenic lettuce plants exhibited delayed senescence and significant increases (up to a maximum of threefold) in the concentrations of three volatile organic compounds (VOCs), corresponding to molecular masses of 45, 47 and 63, when compared with heads from azygous plants. These VOCs were identified as acetaldehyde (45), ethanol (47) and dimethyl sulphide (63). The increase in dimethyl sulphide was paralleled by an accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the heads of transgenic plants. These results demonstrate the applicability of metabolic fingerprinting techniques to elucidate the underlying pleiotropic responses of plants to transgene expression.

  18. Fingerprinting using extrolite profiles and physiological data shows sub-specific groupings of Penicillium crustosum strains.

    PubMed

    Sonjak, Silva; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina

    2009-08-01

    Fingerprinting of Penicillium crustosum strains was performed using different phenotypic characteristics. Seven strains of this extremely homogenous species were selected; of these, five originated from geographical locations characterized by low temperatures, and one from a location with a low water activity. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed using micromorphological data, temperature- and water-dependent growth rates, and extrolite profiles obtained by HPLC analysis. The micromorphological data were less informative, while the growth-rate data were informative only if the strains investigated already showed slight adaptations to the selected external parameter. In contrast, PCA analyses of the extrolite data showed groupings of the strains according to their origins and known physiological differences. These groupings are in full agreement with the clustering obtained by previous amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) study. We thus demonstrate here for the first time that combined qualitative and quantitative extrolite profiles can be used as a tool for phenotypic fingerprinting, to complement, or replace, molecular fingerprinting techniques.

  19. Radio luminosity function of brightest cluster galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Z. S.; Han, J. L.; Wen, Z. L.

    2016-08-01

    By cross-matching the currently largest optical catalogue of galaxy clusters and the NVSS radio survey data base, we obtain a large complete sample of brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) in the redshift range of 0.05 < z ≤ 0.45, which have radio emission and redshift information. We confirm that more powerful radio BCGs tend to be these optically very bright galaxies located in more relaxed clusters. We derived the radio luminosity functions of the largest sample of radio BCGs, and find that the functions depend on the optical luminosity of BCGs and the dynamic state of galaxy clusters. However, the radio luminosity function does not show significant evolution with redshift.

  20. Assessment of the methodology for estimating ridge density in fingerprints and its forensic application.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Redomero, Esperanza; Rivaldería, Noemí; Alonso-Rodríguez, Concepción; Sánchez-Andrés, Ángeles

    2014-05-01

    In recent times, some studies have explored the forensic application of dermatoglyphic traits such as the epidermal ridge breadth or ridge density (RD) toward the inference of sex and population from fingerprints of unknown origin, as it has been demonstrated that there exist significant differences of fingerprints between sexes and between populations. Part of the population differences found between these studies could be of methodological nature, due both to the lack of standardisation in the position of the counting area, as well as to the differences in the method used for obtaining the fingerprint. Therefore, the aim of this study was to check whether there are differences between the RD of fingerprints depending on where the counting area is placed and how the fingerprints are obtained. Fingerprints of each finger were obtained from 102 adult Spanish subjects (50 females and 52 males), using two methods (plain and rolled). The ridge density of each fingerprint was assessed in five different areas of the dactylogram: two closer to the core area (one on the radial and the other on the ulnar side), two closer to the outermost area of each of the sides (radial and ulnar), and another one in the proximal region of the fingertip. Regardless of the method used and of the position of the counting area, thumbs and forefingers show a higher RD than middle, ring, and little fingers in both sexes, and females present a higher RD than males in all areas and fingers. In both males and females, RD values on the core region are higher than those on the outer region, irrespective of the technique of fingerprinting used (rolled or plain). Regardless of the sex and location of the count area (core or outer), the rolled fingerprints exhibit RD greater than that of the plain ones in both radial and proximal areas, whereas the trend is inverted in the ulnar area, where rolled fingerprints demonstrate RD lesser than that of the plain ones. Therefore, in order for the results of

  1. A novel spectral fingerprint analysis to discriminate dry red wines.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yan; Tao, Yong-Sheng; Hou, Xiao-Fan; Dizy, Marta

    2014-01-01

    A novel spectral fingerprint to discriminate different dry red wines was built using data visualization method. Twelve red wines with different vintages, cultivars and ageing methods from Changli and Shacheng were sampled. Nine fractions of each wine were collected with a reversed-phase C18 column, and then they were lyophilized. The residue of each fraction was resolved with synthetic wine of the same volume with the fraction sample. The transmittance spectra of wines and their fractions were recorded from 190 to 1100 nm. And the spectral data were visualized to show their visual differences directly. Mono-phenols in wine and fractions were analyzed by HPLC-DAD at wavelengths in the range where located the obvious differences of the spectral fingerprints. The results showed that the spectral differences of wine samples lied in the range of 190 to 600 nm. There were obvious differences in visual maps among wines with different vintages, mainly around 520 nm. The visualization differences among wines with distinct geographical origins lay in the F8 maps, and the differences from the aging methods almost cover the whole wavelength range visualized. However, wines from different grape cultivars had the similar visual characteristics. HPLC-DAD identified the possible monophenol groups for the spectral differences at 280, 313, 365 and 520 nm. It was concluded that the visualization of spectral data from 190 to 600 nm could be used to build red wine spectral fingerprint to distinguish dry red wines with different vintages, origins, and ageing methods.

  2. [FTIR fingerprint spectrograms of traditional Chinese medicine Marsdenia tenacissima].

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Yang, Sheng-Chao; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Zheng, Kai-Yan; Wang, Ping-Li; Xu, Xiang-Zeng; Xiao, Xue-Feng

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy fingerprint analysis of Marsdenia tenacissima samples was used to develop a reliable method of tracing the geographical origins. Forty-eight samples from four provinces of China were analyzed by FTIR. We analyzed and characterized the fingerprints in both the full spectrum peaks and characteristic peaks, then the principal component analysis and the cluster analysis were carried out. The results of fingerprint analysis, correlation analysis, principal component analysis and cluster analysis can identify the geographic origins correctly, which verified and supplemented each other; the identification results and the actual location showed a high degree of consistency, namely the lower the space distance, the greater the similarity of different samples. These results revealed the obvious superiority and practical value in comparison to the more tedious and time-consuming wet chemistry method normally used. Using appropriate metrology methods can trace the geographical source correctly. The M. tenacissima materials from the region of Maguan should be considered as genuine medicinal materials taking into account the good quality.

  3. Anti-counterfeit nanoscale fingerprints based on randomly distributed nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jangbae; Yun, Je Moon; Jung, Jongwook; Song, Hyunjoon; Kim, Jin-Baek; Ihee, Hyotcherl

    2014-04-01

    Counterfeiting is conducted in almost every industry, and the losses caused by it are growing as today’s world trade continues to increase. In an attempt to provide an efficient method to fight such counterfeiting, we herein demonstrate anti-counterfeit nanoscale fingerprints generated by randomly distributed nanowires. Specifically, we prepare silver nanowires coated with fluorescent dyes and cast them onto the surface of transparent PET film. The resulting non-repeatable patterns characterized by the random location of the nanowires and their fluorescent colors provide unique barcodes suitable for anti-counterfeit purposes. Counterfeiting such a fingerprint pattern is impractical and expensive; the cost of replicating it would be higher than the value of the typical target item being protected. Fingerprint patterns can be visually authenticated in a simple and straightforward manner by using an optical microscope. The concept of generating unique patterns by randomness is not limited to the materials shown in this paper and should be readily applicable to other types of materials.

  4. Quantifying suspended sediment yield with fingerprinting technique in coastal catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizugaki, Shigeru; Ohtsuka, Junichi; Ohashi, Masami; Tanise, Atsushi; Shimme, Ryuichi

    2017-04-01

    The suspended sediment load transported by a river will commonly represent a mixture of sediment delivered from different locations and from various source types within the contributing catchment. Sediment yield of catchment is well known to depend on dominant geology underlying in the catchment, but the variation in sediment yield has rarely been quantified. The objective of this study was to quantify the suspended sediment yield of various lithological area within catchment. To achieve the objective, the fingerprinting was conducted using natural radionuclide tracers across a couple of adjacent coastal catchments, the Saru River and the Mukawa River in Hokkaido, northern Japan. Fingerprinting technique showed that the suspended sediment was mainly originated from sedimentary rock and metamorphic rock, while coastal sand was mainly originated from plutonic rock and melange matrix of accretionary complex. Suspended sediment yield was quantified for each lithological source group with fingerprinting technique and hydrological observation, showing the highest in the metamorphic rock area, where the landslide scar densely distributes. These results suggest that mass movement and weathering features depending on lithology can control the contribution of source to suspended sediment and its particle size from mountain to coastal area.

  5. Recovery of fingerprints from fire scenes and associated evidence.

    PubMed

    Deans, J

    2006-01-01

    A lack of information concerning the potential recovery of fingerprints from fire scenes and related evidence prompted several research projects. Latent prints from good secretors and visible prints (in blood) were placed on a variety of different surfaces and subsequently subjected to "real life" fires in fully furnished compartments used for fire investigation training purposes. The items were placed in various locations and at different heights within the compartments. After some initial success, further tests were undertaken using both latent and dirt/grease marks on different objects within the same types of fire compartments. Subsequent sets of tests involved the recovery of latent and visual fingerprints (in blood, dirt and grease) from different types of weapons, lighters, plastic bags, match boxes, tapers, plastic bottles and petrol bombs that had been subjected to the same fire conditions as previously. Throughout the entire series of projects one of the prime considerations was how the resultant findings could be put into practice by fire scene examiners in an attempt to assist the police in their investigations. This research demonstrates that almost one in five items recovered from fire scenes yielded fingerprint ridge detail following normal development treatments.

  6. Fingerprint data acquisition, desmearing, wavelet feature extraction, and identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szu, Harold H.; Hsu, Charles C.; Garcia, Joseph P.; Telfer, Brian A.

    1995-04-01

    In this paper, we present (1) a design concept of a fingerprint scanning system that can reject severely blurred inputs for retakes and then de-smear those less blurred prints. The de-smear algorithm is new and is based on the digital filter theory of the lossless QMF (quadrature mirror filter) subband coding. Then, we present (2) a new fingerprint minutia feature extraction methodology which uses a 2D STAR mother wavelet that can efficiently locate the fork feature anywhere on the fingerprints in parallel and is independent of its scale, shift, and rotation. Such a combined system can achieve high data compression to send through a binary facsimile machine that when combined with a tabletop computer can achieve the automatic finger identification systems (AFIS) using today's technology in the office environment. An interim recommendation for the National Crime Information Center is given about how to reduce the crime rate by an upgrade of today's police office technology in the light of the military expertise in ATR.

  7. Location Privacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xiaofeng; Chen, Jidong

    With rapid development of sensor and wireless mobile devices, it is easy to access mobile users' location information anytime and anywhere. On one hand, LBS is becoming more and more valuable and important. On the other hand, location privacy issues raised by such applications have also gained more attention. However, due to the specificity of location information, traditional privacy-preserving techniques in data publishing cannot be used. In this chapter, we will introduce location privacy, and analyze the challenges of location privacy-preserving, and give a survey of existing work including the system architecture, location anonymity and query processing.

  8. 47 CFR 73.315 - FM transmitter location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FM transmitter location. 73.315 Section 73.315 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.315 FM transmitter location. (a) The transmitter location shall be chosen so...

  9. 47 CFR 73.315 - FM transmitter location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false FM transmitter location. 73.315 Section 73.315 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.315 FM transmitter location. (a) The transmitter location shall be chosen so...

  10. Learning radio astronomy by doing radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaquerizo Gallego, J. A.

    2011-11-01

    PARTNeR (Proyecto Académico con el Radio Telescopio de NASA en Robledo, Academic Project with the NASA Radio Telescope at Robledo) is an educational program that allows high school and undergraduate students to control a 34 meter radio telescope and conduct radio astronomical observations via the internet. High-school teachers who join the project take a course to learn about the science of radio astronomy and how to use the antenna as an educational resource. Also, teachers are provided with learning activities they can do with their students and focused on the classroom implementation of the project within an interdisciplinary framework. PARTNeR provides students with firsthand experience in radio astronomy science. Thus, remote radio astronomical observations allow students to learn with a first rate scientific equipment the basics of radio astronomy research, aiming to arouse scientific careers and positive attitudes toward science. In this contribution we show the current observational programs and some recent results.

  11. Lunar Farside Radio Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccone, Claudio

    2005-03-01

    It is proposed that the Farside of the Moon should be protected legally against man-made radio pollution and uncontrolled exploitation. In fact, only by establishing a radiotelescope on the Farside of the Moon it will finally be possible to cope with the Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) that is now increasingly plaguing all of Radioastronomy, Bioastronomy and Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) Searches done from the surface of the Earth. It is suggested to partition the Farside into 3 sectors, each 60°wide, to ensurethe creation of a future “Lunar Farside Radio Lab” inside crater Daedalus (at 180°E) with our planned Radiotelescope (in practice a Phased Array),complete freedom to exploit the Nearside as well as the four Lagrangian points L1, L3, L4 and L5 of the Earth Moon system by allowing even some International Space Stations to be located there. It is also claimed, however, thatthe “opposite” Lagrangian point L2 should possibly be kept free of spacecrafts that would flood the Farside by the RFI they produce. Realistically, it might be difficult to comply with the latter request in view of the far-future development of a Space Base located there in order to depart towards the Asteroids and the Outer Planets at very reduced fuel consumption. A more reasonable request about any future space station located at the Earth Moon L2 point is thus that this future space station should be shielded to prevent its RFI from reaching the Farside of the Moon.A number of further astrophysical, astronautical and technical issues could just be highlighted in this study and deserve much more elaboration. To mention a few:the precise size of the “Quiet Cone” extending into space above the Farside of the Moon. Also, the experimental measurement of how quiet this Cone actually is by letting a radiometer orbit the Moon (see the web site www.rli.it);the mathematical modelling of the weak ionosphere of the Moon and its possible diffraction effects at very

  12. Location | FNLCR

    Cancer.gov

    The Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research campus is located 50 miles northwest of Washington, D.C., and 50 miles west of Baltimore, Maryland, in Frederick, Maryland. Satellite locations include leased and government facilities extending s

  13. Fingerprint developing of coffee flavor by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and combined chemometrics methods.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lan-Fang; Wu, Ming-Jian; Zhong, Ke-Jun; Sun, Xian-Jun; Liang, Yi-Zeng; Dai, Yun-Hui; Huang, Ke-Long; Guo, Fang-Qiu

    2007-04-11

    In this paper, chromatographic fingerprint was firstly used for quality control of tobacco flavors. Based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and combined chemometrics methods, a simple, reliable and reproducible method for developing chromatographic fingerprint of coffee flavor, one of tobacco flavors, was described. Six coffee flavor samples obtained from different locations were used to establish the fingerprint. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of coffee flavor sample from Shenzhen was completed with the help of subwindow factor analysis (SFA). Fifty-two components of 68 separated constituents in coffee flavor sample from Shenzhen, accounting for 88.42% of the total content, were identified and quantified. Then, spectral correlative chromatography (SCC) was used to extract the common peaks from other five studied coffee flavor samples. Thirty-eight components were found to exist in all six samples. Finally, the method validation of fingerprint analysis was performed based on the relative retention time and the relative peak area of common peaks, sample stability and similarity analysis. The similarities of six coffee flavor samples were more than 0.9104 and showed that samples from different locations were consistent to some extent. The developed chromatographic fingerprint was successfully used to differentiate coffee flavor from cocoa flavor and some little difference sample prepared with coffee flavor and cocoa flavor by both similarity comparison and principal component projection analysis. The developed method can be used for quality control of coffee flavor.

  14. 8 CFR 236.5 - Fingerprints and photographs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fingerprints and photographs. 236.5 Section... to Order of Removal § 236.5 Fingerprints and photographs. Every alien 14 years of age or older... by service of a notice to appear shall be fingerprinted and photographed. Such fingerprints...

  15. 8 CFR 236.5 - Fingerprints and photographs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fingerprints and photographs. 236.5 Section... to Order of Removal § 236.5 Fingerprints and photographs. Every alien 14 years of age or older... by service of a notice to appear shall be fingerprinted and photographed. Such fingerprints...

  16. 8 CFR 236.5 - Fingerprints and photographs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fingerprints and photographs. 236.5 Section... to Order of Removal § 236.5 Fingerprints and photographs. Every alien 14 years of age or older... by service of a notice to appear shall be fingerprinted and photographed. Such fingerprints...

  17. 8 CFR 236.5 - Fingerprints and photographs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fingerprints and photographs. 236.5 Section... to Order of Removal § 236.5 Fingerprints and photographs. Every alien 14 years of age or older... by service of a notice to appear shall be fingerprinted and photographed. Such fingerprints...

  18. 8 CFR 236.5 - Fingerprints and photographs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fingerprints and photographs. 236.5 Section... to Order of Removal § 236.5 Fingerprints and photographs. Every alien 14 years of age or older... by service of a notice to appear shall be fingerprinted and photographed. Such fingerprints and...

  19. Fingerprint Minutiae from Latent and Matching Tenprint Images

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Fingerprint Minutiae from Latent and Matching Tenprint Images (PC database for purchase)   NIST Special Database 27 contains latent fingerprints from crime scenes and their matching rolled fingerprint mates. This database can be used to develop and test new fingerprint algorithms, test commercial and research AFIS systems, train latent examiners, and promote the ANSI/NIST file format standard.

  20. Case study of 3D fingerprints applications.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Liang, Jinrong; Shen, Linlin; Yang, Meng; Zhang, David; Lai, Zhihui

    2017-01-01

    Human fingers are 3D objects. More information will be provided if three dimensional (3D) fingerprints are available compared with two dimensional (2D) fingerprints. Thus, this paper firstly collected 3D finger point cloud data by Structured-light Illumination method. Additional features from 3D fingerprint images are then studied and extracted. The applications of these features are finally discussed. A series of experiments are conducted to demonstrate the helpfulness of 3D information to fingerprint recognition. Results show that a quick alignment can be easily implemented under the guidance of 3D finger shape feature even though this feature does not work for fingerprint recognition directly. The newly defined distinctive 3D shape ridge feature can be used for personal authentication with Equal Error Rate (EER) of ~8.3%. Also, it is helpful to remove false core point. Furthermore, a promising of EER ~1.3% is realized by combining this feature with 2D features for fingerprint recognition which indicates the prospect of 3D fingerprint recognition.

  1. Mars South Polar Cap "Fingerprint" Terrain

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-04-24

    This picture is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left. Some portions of the martian south polar residual cap have long, somewhat curved troughs instead of circular pits. These appear to form in a layer of material that may be different than that in which "swiss cheese" circles and pits form, and none of these features has any analog in the north polar cap or elsewhere on Mars. This picture shows the "fingerprint" terrain as a series of long, narrow depressions considered to have formed by collapse and widening by sublimation of ice. Unlike the north polar cap, the south polar region stays cold enough in summer to retain frozen carbon dioxide. Viking Orbiter observations during the late 1970s showed that very little water vapor comes off the south polar cap during summer, indicating that any frozen water that might be there remains solid throughout the year. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image was obtained in early southern spring on August 4, 1999. It shows an area 3 x 5 kilometers (1.9 x 3.1 miles) at a resolution of about 7.3 meters (24 ft) per pixel. Located near 86.0°S, 53.9°W. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA02373

  2. Fingerprinting PCB patterns among Mohawk women.

    PubMed

    Hwang, S A; Yang, B Z; Fitzgerald, E F; Bush, B; Cook, K

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the association of contaminated fish consumption and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) body burden by comparing the similarity of the congener pattern in yellow perch, caught near the point source of industrial pollution, and in other local fish to the pattern found in the breast milk of Mohawk women from Akwesasne, a Native American community located along the St. Lawrence River in New York, Ontario, and Quebec. The similarity is defined by the weighted Euclidean distance between two congener patterns. Ninety-seven Mohawk mothers participated and provided samples of breast milk. One hundred fifty-four nursing women from the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) of Warren and Schoharie counties, New York, who gave birth during the same time period, were used as the comparison group. Results revealed that the breast milk of the Mohawk women, who ate the most local fish, had a congener pattern that more closely resembled that of perch caught near the waste site or average sampled fish caught in the Reserve than Mohawk women who ate less fish or the controls. The outcome demonstrates how PCBs may be "fingerprinted" as they migrate offsite from industrial sources and ultimately result in human exposure.

  3. Galectin fingerprinting in naso-sinusal diseases.

    PubMed

    Duray, Anaëlle; De Maesschalck, Thibault; Decaestecker, Christine; Remmelink, Myriam; Chantrain, Gilbert; Neiveyans, Jennifer; Horoi, Mihaela; Leroy, Xavier; Gabius, Hans-Joachim; Saussez, Sven

    2014-07-01

    Galectins, a family of endogenous lectins, are multifunctional effectors that act at various sites and can be used in immunohistochemical localization studies of diseased states. Since they form a potentially cooperative and antagonistic network, we tested the hypothesis that histopathological fingerprinting of galectins could refine the molecular understanding of naso-sinusal pathologies. Using non-cross-reactive antibodies against galectin-1, -3, -4, -7, -8 and -9, we characterized the galectin profiles in chronic rhinosinusitis, nasal polyposis, inverted papillomas and squamous cell carcinomas. The expression, signal location and quantitative parameters describing the percentage of positive cells and labeling intensity were assessed for various cases. We discovered that inverted papillomas showed a distinct galectin immunohistochemical profile. Indeed, epithelial overexpression of galectin-3 (p=0.0002), galectin-4 (p<10-6), galectin-7 (p<10-6) and galectin-9 (p<10-6) was observed in inverted papillomas compared to non-malignant diseases. Regarding carcinomas, we observed increased expression of galectin-9 (p<10-6) in epithelial cells compared to non-tumor pathologies. Our results suggest that galectin-3, -4, -7 and -9 could be involved in the biology of inverted papillomas. In addition, we observed that the expression of galectin in naso-sinusal diseases seems to be affected by tumor progression and not inflammatory or allergic phenomena.

  4. 47 CFR 90.351 - Location and Monitoring Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Location and Monitoring Service. 90.351 Section 90.351 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Intelligent Transportation Systems Radio Service §...

  5. 47 CFR 95.192 - (FRS Rule 2) Authorized locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false (FRS Rule 2) Authorized locations. 95.192 Section 95.192 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Family Radio Service (FRS) General Provisions § 95.192 (FRS Rule...

  6. DNA fingerprinting. The future of forensic dentistry--a review.

    PubMed

    Diwaker, N R; Rajeshwari; Rao, B

    2001-01-01

    Forensic dental identification is at technological cross roads. The incidence of dental restorations, the mainstay of radiographic dental investigations, have declined. Whereas molecular biology laboratory procedures are rapidly increasing in efficiency and availability. With new typing techniques forensic scientists can characterize individuals at the fundamental level of their DNA, and variations between individuals at this level can be used to discriminated between them. The anatomical location of teeth and the extent to which teeth may suffer environmental changes and still provide useful DNA material has propelled forensic odontology. The techniques of DNS fingerprinting, the role of teeth as a source of DNA material and its feasibility is discussed in relatively simple terms.

  7. Development of multichannel soft tactile sensors having fingerprint structure.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, H; Murashima, Y; Honma, N; Kobayashi, K

    2014-01-01

    It is possible to accurately recognize the shape of an object or to grip it by setting soft tactile sensors on a robot's hands. We studied a multichannel soft tactile sensor as an artificial hand and evaluated the pressure's response performance from several directions and the slipping and sliding responses. The tactile sensor consisted of multiple pneumatic sensors and a soft cap with a fingerprint structure that was made of silicone gum and was separated from multiple spaces. Evaluation tests showed that the multiple soft tactile sensors estimate both an object's contact force and its contact location. Our tactile sensor also measured the object's roughness by the slide on surface texture.

  8. Mated Fingerprint Card Pairs 2 (MFCP2)

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Mated Fingerprint Card Pairs 2 (MFCP2) (Web, free access)   NIST Special Database 14 is being distributed for use in development and testing of automated fingerprint classification and matching systems on a set of images which approximate a natural horizontal distribution of the National Crime Information Center (NCIC) fingerprint classes. A newer version of the compression/decompression software on the CDROM can be found at the website http://www.nist.gov/itl/iad/ig/nigos.cfm as part of the NBIS package.

  9. Molecular fingerprint similarity search in virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Cereto-Massagué, Adrià; Ojeda, María José; Valls, Cristina; Mulero, Miquel; Garcia-Vallvé, Santiago; Pujadas, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Molecular fingerprints have been used for a long time now in drug discovery and virtual screening. Their ease of use (requiring little to no configuration) and the speed at which substructure and similarity searches can be performed with them - paired with a virtual screening performance similar to other more complex methods - is the reason for their popularity. However, there are many types of fingerprints, each representing a different aspect of the molecule, which can greatly affect search performance. This review focuses on commonly used fingerprint algorithms, their usage in virtual screening, and the software packages and online tools that provide these algorithms.

  10. Using the Fingerprinting Method to Customize RTLS Based on the AoA Ranging Technique

    PubMed Central

    Jachimczyk, Bartosz; Dziak, Damian; Kulesza, Wlodek J.

    2016-01-01

    Real-time Locating Systems (RTLSs) have the ability to precisely locate the position of things and people in real time. They are needed for security and emergency applications, but also for healthcare and home care appliances. The research aims for developing an analytical method to customize RTLSs, in order to improve localization performance in terms of precision. The proposed method is based on Angle of Arrival (AoA), a ranging technique and fingerprinting method along with an analytically defined uncertainty of AoA, and a localization uncertainty map. The presented solution includes three main concerns: geometry of indoor space, RTLS arrangement, and a statistical approach to localization precision of a pair of location sensors using an AoA signal. An evaluation of the implementation of the customized RTLS validates the analytical model of the fingerprinting map. The results of simulations and physical experiments verify the proposed method. The research confirms that the analytically established fingerprint map is the valid representation of RTLS’ performance in terms of precision. Furthermore, the research demonstrates an impact of workspace geometry and workspace layout onto the RTLS’ performance. Moreover, the studies show how the size and shape of a workspace and the placement of the calibration point affect the fingerprint map. Withal, the performance investigation defines the most effective arrangement of location sensors and its influence on localization precision. PMID:27314354

  11. Using the Fingerprinting Method to Customize RTLS Based on the AoA Ranging Technique.

    PubMed

    Jachimczyk, Bartosz; Dziak, Damian; Kulesza, Wlodek J

    2016-06-14

    Real-time Locating Systems (RTLSs) have the ability to precisely locate the position of things and people in real time. They are needed for security and emergency applications, but also for healthcare and home care appliances. The research aims for developing an analytical method to customize RTLSs, in order to improve localization performance in terms of precision. The proposed method is based on Angle of Arrival (AoA), a ranging technique and fingerprinting method along with an analytically defined uncertainty of AoA, and a localization uncertainty map. The presented solution includes three main concerns: geometry of indoor space, RTLS arrangement, and a statistical approach to localization precision of a pair of location sensors using an AoA signal. An evaluation of the implementation of the customized RTLS validates the analytical model of the fingerprinting map. The results of simulations and physical experiments verify the proposed method. The research confirms that the analytically established fingerprint map is the valid representation of RTLS' performance in terms of precision. Furthermore, the research demonstrates an impact of workspace geometry and workspace layout onto the RTLS' performance. Moreover, the studies show how the size and shape of a workspace and the placement of the calibration point affect the fingerprint map. Withal, the performance investigation defines the most effective arrangement of location sensors and its influence on localization precision.

  12. Errors in spectral fingerprints and their effects on climate fingerprinting accuracy in the solar spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Zhonghai; Sun, Moguo

    2017-02-01

    Using the Earth's reflected solar spectrum for climate change fingerprinting is an emerging research area. The spectral fingerprinting approach directly retrieves the changes in climate variables from the mean spectral data averaged across large space and time scales. To investigate this fingerprinting concept, we use ten years of satellite data to simulate the monthly and annual mean reflected solar spectra and the associated spectral fingerprints for different regions over the ocean. The interannual variations in the spectral data are derived and attributed to the interannual variations in the relevant climate variables. The fingerprinting retrieved changes in climate variables are then compared with the actual underlying variable changes from the observational data to evaluate the fingerprinting retrieval accuracy. Two important errors related to the fingerprinting approach, the nonlinearity error and the averaging error in the mean fingerprints, and their impact on the retrieval accuracy, are investigated. It is found that the averaging error increases but the nonlinearity error decreases as the region size increases. The averaging error has minimal effect on the fingerprinting retrieval accuracy in small regions but has more of an impact in large regions. In comparison, the effect of nonlinearity error on the retrieval accuracy decreases as the region size increases. It is also found that the fingerprinting retrieval accuracy is more sensitive to the nonlinearity error than to the averaging error. In addition, we compare the fingerprinting accuracy between using the monthly mean data and the annual mean data. The results show that on average higher retrieval accuracy is achieved when the annual mean data are used for the fingerprinting retrieval.

  13. Tracing sources of suspended sediment in a Canadian agricultural watershed using a Bayesian model: Testing different groups of fingerprinting properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaspar, Leticia; Owens, Philip; Petticrew, Ellen; Lobb, David; Koiter, Alexander; Reiffarth, Dominic; Barthod, Louise; Liu, Kui; Martinez-Carreras, Nuria

    2015-04-01

    An understanding of sediment redistribution processes and the main sediment sources within a watershed is needed to support catchment management strategies, to control soil erosion processes, and to preserve water quality and ecological status. The fingerprinting technique is increasingly recognised as a method for establishing the source of the sediment transported within a catchment. However, the different behaviour of the various fingerprinting properties has been recognised as a major limitation of the technique, and the uncertainty associated with tracer selection has to be addressed. Do the different properties give similar results? Can we combine different groups of tracers? This study aims to compare and evaluate the differences between fingerprinting predictions provided by a Bayesian mixing model using different groups of tracer properties for use in sediment source identification. We are employing fallout radionuclides (137Cs, 210Pbex) and geochemical elements as conventional fingerprinting properties, and colour parameters and compound-specific stable isotopes (CSSIs) as emerging properties; both alone and in combination. These fingerprinting properties are being used to determine the proportional contributions of fine sediment in the South Tobacco Creek Watershed, an agricultural catchment located in south-central Manitoba in Canada. We present preliminary results to evaluate the use of different statistical procedures to increase the accuracy of fingerprinting outputs and establish protocols for the selection of appropriate fingerprint properties.

  14. The development of the International Network for Frontier Research on Earthquake Precursors (INFREP) by designing new analysing software and by setting up new recording locations of radio VLF/LF signals in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldovan, Iren-Adelina; Petruta Constantin, Angela; Emilian Toader, Victorin; Toma-Danila, Dragos; Biagi, Pier Francesco; Maggipinto, Tommaso; Dolea, Paul; Septimiu Moldovan, Adrian

    2014-05-01

    Based on scientific evidences supporting the causality between earthquake preparatory stages, space weather and solar activity and different types of electromagnetic (EM) disturbances together with the benefit of having full access at ground and space based EM data, INFREP proposes a complex and cross correlated investigation of phenomena that occur in the coupled system Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionsophere in order to identify possible causes responsible for anomalous effects observed in the propagation characteristics of radio waves, especially at low (LF) and very low frequency (VLF). INFREP, a network of VLF (20-60 kHz) and LF (150-300 kHz) radio receivers, was put into operation in Europe in 2009, having as principal goal, the study of disturbances produced by the earthquakes on the propagation properties of these signals. The Romanian NIEP VLF / LF monitoring system consisting in a radio receiver -made by Elettronika S.R.L. (Italy) and provided by the Bari University- and the infrastructure that is necessary to record and transmit the collected data, is a part of the international initiative INFREP. The NIEP VLF / LF receiver installed in Romania was put into operation in February 2009 in Bucharest and relocated to the Black-Sea shore (Dobruja Seismologic Observatory) in December 2009. The first development of the Romanian EM monitoring system was needed because after changing the receiving site from Bucharest to Eforie we obtained unsatisfactory monitoring data, characterized by large fluctuations of the received signals' intensities. Trying to understand this behavior has led to the conclusion that the electric component of the electromagnetic field was possibly influenced by the local conditions. Starting from this observation we have run some tests and changed the vertical antenna with a loop-type antenna that is more appropriate in highly electric-field polluted environments. Since the amount of recorded data is huge, for streamlining the research process

  15. The Frequency Spectrum Radio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howkins, John, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    This journal issue focuses on the frequency spectrum used in radio communication and on the World Administrative Radio Conference, sponsored by the International Telecommunication Union, held in Geneva, Switzerland, in the fall of 1979. Articles describe the World Administrative Radio Conference as the most important radio communication conference…

  16. The Radio Amateur's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakeslee, Douglas, Ed.

    The objectives of this basic reference work for the radio amateur are to present radio theory and practice in terms of application and to reflect both the fundamentals and the rapidly-advancing technology of radio communications so that the radio amateur will have a guide to what is practical, meaningful, proven, and useful. Twenty-three chapters…

  17. The Frequency Spectrum Radio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howkins, John, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    This journal issue focuses on the frequency spectrum used in radio communication and on the World Administrative Radio Conference, sponsored by the International Telecommunication Union, held in Geneva, Switzerland, in the fall of 1979. Articles describe the World Administrative Radio Conference as the most important radio communication conference…

  18. Chemical characterization of components in fingerprints

    SciTech Connect

    Jarboe, S.G.; Asano, K.G.; Buchanan, M.V.; Bohanan, A.

    1997-12-31

    Investigations into the chemical composition of fingerprints were initiated after it was observed that the latent fingerprints of children disappear more rapidly from surfaces than those of adults. Initial work included the use of GUMS for the identification of compounds present in fingerprints. The relative concentrations of fatty acids and alkyl esters in children and adults appear to contribute to the higher rate of disappearance of prints from the younger subjects. The presence of alkyl esters is linked to sebaceous excretions originating from the face, which increase markedly after puberty. This work has been expanded to include characterization of other classes of components, including amino acids and triacylglycerols. This research is part of an ongoing project to identify various components of fingerprints and explore possible clinical and forensic applications. Through large sampling pools, trends that can indicate personal characteristics (i.e., gender, age), habits (smoking, drug use), and health-related issues (diabetes) are being investigated.

  19. Dual Resolution Images from Paired Fingerprint Cards

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Dual Resolution Images from Paired Fingerprint Cards (Web, free access)   NIST Special Database 30 is being distributed for use in development and testing of fingerprint compression and fingerprint matching systems. The database allows the user to develop and evaluate data compression algorithms for fingerprint images scanned at both 19.7 ppmm (500 dpi) and 39.4 ppmm (1000 dpi). The data consist of 36 ten-print paired cards with both the rolled and plain images scanned at 19.7 and 39.4 pixels per mm. A newer version of the compression/decompression software on the CDROM can be found at the website http://www.nist.gov/itl/iad/ig/nigos.cfm as part of the NBIS package.

  20. Defining the Crystallographic Fingerprint of Extraterrestrial Treasures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forman, L. V.; Bland, P. A.; Timms, N. E.; Daly, L.; Benedix, G. K.; Trimby, P. W.

    2016-08-01

    An approach to determine the crystallographic fingerprint of chondritic matrix grains, which is complimentary to the geochemical signature commonly identified to constrain some aspects of the petrogenesis of a sample.

  1. Forensic Identification of Gender from Fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Crystal; Brunelle, Erica; Halámková, Lenka; Agudelo, Juliana; Halámek, Jan

    2015-11-17

    In the past century, forensic investigators have universally accepted fingerprinting as a reliable identification method, which relies mainly on pictorial comparisons. Despite developments to software systems in order to increase the probability and speed of identification, there has been limited success in the efforts that have been made to move away from the discipline's absolute dependence on the existence of a prerecorded matching fingerprint. Here, we have revealed that an information-rich latent fingerprint has not been used to its full potential. In our approach, the content present in the sweat left behind-namely the amino acids-can be used to determine physical such as gender of the originator. As a result, we were able to focus on the biochemical content in the fingerprint using a biocatalytic assay, coupled with a specially designed extraction protocol, for determining gender rather than focusing solely on the physical image.

  2. Petroleum fingerprinting: Dating a gasoline release

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.D.; Morrison, R.D.

    1996-09-01

    Dating a gasoline releases is particularly important in situations involving a contaminated gasoline service station. Often the station begins under the control of a major oil company, and as it ages and deteriorates it may be operated by a series of smaller operators. When facing a claim for contamination, often operators blame former operators. Fingerprinting is one of several successful methods used to date petroleum releases on contaminated sites. The topics covered in this article are inventory reconciliation; reverse groundwater modeling; hydrocarbon fingerprinting.

  3. On the statistics of the "genetic fingerprint".

    PubMed

    Ritter, H

    1991-01-01

    In analogy to the polygene determined morphological features, the DNA-fingerprint is also not suitable for statistical processing. Statements about the individuality are merely speculative. Frequencies of genes cannot be found, since it is impossible to determine which combinations of bands belong to one gene locus. Hence the DNA fingerprint enables the recognition of exclusions from paternity; it does not, however, allow a statistical analysis, no matter which method be employed.

  4. Fingerprinting ordered diffractions in multiply diffracted waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meles, Giovanni Angelo; Curtis, Andrew

    2014-09-01

    We show how to `fingerprint' individual diffractors inside an acoustic medium using interrogative wave energy from arrays of sources and receivers. For any recorded multiply diffracted wave observed between any source and any receiver, the set of such fingerprints is sufficient information to identify all diffractors involved in the corresponding diffraction path, and the sequential order in which diffractors are encountered. The method herein thus decomposes complex, multiply diffracted wavefields into constituent, single-diffraction interactions.

  5. Fingerprint composition and aging: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Cadd, Samuel; Islam, Meez; Manson, Peter; Bleay, Stephen

    2015-07-01

    Fingerprints have a key role in criminal investigations and are the most commonly used form of evidence worldwide. Significant gaps remain however, in the understanding of fingerprint chemistry, including enhancement reaction mechanisms and the effect of environmental variables and time on composition. Determining the age of a fingerprint is also a relatively unexplored area. A successful method, with reliable and quantitative estimates, would have numerous advantages. Previous unreliable methods have predominantly focused on enhancement success based on physical and chemical changes. This review explores variations in composition due to donor characteristics and environmental variables, and identifies gaps for further research. We also present a qualitative and quantitative summary of the effect of time on composition. Kinetics are presented where known, with summary schematics for reaction mechanisms. Previous studies exploring methods for determining the age of a fingerprint are also discussed, including their advantages and disadvantages. Lastly we propose a potentially more accurate and reliable methodology for determining fingerprint age based on quantitative kinetic changes to the composition of a fingerprint over time.

  6. Diagnostic Oligonucleotide Microarray Fingerprinting of Bacillus Isolates

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, Darrell P.; Alferov, Oleg; Chernov, Boris; Daly, Don S.; Golova, Julia; Perov, Alexander N.; Protic, Miroslava; Robison, Richard; Shipma, Matthew; White, Amanda M.; Willse, Alan R.

    2006-01-01

    A diagnostic, genome-independent microbial fingerprinting method using DNA oligonucleotide microarrays was used for high-resolution differentiation between closely related Bacillus strains, including two strains of Bacillus anthracis that are monomorphic (indistinguishable) via amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting techniques. Replicated hybridizations on 391-probe nonamer arrays were used to construct a prototype fingerprint library for quantitative comparisons. Descriptive analysis of the fingerprints, including phylogenetic reconstruction, is consistent with previous taxonomic organization of the genus. Newly developed statistical analysis methods were used to quantitatively compare and objectively confirm apparent differences in microarray fingerprints with the statistical rigor required for microbial forensics and clinical diagnostics. These data suggest that a relatively simple fingerprinting microarray and statistical analysis method can differentiate between species in the Bacillus cereus complex, and between strains of B. anthracis. A synthetic DNA standard was used to understand underlying microarray and process-level variability, leading to specific recommendations for the development of a standard operating procedure and/or continued technology enhancements for microbial forensics and diagnostics.

  7. [HPLC fingerprints in seed of Celosia argentea].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Guo, Mei-Li; Wang, Xiao-Kang; Yin, Jun

    2008-01-01

    For preferable authentication and regulation of material quality of Celosia argentea, HPLC fingerprints of different habitats were studied. Analysis was carried out on a Hypersil ODS2 column (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm) with acetonitrile-0.1% glacial acetic acid as the mobile phase, and eluates were detected by an evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD). The similarity evaluation system for chromatographic fingerprint of traditional Chinese medicine ( Version 2004 A) was applied to analyses the similarity of the fingerprint of diverse habitats. The similarity results were verified by SPSS. The chromatographic profiles of the samples from different regions were very similar. HPLC fingerprints of Semen C. argentea 12 common peaks and each peak in the fingerprint was well separated under the chromatographic condition above. The different habitats of C. argentea can be grouped to two types: the middle region and the south region. The chemical constituents of C. argentea vary with different habitats so selection of material habitat is very important for quality control of C. argentea. The fingerprint with high individuality and specificity could be applied in the identification and quality control of the material of C. argentea.

  8. New approach to automated fingerprint matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tico, Marius; Kuosmanen, Pauli

    2001-04-01

    Fingerprint verification is one of the most widespread techniques of personal identification. This paper describes the design of am minutiae-based fingerprint verification system including image preprocessing, feature extraction and fingerprint matching. Image preprocessing comprises the extraction of the region of interest, ridge segmentation, and ridge thinning. The features extracted from a fingerprint include fingerprint minutiae, i.e. ridge endings, and ridge bifurcations, as well as other related characteristics meant to improve the matching performances. The list of attributes of each minutia is extended with a feature vector, that resembles information extracted from the neighborhood region of the minutia. A measure of similarity between two minutiae can be expressed in terms of the distance between their corresponding feature vectors. We investigate two matching techniques based on the new approach of similar minutiae detection. A database containing 168 fingerprint images is used for experiments. The results reveal that the proposed system can achieve a good verification accuracy on this database. In addition, the proposed system meets the time requirements of practical acceptability as long as the average time for a verification is below 1.2 sec on a Sun ULTRA 1 workstation.

  9. Linguistically informed digital fingerprints for text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzuner, Özlem

    2006-02-01

    Digital fingerprinting, watermarking, and tracking technologies have gained importance in the recent years in response to growing problems such as digital copyright infringement. While fingerprints and watermarks can be generated in many different ways, use of natural language processing for these purposes has so far been limited. Measuring similarity of literary works for automatic copyright infringement detection requires identifying and comparing creative expression of content in documents. In this paper, we present a linguistic approach to automatically fingerprinting novels based on their expression of content. We use natural language processing techniques to generate "expression fingerprints". These fingerprints consist of both syntactic and semantic elements of language, i.e., syntactic and semantic elements of expression. Our experiments indicate that syntactic and semantic elements of expression enable accurate identification of novels and their paraphrases, providing a significant improvement over techniques used in text classification literature for automatic copy recognition. We show that these elements of expression can be used to fingerprint, label, or watermark works; they represent features that are essential to the character of works and that remain fairly consistent in the works even when works are paraphrased. These features can be directly extracted from the contents of the works on demand and can be used to recognize works that would not be correctly identified either in the absence of pre-existing labels or by verbatim-copy detectors.

  10. Privacy protection schemes for fingerprint recognition systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marasco, Emanuela; Cukic, Bojan

    2015-05-01

    The deployment of fingerprint recognition systems has always raised concerns related to personal privacy. A fingerprint is permanently associated with an individual and, generally, it cannot be reset if compromised in one application. Given that fingerprints are not a secret, potential misuses besides personal recognition represent privacy threats and may lead to public distrust. Privacy mechanisms control access to personal information and limit the likelihood of intrusions. In this paper, image- and feature-level schemes for privacy protection in fingerprint recognition systems are reviewed. Storing only key features of a biometric signature can reduce the likelihood of biometric data being used for unintended purposes. In biometric cryptosystems and biometric-based key release, the biometric component verifies the identity of the user, while the cryptographic key protects the communication channel. Transformation-based approaches only a transformed version of the original biometric signature is stored. Different applications can use different transforms. Matching is performed in the transformed domain which enable the preservation of low error rates. Since such templates do not reveal information about individuals, they are referred to as cancelable templates. A compromised template can be re-issued using a different transform. At image-level, de-identification schemes can remove identifiers disclosed for objectives unrelated to the original purpose, while permitting other authorized uses of personal information. Fingerprint images can be de-identified by, for example, mixing fingerprints or removing gender signature. In both cases, degradation of matching performance is minimized.

  11. Solar radio observations and radio interference monitoring in Roztoky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monstein, C.; Baluďanský, D.

    2013-10-01

    This paper is part of a planned measurement campaign in which spectrum measurements were carried out at different locations worldwide within potential locations of the e-Callisto network. The results of measurements at the Callisto observing station in Roztoky, which took place at the beginning of May 2013, are presented. Measurements were made out with a special low cost broadband logarithmic periodic antenna connected to a Callisto spectrometer designed and built at ETH Zurich (Benz, 2004). This study provides the technical basis to decide whether it is possible to make solar spectroscopic measurements below 1 GHz (λ>30 cm) at the observing station. In terms of electromagnetic interference, Roztoky is not perfect for broadband spectroscopic solar radio astronomy observations due to non negligible radio interference level from the nearby FM-transmitters. Nevertheless, low frequency observations below 80 MHz, as well as observations in some small bands above 116 MHz can be done.

  12. Effect of fingerprints orientation on skin vibrations during tactile exploration of textured surfaces.

    PubMed

    Prevost, Alexis; Scheibert, Julien; Debrégeas, Georges

    2009-09-01

    In humans, the tactile perception of fine textures is mediated by skin vibrations when scanning the surface with the fingertip. These vibrations are encoded by specific mechanoreceptors, Pacinian corpuscules (PCs), located about 2 mm below the skin surface. In a recent article, we performed experiments using a biomimetic sensor which suggest that fingerprints (epidermal ridges) may play an important role in shaping the subcutaneous stress vibrations in a way which facilitates their processing by the PC channel. Here we further test this hypothesis by directly recording the modulations of the fingerpad/substrate friction force induced by scanning an actual fingertip across a textured surface. When the fingerprints are oriented perpendicular to the scanning direction, the spectrum of these modulations shows a pronounced maximum around the frequency v/lambda, where v is the scanning velocity and lambda the fingerprints period. This simple biomechanical result confirms the relevance of our previous finding for human touch.

  13. Identification of recently handled materials by analysis of latenthuman fingerprints using infrared spectromicroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, Ashleigh; Wilkinson, T.J.; Holman, Thomas; Martin, MichaelC.

    2005-06-08

    Analysis of fingerprints has predominantly focused on matching the pattern of ridges to a specific person as a form of identification. The present work focuses on identifying extrinsic materials that are left within a person's fingerprint after recent handling of such materials. Specifically, we employed infrared spectromicroscopy to locate and positively identify microscopic particles from a mixture of common materials in the latent human fingerprints of volunteer subjects. We were able to find and correctly identify all test substances based on their unique infrared spectral signatures. Spectral imaging is demonstrated as a method for automating recognition of specific substances in a fingerprint. We also demonstrate the use of Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) and synchrotron-based infrared spectromicroscopy for obtaining high-quality spectra from particles that were too thick or too small, respectively, for reflection/absorption measurements. We believe the application of this rapid, non-destructive analytical technique to the forensic study of latent human finger prints has the potential to add a new layer of information available to investigators. Using fingerprints to not only identify who was present at a crime scene, but also to link who was handling key materials will be a powerful investigative tool.

  14. Steep Spectrum Radio Sources in Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Tracy E.

    2012-05-01

    Steep spectrum radio emission associated with galaxy clusters comes from compact central active galactic nuclei (AGN) driven radio sources in dense cool core clusters as well as from large regions of diffuse (halo and relic) emission associated with dynamically complex merging systems. These radio halos and relics are best traced at low radio frequencies where details of their morphology, location and spectral index distribution can be used to probe the underlying acceleration mechanism(s) as well as important details of large scale structure formation. Low frequency radio observations also play an important role in the study of AGN feedback into the intracluster medium and the regulation of cooling cores. While spectacular results are coming from the current generation of low frequency instruments, there will soon be a new revolution in studies of steep spectrum sources with the upcoming generation of low frequency interferometers on Earth and ultimately the moon.

  15. Toward Surface-Enhanced Raman Imaging of Latent Fingerprints

    SciTech Connect

    Connatser, Raynella M; Prokes, Sharka M.; Glembocki, Orest; Schuler, Rebecca A.; Gardner, Charles W.; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Lewis, Linda A

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to light or heat, or simply a dearth of fingerprint material, renders some latent fingerprints undetectable using conventional methods. We begin to address such elusive fingerprints using detection targeting photo- and thermally stable fingerprint constituents: surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). SERS can give descriptive vibrational spectra of amino acids, among other robust fingerprint constituents, and good sensitivity can be attained by improving metal-dielectric nanoparticle substrates. With SERS chemical imaging, vibrational bands intensities recreate a visual of fingerprint topography. The impact of nanoparticle synthesis route, dispersal methodology-deposition solvent, and laser wavelength are discussed, as are data from enhanced vibrational spectra of fingerprint components. SERS and Raman chemical images of fingerprints and realistic contaminants are shown. To our knowledge, this represents the first SERS imaging of fingerprints. In conclusion, this work progresses toward the ultimate goal of vibrationally detecting latent prints that would otherwise remain undetected using traditional development methods.

  16. An effective one-dimensional anisotropic fingerprint enhancement algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Zhendong; Xie, Mei

    2011-12-01

    Fingerprint identification is one of the most important biometric technologies. The performance of the minutiae extraction and the speed of the fingerprint verification system rely heavily on the quality of the input fingerprint images, so the enhancement of the low fingerprint is a critical and difficult step in a fingerprint verification system. In this paper we proposed an effective algorithm for fingerprint enhancement. Firstly we use normalization algorithm to reduce the variations in gray level values along ridges and valleys. Then we utilize the structure tensor approach to estimate each pixel of the fingerprint orientations. At last we propose a novel algorithm which combines the advantages of onedimensional Gabor filtering method and anisotropic method to enhance the fingerprint in recoverable region. The proposed algorithm has been evaluated on the database of Fingerprint Verification Competition 2004, and the results show that our algorithm performs within less time.

  17. An effective one-dimensional anisotropic fingerprint enhancement algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Zhendong; Xie, Mei

    2012-01-01

    Fingerprint identification is one of the most important biometric technologies. The performance of the minutiae extraction and the speed of the fingerprint verification system rely heavily on the quality of the input fingerprint images, so the enhancement of the low fingerprint is a critical and difficult step in a fingerprint verification system. In this paper we proposed an effective algorithm for fingerprint enhancement. Firstly we use normalization algorithm to reduce the variations in gray level values along ridges and valleys. Then we utilize the structure tensor approach to estimate each pixel of the fingerprint orientations. At last we propose a novel algorithm which combines the advantages of onedimensional Gabor filtering method and anisotropic method to enhance the fingerprint in recoverable region. The proposed algorithm has been evaluated on the database of Fingerprint Verification Competition 2004, and the results show that our algorithm performs within less time.

  18. Toward surface-enhanced Raman imaging of latent fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Connatser, R Maggie; Prokes, Sharka M; Glembocki, Orest J; Schuler, Rebecca L; Gardner, Charles W; Lewis, Samuel A; Lewis, Linda A

    2010-11-01

    Exposure to light or heat, or simply a dearth of fingerprint material, renders some latent fingerprints undetectable using conventional methods. We begin to address such elusive fingerprints using detection targeting photo- and thermally stable fingerprint constituents: surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). SERS can give descriptive vibrational spectra of amino acids, among other robust fingerprint constituents, and good sensitivity can be attained by improving metal-dielectric nanoparticle substrates. With SERS chemical imaging, vibrational bands' intensities recreate a visual of fingerprint topography. The impact of nanoparticle synthesis route, dispersal methodology-deposition solvent, and laser wavelength are discussed, as are data from enhanced vibrational spectra of fingerprint components. SERS and Raman chemical images of fingerprints and realistic contaminants are shown. To our knowledge, this represents the first SERS imaging of fingerprints. In conclusion, this work progresses toward the ultimate goal of vibrationally detecting latent prints that would otherwise remain undetected using traditional development methods.

  19. Examining DNA fingerprinting as an epidemiology tool in the tuberculosis program in the Northwest Territories, Canada.

    PubMed

    Case, Cheryl; Kandola, Kami; Chui, Linda; Li, Vincent; Nix, Nancy; Johnson, Rhonda

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an important public health problem in the Northwest Territories (NWT), particularly among Canadian Aboriginal people. To analyse the transmission patterns of tuberculosis among the population living in the NWT, a territorial jurisdiction located within Northern Canada. This population-based retrospective study examined the DNA fingerprints of all laboratory confirmed cases of TB in the NWT, Canada, between 1990 and 2009. An isolate of each lab-confirmed case had genotyping done using IS6110 Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism. DNA patterns were assigned to each DNA fingerprint, and indistinguishable fingerprints patterns were assigned a cluster. Social network analysis (SNA) was used to examine direct linkages among cases determined through conventional contact tracing (CCT), their DNA fingerprint and home community. Of the 225 lab-confirmed cases identified, the study was limited to 195 subjects due to DNA fingerprinting data availability. The mean age of the cases was 43.8 years (±22.6) and 120 (61.5%) males. The Dene (First Nations) encompassed 120 of the cases (87.7%), 8 cases (4.1%) were Inuit, 2 cases (1.0%) were Metis, 7 cases (3.6%) were Immigrants and 1 case had unknown ethnicity. One hundred and eighty six (95.4%) subjects were clustered, resulting in 8 clusters. Trend analysis showed significant relationships between with risk factors for unemployment (p=0.020), geographic location (p≤0.001) and homelessness (p≤0.001). Other significant risk factors included excessive alcohol consumption, prior infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and prior contact with a case of TB. This study demonstrates how DNA fingerprinting and SNA can be additional epidemiological tools, along with CCT method, to determine transmission patterns of TB.

  20. Study of fingerprints in Argentina population for application in personal identification.

    PubMed

    Rivaldería, Noemí; Gutiérrez-Redomero, Esperanza; Alonso-Rodríguez, Concepción; Dipierri, José E; Martín, Luis M

    2017-05-01

    The fingerprints of the Buenos Aires and Chubut provinces in Argentina have been studied, with the aim of knowing and quantifying the variability of these features, which are used in the identification process. The data studied for this research was obtained from 330 individuals, of both sexes, from two Argentinian population samples (170 individuals from Buenos Aires and 160 from Chubut), which amounts to a total of 3300 fingerprints. The different types of minutiae were located, identified, and visually quantified in four areas on the fingerprint. Two perpendicular axes were drawn whose intersection was located in the center of fingerprint. In addition, a circle was defined on these quadrants whose radius cut fifteen ridges. This method divides the fingerprints into four quadrants with two sectors apiece. The results obtained for both populations were compared statistically with those published previously for an Argentinian population sample, which had been collected using the same methodology. Therefore, Argentina becomes the country with the most information in this matter. For both populations, the highest frequencies were of ridge endings, followed by bifurcations and convergences. In this study of minutiae, statistically significant differences were found between the area of the fingerprint (inside and outside the circle), males and females, and types of main pattern for both samples. However, although the results show common patterns in the distribution of minutiae, there are also significant differences between populations. This reveals a significant ancestral and frequency effect of the minutiae, which would indicate that the minutiae are more genetically dependent than has been suspected so far. Furthermore, the non-equiprobability found for the frequency of the types of minutiae indicates that the weight provided by these characteristics is not the same when applied in identification processes, whether used quantitatively (numerical standard) or

  1. The radio telescope RATAN 600

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, R.

    1978-01-01

    A six-meter radio antenna having 900 reflector elements arranged on a 579 -meter diameter circle and located in the northern part of the Caucasian Mountains is described. The elements are about 7.4 m by 2 m resulting in a total reflector surface of about 10,000 sq m. Individual elements can be adjusted by changing 260 screws and can be rotated both horizontally and vertically as well as being moved translationally in the radial direction. The circular area is equipped with a grid of tracks where four asymmetric cylindrical paraboloids serving as subreflectors are located. The directional profile or observational direction of the antenna is achieved by shifting the subreflectors and changing the position of the reflecting elements with respect to the subreflectors. Different radio sources can be observed at the same time by using different subreflectors and their associated reflector sectors. Each subreflector is connected to a receiving station. Capabilities for spectroscopic observation are discussed.

  2. Uranus as a radio source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desch, M. D.; Kaiser, M. L.; Zarka, P.; Lecacheux, A.; Leblanc, Y.; Aubier, M.; Ortega-Molina, A.

    1991-01-01

    The complex nature of the Uranus radio emissions, both magnetospheric and atmospheric, is reviewed, with emphasis on the identification of distinct components and the determination of their source locations. Seven radii components were discovered in addition to the RF signature of lightning in the planet's atmosphere. Six of the seven magnetospheric components are freely propagating emissions; one component, the nonthermal continuum, is trapped in the density cavity between the magnetopause and the dense inner magnetosphere. The radio components are divided into two types according to their emission signature: bursty emission and smooth emission. The inferred source location for the dominant nightside emission is above the nightside magnetic pole, largely overlapping the UV auroral region and the magnetic polar cap. The N-burst component appears to be associated with solar-wind enhancements at Uranus, consistent with the idea that the solar wind was triggering magnetospheric substormlike activity during the encounter.

  3. Sampling strategies for radio-tracking coyotes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, G.J.; Cary, J.R.; Rongstad, O.J.

    1981-01-01

    Ten coyotes radio-tracked for 24 h periods were most active at night and moved little during daylight hours. Home-range size determined from radio-locations of 3 adult coyotes increased with the number of locations until an asymptote was reached at about 35-40 independent day locations or 3 6 nights of hourly radio-locations. Activity of the coyote did not affect the asymptotic nature of the home-range calculations, but home-range sizes determined from more than 3 nights of hourly locations were considerably larger than home-range sizes determined from daylight locations. Coyote home-range sizes were calculated from daylight locations, full-night tracking periods, and half-night tracking periods. Full- and half-lnight sampling strategies involved obtaining hourly radio-locations during 12 and 6 h periods, respectively. The half-night sampling strategy was the best compromise for our needs, as it adequately indexed the home-range size, reduced time and energy spent, and standardized the area calculation without requiring the researcher to become completely nocturnal. Sight tracking also provided information about coyote activity and sociability.

  4. TDRS orbit determination by radio interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavloff, Michael S.

    1994-01-01

    In support of a NASA study on the application of radio interferometry to satellite orbit determination, MITRE developed a simulation tool for assessing interferometry tracking accuracy. The Orbit Determination Accuracy Estimator (ODAE) models the general batch maximum likelihood orbit determination algorithms of the Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS) with the group and phase delay measurements from radio interferometry. ODAE models the statistical properties of tracking error sources, including inherent observable imprecision, atmospheric delays, clock offsets, station location uncertainty, and measurement biases, and through Monte Carlo simulation, ODAE calculates the statistical properties of errors in the predicted satellites state vector. This paper presents results from ODAE application to orbit determination of the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) by radio interferometry. Conclusions about optimal ground station locations for interferometric tracking of TDRS are presented, along with a discussion of operational advantages of radio interferometry.

  5. Radio frequency coaxial feedthrough device

    DOEpatents

    Owens, Thomas L.; Baity, Frederick W.; Hoffman, Daniel J.; Whealton, John H.

    1987-01-01

    A radio frequency coaxial vacuum feedthrough is provided which utilizes a cylindrical ceramic vacuum break formed of an alumina ceramic. The cylinder is coaxially disposed and brazed between tapered coaxial conductors to form a vacuum sealed connection between a pressurized upstream coaxial transmission line and a utilization device located within a vacuum container. The feedthrough provides 50 ohm matched impedance RF feedthrough up to about 500 MHz at power levels in the multimegawatt range.

  6. A search for radio counterparts to Chandra ULX candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Ramírez, D.; Mezcua, M.; Leon, S.; Caballero-García, M. D.

    2011-05-01

    We present a systematic search for radio counterparts to Ultraluminous X-ray (ULX) source candidates based on a cross-correlation of the Swartz et al. (2004) ULX catalogue based on Chandra data and the FIRST radio survey. We find seven cases of conspicuous peaks of radio emission that could be associated to ULX sources. Among these seven ULX radio candidates, three X-ray sources are located within 5 arcsec of the FIRST radio peaks. These three cases are shown and discussed individually.

  7. Mars South Polar Cap 'Fingerprint' Terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This picture is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

    Some portions of the martian south polar residual cap have long, somewhat curved troughs instead of circular pits. These appear to form in a layer of material that may be different than that in which 'swiss cheese' circles and pits form, and none of these features has any analog in the north polar cap or elsewhere on Mars. This picture shows the 'fingerprint' terrain as a series of long, narrow depressions considered to have formed by collapse and widening by sublimation of ice. Unlike the north polar cap, the south polar region stays cold enough in summer to retain frozen carbon dioxide. Viking Orbiter observations during the late 1970s showed that very little water vapor comes off the south polar cap during summer, indicating that any frozen water that might be there remains solid throughout the year.

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image was obtained in early southern spring on August 4, 1999. It shows an area 3 x 5 kilometers (1.9 x 3.1 miles) at a resolution of about 7.3 meters (24 ft) per pixel. Located near 86.0oS, 53.9oW.

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  8. Mars South Polar Cap 'Fingerprint' Terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This picture is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

    Some portions of the martian south polar residual cap have long, somewhat curved troughs instead of circular pits. These appear to form in a layer of material that may be different than that in which 'swiss cheese' circles and pits form, and none of these features has any analog in the north polar cap or elsewhere on Mars. This picture shows the 'fingerprint' terrain as a series of long, narrow depressions considered to have formed by collapse and widening by sublimation of ice. Unlike the north polar cap, the south polar region stays cold enough in summer to retain frozen carbon dioxide. Viking Orbiter observations during the late 1970s showed that very little water vapor comes off the south polar cap during summer, indicating that any frozen water that might be there remains solid throughout the year.

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image was obtained in early southern spring on August 4, 1999. It shows an area 3 x 5 kilometers (1.9 x 3.1 miles) at a resolution of about 7.3 meters (24 ft) per pixel. Located near 86.0oS, 53.9oW.

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  9. 47 CFR 73.515 - NCE FM transmitter location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false NCE FM transmitter location. 73.515 Section 73.515 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Noncommercial Educational FM Broadcast Stations § 73.515 NCE FM transmitter location....

  10. 47 CFR 73.515 - NCE FM transmitter location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false NCE FM transmitter location. 73.515 Section 73.515 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Noncommercial Educational FM Broadcast Stations § 73.515 NCE FM transmitter location....

  11. Amateur Planetary Radio Data Archived for Science and Education: Radio Jove

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thieman, J.; Cecconi, B.; Sky, J.; Garcia, L. N.; King, T. A.; Higgins, C. A.; Fung, S. F.

    2015-12-01

    The Radio Jove Project is a hands-on educational activity in which students, teachers, and the general public build simple radio telescopes, usually from a kit, to observe single frequency decameter wavelength radio emissions from Jupiter, the Sun, the galaxy, and the Earth usually with simple dipole antennas. Some of the amateur observers have upgraded their receivers to spectrographs and their antennas have become more sophisticated as well. The data records compare favorably to more sophisticated professional radio telescopes such as the Long Wavelength Array (LWA) and the Nancay Decametric Array. Since these data are often carefully calibrated and recorded around the clock in widely scattered locations they represent a valuable database useful not only to amateur radio astronomers but to the professional science community as well. Some interesting phenomena have been noted in the data that are of interest to the professionals familiar with such records. The continuous monitoring of radio emissions from Jupiter could serve as useful "ground truth" data during the coming Juno mission's radio observations of Jupiter. Radio Jove has long maintained an archive for thousands of Radio Jove observations, but the database was intended for use by the Radio Jove participants only. Now, increased scientific interest in the use of these data has resulted in several proposals to translate the data into a science community data format standard and store the data in professional archives. Progress is being made in translating Radio Jove data to the Common Data Format (CDF) and also in generating new observations in that format as well. Metadata describing the Radio Jove data would follow the Space Physics Archive Search and Extract (SPASE) standard. The proposed archive to be used for long term preservation would be the Planetary Data System (PDS). Data sharing would be achieved through the PDS and the Paris Astronomical Data Centre (PADC) and the Virtual Wave Observatory (VWO

  12. The spectroscopic detection of exogenous material in fingerprints after development with powders and recovery with adhesive lifters.

    PubMed

    West, Matthew J; Went, Michael J

    2008-01-15

    interfere with the detection process the time taken to locate the contaminant was increased due to the physical presence of more material within the fingerprint. The presence of interfering Raman bands from lifting tapes is another potential complication. This, however, could be removed by spectral subtraction or by the choice of lifting tapes that have only weak Raman bands.

  13. Improved Satellite-Monitored Radio Tags for Large Whales: Dependable ARGOS Location-Only Tags and a GPS-Linked Tag to Reveal 3-Dimensional Body-Orientation and Surface Movements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    migration routes and on sperm whales in 2010 and 2011 (funded by BP and NOAA-NRDA) to follow-up on the consequences of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH...with the WC Location-only tags off Sakhalin Island, Russia to determine migration routes and tag a small number of sperm whales in the Gulf of Mexico...dive behavior to especially examine sperm whale foraging behavior. The data will be downloaded from recovered tags to evaluate complex foraging

  14. DNA fingerprinting in botany: past, present, future.

    PubMed

    Nybom, Hilde; Weising, Kurt; Rotter, Björn

    2014-01-03

    Almost three decades ago Alec Jeffreys published his seminal Nature papers on the use of minisatellite probes for DNA fingerprinting of humans (Jeffreys and colleagues Nature 1985, 314:67-73 and Nature 1985, 316:76-79). The new technology was soon adopted for many other organisms including plants, and when Hilde Nybom, Kurt Weising and Alec Jeffreys first met at the very First International Conference on DNA Fingerprinting in Berne, Switzerland, in 1990, everybody was enthusiastic about the novel method that allowed us for the first time to discriminate between humans, animals, plants and fungi on the individual level using DNA markers. A newsletter coined "Fingerprint News" was launched, T-shirts were sold, and the proceedings of the Berne conference filled a first book on "DNA fingerprinting: approaches and applications". Four more conferences were about to follow, one on each continent, and Alec Jeffreys of course was invited to all of them. Since these early days, methodologies have undergone a rapid evolution and diversification. A multitude of techniques have been developed, optimized, and eventually abandoned when novel and more efficient and/or more reliable methods appeared. Despite some overlap between the lifetimes of the different technologies, three phases can be defined that coincide with major technological advances. Whereas the first phase of DNA fingerprinting ("the past") was dominated by restriction fragment analysis in conjunction with Southern blot hybridization, the advent of the PCR in the late 1980s gave way to the development of PCR-based single- or multi-locus profiling techniques in the second phase. Given that many routine applications of plant DNA fingerprinting still rely on PCR-based markers, we here refer to these methods as "DNA fingerprinting in the present", and include numerous examples in the present review. The beginning of the third phase actually dates back to 2005, when several novel, highly parallel DNA sequencing

  15. DNA fingerprinting in botany: past, present, future

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Almost three decades ago Alec Jeffreys published his seminal Nature papers on the use of minisatellite probes for DNA fingerprinting of humans (Jeffreys and colleagues Nature 1985, 314:67–73 and Nature 1985, 316:76–79). The new technology was soon adopted for many other organisms including plants, and when Hilde Nybom, Kurt Weising and Alec Jeffreys first met at the very First International Conference on DNA Fingerprinting in Berne, Switzerland, in 1990, everybody was enthusiastic about the novel method that allowed us for the first time to discriminate between humans, animals, plants and fungi on the individual level using DNA markers. A newsletter coined “Fingerprint News” was launched, T-shirts were sold, and the proceedings of the Berne conference filled a first book on “DNA fingerprinting: approaches and applications”. Four more conferences were about to follow, one on each continent, and Alec Jeffreys of course was invited to all of them. Since these early days, methodologies have undergone a rapid evolution and diversification. A multitude of techniques have been developed, optimized, and eventually abandoned when novel and more efficient and/or more reliable methods appeared. Despite some overlap between the lifetimes of the different technologies, three phases can be defined that coincide with major technological advances. Whereas the first phase of DNA fingerprinting (“the past”) was dominated by restriction fragment analysis in conjunction with Southern blot hybridization, the advent of the PCR in the late 1980s gave way to the development of PCR-based single- or multi-locus profiling techniques in the second phase. Given that many routine applications of plant DNA fingerprinting still rely on PCR-based markers, we here refer to these methods as “DNA fingerprinting in the present”, and include numerous examples in the present review. The beginning of the third phase actually dates back to 2005, when several novel, highly parallel DNA

  16. Brightest cluster galaxies in the extended GMRT radio halo cluster sample. Radio properties and cluster dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kale, R.; Venturi, T.; Cassano, R.; Giacintucci, S.; Bardelli, S.; Dallacasa, D.; Zucca, E.

    2015-09-01

    Aims: First-ranked galaxies in clusters, usually referred to as brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs), show exceptional properties over the whole electromagnetic spectrum. They are the most massive elliptical galaxies and show the highest probability to be radio loud. Moreover, their special location at the centres of galaxy clusters raises the question of the role of the environment in shaping their radio properties. In the attempt to separate the effect of the galaxy mass and of the environment on their statistical radio properties, we investigate the possible dependence of the occurrence of radio loudness and of the fractional radio luminosity function on the dynamical state of the hosting cluster. Methods: We studied the radio properties of the BCGs in the Extended GMRT Radio Halo Survey (EGRHS), which consists of 65 clusters in the redshift range 0.2-0.4, with X-ray luminosity LX ≥ 5 × 1044 erg s-1, and quantitative information on their dynamical state from high-quality Chandra imaging. We obtained a statistical sample of 59 BCGs, which we divided into two classes, depending on whether the dynamical state of the host cluster was merging (M) or relaxed (R). Results: Of the 59 BCGs, 28 are radio loud and 31 are radio quiet. The radio-loud sources are favourably located in relaxed clusters (71%), while the reverse is true for the radio-quiet BCGs, which are mostly located in merging systems (81%). The fractional radio luminosity function for the BCGs in merging and relaxed clusters is different, and it is considerably higher for BCGs in relaxed clusters, where the total fraction of radio loudness reaches almost 90%, to be compared to the ~30% in merging clusters. For relaxed clusters, we found a positive correlation between the radio power of the BCGs and the strength of the cool core, consistent with previous studies on local samples. Conclusions: Our study suggests that the radio loudness of the BCGs strongly depends on the cluster dynamics; their fraction is

  17. Impact of Finger Type in Fingerprint Authentication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gafurov, Davrondzhon; Bours, Patrick; Yang, Bian; Busch, Christoph

    Nowadays fingerprint verification system is the most widespread and accepted biometric technology that explores various features of the human fingers for this purpose. In general, every normal person has 10 fingers with different size. Although it is claimed that recognition performance with little fingers can be less accurate compared to other finger types, to our best knowledge, this has not been investigated yet. This paper presents our study on the topic of influence of the finger type into fingerprint recognition performance. For analysis we employ two fingerprint verification software packages (one public and one commercial). We conduct test on GUC100 multi sensor fingerprint database which contains fingerprint images of all 10 fingers from 100 subjects. Our analysis indeed confirms that performance with small fingers is less accurate than performance with the others fingers of the hand. It also appears that best performance is being obtained with thumb or index fingers. For example, performance deterioration from the best finger (i.e. index or thumb) to the worst fingers (i.e. small ones) can be in the range of 184%-1352%.

  18. Resonance and Radio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starrett, Malin J.

    2008-01-01

    The science and technology of radio receives little attention in contemporary education. This article discusses ways to explore the basic operating principles of radio. (Contains 4 figures, 3 footnotes, and 2 notes.)

  19. Resonance and Radio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starrett, Malin J.

    2008-01-01

    The science and technology of radio receives little attention in contemporary education. This article discusses ways to explore the basic operating principles of radio. (Contains 4 figures, 3 footnotes, and 2 notes.)

  20. Mapping the radio sky with an interferometric network of low-frequency radio receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezentsev, Andrew; Füllekrug, Martin

    2013-08-01

    The structure of the 100 kHz radio sky is determined with two interferometric networks of 10 radio receivers which are distributed over local areas of ˜1 × 1 km2 and ˜10 × 10 km2. The radio waves arrive at individual receiver pairs with small time differences which are used to determine the arrival direction of the electromagnetic waves including both the bearing and the elevation angle. The results show that the major part of the 100 kHz radio wave energy comes from the horizon at bearings which are consistent with known locations of Long Range Navigation (LORAN) transmitters. Some part of the radio wave energy arrives from the sky at elevation angles which are consistent with the first and second sky hop waves of LORAN transmissions. A minor part of the 100 kHz radio wave energy comes from lightning discharges at distances up to ˜1000 km with bearings which are consistent with lightning locations reported by the arrival time difference (ATD) lightning detection network of the UK Met Office. The angular resolution for mapping the radio sky depends on the network geometry, the instrumental timing accuracy, and on the signal-to-noise ratio of the radio waves. The resulting angular resolution of the interferometric networks used in this study is ˜1° in bearing at zero elevation and several degrees in elevation.

  1. Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging of Latent Fingerprints and Associated Forensic Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tsoching; Schultz, Zachary D.; Levin, Ira W.

    2011-01-01

    Fingerprints reflecting a specific chemical history, such as exposure to explosives, are clearly distinguished from overlapping, and interfering latent fingerprints using infrared spectroscopic imaging techniques and multivariate analysis. PMID:19684917

  2. Solving the Mystery of Fading Fingerprints with London Dispersion Forces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimbrough, Doris R.; DeLorenzo, Ronald

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on the kidnapping of a child whose fingerprints were not found inside the crime vehicle. Discusses the investigation that followed and led to knowledge of the differences between the fingerprints of children and adults. (DDR)

  3. Solving the Mystery of Fading Fingerprints with London Dispersion Forces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimbrough, Doris R.; DeLorenzo, Ronald

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on the kidnapping of a child whose fingerprints were not found inside the crime vehicle. Discusses the investigation that followed and led to knowledge of the differences between the fingerprints of children and adults. (DDR)

  4. Extragalactic Radio Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellerman, Kenneth I.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses new problems arising from the growing observational data through radio telescope arrays, involving the origin of radio sources, apparent superluminal velocities, conversion of radio sources to relativistic particles, and the nature of compact opaque and extended transparent sources. New physics may be needed to answer these cosmological…

  5. Commercial Radio as Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothenbuhler, Eric W.

    1996-01-01

    Compares the day-to-day work routines of commercial radio with the principles of a theoretical communication model. Illuminates peculiarities of the conduct of communication by commercial radio. Discusses the application of theoretical models to the evaluation of practicing institutions. Offers assessments of commercial radio deriving from…

  6. Extragalactic Radio Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellerman, Kenneth I.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses new problems arising from the growing observational data through radio telescope arrays, involving the origin of radio sources, apparent superluminal velocities, conversion of radio sources to relativistic particles, and the nature of compact opaque and extended transparent sources. New physics may be needed to answer these cosmological…

  7. Radio AGN Surveys

    SciTech Connect

    De Breuck, C.; van Breugel, W.; Rottgering, H.; Carilli, C.L.

    2001-11-13

    We present a short overview of radio surveys for AGN, including the ''complete'' flux limited surveys and ''filtered'' surveys. We also describe our ultra-steep spectrum search for the highest redshift radio galaxies, and our follow-up VLA and ATCA observations of the most distant (z = 5.19) and the most luminous z < 2 radio galaxy known.

  8. 47 CFR 101.129 - Transmitter location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmitter location. 101.129 Section 101.129 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.129 Transmitter location. (a) The applicant must determine, prior...

  9. 47 CFR 101.129 - Transmitter location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transmitter location. 101.129 Section 101.129 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.129 Transmitter location. (a) The applicant must determine, prior...

  10. 47 CFR 101.129 - Transmitter location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transmitter location. 101.129 Section 101.129 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.129 Transmitter location. (a) The applicant must determine, prior...

  11. 47 CFR 101.129 - Transmitter location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transmitter location. 101.129 Section 101.129 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.129 Transmitter location. (a) The applicant must determine, prior...

  12. Fingerprinting Communication and Computation on HPC Machines

    SciTech Connect

    Peisert, Sean

    2010-06-02

    How do we identify what is actually running on high-performance computing systems? Names of binaries, dynamic libraries loaded, or other elements in a submission to a batch queue can give clues, but binary names can be changed, and libraries provide limited insight and resolution on the code being run. In this paper, we present a method for"fingerprinting" code running on HPC machines using elements of communication and computation. We then discuss how that fingerprint can be used to determine if the code is consistent with certain other types of codes, what a user usually runs, or what the user requested an allocation to do. In some cases, our techniques enable us to fingerprint HPC codes using runtime MPI data with a high degree of accuracy.

  13. [HPLC fingerprint of Calendula officinalis flower].

    PubMed

    Xing, Zhan-Fen; Cheng, Hong-Da; Zhang, Ping-Ping; Gong, Lei; Ma, Li-Ya

    2014-07-01

    To establish an HPLC fingerprint of Calendula officinalis flower for its quality control. Hypersil ODS C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 μm) was used with acetonitrile and water as mobile phase in a gradient mode at the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The detection wavelength was 220 nm and the temperature of column was set at 35 degrees C. The similarity was analyzed with the Estimating System of Similarity on the Chinese Medicine Fingerprint Chromatogram. The HPLC fingerprint of Calendula officinalis flower containing eleven peaks was set up. The similarity of Calendula officinalis flower from different habitats was greater than 0.90. This method is easy and reliable, which can be used to judge the habitat and control the quality of Calendula officinalis flower.

  14. Audio fingerprint extraction for content identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiu, Yu; Yeh, Chia-Hung; Kuo, C. C. J.

    2003-11-01

    In this work, we present an audio content identification system that identifies some unknown audio material by comparing its fingerprint with those extracted off-line and saved in the music database. We will describe in detail the procedure to extract audio fingerprints and demonstrate that they are robust to noise and content-preserving manipulations. The main feature in the proposed system is the zero-crossing rate extracted with the octave-band filter bank. The zero-crossing rate can be used to describe the dominant frequency in each subband with a very low computational cost. The size of audio fingerprint is small and can be efficiently stored along with the compressed files in the database. It is also robust to many modifications such as tempo change and time-alignment distortion. Besides, the octave-band filter bank is used to enhance the robustness to distortion, especially those localized on some frequency regions.

  15. Molecular graph convolutions: moving beyond fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Kearnes, Steven; McCloskey, Kevin; Berndl, Marc; Pande, Vijay; Riley, Patrick

    2016-08-01

    Molecular "fingerprints" encoding structural information are the workhorse of cheminformatics and machine learning in drug discovery applications. However, fingerprint representations necessarily emphasize particular aspects of the molecular structure while ignoring others, rather than allowing the model to make data-driven decisions. We describe molecular graph convolutions, a machine learning architecture for learning from undirected graphs, specifically small molecules. Graph convolutions use a simple encoding of the molecular graph-atoms, bonds, distances, etc.-which allows the model to take greater advantage of information in the graph structure. Although graph convolutions do not outperform all fingerprint-based methods, they (along with other graph-based methods) represent a new paradigm in ligand-based virtual screening with exciting opportunities for future improvement.

  16. Molecular graph convolutions: moving beyond fingerprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kearnes, Steven; McCloskey, Kevin; Berndl, Marc; Pande, Vijay; Riley, Patrick

    2016-08-01

    Molecular "fingerprints" encoding structural information are the workhorse of cheminformatics and machine learning in drug discovery applications. However, fingerprint representations necessarily emphasize particular aspects of the molecular structure while ignoring others, rather than allowing the model to make data-driven decisions. We describe molecular graph convolutions, a machine learning architecture for learning from undirected graphs, specifically small molecules. Graph convolutions use a simple encoding of the molecular graph—atoms, bonds, distances, etc.—which allows the model to take greater advantage of information in the graph structure. Although graph convolutions do not outperform all fingerprint-based methods, they (along with other graph-based methods) represent a new paradigm in ligand-based virtual screening with exciting opportunities for future improvement.

  17. Fingerprint recovery from human skin surfaces.

    PubMed

    Trapecar, Matej; Balazic, Joze

    2007-11-01

    A study was conducted to investigate whether certain dactyloscopic powders and reagents can recover latent fingerprints on human skin surfaces. Four fingerprint powders, Magnetic Jet Black, Magnetic Silver, Silver Special, Swedish Black, and two other methods, cyanoacrylate fuming (CA) and Ruthenium tetroxide (RTX), were used. Having examined skin surfaces with a forensic light source, we observed that the fingerprint impressions remained visible up to 15 min after intentionally placing them on the skin surface of living subjects and dead bodies. Finger marks were recovered and positive results were achieved with Magnetic Black and Swedish Black powder on living subjects. On dead bodies finger marks treated with cyanoacrylate were visible but those treated with RTX, Swedish Black and Magnetic Jet Black powder were useful for potential comparison. On dead bodies best results were obtained with RTX method.

  18. Chemical Fingerprinting of Materials Developed Due to Environmental Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Doris A.; McCool, A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Instrumental chemical analysis methods are developed and used to chemically fingerprint new and modified External Tank materials made necessary by changing environmental requirements. Chemical fingerprinting can detect and diagnose variations in material composition. To chemically characterize each material, fingerprint methods are selected from an extensive toolbox based on the material's chemistry and the ability of the specific methods to detect the material's critical ingredients. Fingerprint methods have been developed for a variety of materials including Thermal Protection System foams, adhesives, primers, and composites.

  19. High Resolution Ultrasonic Method for 3D Fingerprint Recognizable Characteristics in Biometrics Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maev, R. Gr.; Bakulin, E. Yu.; Maeva, A.; Severin, F.

    Biometrics is a rapidly evolving scientific and applied discipline that studies possible ways of personal identification by means of unique biological characteristics. Such identification is important in various situations requiring restricted access to certain areas, information and personal data and for cases of medical emergencies. A number of automated biometric techniques have been developed, including fingerprint, hand shape, eye and facial recognition, thermographic imaging, etc. All these techniques differ in the recognizable parameters, usability, accuracy and cost. Among these, fingerprint recognition stands alone since a very large database of fingerprints has already been acquired. Also, fingerprints are key evidence left at a crime scene and can be used to indentify suspects. Therefore, of all automated biometric techniques, especially in the field of law enforcement, fingerprint identification seems to be the most promising. We introduce a newer development of the ultrasonic fingerprint imaging. The proposed method obtains a scan only once and then varies the C-scan gate position and width to visualize acoustic reflections from any appropriate depth inside the skin. Also, B-scans and A-scans can be recreated from any position using such data array, which gives the control over the visualization options. By setting the C-scan gate deeper inside the skin, distribution of the sweat pores (which are located along the ridges) can be easily visualized. This distribution should be unique for each individual so this provides a means of personal identification, which is not affected by any changes (accidental or intentional) of the fingers' surface conditions. This paper discusses different setups, acoustic parameters of the system, signal and image processing options and possible ways of 3-dimentional visualization that could be used as a recognizable characteristic in biometric identification.

  20. Waveform Fingerprinting for Efficient Seismic Signal Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, C. E.; OReilly, O. J.; Beroza, G. C.

    2013-12-01

    Cross-correlating an earthquake waveform template with continuous waveform data has proven a powerful approach for detecting events missing from earthquake catalogs. If templates do not exist, it is possible to divide the waveform data into short overlapping time windows, then identify window pairs with similar waveforms. Applying these approaches to earthquake monitoring in seismic networks has tremendous potential to improve the completeness of earthquake catalogs, but because effort scales quadratically with time, it rapidly becomes computationally infeasible. We develop a fingerprinting technique to identify similar waveforms, using only a few compact features of the original data. The concept is similar to human fingerprints, which utilize key diagnostic features to identify people uniquely. Analogous audio-fingerprinting approaches have accurately and efficiently found similar audio clips within large databases; example applications include identifying songs and finding copyrighted content within YouTube videos. In order to fingerprint waveforms, we compute a spectrogram of the time series, and segment it into multiple overlapping windows (spectral images). For each spectral image, we apply a wavelet transform, and retain only the sign of the maximum magnitude wavelet coefficients. This procedure retains just the large-scale structure of the data, providing both robustness to noise and significant dimensionality reduction. Each fingerprint is a high-dimensional, sparse, binary data object that can be stored in a database without significant storage costs. Similar fingerprints within the database are efficiently searched using locality-sensitive hashing. We test this technique on waveform data from the Northern California Seismic Network that contains events not detected in the catalog. We show that this algorithm successfully identifies similar waveforms and detects uncataloged low magnitude events in addition to cataloged events, while running to completion

  1. Underwater DVI: Simple fingerprint technique for positive identification.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Lay See; Hasmi, Ahmad Hafizam; Mahmood, Mohd Shah; Vanezis, Peter

    2016-09-01

    An underwater disaster can be declared when a maritime accident occurred or when an aircraft is plunged into water area, be it ocean, sea or river. Nevertheless, handling of human remains in an underwater recovery operation is often a difficult and demanding task as working conditions may be challenging with poor to no visibility, location of remains at considerable depths and associated hazards from surrounding water. A case of the recent helicopter crash, into a famous river in Sarawak, domiciled by huge crocodiles, is discussed in this paper. Search and recovery team as well as the combat divers from the Special Elite Troop Commando, known as VAT 69, were deployed to the scene to perform the underwater recovery to search for all the victims on board involving five Malaysians with a pilot of Philippines nationality. This paper highlights the limitations and challenges faced during the underwater search and recovery. All the bodies recovered were in moderate decomposition stage with crushed injuries and mutilated face and body. A simple and conventional fingerprint technique were used to record the fingerprint. The prints impressions were later photographed using a smartphone and transferred back to the RMP headquarters in Kuala Lumpur for fingerprint match by using WhatsApp Messenger, a phone application. All the first five victims were identified within an average of 10min. The last victim recovered was the pilot. For foreign nationals, the Immigration Department of Malaysia will record the prints of both index fingers only. The lifting of the fingerprint of the last victim was the most challenging in which only one index finger left that can be used for comparison. A few techniques were attempted using the black printer's ink, glass and tape techniques for the last victim. Subsequently, images of the prints impression were taken using the same smartphone with additional macro lens attached to it to enhance the resolution. The images were transferred to the RMP

  2. DNA fingerprinting in forensics: past, present, future.

    PubMed

    Roewer, Lutz

    2013-11-18

    DNA fingerprinting, one of the great discoveries of the late 20th century, has revolutionized forensic investigations. This review briefly recapitulates 30 years of progress in forensic DNA analysis which helps to convict criminals, exonerate the wrongly accused, and identify victims of crime, disasters, and war. Current standard methods based on short tandem repeats (STRs) as well as lineage markers (Y chromosome, mitochondrial DNA) are covered and applications are illustrated by casework examples. Benefits and risks of expanding forensic DNA databases are discussed and we ask what the future holds for forensic DNA fingerprinting.

  3. DNA fingerprinting in forensics: past, present, future

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    DNA fingerprinting, one of the great discoveries of the late 20th century, has revolutionized forensic investigations. This review briefly recapitulates 30 years of progress in forensic DNA analysis which helps to convict criminals, exonerate the wrongly accused, and identify victims of crime, disasters, and war. Current standard methods based on short tandem repeats (STRs) as well as lineage markers (Y chromosome, mitochondrial DNA) are covered and applications are illustrated by casework examples. Benefits and risks of expanding forensic DNA databases are discussed and we ask what the future holds for forensic DNA fingerprinting. PMID:24245688

  4. Photoluminescent semiconductor nanocrystals for fingerprint detection.

    PubMed

    Menzel, E R; Savoy, S M; Ulvick, S J; Cheng, K H; Murdock, R H; Sudduth, M R

    2000-05-01

    The concept of utilizing photoluminescent semiconductor nanocrystals for latent fingerprint detection, especially in concert with phase-resolved imaging for background fluorescence suppression, is reduced to practice with CdS nanocrystals that are capped with dioctyl sulfosuccinate. The nanocrystals are dissolved in heptane or hexane and are applied in much the same way as staining with fluorescent dye, on articles that have been pre-fumed with cyanoacrylate ester and also on the sticky side of electrical tape without pre-fuming. Since CdS can form a photoluminescent nanocomposite with dendrimers, a feasibility examination of dendrimer tagging of fingerprints has also been conducted.

  5. Fingerprint image enhancement by differential hysteresis processing.

    PubMed

    Blotta, Eduardo; Moler, Emilce

    2004-05-10

    A new method to enhance defective fingerprints images through image digital processing tools is presented in this work. When the fingerprints have been taken without any care, blurred and in some cases mostly illegible, as in the case presented here, their classification and comparison becomes nearly impossible. A combination of spatial domain filters, including a technique called differential hysteresis processing (DHP), is applied to improve these kind of images. This set of filtering methods proved to be satisfactory in a wide range of cases by uncovering hidden details that helped to identify persons. Dactyloscopy experts from Policia Federal Argentina and the EAAF have validated these results.

  6. Strain typing with IS200 fingerprints in Salmonella abortusovis.

    PubMed Central

    Schiaffino, A; Beuzón, C R; Uzzau, S; Leori, G; Cappuccinelli, P; Casadesús, J; Rubino, S

    1996-01-01

    A collection of Salmonella abortusovis isolates was examined for the presence of insertion element IS200. All proved to contain three or four copies of the element. One IS200 hybridization band of approximately 9 kb was found in all isolates, indicating that all S. abortusovis strains carry an IS200 element in similar or identical locations; this band can be potentially useful for serovar identification. S. abortusovis collection isolates from distinct geographic areas were highly polymorphic, suggesting that IS200 fingerprints might provide information on the geographic origin of S. abortusovis strains. Isolates obtained from the same geographic area (the island of Sardinia, Italy) were less polymorphic: all shared three constant IS200 hybridization bands, indicating that they derive from a single ancestor. Most strains analyzed contained an additional copy of IS200 in the variable region of the virulence plasmid. Certain Sardinian flocks proved to be infected by only one S. abortusovis strain, while others harbored two strains. Strain typing with IS200 fingerprints proved to be more reliable than plasmid analysis, because the latter yielded a high degree of polymorphism, even among isolates from the same flock. PMID:8779575

  7. 8 CFR 1236.5 - Fingerprints and photographs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fingerprints and photographs. 1236.5... ORDERED REMOVED Detention of Aliens Prior to Order of Removal § 1236.5 Fingerprints and photographs. Every... photographed. Such fingerprints and photographs shall be made available to Federal, State, and local...

  8. 8 CFR 1236.5 - Fingerprints and photographs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fingerprints and photographs. 1236.5... ORDERED REMOVED Detention of Aliens Prior to Order of Removal § 1236.5 Fingerprints and photographs. Every... photographed. Such fingerprints and photographs shall be made available to Federal, State, and local...

  9. 8 CFR 1236.5 - Fingerprints and photographs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fingerprints and photographs. 1236.5... ORDERED REMOVED Detention of Aliens Prior to Order of Removal § 1236.5 Fingerprints and photographs. Every... photographed. Such fingerprints and photographs shall be made available to Federal, State, and local...

  10. 8 CFR 1236.5 - Fingerprints and photographs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fingerprints and photographs. 1236.5... ORDERED REMOVED Detention of Aliens Prior to Order of Removal § 1236.5 Fingerprints and photographs. Every... photographed. Such fingerprints and photographs shall be made available to Federal, State, and local...

  11. 22 CFR 41.105 - Supporting documents and fingerprinting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Supporting documents and fingerprinting. 41.105... and fingerprinting. (a) Supporting documents—(1) Authority to require documents. The consular officer... through NATO-4 or NATO-6. (b) Fingerprinting. Every applicant for a nonimmigrant visa must...

  12. 22 CFR 41.105 - Supporting documents and fingerprinting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Supporting documents and fingerprinting. 41.105... and fingerprinting. (a) Supporting documents—(1) Authority to require documents. The consular officer... through NATO-4 or NATO-6. (b) Fingerprinting. Every applicant for a nonimmigrant visa must...

  13. 22 CFR 41.105 - Supporting documents and fingerprinting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Supporting documents and fingerprinting. 41.105... and fingerprinting. (a) Supporting documents—(1) Authority to require documents. The consular officer... through NATO-4 or NATO-6. (b) Fingerprinting. Every applicant for a nonimmigrant visa must...

  14. Chemical Fingerprinting of Materials Developed Due To Environmental Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Doris A.; McCool, A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on chemical fingerprinting of materials developed due to environmental issues. Some of the topics include: 1) Aerospace Materials; 2) Building Blocks of Capabilities; 3) Spectroscopic Techniques; 4) Chromatographic Techniques; 5) Factors that Determine Fingerprinting Approach; and 6) Fingerprinting: Combination of instrumental analysis methods that diagnostically characterize a material.

  15. 78 FR 33436 - 2013 Final Fee Rate and Fingerprint Fees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... National Indian Gaming Commission 2013 Final Fee Rate and Fingerprint Fees AGENCY: National Indian Gaming... its new fingerprint processing fees of $22 per card effective June 1st, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... Commission shall also review annually the costs involved in processing fingerprint cards based on fees...

  16. Fingerprint Ridge Count: A Polygenic Trait Useful in Classroom Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendenhall, Gordon; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Describes the use of the polygenic trait of total fingerprint ridge count in the classroom as a laboratory investigation. Presents information on background of topic, fingerprint patterns which are classified into three major groups, ridge count, the inheritance model, and activities. Includes an example data sheet format for fingerprints. (RT)

  17. 8 CFR 1236.5 - Fingerprints and photographs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fingerprints and photographs. 1236.5... ORDERED REMOVED Detention of Aliens Prior to Order of Removal § 1236.5 Fingerprints and photographs. Every... photographed. Such fingerprints and photographs shall be made available to Federal, State, and local law...

  18. Digital Video of Live-Scan Fingerprint Data

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Digital Video of Live-Scan Fingerprint Data (PC database for purchase)   NIST Special Database 24 contains MPEG-2 (Moving Picture Experts Group) compressed digital video of live-scan fingerprint data. The database is being distributed for use in developing and testing of fingerprint verification systems.

  19. Fingerprint Ridge Count: A Polygenic Trait Useful in Classroom Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendenhall, Gordon; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Describes the use of the polygenic trait of total fingerprint ridge count in the classroom as a laboratory investigation. Presents information on background of topic, fingerprint patterns which are classified into three major groups, ridge count, the inheritance model, and activities. Includes an example data sheet format for fingerprints. (RT)

  20. Millisecond solar radio spikes observed at 1420 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabrowski, B. P.; Kus, A. J.

    We present results from observations of narrowband solar millisecond radio spikes at 1420 MHz. Observing data were collected between February 2000 and December 2001 with the 15-m radio telescope at the Centre for Astronomy Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, Poland, equipped with a radio spectrograph that covered the 1352-1490 MHz frequency band. The radio spectrograph has 3 MHz frequency resolution and 80 microsecond time resolution. We analyzed the individual radio spike duration, bandwidth and rate of frequency drift. A part of the observed spikes showed well-outlined subtle structures. On dynamic radio spectrograms of the investigated events we notice complex structures formed by numerous individual spikes known as chains of spikes and distinctly different structure of columns. Positions of active regions connected with radio spikes emission were investigated. It turns out that most of them are located near the center of the solar disk, suggesting strong beaming of the spikes emission.

  1. Investigating the sources of sediment in a Canadian agricultural watershed using a colour-based fingerprinting technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthod, Louise; Lobb, David; Owens, Philip; Martinez-Carreras, Nuria; Koiter, Alexander; Petticrew, Ellen; McCullough, Gregory

    2014-05-01

    The development of beneficial management practises to minimize adverse impacts of agriculture on soil and water quality requires information on the sources of sediment at the watershed scale. Sediment fingerprinting allows for the determination of sediment sources and apportionment of their contribution within a watershed, using unique physical, radiochemical or biogeochemical properties, or fingerprints, of the potential sediment sources. The use of sediment colour as a fingerprint is an emerging technique that can provide a rapid and inexpensive means of investigating sediment sources. This technique is currently being utilized to determine sediment sources within the South Tobacco Creek Watershed, an agricultural watershed located in the Canadian prairies (south-central Manitoba). Suspended sediment and potential source (topsoil, channel bank and shale bedrock material) samples were collected between 2009 and 2011 at six locations along the main stem of the creek. Sample colour was quantified from diffuse reflectance spectrometry measurements over the visible wavelength range using a spectroradiometer (ASD Field Spec Pro, 400-2500 nm). Sixteen colour coefficients were derived from several colour space models (CIE XYZ, CIE xyY, CIE Lab, CIE Luv, CIE Lch, Landsat RGB, Redness Index). The individual discrimination power of the colour coefficients, after passing several prerequisite tests (e.g., linearly additive behaviour), was assessed using discriminant function analysis. A stepwise discriminant analysis, based on the Wilk's lambda criterion, was then performed in order to determine the best-suited colour coefficient fingerprints which maximized the discrimination between the potential sources. The selected fingerprints classified the source samples in the correct category 86% of the time. The misclassification is due to intra-source variability and source overlap which can lead to higher uncertainty in sediment source apportionment. The selected fingerprints

  2. Performance analysis of digital cameras versus chromatic white light (CWL) sensors for the localization of latent fingerprints in crime scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankow, Mathias; Hildebrandt, Mario; Sturm, Jennifer; Kiltz, Stefan; Vielhauer, Claus

    2012-06-01

    In future applications of contactless acquisition techniques for latent fingerprints the automatic localization of potential fingerprint traces in crime scenes is required. Our goal is to study the application of a camera-based approach1 comparing with the performance of chromatic white light (CWL) techniques2 for the latent fingerprint localization in coarse and the resulting acquisition using detailed scans. Furthermore, we briefly evaluate the suitability of the camera-based acquisition for the detection of malicious fingerprint traces using an extended camera setup in comparison to Kiltz et al.3 Our experimental setup includes a Canon EOS 550D4 digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera and a FRT MicroProf2005 surface measurement device with CWL6002 sensor. We apply at least two fingerprints to each surface in our test set with 8 different either smooth, textured and structured surfaces to evaluate the detection performance of the two localization techniques using different pre-processing and feature extraction techniques. Printed fingerprint patterns as reproducible but potentially malicious traces3 are additionally acquired and analyzed on foil and compact discs. Our results indicate positive tendency towards a fast localization using the camera-based technique. All fingerprints that are located using the CWL sensor are found using the camera. However,the disadvantage of the camera-based technique is that the size of the region of interest for the detailed scan for each potential latent fingerprint is usually slightly larger compared to the CWL-based localization. Furthermore, this technique does not acquire 3D data and the resulting images are distorted due to the necessary angle between the camera and the surface. When applying the camera-based approach, it is required to optimize the feature extraction and classification. Furthermore, the required acquisition time for each potential fingerprint needs to be estimated to determine the time-savings of the

  3. Global Ionosphere Radio Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galkin, I. A.; Reinisch, B. W.; Huang, X. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Global Ionosphere Radio Observatory (GIRO) comprises a network of ground-based high-frequency vertical sounding sensors, ionosondes, with instrument installations in 27 countries and a central Lowell GIRO Data Center (LGDC) for data acquisition and assimilation, including 46 real-time data streams as of August 2014. The LGDC implemented a suite of technologies for post-processing, modeling, analysis, and dissemination of the acquired and derived data products, including: (1) IRI-based Real-time Assimilative Model, "IRTAM", that builds and publishes every 15-minutes an updated "global weather" map of the peak density and height in the ionosphere, as well as a map of deviations from the classic IRI climate; (2) Global Assimilative Model of Bottomside Ionosphere Timelines (GAMBIT) Database and Explorer holding 15 years worth of IRTAM computed maps at 15 minute cadence;. (3) 17+ million ionograms and matching ionogram-derived records of URSI-standard ionospheric characteristics and vertical profiles of electron density; (4) 10+ million records of the Doppler Skymaps showing spatial distributions over the GIRO locations and plasma drifts; (5) Data and software for Traveling Ionospheric Disturbance (TID) diagnostics; and (6) HR2006 ray tracing software mated to the "realistic" IRTAM ionosphere. In cooperation with the URSI Ionosonde Network Advisory Group (INAG), the LGDC promotes cooperative agreements with the ionosonde observatories of the world to accept and process real-time data of HF radio monitoring of the ionosphere, and to promote a variety of investigations that benefit from the global-scale, prompt, detailed, and accurate descriptions of the ionospheric variability.

  4. Nonthermal Radio Emission and the HR Diagram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    Perhaps the most reliable indicator of non-radiative heating/momentum in a stellar atmosphere is the presence of nonthermal radio emission. To date, 77 normal stellar objects have been detected and identified as nonthermal sources. These stellar objects are tabulated herein. It is apparent that non-thermal radio emission is not ubiquitous across the HR diagram. This is clearly the case for the single stars; it is not as clear for the binaries unless the radio emission is associated with their late-type components. Choosing to make this association, the single stars and the late-type components are plotted together. The following picture emerges: (1) there are four locations on the HR diagram where non-thermal radio stars are found; (2) the peak incoherent 5 GHz luminosities show a suprisingly small range for stars within each class; (3) the fraction of stellar energy that escapes as radio emission can be estimated by comparing the integrated maximum radio luminosity to the bolometric luminosity; (4) there are no apparent differences in L sub R between binaries with two cool components, binaries with one hot and one cool component, and single stars for classes C and D; and (5) The late-type stars (classes B, C, and D) are located in parts of the HR diagram where there is reason to suspect that the surfaces of the stars are being braked with respect to their interiors.

  5. Nonthermal Radio Emission and the HR Diagram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    Perhaps the most reliable indicator of non-radiative heating/momentum in a stellar atmosphere is the presence of nonthermal radio emission. To date, 77 normal stellar objects have been detected and identified as nonthermal sources. These stellar objects are tabulated herein. It is apparent that non-thermal radio emission is not ubiquitous across the HR diagram. This is clearly the case for the single stars; it is not as clear for the binaries unless the radio emission is associated with their late-type components. Choosing to make this association, the single stars and the late-type components are plotted together. The following picture emerges: (1) there are four locations on the HR diagram where non-thermal radio stars are found; (2) the peak incoherent 5 GHz luminosities show a suprisingly small range for stars within each class; (3) the fraction of stellar energy that escapes as radio emission can be estimated by comparing the integrated maximum radio luminosity to the bolometric luminosity; (4) there are no apparent differences in L sub R between binaries with two cool components, binaries with one hot and one cool component, and single stars for classes C and D; and (5) The late-type stars (classes B, C, and D) are located in parts of the HR diagram where there is reason to suspect that the surfaces of the stars are being braked with respect to their interiors.

  6. Feedback in high redshift radio galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Breuck, Carlos; Nesvadba, Nicole; Lehnert, Matthew; Best, Philip

    High redshift radio galaxies are among the best objects to study AGN feedback in action, as they are among the most massive galaxies (1011 - 1012 M ) hosting powerful radio-loud AGN. I will present near-infrared imaging spectroscopy of a sample of over 50 radio galaxies at 2 < z < 5 using SINFONI at the VLT. We identify kpc-sized outflows of few x 1010 M of ionized gas, located along the radio source axis. Velocity fields are consistent with bipolar outflows, with total velocity offsets of 1000 km/s. FWHMs 1000 km/s suggest strong turbulence. The geometry is consistent with the radio source driving these outflows. Over the lifetime of the radio source (˜ 107 yr), these outflows can eject up to 1011 M of gas out of the gravitational potential of the host galaxy. Such mass loss would be sufficient to terminate star formation within the host galaxy. I will also present results from an ongoing follow-up programme to study the molecular gas in these high z radio galaxies using the IRAM interferometer. In several sources, we find a remarkable deficit in cold molecular relative to ionized gas, which may imply that significant fractions of the interstellar medium of these galaxies are participating in the winds.

  7. DIFFUSIVE SHOCK ACCELERATION SIMULATIONS OF RADIO RELICS

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Hyesung; Ryu, Dongsu; Jones, T. W. E-mail: ryu@canopus.cnu.ac.kr

    2012-09-01

    Recent radio observations have identified a class of structures, so-called radio relics, in clusters of galaxies. The radio emission from these sources is interpreted as synchrotron radiation from GeV electrons gyrating in {mu}G-level magnetic fields. Radio relics, located mostly in the outskirts of clusters, seem to associate with shock waves, especially those developed during mergers. In fact, they seem to be good structures to identify and probe such shocks in intracluster media (ICMs), provided we understand the electron acceleration and re-acceleration at those shocks. In this paper, we describe time-dependent simulations for diffusive shock acceleration at weak shocks that are expected to be found in ICMs. Freshly injected as well as pre-existing populations of cosmic-ray (CR) electrons are considered, and energy losses via synchrotron and inverse Compton are included. We then compare the synchrotron flux and spectral distributions estimated from the simulations with those in two well-observed radio relics in CIZA J2242.8+5301 and ZwCl0008.8+5215. Considering that CR electron injection is expected to be rather inefficient at weak shocks with Mach number M {approx}< a few, the existence of radio relics could indicate the pre-existing population of low-energy CR electrons in ICMs. The implication of our results on the merger shock scenario of radio relics is discussed.

  8. DNA fingerprinting of Paenibacillus popilliae and Paenibacillus lentimorbus using PCR-amplified 16S-23S rDNA intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) regions.

    PubMed

    Dingman, Douglas W

    2009-01-01

    Failure to identify correctly the milky disease bacteria, Paenibacillus popilliae and Paenibacillus lentimorbus, has resulted in published research errors and commercial production problems. A DNA fingerprinting procedure, using PCR amplification of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) regions, has been shown to easily and accurately identify isolates of milky disease bacteria. Using 34 P. popilliae and 15 P. lentimorbus strains, PCR amplification of different ITS regions produced three DNA fingerprints. For P. lentimorbus phylogenic group 2 strains and for all P. popilliae strains tested, electrophoresis of amplified DNA produced a migratory pattern (i.e., ITS-PCR fingerprint) exhibiting three DNA bands. P. lentimorbus group 1 strains also produced this ITS-PCR fingerprint. However, the fingerprint was phase-shifted toward larger DNA sizes. Alignment of the respective P. popilliae and P. lentimorbus group 1 ITS DNA sequences showed extensive homology, except for a 108bp insert in all P. lentimorbus ITS regions. This insert occurred at the same location relative to the 23S rDNA and accounted for the phase-shift difference in P. lentimorbus group 1 DNA fingerprints. At present, there is no explanation for this 108bp insert. The third ITS-PCR fingerprint, produced by P. lentimorbus group 3 strains, exhibited approximately eight DNA bands. Comparison of the three fingerprints of milky disease bacteria to the ITS-PCR fingerprints of other Paenibacillus species demonstrated uniqueness. ITS-PCR fingerprinting successfully identified eight unknown isolates as milky disease bacteria. Therefore, this procedure can serve as a standard protocol to identify P. popilliae and P. lentimorbus.

  9. Plasma and radio waves from Neptune: Source mechamisms and propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menietti, J. Douglas

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to conduct a comprehensive investigation of the radio wave emission observed by the planetary radio astronomy (PRA) instrument on board Voyager 2 as it flew by Neptune. The study has included data analysis, theoretical and numerical calculations, and ray tracing to determine the possible source mechanisms and locations of the radiation, including the narrowband bursty and smooth components of the Neptune radio emission.

  10. [ABO blood grouping of fingerprint by means of immunohistochemical procedure].

    PubMed

    Lin, Z; Ohshima, T; Takayasu, T; Nagano, T; Jia, J

    1993-04-01

    For the purpose of ABO-blood typing on fingerprints, the detection of blood group substances in fingerprints attached on nitrocellulose filter or paper was performed immunohistochemically using avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex (ABC) method. At first, it was fundamentally tested whether ABO-blood typing could be specifically performed for the fingerprints of known ABO blood group, being made experimentally on nitrocellulose filter or paper, and the effect of fixation and paper quality for the detection was also examined. And, ABO-typing was carried out using transferred fingerprints from a slide glass to a nitrocellulose filter. Moreover, using a fingerprint of unknown ABO-type, serially repetitive blood typing (three times) was compared to individually performed grouping (three tests) after dividing a single fingerprint into three parts. In addition, the method of serial ABO-blood typing after the morphological detection of fingerprints by ninhydrine was also considered. As results, according to primary antibodies applied, ABH activities were specifically detected in the fingerprints on nitrocellulose filter and paper. For the fixation procedure of very minute blood group substances to paper, heat fixation was the most effective and methanol fixation was also available. The intensity of immunostaining of fingerprints decreased according to the deterioration of paper quality used. And, the transferred fingerprints on nitrocellulose filter were also specifically typed. Serially repetitive blood typing (anti-B-->anti-A-->anti-H) was possible to fingerprints on nitrocellulose filter, but it gave poor results to those on paper. To overcome this difficulty, after being detected morphologically by ninhydrine, iodine or aluminium powder and decolored thereafter, a fingerprint on paper was divided into three parts and specific blood typing was possible. As for the double blind test to fingerprints on paper, 22 out of 35 fingerprints were specifically typed and the rate of

  11. Voyager 2 radio observations of uranus.

    PubMed

    Warwick, J W; Evans, D R; Romig, J H; Sawyer, C B; Desch, M D; Kaiser, M L; Alexander, J K; Carr, T D; Staelin, D H; Gulkis, S; Poynter, R L; Aubier, M; Boischot, A; Leblanc, Y; Lecacheux, A; Pedersen, B M; Zarka, P

    1986-07-04

    Within distances to Uranus of about 6 x 10(6) kilometers (inbound) and 35 x 10(6) kilometers (outbound), the planetary radio astronomy experiment aboard Voyager 2 detected a wide variety of radio emissions. The emission was modulated in a period of 17.24 +/- 0.01 hours, which is identified as the rotation period of Uranus' magnetic field. Of the two poles where the axis of the off-center magnetic dipole (measured by the magnetometer experiment aboard Voyager 2) meets the planetary surface, the one closer to dipole center is now located on the nightside of the planet. The radio emission generally had maximum power and bandwidth when this pole was tipped toward the spacecraft. When the spacecraft entered the nightside hemisphere, which contains the stronger surface magnetic pole, the bandwidth increased dramatically and thereafter remained large. Dynamically evolving radio events of various kinds embedded in these emissions suggest a Uranian magnetosphere rich in magnetohydrodynamic phenomena.

  12. Radio VLBI and the quantum interference paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singal, Ashok K.

    2016-12-01

    We address here the question of interference of radio signals from astronomical sources like distant quasars, in a very long baseline interferometer (VLBI), where two (or more) distantly located radio telescopes (apertures), receive a simultaneous signal from the sky. In an equivalent optical two-slit experiment, it is generally argued that for the photons involved in the interference pattern on the screen, it is not possible, even in principle, to know which of the two slits a particular photon went through and that any procedure to ascertain this destroys the interference pattern. But in the case of the modern radio VLBI, it is a routine matter to record the phase and amplitude of the voltage outputs from the two radio antennas on a recording media separately and then do the correlation between the two recorded signals later in an off-line manner. Does this not violate the quantum interference principle? We provide a resolution of this problem here.

  13. A cancellable and fuzzy fingerprint scheme for mobile computing security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wencheng; Xi, Kai; Li, Cai

    2012-09-01

    Fingerprint recognition provides an effective user authentication solution for mobile computing systems. However, as a fingerprint template protection scheme, fingerprint fuzzy vault is subject to cross-matching attacks, since the same finger might be registered for various applications. In this paper, we propose a fingerprint-based biometric security scheme named the cancellable and fuzzy fingerprint scheme, which combines a cancellable non-linear transformation with the client/server version of fuzzy vault, to address the cross-matching attack in a mobile computing system. Experimental results demonstrate that our scheme can provide reliable and secure protection to the mobile computing system while achieving an acceptable matching performance.

  14. Eliminate background interference from latent fingerprints using ultraviolet multispectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei; Xu, Xiaojing; Wang, Guiqiang

    2014-02-01

    Fingerprints are the most important evidence in crime scene. The technology of developing latent fingerprints is one of the hottest research areas in forensic science. Recently, multispectral imaging which has shown great capability in fingerprints development, questioned document detection and trace evidence examination is used in detecting material evidence. This paper studied how to eliminate background interference from non-porous and porous surface latent fingerprints by rotating filter wheel ultraviolet multispectral imaging. The results approved that background interference could be removed clearly from latent fingerprints by using multispectral imaging in ultraviolet bandwidth.

  15. DNA fingerprinting reveals elevated mutation rates in herring gulls inhabiting a genotoxically contaminated site

    SciTech Connect

    Yauk, C.L.; Quinn, J.S.

    1995-12-31

    The authors used multi-locus DNA fingerprinting to examine families of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) from a genotoxically contaminated site (Hamilton Harbour) and from a pristine location (Kent Island, Bay of Fundy) to show significant differences in mutation rates between the locations. Overall the authors identified 17 mutant bands from 15 individuals of the 35 examined from Hamilton Harbour, and 7 mutant fragments from 7 individuals, of the 43 examined from Kent Island; a mutation frequency of 0.429 per nestling for Hamilton Harbour and 0.163 for Kent Island. The total number of individuals with mutant bands was significantly higher at Hamilton Harbour than at Kent Island (X{sup 2}=6.734; df = 1; P < 0.01). Ongoing analysis of other less contaminated sites also reveals lower mutation rates than those seen in Hamilton Harbour. With multi-locus DNA fingerprinting many regions of the genome can be surveyed simultaneously. The tandemly repeated arrays of nucleotides examined with DNA fingerprinting are known to have elevated rates of mutation. Furthermore, the mutations seen with DNA fingerprinting are predominantly heritable. Other biomarkers currently used in situ are not able to monitor direct and heritable DNA mutation, or measure biological endpoints that frequently result in spontaneous abortion creating difficulty in observing significantly elevated levels in viable offspring. The authors suggest that multilocus DNA fingerprinting can be used as a biomarker to identify potentially heritable risks before the onset of other types of ecological damage. This approach provides a direct measure of mutation in situ and in vivo in a vertebrate species under ambient conditions.

  16. Compression of gray-scale fingerprint images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopper, Thomas

    1994-03-01

    The FBI has developed a specification for the compression of gray-scale fingerprint images to support paperless identification services within the criminal justice community. The algorithm is based on a scalar quantization of a discrete wavelet transform decomposition of the images, followed by zero run encoding and Huffman encoding.

  17. Discrimination among Panax species using spectral fingerprinting

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Spectral fingerprints of samples of three Panax species (P. quinquefolius L., P. ginseng, and P. notoginseng) were acquired using UV, NIR, and MS spectrometry. With principal components analysis (PCA), all three methods allowed visual discrimination between all three species. All three methods wer...

  18. Fingerprint maintenance, a new dermatoglyphic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Shuster, S

    2011-04-01

    Although dermatoglyphic structure has been mechanistically related to fingerprint formation, a separate mechanism for fingerprint maintenance must exist or prints would be lost by friction. To test this prediction and study its operation. Palmar and plantar prints were studied visually and by silicone rubber impressions after surface removal by abrasives, scalpel and adhesive stripping, using surface staining to stage surface loss. All depths and methods of surface removal left the print ridges intact visually and in silicone rubber impressions. When abrasion was applied only to ridge surfaces, keratinocytes were lost concomitantly in the troughs between them, leaving ridge structure intact. When palmar or plantar stratum corneum was cleaved or peeled apart, the separated layer followed the undulating ridges and troughs, thus maintaining the normal print pattern. A new mechanism of fingerprint maintenance was predicted theoretically and confirmed experimentally. It is achieved by an organization of the print corneum which ensures its continuous separation over the whole of the undulating print surface, even when friction is applied only to the tips of the ridges; the preferred route of separation of print keratinocytes runs up and down the print ridges and troughs and thereby maintains them, and is presumably ordered by predominantly horizontal intercellular attachments between print keratinocytes. The reason print maintenance has been missed until now may be that dermatoglyphic researchers have little interest in fingerprint disguise, while those who are interested in disguise have little interest in research. © 2011 The Author. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.

  19. 75 FR 12803 - Fingerprint Submission Requirements Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL CRIME PREVENTION AND PRIVACY COMPACT COUNCIL Fingerprint Submission Requirements Rule Authority: 42 U.S.C. 14616. AGENCY: National Crime Prevention and Privacy Compact Council. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice of...

  20. Optical security verification for blurred fingerprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soon, Boon Y.; Karim, Mohammad A.; Alam, Mohammad S.

    1998-12-01

    Optical fingerprint security verification is gaining popularity, as it has the potential to perform correlation at the speed of light. With advancement in optical security verification techniques, authentication process can be almost foolproof and reliable for financial transaction, banking, etc. In law enforcement, when a fingerprint is obtained from a crime scene, it may be blurred and can be an unhealthy candidate for correlation purposes. Therefore, the blurred fingerprint needs to be clarified before it is used for the correlation process. There are a several different types of blur, such as linear motion blur and defocus blur, induced by aberration of imaging system. In addition, we may or may not know the blur function. In this paper, we propose the non-singularity inverse filtering in frequency/power domain for deblurring known motion-induced blur in fingerprints. This filtering process will be incorporated with the pow spectrum subtraction technique, uniqueness comparison scheme, and the separated target and references planes method in the joint transform correlator. The proposed hardware implementation is a hybrid electronic-optical correlator system. The performance of the proposed system would be verified with computer simulation for both cases: with and without additive random noise corruption.

  1. Fingerprints for fruit and nut crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We in horticulture should be more aware of the identity of the plants that we use. We appreciate scientists who can determine species and cultivars with their botanical knowledge and keen powers of observation. However, sometimes plant identity is more than meets the eye. Fingerprints serve as a hi...

  2. Ultrasonic fingerprinting by phased array transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sednev, D.; Kataeva, O.; Abramets, V.; Pushenko, P.; Tverdokhlebova, T.

    2016-06-01

    Increasing quantity of spent nuclear fuel that must be under national and international control requires a novel approach to safeguard techniques and equipment. One of the proposed approaches is utilize intrinsic features of casks with spent fuel. In this article an application of a phased array ultrasonic method is considered. This study describes an experimental results on ultrasonic fingerprinting of austenitic steel seam weld.

  3. Peptide Mass Fingerprinting of Egg White Proteins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alty, Lisa T.; LaRiviere, Frederick J.

    2016-01-01

    Use of advanced mass spectrometry techniques in the undergraduate setting has burgeoned in the past decade. However, relatively few undergraduate experiments examine the proteomics tools of protein digestion, peptide accurate mass determination, and database searching, also known as peptide mass fingerprinting. In this experiment, biochemistry…

  4. Peptide Mass Fingerprinting of Egg White Proteins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alty, Lisa T.; LaRiviere, Frederick J.

    2016-01-01

    Use of advanced mass spectrometry techniques in the undergraduate setting has burgeoned in the past decade. However, relatively few undergraduate experiments examine the proteomics tools of protein digestion, peptide accurate mass determination, and database searching, also known as peptide mass fingerprinting. In this experiment, biochemistry…

  5. Piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducers for fingerprint sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yipeng

    Fingerprint identification is the most prevalent biometric technology due to its uniqueness, universality and convenience. Over the past two decades, a variety of physical mechanisms have been exploited to capture an electronic image of a human fingerprint. Among these, capacitive fingerprint sensors are the ones most widely used in consumer electronics because they are fabricated using conventional complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuit technology. However, capacitive fingerprint sensors are extremely sensitive to finger contamination and moisture. This thesis will introduce an ultrasonic fingerprint sensor using a PMUT array, which offers a potential solution to this problem. In addition, it has the potential to increase security, as it allows images to be collected at various depths beneath the epidermis, providing images of the sub-surface dermis layer and blood vessels. Firstly, PMUT sensitivity is maximized by optimizing the layer stack and electrode design, and the coupling coefficient is doubled via series transduction. Moreover, a broadband PMUT with 97% fractional bandwidth is achieved by utilizing a thinner structure excited at two adjacent mechanical vibration modes with overlapping bandwidth. In addition, we proposed waveguide PMUTs, which function to direct acoustic waves, confine acoustic energy, and provide mechanical protection for the PMUT array. Furthermore, PMUT arrays were fabricated with different processes to form the membrane, including front-side etching with a patterned sacrificial layer, front-side etching with additional anchor, cavity SOI wafers and eutectic bonding. Additionally, eutectic bonding allows the PMUT to be integrated with CMOS circuits. PMUTs were characterized in the mechanical, electrical and acoustic domains. Using transmit beamforming, a narrow acoustic beam was achieved, and high-resolution (sub-100 microm) and short-range (~1 mm) pulse-echo ultrasonic imaging was demonstrated using a steel

  6. Fingerprint changes among cancer patients treated with paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Azadeh, Payam; Dashti-Khavidaki, Simin; Joybari, Ali Yaghobi; Sarbaz, Samaneh; Jafari, Atefeh; Yaseri, Mehdi; Amini, Afshin; Farasatinasab, Maryam

    2017-04-01

    Fingerprints have long been used for personal identification; however, some case reports suggested that some chemotherapy agents such as paclitaxel lead to fingerprints loss due to hand-and-foot syndrome (HFS). This case-control study was performed on 65 patients who received chemotherapy regimens with/without paclitaxel. Patients with the history of receiving any drugs with significant HFS adverse effect or patients with any conditions that affect fingerprints were excluded. Baseline and post-chemotherapy images of fingerprint examples were referred to the Iranian Society of Legal Medicine to compare changes in the fingerprints. Thirty-one patients entered in the paclitaxel and 34 subjects in the control groups. Seventeen patients (54.8%) in the paclitaxel group experienced fingerprint changes, whereas no patient had fingerprint changes in the control group. By physical examination, no patients in the two groups experienced HFS. After adjusting for age, sex, occupation, and cancer type, there was a significant difference between the two groups regarding fingerprint changes (P = 0.002, OR 13.69, 95% CI 2.05 to infinite). Considering that fingerprint recognition has been utilized in both government and civilian investigation, patients taking paclitaxel and centers necessitating fingerprint identification should be informed about possible fingerprint changes by paclitaxel.

  7. Exposure of radio officers to radio frequency radiation on Danish merchant ships

    SciTech Connect

    Skotte, J.

    1984-12-01

    Exposure of radio officers to radio frequency radiation from telegraphy and telephony equipment on ships was investigated. Eighty-five measurements were made of 12 radio tranmitters operating in the 400 kHz to 25 MHz range (power up to 1200 W) and three VHF telephony transmitters in the 150 MHz band. Field measurments were made at positions normally occupied by radio officers approximately 1 m, 0.5 m and 0.25 m from the antenna feed lines. The distance between the radio operator and the measurement location was at least 0.5 m. The ratio of the electric and magnetic field strength squared (MF and HF transmitters) to ANSI C95.1-1982 radio frequency protection guides ranged from 0.001 to 0.26 (geometric mean 0.02) at the location of the seated radio officer's head. A minimum distance of 0.5 m between antenna feed lines and personnel is recommended. This would normally ensure an exposure below the ANSI safety levels.

  8. A study of satellite emergency locator systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Satellite emergency locator systems were studied. The objective of the study was to determine the feasibility and hardware requirements for satellite systems capable of identifying and locating the position emergency locator transmitters and emergency position indicating radio beacons. Both geosynchronous and near-polar-orbiting satellites were considered. One of the most important aspects of the study was to minimize the cost of the hardware required.

  9. Acoustic Location of Lightning Using Interferometric Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erives, H.; Arechiga, R. O.; Stock, M.; Lapierre, J. L.; Edens, H. E.; Stringer, A.; Rison, W.; Thomas, R. J.

    2013-12-01

    Acoustic arrays have been used to accurately locate thunder sources in lightning flashes. The acoustic arrays located around the Magdalena mountains of central New Mexico produce locations which compare quite well with source locations provided by the New Mexico Tech Lightning Mapping Array. These arrays utilize 3 outer microphones surrounding a 4th microphone located at the center, The location is computed by band-passing the signal to remove noise, and then computing the cross correlating the outer 3 microphones with respect the center reference microphone. While this method works very well, it works best on signals with high signal to noise ratios; weaker signals are not as well located. Therefore, methods are being explored to improve the location accuracy and detection efficiency of the acoustic location systems. The signal received by acoustic arrays is strikingly similar to th signal received by radio frequency interferometers. Both acoustic location systems and radio frequency interferometers make coherent measurements of a signal arriving at a number of closely spaced antennas. And both acoustic and interferometric systems then correlate these signals between pairs of receivers to determine the direction to the source of the received signal. The primary difference between the two systems is the velocity of propagation of the emission, which is much slower for sound. Therefore, the same frequency based techniques that have been used quite successfully with radio interferometers should be applicable to acoustic based measurements as well. The results presented here are comparisons between the location results obtained with current cross correlation method and techniques developed for radio frequency interferometers applied to acoustic signals. The data were obtained during the summer 2013 storm season using multiple arrays sensitive to both infrasonic frequency and audio frequency acoustic emissions from lightning. Preliminary results show that

  10. ENHANCING NETWORK SECURITY USING 'LEARNING-FROM-SIGNALS' AND FRACTIONAL FOURIER TRANSFORM BASED RF-DNA FINGERPRINTS

    SciTech Connect

    Buckner, Mark A; Bobrek, Miljko; Farquhar, Ethan; Harmer, Paul K; Temple, Michael A

    2011-01-01

    Wireless Access Points (WAP) remain one of the top 10 network security threats. This research is part of an effort to develop a physical (PHY) layer aware Radio Frequency (RF) air monitoring system with multi-factor authentication to provide a first-line of defense for network security--stopping attackers before they can gain access to critical infrastructure networks through vulnerable WAPs. This paper presents early results on the identification of OFDM-based 802.11a WiFi devices using RF Distinct Native Attribute (RF-DNA) fingerprints produced by the Fractional Fourier Transform (FRFT). These fingerprints are input to a "Learning from Signals" (LFS) classifier which uses hybrid Differential Evolution/Conjugate Gradient (DECG) optimization to determine the optimal features for a low-rank model to be used for future predictions. Results are presented for devices under the most challenging conditions of intra-manufacturer classification, i.e., same-manufacturer, same-model, differing only in serial number. The results of Fractional Fourier Domain (FRFD) RF-DNA fingerprints demonstrate significant improvement over results based on Time Domain (TD), Spectral Domain (SD) and even Wavelet Domain (WD) fingerprints.

  11. Fingerprint indexing based on minutiae-dependent statistical codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iloanusi, Ogechukwu N.; Osuagwu, Charles C.

    2014-07-01

    Methods based on minutiae matching have been extensively used in fingerprint recognition because minutiae can be reliably extracted from poor quality and noisy fingerprints. However, structures have to be defined due to minutiae displacements and irreproducibility. Some of the structures, though very efficient, incur large computational complexities. In this article, a feature vector of statistically based values derived from the minutiae pattern in a fingerprint is proposed for indexing fingerprints using the incremental search retrieval method. The proposed indexing technique in combination with the incremental retrieval method proves to have an added advantage over certain minutiae-based structures, especially when the minutiae points are numerous in a fingerprint. The feature vector for a fingerprint requires negligible storage resources and, consequently, the computational time in the retrieval of a candidate list for a query fingerprint is very little.

  12. Application of DNA fingerprinting in medicolegal practice.

    PubMed

    Raina, Anupuma; Dogra, T D

    2002-12-01

    Fingerprinting is thought to establish the identify of an individual in forensic cases. The technique is extensively used for forensic purposes. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the vehicle of generational transference of heritable unit. While arching markers for genetic disease professor Alec Jeffreys discovered that certain regions of DNA showed variations in the number of tandem repeats known as variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs). Thus DNA fingerprint was named by observing the number of repeated sequences which differ from individual to individual. The structure of DNA is quite flexible, within the nucleus of each cell resides an identical copy of the individual's genetic material, DNA. The coding regions of the genomic DNA are known as genes. The DNA fingerprinting in forensic science has generated considerable excitement in the criminal justice community. DNA fingerprinting can be applied to identify an individual in criminal and civil cases. Polymerase chain reaction has revolutionised molecular biology it has an ability to amplify (usually fewer than 3000 bp) a particular sequence of DNA into million of copies in a very short period. Consequently only a very tiny amount of an organism's DNA needs to be available originally. This property of polymerase chain reaction has enabled to analyse many forensic samples particularly which are degraded. Microsatellite DNA or commonly as short tandem repeats are scattered throughout the human genome and occur on an average of every 10,000 nucleotides. Microsatellite markers are considered to be the most powerful genetic markers. Collection, preservation and handling are the integral part of DNA fingerprinting analysis. There are various methods to isolate DNA from different biological materials but presently most of the laboratories prefer using FTA paper. The age of humans can be estimated by using DNA based on telomere shortening.

  13. Fast probabilistic file fingerprinting for big data.

    PubMed

    Tretyakov, Konstantin; Laur, Sven; Smant, Geert; Vilo, Jaak; Prins, Pjotr

    2013-01-01

    Biological data acquisition is raising new challenges, both in data analysis and handling. Not only is it proving hard to analyze the data at the rate it is generated today, but simply reading and transferring data files can be prohibitively slow due to their size. This primarily concerns logistics within and between data centers, but is also important for workstation users in the analysis phase. Common usage patterns, such as comparing and transferring files, are proving computationally expensive and are tying down shared resources. We present an efficient method for calculating file uniqueness for large scientific data files, that takes less computational effort than existing techniques. This method, called Probabilistic Fast File Fingerprinting (PFFF), exploits the variation present in biological data and computes file fingerprints by sampling randomly from the file instead of reading it in full. Consequently, it has a flat performance characteristic, correlated with data variation rather than file size. We demonstrate that probabilistic fingerprinting can be as reliable as existing hashing techniques, with provably negligible risk of collisions. We measure the performance of the algorithm on a number of data storage and access technologies, identifying its strengths as well as limitations. Probabilistic fingerprinting may significantly reduce the use of computational resources when comparing very large files. Utilisation of probabilistic fingerprinting techniques can increase the speed of common file-related workflows, both in the data center and for workbench analysis. The implementation of the algorithm is available as an open-source tool named pfff, as a command-line tool as well as a C library. The tool can be downloaded from http://biit.cs.ut.ee/pfff.

  14. Fold Recognition Using Sequence Fingerprints of Protein Local Substructures

    SciTech Connect

    Kryshtafovych, A A; Hvidsten, T; Komorowski, J; Fidelis, K

    2003-06-04

    A protein local substructure (descriptor) is a set of several short non-overlapping fragments of the polypeptide chain. Each descriptor describes local environment of a particular residue and includes only those segments that are located in the proximity of this residue. Similar descriptors from the representative set of proteins were analyzed to reveal links between the substructures and sequences of their segments. Using detected sequence-based fingerprints specific geometrical conformations are assigned to new sequences. The ability of the approach to recognize correct SCOP folds was tested on 273 sequences from the 49 most popular folds. Good predictions were obtained in 85% of cases. No performance drop was observed with decreasing sequence similarity between target sequences and sequences from the training set of proteins.

  15. Chromatographic and mass spectrometric fingerprinting analyses of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels-derived dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; Sun, Jianghao; Yu, Liangli Lucy; Chen, Pei

    2013-05-01

    Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels ("Danggui" in Chinese) is one of the most commonly used traditional Chinese medicines. It has been used to invigorate blood circulation for the treatment of anemia, hypertension, chronic bronchitis, asthma, rheumatism, and cardiovascular diseases. There are a number of A. sinensis-derived dietary supplements in the US markets. However, no study have been conducted to investigate the quality of these dietary supplements. In this paper, high-performance liquid chromatographic and flow-injection mass spectrometric fingerprints were both evaluated to assess the consistency of A. sinensis-derived dietary supplements. Similarity analysis was carried out on the high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) fingerprints. Meanwhile, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on the data obtained from flow-injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) fingerprints, which can analyze each sample in 2 min, compared with 30 min required for the chromatographic fingerprint. Both methods show significant chemical differences between samples that may be due to differences in growing locations, growing conditions, harvesting times, and/or botanical processing. The loading plots obtained from PCA singled out the discriminatory ions that were responsible for chemical differences of A. sinensis-derived dietary supplements.

  16. Sediment Budget and Sediment Fingerprinting as Management Strategies to Understand Sediment Contributions to Receiving Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gellis, A.; Fitzpatrick, F.; Gorman-Sanisaca, L.

    2015-12-01

    A sound understanding of the sediment sources contributing to the sediment flux and the overall sediment budget of a watershed is key to total maximum daily load (TMDL) management strategies that focus on reducing sediment and sediment-related nutrient loadings to streams. This understanding can be provided by performing complementary sediment-source fingerprinting and sediment-budgeting investigations. The sediment fingerprinting approach quantifies the relative proportion of the potential sediment sources and the delivery of sediment from these sources. Sediment budget approaches provide information on the magnitude and location of the fluxes and the links between sources, sinks, and sediment output. Sediment budget approaches can include field based, photogrammetric, GIS, and modeling approaches to identify the important sources, erosion, and storage areas of sediment within a watershed. Combining sediment budget and sediment fingerprinting approaches provides resource managers with information on where to target mitigation measures that reduce erosion, and sediment delivery. Many watersheds across the U.S. have or are soon implementing TMDL allocations to reduce sediment and nutrient loadings. Streambank erosion is typically not accounted for in statistical, empirical, and process-based models, yet it is a major source of sediment in many watersheds. We present several examples of sediment budget and sediment fingerprinting studies from the Chesapeake Bay watershed and the Driftless Area, Wisconsin where information on loading of streambank sediment has been used (successfully) to shape upland and stream corridor management practices.

  17. Quality assessment of cortex cinnamomi by HPLC chemical fingerprint, principle component analysis and cluster analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Chen, Li-Hong; Zhang, Qin; Lai, Mao-Xiang; Wang, Qiang

    2007-06-01

    HPLC fingerprint analysis, principle component analysis (PCA), and cluster analysis were introduced for quality assessment of Cortex cinnamomi (CC). The fingerprint of CC was developed and validated by analyzing 30 samples of CC from different species and geographic locations. Seventeen chromatographic peaks were selected as characteristic peaks and their relative peak areas (RPA) were calculated for quantitative expression of the HPLC fingerprints. The correlation coefficients of similarity in chromatograms were higher than 0.95 for the same species while much lower than 0.6 for different species. Besides, two principal components (PCs) have been extracted by PCA. PC1 separated Cinnamomum cassia from other species, capturing 56.75% of variance while PC2 contributed for their further separation, capturing 19.08% variance. The scores of the samples showed that the samples could be clustered reasonably into different groups corresponding to different species and different regions. The scores and loading plots together revealed different chemical properties of each group clearly. The cluster analysis confirmed the results of PCA analysis. Therefore, HPLC fingerprint in combination with chemometric techniques provide a very flexible and reliable method for quality assessment of traditional Chinese medicines.

  18. Emergency-Radio Modulation Would Identify Type of Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wren, Paul

    1987-01-01

    New emergency beacon similar to conventional one, except modulation interrupted periodically while unmodulated carrier is transmitted. Modulation scheme for emergency radio beacons aids searchers by indicating kind of vehicle in distress. Transmitted signal similar to present standard signal of emergency locator transmitters (ELT's) and emergency position-indicating radio beacons (EPIRB's) but also includes periods of unmodulated carrier.

  19. RADIO OBSERVATIONS OF THE SOLAR CORONA DURING AN ECLIPSE

    SciTech Connect

    Kathiravan, C.; Ramesh, R.; Barve, Indrajit V.; Rajalingam, M. E-mail: ramesh@iiap.res.in E-mail: rajalingam@iiap.res.in

    2011-04-01

    We carried out radio observations of the solar corona at 170 MHz during the eclipse of 2008 August 1, from the Gauribidanur observatory located about 100 km north of Bangalore in India. The results indicate the presence of a discrete radio source of very small angular dimension ({approx}15'') in the corona from where the observed radiation originated.

  20. Earthquake Fingerprints: Representing Earthquake Waveforms for Similarity-Based Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergen, K.; Beroza, G. C.

    2016-12-01

    New earthquake detection methods, such as Fingerprint and Similarity Thresholding (FAST), use fast approximate similarity search to identify similar waveforms in long-duration data without templates (Yoon et al. 2015). These methods have two key components: fingerprint extraction and an efficient search algorithm. Fingerprint extraction converts waveforms into fingerprints, compact signatures that represent short-duration waveforms for identification and search. Earthquakes are detected using an efficient indexing and search scheme, such as locality-sensitive hashing, that identifies similar waveforms in a fingerprint database. The quality of the search results, and thus the earthquake detection results, is strongly dependent on the fingerprinting scheme. Fingerprint extraction should map similar earthquake waveforms to similar waveform fingerprints to ensure a high detection rate, even under additive noise and small distortions. Additionally, fingerprints corresponding to noise intervals should have mutually dissimilar fingerprints to minimize false detections. In this work, we compare the performance of multiple fingerprint extraction approaches for the earthquake waveform similarity search problem. We apply existing audio fingerprinting (used in content-based audio identification systems) and time series indexing techniques and present modified versions that are specifically adapted for seismic data. We also explore data-driven fingerprinting approaches that can take advantage of labeled or unlabeled waveform data. For each fingerprinting approach we measure its ability to identify similar waveforms in a low signal-to-noise setting, and quantify the trade-off between true and false detection rates in the presence of persistent noise sources. We compare the performance using known event waveforms from eight independent stations in the Northern California Seismic Network.

  1. Cryptococcus neoformans Typing by PCR Fingerprinting Using (GACA)4 Primers Based on C. neoformans Genome Project Data▿

    PubMed Central

    Cogliati, Massimo; Esposto, Maria Carmela; Liberi, Giordano; Tortorano, Anna Maria; Viviani, Maria Anna

    2007-01-01

    Four (GACA)4 PCR fingerprinting sequences, used as markers to identify serotypes A and D and AD hybrids, were retrieved in four Cryptococcus neoformans genome databases. Their locations, both in serotype A and D genomes, were confirmed by chromosomal hybridization with specific probes. Two sequences were recognized to code for hypothetical functional proteins. PMID:17670921

  2. Radio light curves of V471 Tauri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Joseph; Caillault, Jean-Pierre; Skillman, David R.

    1993-01-01

    We have acquired light curves at a wavelength of 6 cm of the eclipsing binary V471 Tauri around the orbit, in order to determine the geometrical location of the radio emission in the binary. Each light curve shows a broad minimum near the time of optical eclipse, suggesting that the radio luminosity originates between the two stars. Other observations at X-ray, UV, and visual wavelengths are also supportive of the idea of a gas cloud more or less permanently located between the stars. This could be explained if the radio emission arises from the interaction of the magnetic fields of the secondary and the white dwarf near the line of centers.

  3. Radio determination satellite service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briskman, Robert D.

    1990-07-01

    The capabilities and measured performance of a geosynchronous satellite-based service called the radio determination satellite service (RDSS), which operates at radio frequencies allocated by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) and is licensed in the United States by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), are discussed. Plans for both improvement in capability and expansion to nearly global coverage are described. Since RDSS can also provide radio navigation, some comparisons of this service with the Global Positioning System (GPS) are made.

  4. Fast Radio Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rane, Akshaya; Lorimer, Duncan

    2017-09-01

    We summarize our current state of knowledge of fast radio bursts (FRBs) which were first discovered a decade ago. Following an introduction to radio transients in general, including pulsars and rotating radio transients, we discuss the discovery of FRBs. We then discuss FRB follow-up observations in the context of repeat bursts before moving on to review propagation effects on FRB signals, FRB progenitor models and an outlook on FRBs as potential cosmological tools.

  5. Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory began operating in 1959, and joined the NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL in 1970. It became part of the Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics in 1975. The site near Penticton, BC has a 26 m radio telescope, a seven-antenna synthesis telescope on a 600 m baseline and two telescopes dedicated to monitoring the solar radio flux at 10.7 cm. This part of the Institu...

  6. Coordinate-Based Clustering Method for Indoor Fingerprinting Localization in Dense Cluttered Environments.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen; Fu, Xiao; Deng, Zhongliang

    2016-12-02

    Indoor positioning technologies has boomed recently because of the growing commercial interest in indoor location-based service (ILBS). Due to the absence of satellite signal in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), various technologies have been proposed for indoor applications. Among them, Wi-Fi fingerprinting has been attracting much interest from researchers because of its pervasive deployment, flexibility and robustness to dense cluttered indoor environments. One challenge, however, is the deployment of Access Points (AP), which would bring a significant influence on the system positioning accuracy. This paper concentrates on WLAN based fingerprinting indoor location by analyzing the AP deployment influence, and studying the advantages of coordinate-based clustering compared to traditional RSS-based clustering. A coordinate-based clustering method for indoor fingerprinting location, named Smallest-Enclosing-Circle-based (SEC), is then proposed aiming at reducing the positioning error lying in the AP deployment and improving robustness to dense cluttered environments. All measurements are conducted in indoor public areas, such as the National Center For the Performing Arts (as Test-bed 1) and the XiDan Joy City (Floors 1 and 2, as Test-bed 2), and results show that SEC clustering algorithm can improve system positioning accuracy by about 32.7% for Test-bed 1, 71.7% for Test-bed 2 Floor 1 and 73.7% for Test-bed 2 Floor 2 compared with traditional RSS-based clustering algorithms such as K-means.

  7. Coordinate-Based Clustering Method for Indoor Fingerprinting Localization in Dense Cluttered Environments

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wen; Fu, Xiao; Deng, Zhongliang

    2016-01-01

    Indoor positioning technologies has boomed recently because of the growing commercial interest in indoor location-based service (ILBS). Due to the absence of satellite signal in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), various technologies have been proposed for indoor applications. Among them, Wi-Fi fingerprinting has been attracting much interest from researchers because of its pervasive deployment, flexibility and robustness to dense cluttered indoor environments. One challenge, however, is the deployment of Access Points (AP), which would bring a significant influence on the system positioning accuracy. This paper concentrates on WLAN based fingerprinting indoor location by analyzing the AP deployment influence, and studying the advantages of coordinate-based clustering compared to traditional RSS-based clustering. A coordinate-based clustering method for indoor fingerprinting location, named Smallest-Enclosing-Circle-based (SEC), is then proposed aiming at reducing the positioning error lying in the AP deployment and improving robustness to dense cluttered environments. All measurements are conducted in indoor public areas, such as the National Center For the Performing Arts (as Test-bed 1) and the XiDan Joy City (Floors 1 and 2, as Test-bed 2), and results show that SEC clustering algorithm can improve system positioning accuracy by about 32.7% for Test-bed 1, 71.7% for Test-bed 2 Floor 1 and 73.7% for Test-bed 2 Floor 2 compared with traditional RSS-based clustering algorithms such as K-means. PMID:27918454

  8. STEM on the radio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-10-01

    Looking for an Internet radio station focusing on programing about science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM)? The U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) announced on 26 September the launch of Science360 Radio, which it says is the first Internet radio stream dedicated to STEM programing. Science360 includes more than 100 radio shows and podcasts that are available on the Web as well as on iPhone and Android devices. The shows originate from a variety of sources, including NSF, other U.S. government agencies, science organizations, universities, and media outlets. For more information, see http://science360.gov/files/.

  9. Radio data transmission for SCADA

    SciTech Connect

    Frasier, W.E. )

    1989-09-01

    Enron has used such wireless systems as meteor burst radio, 952 MHz multiple address radio, VSAT and L-band satellite, cellular radio and ACSB radio. The company's experience with meteor burst radio communications is discussed in this paper. It indicates good system reliability and consequently all back-up telephone lines have been removed from sites using this system.

  10. Optimum path selection in automated radio relay link design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilovich, O. S.; Kichigin, V. N.

    1985-01-01

    This study investigates the selection of the locations of radio relay stations so that the stability of the radio relay link satisfies the corresponding CCIR recommendations, so that the effective station construction and operation costs are minimized. A mathematical model for selecting the optimum radio relay link route is described. The construction of a hypothetical radio relay link 1400 km long with an average repeater section link of 50 km is analyzed as an example. The algorithm is shown to be especially effective for rough terrain where it is often impossible to place the stations close to roads.

  11. Database fingerprint (DFP): an approach to represent molecular databases.

    PubMed

    Fernández-de Gortari, Eli; García-Jacas, César R; Martinez-Mayorga, Karina; Medina-Franco, José L

    2017-01-01

    Molecular fingerprints are widely used in several areas of chemoinformatics including diversity analysis and similarity searching. The fingerprint-based analysis of chemical libraries, in particular of large collections, usually requires the molecular representation of each compound in the library that may lead to issues of storage space and redundant calculations. In fact, information redundancy is inherent to the data, resulting on binary digit positions in the fingerprint without significant information. Herein is proposed a general approach to represent an entire compound library with a single binary fingerprint. The development of the database fingerprint (DFP) is illustrated first using a short fingerprint (MACCS keys) for 10 data sets of general interest in chemistry. The application of the DFP is further shown with PubChem fingerprints for the data sets used in the primary example but with a larger number of compounds, up to 25,000 molecules. The performance of DFP were studied through differential Shannon entropy, k-mean clustering, and DFP/Tanimoto similarity. The DFP is designed to capture key information of the compound collection and can be used to compare and assess the diversity of molecular libraries. This Preliminary Communication shows the potential of the novel fingerprint to conduct inter-library relationships. A major future goal is to apply the DFP for virtual screening and developing DFP for other data sets based on several different type of fingerprints.Graphical AbstractDatabase fingerprint captures the key information of molecular databases to perform chemical space characterization and virtual screening.

  12. Fingerprint changes and verification failure among patients with hand dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chew Kek; Chang, Choong Chor; Johar, Asmah; Puwira, Othman; Roshidah, Baba

    2013-03-01

    To determine the prevalence of fingerprint verification failure and to define and quantify the fingerprint changes associated with fingerprint verification failure. Case-control study. Referral public dermatology center. The study included 100 consecutive patients with clinical hand dermatitis involving the palmar distal phalanx of either thumb and 100 age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched controls. Patients with an altered thumb print due to other causes and palmar hyperhidrosis were excluded. Fingerprint verification(pass/fail) and hand eczema severity index score. Twenty-seven percent of patients failed fingerprint verification compared with 2% of controls. Fingerprint verification failure was associated with a higher hand eczema severity index score (P.001). The main fingerprint abnormalities were fingerprint dystrophy (42.0%) and abnormal white lines (79.5%). The number of abnormal white lines was significantly higher among the patients with hand dermatitis compared with controls(P=.001). Among the patients with hand dermatitis, theodds of failing fingerprint verification with fingerprint dystrophy was 4.01. The presence of broad lines and long lines was associated with a greater odds of fingerprint verification failure (odds ratio [OR], 8.04; 95% CI, 3.56-18.17 and OR, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.31-4.27, respectively),while the presence of thin lines was protective of verification failure (OR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.23-0.89). Fingerprint verification failure is a significant problem among patients with more severe hand dermatitis. It is mainly due to fingerprint dystrophy and abnormal white lines. Malaysian National Medical Research Register Identifier: NMRR-11-30-8226

  13. Dr Elizabeth Alexander: First Female Radio Astronomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, Wayne

    2005-01-01

    During March-April 1945, solar radio emission was detected at 200 MHz by operators of a Royal New Zealand Air Force radar unit located on Norfolk Island. Initially dubbed the `Norfolk Island Effect', this anomalous radiation was investigated throughout 1945 by British-born Elizabeth Alexander, head of the Operational Research Section of the Radio Development Laboratory in New Zealand. Alexander prepared a number of reports on this work, and in early 1946 she published a short paper in the newly-launched journal, Radio & Electronics. A geologist by training, Elizabeth Alexander happened to be in the right place at the right time, and unwittingly became the first woman in the world to work in the field that would later become known as radio astronomy. Her research also led to further solar radio astronomy projects in New Zealand in the immediate post-war year, and in part was responsible for the launch of the radio astronomy program at the Division of Radiophysics, CSIRO, in Sydney.

  14. 47 CFR 5.91 - Notification to the National Radio Astronomy Observatory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Notification to the National Radio Astronomy... SERVICE Applications and Licenses § 5.91 Notification to the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. In order to minimize possible harmful interference at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory site located...

  15. 47 CFR 5.91 - Notification to the National Radio Astronomy Observatory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Notification to the National Radio Astronomy... SERVICE Applications and Licenses § 5.91 Notification to the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. In order to minimize possible harmful interference at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory site located...

  16. STS-45 crewmembers use JSC ham radio equipment in training for SAREX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-45 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, crewmembers (also licensed amateur radio operators) Kathryn D. Sullivan (27848), David C. Leestma (27849, 27850, 27851), Dirk D. Frimout (27849, 27850, 27851), and backup payload specialist Charles R. Chappell (27851) use JSC ham radio equipment located next to the Gilruth Center Bldg 207 to prepare for mission's Shuttle Amateur Radio EXperiment (SAREX).

  17. Radio Frequency Interference: Radio Astronomy's Biggest Enemy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acevedo, F.; Ghosh, Tapasi

    1997-12-01

    As technology progresses, the demand for the usage of the electromagnetic spectrum increases with it. The development is so fast and prolific that clean band space for passive users such as Radio Astronomy is becoming ever so scarce. Even though, several spectral bands have been protected for Radio Astronomy by Federal Communication Commission (in the USA) under the recommendations of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), pressure for making more spectral space commercially usable is extreme. Although these commercial usages make our modern living at all possible, often the extreme vulnerability of passive users are are not fully appreciated, resulting in unwanted emissions (RFI) in the Radio Astronomy Bands. Another source of RFI is the fact that many of the electronic devices used in the observatories themselves generate radio waves. If proper precautions are not taken, these can be received back through the Radio Telescope itself. This problem is referred to as internal RFI. The focus of this paper is the search and diminution of internal RFI in the Arecibo Observatory in Arecibo, Puerto Rico. Using a simple setup of a log-periodic antenna and a Spectrum Analyzer, spectra spanning a frequency range of 100 - 1800 MHZ were recorded in some areas of the Observatory and the new Visitor Center (AOVEF). The measurements disclosed sources of radio emission among some of the digital electronic equipment in the Equipment room and a few displays in the AOVEF. Most prominent of these was a 2.5 MHz comb spanning the entire range of the measurements emitted from the SRENDIP and AOFTM machines. The respective groups were informed and corrective shielding & isolations were implemented immediately. In AOVEF, three displays, some audio-visual equipment, and video/digital cameras used by the visitors were found to be "leaky". In future, the use of such cameras will be prohibited and the exhibits will be screened appropriately.

  18. [Study on HPLC fingerprint of flavonoids from Houttuynia cordata by comparing with fingerprint reference].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ting-Ting; Wu, Yi; Hang, Tai-Jun

    2009-05-01

    To establish a stable and repeatable HPLC fingerprint standard and evaluate the flavonoids from Houttuynia cordata qualitatively and quantitatively. HPLC separation was performed on a C18 column with methanol-0.1% phosphoric acid mixed solution as mobile phase in gradient elution mode. The fingerprint reference was determined as one of the most typical chromatograms and used to be compared with other samples through Cosine and Relative Euclid Distance methods, thus the chromatographic fingerprints of flavonoids from Houttuynia cordata were evaluated by constitutes and contents, respectively. Fourteen mutual peaks were fixed in the HPLC fingerprint of flavonoids from Houttaynia cordata. It showed good results in validation tests in which the quercitrin's peak was set as the reference peak to calculate relative retention time and area of other peaks in the chromatograms, and the RSD were less than 0.2% and 5.0%, respectively. The linear ranges for quercitrin was 1.07-83.4 microg/mL (r=0.9999) and the average recovery was 100.3%. The method shows good repeatability, ruggedness and reliability. Comparing with the established reference fingerprint, the evaluation system including Cosine and Relative Euclid Distance methods lays dependable foundation for controlling the quality of Houttuynia cordata.

  19. Maximum Likelihood Reconstruction for Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Bo; Setsompop, Kawin; Ye, Huihui; Cauley, Stephen; Wald, Lawrence L.

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces a statistical estimation framework for magnetic resonance (MR) fingerprinting, a recently proposed quantitative imaging paradigm. Within this framework, we present a maximum likelihood (ML) formalism to estimate multiple parameter maps directly from highly undersampled, noisy k-space data. A novel algorithm, based on variable splitting, the alternating direction method of multipliers, and the variable projection method, is developed to solve the resulting optimization problem. Representative results from both simulations and in vivo experiments demonstrate that the proposed approach yields significantly improved accuracy in parameter estimation, compared to the conventional MR fingerprinting reconstruction. Moreover, the proposed framework provides new theoretical insights into the conventional approach. We show analytically that the conventional approach is an approximation to the ML reconstruction; more precisely, it is exactly equivalent to the first iteration of the proposed algorithm for the ML reconstruction, provided that a gridding reconstruction is used as an initialization. PMID:26915119

  20. Molecular graph convolutions: moving beyond fingerprints

    PubMed Central

    Kearnes, Steven; McCloskey, Kevin; Berndl, Marc; Pande, Vijay; Riley, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Molecular “fingerprints” encoding structural information are the workhorse of cheminformatics and machine learning in drug discovery applications. However, fingerprint representations necessarily emphasize particular aspects of the molecular structure while ignoring others, rather than allowing the model to make data-driven decisions. We describe molecular graph convolutions, a machine learning architecture for learning from undirected graphs, specifically small molecules. Graph convolutions use a simple encoding of the molecular graph—atoms, bonds, distances, etc.—which allows the model to take greater advantage of information in the graph structure. Although graph convolutions do not outperform all fingerprint-based methods, they (along with other graph-based methods) represent a new paradigm in ligand-based virtual screening with exciting opportunities for future improvement. PMID:27558503

  1. FBI compression standard for digitized fingerprint images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brislawn, Christopher M.; Bradley, Jonathan N.; Onyshczak, Remigius J.; Hopper, Thomas

    1996-11-01

    The FBI has formulated national standards for digitization and compression of gray-scale fingerprint images. The compression algorithm for the digitized images is based on adaptive uniform scalar quantization of a discrete wavelet transform subband decomposition, a technique referred to as the wavelet/scalar quantization method. The algorithm produces archival-quality images at compression ratios of around 15 to 1 and will allow the current database of paper fingerprint cards to be replaced by digital imagery. A compliance testing program is also being implemented to ensure high standards of image quality and interchangeability of data between different implementations. We will review the current status of the FBI standard, including the compliance testing process and the details of the first-generation encoder.

  2. Chemotherapy and Fingerprint Loss: Beyond Cosmetic

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Hand–foot syndrome (HFS) is a common adverse reaction to several chemotherapy drugs. Focus has been on the clinically relevant sequelae associated with this condition, with fingerprint loss receiving little attention. We report the case of a 53-year old male patient with terminal metastatic adenocarcinoma of the rectum involving the liver and lungs who developed grade 3 HFS while on capecitabine therapy. This resulted in his inability to process required government papers as a result of the loss of his fingerprints, imposing significant inconvenience and frustration on a person severely challenged by his deteriorating health. We believe clinicians should pay more attention to this possible outcome that can add additional stress in the lives of patients whose quality of life is already severely compromised. PMID:22298801

  3. Chromatographic fingerprint analysis of Pycnogenol dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei; Song, Fenhong; Lin, Long-Ze

    2009-01-01

    The bark of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton) has been widely used as a remedy for various degenerative diseases. A standard high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) procedure for Pycnogenol analysis is a method specified in the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) monograph, which requires measurement of peak areas and identification of four components of the extract: caffeic acid, catechin, ferulic acid, and taxifolin. In this study, a fingerprint analysis using an HPLC method based on the USP monograph has been developed to provide additional qualitative information for the analysis of Pycnogenol-containing dietary supplements (PDS). Twelve commercially available PDS samples were purchased and analyzed along with a standard Pycnogenol extract. Their chromatographic fingerprints were analyzed using principal component analysis. The results showed that two of the samples were not consistent with the standard reference Pycnogenol extract. One contained other active ingredients in addition to Pycnogenol, and the other may have resulted from a quality control issue in manufacturing.

  4. Transmission fingerprints in quasiperiodic dielectric multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasconcelos, M. S.; Albuquerque, E. L.

    1999-05-01

    We investigate the optical transmission fingerprints in structures that exhibit deterministic disorders. A class of models that has attracted particular attention in this context are the quasiperiodic dielectric multilayers that obey a substitutional sequence. These substitutional sequence are characterized by the nature of their Fourier spectrum, which can be dense pure point (Fibonacci sequences), singular continuous (Thue-Morse and double-period sequences), and absolutely continuous (Rudin-Shapiro sequence). We use a transfer-matrix approach to derive the optical transmission coefficients. Numerical results are presented to illustrate the self-similar aspect of the spectra, as well as to show the optical fingerprint through a return map of the transmission coefficients.

  5. Effects of radio packages on wild ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilmer, D.S.; Ball, I.J.; Cowardin, L.M.; Riechmann, J.H.

    1974-01-01

    A total of 211 wild, free-flying mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and wood ducks (Aix sponsa) were equipped with breast-mounted radio packages during the breeding seasons of 1968-72. Known predation loss was 7.6 and 12.0 percent for mallards and wood ducks respectively, 60 percent occurred within 3 weeks of instrumentation. The highest predation rate for mallards was 0.0048 kills per tracking day and 0.0136 for wood ducks. A higher direct recovery rate for instrumented birds (19.5 percent) than noninstrumented birds (8.1 percent) was probably due to the novelty of the transmitter to hunters. Departure patterns and locations of direct recoveries were similar between radio-equipped and normal-banded birds. Among female wood ducks with radios, recovery rates were lower than expected. Hunters indicated that 84 percent of the instrumented ducks recovered were in good or excellent condition. Recaptures of ducks as long as 1 year after being equipped with radio packages indicated that feather wear and skin abrasion were not serious. A high rate for feeding on land by instrumented mallards was probably due to our ability to more easily locate and observe these birds in cover. Preening rates were higher for instrumented ducks. As the birds became adjusted to the package, preening decreased and feeding on water increased. Social and breeding behavior of instrumented ducks did not appear to be adversely affected by the radio package.

  6. Stabilized radio frequency quadrupole

    DOEpatents

    Lancaster, H.D.; Fugitt, J.A.; Howard, D.R.

    1984-12-25

    Disclosed is a long-vane stabilized radio frequency resonator for accelerating charged particles and including means defining a radio frequency resonator cavity, a plurality of long vanes mounted in the defining means for dividing the cavity into sections, and means interconnecting opposing ones of the plurality of vanes for stabilizing the resonator. 5 figs.

  7. Stabilized radio frequency quadrupole

    DOEpatents

    Lancaster, Henry D.; Fugitt, Jock A.; Howard, Donald R.

    1984-01-01

    A long-vane stabilized radio frequency resonator for accelerating charged particles and including means defining a radio frequency resonator cavity, a plurality of long vanes mounted in the defining means for dividing the cavity into sections, and means interconnecting opposing ones of the plurality of vanes for stabilizing the resonator.

  8. Amateur Radio Satellite Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, David P.

    The Amateur Radio Satellite Communications project had, as its goal, the assembly of an amateur radio satellite station in a high school physics classroom. Specific objectives were to provide: (1) a special source of interest as a motivator for attracting students and building public relations; (2) a center of interest as a motivator for the study…

  9. Writing for Radio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tupper, Marianna S.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a 24-hour commercial radio station simulation class project for eighth-grade language arts. Students wrote their own scripts, chose music and were disc jockeys on their own music and talk shows, and prepared news and traffic reports. Guest speakers from actual commercial radio came in to discuss issues such as advertising, censorship,…

  10. The Radio Jove Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thieman, J. R.

    2010-01-01

    The Radio love Project is a hands-on education and outreach project in which students, or any other interested individuals or groups build a radio telescope from a kit, operate the radio telescope, transmit the resulting signals through the internet if desired, analyze the results, and share the results with others through archives or general discussions among the observers. Radio love is intended to provide an introduction to radio astronomy for the observer. The equipment allows the user to observe radio signals from Jupiter, the Sun, the galaxy, and Earth-based radiation both natural and man-made. The project was started through a NASA Director's Discretionary Fund grant more than ten years ago. it has continued to be carried out through the dedicated efforts of a group of mainly volunteers. Dearly 1500 kits have been distributed throughout the world. Participation can also be done without building a kit. Pre-built kits are available. Users can also monitor remote radio telescopes through the internet using free downloadable software available through the radiosky.com website. There have been many stories of prize-winning projects, inspirational results, collaborative efforts, etc. We continue to build the community of observers and are always open to new thoughts about how to inspire the observers to still greater involvement in the science and technology associated with Radio Jove.

  11. Radio Astronomy for Amateurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, N.; Murdin, P.

    2003-04-01

    Karl Jansky is considered the father of RADIOASTRONOMY. During the 1930s, Jansky worked for the Bell Telephone Laboratories studying the origin of static noise from thunderstorms. During the course of this work he discovered that some signals had an extraterrestrial origin. However, it was Grote Reber, a professional radio engineer and radio amateur, who carried out further investigations. In 1937...

  12. Film, Radio, and Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardesty, Carolyn, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This journal issue covers the history of film, radio, and television in Iowa. The first article, "When Pictures and Sound Came to Iowa," summarizes the origin of movies and radio and their early beginnings in Iowa. Using old photographs and measurement charts, the viewing, reading, and listening habits of young people in 1950 and 1958…

  13. Performance evaluation of fingerprint verification systems.

    PubMed

    Cappelli, Raffaele; Maio, Dario; Maltoni, Davide; Wayman, James L; Jain, Anil K

    2006-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the performance evaluation of fingerprint verification systems. After an initial classification of biometric testing initiatives, we explore both the theoretical and practical issues related to performance evaluation by presenting the outcome of the recent Fingerprint Verification Competition (FVC2004). FVC2004 was organized by the authors of this work for the purpose of assessing the state-of-the-art in this challenging pattern recognition application and making available a new common benchmark for an unambiguous comparison of fingerprint-based biometric systems. FVC2004 is an independent, strongly supervised evaluation performed at the evaluators' site on evaluators' hardware. This allowed the test to be completely controlled and the computation times of different algorithms to be fairly compared. The experience and feedback received from previous, similar competitions (FVC2000 and FVC2002) allowed us to improve the organization and methodology of FVC2004 and to capture the attention of a significantly higher number of academic and commercial organizations (67 algorithms were submitted for FVC2004). A new, "Light" competition category was included to estimate the loss of matching performance caused by imposing computational constraints. This paper discusses data collection and testing protocols, and includes a detailed analysis of the results. We introduce a simple but effective method for comparing algorithms at the score level, allowing us to isolate difficult cases (images) and to study error correlations and algorithm "fusion." The huge amount of information obtained, including a structured classification of the submitted algorithms on the basis of their features, makes it possible to better understand how current fingerprint recognition systems work and to delineate useful research directions for the future.

  14. Capturing Cognitive Fingerprints for Active Authentication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    performs verification continuously as long as the session remains active. This work focuses on using behavioral biometrics as “something a user is” for...4) Testing the system with tri-graph sub-word features, (5) Surveying learning algorithms for various biometric features, (6) Supervised problem...fingerprints from individuals and use it as a biometric for continual authentication. This project proposed studying new biometric modalities for

  15. Molecular crime scene investigation - dusting for fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Jürgen Bajorath

    2013-12-01

    In chemoinformatics and drug design, fingerprints (FPs) are defined as string representations of molecular structure and properties and are popular descriptors for similarity searching. FPs are generally characterized by the simplicity of their design and ease of use. Despite a long history in chemoinformatics, the potential and limitations of FP searching are often not well under- stood. Standard FPs can also be subjected to engineering techniques to tune them for specific search applications.

  16. Historeceptomic Fingerprints for Drug-Like Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Shmelkov, Evgeny; Grigoryan, Arsen; Swetnam, James; Xin, Junyang; Tivon, Doreen; Shmelkov, Sergey V.; Cardozo, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Most drugs exert their beneficial and adverse effects through their combined action on several different molecular targets (polypharmacology). The true molecular fingerprint of the direct action of a drug has two components: the ensemble of all the receptors upon which a drug acts and their level of expression in organs/tissues. Conversely, the fingerprint of the adverse effects of a drug may derive from its action in bystander tissues. The ensemble of targets is almost always only partially known. Here we describe an approach improving upon and integrating both components: in silico identification of a more comprehensive ensemble of targets for any drug weighted by the expression of those receptors in relevant tissues. Our system combines more than 300,000 experimentally determined bioactivity values from the ChEMBL database and 4.2 billion molecular docking scores. We integrated these scores with gene expression data for human receptors across a panel of human tissues to produce drug-specific tissue-receptor (historeceptomics) scores. A statistical model was designed to identify significant scores, which define an improved fingerprint representing the unique activity of any drug. These multi-dimensional historeceptomic fingerprints describe, in a novel, intuitive, and easy to interpret style, the holistic, in vivo picture of the mechanism of any drug's action. Valuable applications in drug discovery and personalized medicine, including the identification of molecular signatures for drugs with polypharmacologic modes of action, detection of tissue-specific adverse effects of drugs, matching molecular signatures of a disease to drugs, target identification for bioactive compounds with unknown receptors, and hypothesis generation for drug/compound phenotypes may be enabled by this approach. The system has been deployed at drugable.org for access through a user-friendly web site. PMID:26733872

  17. Historeceptomic Fingerprints for Drug-Like Compounds.

    PubMed

    Shmelkov, Evgeny; Grigoryan, Arsen; Swetnam, James; Xin, Junyang; Tivon, Doreen; Shmelkov, Sergey V; Cardozo, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Most drugs exert their beneficial and adverse effects through their combined action on several different molecular targets (polypharmacology). The true molecular fingerprint of the direct action of a drug has two components: the ensemble of all the receptors upon which a drug acts and their level of expression in organs/tissues. Conversely, the fingerprint of the adverse effects of a drug may derive from its action in bystander tissues. The ensemble of targets is almost always only partially known. Here we describe an approach improving upon and integrating both components: in silico identification of a more comprehensive ensemble of targets for any drug weighted by the expression of those receptors in relevant tissues. Our system combines more than 300,000 experimentally determined bioactivity values from the ChEMBL database and 4.2 billion molecular docking scores. We integrated these scores with gene expression data for human receptors across a panel of human tissues to produce drug-specific tissue-receptor (historeceptomics) scores. A statistical model was designed to identify significant scores, which define an improved fingerprint representing the unique activity of any drug. These multi-dimensional historeceptomic fingerprints describe, in a novel, intuitive, and easy to interpret style, the holistic, in vivo picture of the mechanism of any drug's action. Valuable applications in drug discovery and personalized medicine, including the identification of molecular signatures for drugs with polypharmacologic modes of action, detection of tissue-specific adverse effects of drugs, matching molecular signatures of a disease to drugs, target identification for bioactive compounds with unknown receptors, and hypothesis generation for drug/compound phenotypes may be enabled by this approach. The system has been deployed at drugable.org for access through a user-friendly web site.

  18. Correlation of DARWIN mission star catalogue with radio source surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lykou, F.; Röttgering, H. J. A.

    2006-08-01

    We present a search for radio source counterparts of 508 main sequence stars, that are part of the target list of the Infra Red Space Interferometer DARWIN. We searched all available online radio surveys to find counterparts for DARWIN stars, and we only found 2 candidate identifications out of 508 in two surveys made with VLA radio telescope in New Mexico, USA. We required that candidate identifications should have fluxes larger than 3σ times the noise in the radio maps and have a radio-optical positional difference less than 15''. Both stars had radio counterparts in NVSS (NRAO VLA Sky Survey) and one of them also in FIRST (Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-centimeters). Both surveys are 1.4 GHz continuum surveys. Our goal for this project is to show that there are main sequence stars whose radio emission is detectable and get a statistical limit for the radio flux of the DARWIN stars. The method we performed was to use the radio maps and coadd these maps at the location of the stars.

  19. AFLP fingerprinting for paternity testing in ducks.

    PubMed

    Huang, C-W; Cheng, Y-S; Rouvier, R; Yang, K-T; Wu, C-P; Huang, M-C

    2007-06-01

    1. The accuracy and reproducibility of AFLP fingerprinting was investigated in the duck (Anas Platyrhynchos), using a multicolour fluorescent labeling technique. The fluorescent labelling fragments were separated on a capillary electrophoresis-base ABI PRISM 3100 Genetic Analyzer. 2. A total of 337 AFLP peaks with 103 of them being polymorphic markers were generated by 16 sets consisting of EcoRI/TaqI primer pair combinations. The number and size range of AFLP polymorphisms detected per primer pair varied from 3 to 11 and 58 to 290 bp, respectively. About 30.6% (103/337) of AFLP peaks were detected polymorphisms, with an average of 6.4 polymorphic markers per primer pair. 3. The clear polymorphic peaks were amplified with EcoR+AC/Taq+AC primer combinations. The AFLP peaks showed high reproducibility. From the family testing, we found that the fingerprints of all the offspring were derived from one or other parent. Therefore, we conclude that AFLP fingerprinting might be a suitable method for duck paternity testing.

  20. DNA fingerprinting; a biotechnology in business.

    PubMed

    Debenham, P G

    1991-01-01

    Since its discovery by Professor Alec Jeffreys, first published in 1985, DNA fingerprinting has never been far from the headlines. Cellmark, as the leading commercial DNA fingerprinting enterprise, has had the challenge of establishing its business in this high profile environment. The challenge for such a business has had three elements. Firstly and primarily to establish a laboratory system that consistently provides results to the highest standards possible. Secondly to communicate the science to its broad customer base which ranges from the general public to the experts of legal, scientific and governmental systems. Then finally there is the challenge of setting up the business in the context of the volatile, venture-capital based biotechnology market where the requirements for assured quality spar with those for cut prices. Given this backdrop it is not surprising that DNA fingerprinting has had its detractors, yet the consensus of opinion is that this technology has become a near routine business with the challenges effectively met and the success that was hoped for.

  1. Solar radio continuum storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Radio noise continuum emission observed in metric and decametric wave frequencies is discussed. The radio noise is associated with actively varying sunspot groups accompanied by the S-component of microwave radio emissions. It is shown that the S-component emission in microwave frequencies generally occurs several days before the emission of the noise continuum storms of lower frequencies. It is likely that energetic electrons, 10 to 100 Kev, accelerated in association with the variation of sunspot magnetic fields, are the sources of the radio emissions. A model is considered to explain the relation of burst storms on radio noise. An analysis of the role of energetic electrons on the emissions of both noise continuum and type III burst storms is presented. It is shown that instabilities associated with the electrons and their relation to their own stabilizing effects are important in interpreting both of these storms.

  2. Radio efficiency of pulsars

    SciTech Connect

    Szary, Andrzej; Melikidze, George I.; Gil, Janusz; Zhang, Bing; Xu, Ren-Xin E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu

    2014-03-20

    We investigate radio emission efficiency, ξ, of pulsars and report a near-linear inverse correlation between ξ and the spin-down power, E-dot , as well as a near-linear correlation between ξ and pulsar age, τ. This is a consequence of very weak, if any, dependences of radio luminosity, L, on pulsar period, P, and the period derivative, P-dot , in contrast to X-ray or γ-ray emission luminosities. The analysis of radio fluxes suggests that these correlations are not due to a selection effect, but are intrinsic to the pulsar radio emission physics. We have found that, although with a large variance, the radio luminosity of pulsars is ≈10{sup 29} erg s{sup –1}, regardless of the position in the P-- P-dot diagram. Within such a picture, a model-independent statement can be made that the death line of radio pulsars corresponds to an upper limit in the efficiency of radio emission. If we introduce the maximum value for radio efficiency into the Monte Carlo-based population syntheses we can reproduce the observed sample using the random luminosity model. Using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test on a synthetic flux distribution reveals a high probability of reproducing the observed distribution. Our results suggest that the plasma responsible for generating radio emission is produced under similar conditions regardless of pulsar age, dipolar magnetic field strength, and spin-down rate. The magnetic fields near the pulsar surface are likely dominated by crust-anchored, magnetic anomalies, which do not significantly differ among pulsars, leading to similar conditions for generating electron-positron pairs necessary to power radio emission.

  3. Rolled fingerprint construction using MRF-based nonrigid image registration.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Dongjin; Yun, Il Dong; Lee, Sang Uk

    2010-12-01

    This paper proposes a new rolled fingerprint construction approach incorporating a state-of-the-art nonrigid image registration method based upon a Markov random field (MRF) energy model. The proposed method finds dense correspondences between images from a rolled fingerprint sequence and warps the entire fingerprint area to synthesize a rolled fingerprint. This method can generate conceptually more accurate rolled fingerprints by preserving the geometric properties of the finger surface as opposed to ink-based rolled impressions and other existing rolled fingerprint construction methods. To verify the accuracy of the proposed method, various comparative experiments were designed to reveal differences among the rolled construction methods. The results show that the proposed method is significantly superior in various aspects compared to previous approaches.

  4. How fingerprints came into use for personal identification.

    PubMed

    Caplan, R M

    1990-07-01

    The use of fingerprints for personal identification became widespread early in this century. How the fingerprints slowly became standardized involves many persons, including Nathaniel Grew, Johannes Purkinje, William Herschel, Henry Faulds, Charles Darwin, Francis Galton, Mark Twain, Juan Vucetich, Edward Henry, and J. Edgar Hoover. Although fingerprints have been noted and used since antiquity, a 25-year burst of activity that secured adoption of their use for identification began in about 1880. New modifications and applications have continued to the present. The history of fingerprints offers an excellent example of how society adopts innovations. This story also includes a bitter struggle for appropriate credit for various crucial steps in developing and adopting this important tool. More recent technical advances, including computers and molecular biology, now supplement the ease and usefulness of fingerprints, although the word fingerprinting continues in use by metaphoric extension.

  5. A network identity authentication system based on Fingerprint identification technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Hong-Bin; Xu, Wen-Bo; Liu, Yuan

    2005-10-01

    Fingerprint verification is one of the most reliable personal identification methods. However, most of the automatic fingerprint identification system (AFIS) is not run via Internet/Intranet environment to meet today's increasing Electric commerce requirements. This paper describes the design and implementation of the archetype system of identity authentication based on fingerprint biometrics technology, and the system can run via Internet environment. And in our system the COM and ASP technology are used to integrate Fingerprint technology with Web database technology, The Fingerprint image preprocessing algorithms are programmed into COM, which deployed on the internet information server. The system's design and structure are proposed, and the key points are discussed. The prototype system of identity authentication based on Fingerprint have been successfully tested and evaluated on our university's distant education applications in an internet environment.

  6. A mechanistic model for the superglue fuming of latent fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Czekanski, Patrick; Fasola, Michael; Allison, John

    2006-11-01

    The use of superglue vapors to detect latent fingerprints, known as superglue fuming, is a chemical process that has not been fully described. The role of the fingerprint material in the process, leading to formation of methyl cyanoacrylate polymer at the site of the fingerprint, remains to be established. Films of liquid alkanes respond similarly to actual fingerprints in the fuming experiment. Their responses depended on the hydrocarbon used, viscosity, and film thickness. Aspects such as film thickness appear to be relevant for actual fingerprints as well. A model was proposed in light of these observations. The model compares the process with gas chromatography, in which molecules partition between the gas phase and a stationary phase. Aspects such as accumulation of superglue monomers by partitioning into a thin film (or wax) are consistent with the preferential response of fingerprints on surfaces relative to the background.

  7. Water content of latent fingerprints - Dispelling the myth.

    PubMed

    Kent, Terry

    2016-09-01

    Changing procedures in the handling of rare and precious documents in museums and elsewhere, based on assumptions about constituents of latent fingerprints, have led the author to an examination of available data. These changes appear to have been triggered by one paper using general biological data regarding eccrine sweat production to infer that deposited fingerprints are mostly water. Searching the fingerprint literature has revealed a number of reference works similarly quoting figures for average water content of deposited fingerprints of 98% or more. Whilst accurate estimation is difficult there is no evidence that the residue on fingers could be anything like 98% water, even if there were no contamination from sebaceous glands. Consideration of published analytical data of real fingerprints, and several theoretical considerations regarding evaporation and replenishment rates, indicates a probable initial average water content of a fingerprint, soon after deposition, of 20% or less.

  8. An MF/HF radio array for radio and radar imaging of the ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isham, Brett; Gustavsson, Bjorn; Belyey, Vasyl; Bullett, Terrence

    2016-07-01

    The Aguadilla Radio Array will be installed at the Interamerican University Aguadilla Campus, located in northwestern Puerto Rico. The array is intended for broad-band medium and high-frequency (MF/HF, roughly 2 to 25 MHz) radio and bistatic radar observations of the ionosphere. The main array consists of 20 antenna elements, arranged in a semi-random pattern providing a good distribution of baseline vectors, with 6-meter minimum spacing to eliminate spacial aliasing. A relocatable 6-element array is also being developed, in which each element consists of a crossed pair of active electric dipoles and all associated electronics for phase-coherent radio measurements. A primary scientific goal of the array is to create images of the region of ionospheric radio emissions stimulated by the new Arecibo Observatory high-power high-frequency radio transmitter. A second primary goal is the study of ionospheric structure and dynamics via coherent radar imaging of the ionosphere in collaboration with the University of Colorado / NOAA Versatile Interferometric Pulsed Ionospheric Radar (VIPIR), located at the USGS San Juan Observatory in Cayey, Puerto Rico. In addition to ionospheric research in collaboration with the Cayey and Arecibo Observatories, the goals of the project include the development of radio sounding, polarization, interferometry, and imaging techniques, and training of students at the university and high school levels.

  9. PLC Hardware Discrimination using RF-DNA fingerprinting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-19

    PLC HARDWARE DISCRIMINATION USING RF- DNA FINGERPRINTING THESIS Bradley C. Wright, Civilian, USAF AFIT-ENG-T-14-J-12 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR...protection in the United States. AFIT-ENG-T-14-J-12 PLC HARDWARE DISCRIMINATION USING RF- DNA FINGERPRINTING THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department...DISCRIMINATION USING RF- DNA FINGERPRINTING Bradley C. Wright, B.S.E.E. Civilian, USAF Approved: /signed/ Maj Samuel J. Stone, PhD (Chairman) /signed/ Michael A

  10. 8-Bit Gray Scale Images of Fingerprint Image Groups

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST 8-Bit Gray Scale Images of Fingerprint Image Groups (Web, free access)   The NIST database of fingerprint images contains 2000 8-bit gray scale fingerprint image pairs. A newer version of the compression/decompression software on the CDROM can be found at the website http://www.nist.gov/itl/iad/ig/nigos.cfm as part of the NBIS package.

  11. Studies on Chromatographic Fingerprint and Fingerprinting Profile-Efficacy Relationship of Saxifraga stolonifera Meerb.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xing-Dong; Chen, Hua-Guo; Zhou, Xin; Huang, Ya; Hu, En-Ming; Jiang, Zheng-Meng; Zhao, Chao; Gong, Xiao-Jian; Deng, Qing-Fang

    2015-12-19

    This work investigated the spectrum-effect relationships between high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprints and the anti-benign prostatic hyperplasia activities of aqueous extracts from Saxifraga stolonifera. The fingerprints of S. stolonifera from various sources were established by HPLC and evaluated by similarity analysis (SA), hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). Nine samples were obtained from these 24 batches of different origins, according to the results of SA, HCA and the common chromatographic peaks area. A testosterone-induced mouse model of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) was used to establish the anti-benign prostatic hyperplasia activities of these nine S. stolonifera samples. The model was evaluated by analyzing prostatic index (PI), serum acid phosphatase (ACP) activity, concentrations of serum dihydrotestosterone (DHT), prostatic acid phosphatase (PACP) and type II 5α-reductase (SRD5A2). The spectrum-effect relationships between HPLC fingerprints and anti-benign prostatic hyperplasia activities were investigated using Grey Correlation Analysis (GRA) and partial least squares regression (PLSR). The results showed that a close correlation existed between the fingerprints and anti-benign prostatic hyperplasia activities, and peak 14 (chlorogenic acid), peak 17 (quercetin 5-O-β-d-glucopyranoside) and peak 18 (quercetin 3-O-β-l-rhamno-pyranoside) in the HPLC fingerprints might be the main active components against anti-benign prostatic hyperplasia. This work provides a general model for the study of spectrum-effect relationships of S. stolonifera by combing HPLC fingerprints with a testosterone-induced mouse model of BPH, which can be employed to discover the principle components of anti-benign prostatic hyperplasia bioactivity.

  12. K-ART (Korea Array Radio Telescope) and Monitoring of Radio Transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeong-Sook; Lim, Soon-Wook; Park, Yong-Sun

    2010-12-01

    Korea Array Radio Telescope (K-ART), a proto-type radio array telescope, is designed for 300-450 MHz wavebands. The system is located in the Jeju Island of the South Korea, and is currently in its testing mode since last mid-October 2010. It is primarily designed for monitoring solar activity and radio transients. K-ART has a capacity to monitor transients for about 2 hours per day, with a spatial resolution of about 10 minutes and a timing resolution of milliseconds. The sensitivity is expected to be a few mJy or less. We propose to monitor radio transients such as X-ray binaries, cataclysmic variables and quasars, on the target-of-opportunity mode, in addition to the scheduled observation.

  13. Future Nanosatellite Constellation for Radio Occultation Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallet, C.; Mahfouf, J. F.; Hauchechrne, A.; Mathieu, R.; Martin, T.; Capet, N.; Mandea, M.

    2016-08-01

    The future nanosatellite constellation for radio occultation measurements aims to provide 10000 occultations per day (horizon 2020). The radio occultation technique based on the refraction of an electromagnetic signal between a GNSS satellite (Global Navigation Satellite System) and a receiver satellite located o a low orbit provides a way to observe the Earth's atmosphere, especially its temperature, pressure and water vapor, but also the ionosphere. This technique is now considered a mature concept, the benefits clearly recognized by the communities of weather prediction, climatology and space weather. Activities are underway at CNES to define a low cost system and instrumental concept to satisfy the specifications of the different communities.

  14. Capturing the vital vascular fingerprint with optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gangjun; Chen, Zhongping

    2013-08-01

    Using fingerprints as a method to identify an individual has been accepted in forensics since the nineteenth century, and the fingerprint has become one of the most widely used biometric characteristics. Most of the modern fingerprint recognition systems are based on the print pattern of the finger surface and are not robust against spoof attaching. We demonstrate a novel vital vascular fingerprint system using Doppler optical coherence tomography that provides highly sensitive and reliable personal identification. Because the system is based on blood flow, which only exists in a livng person, the technique is robust against spoof attaching.

  15. Retrieval of noisy fingerprint patterns using metric attractor networks.

    PubMed

    González, Mario; Dominguez, David; Rodríguez, Francisco B; Sánchez, Ángel

    2014-11-01

    This work experimentally analyzes the learning and retrieval capabilities of the diluted metric attractor neural network when applied to collections of fingerprint images. The computational cost of the network decreases with the dilution, so we can increase the region of interest to cover almost the complete fingerprint. The network retrieval was successfully tested for different noisy configurations of the fingerprints, and proved to be robust with a large basin of attraction. We showed that network topologies with a 2D-Grid arrangement adapt better to the fingerprints spatial structure, outperforming the typical 1D-Ring configuration. An optimal ratio of local connections to random shortcuts that better represent the intrinsic spatial structure of the fingerprints was found, and its influence on the retrieval quality was characterized in a phase diagram. Since the present model is a set of nonlinear equations, it is possible to go beyond the naïve static solution (consisting in matching two fingerprints using a fixed distance threshold value), and a crossing evolution of similarities was shown, leading to the retrieval of the right fingerprint from an apparently more distant candidate. This feature could be very useful for fingerprint verification to discriminate between fingerprints pairs.

  16. Development of latent fingerprint by ZnO deposition.

    PubMed

    Yu, I-Heng; Jou, Shyankay; Chen, Chin-Min; Wang, Kuang-Chuan; Pang, Lei-Jang; Liao, Jeh Shane

    2011-04-15

    Vacuum metal deposition (VMD) utilizing sequential Au and Zn depositions has been an effective technique to develop latent fingerprint on plastic surfaces. A simplified vacuum deposition process was conducted to develop fingerprint in this study. While pure ZnO was thermally evaporated in a vacuum system, ZnO could condense on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surface. Direct deposition of ZnO, without applying Au seeding, yielded normal development of latent fingerprint. The development of aged fingerprint by ZnO deposition was more effective than that by Au/Zn VMD. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Recovery of latent fingerprints and DNA on human skin.

    PubMed

    Färber, Doris; Seul, Andrea; Weisser, Hans-Joachim; Bohnert, Michael

    2010-11-01

    The project "Latent Fingerprints and DNA on Human Skin" was the first systematic research in Europe dealing with detection of fingerprints and DNA left by offenders on the skin of corpses. One thousand samples gave results that allow general statements on the materials and methods used. The tests were carried out according to a uniform trial structure. Fingerprints were deposited by natural donors on corpses. The latent fingerprints were treated with magnetic powder or black fingerprint powder. Afterward, they were lifted with silicone casting material (Isomark(®)) or gelatine foil. All lifts were swabbed to recover DNA. It was possible to visualize comparable and identifiable fingerprints on the skin of corpses (16%). In the same categories, magnetic powder (18.4%) yielded better results than black fingerprint powder (13.6%). The number of comparable and identifiable fingerprints decreased on the lifts (12.7%). Isomark(®) (14.9%) was the better lifting material in comparison with gelatine foil (10.1%). In one-third of the samples, DNA could be extracted from the powdered and lifted latents. Black fingerprint powder delivered the better result with a rate of 2.2% for full DNA profiles and profiles useful for exclusion in comparison with 1.8% for the magnetic powder traces. Isomark(®) (3.1%) yielded better results than gelatine foil (0.6%). © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. Capacity and optimal collusion attack channels for Gaussian fingerprinting games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Moulin, Pierre

    2007-02-01

    In content fingerprinting, the same media covertext - image, video, audio, or text - is distributed to many users. A fingerprint, a mark unique to each user, is embedded into each copy of the distributed covertext. In a collusion attack, two or more users may combine their copies in an attempt to "remove" their fingerprints and forge a pirated copy. To trace the forgery back to members of the coalition, we need fingerprinting codes that can reliably identify the fingerprints of those members. Researchers have been focusing on designing or testing fingerprints for Gaussian host signals and the mean square error (MSE) distortion under some classes of collusion attacks, in terms of the detector's error probability in detecting collusion members. For example, under the assumptions of Gaussian fingerprints and Gaussian attacks (the fingerprinted signals are averaged and then the result is passed through a Gaussian test channel), Moulin and Briassouli1 derived optimal strategies in a game-theoretic framework that uses the detector's error probability as the performance measure for a binary decision problem (whether a user participates in the collusion attack or not); Stone2 and Zhao et al. 3 studied average and other non-linear collusion attacks for Gaussian-like fingerprints; Wang et al. 4 stated that the average collusion attack is the most efficient one for orthogonal fingerprints; Kiyavash and Moulin 5 derived a mathematical proof of the optimality of the average collusion attack under some assumptions. In this paper, we also consider Gaussian cover signals, the MSE distortion, and memoryless collusion attacks. We do not make any assumption about the fingerprinting codes used other than an embedding distortion constraint. Also, our only assumptions about the attack channel are an expected distortion constraint, a memoryless constraint, and a fairness constraint. That is, the colluders are allowed to use any arbitrary nonlinear strategy subject to the above

  19. Plain and Rolled Images from Paired Fingerprint Cards

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Plain and Rolled Images from Paired Fingerprint Cards (Web, free access)   NIST Special Database 29 is being distributed for use in development and testing fingerprint matching systems. The data consist of 216 ten-print fingerprint card pairs with both the rolled and plains (from a bottom of the fingerprint card) scanned at 19.7 pixels per mm. A newer version of the compression/decompression software on the CDROM can be found at the website http://www.nist.gov/itl/iad/ig/nigos.cfm as part of the NBIS package.

  20. Mated Fingerprint Card Pairs (Volumes 1-5)

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Mated Fingerprint Card Pairs (Volumes 1-5) (Web, free access)   The NIST database of mated fingerprint card pairs (Special Database 9) consists of multiple volumes. Currently five volumes have been released. Each volume will be a 3-disk set with each CD-ROM containing 90 mated card pairs of segmented 8-bit gray scale fingerprint images (900 fingerprint image pairs per CD-ROM). A newer version of the compression/decompression software on the CDROM can be found at the website http://www.nist.gov/itl/iad/ig/nigos.cfm as part of the NBIS package.