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Sample records for radio source population

  1. Populations of extragalactic radio sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, J. V.

    In the late 1950s and early 1960s, radio sky surveys were the center of an intense and public debate -- Big-Bang versus Steady-State cosmology -- the arguments revolving about source counts and statistical interpretations in the face of instrumental complications. The 1965 discovery of the microwave background took the fire from the debate, but left the momentum in place for large-area radio surveys at different frequencies, and for extensive identification/redshift-measurement programs. By the 1970s the data enabled us to start disentangling the different populations of extragalactic radio sources. We could refine our taxonomy, and we could view the possibility of delineating individual cosmic histories and evolutions. We could at least describe a goal to elucidate the birth-life-death cycles of the objects involved 1quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) and radio galaxies: together the 'active galactic nuclei' (AGNs)1 whose unaccountably prodigious energies somehow produce the beautifully aligned radio structures with which we are now familiar. One part of John Bolton's vision was to see how distorted a view of the AGN universe the original long-wavelength surveys provided. One legacy is thus the 'short-wavelength survey' for extragalactic radio sources, which has done so much to balance our picture of the radio sky. And indeed the legacy continues in the form of the immense sky surveys at present under way, complete with their sub-industries of radio-positioning and identification. From these, yet further results are emerging on spatial distribution and the skeleton structure of the universe. It is the purpose of this paper to outline something of this current view of the populations, their differences, similarities and unifying concepts.

  2. The cosmic population of extended radio sources: A Radio-Optical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorat, K.

    2014-03-01

    This thesis presents studies of cosmic populations of extragalactic radio sources. The problems selected for this thesis are 1) the derivation of constraints on the emergence of new sub-mJy populations at flux density below about 1 mJy (at 1.4 GHz) paying careful attention to including sources with low surface brightness and counting sources rather than components 2) development of a new method to estimate the asymmetry in the large scale galaxy environment with respect to the axes of extended radio sources and use this to examine for evidence of impact of the environment on the morphology of radio sources. The studies presented herein have been carried out using the Australia Telescope Low Brightness Survey (ATLBS), which is a sensitive radio survey at 1.4 GHz, imaging 8.42 square degrees of the sky along with accompanying optical observations of the same region.

  3. HerMES: disentangling active galactic nuclei and star formation in the radio source population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawlings, J. I.; Page, M. J.; Symeonidis, M.; Bock, J.; Cooray, A.; Farrah, D.; Guo, K.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Ibar, E.; Oliver, S. J.; Roseboom, I. G.; Scott, Douglas; Seymour, N.; Vaccari, M.; Wardlow, J. L.

    2015-10-01

    We separate the extragalactic radio source population above ˜50 μJy into active galactic nuclei (AGN) and star-forming sources. The primary method of our approach is to fit the infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs), constructed using Spitzer/IRAC (Infrared Array Camera) and Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) and Herschel/SPIRE photometry, of 380 radio sources in the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South. From the fitted SEDs, we determine the relative AGN and star-forming contributions to their infrared emission. With the inclusion of other AGN diagnostics such as X-ray luminosity, Spitzer/IRAC colours, radio spectral index and the ratio of star-forming total infrared flux to k-corrected 1.4 GHz flux density, qIR, we determine whether the radio emission in these sources is powered by star formation or by an AGN. The majority of these radio sources (60 per cent) show the signature of an AGN at some wavelength. Of the sources with AGN signatures, 58 per cent are hybrid systems for which the radio emission is being powered by star formation. This implies that radio sources which have likely been selected on their star formation have a high AGN fraction. Below a 1.4 GHz flux density of 1 mJy, along with finding a strong contribution to the source counts from pure star-forming sources, we find that hybrid sources constitute 20-65 per cent of the sources. This result suggests that hybrid sources have a significant contribution, along with sources that do not host a detectable AGN, to the observed flattening of the source counts at ˜1 mJy for the extragalactic radio source population.

  4. The nature of the faint low-frequency radio source population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocran, E. F.; Taylor, A. R.; Vaccari, M.; Green, D. A.

    2017-06-01

    We present a multiwavelength study into the nature of faint radio sources in a deep radio image with the Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope at 612 MHz covering 1.2 deg2 of the ELAIS N1 region. We detect 2800 sources above 50 μJy beam-1. By matching to multiwavelength data, we obtain a redshift estimate for 63 per cent, with 29 per cent based on spectroscopy. For 1526 of the sources with redshifts, we use radio and X-ray luminosity, optical spectroscopy, mid-infrared colours and 24 μm and IR to radio flux ratios to search for the presence of an active galactic nucleus (AGN). The analysis reveals a rapid change in the population as flux density decreases from ˜500 μJy to ˜100 μJy. We find that 80.3 per cent of the objects show no evidence of AGN and have multiwavelength properties consistent with radio emission from star-forming galaxies (SFG). We classify 11.4 per cent as radio-quiet (RQ) AGN and the remaining 8.3 per cent as radio-loud (RL) AGN. The redshift of all populations extends to z > 3 with a median of ˜1. The median radio and far-IR luminosity increases systematically from SFG, to RQ AGN and RL AGN. The median q24 μm for SFG, 0.89 ± 0.01, is slightly below that for RQ AGN, 1.05 ± 0.03, and both differ substantially from the value for RL AGN of -0.06 ± 0.07. However, SFG and RQ AGN show no significant difference in far-IR/radio ratios and have statistically indistinguishable star formation rates inferred from radio and far-IR luminosities. We conclude that radio emission from host galaxies of RQ AGN in this flux density regime results primarily from star formation activity.

  5. The faint radio source population at 15.7 GHz - II. Multi-wavelength properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittam, I. H.; Riley, J. M.; Green, D. A.; Jarvis, M. J.; Vaccari, M.

    2015-11-01

    A complete, flux density limited sample of 96 faint (>0.5 mJy) radio sources is selected from the 10C survey at 15.7 GHz in the Lockman Hole. We have matched this sample to a range of multi-wavelength catalogues, including Spitzer Extragalactic Representative Volume Survey, Spitzer Wide-area Infrared Extragalactic survey, United Kingdom Infrared Telescope Infrared Deep Sky Survey and optical data; multi-wavelength counterparts are found for 80 of the 96 sources and spectroscopic redshifts are available for 24 sources. Photometric redshifts are estimated for the sources with multi-wavelength data available; the median redshift of the sample is 0.91 with an interquartile range of 0.84. Radio-to-optical ratios show that at least 94 per cent of the sample are radio loud, indicating that the 10C sample is dominated by radio galaxies. This is in contrast to samples selected at lower frequencies, where radio-quiet AGN and star-forming galaxies are present in significant numbers at these flux density levels. All six radio-quiet sources have rising radio spectra, suggesting that they are dominated by AGN emission. These results confirm the conclusions of Paper I that the faint, flat-spectrum sources which are found to dominate the 10C sample below ˜1 mJy are the cores of radio galaxies. The properties of the 10C sample are compared to the Square Kilometre Array Design Studies Simulated Skies; a population of low-redshift star-forming galaxies predicted by the simulation is not found in the observed sample.

  6. Sub-mJy radio sources - A population of starburst galaxies at intermediate redshifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thuan, Trinh X.

    1987-01-01

    Optical-infrared observations are used to show that the sub-mJy sources, discovered in deep radio surveys and responsible for the upturn in the radio source counts at sub-mJy levels, represent a population of star-forming galaxies at intermediate redshifts and with Mv between about -23 and -20. The very high frequency of line-emission, the very large incidence of galaxy mergers and interactions associated with these sub-mJy sources, and the good agreement between the sub-mJy radio source counts and the counts of starburst galaxies from deep IRAS surveys imply that these star-forming galaxies are in fact undergoing starbursts.

  7. The microjansky and nanojansky radio sky: source population and multiwavelength properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padovani, Paolo

    2011-03-01

    I present simple but robust estimates of the types of sources making up the faint, sub-microjansky radio sky. These include, not surprisingly, star-forming galaxies and radio-quiet active galactic nuclei but also two 'new' populations, i.e. low radio power ellipticals and dwarf galaxies, the latter likely constituting the most numerous component of the radio sky. I then estimate for the first time the X-ray, optical and mid-infrared fluxes these objects are likely to have, which are very important for source identification and the synergy between the upcoming Square Kilometre Array (SKA) and its various pathfinders with future missions in other bands. On large areas of the sky the SKA, and any other radio telescope producing surveys down to at least the microjansky level, will go deeper than all currently planned (and past) sky surveys, with the possible exception of the optical ones from the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. The Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and in particular the Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs) will be a match to the next generation radio telescopes but only on small areas and above ˜0.1 - 1 μJy (at 1.4 GHz), while even the International X-ray Observatory will only be able to detect a small (tiny) fraction of the microjansky (nanojansky) population. On the other hand, most sources from currently planned all-sky surveys, with the likely exception of the optical ones, will have a radio counterpart within the reach of the SKA. JWST and the ELTs might turn out to be the main, or perhaps even the only, facilities capable of securing optical counterparts and especially redshifts of microjansky radio sources. Because of their sensitivity, the SKA and its pathfinders will have a huge impact on a number of topics in extragalactic astronomy including star formation in galaxies and its co-evolution with supermassive black holes

  8. The Population of Compact Radio Sources in the Orion Nebula Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbrich, J.; Rivilla, V. M.; Menten, K. M.; Reid, M. J.; Chandler, C. J.; Rau, U.; Bhatnagar, S.; Wolk, S. J.; Meingast, S.

    2016-05-01

    We present a deep centimeter-wavelength catalog of the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC), based on a 30 hr single-pointing observation with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array in its high-resolution A-configuration using two 1 GHz bands centered at 4.7 and 7.3 GHz. A total of 556 compact sources were detected in a map with a nominal rms noise of 3 μJy bm-1, limited by complex source structure and the primary beam response. Compared to previous catalogs, our detections increase the sample of known compact radio sources in the ONC by more than a factor of seven. The new data show complex emission on a wide range of spatial scales. Following a preliminary correction for the wideband primary-beam response, we determine radio spectral indices for 170 sources whose index uncertainties are less than ±0.5. We compare the radio to the X-ray and near-infrared point-source populations, noting similarities and differences.

  9. Extragalactic Radio Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellerman, Kenneth I.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses new problems arising from the growing observational data through radio telescope arrays, involving the origin of radio sources, apparent superluminal velocities, conversion of radio sources to relativistic particles, and the nature of compact opaque and extended transparent sources. New physics may be needed to answer these cosmological…

  10. Extragalactic Radio Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellerman, Kenneth I.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses new problems arising from the growing observational data through radio telescope arrays, involving the origin of radio sources, apparent superluminal velocities, conversion of radio sources to relativistic particles, and the nature of compact opaque and extended transparent sources. New physics may be needed to answer these cosmological…

  11. On the population of remnant Fanaroff-Riley type II radio galaxies and implications for radio source dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godfrey, L. E. H.; Morganti, R.; Brienza, M.

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this work is two-fold: (1) to quantify the occurrence of ultrasteep spectrum remnant Fanaroff-Riley type II (FRII) radio galaxies in a 74 MHz flux-limited sample, and (2) perform Monte Carlo simulations of the population of active and remnant FRII radio galaxies to confront models of remnant lobe evolution, and to provide guidance for further investigation of remnant radio galaxies. We find that fewer than 2 per cent of FRII radio galaxies with S74 MHz > 1.5 Jy are candidate ultrasteep spectrum remnants, where we define ultrasteep spectrum as α _74 MHz^1400 MHz > 1.2. Our Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate that models involving Sedov-like expansion in the remnant phase, resulting in rapid adiabatic energy losses, are consistent with this upper limit, and predict the existence of nearly twice as many remnants with normal (not ultrasteep) spectra in the observed frequency range as there are ultrasteep spectrum remnants. This model also predicts an ultrasteep remnant fraction approaching 10 per cent at redshifts z < 0.5. Importantly, this model implies the lobes remain overpressured with respect to the ambient medium well after their active lifetime, in contrast with existing observational evidence that many FRII radio galaxy lobes reach pressure equilibrium with the external medium whilst still in the active phase. The predicted age distribution of remnants is a steeply decreasing function of age. In other words, young remnants are expected to be much more common than old remnants in flux-limited samples. For this reason, incorporating higher frequency data ≳5 GHz will be of great benefit to future studies of the remnant population.

  12. The Population of KPC-Scale Flat-Spectrum Radio Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augusto, Pedro; Wilkinson, Peter N.; Browne, Ian W. A.

    In this paper we present a subsample of 55 flat-spectrum radio sources dominated by (~ 100 mas) kpc-scale structure, selected from a parent sample of 1665 VLA sources. Most are core-jets and 23 are CSO/MSO candidates. Properties of the subsample are discussed.

  13. Multi-source self-calibration: Unveiling the microJy population of compact radio sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radcliffe, J. F.; Garrett, M. A.; Beswick, R. J.; Muxlow, T. W. B.; Barthel, P. D.; Deller, A. T.; Middelberg, E.

    2016-03-01

    Context. Very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) data are extremely sensitive to the phase stability of the VLBI array. This is especially important when we reach μJy rms sensitivities. Calibration using standard phase-referencing techniques is often used to improve the phase stability of VLBI data, but the results are often not optimal. This is evident in blank fields that do not have in-beam calibrators. Aims: We present a calibration algorithm termed multi-source self-calibration (MSSC) which can be used after standard phase referencing on wide-field VLBI observations. This is tested on a 1.6 GHz wide-field VLBI data set of the Hubble Deep Field North and the Hubble Flanking Fields. Methods: MSSC uses multiple target sources that are detected in the field via standard phase referencing techniques and modifies the visibilities so that each data set approximates to a point source. These are combined to increase the signal to noise and permit self-calibration. In principle, this should allow residual phase changes caused by the troposphere and ionosphere to be corrected. By means of faceting, the technique can also be used for direction-dependent calibration. Results: Phase corrections, derived using MSSC, were applied to a wide-field VLBI data set of the HDF-N, which comprises of 699 phase centres. MSSC was found to perform considerably better than standard phase referencing and single source self-calibration. All detected sources exhibited dramatic improvements in dynamic range. Using MSSC, one source reached the detection threshold, taking the total detected sources to twenty. This means 60% of these sources can now be imaged with uniform weighting, compared to just 45% with standard phase referencing. In principle, this technique can be applied to any future VLBI observations. The Parseltongue code, which implements MSSC, has been released and made publicly available to the astronomical community (http://https://github.com/jradcliffe5/multi_self_cal).

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The population of compact radio sources in ONC (Forbrich+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbrich, J.; Rivilla, V. M.; Menten, K. M.; Reid, M. J.; Chandler, C. J.; Rau, U.; Bhatnagar, S.; Wolk, S. J.; Meingast, S.

    2016-08-01

    The observations were carried out with the Karl G. Jansky VLA of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory on 2012 September 30, October 2-5 under project code SD630. Data were taken using the VLA's C-band (4-8GHz) receivers in full polarization mode, with two 1GHz basebands centered at 4.736 and 7.336GHz to provide a good baseline for source spectral index determination. Apart from the first epoch, the field was simultaneously observed with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. Mostly of interest for variability information, these data will be presented as part of a follow-up paper. (1 data file).

  15. Quasars in radio source catalogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchings, J. B.; Durand, D.; Pazder, J.

    1991-01-01

    A cross correlation between the Hewitt-Burbidge QSO catalog and the Dixon radio source catalog was performed. Two thousand ten position coincidences were found within about 60 arcsec, of which 23 are not noted as radio quasars in Hewitt-Burbidge. The accuracy of the radio source positions of various catalogs is examined, and the previously unidentified radio sources are discussed. An absence of radio quasars of low luminosity at redshifts greater than about 2.5 is noted.

  16. GMRT 610-MHz observations of the faint radio source population - and what these tell us about the higher radio-frequency sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittam, I. H.; Green, D. A.; Jarvis, M. J.; Riley, J. M.

    2017-01-01

    We present 610-MHz Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope observations of 0.84 deg2 of the AMI001 field (centred on 00h23m10s, +31°53') with an rms noise of 18 μJy beam-1 in the centre of the field. A total of 955 sources are detected, and 814 are included in the source count analysis. The source counts from these observations are consistent with previous work. We have used these data to study the spectral index distribution of a sample of sources selected at 15.7 GHz from the recent deep extension to the Tenth Cambridge (10C) survey. The median spectral index, α, (where S ∝ ν-α) between 0.08 < S_{15.7 GHz} / mJy < 0.2 is 0.32 ± 0.14, showing that star-forming galaxies, which have much steeper spectra, are not contributing significantly to this population. This is in contrast to several models, but in agreement with the results from the 10C ultradeep source counts; the high-frequency sky therefore continues to be dominated by radio galaxies down to S15.7GHz = 0.1 mJy.

  17. Astrometry of southern radio sources.

    PubMed

    White, G L; Jauncey, D L; Harvey, B R; Savage, A; Gulkis, S; Preston, R A; Peterson, B A; Reynolds, J E; Nicolson, G D; Malin, D F

    1991-01-01

    An overview is presented of a number of astrometry and astrophysics programs based on radio sources from the Parkes 2.7 GHz catalogues. The programs cover the optical identification and spectroscopy of flat-spectrum Parkes sources and the determination of their milliarc-second radio structures and positions. Work is also in progress to tie together the radio and Hipparcos positional reference frames. A parallel program of radio and optical astrometry of southern radio stars is also under way.

  18. Astrometry of southern radio sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Graeme L.; Jauncey, David L.; Harvey, Bruce R.; Savage, Ann; Gulkis, Samuel; Preston, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    An overview is presented of a number of astrometry and astrophysics programs based on radio sources from the Parkes 2.7 GHz catalogs. The programs cover the optical identification and spectroscopy of flat-spectrum Parkes sources and the determination of their milliarcsecond radio structures and positions. Work is also in progress to tie together the radio and Hipparcos positional reference frames. A parallel program of radio and optical astrometry of southern radio stars is also under way.

  19. Interpretation of cosmological information on radio sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burbidge, G.

    1977-01-01

    The question of whether any cosmological information can be obtained from radio astronomy is considered. Specific attention is given to the discovery and cosmological interpretation of the microwave background radiation, attempts to derive a Hubble relation for the optical objects identified with radio sources, searches for relations between the angular diameters of radio sources and the redshifts of their optically identified counterparts as well as between angular diameter and radio flux, construction of log N - log S curves, and luminosity volume tests. A brief outline is given of the situation that might prevail if a significant population of radio sources is not at great distances and is associated with QSOs that have been ejected from relatively nearby galaxies. It is concluded that: (1) some types of cosmological investigations have been premature; (2) much of the discussion in this area still depends on the distances of QSOs; and (3) there is no conclusive proof that the population of radio sources is changing with epoch.

  20. Is there a Population of Weak Radio Sources that Contributes to the Excess Sky Temperature Observed by Arcade 2?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellermann, Kenneth I.; Condon, J. J.; Cotton, W. D.; Fomalont, E. B.; Perley, R. A.; Miller, N. A.; Scott, D.; Vernstrom, T.; Wall, J.

    2013-01-01

    The ARCADE 2 balloon experiment has reported a 3 GHz sky brightness that is 65 +/- 8 mK in excess of the CMB which is much greater than the ~13 mK that can be explained by the known population of radio sources. We have used the Karl Jansky Very Large Array to image one primary beam at 3 GHz with 8 arcsecond resolution and 1.0 μJy per beam rms noise near the pointing center. Our image is confusion limited with an rms confusion noise of ~1.2 μJy per beam. Modeling the distribution of confusion noise suggests that any excess background must be very smooth, so any hypothetical population of discrete sources that can account for the ARCADE result must be very numerous and weaker than ~ 30 nanoJy. If the ARCADE results are correct, the number of weak radio sources would be several orders of magnitude greater than the faintest galaxies in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field.

  1. Sources of the Radio Background Considered

    SciTech Connect

    Singal, J.; Stawarz, L.; Lawrence, A.; Petrosian, V.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.

    2011-08-22

    We investigate possible origins of the extragalactic radio background reported by the ARCADE 2 collaboration. The surface brightness of the background is several times higher than that which would result from currently observed radio sources. We consider contributions to the background from diffuse synchrotron emission from clusters and the intergalactic medium, previously unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of radio sources, and faint point sources below the flux limit of existing surveys. By examining radio source counts available in the literature, we conclude that most of the radio background is produced by radio point sources that dominate at sub {mu}Jy fluxes. We show that a truly diffuse background produced by elections far from galaxies is ruled out because such energetic electrons would overproduce the observed X-ray/{gamma}-ray background through inverse Compton scattering of the other photon fields. Unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of extended radio sources, or moderate flux sources missed entirely by radio source count surveys, cannot explain the bulk of the observed background, but may contribute as much as 10%. We consider both radio supernovae and radio quiet quasars as candidate sources for the background, and show that both fail to produce it at the observed level because of insufficient number of objects and total flux, although radio quiet quasars contribute at the level of at least a few percent. We conclude that the most important population for production of the background is likely ordinary starforming galaxies above redshift 1 characterized by an evolving radio far-infrared correlation, which increases toward the radio loud with redshift.

  2. Radio properties of extragalactic IRAS sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Condon, J. J.; Broderick, J. J.

    1991-01-01

    The present study identifies extragalactic sources from the IRAS Faint Source Catalog by position coincidence with radio sources stronger than 25 mJy and lying north of +5 deg on the Green Bank 4.85 GHz sky maps. Published VLA maps, new 4.86 GHz VLA maps made with 15-arcsec resolution, and accurate optical positions are used to confirm 122 of these candidate identifications. Normal and starburst spiral galaxies were found to comprise about 97 percent of the FIR flux-limited sample. Radio-loud 'monsters' with q less than 2.25 dominate the radio emission from about 2 percent of the FIR source sample, and radio-quiet monsters are responsible for the FIR emission from less than about 1 percent of the FIR sample. All of the radio-identified sources are optically identified, mostly with relatively bright nearby galaxies. No evidence was found for any new populations of high-redshift FIR sources, nonthermal sources with steep FIR/optical spectra, or dust-shrouded sources visible only at FIR and radio wavelengths.

  3. Radio properties of extragalactic IRAS sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Condon, J. J.; Broderick, J. J.

    1991-01-01

    The present study identifies extragalactic sources from the IRAS Faint Source Catalog by position coincidence with radio sources stronger than 25 mJy and lying north of +5 deg on the Green Bank 4.85 GHz sky maps. Published VLA maps, new 4.86 GHz VLA maps made with 15-arcsec resolution, and accurate optical positions are used to confirm 122 of these candidate identifications. Normal and starburst spiral galaxies were found to comprise about 97 percent of the FIR flux-limited sample. Radio-loud 'monsters' with q less than 2.25 dominate the radio emission from about 2 percent of the FIR source sample, and radio-quiet monsters are responsible for the FIR emission from less than about 1 percent of the FIR sample. All of the radio-identified sources are optically identified, mostly with relatively bright nearby galaxies. No evidence was found for any new populations of high-redshift FIR sources, nonthermal sources with steep FIR/optical spectra, or dust-shrouded sources visible only at FIR and radio wavelengths.

  4. Radio-flaring Ultracool Dwarf Population Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Route, Matthew

    2017-08-01

    Over a dozen ultracool dwarfs (UCDs), low-mass objects of spectral types ≥M7, are known to be sources of radio flares. These typically several-minutes-long radio bursts can be up to 100% circularly polarized and have high brightness temperatures, consistent with coherent emission via the electron cyclotron maser operating in approximately kilogauss magnetic fields. Recently, the statistical properties of the bulk physical parameters that describe these UCDs have become described adequately enough to permit synthesis of the population of radio-flaring objects. For the first time, I construct a Monte Carlo simulator to model the population of these radio-flaring UCDs. This simulator is powered by Intel Secure Key (ISK), a new processor technology that uses a local entropy source to improve random number generation that has heretofore been used to improve cryptography. The results from this simulator indicate that only ∼5% of radio-flaring UCDs within the local interstellar neighborhood (<25 pc away) have been discovered. I discuss a number of scenarios that may explain this radio-flaring fraction and suggest that the observed behavior is likely a result of several factors. The performance of ISK as compared to other pseudorandom number generators is also evaluated, and its potential utility for other astrophysical codes is briefly described.

  5. Compact steep-spectrum sources as the parent population of flat-spectrum radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berton, M.; Caccianiga, A.; Foschini, L.; Peterson, B. M.; Mathur, S.; Terreran, G.; Ciroi, S.; Congiu, E.; Cracco, V.; Frezzato, M.; La Mura, G.; Rafanelli, P.

    2016-06-01

    Narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s) are an interesting subclass of active galactic nuclei (AGN), which tipically does not exhibit any strong radio emission. Seven percent of them, though, are radio-loud and often show a flat radio-spectrum (F-NLS1s). This, along to the detection of γ-ray emission coming from them, is usually interpreted as a sign of a relativistic beamed jet oriented along the line of sight. An important aspect of these AGN that must be understood is the nature of their parent population, in other words how do they appear when observed under different angles. In the recent literature it has been proposed that a specific class of radio-galaxies, compact-steep sources (CSS) classified as high excitation radio galaxies (HERG), can represent the parent population of F-NLS1s. To test this hypothesis in a quantitative way,in this paper we analyzed the only two statistically complete samples of CSS/HERGs and F-NLS1s available in the literature. We derived the black hole mass and Eddington ratio distributions, and we built for the first time the radio luminosity function of F-NLS1s. Finally, we applied a relativistic beaming model to the luminosity function of CSS/HERGs, and compared the result with the observed function of F-NLS1s. We found that compact steep-spectrum sources are valid parent candidates and that F-NLS1s, when observed with a different inclination, might actually appear as CSS/HERGs.

  6. Spectral Indices of Faint Radio Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gim, Hansung B.; Hales, Christopher A.; Momjian, Emmanuel; Yun, Min Su

    2015-01-01

    The significant improvement in bandwidth and the resultant sensitivity offered by the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) allows us to explore the faint radio source population. Through the study of the radio continuum we can explore the spectral indices of these radio sources. Robust radio spectral indices are needed for accurate k-corrections, for example in the study of the radio - far-infrared (FIR) correlation. We present an analysis of measuring spectral indices using two different approaches. In the first, we use the standard wideband imaging algorithm in the data reduction package CASA. In the second, we use a traditional approach of imaging narrower bandwidths to derive the spectral indices. For these, we simulated data to match the observing parameter space of the CHILES Con Pol survey (Hales et al. 2014). We investigate the accuracy and precision of spectral index measurements as a function of signal-to noise, and explore the requirements to reliably probe possible evolution of the radio-FIR correlation in CHILES Con Pol.

  7. Radio outbursts in extragalactic sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinzel, Wayne Morris

    Three aspects of the flux density variability of extragalactic radio sources were examined: millimeter wavelength short timescale variability, the spectral evolution of outbursts, and whether the outbursts are periodically spaced. Observations of extragalactic radio sources were conducted using the Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory between January and June 1985 at 88.2 GHz and during June and July 1985 at 40.0 GHz. Many of the sources exhibited significant flux density variations during the observing span. In addition, the most rapid variations observed were comparable with those reported in previous works. Two sources, 0355+50 and OJ287, both exhibited outbursts whose rise and fall timescales were less than a month. An anomalous flux density dropout was observed in 3C446 and was interpreted as an occultation event. Data at five frequencies between 2.7 and 89.6 GHz from the Dent-Balonek monitoring program were used to investigate the spectral evolution of eight outbursts. Outburst profile fitting was used to deconvolve the individual outbursts from one another at each frequency. The fit profiles were used to generate multiple epoch spectra to investigate the evolution of the outbursts. A phase residual minimization method was used to examine four sources for periodic behavior.

  8. Uranus as a radio source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desch, M. D.; Kaiser, M. L.; Zarka, P.; Lecacheux, A.; Leblanc, Y.; Aubier, M.; Ortega-Molina, A.

    1991-01-01

    The complex nature of the Uranus radio emissions, both magnetospheric and atmospheric, is reviewed, with emphasis on the identification of distinct components and the determination of their source locations. Seven radii components were discovered in addition to the RF signature of lightning in the planet's atmosphere. Six of the seven magnetospheric components are freely propagating emissions; one component, the nonthermal continuum, is trapped in the density cavity between the magnetopause and the dense inner magnetosphere. The radio components are divided into two types according to their emission signature: bursty emission and smooth emission. The inferred source location for the dominant nightside emission is above the nightside magnetic pole, largely overlapping the UV auroral region and the magnetic polar cap. The N-burst component appears to be associated with solar-wind enhancements at Uranus, consistent with the idea that the solar wind was triggering magnetospheric substormlike activity during the encounter.

  9. Accurate radio and optical positions for southern radio sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Bruce R.; Jauncey, David L.; White, Graeme L.; Nothnagel, Axel; Nicolson, George D.; Reynolds, John E.; Morabito, David D.; Bartel, Norbert

    1992-01-01

    Accurate radio positions with a precision of about 0.01 arcsec are reported for eight compact extragalactic radio sources south of -45-deg declination. The radio positions were determined using VLBI at 8.4 GHz on the 9589 km Tidbinbilla (Australia) to Hartebeesthoek (South Africa) baseline. The sources were selected from the Parkes Catalogue to be strong, flat-spectrum radio sources with bright optical QSO counterparts. Optical positions of the QSOs were also measured from the ESO B Sky Survey plates with respect to stars from the Perth 70 Catalogue, to an accuracy of about 0.19 arcsec rms. These radio and optical positions are as precise as any presently available in the far southern sky. A comparison of the radio and optical positions confirms the estimated optical position errors and shows that there is overall agreement at the 0.1-arcsec level between the radio and Perth 70 optical reference frames in the far south.

  10. Accurate radio and optical positions for southern radio sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Bruce R.; Jauncey, David L.; White, Graeme L.; Nothnagel, Axel; Nicolson, George D.; Reynolds, John E.; Morabito, David D.; Bartel, Norbert

    1992-01-01

    Accurate radio positions with a precision of about 0.01 arcsec are reported for eight compact extragalactic radio sources south of -45-deg declination. The radio positions were determined using VLBI at 8.4 GHz on the 9589 km Tidbinbilla (Australia) to Hartebeesthoek (South Africa) baseline. The sources were selected from the Parkes Catalogue to be strong, flat-spectrum radio sources with bright optical QSO counterparts. Optical positions of the QSOs were also measured from the ESO B Sky Survey plates with respect to stars from the Perth 70 Catalogue, to an accuracy of about 0.19 arcsec rms. These radio and optical positions are as precise as any presently available in the far southern sky. A comparison of the radio and optical positions confirms the estimated optical position errors and shows that there is overall agreement at the 0.1-arcsec level between the radio and Perth 70 optical reference frames in the far south.

  11. The infrared properties of the GPS and CSS radio sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dea, C. P.

    2016-02-01

    I review the results of three Spitzer studies of GHz-Peaked Spectrum (GPS) and Compact Steep Spectrum (CSS) radio galaxies. The luminosity of the IR continuum and the high ionization lines confirm that some GPS/CSS can have central engines which are similar to those of the extended powerful radio sources. This is consistent with the hypothesis that some GPS/CSS can evolve to become the large-scale sources. Warm H_2 is common in the GPS/CSS sources consistent with feedback via jet-ISM interaction. The GPS/CSS seem to have higher star formation rates than typical (2JY + 3CRR) radio sources. This should be confirmed with a larger sample. If compact sources interact with dense, clumpy star forming clouds and if the interaction with the dense medium sufficiently enhances the radio power, these star forming galaxies with enhanced radio emission will be selected for the current bright samples of GPS and CSS sources. This will increase the number of GPS and CSS sources which are observed to be forming stars. If radio sources have longer lives and/or star formation is more common in large radio galaxies, the need for a new population of star forming compact sources with enhanced radio emission is reduced.

  12. The Host Galaxies of Micro-Jansky Radio Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchsinger, K. M.; Lacy, M.; Jones, K. M.; Mauduit, J. C.; Pforr, J.; Surace, J. A.; Vaccari, M.; Farrah, D.; Gonzales-Solares, E.; Jarvis, M. J.; Maraston, C.; Marchetti, L.; Oliver, S.; Afonso, J.; Cappozi, D.; Sajina, A.

    2015-09-01

    We combine a deep 0.5 deg2, 1.4 GHz deep radio survey in the Lockman Hole with infrared and optical data in the same field, including the Spitzer Extragalactic Representative Volume Survey (SERVS) and UKIDSS near-infrared surveys, to make the largest study to date of the host galaxies of radio sources with typical radio flux densities ˜ 50 μJy. 87% (1274/1467) of radio sources have identifications in SERVS to {AB}≈ 23.1 at 3.6 or 4.5μm, and 9% are blended with bright objects (mostly stars), leaving only 4% (59 objects), which are too faint to confidently identify in the near-infrared. We are able to estimate photometric redshifts for 68% of the radio sources. We use mid-infrared diagnostics to show that the source population consists of a mixture of star-forming galaxies, rapidly accreting (cold mode) active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and low accretion rate (hot mode) AGNs, with neither AGNs nor star-forming galaxies clearly dominating. We see the breakdown in the K-z relation in faint radio source samples, and show that it is due to radio source populations becoming dominated by sources with radio luminosities ˜ {10}23 {{WHz}}-1. At these luminosities, both the star-forming galaxies and the cold mode AGNs have hosts with stellar luminosities of about a factor of two lower than those of hot mode AGNs, which continue to reside in only the most massive hosts. We show that out to at least z˜ 2, galaxies with stellar masses \\gt {10}11.5 {M}⊙ have radio-loud fractions up to ˜30%. This is consistent with there being a sufficient number of radio sources for radio-mode feedback to play a role in galaxy evolution.

  13. HIGH CURRENT RADIO FREQUENCY ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Abdelaziz, M.E.

    1963-04-01

    This patent relates to a high current radio frequency ion source. A cylindrical plasma container has a coil disposed around the exterior surface thereof along the longitudinal axis. Means are provided for the injection of an unionized gas into the container and for applying a radio frequency signal to the coil whereby a radio frequency field is generated within the container parallel to the longitudinal axis thereof to ionize the injected gas. Cathode and anode means are provided for extracting transverse to the radio frequency field from an area midway between the ends of the container along the longitudinal axis thereof the ions created by said radio frequency field. (AEC)

  14. VLBI observations of 416 extragalactic radio sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morabito, D. D.; Niell, A. E.; Preston, R. A.; Linfield, R. P.; Wehrle, A. E.; Faulkner, J.

    1986-01-01

    The Deep Space Network is establishing a high-accuracy Very Long Base Interferometry (VLBI) celestial reference frame. Presented are the VLBI results of observations of 416 radio sources with declination north of -45 degrees which were conducted at frequencies of 2.3 GHz and 8.4 GHz. At 2.3 GHz 323 of 391 radio sources observed were detected with a fringe spacing of 3 milliarcsec and a detection limit of approximately 0.1 Jy. At 8.4 GHz, 278 of 416 radio sources were detected with a fringe spacing of 1 milliarcsec and a detection limit of approximately 0.1 Jy. This survey was conducted primarily to determine the strength of compact components at 8.4 GHz for radio sources previously detected with VLBI at 2.3 GHz. Compact extragalactic radio sources with strong correlated flux densities at both frequencies are used to form a high-accuracy reference frame.

  15. VLBI observations of 416 extragalactic radio sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morabito, D. D.; Niell, A. E.; Preston, R. A.; Linfield, R. P.; Wehrle, A. E.; Faulkner, J.

    1986-01-01

    Very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations of 416 radio sources with declinations north of -45 deg have been conducted at frequencies of 2.3 and 8.4 GHz. At 2.3 GHz, 323 of 391 radio sources observed were detected with a fringe spacing of 3 milliarcsec and a detection limit of about 0.1 Jy. At 8.4 GHz, 278 of 416 radio sources were detected with a fringe spacing of 1 milliarcsec and a detection limit of about 0.1 Jy. This survey was conducted primarily to determine the strength of compact components at 8.4 GHz for radio sources previously detected with VLBI at 2.3 GHz. Compact extragalactic radio sources with strong correlated flux densities at both frequencies are used to form a high-accuracy reference frame.

  16. Optical spectroscopy of four young radio sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xu-Liang; Bai, Jin-Ming; Hu, Chen; Wang, Jian-Guo

    2017-01-01

    We report the optical spectroscopy of four young radio sources which are observed with the Lijiang 2.4 m telescope. The Eddington ratios of these sources are similar with those of narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s). Their Fe II emission is strong while [O III] strength is weak. These results confirm the NLS1 features of young radio sources, except that the width of broad Hβ of young radio sources is larger than that of NLS1s. We thus suggest that the young radio sources are the high black hole mass counterparts of steep-spectrum radio-loud NLS1s. In addition, the broad Hβ component of 4C 12.50 is the blue wing of the narrow component, but not from the broad line region.

  17. Evolution of luminous IRAS sources - Radio imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neff, S. G.; Hutchings, J. B.

    1992-01-01

    Observations of the compact radio morphology of 111 luminous IRAS-selected active galaxies covering a wide range of IR and optical properties are presented and discussed. Of these sources, 72 are observed for the first time with the VLA A configuration. The circumnuclear radio sources are generally small and weak, with 15 nondetections to a limit of about 0.4 mJy. Comparison with the IR and optical properties of the objects indicates that the radio sources turn on within 10 exp 8 yr of the tidal encounter that is presumed to generate the IR activity. However, the radio sources do not all appear at the same time. The radio observations are consistent with the evolution scenario for luminous IRAS galaxies suggested by Hutchings and Neff (1991).

  18. A database of phase calibration sources and their radio spectra for the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lal, Dharam V.; Dubal, Shilpa S.; Sherkar, Sachin S.

    2016-12-01

    We are pursuing a project to build a database of phase calibration sources suitable for Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT). Here we present the first release of 45 low frequency calibration sources at 235 MHz and 610 MHz. These calibration sources are broadly divided into quasars, radio galaxies and unidentified sources. We provide their flux densities, models for calibration sources, ( u, v) plots, final deconvolved restored maps and clean-component lists/files for use in the Astronomical Image Processing System ( aips) and the Common Astronomy Software Applications ( casa). We also assign a quality factor to each of the calibration sources. These data products are made available online through the GMRT observatory website. In addition we find that (i) these 45 low frequency calibration sources are uniformly distributed in the sky and future efforts to increase the size of the database should populate the sky further, (ii) spectra of these calibration sources are about equally divided between straight, curved and complex shapes, (iii) quasars tend to exhibit flatter radio spectra as compared to the radio galaxies or the unidentified sources, (iv) quasars are also known to be radio variable and hence possibly show complex spectra more frequently, and (v) radio galaxies tend to have steeper spectra, which are possibly due to the large redshifts of distant galaxies causing the shift of spectrum to lower frequencies.

  19. Optically faint radio sources: reborn AGN?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filho, M. E.; Brinchmann, J.; Lobo, C.; Antón, S.

    2011-12-01

    We present our discovery of several relatively strong radio sources in the field-of-view of SDSS galaxy clusters that have no optical counterparts down to the magnitude limits of the SDSS. The optically faint radio sources appear as double-lobed or core-jet objects in the FIRST radio images and have projected angular sizes ranging from 0.5 to 1.0 arcmin. We followed-up these sources with near-infrared imaging using the wide-field imager HAWK-I on the VLT. We detected Ks-band emitting regions, about 1.5 arcsec in size and coincident with the centers of the radio structures, in all sources, with magnitudes in the range 17-20 mag. We used spectral modelling to characterize the sample sources. In general, the radio properties are similar to those observed in 3CRR sources but the optical-radio slopes are consistent with those of moderate to high redshift (z < 4) gigahertz-peaked spectrum sources. Our results suggest that these unusual objects are galaxies whose black hole has been recently re-ignited but that retain large-scale radio structures, which are signatures of previous AGN activity.

  20. Faint radio sources and gravitational lensing

    SciTech Connect

    Langston, G.I.; Conner, S.R.; Heflin, M.B.; Lehar, J.; Burke, B.F. MIT, Cambridge, MA )

    1990-04-01

    Measurements of the surface density of radio sources resulting from a deep VLA integration at 5 GHz and the MIT-Green Bank (MG) II 5 GHz survey are summarized. The faint source counts are combined with previous observations and fitted to a power-law function of surface density vs. limiting flux density. The surface density of radio sources brighter than 1 mJy is k = 0.019 + or - 0.004/arcmin. The power-law exponent is best fit by -0.93 + or - 0.14. Between 15 and 100 mJy, the surface density of radio sources varies nearly as predicted by Euclidian models of the universe. Estimates are given for the number of chance alignments of radio sources in the VLA snapshot observations of the MIT-Princeton-Caltech gravitational lens search. The probability of lens candidate configurations occurring by chance alignment is calculated. 28 refs.

  1. Population Studies of Radio and Gamma-Ray Pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice K; Gonthier, Peter; Coltisor, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    Rotation-powered pulsars are one of the most promising candidates for at least some of the 40-50 EGRET unidentified gamma-ray sources that lie near the Galactic plane. Since the end of the EGRO mission, the more sensitive Parkes Multibeam radio survey has detected mere than two dozen new radio pulsars in or near unidentified EGRET sources, many of which are young and energetic. These results raise an important question about the nature of radio quiescence in gamma-ray pulsars: is the non-detection of radio emission a matter of beaming or of sensitivity? The answer is very dependent on the geometry of the radio and gamma-ray beams. We present results of a population synthesis of pulsars in the Galaxy, including for the first time the full geometry of the radio and gamma-ray beams. We use a recent empirically derived model of the radio emission and luminosity, and a gamma-ray emission geometry and luminosity derived theoretically from pair cascades in the polar slot gap. The simulation includes characteristics of eight radio surveys of the Princeton catalog plus the Parkes MB survey. Our results indicate that EGRET was capable of detecting several dozen pulsars as point sources, with the ratio of radio-loud to radio-quiet gamma-ray pulsars increasing significantly to about ten to one when the Parkes Survey is included. Polar cap models thus predict that many of the unidentified EGRET sources could be radio-loud gamma- ray pulsars, previously undetected as radio pulsars due to distance, large dispersion and lack of sensitivity. If true, this would make gamma-ray telescopes a potentially more sensitive tool for detecting distant young neutron stars in the Galactic plane.

  2. Population Studies of Radio and Gamma-Ray Pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice K; Gonthier, Peter; Coltisor, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    Rotation-powered pulsars are one of the most promising candidates for at least some of the 40-50 EGRET unidentified gamma-ray sources that lie near the Galactic plane. Since the end of the EGRO mission, the more sensitive Parkes Multibeam radio survey has detected mere than two dozen new radio pulsars in or near unidentified EGRET sources, many of which are young and energetic. These results raise an important question about the nature of radio quiescence in gamma-ray pulsars: is the non-detection of radio emission a matter of beaming or of sensitivity? The answer is very dependent on the geometry of the radio and gamma-ray beams. We present results of a population synthesis of pulsars in the Galaxy, including for the first time the full geometry of the radio and gamma-ray beams. We use a recent empirically derived model of the radio emission and luminosity, and a gamma-ray emission geometry and luminosity derived theoretically from pair cascades in the polar slot gap. The simulation includes characteristics of eight radio surveys of the Princeton catalog plus the Parkes MB survey. Our results indicate that EGRET was capable of detecting several dozen pulsars as point sources, with the ratio of radio-loud to radio-quiet gamma-ray pulsars increasing significantly to about ten to one when the Parkes Survey is included. Polar cap models thus predict that many of the unidentified EGRET sources could be radio-loud gamma- ray pulsars, previously undetected as radio pulsars due to distance, large dispersion and lack of sensitivity. If true, this would make gamma-ray telescopes a potentially more sensitive tool for detecting distant young neutron stars in the Galactic plane.

  3. Optical Characteristics of Astrometric Radio Sources OCARS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkin, Z.

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, the current status of the catalog of Optical Characteristics of Astrometric Radio Sources OCARS is presented. The catalog includes radio sources observed in various astrometric and geodetic VLBI programs in 1979-2012. For these sources the physical object type, redshift and visual or infrared magnitude is given when available. Detailed comments are provided when some problems with published data were encountered. Since the first version created in December 2007, the catalog is continuously developed and expanded in respect to inclusion of new radio sources and addition of new or correction of old astrophysical data. Several sources of information are used for OCARS. The main of them are the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED) and SIMBAD astronomical databases. Besides several astronomical journals and arXiv depository are regularly monitored, so that new data is included in OCARS just after publication. The redshift for about 150 sources have been determined from dedicated optical spectroscopic observations. As of October 2012, OCARS catalog includes 7173 radio sources. 3898 sources have known redshift, and 4860 sources have known magnitude. In 2009, it was used as a supplement material to the ICRF2. The list of radio sources with a good observational history but lacking astrophysical information is provide for planning of optical observations of the most important astrometric sources. The OCARS catalog is updated, in average every several weeks and is available at http://www.gao.spb.ru/english/as/ac_vlbi/ocars.txt.

  4. The radio properties of infrared-faint radio sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middelberg, E.; Norris, R. P.; Hales, C. A.; Seymour, N.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Huynh, M. T.; Lenc, E.; Mao, M. Y.

    2011-02-01

    Context. Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) are objects that have flux densities of several mJy at 1.4 GHz, but that are invisible at 3.6 μm when using sensitive Spitzer observations with μJy sensitivities. Their nature is unclear and difficult to investigate since they are only visible in the radio. Aims: High-resolution radio images and comprehensive spectral coverage can yield constraints on the emission mechanisms of IFRS and can give hints to similarities with known objects. Methods: We imaged a sample of 17 IFRS at 4.8 GHz and 8.6 GHz with the Australia Telescope Compact Array to determine the structures on arcsecond scales. We added radio data from other observing projects and from the literature to obtain broad-band radio spectra. Results: We find that the sources in our sample are either resolved out at the higher frequencies or are compact at resolutions of a few arcsec, which implies that they are smaller than a typical galaxy. The spectra of IFRS are remarkably steep, with a median spectral index of -1.4 and a prominent lack of spectral indices larger than -0.7. We also find that, given the IR non-detections, the ratio of 1.4 GHz flux density to 3.6 μm flux density is very high, and this puts them into the same regime as high-redshift radio galaxies. Conclusions: The evidence that IFRS are predominantly high-redshift sources driven by active galactic nuclei (AGN) is strong, even though not all IFRS may be caused by the same phenomenon. Compared to the rare and painstakingly collected high-redshift radio galaxies, IFRS appear to be much more abundant, but less luminous, AGN-driven galaxies at similar cosmological distances.

  5. Compact Radio Sources Apparently Associated with Extended Galactic Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trejo, A.; Rodríguez, L. F.

    2010-10-01

    We report VLA radio observations of the 21 cm HI line toward two compact radio sources that could be associated with extended Galactic sources. In the case of the planetary nebula PHR 1735-333 we observed HI absorption against a non-thermal radio source recently discovered in the region, which was proposed to be physically associated with the planetary nebula. However, from the analysis of the HI absorption spectrum, we suggest a larger distance for this non-thermal source. In the case of the supernova remnant candidate SNR G3.8+0.3 we obtained HI absorption spectra towards it and towards a compact radio source located at its center. We conclude that SNR G3.8+0.3 is more distant than the compact radio source and that they are not physically associated.

  6. Steep Spectrum Radio Sources in Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Tracy E.

    2012-05-01

    Steep spectrum radio emission associated with galaxy clusters comes from compact central active galactic nuclei (AGN) driven radio sources in dense cool core clusters as well as from large regions of diffuse (halo and relic) emission associated with dynamically complex merging systems. These radio halos and relics are best traced at low radio frequencies where details of their morphology, location and spectral index distribution can be used to probe the underlying acceleration mechanism(s) as well as important details of large scale structure formation. Low frequency radio observations also play an important role in the study of AGN feedback into the intracluster medium and the regulation of cooling cores. While spectacular results are coming from the current generation of low frequency instruments, there will soon be a new revolution in studies of steep spectrum sources with the upcoming generation of low frequency interferometers on Earth and ultimately the moon.

  7. X-RAY AND RADIO FOLLOW-UP OBSERVATIONS OF HIGH-REDSHIFT BLAZAR CANDIDATES IN THE FERMI-LAT UNASSOCIATED SOURCE POPULATION

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Y.; Kataoka, J.; Nakamori, T.; Maeda, K.; Niinuma, K.; Honma, M.; Inoue, Y.; Totani, T.; Inoue, S.

    2013-08-10

    We report on the results of X-ray and radio follow-up observations of two GeV gamma-ray sources 2FGL J0923.5+1508 and 2FGL J1502.1+5548, selected as candidates for high-redshift blazars from unassociated sources in the Fermi Large Area Telescope Second Source Catalog. We utilize the Suzaku satellite and the VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA) telescopes for X-ray and radio observations, respectively. For 2FGL J0923.5+1508, a possible radio counterpart NVSS J092357+150518 is found at 1.4 GHz from an existing catalog, but we do not detect any X-ray emission from it and derive a flux upper limit F{sub 2-8{sub keV}} < 1.37 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -14} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. Radio observations at 6.7 GHz also result in an upper limit of S{sub 6.7{sub GHz}} < 19 mJy, implying a steep radio spectrum that is not expected for a blazar. On the other hand, we detect X-rays from NVSS J150229+555204, the potential 1.4 GHz radio counterpart of 2FGL J1502.1+5548. The X-ray spectrum can be fitted with an absorbed power-law model with a photon index {gamma} = 1.8{sup +0.3}{sub -0.2} and the unabsorbed flux is F{sub 2-8{sub keV}} = 4.3{sup +1.1}{sub -1.0} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -14} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. Moreover, we detect unresolved radio emission at 6.7 GHz with flux S{sub 6.7{sub GHz}} = 30.1 mJy, indicating a compact, flat-spectrum radio source. If NVSS J150229+555204 is indeed associated with 2FGL J1502.1+5548, then we find that its multiwavelength spectrum is consistent with a blazar at redshift z {approx} 3-4.

  8. ATLBS EXTENDED SOURCE SAMPLE: THE EVOLUTION IN RADIO SOURCE MORPHOLOGY WITH FLUX DENSITY

    SciTech Connect

    Saripalli, L.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Thorat, K.; Ekers, R. D.; Hunstead, R. W.; Johnston, H. M.; Sadler, E. M.

    2012-04-01

    Based on the Australia Telescope Low Brightness Survey (ATLBS) we present a sample of extended radio sources and derive morphological properties of faint radio sources. One hundred nineteen radio galaxies form the ATLBS Extended Source Sample (ATLBS-ESS) consisting of all sources exceeding 30'' in extent and integrated flux densities exceeding 1 mJy. We give structural details along with information on galaxy identifications and source classifications. The ATLBS-ESS, unlike samples with higher flux-density limits, has almost equal fractions of FR-I and FR-II radio galaxies, with a large fraction of the FR-I population exhibiting 3C31-type structures. Significant asymmetry in lobe extents appears to be a common occurrence in the ATLBS-ESS FR-I sources compared with FR-II sources. We present a sample of 22 FR-Is at z > 0.5 with good structural information. The detection of several giant radio sources, with size exceeding 0.7 Mpc, at z > 1 suggests that giant radio sources are not less common at high redshifts. The ESS also includes a sample of 28 restarted radio galaxies. The relative abundance of dying and restarting sources is indicative of a model where radio sources undergo episodic activity in which an active phase is followed by a brief dying phase that terminates with restarting of the central activity; in any massive elliptical a few such activity cycles wherein adjacent events blend may constitute the lifetime of a radio source and such bursts of blended activity cycles may be repeated over the age of the host. The ATLBS-ESS includes a 2 Mpc giant radio galaxy with the lowest surface brightness lobes known to date.

  9. The radio spectral energy distribution of infrared-faint radio sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzog, A.; Norris, R. P.; Middelberg, E.; Seymour, N.; Spitler, L. R.; Emonts, B. H. C.; Franzen, T. M. O.; Hunstead, R.; Intema, H. T.; Marvil, J.; Parker, Q. A.; Sirothia, S. K.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Bell, M.; Bernardi, G.; Bowman, J. D.; Briggs, F.; Cappallo, R. J.; Callingham, J. R.; Deshpande, A. A.; Dwarakanath, K. S.; For, B.-Q.; Greenhill, L. J.; Hancock, P.; Hazelton, B. J.; Hindson, L.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Kapińska, A. D.; Kaplan, D. L.; Lenc, E.; Lonsdale, C. J.; McKinley, B.; McWhirter, S. R.; Mitchell, D. A.; Morales, M. F.; Morgan, E.; Morgan, J.; Oberoi, D.; Offringa, A.; Ord, S. M.; Prabu, T.; Procopio, P.; Udaya Shankar, N.; Srivani, K. S.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Tingay, S. J.; Wayth, R. B.; Webster, R. L.; Williams, A.; Williams, C. L.; Wu, C.; Zheng, Q.; Bannister, K. W.; Chippendale, A. P.; Harvey-Smith, L.; Heywood, I.; Indermuehle, B.; Popping, A.; Sault, R. J.; Whiting, M. T.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) are a class of radio-loud (RL) active galactic nuclei (AGN) at high redshifts (z ≥ 1.7) that are characterised by their relative infrared faintness, resulting in enormous radio-to-infrared flux density ratios of up to several thousand. Aims: Because of their optical and infrared faintness, it is very challenging to study IFRS at these wavelengths. However, IFRS are relatively bright in the radio regime with 1.4 GHz flux densities of a few to a few tens of mJy. Therefore, the radio regime is the most promising wavelength regime in which to constrain their nature. We aim to test the hypothesis that IFRS are young AGN, particularly GHz peaked-spectrum (GPS) and compact steep-spectrum (CSS) sources that have a low frequency turnover. Methods: We use the rich radio data set available for the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey fields, covering the frequency range between 150 MHz and 34 GHz with up to 19 wavebands from different telescopes, and build radio spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for 34 IFRS. We then study the radio properties of this class of object with respect to turnover, spectral index, and behaviour towards higher frequencies. We also present the highest-frequency radio observations of an IFRS, observed with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer at 105 GHz, and model the multi-wavelength and radio-far-infrared SED of this source. Results: We find IFRS usually follow single power laws down to observed frequencies of around 150 MHz. Mostly, the radio SEDs are steep (α < -0.8; %), but we also find ultra-steep SEDs (α < -1.3; %). In particular, IFRS show statistically significantly steeper radio SEDs than the broader RL AGN population. Our analysis reveals that the fractions of GPS and CSS sources in the population of IFRS are consistent with the fractions in the broader RL AGN population. We find that at least % of IFRS contain young AGN, although the fraction might be significantly higher as suggested by

  10. Optical identifications of southern compact radio sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jauncey, David L.; Savage, Ann; Morabito, David D.; Preston, Robert A.; Nicolson, George C.

    1989-01-01

    Optical identifications are presented for 158 radio sources, mostly from the Southern Hemisphere, based on the coincidence between the position of the optical object and the compact milliarcsecond radio nucleus. Radio positions with an accuracy of typically 0.3 arcsec rms were measured from the observed delay and fringe rate of VLBI observations at 2.29 GHz on an Australia-to-South Africa baseline. Optical identifications and positions were measured from the UK Schmidt Telescope deep IIIa-J Southern Sky Survey plates, where available.

  11. Radio Source Morphology: 'nature or nuture'?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banfield, Julie; Emonts, Bjorn; O'Sullivan, Shane

    2012-10-01

    Radio sources, emanating from supermassive black-holes in the centres of active galaxies, display a large variety of morphological properties. It is a long-standing debate to what extent the differences between various types of radio sources are due to intrinsic properties of the central engine (`nature') or due to the properties of the interstellar medium that surrounds the central engine and host galaxy (`nurture'). Settling this `nature vs. nurture' debate for nearby radio galaxies, which can be studied in great detail, is vital for understanding the properties and evolution of radio galaxies throughout the Universe. We propose to observe the radio galaxy NGC 612 where previous observations have detected the presence of a large-scale HI bridge between the host galaxy and a nearby galaxy NGC 619. We request a total of 13 hrs in the 750m array-configuration to determine whether or not the 100 kpc-scale radio source morphology is directly related to the intergalactic distribution of neutral hydrogen gas.

  12. The faint radio AGN population in the spotlight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera Ruiz, Noelia; Middelberg, Enno

    2016-08-01

    To determine the AGN component in the faint radio population is fundamental in galaxy evolution studies. A relatively easy and direct way to determine which galaxies do have a radio-active AGN is a detection using the Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) technique. The goal of this project is to study with statistically relevant numbers the faint radio source population using VLBI observations. To achieve this goal, the project is divided into two parts. In the first part, we have observed ~3000 radio sources in the COSMOS extragalactic field with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) at 1.4GHz. We have detected 468 sources. In the second part, we have observed ~200 radio sources in the COSMOS field with extremely high sensitivity using the VLBA together with the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) at 1.4GHz, to explore an even fainter population in the flux density regime of tens of uJy. We are currently calibrating this data. In this overview I will present the survey design, observations, and calibration, along with some first results.

  13. 3C 236: Radio Source, Interrupted?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dea, Christopher P.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Baum, Stefi A.; Sparks, William B.; Martel, André R.; Allen, Mark G.; Macchetto, Ferdinando D.; Miley, George K.

    2001-04-01

    We present new Hubble Space Telescope Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph MAMA near-UV images and archival Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) V- and R-band images that reveal the presence of four star-forming regions in an arc along the edge of the dust lane in the giant (4 Mpc) radio galaxy 3C 236. Two of the star-forming regions are relatively young, with ages of order ~107 yr, while the other two are older, with ages of order ~108-109 yr, which is comparable to the estimated age of the giant radio source. Based on dynamical and spectral aging arguments, we suggest that the fuel supply to the active galactic nucleus (AGN) was interrupted for ~107 yr and has now been restored, resulting in the formation of the inner 2 kpc-scale radio source. This timescale is similar to that of the age of the youngest of the star-forming regions. We suggest that the transport of gas in the disk is nonsteady and that this produces the multiple episodes of star formation in the disk, as well as the multiple epochs of radio source activity. If the inner radio source and the youngest star-forming region are related by the same event of gas transport, the gas must be transported from the hundreds of parsec scale to the subparsec scale on a timescale of ~107 yr, which is similar to the dynamical timescale of the gas on the hundreds of parsec scale.

  14. 3C236: Radio Source, Interrupted?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dea, C. P.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Baum, S. A.; Sparks, W. B.

    We present highlights of the results of new HST STIS/MAMA near-UV images and archival WFPC2 V- and R-band images which reveal the presence of four apparently star forming regions in an arc along the edge of the dust lane in the giant (4 Mpc) radio galaxy 3C236. Two of the star forming regions are relatively young with ages of order ~107 yr, while the other two are older with ages of order ~108 -- 109 yr, which is comparable to the estimated age of the giant radio source. Based on dynamical and spectral aging arguments, we suggest that the fuel supply to the AGN was interrupted for ~107 yr and has now been restored, resulting in the formation of the inner 2 kpc scale radio source. This time scale is similar to that of the age of the youngest of the star forming regions. We suggest that the transport of gas in the disk is non-steady and that this produces both the multiple episodes of star formation in the disk as well as the multiple epochs of radio source activity. If the inner radio source and the youngest star forming region are related by the same event of gas transport, the gas must be transported from the hundreds of pc scale to the sub-parsec scale on a time scale of ~107 yr, which is similar to the dynamical timescale of the gas on the hundreds of pc scales.

  15. Radio frequency driven multicusp sources (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Ka-Ngo

    1998-02-01

    The radio frequency (rf)-driven multicusp source was originally developed for use in the superconducting super collider injector. The source can routinely provide 30 mA of H˜ beam at 0.1% duty factor. By adding a minute quantity of cesium to the discharge, H- beam current in excess of 100 mA and e/H˜1 has been achieved. The rf-driven H˜ source is being further developed for 6% duty factor operation to be used in the national spallation neutron source. Application of the rf-driven multicusp source has been extended to radioactive ion beam production, ion projection lithography, and compact neutron tubes.

  16. Spectrophotometric observations of Molonglo radio source identifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, H. E.; Burbidge, E. M.; Baldwin, J. A.; Tohline, J. E.; Wampler, E. J.; Hazard, C.; Murdoch, H. S.

    1977-01-01

    The paper presents spectrophotometric observations of 76 optical objects identified with radio sources from the MC2 and MC3 catalogs. Line intensities, equivalent widths, line widths, and optical spectral indices are presented for 44 objects confirmed as quasi-stellar objects. The statistical and physical properties of the Molonglo sample are briefly discussed.

  17. Spectrophotometric observations of Molonglo radio source identifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, H. E.; Burbidge, E. M.; Baldwin, J. A.; Tohline, J. E.; Wampler, E. J.; Hazard, C.; Murdoch, H. S.

    1977-01-01

    The paper presents spectrophotometric observations of 76 optical objects identified with radio sources from the MC2 and MC3 catalogs. Line intensities, equivalent widths, line widths, and optical spectral indices are presented for 44 objects confirmed as quasi-stellar objects. The statistical and physical properties of the Molonglo sample are briefly discussed.

  18. Nature of X-shaped radio sources .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lal, D. V.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Kraft, R. P.; Cheung, C. C.; Lobanov, A. P.; Zensus, J. A.; Bhatnagar, S.; Rao, A. P.

    The nature of X-shaped sources is a matter of considerable debate: it has even been proposed that they provide evidence for black hole mergers/spin reorientation, and therefore constrain the rate of strong gravitational wave events (Merritt & Ekers 2002). Based on morphological and spectral characteristics of these sources, currently a strong contender to explain the nature of these sources is the `alternative' model of Lal & Rao (2007), in which these sources consist of two pairs of jets, which are associated with two unresolved AGNs. Detailed morphological and spectral results on milliarcsecond-scales (mas) provide a crucial test of this model, and hence these sources are excellent candidates to study on mas; i.e., to detect the presence/absence of double nuclei/AGNs, signs of helical/disrupted jets, thereby, to investigate spatially resolved/unresolved binary AGN systems and providing clues to understanding the physics of merging of AGNs on mas. We conducted a systematic study of a large sample of known X-shaped, comparison FR II radio galaxies, and newly discovered X-shaped candidate sources using Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope and Very Large Array at several radio frequencies. In our new observations of `comparison' FR II radio galaxies we find that almost all of our targets show standard spectral steepening as a function of distance from the hotspot. However, one source, 3C 321, has a low-surface-brightness extension that shows a flatter spectral index than the high-surface-brightness hotspots/lobes, as found in `known' X-shaped sources.

  19. Pulsating Radio Sources near the Crab Nebula.

    PubMed

    Staelin, D H; Reifenstein, E C

    1968-12-27

    Two new pulsating radio sources, designated NP 0527 and NP 0532, were found near the Crab Nebula and could be coincident with it. Both sources are sporadic, and no periodicities are evident. The pulse dispersions indicate that 1.58 +/- 0.03 and 1.74 +/- 0.02 x 10(20) electrons per square centimeter lie in the direction of NP 0527 and NP 0532, respectively.

  20. Radio Implementation of a Testbed For Cognitive Radio Source Localization Using USRPS and GNU Radio

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    received- signal -strength-based (CRSSB) localization schemes are proposed to overcome the challenge of identifying and locating a cognitive radio over time...14. SUBJECT TERMS cognitive radio, source localization, extended semi range-based localization, cooperative received signal strength based...extended semi-range-based (ESRB) and cooperative-received- signal -strength-based (CRSSB) localization schemes are proposed to overcome the challenge of

  1. Source characteristics of Jovian hectometric radio emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiner, M. J.; Fainberg, J.; Stone, R. G.

    1993-01-01

    Direct confirmation that low-frequency Jovian hectometric (HOM) radio emissions centered near 0 deg central meridian longitude consist of distinct, oppositely polarized northern and southern beams has been achieved using data from the Unified Radio and Plasma Wave (URAP) experiment on the Ulysses spacecraft during the Ulysses-Jupiter encounter in early February 1992. Distinct northern and southern beams were observed in the frequency range from approximately 300 kHz to 1 MHz for at least eight Jovian rotations during the Ulysses inbound pass at distances from 100 to 40 R(sub j). The radiation from the two magnetic hemispheres was measured from different Jovigraphic longitudes and magnetic (or centrifugal) latitudes. Observed temporal variations in the radio intensities, with time scales on the order of 30 min, may result either from longitudinal variations of the HOM sources or from longitudinal density variations in the Io plasma torus. Using the URAP direction-finding capabilities and assuming a tilted dipole planetary magnetic field model, the three-dimensional HOM source locations, the L shell through these source locations, and the beam opening angles were independently deduced. The HOM sources were found to originate at approximately 3 R(sub j) and on low L shells (L approximately 4 to 6), with beam opening angles ranging from 10 to 50 deg.

  2. Radio frequency multicusp ion source development (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, K. N.

    1996-03-01

    The radio-frequency (rf) driven multicusp source was originally developed for use in the Superconducting Super Collider injector. It has been demonstrated that the source can meet the H- beam current and emittance requirements for this application. By employing a porcelain-coated antenna, a clean plasma discharge with very long-life operation can be achieved. Today, the rf source is used to generate both positive and negative hydrogen ion beams and has been tested in various particle accelerator laboratories throughout the world. Applications of this ion source have been extended to other fields such as ion beam lithography, oil-well logging, ion implantation, accelerator mass spectrometry and medical therapy machines. This paper summarizes the latest rf ion source technology and development at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  3. Radio frequency multicusp ion source development (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, K.N.

    1996-03-01

    The radio-frequency (rf) driven multicusp source was originally developed for use in the Superconducting Super Collider injector. It has been demonstrated that the source can meet the H{sup {minus}} beam current and emittance requirements for this application. By employing a porcelain-coated antenna, a clean plasma discharge with very long-life operation can be achieved. Today, the rf source is used to generate both positive and negative hydrogen ion beams and has been tested in various particle accelerator laboratories throughout the world. Applications of this ion source have been extended to other fields such as ion beam lithography, oil-well logging, ion implantation, accelerator mass spectrometry and medical therapy machines. This paper summarizes the latest rf ion source technology and development at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. BROADBAND RADIO POLARIMETRY AND FARADAY ROTATION OF 563 EXTRAGALACTIC RADIO SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, C. S.; Gaensler, B. M.; Feain, I. J.; Franzen, T. M. O.

    2015-12-10

    We present a broadband spectropolarimetric survey of 563 discrete, mostly unresolved radio sources between 1.3 and 2.0 GHz using data taken with the Australia Telescope Compact Array. We have used rotation-measure synthesis to identify Faraday-complex polarized sources, those objects whose frequency-dependent polarization behavior indicates the presence of material possessing complicated magnetoionic structure along the line of sight (LOS). For sources classified as Faraday-complex, we have analyzed a number of their radio and multiwavelength properties to determine whether they differ from Faraday-simple polarized sources (sources for which LOS magnetoionic structures are comparatively simple) in these properties. We use this information to constrain the physical nature of the magnetoionic structures responsible for generating the observed complexity. We detect Faraday complexity in 12% of polarized sources at ∼1′ resolution, but we demonstrate that underlying signal-to-noise limitations mean the true percentage is likely to be significantly higher in the polarized radio source population. We find that the properties of Faraday-complex objects are diverse, but that complexity is most often associated with depolarization of extended radio sources possessing a relatively steep total intensity spectrum. We find an association between Faraday complexity and LOS structure in the Galactic interstellar medium (ISM) and claim that a significant proportion of the Faraday complexity we observe may be generated at interfaces of the ISM associated with ionization fronts near neutral hydrogen structures. Galaxy cluster environments and internally generated Faraday complexity provide possible alternative explanations in some cases.

  5. Broadband Radio Polarimetry and Faraday Rotation of 563 Extragalactic Radio Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, C. S.; Gaensler, B. M.; Feain, I. J.; Franzen, T. M. O.

    2015-12-01

    We present a broadband spectropolarimetric survey of 563 discrete, mostly unresolved radio sources between 1.3 and 2.0 GHz using data taken with the Australia Telescope Compact Array. We have used rotation-measure synthesis to identify Faraday-complex polarized sources, those objects whose frequency-dependent polarization behavior indicates the presence of material possessing complicated magnetoionic structure along the line of sight (LOS). For sources classified as Faraday-complex, we have analyzed a number of their radio and multiwavelength properties to determine whether they differ from Faraday-simple polarized sources (sources for which LOS magnetoionic structures are comparatively simple) in these properties. We use this information to constrain the physical nature of the magnetoionic structures responsible for generating the observed complexity. We detect Faraday complexity in 12% of polarized sources at ∼1‧ resolution, but we demonstrate that underlying signal-to-noise limitations mean the true percentage is likely to be significantly higher in the polarized radio source population. We find that the properties of Faraday-complex objects are diverse, but that complexity is most often associated with depolarization of extended radio sources possessing a relatively steep total intensity spectrum. We find an association between Faraday complexity and LOS structure in the Galactic interstellar medium (ISM) and claim that a significant proportion of the Faraday complexity we observe may be generated at interfaces of the ISM associated with ionization fronts near neutral hydrogen structures. Galaxy cluster environments and internally generated Faraday complexity provide possible alternative explanations in some cases.

  6. Clustering of Radio Sources at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magliocchetti, M.; Maddox, S. J.; Lahav, O.; Wall, J. V.

    1998-12-01

    We investigate the large-scale clustering of radio sources in the FIRST 1.4-GHz survey by analysing their distribution function. We estimate the angular two-point correlation function w(theta), the variance Psi_2, and skewness Psi_3 of the distribution; both w(theta) and Psi_2 show power-law behaviour with an amplitude corresponding a spatial correlation length of r_0 ~10 h^{-1}Mpc. We detect significant skewness in the distribution, the first such detection in radio surveys, consistent with the non-linear gravitational growth of perturbations from primordial Gaussian initial conditions. We also investigate how different theoretical predictions for the normalised variance sigma^2 can match our measurements.

  7. The FIRST radio survey: Panchromatic properties of FIRST radio sources identified in the Boötes and Cetus fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Bouchefry, K.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the availability of multi-wavelength optical/infrared information of FIRST (Faint Images of the Radio Sky at 20 cm) radio sources counterparts over ˜9.2 deg2 in the Boötes field and ˜2.4 deg2 in the Cetus field is exploited to infer the physical properties of the faint radio population. The radio sources optically identified have been divided into resolved galaxies and stellar-like objects finding that the faint radio population is mainly composed of early-type galaxies with very red colour (Bw-R˜ 4.6). A total number of 57 counterparts of FIRST radio sources have extremely red colour (R-K≥ 5). Photometric redshift from {Hyperz} implies that the Extremely Red Objects (EROs) counterparts to FIRST radio sources are mostly located in the range z=0.7-2 , with the bulk of the population at z˜ 1. Taking advantage of the near infrared imaging with FLAMEX (FLAMINGOS Extragalactic Infrared Survey), the EROs counterparts to FIRST radio sources are separated into passively-evolving and dusty star-forming galaxies using their {RJK} colours; the relatively blue J-K of these galaxies suggest that most are old elliptical galaxies (18/25) rather than dusty starburst galaxies (7/25). A total of 15 Distant Red Galaxy (DRGs) have been identified as counterparts to FIRST radio sources in the Cetus field and 3 DRGs in the Boötes field with J-K>2.3.

  8. Compact radio sources in luminous infrared galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parra, Rodrigo

    2007-08-01

    Radio interferometry is an observational technique of high sensitivity and incomparably high spatial resolution. Moreover, because radio waves can freely propagate through interstellar dust and gas, it allows the study of regions of the universe completely obscured at other wavelengths. This thesis reports the observational and theoretical results of my research during the past four years which are mostly based on interferometric radio data. The COLA sample is an infrared selected sample of active star forming galaxies. We conducted 6 cm VLA and VLBI snapshot observations of the northern half of this sample. The radio emission seen at VLA scales is consistent with being powered by star formation activity because it follows the far infrared to radio correlation. We detect 22% of the sample sources in our VLBI snapshots. Based on luminosity arguments, we argue that these sub-parsec VLBI sources are powered by AGN activity. Furthermore, we find that VLBI detections are preferentially found in sources whose VLA scale structures have the highest peak brightnesses suggesting a strong correlation between compact starburst and AGN activity. This observational result is consistent with the theoretical picture of an Eddington-limited nuclear starburst acting as the last valve in the pipeline transporting the gas from kiloparsec scales onto the accretion disc of a buried AGN. Arp 220 is the archetypical ultra luminous infrared galaxy. For many years this source has been known to harbour a compact (~100 pc) cluster of unresolved 18 cm bright sources believed to be bright core collapse supernovae. Using multiwavelength VLBI observations, we obtained for the first time radio spectra for 18 of these sources. We find that over a half of them have spectra consistent with young supernovae. The rest can be better explained as older supernova remnants interacting with the high density starburst ISM. This finding allowed us to constrain the number of possible scenarios for the Arp 220

  9. Radio source stability and geodetic VLBI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gattano, César; Lambert, Sébastien

    2016-04-01

    The observation of the Earth's rotation by VLBI is conditioned by the celestial reference frame that should be as stable as possible. The selection of the most stable sources therefore constitutes a major step in the construction of a celestial reference frame since their stability prevents time deformation of the axes with time. The assessment of astrometric stability, i.e., the time stability the radiocenter location as detected by the VLBI, is one of the methods that were used in previous ICRF realizations (works of M. Feissel-Vernier and ICRF2). We think the same method should be addressed for the construction of the ICRF3. We analyzed the radio source time series obtained from the analysis of the data from the permanent geodetic VLBI monitoring program of the IVS. We used several utils based on basic statistics and more advanced methods (Allan variance) in order to provide a preliminary classification of sources.

  10. Artificial calibration source for ALMA radio interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiuchi, Hitoshi; Hills, Richard; Whyborn, Nicholas D.; Asayama, Shinichiro; Sakamoto, Seiichi; Iguchi, Satoru; Corder, Stuartt A.

    2016-07-01

    The ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array) radio interferometer has some different types of antennas which have a variation of gain and leakages across the primary beam of an individual antenna. We have been developing an artificial calibration source which is used for compensation of individual difference of antennas. In a high-frequency antenna, using astronomical sources to do calibration measurement would be extremely time consuming, whereas with the artificial calibration source becomes a realistic possibility. Photonic techniques are considered to be superior to conventional techniques based on electronic devices in terms of wide bandwidth and high-frequency signals. Conversion from an optical signal to a millimeter/sub-millimeter wave signal is done by a photo-mixer.

  11. Unified Models and Power Sources in Radio-Loud AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonucci, Robert; Ogle, Patrick; Whysong, David

    2004-09-01

    We propose a simple observational program that will test the unification hypothesis for quasars and FR-II radio galaxies, constrain models of the dusty torus, and determine if the AGN are powered by thermal accretion or a non-thermal (probably rotational) mechanism. Spitzer is uniquely capable of carrying out this investigation with its unprecedented sensitivity. It has been shown directly by optical spectropolarimetry that many of the most powerful FR-II radio galaxies contain quasars hidden by opaque dusty tori; there is substantial statistical evidence that this is true for most or all of them. At somewhat lower powers the situation is not yet clear. Our work and that of others suggests that only a subset of radio galaxies have hidden quasars. We seek to establish this one way or the other and to determine which radio galaxies do or do not have hidden quasars. Spitzer data will also clarify whether statistical anomolies associated with the identification of radio galaxies with quasars can be understood as effects of a large population of physically smaller radio galaxies that lack hidden quasars. This would limit and define the applicability of the Unified Model. For theory, it would determine whether there are black-hole powered sources with just kinetic luminosity and without significant radiative accretion luminosity . Such non-thermal AGN would then have to be attributed to tapping rotational energy. We will also examine and compare the other observational properties of the two types of radio galaxies (hidden quasar or not), providing insight into the physics of the two types of power (accretion and rotation).

  12. Are the infrared-faint radio sources pulsars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, A. D.; Keith, M.; Hobbs, G.; Norris, R. P.; Mao, M. Y.; Middelberg, E.

    2011-07-01

    Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) are objects which are strong at radio wavelengths but undetected in sensitive Spitzer observations at infrared wavelengths. Their nature is uncertain and most have not yet been associated with any known astrophysical object. One possibility is that they are radio pulsars. To test this hypothesis we undertook observations of 16 of these sources with the Parkes Radio Telescope. Our results limit the radio emission to a pulsed flux density of less than 0.21 mJy (assuming a 50 per cent duty cycle). This is well below the flux density of the IFRS. We therefore conclude that these IFRS are not radio pulsars.

  13. Pilot study of the radio-emitting AGN population: the emerging new class of FR 0 radio-galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldi, Ranieri D.; Capetti, Alessandro; Giovannini, Gabriele

    2015-04-01

    We present the results of a pilot JVLA project aimed at studying the bulk of the radio-emitting AGN population, that was unveiled by the NVSS/FIRST and SDSS surveys. The key questions are related to the origin of their radio-emission and to its connection with the properties of their hosts. We obtained A-array observations at the JVLA at 1.4, 4.5, and 7.5 GHz for 12 sources, a small but representative subsample. The radio maps reveal compact unresolved or only slightly resolved radio structures on a scale of 1-3 kpc, with the one exception of a hybrid FR I/FR II source extended over ~40 kpc. Thanks to either the new high-resolution maps or to the radio spectra, we isolated the radio core component in most of them. We split the sample into two groups. Four sources have low black hole (BH) masses (mostly ~107 M⊙) and are hosted by blue galaxies, often showing evidence of a contamination from star formation to their radio emission, and are associated with radio-quiet (RQ) AGN. The second group consists in seven radio-loud (RL) AGN, which are located in red massive (~1011 M⊙) early-type galaxies, have high BH masses (≳108 M⊙), and are spectroscopically classified as low excitation galaxies (LEG). These are all characteristics typical of FR I radio galaxies. They also lie on the correlation between radio core power and [O III] line luminosity defined by FR Is. However, they are more core-dominated (by a factor of ~30) than FR Is and show a deficit of extended radio emission. We dub these sources "FR 0" to emphasize their lack of prominent extended radio emission, which is their single distinguishing feature with respect to FR Is. The differences in radio properties between FR 0s and FR Is might be ascribed to an evolutionary effect, with the FR 0 sources undergoing rapid intermittency that prevents the growth of large-scale structures. However, this contrasts with the scenario in which low-luminosity radio-galaxies are fed by continuous accretion of gas from

  14. High-energy sources at low radio frequency: the Murchison Widefield Array view of Fermi blazars

    DOE PAGES

    Giroletti, M.; Massaro, F.; D’Abrusco, R.; ...

    2016-04-01

    Low-frequency radio arrays are opening a new window for the study of the sky, both to study new phenomena and to better characterize known source classes. Being flat-spectrum sources, blazars are so far poorly studied at low radio frequencies. In this paper, we characterize the spectral properties of the blazar population at low radio frequency, compare the radio and high-energy properties of the gamma-ray blazar population, and search for radio counterparts of unidentified gamma-ray sources. We cross-correlated the 6100 deg2 Murchison Widefield Array Commissioning Survey catalogue with the Roma blazar catalogue, the third catalogue of active galactic nuclei detected bymore » Fermi-LAT, and the unidentified members of the entire third catalogue of gamma-ray sources detected by Fermi-LAT. When available, we also added high-frequency radio data from the Australia Telescope 20 GHz catalogue. We find low-frequency counterparts for 186 out of 517 (36%) blazars, 79 out of 174 (45%) gamma-ray blazars, and 8 out of 73 (11%) gamma-ray blazar candidates. The mean low-frequency (120–180 MHz) blazar spectral index is (αlow) = 0.57 ± 0.02: blazar spectra are flatter than the rest of the population of low-frequency sources, but are steeper than at ~GHz frequencies. Low-frequency radio flux density and gamma-ray energy flux display a mildly significant and broadly scattered correlation. Ten unidentified gamma-ray sources have a (probably fortuitous) positional match with low radio frequency sources. Low-frequency radio astronomy provides important information about sources with a flat radio spectrum and high energy. However, the relatively low sensitivity of the present surveys still misses a significant fraction of these objects. Finally, upcoming deeper surveys, such as the GaLactic and Extragalactic All-Sky MWA (GLEAM) survey, will provide further insight into this population.« less

  15. Tracing Large-Scale Structure with Radio Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, S. N.

    2015-02-01

    predictions, however, suggesting a more massive population of galaxies than expected, either due to the relative proportions of different radio sources, or a greater typical halo mass for the high-redshift sources. Finally, the reliance on a model redshift distribution to reach to higher redshifts is removed, as the angular cross-correlation function is used with deep VLA data (S1:4 > 90 _Jy) and optical/IR data from VIDEO/CFHTLS (Ks < 23:5) over 1 square degree. With high-quality photometric redshifts up to z _ 4, and a high signal-to-noise clustering measurement (due to the _100,000 Ks-selected galaxies), I am able to find the bias of a matched sample of only 766 radio sources (as well as of v vi the VIDEO sources), divided into 4 redshift bins reaching a median bias at z ' 2:15. Again, at high redshift, the measured bias appears to exceed the prediction made from the SKADS simulations. Applying luminosity cuts to the radio sample at L > 1023 WHz and higher (removing any non-AGN sources), I find a bias of 8-10 at z _ 1:5, considerably higher than for the full sample, and consistent with the more numerous FRI AGN having similar mass to the FRIIs (M _ 10^14 M_), contrary to the assumptions made in the SKADS simulations. Applying this adjustment to the model bias produces a better fit to the observations for the FIRST radio sources cross-matched with GAMA/SDSS/UKIDSS, as well as for the high-redshift radio sources in VIDEO. Therefore, I have shown that we require a more robust model of the evolution of AGN, and their relation to the underlying dark matter distribution. In particular, understanding these quantities for the abundant FRI population is crucial if we are to use such sources to probe the cosmological model as has been suggested by a number of authors (e.g. Raccanelli et al., 2012; Camera et al., 2012; Ferramacho et al., 2014).

  16. Comparison of VLBI radio-core and X-ray flux densities of extragalactic radio sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloom, Steven D.; Marscher, Alan P.

    1991-01-01

    The relation between compact radio core and X-ray emission in extragalactic radio sources, suggested by Worral et al. (1987) and Kembhavi et al. (1986), is investigated by comparing the X-ray flux densities observed in 56 extragalactic radio sources with the Einstein Observatory with the compact radio-core flux densities derived from published VLBI maps for these radio sources. It was found that the radio to X-ray spectral index distribution had a small dispersion, whereas the log-log plot of the flux densities showed no correlation. This implies that the basic level of X-ray emission is determined by the radio-core emission, but that the exact value depends on other parameters.

  17. GPS/CSS radio sources and their relation to other AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadler, E. M.

    2016-02-01

    We are entering a new era of sensitive, large-area and multi-frequency radio surveys that will allow us to identify Gigahertz-Peaked Spectrum (GPS) and Compact Steep Spectrum (CSS) radio sources over a wide range in radio luminosity and study them within the context of the overall radio-source populations to which they belong. ``Classical'' GPS/CSS objects are extremely luminous radio sources with a compact double morphology, commonly thought to represent the earliest stages in the life cycle of powerful radio galaxies (e.g. O'Dea 1998). It is now becoming easier to identify GPS/CSS candidates with much lower radio luminosity - particularly in the nearby Universe. These less powerful objects, with typical 1.4 GHz radio luminosities of 1023 to 1025 W Hz-1, include peaked-spectrum radio sources with a core-jet morphology on parsec scales as well as high-frequency GPS-like peaked components embedded within lower-frequency extended emission. In the latter case, the presence of a young GPS component may not be evident from low-frequency data alone. Many radio galaxies in the local Universe have a compact (FR-0) morphology, and appear to lack extended radio emission on kiloparsec scales. The relationship of these FR-0 objects to the classical GPS/CSS radio sources remains unclear - some of them may represent short-lived episodes of AGN activity that will not lead to an extended FR-1 or FR-2 radio galaxy. Future wide-band radio surveys will shed more light on this - such surveys should ideally be coordinated to cover the full frequency range from 100 MHz to 100 GHz in order to sample all stages of GPS/CSS evolution in an unbiased way.

  18. The Radio/Optical Morphology of Micro-Jansky Radio Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomalont, E. B.; Kellermann, K. I.; Cowie, L. L.; Barger, A. J.

    2002-12-01

    We have observed the SSA13 field (RA=13 23, DEC=42 38) using the VLA. At 1.4 GHz the rms noise is 5.0 μ Jy with resolution 1.8'', at 8.4 GHz the rms noise is 1.5 μ Jy with a resolution of 3.0''. Optical images at R-band and Z-band with 1.1'' seeing were obtained from the Subaru telescope. Over 900 radio sources were detected (528 in the complete sample) and the optical/radio registration <0.2'' permitted identification of >95% of the radio sources. The radio/optical morphological properties of the sources are sorted into a small number of classifications and these properties are compared. Our main conclusions are: (1) About half of the radio sources are associated with a relatively isolated galaxy; most other identifications are with binary systems. (2) Only 7 extended AGN (>5'') are found. (3) At Z-band, 8% of the sources are fainter than 26 mag. (4) The slope of the differential radio count is -2.3 with a density of 2.0 sources (amin)-2 with a flux density >27.5 μ Jy. (5) The average radio angular size is 1.35'', but very few sources are larger than 5''. (6) The radio orientation is often correlated with the galaxy identification or binary system orientation. Two correlations in these data suggest that most sources are associated with distant galaxies dominated by starburst activity. (1) The radio sources with angular size >1'' show an Infrared/radio correlation, whereas smaller-diameter sources do not; and (2) The radio spectral index steepens for sources weak then 100 μ Jy, suggesting an even lower proportion of AGN at the fainter observed levels.

  19. The radio sources CTA 21 and OF+247: The hot spots of radio galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artyukh, V. S.; Tyul'bashev, S. A.; Chernikov, P. A.

    2013-06-01

    The physical conditions in the radio sources CTA 21 and OF+247 are studied assuming that the low-frequency spectral turnovers are due to synchrotron self-absorption. The physical parameters of the radio sources are estimated using a technique based on a nonuniform synchrotron source model. It is shown that the magnetic-field distributions in the dominant compact components of these radio sources are strongly inhomogeneous. The magnetic fields at the center of the sources are B ˜ 10-1 G, and the fields are two to three orders of magnitude weaker at the periphery. The magnetic field averaged over the compact component is B ˜ 10-3 G, and the density of relativistic electrons is n e ˜ 10-3 cm-3. Assuming that there is equipartition of the energies of the magnetic field and relativistic particles, averaged over the source, < E H > = < E e > ˜ 10-7-10-6 erg cm-3. The energy density of the magnetic field exceeds that of the relativistic electrons at the centers of the radio sources. The derived parameters of CTA 21 and OF+247 are close to those of the hot spots in the radio galaxy Cygnus A. On this basis, it is suggested that CTA 21 and OF+247 are radio galaxies at an early stage of their evolution, when the hot spots (dominant compact radio components) have appeared, and the radio lobes (weak extended components) are still being formed.

  20. Flat spectrum multicomponent radio sources - Cosmic conspiracy or geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Pacholczyk, A.G.

    1981-01-01

    Compact radio sources which do not exhibit currently large flux density variations, are often characterized by spectra nearly flat over a wide range of wavelengths. Cotton et al. (1980) recently reported the results of the VLBI multifrequency interferometric and total flux density observations of a typical representative of the flat spectrum class of sources, a BL Lacertae object PKS 0735+178. If 0735+178 is indeed representative of flat spectrum sources, then some mechanism causing the component production and energy loss to be balanced must be operative among this type of radio source to maintain a flat spectrum over at least certain periods of time. This effect is referred to as 'cosmic conspiracy'. It is suggested that the flatness of spectra of this class of radio sources may be related to a specific symmetry in the radio structure, namely, to a predominantly linear, one-dimensional evolution of radio radiating material, rather than spherical, three-dimensional evolution.

  1. What are the gigahertz peaked-spectrum radio sources?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dea, C. P.; Baum, S. A.; Stanghellini, C.

    1991-01-01

    The astrophysical implications of recent radio and optical observations of the powerful compact gigahertz peaked-spectrum (GPS) radio sources are discussed. Some tentative conclusions are presented and a scenario based on the existing data is suggested. It is argued that the spectrum is due to synchrotron self-absorption, which is assumed as the basis for the present inferences from the radio spectral shape. The finding that some GPS sources have a very narrow spectral shape is consistent with the hypothesis that there is a narrow range of size scales which dominate the radio luminosity. The highly inverted LF radio spectrum is consistent with the hypothesis that the radio source is tightly confined. The conclusion that the radio polarization of these sources is systematically low is consistent either with a very tangled magnetic field or very large Faraday rotation measures. It is suggested that GPS radio sources are formed when the radio plasma is confined on the scale of the narrow-line region by an unusually dense and clumpy ISM. The existing optical spectroscopic results are also consistent with the existence of a dense and dusty nuclear ISM.

  2. Angular structure of extragalactic radio sources at low frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brazhenko, A. I.; Koshovy, V. V.; Lozynsky, A. R.; Megn, A. V.; Rashkovsky, S. L.; Shepelev, V. A.

    2005-06-01

    The low frequency VLBI of URAN network operated in the decameter range has been designed in Ukraine to study cosmic radio sources. The network consists of five radio telescopes making up of four interferometers with baselines range from 42 to 913 km with UTR-2 radio telescope operated as the main antenna of the interferometers. The angular resolution of the network amount to 1 arcsec at the highest frequency of the range, and its sensitivity is about 20 Jy. Regular observations of galactic and extragalactic radio sources are performed with the network. Some results of studies are presented here.

  3. Radio morphology and parent population of X-ray selected BL Lacertae objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laurent-Muehleisen, S. A.; Kollgaard, R. I.; Moellenbrock, G. A.; Feigelson, E. D.

    1993-01-01

    High-dynamic range (typically 1700:1) radio maps of 15 X-ray BL Lac (XBL) objects from the HEAO-1 Large Area Sky Survey are presented. Morphological characteristics of these sources are compared with Fanaroff-Riley (FR) class I radio galaxies in the context of unified schemes, with reference to one-sided kiloparsec-scale emission. Evidence that cluster membership of XBLs is significantly higher than previously thought is also presented. It is shown that the extended radio powers, X-ray emission, core-to-lobe ratios, and linear sizes of the radio selected BL Lac (RBL) and XBL populations are consistent with an FR I radio galaxy parent population. A source list and VLA observing log and map parameters are provided.

  4. Radio morphology and parent population of X-ray selected BL Lacertae objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laurent-Muehleisen, S. A.; Kollgaard, R. I.; Moellenbrock, G. A.; Feigelson, E. D.

    1993-01-01

    High-dynamic range (typically 1700:1) radio maps of 15 X-ray BL Lac (XBL) objects from the HEAO-1 Large Area Sky Survey are presented. Morphological characteristics of these sources are compared with Fanaroff-Riley (FR) class I radio galaxies in the context of unified schemes, with reference to one-sided kiloparsec-scale emission. Evidence that cluster membership of XBLs is significantly higher than previously thought is also presented. It is shown that the extended radio powers, X-ray emission, core-to-lobe ratios, and linear sizes of the radio selected BL Lac (RBL) and XBL populations are consistent with an FR I radio galaxy parent population. A source list and VLA observing log and map parameters are provided.

  5. How Fred Hoyle Reconciled Radio Source Counts and the Steady State Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekers, Ron

    2012-09-01

    In 1969 Fred Hoyle invited me to his Institute of Theoretical Astronomy (IOTA) in Cambridge to work with him on the interpretation of the radio source counts. This was a period of extreme tension with Ryle just across the road using the steep slope of the radio source counts to argue that the radio source population was evolving and Hoyle maintaining that the counts were consistent with the steady state cosmology. Both of these great men had made some correct deductions but they had also both made mistakes. The universe was evolving, but the source counts alone could tell us very little about cosmology. I will try to give some indication of the atmosphere and the issues at the time and look at what we can learn from this saga. I will conclude by briefly summarising the exponential growth of the size of the radio source counts since the early days and ask whether our understanding has grown at the same rate.

  6. ULTRA STEEP SPECTRUM RADIO SOURCES IN THE LOCKMAN HOLE: SERVS IDENTIFICATIONS AND REDSHIFT DISTRIBUTION AT THE FAINTEST RADIO FLUXES

    SciTech Connect

    Afonso, J.; Bizzocchi, L.; Grossi, M.; Messias, H.; Fernandes, C. A. C.; Ibar, E.; Ivison, R. J.; Simpson, C.; Chapman, S.; Gonzalez-Solares, E.; Jarvis, M. J.; Rottgering, H.; Norris, R. P.; Dunlop, J.; Best, P.; Pforr, J.; Vaccari, M.; Seymour, N.; Farrah, D.; Huang, J.-S.; and others

    2011-12-20

    Ultra steep spectrum (USS) radio sources have been successfully used to select powerful radio sources at high redshifts (z {approx}> 2). Typically restricted to large-sky surveys and relatively bright radio flux densities, it has gradually become possible to extend the USS search to sub-mJy levels, thanks to the recent appearance of sensitive low-frequency radio facilities. Here a first detailed analysis of the nature of the faintest USS sources is presented. By using Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope and Very Large Array radio observations of the Lockman Hole at 610 MHz and 1.4 GHz, a sample of 58 USS sources, with 610 MHz integrated fluxes above 100 {mu}Jy, is assembled. Deep infrared data at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m from the Spitzer Extragalactic Representative Volume Survey (SERVS) are used to reliably identify counterparts for 48 (83%) of these sources, showing an average total magnitude of [3.6]{sub AB} = 19.8 mag. Spectroscopic redshifts for 14 USS sources, together with photometric redshift estimates, improved by the use of the deep SERVS data, for a further 19 objects, show redshifts ranging from z = 0.1 to z = 2.8, peaking at z {approx} 0.6 and tailing off at high redshifts. The remaining 25 USS sources, with no redshift estimate, include the faintest [3.6] magnitudes, with 10 sources undetected at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m (typically [3.6] {approx}> 22-23 mag from local measurements), which suggests the likely existence of higher redshifts among the sub-mJy USS population. The comparison with the Square Kilometre Array Design Studies Simulated Skies models indicates that Fanaroff-Riley type I radio sources and radio-quiet active galactic nuclei may constitute the bulk of the faintest USS population, and raises the possibility that the high efficiency of the USS technique for the selection of high-redshift sources remains even at the sub-mJy level.

  7. H- radio frequency source development at the Spallation Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Welton, Robert F; Pennisi, Terry R; Roseberry, Ron T; Stockli, Martin P

    2012-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) now routinely operates nearly 1 MW of beam power on target with a highly persistent {approx}38 mA peak current in the linac and an availability of {approx}90%. H{sup -} beam pulses ({approx}1 ms, 60 Hz) are produced by a Cs-enhanced, multicusp ion source closely coupled with an electrostatic low energy beam transport (LEBT), which focuses the 65 kV beam into a radio frequency quadrupole accelerator. The source plasma is generated by RF excitation (2 MHz, {approx}60 kW) of a copper antenna that has been encased with a thickness of {approx}0.7 mm of porcelain enamel and immersed into the plasma chamber. The ion source and LEBT normally have a combined availability of {approx}99%. Recent increases in duty-factor and RF power have made antenna failures a leading cause of downtime. This report first identifies the physical mechanism of antenna failure from a statistical inspection of {approx}75 antennas which ran at the SNS, scanning electron microscopy studies of antenna surface, and cross sectional cuts and analysis of calorimetric heating measurements. Failure mitigation efforts are then described which include modifying the antenna geometry and our acceptance/installation criteria. Progress and status of the development of the SNS external antenna source, a long-term solution to the internal antenna problem, are then discussed. Currently, this source is capable of delivering comparable beam currents to the baseline source to the SNS and, an earlier version, has briefly demonstrated unanalyzed currents up to {approx}100 mA (1 ms, 60 Hz) on the test stand. In particular, this paper discusses plasma ignition (dc and RF plasma guns), antenna reliability, magnet overheating, and insufficient beam persistence.

  8. H- radio frequency source development at the Spallation Neutron Source.

    PubMed

    Welton, R F; Dudnikov, V G; Gawne, K R; Han, B X; Murray, S N; Pennisi, T R; Roseberry, R T; Santana, M; Stockli, M P; Turvey, M W

    2012-02-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) now routinely operates nearly 1 MW of beam power on target with a highly persistent ∼38 mA peak current in the linac and an availability of ∼90%. H(-) beam pulses (∼1 ms, 60 Hz) are produced by a Cs-enhanced, multicusp ion source closely coupled with an electrostatic low energy beam transport (LEBT), which focuses the 65 kV beam into a radio frequency quadrupole accelerator. The source plasma is generated by RF excitation (2 MHz, ∼60 kW) of a copper antenna that has been encased with a thickness of ∼0.7 mm of porcelain enamel and immersed into the plasma chamber. The ion source and LEBT normally have a combined availability of ∼99%. Recent increases in duty-factor and RF power have made antenna failures a leading cause of downtime. This report first identifies the physical mechanism of antenna failure from a statistical inspection of ∼75 antennas which ran at the SNS, scanning electron microscopy studies of antenna surface, and cross sectional cuts and analysis of calorimetric heating measurements. Failure mitigation efforts are then described which include modifying the antenna geometry and our acceptance∕installation criteria. Progress and status of the development of the SNS external antenna source, a long-term solution to the internal antenna problem, are then discussed. Currently, this source is capable of delivering comparable beam currents to the baseline source to the SNS and, an earlier version, has briefly demonstrated unanalyzed currents up to ∼100 mA (1 ms, 60 Hz) on the test stand. In particular, this paper discusses plasma ignition (dc and RF plasma guns), antenna reliability, magnet overheating, and insufficient beam persistence.

  9. Radio observations in the fields of COS-B gamma ray sources. IV - First quadrant sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ozel, M. E.; Schlickeiser, R.; Sieber, W.; Younis, S.

    1988-01-01

    The field of five COS-B gamma-ray sources in the first galactic quadrant have been mapped using the Effelsberg radio telescope at several frequencies. Candidate objects as potential radio counterparts of gamma-ray sources are discussed in the light of current observations; however, mostly being due to the crowded nature of the radio fields, no clear identification has been possible.

  10. Radio observations in the fields of COS-B gamma ray sources. IV - First quadrant sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ozel, M. E.; Schlickeiser, R.; Sieber, W.; Younis, S.

    1988-01-01

    The field of five COS-B gamma-ray sources in the first galactic quadrant have been mapped using the Effelsberg radio telescope at several frequencies. Candidate objects as potential radio counterparts of gamma-ray sources are discussed in the light of current observations; however, mostly being due to the crowded nature of the radio fields, no clear identification has been possible.

  11. Plasma and radio waves from Neptune: Source mechamisms and propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menietti, J. Douglas

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to conduct a comprehensive investigation of the radio wave emission observed by the planetary radio astronomy (PRA) instrument on board Voyager 2 as it flew by Neptune. The study has included data analysis, theoretical and numerical calculations, and ray tracing to determine the possible source mechanisms and locations of the radiation, including the narrowband bursty and smooth components of the Neptune radio emission.

  12. TWO POPULATIONS OF GAMMA-RAY BURST RADIO AFTERGLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Hancock, P. J.; Gaensler, B. M.; Murphy, T.

    2013-10-20

    The detection rate of gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows is ∼30% at radio wavelengths, much lower than in the X-ray (∼95%) or optical (∼70%) bands. The cause of this low radio detection rate has previously been attributed to limited observing sensitivity. We use visibility stacking to test this idea, and conclude that the low detection rate is instead due to two intrinsically different populations of GRBs: radio-bright and radio-faint. We calculate that no more than 70% of GRB afterglows are truly radio-bright, leaving a significant population of GRBs that lack a radio afterglow. These radio-bright GRBs have higher gamma-ray fluence, isotropic energies, X-ray fluxes, and optical fluxes than the radio-faint GRBs, thus confirming the existence of two physically distinct populations. We suggest that the gamma-ray efficiency of the prompt emission is responsible for the difference between the two populations. We also discuss the implications for future radio and optical surveys.

  13. Searching for Compact Radio Sources Associated with UCHII Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masqué, Josep M.; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Trinidad, Miguel A.; Kurtz, Stan; Dzib, Sergio A.; Rodríguez-Rico, Carlos A.; Loinard, Laurent

    2017-02-01

    Ultra-compact (UC)H ii regions represent a very early stage of massive star formation. The structure and evolution of these regions are not yet fully understood. Interferometric observations showed in recent years that compact sources of uncertain nature are associated with some UCH ii regions. To examine this, we carried out VLA 1.3 cm observations in the A configuration of selected UCH ii regions in order to report additional cases of compact sources embedded in UCH ii regions. With these observations, we find 13 compact sources that are associated with 9 UCH ii regions. Although we cannot establish an unambiguous nature for the newly detected sources, we assess some of their observational properties. According to the results, we can distinguish between two types of compact sources. One type corresponds to sources that are probably deeply embedded in the dense ionized gas of the UCH ii region. These sources are photoevaporated by the exciting star of the region and will last for 104-105 years. They may play a crucial role in the evolution of the UCH ii region as the photoevaporated material could replenish the expanding plasma and might provide a solution to the so-called lifetime problem of these regions. The second type of compact sources is not associated with the densest ionized gas of the region. A few of these sources appear resolved and may be photoevaporating objects such as those of the first type, but with significantly lower mass depletion rates. The remaining sources of this second type appear unresolved, and their properties are varied. We speculate on the similarity between the sources of the second type and those of the Orion population of radio sources.

  14. A population of fast radio bursts at cosmological distances.

    PubMed

    Thornton, D; Stappers, B; Bailes, M; Barsdell, B; Bates, S; Bhat, N D R; Burgay, M; Burke-Spolaor, S; Champion, D J; Coster, P; D'Amico, N; Jameson, A; Johnston, S; Keith, M; Kramer, M; Levin, L; Milia, S; Ng, C; Possenti, A; van Straten, W

    2013-07-05

    Searches for transient astrophysical sources often reveal unexpected classes of objects that are useful physical laboratories. In a recent survey for pulsars and fast transients, we have uncovered four millisecond-duration radio transients all more than 40° from the Galactic plane. The bursts' properties indicate that they are of celestial rather than terrestrial origin. Host galaxy and intergalactic medium models suggest that they have cosmological redshifts of 0.5 to 1 and distances of up to 3 gigaparsecs. No temporally coincident x- or gamma-ray signature was identified in association with the bursts. Characterization of the source population and identification of host galaxies offers an opportunity to determine the baryonic content of the universe.

  15. The earth as a radio source. [noting auroral kilometric radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, D. A.

    1975-01-01

    The primary characteristics of radio emission from the earth's magnetosphere are summarized, the origins of these missions are considered and similarities to other astronomical radio sources discussed. The auroral kilometric radiation has features very similar to Io-related decametric radiation from Jupiter and from Saturn. The radiation at fp and 2 fp upstream of the bow shock appears to be generated by the same mechanism as type III solar radio bursts. The beaming of the auroral kilometric radiation into a cone shaped region over the polar cap has some similarity to the angular distribution of radiation from Io and to the beaming of radio emission from pulsars.

  16. The sub-mJy radio population in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonzini, M.

    2014-06-01

    Deep radio observations provide a dust unbiased view of both black hole (BH) and star formation (SF) activity and therefore represent a powerful tool to investigate their evolution and their possible mutual influence across cosmic time. Radio astronomy is therefore becoming increasingly important for galaxy evolution studies thanks also to the many new radio facilities under construction or being planned. To maximise the potentiality of these new instruments it is crucial to make predictions on what they will observe and to see how best to complement the radio data with multi-wavelength information. These are the motivations of my Thesis in which I studied a sample of 900 sources detected in one of the deepest radio surveys ever made. The observations have been performed at 1.4 GHz with the Very Large Array on the Extended Chandra Deep Field South. I developed a multi-wavelength method to identify the optical-infrared counterparts of the radio sources and to classify them as radio-loud active galactic nuclei (RL AGNs), radio-quiet (RQ) AGNs, and star forming galaxies (SFGs). I was able for the first time to quantify the relative contribution of these different classes of sources down to a radio flux density limit of ∼30 μJy. I characterized the host galaxy properties (stellar masses, optical colors, and morphology) of the radio sources; RQ AGN hosts and SFGs have similar properties with disk morphology and blue colors while radio-loud AGN hosts are more massive, redder and mostly ellipticals. This suggests that the RQ and RL activity occurs at two different evolutionary stages of the BH-host galaxy co-evolution. The RQ phase occurs at earlier times when the galaxy is still gas rich and actively forming stars while the radio activity of the BH appears when the galaxy has already formed the bulk of its stellar population, the gas supply is lower, and the SF is considerably reduced. I quantified the star formation rate (SFR) of the radio sources using two

  17. Planck Early Results. XV. Spectral Energy Distributions and Radio Continuum Spectra of Northern Extragalactic Radio Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aatrokoski, J.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.; Angelakis, E.; Amaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and radio continuum spectra are presented for a northern sample of 104 extragalactic radio sources. based on the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC) and simultaneous multi frequency data. The nine Planck frequencies, from 30 to 857 GHz, are complemented by a set of simultaneous observations ranging from radio to gamma-rays. This is the first extensive frequency coverage in the radio and millimetre domains for an essentially complete sample of extragalactic radio sources, and it shows how the individual shocks, each in their own phase of development, shape the radio spectra as they move in the relativistic jet. The SEDs presented in this paper were fitted with second and third degree polynomials to estimate the frequencies of the synchrotron and inverse Compton (IC) peaks, and the spectral indices of low and high frequency radio data, including the Planck ERCSC data, were calculated. SED modelling methods are discussed, with an emphasis on proper. physical modelling of the synchrotron bump using multiple components. Planck ERCSC data also suggest that the original accelerated electron energy spectrum could be much harder than commonly thought, with power-law index around 1.5 instead of the canonical 2.5. The implications of this are discussed for the acceleration mechanisms effective in blazar shock. Furthermore in many cases the Planck data indicate that gamma-ray emission must originate in the same shocks that produce the radio emission.

  18. Planck early results. XV. Spectral energy distributions and radio continuum spectra of northern extragalactic radio sources

    DOE PAGES

    Aatrokoski, J.

    2011-12-01

    Spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and radio continuum spectra are presented for a northern sample of 104 extragalactic radio sources, based on the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC) and simultaneous multifrequency data. The nine Planck frequencies, from 30 to 857GHz, are complemented by a set of simultaneous observations ranging from radio to gamma-rays. This is the first extensive frequency coverage in the radio and millimetre domains for an essentially complete sample of extragalactic radio sources, and it shows how the individual shocks, each in their own phase of development, shape the radio spectra as they move in the relativisticmore » jet. The SEDs presented in this paper were fitted with second and third degree polynomials to estimate the frequencies of the synchrotron and inverse Compton (IC) peaks, and the spectral indices of low and high frequency radio data, including the Planck ERCSC data, were calculated. SED modelling methods are discussed, with an emphasis on proper, physical modelling of the synchrotron bump using multiple components. Planck ERCSC data also suggest that the original accelerated electron energy spectrum could be much harder than commonly thought, with power-law index around 1.5 instead of the canonical 2.5. The implications of this are discussed for the acceleration mechanisms effective in blazar shock. Furthermore in many cases the Planck data indicate that gamma-ray emission must originate in the same shocks that produce the radio emission.« less

  19. Correlation of DARWIN mission star catalogue with radio source surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lykou, F.; Röttgering, H. J. A.

    2006-08-01

    We present a search for radio source counterparts of 508 main sequence stars, that are part of the target list of the Infra Red Space Interferometer DARWIN. We searched all available online radio surveys to find counterparts for DARWIN stars, and we only found 2 candidate identifications out of 508 in two surveys made with VLA radio telescope in New Mexico, USA. We required that candidate identifications should have fluxes larger than 3σ times the noise in the radio maps and have a radio-optical positional difference less than 15''. Both stars had radio counterparts in NVSS (NRAO VLA Sky Survey) and one of them also in FIRST (Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-centimeters). Both surveys are 1.4 GHz continuum surveys. Our goal for this project is to show that there are main sequence stars whose radio emission is detectable and get a statistical limit for the radio flux of the DARWIN stars. The method we performed was to use the radio maps and coadd these maps at the location of the stars.

  20. A powerful bursting radio source towards the Galactic Centre.

    PubMed

    Hyman, Scott D; Lazio, T Joseph W; Kassim, Namir E; Ray, Paul S; Markwardt, Craig B; Yusef-Zadeh, Farhad

    2005-03-03

    Transient astronomical sources are typically powered by compact objects and usually signify highly explosive or dynamic events. Although high-time-resolution observations are often possible in radio astronomy, they are usually limited to quite narrow fields of view. The dynamic radio sky is therefore poorly sampled, in contrast to the situation in the X-ray and gamma-ray bands in which wide-field instruments routinely detect transient sources. Here we report a transient radio source, GCRT J1745-3009, which was detected during a moderately wide-field monitoring programme of the Galactic Centre region at 0.33 GHz. The characteristics of its bursts are unlike those known for any other class of radio transient. If located in or near the Galactic Centre, its brightness temperature (approximately 10(16) K) and the implied energy density within GCRT J1745-3009 vastly exceed those observed in most other classes of radio astronomical sources, and are consistent with coherent emission processes that are rarely observed. We conclude that it represents a hitherto unknown class of transient radio sources, the first of possibly many new classes that may be discovered by emerging wide-field radio telescopes.

  1. Sco X-1 - A galactic radio source with an extragalactic radio morphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geldzahler, B. J.; Corey, B. E.; Fomalont, E. B.; Hilldrup, K.

    1981-01-01

    VLA observations of radio emissions at 1465 and 4885 MHz, of Sco X-1 confirm the existence of a colinear triple structure. Evidence that the three components of Sco X-1 are physically associated is presented, including the morphology, spectrum, variability, volume emissivity and magnetic field strength. The possibility of a physical phenomenon occurring in Sco X-1 similar to that occurring in extragalactic radio sources is discussed, and two galactic sources are found having extended emission similar to that in extragalactic objects. The extended structure of Sco X-1 is also observed to be similar to that of the hot spots in luminous extragalactic sources, and a radio source 20 arcmin from Sco X-1 is found to lie nearly along the radio axis formed by the components of Sco X-1.

  2. Sco X-1 - A galactic radio source with an extragalactic radio morphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geldzahler, B. J.; Corey, B. E.; Fomalont, E. B.; Hilldrup, K.

    1981-01-01

    VLA observations of radio emissions at 1465 and 4885 MHz, of Sco X-1 confirm the existence of a colinear triple structure. Evidence that the three components of Sco X-1 are physically associated is presented, including the morphology, spectrum, variability, volume emissivity and magnetic field strength. The possibility of a physical phenomenon occurring in Sco X-1 similar to that occurring in extragalactic radio sources is discussed, and two galactic sources are found having extended emission similar to that in extragalactic objects. The extended structure of Sco X-1 is also observed to be similar to that of the hot spots in luminous extragalactic sources, and a radio source 20 arcmin from Sco X-1 is found to lie nearly along the radio axis formed by the components of Sco X-1.

  3. X-ray Counterparts of Infrared Faint Radio Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schartel, Norbert

    2011-10-01

    Infrared Faint Radio Sources (IFRS) are radio sources with extremely faint or even absent infrared emission in deep Spitzer Surveys. Models of their spectral energy distributions, the ratios of radio to infrared flux densities and their steep radio spectra strongly suggest that IFRS are AGN at high redshifts (2radio-to-infrared fluxes, will constrain the class-specific SED.

  4. Forthcoming Occultations of Astrometric Radio Sources by Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    L'vov, Victor; Malkin, Zinovy; Tsekmeister, Svetlana

    2010-01-01

    Astrometric observations of radio source occultations by solar system bodies may be of large interest for testing gravity theories, dynamical astronomy, and planetary physics. In this paper, we present an updated list of the occultations of astrometric radio sources by planets expected in the coming years. Such events, like solar eclipses, generally speaking can only be observed in a limited region. A map of the shadow path is provided for the events that will occurr in regions with several VLBI stations and hence will be the most interesting for radio astronomy experiments.

  5. Assessing the Accuracy of Radio Astronomy Source-Finding Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerlund, S.; Harris, C.; Westmeier, T.

    2012-02-01

    This work presents a method for determining the accuracy of a source finder algorithm for spectral line radio astronomy data and the Source Finder Accuracy Evaluator (SFAE), a program that implements this method. The accuracy of a source finder is defined in terms of its completeness, reliability, and accuracy of the parameterisation of the sources that were found. These values are calculated by executing the source finder on an image with a known source catalogue, then comparing the output of the source finder to the known catalogue. The intended uses of SFAE include determining the most accurate source finders for use in a survey, determining the types of radio sources a particular source finder is capable of accurately locating, and identifying optimum parameters and areas of improvement for these algorithms. This paper demonstrates a sample of accuracy information that can be obtained through this method, using a simulated ASKAP data cube and the duchamp source finder.

  6. AGN content of X-ray, IR and radio sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.; Paronyan, G. M.; Abrahamyan, H. V.; Gyulzadyan, M. V.; Mikayelyan, G. A.

    2016-09-01

    We have carried out a number of surveys and identification works related to X-ray, IR and radio sources and searched for extragalactic ones. Among them, most interesting are Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) and Starburst (SB) Galaxies. Some 4500 AGN have been revealed from ROSAT BSC and FSC sources, and many more are hidden ones; those showing evidence of activity but with no emission lines in optical wavelengths. We estimated AGN content of X-ray sources as 52.9%. IR sources contain thousands of SBs, and most important are those having signs of interaction and/or merging. We have carried out optical identifications of IRAS point sources, and 1278 IR galaxies have been revealed, including LIRGs and ULIRGs. We have also combined IRAS PSC and FSC catalogs and compiled its extragalactic sample, which allowed to estimate AGN content among IR sources as 23.7%. Extragalactic radio sources contain bright galaxies, AGN and SBs. We have studied the border between AGN and normal galaxies by radio/optical flux ratios to establish which objects may be attributed to AGN based on radio properties. Interestingly, absolute majority of objects associated with both X-ray and radio sources are AGN.

  7. Molecular Gas Near Unusual Galactic Center Radio Source N3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludovici, Dominic A.; Toomey, James; Lang, Cornelia

    2014-06-01

    Near the Galactic center, the presence of the supermassive black hole, high dust temperatures, and large densities produce an unique environment within our galaxy. Unfortunately, optical light in this region is obscured by dust, making optical observations difficult or impossible. By utilizing radio telescopes, we can peer through the dust to examine the inner workings of this fascinating region. Using the Very Large Array, we examined the Galactic center radio source N3, a point source located within the Radio Arc. Our observations examined both molecular line and continuum emission from the region at frequencies from 2 GHz to 49 GHz. Several molecular species are detected around N3. Using molecular line analysis, N3's spectral index, physical size limits, and possible interactions between N3 and the Radio Arc, we examine the physical nature of N3 and outline further work needed to complete the analysis of this interesting source.

  8. High-energy sources at low radio frequency: the Murchison Widefield Array view of Fermi blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giroletti, M.; Massaro, F.; D'Abrusco, R.; Lico, R.; Burlon, D.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Morgan, J.; Pavlidou, V.; Bell, M.; Bernardi, G.; Bhat, R.; Bowman, J. D.; Briggs, F.; Cappallo, R. J.; Corey, B. E.; Deshpande, A. A.; Ewall-Rice, A.; Emrich, D.; Gaensler, B. M.; Goeke, R.; Greenhill, L. J.; Hazelton, B. J.; Hindson, L.; Kaplan, D. L.; Kasper, J. C.; Kratzenberg, E.; Feng, L.; Jacobs, D.; Kudryavtseva, N.; Lenc, E.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Lynch, M. J.; McKinley, B.; McWhirter, S. R.; Mitchell, D. A.; Morales, M. F.; Morgan, E.; Oberoi, D.; Offringa, A. R.; Ord, S. M.; Pindor, B.; Prabu, T.; Procopio, P.; Riding, J.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Roshi, A.; Udaya Shankar, N.; Srivani, K. S.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Tingay, S. J.; Waterson, M.; Wayth, R. B.; Webster, R. L.; Whitney, A. R.; Williams, A.; Williams, C. L.

    2016-04-01

    Context. Low-frequency radio arrays are opening a new window for the study of the sky, both to study new phenomena and to better characterize known source classes. Being flat-spectrum sources, blazars are so far poorly studied at low radio frequencies. Aims: We characterize the spectral properties of the blazar population at low radio frequency, compare the radio and high-energy properties of the gamma-ray blazar population, and search for radio counterparts of unidentified gamma-ray sources. Methods: We cross-correlated the 6100 deg2 Murchison Widefield Array Commissioning Survey catalogue with the Roma blazar catalogue, the third catalogue of active galactic nuclei detected by Fermi-LAT, and the unidentified members of the entire third catalogue of gamma-ray sources detected by Fermi-LAT. When available, we also added high-frequency radio data from the Australia Telescope 20 GHz catalogue. Results: We find low-frequency counterparts for 186 out of 517 (36%) blazars, 79 out of 174 (45%) gamma-ray blazars, and 8 out of 73 (11%) gamma-ray blazar candidates. The mean low-frequency (120-180 MHz) blazar spectral index is ⟨αlow⟩ = 0.57 ± 0.02: blazar spectra are flatter than the rest of the population of low-frequency sources, but are steeper than at ~GHz frequencies. Low-frequency radio flux density and gamma-ray energy flux display a mildly significant and broadly scattered correlation. Ten unidentified gamma-ray sources have a (probably fortuitous) positional match with low radio frequency sources. Conclusions: Low-frequency radio astronomy provides important information about sources with a flat radio spectrum and high energy. However, the relatively low sensitivity of the present surveys still misses a significant fraction of these objects. Upcoming deeper surveys, such as the GaLactic and Extragalactic All-Sky MWA (GLEAM) survey, will provide further insight into this population. Tables 5-7 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http

  9. The Physics of Cooling Flow Clusters with Central Radio Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarazin, Craig L.

    2005-01-01

    Central galaxies in rich clusters are the sites of cluster cooling flows, with large masses of gas cooling through part of the X-ray band. Many of these galaxies host powerful radio sources. These sources can displace and compress the X-ray gas leading to enhanced cooling and star formation. We observed the bright cooling flow Abell 2626 with a strangely distorted central radio source. We wished to understand the interaction of radio and X-ray thermal plasma, and to determine the dynamical nature of this cluster. One aim was to constrain the source of additional pressure in radio "holes" in the X-ray emission needed to support overlying shells of X-ray gas. We also aimed to study the problem of the lack of kT < 1-2 keV gas in cooling flows by searching for abundance inhomogeneities, heating from the radio source, and excess absorption. We also have a Chandra observation of this cluster. There were problems with the pipeline processing of this data due to a telemetry dropout. We are publishing the Chandra and XMM data together. Delays with the Chandra data have slowed up the publication. At the center of the cluster, there is a complex interaction of the odd, Z-shaped radio source, and the X-ray plasma. However, there are no clear radio bubbles. Also, the cluster SO galaxy IC 5337, which is projected 1.5 arcmin west of the cluster center, has unusual tail-like structures in both the radio and X-ray. It appears to be falling into the cluster center. There is a hot, probably shocked region of gas to the southwest, which is apparently due to the merger of a subcluster in this part of the system. There is also a merging subcluster to the northeast. The axes of these two mergers agrees with a supercluster filament structure.

  10. The Physics of Cooling Flow Clusters with Central Radio Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarazin, Craig L.

    2005-01-01

    Central galaxies in rich clusters are the sites of cluster cooling flows, with large masses of gas cooling through part of the X-ray band. Many of these galaxies host powerful radio sources. These sources can displace and compress the X-ray gas leading to enhanced cooling and star formation. We observed the bright cooling flow Abell 2626 with a strangely distorted central radio source. We wished to understand the interaction of radio and X-ray thermal plasma, and to determine the dynamical nature of this cluster. One aim was to constrain the source of additional pressure in radio "holes" in the X-ray emission needed to support overlying shells of X-ray gas. We also aimed to study the problem of the lack of kT < 1-2 keV gas in cooling flows by searching for abundance inhomogeneities, heating from the radio source, and excess absorption. We also have a Chandra observation of this cluster. There were problems with the pipeline processing of this data due to a telemetry dropout. We are publishing the Chandra and XMM data together. Delays with the Chandra data have slowed up the publication. At the center of the cluster, there is a complex interaction of the odd, Z-shaped radio source, and the X-ray plasma. However, there are no clear radio bubbles. Also, the cluster SO galaxy IC 5337, which is projected 1.5 arcmin west of the cluster center, has unusual tail-like structures in both the radio and X-ray. It appears to be falling into the cluster center. There is a hot, probably shocked region of gas to the southwest, which is apparently due to the merger of a subcluster in this part of the system. There is also a merging subcluster to the northeast. The axes of these two mergers agrees with a supercluster filament structure.

  11. Angular Structure of the Radio Sources at Decameter Wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brazhenko, A. I.; Inyutin, G. A.; Koshovyy, V. V.; Lozins'kyy, A. B.; Lytvinenko, O. A.; Megn, A. V.; Rashkovskiy, S. L.; Shepelyev, V. A.; Vaschishin, R. V.

    2006-08-01

    The world biggest decameter radio telescope UTR-2 and four smaller arrays forms the Ukrainian VLBI network URAN with an angular resolution up to 1" operated at decameter wavelengths. A number of galactic and extragalactic radio sources were studed with the URAN interferometers. At decimeter and centimeter wavelengths the studied extragalactic radio sources usually possess compact components and a total size of the sources is of about or less than a resolving power of the shortest baseline of the network. The obtained results allow us to affirm that the structure of the studied extragalactic radio sources changes at the decameter wavelengths. The reason of the changes usually is a combination of various phenomena of radio wave generation and propagation. The peculiarities of the brightness distribution in the range are: - The compact details (hot spots and sources associated with AGN) in the radio galaxies and quasars are usually less prominent at the decameter wavelengths because of synchrotron self-absorption. Their angular diameters are equal to those at higher frequencies or enlarged by the interstellar scattering. - Dimensions of lobes are enlarged as a rule. - A characteristic feature of the quasars structure at lower frequencies is extended components with steep spectra producing the main part of a flux of the sources at the decameter wavelengths. Their angular diameters exceed the total size of the source measured at higher frequencies. Such halos have been revealed in some radio galaxies too. The galactic supernova remnants studied with the URAN mainly possess the same features of their structure as at higher frequencies. Some modificatios of their structure at lower frequencies are caused by interstellar scattering, which increases a size of their compact details and difference of spectral indexes that changes relative fluxes of source parts at the decameters.

  12. Radio properties of FIRST radio sources at 1 mJy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magliocchetti, M.; Celotti, A.; Danese, L.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed analysis of the radio properties for the sample of faint radio sources introduced by Magliocchetti et al. in 2000. The sample comprises mainly intrinsically low-power sources, the majority of which (>~70 per cent) are FR I radio galaxies. These objects show some degree (at 1σ confidence level) of luminosity evolution, which is also needed to reproduce correctly the total number and shape of the counts distribution at 1.4GHz. Analysis of the de-evolved local radio luminosity function shows a good agreement between data and model predictions for this class of sources. Particular care has been devoted to the issue of `lined' galaxies (i.e. objects presenting in their spectra a continuum typical of early-type galaxies plus emission lines of different nature), which appear as an intermediate class of sources between AGN-dominated and starburst galaxies. Different evolutionary behaviour is seen in the two subpopulations of lined and non-lined low-power radio galaxies, the first class indicating a tendency for the radio luminosity to decrease with look-back time, the second one showing positive evolution. We note that different evolutionary properties also seem to characterize BL Lacs selected in different bands, so that one might envisage an association between lined FR I and the subclass of BL Lacs selected in the X-ray band. Lastly, we find evidence for a negligible contribution of starburst galaxies at these low flux levels.

  13. First `Winged' and `X'-shaped Radio Source Candidates

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, C.C.

    2007-01-22

    A small number of double-lobed radio galaxies (17 from our own census of the literature) show an additional pair of low surface brightness ''wings'', thus forming an overall ''X''-shaped appearance. The origin of the wings in these radio sources is unclear. They may be the result of back-flowing plasma from the currently active radio lobes into an asymmetric medium surrounding the active nucleus, which would make these ideal systems in which to study thermal/non-thermal plasma interactions in extragalactic radio sources. Another possibility is that the wings are the aging radio lobes left over after a (rapid) realignment of the central supermassive black-hole/accretion disk system due perhaps to a merger. Generally, these models are not well tested; with the small number of known examples, previous works focused on detailed case studies of selected sources with little attempt at a systematic study of a large sample. Using the VLA-FIRST survey database, we are compiling a large sample of winged and X-shaped radio sources for such studies. As a first step toward this goal, an initial sample of 100 new candidate objects of this type are presented in this paper. The search process is described, optical identifications from available literature data, and basic radio data are presented. From the limited resolution FIRST images ({approx} 5''), we can already confidently classify a sufficient number of these objects as having the characteristic wing lengths >80% of the active lobes to more than double the number of known X-shaped radio sources. We have also included as candidates, radio sources with shorter wings (<80% wing to lobe length ratios), or simply ''winged'' sources, as it is probable that projection effects are important. Finally, among the candidates are four quasars (z=0.37 to 0.84), and several have morphologies suggestive of Fanaroff-Riley type-I (low-power) radio galaxies. While followup observations are necessary to confirm these identifications, this

  14. Multifrequency study of a new Hybrid Morphology Radio Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gasperin, F.

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid Morphology Radio Sources (HyMoRS) are a class of radio galaxies having the lobe morphology of a Fanaroff-Riley (FR) type I on one side of the active nucleus and of a FR type II on the other. The origin of the different morphologies between FR I and FR II sources has been widely discussed in the past 40 years, and HyMoRS may be the best way to understand whether this dichotomy is related to the intrinsic nature of the source and/or to its environment. However, these sources are extremely rare (≲ 1% of radio galaxies) and only for a few of them a detailed radio study, that goes beyond the morphological classification, has been conducted. In this paper we report the discovery of one new HyMoRS; we present X-ray and multi-frequency radio observations. We discuss the source morphological, spectral and polarisation properties and confirm that HyMoRS are intrinsically bimodal with respect to these observational characteristics. We notice that HyMoRS classification based just on morphological properties of the source is hazardous.

  15. Multifrequency study of a new Hybrid Morphology Radio Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gasperin, F.

    2017-05-01

    Hybrid morphology radio sources (HyMoRS) are a class of radio galaxies having the lobe morphology of a Fanaroff-Riley (FR) type I on one side of the active nucleus and of an FR type II on the other. The origin of the different morphologies between FR I and FR II sources has been widely discussed in the past 40 yr, and HyMoRS may be the best way to understand whether this dichotomy is related to the intrinsic nature of the source and/or to its environment. However, these sources are extremely rare (≲1 per cent of radio galaxies), and only for a few of them, a detailed radio study that goes beyond the morphological classification has been conducted. In this paper, we report the discovery of one new HyMoRS; we present X-ray and multifrequency radio observations. We discuss the source morphological, spectral and polarization properties and confirm that HyMoRS are intrinsically bimodal with respect to these observational characteristics. We notice that HyMoRS classification based just on morphological properties of the source is hazardous.

  16. Plasma and radio waves from Neptune: Source mechanisms and propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, H. K.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes results obtained through the support of NASA Grant NAGW-2412. The objective of this project is to conduct a comprehensive investigation of the radio wave emission observed by the planetary radio astronomy (PRA) instrument on board Voyager 2 as if flew by Neptune. This study has included data analysis, theoretical and numerical calculations, ray tracing, and modeling to determine the possible source mechanism(s) and locations of the Neptune radio emissions. We have completed four papers, which are included in the appendix. The paper 'Modeling of Whistler Ray Paths in the Magnetosphere of Neptune' investigated the propagation and dispersion of lighting-generated whistler in the magnetosphere of Neptune by using three dimensional ray tracing. The two papers 'Numerical Simulations of Bursty Radio Emissions from Planetary Magnetospheres' and 'Numerical Simulations of Bursty Planetary Radio Emissions' employed numerical simulations to investigate an alternate source mechanism of bursty radio emissions in addition to the cyclotron maser instability. We have also studied the possible generation of Z and whistler mode waves by the temperature anisotropic beam instability and the result was published in 'Electron Cyclotron Wave Generation by Relativistic Electrons.' Besides the aforementioned studies, we have also collaborated with members of the PRA team to investigate various aspects of the radio wave data. Two papers have been submitted for publication and the abstracts of these papers are also listed in the appendix.

  17. Evidence for Infrared-faint Radio Sources as z > 1 Radio-loud Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huynh, Minh T.; Norris, Ray P.; Siana, Brian; Middelberg, Enno

    2010-02-01

    Infrared-Faint Radio Sources (IFRSs) are a class of radio objects found in the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey which have no observable mid-infrared counterpart in the Spitzer Wide-area Infrared Extragalactic (SWIRE) survey. The extended Chandra Deep Field South now has even deeper Spitzer imaging (3.6-70 μm) from a number of Legacy surveys. We report the detections of two IFRS sources in IRAC images. The non-detection of two other IFRSs allows us to constrain the source type. Detailed modeling of the spectral energy distribution of these objects shows that they are consistent with high-redshift (z >~ 1) active galactic nuclei.

  18. A Case for Radio Galaxies as the Sources of IceCube's Astrophysical Neutrino Flux

    DOE PAGES

    Hooper, Dan

    2016-09-01

    Here, we present an argument that radio galaxies (active galaxies with mis-aligned jets) are likely to be the primary sources of the high-energy astrophysical neutrinos observed by IceCube. In particular, if the gamma-ray emission observed from radio galaxies is generated through the interactions of cosmic-ray protons with gas, these interactions can also produce a population of neutrinos with a flux and spectral shape similar to that measured by IceCube. We present a simple physical model in which high-energy cosmic rays are confined within the volumes of radio galaxies, where they interact with gas to generate the observed diffuse fluxes ofmore » neutrinos and gamma rays. In addition to simultaneously accounting for the observations of Fermi and IceCube, radio galaxies in this model also represent an attractive class of sources for the highest energy cosmic rays.« less

  19. A Case for Radio Galaxies as the Sources of IceCube's Astrophysical Neutrino Flux

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, Dan

    2016-09-01

    Here, we present an argument that radio galaxies (active galaxies with mis-aligned jets) are likely to be the primary sources of the high-energy astrophysical neutrinos observed by IceCube. In particular, if the gamma-ray emission observed from radio galaxies is generated through the interactions of cosmic-ray protons with gas, these interactions can also produce a population of neutrinos with a flux and spectral shape similar to that measured by IceCube. We present a simple physical model in which high-energy cosmic rays are confined within the volumes of radio galaxies, where they interact with gas to generate the observed diffuse fluxes of neutrinos and gamma rays. In addition to simultaneously accounting for the observations of Fermi and IceCube, radio galaxies in this model also represent an attractive class of sources for the highest energy cosmic rays.

  20. A Case for Radio Galaxies as the Sources of IceCube's Astrophysical Neutrino Flux

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, Dan

    2016-09-01

    Here, we present an argument that radio galaxies (active galaxies with mis-aligned jets) are likely to be the primary sources of the high-energy astrophysical neutrinos observed by IceCube. In particular, if the gamma-ray emission observed from radio galaxies is generated through the interactions of cosmic-ray protons with gas, these interactions can also produce a population of neutrinos with a flux and spectral shape similar to that measured by IceCube. We present a simple physical model in which high-energy cosmic rays are confined within the volumes of radio galaxies, where they interact with gas to generate the observed diffuse fluxes of neutrinos and gamma rays. In addition to simultaneously accounting for the observations of Fermi and IceCube, radio galaxies in this model also represent an attractive class of sources for the highest energy cosmic rays.

  1. Radio-Quiet Pulsars and Point Sources in Supernova Remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helfand, David

    2002-04-01

    Since Baade and Zwicky made their prescient remark identifying the central blue star in the Crab Nebula as a neutron star, this pulsar's period has increased by 0.9 msec, turning 10^48 ergs of rotational kinetic energy into a relativistic wind that has been deposited in its surroundings. This makes the compact remnant of the supernova of 1054 AD highly conspicuous. It also makes this remnant highly anomalous. Nowhere else in the Galaxy does such a luminous young pulsar exists, despite the fact that at least half a dozen core-collapse supernovae have occurred since the Crab's birth. Indeed, the newly discovered central object in Cas A is four orders of magnitude less luminous in the X-ray band. While the Chandra and XMM-Newton Observatories are discovering an increasing number of Crab-like synchrotron nebulae (albeit, far less luminous than the prototype), they are also revealing X-ray point sources inside supernova remnants that lack detectable radio pulses and show no evidence of a relativistic outflow to power a surrounding nebula. I will provide an inventory of these objects, discuss whether or not truly radio-silent young neutron stars exist, and speculate on the emission mechanisms and power sources which make such objects shine. I will conclude with a commentary on the implications of this population for the distributions of pulsar birth parameters such as spin period, magnetic field strength, and space velocity, as well as offer a glimpse of what future observations might reveal about the demographics of core-collapse remnants.

  2. Modelling the luminosities and sizes of radio sources: radio luminosity function at z = 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, A.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Rigby, E. E.

    2017-08-01

    We present a model to predict the luminosity function for radio galaxies and their linear size distribution at any redshift. The model takes a black hole mass function and Eddington ratio distribution as input and tracks the evolution of radio sources, taking into account synchrotron, adiabatic and inverse Compton energy losses. We first test the model at z = 2 where plenty of radio data are available and show that the radio luminosity function (RLF) is consistent with observations. We are able to reproduce the break in luminosity function that separates locally the Fanaroff-Riley class I and Fanaroff-Riley class I radio sources. Our prediction for linear size distribution at z = 2 matches the observed distribution too. We then use our model to predict an RLF and linear size distribution at z = 6, as this is the epoch when radio galaxies can be used as probes of reionization. We demonstrate that higher inverse Compton losses lead to shorter source lifetimes and smaller sizes at high redshifts. The predicted sizes are consistent with the generally observed trend with redshift. We evolve the z = 2 RLF based on observed quasar space densities at high redshifts, and show that our RLF prediction at z = 6 is consistent. Finally, we predict the detection of 0.63, 0.092 and 0.0025 z ≥ 6 sources deg2 at flux density limits of 0.1, 0.5 and 3.5 mJy. We assess the trade-off between coverage area and depth and show that LOFAR surveys with flux density limits of 0.1 and 0.5 mJy are the most efficient at detecting a large number of z ≥ 6 radio sources.

  3. Field-independent source localization of Neptune's radio bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, W. M.; Desch, M. D.; Kaiser, M. L.

    1990-01-01

    During the Voyager 2 encounter with Neptune, a narrowbanded bursty radio component was observed between 500 and 1326 kHz by the Planetary Radio Astronomy instrument. Based on the emission occurrence pattern, the radio source has been localized without the explicit use of the Neptunian offset-tilted dipole magnetic field model, which is accurate only at distances greater than 4 R(N) (Neptune radii) from the planet. Only assumptions based upon the general nature of radio wave propagation in planetary magnetospheres were used. A number of different candidate radial positions were sampled. For example, at 1.5 R(N), the derived source location was positioned only about 10 deg from the south magnetic pole. The radiation from this source was beamed into a cone of 77.5 + or - 6.3 deg half-angle that was tilted about 10 deg from the radial direction to the north-northeast. At other sampled radial positions, similar source locations were obtained. Due to its proximity to the south magnetic pole, the kilometric emission radio source is believed to be associated with an active auroral region, similar in nature to those found at earth and Saturn.

  4. HOST GALAXIES OF X-SHAPED RADIO SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Springmann, A.; Cheung, C.

    2007-01-01

    Most radiation from galaxies containing active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is emitted not by the stars composing the galaxy, but from an active source at the galactic center, most likely a supermassive black hole. Of particular interest are radio galaxies, active galaxies that emit much of their radiation at radio wavelengths. Within each radio galaxy, an AGN powers a pair of collimated jets of relativistic particles, forming a pair of giant lobes at the end of the jets and thus giving a characteristic double-lobed appearance. A particular class of radio galaxies has an “X”-or winged-shaped morphology: in these, two pairs of lobes appear to originate from the galactic center, producing a distinctive X-shape. Two main mechanisms have been proposed to explain the X-shape morphology: one being a realignment of the black hole within the AGN and the second positing that the radio jets are expanding into an asymmetric medium, causing backflow and producing secondary wings. By analyzing radio host galaxy shapes, the distribution of the stellar mass is compared to the differing model expectations regarding the distribution of the surrounding gas and stellar material about the AGN. Results show elliptical host galaxies with an orthogonal offset between the semi-major axis of the host galaxy and the secondary radio wings, which lends support to the hydrodynamical model. However, results also show circular host galaxies with radio wings, making the realignment scenario a more likely model to describe the formation of these X-shaped radio sources.

  5. Giant Radio Sources in View of the Dynamical Evolution of FRII-Type Population. II. The Evolutionary Tracks on the P-D and u_c-E_tot Planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machalski, J.; Chyzy, K. T.; Jamrozy, M.

    2004-12-01

    The time evolution of "fiducial" radio sources derived from fitting the dynamical model of Kaiser et al (1997) is compared with the observational data for the "clan" sources found in the sample of giant and normal-size FRII-type sources published in Paper I (Machalski et al 2004). Each "clan" comprises 3, 4 or 5 sample sources having similar values of the two basic physical parameters: the jet power Q_0 and central density of the galaxy nucleus rho_0 (determined in Paper I) but different ages, radio luminosities and axial ratios. These sources are considered as the "same" source observed at different epochs of its lifetime and used to fit the evolutionary luminosity--size (P-D) and energy density-total energy (u_c-E_tot) tracks derived from the model for a "fiducial" source with Q_0 and rho_0 equal to the averages of relevant values obtained for the "clan" members, as well as to constrain the evolutionary model of the source dynamics used. In the result we find that (i) the best fit is achieved when the Kaiser et al's model is modified by allowing an evolution of the sources' cocoon axial ratio with time as suggested by Blundell et al (1999), (ii) a slow acceleration of the average expansion speed of the cocoon along the jet axis is suggested by the "clan" sources. We argue that this acceleration, although minor, may be real and some supporting arguments come from the well known hydrodynamical considerations.

  6. High-energy sources at low radio frequency: the Murchison Widefield Array view of Fermi blazars

    SciTech Connect

    Giroletti, M.; Massaro, F.; D’Abrusco, R.; Lico, R.; Burlon, D.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Morgan, J.; Pavlidou, V.; Bell, M.; Bernardi, G.; Bhat, R.; Bowman, J. D.; Briggs, F.; Cappallo, R. J.; Corey, B. E.; Deshpande, A. A.; Ewall-Rice, A.; Emrich, D.; Gaensler, B. M.; Goeke, R.; Greenhill, L. J.; Hazelton, B. J.; Hindson, L.; Kaplan, D. L.; Kasper, J. C.; Kratzenberg, E.; Feng, L.; Jacobs, D.; Kudryavtseva, N.; Lenc, E.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Lynch, M. J.; McKinley, B.; McWhirter, S. R.; Mitchell, D. A.; Morales, M. F.; Morgan, E.; Oberoi, D.; Offringa, A. R.; Ord, S. M.; Pindor, B.; Prabu, T.; Procopio, P.; Riding, J.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Roshi, A.; Udaya Shankar, N.; Srivani, K. S.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Tingay, S. J.; Waterson, M.; Wayth, R. B.; Webster, R. L.; Whitney, A. R.; Williams, A.; Williams, C. L.

    2016-04-01

    Low-frequency radio arrays are opening a new window for the study of the sky, both to study new phenomena and to better characterize known source classes. Being flat-spectrum sources, blazars are so far poorly studied at low radio frequencies. In this paper, we characterize the spectral properties of the blazar population at low radio frequency, compare the radio and high-energy properties of the gamma-ray blazar population, and search for radio counterparts of unidentified gamma-ray sources. We cross-correlated the 6100 deg2 Murchison Widefield Array Commissioning Survey catalogue with the Roma blazar catalogue, the third catalogue of active galactic nuclei detected by Fermi-LAT, and the unidentified members of the entire third catalogue of gamma-ray sources detected by Fermi-LAT. When available, we also added high-frequency radio data from the Australia Telescope 20 GHz catalogue. We find low-frequency counterparts for 186 out of 517 (36%) blazars, 79 out of 174 (45%) gamma-ray blazars, and 8 out of 73 (11%) gamma-ray blazar candidates. The mean low-frequency (120–180 MHz) blazar spectral index is (αlow) = 0.57 ± 0.02: blazar spectra are flatter than the rest of the population of low-frequency sources, but are steeper than at ~GHz frequencies. Low-frequency radio flux density and gamma-ray energy flux display a mildly significant and broadly scattered correlation. Ten unidentified gamma-ray sources have a (probably fortuitous) positional match with low radio frequency sources. Low-frequency radio astronomy provides important information about sources with a flat radio spectrum and high energy. However, the relatively low sensitivity of the present surveys still misses a significant fraction of these objects. Finally, upcoming deeper surveys, such as the GaLactic and Extragalactic All-Sky MWA (GLEAM) survey, will provide further insight into this population.

  7. On the Evolution of the Cores of Radio Sources and Their Extended Radio Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zunli; Wang, Jiancheng

    2012-01-01

    The work in this paper aims at determining the evolution and possible co-evolution of radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and their cores via their radio luminosity functions (i.e., total and core RLFs, respectively). Using a large combined sample of 1063 radio-loud AGNs selected at low radio frequency, we investigate the RLF at 408 MHz of steep-spectrum radio sources. Our results support a luminosity-dependent evolution. Using core flux density data of the complete sample 3CRR, we investigate the core RLF at 5.0 GHz. Based on the combined sample with incomplete core flux data, we also estimate the core RLF using a modified factor of completeness. Both results are consistent and show that the comoving number density of radio cores displays a persistent decline with redshift, implying a negative density evolution. We find that the core RLF is obviously different from the total RLF at the 408 MHz band which is mainly contributed by extended lobes, implying that the cores and extended lobes could not be co-evolving at radio emission.

  8. Optical identifications of flat-spectrum radio sources

    SciTech Connect

    Condon, J.J.; Condon, M.A.; Broderick, J.J.; Davis, M.M.

    1983-01-01

    A complete sample of radio sources with S> or =0.3 Jy at 1400 MHz, +24/sup 0/sources were made from the PSS prints on the basis of accurate position coincidence alone. Nearly all sources with ''flat'' high-frequency spectra ..cap alpha..(2695, 8085)<+0.5 are identified, and most of the identifications are QSO candidates. Those sources with flat low-frequency spectra but ..cap alpha..(2695, 8085)> or =+0.5 are usually in empty fields. The lower limits that can be assigned to the radio-optical spectral indices ..cap alpha../sub RO/ of these sources are significantly higher than the median ..cap alpha../sub RO/ of the sources with flat high-frequency spectra, so the optical characteristics of the two classes of radio source are intrinsically different. The radio and optical fluxes of flat-spectrum QSO's appear to be correlated, at least when averaged over 10/sup 2/--10/sup 3/ yr.

  9. Spectral structure of X-shaped radio sources.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lal, Dharam Vir; Rao, A. Pramesh

    2004-09-01

    Analysis of Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope low frequency data for an X-shaped source, 3C 223.1 has revealed an unusual result as discussed earlier by Lal & Rao (2004). The radio morphologies of it at 240 and 610 MHz show a well-denfied X-shaped structure with a pair of active jets along the north-south axis and a pair of wings along the east-west axis, that pass symmetrically through the undetected radio core. The wings (or low surface brightness jet) seem to have flatter spectral index with respect to the high surface brightness jet. This clearly shows the value of mapping the sample of X-shaped sources at low frequencies. Here we present our preliminary results for two more such sources.

  10. Identification and properties of host galaxies of RCR radio sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhelenkova, O. P.; Soboleva, N. S.; Majorova, E. K.; Temirova, A. V.

    2013-01-01

    FIRST and NVSS radio maps are used to cross identify the radio sources of the RCR catalog, which is based on observational data obtained in several runs of the "Cold" survey, with the SDSS and DPOSS digital optical sky surveys and the 2MASS, LAS UKIDSS, and WISE infrared surveys. Digital images in various filters and the coadded gri-band SDSS images, red and infrared DPOSS images, JHK-band UKIDSS images, and JHK-band 2MASS images are analyzed for the sources with no optical candidates found in the above catalogs. Our choice of optical candidates was based on the data on the structure of the radio source, its photometry, and spectroscopy (where available). We found reliable identifications for 86% of the radio sources; possible counterparts for 8% of the sources, and failed to find any optical counterparts for 6% of the sources because their host objects proved to be fainter than the limiting magnitude of the corresponding surveys. A little over half of all the identifications proved to be galaxies; about one quarter were quasars, and the types of the remaining objects were difficult to determine because of their faintness. A relation between the luminosity and the radioloudness index was derived and used to estimate the 1.4 and 3.94 GHz luminosities for the sources with unknown redshifts. We found 3% and 60% of all the RCR radio sources to be FRI-type objects ( L ≲ 1024 W/Hz at 1.4 GHz) and powerful FRII-type galaxies ( L ≳ 1026.5 W/Hz), respectively, whereas the rest are sources including objects of the FRI, FRII, and mixed FRI-FRII types. Unlike quasars, galaxies show a trend of decreasing luminosity with decreasing flux density. Note that identification would be quite problematic without the software and resources of the virtual observatory.

  11. ADDITIONAL OBSERVATIONS OF PLANETS AND QUASI-STELLAR RADIO SOURCES AT 3 MM,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    MERCURY ( PLANET ), VENUS( PLANET ), PERIODIC VARIATIONS, RADIO ASTRONOMY, SPECTRUM SIGNATURES...EXTRATERRESTRIAL RADIO WAVES, SOURCES), GALAXIES, BLACKBODY RADIATION, BRIGHTNESS, TEMPERATURE, MARS( PLANET ), JUPITER( PLANET ), SATURN( PLANET

  12. NUclei of GAlaxies. V. Radio emission in 7 NUGA sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krips, M.; Eckart, A.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Pott, J.-U.; Leon, S.; Neri, R.; García-Burillo, S.; Combes, F.; Boone, F.; Baker, A. J.; Tacconi, L. J.; Schinnerer, E.; Hunt, L. K.

    2007-03-01

    We present high angular resolution radio snap-shot observations of seven nearby low-luminosity active galaxies (LLAGN) from the NUclei of GAlaxies (NUGA) survey. The observations were conducted with MERLIN and EVN/VLBI at 18 cm and 6 cm. At all observed angular resolutions and frequencies, we find indications for extended emission in about ~40% of the sources, consistent with the decrease of flux with increasing angular resolution. The extended components resemble jet emission in a majority of cases, consistent with the optically thin synchrotron emission implied by their steep spectra. We consider the compact 6 cm EVN/VLBI radio emission of our sources in the context of the "fundamental plane" that previous LLAGN studies identified within the three-dimensional parameter space of radio luminosity, X-ray luminosity, and black hole mass. We demonstrate, using NGC 7217 and NGC 1068 as particular examples, that high-resolution, multi-epoch radio observations offer useful information about the origin of offsets from the fundamental plane. EVN: The European VLBI Network is a joint facility of European, Chinese, South African and other radio astronomy institutes funded by their national research councils. MERLIN is a national facility operated by the University of Manchester on behalf of PPARC. VLBI including the VLBA: The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  13. Host Galaxies of X-Shaped Extragalactic Radio Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springmann, Alessondra; Cheung, C. C.

    2007-05-01

    The majority of radiation from galaxies containing active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is emitted not by the stars composing the galaxy, but from an active source at the galactic center, most likely a supermassive black hole. Of particular interest are radio galaxies, the active galaxies emitting much of their radiation at radio wavelengths. Classical double-lobed radio galaxies are characterized by a single pair of "active" radio lobes. A small subset show an additional pair of lower surface brightness 'wings' of emission, thus forming an overall winged or X-shaped appearance. Two competing mechanisms have been proposed to explain the "winged" morphology. One model posits that these are the remnants left over from a relatively recent merger of a binary supermassive black hole system. Others have argued that they result naturally from strong backflow in a radio jet cocoon expanding into an asymmetric medium. We used available Sloan Digital Sky Survey r-band images of 11 X-shaped sources to measure the host galaxy ellipticities. By analyzing the host galaxy shapes, we trace the surrounding gas distribution. The radio morphologies are compared to the host galaxy parameters to analogize between differing model expectations. This work was funded by the Department of Energy's Student Undergraduate Laboratory Internship Program and the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center.

  14. Radio, millimeter-submillimeter, and infrared spectra of flat-spectrum extragalactic radio sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloom, Steven D.; Marscher, Alan P.; Gear, Walter K.; Terasranta, Harri; Valtaoja, Esko; Aller, Hugh D.; Aller, Margo F.

    1994-01-01

    We present radio to submillimeter-wave continuum spectra of 44 bright, compact extragalactic radio sources with flat spectra at centimeter wavelengths ('blazars'). Infrared J, H, and K flux densities are added to the spectra of six of these objects. These spectra are useful in comparisons of x-ray and gamma-ray measurements with the multiwaveband properties of blazars. A number of the objects have been detected as strong, hard gamma-ray sources by the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO). The millimeter-wave spectra of the gamma-ray bright blazars we observe are flatter on average than for the sample as a whole.

  15. Neptune's non-thermal radio emissions - Phenomenology and source locations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabl, Gerald K. F.; Ladreiter, H.-P.; Rucker, Helmut O.; Kaiser, Michael L.

    1992-01-01

    During the inbound and the outbound leg of Voyager 2's encounter with Neptune, the Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) experiment aboard the spacecraft detected short radio bursts at frequencies within the range of about 500-1300 kHz, and broad-banded smoothly varying emission patterns within the frequency range from about 40-800 kHz. Both emissions can be described in terms of a period of 16.1 hours determining Neptune's rotation period. Furthermore, just near closest approach, a narrow-banded smoothly varying radio component was observed occurring between 600 and 800 kHz. After giving a brief overview about some general characteristics of Neptune's nonthermal radio emission, the source locations of Neptune's emission components are determined, using an offset tilted dipole model for Neptune's magnetic field. Assuming that the emission originates near the electron gyrofrequency a geometrical beaming model is developed in order to fit the observed emission episodes.

  16. A study of diffuse radio sources and X-ray emission in six massive clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parekh, V.; Dwarakanath, K. S.; Kale, R.; Intema, H.

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study is to extend our current knowledge of the diffuse radio source (halo and relic) populations to z > 0.3. Here, we report GMRT and EVLA radio observations of six galaxy clusters taken from the MAssive Cluster Survey (MACS) catalogue to detect diffuse radio emission. We used archival GMRT (150, 235, and 610 MHz) and EVLA (L band) data and made images at multiple radio frequencies of the following six clusters - MACSJ0417.5-1154, MACSJ1131.8-1955, MACSJ0308.9+2645, MACSJ2243.3-0935, MACSJ2228.5+2036, and MACSJ0358.8-2955. We detect diffuse radio emission (halo or relic, or both) in the first four clusters. In the last two clusters, we do not detect any diffuse radio emission but we put stringent upper limits on their radio powers. We also use archival Chandra X-ray data to carry out morphology and substructure analysis of these clusters. We find that based on X-ray data, these MACS clusters are non-relaxed and show substructures in their temperature distribution. The radio powers of the first four MACS clusters are consistent with their expected values in the LX-P1.4 GHz plot. However, we found ultrasteep spectrum radio halo in the MACSJ0417.5-1154 cluster whose rest-frame cut-off frequency is at ˜900 MHz. The remaining two clusters whose radio powers are ˜11 times below the expected values are most likely to be in the `off-state' as has been postulated in some of the models of radio halo formation.

  17. Centaurus A galaxy, type EO peculiar elliptical, also radio source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Centaurus A galaxy, type EO peculiar elliptical, also radio source. CTIO 4-meter telescope, 1975. NGC 5128, a Type EO peculiar elliptical galaxy in the constellation Centaurus. This galaxy is one of the most luminous and massive galaxies known and is a strong source of both radio and X-ray radiation. Current theories suggest that the nucleus is experiencing giant explosions involving millions of stars and that the dark band across the galactic disk is material being ejected outward. Cerro Toloto 4-meter telescope photo. Photo credit: National Optical Astronomy Observatories

  18. Radio-Optical Analysis of Extended Radio Sources in the First Look Survey Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulo, C. M.; Prandoni, I.; Morganti, R.; Cress, C. M.

    2010-05-01

    We combine 610 MHz GMRT data, 1.4 GHz VLA data, and 1.4 GHz WSRT observations, encompassing a ~ 4 square degree field centered on the verification strip of the Spitzer First Look Survey field, to study radio sources down to fluxes of about 0.1 mJy. The spectral index (Figure 1) analysis shows that the majority of multi-component sources are steep-spectrum sources. Nevertheless the spread in the spectral distribution is wide, with a significant number of ultra-steep, flat or inverted sources, possibly indicating a wider range of accretion modes in fainter samples. By cross-correlating 107 multi-component radio sources with the optical catalogues of Marleau et al. (2007) and Papovich et al. (2006), 23 objects were identified.

  19. Two Variable Radio Sources Near the Position of GRB 940301

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galama, T. J.; DeBruyn, A. G.; vanParadijs, J.; Hanlon, L.; Groot, P. J.; VanDerKlis, M.; Strom, R.; Spoelstra, T.; Bennett, K.; Fishman, G. J.; Hurley, K.

    1997-01-01

    We report on the results of a search for a radio counterpart to the strong gamma-ray burst GRB 940301. Observations with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope of the Compton Telescope error box region of GRB 940301 began on March 4, 1994, at 21 cm and April 2, 1994, at 92 cm. No flux density variations were detected at 92 cm above S= 10 mJy (5 (sigma)) within a period of 1 to 4 months after the burst. However, when we compared the field with Westerbork Northern Sky Survey data, taken two years prior to GRB 940301, we found two radio sources with significantly increased flux densities. These sources, only 17 min. apart, are located at the 2.3 and 2.6(sigma) Compton Telescope confidence contours. Their separation from the Inter Planetary Network annulus virtually excludes association with GRB 940301. Further observations in January 1996 reveal that the sources continued to change in flux density. The relatively large flux density variations at 92 cm, compared to those at higher frequencies, and the inverted spectra in the frequency range from 325-38O MHz make the sources somewhat unusual. Because the sources were already detected at 5 GHz in 1986 most, if not all, of the radio emission is probably associated with activity in Active Galactic Nuclei in distant galaxies.

  20. Source characteristics of Jovian narrow-band kilometric radio emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiner, M. J.; Fainberg, J.; Stone, R. G.; Kaiser, M. L.; Desch, M. D.; Manning, R.; Zarka, P.; Pedersen, B.-M.

    1993-07-01

    New observations of Jovian narrow-band kilometric (nKOM) radio emissions were made by the Unified Radio and Plasma Wave (URAP) experiment on the Ulysses spacecraft during the Ulysses-Jupiter encounter in early February 1992. These observations have demonstrated the unique capability of the URAP instrument for determining both the direction and polarization of nKOM radio sources. An important result is the discovery that nKOM radio emission originates from a number of distinct sources located at different Jovian longitudes and at the inner and outermost regions of the Io plasma torus. These sources have been tracked for several Jovian rotations, yielding their corotational lags, their spatial and temporal evolution, and their radiation characteristics at both low latitudes far from Jupiter and at high latitudes near the planet. Both right-hand and left-hand circularly polarized nKOM sources were observed. The polarizations observed for sources in the outermost regions of the torus seem to favor extraordinary mode emission.

  1. On the origin of two unidentified radio/X-ray sources discovered with XMM-Newton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Federico; Combi, Jorge A.; Medina, María C.; Romero, Gustavo E.

    2015-12-01

    Aims: We aim at clarifying the nature of the emission of two spatially related unidentified X-ray sources detected with XMM-Newton telescope at intermediate-low Galactic latitude Methods: We use the imaging and spectral capabilities of XMM-Newton to study the X-ray properties of these two sources. In addition, we complement our study with radio data obtained at different frequencies to analyze a possible physical association between the sources. Results: Observations reveal a point-like source aligned with elongated diffuse emission. The X-ray spectra of these sources is best-fitted by an absorbed power law with photon index Γ ~ 1.7 for the point-like source and ~2.0 for the extended source. Both sources show nonthermal radio-continuum counterparts that might indicate a physical association. In addition, from the available data, we did not detect variability on the point-like source in several timescales. Two possible scenarios are analyzed: one Galactic and one extra-Galactic. First, based on HI line absorption, assuming a Galactic origin, we infer a distance upper bound of ≲2 kpc, which poses a constraint on the height over the Galactic plane of ≲200 pc and on the linear size of the system of ≲2.3 pc. In this case, the X-ray luminosities are ≳1032 erg s-1 and ≳7.5 × 1032 erg s-1, for the point-like and extended sources, respectively. Second, an extra-Galactic nature is discussed, where the point-like source might be the core of a radio galaxy and the extended source its lobe. In this case, we compare derived fluxes, spectral indices, and spatial correlation with those typical from the radio galaxy population, showing the feasibility of this alternative astrophysical scenario. Conclusions: From the available observational evidence, we suggest that the most promising scenario to explain the nature of these sources is a system consisting of a one-sided radio galaxy, where the point-like source is an active galactic nucleus and the extended source

  2. Autonomous robotic platforms for locating radio sources buried under rubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasu, A. S.; Anchidin, L.; Tamas, R.; Paun, M.; Danisor, A.; Petrescu, T.

    2016-12-01

    This paper deals with the use of autonomous robotic platforms able to locate radio signal sources such as mobile phones, buried under collapsed buildings as a result of earthquakes, natural disasters, terrorism, war, etc. This technique relies on averaging position data resulting from a propagation model implemented on the platform and the data acquired by robotic platforms at the disaster site. That allows us to calculate the approximate position of radio sources buried under the rubble. Based on measurements, a radio map of the disaster site is made, very useful for locating victims and for guiding specific rubble lifting machinery, by assuming that there is a victim next to a mobile device detected by the robotic platform; by knowing the approximate position, the lifting machinery does not risk to further hurt the victims. Moreover, by knowing the positions of the victims, the reaction time is decreased, and the chances of survival for the victims buried under the rubble, are obviously increased.

  3. The spectral evolution of low-frequency variable radio sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennison, B.; Broderick, J. J.; Odell, S. L.; Mitchell, K. J.; Altschuler, D. R.; Payne, H. E.; Condon, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    The dynamic spectra of several low frequency extragalactic radio sources are presented. The observations were made at 318, 430, 606, 880, and 1400 MHz at several different radio observatories around the U.S. Two outbursts were observed in AO 0235 + 16 at 1.4 GHz, followed by a diminished variation at the lower frequencies. The dynamic frequencies of NRAO 140, PKS 1117 + 14, DA 406, CTA 102, and 3C 454.3 do not fit the same pattern. These radio sources displayed the following characteristics: (1) departure from straight or curved spectra at the frequencies of variation; (2) no obvious frequency drifting; and (3) negligible variation at 1.4 GHz. Possible explanations for this behavior are briefly discussed.

  4. The radio structure source of X-ray-selected BL Lacertae objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perlman, Eric S.; Stocke, John T.

    1993-01-01

    Arcsecond-size radio structure for a complete sample of 14 X-ray-selected BL Lac objects (XBLs) from the Einstein Extended Medium-Sensitivity Survey is presented. Most objects possess radio morphologies which are similar to those of nearby Fanaroff-Riley type 1 (FR 1) radio galaxies once the effects of surface brightness dimming and beam dilution as a function of redshift are taken into account. In order to test the beamed FR 1 hypothesis for BL Lac objects, the core and extended power levels are determined for these sources and compared with samples of radio-selected BL Lac objects (RBLs) and FR 1 from galaxies from the literature. RBLs and XBLs are found to possess extended (and thus unbeamed) power levels and the largest angular sizes similar to those of the FR 1 galaxies both supporting the beaming hypothesis and a common parent population for XBLs and RBLs.

  5. Host Galaxies of X-Shaped Radio Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Springmann, Alessondra; /Wellesley Coll. /SLAC

    2006-09-27

    The majority of radiation from galaxies containing active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is emitted not by the stars composing the galaxy, but from an active source at the galactic center, most likely a supermassive black hole. Of particular interest are radio galaxies, the active galaxies emitting much of their radiation at radio wavelengths. Within each radio galaxy, an AGN powers a pair of collimated jets of relativistic particles, forming a pair of giant lobes at the end of the jets and thus giving a characteristic double-lobed appearance. A particular class of radio galaxies have an ''X''-shaped morphology: in these, two pairs of lobes appear to originate from the galactic center, producing a distinctive X-shape. Two main mechanisms have been proposed to explain the X-shape morphology: one being through the merger of a binary supermassive black hole system and the second being that the radio jets are expanding into an asymmetric medium. By analyzing radio host galaxy shapes, we probe the distribution of the stellar mass to compare the differing model expectations regarding the distribution of the surrounding gas and stellar material about the AGN.

  6. Deep 610-MHz Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope observations of the Spitzer extragalactic First Look Survey field - III. The radio properties of infrared-faint radio sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garn, Timothy; Alexander, Paul

    2008-12-01

    Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRSs) are a class of source which are bright at radio frequencies, but do not appear in deep infrared images. We report the detection of 14 IFRSs within the Spitzer extragalactic First Look Survey field, eight of which are detected near to the limiting magnitude of a deep R-band image of the region, at R ~ 24.5. Sensitive Spitzer Space Telescope images are stacked in order to place upper limits on their mid-infrared flux densities, and using recent 610-MHz and 1.4-GHz observations we find that they have spectral indices which vary between α = 0.05 and 1.38, where we define α such that Sν = S0ν-α, and should not be thought of as a single source population. We place constraints on the luminosity and linear size of these sources, and through comparison with well-studied local objects in the Revised Revised Third Cambridge catalogue demonstrate that they can be modelled as being compact (<20 kpc) Fanaroff-Riley type II (FRII) radio galaxies located at high redshift (z ~ 4).

  7. Chandra Observations of Dying Radio Sources in Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murgia, M.; Markevitch, M.; Govoni, F.; Parma, P.; Fanti, R.; de Ruiter, H. R.; Mack, K.-H.

    2012-01-01

    Context. The dying radio sources represent a very interesting and largely unexplored stage of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) evolution. They are considered to be very rare, and almost all of the few known ones were found in galaxy clusters. However, considering the small number detected so far, it has not been possible to draw any firm conclusions about their X-ray environment. Aims. We present X-ray observations performed with the Chandra satellite of the three galaxy clusters Abell 2276, ZwCl 1829.3+6912, and RX J1852.1+5711, which harbor at their center a dying radio source with an ultra-steep spectrum that we recently discovered. Methods. We analyzed the physical properties of the X-ray emitting gas surrounding these elusive radio sources. We determined the global X-ray properties of the clusters, derived the azimuthally averaged profiles of metal abundance, gas temperature, density, and pressure. Furthermore, we estimated the total mass profiles. Results. The large-scale X-ray emission is regular and spherical, suggesting a relaxed state for these systems. Indeed, we found that the three clusters are also characterized by significant enhancements in the metal abundance and declining temperature profiles toward the central region. For all these reasons, we classified RX J1852.1+5711, Abell 2276, and ZwCl 1829.3+6912 as cool-core galaxy clusters. Conclusions. We calculated the non-thermal pressure of the radio lobes assuming that the radio sources are in the minimum energy condition. For all dying sources we found that this is on average about one to two orders of magnitude lower than that of the external gas, as found for many other radio sources at the center of galaxy groups and clusters. We found marginal evidence for the presence of X-ray surface brightness depressions coincident with the fossil radio lobes of the dying sources in A2276 and ZwCl 1829.3+691. We estimated the outburst age and energy output for these two dying sources. The energy power from

  8. Chandra observations of dying radio sources in galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murgia, M.; Markevitch, M.; Govoni, F.; Parma, P.; Fanti, R.; de Ruiter, H. R.; Mack, K.-H.

    2012-12-01

    Context. The dying radio sources represent a very interesting and largely unexplored stage of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) evolution. They are considered to be very rare, and almost all of the few known ones were found in galaxy clusters. However, considering the small number detected so far, it has not been possible to draw any firm conclusions about their X-ray environment. Aims: We present X-ray observations performed with the Chandra satellite of the three galaxy clusters Abell 2276, ZwCl 1829.3+6912, and RX J1852.1+5711, which harbor at their center a dying radio source with an ultra-steep spectrum that we recently discovered. Methods: We analyzed the physical properties of the X-ray emitting gas surrounding these elusive radio sources. We determined the global X-ray properties of the clusters, derived the azimuthally averaged profiles of metal abundance, gas temperature, density, and pressure. Furthermore, we estimated the total mass profiles. Results: The large-scale X-ray emission is regular and spherical, suggesting a relaxed state for these systems. Indeed, we found that the three clusters are also characterized by significant enhancements in the metal abundance and declining temperature profiles toward the central region. For all these reasons, we classified RX J1852.1+5711, Abell 2276, and ZwCl 1829.3+6912 as cool-core galaxy clusters. Conclusions: We calculated the non-thermal pressure of the radio lobes assuming that the radio sources are in the minimum energy condition. For all dying sources we found that this is on average about one to two orders of magnitude lower than that of the external gas, as found for many other radio sources at the center of galaxy groups and clusters. We found marginal evidence for the presence of X-ray surface brightness depressions coincident with the fossil radio lobes of the dying sources in A2276 and ZwCl 1829.3+691. We estimated the outburst age and energy output for these two dying sources. The energy power from

  9. Double Lobed Radio Sources in Cl1604 at z .9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirisky, Stephen; Gal, R.

    2010-05-01

    We present findings from the Observations of Redshift Evolution in Large-Scale Environments (ORELSE) super cluster survey. The super cluster Cl1604 residing at z 9 is one of only a few such large scale structures discovered at high redshift. The structure has been imaged in a variety of wavelengths, including radio, optical, infrared, and x-ray, and spectroscopic measurements have been taken using DEIMOS and LRIS on Keck. Using the 1.4 GHz VLA maps and HST optical imaging of Cl 1604 to visually inspect for double radio sources with associated optical host galaxies, we have confirmed three double lobed radio sources within the large scale structure. From the observations of these sources, we calculate radio luminosities and lobe separations using data from previously discovered double lobes at similar redshifts in the VVDS and FIRST surveys. Furthermore, we examine the host galaxy properties, including optical colors, morphologies, spectra, and each of their specific locations within the constituent cluster and the broader super cluster. Although the low number of sources limits statistical analysis, we find that the double lobes only appear in the large scale structure, and within the large scale structure only in areas of high galactic density.

  10. Plasma phenomenology in astrophysical systems: Radio-sources and jets

    SciTech Connect

    Montani, Giovanni; Petitta, Jacopo

    2014-06-15

    We review the plasma phenomenology in the astrophysical sources which show appreciable radio emissions, namely Radio-Jets from Pulsars, Microquasars, Quasars, and Radio-Active Galaxies. A description of their basic features is presented, then we discuss in some details the links between their morphology and the mechanisms that lead to the different radio-emissions, investigating especially the role played by the plasma configurations surrounding compact objects (Neutron Stars, Black Holes). For the sake of completeness, we briefly mention observational techniques and detectors, whose structure set them apart from other astrophysical instruments. The fundamental ideas concerning angular momentum transport across plasma accretion disks—together with the disk-source-jet coupling problem—are discussed, by stressing their successes and their shortcomings. An alternative scenario is then inferred, based on a parallelism between astrophysical and laboratory plasma configurations, where small-scale structures can be found. We will focus our attention on the morphology of the radio-jets, on their coupling with the accretion disks and on the possible triggering phenomena, viewed as profiles of plasma instabilities.

  11. Saddle antenna radio frequency ion sources.

    PubMed

    Dudnikov, V; Johnson, R; Murray, S; Pennisi, T; Santana, M; Piller, C; Stockli, M; Welton, R; Breitschopf, J; Dudnikova, G

    2016-02-01

    Existing RF ion sources for accelerators have specific efficiencies for H(+) and H(-) ion generation ∼3-5 mA/cm(2) kW, where about 50 kW of RF power is typically needed for 50 mA beam current production. The Saddle Antenna (SA) surface plasma source (SPS) described here was developed to improve H(-) ion production efficiency, reliability, and availability. In SA RF ion source, the efficiency of positive ion generation in the plasma has been improved to 200 mA/cm(2) kW. After cesiation, the current of negative ions to the collector was increased from 1 mA to 10 mA with RF power ∼1.5 kW in the plasma (6 mm diameter emission aperture) and up to 30 mA with ∼4 kW RF. Continuous wave (CW) operation of the SA SPS has been tested on the test stand. The general design of the CW SA SPS is based on the pulsed version. Some modifications were made to improve the cooling and cesiation stability. CW operation with negative ion extraction was tested with RF power up to ∼1.2 kW in the plasma with production up to Ic = 7 mA. A stable long time generation of H(-) beam without degradation was demonstrated in RF discharge with AlN discharge chamber.

  12. Saddle antenna radio frequency ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Dudnikov, V. Johnson, R.; Murray, S.; Pennisi, T.; Santana, M.; Piller, C.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R.; Breitschopf, J.; Dudnikova, G.

    2016-02-15

    Existing RF ion sources for accelerators have specific efficiencies for H{sup +} and H{sup −} ion generation ∼3–5 mA/cm{sup 2} kW, where about 50 kW of RF power is typically needed for 50 mA beam current production. The Saddle Antenna (SA) surface plasma source (SPS) described here was developed to improve H{sup −} ion production efficiency, reliability, and availability. In SA RF ion source, the efficiency of positive ion generation in the plasma has been improved to 200 mA/cm{sup 2} kW. After cesiation, the current of negative ions to the collector was increased from 1 mA to 10 mA with RF power ∼1.5 kW in the plasma (6 mm diameter emission aperture) and up to 30 mA with ∼4 kW RF. Continuous wave (CW) operation of the SA SPS has been tested on the test stand. The general design of the CW SA SPS is based on the pulsed version. Some modifications were made to improve the cooling and cesiation stability. CW operation with negative ion extraction was tested with RF power up to ∼1.2 kW in the plasma with production up to Ic = 7 mA. A stable long time generation of H{sup −} beam without degradation was demonstrated in RF discharge with AlN discharge chamber.

  13. Dense plasma focus (DPF) accelerated non radio isotopic radiological source

    DOEpatents

    Rusnak, Brian; Tang, Vincent

    2017-01-31

    A non-radio-isotopic radiological source using a dense plasma focus (DPF) to produce an intense z-pinch plasma from a gas, such as helium, and which accelerates charged particles, such as generated from the gas or injected from an external source, into a target positioned along an acceleration axis and of a type known to emit ionizing radiation when impinged by the type of accelerated charged particles. In a preferred embodiment, helium gas is used to produce a DPF-accelerated He2+ ion beam to a beryllium target, to produce neutron emission having a similar energy spectrum as a radio-isotopic AmBe neutron source. Furthermore, multiple DPFs may be stacked to provide staged acceleration of charged particles for enhancing energy, tunability, and control of the source.

  14. Radio emission from an ultraluminous x-ray source.

    PubMed

    Kaaret, Philip; Corbel, Stephane; Prestwich, Andrea H; Zezas, Andreas

    2003-01-17

    The physical nature of ultraluminous x-ray sources is uncertain. Stellar-mass black holes with beamed radiation and intermediate black holes with isotropic radiation are two plausible explanations. We discovered radio emission from an ultraluminous x-ray source in the dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 5408. The x-ray, radio, and optical fluxes as well as the x-ray spectral shape are consistent with beamed relativistic jet emission from an accreting stellar black hole. If confirmed, this would suggest that the ultraluminous x-ray sources may be stellar-mass rather than intermediate-mass black holes. However, interpretation of the source as a jet-producing intermediate-mass black hole cannot be ruled out at this time.

  15. Physical Conditions in Faint Gigahertz-Peaked Spectrum Radio Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyul'Bashev, S. A.

    2001-06-01

    Weak, compact radio sources (˜100 mJy peak flux, L˜1 10 pc) with their spectral peaks at about a gigahertz are studied, based on the complete sample of 46 radio sources of Snellen, drawn from high-sensitivity surveys, including the low-frequency Westerbork catalog. The physical parameters have been estimated for 14 sources: the magnetic field (H ⊥), the number density of relativistic particles (n e), the energy of the magnetic field , and the energy of relativistic particles (E e). Ten sources have & $E_{H_ bot } ≪ E_e ; , three have approximate equipartition of the energies & (E_{H_ bot } ˜ E_e ) ; , and only one has & E_{H_ bot } ≫ E_e ; . The mean magnetic fields in quasars (10-3 G) and galaxies (10-2 G) have been estimated. The magnetic field appears to be related to the sizes of compact features as & H ˜ 1/sqrt L $ ; .

  16. Observation on the Radio Telescope Uran-4 Of Radio Sources, Connected with the Coronal Mass Ejection on the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galanin, V. V.; Derevjagin, V. G.; Kravetz, R. O.

    In 2012 and 2013 the observations of radio sources covering by the solar corona was conducted on the radio telescope URAN-4. In obtained data there was fixed the records of the strong radio sources, which had flow level comparable with the 3c461 source. As a result of information analysis from miscellaneous observatories about the solar activity conditions there is done the conclusion that they are connected with the coronal mass ejections which was took place that time.

  17. Flat-spectrum radio source C1 in M33 is a background radio galaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, S.P.; Fix, J.D.

    1988-10-01

    A candidate Crab-like supernova remnant in M33 discovered in a high-resolution survey of compact radio sources (Reynolds and Fix, 1987) has been observed. VLA observations at 1465 and 4885 MHz show that it is simply the flat-spectrum core of a completely normal double-lobed radio galaxy. This eliminates the last candidate Crab-like object in M33 whose size and brightness do not at all resemble those of the Crab Nebula, and confirms the dearth of Crab-like supernova remnants reported earlier. 7 references.

  18. Planck intermediate results. XLV. Radio spectra of northern extragalactic radio sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.; Arnaud, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Burigana, C.; Calabrese, E.; Catalano, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gruppuso, A.; Gurwell, M. A.; Hansen, F. K.; Harrison, D. L.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hobson, M.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovatta, T.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Järvelä, E.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mingaliev, M.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Nieppola, E.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G. W.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Rastorgueva-Foi, E. A.; S Readhead, A. C.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Richards, J. L.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Sotnikova, Y.; Stolyarov, V.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tammi, J.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tornikoski, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Türler, M.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Valtaoja, E.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wehrle, A. E.; Wehus, I. K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-12-01

    Continuum spectra covering centimetre to submillimetre wavelengths are presented for a northern sample of 104 extragalactic radio sources, mainly active galactic nuclei, based on four-epoch Planck data. The nine Planck frequencies, from 30 to 857 GHz, are complemented by a set of simultaneous ground-based radio observations between 1.1 and 37 GHz. The single-survey Planck data confirm that the flattest high-frequency radio spectral indices are close to zero, indicating that the original accelerated electron energy spectrum is much harder than commonly thought, with power-law index around 1.5 instead of the canonical 2.5. The radio spectra peak at high frequencies and exhibit a variety of shapes. For a small set of low-z sources, we find a spectral upturn at high frequencies, indicating the presence of intrinsic cold dust. Variability can generally be approximated by achromatic variations, while sources with clear signatures of evolving shocks appear to be limited to the strongest outbursts.

  19. Planck intermediate results: XLV. Radio spectra of northern extragalactic radio sources

    DOE PAGES

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Aller, H. D.; ...

    2016-12-12

    Continuum spectra covering centimetre to submillimetre wavelengths are presented in this paper for a northern sample of 104 extragalactic radio sources, mainly active galactic nuclei, based on four-epoch Planck data. The nine Planck frequencies, from 30 to 857 GHz, are complemented by a set of simultaneous ground-based radio observations between 1.1 and 37 GHz. The single-survey Planck data confirm that the flattest high-frequency radio spectral indices are close to zero, indicating that the original accelerated electron energy spectrum is much harder than commonly thought, with power-law index around 1.5 instead of the canonical 2.5. The radio spectra peak at highmore » frequencies and exhibit a variety of shapes. For a small set of low-z sources, we find a spectral upturn at high frequencies, indicating the presence of intrinsic cold dust. Finally, variability can generally be approximated by achromatic variations, while sources with clear signatures of evolving shocks appear to be limited to the strongest outbursts.« less

  20. The TexOx-1000 redshift survey of radio sources I: the TOOT00 region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vardoulaki, Eleni; Rawlings, Steve; Hill, Gary J.; Mauch, Tom; Inskip, Katherine J.; Riley, Julia; Brand, Kate; Croft, Steve; Willott, Chris J.

    2010-01-01

    We present optical spectroscopy, near-infrared (mostly K-band) and radio (151-MHz and 1.4-GHz) imaging of the first complete region (TOOT00) of the TexOx-1000 (TOOT) redshift survey of radio sources. The 0.0015-sr (~5 deg2) TOOT00 region is selected from pointed observations of the Cambridge Low-Frequency Survey Telescope at 151 MHz at a flux density limit of ~=100 mJy, approximately five times fainter than the 7C Redshift Survey (7CRS), and contains 47 radio sources. We have obtained 40 spectroscopic redshifts (~85 per cent completeness). Adding redshifts estimated for the seven other cases yields a median redshift zmed ~ 1.25. We find a significant population of objects with Fanaroff-Riley type I (FRI) like radio structures at radio luminosities above both the low-redshift FRI/II break and the break in the radio luminosity function. The redshift distribution and subpopulations of TOOT00 are broadly consistent with extrapolations from the 7CRS/6CE/3CRR data sets underlying the SKADS Simulated Skies Semi-Empirical Extragalactic Data base, S3-SEX.

  1. Low Frequency Spectral Structure of X-shaped Radio Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lal, D. V.; Rao, A. P.

    2005-12-01

    X-shaped radio galaxies are attributed to be formed by galactic mergers as the black holes of two galaxies fall into the merged system and form a bound system. Recent analysis of Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope low frequency data for an X-shaped source, 3C 223.1 has revealed an unusual result (Lal & Rao 2004). The radio morphologies of it at 240 and 610 MHz show well defined X-shape with a pair of active jets along the north-south axis and a pair of wings along the east-west axis, that pass symmetrically through the undetected radio core. The wings (or low surface brightness jets) have flatter spectral indices with respect to the high surface brightness jets, which confirms the earlier marginal result obtained at high frequency by Dennett-Thorpe et al. (2002). Although unusual, it is a valuable result which puts stringent constraints on the formation models and nature of these sources. We present preliminary results for two such sources.

  2. EVIDENCE FOR INFRARED-FAINT RADIO SOURCES AS z > 1 RADIO-LOUD ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Huynh, Minh T.; Norris, Ray P.; Siana, Brian; Middelberg, Enno

    2010-02-10

    Infrared-Faint Radio Sources (IFRSs) are a class of radio objects found in the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey which have no observable mid-infrared counterpart in the Spitzer Wide-area Infrared Extragalactic (SWIRE) survey. The extended Chandra Deep Field South now has even deeper Spitzer imaging (3.6-70 {mu}m) from a number of Legacy surveys. We report the detections of two IFRS sources in IRAC images. The non-detection of two other IFRSs allows us to constrain the source type. Detailed modeling of the spectral energy distribution of these objects shows that they are consistent with high-redshift (z {approx}> 1) active galactic nuclei.

  3. Cosmic Star-Formation History Since Z 5 And Faint Radio Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Mladen

    2017-06-01

    We make use of the deep VLA-COSMOS radio observations at 3 GHz to infer radio luminosity functions using approximately 6000 star-forming galaxies and 1800 AGN hosts up to redshift of z 5. This is currently the largest radio-selected sample available out to such high redshift across an area of 2 square degrees with a sensitivity of rms=2.3 ujy/beam. For both populations we find a strong redshift trend that can be fitted with a two-parameter pure luminosity evolution model. We estimate star formation rates (SFR) from our radio luminosities using an IR-radio correlation that is redshift dependent. Our data suggest that the cosmic SFR density (SFRD) history peaks about z 2.5 and that the ultraluminous infrared galaxies contribute up to 25% to the total SFRD at the same redshift. We find evidence of a potential underestimation of SFRD based on UV rest-frame observations of Lyman break galaxies. Finally, we use our evolution models to calculate the radio source counts down to SKA sensitivity limits thus providing better constraints for the next generation radio surveys.

  4. Radiative excitation of molecules near powerful compact radio sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maloney, Philip R.; Begelman, Mitchell C.; Rees, Martin J.

    1994-01-01

    In a recent paper, Barvainis & Antonucci searched for and failed to detect CO J = 1 goes to 0 absorption from the obscuring torus in the nearby powerful radio galaxy Cygnus A. We show that a plausible explanation for the lack of absorption (assuming that the ionization parameter within the torus is low enough for the gas to be molecular) is that radiative excitation of the CO molecules by the nonthermal radio continuum increases the excitation temperature of the lower rotational levels substantially, reducing the optical depths. The excitation temperature may approach the brightness temperature of the radio source at high enough flux-to-density ratios. Heating of the gas by the nonthermal excitation may also be important. We discuss the region of parameter space in which this excitation mechanism will be important and the implications for observations of obscuring tori.

  5. Properties of Radio Sources in the FRB 121102 Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bower, Geoffrey C.; Chatterjee, Shami; Wharton, Robert; Law, Casey J.; Hessels, Jason; Spolaor, Sarah; Abruzzo, Matthew W.; Bassa, Cees; Butler, Bryan J.; Cordes, James M.; Demorest, Paul; Kaspi, Victoria M.; McLaughlin, Maura; Ransom, Scott M.; Scholz, Paul; Seymour, Andrew; Spitler, Laura; Tendulkar, Shriharsh P.; PALFA Survey; VLA+AO FRB121102 Simultaneous Campaign Team; EVN FRB121102 Campaign Team; Realfast Team

    2017-01-01

    Fast radio bursts are millisecond duration radio pulses of unknown origin. With dispersion measures substantially in excess of expected Galactic contributions, FRBs are inferred to originate extragalactically, implying very high luminosities. Models include a wide range of high energy systems such as magnetars, merging neutron star binaries, black holes, and strong stellar magnetic fields driving coherent radio emission. Central to the mystery of FRB origins are the absence of confirmed host objects at any wavelength. This is primarily the result of the poor localization from single dish detection of FRBs. Of the approximately 20 known examples, only one, FRB 121102, has been observed to repeat. This repetition presents an opportunity for detailed follow-up if interferometric localization to arcsecond accuracy can be obtained. The Very Large Array has previously been used to localize individual pulses from pulsars and rotating radio transients to arcsecond localizaiton. We present here the results of radio observations of the field of FRB 121102 that permit us to constrain models of possible progenitors of this bursting source. These observations can characterize active galactic nuclei, stars, and other progenitor objects.

  6. OPTICAL SPECTRA OF CANDIDATE INTERNATIONAL CELESTIAL REFERENCE FRAME (ICRF) FLAT-SPECTRUM RADIO SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Titov, O.; Stanford, Laura M.; Johnston, Helen M.; Hunstead, Richard W.; Pursimo, T.; Jauncey, David L.; Maslennikov, K.

    2013-07-01

    Continuing our program of spectroscopic observations of International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) sources, we present redshifts for 120 quasars and radio galaxies. Data were obtained with five telescopes: the 3.58 m European Southern Observatory New Technology Telescope, the two 8.2 m Gemini telescopes, the 2.5 m Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT), and the 6.0 m Big Azimuthal Telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory in Russia. The targets were selected from the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry candidate International Celestial Reference Catalog which forms part of an observational very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) program to strengthen the celestial reference frame. We obtained spectra of the potential optical counterparts of more than 150 compact flat-spectrum radio sources, and measured redshifts of 120 emission-line objects, together with 19 BL Lac objects. These identifications add significantly to the precise radio-optical frame tie to be undertaken by Gaia, due to be launched in 2013, and to the existing data available for analyzing source proper motions over the celestial sphere. We show that the distribution of redshifts for ICRF sources is consistent with the much larger sample drawn from Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty cm (FIRST) and Sloan Digital Sky Survey, implying that the ultra-compact VLBI sources are not distinguished from the overall radio-loud quasar population. In addition, we obtained NOT spectra for five radio sources from the FIRST and NRAO VLA Sky Survey catalogs, selected on the basis of their red colors, which yielded three quasars with z > 4.

  7. Flat-Spectrum Radio Sources as Likely Counterparts of Unidentified INTEGRAL Sources (Research Note)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molina, M.; Landi, R.; Bassani, L.; Malizia, A.; Stephen, J. B.; Bazzano, A.; Bird, A. J.; Gehrels, N.

    2012-01-01

    Many sources in the fourth INTEGRAL/IBIS catalogue are still unidentified since they lack an optical counterpart. An important tool that can help in identifying and classifying these sources is the cross-correlation with radio catalogues, which are very sensitive and positionally accurate. Moreover, the radio properties of a source, such as the spectrum or morphology, could provide further insight into its nature. In particular, flat-spectrum radio sources at high Galactic latitudes are likely to be AGN, possibly associated to a blazar or to the compact core of a radio galaxy. Here we present a small sample of 6 sources extracted from the fourth INTEGRAL/IBIS catalogue that are still unidentified or unclassified, but which are very likely associated with a bright, flat-spectrum radio object. To confirm the association and to study the source X-ray spectral parameters, we performed X-ray follow-up observations with Swift/XRT of all objects. We report in this note the overall results obtained from this search and discuss the nature of each individual INTEGRAL source. We find that 5 of the 6 radio associations are also detected in X-rays; furthermore, in 3 cases they are the only counterpart found. More specifically, IGR J06073-0024 is a flat-spectrum radio quasar at z = 1.08, IGR J14488-4008 is a newly discovered radio galaxy, while IGR J18129-0649 is an AGN of a still unknown type. The nature of two sources (IGR J07225-3810 and IGR J19386-4653) is less well defined, since in both cases we find another X-ray source in the INTEGRAL error circle; nevertheless, the flat-spectrum radio source, likely to be a radio loud AGN, remains a viable and, in fact, a more convincing association in both cases. Only for the last object (IGR J11544-7618) could we not find any convincing counterpart since the radio association is not an X-ray emitter, while the only X-ray source seen in the field is a G star and therefore unlikely to produce the persistent emission seen by INTEGRAL.

  8. Faint Radio Source Constraints on the Origin of the Hard X-ray Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, E. C.; Helfand, D. J.

    1999-04-01

    ASCA and BeppoSAX have greatly expanded our understanding of the hard X-ray properties of nearby starburst and Seyfert galaxies, allowing, for the first time, detailed estimates of their respective contributions to the hard X-ray background (XRB) to be made. Unfortunately, the sensitivities of these instruments are insufficient to probe either population directly at intermediate and high redshifts, where the majority of the XRB originates. As a result, discrete-source XRB models must typically rely on highly uncertain assumptions about the evolution of potential contributors with cosmic time. Clearly, it would be helpful to identify an observational constraint that minimizes (or eliminates) the need for these assumptions. Since X-ray galaxies of all types produce radio emission in conjunction with their particular brand of activity, we propose that the faint radio source population may provide such a constraint. Existing deep radio surveys, which extend to the microjansky level, should contain both starburst and Seyfert galaxies at cosmological distances. However, optical identification programs carried out to date have revealed that the majority of sub-mJy radio sources are associated with star-forming galaxies rather than AGNs, suggesting that the starburst contribution to the XRB could be significant. By combining hard X-ray and radio data for nearby starburst galaxies with the measured log N--log S relation for sub-mJy radio sources, we estimate that starburst galaxies may produce as much as 15--45% of the 5 keV XRB. Preliminary results of a similar analysis for Seyfert galaxies are complimentary, indicating that these objects cannot be responsible for all of the hard XRB.

  9. A radio telescope for the calibration of radio sources at 32 gigahertz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatti, M. S.; Stewart, S. R.; Bowen, J. G.; Paulsen, E. B.

    1994-01-01

    A 1.5-m-diameter radio telescope has been designed, developed, and assembled to directly measure the flux density of radio sources in the 32-GHz (Ka-band) frequency band. The main goal of the design and development was to provide a system that could yield the greatest absolute accuracy yet possible with such a system. The accuracy of the measurements have a heritage that is traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology. At the present time, the absolute accuracy of flux density measurements provided by this telescope system, during Venus observations at nearly closest approach to Earth, is plus or minus 5 percent, with an associated precision of plus or minus 2 percent. Combining a cooled high-electron mobility transistor low-noise amplifier, twin-beam Dicke switching antenna, and accurate positioning system resulted in a state-of-the-art system at 32 GHz. This article describes the design and performance of the system as it was delivered to the Owens Valley Radio Observatory to support direct calibrations of the strongest radio sources at Ka-band.

  10. IGR J06074+2205 - possible association with radio source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pooley, Guy

    2004-01-01

    The radio source NVSS J060718+220452 (34.9 mJy at 1.4 GHz, resolution 45 arcsec: Condon et al AJ 115 1693 (1998)) lies some 80 arcsec from the reported position of the transient X-ray source IGR J06074+2205 (ATEL #223). While this is within the current uncertainty in the X-ray position, it may be a chance coincidence. An observation with the Ryle Telescope, Cambridge, at 15 GHz on 2004 Jan 29 shows an unresolved source (resolution 25 x 65 arcsec2) of 4.0 +/- 0.2 mJy.

  11. VLBI observations of Infrared-Faint Radio Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middelberg, Enno; Phillips, Chris; Norris, Ray; Tingay, Steven

    2006-10-01

    We propose to observe a small sample of radio sources from the ATLAS project (ATLAS = Australia Telescope Large Area Survey) with the LBA, to determine their compactness and map their structures. The sample consists of three radio sources with no counterpart in the co-located SWIRE survey (3.6 um to 160 um), carried out with the Spitzer Space Telescope. This rare class of sources, dubbed Infrared-Faint Radio Sources, or IFRS, is inconsistent with current galaxy evolution models. VLBI observations are an essential way to obtain further clues on what these objects are and why they are hidden from infrared observations: we will map their structure to test whether they resemble core-jet or double-lobed morphologies, and we will measure the flux densities on long baselines, to determine their compactness. Previous snapshot-style LBA observations of two other IFRS yielded no detections, hence we propose to use disk-based recording with 512 Mbps where possible, for highest sensitivity. With the observations proposed here, we will increase the number of VLBI-observed IFRS from two to five, soon allowing us to draw general conclusions about this intriguing new class of objects.

  12. SDSS J143244.91+301435.3: a link between radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies and compact steep-spectrum radio sources?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caccianiga, A.; Antón, S.; Ballo, L.; Dallacasa, D.; Della Ceca, R.; Fanali, R.; Foschini, L.; Hamilton, T.; Kraus, A.; Maccacaro, T.; Mack, K.-H.; Marchã, M. J.; Paulino-Afonso, A.; Sani, E.; Severgnini, P.

    2014-06-01

    We present SDSS J143244.91+301435.3, a new case of a radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 (RL NLS1) with a relatively high radio power (P1.4 GHz = 2.1 × 1025 W Hz-1) and large radio-loudness parameter (R1.4 = 600 ± 100). The radio source is compact with a linear size below ˜1.4 kpc but, in contrast to most of the RL NLS1 discovered so far with such a high R1.4, its radio spectrum is very steep (α = 0.93, Sν ∝ ν-α) and does not support a `blazar-like' nature. Both the small mass of the central supermassive black hole and the high accretion rate relative to the Eddington limit estimated for this object (3.2 × 107 M⊙ and 0.27, respectively, with a formal error of ˜0.4 dex for both quantities) are typical of the NLS1 class. Through modelling the spectral energy distribution of the source, we have found that the galaxy hosting SDSS J143244.91+301435.3 is undergoing quite intense star formation (SFR = 50 M⊙ yr-1), which, however, is expected to contribute only marginally (˜1 per cent) to the observed radio emission. The radio properties of SDSS J143244.91+301435.3 are remarkably similar to those of compact steep-spectrum (CSS) radio sources, a class of active galactic nuclei (AGN) mostly composed of young radio galaxies. This may suggest a direct link between these two classes of AGN, with CSS sources possibly representing the misaligned version (the so-called `parent population') of RL NLS1 showing blazar characteristics.

  13. Observations of the power cosmic radio sources on the radio telescope URAN-4 during 1998 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derevyagin, V. G.; Isaeva, E. A.; Kravetz, R. O.; Litvinenko, O. A.; Panishko, S. K.

    2005-10-01

    To investigate the variability of the flux density, observations of four power radio sources (3C144, 3C274, 3C405 and 3C461) were carried out on the radio telescope URAN-4 at two frequencies, 20 and 25MHz, during 1998 2005. The automatic procedure for obtaining the observations is considered briefly in this paper. The results of previous procedures are presented in the tables. They contained information that allows the vast amount of material that has been gathered to be analysed in more detail as follows: estimation of the source flux densities, study of ionospheric scintillations, investigation of the dependence of the direction pattern on the hour angle and the solving of other tasks. The dependence of the URAN-4 direction pattern on the hour angle is cited as an example of the mean procedure using many observation data. Long-time observation series allowed the cycle year dependence of the ionospheric scintillation index to be obtained.

  14. Degree of polarization and source counts of faint radio sources from Stacking Polarized intensity

    SciTech Connect

    Stil, J. M.; George, S. J.; Keller, B. W.; Taylor, A. R.

    2014-06-01

    We present stacking polarized intensity as a means to study the polarization of sources that are too faint to be detected individually in surveys of polarized radio sources. Stacking offers not only high sensitivity to the median signal of a class of radio sources, but also avoids a detection threshold in polarized intensity, and therefore an arbitrary exclusion of sources with a low percentage of polarization. Correction for polarization bias is done through a Monte Carlo analysis and tested on a simulated survey. We show that the nonlinear relation between the real polarized signal and the detected signal requires knowledge of the shape of the distribution of fractional polarization, which we constrain using the ratio of the upper quartile to the lower quartile of the distribution of stacked polarized intensities. Stacking polarized intensity for NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) sources down to the detection limit in Stokes I, we find a gradual increase in median fractional polarization that is consistent with a trend that was noticed before for bright NVSS sources, but is much more gradual than found by previous deep surveys of radio polarization. Consequently, the polarized radio source counts derived from our stacking experiment predict fewer polarized radio sources for future surveys with the Square Kilometre Array and its pathfinders.

  15. Do the enigmatic ``Infrared-Faint Radio Sources'' include pulsars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, George; Middelberg, Enno; Norris, Ray; Keith, Michael; Mao, Minnie; Champion, David

    2009-04-01

    The Australia Telescope Large Area Survey (ATLAS) team have surveyed seven square degrees of sky at 1.4GHz. During processing some unexpected infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS sources) were discovered. The nature of these sources is not understood, but it is possible that some of these sources may be pulsars within our own galaxy. We propose to observe the IFRS sources with steep spectral indices using standard search techniques to determine whether or not they are pulsars. A pulsar detection would 1) remove a subset of the IFRS sources from the ATLAS sample so they would not need to be observed with large optical/IR telescopes to find their hosts and 2) be intrinsically interesting as the pulsar would be a millisecond pulsar and/or have an extreme spatial velocity.

  16. Radio spectra of extragalactic sources and the relativistic beaming model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckart, A.; Hummel, C. A.; Witzel, A.

    1989-07-01

    Multiepoch radio spectra of 308 extragalactic radio sources taken from the 1-Jy catalog (Kuhr et al., 1981) are analyzed, correlating the spectral index, spectral curvature, and degree of variability. These quantities are statistically interdependent, and their distributions can be used to distinguish between galaxies, quasars, optically violent variable sources, and BL Lac objects. These spectral associations are explained using a relativistic beaming model involving a nonvariable steep spectrum component and a core component with an inverted spectrum exhibiting an intrinsic variability of about 30 percent. At 5 GHz, the flux density ratio of the core component (seen at an angle of 90 deg) to the steep-spectrum component is about 0.03 or larger.

  17. Morphology and astrometry of Infrared-Faint Radio Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middelberg, Enno; Norris, Ray; Randall, Kate; Mao, Minnie; Hales, Christopher

    2008-10-01

    Infrared-Faint Radio Sources, or IFRS, are an unexpected class of object discovered in the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey, ATLAS. They are compact 1.4GHz radio sources with no visible counterparts in co-located (relatively shallow) Spitzer infrared and optical images. We have detected two of these objects with VLBI, indicating the presence of an AGN. These observations and our ATLAS data indicate that IFRS are extended on scales of arcseconds, and we wish to image their morphologies to obtain clues about their nature. These observations will also help us to select optical counterparts from very deep, and hence crowded, optical images which we have proposed. With these data in hand, we will be able to compare IFRS to known object types and to apply for spectroscopy to obtain their redshifts.

  18. Arcsecond positions for milliarcsecond VLBI nuclei of extragalactic radio sources. III - 74 sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morabito, D. D.; Preston, R. A.; Linfield, R. P.; Slade, M. A.; Wehrle, A. E.; Faulkner, J.; Jauncey, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    VLBI measurements at 2290 and 8420 MHz on baselines of 10,000 km have been used to determine the positions of the milliarcsecond nuclei in 74 extragalactic radio sources. Estimated accuracies range from 0.1 to 4.3 arcsec in both right ascension and declination with typical accuracies of about 0.3 arcsec. The observed sources are part of an all-sky VLBI catalog of milliarcsecond radio sources. Arcsecond positions have been determined for 819 sources. These positions are presently being used to identify optical counterparts in the southern hemisphere.

  19. Arcsecond Positions for Milliarcsecond VLBI Nuclei of Extragalactic Radio Sources. Part 3: 74 Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morabito, D. D.; Preston, R. A.; Linfield, R. P.; Slade, M. A.; Wehrle, A. E.; Faulkner, J.; Jauncey, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    VLBI measurements at 2290 MHz and 8420 MHz on baselines of 10,000 km between Deep Space Network stations have been used to determine the positions of the milliarcsecond nuclei in 74 extragalactic radio sources. Estimated accuracies range from 0.1 sec. to 4, 3 sec. in both right ascension and declination with typical accuracies of approx. 0.3 sec. The observed sources are part of an all-sky VLBI catalog of milliarcsecond radio sources. Arcsecond positions have now been determined for 819 sources. These positions are presently being used to identify optical counterparts in the Southern Hemisphere.

  20. Arcsecond positions for milliarcsecond VLBI nuclei of extragalactic radio sources. II - 207 sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morabito, D. D.; Preston, R. A.; Slade, M. A.; Jauncey, D. L.; Nicolson, G. D.

    1983-01-01

    Time delay and fringe frequency measurements at 2.29 GHz have been obtained with VLBI on baselines of about 10,000 km, in order to determine the positions of milliarcsec nuclei in 207 extragalactic radio sources. Accuracy ranges are estimated to lie between 0.1 and 1.0 arcsec in both right ascension and declination, with all sources having uncertainties of less than 4 arcsec in both coordinates. These sources constitute part of an all-sky VLBI catalog of milliarcsec radio sources, for 752 of which arcsec positions have thus far been determined.

  1. Looking for prematurely `dying', young, compact radio sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunert-Bajraszewska, M.; Marecki, A.; Spencer, R. E.

    We present VLBA 1.6, 5, 8.4 and 15 GHz observations of a new sample of weak, young, compact candidates for radio faders selected from the VLA FIRST survey. We claim that some, or even the majority of young sources, may be short-lived phenomena due to a lack of stable fuelling from the black hole and fade before evolving to large extended objects. (astro-ph/0411719 )

  2. Modulated spectral activity (MSA) - Implications for planetary radio sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thieman, James R.; Alexander, Joseph K.; Staelin, David H.

    1988-01-01

    The properties of the Jovian and Saturnian MSA, modulation patterns within the normally diffuse nonthermal radio emission that are characterized by distinctive banded structures of enhanced intensity fluctuations in frequency over time scales of minutes to tens of minutes, are discussed. Although Jovian and Saturnian MSA are both normally observed in the 0.2-1.3-MHz frequency range, similar pattern have been noted in Jovian decametric emission above 30 MHz. The MSA properties are used to constrain the possible source mechanism.

  3. Simulating peculiar X-shaped extragalactic radio sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacatus, D. A.; Paraschiv, A. R.; Tesileanu, O.

    2012-11-01

    Peculiar morphologies have been observed among extragalactic radio sources, which present important sideways features that are yet to be explained. After obtaining the region in the parameter space for which the intended lateral extensions appear, further 2D simulations using PLUTO code were performed. For some selected sets of parameters the effect of resolution on the simulated morphology, and the effect of a toroidal magnetic field on the propagation of the simulated jet in the stratified medium, were considered.

  4. Modulated spectral activity (MSA) - Implications for planetary radio sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thieman, James R.; Alexander, Joseph K.; Staelin, David H.

    The properties of the Jovian and Saturnian MSA, modulation patterns within the normally diffuse nonthermal radio emission that are characterized by distinctive banded structures of enhanced intensity fluctuations in frequency over time scales of minutes to tens of minutes, are discussed. Although Jovian and Saturnian MSA are both normally observed in the 0.2-1.3-MHz frequency range, similar pattern have been noted in Jovian decametric emission above 30 MHz. The MSA properties are used to constrain the possible source mechanism.

  5. Modulated spectral activity (MSA) - Implications for planetary radio sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thieman, James R.; Alexander, Joseph K.; Staelin, David H.

    1988-01-01

    The properties of the Jovian and Saturnian MSA, modulation patterns within the normally diffuse nonthermal radio emission that are characterized by distinctive banded structures of enhanced intensity fluctuations in frequency over time scales of minutes to tens of minutes, are discussed. Although Jovian and Saturnian MSA are both normally observed in the 0.2-1.3-MHz frequency range, similar pattern have been noted in Jovian decametric emission above 30 MHz. The MSA properties are used to constrain the possible source mechanism.

  6. Study of Extragalactic Sources with Extended Radio Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamrozy, M.; Klein, U.; Mack, K.-H.

    Galaxies (and quasars) hosting active galactic nuclei (AGN) are usually powerful radio sources which produce jets and extended radio emitting regions (lobes) of plasma. There is a huge range from less than 100 pc up to few Mpc in linear extent of the radio galaxies (RGs). RGs with sizes over more than one Mpc represent the biggest single objects in the Universe. The most extreme of those is 3C236 which has a projected linear size of 4.2 Mpc (H0 =71 km s-1 Mpc-1, Ω = 1). Another example of a giant radio galaxy (GRG) B0503-286 is shown in Fig. 1. The very large angular sizes (up to several dozens of arcminutes) of GRGs on the sky give an excellent opportunity to study the nature of AGNs and provide important constraints on the evolution of galaxies. Because of their sizes and luminosities GRGs have significant influence on the intergalactic medium (IGM). The total energy delivered into the IGM by the twin jets of a GRG is about 1054 J, which is a significant fraction of the gravitational energy released during the formation of a supermassive black hole in the centre of an AGN's parent galaxy. On the other hand, GRGs possess low equipartition magnetic field strengths and energy densities of their cocoons. This matches the statement of Colgate & Li [1] who affirm that for most radio sources located in a low-density environment only a small fraction of the magnetic energy is dissipated in the form of synchrotron radiation while the bulk of the magnetic energy is deposited in the walls and voids of the Universe. Kronberg et al. [2] suggest that the magnetic energy which originates from AGN outflows and which is stored in the intergalactic magnetic field has a major influence on the evolution of galaxies and visible structure formation on scales of up to ~ 1Mpc.

  7. Extragalactic Peaked-spectrum Radio Sources at Low Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callingham, J. R.; Ekers, R. D.; Gaensler, B. M.; Line, J. L. B.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Sadler, E. M.; Tingay, S. J.; Hancock, P. J.; Bell, M. E.; Dwarakanath, K. S.; For, B.-Q.; Franzen, T. M. O.; Hindson, L.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Kapińska, A. D.; Lenc, E.; McKinley, B.; Morgan, J.; Offringa, A. R.; Procopio, P.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Wayth, R. B.; Wu, C.; Zheng, Q.

    2017-02-01

    We present a sample of 1483 sources that display spectral peaks between 72 MHz and 1.4 GHz, selected from the GaLactic and Extragalactic All-sky Murchison Widefield Array (GLEAM) survey. The GLEAM survey is the widest fractional bandwidth all-sky survey to date, ideal for identifying peaked-spectrum sources at low radio frequencies. Our peaked-spectrum sources are the low-frequency analogs of gigahertz-peaked spectrum (GPS) and compact-steep spectrum (CSS) sources, which have been hypothesized to be the precursors to massive radio galaxies. Our sample more than doubles the number of known peaked-spectrum candidates, and 95% of our sample have a newly characterized spectral peak. We highlight that some GPS sources peaking above 5 GHz have had multiple epochs of nuclear activity, and we demonstrate the possibility of identifying high-redshift (z > 2) galaxies via steep optically thin spectral indices and low observed peak frequencies. The distribution of the optically thick spectral indices of our sample is consistent with past GPS/CSS samples but with a large dispersion, suggesting that the spectral peak is a product of an inhomogeneous environment that is individualistic. We find no dependence of observed peak frequency with redshift, consistent with the peaked-spectrum sample comprising both local CSS sources and high-redshift GPS sources. The 5 GHz luminosity distribution lacks the brightest GPS and CSS sources of previous samples, implying that a convolution of source evolution and redshift influences the type of peaked-spectrum sources identified below 1 GHz. Finally, we discuss sources with optically thick spectral indices that exceed the synchrotron self-absorption limit.

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Unidentified γ-ray sources. III. Radio (Massaro+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massaro, F.; D'Abrusco, R.; Giroletti, M.; Paggi, A.; Masetti, N.; Tosti, G.; Nori, M.; Funk, S.

    2013-08-01

    About one-third of the γ-ray sources listed in the second Fermi Large Area Telescope catalog (2FGL) have no firmly established counterpart at lower energies and so are classified as unidentified γ-ray sources (UGSs). Here, we propose a new approach to find candidate counterparts for the UGSs based on the 325 MHz radio survey performed with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope in the northern hemisphere. First, we investigate the low-frequency radio properties of blazars, the largest known population of γ-ray sources; then we search for sources with similar radio properties combining the information derived from the Westerbork Northern Sky Survey (WENSS, Rengelink et al. 1997, Cat. J/A+AS/124/259; superseded by Cat. VIII/62) with those of the NRAO Very Large Array Sky Survey (NVSS, Condon et al. 1998, Cat. VIII/65). We present a list of candidate counterparts for 32 UGSs with at least one counterpart in the WENSS. We also performed an extensive research in the literature to look for infrared and optical counterparts of the γ-ray blazar candidates selected using the low-frequency radio observations to confirm their nature. On the basis of our multifrequency research, we identify 23 new γ-ray blazar candidates out of the 32 UGSs investigated. Comparison with previous results on the UGSs is also presented. Finally, we speculate on the advantages of using low-frequency radio observations to associate UGSs and to search for γ-ray pulsar candidates. (1 data file).

  9. 318-MHz variability of complete samples of extragalactic radio sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennison, B.; Broderick, J. J.; Ledden, J. E.; Odell, S. L.; Condon, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    It is found by a low-frequency variability survey, involving two- and three-epoch, 318-MHz observations of extragalactic sources in samples complete to 3 Jy at 1400 MHz and 1 Jy at 5000 MHz, that steep-spectrum sources do not seem to vary while all flat-spectrum sources exhibit low-frequency variability greater than 8% over about 5 yr. It is also found that the flat-spectrum sources with inverted spectra show the largest fractional variations, and that there is a correlation between the incidence of low-frequency variability and the determination that a source is an optically violent variable. These statistical properties are consistent with models which invoke radio and optical emission relativistic beaming.

  10. Radio observations confirm young stellar populations in local analogues to z ˜ 5 Lyman break galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greis, Stephanie M. L.; Stanway, Elizabeth R.; Levan, Andrew J.; Davies, Luke J. M.; Eldridge, J. J.

    2017-09-01

    We present radio observations at 1.5 GHz of 32 local objects selected to reproduce the physical properties of z ∼ 5 star-forming galaxies. We also report non-detections of five such sources in the sub-millimetre. We find a radio-derived star formation rate that is typically half than that derived from H α emission for the same objects. These observations support previous indications that we are observing galaxies with a young dominant stellar population, which has not yet established a strong supernova-driven synchrotron continuum. We stress caution when applying star formation rate calibrations to stellar populations younger than 100 Myr. We calibrate the conversions for younger galaxies, which are dominated by a thermal radio emission component. We improve the size constraints for these sources, compared to previous unresolved ground-based optical observations. Their physical size limits indicate very high star formation rate surface densities, several orders of magnitude higher than the local galaxy population. In typical nearby galaxies, this would imply the presence of galaxy-wide winds. Given the young stellar populations, it is unclear whether a mechanism exists in our sources that can deposit sufficient kinetic energy into the interstellar medium to drive such outflows.

  11. The Cosmological Evolution of Radio Sources with CENSORS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brookes, Mairi; Best, Philip; Peacock, John; Dunlop, James; Rottgering, Huub

    2006-01-01

    The CENSORS survey, selected from the NVSS, has been followed up using EIS, K-band imaging and spectroscopic observations to produce a radio sample capable of probing the source density in the regime: z greater than 2.5. With a current spectroscopic completeness of 62%, CENSORS has been used in direct modeling of RLF evolution and in V/V(sub max) tests. There is evidence for a shallow decline in number density of source in the luminosity range 10(sup 26) - 10(sup 27)WHz(sup -1) at 1.4GHz.

  12. GPS and CSS Radio Sources and Space-VLBI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snellen, I.

    2009-08-01

    A short overview is given of the status of research on young extragalactic radio sources. We concentrate on Very Long Baseline Interferometric (VLBI), and space-VLBI results obtained with the VLBI Space Observatory Programme (VSOP). In 2012, VSOP-2 will be launched, which will allow VLBI observations at an unprecedented angular resolution. One particular question VSOP-2 could answer is whether some of the High Frequency Peakers (HFP) are indeed the youngest objects in the family of GPS and CSS sources. VSOP-2 observations can reveal their angular morphology and determine whether any are Ultra-compact Symmetric Objects.

  13. Radio source orientation and the angular diameter-redshift relation

    SciTech Connect

    Onuora, L.I. )

    1991-08-01

    The effect of a nonrandom source orientation on the angular diameter-redshift relation was considered for the 3CR sample of Laing et al., based on the 'unified' scheme of Barthel. For an inhomogeneous sample of objects displaying milliarcsecond scale structure, it was found that there was no evidence for a systematic variation for orientation angle with redshift. However, if it was assumed that quasars are closer to the line of sight than powerful extended radio galaxies, then the observed angular size-redshift relation could be interpreted in terms of source orientation, rather than linear size evolution. 14 refs.

  14. Search for Differences between Radio-loud and Radio-quiet Gamma-Ray Pulsar Populations with Fermi-LAT Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolova, E. V.; Rubtsov, G. I.

    2016-12-01

    Observations by the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) have enabled us to explore the population of non-recycled gamma-ray pulsars with a set of 112 objects. It was recently noted that there are apparent differences in the properties of radio-quiet and radio-loud subsets. In particular, the average observed radio-loud pulsar is younger than the average radio-quiet one and is located at lower Galactic latitude. Even so, the analysis based on the full list of pulsars may suffer from selection effects. Namely, most radio-loud pulsars are first discovered in the radio band, while radio-quiet ones are found using the gamma-ray data. In this work we perform a blind search for gamma-ray pulsars using the Fermi-LAT data alone, using all point sources from the 3FGL catalog as the candidates. Unlike our previous work, the present catalog is constructed with a semi-coherent method based on the time-differencing technique and covers the full range of characteristic ages down to 1 kyr. The search resulted in a catalog of 40 non-recycled pulsars, 25 of which are radio-quiet. All pulsars found in the search were previously known gamma-ray pulsars. We find no statistically significant differences in age or in distributions in Galactic latitude for the radio-loud and radio-quiet pulsars, while the distributions in rotation period are marginally different with a statistical probability of 4× {10}-3. The fraction of radio-quiet pulsars is estimated as {ε }{RQ}=(63+/- 8) % . The results are in agreement with the predictions of the outer magnetosphere models, while the polar cap models are disfavored.

  15. Spectral observations of active region sources with RATAN-600 and WSRT. [Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alissandrakis, C. E.; Gel'frejkh, G. B.; Borovik, V. N.; Korzhavin, A. N.; Bogod, V. M.; Nindos, A.; Kundu, M. R.

    1993-01-01

    We present spectral observations of neutral line and sunspot associated sources obtained with the RATAN-600 radio telescope and the WSRT in the wavelength range of 2 to 6 cm. Sources associated with large sunspots have flat spectra, while neutral line sources have very steep spectra. In the case of a large spot we estimated the magnetic field to be at least 2700 G at the base of the transition region and 1800 G in the low corona. We consider possible interpretations of the radio emission above the neutral lines. Gyroresonance emission at the fourth harmonic is inadequate, whereas emission from a small population of nonthermal electrons (total number 10 exp 30 to 10 exp 31) with a delta = 3 power law distribution seems to be sufficient.

  16. Spectral observations of active region sources with RATAN-600 and WSRT. [Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alissandrakis, C. E.; Gel'frejkh, G. B.; Borovik, V. N.; Korzhavin, A. N.; Bogod, V. M.; Nindos, A.; Kundu, M. R.

    1993-01-01

    We present spectral observations of neutral line and sunspot associated sources obtained with the RATAN-600 radio telescope and the WSRT in the wavelength range of 2 to 6 cm. Sources associated with large sunspots have flat spectra, while neutral line sources have very steep spectra. In the case of a large spot we estimated the magnetic field to be at least 2700 G at the base of the transition region and 1800 G in the low corona. We consider possible interpretations of the radio emission above the neutral lines. Gyroresonance emission at the fourth harmonic is inadequate, whereas emission from a small population of nonthermal electrons (total number 10 exp 30 to 10 exp 31) with a delta = 3 power law distribution seems to be sufficient.

  17. Interactions between radio sources and X-ray gas at the centers of cooling core clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarazin, C. L.; Blanton, E. L.; Clarke, T. E.

    Recent Chandra and XMM observations of the interaction of central radio sources and cooling cores in clusters of galaxies will be presented. The clusters studied include A262, A2052, A2626, A113, A2029, A2597, and A4059. The radio sources blow "bubbles" in the X-ray gas, displacing the gas and compressing it into shells around the radio lobes. At the same time, the radio sources are confined by the X-ray gas. At larger radii, "ghost bubbles" are seen which are weak in radio emission except at low frequencies. These may be evidence of previous eruptions of the radio sources. In some cases, buoyantly rising bubbles may entrain cooler X-ray gas from the centers of the cooling cores. Some radio sources previously classified as cluster merger radio relics may actually be displaced radio bubbles from the central radio sources. The relation between the radio bubbles, and cooler gas (<~10e4 K) and star formation in cooling cores will be described. The implications for the energetics of radio jets and the cooling of the X-ray gas are discussed. The minimum-energy or equipartition pressures of the radio plasma in the radio lobes are generally much lower than is required to inflate the bubbles. The nature of the primary form of energy and pressure in the bubbles will be discussed, and arguments will be given suggesting that the lobes are dominated by thermal pressure from very hot gas (>10 keV).

  18. The Role of Beam Geometry in Population Statistics and Pulse Profiles of Radio and Gamma-ray Pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonthier, Peter L.; VanGuilder, Robert; Harding, Alice K.

    2004-01-01

    We present results of a pulsar population synthesis study that incorporates a number of recent developments and some significant improvements over our previous study. We have included the results of the Parkes multi-beam pulsar survey in our select group of nine radio surveys, doubling our sample of radio pulsars. More realistic geometries for the radio and gamma-ray beams are included in our Monte Carlo computer code that simulates the characteristics of the Galactic population of radio and gamma-ray pulsars. We adopted with some modifications the radio beam geometry of Arzoumanian, Chernoff & Cordes (2002). For the gamma-ray beam, we have assumed the slot gap geometry described in the work of Muslimov & Harding (2003). To account for the shape of the distribution of radio pulsars in the P(dot) - P diagram, we continue to find that decay of the magnetic field on a timescale of 2.8 Myr is needed. With all nine surveys, our model predicts that EGRET should have seen 7 radio-quiet (below the sensitivity of these radio surveys) and 19 radio-loud gamma-ray pulsars. AGILE (nominal sensitivity map) is expected to detect 13 radio-quiet and 37 radio-loud gamma-ray pulsars, while GLAST, with greater sensitivity is expected to detect 276 radio-quiet and 344 radio-loud gamma-ray pulsars. When the Parkes multi-beam pulsar survey is excluded, the ratio of radio-loud to radio-quiet gamma-ray pulsars decreases, especially for GLAST. The decrease for EGRET is 45%, implying that some fraction of EGRET unidentified sources are radio-loud gamma-ray pulsars. In the radio geometry adopted, short period pulsars are core dominated. Unlike the EGRET gamma-ray pulsars, our model predicts that when two gamma-ray peaks appear in the pulse profile, a dominant radio core peak appears in between the gamma-ray peaks. Our findings suggest that further improvements are required in describing both the radio and gamma-ray geometries.

  19. VLA structure of variable radio sources in the Galactic plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duric, Nebojsa; Gregory, P. C.

    1988-04-01

    VLA observations of 17 new variable and three nonvariable radio sources from the Galactic Patrol Survey of Gregory and Taylor (1981) are presented. The variable-source morphologies range from unresolved point sources to doubles and triples with jet-lobe structures. No optical counterparts were found for the variable sources to the plate limits of the Palomar Sky Survey, but a 15th-magnitude stellar-like object was found for the nonvariable source GT 0007 + 635. The new observations are combined with previous data to study the collective properties of 28 variable sources. Their spectra, morphologies, and variability characteristics suggest that they fall into two broad categories. The first category consists of 15 unresolved point sources which are characterized by flat inverted spectra between 6 and 20 cm and strong variability. The second category consists of a heterogeneous mixture of resolved sources having varying degrees of structure. The bimodal distribution of variability properties of the patrol sources, reported by Gregory and Taylor, can, in part, be explained by these results. The presence or absence of nonvariable extended emission, resolved in the VLA observations but not in the Patrol observations, appears to regulate the variabilities of these sources.

  20. FIRST Winged And X-Shaped Radio Source Candidates

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, C.C.; Springmann, A.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Wellesley Coll.

    2007-05-30

    A small number of double-lobed radio galaxies are found with an additional pair of extended low surface brightness 'wings' of emission giving them a distinctive 'X'-shaped appearance. One popular explanation for the unusual morphologies posits that the central supermassive black hole (SMBH)/accretion disk system underwent a recent realignment; in a merger scenario, the active lobes mark the post-merger axis of the resultant system (e.g., Merritt & Ekers 2002). However, this and other interpretations are not well tested on the few (about one dozen) known examples. In part to remedy this deficiency, a large sample of winged and X-shaped radio sources is being compiled for a systematic study. An initial sample of 100 new candidates is described as well as some of the follow-up work being pursued to test the different scenarios.

  1. Quartz antenna for radio frequency ion source operation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.; Gough, R.A.; Leung, K.N.; Perkins, L.T.; Pickard, D.S.; Vujic, J.; Wu, L.K.; Olivo, M.; Einenkel, H.

    1998-02-01

    Radio-frequency (rf) driven multicusp ion sources developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory use an internal induction coil (antenna) for plasma generation. The copper rf-antenna with a thin layer of porcelain coating, which is presently used, cannot fully satisfy the increasing demands on source cleanliness and antenna lifetime under high power cw or pulsed operation in applications where water cooling is not possible. A quartz antenna has been designed and operated in the multicusp ion source. It has been demonstrated that the overall performance of the new antenna exceeds that of the regular porcelain-coated antenna. It can be operated with a long lifetime in different discharge plasmas. The quartz antenna has also been tested at the Paul Scherrer Institute for cw source operation at rf power higher than 5 kW. Results demonstrated that the antenna can survive under dense plasma discharge operations. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Sparse source configurations in radio tomography of asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pursiainen, S.; Kaasalainen, M.

    2014-07-01

    Our research targets at progress in non-invasive imaging of asteroids to support future planetary research and extra-terrestrial mining activities. This presentation concerns principally radio tomography in which the permittivity distribution inside an asteroid is to be recovered based on the radio frequency signal transmitted from the asteroid's surface and gathered by an orbiter. The focus will be on a sparse distribution (Pursiainen and Kaasalainen, 2013) of signal sources that can be necessary in the challenging in situ environment and within tight payload limits. The general goal in our recent research has been to approximate the minimal number of source positions needed for robust localization of anomalies caused, for example, by an internal void. Characteristic to the localization problem are the large relative changes in signal speed caused by the high permittivity of typical asteroid minerals (e.g. basalt), meaning that a signal path can include strong refractions and reflections. This presentation introduces results of a laboratory experiment in which real travel time data was inverted using a hierarchical Bayesian approach combined with the iterative alternating sequential (IAS) posterior exploration algorithm. Special interest was paid to robustness of the inverse results regarding changes of the prior model and source positioning. According to our results, strongly refractive anomalies can be detected with three or four sources independently of their positioning.

  3. A FULLY IDENTIFIED SAMPLE OF AEGIS20 MICROJANSKY RADIO SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Willner, S. P.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Huang, J.-S.; Barmby, P.; Chapman, S. C.; Coil, A. L.; Cooper, M. C.; Ivison, R.; Koo, D. C.

    2012-09-01

    Infrared 3.6-8 {mu}m images of the Extended Groth Strip yield plausible counterpart identifications for all but one of 510 radio sources in the AEGIS20 S(1.4 GHz) > 50 {mu}Jy sample. This is the first such deep sample that has been effectively 100% identified. Achieving the same identification rate at R band would require observations reaching R{sub AB} > 27. Spectroscopic redshifts are available for 46% of the sample and photometric redshifts for an additional 47%. Almost all of the sources with 3.6 {mu}m AB magnitudes brighter than 19 have spectroscopic redshifts z < 1.1, while fainter objects predominantly have photometric redshifts with 1 {approx}< z {approx}< 3. Unlike more powerful radio sources that are hosted by galaxies having large stellar masses within a relatively narrow range, the AEGIS20 counterparts have stellar masses spanning more than a factor of 10 at z {approx} 1. The sources are roughly 10%-15% starbursts at z {approx}< 0.5 and 20%-25% active galactic nuclei mostly at z > 1 with the remainder of uncertain nature.

  4. Variability studies of 3C 371. [extragalactic radio source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worrall, D. M.

    1986-01-01

    The compact extragalactic radio source, 3C 371, was observed with the X-ray detectors of the EXOSAT satellite for 19.5 hours in 2 observing periods separated by 18 days. This resulted in the discovery of X-ray variability of the source on time scales between 8 hours and about 25 minutes and the confirmation of earlier reports of variability on longer time scales. The short time scale variability agrees remarkably well with earlier predictions based on fitting multifrequency data from the source to a relativistically beamed inhomogeneous synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) jet model. This SSC model is frequently applied to BL Lac objects and related sources, such as 3C 371. However, the number of free parameters in model fits tends to be large, and so independent support such as from this work is important. The X-ray spectral results for 3C 371 also may provide qualitative support for the SSC model in that the spectrum probably consists of two components, with the steeper one at low photon energies. In terms of the model, the low-energy spectrum would be dominated by synchrotron emission extending down to radio energies, whereas the higher energy X-rays would be dominated by Compton radiation.

  5. The Mysterious Galactic Center Radio Source N3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludovici, Dominic; Lang, Cornelia C.; Morris, Mark; Mutel, Robert Lucien; Mills, Elisabeth A. C.; Toomey, James E.; Ott, Juergen

    2017-01-01

    Here we report on multi-wavelength radio observations of the mysterious point source "N3" that appears to be located in the vicinity of the Galactic Center. VLA observations between 2 and 50 GHz reveal that N3 is a compact and bright non-thermal source (56 mJy at 10 GHz) which is superimposed upon the non-thermal radio filaments (NTFs) of the Radio Arc. Our highest frequency observations place a strict upper limit of 65x28 milli-arcseconds on the size of this source. We compare our observations to those of Yusef-Zadeh (1987) and Lang (1997) and conclude that N3 is variable over long time scales. Additionally, we present the detection of a compact molecular cloud located adjacent to N3 in projection. CH3CN, CH3OH, CS, HC3N, HNCO, SiO, SO, and NH3 are detected in the cloud and most transitions have FWHM line widths of ~20 km s-1. The rotational temperature determined from the metastable NH3 transitions ranges from 79 K to 183 K depending on the transitions used and the location in the cloud. We present evidence that this molecular cloud is interacting with N3. After exploring the relationship between the NTFs, molecular cloud, and N3, we conclude that N3 likely lies within the Galactic Center. We are able to rule out many possible physical counterparts, including an active star, HII region, young supernova, AGN, and micro-quasar. To further constrain the nature of N3, we also discuss new extremely high resolution observations of N3 taken with the VLBA, and what these observations reveal about the true nature of this mysterious source.

  6. The Mysterious Galactic Center Radio Source N3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludovici, Dominic; Lang, Cornelia C.; Morris, Mark; Lucien Mutel, Robert; Mills, Elisabeth A. C.; Toomey, James E.; Ott, Juergen

    2016-06-01

    Here we report on new, multi-wavelength radio observations of the mysterious point source "N3" that appears to be located in the vicinity of the Galactic Center. VLA observations between 2 and 50 GHz reveal that N3 is a compact and bright non-thermal source (56 mJy at 10 GHz) which is superimposed upon the non-thermal radio filaments (NTFs) of the Radio Arc. Our highest frequency observations place a strict upper limit of 65x28 milli-arcseconds on the size of this source. We compare our observations to those of Yusef-Zadeh (1987) and Lang (1997) and conclude that N3 is variable over long time scales. Additionally, we present the detection of a compact molecular cloud located adjacent to N3 in projection. CH3CN, CH3OH, CS, HC3N, HNCO, SiO, SO, and NH3 are detected in the cloud and most transitions have FWHM line widths of ~20 km s-1. The rotational temperature determined from the metastable NH3 transitions ranges from 79 K to 183 K depending on the transitions used and the location in the cloud. We present evidence that this molecular cloud is interacting with N3. After exploring the relationship between the NTFs, molecular cloud, and N3, we conclude that N3 likely lies within the Galactic Center. While we are able to rule out many possible physical counterparts, including an active star, HII region, young supernova, AGN, and microquasar, further observations will be required to determine the true nature of this mysterious source.

  7. Correlation of Fermi Large Area Telescope sources with the 20-GHz Australia Telescope Compact Array radio survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghirlanda, G.; Ghisellini, G.; Tavecchio, F.; Foschini, L.

    2010-09-01

    We cross-correlate the Fermi 11-month survey (1FGL) catalogue with the 20-GHz Australia Telescope Compact Array (AT20G) radio survey catalogue composed of 5890 sources at declination < 0°. Among the 738 Fermi sources distributed in the southern sky, we find 230 highly probable candidate counterparts in the AT20G survey. Of these, 222 are already classified in the Fermi one-year Large Area Telescope (LAT) active galactic nucleus (AGN) catalogue (1LAC) as blazars [either flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) or BL Lacertae objects (BL Lacs)], AGNs or sources of unknown class but with an associated counterpart, while eight are new associations. By studying the γ-ray and radio properties of these associations, we find a correlation between the γ-ray flux (above 100 MeV) and the 20-GHz flux density. This correlation is more than 3σ statistically significant, both for the population of BL Lacs and for FSRQs considered separately. We also find that the radio counterparts associated with the Fermi sources have, on average, flat radio spectra between 5 and 20 GHz and that Fermi γ-ray sources are not preferentially associated with `ultra-inverted spectrum' radio sources. For two of the eight new associations, we build the broad-band spectral energy distribution combining Fermi, Swift and radio observations. One of these two sources is identified with the high-redshift FSRQ Swift J1656.3-3302 (z = 2.4) and we classify the other source as a candidate new FSRQ. We also study the brightest radio source of the 46 associations without an optical classification and classify it as a new BL Lac candidate `twin' of the prototypical BL Lac OJ 287 if its redshift is larger, z ~ 0.4.

  8. Radio constraints on the nature of BL Lacertae objects and their parent population

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kollgaard, R. I.; Wardle, J. F. C.; Roberts, D. H.; Gabuzda, D. C.

    1992-01-01

    5 GHz VLA observations of 17 BL Lac objects with bright radio cores at both high and low resolution are reported. Extended emission is detected around most objects. None of the sources observed at low resolution show evidence of giant halos on the scale of tens of arcmin. In general, the sources with the most luminous extended emission exhibit FR II characteristics in both morphology and polarization, and less luminous sources exhibit FR I characteristics. Thus, the parent population of the BL Lac objects contains both FR I and FR II radio sources. No BL Lac objects are found that clearly exhibit quasarlike polarization at milliarcsec resolution. This argues against the view that the more luminous BL Lac objects are simply an extension of the quasar/OVV population, or that most BL Lac objects are gravitationally microlensed images of distant quasars. Other properties are generally consistent with the view the BL Lac objects are normal radio galaxies whose jets make a small angle to the line of sight.

  9. HIGH-RESOLUTION IMAGING OF THE ATLBS REGIONS: THE RADIO SOURCE COUNTS

    SciTech Connect

    Thorat, K.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Saripalli, L.; Ekers, R. D.

    2013-01-01

    The Australia Telescope Low-brightness Survey (ATLBS) regions have been mosaic imaged at a radio frequency of 1.4 GHz with 6'' angular resolution and 72 {mu}Jy beam{sup -1} rms noise. The images (centered at R.A. 00{sup h}35{sup m}00{sup s}, decl. -67 Degree-Sign 00'00'' and R.A. 00{sup h}59{sup m}17{sup s}, decl. -67 Degree-Sign 00'00'', J2000 epoch) cover 8.42 deg{sup 2} sky area and have no artifacts or imaging errors above the image thermal noise. Multi-resolution radio and optical r-band images (made using the 4 m CTIO Blanco telescope) were used to recognize multi-component sources and prepare a source list; the detection threshold was 0.38 mJy in a low-resolution radio image made with beam FWHM of 50''. Radio source counts in the flux density range 0.4-8.7 mJy are estimated, with corrections applied for noise bias, effective area correction, and resolution bias. The resolution bias is mitigated using low-resolution radio images, while effects of source confusion are removed by using high-resolution images for identifying blended sources. Below 1 mJy the ATLBS counts are systematically lower than the previous estimates. Showing no evidence for an upturn down to 0.4 mJy, they do not require any changes in the radio source population down to the limit of the survey. The work suggests that automated image analysis for counts may be dependent on the ability of the imaging to reproduce connecting emission with low surface brightness and on the ability of the algorithm to recognize sources, which may require that source finding algorithms effectively work with multi-resolution and multi-wavelength data. The work underscores the importance of using source lists-as opposed to component lists-and correcting for the noise bias in order to precisely estimate counts close to the image noise and determine the upturn at sub-mJy flux density.

  10. Nonthermal processes around collapsed objects: High energy gamma ray sources in the radio sky

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfand, David J.; Ruderman, Malvin; Applegate, James H.; Becker, Robert H.

    1993-01-01

    In our proposal responding to the initial Guest Observer NRA for the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, 'Nonthermal Processes Around Collapsed Objects: High Energy Gamma Ray Sources in the Radio Sky', we stated that 'At high energies - the identity of the principal Galactic source population remains unknown' although the 'one certain source of high energy emission is young radio pulsars'. These two statements remain true, although at this writing, eighteen months after the beginning of the Compton allsky survey, much of the gamma-ray data required to greatly extend our knowledge of the Galaxy's high energy emission has been collected. The thrust of the program supported by our grant was to collect and analyze a complementary set of data on the Milky Way at radio wavelengths in order to help identify the dominant Pop 1 component of the Galaxy's gamma ray sources, and to pursue theoretical investigations on the origins and emission mechanisms of young pulsars, the one component of this population identified to date. We summarize here our accomplishments under the grant. In Section 2, we describe our VLA surveys of the Galactic Plane along with the current status of the radio source catalogs derived therefrom; unfortunately, owing to the TDRSS antenna problem and subsequent extension of the Sky Survey, we were not able to carry out a comparison with the EGRET data directly, although everything is now in place to do so as soon as it becomes available. In Section 2, we summarize our progress on the theoretical side, including the substantial completion of a dissertation on pulsar origins and work on the high energy emission mechanisms of isolated pulsars. We list the personnel supported by the grant in section 4 and provide a complete bibliography of publications supported in whole or in part by the grant in the final section.

  11. The Galaxy Cluster Environments of Wide Angle Tail Radio Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglass, Edmund; Blanton, Elizabeth L.; Randall, Scott W.; Clarke, Tracy E.; Wing, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    Generally found in the centers of galaxy clusters, Wide Angle Tail radio sources (WATs) are defined by their characteristic jet-hotspot-lobe transition and intermediate radio power. They are typically associated with the luminous central galaxy within the cluster and often appear bent due to interaction with the hot, X-ray bright intracluster medium (ICM). Their linear extent (r > 100 kpc) and radio luminosity make them good tracers of high redshift systems where X-ray and optical observations are more difficult. In an effort to characterize the global X-ray properties of WAT clusters, we have assembled a sample of WAT systems from the Chandra archive. We have examined the distribution of substructure, temperature, abundance, density and pressure within the ICM. We find the majority of WAT clusters display some merger signatures and many show evidence of cool/high metallicity gas within 100 kpc of the WAT host galaxy. Most notably, we observe that clusters with the highest central densities and pressures host WATs with the shortest flare radii.

  12. Atomic and molecular absorption in redshifted radio sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curran, S. J.; Whiting, M. T.; Allison, J. R.; Tanna, A.; Sadler, E. M.; Athreya, R.

    2017-06-01

    We report on a survey for associated H I 21-cm and OH 18-cm absorption with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope at redshifts z ≈ 0.2-0.4. Although the low-redshift selection ensures that our targets are below the critical ultraviolet luminosity (LUV ˜ 1023 W Hz-1), which is hypothesized to ionize all of the neutral gas in the host galaxy, we do not obtain any detection in the six sources searched. Analysing these in context of the previous surveys, in addition to the anticorrelation with the ultraviolet luminosity (ionizing photon rate), we find a correlation between the strength of the absorption and the blue-near-infrared colour, as well as the radio-band turnover frequency. We believe that these are due to the photoionization of the neutral gas, an obscured sightline being more conducive to the presence of cold gas and the compact radio emission being better intercepted by the absorbing gas, maximizing the flux coverage, respectively. Regarding the photoionization, the compilation of the previous surveys increases the significance of the critical ionizing photon rate, above which all of the gas in the host galaxy is hypothesized to be ionized (Q_{H I ≈ 3× 10^{56} s-1), to >5σ. This reaffirms that this is an ubiquitous effect, which has profound implications for the detection of neutral gas in these objects with the Square Kilometre Array.

  13. The Unusual Galactic Center Radio Source N3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludovici, D. A.; Lang, C. C.; Morris, M. R.; Mutel, R.; Mills, E. A. C.; Toomey, J. E., IV; Ott, J.

    2016-08-01

    Here, we report on new multi-wavelength radio observations of the unusual point source “N3” that appears to be located in the vicinity of the Galactic Center (GC). VLA observations between 2 and 50 GHz reveal that N3 is a compact and bright source (56 mJy at 10 GHz) with a non-thermal spectrum superimposed upon the non-thermal radio filaments (NTFs) of the Radio Arc. Our highest frequency observations place a strict upper limit of 65 × 28 mas on the size of N3. We compare our observations to those of Yusef-Zadeh & Morris and Lang et al., and conclude that N3 is variable over long timescales. Additionally, we present the detection of a compact molecular cloud located adjacent to N3 in projection. CH3CN, CH3OH, CS, HC3N, HNCO, SiO, SO, and NH3 are detected in the cloud, and most transitions have FWHM line widths of ˜20 km s-1. The rotational temperature determined from the metastable NH3 transitions ranges from 79 to 183 k depending on the transitions used. We present evidence that this molecular cloud is interacting with N3. After exploring the relationship between the NTFs, molecular cloud, and N3, we conclude that N3 likely lies within the GC. We are able to rule out the H ii region, young supernova, active star, AGN, and micro-quasar hypotheses for N3. While a micro-blazar may provide a viable explanation for N3, additional observations are needed to determine the physical counterpart of this mysterious source.

  14. On the Nature of Neutral-Line-Associated Radio Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasnov, Leonid V.

    2014-04-01

    A number of authors claimed that radio sources above the neutral line of the magnetic field in solar active regions are due to non-thermal emission. This study shows that the thermal mechanism explains the radio emission from such sources. Models similar to those used for interpreting cyclotron lines were used in this study. Such models account for a steep decline in the spectrum at high frequencies and a low degree of polarization. The magnetic field between the two sunspots with an anti-parallel magnetic field has a lower gradient than the field above the sunspots. This, combined with the possibly high temperature in coronal loops connecting the sunspots, leads to the following conclusions. The optical thickness of the gyroresonance layers is increased and leads to more effective radiation at a harmonic number of 4 or 5. The lower gradient of the field between the sunspots also results in more rapid growth of emission intensity with increasing wavelength in this region than in the regions immediately above the sunspots. Additionally, the spatial averaging of the source structure due to the antenna beam pattern leads to a decrease in the degree of polarization in the region between the sunspots.

  15. John Bolton and the discovery of discrete radio sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Peter; Orchiston, Wayne; Slee, Bruce

    2014-11-01

    John Bolton was born in Sheffield in 1922 and educated at Cambridge University. After wartime service in the Royal Navy, in 1946 he joined the CSIRO's Radiophysics Laboratory in Sydney and began work in the fledgling field of radio astronomy. Radio emission from our Galaxy had been discovered and studied during the 1930s by the Americans Karl Jansky and Grote Reber. It was thought that the emission emanated from interstellar space, but the mechanism was unknown. In June 1947, observing from Dover Heights near the entrance to Sydney Harbour, Bolton discovered that strong emission from the constellation of Cygnus came from a discrete point-like source. By the end of the year, with colleagues Gordon Stanley and Bruce Slee ( a co-author of this paper) , Bolton had discovered a further five of these discrete sources. However, the positions measured for them were not accurate enough to allow them to be identified optically with any known celestial objects. In 1948 Bolton organised a three-month expedition to New Zealand where there were observing sites superior to the one at Dover Heights. The new observations gave more accurate positions and allowed Bolton to identify three of the sources: one was a supernova remnant in our Galaxy and two were unusual extragalactic objects. This paper will document this remarkable chapter in the development of twentieth century astronomy.

  16. Radio Sources Toward Galaxy Clusters at 30 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coble, K.; Bonamente, M.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Dawson, K.; Hasler, N.; Holzapfel, W.; Joy, M.; LaRoque, S.; Marrone, D. P.; Reese, E. D.

    2007-01-01

    Extra-galactic radio sources are a significant contaminant in cosmic microwave background and Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect experiments. Deep interferometric observations with the BIMA and OVRO arrays are used to characterize the spatial, spectral, and flux distributions of radio sources toward massive galaxy clusters at 28.5 GHz. We compute counts of mJy source fluxes from 89 fields centered on known massive galaxy clusters and 8 non-cluster fields. We find that source counts in the inner regions of the cluster fields (within 0.5 arcmin of the cluster center) are a factor of 8.9 (+4.2 to -3.8) times higher than counts in the outer regions of the cluster fields (radius greater than 0.5 arcmin). Counts in the outer regions of the cluster fields are in turn a factor of 3.3 (+4.1 -1.8) greater than those in the noncluster fields. Counts in the non-cluster fields are consistent with extrapolations from the results of other surveys. We compute spectral indices of mJy sources in cluster fields between 1.4 and 28.5 GHz and find a mean spectral index of al[ja = 0.66 with an rms dispersion of 0.36, where flux S varies as upsilon(sup -alpha). The distribution is skewed, with a median spectral index of 0.72 and 25th and 75th percentiles of 0.51 and 0.92, respectively. This is steeper than the spectral indices of stronger field sources measured by other surveys.

  17. Radio Sources toward Galaxy Clusters at 30 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coble, K.; Bonamente, M.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Dawson, K.; Hasler, N.; Holzapfel, W.; Joy, M.; LaRoque, S.; Marrone, D. P.; Reese, E. D.

    2007-01-01

    Extragalactic radio sources are a significant contaminant in cosmic microwave background and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect experiments. Deep interferometric observations with the BIMA and OVRO arrays are used to characterize the spatial, spectral, and flux distributions of radio sources toward massive galaxy clusters at 28.5 GHz. We compute counts of millijansky source fluxes from 89 fields centered on known massive galaxy clusters and 8 noncluster fields. We find that source counts in the inner regions of the cluster fields (within 0.5' of the cluster center) are a factor of 8.9 (sup +4.3)(sub -2.8) times higher than counts in the outer regions of the cluster fields (radius greater than 0.5'). Counts in the outer regions of the cluster fields are, in turn, a factor of 3.3 (sup +4.1) (sub -1.8) greater than those in the noncluster fields. Counts in the noncluster fields are consistent with extrapolations from the results of other surveys. We compute the spectral indices of millijansky sources in the cluster fields between 1.4 and 28.5 GHz and find a mean spectral index of alpha = 0.66 with an rms dispersion of 0.36, where flux S proportional to nu(sup -alpha). The distribution is skewed, with a median spectral index of 0.72 and 25th and 75th percentiles of 0.51 and 0.92, respectively. This is steeper than the spectral indices of stronger field sources measured by other surveys.

  18. Development and preliminary results of radio frequency ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Yahong Hu, Chundong; Jiang, Caichao; Chen, Yuqian; Gu, Yumin; Su, Renxue; Xie, Yuanlai; Liu, Zhimin

    2016-02-15

    A radio frequency (RF) ion source was designed and developed for neutral beam injector. A RF driver test bed was used with a RF generator with maximum power of 25 kW with 1 MHz frequency and a matching box. In order to study the characteristic of RF plasma generation, the capacitance in the matching box was adjusted with different cases. The results show that lower capacitance will better the stability of the plasma with higher RF power. In the future, new RF coils and matching box will be developed for plasma generators with higher RF power of 50 kW.

  19. Flat-spectrum radio sources - Cosmic conspiracy or relativistic neutrons?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giovanoni, Peter M.; Kazanas, Demosthenes

    1990-01-01

    The intensity spectrum of the core of radio-loud AGN varies smoothly from 10 exp 8.5 to 10 to the 16th Hz, and is flat between 10 to the 9th and 10 to the 10th Hz, implying that a single emission mechanism is responsible. It is proposed here that energy is transported from the central source by relativistic neutrons which travel freely over a large volume and decay into relativistic protons. The protons produce secondary electrons which generate the observed radiation. The photon spectra thus produced are largely model-independent and flat.

  20. Dual radio frequency plasma source: Understanding via electrical asymmetry effect

    SciTech Connect

    Bora, B.; Bhuyan, H.; Favre, M.; Wyndham, E.; Wong, C. S.

    2013-04-21

    On the basis of the global model, the influences of driving voltage and frequency on electron heating in geometrically symmetrical dual capacitively coupled radio frequency plasma have been investigated. Consistent with the experimental and simulation results, non-monotonic behavior of dc self bias and plasma heating with increasing high frequency is observed. In addition to the local maxima of plasma parameters for the integer values of the ratio between the frequencies ({xi}), ourstudies also predict local maxima for odd integer values of 2{xi} as a consequence of the electrical asymmetry effect produced by dual frequency voltage sources.

  1. Exploring three faint source detections methods for aperture synthesis radio images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peracaula, M.; Torrent, A.; Masias, M.; Lladó, X.; Freixenet, J.; Martí, J.; Sánchez-Sutil, J. R.; Muñoz-Arjonilla, A. J.; Paredes, J. M.

    2015-04-01

    Wide-field radio interferometric images often contain a large population of faint compact sources. Due to their low intensity/noise ratio, these objects can be easily missed by automated detection methods, which have been classically based on thresholding techniques after local noise estimation. The aim of this paper is to present and analyse the performance of several alternative or complementary techniques to thresholding. We compare three different algorithms to increase the detection rate of faint objects. The first technique consists of combining wavelet decomposition with local thresholding. The second technique is based on the structural behaviour of the neighbourhood of each pixel. Finally, the third algorithm uses local features extracted from a bank of filters and a boosting classifier to perform the detections. The methods' performances are evaluated using simulations and radio mosaics from the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope and the Australia Telescope Compact Array. We show that the new methods perform better than well-known state of the art methods such as SEXTRACTOR, SAD and DUCHAMP at detecting faint sources of radio interferometric images.

  2. Planck early results. XV. Spectral energy distributions and radio continuum spectra of northern extragalactic radio sources

    SciTech Connect

    Aatrokoski, J.

    2011-12-01

    Spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and radio continuum spectra are presented for a northern sample of 104 extragalactic radio sources, based on the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC) and simultaneous multifrequency data. The nine Planck frequencies, from 30 to 857GHz, are complemented by a set of simultaneous observations ranging from radio to gamma-rays. This is the first extensive frequency coverage in the radio and millimetre domains for an essentially complete sample of extragalactic radio sources, and it shows how the individual shocks, each in their own phase of development, shape the radio spectra as they move in the relativistic jet. The SEDs presented in this paper were fitted with second and third degree polynomials to estimate the frequencies of the synchrotron and inverse Compton (IC) peaks, and the spectral indices of low and high frequency radio data, including the Planck ERCSC data, were calculated. SED modelling methods are discussed, with an emphasis on proper, physical modelling of the synchrotron bump using multiple components. Planck ERCSC data also suggest that the original accelerated electron energy spectrum could be much harder than commonly thought, with power-law index around 1.5 instead of the canonical 2.5. The implications of this are discussed for the acceleration mechanisms effective in blazar shock. Furthermore in many cases the Planck data indicate that gamma-ray emission must originate in the same shocks that produce the radio emission.

  3. A Selection of Giant Radio Sources from NVSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proctor, D. D.

    2016-06-01

    Results of the application of pattern-recognition techniques to the problem of identifying giant radio sources (GRSs) from the data in the NVSS catalog are presented, and issues affecting the process are explored. Decision-tree pattern-recognition software was applied to training-set source pairs developed from known NVSS large-angular-size radio galaxies. The full training set consisted of 51,195 source pairs, 48 of which were known GRSs for which each lobe was primarily represented by a single catalog component. The source pairs had a maximum separation of 20\\prime and a minimum component area of 1.87 square arcmin at the 1.4 mJy level. The importance of comparing the resulting probability distributions of the training and application sets for cases of unknown class ratio is demonstrated. The probability of correctly ranking a randomly selected (GRS, non-GRS) pair from the best of the tested classifiers was determined to be 97.8 ± 1.5%. The best classifiers were applied to the over 870,000 candidate pairs from the entire catalog. Images of higher-ranked sources were visually screened, and a table of over 1600 candidates, including morphological annotation, is presented. These systems include doubles and triples, wide-angle tail and narrow-angle tail, S- or Z-shaped systems, and core-jets and resolved cores. While some resolved-lobe systems are recovered with this technique, generally it is expected that such systems would require a different approach.

  4. Sparse source approaches to radio tomography of asteroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pursiainen, Sampsa

    Currently, there is a growing interest towards non-invasive imaging of asteroids to support future planetary research and extra-terrestrial mining activities. This presentation concentrates on our recent developments regarding radio tomography in which the signal velocity (refractive index) distribution inside an asteroid is to be recovered from radio frequency data gathered by an orbiter. The tomography approach in question is closely related to that of the CONSERT experiment aiming at recovery of a comet nucleus structure as a part of the ROSETTA mission. The focus will be on a sparse distribution of signal sources that can be necessary in the challenging in situ environment and within tight payload limits. The general goal in our recent research has been to approximate the minimal number of source positions needed for robust localization of anomalies caused, for example, by an internal void. Characteristic to the localization problem are the large relative changes in signal speed caused by the high refractive index of typical asteroid minerals (e.g. basalt), meaning that a signal path can include strong refractions and reflections. The inversion strategy applied combines a hierarchical Bayesian inverse model and the iterative alternating sequential (IAS) posterior exploration algorithm. Methods relying on ray tracing and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) forward simulation have been utilized in forward (data) simulation. Both simulated and real experimental data have been utilized. Special interest has been paid to robustness of the inverse results regarding changes of the prior model and source positioning. The results have been encouraging: strongly refractive anomalies can be detected already with two sources independently of their positioning, and the robustness has been observed to increase rapidly along with the number of sources.

  5. A selection of giant radio sources from NVSS

    DOE PAGES

    Proctor, D. D.

    2016-06-01

    Results of the application of pattern-recognition techniques to the problem of identifying giant radio sources (GRSs) from the data in the NVSS catalog are presented, and issues affecting the process are explored. Decision-tree pattern-recognition software was applied to training-set source pairs developed from known NVSS large-angular-size radio galaxies. The full training set consisted of 51,195 source pairs, 48 of which were known GRSs for which each lobe was primarily represented by a single catalog component. The source pairs had a maximum separation ofmore » $$20^{\\prime} $$ and a minimum component area of 1.87 square arcmin at the 1.4 mJy level. The importance of comparing the resulting probability distributions of the training and application sets for cases of unknown class ratio is demonstrated. The probability of correctly ranking a randomly selected (GRS, non-GRS) pair from the best of the tested classifiers was determined to be 97.8 ± 1.5%. The best classifiers were applied to the over 870,000 candidate pairs from the entire catalog. Images of higher-ranked sources were visually screened, and a table of over 1600 candidates, including morphological annotation, is presented. These systems include doubles and triples, wide-angle tail and narrow-angle tail, S- or Z-shaped systems, and core-jets and resolved cores. In conclusion, while some resolved-lobe systems are recovered with this technique, generally it is expected that such systems would require a different approach.« less

  6. A selection of giant radio sources from NVSS

    SciTech Connect

    Proctor, D. D.

    2016-06-01

    Results of the application of pattern-recognition techniques to the problem of identifying giant radio sources (GRSs) from the data in the NVSS catalog are presented, and issues affecting the process are explored. Decision-tree pattern-recognition software was applied to training-set source pairs developed from known NVSS large-angular-size radio galaxies. The full training set consisted of 51,195 source pairs, 48 of which were known GRSs for which each lobe was primarily represented by a single catalog component. The source pairs had a maximum separation of $20^{\\prime} $ and a minimum component area of 1.87 square arcmin at the 1.4 mJy level. The importance of comparing the resulting probability distributions of the training and application sets for cases of unknown class ratio is demonstrated. The probability of correctly ranking a randomly selected (GRS, non-GRS) pair from the best of the tested classifiers was determined to be 97.8 ± 1.5%. The best classifiers were applied to the over 870,000 candidate pairs from the entire catalog. Images of higher-ranked sources were visually screened, and a table of over 1600 candidates, including morphological annotation, is presented. These systems include doubles and triples, wide-angle tail and narrow-angle tail, S- or Z-shaped systems, and core-jets and resolved cores. In conclusion, while some resolved-lobe systems are recovered with this technique, generally it is expected that such systems would require a different approach.

  7. A selection of giant radio sources from NVSS

    SciTech Connect

    Proctor, D. D.

    2016-06-01

    Results of the application of pattern-recognition techniques to the problem of identifying giant radio sources (GRSs) from the data in the NVSS catalog are presented, and issues affecting the process are explored. Decision-tree pattern-recognition software was applied to training-set source pairs developed from known NVSS large-angular-size radio galaxies. The full training set consisted of 51,195 source pairs, 48 of which were known GRSs for which each lobe was primarily represented by a single catalog component. The source pairs had a maximum separation of $20^{\\prime} $ and a minimum component area of 1.87 square arcmin at the 1.4 mJy level. The importance of comparing the resulting probability distributions of the training and application sets for cases of unknown class ratio is demonstrated. The probability of correctly ranking a randomly selected (GRS, non-GRS) pair from the best of the tested classifiers was determined to be 97.8 ± 1.5%. The best classifiers were applied to the over 870,000 candidate pairs from the entire catalog. Images of higher-ranked sources were visually screened, and a table of over 1600 candidates, including morphological annotation, is presented. These systems include doubles and triples, wide-angle tail and narrow-angle tail, S- or Z-shaped systems, and core-jets and resolved cores. In conclusion, while some resolved-lobe systems are recovered with this technique, generally it is expected that such systems would require a different approach.

  8. Radio search for the pulsing X-ray source in Hercules.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doxsey, R.; Rappaport, S.; Spencer, J.; Zaumen, W.; Murthy, G. T.

    1972-01-01

    The region of the celestial sphere near the pulsing X-ray source in Hercules (2U 1705+34) has been searched for radio emission with the NRAO three-element interferometer. The search was conducted during a period when the Hercules source was in its 27-day state of low X-ray luminosity. Four weak radio sources, which may be considered as candidates for the radio counterpart of this X-ray source, were detected.

  9. FRB121102: statistics of burst properties compared to the fast radio burst population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seymour, Andrew; Michilli, Daniele; McLaughlin, Maura; Chatterjee, Shami; Hessel, Jason; Spolaor, Sarah; Paul, Demorest; Scholz, Paul; Spitler, Laura; Tendulkar, Shriharsh P.; PALFA Survey Team; VLA+AO FRB121102 Simultaneous Campaign Team; EVN FRB121102 Campaign Team

    2017-01-01

    Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) are millisecond-long radio events with dispersion measures that exceed that expected from our Galaxy. Therefore the FRB source is anticipated to be extragalactic and highly energetic. Until recently, these were only observed as one-off events. This was until multiple bursts were observed at the Arecibo Observatory from FRB 121102. I will present the most recent burst statistics from FRB 121102's follow-up observations. Understanding the distribution of all burst characteristics can eliminate some of the proposed mechanisms to FRB 121102’s burst events. Not only that, comparing these values to the rest of the FRB population can give insight as to whether FRB 121102 is distinct from the rest of the FRB population.

  10. PKS B1718-649: An H I and H2 perspective on the birth of a compact radio source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccagni, F. M.; Santoro, F.; Morganti, R.; Oosterloo, T. A.; Oonk, J. B. R.; Emonts, B. H. C.

    2016-02-01

    We present neutral hydrogen (H I) and warm molecular hydrogen (H2) observations of the young (102 yr) radio galaxy PKS B1718-649. We study the morphology and the kinematics of both gas components, focusing, in particular, on their properties in relation to the triggering of the radio activity. The regular kinematics of the large scale H I disk, seen in emission, suggests that an interaction event occurred too long ago to be responsible for the recent triggering of the radio activity. In absorption, we detect two absorption lines along the narrow line of sight of the compact ({r<2} pc) radio source. The lines trace two clouds with opposite radial motions. These may represent a population of clouds in the very inner regions of the galaxy, which may be involved in triggering the radio activity. The warm molecular hydrogen (H 2 1-0 S(1) ro-vibrational line) in the innermost kilo-parsec of the galaxy appears to be distributed in a circum-nuclear disk following the regular kinematics of the H I and of the stellar component. An exception to this behaviour arises only in the very centre, where a highly dispersed component is detected. These particular H I and H2 features suggest that a strong interplay between the radio source and the surrounding ISM is ongoing. The physical properties of the cold gas in the proximity of the radio source may regulate the accretion recently triggered in this AGN.

  11. Clustering Properties of Radio Sources in the FIRST Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magliocchetti, M.; Maddox, S. J.; Lahav, O.; Wall, J. V.

    We investigate the large-scale clustering of radio sources in the FIRST 1.4 GHz survey by analysing the distribution function (Counts in Cells) of this sample. We select a reliable galaxy sample from the the FIRST catalogue, paying particular attention to the problem of how to define single radio sources from the multiple components listed in the FIRST catalogue. We also consider the incompleteness of the catalogue. We estimate angular two-point correlation function w(theta), the variance, Psi_2, and skewness, Psi_3, of the distribution for the galaxy subsample. Both w(theta) and Psi_2 show power-law behaviour with an amplitude corresponding a spatial correlation length of r_0 ~10 h^{-1} Mpc. We detect significant skewness in the distribution, and find that it is related to the variance through the relation Psi_3 = S_3(Psi_2)alpha with alpha = 1.9 +- 0.1 consistent with the non-linear growth of perturbations from primordial Gaussian initial conditions. We show that the amplitude of clustering (corresponding to a spatial correlation length of r_0 ~10 h^{-1} Mpc) and skewness are consistent with realistic models of galaxy clustering.

  12. Possible Source Location of the Terrestrial Myriametric Radio Burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, S. F.; Shao, X.; Frey, H. U.; Garcia, L. N.

    2013-12-01

    Fung et al. [2013] reported recently the identification of a terrestrial myriametric radio burst (TMRB) that was possibly a result from a dayside high latitude reconnection process. The TMRB was observed simultaneously by the IMAGE and Geotail satellites when the satellites were located at widely different latitudes on opposite sides of the Earth in nearly the same meridional plane. The TMRB was observed when the interplanetary field was northward. Its intensity seemed to be modulated by the IMF Bz component while the source directions (relative to the Geotail positions over the TMRB interval) also seemed to respond to the changes in the IMF By component. In this paper, we will present further observations from the IMAGE FUV data during the TMRB interval, revealing the presence of a bright proton aurora spot at the cusp foot print and thus confirming the presence of high-latitude dayside reconnection at the time. We have also performed a CCMC run-on-request of a global magnetospheric simulation for a time period over the TMRB interval. We will present the CCMC results and discuss the possible identification of the location of the TMRB source. Fung, S. F., K. Hashimoto, H. Kojima, S. A. Boardsen, L. N. Garcia, H. Matsumoto, J. L. Green, and B. W. Reinisch (2013), Terrestrial myriametric radio burst observed by IMAGE and Geotail satellites, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 118, 1101-1111, doi:10.1002/jgra.50149.

  13. New redshift determinations for three 3C radio sources.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynaldi, V.

    2017-01-01

    I report the new redshift determinations of three radio sources 3C 196.1, 3C 268.2 and 3C 303.1 by using GMOS/Gemini North long-slit optical spectroscopy. The details of the observations are summarized in the following table (the B600 grating was used for the three observations): Object | RA(J2000) | DEC(J2000) | Date of obs. | width-slit(arcsec) | PA(deg) | Exp.Time(sec) 3C 196.1 | 8:15:27.8 | -03:08:27 | Mar 2012 | 0.5 | 50 | 2560 3C 268.2| |12:00:59.1 | 31:33:28 | Feb 2011 | 0.5 | 165 | 2576 3C 303.1 | 14:43:14.5 | 77:07:28 | Feb 2012 | 1 | 145 | 2560 The three of the sources have extended regions of ionized gas that do not obey a spherical distribution.

  14. The radio-emission spectra of some extragalactic radio sources in the 11.6-36.8 GHz range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valtaoja, E.; Valtonen, M.; Lekhto, Kh.; Efanov, V. A.; Moiseev, I. G.

    Results are presented of coordinated observations of 20 extragalactic radio sources in the 11.6-3.8 GHz range. The measurements were carried out in 1980-1982 using the RT-22 and RT-14 radio telescopes at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory and the Radio Laboratory of the Helsinki University of Technology, respectively. Quasi-simultaneous radiation spectra are presented for 12 sources and the magnetic field strength (MFS) is estimated for 0235+16, OH 471, OJ 287, and BL Lac. The MFS turns out to be in the 0.001-0.002 G range.

  15. Optical Spectra of Candidate International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) Flat-spectrum Radio Sources. III.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, O.; Pursimo, T.; Johnston, Helen M.; Stanford, Laura M.; Hunstead, Richard W.; Jauncey, David L.; Zenere, Katrina A.

    2017-04-01

    In extending our spectroscopic program, which targets sources drawn from the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) Catalog, we have obtained spectra for ˜160 compact, flat-spectrum radio sources and determined redshifts for 112 quasars and radio galaxies. A further 14 sources with featureless spectra have been classified as BL Lac objects. Spectra were obtained at three telescopes: the 3.58 m European Southern Observatory New Technology Telescope, and the two 8.2 m Gemini telescopes in Hawaii and Chile. While most of the sources are powerful quasars, a significant fraction of radio galaxies is also included from the list of non-defining ICRF radio sources.

  16. The Lockman Hole project: LOFAR observations and spectral index properties of low-frequency radio sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahony, E. K.; Morganti, R.; Prandoni, I.; van Bemmel, I. M.; Shimwell, T. W.; Brienza, M.; Best, P. N.; Brüggen, M.; Calistro Rivera, G.; de Gasperin, F.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Harwood, J. J.; Heald, G.; Jarvis, M. J.; Mandal, S.; Miley, G. K.; Retana-Montenegro, E.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Sabater, J.; Tasse, C.; van Velzen, S.; van Weeren, R. J.; Williams, W. L.; White, G. J.

    2016-12-01

    The Lockman Hole is a well-studied extragalactic field with extensive multi-band ancillary data covering a wide range in frequency, essential for characterizing the physical and evolutionary properties of the various source populations detected in deep radio fields (mainly star-forming galaxies and AGNs). In this paper, we present new 150-MHz observations carried out with the LOw-Frequency ARray (LOFAR), allowing us to explore a new spectral window for the faint radio source population. This 150-MHz image covers an area of 34.7 square degrees with a resolution of 18.6 × 14.7 arcsec and reaches an rms of 160 μJy beam-1 at the centre of the field. As expected for a low-frequency selected sample, the vast majority of sources exhibit steep spectra, with a median spectral index of α _{150}^{1400}=-0.78± 0.015. The median spectral index becomes slightly flatter (increasing from α _{150}^{1400}=-0.84 to α _{150}^{1400}=-0.75) with decreasing flux density down to S150 ˜10 mJy before flattening out and remaining constant below this flux level. For a bright subset of the 150-MHz selected sample, we can trace the spectral properties down to lower frequencies using 60-MHz LOFAR observations, finding tentative evidence for sources to become flatter in spectrum between 60 and 150 MHz. Using the deep, multi-frequency data available in the Lockman Hole, we identify a sample of 100 ultra-steep-spectrum sources and 13 peaked-spectrum sources. We estimate that up to 21 per cent of these could have z > 4 and are candidate high-z radio galaxies, but further follow-up observations are required to confirm the physical nature of these objects.

  17. Multifrequency polarimetry of a complete sample of PACO radio sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galluzzi, V.; Massardi, M.; Bonaldi, A.; Casasola, V.; Gregorini, L.; Trombetti, T.; Burigana, C.; De Zotti, G.; Ricci, R.; Stevens, J.; Ekers, R. D.; Bonavera, L.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Liuzzo, E.; López-Caniego, M.; Mignano, A.; Paladino, R.; Toffolatti, L.; Tucci, M.

    2017-03-01

    We present high-sensitivity polarimetric observations (σP ≃0.6 mJy) in six bands covering the 5.5-38 GHz range of a complete sample of 53 compact extragalactic radio sources brighter than 200 mJy at 20 GHz. The observations, carried out with the Australia Telescope Compact Array, achieved a 91 per cent detection rate (at 5σ). Within this frequency range, the spectra of about 95 per cent of sources are well fitted by double power laws, both in total intensity and in polarization, but the spectral shapes are generally different in the two cases. Most sources were classified as either steep- or peaked-spectrum but less than 50 per cent have the same classification in total and in polarized intensity. No significant trends of the polarization degree with flux density or with frequency were found. The mean variability index in total intensity of steep-spectrum sources increases with frequency for a 4-5 yr lag, while no significant trend shows up for the other sources and for the 8 yr lag. In polarization, the variability index, which could be computed only for the 8 yr lag, is substantially higher than in total intensity and has no significant frequency dependence.

  18. Operating a radio-frequency plasma source on water vapor.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Sonca V T; Foster, John E; Gallimore, Alec D

    2009-08-01

    A magnetically enhanced radio-frequency (rf) plasma source operating on water vapor has an extensive list of potential applications. In this work, the use of a rf plasma source to dissociate water vapor for hydrogen production is investigated. This paper describes a rf plasma source operated on water vapor and characterizes its plasma properties using a Langmuir probe, a residual gas analyzer, and a spectrometer. The plasma source operated first on argon and then on water vapor at operating pressures just over 300 mtorr. Argon and water vapor plasma number densities differ significantly. In the electropositive argon plasma, quasineutrality requires n(i) approximately = n(e), where n(i) is the positive ion density. But in the electronegative water plasma, quasineutrality requires n(i+) = n(i-) + n(e). The positive ion density and electron density of the water vapor plasma are approximately one and two orders of magnitude lower, respectively, than those of argon plasma. These results suggest that attachment and dissociative attachment are present in electronegative water vapor plasma. The electron temperature for this water vapor plasma source is between 1.5 and 4 eV. Without an applied axial magnetic field, hydrogen production increases linearly with rf power. With an axial magnetic field, hydrogen production jumps to a maximum value at 500 W and then saturates with rf power. The presence of the applied axial magnetic field is therefore shown to enhance hydrogen production.

  19. Radio Point Sources Toward Galaxy Clusters at 30 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coble, K.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Bonamente, M.; Dawson, K.; Holzapfel, W.; Joy, M.; LaRoque, S.; Reese, E. D.

    2006-01-01

    Extra-galactic point sources are a significant contaminant in cosmic microwave background and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect experiments. Deep interferometric observations with the BIMA and OVRO arrays are used to characterize the spatial, spectral, and flux distributions of radio point sources toward galaxy clusters at 28.5 GHz. We compute counts of mJy point source fluxes from 90 fields centered on known massive galaxy clusters and 8 non-cluster fields. Counts in the non-cluster fields are consistent with extrapolations from the results of other surveys. We also compute counts towards clusters as a function of luminosity in three redshift bins out to z = 1.0 and see no clear evidence for evolution with redshift. We compute spectral indices of mJy sources in cluster fields between 1.4 and 28.5 GHz. The distribution is skewed, with a median spectral index of 0.76 and 25th and 75th percentiles of 0.55 and 0.95, respectively. This is steeper than the spectral indices of brighter field point sources measured by other surveys.

  20. THE LOW-FREQUENCY RADIO CATALOG OF FLAT-SPECTRUM SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Massaro, F.; Giroletti, M.; D'Abrusco, R.; Paggi, A.; Cowperthwaite, Philip S.; Masetti, N.; Tosti, G.; Funk, S.

    2014-07-01

    A well known property of the γ-ray sources detected by Cos-B in the 1970s, by the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory in the 1990s, and recently by the Fermi observations is the presence of radio counterparts, particularly for those associated with extragalactic objects. This observational evidence is the basis of the radio-γ-ray connection established for the class of active galactic nuclei known as blazars. In particular, the main spectral property of the radio counterparts associated with γ-ray blazars is that they show a flat spectrum in the GHz frequency range. Our recent analysis dedicated to search blazar-like candidates as potential counterparts for the unidentified γ-ray sources allowed us to extend the radio-γ-ray connection in the MHz regime. We also showed that blazars below 1 GHz maintain flat radio spectra. Thus, on the basis of these new results, we assembled a low-frequency radio catalog of flat-spectrum sources built by combining the radio observations of the Westerbork Northern Sky Survey and of the Westerbork in the southern hemisphere catalog with those of the NRAO Very Large Array Sky survey (NVSS). This could be used in the future to search for new, unknown blazar-like counterparts of γ-ray sources. First, we found NVSS counterparts of Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope radio sources, and then we selected flat-spectrum radio sources according to a new spectral criterion, specifically defined for radio observations performed below 1 GHz. We also described the main properties of the catalog listing 28,358 radio sources and their logN-logS distributions. Finally, a comparison with the Green Bank 6 cm radio source catalog was performed to investigate the spectral shape of the low-frequency flat-spectrum radio sources at higher frequencies.

  1. Deep multi-frequency radio imaging in the Lockman Hole using the GMRT and VLA - I. The nature of the sub-mJy radio population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibar, Edo; Ivison, R. J.; Biggs, A. D.; Lal, D. V.; Best, P. N.; Green, D. A.

    2009-07-01

    In the run up to routine observations with the upcoming generation of radio facilities, the nature of sub-mJy radio population has been hotly debated. Here, we describe multi-frequency data designed to probe the emission mechanism that dominates in these faint radio sources. Our analysis is based on observations of the Lockman Hole using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) - the deepest 610-MHz imaging yet reported - together with 1.4-GHz imaging from the Very Large Array (VLA), well matched in resolution and sensitivity to the GMRT data: σ610MHz ~ 15μJybeam-1, σ1.4GHz ~ 6μJybeam-1, full width at half-maximum (FWHM) ~ 5arcsec. The GMRT and VLA data are cross-matched to obtain the radio spectral indices for the faint radio emitters. Statistical analyses show no clear evolution for the median spectral index, α610MHz1.4GHz (where Sν ~ να), as a function of flux density. α610MHz1.4GHz is found to be approximately -0.6 to -0.7, based on an almost unbiased 10σ criterion, down to a flux level of S1.4GHz >~100μJy. The fraction of inverted spectrum sources (α610MHz1.4GHz > 0) is less than 10 per cent. The results suggest that the most prevalent emission mechanism in the sub-mJy regime is optically thin synchrotron, ruling out a dominant flat spectrum or ultra-steep spectrum radio population. The spectral index distribution has a significant scatter, Δα ~ 0.4-0.5, which suggests a mixture of different populations at all flux levels. Spectroscopic classification of radio sources with X-ray emission has allowed us to estimate that the fraction of radio-quiet active galactic nuclei (AGN) at 30μJy <~ S1.4GHz <300μJy is roughly 25 +/- 10 per cent, suggesting that star-forming galaxies dominate the sub-mJy regime.

  2. A Submillimeter Perspective on the Goods Fields. II. The High Radio Power Population in the Goods-N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barger, A. J.; Cowie, L. L.; Owen, F. N.; Hsu, L.-Y.; Wang, W.-H.

    2017-01-01

    We use ultradeep 20 cm data from the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array and 850 μm data from SCUBA-2 and the Submillimeter Array of an 124 arcmin2 region of the Chandra Deep Field-north to analyze the high radio power ({P}20{cm}> {10}31 erg s‑1 Hz‑1) population. We find that 20 (42 ± 9%) of the spectroscopically identified z> 0.8 sources have consistent star formation rates (SFRs) inferred from both submillimeter and radio observations, while the remaining sources have lower (mostly undetected) submillimeter fluxes, suggesting that active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity dominates the radio power in these sources. We develop a classification scheme based on the ratio of submillimeter flux to radio power versus radio power and find that it agrees with AGN and star-forming galaxy classifications from Very Long Baseline Interferometry. Our results provide support for an extremely rapid drop in the number of high SFR galaxies above about a thousand solar masses per year (Kroupa initial mass function) and for the locally determined relation between X-ray luminosity and radio power for star-forming galaxies applying at high redshifts and high radio powers. We measure far-infrared (FIR) luminosities and find that some AGNs lie on the FIR-radio correlation, while others scatter below. The AGNs that lie on the correlation appear to do so based on their emission from the AGN torus. We measure a median radio size of 1.″0 ± 0.3 for the star-forming galaxies. The radio sizes of the star-forming galaxies are generally larger than those of the AGNs. The W. M. Keck Observatory is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA, and was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  3. Multiple-Beam Detection of Fast Transient Radio Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, David R.; Wagstaff, Kiri L.; Majid, Walid A.

    2011-01-01

    A method has been designed for using multiple independent stations to discriminate fast transient radio sources from local anomalies, such as antenna noise or radio frequency interference (RFI). This can improve the sensitivity of incoherent detection for geographically separated stations such as the very long baseline array (VLBA), the future square kilometer array (SKA), or any other coincident observations by multiple separated receivers. The transients are short, broadband pulses of radio energy, often just a few milliseconds long, emitted by a variety of exotic astronomical phenomena. They generally represent rare, high-energy events making them of great scientific value. For RFI-robust adaptive detection of transients, using multiple stations, a family of algorithms has been developed. The technique exploits the fact that the separated stations constitute statistically independent samples of the target. This can be used to adaptively ignore RFI events for superior sensitivity. If the antenna signals are independent and identically distributed (IID), then RFI events are simply outlier data points that can be removed through robust estimation such as a trimmed or Winsorized estimator. The alternative "trimmed" estimator is considered, which excises the strongest n signals from the list of short-beamed intensities. Because local RFI is independent at each antenna, this interference is unlikely to occur at many antennas on the same step. Trimming the strongest signals provides robustness to RFI that can theoretically outperform even the detection performance of the same number of antennas at a single site. This algorithm requires sorting the signals at each time step and dispersion measure, an operation that is computationally tractable for existing array sizes. An alternative uses the various stations to form an ensemble estimate of the conditional density function (CDF) evaluated at each time step. Both methods outperform standard detection strategies on a test

  4. Identifying the source of perytons at the Parkes radio telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petroff, E.; Keane, E. F.; Barr, E. D.; Reynolds, J. E.; Sarkissian, J.; Edwards, P. G.; Stevens, J.; Brem, C.; Jameson, A.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Johnston, S.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Kudale, P. Chandra S.; Bhandari, S.

    2015-08-01

    `Perytons' are millisecond-duration transients of terrestrial origin, whose frequency-swept emission mimics the dispersion of an astrophysical pulse that has propagated through tenuous cold plasma. In fact, their similarity to FRB 010724 had previously cast a shadow over the interpretation of `fast radio bursts' (FRBs), which otherwise appear to be of extragalactic origin. Until now, the physical origin of the dispersion-mimicking perytons had remained a mystery. We have identified strong out-of-band emission at 2.3-2.5 GHz associated with several peryton events. Subsequent tests revealed that a peryton can be generated at 1.4 GHz when a microwave oven door is opened prematurely and the telescope is at an appropriate relative angle. Radio emission escaping from microwave ovens during the magnetron shut-down phase neatly explains all of the observed properties of the peryton signals. Now that the peryton source has been identified, we furthermore demonstrate that the microwave ovens on site could not have caused FRB 010724. This and other distinct observational differences show that FRBs are excellent candidates for genuine extragalactic transients.

  5. H- radio frequency source development at the Spallation Neutron Sourcea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welton, R. F.; Dudnikov, V. G.; Gawne, K. R.; Han, B. X.; Murray, S. N.; Pennisi, T. R.; Roseberry, R. T.; Santana, M.; Stockli, M. P.; Turvey, M. W.

    2012-02-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) now routinely operates nearly 1 MW of beam power on target with a highly persistent ˜38 mA peak current in the linac and an availability of ˜90%. H- beam pulses (˜1 ms, 60 Hz) are produced by a Cs-enhanced, multicusp ion source closely coupled with an electrostatic low energy beam transport (LEBT), which focuses the 65 kV beam into a radio frequency quadrupole accelerator. The source plasma is generated by RF excitation (2 MHz, ˜60 kW) of a copper antenna that has been encased with a thickness of ˜0.7 mm of porcelain enamel and immersed into the plasma chamber. The ion source and LEBT normally have a combined availability of ˜99%. Recent increases in duty-factor and RF power have made antenna failures a leading cause of downtime. This report first identifies the physical mechanism of antenna failure from a statistical inspection of ˜75 antennas which ran at the SNS, scanning electron microscopy studies of antenna surface, and cross sectional cuts and analysis of calorimetric heating measurements. Failure mitigation efforts are then described which include modifying the antenna geometry and our acceptance/installation criteria. Progress and status of the development of the SNS external antenna source, a long-term solution to the internal antenna problem, are then discussed. Currently, this source is capable of delivering comparable beam currents to the baseline source to the SNS and, an earlier version, has briefly demonstrated unanalyzed currents up to ˜100 mA (1 ms, 60 Hz) on the test stand. In particular, this paper discusses plasma ignition (dc and RF plasma guns), antenna reliability, magnet overheating, and insufficient beam persistence.

  6. Dispersion Measure Variation of Repeating Fast Radio Burst Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuan-Pei; Zhang, Bing

    2017-09-01

    The repeating fast radio burst (FRB) 121102 was recently localized in a dwarf galaxy at a cosmological distance. The dispersion measure (DM) derived for each burst from FRB 121102 so far has not shown significant evolution, even though an apparent increase was recently seen with newly detected VLA bursts. It is expected that more repeating FRB sources may be detected in the future. In this work, we investigate a list of possible astrophysical processes that might cause DM variation of a particular FRB source. The processes include (1) cosmological scale effects such as Hubble expansion and large-scale structure fluctuations; (2) FRB local effects such as gas density fluctuation, expansion of a supernova remnant (SNR), a pulsar wind nebula, and an H ii region; and (3) the propagation effect due to plasma lensing. We find that the DM variations contributed by the large-scale structure are extremely small, and any observable DM variation is likely caused by the plasma local to the FRB source. In addition to mechanisms that decrease DM over time, we suggest that an FRB source in an expanding SNR around a nearly neutral ambient medium during the deceleration (Sedov–Taylor and snowplow) phases or in a growing H ii region can increase DM. Some effects (e.g., an FRB source moving in an H ii region or plasma lensing) can produce either positive or negative DM variations. Future observations of DM variations of FRB 121102 and other repeating FRB sources can provide important clues regarding the physical origin of these sources.

  7. Morphology of high-luminosity compact radio sources.

    PubMed Central

    Zensus, J A; Krichbaum, T P; Lobanov, A P

    1995-01-01

    High-dynamic range imaging and monitoring with very-long-baseline interferometry reveal a rich morphology of luminous flat-spectrum radio sources. One-sided core-jet structures abound, and superluminal motion is frequently measured. In a few cases, both distinct moving features and diffuse underlying jet emission can be detected. Superluminal motion seen in such sources is typically complex, on curved trajectories or ridge lines, and with variable component velocities, including stationary features. The curved trajectories seen can be modeled by helical motion within the underlying jet flow. The very-long-baseline interferometry properties of the superluminal features in the jet of 3C 345 and other similar sources can be explained by models invoking the emission from shocks, at least within the vicinity of the compact core. Inverse-Compton calculations, constrained by x-ray observations, yield realistic estimates for the physical conditions in the parsec-scale jet. There is evidence for a transition region in this source beyond which other factors (e.g., plasma interactions and nonsynchrotron radiation processes) may become prominent. Multifrequency and polarization imaging (especially at high frequencies) are emerging as critical tools in testing model predictions. PMID:11607595

  8. Morphology of high-luminosity compact radio sources.

    PubMed

    Zensus, J A; Krichbaum, T P; Lobanov, A P

    1995-12-05

    High-dynamic range imaging and monitoring with very-long-baseline interferometry reveal a rich morphology of luminous flat-spectrum radio sources. One-sided core-jet structures abound, and superluminal motion is frequently measured. In a few cases, both distinct moving features and diffuse underlying jet emission can be detected. Superluminal motion seen in such sources is typically complex, on curved trajectories or ridge lines, and with variable component velocities, including stationary features. The curved trajectories seen can be modeled by helical motion within the underlying jet flow. The very-long-baseline interferometry properties of the superluminal features in the jet of 3C 345 and other similar sources can be explained by models invoking the emission from shocks, at least within the vicinity of the compact core. Inverse-Compton calculations, constrained by x-ray observations, yield realistic estimates for the physical conditions in the parsec-scale jet. There is evidence for a transition region in this source beyond which other factors (e.g., plasma interactions and nonsynchrotron radiation processes) may become prominent. Multifrequency and polarization imaging (especially at high frequencies) are emerging as critical tools in testing model predictions.

  9. A Compact X-ray Source in the Radio PWN G141.2+5.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Stephen P.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.

    2015-08-01

    We report the results of a 50 ks Chandra observation of the recently discovered radio object G141.2+5.0, presumed to be a pulsar-wind nebula (PWN) (Kothes et al. 2014). We find a faint unresolved X-ray source coincident with the central peak of radio emission. Spectral fits to the 241 counts show that an absorbed power-law describes the data well, with absorbing column NH = 4.8 (2.6, 7.3) x 1021 cm-2 and photon index Γ = 1.6 (1.2, 2.1). (A black-body fit is slightly less favored statistically, and has an implausibly high temperature, kT = 0.9 keV.) For a distance of 4 kpc, the unabsorbed luminosity between 0.5 and 8 keV is 1.8 (1.1, 3.0) x 1032 erg s-1. No extended emission is seen; a very conservative upper limit to Lx (nebula) is about the same luminosity as that observed from the point source. The radio luminosity is about 3 x 1030 erg s-1 the X-ray upper limit then gives Lx/Lr < 700, satisfied by almost all pulsar-wind nebulae. Both Lx and Γ are quite typical of pulsars in PWNe. The steep radio spectrum (α ~ -0.7), if continued to the X-ray without a break, predicts Lx (nebula) ~ 1 x 1033 erg s-1, so additional spectral steepening between radio and X-rays is required, as is true of all known PWNe. The high Galactic latitude gives a z-distance of 350 pc above the Galactic plane, quite unusual for a Population I object.

  10. Compact radio sources in the starburst galaxy M82 and the Sigma-D relation for supernova remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Z. P.; Thuan, T. X.; Chevalier, R. A.; Condon, J. J.; Yin, Q. F.

    1994-01-01

    We have obtained an 8.4 GHz Very Large Array (VLA) A-array map of the starburst galaxy M82 with a resolution Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) approximately 0.182 sec. About 50 compact radio sources in the central region of M82 were detected with a peak surface brightness approximately greater than 10(exp -17) W/Hz/sq m/sr. Comparison with previous observations shows that most sources are declining in flux. Three previously visible sources have faded into the background of our map (approximately less than 0.2 mJy/beam), while a few sources, including the second and third brightest radio sources in M82, may have increased slightly in flux over the last decade. No new radio supernova was found. The birth rate of the compact radio sources is estimated to be 0.11 + or - 0.05/yr. We attribute the population of such bright, small supernova remnants (SNRs) in M82 to the high pressure in the central region that can truncate the mass loss during a red supergiant phase or allow dense ionized clouds to be present. The compact radio sources obey a Sigma(radio surface brightness) - D(diameter) relation which is remarkably similar to that followed by supernova remnants in the Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds and by two of the strongest known extragalactic radio supernovae: SN 1986J and SN 1979C. A least-squares fit to the SNR data gives: Sigma(sub 8.4 GHz) (W/Hz/sq m/sr) = 4.4 x 10(exp -16) D(sub pc)(exp -3.5 +/- 0.1) covering seven orders of magnitude in Sigma. Possible selection effects are discussed and a theoretical discussion of the correlation is presented.

  11. Compact radio sources in the starburst galaxy M82 and the Sigma-D relation for supernova remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Z. P.; Thuan, T. X.; Chevalier, R. A.; Condon, J. J.; Yin, Q. F.

    1994-01-01

    We have obtained an 8.4 GHz Very Large Array (VLA) A-array map of the starburst galaxy M82 with a resolution Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) approximately 0.182 sec. About 50 compact radio sources in the central region of M82 were detected with a peak surface brightness approximately greater than 10(exp -17) W/Hz/sq m/sr. Comparison with previous observations shows that most sources are declining in flux. Three previously visible sources have faded into the background of our map (approximately less than 0.2 mJy/beam), while a few sources, including the second and third brightest radio sources in M82, may have increased slightly in flux over the last decade. No new radio supernova was found. The birth rate of the compact radio sources is estimated to be 0.11 + or - 0.05/yr. We attribute the population of such bright, small supernova remnants (SNRs) in M82 to the high pressure in the central region that can truncate the mass loss during a red supergiant phase or allow dense ionized clouds to be present. The compact radio sources obey a Sigma(radio surface brightness) - D(diameter) relation which is remarkably similar to that followed by supernova remnants in the Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds and by two of the strongest known extragalactic radio supernovae: SN 1986J and SN 1979C. A least-squares fit to the SNR data gives: Sigma(sub 8.4 GHz) (W/Hz/sq m/sr) = 4.4 x 10(exp -16) D(sub pc)(exp -3.5 +/- 0.1) covering seven orders of magnitude in Sigma. Possible selection effects are discussed and a theoretical discussion of the correlation is presented.

  12. The compact radio structure of radio-loud NLS1 galaxies and the relationship to CSS sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, M.; Chen, Y.; Komossa, S.; Yuan, W.; Shen, Z.

    2016-02-01

    Narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies are thought to be young AGNs with relatively small black hole masses and high accretion rates. Radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (RLNLS1s) are very special, because some of them show blazar-like characteristics, while others resemble compact steep-spectrum sources. Relativistic jets were shown to exist in a few RLNLS1s based on VLBI observations and confirmed by the gamma-ray flaring of some of them. These properties may possibly be contrary to typical radio-loud AGNs, in light of the low black-hole masses, and high accretion rates. We present the compact radio structure of fourteen RLNLS1 galaxies from Very Long Baseline Array observations at 5 GHz in 2013. Although all these sources are very radio-loud with {R > 100}, their jet properties are diverse, in terms of their milli-arcsecond (mas) scale (pc scale) morphology and their overall radio spectral shape. The core brightness temperatures of our sources are significantly lower than those of blazars, therefore, the beaming effect is generally not significant in our sources, compared to blazars. This implies that the bulk jet speed may likely be low in our sources. The relationship between RLNLS1s and compact steep-spectrum sources, and the implications on jet formation are discussed based on the pc-scale jet properties.

  13. Fast radio burst source properties and curvature radiation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pawan; Lu, Wenbin; Bhattacharya, Mukul

    2017-07-01

    We use the observed properties of fast radio bursts (FRBs) and a number of general physical considerations to provide a broad-brush model for the physical properties of FRB sources and the radiation mechanism. We show that the magnetic field in the source region should be at least 1014 G. This strong field is required to ensure that the electrons have sufficiently high ground state Landau energy so that particle collisions, instabilities and strong electromagnetic fields associated with the FRB radiation do not perturb electrons' motion in the direction transverse to the magnetic field and destroy their coherent motion; coherence is required by the high observed brightness temperature of FRB radiation. The electric field in the source region required to sustain particle motion for a wave period is estimated to be of the order of 1011 esu. These requirements suggest that FRBs are produced near the surface of magnetars perhaps via forced reconnection of magnetic fields to produce episodic, repeated, outbursts. The beaming-corrected energy release in these bursts is estimated to be about 1036 erg, whereas the total energy in the magnetic field is at least ˜1045 erg. We provide a number of predictions for this model which can be tested by future observations. One of which is that short duration FRB-like bursts should exist at much higher frequencies, possibly up to optical.

  14. The Interaction of Radio Sources and X-ray-Emitting Gas in Cluster Cooling Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanton, Elizabeth L.

    2001-10-01

    Recent Chandra observations of cooling flow clusters containing central radio sources reveal an anti-correlation between radio and X-ray emission. Abell 2052 is one such cluster that exhibits this morphology. The cD galaxy at the center of Abell 2052 is host to the powerful radio source 3C 317. "Holes" in the X-ray emission are coincident with the radio lobes which are surrounded by bright "shells" of X-ray emission. Heating by central radio sources has been proposed as one solution to the "missing gas" in cooling flows -- there is a lack of gas detected in the X-ray at temperatures at or below approximately 1 keV. However, the gas surrounding the radio source in Abell 2052 is cool. The data are consistent with the radio source displacing and compressing, and at the same time being confined by, the X-ray gas. The compression of the X-ray shells appears to have been relatively gentle and, at most, slightly transonic. The pressure in the X-ray gas (the shells and surrounding cooler gas) is approximately an order of magnitude higher than the minimum pressure derived for the radio source, suggesting that an additional source of pressure is needed to support the radio plasma. The compression of the X-ray shells has speeded up the cooling of the shells, and optical emission line filaments are found coincident with the brightest regions of the shells.

  15. AN EXAMINATION OF THE OPTICAL SUBSTRUCTURE OF GALAXY CLUSTERS HOSTING RADIO SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Wing, Joshua D.; Blanton, Elizabeth L.

    2013-04-20

    Using radio sources from the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-cm survey, and optical counterparts in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we have identified a large number of galaxy clusters. The radio sources within these clusters are driven by active galactic nuclei, and our cluster samples include clusters with bent, and straight, double-lobed radio sources. We also included a single-radio-component comparison sample. We examine these galaxy clusters for evidence of optical substructure, testing the possibility that bent double-lobed radio sources are formed as a result of large-scale cluster mergers. We use a suite of substructure analysis tools to determine the location and extent of substructure visible in the optical distribution of cluster galaxies, and compare the rates of substructure in clusters with different types of radio sources. We found no preference for significant substructure in clusters hosting bent double-lobed radio sources compared to those with other types of radio sources.

  16. The Interaction of Radio Sources and X-Ray-Emitting Gas in Cooling Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanton, E. L.

    Recent observations of the interactions between radio sources and the X-ray-emitting gas in cooling flows in the cores of clusters of galaxies are reviewed. The radio sources inflate bubbles in the X-ray gas, which then rise buoyantly outward in the clusters transporting energy to the intracluster medium (ICM). The bright rims of gas around the radio bubbles are cool, rather than hot, and do not show signs of being strongly shocked. Energy deposited into the ICM over the lifetime of a cluster through several outbursts of a radio source helps to account for at least some of the gas that is missing in cooling flows at low temperatures.

  17. Binary black holes in nuclei of extragalactic radio sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roland, J.; Britzen, S.

    If we assume that nuclei of extragalactic radio sources contain a Binary Black Hole system, the 2 black holes can eject VLBI components and in that case 2 families of different VLBI trajectories will be observed. An important consequence of the presence of a Binary Black Hole system is the following: the VLBI core is associated with one black hole and if a VLBI component is ejected by the second black hole, one expects to be able to detect the offset of the origin of the VLBI component ejected by the black hole not associated with the VLBI core. The ejection of VLBI components is perturbed by the precession of the accretion disk and the motion of the black holes around the gravity center of the BBH system. We modeled the ejection of the component taking into account the 2 perturbations and we obtained a method to fit the coordinates of a VLBI component and to deduce the characteristics of the BBH system, i.e. the ratio Tp/Tb where Tp is the precession period of the accretion disk and Tb the orbital period of the BBH system, the mass ratio M1/M2, the radius of the BBH system Rbin. We applied the method to component S1 of 1823+568 and to component C5 of 3C 279 which presents a large offset of the space origin from the VLBI core. We found that 1823+568 contains a BBH system which size is Rbin ≈ 60 mu as and 3C 279 contains a BBH system which size is Rbin ≈ 378 mu as. We were able to deduce the separation of the 2 black holes and the coordinates of the second black hole from the VLBI core, this information will be important to make the link between the radio reference frame system deduced from VLBI observations and the optical reference frame system deduced from GAIA.

  18. 58 Radio Sources Near Bright Natural Guide Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stalder, B.; Chambers, K. C.; Vacca, William D.

    2009-11-01

    We present a preliminary survey of 58 radio sources within the isoplanatic patches (r < 25'') of bright (11 < R < 12) stars suitable for use as natural guide stars with high-order adaptive optics (AO). An optical and near-infrared imaging survey was conducted utilizing tip-tilt corrections in the optical and AO in the near-infrared. Spectral energy distributions were fit to the multi-band data for the purpose of obtaining photometric redshifts using the Hyperz code. Several of these photometric redshifts were confirmed with spectroscopy, a result that gives more confidence to the redshift distribution for the whole sample. Additional long-wavelength data from Spitzer, SCUBA, SHARC2, and VLA supplement the optical and near-infrared data. We find the sample generally follows and extends the magnitude-redshift relation found for more powerful local radio galaxies. The survey has identified several reasonably bright (H = 19 - 20) objects at significant redshifts (z > 1) that are now within the capabilities of the current generation of AO-fed integral-field spectrographs. These objects constitute a unique sample that can be used for detailed ground-based AO studies of galactic structure, evolution, and active galactic nucleus formation at high redshift. Based on observations obtained at the Canada-France-Hawai'i Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawai'i. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), CNPq

  19. Radio optical reference frame. 6: Additional source positions in the northern hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fey, A. L.; Russell, J. L.; De Vegt, C.; Zacharias, N.; Johnston, K. J.; Ma, C.; Hall, D. M.; Holdenried, E. R.

    1994-01-01

    Radio and optical positions for northern hemisphere extragalactic sources are reported. Milliarcsecond (mas) accurate radio positions of 106 sources north of -2 deg declination are derived from Mark III Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations taken during ten experiments from 1990 January through 1990 October. The results presented supplement an ongoing project to define and maintain an all-sky radio/optical reference frame of 400 or more extragalactic sources with mas accurate radio and optical positions. Radio positions for 34 new sources are presented along with improved radio positions for 72 sources already in the reference frame catalog. An additional nine sources have been determined to be unsuitable reference frame objects. Radio observations of nine calibration sources tie the new positions to the existing catalogue. The radio positions of the new sources have formal mean errors of approximately 0.7 mas in right ascension and approximately 1.0 mas in declination. Sources for which we report improved radio positions now have formal mean errors of approximately 0.5 mas in both coordinates, an improvement in some cases by as much as 75%. Positions in the FK5 system have also been obtained for the optical counterparts of an additional five northern hemisphere radio sources using prime focus plates from the Kitt Peak National Observatory's 4 m telescope and a Ritchey-Chretien focus plate from the Calar Alto 2.2 m telescope. The optical positions have internal accuracies of about 0.03 sec and differ from the radio positions by about 0.07 sec on the average.

  20. THE ABUNDANCE OF X-SHAPED RADIO SOURCES. I. VLA SURVEY OF 52 SOURCES WITH OFF-AXIS DISTORTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, David H.; Cohen, Jake P.; Lu, Jing; Saripalli, Lakshmi; Subrahmanyan, Ravi

    2015-09-15

    Cheung identified a sample of 100 candidate X-shaped radio galaxies using the NRAO FIRST survey; these are small-axial-ratio extended radio sources with off-axis emission. Here, we present radio images of 52 of these sources that have been made from archival Very Large Array data with resolution of about 1″. Fifty-one of the 52 were observed at 1.4 GHz, 7 were observed at 1.4 and 5 GHz, and 1 was observed only at 5 GHz. We also present overlays of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey red images for 48 of the sources, and DSS II overlays for the remainder. Optical counterparts have been identified for most sources, but there remain a few empty fields. Our higher resolution VLA images along with FIRST survey images of the sources in the sample reveal that extended extragalactic radio sources with small axial ratios are largely (60%) cases of double radio sources with twin lobes that have off-axis extensions, usually with inversion-symmetric structure. The available radio images indicate that at most 20% of sources might be genuine X-shaped radio sources that could have formed by a restarting of beams in a new direction following an interruption and axis flip. The remaining 20% are in neither of these categories. The implications of this result for the gravitational wave background are discussed in Roberts et al.

  1. The Abundance of X-shaped Radio Sources. I. VLA Survey of 52 Sources with Off-axis Distortions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, David H.; Cohen, Jake P.; Lu, Jing; Saripalli, Lakshmi; Subrahmanyan, Ravi

    2015-09-01

    Cheung identified a sample of 100 candidate X-shaped radio galaxies using the NRAO FIRST survey; these are small-axial-ratio extended radio sources with off-axis emission. Here, we present radio images of 52 of these sources that have been made from archival Very Large Array data with resolution of about 1″. Fifty-one of the 52 were observed at 1.4 GHz, 7 were observed at 1.4 and 5 GHz, and 1 was observed only at 5 GHz. We also present overlays of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey red images for 48 of the sources, and DSS II overlays for the remainder. Optical counterparts have been identified for most sources, but there remain a few empty fields. Our higher resolution VLA images along with FIRST survey images of the sources in the sample reveal that extended extragalactic radio sources with small axial ratios are largely (60%) cases of double radio sources with twin lobes that have off-axis extensions, usually with inversion-symmetric structure. The available radio images indicate that at most 20% of sources might be genuine X-shaped radio sources that could have formed by a restarting of beams in a new direction following an interruption and axis flip. The remaining 20% are in neither of these categories. The implications of this result for the gravitational wave background are discussed in Roberts et al.

  2. The peculiar radio source M17 JVLA 35

    SciTech Connect

    Rodríguez, L. F.; Carrasco-González, C.; Montes, G.; Tapia, M.

    2014-07-01

    M17 JVLA 35 is a radio source detected in projection against the M17 H II region. In recent observations, its spectrum between 4.96 and 8.46 GHz was found to be positive and very steep, with α ≥ 2.9 ± 0.6 (S {sub ν}∝ν{sup α}). Here we present Very Large Array observations made in the 18.5 to 36.5 GHz region that indicate a spectral turnover at ∼13 GHz and a negative spectral index (α ≅ –2.0) at higher frequencies. The spectrum is consistent with that of an extragalactic high frequency peaker (HFP). However, M17 JVLA 35 has an angular size of ∼0.''5 at 8.46 GHz, while HFPs have extremely compact, milliarcsecond dimensions. We discuss other possible models for the spectrum of the source and do not find them feasible. Finally, we propose that M17 JVLA 35 is indeed an HFP but that its angular size becomes broadened by plasma scattering as its radiation travels across M17. If our interpretation is correct, accurate measurements of the angular size of M17 JVLA 35 across the centimeter range should reveal the expected ν{sup –2} dependence.

  3. A sample of mJy radio sources at 1.4 GHz in the Lynx and Hercules fields - II. Cosmic evolution of the space density of FR I radio sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigby, E. E.; Best, P. N.; Snellen, I. A. G.

    2008-03-01

    In this paper the cosmic evolution of the space density of Fanaroff-Riley Class I (FR I) radio sources is investigated out to z ~ 1, in order to understand the origin of the differences between these and the more powerful FR IIs. High-resolution radio images are presented of the best high-redshift FR I candidate galaxies, drawn from two fields of the Leiden-Berkeley Deep Survey, and previously defined by Rigby, Snellen & Best in Paper 1. Together with lower resolution radio observations (both previously published in Paper 1 and, for a subset of sources, also presented here) these are used to morphologically classify the sample. Sources which are clearly resolved are classified by morphology alone, whereas barely or unresolved sources were classified using a combination of morphology and flux density loss in the higher resolution data, indicative of resolved-out extended emission. The space densities of the FR Is are then calculated as a function of redshift, and compared to both measurements of the local value and the behaviour of the more powerful FR IIs. The space density of FR I radio sources with luminosities (at 1.4 GHz) > 1025 WHz-1 is enhanced by a factor of 5-9 by z ~ 1, implying moderately strong evolution of this population; this enhancement is in good agreement with models of FR II evolution at the same luminosity. There are also indications that the evolution is luminosity dependent, with the lower powered sources evolving less strongly.

  4. Radio jet propagation and wide-angle tailed radio sources in merging galaxy cluster environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loken, Chris; Roettiger, Kurt; Burns, Jack O.; Norman, Michael

    1995-01-01

    The intracluster medium (ICM) within merging clusters of galaxies is likely to be in a violent or turbulent dynamical state which may have a significant effect on the evolution of cluster radio sources. We present results from a recent gas + N-body simulation of a cluster merger, suggesting that mergers can result in long-lived, supersonic bulk flows, as well as shocks, within a few hundred kiloparsecs of the core of the dominant cluster. These results have motivated our new two-dimensional and three-dimensional simulations of jet propagation in such environments. The first set of simulations models the ISM/ICM transition as a contact discontinuity with a strong velocity shear. A supersonic (M(sub j) = 6) jet crossing this discontinuity into an ICM with a transverse, supersonic wind bends continuously, becomes 'naked' on the upwind side, and forms a distended cocoon on the downwind side. In the case of a mildly supersonic jet (M(sub j) = 3), however, a shock is driven into the ISM and ISM material is pulled along with the jet into the ICM. Instabilities excited at the ISM/ICM interface result in the jet repeatedly pinching off and reestablishing itself in a series of 'disconnection events.' The second set of simulations deals with a jet encountering a shock in the merging cluster environment. A series of relatively high-resolution two-dimensional calculations is used to confirm earlier analysis predicting that the jet will not disrupt when the jet Mach number is greater than the shock Mach number. A jet which survives the encounter with the shock will decrease in radius and disrupt shortly thereafter as a result of the growth of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. We also find, in disagreement with predictions, that the jet flaring angle decreases with increasing jet density. Finally, a three-dimensional simulation of a jet crossing an oblique shock gives rise to a morphology which resembles a wide-angle tailed radio source with the jet flaring at the shock and

  5. Radio jet propagation and wide-angle tailed radio sources in merging galaxy cluster environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loken, Chris; Roettiger, Kurt; Burns, Jack O.; Norman, Michael

    1995-01-01

    The intracluster medium (ICM) within merging clusters of galaxies is likely to be in a violent or turbulent dynamical state which may have a significant effect on the evolution of cluster radio sources. We present results from a recent gas + N-body simulation of a cluster merger, suggesting that mergers can result in long-lived, supersonic bulk flows, as well as shocks, within a few hundred kiloparsecs of the core of the dominant cluster. These results have motivated our new two-dimensional and three-dimensional simulations of jet propagation in such environments. The first set of simulations models the ISM/ICM transition as a contact discontinuity with a strong velocity shear. A supersonic (M(sub j) = 6) jet crossing this discontinuity into an ICM with a transverse, supersonic wind bends continuously, becomes 'naked' on the upwind side, and forms a distended cocoon on the downwind side. In the case of a mildly supersonic jet (M(sub j) = 3), however, a shock is driven into the ISM and ISM material is pulled along with the jet into the ICM. Instabilities excited at the ISM/ICM interface result in the jet repeatedly pinching off and reestablishing itself in a series of 'disconnection events.' The second set of simulations deals with a jet encountering a shock in the merging cluster environment. A series of relatively high-resolution two-dimensional calculations is used to confirm earlier analysis predicting that the jet will not disrupt when the jet Mach number is greater than the shock Mach number. A jet which survives the encounter with the shock will decrease in radius and disrupt shortly thereafter as a result of the growth of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. We also find, in disagreement with predictions, that the jet flaring angle decreases with increasing jet density. Finally, a three-dimensional simulation of a jet crossing an oblique shock gives rise to a morphology which resembles a wide-angle tailed radio source with the jet flaring at the shock and

  6. Determination of radio spectra from catalogues and identification of gigahertz peaked sources using the Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, Bernd; Derriere, Sebastian; Krichbaum, Thomas P.; Boch, Thomas; Gassmann, Brice; Davoust, Emmanuel; Dubois, Pascal; Genova, Françoise; Ochsenbein, François; van Driel, Wim

    2007-08-01

    We have used the 20 largest radio continuum catalogues contained in VizieR (CDS) to determine radio continuum spectra between wavelengths of 2cm and 1m. For 67,000 out of the 3.5 million catalogued sources we could extract radio spectra with measurements at at least three independent frequencies (Vollmer et al. 2005, A&A, 431, 1177). These have been validated by comparison with existing spectral indices from the literature. This work allowed us to investigated the compatibility between the 20 radio continuum catalogues (Vollmer et al. 2005, A&A, 436, 757). Our radio spectra data base was searched for Gigahertz peaked source candidates, which we then observed quasi-simultaneously with the Effelsberg 100-m radio telescope at 6cm (4.85GHz), 2.8cm (10.45GHz), and 9mm (32GHz). This represents an efficient procedure to discover new Gigahertz peaked sources, which are believed to be AGNs at the beginning of their radio evolution. In our sample of more than 200 sources we find more than 50% bona fide GPS sources. In addition, we can estimate the percentage of variable sources in our multi-epoch sample of radio sources which show an inverted spectrum. We are generalizing the method by using VO capabilities to: (i) identify pertinent radio catalogues in the VO registry using Uniform Content Descriptions (UCDs); all catalogues containing a user defined set of UCDs (e.g., PHOT_FLUX_RADIO* for a radio flux, POS_EQ_RA and POS_EQ_DEC for the position) are located in the VO registry and listed for further queries; (ii) extract relevant data, the user can easily assign a row of a given catalogue to a row of a previously defined output catalogue; and (iii) normalize these for the determination of radio spectra; units can be converted, aconymes can be created, flags can be created, etc. This procedure allows to homogenize the information retrieved from a heterogenuous set of catalogues. For this purpose software allowing semi-automated information retrieval is being developed at the

  7. Radio Sources Associated with Intermediate X-ray Luminosity Objects in Merging Galaxy Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neff, S. G.; Ulvestad, J. S.; Oegerle, William R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present new, high-resolution 6, 3.6, and 2 cm radio images of a time-ordered sequence of merging galaxy systems. The new data have a resolution of less than 100pc and a sensitivity comparable to a few x Cas A. We detect compact radio sources in all systems, generally embedded in more diffuse radio emission at the longer wavelengths. Several of the compact radio sources are coincident with compact Intermediate-luminosity X-ray Objects (IXOs) in these systems, and many more are within the 3$/sigma$ Chandra position errors for other IXOs. The fraction of radio identifications and the nature of the radio sources changes as a function of merger stage. These data suggest that the IXOs are associated with complexes of supernova remnants, and therefore with star formation that has occurred within the last $/sim$10$circumflex7$ yr, but are not located in HII regions where copious star formation is occurring currently.

  8. Infrared point sources aligned with the SgrA(asterisk) non-thermal radio source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, W. A.; Forrest, W. J.

    1986-01-01

    Assembled 0.7-5.0 micron observational data for two point sources approximately aligned with the compact nonthermal radio source SgrA(asterisk) in the Galactic center, thus far interpreted as being from the same object on the basis of their position and spectral continuity, are presently given alternative interpretations. While the object must be a hot star surrounded by a circumstellar dust cloud if it is a foreground star, a Galactic center position calls for an unorthodox extinction curve which suggests that the IR emission may be the Rayleigh-Jeans tail of a hot star or star cluster, or perhaps a thermal accretion disk.

  9. Survival of mountain quail translocated from two distinct source populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Troy, Ronald J.; Coates, Peter S.; Connelly, John W.; Gillette, Gifford; Delehanty, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Translocation of mountain quail (Oreortyx pictus) to restore viable populations to their former range has become a common practice. Because differences in post-release vital rates between animals from multiple source populations has not been well studied, wildlife and land managers may arbitrarily choose the source population or base the source population on immediate availability when planning translocation projects. Similarly, an understanding of the optimal proportion of individuals from different age and sex classes for translocation would benefit translocation planning. During 2006 and 2007, we captured and translocated 125 mountain quail from 2 ecologically distinct areas: 38 from southern California and 87 from southwestern Oregon. We released mountain quail in the Bennett Hills of south-central Idaho. We radio-marked and monitored a subsample of 58 quail and used them for a 2-part survival analysis. Cumulative survival probability was 0.23 ± 0.05 (SE) at 150 days post-release. We first examined an a priori hypothesis (model) that survival varied between the 2 distinct source populations. We found that source population did not explain variation in survival. This result suggests that wildlife managers have flexibility in selecting source populations for mountain quail translocation efforts. In a post hoc examination, we pooled the quail across source populations and evaluated differences in survival probabilities between sex and age classes. The most parsimonious model indicated that adult male survival was substantially less than survival rates of other mountain quail age and sex classes (i.e., interaction between sex and age). This result suggests that translocation success could benefit by translocating yearling males rather than adult males, perhaps because adult male breeding behavior results in vulnerability to predators

  10. Program Source Directory. A Resource for Canadian Community Radio Stations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Broadcasting Corp., Toronto (Ontario).

    In Canada, Community Radio is beginning to reassert itself as local groups demand access to the airwaves to share information about their own cultures and communities, to devise their own entertainment, and to participate in dialogues with others. Since funds for Community Radio are scarce and programing expensive, and effort is underway to…

  11. JVLA observations of IC 348 SW: Compact radio sources and their nature

    SciTech Connect

    Rodríguez, Luis F.; Zapata, Luis A.; Palau, Aina E-mail: l.zapata@crya.unam.mx

    2014-07-20

    We present sensitive 2.1 and 3.3 cm Jansky Very Large Array radio continuum observations of the region IC 348 SW. We detect a total of 10 compact radio sources in the region, 7 of which are first reported here. One of the sources is associated with the remarkable periodic time-variable infrared source LRLL 54361, opening the possibility of monitoring this object at radio wavelengths. Four of the sources appear to be powering outflows in the region, including HH 211 and HH 797. In the case of the rotating outflow HH 797, we detect a double radio source at its center, separated by ∼3''. Two of the sources are associated with infrared stars that possibly have gyrosynchrotron emission produced in active magnetospheres. Finally, three of the sources are interpreted as background objects.

  12. Extending the ICRF to Higher Radio Frequencies: Imaging and Source Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boboltz, David A.; Fey, Alan L.; Charlot, Patrick; Fomalont, Edward B.; Lanyi, Gabor E.; Zhang, Li-Wei

    2004-01-01

    We present imaging results and source structure analysis of extragalactic radio sources observed using the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) at 24 GHz and 43 GHz as part of an ongoing NASA, USNO, NRAO and Bordeaux Observatory collaboration to extend the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) to higher radio frequencies. The K/Q-band image database now includes images of 108 sources at 43 GHz (Q-braid) and images of 230 sources at 24 GHz (K-band). Preliminary analysis of the observations taken to date shows that the sources are generally more compact as one goes from the ICRF frequency of 8.4 GHz to 24 GHz. This result is consistent with the standard theory of compact extragalactic radio sources and suggests that reference frames defined at these higher radio frequencies will be less susceptible to the effects of intrinsic source structure than those defined at lower frequencies.

  13. Method of making radio frequency ion source antenna

    DOEpatents

    Ehlers, Kenneth W.; Leung, Ka-Ngo

    1988-01-01

    In the method, the radio frequency (RF) antenna is made by providing a clean coil made of copper tubing or other metal conductor, which is coated with a tacky organic binder, and then with a powdered glass frit, as by sprinkling the frit uniformly over the binder. The coil is then heated internally in an inert gas atmosphere, preferably by passing an electrical heating current along the coil. Initially, the coil is internally heated to about 200.degree. C. to boil off the water from the binder, and then to about 750.degree. C.-850.degree. C. to melt the glass frit, while also burning off the organic binder. The melted frit forms a molten glass coating on the metal coil, which is then cooled to solidify the glass, so that the metal coil is covered with a thin continuous homogeneous impervious glass coating of substantially uniform thickness. The glass coating affords complete electrical insulation and complete dielectric protection for the metal coil of the RF antenna, to withstand voltage breakdown and to prevent sputtering, while also doubling the plasma generating efficiency of the RF antenna, when energized with RF power in the vacuum chamber of an ion source for a particle accelerator or the like. The glass frit preferably contains apprxoimately 45% lead oxide.

  14. Sunspot magnetic structure and interspot radio source formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solov'ev, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    The magnetic structure of a typical sunspot is represented as a set of three interacting magnetic fluxes. The first one, F1, escapes upward from the sunspot umbra and closes through the corona on the sunspot of opposite polarity. The second, F2, forms the sunspot penumbra. It includes Evershed flows emerging from the sunspot, the heavy photospheric plasma of which cannot be pulled up to the corona. For this reason, the F2 flux at the outer edge of the penumbra should close on the photosphere adjacent to the sunspot, i.e., here the F2 field changes sign. The third flux, F3, is the external magnetic field flux and has the same polarity as F1. Thus, magnetic fields of different signs occur near the outer boundary of the sunspot penumbra. Magnetic reconnections will inevitably take place there. Smalland multiscale current sheets in which particles are accelerated are formed. The latter fill short and low magnetic loops that connect sunspots of different polarity in the bipolar group and form interspot radio sources at the tops of these loops.

  15. Source location of the narrowbanded radio bursts at Uranus: Evidence of a cusp source

    SciTech Connect

    Farrell, W.M.; Desch, M.D.; Kaiser, M.L. ); Kurth, W.S. )

    1990-03-01

    While Voyager 2 was inbound to Uranus, radio bursts of narrow bandwidth (< 5 kHz) were detected between 17-116 kHz by both the Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) and Plasma Wave (PWS) experiments. These R-X mode bursts, designated n-bursts, were of short duration (about 250 msec), tended to occur when the north magnetic pole tipped toward the spacecraft, and increased in occurrence with increasing solar wind density. In this report, the authors present an explicit determination of the burst source location based upon fitting the region of detection at high and low frequencies to field-aligned, symmetric cones. The region of good fits was located between the north magnetic pole an the rotational pole, corresponding approximately to the northern polar cusp. Based upon the emission power, it is suspected that at certain times large amounts of auroral input power may originate in this cusp.

  16. A Measurement of the Millimeter Emission and the Sunyaev-zel'dovich Effect Associated with Low-frequency Radio Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gralla, Megan B.; Crichton, Devin; Marriage, Tobias A.; Mo, Wenli; Aguirre, Paula; Addison, Graeme E.; Asboth, V.; Battaglia, Nick; Bock, James; Bond, J. Richard; hide

    2013-01-01

    We present a statistical analysis of the millimeter-wavelength properties of 1.4 GHz-selected sources and a detection of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect associated with the halos that host them. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) has conducted a survey at 148 GHz, 218 GHz and 277 GHz along the celestial equator. Using samples of radio sources selected at 1.4 GHz from the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-Centimeters (FIRST) Survey and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory Very Large Array Sky Survey (NVSS), we measure the stacked 148, 218 and 277 GHz flux densities for sources with 1.4 GHz flux densities ranging from 5 to 200 mJy. At these flux densities, the radio source population is dominated by active galactic nuclei (AGN), with both steep and at spectrum populations, which have combined radio-to-millimeter spectral indices ranging from 0.5 to 0.95, reecting the prevalence of steep spectrum sources at high flux densities and the presence of at spectrum sources at lower flux densities. The thermal Sunyaev-Zelapos;dovich (SZ) eect associated with the halos that host the AGN is detected at the 5 level through its spectral signature. When we compare the SZ eect with weak lensing measurements of radio galaxies, we find that the relation between the two is consistent with that measured by Planck for local bright galaxies. We present a detection of the SZ eect in some of the lowest mass halos (average M(sub 200) approx. equals 10(exp 13) solar M h(sup-1) (sub 70) ) studied to date. This detection is particularly important in the context of galaxy evolution models, as it confirms that galaxies with radio AGN also typically support hot gaseous halos. With Herschel* observations, we show that the SZ detection is not significantly contaminated by dusty galaxies or by dust associated with the AGN or galaxies hosting the AGN. We show that 5 mJy < S(sub 1:4) < 200 mJy radio sources contribute l(l +1)C(sub l)/(2 pi ) = 0:37+/- 0:03 micro K(exp 2) to the angular

  17. Occultations of Astrophysical Radio Sources as Probes of (Exo)Planetary Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalba, Paul A.; Withers, Paul; Vogt, Marissa F.

    2017-05-01

    The passage of a radio signal through a planetary atmosphere, ionosphere, or magnetosphere affects the polarization, frequency, and power of the radio signal. Radio occultations are a common experiment used to measure planetary atmospheres, but they traditionally rely on radio transmissions from a spacecraft near the planet. We explore whether similar measurements of planetary and exoplanetary environments can be made using distant astrophysical radio sources such as pulsars, active galactic nuclei, and masers. We find that occultations by solar system planets, such as Jupiter, can be used to measure planetary magnetic field strength, plasma density, and neutral density. Based on the number of known distant astrophysical radio sources, occultations by solar system planets are likely to occur often. Occultations are most likely when the solar system planets are near the intersection of the ecliptic and galactic planes. For even the closest exoplanetary systems, the low probability of alignment of the Earth, an exoplanet, and a suitable distant astrophysical radio source presents a considerable challenge. The concentration of both exoplanets and galactic radio sources in the galactic plane may alleviate this challenge somewhat, but it still appears formidable. An alternative type of occultation may be more promising for exoplanets: high-resolution radio imaging of an exoplanet as it transits in front of its parent star.

  18. POLARIZED RADIO SOURCES: A STUDY OF LUMINOSITY, REDSHIFT, AND INFRARED COLORS

    SciTech Connect

    Banfield, Julie K.; George, Samuel J.; Taylor, A. Russ; Stil, Jeroen M.; Kothes, Roland; Scott, Douglas

    2011-05-20

    The Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory Deep Field polarization study has been matched with the Spitzer Wide-Area Infrared Extragalactic Survey of the European Large Area Infrared Space Observatory Survey North 1 field. We have used Very Large Array observations with a total intensity rms of 87 {mu}Jy beam{sup -1} to match SWIRE counterparts to the radio sources. Infrared color analysis of our radio sample shows that the majority of polarized sources are elliptical galaxies with an embedded active galactic nucleus. Using available redshift catalogs, we found 429 radio sources of which 69 are polarized with redshifts in the range of 0.04 < z < 3.2. We find no correlation between redshift and percentage polarization for our sample. However, for polarized radio sources, we find a weak correlation between increasing percentage polarization and decreasing luminosity.

  19. Binary black holes in nuclei of extragalactic radio sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roland, J.; Britzen, S.; Caproni, A.; Fromm, C.; Glück, C.; Zensus, A.

    2013-09-01

    If we assume that nuclei of extragalactic radio sources contain binary black hole systems, the two black holes can eject VLBI components, in which case two families of different VLBI trajectories will be observed. Another important consequence of a binary black hole system is that the VLBI core is associated with one black hole, and if a VLBI component is ejected by the second black hole, one expects to be able to detect the offset of the origin of the VLBI component ejected by the black hole that is not associated with the VLBI core. The ejection of VLBI components is perturbed by the precession of the accretion disk and the motion of the black holes around the center of gravity of the binary black hole system. We modeled the ejection of the component taking into account the two pertubations and present a method to fit the coordinates of a VLBI component and to deduce the characteristics of the binary black hole system. Specifically, this is the ratio Tp/Tb where Tp is the precession period of the accretion disk and Tb is the orbital period of the binary black hole system, the mass ratio M1/M2, and the radius of the binary black hole system Rbin. From the variations of the coordinates as a function of time of the ejected VLBI component, we estimated the inclination angle io and the bulk Lorentz factor γ of the modeled component. We applied the method to component S1 of 1823+568 and to component C5 of 3C 279, which presents a large offset of the space origin from the VLBI core. We found that 1823+568 contains a binary black hole system whose size is Rbin ≈ 60 μas (μas is a microarcsecond) and 3C 279 contains a binary black hole system whose size is Rbin ≈ 420 μas. We calculated the separation of the two black holes and the coordinates of the second black hole from the VLBI core. This information will be important to link the radio reference-frame system obtained from VLBI observations and the optical reference-frame system obtained from Gaia.

  20. Radio spectra of bright compact sources at z > 4.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppejans, Rocco; van Velzen, Sjoert; Intema, Huib T.; Müller, Cornelia; Frey, Sándor; Coppejans, Deanne L.; Cseh, Dávid; Williams, Wendy L.; Falcke, Heino; Körding, Elmar G.; Orrú, Emanuela; Paragi, Zsolt; Gabányi, Krisztina É.

    2017-05-01

    High-redshift quasars are important to study galaxy and active galactic nuclei evolution, test cosmological models and study supermassive black hole growth. Optical searches for high-redshift sources have been very successful, but radio searches are not hampered by dust obscuration and should be more effective at finding sources at even higher redshifts. Identifying high-redshift sources based on radio data is, however, not trivial. Here we report on new multifrequency Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope observations of eight z > 4.5 sources previously studied at high angular resolution with very long baseline interferometry (VLBI). Combining these observations with those from the literature, we construct broad-band radio spectra of all 30 z > 4.5 sources that have been observed with VLBI. In the sample we found flat, steep and peaked spectra in approximately equal proportions. Despite several selection effects, we conclude that the z > 4.5 VLBI (and likely also non-VLBI) sources have diverse spectra and that only about a quarter of the sources in the sample have flat spectra. Previously, the majority of high-redshift radio sources were identified based on their ultrasteep spectra. Recently, a new method has been proposed to identify these objects based on their megahertz-peaked spectra. No method would have identified more than 18 per cent of the high-redshift sources in this sample. More effective methods are necessary to reliably identify complete samples of high-redshift sources based on radio data.

  1. Local Group dSph radio survey with ATCA (I): observations and background sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regis, Marco; Richter, Laura; Colafrancesco, Sergio; Massardi, Marcella; de Blok, W. J. G.; Profumo, Stefano; Orford, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    Dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies are key objects in near-field cosmology, especially in connection to the study of galaxy formation and evolution at small scales. In addition, dSphs are optimal targets to investigate the nature of dark matter. However, while we begin to have deep optical photometric observations of the stellar population in these objects, little is known so far about their diffuse emission at any observing frequency, and hence on thermal and non-thermal plasma possibly residing within dSphs. In this paper, we present deep radio observations of six local dSphs performed with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) at 16 cm wavelength. We mosaicked a region of radius of about 1 deg around three `classical' dSphs, Carina, Fornax, and Sculptor, and of about half of degree around three `ultrafaint' dSphs, BootesII, Segue2, and Hercules. The rms noise level is below 0.05 mJy for all the maps. The restoring beams full width at half-maximum ranged from 4.2 arcsec × 2.5 arcsec to 30.0 arcsec × 2.1 arcsec in the most elongated case. A catalogue including the 1392 sources detected in the six dSph fields is reported. The main properties of the background sources are discussed, with positions and fluxes of brightest objects compared with the FIRST, NVSS, and SUMSS observations of the same fields. The observed population of radio emitters in these fields is dominated by synchrotron sources. We compute the associated source number counts at 2 GHz down to fluxes of 0.25 mJy, which prove to be in agreement with AGN count models.

  2. Source location of the narrowbanded radio bursts at Uranus - Evidence of a cusp source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, W. M.; Desch, M. D.; Kaiser, M. L.; Kurth, W. S.

    1990-03-01

    While Voyager 2 was inbound to Uranus, radio bursts of narrow bandwidth (less than 5 kHz) were detected between 17-116 kHz. These R-X mode bursts, designated n-bursts, were of short duration, tended to occur when the north magnetic pole tipped toward the spacecraft, and increased in occurrence with increasing solar wind density. An explicit determination of the burst source location is presented, based upon fitting the region of detection at high and low frequencies to field-aligned, symmetric cones. The region of good fits was located between the north magnetic pole and the rotational pole, corresponding approximately to the northern polar cusp.

  3. Some Results of Coordinate Measurements of Local Radio Sources on the Sun.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-10-03

    7 AD-A VS@ 186 SOME RESULTS OF COORDINATE MEASUREMENTS OF LOCAL RADIO iSOURCES ON THE SUN (U) NAVRL OCEAN SYSTEMS CENTER SRN1) DIEGO CR Y N BOROYIK ET...MEASUREMENTS OF LOCAL RADIO !C~i SOURCES ON THE SUN ell Translated by CM Bigger from an article by VN Borovik and AV Temirova Edited by MP Bleiweiss C...COORDINATE MEASUREMENTS OF LOCAL RADIO SOURCES ON THE SUN 12 PERSOML AJT"ORS V.N. Borovik, A.V. Temirova 1l W 0 REPORT l3b VM COVIRED 4 SAlE 09 9504 f . 4 j

  4. RADIO MONITORING OF THE PERIODICALLY VARIABLE IR SOURCE LRLL 54361: NO DIRECT CORRELATION BETWEEN THE RADIO AND IR EMISSIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Forbrich, Jan; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Palau, Aina; Zapata, Luis A.; Muzerolle, James; Gutermuth, Robert A.

    2015-11-20

    LRLL 54361 is an infrared source located in the star-forming region IC 348 SW. Remarkably, its infrared luminosity increases by a factor of 10 over roughly one week every 25.34 days. To understand the origin of these remarkable periodic variations, we obtained sensitive 3.3 cm JVLA radio continuum observations of LRLL 54361 and its surroundings in six different epochs: three of them during the IR-on state and three during the IR-off state. The radio source associated with LRLL 54361 remained steady and did not show a correlation with the IR variations. We suggest that the IR is tracing the results of fast (with a timescale of days) pulsed accretion from an unseen binary companion, while the radio traces an ionized outflow with an extent of ∼100 AU that smooths out the variability over a period of the order of a year. The average flux density measured in these 2014 observations, 27 ± 5 μJy, is about a factor of two less than that measured about 1.5 years before, 53 ± 11 μJy, suggesting that variability in the radio is present, but over larger timescales than in the IR. We discuss other sources in the field, in particular two infrared/X-ray stars that show rapidly varying gyrosynchrotron emission.

  5. On the nature of bright compact radio sources at z > 4.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppejans, Rocco; Frey, Sándor; Cseh, Dávid; Müller, Cornelia; Paragi, Zsolt; Falcke, Heino; Gabányi, Krisztina É.; Gurvits, Leonid I.; An, Tao; Titov, Oleg

    2016-12-01

    High-redshift radio-loud quasars are used to, among other things, test the predictions of cosmological models, set constraints on black hole growth in the early Universe and understand galaxy evolution. Prior to this paper, 20 extragalactic radio sources at redshifts above 4.5 have been imaged with very long baseline interferometry (VLBI). Here, we report on observations of an additional ten z > 4.5 sources at 1.7 and 5 GHz with the European VLBI Network, thereby increasing the number of imaged sources by 50 per cent. Combining our newly observed sources with those from the literature, we create a substantial sample of 30 z > 4.5 VLBI sources, allowing us to study the nature of these objects. Using spectral indices, variability and brightness temperatures, we conclude that of the 27 sources with sufficient information to classify, the radio emission from one source is from star formation, 13 are flat-spectrum radio quasars and 13 are steep-spectrum sources. We also argue that the steep-spectrum sources are off-axis (unbeamed) radio sources with rest-frame self-absorption peaks at or below GHz frequencies and that these sources can be classified as gigahertz peaked-spectrum and megahertz peaked-spectrum sources.

  6. Infrared-faint radio sources in the SERVS deep fields. Pinpointing AGNs at high redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maini, A.; Prandoni, I.; Norris, R. P.; Spitler, L. R.; Mignano, A.; Lacy, M.; Morganti, R.

    2016-12-01

    Context. Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) represent an unexpected class of objects which are relatively bright at radio wavelength, but unusually faint at infrared (IR) and optical wavelengths. A recent and extensive campaign on the radio-brightest IFRSs (S1.4 GHz≳ 10 mJy) has provided evidence that most of them (if not all) contain an active galactic nuclei (AGN). Still uncertain is the nature of the radio-faintest IFRSs (S1.4 GHz≲ 1 mJy). Aims: The scope of this paper is to assess the nature of the radio-faintest IFRSs, testing their classification and improving the knowledge of their IR properties by making use of the most sensitive IR survey available so far: the Spitzer Extragalactic Representative Volume Survey (SERVS). We also explore how the criteria of IFRSs can be fine-tuned to pinpoint radio-loud AGNs at very high redshift (z > 4). Methods: We analysed a number of IFRS samples identified in SERVS fields, including a new sample (21 sources) extracted from the Lockman Hole. 3.6 and 4.5 μm IR counterparts of the 64 sources located in the SERVS fields were searched for and, when detected, their IR properties were studied. Results: We compared the radio/IR properties of the IR-detected IFRSs with those expected for a number of known classes of objects. We found that IR-detected IFRSs are mostly consistent with a mixture of high-redshift (z ≳ 3) radio-loud AGNs. The faintest ones (S1.4 GHz 100 μJy), however, could be also associated with nearer (z 2) dust-enshrouded star-burst galaxies. We also argue that, while IFRSs with radio-to-IR ratios >500 can very efficiently pinpoint radio-loud AGNs at redshift 2 < z < 4, lower radio-to-IR ratios ( 100-200) are expected for higher redshift radio-loud AGNs.

  7. Difficulties in Estimating the Physical Parameters of Compact Radio Sources in Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artyukh, V. S.

    2016-12-01

    The various factors influencing estimates of the physical parameters of compact radio sources in active galactic nuclei (AGN) using a methods based on uniform models of synchrotron radiation sources are analyzed. It is found that the form of the relativistic electron energy density distribution as a function of magnetic energy density (Ee-EH) in the radio sources is determined by the shape of the electron energy spectrum. It is shown that the very large observed deviations of the estimated energies of the field and relativistic particles from equipartition are mainly caused by nonuniformity of the radio sources. In order to obtain correct estimates of the physical parameters of nonuniform radio sources, it is necessary to know their angular sizes at low frequencies (in the opaque region) and their Doppler factors.

  8. Source of O mode radio emissions from the dayside of Uranus

    SciTech Connect

    Menietti, J.D.; Curran, D.B. )

    1990-09-01

    During the inbound trajectory toward Uranus the Planetary Radio Astronomy instrument on board the Voyager 2 spacecraft observed narrowband smooth (n-smooth) emission at frequencies centered near 60 kHz and O mode emission (the dayside source) in a frequency range narrowly confined around 160 kHz. By assuming empirical models of the plasma density for the dayside magnetosphere of Uranus, and by using cold plasma theory together with observational constraints, the authors have performed ray-tracing calculations to determine the source lcoation of the O mode emission. The dayside source appears to originate along magnetic field lines with a footprint near the north magnetic pole. Sources of nightside, high-frequency, broadband smooth (b-smooth) emission observed by Voyager after encounter are believed to exist near the conjugate footprint of these same field lines. This would indicate that the particle population supplying the free energy source has energies at least as high as a few keV and the density in the source region satisfies the condition 0.3 < f{sub p}/f{sub ce} < 1.0 where f{sub p} and f{sub ce} are the electron plasma frequency and gyrofrequency, respectively.

  9. The under-explored radio-loudness of quasars and the possibility of radio-source-environment interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blundell, Katherine M.

    2003-10-01

    I demonstrate that radio observations in the literature to date of optically-selected quasars are largely inadequate to reveal the full extent of their jet-activity. I discuss a recent example of an optically-powerful quasar, which is radio-quiet according to all the standard classifications, which Blundell and Rawlings discovered to have a >100 kpc jet, and show that other than being the first FR I quasar to be identified, there is no reason to presume it is exceptional. I also discuss a possible new probe of accounting for the interactions of radio sources with their environments. This tool could help to avoid over-estimating magnetic fields strengths within cluster gas. I briefly describe recent analyses by Rudnick and Blundell which confront claims in the literature of cluster gas B-fields >10 μG.

  10. Effect of asymmetry of the radio source distribution on the apparent proper motion kinematic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, O.; Malkin, Z.

    2009-11-01

    Context: Information on physical characteristics of astrometric radio sources, such as magnitude and redshift, is of great importance for many astronomical studies. However, data usually used in radio astrometry is often incomplete and outdated. Aims: Our purpose is to study the optical characteristics of more than 4000 radio sources observed by the astrometric VLBI technique since 1979. We also studied the effect of the asymmetry in the distribution of the reference radio sources on the correlation matrices between vector spherical harmonics of the first and second degrees. Methods: The radio source characteristics were mainly taken from the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED). Characteristics of the gravitational lenses were checked with the CfA-Arizona Space Telescope LEns Survey. SIMBAD and HyperLeda databases were also used to clarify the characteristics of some objects. Also we simulated and investigated a list of 4000 radio sources evenly distributed around the celestial sphere. We estimated the correlation matrices between the vector spherical harmonics using the real as well as modelled distribution of the radio sources. Results: A new list OCARS (optical characteristics of astrometric radio sources) of 4261 sources has been compiled. Comparison of our data of optical characteristics with the official International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) list showed significant discrepancies for about half of the 667 common sources. Finally, we found that asymmetry in the radio source distribution between hemispheres could cause significant correlation between the vector spherical harmonics, especially in the case of sparse distribution of the sources with high redshift. We also identified radio sources having a many-year observation history and lack of redshift. These sources should be urgently observed with large optical telescopes. Conclusions: The list of optical characteristics created in this paper is recommended for use as a

  11. The Trivariate / Radio Optical X-Ray / Luminosity Function CD Galaxies - Part Two - the Fuelling of Radio Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentijn, E. A.; Bijleveld, W.

    1983-09-01

    In order to the test the hypothesis that radio sources in elliptical galaxies are fuelled by a fraction of accreted X-ray gas, a sample of 81 cD galaxies in clusters and 23 cD galaxies in poor groups is studied. Various subsamples have been defined (reviewed in Table t) according to the origin of the cD galaxy classification (optically, radio or X-ray selected). A catalogue is presented, listing the measured optical, radio and X-ray luminosities from various origins, but all transformed to a uniform and homogeneous system: optical Mv (38 kpc metric diameter), radio P1.4 (1.4 GHz monochromatic total radio power) and Lx (1 Mpc metric diameter 0.5-3.0 keV X-ray band). The three luminosity parameters are investigated for cross- correlations by studying power-power plots and by analysing how the integral radio luminosity function, expressed in fractions of radio detections (F(> P1.4)), depend on Mv and Lx. All three parameters are found to correlate with each other. F(> P1.4) increases with both increasing Lx and brighter Mv and Lx also increases with brighter Mv. The determinations of the different regression relations are internally consistent. The empirical conclusions from the analysis are: (i) The mean Mv of poor group cDs is 0.m4 fainter than the mean Mv of cluster cDs. (ii) The bivariate radio luminosity functions of both samples confirm, both in shape and in their dependence on Mv, those of normal and giant ellipticals. (iii) cD galaxies have an increasing probability to contain a central (≲ 28 kpc) radio source when the X-ray luminosity of their halo (˜1 Mpc diameter) increases. 50 ± 9% of Lx ≧ 1044 erg s-1 cDs have a central radio source with P1.4 ≧ 1024WHz-1, while 12+l2-5% of Lx < 1043 ergs-1 cDs have a radio source of that power. This important conclusion is summarised in Fig. 5. (iv) Comparing rich cluster cDs and poor group cDs a relation between Mv and Lx is found. This relation holds among the rich cluster cDs as well. The physical origins of

  12. Population density effect on radio frequencies interference (RFI) in radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umar, Roslan; Abidin, Zamri Zainal; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Hassan, Mohd Saiful Rizal; Rosli, Zulfazli; Hamidi, Zety Shahrizat

    2012-06-01

    Radio astronomical observation is infected by wide range of Radio Frequency Interference (RFI). We will also use information gathered from on-site RFI level measurements on selected 'good' areas generated by this study. After investigating a few suitable sites we will commence to the site and construct the RFI observation. Eventually, the best area we will be deciding from the observations soon. The result of this experiment will support our planning to build the first radio telescope in Malaysia. Radio observatories normally are located in remote area, in order to combat RFI from active spectrum users and radio noise produced in industrial or residential areas. The other solution for this problem is regulating the use of radio frequencies in the country (spectrum management). Measurement of RFI level on potential radio astronomical site can be done to measure the RFI levels at sites. Seven sites are chosen divide by three group, which is A, B and C. In this paper, we report the initial testing RFI survey for overall spectrum (0-2GHz) for those sites. The averaged RFI level above noise level at the three group sites are 19.0 (+/-1.79) dBm, 19.5 (+/-3.71) dBm and 17.0 (+/-3.71) dBm and the averaged RFI level above noise level for without main peaks are 20.1 (+/-1.77) dBm, 19.6 (+/-3.65) dBm and 17.2 (+/-1.43) dBm respectively.

  13. New method for determining the distances to certain extragalactic radio sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, Y. A.

    1980-06-01

    The structural evolution of variable radio sources is examined in the Hedgehog model. It is shown that the time evolution of the angular separation of two components is described by the ellipse equation.

  14. New method for determining the distances to certain extragalactic radio sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovalev, Y. A.

    1980-01-01

    The structural evolution of variable radio sources is examined in the Hedgehog model. It is shown that the time evolution of the angular separation of two components is described by the ellipse equation.

  15. A statistical VLBI study of milli-arcsecond cores in extragalactic radio sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preston, R. A.; Morabito, D. D.; Jauncey, D. L.

    1983-01-01

    VLBI observations at 2.3 GHz with a baseline of approximately 8 x 10 to the 7th wavelengths were performed on a complete sample of 103 sources from the Parkes + or - 4 deg catalog. Compact milli-arcsec cores were found in 35 percent of all sources: in 80 percent of quasars, in 10 percent of galaxies, and in 20 percent of empty field sources. It is shown that for quasars the percentage of the source flux density coming from milli-arcsec cores increased with increasing radio spectral index, radio variability, and optical redness. It is noted that quasars with extended radio structure (not less than approximately 10 arcsec) seem more likely to have a detectable milli-arcsec core than do extended radio galaxies. The absence of a strong correlation between quasar milli-arcsec structure and redshift is found to be evidence for a lack of strong physical evolution in quasars.

  16. Source counts at 5 gigahertz from the MG survey. [radio astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, C. L.; Lawrence, C. R.; Burke, B. F.

    1985-01-01

    The MIT-Green Bank (MG) radio survey (reported by Bennett and colleagues in 1984 and 1985) is the largest 5 GHz survey to date. In this paper the source counts from the MG survey are examined. They are consistent with past measurements, but due to the large size of the MG survey the Poisson errors have been reduced. Radio source evolution models (such as that reported by Condon in 1984) are consistent with these new measurements.

  17. Radio observations of four anticenter 2CG gamma-ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oezel, M. E.; Schlickeiser, R.; Sieber, W.

    1985-01-01

    The 2CG sources 218-00, 135+01, 121+04 and 95+04 have been observed at two radio frequencies and the flux values and spectra of the radio sources observed within the gamma-ray fields are catalogued down to a sensitivity of approx 30 mJy at lambda 11 cm. Possible gamma-ray counterpart candidate objects are briefly discussed.

  18. Technique to determine location of radio sources from measurements taken on spinning spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fainberg, J.

    1979-01-01

    The procedure developed to extract average source direction and average source size from spin-modulated radio astronomy data measured on the IMP-6 spacecraft is described. Because all measurements are used, rather than just finding maxima or minima in the data, the method is very sensitive, even in the presence of large amounts of noise. The technique is applicable to all experiments with directivity characteristics. It is suitable for onboard processing on satellites to reduce the data flow to Earth. The application to spin-modulated nonpolarized radio astronomy data is made and includes the effects of noise, background, and second source interference. The analysis was tested with computer simulated data and the results agree with analytic predictions. Applications of this method with IMP-6 radio data have led to: (1) determination of source positions of traveling solar radio bursts at large distances from the Sun; (2) mapping of magnetospheric radio emissions by radio triangulation; and (3) detection of low frequency radio emissions from Jupiter and Saturn.

  19. A LOFAR view on the duty cycle of young radio sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brienza, M.; Morganti, R.; Shulevski, A.; Godfrey, L.; Vilchez, N.

    2016-02-01

    Compact Steep Spectrum, Gigahertz Peaked Spectrum, and High Frequency Peak (CSS, GPS, HFP) sources are considered to be young radio sources, but the details of their duty cycle are not well understood. In some cases they are thought to develop in FRI/FRII radio galaxies while in other cases their jets may remain confined within the host galaxy, and some may experience intermittent activity or die prematurely, never reaching the size of large classical double radio galaxies. Studying in a systematic way the presence and the properties of any extended emission surrounding these compact sources can provide firmer constraints on their evolutionary history and on the timescales of activity of the radio source. Remnant emission from previous outbursts is supposed to have very low surface brightness and to be brighter at low frequency. Taking advantage of the unprecedented sensitivity and resolution provided by the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) we have started a systematic search of new CSS, GPS, and HFP sources with extended emission, as well as a more detailed study of some well-known of these sources. Here we present the key points of our search in the LOFAR fields and a more in-depth analysis on the source B2 0258+35, a CSS source surrounded by a pair of large, diffuse radio lobes. In this way, we aim to provide a better census of restarted sources and a better knowledge of the variety of their duty cycle.

  20. Diffuse radio emission around FR II sources as exemplified by 3C452

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiita, Paul J.; Sirothia, S. K.; Gopal-Krishna, ..

    2014-01-01

    We have discovered a pair of megaparsec size radio lobes of extremely steep spectrum straddling the well-known classical double radio source 3C452. For the past several decades 3C452 has been regarded as a textbook example of an edge-brightened double radio source of Fanaroff-Riley type II (FR II) but we show it to be a bonafide "double-double" radio galaxy (DDRG). The inner double fed by the jets has evolved into a perfectly normal FR II radio source. Thus, 3C452 presents a uniquely robust example of recurrent nuclear activity in which the restarted jets are expanding non-relativistically within the relic synchrotron plasma from an earlier active phase. This situation contrasts markedly with the strikingly narrow inner doubles observed in a few other DDRGs that have been interpreted in terms of compression of the synchrotron plasma of the relic outer lobes at the relativistic bow-shocks driven by the near ballistic propagation of the two inner jets through the relic plasma. We also present additional examples of the occurrence of faded outer lobes around well defined FRII sources, using our deep GMRT images at meter wavelengths processed with AIPS++ software. We also examine the statistics of the occurrence of such sources using a flux density limited sample. A key ramification of our findings are that they caution against the use of FR II classical double radio sources for testing cosmological models and unification schemes for active galactic nuclei.

  1. Multifrequency VLA observations of PKS 0745 - 191 - The archetypal 'cooling flow' radio source?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baum, S. A.; O'Dea, C. P.

    1991-01-01

    Ninety-, 20-, 6- and 2-cm VLA observations of the high-radio-luminosity cooling-flow radio source PKS 0745 - 191 are presented. The radio source was found to have a core with a very steep spectrum (alpha is approximately -1.5) and diffuse emission with an even steeper spectrum (alpha is approximately -1.5 to -2.3) without clear indications of the jets, hotspots, or double lobes found in the other radio sources of comparable luminosity. It is inferred that the energy to power the radio source comes from the central engine, but the source's structure may be heavily influenced by the past history of the galaxy and the inflowing intracluster medium. It is shown that, while the radio source is energetically unimportant for the cluster as a whole, it is important on the scale of the cooling flow. The mere existence of cosmic rays and magnetic fields within a substantial fraction of the volume inside the cooling radius has important consequences for cooling-flow models.

  2. Multifrequency VLA observations of PKS 0745 - 191 - The archetypal 'cooling flow' radio source?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baum, S. A.; O'Dea, C. P.

    1991-01-01

    Ninety-, 20-, 6- and 2-cm VLA observations of the high-radio-luminosity cooling-flow radio source PKS 0745 - 191 are presented. The radio source was found to have a core with a very steep spectrum (alpha is approximately -1.5) and diffuse emission with an even steeper spectrum (alpha is approximately -1.5 to -2.3) without clear indications of the jets, hotspots, or double lobes found in the other radio sources of comparable luminosity. It is inferred that the energy to power the radio source comes from the central engine, but the source's structure may be heavily influenced by the past history of the galaxy and the inflowing intracluster medium. It is shown that, while the radio source is energetically unimportant for the cluster as a whole, it is important on the scale of the cooling flow. The mere existence of cosmic rays and magnetic fields within a substantial fraction of the volume inside the cooling radius has important consequences for cooling-flow models.

  3. Multifrequency VLA observations of PKS 0745 - 191 - The archetypal 'cooling flow' radio source?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baum, S. A.; O'Dea, C. P.

    1991-06-01

    Ninety-, 20-, 6- and 2-cm VLA observations of the high-radio-luminosity cooling-flow radio source PKS 0745 - 191 are presented. The radio source was found to have a core with a very steep spectrum (alpha is approximately -1.5) and diffuse emission with an even steeper spectrum (alpha is approximately -1.5 to -2.3) without clear indications of the jets, hotspots, or double lobes found in the other radio sources of comparable luminosity. It is inferred that the energy to power the radio source comes from the central engine, but the source's structure may be heavily influenced by the past history of the galaxy and the inflowing intracluster medium. It is shown that, while the radio source is energetically unimportant for the cluster as a whole, it is important on the scale of the cooling flow. The mere existence of cosmic rays and magnetic fields within a substantial fraction of the volume inside the cooling radius has important consequences for cooling-flow models.

  4. All-News Radio Journalism: Source, Message and Audience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woal, Michael B.

    All-news radio is an important journalistic voice for large audiences. To maximize the size of audiences, all-news programing avoids specific partisan appeals. Three aspects of the objective journalistic style are important in forming the discourse of "newsradio": legitimatization, the creation of hierarchies of values; dramatic…

  5. The second version of the OCARS catalog of optical characteristics of astrometric radio sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkin, Z. M.

    2016-11-01

    A new version of the Optical Characteristics of Astrometric Radio Sources (OCARS) catalog is presented. The catalog includes a list of radio sources observed in astrometric and geodetic VLBI programs since 1979, their redshifts, photometric data in 13 bands in the visible and near infrared, and a table indicating identifications btween the OCARS objects and objects in other catalogs. The main sources of information for the OCARS catalog are the NED and SIMBAD databases, as well as a variety of publications. Targeted observing programs designed to supplement the optical data for the astrometric radio sources have also been organized. The catalog currently contains 9956 sources, of which 5449 have redshifts and 7473 have photometric data. The catalog is updated, on average, once every several weeks, and is continuously augmented with new sources and new optical data.

  6. H{sup -} radio frequency source development at the Spallation Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Welton, R. F.; Gawne, K. R.; Han, B. X.; Murray, S. N.; Pennisi, T. R.; Roseberry, R. T.; Santana, M.; Stockli, M. P.; Dudnikov, V. G.; Turvey, M. W.

    2012-02-15

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) now routinely operates nearly 1 MW of beam power on target with a highly persistent {approx}38 mA peak current in the linac and an availability of {approx}90%. H{sup -} beam pulses ({approx}1 ms, 60 Hz) are produced by a Cs-enhanced, multicusp ion source closely coupled with an electrostatic low energy beam transport (LEBT), which focuses the 65 kV beam into a radio frequency quadrupole accelerator. The source plasma is generated by RF excitation (2 MHz, {approx}60 kW) of a copper antenna that has been encased with a thickness of {approx}0.7 mm of porcelain enamel and immersed into the plasma chamber. The ion source and LEBT normally have a combined availability of {approx}99%. Recent increases in duty-factor and RF power have made antenna failures a leading cause of downtime. This report first identifies the physical mechanism of antenna failure from a statistical inspection of {approx}75 antennas which ran at the SNS, scanning electron microscopy studies of antenna surface, and cross sectional cuts and analysis of calorimetric heating measurements. Failure mitigation efforts are then described which include modifying the antenna geometry and our acceptance/installation criteria. Progress and status of the development of the SNS external antenna source, a long-term solution to the internal antenna problem, are then discussed. Currently, this source is capable of delivering comparable beam currents to the baseline source to the SNS and, an earlier version, has briefly demonstrated unanalyzed currents up to {approx}100 mA (1 ms, 60 Hz) on the test stand. In particular, this paper discusses plasma ignition (dc and RF plasma guns), antenna reliability, magnet overheating, and insufficient beam persistence.

  7. Infrared Properties of Weak Radio Sources in the ρ Ophiuchi Molecular Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilking, Bruce A.; Bontemps, Sylvain; Schuler, Richard E.; Greene, Thomas P.; André, Philippe

    2001-04-01

    We report mid-infrared ISOCAM observations for a sample of radio continuum sources in the ρ Ophiuchi molecular cloud core with unknown or poorly studied infrared counterparts. These data are combined with existing infrared photometry, including recently published ISOCAM data, for previously studied radio sources to investigate the evolutionary states of 35 radio-emitting young stars in the ρ Oph cloud core. About 50% of the radio stars are found to have class I, flat, or class II spectral energy distributions with near-infrared excesses arising from circumstellar disks. Their radio emission is most likely thermal emission from gas ionized by stellar winds. The remaining radio emitters are young stars with class III spectral energy distributions that lack infrared excesses and circumstellar disks. Their radio emission likely is nonthermal emission from magnetic surface activity. The lack of young stars with weak infrared excesses supports earlier suggestions that disk dissipation is rapid. Class III sources are twice as common as class II sources in this radio-selected sample in comparison with extinction-limited samples, which underscores the importance of radio surveys in obtaining a complete census of young stellar objects. The concentration of diskless class III objects in the high column-density molecular core, and their median age of 0.3 Myr derived from their positions in a Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, indicate they are contemporaries of class II objects which include the classical T Tauri stars. It appears that these class III objects have shorter disk survival times than class II objects in the cloud. Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) is an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA member states (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom) and with the participation of ISAS and NASA.

  8. Radio emission evolution of nonstationary sources in the Hedgehog model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovalev, Y. A.; Mikhaylutsa, V. P.

    1980-01-01

    Correlations are obtained for numerical calculation of flux F sub v and polarized radiation intensity of a cloud of arbitrary geometry, consisting of ultrarelativistic electrons that dissipate in a radial magnetic field of the nucleus at a random angle to the observer. It is possible that some of the variable extragalactic objects that were previously described by the Shklovskiy model are young formations in the examined model. Radio astronomical observations would permit a determination of their distance, age, and lifetime.

  9. The Radio Structure of Source 1803÷784

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuprikov, A. A.

    Results of processing of data of ground-space VLBI experiment titled V053 are presented. These observations were made in 1997 October with 10 antennas of American interferometer VLBA and with Japan space telescope VSOP (VLBI Space Orbit Program). Data were transferred from the NRAO archive and processed with the software "Astro Space Locator" (ASL for Windows). The main result is radio image of the known quasar 1803+784. Properties of the ground-space VLBI data processing are discussed.

  10. Radio Astronomical Polarimetry and Point-Source Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Straten, W.

    2004-05-01

    A mathematical framework is presented for use in the experimental determination of the polarimetric response of observatory instrumentation. Elementary principles of linear algebra are applied to model the full matrix description of the polarization measurement equation by least-squares estimation of nonlinear, scalar parameters. The formalism is applied to calibrate the center element of the Parkes Multibeam receiver using observations of the millisecond pulsar PSR J0437-4715 and the radio galaxy 3C 218 (Hydra A).

  11. Relationship between the bursts in solar local sources of centimeter radio emission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golubchina, O. A.

    The author presents results of synchronous observations of local sources of solar radio emission at wavelengths 2.3 cm and 4.5 cm. The sources were observed with the RATAN-600 radio telescope by the relay method in February 1980 and July 1981. The author demonstrates that the synchronous brightenings of solar local sources actually exist even when the sources are 105km apart. They were recorded in virtually all cases of radio bursts of different kinds: 3 s, 5 s, 8 s, 28 PRF, 31 ABS, 45 s, 20 GRF, 21 GRF, 30 PBI. They are observed, as a rule, during the enhancement of soft X-ray emission. The lower limit of disturbing agent velocity ranges from 2×103 to 12×103km/s. The synchronous brightenings of local sources are more frequent than sympathetic bursts, and this invalidates the opinion that they are exotic phenomena.

  12. Source and event selection for radio-planetary frame-tie measurements using the Phobos Landers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linfield, R.; Ulvestad, J.

    1988-01-01

    The Soviet Phobos Lander mission will place two spacecraft on the Martian moon Phobos in 1989. Measurements of the range from Earth-based stations to the landers will allow an accurate determination of the ephemerides of Phobos and Mars. Delta Very Long Base Interferometry (VLBI) between the landers and compact radio sources nearby on the sky will be used to obtain precise estimates of the angular offset between the radio and planetary reference frames. The accuracy of this frame-tie estimate is expected to be in the vicinity of 10 mrad, depending on how well several error sources can be controlled (calibrated or reduced). Many candidate radio sources for VLBI measurements were identified, but additional work is necessary to select those sources which have characteristics appropriate to the present application. Strategies for performing the source selection are described.

  13. A Quantitative Evaluation of Potential Radio Identifications for 3EG EGRET Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattox, J. R.; Hartman, R. C.; Reimer, O.

    2001-08-01

    The method of Mattox et al. for identifying EGRET sources with 5 GHz radio sources has been applied to the 3EG EGRET catalog of Hartman et al. Complete results are tabulated. We tabulate separately 46 EGRET sources with radio identifications which we expect to have a high probability of being correct. We suggest that these sources are appropriate for most studies of the properties of γ-ray blazars as a class. All but one of these 46 sources were classified by Hartman et al. as high-confidence identifications; and the additional source was classified by Hartman et al. as a plausible identification. We also tabulate separately 37 additional ``plausible identifications of EGRET sources with radio sources.'' These less secure possibilities include the remaining 21 ``high-confidence identifications'' of Hartman et al., three of the 27 ``lower confidence potential blazar identifications'' of Hartman et al., and an additional 15 plausible identifications which have not been suggested previously. Many of these sources require new radio and optical observations to establish them as blazars. We suggest that the 23 ``lower-confidence potential blazar identifications'' of Hartman et al. which we do not find plausible should not be used in studies of the properties of the EGRET blazars. For this analysis, we have made elliptical fits to the 95% confidence contours of the position uncertainty regions of the 3EG sources which are tabulated in an Appendix.

  14. Radio spectra of bright compact sources at z>4.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppejans, Rocco; van Velzen, Sjoert; Intema, Huib T.; Müller, Cornelia; Frey, Sándor; Coppejans, Deanne L.; Cseh, Dávid; Williams, Wendy L.; Falcke, Heino; Körding, Elmar G.; Orrú, Emanuela; Paragi, Zsolt; Gabányi, Krisztina É.

    2017-01-01

    High-redshift quasars are important to study galaxy and active galactic nuclei (AGN) evolution, test cosmological models, and study supermassive black hole growth. Optical searches for high-redshift sources have been very successful, but radio searches are not hampered by dust obscuration and should be more effective at finding sources at even higher redshifts. Identifying high-redshift sources based on radio data is, however, not trivial. Here we report on new multi-frequency Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) observations of eight z > 4.5 sources previously studied at high angular resolution with very long baseline interferometry (VLBI). Combining these observations with those from the literature, we construct broad-band radio spectra of all 30 z > 4.5 sources that have been observed with VLBI. In the sample we found flat, steep and peaked spectra in approximately equal proportions. Despite several selection effects, we conclude that the z > 4.5 VLBI (and likely also non-VLBI) sources have diverse spectra and that only about a quarter of the sources in the sample have flat spectra. Previously, the majority of high-redshift radio sources were identified based on their ultra-steep spectra (USS). Recently a new method has been proposed to identify these objects based on their megahertz-peaked spectra (MPS). Neither method would have identified more than 18 per cent of the high-redshift sources in this sample. More effective methods are necessary to reliably identify complete samples of high-redshift sources based on radio data.

  15. Observations of VLA-FIRST/GB6 Inverted-Spectrum Radio Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, E. J.; Haarsma, D. B.; Partridge, R. B.

    1998-12-01

    Extragalactic radio sources with spectral peaks above 4.8 GHz are difficult to detect on the basis of available surveys since the highest radio frequency survey of any substantial solid angle is the Green Bank 6 cm (GB6) survey. Until surveys at higher frequencies are performed, selecting sources with inverted spectra between 1.4 GHz and 4.8 GHz (increasing flux with increasing frequency) is the most promising method of detecting Gigahertz Peaked Spectrum (GPS) sources with peak frequencies above 4.8 GHz. Many models of radio source evolution predict the existence of such GPS sources as the precursors of other classes of radio sources. The radio spectra and other properties of these ``extreme'' GPS sources may be used to constrain such models. Extreme GPS sources can be a significant foreground for cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy experiments (such as the MAP and Planck Surveyor satellites) because a steeply rising spectrum can mimic the Rayleigh-Jeans portion of the CMB spectrum. Extrapolating radio source counts from lower frequencies is risky, since available surveys are at frequencies approximately 20 to 100 times lower than those used in CMB anisotropy experiments. The source counts and spectral indices of discrete radio sources between 20 GHz and 100 GHz are open and important questions for CMB anisotropy experiments, and necessary ingredients for foreground subtraction if results from these experiments are to be used to accurately determine cosmological parameters. A sample was carefully selected from the cross-correlation of the VLA FIRST (February 1998 release) and GB6 surveys. For our purposes, a source is defined as inverted when alpha_ {1.4-4.8}>0.4, where S ~ nu (alpha ) . Data cuts have been enforced to minimize the effects of confused or extended sources and insure reliable spectral indices. The remaining sample contains 308 inverted-spectrum radio sources. Observations at 21 GHz are scheduled in November 1998 at the 140-foot telescope

  16. Chandra Observation of the WAT Radio Source/ICM Interaction in Abell 623

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, Gagandeep; Blanton, Elizabeth L.; Randall, Scott W.; Paterno-Mahler, Rachel; Douglass, Edmund

    2017-01-01

    Galaxy clusters are important objects for studying the physics of the intracluster medium (ICM), galaxy formation and evolution, and cosmological parameters. Clusters containing wide-angle tail (WAT) radio sources are particularly valuable for studies of the interaction between these sources and the surrounding ICM. These sources are thought to form when the ram pressure from the ICM caused by the relative motion between the host radio galaxy and the cluster bends the radio lobes into a distinct wide-angle morphology. We present our results from the analysis of a Chandra observation of the nearby WAT hosting galaxy cluster Abell 623. A clear decrement in X-ray emission is coincident with the southern radio lobe, consistent with being a cavity carved out by the radio source. We present profiles of surface brightness, temperature, density, and pressure and find evidence for a possible shock. Based on the X-ray pressure in the vicinity of the radio lobes and assumptions about the content of the lobes, we estimate the relative ICM velocity required to bend the lobes into the observed angle. We also present spectral model fits to the overall diffuse cluster emission and see no strong signature for a cool core. The sum of the evidence indicates that Abell 623 may be undergoing a large scale cluster-cluster merger.

  17. Optical properties of high-frequency radio sources from the Australia Telescope 20 GHz (AT20G) Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahony, Elizabeth K.; Sadler, Elaine M.; Croom, Scott M.; Ekers, Ronald D.; Bannister, Keith W.; Chhetri, Rajan; Hancock, Paul J.; Johnston, Helen M.; Massardi, Marcella; Murphy, Tara

    2011-11-01

    Our current understanding of radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN) comes predominantly from studies at frequencies of 5 GHz and below. With the recent completion of the Australia Telescope 20 GHz (AT20G) survey, we can now gain insight into the high-frequency radio properties of AGN. This paper presents supplementary information on the AT20G sources in the form of optical counterparts and redshifts. Optical counterparts were identified using the SuperCOSMOS data base and redshifts were found from either the 6dF Galaxy Survey or the literature. We also report 144 new redshifts. For AT20G sources outside the Galactic plane, 78.5 per cent have optical identifications and 30.9 per cent have redshift information. The optical identification rate also increases with increasing flux density. Targets which had optical spectra available were examined to obtain a spectral classification. There appear to be two distinct AT20G populations; the high luminosity quasars that are generally associated with point-source optical counterparts and exhibit strong emission lines in the optical spectrum, and the lower luminosity radio galaxies that are generally associated with passive galaxies in both the optical images and spectroscopic properties. It is suggested that these different populations can be associated with different accretion modes (cold-mode or hot-mode). We find that the cold-mode sources have a steeper spectral index and produce more luminous radio lobes, but generally reside in smaller host galaxies than their hot-mode counterparts. This can be attributed to the fact that they are accreting material more efficiently. Lastly, we compare the AT20G survey with the S-cubed semi-empirical (S3-SEX) models and conclude that the S3-SEX models need refining to correctly model the compact cores of AGN. The AT20G survey provides the ideal sample to do this.

  18. Radio Follow-up on All Unassociated Gamma-Ray Sources from the Third Fermi Large Area Telescope Source Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schinzel, Frank K.; Petrov, Leonid; Taylor, Gregory B.; Edwards, Philip G.

    2017-04-01

    The third Fermi Large Area Telescope γ-ray source catalog (3FGL) contains over 1000 objects for which there is no known counterpart at other wavelengths. The physical origin of the γ-ray emission from those objects is unknown. Such objects are commonly referred to as unassociated and mostly do not exhibit significant γ-ray flux variability. We performed a survey of all unassociated γ-ray sources found in 3FGL using the Australia Telescope Compact Array and Very Large Array in the range 4.0–10.0 GHz. We found 2097 radio candidates for association with γ-ray sources. The follow-up with very long baseline interferometry for a subset of those candidates yielded 142 new associations with active galactic nuclei that are γ-ray sources, provided alternative associations for seven objects, and improved positions for another 144 known associations to the milliarcsecond level of accuracy. In addition, for 245 unassociated γ-ray sources we did not find a single compact radio source above 2 mJy within 3σ of their γ-ray localization. A significant fraction of these empty fields, 39%, are located away from the Galactic plane. We also found 36 extended radio sources that are candidates for association with a corresponding γ-ray object, 19 of which are most likely supernova remnants or H ii regions, whereas 17 could be radio galaxies.

  19. Upper Limits on Periodic, Pulsed Radio Emission from the X-Ray Point Source in Cassiopeia A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, M. A.; Cordes, J. M.; Deshpande, A. A.; Gaensler, B. M.; Hankins, T. H.; Kaspi, V. M.; Kern, J. S.

    2001-01-01

    The Chandra X-Ray Observatory recently discovered an X-ray point source near the center of Cassiopeia A, the youngest known Galactic supernova remnant. We have conducted a sensitive search for radio pulsations from this source with the Very Large Array, taking advantage of the high angular resolution of the array to resolve out the emission from the remnant itself. No convincing signatures of a dispersed, periodic source or of isolated dispersed pulses were found, whether for an isolated or a binary source. We derive upper limits of 30 and 1.3 mJy at 327 and 1435 MHz for its phase-averaged pulsed flux density. The corresponding luminosity limits are lower than those for any known radio pulsar with an age less than 104 yr. Our search sensitivities to single pulses were 25 and 1.0 Jy at 327 and 1435 MHz. For comparison, the Crab pulsar emits roughly 80 pulses per minute with flux densities greater than 100 Jy at 327 MHz and eight pulses per minute with flux densities greater than 50 Jy at 1435 MHz. These limits suggest that Cas A belongs to the growing population of young neutron stars that are radio-quiet.

  20. Tracking Type III Radio Burst Sources in the Solar Corona by Heliographic Means

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koval, A. A.; Stanislavsky, A. A.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Volvach, Ya. S.

    We present the preliminary results of heliographic measurements of solar type III radio bursts in the low-frequency range (16.5-33 MHz) using the UTR-2 radio heliograph. The radio astronomy tools permit us to obtain two-dimensional spatial structures of burst sources in dependence of frequency and time. Each heliogram consists of 40 pixels (beams) as a result of the serial sweep in UV-plane wherein signals of each beam are recorded in a dynamic spectrum with both high temporal (˜ 2.482 ms) and top spectral (˜ 4 kHz) resolutions. The rate of output heliograph is one image per 3 seconds. Over a session in April, 2013 many type III radio and IIIb-III bursts were observed. On the heliograms the source motion direction in the upper corona is clearly detectable. The heliogram features are discussed.

  1. Catalog of Variability Periods of Extragalactic Radio Sources at Centimeter Wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabov, M. I.; Sukharev, A. L.; Donskykh, H. I.

    2016-09-01

    Purpose: Study of the variability of flux density of extragalactic radio sources (3C 273, 3C 120, 3C 345, 3C 446, 3C 454.3, OJ 287, OT 081, BL Lac, DA 55, CTA 102) according to a long-term (1965–2011) monitoring at 14.5, 8, 4.8 GHz made with a 26-m telescope of the University of Michigan. Making up a catalog of quasi-periods values and their properties, as well as using this latter to predict the flux changes after 2011 at 14.5 GHz. Design/methodology/approach: Using wavelet analysis, bandpass filtering and singular spectrum analysis (Caterpillar-SSA) the information is obtained on the values and properties of quasiperiods of radio flux density change, separately for the longterm and short-term variability components. Using these values, for the first time the forecasting with the two methods – harmonic and autoregressive linear prediction, has been made. Findings: The catalog of quasi-periodic components of flux density variability is compiled for 10 radio sources, forming dynamics of their activity. The variability of extragalactic radio sources is shown to be formed by adding the quasi- periodic components on different time scales. The results of forecasts showed good compliance with real observations from MOJAVE database. Autoregression method is preferred for a short-term forecasting of flux density changes for radio sources with complex processes of variability. Conclusions: Presented values and properties of quasi-periods are designed to build theoretical models of short-term and longterm variabilities of extragalactic radio sources. The ability to predict changes in flux density of extragalactic radio sources using their variability data enables efficient planning of observation programs.

  2. The Role of the Jet Emission in Young Radio Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliori, Giulia

    2014-07-01

    We investigated the contribution of the jet to the observed high energy emission in a sample of young and compact radio quasars. For the first time, we compared the Fermi-LAT and Chandra observations of the sample to γ-ray and X-ray luminosities predicted assuming a jet synchrotron and inverse Compton radiative model. The simulations performed for a reasonable set of model parameters and assumptions provide constraints on the minimum jet power (Ljet,kin/Ldisk >0.01), on the contribution of the jet to the X-ray emission, and on the particles to magnetic field energy density ratios.

  3. Search for correlated radio and optical events in long-term studies of extragalactic sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pomphrey, R. B.; Smith, A. G.; Leacock, R. J.; Olsson, C. N.; Scott, R. L.; Pollock, J. T.; Edwards, P.; Dent, W. A.

    1976-01-01

    For the first time, long-term records of radio and optical fluxes of a large sample of variable extragalactic sources have been assembled and compared, with linear cross-correlation analysis being used to reinforce the visual comparisons. Only in the case of the BL Lac object OJ 287 is the correlation between radio and optical records strong. In the majority of cases there is no evidence of significant correlation, although nine sources show limited or weak evidence of correlation. The results do not support naive extrapolation of the expanding source model. The general absence of strong correlation between the radio and optical regions has important implications for the energetics of events occurring in such sources.

  4. VLA observations of radio sources in interacting galaxy pairs in poor clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batuski, David J.; Hanisch, Robert J.; Burns, Jack O.

    1992-01-01

    Observations of 16 radio sources in interacting galaxies in 14 poor clusters were made using the Very Large Array in the B configuration at lambda of 6 and 2 cm. These sources had been unresolved in earlier observations at lambda of 21 cm, and were chosen as a sample to determine which of three models for radio source formation actually pertains in interacting galaxies. From the analysis of this sample, the starburst model appears most successful, but the 'central monster' model could pertain in some cases.

  5. VLA observations of radio sources in interacting galaxy pairs in poor clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batuski, David J.; Hanisch, Robert J.; Burns, Jack O.

    1992-01-01

    Observations of 16 radio sources in interacting galaxies in 14 poor clusters were made using the Very Large Array in the B configuration at lambda of 6 and 2 cm. These sources had been unresolved in earlier observations at lambda of 21 cm, and were chosen as a sample to determine which of three models for radio source formation actually pertains in interacting galaxies. From the analysis of this sample, the starburst model appears most successful, but the 'central monster' model could pertain in some cases.

  6. Infrared Faint Radio Sources in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huynh, Minh T.

    2009-01-01

    Infrared-Faint Radio Sources (IFRSs) are a class of radio objects found in the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey (ATLAS) which have no observable counterpart in the Spitzer Wide-area Infrared Extragalactic Survey (SWIRE). The extended Chandra Deep Field South now has even deeper Spitzer imaging (3.6 to 70 micron) from a number of Legacy surveys. We report the detections of two IFRS sources in IRAC images. The non-detection of two other IFRSs allows us to constrain the source type. Detailed modeling of the SED of these objects shows that they are consistent with high redshift AGN (z > 2).

  7. Solar Wind Investigations by Observations of Interplanetary Scintillations of Cosmic Radio Sources at Decameter Wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinichenko, N. N.; Olyak, M. R.; Konovalenko, O. O.; Bubnov, I. N.; Yerin, S. N.; Brazhenko, A. I.; Ivantishin, O. L.; Lytvynenko, O. A.

    2017-03-01

    Purpose: Description of the solar wind investigation technique based on interplanetary scintillation observations of the decameter radio emission of space radio sources. Design/methodology/approach: The method is based on using the Feynman pass integral technique for calculation of statistic characteristics of interplanetary scintillations. Findings: The technique of determination of a stream structure of the solar wind beyond the Earth's orbit is created. The technique is based on the analysis of temporary, frequency and space characteristics of the interplanetary scintillations of decameter radio emission of space radio sources. Identification of this kind stream structure opens unique opportunities for the interplanetary plasma physics study. In particular, the difference in parameters of interplanetary plasma streams can be used for investigation of high-speed streams of solar wind from coronal holes, identification and studying of dynamics of driving of coronal mass ejections in the interplanetary space. The latter will allow, for example, to develop a reliable technique for estimation of arrival time of coronal mass emissions to the Earth, being of undoubted interest from the space weather forecast viewpoint. Conclusions: It is shown that the modern progress in digital technique and data analysis methodologies allows to use the observations of the interplanetary scintillations of cosmic radio source radio emission for determination of the solar wind parameters, reconstruction of the solar wind stream structure, detection and investigation of dynamics of coronal mass ejections beyond the Earth's orbit.

  8. Characterizing radio continuum sources in a sample of Hi-GAL massive cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Jason

    In 2012 and 2013, Olmi and collaborators conducted a survey for 6.7GHz methanol masers with the Arecibo Telescope toward far infrared sources selected from the Hi-GAL catalog of massive cores. They reported a number of sources with weak 6.7GHz methanol masers, possibly indicating regions in early stages of star formation. Follow-up observations were conducted with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) in New Mexico to characterize the sources. This thesis presents the results of radio continuum observations of nine of the Arecibo regions. A total of 33 radio continuum sources were detected. The nature of the radio continuum sources was analyzed based on their spectral indices. Most of the sources have negative spectral indices, which is indicative of synchrotron radiation. Many of the synchrotron sources are associated with a supernova remnant in our Galaxy, while the rest are likely background radio galaxies and quasars. Evidence for thermal bremsstrahlung radiation was found toward six sources associated with the Arecibo regions, which is consistent with the interpretation of gas ionized by young high-mass stellar objects.

  9. The Catalog of Positions of Optically Bright Extragalactic Radio Sources OBRS-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrov, L.

    2011-01-01

    It is expected that the European Space Agency mission Gaia will make it possible to determine coordinates in the optical domain of more than 500,000 quasars. In 2006, a radio astrometry project was launched with the overall goal of making comparisons between coordinate systems derived from future space-born astrometry instruments and the coordinate system constructed from analysis of global very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) more robust. Investigation of the rotation, zonal errors, and non-alignment of the radio and optical positions caused by both radio and optical structures is needed to validate both techniques. In order to support these studies, the densification of the list of compact extragalactic objects that are bright in both radio and optical ranges is desirable. A set of 105 objects from the list of 398 compact extragalactic radio sources with decl. > -10deg was observed with the Very Long Baseline Array and European VLBI Network (EVN) with the primary goal of producing images with milliarcsecond resolution. These sources are brighter than 18 mag in the V band, and they were previously detected by the EVN. In this paper, coordinates of observed sources have been derived with milliarcsecond accuracies from analysis of these VLBI observations using an absolute astrometry method. The catalog of positions for 105 target sources is presented. The accuracies of source coordinates are in the range of 0.3.7 mas, with a median of 1.1 mas.

  10. The Catalog of Positions of Optically Bright Extragalactic Radio Sources OBRS-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrov, L.

    2011-01-01

    It is expected that the European Space Agency mission Gaia will make it possible to determine coordinates in the optical domain of more than 500,000 quasars. In 2006, a radio astrometry project was launched with the overall goal of making comparisons between coordinate systems derived from future space-born astrometry instruments and the coordinate system constructed from analysis of global very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) more robust. Investigation of the rotation, zonal errors, and non-alignment of the radio and optical positions caused by both radio and optical structures is needed to validate both techniques. In order to support these studies, the densification of the list of compact extragalactic objects that are bright in both radio and optical ranges is desirable. A set of 105 objects from the list of 398 compact extragalactic radio sources with decl. > -10deg was observed with the Very Long Baseline Array and European VLBI Network (EVN) with the primary goal of producing images with milliarcsecond resolution. These sources are brighter than 18 mag in the V band, and they were previously detected by the EVN. In this paper, coordinates of observed sources have been derived with milliarcsecond accuracies from analysis of these VLBI observations using an absolute astrometry method. The catalog of positions for 105 target sources is presented. The accuracies of source coordinates are in the range of 0.3.7 mas, with a median of 1.1 mas.

  11. The impact of compact radio sources on their host galaxies: observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadhunter, C.

    2016-02-01

    I review the observational evidence that CSS/GPS radio sources have a significant impact on the evolution of their host galaxies, particularly on the kpc-scales of the galaxy bulges. Starting with an overview of the observational evidence for jet-cloud interactions and warm ionised outflows in CSS/GPS sources, I then consider the challenges involved in quantifying the feedback effect of the warm outflows in terms of their mass outflow rates and kinetic powers. For the best-observed cases it is shown that the warm outflows may have a major negative feedback effect in the very central regions, but probably lack the power to heat and eject the full cool ISM contents of the host galaxies. In contrast, the recently-discovered neutral and molecular outflows are more massive and powerful and therefore carry more destructive potential. However, the feedback effect of such outflows is not necessarily negative: there is now clear observational evidence that the molecular outflows are formed as the hot, compressed gas cools behind fast shocks driven into the ISM by the relativistic jets. The natural endpoint of this process is the formation of stars. Therefore, jet-induced star formation may be a significant process in CSS/GPS radio galaxies. Finally, I discuss whether CSS/GPS sources are ``imposters'' in flux-limited radio samples, due the flux boosting of the radio sources by strong jet-cloud interactions in the early stages of radio source evolution.

  12. Analysis of the Low-Frequency Radio Noise Environment at Satellite Heights from Terrestrial Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, M. F.; Basart, J. P.; McCoy, M.; Rios, E.

    1996-05-01

    We have investigated the propagation of terrestrial radio sources from 1 to 30 MHz (HF spectral region) through the ionosphere for the purpose of characterizing the interference spectrum on potential space-based, low-frequency-radio telescopes. A recent survey of the HF noise environment at satellite heights from 1 to 14 MHz has been conducted using the WIND spacecraft. Radio frequencies for which the interference appears to be sufficiently low for radio telescopes are 1.3, 2.9, 3.1, 8.2, and 11.4 MHz. A model was developed to predict the HF noise environment. Our current model includes a source model, an ionospheric model, and a ray tracing model. The source model was developed using known commercial broadcast stations found in the World Radio TV Handbook. The ICED ionospheric model was used to generate a model ionosphere. By ray tracing a terrestrially based broadcast source through the model ionosphere, an ionospheric transfer function (ITF) was developed. By modifying the source model using the ITF, we were able to simulate the expected noise environment at satellite heights. Comparison of modeled and measured spectra show the majority of the noise environment is due to known commercial broadcasters. Improved modeling is necessary because the slopes of the simulated spectra above the plasma frequency are too shallow, and the plasma cutoff frequencies are too high compared to the measured data.

  13. Sub-millimetre source identifications and the microjansky source population at 8.4 GHz in the William Herschel Deep Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heywood, I.; Bielby, R. M.; Hill, M. D.; Metcalfe, N.; Rawlings, S.; Shanks, T.; Smirnov, O. M.

    2013-01-01

    radio sources may be either dust-obscured quasars or galaxies. These high-redshift obscured AGN and lower redshift star-forming populations are thus the main candidates to explain the observed excess in the faint source counts and hence also the excess radio background found previously by the Absolute Radiometer for Cosmology, Astrophysics and Diffuse Emission (ARCADE2) experiment.

  14. UNVEILING THE NATURE OF THE UNIDENTIFIED GAMMA-RAY SOURCES. III. GAMMA-RAY BLAZAR-LIKE COUNTERPARTS AT LOW RADIO FREQUENCIES

    SciTech Connect

    Massaro, F.; Funk, S.; D'Abrusco, R.; Paggi, A.; Giroletti, M.; Masetti, N.; Tosti, G.; Nori, M.

    2013-07-01

    About one-third of the {gamma}-ray sources listed in the second Fermi Large Area Telescope catalog (2FGL) have no firmly established counterpart at lower energies and so are classified as unidentified gamma-ray sources (UGSs). Here, we propose a new approach to find candidate counterparts for the UGSs based on the 325 MHz radio survey performed with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope in the northern hemisphere. First, we investigate the low-frequency radio properties of blazars, the largest known population of {gamma}-ray sources; then we search for sources with similar radio properties combining the information derived from the Westerbork Northern Sky Survey (WENSS) with those of the NRAO Very Large Array Sky Survey. We present a list of candidate counterparts for 32 UGSs with at least one counterpart in the WENSS. We also performed an extensive research in the literature to look for infrared and optical counterparts of the {gamma}-ray blazar candidates selected using the low-frequency radio observations to confirm their nature. On the basis of our multifrequency research, we identify 23 new {gamma}-ray blazar candidates out of the 32 UGSs investigated. Comparison with previous results on the UGSs is also presented. Finally, we speculate on the advantages of using low-frequency radio observations to associate UGSs and to search for {gamma}-ray pulsar candidates.

  15. Unveiling the Nature of the Unidentified Gamma-Ray Sources. III. Gamma-Ray Blazar-like Counterparts at Low Radio Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massaro, F.; D'Abrusco, R.; Giroletti, M.; Paggi, A.; Masetti, N.; Tosti, G.; Nori, M.; Funk, S.

    2013-07-01

    About one-third of the γ-ray sources listed in the second Fermi Large Area Telescope catalog (2FGL) have no firmly established counterpart at lower energies and so are classified as unidentified gamma-ray sources (UGSs). Here, we propose a new approach to find candidate counterparts for the UGSs based on the 325 MHz radio survey performed with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope in the northern hemisphere. First, we investigate the low-frequency radio properties of blazars, the largest known population of γ-ray sources; then we search for sources with similar radio properties combining the information derived from the Westerbork Northern Sky Survey (WENSS) with those of the NRAO Very Large Array Sky Survey. We present a list of candidate counterparts for 32 UGSs with at least one counterpart in the WENSS. We also performed an extensive research in the literature to look for infrared and optical counterparts of the γ-ray blazar candidates selected using the low-frequency radio observations to confirm their nature. On the basis of our multifrequency research, we identify 23 new γ-ray blazar candidates out of the 32 UGSs investigated. Comparison with previous results on the UGSs is also presented. Finally, we speculate on the advantages of using low-frequency radio observations to associate UGSs and to search for γ-ray pulsar candidates.

  16. Radio structure at 8.4 GHz in Sagittarius A, the compact radio source at the Galactic center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jauncey, David L.; Batchelor, Robert A.; Gates, John; Preston, Robert A.; Meier, David L.; Morabito, David D.; Skjerve, Lyle; Slade, Martin A.; Niell, Arthur E.; Wehrle, Ann E.

    1989-01-01

    VLBI observations of the compact, nonthermal radio source at the Galactic center show it to be elongated at 8.4 GHz along a position angle of 82 + or - 6 deg. The source has an axial ratio of 0.53 + or - 0.10 with a major axis of 17.4 + or - 0.5 mas. Examination of VLA maps of the Galactic center region indicate no obvious alignment with this smaller-scale elongation of the nuclear region, nor is the nuclear position angle aligned with the axis of Galactic rotation. Comparison with the size measured at frequencies from 1 to 22 GHz shows that the size follows very closely the lambda-squared dependence expected from interstellar scattering. The alongated nature of the source implies either that the scattering medium is anisotropic or that some remnant of the intrinsic structure remains visible through the scattering medium.

  17. THE VLA SURVEY OF CHANDRA DEEP FIELD SOUTH. V. EVOLUTION AND LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS OF SUB-MILLIJANSKY RADIO SOURCES AND THE ISSUE OF RADIO EMISSION IN RADIO-QUIET ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Padovani, P.; Mainieri, V.; Rosati, P.; Miller, N.; Kellermann, K. I.; Tozzi, P.

    2011-10-10

    We present the evolutionary properties and luminosity functions of the radio sources belonging to the Chandra Deep Field South Very Large Array survey, which reaches a flux density limit at 1.4 GHz of 43 {mu}Jy at the field center and redshift {approx}5 and which includes the first radio-selected complete sample of radio-quiet active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We use a new, comprehensive classification scheme based on radio, far- and near-IR, optical, and X-ray data to disentangle star-forming galaxies (SFGs) from AGNs and radio-quiet from radio-loud AGNs. We confirm our previous result that SFGs become dominant only below 0.1 mJy. The sub-millijansky radio sky turns out to be a complex mix of SFGs and radio-quiet AGNs evolving at a similar, strong rate; non-evolving low-luminosity radio galaxies; and declining radio powerful (P {approx}> 3 x 10{sup 24} W Hz{sup -1}) AGNs. Our results suggest that radio emission from radio-quiet AGNs is closely related to star formation. The detection of compact, high brightness temperature cores in several nearby radio-quiet AGNs can be explained by the coexistence of two components, one non-evolving and AGN related and one evolving and star formation related. Radio-quiet AGNs are an important class of sub-millijansky sources, accounting for {approx}30% of the sample and {approx}60% of all AGNs, and outnumbering radio-loud AGNs at {approx}< 0.1 mJy. This implies that future, large area sub-millijansky surveys, given the appropriate ancillary multiwavelength data, have the potential of being able to assemble vast samples of radio-quiet AGNs, bypassing the problems of obscuration that plague the optical and soft X-ray bands.

  18. An X-ray and radio study of steep-spectrum radio sources. II - Four fields from a 22 MHz polar cap survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewdney, P. E.; Mchardy, I.; Willis, A. G.; Harris, D. E.; Costain, C. H.

    1991-01-01

    Four fields containing radio sources with spectral indices greater than unity at low frequencies have been observed over a wide range of radio wavelengths and at X-ray wavelengths. For most of the steep-spectrum sources no optical identifications have been found to the detection limit of the Palomar Schmidt prints, even with the positional precision of about 1 arcsec from VLA maps. This implies that the associated galaxies or clusters lie at a great distance. X-ray emission was not detected from any of the steep-spectrum radio sources. In one case, an extended source appears to be a radio halo in an uncataloged cluster of galaxies at a redshift of 0.125, and it is suggested that this object is a promising candidate for the detection of inverse Compton X-rays, since it is not a high-luminosity source of thermal X-rays.

  19. OPTICAL SPECTRA OF CANDIDATE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE INTERNATIONAL CELESTIAL REFERENCE FRAME (ICRF) RADIO SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Titov, O.; Jauncey, D. L.; Johnston, H. M.; Hunstead, R. W.; Christensen, L.

    2011-11-15

    We present the results of spectroscopic observations of the optical counterparts of 47 southern radio sources from the candidate International Celestial Reference Catalogue as part of a very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) program to strengthen the celestial reference frame, especially in the south. We made the observations with the 3.58 m European Southern Observatory New Technology Telescope. We obtained redshifts for 30 quasars and one radio galaxy, with a further seven objects being probable BL Lac objects with featureless spectra. Of the remainder, four were clear misidentifications with Galactic stars and five had low signal-to-noise spectra and could not be classified. These results, in combination with new VLBI data of the radio sources with redshifts more than 2, add significantly to the existing data needed to refine the distribution of source proper motions over the celestial sphere.

  20. A statistical study of radio-source structure effects on astrometric very long baseline interferometry observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulvestad, J. S.

    1989-01-01

    Errors from a number of sources in astrometric very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) have been reduced in recent years through a variety of methods of calibration and modeling. Such reductions have led to a situation in which the extended structure of the natural radio sources used in VLBI is a significant error source in the effort to improve the accuracy of the radio reference frame. In the past, work has been done on individual radio sources to establish the magnitude of the errors caused by their particular structures. The results of calculations on 26 radio sources are reported in which an effort is made to determine the typical delay and delay-rate errors for a number of sources having different types of structure. It is found that for single observations of the types of radio sources present in astrometric catalogs, group-delay and phase-delay scatter in the 50 to 100 psec range due to source structure can be expected at 8.4 GHz on the intercontinental baselines available in the Deep Space Network (DSN). Delay-rate scatter of approx. 5 x 10(exp -15) sec sec(exp -1) (or approx. 0.002 mm sec (exp -1) is also expected. If such errors mapped directly into source position errors, they would correspond to position uncertainties of approx. 2 to 5 nrad, similar to the best position determinations in the current JPL VLBI catalog. With the advent of wider bandwidth VLBI systems on the large DSN antennas, the system noise will be low enough so that the structure-induced errors will be a significant part of the error budget. Several possibilities for reducing the structure errors are discussed briefly, although it is likely that considerable effort will have to be devoted to the structure problem in order to reduce the typical error by a factor of two or more.

  1. A Compact X-Ray Source in the Radio Pulsar-wind Nebula G141.2+5.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Stephen P.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.

    2016-01-01

    We report the results of a 50 ks Chandra observation of the recently discovered radio object G141.2+5.0, presumed to be a pulsar-wind nebula. We find a moderately bright unresolved X-ray source that we designate CXOU J033712.8 615302 coincident with the central peak radio emission. An absorbed power-law fit to the 241 counts describes the data well, with absorbing column {N}H=6.7(4.0,9.7)× {10}21 cm-2 and photon index {{Γ }}=1.8(1.4,2.2). For a distance of 4 kpc, the unabsorbed luminosity between 0.5 and 8 keV is {1.7}-0.3+0.4× {10}32 erg s-1 (90% confidence intervals). Both LX and Γ are quite typical of pulsars in PWNe. No extended emission is seen; we estimate a conservative 3σ upper limit to the surface brightness of any X-ray PWN near the point source to be 3× {10}-17 erg cm-2 s-1 arcsec-2 between 0.5 and 8 keV, assuming the same spectrum as the point source; for a nebula of diameter 13\\prime\\prime , the flux limit is 6% of the flux of the point source. The steep radio spectrum of the PWN (α ˜ -0.7), if continued to the X-ray without a break, predicts {L}{{X}} {{(nebula)}}˜ 1× {10}33 erg s-1, so additional spectral steepening between radio and X-rays is required, as is true of all known PWNe. The high Galactic latitude gives a z-distance of 350 pc above the Galactic plane, quite unusual for a Population I object.

  2. Automated detection of extended sources in radio maps: progress from the SCORPIO survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riggi, S.; Ingallinera, A.; Leto, P.; Cavallaro, F.; Bufano, F.; Schillirò, F.; Trigilio, C.; Umana, G.; Buemi, C. S.; Norris, R. P.

    2016-08-01

    Automated source extraction and parametrization represents a crucial challenge for the next-generation radio interferometer surveys, such as those performed with the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) and its precursors. In this paper, we present a new algorithm, called CAESAR (Compact And Extended Source Automated Recognition), to detect and parametrize extended sources in radio interferometric maps. It is based on a pre-filtering stage, allowing image denoising, compact source suppression and enhancement of diffuse emission, followed by an adaptive superpixel clustering stage for final source segmentation. A parametrization stage provides source flux information and a wide range of morphology estimators for post-processing analysis. We developed CAESAR in a modular software library, also including different methods for local background estimation and image filtering, along with alternative algorithms for both compact and diffuse source extraction. The method was applied to real radio continuum data collected at the Australian Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) within the SCORPIO project, a pathfinder of the Evolutionary Map of the Universe (EMU) survey at the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP). The source reconstruction capabilities were studied over different test fields in the presence of compact sources, imaging artefacts and diffuse emission from the Galactic plane and compared with existing algorithms. When compared to a human-driven analysis, the designed algorithm was found capable of detecting known target sources and regions of diffuse emission, outperforming alternative approaches over the considered fields.

  3. An X-Ray Study of Magnetic Field Strengths and Particle Content in the Lobes of FR II Radio Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croston, J. H.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Harris, D. E.; Belsole, E.; Birkinshaw, M.; Worrall, D. M.

    2005-06-01

    We present a Chandra and XMM-Newton study of X-ray emission from the lobes of 33 classical double radio galaxies and quasars. We report new detections of lobe-related X-ray emission in 11 sources. Together with previous detections, we find that X-ray emission is detected from at least one radio lobe in ~75% of the sample. For all of the lobe detections, we find that the measured X-ray flux can be attributed to inverse Compton scattering of the cosmic microwave background radiation, with magnetic field strengths in the lobes between 0.3Beq and 1.3Beq, where the value Beq corresponds to equipartition between the electrons and magnetic field, assuming a filling factor of unity. There is a strong peak in the magnetic field strength distribution at B~0.7Beq. We find that more than 70% of the radio lobes are either at equipartition or electron dominated by a small factor. The distribution of measured magnetic field strengths differs for narrow- and broad-line objects, in the sense that broad-line radio galaxies and quasars appear to be further from equipartition; however, this is likely to be due to a combination of projection effects and worse systematic uncertainty in the X-ray analysis for those objects. Our results suggest that the lobes of classical double radio sources do not contain an energetically dominant proton population, because this would require the magnetic field energy density to be similar to the electron energy density rather than the overall energy density in relativistic particles.

  4. Position and morphology of the compact non-thermal radio source at the Galactic Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcaide, J. M.; Alberdi, A.; Bartel, N.; Clark, T. A.; Corey, B. E.; Elosegui, P.; Gorenstein, M. V.; Guirado, J. C.; Kardashev, N.; Popov, M.

    1992-01-01

    We have determined with VLBI the position of the compact nonthermal radio source at the Galactic Center, commonly referred to as SgrA*, in the J2000.0 reference frame of extragalactic radio sources. We have also determined the size of SgrA* at 1.3, 3.6, and 13 cm wavelengths and found that the apparent size of the source increases proportionally to the observing wavelength squared, as expected from source size broadening by interstellar scattering and as reported previously by other authors. We have also established an upper limit of about 8 mJy at 3.6 cm wavelength for any ultracompact component. The actual size of the source is less than 15 AU. Fourier analysis of our very sensitive 3.6 cm observations of this source shows no significant variations of correlated flux density on time scales from 12 to 700 s.

  5. Position and morphology of the compact non-thermal radio source at the Galactic Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcaide, J. M.; Alberdi, A.; Bartel, N.; Clark, T. A.; Corey, B. E.; Elosegui, P.; Gorenstein, M. V.; Guirado, J. C.; Kardashev, N.; Popov, M.

    1992-01-01

    We have determined with VLBI the position of the compact nonthermal radio source at the Galactic Center, commonly referred to as SgrA*, in the J2000.0 reference frame of extragalactic radio sources. We have also determined the size of SgrA* at 1.3, 3.6, and 13 cm wavelengths and found that the apparent size of the source increases proportionally to the observing wavelength squared, as expected from source size broadening by interstellar scattering and as reported previously by other authors. We have also established an upper limit of about 8 mJy at 3.6 cm wavelength for any ultracompact component. The actual size of the source is less than 15 AU. Fourier analysis of our very sensitive 3.6 cm observations of this source shows no significant variations of correlated flux density on time scales from 12 to 700 s.

  6. Radio-source structure in astrometric and geodetic very long baseline interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Charlot, P. Institut Geographique National, Saint Mande )

    1990-04-01

    An algorithm to calculate source structure corrections for bandwidth synthesis delays and delay rates is used to refer the position of extragalacitc radio sources to a specific feature of each source's morphology. The delay and delay rate are obtained from VBLI observations. The algorithm and its theoretical basis are described, and simulations for a simple two-component source are discussed. VLBI data for the complex radio source NRAO 140 are analyzed. For this source, structure corrections are calculated with maps from three different VLBI imaging techniques: the hybrid-CLEAN algorithm, the maximum entropy method, and model fitting. The calculated structure corrections are compared with brightness distributions to the actual data. The results are used to map NRAO 140. It is found that the CLEAN map produces the most accurate structure corrections. 27 refs.

  7. HIGH-FREQUENCY RADIO PROPERTIES OF SOURCES IN THE FERMI-LAT 1 YEAR POINT SOURCE CATALOG

    SciTech Connect

    Mahony, Elizabeth K.; Sadler, Elaine M.; Murphy, Tara; Ekers, Ronald D.; Edwards, Philip G.; Massardi, Marcella

    2010-08-01

    The high-frequency radio sky, like the gamma-ray sky surveyed by the Fermi satellite, is dominated by flat spectrum radio quasars and BL Lac objects at bright flux levels. To investigate the relationship between radio and gamma-ray emission in extragalactic sources, we have cross-matched the Australia Telescope 20 GHz survey catalog (AT20G) with the Fermi-LAT 1 year Point Source Catalog (1FGL). The 6.0 sr of sky covered by both catalogs ({delta} < 0{sup 0}, |b|>1.{sup 0}5) contains 5890 AT20G radio sources and 604 1FGL gamma-ray sources. The AT20G source positions are accurate to within {approx}1 arcsec and, after excluding known Galactic sources, 43% of Fermi 1FGL sources have an AT20G source within the 95% Fermi confidence ellipse. Monte Carlo tests imply that at least 95% of these matches are genuine associations. Only five gamma-ray sources (1% of the Fermi catalog) have more than one AT20G counterpart in the Fermi error box. The AT20G matches also generally support the active galactic nucleus (AGN) associations in the First LAT AGN Catalog. We find a trend of increasing gamma-ray flux density with 20 GHz radio flux density. The Fermi detection rate of AT20G sources is close to 100% for the brightest 20 GHz sources, decreasing to 20% at 1 Jy, and to roughly 1% at 100 mJy. Eight of the matched AT20G sources have no association listed in 1FGL and are presented here as potential gamma-ray AGNs for the first time. We also identify an alternative AGN counterpart to one 1FGL source. The percentage of Fermi sources with AT20G detections decreases toward the Galactic plane, suggesting that the 1FGL catalog contains at least 50 Galactic gamma-ray sources in the southern hemisphere that are yet to be identified.

  8. Millimeter-wave spectra and variability of bright, compact radio sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelson, R. A.

    1987-01-01

    Observations at 2.7 mm and at 1.5 cm were used to study the millimeter spectra and variability of 176 bright, compact radio sources. More than 20 percent of the flat-spectrum sources, but none of the steep-spectrum sources, were seen to vary at 1.5 cm by at least 30 percent over ten months. This is consistent with the hypothesis that flat-spectrum sources are compact and possibly beamed, while steep-spectrum sources are not. These data can also be used to choose sources for VLBI observations and for calibration of millimeter-wave observations.

  9. A VLA Survey for Faint Compact Radio Sources in the Orion Nebula Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehan, Patrick D.; Eisner, Josh A.; Mann, Rita K.; Williams, Jonathan P.

    2016-11-01

    We present Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array 1.3, 3.6, and 6 cm continuum maps of compact radio sources in the Orion Nebular Cluster (ONC). We mosaicked 34 arcmin2 at 1.3 cm, 70 arcmin2 at 3.6 cm and 109 arcmin2 at 6 cm, containing 778 near-infrared detected young stellar objects and 190 Hubble Space Telescope-identified proplyds (with significant overlap between those characterizations). We detected radio emission from 175 compact radio sources in the ONC, including 26 sources that were detected for the first time at these wavelengths. For each detected source, we fitted a simple free-free and dust emission model to characterize the radio emission. We extrapolate the free-free emission spectrum model for each source to ALMA bands to illustrate how these measurements could be used to correctly measure protoplanetary disk dust masses from submillimeter flux measurements. Finally, we compare the fluxes measured in this survey with previously measured fluxes for our targets, as well as four separate epochs of 1.3 cm data, to search for and quantify the variability of our sources.

  10. Source location of the smooth high-frequency radio emissions from Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, W. M.; Calvert, W.

    1989-01-01

    The source location of the smooth high-frequency radio emissions from Uranus has been determined. Specifically, by fitting the signal dropouts which occurred as Voyager traversed the hollow center of the emission pattern to a symmetrical cone centered on the source magnetic field direction at the cyclotron frequency, a southern-hemisphere (nightside) source was found at approximately 56 deg S, 219 deg W. The half-angle for the hollow portion of the emission pattern was found to be 13 deg.

  11. The radio and optical counterpart of the new Fermi LAT flaring source J0109+6134

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paredes, J. M.; Martí, J.; Peracaula, M.

    2010-02-01

    Following the recent ATELs #2414, #2416 and #2420 concerning the Fermi-LAT, AGILE and Swift/XRT consistent detections of the new gamma-ray flaring source J0109+6134, we wish to remind that the proposed radio counterpart (VCS2 J0109+6133/GT 0106+613) was extensively observed nearly two decades ago by different authors in the context of the GT catalogue of Galactic Plane radio sources (Taylor and Gregory 1983, AJ, 88, 1784; Gregory and Taylor 1986, AJ 92, 371).

  12. Toward Understanding the Fanaroff-Riley Dichotomy in Radio Source Morphology and Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baum, Stefi A.; Zirbel, Esther L.; O'Dea, Christopher P.

    1995-09-01

    In Paper I we presented the results of a study of the interrelationships between host galaxy magnitude, optical line luminosity, and radio luminosity in a large sample of Fanaroff-Riley classes 1 and 2 (FR 1 and FR 2) radio galaxies. We report several important differences between the FR 1 and FR 2 radio galaxies. At the same host galaxy magnitude or radio luminosity, the FR 2's produce substantially more optical line emission (by roughly an order of magnitude or more) than do FR 1's. Similarly, FR 2 sources produce orders of magnitude more line luminosity than do radio-quiet galaxies of the same optical magnitude, while FR 1 sources and radio-quiet galaxies of the same optical magnitude produce similar line luminosities. Combining these results with previous results from the literature, we conclude that while the emission-line gas in the FR 2's is indeed photoionized by a nuclear UV continuum source from the AGN, the emission-line gas in the FR 1's may be energized predominantly by processes associated with the host galaxy itself. The apparent lack of a strong UV continuum source from the central engine in FR 1 sources can be understood in two different ways. In the first scenario, FR l's are much more efficient at covering jet bulk kinetic energy into radio luminosity than FR 2's, such that an FR 1 has a much lower bolometric AGN luminosity (hence nuclear UV continuum source) than does an FR 2 of the same radio luminosity. We discuss the pros and cons of this model and conclude that the efficiency differences needed between FR 2 and FR 1 radio galaxies are quite large and may lead to difficulties with the interpretation since it would suggest that FR 2 radio source deposit very large amounts of kinetic energy into the ISM Intracluster Medium. However, this interpretation remains viable. Alternatively, it may be that the AGNs in FR 1 sources simply produce far less radiant UV energy than do those in FR 2 sources. That is, FR 1 sources may funnel a higher fraction

  13. VLBI observations of nineteen GHz-peaked-spectrum radio sources at 1.6 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Cui, L.; Luo, W.-F.; Shi, W.-Z.; Song, H.-G.

    2007-07-01

    Aims and Methods: We present the results of VLBI observations of nineteen GHz-peaked-spectrum (GPS) radio sources at 1.6 GHz. Of them, 15 sources are selected from the Parkes half-jansky (PHJ) sample (Snellen et al. 2002, MNRAS, 337, 981), and 4 others are from our previous observation list. We aimed at imaging the structure of GPS sources, searching for compact symmetric objects (CSOs) and studying the absorption for the convex radio spectra of GPS sources. Results: We obtained total-intensity 1.6 GHz VLBI images of 17 sources for the first time. Of them, 80% show a mini-double-lobe radio structure, indicating that they are CSOs or candidates, and their host AGNs could be edge-on to us. This result suggests that there is a high incidence of mini double-lobe sources (or CSOs) in the PHJ sample. The sources J0323+0534, J1135-0021, J1352+0232, J2058+0540, J2123-0112, and J2325-0344 are classified as CSOs with measured redshift, showing double-lobe structure with sizes of <1 kpc. Three sources J1057+0012, J1600-0037, and J1753+2750 are considered as core-jet sources according to their morphologies and flux variability.

  14. Surface plasma source with saddle antenna radio frequency plasma generator.

    PubMed

    Dudnikov, V; Johnson, R P; Murray, S; Pennisi, T; Piller, C; Santana, M; Stockli, M; Welton, R

    2012-02-01

    A prototype RF H(-) surface plasma source (SPS) with saddle (SA) RF antenna is developed which will provide better power efficiency for high pulsed and average current, higher brightness with longer lifetime and higher reliability. Several versions of new plasma generators with small AlN discharge chambers and different antennas and magnetic field configurations were tested in the plasma source test stand. A prototype SA SPS was installed in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) ion source test stand with a larger, normal-sized SNS AlN chamber that achieved unanalyzed peak currents of up to 67 mA with an apparent efficiency up to 1.6 mA∕kW. Control experiments with H(-) beam produced by SNS SPS with internal and external antennas were conducted. A new version of the RF triggering plasma gun has been designed. A saddle antenna SPS with water cooling is fabricated for high duty factor testing.

  15. Surface plasma source with saddle antenna radio frequency plasma generator

    SciTech Connect

    Dudnikov, V.; Johnson, R. P.; Murray, S.; Pennisi, T.; Piller, C.; Santana, M.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R.

    2012-02-15

    A prototype RF H{sup -} surface plasma source (SPS) with saddle (SA) RF antenna is developed which will provide better power efficiency for high pulsed and average current, higher brightness with longer lifetime and higher reliability. Several versions of new plasma generators with small AlN discharge chambers and different antennas and magnetic field configurations were tested in the plasma source test stand. A prototype SA SPS was installed in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) ion source test stand with a larger, normal-sized SNS AlN chamber that achieved unanalyzed peak currents of up to 67 mA with an apparent efficiency up to 1.6 mA/kW. Control experiments with H{sup -} beam produced by SNS SPS with internal and external antennas were conducted. A new version of the RF triggering plasma gun has been designed. A saddle antenna SPS with water cooling is fabricated for high duty factor testing.

  16. THE ABUNDANCE OF X-SHAPED RADIO SOURCES: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE GRAVITATIONAL WAVE BACKGROUND

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, David H.; Saripalli, Lakshmi; Subrahmanyan, Ravi

    2015-09-01

    Coalescence of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in galaxy mergers is potentially the dominant contributor to the low frequency gravitational wave background (GWB). It was proposed by Merritt and Ekers that X-shaped radio galaxies are signposts of such coalescences and that their abundance might be used to predict the magnitude of the GWB. In Roberts et al. we presented radio images of all 52 X-shaped radio source candidates out of the sample of 100 selected by Cheung for which archival VLA data were available. These images indicate that at most 21% of the candidates might be genuine X-shaped radio sources that were formed by a restarting of beams in a new direction following a major merger. This suggests that fewer than 1.3% of extended radio sources appear to be candidates for genuine axis reorientations (“spin flips”), much smaller than the 7% suggested by Leahy and Parma. Thus, the associated GWB may be substantially smaller than previous estimates. These results can be used to normalize detailed calculations of the SMBH coalescence rate and the GWB.

  17. EVLA Observations of FR II Radio Sources with Candidate Relativistic Hotspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chartrand, Alexander M.; Miller, B. P.; Brandt, W. N.; Gawronski, M. P.; Cederbloom, S. E.

    2012-05-01

    We have identified six FR II radio sources that are candidates to possess hotspots with modestly relativistic (0.2 < v/c < 0.7) bulk velocities, in contrast to the vast majority of FR II radio sources that possess non-relativistic hotspot bulk velocities (e.g., v/c = 0.03 +/- 0.02 from Scheuer 1995). These candidates were selected based on their arm-length and flux-ratio asymmetries from a parent sample of 900 SDSS/FIRST double-lobed radio-loud quasars. For the four candidates lacking higher-resolution radio mapping, we obtained EVLA observations at 5 GHz to confirm the hotspot parameters, to measure their radio spectral indices, and to check for the presence of any jets. The observations were carried out on 12 June 2011 using 27 antennas in the A configuration. For one candidate, the morphology is found to be likely contaminated by an unrelated intruding source. For two candidates, the fainter lobes are not detected at 5 GHz. Simulations suggest that 4-6/900 objects may randomly display asymmetries (e.g., due to environmental interactions) as found for the candidates. It is ruled out that the candidates are young sources observed prior to deceleration of their hotspots because their intrinsic lobe distances are not abnormal for FR II sources. While it remains possible that a few of the candidates possess long-lived relativistic hotspots (e.g., one object shows additional supportive evidence in the form of a one-sided jet aligned with the brighter hotspot), we conclude that relativistic hotspots are extremely rare (<0.5%) or absent within double-lobed radio-loud quasars.

  18. Extremely red compact radio sources - The empty field objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beichman, C. A.; Neugebauer, G.; Soifer, B. T.; Matthews, K.; Wootten, H. A.; Pravdo, S. H.

    1981-01-01

    Radiation of 10 microns has been detected from 1413+135, one of the very red objects discovered by Rieke, Lebofsky, and Kinman (1979) at near-infrared wavelengths. The spectrum of this object flattens at wavelengths longer than 2.2 microns. Upper limits are also given for the 10-micron emission from 2255+14, 0026+34, and 0406+121. Photometry between 1.25 and 2.2 microns confirms the variability of 1413+135, 2255+41, and 0406+121. Five percent resolution spectra of 1413+135 and 0406+121 between 1.5 and 2.4 microns show no emission or absorption lines. The spectral data rule out the possibility that 1413+135 is a quasar with normal line strengths and a redshift less than 1.3 and greater than 4. The lack of features of the 1.5-2.4-micron spectra, the rapid variability, and the overall shape of the radio, infrared, and X-ray energy distributions are consistent with a BL Lac nature for these objects.

  19. The algorithm of construction of a multiring model for the radio image of non-coherent radio sources based on the measured visibility function.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshovij, V. V.; Lozins'kij, A. B.; Romanishin, I. M.; Romanchev, Yu. V.

    1998-04-01

    The authors consider the problem of constructing a centrosymmetrical model of the radio image of a noncoherent radio source based on the van Cittert-Zernike theorem. They show that it is enough to know the visibility function modulus determined on the (u,v) plane. A new multiring model for the radio image restoration of radio sources based on visibility function measured by radiointerferometric method is proposed. The authors give the algorithm for determination of the number of rings, their angular radii, and flux densities based on Fourier-Bessel series. The radio image of Cas A was restored from measurements performed with the short-base (up to 2000 D/λ) interferometer URAN-3. The model of the large-scale structure deduced from measurements in the metre range, is consistent with results obtained in decametre wavelengths.

  20. Kinematics and physical conditions of H I in nearby radio sources. The last survey of the old Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccagni, F. M.; Morganti, R.; Oosterloo, T. A.; Geréb, K.; Maddox, N.

    2017-08-01

    We present an analysis of the properties of neutral hydrogen (H i) in 248 nearby (0.02 < z < 0.25) radio galaxies with S1.4 GHz > 30 mJy and for which optical spectroscopy is available. The observations were carried out with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope as the last large project before the upgrade of the telescope with phased array feed receivers (Apertif). The sample covers almost four orders of magnitude in radio power from log P1.4 GHz = 22.5 W Hz-1 and 26.2 W Hz-1. We detect H I in absorption in 27% ± 5.5% of the objects. The detections are found over the full range of radio power. However, the distribution and kinematics of the absorbing H I gas appear to depend on radio power, the properties of the radio continuum emission, and the dust content of the sources. Among the sources where H I is detected, gas with kinematics deviating from regular rotation is more likely found as the radio power increases. In the great majority of these cases, the H I profile is asymmetric with a significant blue-shifted component. This is particularly common for sources with log P1.4 GHz > 24 W Hz-1, where the radio emission is small, possibly because these radio sources are young. The same is found for sources that are bright in the mid-infrared, i.e. sources rich in heated dust. In these sources, the H I is outflowing likely under the effect of the interaction with the radio emission. Conversely, in dust-poor galaxies, and in sources with extended radio emission, at all radio powers we only detect H I distributed in a rotating disk. Stacking experiments show that in sources for which we do not detect H I in absorption directly, the H I has a column density that is lower than 3.5 × 1017 (Tspin/cf) cm-2. We use our results to predict the number and type of H I absorption lines that will be detected by the upcoming surveys of the Square Kilometre Array precursors and pathfinders (Apertif, MeerKAT, and ASKAP).

  1. An unusually strong Einstein ring in the radio source PKS1830 - 211

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jauncey, D. L.; Reynolds, J. E.; Tzioumis, A. K.; Murphy, D. W.; Preston, R. A.; Jones, D. L.; Meier, D. L.; Hoard, D. W.; Lobdell, E. T.; Skjerve, L.

    1991-01-01

    High-resolution radio images of PKS1830 - 211 are obtained to study the possibility that the double structure is a gravitationally lensed object. The VLBI observations, taken from interferometric radiotelescope networks, reveal an elliptical ring that connects two bright spots of similar composition. Because the lens and the lensed object are closely aligned, and because of the structure of the two spots, the source is concluded to be a radio Einstein ring. The source is found to be close to the galactic plane, and the lens and the lensed object are extragalactic. The source is also found to be unusually bright, suggesting that it is aligned with a bright background source or amplified by some mechanism related to a source that is not so bright.

  2. Faint Radio Sources in the NOAO Bootes Field. VLBA Imaging And Optical Identifications

    SciTech Connect

    Wrobel, J.M.; Taylor, Greg B.; Rector, T.A.; Myers, S.T.; Fassnacht, C.D.; /UC, Davis

    2005-06-13

    As a step toward investigating the parsec-scale properties of faint extragalactic radio sources, the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) was used at 5.0 GHz to obtain phase-referenced images of 76 sources in the NOAO Booetes field. These 76 sources were selected from the FIRST catalog to have peak flux densities above 10 mJy at 5'' resolution and deconvolved major diameters of less than 3'' at 1.4 GHz. Fifty-five of these faint radio sources were identified with accretion-powered radio galaxies and quasars brighter than 25.5 mag in the optical I band. On VLA scales at 1.4 GHz, a measure of the compactness of the faint sources (the ratio of the peak flux density from FIRST to the integrated flux density from the NVSS catalog) spans the full range of possibilities arising from source-resolution effects. Thirty of the faint radio sources, or 39{sub -7}{sup +9}%, were detected with the VLBA at 5.0 GHz with peak flux densities above 6 {sigma} {approx} 2 mJy at 2 mas resolution. The VLBA detections occur through the full range of compactness ratios. The stronger VLBA detections can themselves serve as phase-reference calibrators, boding well for opening up much of the radio sky to VLBA imaging. For the adopted cosmology, the VLBA resolution corresponds to 17 pc or finer. Most VLBA detections are unresolved or slightly resolved but one is diffuse and five show either double or core-jet structures; the properties of these latter six are discussed in detail. Eight VLBA detections are unidentified and fainter than 25.5 mag in the optical I band; their properties are highlighted because they likely mark optically-obscured active nuclei at high redshift.

  3. Astronomers Detect Powerful Bursting Radio Source Discovery Points to New Class of Astronomical Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-03-01

    Astronomers at Sweet Briar College and the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) have detected a powerful new bursting radio source whose unique properties suggest the discovery of a new class of astronomical objects. The researchers have monitored the center of the Milky Way Galaxy for several years and reveal their findings in the March 3, 2005 edition of the journal, “Nature”. This radio image of the central region of the Milky Way Galaxy holds a new radio source, GCRT J1745-3009. The arrow points to an expanding ring of debris expelled by a supernova. CREDIT: N.E. Kassim et al., Naval Research Laboratory, NRAO/AUI/NSF Principal investigator, Dr. Scott Hyman, professor of physics at Sweet Briar College, said the discovery came after analyzing some additional observations from 2002 provided by researchers at Northwestern University. “"We hit the jackpot!” Hyman said referring to the observations. “An image of the Galactic center, made by collecting radio waves of about 1-meter in wavelength, revealed multiple bursts from the source during a seven-hour period from Sept. 30 to Oct. 1, 2002 — five bursts in fact, and repeating at remarkably constant intervals.” Hyman, four Sweet Briar students, and his NRL collaborators, Drs. Namir Kassim and Joseph Lazio, happened upon transient emission from two radio sources while studying the Galactic center in 1998. This prompted the team to propose an ongoing monitoring program using the National Science Foundation’s Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope in New Mexico. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory, which operates the VLA, approved the program. The data collected, laid the groundwork for the detection of the new radio source. “Amazingly, even though the sky is known to be full of transient objects emitting at X- and gamma-ray wavelengths,” NRL astronomer Dr. Joseph Lazio pointed out, “very little has been done to look for radio bursts, which are often easier for astronomical objects to produce

  4. The effects of correlated noise in phased-array observations of radio sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewey, Rachel J.

    1994-01-01

    Arrays of radio telescopes are now routinely used to provide increased signal-to-noise when observing faint point sources. However, calculation of the achievable sensitivity is complicated if there are sources in the field of view other than the target source. These additional sources not only increase the system temperatures of the individual antennas, but may also contribute significant 'correlated noise' to the effective system temperature of the array. This problem has been of particular interest in the context of tracking spacecraft in the vicinity of radio-bright planets (e.g., Galileo at Jupiter), but it has broader astronomical relevance as well. This paper presents a general formulation of the problem, for the case of a point-like target source in the presence of an additional radio source of arbitrary brightness distribution. We re-derive the well known result that, in the absence of any background sources, a phased array of N indentical antennas is a factor of N more sensitive than a single antenna. We also show that an unphased array of N identical antennas is, on average, no more sensitive than a single antenna if the signals from the individual antennas are combined prior to detection. In the case where a background source is present we show that the effects of correlated noise are highly geometry dependent, and for some astronomical observations may cause significant fluctuations in the array's effective system temperature.

  5. The Mitigation of Radio Noise and Interference from On-Site Sources at Radio Receiving Sites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    severely distorted by selective fading where the fading was caused by its arrival from a distant source over multiple ionospheric propagation paths ...17 5.2 Saturated Components in the RF Paths ............................................................. 17 5.3 Cable Leakage...58 7.4 Saturated Components in the RF Path .............................................................. 61

  6. Multifrequency light curves of low-frequency variable radio sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altschuler, D. R.; Broderick, J. J.; Dennison, B.; Mitchell, K. J.; Odell, S. L.; Condon, J. J.; Payne, H. E.

    1984-12-01

    Light curves for the low-frequency variable sources AO 0235 + 16, NRAO 140, PKS 1117 + 14, DA 406, CTA 102, and 3C 454.3, obtained in monthly observations at 318, 430, and 606 MHz using the 305-m telescope at Arecibo and in bimonthly observations at 880 MHz and 1.4 GHz using the 91-m Green Bank transit telescope during 1980-1983, are presented and analyzed. AO 0235 + 16 is found to have basically canonical variability which is attributed to relativistically moving evolving synchrotron components; but in the other sources, strong simultaneous variations at 318, 430, and 606 MHz are observed to be greatly diminished in amplitude at 880 MHz and 1.4 GHz, confirming the existence of the intermediate-frequency gap at about 1 GHz proposed by Spangler and Cotton (1981). The possibility that a second variability mechanism is active in these sources is explored.

  7. Multifrequency light curves of low-frequency variable radio sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altschuler, D. R.; Broderick, J. J.; Dennison, B.; Mitchell, K. J.; Odell, S. L.; Condon, J. J.; Payne, H. E.

    1984-01-01

    Light curves for the low-frequency variable sources AO 0235 + 16, NRAO 140, PKS 1117 + 14, DA 406, CTA 102, and 3C 454.3, obtained in monthly observations at 318, 430, and 606 MHz using the 305-m telescope at Arecibo and in bimonthly observations at 880 MHz and 1.4 GHz using the 91-m Green Bank transit telescope during 1980-1983, are presented and analyzed. AO 0235 + 16 is found to have basically canonical variability which is attributed to relativistically moving evolving synchrotron components; but in the other sources, strong simultaneous variations at 318, 430, and 606 MHz are observed to be greatly diminished in amplitude at 880 MHz and 1.4 GHz, confirming the existence of the intermediate-frequency gap at about 1 GHz proposed by Spangler and Cotton (1981). The possibility that a second variability mechanism is active in these sources is explored.

  8. Multifrequency light curves of low-frequency variable radio sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altschuler, D. R.; Broderick, J. J.; Dennison, B.; Mitchell, K. J.; Odell, S. L.; Condon, J. J.; Payne, H. E.

    1984-01-01

    Light curves for the low-frequency variable sources AO 0235 + 16, NRAO 140, PKS 1117 + 14, DA 406, CTA 102, and 3C 454.3, obtained in monthly observations at 318, 430, and 606 MHz using the 305-m telescope at Arecibo and in bimonthly observations at 880 MHz and 1.4 GHz using the 91-m Green Bank transit telescope during 1980-1983, are presented and analyzed. AO 0235 + 16 is found to have basically canonical variability which is attributed to relativistically moving evolving synchrotron components; but in the other sources, strong simultaneous variations at 318, 430, and 606 MHz are observed to be greatly diminished in amplitude at 880 MHz and 1.4 GHz, confirming the existence of the intermediate-frequency gap at about 1 GHz proposed by Spangler and Cotton (1981). The possibility that a second variability mechanism is active in these sources is explored.

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Radio identification of 3EG EGRET sources (Mattox+, 2001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattox, J. R.; Hartman, R. C.; Reimer, O.

    2001-09-01

    The method of Mattox et al. (1996ApJ...461..396M) for identifying EGRET sources with 5GHz radio sources has been applied to the 3EG EGRET catalog of Hartman et al. (1999, Cat. ). Complete results are tabulated. We tabulate separately 46 EGRET sources with radio identifications which we expect to have a high probability of being correct. We suggest that these sources are appropriate for most studies of the properties of γ-ray blazars as a class. All but one of these 46 sources were classified by Hartman et al. (1999, Cat. ) as high-confidence identifications; and the additional source was classified by Hartman et al. (1999, Cat. ) as a plausible identification. We also tabulate separately 37 additional "plausible identifications of EGRET sources with radio sources." These less secure possibilities include the remaining 21 "high-confidence identifications" of Hartman et al. (1999, Cat. ), three of the 27 "lower confidence potential blazar identifications" of Hartman et al. (1999, Cat. ), and an additional 15 plausible identifications which have not been suggested previously. Many of these sources require new radio and optical observations to establish them as blazars. We suggest that the 23 "lower-confidence potential blazar identifications" of Hartman et al. (1999, Cat. ) which we do not find plausible should not be used in studies of the properties of the EGRET blazars. For this analysis, we have made elliptical fits to the 95% confidence contours of the position uncertainty regions of the 3EG sources. (4 data files).

  10. Investigations in Time and of Space Using the FIRST Survey: Radio Source Variability and the Evolution of FR II Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thyagarajan, Nithyanandan

    The FIRST survey covered ∼10,000 deg2 of the sky over a decade, providing unprecedented levels of flux density sensitivity (∼ 1 mJy) at 1.4 GHz, uniformity to within 15% (at ∼0.15 mJy rms), 5.4" angular resolution, astrometric accuracy to better than 1" and has cataloged ≳ 800,000 sources. It has made enormous contributions to diverse scientific ends including such subjects as radio source populations, quasars, large-scale structure and clustering of radio sources, gravitational lensing, cosmology, etc. I present the motivation, analysis and results of two projects also intended to demonstrate the power and expand the scope of the FIRST survey's scientific reach. A comprehensive search for variable and transient radio sources has been conducted using the ∼55,000 snapshot images of the FIRST survey. An analysis leading to the discovery of 1,651 variable and transient objects down to mJy levels over a wide range of timescales (few minutes to years) is presented. The multi-wavelength matching for counterparts reveals the diverse classes of objects exhibiting variability. Interestingly, ∼ 60% of the objects in the sample have either no classified counterparts or no corresponding sources at any other wavelength and require multi-wavelength follow-up observations. I discuss these classes of variables and speculate on the identity of objects that lack multi-wavelength counterparts. Thus, the FIRST survey has yielded the largest sample by far of radio variables and transients to date to unprecedented levels of sensitivity and sky coverage and demonstrates the promise of future radio instruments which have transient-detection as one of their key science projects. For decades, radio astronomers have attempted to use double-lobed radio sources to constrain the angular size-redshift (θ - z ) relation and to derive cosmological parameters therefrom. Most of the early attempts have, embarrassingly, shown general consistency with a static Euclidean universe rather

  11. Discovery of two millisecond pulsars in Fermi sources with the Nancay Radio Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Cognard, I.; Guillemot, L.; Johnson, Tyrel J.; Smith, D. A.; Venter, C.; Harding, A. K.; Wolff, M. T.; Cheung, C. C.; Donato, D.; Abdo, A. A.; Ballet, J.; Camilo, F.; Desvignes, G.; Dumora, D.; Ferrara, E. C.; Freire, P. C. C.; Grove, J. E.; Johnston, S.; Keith, M.; Kramer, M.; Lyne, A. G.; Michelson, P. F.; Parent, D.; Ransom, S. M.; Ray, P. S.; Romani, R. W.; Parkinson, P. M. Saz; Stappers, B. W.; Theureau, G.; Thompson, D. J.; Weltevrede, P.; Wood, K. S.

    2011-04-14

    Here, we report the discovery of two millisecond pulsars in a search for radio pulsations at the positions of Fermi-Large Area Telescope sources with no previously known counterparts, using the Nançay Radio Telescope. The two millisecond pulsars, PSRs J2017+0603 and J2302+4442, have rotational periods of 2.896 and 5.192 ms and are both in binary systems with low-eccentricity orbits and orbital periods of 2.2 and 125.9 days, respectively, suggesting long recycling processes. Gamma-ray pulsations were subsequently detected for both objects, indicating that they power the associated Fermi sources in which they were found. The gamma-ray light curves and spectral properties are similar to those of previously detected gamma-ray millisecond pulsars. Detailed modeling of the observed radio and gamma-ray light curves shows that the gamma-ray emission seems to originate at high altitudes in their magnetospheres. Additionally, X-ray observations revealed the presence of an X-ray source at the position of PSR J2302+4442, consistent with thermal emission from a neutron star. These discoveries along with the numerous detections of radio-loud millisecond pulsars in gamma rays suggest that many Fermi sources with no known counterpart could be unknown millisecond pulsars.

  12. Features of radio frequency surface plasma sources with a solenoidal magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudnikov, V.; Johnson, R. P.; Han, B.; Murray, S.; Pennisi, T.; Piller, C.; Santana, M.; Stinson, C.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R.; Dudnikova, G.

    2017-08-01

    The operation of Radio Frequency Surface Plasma Sources (RF SPS) with a DC solenoidal magnetic field is described. RF SPS with solenoidal and saddle antennas are discussed. Dependences of beam current and extraction current on RF power, gas flow, solenoidal magnetic field and filter magnetic field are presented.

  13. Multiband Study of Radio Sources of the Rcr Catalogue with Virtual Observatory Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhelenkova, O. P.; Soboleva, N. S.; Majorova, E. K.; Temirova, A. V.

    We present early results of our multiband study of the RATAN Cold Revised (RCR) catalogue obtained from seven cycles of the ``Cold'' survey carried with the RATAN-600 radio telescope at 7.6 cm in 1980--1999, at the declination of the SS 433 source. We used the 2MASS and LAS UKIDSS infrared surveys, the DSS-II and SDSS DR7 optical surveys, as well as the USNO-B1 and GSC-II catalogues, the VLSS, TXS, NVSS, FIRST and GB6 radio surveys to accumulate information about the sources. For radio sources that have no detectable optical candidate in optical or infrared catalogues, we additionally looked through images in several bands from the SDSS, LAS UKIDSS, DPOSS, 2MASS surveys and also used co-added frames in different bands. We reliably identified 76% of radio sources of the RCR catalogue. We used the ALADIN and SAOImage DS9 scripting capabilities, interoperability services of ALADIN and TOPCAT, and also other Virtual Observatory (VO) tools and resources, such as CASJobs, NED, Vizier, and WSA, for effective data access, visualization and analysis. Without VO tools it would have been problematic to perform our study.

  14. RadioSource.NET: Case-Study of a Collaborative Land-Grant Internet Audio Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sohar, Kathleen; Wood, Ashley M.; Ramirez, Roberto

    2002-01-01

    Provides a case study of RadioSource.NET, an Internet broadcasting venture developed collaboratively by land-grant university communication departments to share resources, increase online distribution, and promote access to agricultural and natural and life science research. Describes planning, marketing, and implementation processes. (Contains 18…

  15. Analysis of GALFACTS Data for the Study of Variable Radio Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barenfeld, Scott; Ghosh, T.; Salter, C.

    2011-01-01

    The G-ALFA Continuum Transit Survey (GALFACTS) is a spectro-polarimetric survey of Arecibo Observatory's visible sky from 1225-1525 MHz, using the Arecibo L-band Feed Array (ALFA). Among the survey's many scientific goals is a large-scale statistical study on the short-term variability of the flux density and polarization of radio sources. Every point in the sky is observed twice, with less than a month between observations, making this the largest systematic search for variability ever conducted. In this poster, we present the development of computer code to aid in this search, and some preliminary results from this code. The code takes GALFACTS data in the form of time series for 2048 individual spectral channels, containing positions and full-stokes antenna temperatures, and turns these into a list of individual radio sources with their positions and Stokes-I temperatures. We first ran the code for the field surrounding the radio source S0206+330, of known flux density, as a test. Once a working code was completed, it was run on the field of another radio source, S0311+307.

  16. ON THE CONNECTION OF THE APPARENT PROPER MOTION AND THE VLBI STRUCTURE OF COMPACT RADIO SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Moor, A.; Frey, S.; Lambert, S. B.; Bakos, J. E-mail: frey@sgo.fomi.hu E-mail: oleg.titov@ga.gov.au

    2011-06-15

    Many of the compact extragalactic radio sources that are used as fiducial points to define the celestial reference frame are known to have proper motions detectable with long-term geodetic/astrometric very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) measurements. These changes can be as high as several hundred microarcseconds per year for certain objects. When imaged with VLBI at milliarcsecond (mas) angular resolution, these sources (radio-loud active galactic nuclei) typically show structures dominated by a compact, often unresolved 'core' and a one-sided 'jet'. The positional instability of compact radio sources is believed to be connected with changes in their brightness distribution structure. For the first time, we test this assumption in a statistical sense on a large sample rather than on only individual objects. We investigate a sample of 62 radio sources for which reliable long-term time series of astrometric positions as well as detailed 8 GHz VLBI brightness distribution models are available. We compare the characteristic direction of their extended jet structure and the direction of their apparent proper motion. We present our data and analysis method, and conclude that there is indeed a correlation between the two characteristic directions. However, there are cases where the {approx}1-10 mas scale VLBI jet directions are significantly misaligned with respect to the apparent proper motion direction.

  17. Discovery of two millisecond pulsars in Fermi sources with the Nancay Radio Telescope

    DOE PAGES

    Cognard, I.; Guillemot, L.; Johnson, Tyrel J.; ...

    2011-04-14

    Here, we report the discovery of two millisecond pulsars in a search for radio pulsations at the positions of Fermi-Large Area Telescope sources with no previously known counterparts, using the Nançay Radio Telescope. The two millisecond pulsars, PSRs J2017+0603 and J2302+4442, have rotational periods of 2.896 and 5.192 ms and are both in binary systems with low-eccentricity orbits and orbital periods of 2.2 and 125.9 days, respectively, suggesting long recycling processes. Gamma-ray pulsations were subsequently detected for both objects, indicating that they power the associated Fermi sources in which they were found. The gamma-ray light curves and spectral properties aremore » similar to those of previously detected gamma-ray millisecond pulsars. Detailed modeling of the observed radio and gamma-ray light curves shows that the gamma-ray emission seems to originate at high altitudes in their magnetospheres. Additionally, X-ray observations revealed the presence of an X-ray source at the position of PSR J2302+4442, consistent with thermal emission from a neutron star. These discoveries along with the numerous detections of radio-loud millisecond pulsars in gamma rays suggest that many Fermi sources with no known counterpart could be unknown millisecond pulsars.« less

  18. DISCOVERY OF TWO MILLISECOND PULSARS IN FERMI SOURCES WITH THE NANCAY RADIO TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Cognard, I.; Johnson, T. J.; Harding, A. K.; Ferrara, E. C.; Smith, D. A.; Dumora, D.; Wolff, M. T.; Grove, J. E.; Cheung, C. C.; Abdo, A. A.; Donato, D.; Ballet, J.; Desvignes, G.; Johnston, S.; Keith, M. E-mail: guillemo@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de

    2011-05-01

    We report the discovery of two millisecond pulsars in a search for radio pulsations at the positions of Fermi-Large Area Telescope sources with no previously known counterparts, using the Nancay Radio Telescope. The two millisecond pulsars, PSRs J2017+0603 and J2302+4442, have rotational periods of 2.896 and 5.192 ms and are both in binary systems with low-eccentricity orbits and orbital periods of 2.2 and 125.9 days, respectively, suggesting long recycling processes. Gamma-ray pulsations were subsequently detected for both objects, indicating that they power the associated Fermi sources in which they were found. The gamma-ray light curves and spectral properties are similar to those of previously detected gamma-ray millisecond pulsars. Detailed modeling of the observed radio and gamma-ray light curves shows that the gamma-ray emission seems to originate at high altitudes in their magnetospheres. Additionally, X-ray observations revealed the presence of an X-ray source at the position of PSR J2302+4442, consistent with thermal emission from a neutron star. These discoveries along with the numerous detections of radio-loud millisecond pulsars in gamma rays suggest that many Fermi sources with no known counterpart could be unknown millisecond pulsars.

  19. A multifrequency radio continuum and IRAS faint source survey of markarian galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bicay, M. D.; Kojoian, G.; Seal, J.; Dickinson, D. F.; Malkan, M. A.

    1995-01-01

    Results are presented from a multifrequency radio continumm survey of Markarian galaxies (MRKs) and are supplemented by IRAS infrared data from the Faint Source Survey. Radio data are presented for 899 MRKs observed at nu = 4.755 GHz with the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO)-Green Bank 300 foot (91 m) telescope, including nearly 88% of those objects in Markarian lists VI-XIV. In addition, 1.415 GHz measurements of 258 MRKs, over 30% of the MRKs accessible from the National Aeronomy and Ionosphere Center (NAIC)-Arecibo, are reported. Radio continuum observations of smaller numbers of MRKs were made at 10.63 GHz and at 23.1 GHz and are also presented. Infrared data from the IRAS Faint Source Survey (Ver. 2) are presented for 944 MRKs, with reasonably secure identifications extracted from the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database. MRKs exhibit the same canonical infrared characteristics as those reported for various other galaxy samples, that is well-known enhancement of the 25 micrometer/60 micrometer color ratio among Seyfert MRKs, and a clear tendency for MRKs with warmer 60 micrometer/100 micrometer colors to also possess cooler 12 micrometer/25 micrometer colors. In addition, non-Seyfert are found to obey the well-documented infrared/radio luminosity correlation, with the tightest correlation seen for starburst MRKs.

  20. A multifrequency radio continuum and IRAS faint source survey of markarian galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bicay, M. D.; Kojoian, G.; Seal, J.; Dickinson, D. F.; Malkan, M. A.

    1995-01-01

    Results are presented from a multifrequency radio continumm survey of Markarian galaxies (MRKs) and are supplemented by IRAS infrared data from the Faint Source Survey. Radio data are presented for 899 MRKs observed at nu = 4.755 GHz with the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO)-Green Bank 300 foot (91 m) telescope, including nearly 88% of those objects in Markarian lists VI-XIV. In addition, 1.415 GHz measurements of 258 MRKs, over 30% of the MRKs accessible from the National Aeronomy and Ionosphere Center (NAIC)-Arecibo, are reported. Radio continuum observations of smaller numbers of MRKs were made at 10.63 GHz and at 23.1 GHz and are also presented. Infrared data from the IRAS Faint Source Survey (Ver. 2) are presented for 944 MRKs, with reasonably secure identifications extracted from the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database. MRKs exhibit the same canonical infrared characteristics as those reported for various other galaxy samples, that is well-known enhancement of the 25 micrometer/60 micrometer color ratio among Seyfert MRKs, and a clear tendency for MRKs with warmer 60 micrometer/100 micrometer colors to also possess cooler 12 micrometer/25 micrometer colors. In addition, non-Seyfert are found to obey the well-documented infrared/radio luminosity correlation, with the tightest correlation seen for starburst MRKs.

  1. High-energy gamma radiation from extragalactic radio sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dermer, C. D.; Schlickeiser, R.; Mastichiadis, A.

    1992-01-01

    We propose that the important relationship between 3C 273 and 3C 279, the first two extragalactic sources detected at over 100 MeV energies, is their superluminal nature. In support of this conjecture, we propose a kinematic focusing mechanism, based on Compton scattering of accretion-disk photons by relativistic nonthermal electrons in the jet, that preferentially emits gamma rays in the superluminal direction.

  2. High-energy gamma radiation from extragalactic radio sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dermer, C. D.; Schlickeiser, R.; Mastichiadis, A.

    1992-01-01

    We propose that the important relationship between 3C 273 and 3C 279, the first two extragalactic sources detected at over 100 MeV energies, is their superluminal nature. In support of this conjecture, we propose a kinematic focusing mechanism, based on Compton scattering of accretion-disk photons by relativistic nonthermal electrons in the jet, that preferentially emits gamma rays in the superluminal direction.

  3. Numerical calculations of spectral turnover and synchrotron self-absorption in CSS and GPS radio sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeyakumar, S.

    2016-06-01

    The dependence of the turnover frequency on the linear size is presented for a sample of Giga-hertz Peaked Spectrum and Compact Steep Spectrum radio sources derived from complete samples. The dependence of the luminosity of the emission at the peak frequency with the linear size and the peak frequency is also presented for the galaxies in the sample. The luminosity of the smaller sources evolve strongly with the linear size. Optical depth effects have been included to the 3D model for the radio source of Kaiser to study the spectral turnover. Using this model, the observed trend can be explained by synchrotron self-absorption. The observed trend in the peak-frequency-linear-size plane is not affected by the luminosity evolution of the sources.

  4. Sources of population and family planning assistance.

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    This document assesses the current status of population and family planning assistance throughout the world and provides brief sketches of the available sources including national governments, intergovernmental agencies such as the UNFPA and other UN entities, and nongovernmental funding, technical assistance, or funding and technical assistance organizations. The descriptions of aid-granting organizations describe their purposes, sources of funding, and activities, and give addresses where further information may be sought. At present about $100 million of the US $1 billion spent for family planning in developing countries each year comes from individuals paying for their own supplies and services, over $400 million is spent by national governments on their own programs, and about $450 million comes from developed country governments and private agencies. Over half of external assistance appears to be channeled through international agencies, and only a few countries provide a substantial proportion of aid bilaterally. In the past decade several governments, particularly in Asia, significantly increased the share of program costs they assumed themselves, and the most populous developing countries, China, India, and Indonesia, now contribute most of the funding for their own programs. Although at least 130 countries have provided population aid at some time, most is given by 12 industrialized countries. The US Agency for International Development (USAID) is the largest single donor, but the US share of population assistance has declined to 50% of all assistance in 1981 from 60% in the early 1970s. Governments of Communist bloc countries have made only small contributions to international population assistance. Most governmental asistance is in cash grant form, but loans, grants in kind, and technical assistance are also provided. Private organizations give assistance primarily to other private organizations in developing countries, and have been major innovators in

  5. Transient Radio Source Survey at 8.35 and 14.35 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langston, G.; Minter, A.

    1996-12-01

    The transient source candidate list is presented for observations from the NRAO Green Bank 45' telescope. The observations of the entire sky north of 62 degrees declination are made simultaneously with cooled dual circularly polarized feeds at both 8.35 and 14.35 GHz bands. The results of the summer 1996 surveys are presented. During summer 1996, the region north of 62 degrees declination was observed four times. Numerous candidate transient sources were rejected by the requirement that the source be visible with approximately equal strength at both polarizations of each band, and that the source be visible at both 8.35 and 14.35 GHz simultaneously. The detected sources, which pass these criteria, are mostly known radio sources, which appear in each of the surveys, and also a few transient candidates. These transient sources are not believed to be due to weather or local interference, and possible explanations for these sources include: satellites, planes, birds or actual astronomical objects. These observations place strong limits on the rate of bright transient radio sources at these frequencies. Images of the sky, source lists and transient source spectral indices are presented. The 45' antenna and electronics are designed for use as a tracking station for Orbiting Very Long Baseline Interferometry (OVLBI) satellites. The OVLBI project is funded by NASA.

  6. VLBI measurements of radio source positions at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purcell, G. H., Jr.; Fanselow, J. L.; Thomas, J. B.; Cohen, E. J.; Rogstad, D. H.; Sovers, O. J.; Skjerve, L. J.; Spitzmesser, D. J.

    1980-01-01

    The results of approximately 1300 observations of 67 radio sources are presented. Most of the measurements were made at the stations of the Deep Space Network in California, Spain, and Australia at wavelengths of 13.1 and 3.6 cm, between 1971 and 1978. The formal errors in the derived source positions are generally in the neighborhood of 0.01 seconds of arc and the positions agree fairly well with those previously published.

  7. Radio Sources in the NCP Region Observed with the 21 Centimeter Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Qian; Wu, Xiang-Ping; Johnston-Hollitt, Melanie; Gu, Jun-hua; Xu, Haiguang

    2016-12-01

    We present a catalog of 624 radio sources detected around the North Celestial Pole (NCP) with the 21 Centimeter Array (21CMA), a radio interferometer dedicated to the statistical measurement of the epoch of reionization (EoR). The data are taken from a 12 hr observation made on 2013 April 13, with a frequency coverage from 75 to 175 MHz and an angular resolution of ˜4‧. The catalog includes flux densities at eight sub-bands across the 21CMA bandwidth and provides the in-band spectral indices for the detected sources. To reduce the complexity of interferometric imaging from the so-called “w” term and ionospheric effects, the present analysis is restricted to the east-west baselines within 1500 m only. The 624 radio sources are found within 5° around the NCP down to ˜0.1 Jy. Our source counts are compared, and also exhibit a good agreement, with deep low-frequency observations made recently with the GMRT and MWA. In particular, for fainter radio sources below ˜1 Jy, we find a flattening trend of source counts toward lower frequencies. While the thermal noise (˜0.4 mJy) is well controlled to below the confusion limit, the dynamical range (˜104) and sensitivity of current 21CMA imaging are largely limited by calibration and deconvolution errors, especially the grating lobes of very bright sources, such as 3C061.1, in the NCP field, which result from the regular spacings of the 21CMA. We note that particular attention should be paid to the extended sources, and their modeling and removal may constitute a large technical challenge for current EoR experiments. Our analysis may serve as a useful guide to the design of next generation low-frequency interferometers like the Square Kilometre Array.

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Sub-mJy radio sources SF properties (Bonzini+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonzini, M.; Mainieri, V.; Padovani, P.; Andreani, P.; Berta, S.; Bethermin, M.; Lutz, D.; Rodighiero, G.; Rosario, D.; Tozzi, P.; Vattakunnel, S.

    2016-03-01

    In this work, we investigated the SF properties of the faint radio population as detected by one of the deepest 1.4 GHz survey up-to-date conducted with the VLA in the E-CDFS. This study builds upon the results presented in Bonzini et al. (2012, Cat. J/ApJS/203/15 and 2013, Cat. J/MNRAS/436/3759) where we have exploited the wealth of multiwavelength data available in this field to identify the AGNs, further divide them into RL and RQ, and characterize the properties of the radio selected galaxies (e.g. redshift, stellar mass). (1 data file).

  9. X-ray spectra of a complete sample of extragalactic core-dominated radio sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brunner, H.; Lamer, G.; Worrall, D. M.; Staubert, R.

    1994-01-01

    We present ROSAT soft X-ray spectra for the members of a complete sample of 13 core-dominated, flat radio spectrum sources. The sample comprises all radio sources from a flux-limited radio catalog (S(sub 5GHz) greater than 1 Jy; Kuehr et al. 1981) which are north of delta = 70 deg, at galactic latitudes b greater than 10 deg, and have a flat radio spectrum between 1.4 and 5 GHz (alpha(sub r) less than 0.5; f approximately nu(sup -alpha)). The sources have already undergone much study at radio and optical wavelengths and are classified in broad terms as quasars (8 sources) and BL Lac objects (5 sources). We find mean X-ray power-law energy indices of alpha(sub x) = 0.59 +/- 0.19 for the quasars and 1.36 +/- 0.27 for the BL Lac objects (68% confidence range for two parameters of interest as determined by a maximum likelihood method), supporting earlier Einstein Observatory results for heterogeneous samples of sources (Worrall & Wilkes 1990). A non-zero dispersion on alpha(sub x) is found for both the quasars and the BL Lac objects. When we incorporate published radio, mm, and optical measurements and compare the X-ray and broad-band spectral indices alpha(sub x), alpha(sub rx), alpha(sub mm,x), and alpha(sub ox), the most obvious difference between the quasar and BL Lac subsamples lies within the X-ray band. We have fitted the multi-wavelength data to inhomogeneous synchotron-self-Compton models and find that, for the BL Lac objects with steep X-ray spectra, synchotron emission can account for the radio to soft X-ray measurements, whereas the BL Lac objects with hard X-ray spectra and the quasars require significant Compton emission to model the spectral flattening indicated by alpha(sub x) less than alpha(sub ox).

  10. X-ray spectra of a complete sample of extragalactic core-dominated radio sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brunner, H.; Lamer, G.; Worrall, D. M.; Staubert, R.

    1994-01-01

    We present ROSAT soft X-ray spectra for the members of a complete sample of 13 core-dominated, flat radio spectrum sources. The sample comprises all radio sources from a flux-limited radio catalog (S(sub 5GHz) greater than 1 Jy; Kuehr et al. 1981) which are north of delta = 70 deg, at galactic latitudes b greater than 10 deg, and have a flat radio spectrum between 1.4 and 5 GHz (alpha(sub r) less than 0.5; f approximately nu(sup -alpha)). The sources have already undergone much study at radio and optical wavelengths and are classified in broad terms as quasars (8 sources) and BL Lac objects (5 sources). We find mean X-ray power-law energy indices of alpha(sub x) = 0.59 +/- 0.19 for the quasars and 1.36 +/- 0.27 for the BL Lac objects (68% confidence range for two parameters of interest as determined by a maximum likelihood method), supporting earlier Einstein Observatory results for heterogeneous samples of sources (Worrall & Wilkes 1990). A non-zero dispersion on alpha(sub x) is found for both the quasars and the BL Lac objects. When we incorporate published radio, mm, and optical measurements and compare the X-ray and broad-band spectral indices alpha(sub x), alpha(sub rx), alpha(sub mm,x), and alpha(sub ox), the most obvious difference between the quasar and BL Lac subsamples lies within the X-ray band. We have fitted the multi-wavelength data to inhomogeneous synchotron-self-Compton models and find that, for the BL Lac objects with steep X-ray spectra, synchotron emission can account for the radio to soft X-ray measurements, whereas the BL Lac objects with hard X-ray spectra and the quasars require significant Compton emission to model the spectral flattening indicated by alpha(sub x) less than alpha(sub ox).

  11. Reseau astrometry with Palomar Schmidt plates - Position-coincidence optical identification of radio sources

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, K.J.; Condon, J.J.; Warnock, A., III

    1981-10-01

    The simple, inexpensive method for determining celestial coordinates on original Palomar Schmidt plates developed previously is here inverted and shown to be a useful way of finding and identifying objects with known celestial coordinates. The method is especially suited for rapidly identifying large numbers of radio sources having accurate radio positions which are found in surveys made with large aperture-synthesis instruments. The average position error (approximately 0.9 arc sec) for stellar objects, galaxies, and faint objects near the plate limit is sufficient for making reliable optical identifications of objects as faint as J magnitude +24 on the basis of position coincidence alone, without regard to color or morphology.

  12. A radio/optical reference frame. 5: Additional source positions in the mid-latitude southern hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, J. L.; Reynolds, J. E.; Jauncey, D. L.; De Vegt, C.; Zacharias, N.; Ma, C.; Fey, A. L.; Johnston, K. J.; Hindsley, R.; Hughes, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    We report new accurate radio position measurements for 30 sources, preliminary positions for two sources, improved radio postions for nine additional sources which had limited previous observations, and optical positions and optical-radio differences for six of the radio sources. The Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations are part of the continuing effort to establish a global radio reference frame of about 400 compact, flat spectrum sources, which are evenly distributed across the sky. The observations were made using Mark III data format in four separate sessions in 1988-89 with radio telescopes at Tidbinbilla, Australia, Kauai, USA, and Kashima, Japan. We observed a total of 54 sources, including ten calibrators and three which were undetected. The 32 new source positions bring the total number in the radio reference frame catalog to 319 (172 northern and 147 southern) and fill in the zone -25 deg greater than delta greater than -45 deg which, prior to this list, had the lowest source density. The VLBI positions have an average formal precision of less than 1 mas, although unknown radio structure effects of about 1-2 mas may be present. The six new optical postion measurements are part of the program to obtain positions of the optical counterparts of the radio reference frame source and to map accurately the optical on to the radio reference frames. The optical measurements were obtained from United States Naval Observatory (USNO) Black Birch astrograph plates and source plates from the AAT, and Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) 4 m, and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Schmidt. The optical positions have an average precision of 0.07 sec, mostly due to the zero point error when adjusted to the FK5 optical frame using the IRS catalog. To date we have measured optical positions for 46 sources.

  13. A radio/optical reference frame. 5: Additional source positions in the mid-latitude southern hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, J. L.; Reynolds, J. E.; Jauncey, D. L.; De Vegt, C.; Zacharias, N.; Ma, C.; Fey, A. L.; Johnston, K. J.; Hindsley, R.; Hughes, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    We report new accurate radio position measurements for 30 sources, preliminary positions for two sources, improved radio postions for nine additional sources which had limited previous observations, and optical positions and optical-radio differences for six of the radio sources. The Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations are part of the continuing effort to establish a global radio reference frame of about 400 compact, flat spectrum sources, which are evenly distributed across the sky. The observations were made using Mark III data format in four separate sessions in 1988-89 with radio telescopes at Tidbinbilla, Australia, Kauai, USA, and Kashima, Japan. We observed a total of 54 sources, including ten calibrators and three which were undetected. The 32 new source positions bring the total number in the radio reference frame catalog to 319 (172 northern and 147 southern) and fill in the zone -25 deg greater than delta greater than -45 deg which, prior to this list, had the lowest source density. The VLBI positions have an average formal precision of less than 1 mas, although unknown radio structure effects of about 1-2 mas may be present. The six new optical postion measurements are part of the program to obtain positions of the optical counterparts of the radio reference frame source and to map accurately the optical on to the radio reference frames. The optical measurements were obtained from United States Naval Observatory (USNO) Black Birch astrograph plates and source plates from the AAT, and Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) 4 m, and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Schmidt. The optical positions have an average precision of 0.07 sec, mostly due to the zero point error when adjusted to the FK5 optical frame using the IRS catalog. To date we have measured optical positions for 46 sources.

  14. An analysis of source structure effects in radio interferometry measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    To begin a study of structure effects, this report presents a theoretical framework, proposes an effective position approach to structure corrections based on brightness distribution measurements, and analyzes examples of analytical and measured brightness distributions. Other topics include the effect of the frequency dependence of a brightness distribution on bandwidth synthesis (BWS) delay, the determination of the absolute location of a measured brightness distribution, and structure effects in dual frequency calibration of charged particle delays. For the 10 measured distributions analyzed, it was found that the structure effect in BWS delay at X-band (3.6 cm) can reach 30 cm, but typically falls in the range of 0 to 5 cm. A trial limit equation that is dependent on visibility was successfully tested against the 10 measured brightness distributions (seven sources). If the validity of this particular equation for an upper limit can be established for nearly all sources, the structure effect in BWS delay could be greatly reduced without supplementary measurements of brightness distributions.

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 86GHz VLBI survey of compact radio sources (Lobanov+ 2000)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobanov; A. P.; Krichbaum; T. P.; Graham; D. A.; Witzel; A.; Kraus; A.; Zensus; J. A.; Britzen; S.; Greve; A.; Grewing; M.

    2000-10-01

    File table1 contains the list of observed sources, providing the source coordinates (J2000) and redshift, detection status, type, optical magnitude, and brightness temperature of the radio emission. File table4 contains the description of the VLBI data, and provide the observed total and correlated flux densities, the parameters of single gaussian component model fits, and the parameters of hybrid images of the observed sources. File table5 contains multicomponent model fits for the sources with detected extended structures and the brightness temperatures derived from these model fits. (3 data files).

  16. A radio optical reference frame. I - Precise radio source positions determined by Mark III VLBI - Observations from 1979 to 1988 and a tie to the FK5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, C.; Shaffer, D. B.; De Vegt, C.; Johnston, K. J.; Russell, J. L.

    1990-01-01

    Observations from 600 Mark III VLBI experiments from 1979 to 1988, resulting in 237,681 acceptable pairs of group delay and phase delay rate observations, have been used to derive positions of 182 extragalactic radio sources with typical formal standard errors less than 1 mas. The sources are distributed fairly evenly above delta = -30 deg, and 70 sources have delta greater than 0 deg. Analysis with different troposphere models, as well as internal and external comparisons, indicates that a coordinate frame defined by this set of radio sources should be reliable at the 1 mas level. The right ascension zero point of this reference frame has been aligned with the FK5 by using the optical positions of 28 extragalactic radio sources whose positions are on the FK5 system. Because of known defects in the knowledge of astronomical constants, daily nutation offsets in longitude and obliquity were determined relative to an arbitrary reference day in the set of experiments.

  17. A radio optical reference frame. I - Precise radio source positions determined by Mark III VLBI - Observations from 1979 to 1988 and a tie to the FK5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, C.; Shaffer, D. B.; De Vegt, C.; Johnston, K. J.; Russell, J. L.

    1990-01-01

    Observations from 600 Mark III VLBI experiments from 1979 to 1988, resulting in 237,681 acceptable pairs of group delay and phase delay rate observations, have been used to derive positions of 182 extragalactic radio sources with typical formal standard errors less than 1 mas. The sources are distributed fairly evenly above delta = -30 deg, and 70 sources have delta greater than 0 deg. Analysis with different troposphere models, as well as internal and external comparisons, indicates that a coordinate frame defined by this set of radio sources should be reliable at the 1 mas level. The right ascension zero point of this reference frame has been aligned with the FK5 by using the optical positions of 28 extragalactic radio sources whose positions are on the FK5 system. Because of known defects in the knowledge of astronomical constants, daily nutation offsets in longitude and obliquity were determined relative to an arbitrary reference day in the set of experiments.

  18. Magnetic Field Disorder and Faraday Effects on the Polarization of Extragalactic Radio Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamee, Mehdi; Rudnick, Lawrence; Farnes, Jamie S.; Carretti, Ettore; Gaensler, B. M.; Haverkorn, Marijke; Poppi, Sergio

    2016-09-01

    We present a polarization catalog of 533 extragalactic radio sources that have a 2.3 GHz total intensity above 420 mJy from the S-band Polarization All Sky Survey, S-PASS, with corresponding 1.4 GHz polarization information from the NRAO VLA Sky Survey, NVSS. We studied the selection effects and found that fractional polarization, π, of radio objects at both wavelengths depends on the spectral index, the source magnetic field disorder, the source size, and depolarization. The relationship between depolarization, spectrum, and size shows that depolarization occurs primarily in the source vicinity. The median {π }2.3 of resolved objects in NVSS is approximately two times larger than that of unresolved sources. Sources with little depolarization are ∼2 times more polarized than both highly depolarized and re-polarized sources. This indicates that intrinsic magnetic field disorder is the dominant mechanism responsible for the observed low fractional polarization of radio sources at high frequencies. We predict that number counts from polarization surveys will be similar at 1.4 GHz and at 2.3 GHz, for fixed sensitivity, although ∼10% of all sources may currently be missing because of strong depolarization. Objects with {π }1.4≈ {π }2.3≥slant 4 % typically have simple Faraday structures, so they are most useful for background samples. Almost half of flat-spectrum (α ≥slant -0.5) and ∼25% of steep-spectrum objects are re-polarized. Steep-spectrum, depolarized sources show a weak negative correlation of depolarization with redshift in the range 0 < z < 2.3. Previous non-detections of redshift evolution are likely due the inclusion of re-polarized sources as well.

  19. A multiwavelength view of the galaxy cluster Abell 523 and its peculiar diffuse radio source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girardi, M.; Boschin, W.; Gastaldello, F.; Giovannini, G.; Govoni, F.; Murgia, M.; Barrena, R.; Ettori, S.; Trasatti, M.; Vacca, V.

    2016-03-01

    We study the structure of the galaxy cluster Abell 523 (A523) at z = 0.104 using new spectroscopic data for 132 galaxies acquired at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo, new photometric data from the Isaac Newton Telescope, and X-ray and radio data from the Chandra and Very Large Array archives. We estimate the velocity dispersion of the galaxy population, σ _V=949_{-60}^{+80} km s-1, and the X-ray temperature of the hot intracluster medium, kT = 5.3 ± 0.3 keV. We infer that A523 is a massive system: M200 ˜ 7-9 × 1014 M⊙. The analysis of the optical data confirms the presence of two subclusters, 0.75 Mpc apart, tracing the SSW-NNE direction and dominated by the two brightest cluster galaxies (BCG1 and BCG2). The X-ray surface brightness is strongly elongated towards the NNE direction, and its peak is clearly offset from both the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs). We confirm the presence of a 1.3 Mpc large radio halo, elongated in the ESE-WNW direction and perpendicular to the optical/X-ray elongation. We detect a significant radio/X-ray offset and radio polarization, two features which might be the result of a magnetic field energy spread on large spatial scales. A523 is found consistent with most scaling relations followed by clusters hosting radio haloes, but quite peculiar in the Pradio-LX relation: it is underluminous in the X-rays or overluminous in radio. A523 can be described as a binary head-on merger caught after a collision along the SSW-NNE direction. However, minor optical and radio features suggest a more complex cluster structure, with A523 forming at the crossing of two filaments along the SSW-NNE and ESE-WNW directions.

  20. X-Ray Properties of the Youngest Radio Sources and Their Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemiginowska, Aneta; Sobolewska, Małgosia; Migliori, Giulia; Guainazzi, Matteo; Hardcastle, Martin; Ostorero, Luisa; Stawarz, Łukasz

    2016-05-01

    We present the first results from our X-ray study of young radio sources classified as compact symmetric objects (CSOs). Using the Chandra X-ray Observatory we observed six CSOs for the first time in X-rays, and re-observed four CSOs already observed with XMM-Newton or BeppoSAX. We also included six other CSOs with archival data to built a pilot study of a sample of the 16 CSO sources observed in X-rays to date. All the sources are nearby, z\\lt 1, and the age of their radio structures (\\lt 3000 yr) has been derived from the expansion velocity of their hot spots. Our results show the heterogeneous nature of the CSOs’ X-ray emission, indicating a complex environment associated with young radio sources. The sample covers a range in X-ray luminosity, {L}2{--10{keV}}˜ {10}41-1045 erg s-1, and intrinsic absorbing column density of {N}{{H}}≃ {10}21-1022 cm-2. In particular, we detected extended X-ray emission in 1718-649 a hard photon index of {{Γ }}≃ 1 in 2021+614 and 1511+0518 consistent with either a Compton-thick absorber or non-thermal emission from compact radio lobes, and in 0710+439 an ionized iron emission line at {E}{rest}=(6.62+/- 0.04) keV and EW ˜ 0.15-1.4 keV, and a decrease by an order of magnitude in the 2-10 keV flux since the 2008 XMM-Newton observation in 1607+26. We conclude that our pilot study of CSOs provides a variety of exceptional diagnostics and highlights the importance of deep X-ray observations of large samples of young sources. This is necessary in order to constrain theoretical models for the earliest stage of radio source evolution and to study the interactions of young radio sources with the interstellar environment of their host galaxies.

  1. THE CATALOG OF POSITIONS OF OPTICALLY BRIGHT EXTRAGALACTIC RADIO SOURCES OBRS-2

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, L.

    2013-07-01

    Future space-borne astrometry missions, such as Gaia, will be able to determine the optical positions of hundreds of quasars with submilliarcsecond accuracies comparable to those achieved in radio by very long baseline interferometry (VLBI). Comparisons of coordinate systems from space-borne missions and VLBI will be very important, first for investigations of possible systematic errors and second for investigations of possible shifts between centroids of radio and optical emissions in active galactic nuclei. In order to make such a comparison more robust, a program for densification of the grid of radio sources detectable with both VLBI and Gaia was launched in 2006. Program sources are 398 quasars with declinations > - 10 Degree-Sign that are brighter than 18 mag at the V band. The first two observing campaigns were run in 2007-2008. In the third campaign, a set of 291 objects from that list was observed with the VLBA+EVN in 2010-2011 with the primary goal of producing their images with milliarcsecond resolution. In this paper, following the method of absolute astrometry, coordinates of observed sources have been derived with milliarcsecond accuracies from analysis of these observations. The catalog of positions of 295 target sources, estimates of their correlated flux densities at 2.2 and 8.4 GHz, and their images are presented. The accuracies of source coordinates are in a range of 2-200 mas, with a median of 3.2 mas.

  2. The near-infrared counterpart of a variable galactic plane radio source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margon, Bruce; Phillips, Andrew C.; Ciardullo, Robin; Jacoby, George H.

    1992-01-01

    A near-infrared counterpart to the highly variable, unresolved galactic plane radio source GT 0116 + 622 is identified. This source is of particular interest, as it has been previously suggested to be the counterpart of the gamma-ray source Cas gamma-l. The present NIR and red images detect a faint, spatially extended (3 arcsec FWHM), very red object coincident with the radio position. There is complex spatial structure which may be due in part to an unrelated superposed foreground object. Observations on multiple nights show no evidence for flux variability, despite the high amplitude variability on a time-scale of days reported for the radio source. The data are consistent with an interpretation of GT 0116 + 622 as an unusually variable, obscured active galaxy at a distance of several hundred megaparsecs, although more exotic, and in particular galactic, interpretations cannot yet be ruled out. If the object is extragalactic, the previously suggested identification with the gamma-ray source would seem unlikely.

  3. CRATES: An All-Sky Survey of Flat-Spectrum Radio Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Healey, Stephen E.; Romani, Roger W.; Taylor, Gregory B.; Sadler, Elaine M.; Ricci, Roberto; Murphy, Tara; Ulvestad, James S.; Winn, Joshua N.; /MIT

    2007-02-20

    We have assembled an 8.4 GHz survey of bright, flat-spectrum ({alpha} > -0.5) radio sources with nearly uniform extragalactic (|b| > 10{sup o}) coverage for sources brighter than S{sub 4.8 GHz} = 65 mJy. The catalog is assembled from existing observations (especially CLASS and the Wright et al. PMN-CA survey), augmented by reprocessing of archival VLA and ATCA data and by new observations to fill in coverage gaps. We refer to this program as CRATES, the Combined Radio All-sky Targeted Eight GHz Survey. The resulting catalog provides precise positions, sub-arcsecond structures, and spectral indices for some 11,000 sources. We describe the morphology and spectral index distribution of the sample and comment on the survey's power to select several classes of interesting sources, especially high energy blazars. Comparison of CRATES with other high-frequency surveys also provides unique opportunities for identification of high-power radio sources.

  4. INVESTIGATING PARTICLE ACCELERATION IN PROTOSTELLAR JETS: THE TRIPLE RADIO CONTINUUM SOURCE IN SERPENS

    SciTech Connect

    Rodríguez-Kamenetzky, Adriana; Valotto, Carlos; Carrasco-González, Carlos; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Araudo, Anabella; Torrelles, José M.; Anglada, Guillem; Martí, Josep

    2016-02-10

    While most protostellar jets present free–free emission at radio wavelengths, synchrotron emission has also been proposed to be present in a handful of these objects. The presence of nonthermal emission has been inferred by negative spectral indices at centimeter wavelengths. In one case (the HH 80-81 jet arising from a massive protostar), its synchrotron nature was confirmed by the detection of linearly polarized radio emission. One of the main consequences of these results is that synchrotron emission implies the presence of relativistic particles among the nonrelativistic material of these jets. Therefore, an acceleration mechanism should be taking place. The most probable scenario is that particles are accelerated when the jets strongly impact against the dense envelope surrounding the protostar. Here we present an analysis of radio observations obtained with the Very Large Array of the triple radio source in the Serpens star-forming region. This object is known to be a radio jet arising from an intermediate-mass protostar. It is also one of the first protostellar jets where the presence of nonthermal emission was proposed. We analyze the dynamics of the jet and the nature of the emission and discuss these issues in the context of the physical parameters of the jet and the particle acceleration phenomenon.

  5. Investigating Particle Acceleration in Protostellar Jets: The Triple Radio Continuum Source in Serpens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Kamenetzky, Adriana; Carrasco-González, Carlos; Araudo, Anabella; Torrelles, José M.; Anglada, Guillem; Martí, Josep; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Valotto, Carlos

    2016-02-01

    While most protostellar jets present free-free emission at radio wavelengths, synchrotron emission has also been proposed to be present in a handful of these objects. The presence of nonthermal emission has been inferred by negative spectral indices at centimeter wavelengths. In one case (the HH 80-81 jet arising from a massive protostar), its synchrotron nature was confirmed by the detection of linearly polarized radio emission. One of the main consequences of these results is that synchrotron emission implies the presence of relativistic particles among the nonrelativistic material of these jets. Therefore, an acceleration mechanism should be taking place. The most probable scenario is that particles are accelerated when the jets strongly impact against the dense envelope surrounding the protostar. Here we present an analysis of radio observations obtained with the Very Large Array of the triple radio source in the Serpens star-forming region. This object is known to be a radio jet arising from an intermediate-mass protostar. It is also one of the first protostellar jets where the presence of nonthermal emission was proposed. We analyze the dynamics of the jet and the nature of the emission and discuss these issues in the context of the physical parameters of the jet and the particle acceleration phenomenon.

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Infrared-faint radio sources catalog (Collier+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, J. D.; Banfield, J. K.; Norris, R. P.; Schnitzeler, D. H. F. M.; Kimball, A. E.; Filipovic, M. D.; Jarrett, T. H.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Tothill, N. F. H.

    2014-11-01

    The 20cm radio data come from the Unified Radio Catalog (URC) compiled by Kimball & Ivezic (2008AJ....136..684K). This radio catalogue combines data from the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) VLA Sky Survey (NVSS; Condon et al., 1998, Cat. VIII/65), Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty Centimeters (FIRST; Becker, White & Helfand, 1995, cat. VIII/92), Green Bank 6cm survey (GB6; Gregory et al., 1996, Cat. VIII/40), the Westerbork Northern Sky Survey (WENSS; Rengelink et al. 1997; de Bruyn et al. 2000, Cat. VIII/62) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 6 (SDSS DR6; Adelman-McCarthy et al., 2008, Cat. II/282). We use updated NVSS and FIRST data from the URC version 2.0 (Kimball & Ivezic, in preparation), which includes a number of new sources as well as updated positions and flux densities. The IR data come from WISE (Wright et al. (WISE Team) 2009, Cat. II/311), which is an all-sky survey centred at 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22um (referred to as bands W1, W2, W3 and W4), with respective angular resolutions of 6.1, 6.4, 6.5 and 12.0-arcsec (full width at half-maximum, FWHM), and typical 5σ sensitivity levels of 0.08, 0.11, 1 and 6mJy, with sensitivity increasing towards the ecliptic poles. (1 data file).

  7. Constraints on the clustering, biasing and redshift distribution of radio sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magliocchetti, M.; Maddox, S. J.; Lahav, O.; Wall, J. V.

    1999-07-01

    We discuss how different theoretical predictions for the variance sigma^2 of the counts-in-cells distribution of radio sources can be matched to measurements from the FIRST survey at different flux limits. The predictions are given by the integration of models for the angular correlation function w(theta) for three different functional forms of the redshift distribution N(z), different spatial correlation functions that match the observed present-day shape and by different evolutions of the bias b(z) with redshift. We also consider the two cases of open and flat universes. Although the predicted w(theta) show substantial differences because of differences in the values of N(z), these differences are not significant compared to the uncertainties in the current observations. It turns out that, independent of the geometry of the universe and the flux limit, the best fit is provided by models with constant biasing at all times, although the difference between models with epoch-independent bias and models with bias that evolves linearly with redshift is not very large. All models with strong evolution of bias with epoch are ruled out, as they grossly overestimate the amplitude of the variance over the whole range of angular scales sampled by the counts-in-cells analysis. As a further step we directly calculated w_obs(theta) at 3mJy from the catalogue and matched it with our models for the angular correlation function, in the hypothesis that the clustering signal comes from two different populations, namely AGN-powered sources and starbursting galaxies. The results are consistent with a scenario for hierarchical clustering where the fainter starbursting galaxies trace the mass at all epochs, while the brighter AGNs are strongly biased, with b(z) evolving linearly with redshift, as suggested by some theories of galaxy formation and evolution.

  8. Development of a novel radio-frequency negative hydrogen ion source in conically converging configuration.

    PubMed

    Jung, B K; Dang, J J; An, Y H; Chung, K J; Hwang, Y S

    2014-02-01

    Volume-produced negative ion source still requires enhancement of current density with lower input RF (radio-frequency) power in lower operating pressure for various applications. To confirm recent observation of efficient negative ion production with a short cylindrical chamber with smaller effective plasma size, the RF-driven transformer-coupled plasma H(-) ion source at Seoul National University is modified by adopting a newly designed quartz RF window to reduce the chamber length. Experiments with the reduced chamber length show a few times enhancement of H(-) ion beam current compared to that extracted from the previous chamber design, which is consistent with the measured H(-) ion population. Nevertheless, decrease in H(-) ion beam current observed in low pressure regime below ∼5 mTorr owing to insufficient filtering of high energy electrons in the extraction region needs to be resolved to address the usefulness of electron temperature control by the change of geometrical configuration of the discharge chamber. A new discharge chamber with conically converging configuration has been developed, in which the chamber diameter decreases as approaching to the extraction region away from the planar RF antenna such that stronger filter magnetic field can be utilized to prohibit high energy electrons from transporting to the extraction region. First experimental results for the H(-) ion beam extraction with this configuration show that higher magnetic filter field makes peak negative beam currents happen in lower operating pressure. However, overall decrease in H(-) ion beam current due to the change of chamber geometry still requires further study of geometrical effect on particle transport and optimization of magnetic field in this novel configuration.

  9. Radio measurements in the fields of gamma-ray sources. III - The star formation region Rho-Ophiuchi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlickeiser, R.; Sieber, W.; Harwit, M.; Ozel, M. E.; Younis, S. M.

    1989-01-01

    The star-forming region Rho-Ophiuchi, which has been detected as a COS-B gamma-ray source, 2CG 353+16, is observed in the radio continuum at wavelengths between 1.3 cm and 21 cm. Various known and new radio sources are identified. Time variability on scales of weeks to years for two sources can be assessed with high confidence levels. The H II region origin for Oph 1, Oph 6, Oph 9 and Oph 10 is ruled out. Five new radio sources are proposed as H II region candidates on the basis of their flat frequency spectrum.

  10. The VLA-COSMOS 3 GHz Large Project: Multiwavelength counterparts and the composition of the faint radio population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolčić, V.; Delvecchio, I.; Zamorani, G.; Baran, N.; Novak, M.; Delhaize, J.; Schinnerer, E.; Berta, S.; Bondi, M.; Ciliegi, P.; Capak, P.; Civano, F.; Karim, A.; Le Fevre, O.; Ilbert, O.; Laigle, C.; Marchesi, S.; McCracken, H. J.; Tasca, L.; Salvato, M.; Vardoulaki, E.

    2017-06-01

    We study the composition of the faint radio population selected from the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array Cosmic Evolution Survey (VLA-COSMOS) 3 GHz Large Project, which is a radio continuum survey performed at 10 cm wavelength. The survey covers a 2.6 square degree area with a mean rms of 2.3 μJy/beam, cataloging 10 830 sources above 5σ, and enclosing the full 2 square degree COSMOS field. By combining these radio data with optical, near-infrared (UltraVISTA), and mid-infrared (Spitzer/IRAC) data, as well as X-ray data (Chandra), we find counterparts to radio sources for 93% of the total radio sample reaching out to z ≲ 6; these sources are found in the unmasked areas of the COSMOS field, i.e., those not affected by saturated or bright sources in the optical to near-infrared (NIR) bands. We further classify the sources as star-forming galaxies or AGN based on various criteria, such as X-ray luminosity; observed mid-infrared color; UV-far-infrared spectral energy distribution; rest-frame, near-UV optical color that is corrected for dust extinction; and radio excess relative to that expected from the star formation rate of the hosts. We separate the AGN into subsamples dominated by low-to-moderate and moderate-to-high radiative luminosity AGN, i.e., candidates for high-redshift analogs to local low- and high-excitation emission line AGN, respectively. We study the fractional contributions of these subpopulations down to radio flux levels of 11 μJy at 3 GHz (or 20 μJy at 1.4 GHz assuming a spectral index of -0.7). We find that the dominant fraction at 1.4 GHz flux densities above 200 μJy is constituted of low-to-moderate radiative luminosity AGN. Below densities of 100 μJy the fraction of star-forming galaxies increases to 60%, followed by the moderate-to-high radiative luminosity AGN ( 20%) and low-to-moderate radiative luminosity AGN ( 20%). Based on this observational evidence, we extrapolate the fractions down to sensitivities of the Square Kilometer Array

  11. Plasma ignition schemes for the SNS radio-frequency driven H- source

    SciTech Connect

    Schenkel, T.; Staples, J.W.; Thomae, W.; Reijonen, J.; Gough, R.A.; Leung, K.N.; Keller, R.

    2001-09-06

    The H{sup -} ion source for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a cesiated, radio-frequency driven (2 MHz) multicusp volume source which operates at a duty cycle of 6% (1 ms pulses and 60 Hz). In pulsed RF driven plasma sources, ignition of the plasma affects the stability of source operation and the antenna lifetime. We are reporting on investigations of different ignition schemes, based on secondary electron generation in the plasma chamber by UV light, a hot filament, a low power RF plasma (cw, 13.56 MHz), as well as source operation solely with the high power (40 kW) 2 MHz RF. We find that the dual frequency, single antenna scheme is most attractive for the operating conditions of the SNS H{sup -} source.

  12. FURTHER OBSERVATIONS OF PLANETS AND QUASI-STELLAR RADIO SOURCES AT 3 MM.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    EXTRATERRESTRIAL RADIO WAVES), (* MERCURY ( PLANET ), (*RADIO ASTRONOMY, EXTRATERRESTRIAL RADIO WAVES), PLANETARY ATMOSPHERES, SKY BRIGHTNESS, ANTENNAS...EPHEMERIDES, ASTROPHYSICS, JUPITER( PLANET ), VENUS( PLANET ), BRIGHTNESS, ATMOSPHERIC TEMPERATURE, INTENSITY, MEASUREMENT.

  13. Source Regions of the Type II Radio Burst Observed During a CME-CME Interaction on 2013 May 22

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Makela, P.; Gopalswamy, N.; Reiner, M. J.; Akiyama, S.; Krupar, V.

    2016-01-01

    We report on our study of radio source regions during the type II radio burst on 2013 May 22 based on direction finding analysis of the Wind/WAVES and STEREO/WAVES (SWAVES) radio observations at decameter-hectometric wavelengths. The type II emission showed an enhancement that coincided with the interaction of two coronal mass ejections (CMEs) launched in sequence along closely spaced trajectories. The triangulation of the SWAVES source directions posited the ecliptic projections of the radio sources near the line connecting the Sun and the STEREO-A spacecraft. The WAVES and SWAVES source directions revealed shifts in the latitude of the radio source, indicating that the spatial location of the dominant source of the type II emission varies during the CME-CME interaction. The WAVES source directions close to 1MHz frequencies matched the location of the leading edge of the primary CME seen in the images of the LASCO/C3 coronagraph. This correspondence of spatial locations at both wavelengths confirms that the CME-CME interaction region is the source of the type II enhancement. Comparison of radio and white-light observations also showed that at lower frequencies scattering significantly affects radio wave propagation.

  14. Source Regions of the Type II Radio Burst Observed During a CME-CME Interaction on 2013 May 22

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkelä, P.; Gopalswamy, N.; Reiner, M. J.; Akiyama, S.; Krupar, V.

    2016-08-01

    We report on our study of radio source regions during the type II radio burst on 2013 May 22 based on direction-finding analysis of the Wind/WAVES and STEREO/WAVES (SWAVES) radio observations at decameter-hectometric wavelengths. The type II emission showed an enhancement that coincided with the interaction of two coronal mass ejections (CMEs) launched in sequence along closely spaced trajectories. The triangulation of the SWAVES source directions posited the ecliptic projections of the radio sources near the line connecting the Sun and the STEREO-A spacecraft. The WAVES and SWAVES source directions revealed shifts in the latitude of the radio source, indicating that the spatial location of the dominant source of the type II emission varies during the CME-CME interaction. The WAVES source directions close to 1 MHz frequencies matched the location of the leading edge of the primary CME seen in the images of the LASCO/C3 coronagraph. This correspondence of spatial locations at both wavelengths confirms that the CME-CME interaction region is the source of the type II enhancement. Comparison of radio and white-light observations also showed that at lower frequencies scattering significantly affects radio wave propagation.

  15. AGN Feedback And Evolution of Radio Sources: Discovery of An X-Ray Cluster Associated With Z=1 Quasar

    SciTech Connect

    Siemiginowska, Aneta; Cheung, C.C.; LaMassa, S.; Burke, D.; Aldcroft, T.L.; Bechtold, J.; Elvis, M.; Worrall, D.M.; /Bristol U.

    2006-01-11

    We report the first significant detection of an X-ray cluster associated with a powerful (L{sub bol} {approx} 10{sup 47} erg sec{sup -1}) radio-loud quasar at high redshift (z=1.06). Diffuse X-ray emission is detected out to {approx} 120 kpc from the CSS quasar 3C 186. A strong Fe-line emission at the z{sub rest} = 1.06 confirms its thermal nature. We find that the CSS radio source is highly overpressured with respect to the thermal cluster medium by 2-3 orders of magnitude. This provides direct observational evidence that the radio source is not thermally confined as posited in the ''frustrated'' scenario for CSS sources. Instead, the radio source may be young and at an early stage of its evolution. This source provides the first detection of the AGN in outburst in the center of a cooling flow cluster. Powerful radio sources are thought to be triggered by the cooling flows. The evidence for the AGN activity and intermittent outbursts comes from the X-ray morphology of low redshift clusters, which usually do not harbour quasars. 3C186 is a young active radio source which can supply the energy into the cluster and potentially prevent its cooling. We discuss energetics related to the quasar activity and the cluster cooling flow, and possible feedback between the evolving radio source and the cluster.

  16. Estimating black hole masses in young radio sources using CFHT spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, M. F.; Pak, S.; Ho, L. C.

    2009-02-01

    The correlation between black hole masses and stellar velocity dispersions provides an efficient method to determine the masses of black holes in active galaxies. We obtained optical spectra of a Compact-Steep-Spectrum (CSS) galaxy 4C +29.70, using the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) equipped with OSIS, in 2003 August 6. Several stellar absorption features, such as Mg I (5175 Å), Ca E band (5269 Å) and Na D (5890 Å), were detected in the spectra. The stellar velocity dispersion, \\sigma, of the host galaxy, measured from absorption features is ≈ 250 km s-1. If 4C +29.70 follows the M_BH-\\sigma relation established for nearby galaxies, then its central black hole has a mass of ≈ 3.3 × 108 M⊙. In combination with the black hole masses of seven GPS galaxies in Snellen et al. (2003), we find that the average black hole mass of these eight young radio sources is smaller than that of the Bettoni et al. (2003) sample of extended radio galaxies. This may indicate that young radio sources are likely at the early evolutionary stage of radio galaxies, at which the central black holes may still undergo rapid growth. However, this needs further investigations.

  17. Source location of the smooth high-frequency radio emissions from Uranus

    SciTech Connect

    Farrell, W.M.; Calvert, W. )

    1989-05-01

    The source location of the smooth high-frequency (SHF) radio emissions from Uranus has been determined using a technique differing from those applied previously. Specifically, by fitting the signal dropouts which occurred as Voyager traversed the hollow center for the emission pattern to a symmetrical cone centered on the source magnetic field direction at the cyclotron frequency, a southern-hemisphere (nightside) source was found at approximately 56{degree} S, 219{degree} W. The half-angle for the hollow portion of the emission pattern was found to be 13{degree}.

  18. Source Catalog Data from FIRST (Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-Centimeters)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Becker, Robert H.; Helfand, David J.; White, Richard L.; Gregg, Michael D.; Laurent-Muehleisen, Sally A.

    FIRST, Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-Centimeters, is a project designed to produce the radio equivalent of the Palomar Observatory Sky Survey over 10,000 square degrees of the North Galactic Cap. Using the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's (NRAO) Very Large Array (VLA) in its B-configuration, the Survey acquired 3-minute snapshots covering a hexagonal grid using 2?7 3-MHz frequency channels centered at 1365 and 1435 MHz. The data were edited, self-calibrated, mapped, and CLEANed using an automated pipeline based largely on routines in the Astronomical Image Processing System (AIPS). A final atlas of maps is produced by coadding the twelve images adjacent to each pointing center. Source catalogs with flux densities and size information are generated from the coadded images also. The 2011 catalog is the latest version and has been tested to ensure reliability and completness. The catalog, generated from the 1993 through 2004 images, contains 816,000 sources and covers more than 9000 square degrees. A specialized search interface for the catalog resides at this website, and the catalog is also available as a compressed ASCII file. The user may also view earlier versions of the source catalog. The FIRST survey area was chosen to coincide with that of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS); at the m(v)~24 limit of SDSS, ~50% of the optical counterparts to FIRST sources will be detected.

  19. Observations of the radio emission field around the gamma -ray source 2EG J1834-2138

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combi, J. A.; Romero, G. E.

    1998-03-01

    We present results of a study of the radio emission field around the best estimate position of the low-latitude EGRET source 2EG J1834-2138. The identification of this gamma -ray source with the gravitational lensed AGN PKS 1830-211 has been recently proposed by \\cite[Mattox et al. (1997)]{ma97}. Additional support for this identification is provided here. Contamination produced by the diffuse disk emission has been removed from new radio images of the surrounding region of 2EG J1834-2138 allowing a determination of the fine radio structure. Several previously unnoticed supernova remnants have been found within a few degrees from the gamma -ray source. However, the only strong radio source within the 95% source location confidence contour of 2EG J1834-2138 is PKS 1830-211. In addition, both spectrum and variability analysis of the EGRET data support the identification of both sources.

  20. Discovery of millisecond pulsars in radio searches of southern Fermi Large Area Telescope sources

    DOE PAGES

    Keith, M. J.; Johnston, S.; Ray, P. S.; ...

    2011-06-08

    Using the Parkes Radio Telescope, we have carried out deep observations of 11 unassociated gamma-ray sources. Periodicity searches of these data have discovered two millisecond pulsars, PSR J1103–5403 (1FGL J1103.9–5355) and PSR J2241–5236 (1FGL J2241.9–5236), and a long-period pulsar, PSR J1604–44 (1FGL J1604.7–4443). In addition, we searched for but did not detect any radio pulsations from six gamma-ray pulsars discovered by the Fermi satellite to a level of ~0.04 mJy (for pulsars with a 10 per cent duty cycle). The timing of the millisecond pulsar PSR J1103–5403 has shown that its position is 9 arcmin from the centroid of themore » gamma-ray source. Since these observations were carried out, independent evidence has shown that 1FGL J1103.9–5355 is associated with the flat spectrum radio source PKS 1101–536. It appears certain that the pulsar is not associated with the gamma-ray source, despite the seemingly low probability of a chance detection of a radio millisecond pulsar. We consider that PSR J1604–44 is a chance discovery of a weak, long-period pulsar and is unlikely to be associated with 1FGL J1604.7–4443. PSR J2241–5236 has a spin period of 2.2 ms and orbits a very low mass companion with a 3.5-h orbital period. The relatively high flux density and low dispersion measure of PSR J2241–5236 make it an excellent candidate for high precision timing experiments. The gamma rays of 1FGL J2241.9–5236 have a spectrum that is well modelled by a power law with an exponential cut-off, and phase binning with the radio ephemeris results in a multipeaked gamma-ray pulse profile. Furthermore, observations with Chandra have identified a coincident X-ray source within 0.1 arcsec of the position of the pulsar obtained by radio timing.« less

  1. Discovery of millisecond pulsars in radio searches of southern Fermi Large Area Telescope sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keith, M. J.; Johnston, S.; Ray, P. S.; Ferrara, E. C.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Çelik, Ö.; Belfiore, A.; Donato, D.; Cheung, C. C.; Abdo, A. A.; Camilo, F.; Freire, P. C. C.; Guillemot, L.; Harding, A. K.; Kramer, M.; Michelson, P. F.; Ransom, S. M.; Romani, R. W.; Smith, D. A.; Thompson, D. J.; Weltevrede, P.; Wood, K. S.

    2011-06-01

    Using the Parkes Radio Telescope, we have carried out deep observations of 11 unassociated gamma-ray sources. Periodicity searches of these data have discovered two millisecond pulsars, PSR J1103-5403 (1FGL J1103.9-5355) and PSR J2241-5236 (1FGL J2241.9-5236), and a long-period pulsar, PSR J1604-44 (1FGL J1604.7-4443). In addition, we searched for but did not detect any radio pulsations from six gamma-ray pulsars discovered by the Fermi satellite to a level of ˜0.04 mJy (for pulsars with a 10 per cent duty cycle). The timing of the millisecond pulsar PSR J1103-5403 has shown that its position is 9 arcmin from the centroid of the gamma-ray source. Since these observations were carried out, independent evidence has shown that 1FGL J1103.9-5355 is associated with the flat spectrum radio source PKS 1101-536. It appears certain that the pulsar is not associated with the gamma-ray source, despite the seemingly low probability of a chance detection of a radio millisecond pulsar. We consider that PSR J1604-44 is a chance discovery of a weak, long-period pulsar and is unlikely to be associated with 1FGL J1604.7-4443. PSR J2241-5236 has a spin period of 2.2 ms and orbits a very low mass companion with a 3.5-h orbital period. The relatively high flux density and low dispersion measure of PSR J2241-5236 make it an excellent candidate for high precision timing experiments. The gamma rays of 1FGL J2241.9-5236 have a spectrum that is well modelled by a power law with an exponential cut-off, and phase binning with the radio ephemeris results in a multipeaked gamma-ray pulse profile. Observations with Chandra have identified a coincident X-ray source within 0.1 arcsec of the position of the pulsar obtained by radio timing.

  2. Large scale X-ray and radio structures associated with compact extragalactic sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biermann, P.; Pauliny-Toth, I. I. K.; Witzel, A.; Fricke, K.; Johnston, K. J.; Kuehr, H.; Strittmatter, P. A.; Urbanik, M.

    1982-01-01

    Knots of X-ray emission have been detected within 20 arcmin of five compact sources initially selected from the MPIfR north polar 5 GHz survey. Two of the knots have also been detected at centimeter wavelengths and probably have nonthermal spectra. They appear to be associated with the compact sources since the probability of serendipitous discovery at the observed flux levels is low. While the apparent association may be due to colocation of the sources in a distant supercluster, it is suggested on the basis of overall alignment, and possible correlations with structures in the respective central sources, that the association may be similar to that found in extended radio sources. The observed emission may thus be due to synchrotron or inverse Compton radiation, the energy being supplied by jets from the central source.

  3. Improved mapping of radio sources from VLBI data by least-square fit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodemich, E. R.

    1985-01-01

    A method is described for producing improved mapping of radio sources from Very Long Base Interferometry (VLBI) data. The method described is more direct than existing Fourier methods, is often more accurate, and runs at least as fast. The visibility data is modeled here, as in existing methods, as a function of the unknown brightness distribution and the unknown antenna gains and phases. These unknowns are chosen so that the resulting function values are as near as possible to the observed values. If researchers use the radio mapping source deviation to measure the closeness of this fit to the observed values, they are led to the problem of minimizing a certain function of all the unknown parameters. This minimization problem cannot be solved directly, but it can be attacked by iterative methods which we show converge automatically to the minimum with no user intervention. The resulting brightness distribution will furnish the best fit to the data among all brightness distributions of given resolution.

  4. Ka-Band Monopulse Antenna Pointing Calibration Using Wideband Radio Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buu, C.; Calvo, J.; Cheng, T.-H.; Vazquez, M.

    2010-08-01

    A new method of performing a system end-to-end monopulse antenna calibration using widely available wideband astronomical radio sources is presented as an alternative to the current method of using a spacecraft signal. Current monopulse calibration requires a spacecraft carrier signal to measure amplitude and phase differences in the monopulse feed and low-noise amplifiers (LNAs). The alternative method presented here will allow the ground station to perform monopulse calibrations during maintenance periods instead of spacecraft track time, and provide an end-to-end system check-out capability without requiring a spacecraft signal. In this article, we give an overview of the current calibration approach, describe a new method for calibrating with radio sources, and present results from field testing of this new method.

  5. Polarization of extragalactic radio sources: CMB foregrounds and telescope calibration issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massardi, Marcella; Galluzzi, Vincenzo; Paladino, Rosita; Burigana, Carlo

    2016-03-01

    Radio source observations play important roles in polarimetric cosmological studies. On the one hand, they constitute the main foregrounds for cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation on scales smaller than 30 arcmin up to 100 GHz, on the other they can be used as targets for validation of products of polarimetric experiments dedicated to cosmology. Furthermore, extragalactic high-redshift sources have been used for cosmic polarization rotation (CPR) investigation. In this paper, we will discuss the support to cosmological studies from ground-based polarimetric observations in the radio and millimetric wavelength bands. Most of the limits to accuracy improvements arise from systematic effects and low calibration quality. We will discuss some details of interferometric calibration procedures and show some of the perspectives that the Atacama large millimeter array (ALMA) could offer for CPR studies.

  6. Compact Steep Spectrum 3CR radio sources - VLBI observations at 18 CM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanti, C.; Fanti, R.; Parma, P.; Schilizzi, R. T.; van Breugel, W. J. M.

    1985-02-01

    Results of a program to investigate the kiloparsec-sized radio structure of a representative sample of Compact Steep Spectrum (CSS) sources from the 3CR catalog (Jenkins et al., 1977) are presented. Ten objects (3C49,67, 119, 237, 241, 268.3, 287, 303.1, 343, 343.1) have been mapped at 18 cm with a resolution of about 30 marcsec using the European VLBI Network. In some cases the VLBI data have been supplemented by MERLIN observations at the same wavelength to enhance sensitivity to large-scale structure. The overall sizes of the CSS sources range from about 0.1 to 1 or 2 arcsec, corresponding to linear sizes of the order of 1 to 10 kpc. The morphological classification ranges from double to core-jet to complex; CSS quasars are generally core-jets or complex, while CSS radio galaxies are doubles, although not necessarily simple doubles.

  7. The Coordinated Radio and Infrared Survey for High-mass Star Formation. II. Source Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purcell, C. R.; Hoare, M. G.; Cotton, W. D.; Lumsden, S. L.; Urquhart, J. S.; Chandler, C.; Churchwell, E. B.; Diamond, P.; Dougherty, S. M.; Fender, R. P.; Fuller, G.; Garrington, S. T.; Gledhill, T. M.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Hindson, L.; Jackson, J. M.; Kurtz, S. E.; Martí, J.; Moore, T. J. T.; Mundy, L. G.; Muxlow, T. W. B.; Oudmaijer, R. D.; Pandian, J. D.; Paredes, J. M.; Shepherd, D. S.; Smethurst, S.; Spencer, R. E.; Thompson, M. A.; Umana, G.; Zijlstra, A. A.

    2013-03-01

    The CORNISH project is the highest resolution radio continuum survey of the Galactic plane to date. It is the 5 GHz radio continuum part of a series of multi-wavelength surveys that focus on the northern GLIMPSE region (10° < l < 65°), observed by the Spitzer satellite in the mid-infrared. Observations with the Very Large Array in B and BnA configurations have yielded a 1.''5 resolution Stokes I map with a root mean square noise level better than 0.4 mJy beam-1. Here we describe the data-processing methods and data characteristics, and present a new, uniform catalog of compact radio emission. This includes an implementation of automatic deconvolution that provides much more reliable imaging than standard CLEANing. A rigorous investigation of the noise characteristics and reliability of source detection has been carried out. We show that the survey is optimized to detect emission on size scales up to 14'' and for unresolved sources the catalog is more than 90% complete at a flux density of 3.9 mJy. We have detected 3062 sources above a 7σ detection limit and present their ensemble properties. The catalog is highly reliable away from regions containing poorly sampled extended emission, which comprise less than 2% of the survey area. Imaging problems have been mitigated by down-weighting the shortest spacings and potential artifacts flagged via a rigorous manual inspection with reference to the Spitzer infrared data. We present images of the most common source types found: H II regions, planetary nebulae, and radio galaxies. The CORNISH data and catalog are available online at http://cornish.leeds.ac.uk.

  8. Unusual radio flare in the OH maser source VY Canis Majoris

    SciTech Connect

    Iudaeva, N.A.

    1986-06-01

    From May 1983 to April 1985 the VY CMa source was observed in the 1665-, 1667-MHz principal OH maser emission lines with the RATAN-600 radio telescope, at 2.6 x 45 arcmin x 5.4 km/sec resolution. An OH flare in February-March 1985 was accompanied by the emergence of satellite features symmetric about the strongly variable dominant 1667-MHz peak. The possible geometry of the maser emission site is discussed. 6 references.

  9. THE COORDINATED RADIO AND INFRARED SURVEY FOR HIGH-MASS STAR FORMATION. II. SOURCE CATALOG

    SciTech Connect

    Purcell, C. R.; Hoare, M. G.; Lumsden, S. L.; Urquhart, J. S.; Cotton, W. D.; Chandler, C.; Churchwell, E. B.; Diamond, P.; Fuller, G.; Garrington, S. T.; Dougherty, S. M.; Fender, R. P.; Gledhill, T. M.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Hindson, L.; Jackson, J. M.; Kurtz, S. E.; Marti, J. [Departamento de Fisica, EPSJ, Universidad de Jaen, Campus Las Lagunillas s and others

    2013-03-01

    The CORNISH project is the highest resolution radio continuum survey of the Galactic plane to date. It is the 5 GHz radio continuum part of a series of multi-wavelength surveys that focus on the northern GLIMPSE region (10 Degree-Sign < l < 65 Degree-Sign ), observed by the Spitzer satellite in the mid-infrared. Observations with the Very Large Array in B and BnA configurations have yielded a 1.''5 resolution Stokes I map with a root mean square noise level better than 0.4 mJy beam{sup -1}. Here we describe the data-processing methods and data characteristics, and present a new, uniform catalog of compact radio emission. This includes an implementation of automatic deconvolution that provides much more reliable imaging than standard CLEANing. A rigorous investigation of the noise characteristics and reliability of source detection has been carried out. We show that the survey is optimized to detect emission on size scales up to 14'' and for unresolved sources the catalog is more than 90% complete at a flux density of 3.9 mJy. We have detected 3062 sources above a 7{sigma} detection limit and present their ensemble properties. The catalog is highly reliable away from regions containing poorly sampled extended emission, which comprise less than 2% of the survey area. Imaging problems have been mitigated by down-weighting the shortest spacings and potential artifacts flagged via a rigorous manual inspection with reference to the Spitzer infrared data. We present images of the most common source types found: H II regions, planetary nebulae, and radio galaxies. The CORNISH data and catalog are available online at http://cornish.leeds.ac.uk.

  10. Algorithm for constructing a multiring model of radio images of noncoherent radio sources on the basis of the visibility function modulus.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshovij, V. V.; Lozins'kij, A. B.; Romanishin, I. M.; Romanchev, Yu. V.

    The authors consider the problem of constructing a centrosymmetrical model of radio images of noncoherent radio sources based on the van Cittert-Zernike theorem. They show that one needs only the visibility function modulus determined on the (u,v) plane to construct such a model. They propose to restore radio images as sets of concentric rings using the visibility function measured by the radiointerferometric method with different baselines. An algorithm is given for the determination of the number of rings, their angular radii, and flux densities through the use of the Fourier-Bessel series. The radio image of Cas A was restored from the measurements made with the short-base (up to 2000 D/λ) interferometer URAN-3 at decameter wavelengths (25 MHz), it is in agreement with the results obtained earlier.

  11. The Q/U Imaging Experiment: Polarization Measurements of Radio Sources at 43 and 95 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huffenberger, K. M.; Araujo, D.; Bischoff, C.; Buder, I.; Chinone, Y.; Cleary, K.; Kusaka, A.; Monsalve, R.; Næss, S. K.; Newburgh, L. B.; Reeves, R.; Ruud, T. M.; Wehus, I. K.; Zwart, J. T. L.; Dickinson, C.; Eriksen, H. K.; Gaier, T.; Gundersen, J. O.; Hasegawa, M.; Hazumi, M.; Miller, A. D.; Radford, S. J. E.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Staggs, S. T.; Tajima, O.; Thompson, K. L.; QUIET Collaboration

    2015-06-01

    We present polarization measurements of extragalactic radio sources observed during the cosmic microwave background polarization survey of the Q/U Imaging Experiment (QUIET), operating at 43 GHz (Q-band) and 95 GHz (W-band). We examine sources selected at 20 GHz from the public, >40 mJy catalog of the Australia Telescope (AT20G) survey. There are ˜480 such sources within QUIET’s four low-foreground survey patches, including the nearby radio galaxies Centaurus A and Pictor A. The median error on our polarized flux density measurements is 30-40 mJy per Stokes parameter. At signal-to-noise ratio > 3 significance, we detect linear polarization for seven sources in Q-band and six in W-band; only 1.3 ± 1.1 detections per frequency band are expected by chance. For sources without a detection of polarized emission, we find that half of the sources have polarization amplitudes below 90 mJy (Q-band) and 106 mJy (W-band), at 95% confidence. Finally, we compare our polarization measurements to intensity and polarization measurements of the same sources from the literature. For the four sources with WMAP and Planck intensity measurements >1 Jy, the polarization fractions are above 1% in both QUIET bands. At high significance, we compute polarization fractions as much as 10%-20% for some sources, but the effects of source variability may cut that level in half for contemporaneous comparisons. Our results indicate that simple models—ones that scale a fixed polarization fraction with frequency—are inadequate to model the behavior of these sources and their contributions to polarization maps.

  12. THE Q/U IMAGING EXPERIMENT: POLARIZATION MEASUREMENTS OF RADIO SOURCES AT 43 AND 95 GHz

    SciTech Connect

    Huffenberger, K. M.; Araujo, D.; Zwart, J. T. L.; Bischoff, C.; Buder, I.; Chinone, Y.; Hasegawa, M.; Cleary, K.; Monsalve, R.; Næss, S. K.; Newburgh, L. B.; Reeves, R.; Ruud, T. M.; Eriksen, H. K.; Wehus, I. K.; Gaier, T.; Dickinson, C.; Gundersen, J. O.; Collaboration: QUIET Collaboration; and others

    2015-06-10

    We present polarization measurements of extragalactic radio sources observed during the cosmic microwave background polarization survey of the Q/U Imaging Experiment (QUIET), operating at 43 GHz (Q-band) and 95 GHz (W-band). We examine sources selected at 20 GHz from the public, >40 mJy catalog of the Australia Telescope (AT20G) survey. There are ∼480 such sources within QUIET’s four low-foreground survey patches, including the nearby radio galaxies Centaurus A and Pictor A. The median error on our polarized flux density measurements is 30–40 mJy per Stokes parameter. At signal-to-noise ratio > 3 significance, we detect linear polarization for seven sources in Q-band and six in W-band; only 1.3 ± 1.1 detections per frequency band are expected by chance. For sources without a detection of polarized emission, we find that half of the sources have polarization amplitudes below 90 mJy (Q-band) and 106 mJy (W-band), at 95% confidence. Finally, we compare our polarization measurements to intensity and polarization measurements of the same sources from the literature. For the four sources with WMAP and Planck intensity measurements >1 Jy, the polarization fractions are above 1% in both QUIET bands. At high significance, we compute polarization fractions as much as 10%–20% for some sources, but the effects of source variability may cut that level in half for contemporaneous comparisons. Our results indicate that simple models—ones that scale a fixed polarization fraction with frequency—are inadequate to model the behavior of these sources and their contributions to polarization maps.

  13. HYDRODYNAMIC MODELS OF RADIO GALAXY MORPHOLOGY: WINGED AND X-SHAPED SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Hodges-Kluck, Edmund J.; Reynolds, Christopher S.

    2011-05-20

    We present three-dimensional hydrodynamic models of radio galaxies interacting with initially relaxed hot atmospheres and explore the significant off-axis radio lobe structures that result under certain conditions. With a focus on the 'winged' and 'X-shaped' radio galaxy population, we confirm the importance of observed trends such as the connection of wing formation with jets co-aligned with the major axis of the surrounding atmosphere. These wings are formed substantially by the deflection of lobe plasma flowing back from the hot spots (backflow) and develop in two stages: supersonic expansion of an overpressured cocoon at early times followed by buoyant expansion at later times. We explore a limited parameter space of jet and atmosphere properties and find that the most prominent wings are produced when a decaying jet is injected into a small, dense, highly elliptical atmosphere. On the basis of this search, we argue that the deflection of backflow by gradients in the hot atmosphere is a strong candidate for forming observed wings but must work in tandem with some other mechanism for forming the initial wing channels. Our models indicate that lobe interaction with the hot atmosphere may play a dominant role in shaping the morphology of radio galaxies.

  14. The LBA Calibrator Survey of Southern Compact Extragalactic Radio Sources - LCS1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrov, Leonid; Phillips, Chris; Bertarini, Alessandra; Murphy, Tara; Sadler, Elaine M.

    2011-01-01

    We present a catalogue of accurate positions and correlated flux densities for 410 flat-spectrum, compact extragalactic radio sources previously detected in the Australia Telescope 20 GHz (AT20G) survey. The catalogue spans the declination range [-90deg, -40deg] and was constructed from four 24-h very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observing sessions with the Australian Long Baseline Array at 8.3 GHz. The VLBI detection rate in these experiments is 97 per cent, the median uncertainty of the source positions is 2.6 mas and the median correlated flux density on projected baselines longer than 1000 km is 0.14 Jy. The goals of this work are (1) to provide a pool of southern sources with positions accurate to a few milliarcsec, which can be used for phase-referencing observations, geodetic VLBI and space navigation; (2) to extend the complete flux-limited sample of compact extragalactic sources to the Southern hemisphere; and (3) to investigate the parsec-scale properties of high-frequency selected sources from the AT20G survey. As a result of this VLBI campaign, the number of compact radio sources south of declination -40deg which have measured VLBI correlated flux densities and positions known to milliarcsec accuracy has increased by a factor of 3.5.

  15. A high declination search at 8 GHz for compact radio sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wittels, J. J.; Shapiro, I. I.; Robertson, D. S.; Hinteregger, H. F.; Knight, C. A.; Clark, T. A.; Hutton, L. K.; Ma, C.; Niell, A. E.; Resch, G. M.

    1978-01-01

    With the Haystack-NRAO interferometer (baseline length of 20 million wavelengths at 3.8 cm) 37 sources were observed whose declinations were above 50 deg. Seven of these sources have compact cores with diameters smaller than 5 milliarcsec and with correlated flux densities greater than about 0.5 Jy; the remaining sources have no cores with flux densities above about 0.3 Jy, the sensitivity limit of the interferometer. Two of the sources with detected compact cores, 4C 67.05 and 3C 418, were also observed with longer-baseline interferometers; the diameter of the core of 4C 67.05 was estimated to be smaller than 1 milliarcsec and that of 3C 418 to be smaller than 0.4 milliarcsec. All diameter estimates were based on an assumed circular Gaussian distribution of radio brightness and refer to the contour with brightness density e to the -1/2 power times that of the center. Positions for the detected sources were also obtained from the interferometric data, the uncertainty in these coordinate estimates ranging from 0.04 to 0.6 arcsec. The compact core detected in 3C 390.3 was found to lie near the center of this extended (approximately 4 arcmin in diameter) double radio source and to be coincident to within 1 arcsec with an N galaxy previously identified with 3C 390.3.

  16. The first VLBI image of an infrared-faint radio source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middelberg, E.; Norris, R. P.; Tingay, S.; Mao, M. Y.; Phillips, C. J.; Hotan, A. W.

    2008-11-01

    Context: We investigate the joint evolution of active galactic nuclei and star formation in the Universe. Aims: In the 1.4 GHz survey with the Australia Telescope Compact Array of the Chandra Deep Field South and the European Large Area ISO Survey - S1 we have identified a class of objects which are strong in the radio but have no detectable infrared and optical counterparts. This class has been called Infrared-Faint Radio Sources, or IFRS. 53 sources out of 2002 have been classified as IFRS. It is not known what these objects are. Methods: To address the many possible explanations as to what the nature of these objects is we have observed four sources with the Australian Long Baseline Array. Results: We have detected and imaged one of the four sources observed. Assuming that the source is at a high redshift, we find its properties in agreement with properties of Compact Steep Spectrum sources. However, due to the lack of optical and infrared data the constraints are not particularly strong.

  17. Another Shock for the Bullet Cluster, and the Source of Seed Electrons for Radio Relics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimwell, Timothy W,; Markevitch, Maxim; Brown, Shea; Feretti, Luigina; Gaensler, B. M.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Lage, Craig; Srinivasan, Raghav

    2015-01-01

    With Australia Telescope Compact Array observations, we detect a highly elongated Mpc-scale diffuse radio source on the eastern periphery of the Bullet cluster 1E 0657-55.8, which we argue has the positional, spectral and polarimetric characteristics of a radio relic. This powerful relic (2:30:11025 WHz(exp -1) consists of a bright northern bulb and a faint linear tail. The bulb emits 94% of the observed radio flux and has the highest surface brightness of any known relic. Exactly coincident with the linear tail we find a sharp X-ray surface brightness edge in the deep Chandra image of the cluster - a signature of a shock front in the hot intracluster medium (ICM), located on the opposite side of the cluster to the famous bow shock. This new example of an X-ray shock coincident with a relic further supports the hypothesis that shocks in the outer regions of clusters can form relics via diffusive shock (re- )acceleration. Intriguingly, our new relic suggests that seed electrons for reacceleration are coming from a local remnant of a radio galaxy, which we are lucky to catch before its complete disruption. If this scenario, in which a relic forms when a shock crosses a well-defined region of the ICM polluted with aged relativistic plasma - as opposed to the usual assumption that seeds are uniformly mixed in the ICM - is also the case for other relics, this may explain a number of peculiar properties of peripheral relics.

  18. High Resolution Rapid Response Observations of Compact Radio Sources with the Ceduna Hobart Interferometer (CHI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, Jay M.; Lovell, James E. J.; Ojha, Roopesh; Kadler, Matthias; Dickey, John M.; Edwards, Philip G.

    2011-01-01

    Context. Frequent, simultaneous observations across the electromagnetic spectrum are essential to the study of a range of astrophysical phenomena including Active Galactic Nuclei. A key tool of such studies is the ability to observe an object when it flares i.e. exhibits a rapid and significant increase in its flux density. Aims. We describe the specific observational procedures and the calibration techniques that have been developed and tested to create a single baseline radio interferometer. that can rapidly observe a flaring object. This is the only facility that is dedicated to rapid high resolution radio observations of an object south of -30 degrees declination. An immediate application is to provide rapid contemporaneous radio coverage of AGN flaring at y-ray frequencies detected by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Methods. A single baseline interferometer was formed with radio telescopes in Hobart, Tasmania and Ceduna, South Australia. A software correlator was set up at the University of Tasmania to correlate these data. Results. Measurements of the flux densities of flaring objects can be made using our observing strategy within half an hour of a triggering event. These observations can be calibrated with amplitude errors better than 20%. Lower limits to the brightness temperatures of the sources can also be calculated using CHI. Key words. instrumentation:interferometers - galaxies:active - galaxies:jets - galaxies:nuclei quasars:general gamma rays:galaxies- 1.

  19. Coronal Sources of the Solar F10.7 Radio Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schonfeld, S. J.; White, S. M.; Henney, C. J.; Arge, C. N.; McAteer, R. T. J.

    2015-07-01

    We present results from the first solar full-disk {{{F}}}10.7 (the radio flux at 10.7 cm, 2.8 GHz) image taken with the S-band receivers on the recently upgraded Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array in order to assess the relationship between the {{{F}}}10.7 index and solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission. To identify the sources of the observed 2.8 GHz emission, we calculate differential emission measures from EUV images collected by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and use them to predict the bremsstrahlung component of the radio emission. By comparing the bremsstrahlung prediction and radio observation we find that 8.1% ± 0.5% of the variable component of the {{{F}}}10.7 flux is associated with the gyroresonance emission mechanism. Additionally, we identify optical depth effects on the radio limb which may complicate the use of {{{F}}}10.7 time series as an EUV proxy. Our analysis is consistent with a coronal iron abundance that is four times the photospheric level.

  20. Compact Radio Sources and Jet-driven AGN Feedback in the Early Universe: Constraints from Integral-Field Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Nesvadba, N H; Lehnert, M D; De Breuck, C; Gilbert, A; van Breugel, W

    2007-07-05

    To investigate the impact of radio jets during the formation epoch of their massive host galaxies, we present an analysis of two massive, log M{sub stellar}/M{sub {circle_dot}} {approx} 10.6 and 11.3, compact radio galaxies at z = 3.5, TNJ0205+2242 and TNJ0121+1320. Their small radio sizes (R {le} 10 kpc) are most likely a sign of youth. In particular, we compare their radio properties and gas dynamics with those in well extended radio galaxies at high redshift, which show strong evidence for powerful, jet-driven outflows of significant gas masses (M {approx} 10{sup 9-10} M{sub {circle_dot}}). Our analysis combines rest-frame optical integral-field spectroscopy obtained with SINFONI on the VLT with existing radio imaging, CO(4-3) emission line spectra, and rest-frame UV longslit spectroscopy. [OIII]{lambda}5007 line emission is compact in both galaxies and lies within the region defined by the radio lobes. For TNJ0205+2242, the Ly{alpha} profile narrows significantly outside the jet radius, indicating the presence of a quiescent halo. TNJ0121+1320 has two components at a projected relative distance of {approx}10 kpc and a velocity offset of {approx}300 km s{sup -1}, measured from the [OIII]{lambda}5007 velocity map. This suggests that the fainter component is orbiting around the more massive, radio-loud galaxy. If motions are gravitational, this implies a dynamical mass of 2 x 10{sup 11} M{sub {circle_dot}} for the radio-loud component. The dynamical mass, molecular gas mass measured from the CO line emission, and radio luminosity of these two compact radio galaxies imply that compact radio sources may well develop large-scale, energetic outflows as observed in extended radio galaxies, with the potential of removing significant fractions of the ISM from the host galaxy. The absence of luminous emission line gas extending beyond the radio emission in these sources agrees with the observed timescales and outflow rates in extended radio galaxies, and adds further

  1. Infrared-faint radio sources are at high redshifts. Spectroscopic redshift determination of infrared-faint radio sources using the Very Large Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzog, A.; Middelberg, E.; Norris, R. P.; Sharp, R.; Spitler, L. R.; Parker, Q. A.

    2014-07-01

    Context. Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) are characterised by relatively high radio flux densities and associated faint or even absent infrared and optical counterparts. The resulting extremely high radio-to-infrared flux density ratios up to several thousands were previously known only for high-redshift radio galaxies (HzRGs), suggesting a link between the two classes of object. However, the optical and infrared faintness of IFRS makes their study difficult. Prior to this work, no redshift was known for any IFRS in the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey (ATLAS) fields which would help to put IFRS in the context of other classes of object, especially of HzRGs. Aims: This work aims at measuring the first redshifts of IFRS in the ATLAS fields. Furthermore, we test the hypothesis that IFRS are similar to HzRGs, that they are higher-redshift or dust-obscured versions of these massive galaxies. Methods: A sample of IFRS was spectroscopically observed using the Focal Reducer and Low Dispersion Spectrograph 2 (FORS2) at the Very Large Telescope (VLT). The data were calibrated based on the Image Reduction and Analysis Facility (IRAF) and redshifts extracted from the final spectra, where possible. This information was then used to calculate rest-frame luminosities, and to perform the first spectral energy distribution modelling of IFRS based on redshifts. Results: We found redshifts of 1.84, 2.13, and 2.76, for three IFRS, confirming the suggested high-redshift character of this class of object. These redshifts and the resulting luminosities show IFRS to be similar to HzRGs, supporting our hypothesis. We found further evidence that fainter IFRS are at even higher redshifts. Conclusions: Considering the similarities between IFRS and HzRGs substantiated in this work, the detection of IFRS, which have a significantly higher sky density than HzRGs, increases the number of active galactic nuclei in the early universe and adds to the problems of explaining the formation of

  2. Five New Millisecond Pulsars From A Radio Survey Of 14 Unidentified Fermi -Lat Gamma-Ray Sources

    DOE PAGES

    Kerr, M.; Camilo, F.; Johnson, T. J.; ...

    2012-02-27

    We have discovered five millisecond pulsars (MSPs) in a survey of 14 unidentified Fermi-LAT sources in the southern sky using the Parkes radio telescope. PSRs J0101–6422, J1514–4946, and J1902–5105 reside in binaries, while PSRs J1658–5324 and J1747–4036 are isolated. Using an ephemeris derived from timing observations of PSR J0101–6422 (P=2.57ms, DM=12 pc cm-3), we have detected γ-ray pulsations and measured its proper motion. Its γ-ray spectrum (a power law of Γ = 0.9 with a cutoff at 1.6GeV) and efficiency are typical of other MSPs, but its radio and γ-ray light curves challenge simple geometric models of emission. The highmore » success rate of this survey—enabled by selecting γ- ray sources based on their detailed spectral characteristics—and other similarly successful searches indicate that a substantial fraction of the local population of MSPs may soon be known.« less

  3. Five New Millisecond Pulsars from a Radio Survey of 14 Unidentified Fermi-LAT Gamma-Ray Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerr, M.; Camilo, F.; Johnson, T. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Guillemot, L.; Harding, A. K.; Hessels, J.; Johnson, S.; Keith, M.; Kramer, M.; Ransom, S. M.; Ray, P. S.; Reynolds, J. E.; Sarkissian, J.; Wood, K. S.

    2012-01-01

    We have discovered five millisecond pulsars (MSPs) in a survey of 14 unidentified Ferm;'LAT sources in the southern sky using the Parkes radio telescope. PSRs J0101-6422, J1514-4946, and J1902-5105 reside in binaries, while PSRs J1658-5324 and J1747-4036 are isolated. Using an ephemeris derived from timing observations of PSR JOl01-6422 (P=2.57ms, DH=12pc/cubic cm ), we have detected gamma-ray pulsations and measured its proper motion. Its gamma-ray spectrum (a power law of Gamma = 0.9 with a cutoff at 1.6 GeV) and efficiency are typical of other MSPs, but its radio and gamma-ray light curves challenge simple geometric models of emission. The high success rate of this survey -- enabled by selecting gamma-ray sources based on their detailed spectral characteristics -- and other similarly successful searches indicate that a substantial fraction of the local population of MSPs may soon be known.

  4. FIVE NEW MILLISECOND PULSARS FROM A RADIO SURVEY OF 14 UNIDENTIFIED FERMI-LAT GAMMA-RAY SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, M.; Camilo, F.; Johnson, T. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Harding, A. K.; Guillemot, L.; Kramer, M.; Hessels, J.; Johnston, S.; Keith, M.; Reynolds, J. E.; Ransom, S. M.; Ray, P. S.; Wood, K. S.; Sarkissian, J. E-mail: fernando@astro.columbia.edu

    2012-03-20

    We have discovered five millisecond pulsars (MSPs) in a survey of 14 unidentified Fermi Large Area Telescope sources in the southern sky using the Parkes radio telescope. PSRs J0101-6422, J1514-4946, and J1902-5105 reside in binaries, while PSRs J1658-5324 and J1747-4036 are isolated. Using an ephemeris derived from timing observations of PSR J0101-6422 (P = 2.57 ms, DM = 12 pc cm{sup -3}), we have detected {gamma}-ray pulsations and measured its proper motion. Its {gamma}-ray spectrum (a power law of {Gamma} = 0.9 with a cutoff at 1.6 GeV) and efficiency are typical of other MSPs, but its radio and {gamma}-ray light curves challenge simple geometric models of emission. The high success rate of this survey-enabled by selecting {gamma}-ray sources based on their detailed spectral characteristics-and other similarly successful searches indicate that a substantial fraction of the local population of MSPs may soon be known.

  5. Five New Millisecond Pulsars From A Radio Survey Of 14 Unidentified Fermi -Lat Gamma-Ray Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, M.; Camilo, F.; Johnson, T. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Guillemot, L.; Harding, A. K.; Hessels, J.; Johnston, S.; Keith, M.; Kramer, M.; Ransom, S. M.; Ray, P. S.; Reynolds, J. E.; Sarkissian, J.; Wood, K. S.

    2012-02-27

    We have discovered five millisecond pulsars (MSPs) in a survey of 14 unidentified Fermi-LAT sources in the southern sky using the Parkes radio telescope. PSRs J0101–6422, J1514–4946, and J1902–5105 reside in binaries, while PSRs J1658–5324 and J1747–4036 are isolated. Using an ephemeris derived from timing observations of PSR J0101–6422 (P=2.57ms, DM=12 pc cm-3), we have detected γ-ray pulsations and measured its proper motion. Its γ-ray spectrum (a power law of Γ = 0.9 with a cutoff at 1.6GeV) and efficiency are typical of other MSPs, but its radio and γ-ray light curves challenge simple geometric models of emission. The high success rate of this survey—enabled by selecting γ- ray sources based on their detailed spectral characteristics—and other similarly successful searches indicate that a substantial fraction of the local population of MSPs may soon be known.

  6. Note: A versatile radio-frequency source for cold atom experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Na; Wu, Yu-Ping; Min, Hao; Yang, Tao; Jiang, Xiao

    2016-08-15

    A radio-frequency (RF) source designed for cold atom experiments is presented. The source uses AD9858, a direct digital synthesizer, to generate the sine wave directly, up to 400 MHz, with sub-Hz resolution. An amplitude control circuit consisting of wideband variable gain amplifier and high speed digital to analog converter is integrated into the source, capable of 70 dB off isolation and 4 ns on-off keying. A field programmable gate array is used to implement a versatile frequency and amplitude co-sweep logic. Owing to modular design, the RF sources have been used on many cold atom experiments to generate various complicated RF sequences, enriching the operation schemes of cold atoms, which cannot be done by standard RF source instruments.

  7. Note: A versatile radio-frequency source for cold atom experiments.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Wu, Yu-Ping; Min, Hao; Yang, Tao; Jiang, Xiao

    2016-08-01

    A radio-frequency (RF) source designed for cold atom experiments is presented. The source uses AD9858, a direct digital synthesizer, to generate the sine wave directly, up to 400 MHz, with sub-Hz resolution. An amplitude control circuit consisting of wideband variable gain amplifier and high speed digital to analog converter is integrated into the source, capable of 70 dB off isolation and 4 ns on-off keying. A field programmable gate array is used to implement a versatile frequency and amplitude co-sweep logic. Owing to modular design, the RF sources have been used on many cold atom experiments to generate various complicated RF sequences, enriching the operation schemes of cold atoms, which cannot be done by standard RF source instruments.

  8. Note: A versatile radio-frequency source for cold atom experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Na; Wu, Yu-Ping; Min, Hao; Yang, Tao; Jiang, Xiao

    2016-08-01

    A radio-frequency (RF) source designed for cold atom experiments is presented. The source uses AD9858, a direct digital synthesizer, to generate the sine wave directly, up to 400 MHz, with sub-Hz resolution. An amplitude control circuit consisting of wideband variable gain amplifier and high speed digital to analog converter is integrated into the source, capable of 70 dB off isolation and 4 ns on-off keying. A field programmable gate array is used to implement a versatile frequency and amplitude co-sweep logic. Owing to modular design, the RF sources have been used on many cold atom experiments to generate various complicated RF sequences, enriching the operation schemes of cold atoms, which cannot be done by standard RF source instruments.

  9. THE EVOLUTION OF RADIO GALAXIES AND X-RAY POINT SOURCES IN COMA CLUSTER PROGENITORS SINCE z {approx} 1.2

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, Quyen N.; Stocke, John T.; Ellingson, Erica E.; Evrard, August E.; Barkhouse, Wayne A.

    2011-10-20

    Using Chandra imaging spectroscopy and Very Large Array (VLA) L-band radio maps, we have identified radio sources at P{sub 1.4GHz} {>=} 5 x 10{sup 23} W Hz{sup -1} and X-ray point sources (XPSs) at L{sub 0.3-8 keV} {>=} 5 x 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1} in L > L* galaxies in 12 high-redshift (0.4 < z < 1.2) clusters of galaxies. The radio galaxies and XPSs in this cluster sample, chosen to be consistent with Coma Cluster progenitors at these redshifts, are compared to those found at low-z analyzed in Hart et al. Within a projected radius of 1 Mpc of the cluster cores, we find 17 cluster radio galaxies (11 with secure redshifts, including one luminous FR II radio source at z = 0.826, and six more with host galaxy colors similar to cluster ellipticals). The radio luminosity function (RLF) of the cluster radio galaxies as a fraction of the cluster red-sequence (CRS) galaxies reveals significant evolution of this population from high-z to low-z, with higher power radio galaxies situated in lower temperature clusters at earlier epochs. Additionally, there is some evidence that cluster radio galaxies become more centrally concentrated than CRS galaxies with cosmic time. Within this same projected radius, we identify seven spectroscopically confirmed cluster XPSs, all with CRS host galaxy colors. Consistent with the results from Martini et al., we estimate a minimum X-ray active fraction of 1.4% {+-} 0.8% for CRS galaxies in high-z clusters, corresponding to an approximate 10-fold increase from 0.15% {+-} 0.15% at low-z. Although complete redshift information is lacking for several XPSs in z > 0.4 cluster fields, the increased numbers and luminosities of the CRS radio galaxies and XPSs suggest a substantial (9-10-fold) increase in the heat injected into high-redshift clusters by AGNs compared to the present epoch.

  10. Infrared-faint radio sources: a cosmological view. AGN number counts, the cosmic X-ray background and SMBH formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinn, P.-C.; Middelberg, E.; Ibar, E.

    2011-07-01

    Context. Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) are extragalactic emitters clearly detected at radio wavelengths but barely detected or undetected at optical and infrared wavelengths, with 5σ sensitivities as low as 1 μJy. Aims: Spectral energy distribution (hereafter SED) modelling and analyses of their radio properties indicate that IFRS are consistent with a population of (potentially extremely obscured) high-redshift AGN at 3 ≤ z ≤ 6. We demonstrate some astrophysical implications of this population and compare them to predictions from models of galaxy evolution and structure formation. Methods: We compiled a list of IFRS from four deep extragalactic surveys and extrapolated the IFRS number density to a survey-independent value of (30.8 ± 15.0) deg-2. We computed the IFRS contribution to the total number of AGN in the Universe to account for the cosmic X-ray background. By estimating the black hole mass contained in IFRS, we present conclusions for the SMBH mass density in the early universe and compare it to relevant simulations of structure formation after the Big Bang. Results: The number density of AGN derived from the IFRS density was found to be ~310 deg-2, which is equivalent to a SMBH mass density of the order of 103 M⊙ Mpc-3 in the redshift range 3 ≤ z ≤ 6. This produces an X-ray flux of 9 × 10-16 W m-2 deg-2 in the 0.5-2.0 keV band and 3 × 10-15 W m-2 deg-2 in the 2.0-10 keV band, in agreement with the missing unresolved components of the Cosmic X-ray Background. To address SMBH formation after the Big Bang we invoke a scenario involving both halo gas accretion and major mergers.

  11. Variation in the Flux Density of the Radio Source Cassiopeia-A During the Period 2007-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martirosyan, R. M.; Gulyan, A. G.; Pirumyan, G. A.; Sargsyan, S. A.; Avetisyan, G. S.

    2017-03-01

    Data from regular radio astronomical observations (2007-2015) at the Saravand scientific test station of the Institute of Radio Physics and Electronics, National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia, are used to discuss the yearly average variation in the intensity of the radio emission from the radio source Cassiopeia-A and the reliability of the periodicity in the variation of the radio flux. It is shown that during this period the intensity of the radio emission from Cassiopeia-A decreased at a yearly average rate of 0.55%, but data on the yearly averages for 2007-2015 indicate a curve with a short (about 2.7-3 years) period.

  12. Broadband Spectral Modeling of the Extreme Gigahertz-peaked Spectrum Radio Source PKS B0008-421

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callingham, J. R.; Gaensler, B. M.; Ekers, R. D.; Tingay, S. J.; Wayth, R. B.; Morgan, J.; Bernardi, G.; Bell, M. E.; Bhat, R.; Bowman, J. D.; Briggs, F.; Cappallo, R. J.; Deshpande, A. A.; Ewall-Wice, A.; Feng, L.; Greenhill, L. J.; Hazelton, B. J.; Hindson, L.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Jacobs, D. C.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Kaplan, D. L.; Kudrayvtseva, N.; Lenc, E.; Lonsdale, C. J.; McKinley, B.; McWhirter, S. R.; Mitchell, D. A.; Morales, M. F.; Morgan, E.; Oberoi, D.; Offringa, A. R.; Ord, S. M.; Pindor, B.; Prabu, T.; Procopio, P.; Riding, J.; Srivani, K. S.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Udaya Shankar, N.; Webster, R. L.; Williams, A.; Williams, C. L.

    2015-08-01

    We present broadband observations and spectral modeling of PKS B0008-421 and identify it as an extreme gigahertz-peaked spectrum (GPS) source. PKS B0008-421 is characterized by the steepest known spectral slope below the turnover, close to the theoretical limit of synchrotron self-absorption, and the smallest known spectral width of any GPS source. Spectral coverage of the source spans from 0.118 to 22 GHz, which includes data from the Murchison Widefield Array and the wide bandpass receivers on the Australia Telescope Compact Array. We have implemented a Bayesian inference model fitting routine to fit the data with internal free-free absorption (FFA), single- and double-component FFA in an external homogeneous medium, FFA in an external inhomogeneous medium, or single- and double-component synchrotron self-absorption models, all with and without a high-frequency exponential break. We find that without the inclusion of a high-frequency break these models cannot accurately fit the data, with significant deviations above and below the peak in the radio spectrum. The addition of a high-frequency break provides acceptable spectral fits for the inhomogeneous FFA and double-component synchrotron self-absorption models, with the inhomogeneous FFA model statistically favored. The requirement of a high-frequency spectral break implies that the source has ceased injecting fresh particles. Additional support for the inhomogeneous FFA model as being responsible for the turnover in the spectrum is given by the consistency between the physical parameters derived from the model fit and the implications of the exponential spectral break, such as the necessity of the source being surrounded by a dense ambient medium to maintain the peak frequency near the gigahertz region. This implies that PKS B0008-421 should display an internal H i column density greater than 1020 cm-2. The discovery of PKS B0008-421 suggests that the next generation of low radio frequency surveys could reveal a

  13. Population statistics of radio and γ-ray pulsars from the Galactic disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonthier, Peter L.; Story, Sarah A.; Clow, Brian D.; Harding, Alice K.

    2008-01-01

    We present results of our population synthesis of normal and millisecond pulsars from the Galactic disk. Over the past several years, a program has been developed to simulate pulsar birth, evolution, and emission using Monte Carlo techniques. We have added to the program the capability to simulate millisecond pulsars, which are old, recycled pulsars with extremely short periods. We model the spatial distribution of millisecond pulsars by assuming they start with a random kick velocity and then evolve through the Galactic potential. We use a polar cap/slot gap model for gamma-ray emission from both millisecond and normal pulsars. We also include gamma-ray emission from an outer-gap model to compare the statistics of radio-loud and radio-faint gamma-ray pulsars on the same footing as pulsars from our polar cap/slot gap model. From our studies of radio pulsars that have clearly identifiable core and cone components, in which we fit the polarization sweep as well as the pulse profiles to constrain the viewing geometry, we develop a model describing the ratio of radio core-to-cone peak fluxes. In this model, short period pulsars are more cone-dominated than in our previous studies. We present the preliminary results of our recent study including comparisons between these two groups of pulsars and the implications for observing these pulsars with GLAST and AGILE. GLAST should detect significant numbers of millisecond pulsars.

  14. A binary population synthesis study on gravitational wave sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinzhong, Liu; Yu, Zhang

    Gravitational waves (GW) are a natural consequence of Einstein's theory of gravity (general relativity), and minute distortions of space-time. Gravitational Wave Astronomy is an emerging branch of observational astronomy which aims to use GWs to collect observational data about objects such as neutron stars and black holes, about events such as supernovae and about the early universe shortly after the big bang.This field will evolve to become an established component of 21st century multi-messenger astronomy, and will stand shoulder-to-shoulder with gamma-ray, x-ray, optical, infrared and radio astronomers in exploring the cosmos. In this paper, we state a recent theoretical study on GW sources, and present the results of our studies on the field using a binary population synthesis (BPS) approach, which was designed to investigate the formation of many interesting binary-related objects, including close double white dwarfs, AM CVn stars, ultra-compact X-ray binaries(UCXBs), double neutron stars, double stellar black holes. Here we report how BPS can be used to determine the GW radiation from double compact objects.

  15. A dynamical model for FR II type radio sources with terminated jet activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuligowska, Elżbieta

    2017-02-01

    Context. The extension of the KDA analytical model of FR II-type source evolution originally assuming a continuum injection process in the jet-IGM interaction towards a case of the jet's termination is presented and briefly discussed. Aims: The dynamical evolution of FR II-type sources predicted with this extended model, hereafter referred to as KDA EXT, and its application to the chosen radio sources. Methods: Following the classical approach based on the source's continuous injection and self-similarity, I propose the effective formulae describing the length and luminosity evolution of the lobes during an absence of the jet flow, and present the resulting diagrams for the characteristics mentioned. Results: Using an algorithm based on the numerical integration of a modified formula for jet power, the KDA EXT model is fitted to three radio galaxies. Their predicted spectra are then compared to the observed spectra, proving that these fits are better than the best spectral fit provided by the original KDA model of the FR II-type sources dynamical evolution.

  16. A search for AGN activity in Infrared-Faint Radio Sources (IFRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenc, Emil; Middelberg, Enno; Norris, Ray; Mao, Minnie

    2010-04-01

    We propose to observe a large sample of radio sources from the ATLAS (Australia Telescope Large Area Survey) source catalogue with the LBA, to determine their compactness. The sample consists of 36 sources with no counterpart in the co-located SWIRE survey (3.6 um to 160 um), carried out with the Spitzer Space Telescope. This rare class of sources, dubber Infrared-Faint Radio Sources (IFRS), is inconsistent with current galaxy evolution models. VLBI observations are an essential way to obtain further clues on what these objects are and why they are hidden from infrared observations. We will measure the flux densities on long baselines to determine their compactness. Only five IFRS have been previously targeted with VLBI observations (resulting in two detections). We propose using single baseline (Parkes-ATCA) eVLBI observations with the LBA at 1 Gbps to maximise sensitivity. With the observations proposed here we will increase the number of VLBI-observed IFRS from 5 to 36, allowing us to draw statistical conclusions about this intriguing new class of objects.

  17. A search for AGN activity in Infrared-Faint Radio Sources (IFRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenc, Emil; Middelberg, Enno; Norris, Ray; Mao, Minnie

    2009-04-01

    We propose to observe a large sample of radio sources from the ATLAS (Australia Telescope Large Area Survey) source catalogue with the LBA, to determine their compactness. The sample consists of 36 sources with no counterpart in the co-located SWIRE survey (3.6 um to 160 um), carried out with the Spitzer Space Telescope. This rare class of sources, dubber Infrared-Faint Radio Sources (IFRS), is inconsistent with current galaxy evolution models. VLBI observations are an essential way to obtain further clues on what these objects are and why they are hidden from infrared observations. We will measure the flux densities on long baselines to determine their compactness. Only five IFRS have been previously targeted with VLBI observations (resulting in two detections). We propose using single baseline (Parkes-ATCA) eVLBI observations with the LBA at 1 Gbps to maximise sensitivity. With the observations proposed here we will increase the number of VLBI-observed IFRS from 5 to 36, allowing us to draw statistical conclusions about this intriguing new class of objects.

  18. Occultations of Astrophysical Radio Sources as Probes of Planetary Environments: A Case Study of Jupiter and Possible Applications to Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Withers, Paul; Vogt, Marissa F.

    2017-02-01

    Properties of planetary atmospheres, ionospheres, and magnetospheres are difficult to measure from Earth. Radio occultations are a common method for measuring these properties, but they traditionally rely on radio transmissions from a spacecraft near the planet. Here, we explore whether occultations of radio emissions from a distant astrophysical radio source can be used to measure magnetic field strength, plasma density, and neutral density around planets. In a theoretical case study of Jupiter, we find that significant changes in polarization angle due to Faraday rotation occur for radio signals that pass within 10 Jupiter radii of the planet and that significant changes in frequency and power occur from radio signals that pass through the neutral atmosphere. There are sufficient candidate radio sources, such as pulsars, active galactic nuclei, and masers, that occultations are likely to occur at least once per year. For pulsars, time delays in the arrival of their emitted pulses can be used to measure plasma density. Exoplanets, whose physical properties are very challenging to observe, may also occult distant astrophysical radio sources, such as their parent stars.

  19. THE WISE BLAZAR-LIKE RADIO-LOUD SOURCES: AN ALL-SKY CATALOG OF CANDIDATE γ-RAY BLAZARS

    SciTech Connect

    D'Abrusco, R.; Paggi, A.; Smith, H. A.; Massaro, F.; Masetti, N.

    2014-11-01

    We present a catalog of radio-loud candidate γ-ray emitting blazars with WISE mid-infrared colors similar to the colors of confirmed γ-ray blazars. The catalog is assembled from WISE sources detected in all four WISE filters, with colors compatible with the three-dimensional locus of the WISE γ-ray emitting blazars, and which can be spatially cross-matched with radio sources from one of the three radio surveys: NVSS, FIRST, and/or SUMSS. Our initial WISE selection uses a slightly modified version of previously successful algorithms. We then select only the radio-loud sources using a measure of the radio-to-IR flux, the q {sub 22} parameter, which is analogous to the q {sub 24} parameter known in the literature but which instead uses the WISE band-four flux at 22 μm. Our final catalog contains 7855 sources classified as BL Lacs, FSRQs, or mixed candidate blazars; 1295 of these sources can be spatially re-associated as confirmed blazars. We describe the properties of the final catalog of WISE blazar-like radio-loud sources and consider possible contaminants. Finally, we discuss why this large catalog of candidate γ-ray emitting blazars represents a new and useful resource to address the problem of finding low-energy counterparts to currently unidentified high-energy sources.

  20. Structure and evolution of the compact radio source in NGC 1275.

    PubMed

    Romney, J D; Benson, J M; Dhawan, V; Kellermann, K I; Vermeulen, R C; Walker, R C

    1995-12-05

    Investigations of the fine-scale structure in the compact nucleus of the radio source 3C 84 in NGC 1275 (New General Catalogue number) are reported. Structural monitoring observations beginning as early as 1976, and continuing to the present, revealed subluminal motions in a jet-like relatively diffuse region extending away from a flat-spectrum core. A counterjet feature was discovered in 1993, and very recent nearly simultaneous studies have detected the same feature at five frequencies ranging from 5 to 43 GHz. The counterjet exhibits a strong low-frequency cutoff, giving this region of the source an inverted spectrum. The observations are consistent with a physical model in which the cutoff arises from free-free absorption in a volume that surrounds the core but obscures only the counterjet feature. If such a model is confirmed, very-long-baseline radio interferometry observations can then be used to probe the accretion region, outside the radio jet, on parsec scales.

  1. Structure and evolution of the compact radio source in NGC 1275.

    PubMed Central

    Romney, J D; Benson, J M; Dhawan, V; Kellermann, K I; Vermeulen, R C; Walker, R C

    1995-01-01

    Investigations of the fine-scale structure in the compact nucleus of the radio source 3C 84 in NGC 1275 (New General Catalogue number) are reported. Structural monitoring observations beginning as early as 1976, and continuing to the present, revealed subluminal motions in a jet-like relatively diffuse region extending away from a flat-spectrum core. A counterjet feature was discovered in 1993, and very recent nearly simultaneous studies have detected the same feature at five frequencies ranging from 5 to 43 GHz. The counterjet exhibits a strong low-frequency cutoff, giving this region of the source an inverted spectrum. The observations are consistent with a physical model in which the cutoff arises from free-free absorption in a volume that surrounds the core but obscures only the counterjet feature. If such a model is confirmed, very-long-baseline radio interferometry observations can then be used to probe the accretion region, outside the radio jet, on parsec scales. PMID:11607597

  2. Cosmic star formation probed via parametric stack-fitting of known sources to radio imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roseboom, I. G.; Best, P. N.

    2014-04-01

    The promise of multiwavelength astronomy has been tempered by the large disparity in sensitivity and resolution between different wavelength regimes. Here, we present a statistical approach which attempts to overcome this by fitting parametric models directly to image data. Specifically, we fit a model for the radio luminosity function (LF) of star-forming galaxies to pixel intensity distributions at 1.4 GHz coincident with near-IR selected sources in COSMOS. Taking a mass-limited sample in redshift bins across the range 0 < z < 4, we are able to fit the radio LF with ˜0.2 dex precision in the key parameters (e.g. Φ*,L*). Good agreement is seen between our results and those using standard methods at radio and other wavelengths. Integrating our LFs to get the star formation rate density, we find that galaxies with M* > 109.5 M⊙ contribute ≳50 per cent of cosmic star formation at 0 < z < 4. The scalability of our approach is empirically estimated, with the precision in LF parameter estimates found to scale with the number of sources in the stack, Ns, as ∝ √{N_s}. This type of approach will be invaluable in the multiwavelength analysis of upcoming surveys with the Square Kilometre Array pathfinder facilities: LOFAR, ASKAP and MeerKAT.

  3. Space reconstruction of the morphology and kinematics of axisymmetric radio sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diep, P. N.; Phuong, N. T.; Hoai, D. T.; Nhung, P. T.; Thao, N. T.; Tuan-Anh, P.; Darriulat, P.

    2016-10-01

    The unprecedented quality of the observations available from the Atacama Large Millimetre/sub-millimetre Array (ALMA) calls for analysis methods making the best of them. Reconstructing in space the morphology and kinematics of radio sources is an underdetermined problem that requires imposing additional constraints for its solution. The hypothesis of rotational invariance, which is a good approximation to, or at least a good reference for the description of the gas envelopes of many evolved stars and protostars, is particularly efficient in this role. In the first part of the article, a systematic use of simulated observations allows us for identifying the main problems and for constructing quantities aimed at solving them. In particular the evaluation of the orientation of the star axis in space and the differentiation between expansion along the star axis and rotation about it are given special attention. The use of polar rather than Cartesian sky coordinates to display the results of the analysis is shown to often better match the morphology and kinematics of actual stars. The radial dependence of the gas density and temperature and the possible presence of velocity gradients are briefly considered. In the second part, these results are applied to a few stars taken as examples with the aim of evaluating their usefulness when applied to concrete cases. A third part takes stock of what precedes and formulates some guidelines for modelling the radio emission of axisymmetric radio sources, limited however to the mathematics and geometry of the problem, physics considerations being generally ignored.

  4. Neutral hydrogen in elliptical galaxies with nuclear radio sources and optical emission lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dressel, L. L.; Bania, T. M.; Oconnell, R. W.

    1982-01-01

    An H I detection survey of eleven elliptical galaxies with powerful nuclear radio sources was conducted, using the 305 m antenna of Arecibo Observatory, to test the hypothesis that large H I mass is conductive to the formation of nuclear radio sources in elliptical galaxies. The H I was detected in emission in UGC 09114 and was possibly detected in absorption in UGC 06671. Observations of the remaining galaxies were not sensitive enough to support or refute the hypothesis. Data was combined from other H I surveys and spectroscopic surveys to search for correlations of H I mass with other galactic properties and environmental conditions. Strong correlations of (O II) lambda 3727 emission with H I content and with nuclear radio power were found. The latter two properties may simply indicate, respectively, whether a significant amount of gas is available to be ionized and whether energy is provided by nuclear activity for ionization. No dependence of H I content on optical luminosity or on degree of isolation from other galaxies was found.

  5. Movements of radio-marked California Ridgway's rails during monitoring surveys: implications for population monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bui, Thuy-Vy D.; Takekawa, John Y.; Overton, Cory T.; Schultz, Emily R.; Hull, Joshua M.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    The California Ridgway's rail Rallus obsoletus obsoletus (hereafter California rail) is a secretive marsh bird endemic to tidal marshes in the San Francisco Bay (hereafter bay) of California. The California rail has undergone significant range contraction and population declines due to a variety of factors, including predation and the degradation and loss of habitat. Call-count surveys, which include call playbacks, based on the standardized North American marsh bird monitoring protocol have been conducted throughout the bay since 2005 to monitor population size and distribution of the California rail. However, call-count surveys are difficult to evaluate for efficacy or accuracy. To measure the accuracy of call-count surveys and investigate whether radio-marked California rails moved in response to call-count surveys, we compared locations of radio-marked California rails collected at frequent intervals (15 min) to California rail detections recorded during call-count surveys conducted over the same time periods. Overall, 60% of radio-marked California rails within 200 m of observers were not detected during call-count surveys. Movements of radio-marked California rails showed no directional bias (P = 0.92) irrespective of whether or not playbacks of five marsh bird species (including the California rail) were broadcast from listening stations. Our findings suggest that playbacks of rail vocalizations do not consistently influence California rail movements during surveys. However, call-count surveys may underestimate California rail presence; therefore, caution should be used when relating raw numbers of call-count detections to population abundance.

  6. Swift observations of unidentified radio sources in the revised Third Cambridge Catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maselli, A.; Massaro, F.; Cusumano, G.; La Parola, V.; Harris, D. E.; Paggi, A.; Liuzzo, E.; Tremblay, G. R.; Baum, S. A.; O'Dea, C. P.

    2016-08-01

    We have investigated a group of unassociated radio sources included in the Third Cambridge Catalogue (3CR) to increase the multifrequency information on them and possibly obtain an identification. We have carried out an observational campaign with the Swift satellite to observe with the Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope (UVOT) and the X-Ray Telescope (XRT) the field of view of 21 bright NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) sources within the positional uncertainty region of the 3CR sources. Furthermore, we have searched in the recent AllWISE Source Catalogue for infrared sources matching the position of these NVSS sources. We have detected significant emission in the soft X-ray band for nine of the investigated NVSS sources. To all of them, and in four cases with no soft X-ray association, we have associated a Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer infrared counterpart. Eight of these infrared candidates have not been proposed earlier in the literature. In the five remaining cases our candidate matches one among a few optical candidates suggested for the same 3CR source in previous studies. No source has been detected in the UVOT filters at the position of the NVSS objects, confirming the scenario that all of them are heavily obscured. With this in mind, a spectroscopic campaign, preferably in the infrared band, will be necessary to establish the nature of the sources that we have finally identified.

  7. Tomography of seismo-radio wave source regions for predicting imminent earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Kozo

    1989-10-01

    To detect a seismo-electromagnetic effect in a noisy land area or a deep-sea area, two methods are proposed. In the land area, a steel casing pipe inserted in a deep borehole has been used as the linear element of a monopole antenna. This method is shown to be very effective in rejecting atmospherics. In the deep-sea area, man-made noise and atmospherics can be attenuated by using insula