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Sample records for radio-labelled food reveals

  1. Feeding and Stocking Up: Radio-Labelled Food Reveals Exchange Patterns in Ants

    PubMed Central

    Buffin, Aurélie; Denis, Damien; Van Simaeys, Gaetan; Goldman, Serge; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis

    2009-01-01

    Food sharing is vital for a large number of species, either solitary or social, and is of particular importance within highly integrated societies, such as in colonial organisms and in social insects. Nevertheless, the mechanisms that govern the distribution of food inside a complex organizational system remain unknown. Using scintigraphy, a method developed for medical imaging, we were able to describe the dynamics of food-flow inside an ant colony. We monitored the sharing process of a radio-labelled sucrose solution inside a nest of Formica fusca. Our results show that, from the very first load that enters the nest, food present within the colony acts as negative feedback to entering food. After one hour of the experiments, 70% of the final harvest has already entered the nest. The total foraged quantity is almost four times smaller than the expected storage capacity. A finer study of the spatial distribution of food shows that although all ants have been fed rapidly (within 30 minutes), a small area representing on average 8% of the radioactive surface holds more than 25% of the stored food. Even in rather homogeneous nests, we observed a strong concentration of food in few workers. Examining the position of these workers inside the nest, we found heavily loaded ants in the centre of the aggregate. The position of the centre of this high-intensity radioactive surface remained stable for the three consecutive hours of the experiments. We demonstrate that the colony simultaneously managed to rapidly feed all workers (200 ants fed within 30 minutes) and build up food stocks to prevent food shortage, something that occurs rather often in changing environments. Though we expected the colony to forage to its maximum capacity, the flow of food entering the colony is finely tuned to the colony's needs. Indeed the food-flow decreases proportionally to the food that has already been harvested, liberating the work-force for other tasks. PMID:19536275

  2. Revealing the values behind convenience food consumption.

    PubMed

    Botonaki, Anna; Mattas, Konstadinos

    2010-12-01

    The increasing importance of convenience in consumer food choices has attracted researchers' interest. In the effort to understand how convenience affects consumers' food preferences, values are believed to play an important role. The present study attempts to examine the way personal values suggested by Schwartz (1992) are associated with behaviour and attitudes regarding convenience food. A number of constructs describing food related attitudes and behaviours were developed and their relationship with personal values was analyzed following the methodology proposed by Brunsø, Scholderer, and Grunert (2004). Data were collected through a questionnaire survey from a random sample of consumers in Thessaloniki city, Greece. The results reveal that convenience food consumption and convenience orientation in the food domain are mainly connected with values that motivate people to seek new experiences, act independently and enhance their own personal interests, while are in conflict with values of conservation and self-transcendence. The opposite holds for other food related attitudes and behaviours like involvement with cooking and variety in diet. The findings seem to be of particular interest not only for marketers of food products, but also for food policy makers.

  3. Generalized models reveal stabilizing factors in food webs.

    PubMed

    Gross, Thilo; Rudolf, Lars; Levin, Simon A; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2009-08-07

    Insights into what stabilizes natural food webs have always been limited by a fundamental dilemma: Studies either need to make unwarranted simplifying assumptions, which undermines their relevance, or only examine few replicates of small food webs, which hampers the robustness of findings. We used generalized modeling to study several billion replicates of food webs with nonlinear interactions and up to 50 species. In this way, first we show that higher variability in link strengths stabilizes food webs only when webs are relatively small, whereas larger webs are instead destabilized. Second, we reveal a new power law describing how food-web stability scales with the number of species and their connectance. Third, we report two universal rules: Food-web stability is enhanced when (i) species at a high trophic level feed on multiple prey species and (ii) species at an intermediate trophic level are fed upon by multiple predator species.

  4. In vitro binding of a radio-labeled positive allosteric modulator for metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5.

    PubMed

    Zysk, John R; Spear, Nathan; Fieles, William; Stein, Mark M; Sygowski, Linda S; King, Megan M; Hoesch, Valerie; Hastings, Richard; Brockel, Becky; Do, Mylinh; Ström, Peter; Gadient, Reto; Chhajlani, Vijay; Elmore, Charles S; Maier, Donna L

    2013-03-01

    The positive allosteric modulator (PAM) binding site for metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu(5)) lacks a readily available radio-labeled tracer fordetailed structure-activity studies. This communication describes a selective mGlu(5) compound, 7-methyl-2-(4-(pyridin-2-yloxy)benzyl)-5-(pyridin-3-yl)isoindolin-1-one (PBPyl) that binds with high affinity to human mGlu(5) and exhibits functional PAM activity. Analysis of PBPyl by FLIPR revealed an EC(50) of 87 nM with an 89% effect in transfected HEK293 cells and an EC(50) of 81 nM with a 42% effect in rat primary neurons. PBPyl exhibited 5-fold higher functional selectivity for mGlu(5) in a full mGlu receptor panel. Unlabeled PBPyl was tested for specific binding using a liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS)-based filtration binding assay and exhibited 40% specific binding in recombinant membranes, a value higher than any candidate compound tested. In competition binding studies with [(3)H]MPEP, the mGlu(5) receptor negative allosteric modulator (NAM), PBPyl exhibited a k(i) value of 34 nM. PBPyl also displaced [(3)H]ABP688, a mGluR(5) receptor NAM, in tissue sections from mouse and rat brain using autoradiography. Areas of specific binding included the frontal cortex, striatum and nucleus accumbens. PBPyl was radiolabeled to a specific activity of 15 Ci/mmol and tested for specific binding in a filter plate format. In recombinant mGlu(5b) membranes, [(3)H] PBPyl exhibited saturable binding with a K(d) value of 18.6 nM. In competition binding experiments, [(3)H] PBPyl was displaced by high affinity mGlu(5) positive and negative modulators. Further tests showed that PBPyl displays less than optimal characteristics as an in vivo tool, including a high volume of distribution and ClogP, making it more suitable as an in vitro compound. However, as a first report of direct binding of an mGlu(5) receptor PAM, this study offers value toward the development of novel PET imaging agents for this important

  5. Biodistribution and toxicity of radio-labeled few layer graphene in mice after intratracheal instillation.

    PubMed

    Mao, Liang; Hu, Maojie; Pan, Bingcai; Xie, Yongchao; Petersen, Elijah J

    2016-02-11

    The potential human health risks from graphene inhalation exposure have attracted substantial scientific interest as a result of the numerous exciting potential commercial applications of graphene. However, the long-term distribution of graphene in organisms after inhalation is unknown, largely as a result of challenges associated with accurate graphene quantification. Carbon-14 labeled FLG was used to quantify the in vivo distribution of FLG in mice after oral gavage or intratracheal instillation for up to 3 or 28 days after exposure, respectively. Intratracheally instilled FLG was mainly retained in the lung with 47% remaining after 4 weeks. Exposure to non-labeled FLG resulted in dose-dependent acute lung injury and pulmonary edema, but these effects were alleviated with time despite the continued presence of FLG in the lungs. One percent and 0.18% of the intratracheally instilled FLG was present in the liver and spleen, respectively, after 14 days by passing through the air-blood barrier, a finding supported by the results of oral gavage experiments which did not show detectable absorption through the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, 46.2% of the intratracheally instilled FLG was excreted through the feces 28 d after exposure. Quantitative measurements revealed the elimination mechanism for FLG and its biodistribution for two exposure pathways. Graphene persistence in the lung only caused transient pulmonary effects. The in vivo distribution, elimination, and toxicity results provided here measured using a robust quantitative method support the human health risk assessment of graphene.

  6. Reveal Listeria 2.0 test for detection of Listeria spp. in foods and environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Alles, Susan; Curry, Stephanie; Almy, David; Jagadeesan, Balamurugan; Rice, Jennifer; Mozola, Mark

    2012-01-01

    A Performance Tested Method validation study was conducted for a new lateral flow immunoassay (Reveal Listeria 2.0) for detection of Listeria spp. in foods and environmental samples. Results of inclusivity testing showed that the test detects all species of Listeria, with the exception of L. grayi. In exclusivity testing conducted under nonselective growth conditions, all non-listeriae tested produced negative Reveal assay results, except for three strains of Lactobacillus spp. However, these lactobacilli are inhibited by the selective Listeria Enrichment Single Step broth enrichment medium used with the Reveal method. Six foods were tested in parallel by the Reveal method and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration/Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA/BAM) reference culture procedure. Considering data from both internal and independent laboratory trials, overall sensitivity of the Reveal method relative to that of the FDA/BAM procedure was 101%. Four foods were tested in parallel by the Reveal method and the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS) reference culture procedure. Overall sensitivity of the Reveal method relative to that of the USDA-FSIS procedure was 98.2%. There were no statistically significant differences in the number of positives obtained by the Reveal and reference culture procedures in any food trials. In testing of swab or sponge samples from four types of environmental surfaces, sensitivity of Reveal relative to that of the USDA-FSIS reference culture procedure was 127%. For two surface types, differences in the number of positives obtained by the Reveal and reference methods were statistically significant, with more positives by the Reveal method in both cases. Specificity of the Reveal assay was 100%, as there were no unconfirmed positive results obtained in any phase of the testing. Results of ruggedness experiments showed that the Reveal assay is tolerant of modest deviations in test sample volume and

  7. Paucity of nutrition and food safety 'news you can use' reveals opportunity for dietetics practitioners.

    PubMed

    Borra, S T; Earl, R; Hogan, E H

    1998-02-01

    The media is consistently ranked by the public as their primary source of nutrition and food information. To address the question of what the public is hearing about food, nutrition, and health through the news media, the International Food Information Council Foundation commissioned the Center for Media and Public Affairs to conduct a content analysis of nutrition and food safety stories. The study examined media coverage from 53 print and electronic news outlets during a 3-month period from May through July 1995. Specific criteria were applied to select the sample of food and nutrition stories (n = 979) by length of coverage during the reporting period. Coverage related to food policy or regulation, food programs, individual food companies or products, advertising or marketing, and economic adulteration or tampering were excluded from the sample. The analysis of media coverage of food and nutrition topics revealed a twofold emphasis on dietary fat over other topics. Consumption of dietary fat was mentioned in almost half of all reports, apart from discussions of body fat, weight, or obesity as a health issue. The content analysis also showed an inverse relationship between media stories of foods by food group compared with the recommended number of servings in the Food Guide Pyramid. During an era in which Americans receive their health, nutrition, and food messages from the media rather than from health professionals such as physicians and dietitians, there are multiple challenges for communicating with the public. Our media research and its findings offer approaches for dietetics practitioners to use when providing nutrition and food recommendations and education for clients and the public. These include communicating science, providing context, reinforcing basic messages and guidelines, and promoting action and behavior change to clients and consumers.

  8. Variable and complex food web structures revealed by exploring missing trophic links between birds and biofilm.

    PubMed

    Kuwae, Tomohiro; Miyoshi, Eiichi; Hosokawa, Shinya; Ichimi, Kazuhiko; Hosoya, Jun; Amano, Tatsuya; Moriya, Toshifumi; Kondoh, Michio; Ydenberg, Ronald C; Elner, Robert W

    2012-04-01

    Food webs are comprised of a network of trophic interactions and are essential to elucidating ecosystem processes and functions. However, the presence of unknown, but critical networks hampers understanding of complex and dynamic food webs in nature. Here, we empirically demonstrate a missing link, both critical and variable, by revealing that direct predator-prey relationships between shorebirds and biofilm are widespread and mediated by multiple ecological and evolutionary determinants. Food source mixing models and energy budget estimates indicate that the strength of the missing linkage is dependent on predator traits (body mass and foraging action rate) and the environment that determines food density. Morphological analyses, showing that smaller bodied species possess more developed feeding apparatus to consume biofilm, suggest that the linkage is also phylogenetically dependent and affords a compelling re-interpretation of niche differentiation. We contend that exploring missing links is a necessity for revealing true network structure and dynamics.

  9. Rats' urinary metabolomes reveal the potential roles of functional foods and exercise in obesity management.

    PubMed

    Farag, Mohamed A; Ammar, N M; Kholeif, T E; Metwally, N S; El-Sheikh, N M; Wessjohann, Ludger A; Abdel-Hamid, A Z

    2017-03-22

    The complexity of the metabolic changes in obese individuals still presents a challenge for the understanding of obesity-related metabolic disruptions and for obesity management. In this study, a gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) based metabolomics approach targeting urine metabolism has been applied to assess the potential roles of functional foods and exercise for obesity management in rats. Male albino rats diagnosed as obese via histopathology and biochemical assays were administered functional foods in common use for obesity management including pomegranate, grapefruit, and red cabbage juice extracts in parallel with swimming exercise. Urine samples were collected from these rats, and likewise from healthy control animals, for metabolite analysis using (GC-MS) coupled to multivariate data analysis. The results revealed a significant elevation in oxalate and phosphate levels in obese rat urine concurrent with lower lactate levels as compared to the control group. Furthermore, and to pinpoint the bioactive agents in the administered functional foods, ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) was employed for secondary metabolite profiling. The different phenolic classes found in the examined functional foods, viz. ellagitannins in pomegranate, flavanones in grapefruit and flavonols in red cabbage, are likely to mediate their anti-obesity effects. The results indicate that these functional foods and exercise were quite effective in reverting obesity-related metabolic disruptions back to normal status, as revealed by orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA).

  10. Trophic positioning of meiofauna revealed by stable isotopes and food web analyses.

    PubMed

    Schmid-Araya, Jenny M; Schmid, Peter E; Tod, Steven P; Esteban, Genoveva F

    2016-11-01

    Despite important advances in the ecology of river food webs, the strength and nature of the connection between the meio- and macrofaunal components of the web are still debated. Some unresolved issues are the effects of the inclusion of meiofaunal links and their temporal variations on the overall river food web properties, and the significance of autochthonous and allochthonous material for these components. In the present study, we conducted analyses of gut content of macro- and meiofauna and stable isotope analyses of meiofauna to examine seasonal food webs of a chalk stream. The results of the gut content analyses, confirmed by the δ(13) C signatures, revealed a seasonal shift from a dependence on autochthonous (biofilm) to allochthonous food sources. Here, we demonstrate that aggregating basal or meiofaunal species into single categories affects key web properties such as web size, links, linkage density, and predator-prey ratios. More importantly, seasonal variation in attributes characterized the entire web and these changes persist regardless of taxonomic resolution. Furthermore, our analyses evidenced discrete variations in δ(15) N across the meiofauna community with a trophic structure that confirms gut content analyses, placing the meiofauna high in the food web. We, therefore, conclude that small-body-sized taxa can occur high in dynamic river food webs, questioning assumptions that trophic position increases with body size and that webs are static.

  11. Comparative genomics analyses revealed two virulent Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from ready-to-eat food.

    PubMed

    Lim, Shu Yong; Yap, Kien-Pong; Thong, Kwai Lin

    2016-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is an important foodborne pathogen that causes considerable morbidity in humans with high mortality rates. In this study, we have sequenced the genomes and performed comparative genomics analyses on two strains, LM115 and LM41, isolated from ready-to-eat food in Malaysia. The genome size of LM115 and LM41 was 2,959,041 and 2,963,111 bp, respectively. These two strains shared approximately 90% homologous genes. Comparative genomics and phylogenomic analyses revealed that LM115 and LM41 were more closely related to the reference strains F2365 and EGD-e, respectively. Our virulence profiling indicated a total of 31 virulence genes shared by both analysed strains. These shared genes included those that encode for internalins and L. monocytogenes pathogenicity island 1 (LIPI-1). Both the Malaysian L. monocytogenes strains also harboured several genes associated with stress tolerance to counter the adverse conditions. Seven antibiotic and efflux pump related genes which may confer resistance against lincomycin, erythromycin, fosfomycin, quinolone, tetracycline, and penicillin, and macrolides were identified in the genomes of both strains. Whole genome sequencing and comparative genomics analyses revealed two virulent L. monocytogenes strains isolated from ready-to-eat foods in Malaysia. The identification of strains with pathogenic, persistent, and antibiotic resistant potentials from minimally processed food warrant close attention from both healthcare and food industry.

  12. The probabilistic niche model reveals substantial variation in the niche structure of empirical food webs.

    PubMed

    Williams, Richard J; Purves, Drew W

    2011-09-01

    The structure of food webs, complex networks of interspecies feeding interactions, plays a crucial role in ecosystem resilience and function, and understanding food web structure remains a central problem in ecology. Previous studies have shown that key features of empirical food webs can be reproduced by low-dimensional "niche" models. Here we examine the form and variability of food web niche structure by fitting a probabilistic niche model to 37 empirical food webs, a much larger number of food webs than used in previous studies. The model relaxes previous assumptions about parameter distributions and hierarchy and returns parameter estimates for each species in each web. The model significantly outperforms previous niche model variants and also performs well for several webs where a body-size-based niche model performs poorly, implying that traits other than body size are important in structuring these webs' niche space. Parameter estimates frequently violate previous models' assumptions: in 19 of 37 webs, parameter values are not significantly hierarchical, 32 of 37 webs have nonuniform niche value distributions, and 15 of 37 webs lack a correlation between niche width and niche position. Extending the model to a two-dimensional niche space yields networks with a mixture of one- and two-dimensional niches and provides a significantly better fit for webs with a large number of species and links. These results confirm that food webs are strongly niche-structured but reveal substantial variation in the form of the niche structuring, a result with fundamental implications for ecosystem resilience and function.

  13. Different levels of food restriction reveal genotype-specific differences in learning a visual discrimination task.

    PubMed

    Makowiecki, Kalina; Hammond, Geoff; Rodger, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    In behavioural experiments, motivation to learn can be achieved using food rewards as positive reinforcement in food-restricted animals. Previous studies reduce animal weights to 80-90% of free-feeding body weight as the criterion for food restriction. However, effects of different degrees of food restriction on task performance have not been assessed. We compared learning task performance in mice food-restricted to 80 or 90% body weight (BW). We used adult wildtype (WT; C57Bl/6j) and knockout (ephrin-A2⁻/⁻) mice, previously shown to have a reverse learning deficit. Mice were trained in a two-choice visual discrimination task with food reward as positive reinforcement. When mice reached criterion for one visual stimulus (80% correct in three consecutive 10 trial sets) they began the reverse learning phase, where the rewarded stimulus was switched to the previously incorrect stimulus. For the initial learning and reverse phase of the task, mice at 90%BW took almost twice as many trials to reach criterion as mice at 80%BW. Furthermore, WT 80 and 90%BW groups significantly differed in percentage correct responses and learning strategy in the reverse learning phase, whereas no differences between weight restriction groups were observed in ephrin-A2⁻/⁻ mice. Most importantly, genotype-specific differences in reverse learning strategy were only detected in the 80%BW groups. Our results indicate that increased food restriction not only results in better performance and a shorter training period, but may also be necessary for revealing behavioural differences between experimental groups. This has important ethical and animal welfare implications when deciding extent of diet restriction in behavioural studies.

  14. Using GPS and activity tracking to reveal the influence of adolescents' food environment exposure on junk food purchasing.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Richard C; Clark, Andrew F; Wilk, Piotr; O'Connor, Colleen; Gilliland, Jason A

    2016-06-09

    This study examines the influence of adolescents' exposure to unhealthy food outlets on junk food purchasing during trips between home and school, with particular attention to how exposure and purchasing differ according to child's biological sex, mode of transportation, and direction to or from school. Between 2010 and 2013, students (n = 654) aged 9-13 years from 25 schools in London and Middlesex County, ON, completed a socio-demographic survey and an activity diary (to identify food purchases), and were observed via a global positioning system for 2 weeks (to track routes for trips to/from school). Spatial data on routes and purchase data were integrated with a validated food outlet database in a geographic information system, and exposure was measured as the minutes a child spent within 50 m of an unhealthy food outlet (i.e., fast food restaurants, variety stores). For trips involving junk food exposure (n = 4588), multilevel logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between exposure and purchasing. Multilevel analyses indicated that adolescents' duration of exposure to unhealthy food outlets between home and school had a significant effect on the likelihood of junk food purchasing. This relationship remained significant when the data were stratified by sex (female/male), trip direction (to/from school) and travel mode (active/car), with the exception of adolescents who travelled by bus. Policies and programs that mitigate the concentration of unhealthy food outlets close to schools are critical for encouraging healthy eating behaviours among children and reducing diet-related health issues such as obesity.

  15. Cryptic biodiversity effects: importance of functional redundancy revealed through addition of food web complexity.

    PubMed

    Philpott, Stacy M; Pardee, Gabriella L; Gonthier, David J

    2012-05-01

    Interactions between predators and the degree of functional redundancy among multiple predator species may determine whether herbivores experience increased or decreased predation risk. Specialist parasites can modify predator behavior, yet rarely have cascading effects on multiple predator species and prey been evaluated. We examined influences of specialist phorid parasites (Pseudacteon spp.) on three predatory ant species and herbivores in a coffee agroecosystem. Specifically, we examined whether changes in ant richness affected fruit damage by the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) and whether phorids altered multi-predator effects. Each ant species reduced borer damage, and without phorids, increasing predator richness did not further decrease borer damage. However, with phorids, activity of one ant species was reduced, indicating that the presence of multiple ant species was necessary to limit borer damage. In addition, phorid presence revealed synergistic effects of multiple ant species, not observed without the presence of this parasite. Thus, a trait-mediated cascade resulting from a parasite-induced predator behavioral change revealed the importance of functional redundancy, predator diversity, and food web complexity for control of this important pest.

  16. Reveal Salmonella 2.0 test for detection of Salmonella spp. in foods and environmental samples. Performance Tested Method 960801.

    PubMed

    Hoerner, Rebecca; Feldpausch, Jill; Gray, R Lucas; Curry, Stephanie; Islam, Zahidul; Goldy, Tim; Klein, Frank; Tadese, Theodros; Rice, Jennifer; Mozola, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Reveal Salmonella 2.0 is an improved version of the original Reveal Salmonella lateral flow immunoassay and is applicable to the detection of Salmonella enterica serogroups A-E in a variety of food and environmental samples. A Performance Tested Method validation study was conducted to compare performance of the Reveal 2.0 method with that of the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Food Safety and Inspection Service or U.S. Food and Drug Administration/Bacteriological Analytical Manual reference culture methods for detection of Salmonella spp. in chicken carcass rinse, raw ground turkey, raw ground beef, hot dogs, raw shrimp, a ready-to-eat meal product, dry pet food, ice cream, spinach, cantaloupe, peanut butter, stainless steel surface, and sprout irrigation water. In a total of 17 trials performed internally and four trials performed in an independent laboratory, there were no statistically significant differences in performance of the Reveal 2.0 and reference culture procedures as determined by Chi-square analysis, with the exception of one trial with stainless steel surface and one trial with sprout irrigation water where there were significantly more positive results by the Reveal 2.0 method. Considering all data generated in testing food samples using enrichment procedures specifically designed for the Reveal method, overall sensitivity of the Reveal method relative to the reference culture methods was 99%. In testing environmental samples, sensitivity of the Reveal method relative to the reference culture method was 164%. For select foods, use of the Reveal test in conjunction with reference method enrichment resulted in overall sensitivity of 92%. There were no unconfirmed positive results on uninoculated control samples in any trials for specificity of 100%. In inclusivity testing, 102 different Salmonella serovars belonging to serogroups A-E were tested and 99 were consistently positive in the Reveal test. In exclusivity testing of 33 strains of non

  17. Historical metal concentrations in lacustrine food webs revealed using fossil ephippia from Daphnia.

    PubMed

    Wyn, B; Sweetman, J N; Leavitt, P R; Donald, D B

    2007-04-01

    Metal contamination of freshwater ecosystems is increasingly prevalent due to anthropogenic activities such as metal smelting and fossil fuel combustion. While toxicological studies focus on aqueous metal concentrations that result in lethal or sublethal responses, currently the only method for reconstructing a lake's metal contamination history is through an examination of the sedimentary deposits. In this paper, we suggest that cladoceran diapausing eggs (ephippia), which are abundant in nature and accumulate maternally derived metals, can be used to measure historical variations in biologically relevant metals that derive from the water column (water, diet). Linear regressions of total metal content against ephippia density or mass were strong (R2 > 0.80, P < 0.04) and revealed that metals were incorporated into ephippia with little contamination from the sediment matrix. Comparison of metal concentrations in ephippia and bulk sediments from three lakes demonstrated that some metals associated with urban sources (Cd, Cr, Mo) were preferentially concentrated in ephippia, whereas concentrations of other metals indicating landscape erosion (Al, Ca, Fe, Mn) exhibited greater concentrations in bulk sediments than in diapausing eggs. Because historical changes in metals within fossils and bulk sediments were uncorrelated in most instances, past variation in the metal content of ephippia provided a unique history of food web exposure to metals in the water column.

  18. Large manipulative experiments reveal complex effects of food supplementation on population dynamics of Brandt's voles.

    PubMed

    Yin, Baofa; Li, Guoliang; Wan, Xinrong; Shang, Guozhen; Wei, Wanhong; Zhang, Zhibin

    2017-08-01

    Although food supplementation is well known to increase population density, there is still debate on the causative effects of food supplementation on reproduction, survival, and immigration. Large manipulative experiments, which exclude any confounding effects of dispersal and predation, are essential for clarifying the debate. In this study, we investigated the effects of food supplementation on Brandt's vole population dynamics and plant community in eight large enclosures (0.48 ha each) from 2010 to 2014. Food supplementation showed significant positive effects on population density due to increases in recruitment; however, it showed a complex effect on survival of voles: positive in non-breeding seasons, but negative in breeding seasons. In addition, food supplementation increased the quality of plants (as reflected by increased crude protein content), but decreased the quantity of less preferred plants in experimental enclosures. Thus, food seems to have direct positive effects on small rodents through improvement of food supply and indirect negative effects through food-induced density-dependent effects, and may have long-term effects on rodents through altering plant community composition and abundance.

  19. Stable nitrogen isotopic composition of amino acids reveals food web structure in stream ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Naoto F; Kato, Yoshikazu; Togashi, Hiroyuki; Yoshimura, Mayumi; Yoshimizu, Chikage; Okuda, Noboru; Tayasu, Ichiro

    2014-07-01

    The stable N isotopic composition of individual amino acids (SIAA) has recently been used to estimate trophic positions (TPs) of animals in several simple food chain systems. However, it is unknown whether the SIAA is applicable to more complex food web analysis. In this study we measured the SIAA of stream macroinvertebrates, fishes, and their potential food sources (periphyton and leaf litter of terrestrial C3 plants) collected from upper and lower sites in two streams having contrasting riparian landscapes. The stable N isotope ratios of glutamic acid and phenylalanine confirmed that for primary producers (periphyton and C3 litter) the TP was 1, and for primary consumers (e.g., mayfly and caddisfly larvae) it was 2. We built a two-source mixing model to estimate the relative contributions of aquatic and terrestrial sources to secondary and higher consumers (e.g., stonefly larva and fishes) prior to the TP calculation. The estimated TPs (2.3-3.5) roughly corresponded to their omnivorous and carnivorous feeding habits, respectively. We found that the SIAA method offers substantial advantages over traditional bulk method for food web analysis because it defines the food web structure based on the metabolic pathway of amino groups, and can be used to estimate food web structure under conditions where the bulk method cannot be used. Our result provides evidence that the SIAA method is applicable to the analysis of complex food webs, where heterogeneous resources are mixed.

  20. Experimental food supplementation reveals habitat-dependent male reproductive investment in a migratory bird

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Sara A.; Sillett, T. Scott; Risk, Benjamin B.; Webster, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental factors can shape reproductive investment strategies and influence the variance in male mating success. Environmental effects on extrapair paternity have traditionally been ascribed to aspects of the social environment, such as breeding density and synchrony. However, social factors are often confounded with habitat quality and are challenging to disentangle. We used both natural variation in habitat quality and a food supplementation experiment to separate the effects of food availability—one key aspect of habitat quality—on extrapair paternity (EPP) and reproductive success in the black-throated blue warbler, Setophaga caerulescens. High natural food availability was associated with higher within-pair paternity (WPP) and fledging two broods late in the breeding season, but lower EPP. Food-supplemented males had higher WPP leading to higher reproductive success relative to controls, and when in low-quality habitat, food-supplemented males were more likely to fledge two broods but less likely to gain EPP. Our results demonstrate that food availability affects trade-offs in reproductive activities. When food constraints are reduced, males invest in WPP at the expense of EPP. These findings imply that environmental change could alter how individuals allocate their resources and affect the selective environment that drives variation in male mating success. PMID:25673677

  1. Experimental food supplementation reveals habitat-dependent male reproductive investment in a migratory bird.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Sara A; Sillett, T Scott; Risk, Benjamin B; Webster, Michael S

    2015-03-22

    Environmental factors can shape reproductive investment strategies and influence the variance in male mating success. Environmental effects on extrapair paternity have traditionally been ascribed to aspects of the social environment, such as breeding density and synchrony. However, social factors are often confounded with habitat quality and are challenging to disentangle. We used both natural variation in habitat quality and a food supplementation experiment to separate the effects of food availability-one key aspect of habitat quality-on extrapair paternity (EPP) and reproductive success in the black-throated blue warbler, Setophaga caerulescens. High natural food availability was associated with higher within-pair paternity (WPP) and fledging two broods late in the breeding season, but lower EPP. Food-supplemented males had higher WPP leading to higher reproductive success relative to controls, and when in low-quality habitat, food-supplemented males were more likely to fledge two broods but less likely to gain EPP. Our results demonstrate that food availability affects trade-offs in reproductive activities. When food constraints are reduced, males invest in WPP at the expense of EPP. These findings imply that environmental change could alter how individuals allocate their resources and affect the selective environment that drives variation in male mating success. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  2. What do consumer surveys and experiments reveal and conceal about consumer preferences for genetically modified foods?

    PubMed

    Colson, Gregory; Rousu, Matthew C

    2013-01-01

    Assessing consumer perceptions and willingness to pay for genetically modified (GM) foods has been one of the most active areas of empirical research in agricultural economics. Researchers over the past 15 years have delivered well over 100 estimates of consumers' willingness to pay for GM foods using surveys and experimental methods. In this review, we explore a number of unresolved issues related to three questions that are critical when considering the sum of the individual contributions that constitute the evidence on consumer preferences for GM foods.

  3. Stable isotopes reveal links between human food inputs and urban ant diets

    PubMed Central

    Penick, Clint A.; Savage, Amy M.; Dunn, Robert R.

    2015-01-01

    The amount of energy consumed within an average city block is an order of magnitude higher than that consumed in any other ecosystem over a similar area. This is driven by human food inputs, but the consequence of these resources for urban animal populations is poorly understood. We investigated the role of human foods in ant diets across an urbanization gradient in Manhattan using carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes. We found that some—but not all—ant species living in Manhattan's most urbanized habitats had δ13C signatures associated with processed human foods. In particular, pavement ants (Tetramorium sp. E) had increased levels of δ13C similar to δ13C levels in human fast foods. The magnitude of this effect was positively correlated with urbanization. By contrast, we detected no differences in δ15N, suggesting Tetramorium feeds at the same trophic level despite shifting to human foods. This pattern persisted across the broader ant community; species in traffic islands used human resources more than park species. Our results demonstrate that the degree urban ants exploit human resources changes across the city and among species, and this variation could play a key role in community structure and ecosystem processes where human and animal food webs intersect. PMID:25833850

  4. Stable isotopes reveal links between human food inputs and urban ant diets.

    PubMed

    Penick, Clint A; Savage, Amy M; Dunn, Robert R

    2015-05-07

    The amount of energy consumed within an average city block is an order of magnitude higher than that consumed in any other ecosystem over a similar area. This is driven by human food inputs, but the consequence of these resources for urban animal populations is poorly understood. We investigated the role of human foods in ant diets across an urbanization gradient in Manhattan using carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes. We found that some-but not all-ant species living in Manhattan's most urbanized habitats had δ(13)C signatures associated with processed human foods. In particular, pavement ants (Tetramorium sp. E) had increased levels of δ(13)C similar to δ(13)C levels in human fast foods. The magnitude of this effect was positively correlated with urbanization. By contrast, we detected no differences in δ(15)N, suggesting Tetramorium feeds at the same trophic level despite shifting to human foods. This pattern persisted across the broader ant community; species in traffic islands used human resources more than park species. Our results demonstrate that the degree urban ants exploit human resources changes across the city and among species, and this variation could play a key role in community structure and ecosystem processes where human and animal food webs intersect. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Is food-related lifestyle (FRL) able to reveal food consumption patterns in non-Western cultural environments? Its adaptation and application in urban China.

    PubMed

    Grunert, Klaus G; Perrea, Toula; Zhou, Yanfeng; Huang, Guang; Sørensen, Bjarne T; Krystallis, Athanasios

    2011-04-01

    Research related to food-related behaviour in China is still scarce, one reason being the fact that food consumption patterns in East Asia do not appear to be easily analyzed by models originating in Western cultures. The objective of the present work is to examine the ability of the food related lifestyle (FRL) instrument to reveal food consumption patterns in a Chinese context. Data were collected from 479 respondents in 6 major Chinese cities using a Chinese version of the FRL instrument. Analysis of reliability and dimensionality of the scales resulted in a revised version of the instrument, in which a number of dimensions of the original instrument had to be omitted. This revised instrument was tested for statistical robustness and used as a basis for the derivation of consumer segments. Construct validity of the instrument was then investigated by profiling the segments in terms of consumer values, attitudes and purchase behaviour, using frequency of consumption of pork products as an example. Three consumer segments were identified: concerned, uninvolved and traditional. This pattern replicates partly those identified in Western cultures. Moreover, all three segments showed consistent value-attitude-behaviour profiles. The results also suggest which dimensions may be missing in the instrument in a more comprehensive instrument adapted to Chinese conditions, most notably a broader treatment of eating out activities. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The role of ammonites in the Mesozoic marine food web revealed by jaw preservation.

    PubMed

    Kruta, Isabelle; Landman, Neil; Rouget, Isabelle; Cecca, Fabrizio; Tafforeau, Paul

    2011-01-07

    Ammonites are prominent in macroevolutionary studies because of their abundance and diversity in the fossil record, but their paleobiology and position in the marine food web are not well understood due to the lack of preserved soft tissue. We present three-dimensional reconstructions of the buccal apparatus in the Mesozoic ammonite Baculites with the use of synchrotron x-ray microtomography. Buccal mass morphology, combined with the coexistence of food remains found in the buccal mass, suggests that these ammonites fed on plankton. This diet may have extended to all aptychophoran ammonites, which share the same buccal mass morphology. Understanding the role of these ammonites in the Mesozoic food web provides insights into their radiation in the Early Jurassic, as well as their extinction at the end of the Cretaceous/early Paleogene.

  7. Revealing the Prevalence and Consequences of Food Insecurity in Children with Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Jennifer A; Klett, Bethany M; Klein, Melissa D; Inman, Nicole; Beck, Andrew F

    2017-05-05

    Food insecurity (FI) affects more than one in five American children and is increasingly addressed during pediatric primary care. Its relevance during subspecialty care, including in the treatment of chronic conditions like epilepsy, is largely unknown. This study sought to determine the FI prevalence among children with epilepsy and examine the relationship between FI and healthcare utilization, health-related quality-of-life (HR-QOL), and medication side effect control. This was a retrospective cohort study using electronic health record data from children, aged 2-17 years, seen for epilepsy management at an academic pediatric hospital. The primary predictor was household FI status, determined using a validated screening tool employed in the hospital's pediatric neurology clinics. The primary outcome was unplanned healthcare utilization in the 6 months following initial FI screen. Secondary outcomes were standardized, validated assessments of HR-QOL and epilepsy medication side effects. Nearly 14% of the 691 children seen in the clinics for epilepsy lived in food insecure households. The impact of FI on healthcare utilization varied by race. For Caucasians, healthcare utilization rates were significantly higher among food insecure individuals than food secure individuals (37 vs. 17%, p = 0.003). Among African Americans, healthcare utilization rates did not vary with food security status (p = 0.6). Children in food insecure households had lower HR-QOL (p < 0.0001) and higher medication side effects (p = 0.0005). FI is common among children with epilepsy and may influence adverse health outcomes. Further exploration into how FI and other social determinants influence management of and determine outcomes for chronic diseases is warranted.

  8. Suppressive responses by visual food cues in postprandial activities of insular cortex as revealed by magnetoencephalography.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Takahiro; Tanaka, Masaaki; Ishii, Akira; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2014-06-03

    'Hara-Hachibu' in Japanese means a subjective sense by which we stop eating just before the motivation to eat is completely lost, a similar concept to caloric restriction (CR). Insular cortex is a critical platform which integrates sensory information into decision-making processes in eating behavior. We compared the responses of insular cortex, as assessed by magnetoencephalography (MEG), immediately after presentation of food images in the Fasting condition with those in the 'Hara-Hachibu' condition. Eleven healthy, right-handed males [age, 27.2±9.6 years; body mass index, 22.6±2.1kg/m(2) (mean±SD)] were enrolled in a randomized, two-crossover experiment (Fasting and 'Hara-Hachibu' conditions). Before the MEG recordings in the 'Hara-Hachibu' condition, the participants consumed rice balls as much as they judged themselves to have consumed shortly before reaching satiety. During the MEG recordings, they viewed food pictures projected on a screen. The intensities of MEG responses to viewing food pictures were significantly lower in the 'Hara-Hachibu' condition than those in the Fasting condition (P<0.05). The intensities of the MEG responses to the visual food stimuli in the 'Hara-Hachibu' condition was positively associated with the factor-3 (food tasted) (r=0.693, P=0.018) and aggregated scores (r=0.659, P=0.027) of the Power of Food Scale, a self-report measure of hedonic hunger. These findings may help to elucidate the neural basis of variability of appetite phenotypes under the condition of CR among individuals, and to develop possible strategies for the maintenance of adequate CR in daily life. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative genomic analysis of innate immunity reveals novel and conserved components in crustacean food crop species.

    PubMed

    Lai, Alvina G; Aboobaker, A Aziz

    2017-05-18

    Growing global demands for crustacean food crop species have driven large investments in aquaculture research worldwide. However, large-scale production is susceptible to pathogen-mediated destruction particularly in developing economies. Thus, a thorough understanding of the immune system components of food crop species is imperative for research to combat pathogens. Through a comparative genomics approach utilising extant data from 55 species, we describe the innate immune system of the class Malacostraca, which includes all food crop species. We identify 7407 malacostracan genes from 39 gene families implicated in different aspects of host defence and demonstrate dynamic evolution of innate immunity components within this group. Malacostracans have achieved flexibility in recognising infectious agents through divergent evolution and expansion of pathogen recognition receptors genes. Antiviral RNAi, Toll and JAK-STAT signal transduction pathways have remained conserved within Malacostraca, although the Imd pathway appears to lack several key components. Immune effectors such as the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have unique evolutionary profiles, with many malacostracan AMPs not found in other arthropods. Lastly, we describe four putative novel immune gene families, potentially representing important evolutionary novelties of the malacostracan immune system. Our analyses across the broader Malacostraca have allowed us to not only draw analogies with other arthropods but also to identify evolutionary novelties in immune modulation components and form strong hypotheses as to when key pathways have evolved or diverged. This will serve as a key resource for future immunology research in crustacean food crops.

  10. Spatial guilds in the Serengeti food web revealed by a Bayesian group model.

    PubMed

    Baskerville, Edward B; Dobson, Andy P; Bedford, Trevor; Allesina, Stefano; Anderson, T Michael; Pascual, Mercedes

    2011-12-01

    Food webs, networks of feeding relationships in an ecosystem, provide fundamental insights into mechanisms that determine ecosystem stability and persistence. A standard approach in food-web analysis, and network analysis in general, has been to identify compartments, or modules, defined by many links within compartments and few links between them. This approach can identify large habitat boundaries in the network but may fail to identify other important structures. Empirical analyses of food webs have been further limited by low-resolution data for primary producers. In this paper, we present a Bayesian computational method for identifying group structure using a flexible definition that can describe both functional trophic roles and standard compartments. We apply this method to a newly compiled plant-mammal food web from the Serengeti ecosystem that includes high taxonomic resolution at the plant level, allowing a simultaneous examination of the signature of both habitat and trophic roles in network structure. We find that groups at the plant level reflect habitat structure, coupled at higher trophic levels by groups of herbivores, which are in turn coupled by carnivore groups. Thus the group structure of the Serengeti web represents a mixture of trophic guild structure and spatial pattern, in contrast to the standard compartments typically identified. The network topology supports recent ideas on spatial coupling and energy channels in ecosystems that have been proposed as important for persistence. Furthermore, our Bayesian approach provides a powerful, flexible framework for the study of network structure, and we believe it will prove instrumental in a variety of biological contexts.

  11. Spatial Guilds in the Serengeti Food Web Revealed by a Bayesian Group Model

    PubMed Central

    Baskerville, Edward B.; Dobson, Andy P.; Bedford, Trevor; Allesina, Stefano; Anderson, T. Michael; Pascual, Mercedes

    2011-01-01

    Food webs, networks of feeding relationships in an ecosystem, provide fundamental insights into mechanisms that determine ecosystem stability and persistence. A standard approach in food-web analysis, and network analysis in general, has been to identify compartments, or modules, defined by many links within compartments and few links between them. This approach can identify large habitat boundaries in the network but may fail to identify other important structures. Empirical analyses of food webs have been further limited by low-resolution data for primary producers. In this paper, we present a Bayesian computational method for identifying group structure using a flexible definition that can describe both functional trophic roles and standard compartments. We apply this method to a newly compiled plant-mammal food web from the Serengeti ecosystem that includes high taxonomic resolution at the plant level, allowing a simultaneous examination of the signature of both habitat and trophic roles in network structure. We find that groups at the plant level reflect habitat structure, coupled at higher trophic levels by groups of herbivores, which are in turn coupled by carnivore groups. Thus the group structure of the Serengeti web represents a mixture of trophic guild structure and spatial pattern, in contrast to the standard compartments typically identified. The network topology supports recent ideas on spatial coupling and energy channels in ecosystems that have been proposed as important for persistence. Furthermore, our Bayesian approach provides a powerful, flexible framework for the study of network structure, and we believe it will prove instrumental in a variety of biological contexts. PMID:22219719

  12. Whole-lake invasive crayfish removal and qualitative modeling reveal habitat-specific food web topology

    DOE PAGES

    Hansen, Gretchen J. A.; Tunney, Tyler D.; Winslow, Luke A.; ...

    2017-02-10

    Patterning of the presence/absence of food web linkages (hereafter topology) is a fundamental characteristic of ecosystems that can influence species responses to perturbations. However, the insight from food web topology into dynamic effects of perturbations on species is potentially hindered because most described topologies represent data integrated across spatial and temporal scales. We conducted a 10-year, whole-lake experiment in which we removed invasive rusty crayfish (Orconectes rusticus) from a 64-ha north-temperate lake and monitored responses of multiple trophic levels. We compared species responses observed in two sub-habitats to the responses predicted from all topologies of an integrated, literature-informed base foodmore » web model of 32 potential links. Out of 4.3 billion possible topologies, only 308,833 (0.0072%) predicted responses that qualitatively matched observed species responses in cobble habitat, and only 12,673 (0.0003%) matched observed responses in sand habitat. Furthermore, when constrained to predictions that both matched observed responses and were highly reliable (i.e., predictions were robust to link strength values), only 5040 (0.0001%) and 140 (0.000003%) topologies were identified for cobble and sand habitats, respectively. A small number of linkages were nearly always present in these valid, reliable networks in sand, while a greater variety of possible network configurations were possible in cobble. Direct links involving invasive rusty crayfish were more important in cobble, while indirect effects involving Lepomis spp. were more important in sand. Importantly, the importance of individual species linkages differed dramatically among cobble and sand sub-habitats within a single lake, even though species composition was identical. Furthermore the true topology of food webs is difficult to determine, constraining topologies to include spatial resolution that matches observed experimental outcomes may reduce possibilities to

  13. Species-specific separation of lake plankton reveals divergent food assimilation patterns in rotifers

    PubMed Central

    Burian, Alfred; Kainz, Martin J; Schagerl, Michael; Yasindi, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    1. The analysis of functional groups with a resolution to the individual species level is a basic requirement to better understand complex interactions in aquatic food webs. Species-specific stable isotope analyses are currently applied to analyse the trophic role of large zooplankton or fish species, but technical constraints complicate their application to smaller-sized plankton. 2. We investigated rotifer food assimilation during a short-term microzooplankton bloom in the East African soda lake Nakuru by developing a method for species-specific sampling of rotifers. 3. The two dominant rotifers, Brachionus plicatilis and Brachionus dimidiatus, were separated to single-species samples (purity >95%) and significantly differed in their isotopic values (4.1‰ in δ13C and 1.5‰ in δ15N). Bayesian mixing models indicated that isotopic differences were caused by different assimilation of filamentous cyanobacteria and particles <2 μm and underlined the importance of species-specific sampling of smaller plankton compartments. 4. A main difference was that the filamentous cyanobacterium Arthrospira fusiformis, which frequently forms blooms in African soda lakes, was an important food source for the larger-sized B. plicatilis (48%), whereas it was hardly ingested by B. dimidiatus. Overall, A. fusiformis was, relative to its biomass, assimilated to small extents, demonstrating a high grazing resistance of this species. 5. In combination with high population densities, these results demonstrate a strong potential of rotifer blooms to shape phytoplankton communities and are the first in situ demonstration of a quantitatively important direct trophic link between rotifers and filamentous cyanobacteria. PMID:25866422

  14. Terrestrial support of lake food webs: Synthesis reveals controls over cross-ecosystem resource use.

    PubMed

    Tanentzap, Andrew J; Kielstra, Brian W; Wilkinson, Grace M; Berggren, Martin; Craig, Nicola; Del Giorgio, Paul A; Grey, Jonathan; Gunn, John M; Jones, Stuart E; Karlsson, Jan; Solomon, Christopher T; Pace, Michael L

    2017-03-01

    Widespread evidence that organic matter exported from terrestrial into aquatic ecosystems supports recipient food webs remains controversial. A pressing question is not only whether high terrestrial support is possible but also what the general conditions are under which it arises. We assemble the largest data set, to date, of the isotopic composition (δ(2)H, δ(13)C, and δ(15)N) of lake zooplankton and the resources at the base of their associated food webs. In total, our data set spans 559 observations across 147 lakes from the boreal to subtropics. By predicting terrestrial resource support from within-lake and catchment-level characteristics, we found that half of all consumer observations that is, the median were composed of at least 42% terrestrially derived material. In general, terrestrial support of zooplankton was greatest in lakes with large physical and hydrological connections to catchments that were rich in aboveground and belowground organic matter. However, some consumers responded less strongly to terrestrial resources where within-lake production was elevated. Our study shows that multiple mechanisms drive widespread cross-ecosystem support of aquatic consumers across Northern Hemisphere lakes and suggests that changes in terrestrial landscapes will influence ecosystem processes well beyond their boundaries.

  15. Terrestrial support of lake food webs: Synthesis reveals controls over cross-ecosystem resource use

    PubMed Central

    Tanentzap, Andrew J.; Kielstra, Brian W.; Wilkinson, Grace M.; Berggren, Martin; Craig, Nicola; del Giorgio, Paul A.; Grey, Jonathan; Gunn, John M.; Jones, Stuart E.; Karlsson, Jan; Solomon, Christopher T.; Pace, Michael L.

    2017-01-01

    Widespread evidence that organic matter exported from terrestrial into aquatic ecosystems supports recipient food webs remains controversial. A pressing question is not only whether high terrestrial support is possible but also what the general conditions are under which it arises. We assemble the largest data set, to date, of the isotopic composition (δ2H, δ13C, and δ15N) of lake zooplankton and the resources at the base of their associated food webs. In total, our data set spans 559 observations across 147 lakes from the boreal to subtropics. By predicting terrestrial resource support from within-lake and catchment-level characteristics, we found that half of all consumer observations that is, the median were composed of at least 42% terrestrially derived material. In general, terrestrial support of zooplankton was greatest in lakes with large physical and hydrological connections to catchments that were rich in aboveground and belowground organic matter. However, some consumers responded less strongly to terrestrial resources where within-lake production was elevated. Our study shows that multiple mechanisms drive widespread cross-ecosystem support of aquatic consumers across Northern Hemisphere lakes and suggests that changes in terrestrial landscapes will influence ecosystem processes well beyond their boundaries. PMID:28345035

  16. A sweet sound? Food names reveal implicit associations between taste and pitch.

    PubMed

    Crisinel, Anne-Sylvie; Spence, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Sounds (high- and low-pitched) have been shown to be implicitly associated with basic tastes (sour and bitter-see Crisinel and Spence, 2009 Neuroscience Letters 464 39-42). In the present study, a version of the implicit association test was used to assess the strength of the association between high-pitched sounds and names of sweet-tasting foodstuffs, and between low-pitched sounds and names of salty-tasting foodstuffs (experiment 1). A similar task, the go/no-go association task was then used to evaluate the relative strengths of these associations (experiment 2). Analysis of the sensitivity of participants' responses suggested that both sour- and sweet-tasting (names of) food items were associated with high-pitched sounds. This result highlights the existence of robust cross-modal associations between certain sounds and basic tastes.

  17. Molecular phylogeny reveals food plasticity in the evolution of true ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae: Coccinellini).

    PubMed

    Escalona, Hermes E; Zwick, Andreas; Li, Hao-Sen; Li, Jiahui; Wang, Xingmin; Pang, Hong; Hartley, Diana; Jermiin, Lars S; Nedvěd, Oldřich; Misof, Bernhard; Niehuis, Oliver; Ślipiński, Adam; Tomaszewska, Wioletta

    2017-06-26

    The tribe Coccinellini is a group of relatively large ladybird beetles that exhibits remarkable morphological and biological diversity. Many species are aphidophagous, feeding as larvae and adults on aphids, but some species also feed on other hemipterous insects (i.e., heteropterans, psyllids, whiteflies), beetle and moth larvae, pollen, fungal spores, and even plant tissue. Several species are biological control agents or widespread invasive species (e.g., Harmonia axyridis (Pallas)). Despite the ecological importance of this tribe, relatively little is known about the phylogenetic relationships within it. The generic concepts within the tribe Coccinellini are unstable and do not reflect a natural classification, being largely based on regional revisions. This impedes the phylogenetic study of important traits of Coccinellidae at a global scale (e.g. the evolution of food preferences and biogeography). We present the most comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of Coccinellini to date, based on three nuclear and one mitochondrial gene sequences of 38 taxa, which represent all major Coccinellini lineages. The phylogenetic reconstruction supports the monophyly of Coccinellini and its sister group relationship to Chilocorini. Within Coccinellini, three major clades were recovered that do not correspond to any previously recognised divisions, questioning the traditional differentiation between Halyziini, Discotomini, Tytthaspidini, and Singhikaliini. Ancestral state reconstructions of food preferences and morphological characters support the idea of aphidophagy being the ancestral state in Coccinellini. This indicates a transition from putative obligate scale feeders, as seen in the closely related Chilocorini, to more agile general predators. Our results suggest that the classification of Coccinellini has been misled by convergence in morphological traits. The evolutionary history of Coccinellini has been very dynamic in respect to changes in host preferences, involving

  18. Ecosystem linkages revealed by experimental lake-derived isotope signal in heathland food webs.

    PubMed

    Hoekman, David; Bartrons, Mireia; Gratton, Claudio

    2012-11-01

    Cross-ecosystem movement of nutrients and biomass can have important effects on recipient systems. Emerging aquatic insects are subsidies to terrestrial ecosystems and can influence foodweb interactions in riparian systems. In a 2-year field experiment, we simulated aquatic insect deposition by adding adult midge carcasses (150 g dry mass m(-2) year(-1)) to 1-m(2) heathland plots at a site with low natural midge deposition. We established four levels of midge-addition treatments and measured stable isotopes (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) in plants and arthropods within each treatment. We used a multiple-source isotope Bayesian mixing model to estimate the terrestrial versus aquatic contribution to the diets of arthropods. Aquatic resources were incorporated into plant, detritivore, and predator biomass. Detritivorous Collembola showed the greatest difference in isotope values (+3 ‰ δ(15)N and +4 ‰ δ(13)C) between midge-addition and reference treatments. Isotope values of small spiders followed the same trend of enrichment as Collembola while other arthropods (mites and large spiders) were only enriched after 2 years of midge addition. Although predator diets did not change, they became isotopically enriched via their likely prey (Collembola). Plants also had elevated δ(15)N (+1 ‰) in midge-addition treatments. The time required and amount of midge-derived C and N detected varied and depended on trophic position. Midge-derived nutrients were no longer present in arthropod biomass in the year following midge addition. Aquatic insect carcasses can be rapidly incorporated into terrestrial food webs in nearshore habitats, and repeated inputs can be detected at multiple trophic levels, thus highlighting the importance of the detrital pathway for aquatic to terrestrial cross-ecosystem subsidies.

  19. Microbial community structure reveals how microaeration improves fermentation during anaerobic co-digestion of brown water and food waste.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jun Wei; Chiam, Jun An; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of microaeration on the fermentation process during anaerobic co-digestion of brown water (BW) and food waste (FW). This was achieved by daily monitoring of reactor performance and the determination of its bacterial consortium towards the end of the study. Molecular cloning and sequencing results revealed that bacteria within phyla Firmicutes and Bacteriodetes represented the dominant phylogenetic group. As compared to anaerobic conditions, the fermentation of BW and FW under microaeration conditions gave rise to a significantly more diverse bacterial population and higher proportion of bacterial clones affiliated to the phylum Firmicutes. The acidogenic reactor was therefore able to metabolize a greater variety of substrates leading to higher hydrolysis rates as compared to the anaerobic reactor. Other than enhanced fermentation, microaeration also led to a shift in fermentation production pattern where acetic acid was metabolized for the synthesis of butyric acid.

  20. Validation of a modification to Performance-Tested Method 070601: Reveal Listeria Test for detection of Listeria spp. in selected foods and selected environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Alles, Susan; Peng, Linda X; Mozola, Mark A

    2009-01-01

    A modification to Performance-Tested Method (PTM) 070601, Reveal Listeria Test (Reveal), is described. The modified method uses a new media formulation, LESS enrichment broth, in single-step enrichment protocols for both foods and environmental sponge and swab samples. Food samples are enriched for 27-30 h at 30 degrees C and environmental samples for 24-48 h at 30 degrees C. Implementation of these abbreviated enrichment procedures allows test results to be obtained on a next-day basis. In testing of 14 food types in internal comparative studies with inoculated samples, there was a statistically significant difference in performance between the Reveal and reference culture [U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA/BAM) or U.S. Department of Agriculture-Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS)] methods for only a single food in one trial (pasteurized crab meat) at the 27 h enrichment time point, with more positive results obtained with the FDA/BAM reference method. No foods showed statistically significant differences in method performance at the 30 h time point. Independent laboratory testing of 3 foods again produced a statistically significant difference in results for crab meat at the 27 h time point; otherwise results of the Reveal and reference methods were statistically equivalent. Overall, considering both internal and independent laboratory trials, sensitivity of the Reveal method relative to the reference culture procedures in testing of foods was 85.9% at 27 h and 97.1% at 30 h. Results from 5 environmental surfaces inoculated with various strains of Listeria spp. showed that the Reveal method was more productive than the reference USDA-FSIS culture procedure for 3 surfaces (stainless steel, plastic, and cast iron), whereas results were statistically equivalent to the reference method for the other 2 surfaces (ceramic tile and sealed concrete). An independent laboratory trial with ceramic tile inoculated with L

  1. Individual Factors Determining the Food Behaviours of Single Men Living in Apartments in Montreal as Revealed by Photographs and Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquis, Marie; Manceau, Marilyn

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore men's food behaviours using interviews and photographs. The research specifically looks at the importance of certain individual factors as determinants of food behaviours, namely food preferences, lifestyle, ability to cook, involvement with health and nutrition. Each man received two cameras and a guide…

  2. Individual Factors Determining the Food Behaviours of Single Men Living in Apartments in Montreal as Revealed by Photographs and Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquis, Marie; Manceau, Marilyn

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore men's food behaviours using interviews and photographs. The research specifically looks at the importance of certain individual factors as determinants of food behaviours, namely food preferences, lifestyle, ability to cook, involvement with health and nutrition. Each man received two cameras and a guide…

  3. Rapid scavenging of jellyfish carcasses reveals the importance of gelatinous material to deep-sea food webs.

    PubMed

    Sweetman, Andrew K; Smith, Craig R; Dale, Trine; Jones, Daniel O B

    2014-12-07

    Jellyfish blooms are common in many oceans, and anthropogenic changes appear to have increased their magnitude in some regions. Although mass falls of jellyfish carcasses have been observed recently at the deep seafloor, the dense necrophage aggregations and rapid consumption rates typical for vertebrate carrion have not been documented. This has led to a paradigm of limited energy transfer to higher trophic levels at jelly falls relative to vertebrate organic falls. We show from baited camera deployments in the Norwegian deep sea that dense aggregations of deep-sea scavengers (more than 1000 animals at peak densities) can rapidly form at jellyfish baits and consume entire jellyfish carcasses in 2.5 h. We also show that scavenging rates on jellyfish are not significantly different from fish carrion of similar mass, and reveal that scavenging communities typical for the NE Atlantic bathyal zone, including the Atlantic hagfish, galatheid crabs, decapod shrimp and lyssianasid amphipods, consume both types of carcasses. These rapid jellyfish carrion consumption rates suggest that the contribution of gelatinous material to organic fluxes may be seriously underestimated in some regions, because jelly falls may disappear much more rapidly than previously thought. Our results also demonstrate that the energy contained in gelatinous carrion can be efficiently incorporated into large numbers of deep-sea scavengers and food webs, lessening the expected impacts (e.g. smothering of the seafloor) of enhanced jellyfish production on deep-sea ecosystems and pelagic-benthic coupling.

  4. Rapid scavenging of jellyfish carcasses reveals the importance of gelatinous material to deep-sea food webs

    PubMed Central

    Sweetman, Andrew K.; Smith, Craig R.; Dale, Trine; Jones, Daniel O. B.

    2014-01-01

    Jellyfish blooms are common in many oceans, and anthropogenic changes appear to have increased their magnitude in some regions. Although mass falls of jellyfish carcasses have been observed recently at the deep seafloor, the dense necrophage aggregations and rapid consumption rates typical for vertebrate carrion have not been documented. This has led to a paradigm of limited energy transfer to higher trophic levels at jelly falls relative to vertebrate organic falls. We show from baited camera deployments in the Norwegian deep sea that dense aggregations of deep-sea scavengers (more than 1000 animals at peak densities) can rapidly form at jellyfish baits and consume entire jellyfish carcasses in 2.5 h. We also show that scavenging rates on jellyfish are not significantly different from fish carrion of similar mass, and reveal that scavenging communities typical for the NE Atlantic bathyal zone, including the Atlantic hagfish, galatheid crabs, decapod shrimp and lyssianasid amphipods, consume both types of carcasses. These rapid jellyfish carrion consumption rates suggest that the contribution of gelatinous material to organic fluxes may be seriously underestimated in some regions, because jelly falls may disappear much more rapidly than previously thought. Our results also demonstrate that the energy contained in gelatinous carrion can be efficiently incorporated into large numbers of deep-sea scavengers and food webs, lessening the expected impacts (e.g. smothering of the seafloor) of enhanced jellyfish production on deep-sea ecosystems and pelagic–benthic coupling. PMID:25320167

  5. Processing-Dependent and Clonal Contamination Patterns of Listeria monocytogenes in the Cured Ham Food Chain Revealed by Genetic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Morganti, Marina; Scaltriti, Erika; Cozzolino, Paolo; Bolzoni, Luca; Casadei, Gabriele; Pierantoni, Marco; Foni, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    The quantitative and qualitative patterns of environmental contamination by Listeria monocytogenes were investigated in the production chain of dry-cured Parma ham. Standard arrays of surfaces were sampled in processing facilities during a single visit per plant in the three compartments of the food chain, i.e., ham production (19 plants) and postproduction, which was divided into deboning (43 plants) and slicing (25 plants) steps. The numbers of sampled surfaces were 384 in ham production, with 25 positive for L. monocytogenes, and 1,084 in postproduction, with 83 positives. Statistical analysis of the prevalence of contaminated surfaces showed that in ham production, contamination was higher at the beginning of processing and declined significantly toward the end, while in postproduction, prevalence rose toward the end of processing. Prevalence was higher in the deboning facilities than in slicing facilities and was dependent on the type of surface (floor/drainage > clothing > equipment). The qualitative pattern of contamination was investigated through an analysis of the survey isolates and a set of isolates derived from routine monitoring, including longitudinal isolations. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis revealed a remarkable clonality of L. monocytogenes within plants, with the detection of 16 plant-specific clones out of 17 establishments with multiple isolates. Repeated detections of clonal isolates >6 months apart were also observed. Six was the maximum number of between-isolate differences in core SNPs observed within these clones. Based on the same six-SNP threshold, three clusters of clonal isolates, shared by six establishments, were also identified. The spread of L. monocytogenes within and between plants, as indicated by its clonal behavior, is a matter of concern for the hygienic management of establishments. PMID:26590278

  6. Comparative phylogenomics of the food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni reveals genetic markers predictive of infection source

    PubMed Central

    Champion, Olivia L.; Gaunt, Michael W.; Gundogdu, Ozan; Elmi, Abdi; Witney, Adam A.; Hinds, Jason; Dorrell, Nick; Wren, Brendan W.

    2005-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the predominant cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, but traditional typing methods are unable to discriminate strains from different sources that cause disease in humans. We report the use of genomotyping (whole-genome comparisons of microbes using DNA microarrays) combined with Bayesian-based algorithms to model the phylogeny of this major food-borne pathogen. In this study 111 C. jejuni strains were examined by genomotyping isolates from humans with a spectrum of C. jejuni-associated disease (70 strains), chickens (17 strains), bovines (13 strains), ovines (5 strains), and the environment (6 strains). From these data, the Bayesian phylogeny of the isolates revealed two distinct clades unequivocally supported by Bayesian probabilities (P = 1); a livestock clade comprising 31/35 (88.6%) of the livestock isolates and a “nonlivestock” clade comprising further clades of environmental isolates. Several genes were identified as characteristic of strains in the livestock clade. The most prominent was a cluster of six genes (cj1321 to cj1326) within the flagellin glycosylation locus, which were confirmed by PCR analysis as genetic markers in six additional chicken-associated strains. Surprisingly these studies show that the majority (39/70, 55.7%) of C. jejuni human isolates were found in the nonlivestock clade, suggesting that most C. jejuni infections may be from nonlivestock (and possibly nonagricultural) sources. This study has provided insight into a previously unidentified reservoir of C. jejuni infection that may have implications in disease-control strategies. The comparative phylogenomics approach described provides a robust methodological prototype that should be applicable to other microbes. PMID:16230626

  7. Processing-Dependent and Clonal Contamination Patterns of Listeria monocytogenes in the Cured Ham Food Chain Revealed by Genetic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Morganti, Marina; Scaltriti, Erika; Cozzolino, Paolo; Bolzoni, Luca; Casadei, Gabriele; Pierantoni, Marco; Foni, Emanuela; Pongolini, Stefano

    2015-11-20

    The quantitative and qualitative patterns of environmental contamination by Listeria monocytogenes were investigated in the production chain of dry-cured Parma ham. Standard arrays of surfaces were sampled in processing facilities during a single visit per plant in the three compartments of the food chain, i.e., ham production (19 plants) and postproduction, which was divided into deboning (43 plants) and slicing (25 plants) steps. The numbers of sampled surfaces were 384 in ham production, with 25 positive for L. monocytogenes, and 1,084 in postproduction, with 83 positives. Statistical analysis of the prevalence of contaminated surfaces showed that in ham production, contamination was higher at the beginning of processing and declined significantly toward the end, while in postproduction, prevalence rose toward the end of processing. Prevalence was higher in the deboning facilities than in slicing facilities and was dependent on the type of surface (floor/drainage > clothing > equipment). The qualitative pattern of contamination was investigated through an analysis of the survey isolates and a set of isolates derived from routine monitoring, including longitudinal isolations. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis revealed a remarkable clonality of L. monocytogenes within plants, with the detection of 16 plant-specific clones out of 17 establishments with multiple isolates. Repeated detections of clonal isolates >6 months apart were also observed. Six was the maximum number of between-isolate differences in core SNPs observed within these clones. Based on the same six-SNP threshold, three clusters of clonal isolates, shared by six establishments, were also identified. The spread of L. monocytogenes within and between plants, as indicated by its clonal behavior, is a matter of concern for the hygienic management of establishments. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights

  8. Isotopic studies in Pacific Panama mangrove estuaries reveal lack of effect of watershed deforestation on food webs.

    PubMed

    Viana, Inés G; Valiela, Ivan; Martinetto, Paulina; Monteiro Pierce, Rita; Fox, Sophia E

    2015-02-01

    Stable isotopic N, C, and S in food webs of 8 mangrove estuaries on the Pacific coast of Panama were measured to 1) determine whether the degree of deforestation of tropical forests on the contributing watersheds was detectable within the estuarine food web, and 2) define external sources of the food webs within the mangrove estuaries. Even though terrestrial rain forest cover on the contributing watersheds differed between 23 and 92%, the effect of deforestation was not detectable on stable isotopic values in food webs present at the mouth of the receiving estuaries. We used stable isotopic measures to identify producers or organic sources that supported the estuarine food web. N isotopic values of consumers spanned a broad range, from about 2.7 to 12.3‰. Mean δ(15)N of primary producers and organic matter varied from 3.3 for macroalgae to 4.7‰ for suspended particulate matter and large particulate matter. The δ(13)C consumer data varied between -26 and -9‰, but isotopic values of the major apparent producers or organic matter sampled could not account for this range variability. The structure of the food web was clarified when we added literature isotopic values of microphytobenthos and coralline algae, suggesting that these, or other producers with similar isotopic signature, may be part of the food webs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Bioaccumulation from food and water of cadmium, selenium and zinc in an estuarine fish, Ambassis jacksoniensis.

    PubMed

    Creighton, N; Twining, J

    2010-10-01

    The glassfish, Ambassis jacksoniensis, is a key, mid-level species in an estuarine food web on the east coast of Australia. Estuaries are subject to contamination from urban and industrial activities. The biokinetics of Cd, Se and Zn accumulation by glassfish from water and food were assessed using radioisotopes. Metal uptake from water was not regulated over the range of water metal concentrations examined. Metal uptake from food was assessed using brine shrimp (Artemia sp.) fed radio-labelled algae. The assimilation efficiency from food was 9.5 ± 2.5%, 23 ± 2.2% and 4.6 ± 0.6% for Cd, Se and Zn, respectively. The potential for biomagnification was low for all metals. Food is the main metal uptake pathway for glassfish, with 97%, 99% and 98% of the uptake of Cd, Se and Zn, respectively, estimated to be from food.

  10. Nontargeted metabolomics reveals biochemical pathways altered in response to captivity and food limitation in the freshwater mussel Amblema plicata.

    PubMed

    Roznere, Ieva; Watters, G Thomas; Wolfe, Barbara A; Daly, Marymegan

    2014-12-01

    Effective conservation of freshwater mussels (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionidae), one of the most endangered groups of animals in North America, is compromised by limited knowledge of their health. We address this gap in knowledge by characterizing the metabolic profile of Amblema plicata in the wild and in response to captivity and food limitation. Eight mussels brought into captivity from the wild were isolated for 18 days without a food source. Hemolymph samples were taken prior to, and 9 and 18 days after the start of the experiment; these samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. We detected and identified 71 biochemicals in the hemolymph of freshwater mussels; of these, 49 showed significant changes during captivity and/or food limitation (p<0.05). Fasting resulted in severe metabolite depletion. Captive (but fed) mussels experienced changes similar to (albeit less severe than) fasting mussels, suggesting that mussels may experience nutritional deficiency under common captive conditions. A. plicata responded to food limitation stress by preferentially using energy reserves for maintenance rather than growth. Carbohydrate and energy metabolism exhibited down-regulation in captive, food-limited, and wild mussels. Lipid metabolism was up-regulated in captive/food-limited mussels and unchanged in wild mussels. Amino acid metabolism was up-regulated in wild mussels and down-regulated in captive/food-limited mussels. Nucleotide metabolism was up-regulated in the wild mussels, down-regulated in food-limited mussels, and unchanged in captive mussels. The different responses between treatment groups suggest potential for nucleotide metabolism as a biomarker of health status for freshwater mussels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Gene profiling reveals a role for stress hormones in the molecular and behavioral response to food restriction.

    PubMed

    Guarnieri, Douglas J; Brayton, Catherine E; Richards, Sarah M; Maldonado-Aviles, Jaime; Trinko, Joseph R; Nelson, Jessica; Taylor, Jane R; Gourley, Shannon L; DiLeone, Ralph J

    2012-02-15

    Food restriction is known to enhance learning and motivation. The neural mechanisms underlying these responses likely involve alterations in gene expression in brain regions mediating the motivation to feed. Analysis of gene expression profiles in male C57BL/6J mice using whole-genome microarrays was completed in the medial prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, ventral tegmental area, and the hypothalamus following a 5-day food restriction. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to validate these findings and determine the time course of expression changes. Plasma levels of the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Expression changes were measured in adrenalectomized animals that underwent food restriction, as well as in animals receiving daily injections of CORT. Progressive ratio responding for food, a measure of motivated behavior, was assessed after CORT treatment in restricted and fed animals. Brief food restriction results in an upregulation of peripheral stress responsive genes in the mammalian brain. Time-course analysis demonstrated rapid and persistent expression changes in all four brain regions under study. Administration of CORT to nonrestricted animals was sufficient to induce a subset of the genes, and alterations in gene expression after food restriction were dependent on intact adrenal glands. CORT can increase the motivation to work for food only in the restricted state. These data demonstrate a central role for CORT in mediating both molecular and behavioral responses to food restriction. The stress hormone-induced alterations in gene expression described here may be relevant for both adaptive and pathological responses to stress. Copyright © 2012 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Food web structure of the coastal area adjacent to the Tagus estuary revealed by stable isotope analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinagre, C.; Máguas, C.; Cabral, H. N.; Costa, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    The identification of energy sources, pathways and trophic linkages among organisms is crucial for the understanding of food web dynamics. Stable isotopes were used to identify the trophic level of food web components and track the incorporation of organic matter of different origins in the coastal ecosystem adjacent to the Tagus estuary. It was shown that the river Tagus is a major source of organic carbon to this system. Also, the wide difference in δ 13C among the primary consumers allowed the identification of the pelagic and the benthic energy pathways. The maximum trophic level observed was 2.4 for Sepia officinalis. This value is indicative of a short food web. It was concluded that the diet of the upper trophic level species relies directly on the lower food web levels to a considerable extent, instead of relying mostly on intermediate trophic level species. Moreover, the δ 15N values of primary consumers were very close to that of particulate organic matter, probably due to poorly known processes occurring at the basis of the food web. This lowers the trophic length of the whole food web. Reliance on benthic affinity prey was high for all upper trophic level secondary consumers.

  13. The manipulation of food resources reveals sex-specific trade-offs between parental self-feeding and offspring care.

    PubMed

    Markman, S; Pinshow, B; Wright, J

    2002-09-22

    Parent Palestine sunbirds (Nectarinia osea) feed on flower nectar that is not fed to their nestlings. This phenomenon provided a unique opportunity to manipulate self-feeding rates of parent birds independently of the rate at which they feed arthropod prey to their offspring. Based on provisioning models, we predicted that parents would invest more in their young as the energy content of their own food increased. From our earlier work, we also predicted that the levels of sex-specific activities of males and females would differ as the energy content of their food increased. Sunbird pairs with two or three nestlings were provided with feeders containing a low-, medium- or high-concentration sucrose solution. As the sugar concentration increased, the females delivered arthropods at a greater rate to their nestlings, removed proportionally more faecal sacs and spent longer at the nest, while the males increased their mobbing effort. Nestling food intake and body mass, but not tarsus length or bill size, were larger in small broods than in large broods, and increased with increasing feeder sugar concentration. These results imply that increasing the energy content of food consumed by parent sunbirds allows them to increase the rate at which other foods are delivered to their young and to increase other parental care activities as well. The results also add credence to the idea that behavioural decisions reflect life-history trade-offs between parental self-feeding and investment in current young.

  14. Acute and chronic suppression of the central ghrelin signaling system reveals a role in food anticipatory activity.

    PubMed

    Verhagen, Linda A W; Egecioglu, Emil; Luijendijk, Mieneke C M; Hillebrand, Jacquelien J G; Adan, Roger A H; Dickson, Suzanne L

    2011-05-01

    Using the rodent activity-based anorexia (ABA) model that mimics clinical features of anorexia nervosa that include food restriction-induced hyperlocomotion, we found that plasma ghrelin levels are highly associated with food anticipatory behaviour, measured by running wheel activity in rats. Furthermore, we showed that ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1A) knockout mice do not anticipate food when exposed to the ABA model, unlike their wild type littermate controls. Likewise, food anticipatory activity in the ABA model was suppressed by a GHS-R1A antagonist administered either by acute central (ICV) injection to rats or by chronic peripheral treatment to mice. Interestingly, the GHS-R1A antagonist did not alter food intake in any of these models. Therefore, we hypothesize that suppression of the central ghrelin signaling system via GHS-R1A provides an interesting therapeutic target to treat hyperactivity in patients suffering from anorexia nervosa. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Plant functional traits reveal the relative contribution of habitat and food preferences to the diet of grasshoppers.

    PubMed

    Ibanez, Sébastien; Manneville, Olivier; Miquel, Christian; Taberlet, Pierre; Valentini, Alice; Aubert, Serge; Coissac, Eric; Colace, Marie-Pascale; Duparc, Quentin; Lavorel, Sandra; Moretti, Marco

    2013-12-01

    Food preferences and food availability are two major determinants of the diet of generalist herbivores and of their spatial distribution. How do these factors interact and eventually lead to diet differentiation in co-occurring herbivores? We quantified the diet of four grasshopper species co-occurring in subalpine grasslands using DNA barcoding of the plants contained in the faeces of individuals sampled in the field. The food preferences of each grasshopper species were assessed by a choice (cafeteria) experiment from among 24 plant species common in five grassland plots, in which the four grasshoppers were collected, while the habitat was described by the relative abundance of plant species in the grassland plots. Plant species were characterised by their leaf economics spectrum (LES), quantifying their nutrient vs. structural tissue content. The grasshoppers' diet, described by the mean LES of the plants eaten, could be explained by their plant preferences but not by the available plants in their habitat. The diet differed significantly across four grasshopper species pairs out of six, which validates food preferences assessed in standardised conditions as indicators for diet partitioning in nature. In contrast, variation of the functional diversity (FD) for LES in the diet was mostly correlated to the FD of the available plants in the habitat, suggesting that diet mixing depends on the environment and is not an intrinsic property of the grasshopper species. This study sheds light on the mechanisms determining the feeding niche of herbivores, showing that food preferences influence niche position whereas habitat diversity affects niche breadth.

  16. Food Supplementation Fails to Reveal a Trade-Off between Incubation and Self-Maintenance in Female House Wrens

    PubMed Central

    Lothery, Cassie J.; Thompson, Charles F.; Lawler, Megan L.; Sakaluk, Scott K.

    2014-01-01

    Incubating birds must allocate their time and energy between maintaining egg temperature and obtaining enough food to meet their own metabolic demands. We tested the hypothesis that female house wrens (Troglodytes aedon) face a trade-off between incubation and self-maintenance by providing females with supplemental food during incubation. We predicted that food supplementation would increase the amount of time females devoted to incubating their eggs, lower their baseline plasma corticosterone levels (a measure of chronic stress), and increase their body mass, haematocrit (a measure of anaemia), and reproductive success relative to control females. As predicted, food-supplemented females spent a greater proportion of time incubating their eggs than control females. Contrary to expectation, however, there was no evidence that food supplementation significantly influenced female baseline plasma corticosterone levels, body mass, haematocrit, or reproductive success. However, females with high levels of corticosterone at the beginning of incubation were more likely to abandon their nesting attempt after capture than females with low levels. Corticosterone significantly increased between the early incubation and early nestling stages of the breeding cycle in all females. These results suggest that although food supplementation results in a modest increase in incubation effort, it does not lead to significantly lower levels of chronic stress as reflected in lower baseline corticosterone levels. We conclude that female house wrens that begin the incubation period with low levels of plasma corticosterone can easily meet their own nutritional needs while incubating their eggs, and that any trade-off between incubation and self-feeding does not influence female reproductive success under the conditions at the time of our study. PMID:25184281

  17. Analyses of stomach contents and stable isotopes reveal food sources of estuarine detritivorous fish in tropical/subtropical Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hsing-Juh; Kao, Wen-Yuan; Wang, Ya-Ting

    2007-07-01

    Detritivorous fish generally refers to fish that primarily ingest unidentified organic detritus. We analyzed stomach contents in combination with stable isotopes to trace and compare the food sources of the large-scale mullet Liza macrolepis and other detritivorous fish species in subtropical mangrove creeks and a tropical lagoon in Taiwan. The volume of organic detritus always contributed >50% of the stomach content of L. macrolepis in the two habitats. However, consumed items were distinct between the two habitats and corresponded to the types in which they reside. The consumed items in the lagoon were more diverse than those observed in the mangroves. In the mangroves, the diet composition of L. macrolepis was primarily determined by season, not by body size. In the lagoon, there were no clear seasonal or size-dependent grouping patterns for the diet composition. There were significant seasonal and spatial variations in δ13C and δ15N values of potential food sources and L. macrolepis. However, neither δ13C nor δ15N values of L. macrolepis were correlated with fish body size. Joint analyses of stomach contents and stable isotopes indicated that benthic microalgae on sediments were the most important assimilated food in both seasons for the dominant detritivorous fish in the mangroves, whereas a greater reliance on microalgal and macroalgal periphyton on oyster-culture pens was observed in the lagoon. Mangrove and marsh plants and phytoplankton, which are mostly locally produced within each habitat, were of minor importance in the assimilated food.

  18. The probabilistic niche model reveals the niche structure and role of body size in a complex food web.

    PubMed

    Williams, Richard J; Anandanadesan, Ananthi; Purves, Drew

    2010-08-09

    The niche model has been widely used to model the structure of complex food webs, and yet the ecological meaning of the single niche dimension has not been explored. In the niche model, each species has three traits, niche position, diet position and feeding range. Here, a new probabilistic niche model, which allows the maximum likelihood set of trait values to be estimated for each species, is applied to the food web of the Benguela fishery. We also developed the allometric niche model, in which body size is used as the niche dimension. About 80% of the links in the empirical data are predicted by the probabilistic niche model, a significant improvement over recent models. As in the niche model, species are uniformly distributed on the niche axis. Feeding ranges are exponentially distributed, but diet positions are not uniformly distributed below the predator. Species traits are strongly correlated with body size, but the allometric niche model performs significantly worse than the probabilistic niche model. The best-fit parameter set provides a significantly better model of the structure of the Benguela food web than was previously available. The methodology allows the identification of a number of taxa that stand out as outliers either in the model's poor performance at predicting their predators or prey or in their parameter values. While important, body size alone does not explain the structure of the one-dimensional niche.

  19. Food web analysis reveals effects of pH on mercury bioaccumulation at multiple trophic levels in streams.

    PubMed

    Jardine, Timothy D; Kidd, Karen A; O' Driscoll, Nelson

    2013-05-15

    Biomagnification processes and the factors that govern them, including those for mercury (Hg), are poorly understood in streams. Total and methyl Hg concentrations and relative trophic position (using δ(15)N) were analyzed in biofilm and invertebrates from 21 streams in New Brunswick, Canada to assess food web biomagnification leading to the common minnow blacknose dace (Rhinichthys atratulus), a species known to have Hg concentrations that are higher in low pH waters. Biomagnification slopes within stream food webs measured using Hg vs. δ(15)N or corresponding trophic levels (TL) differed depending on the chemical species analyzed, with total Hg exhibiting increases of 1.3-2.5 per TL (mean slope of total Hg vs. δ(15)N=0.14±0.06 S.D., range=0.06-0.20) and methyl Hg showing a more pronounced increase of 2.8 to 6.0 per TL (mean slope of methyl Hg vs. δ(15)N=0.30±0.08 S.D., range=0.22-0.39). While Hg biomagnification slopes through the entire food web (Trophic Magnification Factors, TMFs) were not influenced by water chemistry (pH), dietary concentrations of methyl Hg strongly influenced biomagnification factors (BMFs) for consumer-diet pairs within the food web at lower trophic levels, and BMFs between dace and predatory invertebrates were significantly higher in low pH waters. These analyses, coupled with observations of higher Hg in primary producers in streams with low pH, suggest that pH influences both baseline concentrations and biomagnification of Hg in these systems. Because higher Hg concentrations in the diets of primary consumers and predatory insects in lower pH waters led to lower BMFs, these feeding groups showed insignificant relationships between Hg and pH; thus, altered BMFs associated with dietary concentrations can dampen the effects of environmental conditions on Hg concentrations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Food as a Source for Quorum Sensing Inhibitors: Iberin from Horseradish Revealed as a Quorum Sensing Inhibitor of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsen, Tim Holm; Bragason, Steinn Kristinn; Phipps, Richard Kerry; Christensen, Louise Dahl; van Gennip, Maria; Alhede, Morten; Skindersoe, Mette; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Høiby, Niels; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Foods with health-promoting effects beyond nutritional values have been gaining increasing research focus in recent years, although not much has been published on this subject in relation to bacterial infections. With respect to treatment, a novel antimicrobial strategy, which is expected to transcend problems with selective pressures for antibiotic resistance, is to interrupt bacterial communication, also known as quorum sensing (QS), by means of signal antagonists, the so-called QS inhibitors (QSIs). Furthermore, QSI agents offer a potential solution to the deficiencies associated with use of traditional antibiotics to treat infections caused by bacterial biofilms and multidrug-resistant bacteria. Several QSIs of natural origin have been identified, and in this study, several common food products and plants were extracted and screened for QSI activity in an attempt to isolate and characterize previously unknown QSI compounds active against the common opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Several extracts displayed activity, but horseradish exhibited the highest activity. Chromatographic separation led to the isolation of a potent QSI compound that was identified by liquid chromatography-diode array detector-mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy as iberin—an isothiocyanate produced by many members of the Brassicaceae family. Real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and DNA microarray studies showed that iberin specifically blocks expression of QS-regulated genes in P. aeruginosa. PMID:22286987

  1. Stable isotope probing and Raman spectroscopy for monitoring carbon flow in a food chain and revealing metabolic pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Mengqiu; Huang, Wei E; Gibson, Christopher M; Fowler, Patrick W; Jousset, Alexandre

    2013-02-05

    Accurately measuring carbon flows is a challenge for understanding processes such as diverse intracellular metabolic pathways and predator-prey interactions. Combined with stable isotope probing (SIP), single-cell Raman spectroscopy was demonstrated for the first time to link the food chain from carbon substrate to bacterial prey up to predators at the single-cell level in a quantitative and nondestructive manner. Escherichia coli OP50 with different (13)C content, which were grown in a mixture of (12)C- and fully carbon-labeled (13)C-glucose (99%) as a sole carbon source, were fed to the nematode. The (13)C signal in Caenorhabditis elegans was proportional to the (13)C content in E. coli. Two Raman spectral biomarkers (Raman bands for phenylalanine at 1001 cm(-1) and thymine at 747 cm(-1) Raman bands), were used to quantify the (13)C content in E. coli and C. elegans over a range of 1.1-99%. The phenylalanine Raman band was a suitable biomarker for prokaryotic cells and thymine Raman band for eukaryotic cells. A biochemical mechanism accounting for the Raman red shifts of phenylalanine and thymine in response to (13)C-labeling is proposed in this study and is supported by quantum chemical calculation. This study offers new insights of carbon flow via the food chain and provides a research tool for microbial ecology and investigation of biochemical pathways.

  2. Multigenerational exposure to ocean acidification during food limitation reveals consequences for copepod scope for growth and vital rates.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Sindre A; Håkedal, Ole Jacob; Salaberria, Iurgi; Tagliati, Alice; Gustavson, Liv Marie; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Olsen, Anders J; Altin, Dag

    2014-10-21

    The copepod Calanus finmarchicus is a key component of northern Atlantic food webs, linking energy-transfer from phytoplankton to higher trophic levels. We examined the effect of different ocean acidification (OA) scenarios (i.e., ambient, 1080, 2080, and 3080 μatm CO2) over two subsequent generations under limited food availability. Determination of metabolic and feeding rates, and estimations of the scope for growth, suggests that negative effects observed on vital rates (ontogenetic development, somatic growth, fecundity) may be a consequence of energy budget constraints due to higher maintenance costs under high pCO2-environments. A significant delay in development rate among the parental generation animals exposed to 2080 μatm CO2, but not in the following F1 generation under the same conditions, suggests that C. finmarchicus may have adaptive potential to withstand the direct long-term effects of even the more pessimistic future OA scenarios but underlines the importance of transgenerational experiments. The results also indicate that in a more acidic ocean, increased energy expenditure through rising respiration could lower the energy transfer to higher trophic levels and thus hamper the productivity of the northern Atlantic ecosystem.

  3. Whole-lake experiments reveal the fate of terrestrial particulate organic carbon in benthic food webs of shallow lakes.

    PubMed

    Scharnweber, K; Syväranta, J; Hilt, S; Brauns, M; Vanni, M J; Brothers, S; Köhler, J; Knezević-Jarić, J; Mehner, T

    2014-06-01

    Lake ecosystems are strongly linked to their terrestrial surroundings by material and energy fluxes across ecosystem boundaries. However, the contribution of terrestrial particulate organic carbon (tPOC) from annual leaf fall to lake food webs has not yet been adequately traced and quantified. In this study, we conducted whole-lake experiments to trace artificially added tPOC through the food webs of two shallow lakes of similar eutrophic status, but featuring alternative stable regimes (macrophyte rich vs. phytoplankton dominated). Lakes were divided with a curtain, and maize (Zea mays) leaves were added, as an isotopically distinct tPOC source, into one half of each lake. To estimate the balance between autochthonous carbon fixation and allochthonous carbon input, primary production and tPOC and tDOC (terrestrial dissolved organic carbon) influx were calculated for the treatment sides. We measured the stable isotope ratios of carbon (delta13C) of about 800 samples from all trophic consumer levels and compared them between lake sides, lakes, and three seasons. Leaf litter bag experiments showed that added maize leaves were processed at rates similar to those observed for leaves from shoreline plants, supporting the suitability of maize leaves as a tracer. The lake-wide carbon influx estimates confirmed that autochthonous carbon fixation by primary production was the dominant carbon source for consumers in the lakes. Nevertheless, carbon isotope values of benthic macroinvertebrates were significantly higher with maize additions compared to the reference side of each lake. Carbon isotope values of omnivorous and piscivorous fish were significantly affected by maize additions only in the macrophyte-dominated lake and delta13C of zooplankton and planktivorous fish remained unaffected in both lakes. In summary, our results experimentally demonstrate that tPOC in form of autumnal litterfall is rapidly processed during the subsequent months in the food web of shallow

  4. Preventing necrotizing enterocolitis by food additives in neonates: A network meta-analysis revealing the efficacy and safety.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wentao; Sui, Wu; Mu, Linsong; Yi, Wenying; Li, Haijuan; Wei, Liqin; Yin, Weihong

    2017-05-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a serious multifactorial gastrointestinal disease which is often discovered in premature infants. Various additives have been used to prevent NEC; yet, their relative efficacy and safety remain disputed. This study aims to compare the efficacy and safety of 5 food additives, namely, probiotics, probiotics + fructo-oligosaccharides, pentoxifylline, arginine, and lactoferrin in preventing NEC in neonates. Embase, PubMed, and Cochrane Library had been searched for all eligible randomized control trials. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated for dichotomous data and mean differences with 95% credible intervals (CrIs) were estimated for continuous data. Surface under the cumulative ranking curve was used to rank efficacy and safety of the prevention methods on each endpoint. A total of 27 eligible studies with 4649 preterm infants were included in this network meta-analysis (NMA), and the efficacy and safety of 5 food additives were evaluated. Probiotic and arginine exhibited better preventive efficacy compared with placebo (OR = 0.50, 95% CrIs: 0.32-0.73; OR = 0.30, 95% CrIs: 0.12-0.73, respectively). Only probiotic achieved a considerable decrease in the risk of mortality compared to placebo (OR = 0.68, 95% CrIs: 0.46-0.98). NEC patients with lactoferrin appeared to have lower incidence of sepsis than those of placebo (OR = 0.13, 95% CrIs: 0.03-0.61) or probiotic (OR = 0.18, 95% CrIs: 0.03-0.83). Based on this NMA, probiotics had the potential to be the most preferable additive, since it exhibited a significant superiority for NEC and mortality as well as a relatively balanced performance in safety.

  5. A cross-sectional study on the prevalence of food allergy to eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) reveals female predominance.

    PubMed

    Harish Babu, B N; Mahesh, P A; Venkatesh, Y P

    2008-11-01

    Only a few case reports of allergy to eggplant (Solanum melongena) have been reported. A relatively large number of individuals appear to experience food-related symptoms to eggplant in India. The major aims of this study are to assess the prevalence of food allergy to eggplant and analyse the age and gender distribution. Seven hundred and forty-one subjects (age range: 5-60 years) randomly selected from rural and urban areas of Mysore city were analysed for the prevalence of eggplant allergy based on case history, skin prick test (SPT) with eggplant extracts and allergen-specific IgE. The age and gender distribution for the prevalence of eggplant allergy and its association with other atopic conditions were assessed. Sixty-eight (9.2%) subjects reported adverse reactions to ingestion of eggplant, of which 32 (4.3%) subjects had positive history/positive SPT and 36 (4.9%) had positive history/negative SPT. Sixteen (2.2%) subjects had negative history/positive SPT. Ten subjects (1.4%) experienced allergic symptoms in <2 h. Sensitization to eggplant by SPT was more in atopic (16.7%) compared with non-atopic subjects (3.8%). All the SPT-positive subjects (n=48) underwent evaluation for eggplant allergen-specific IgE, which was detected in 6 subjects (0.8%). Majority of the subjects sensitized to eggplant were in the age groups 16-45 years, and females were twice as likely to be sensitized as males. Female predominance (4 : 1) is more in the 16-30 year group. Many subjects experience adverse reactions to the ingestion of eggplant, possibly due to the pharmacologic action of histamine and other non-protein components, rather than to specific protein allergen(s). The prevalence of IgE-mediated eggplant allergy is estimated at approximately 0.8%, with higher rates of sensitization in females.

  6. Metagenomic approach reveals microbial diversity and predictive microbial metabolic pathways in Yucha, a traditional Li fermented food

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiachao; Wang, Xiaoru; Huo, Dongxue; Li, Wu; Hu, Qisong; Xu, Chuanbiao; Liu, Sixin; Li, Congfa

    2016-01-01

    Yucha is a typical traditional fermented food of the Li population in the Hainan province of China, and it is made up of cooked rice and fresh fish. In the present study, metagenomic approach and culture-dependent technology were applied to describe the diversity of microbiota and identify beneficial microbes in the Yucha. At the genus level, Lactobacillus was the most abundant genus (43.82% of the total reads), followed by Lactococcus, Enterococcus, Vibrio, Weissella, Pediococcus, Enterobacter, Salinivibrio, Acinetobacter, Macrococcus, Kluyvera and Clostridium; this result was confirmed by q-PCR. PCoA based on Weighted UniFrac distances showed an apparent clustering pattern for Yucha samples from different locations, and Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus saniviri and Staphylococcus sciuri represented OTUs according to the major identified markers. At the microbial functional level, it was observed that there was an enrichment of metabolic functional features, including amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism, which implied that the microbial metabolism in the Yucha samples tended to be vigorous. Accordingly, we further investigated the correlation between the predominant microbes and metabolic functional features. Thirteen species of Lactobacillus (147 strains) were isolated, and Lactobacillus plantarum (60 isolates) and Lactobacillus pentosus (34 isolates) were isolated from every sample. PMID:27578483

  7. Metagenomic approach reveals microbial diversity and predictive microbial metabolic pathways in Yucha, a traditional Li fermented food.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiachao; Wang, Xiaoru; Huo, Dongxue; Li, Wu; Hu, Qisong; Xu, Chuanbiao; Liu, Sixin; Li, Congfa

    2016-08-31

    Yucha is a typical traditional fermented food of the Li population in the Hainan province of China, and it is made up of cooked rice and fresh fish. In the present study, metagenomic approach and culture-dependent technology were applied to describe the diversity of microbiota and identify beneficial microbes in the Yucha. At the genus level, Lactobacillus was the most abundant genus (43.82% of the total reads), followed by Lactococcus, Enterococcus, Vibrio, Weissella, Pediococcus, Enterobacter, Salinivibrio, Acinetobacter, Macrococcus, Kluyvera and Clostridium; this result was confirmed by q-PCR. PCoA based on Weighted UniFrac distances showed an apparent clustering pattern for Yucha samples from different locations, and Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus saniviri and Staphylococcus sciuri represented OTUs according to the major identified markers. At the microbial functional level, it was observed that there was an enrichment of metabolic functional features, including amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism, which implied that the microbial metabolism in the Yucha samples tended to be vigorous. Accordingly, we further investigated the correlation between the predominant microbes and metabolic functional features. Thirteen species of Lactobacillus (147 strains) were isolated, and Lactobacillus plantarum (60 isolates) and Lactobacillus pentosus (34 isolates) were isolated from every sample.

  8. Differences in the intrinsic immunogenicity and allergenicity of Bet v 1 and related food allergens revealed by site-directed mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Roulias, A; Pichler, U; Hauser, M; Himly, M; Hofer, H; Lackner, P; Ebner, C; Briza, P; Bohle, B; Egger, M; Wallner, M; Ferreira, F

    2014-01-01

    Background Birch pollen allergies are frequently associated with adverse reactions to various fruits, nuts, or vegetables, described as pollen–food syndrome (PFS) and caused by cross-reactive IgE antibodies primarily directed against Bet v 1. Specific immunotherapy (SIT) represents an effective treatment for inhalant allergies; however, successful birch pollen SIT does not correlate well with the amelioration of concomitant food allergies. Methods As vaccine candidates, apple Mal d 1 as well as hazelnut Cor a 1 derivatives were designed by in silico backbone analyses of the respective allergens. The proteins were produced by site-directed mutagenesis as fold variants of their parental allergens. Because Mal d 1 and Cor a 1 form cysteine-mediated aggregates, nonaggregative cysteine to serine mutants were also generated. The proteins were characterized physicochemically, immunologically, and in in vivo models with or without adjuvant. Results The structurally modified proteins showed significantly decreased IgE binding capacity. Notably, both in vivo models revealed reduced immunogenicity of the hypoallergenic fold variants. When formulated with alum, the monomeric cysteine mutants induced a similar immune response as the aggregated parental allergens, which is in contrast with data published on Bet v 1. Conclusion These findings lead to the suggestion that the Bet v 1 structure has unique intrinsic properties, which could account for its high allergenicity. Obviously, these characteristics are not entirely shared with its food homologues from apple and hazelnut. Thus, it is important to tackle pollen-related food allergies from different angles for the generation of effective vaccine candidates to treat birch PFS. PMID:24224690

  9. Quantitative Mass Spectrometry Reveals Food Intake-Induced Neuropeptide Level Changes in Rat Brain: Functional Assessment of Selected Neuropeptides as Feeding Regulators.

    PubMed

    Ye, Hui; Wang, Jingxin; Tian, Zichuan; Ma, Fengfei; Dowell, James A; Bremer, Quentin; Lu, Gaoyuan; Baldo, Brian; Li, Lingjun

    2017-09-01

    Endogenous neuropeptides are important signaling molecules that function as regulators of food intake and body weight. Previous work has shown that neuropeptide gene expression levels in a forebrain reward site, the nucleus accumbens (NAc), were changed by feeding. In order to directly monitor feeding-induced changes in neuropeptide expression levels within the NAc, we employed a combination of cryostat dissection, heat stabilization, neuropeptide extraction and label-free quantitative neuropeptidomics via a liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry platform. Using this methodology, we described the first neuropeptidome in NAc and discovered that feeding caused the expression level changes of multiple neuropeptides derived from different precursors, especially proSAAS-derived peptides such as Big LEN, PEN and little SAAS. We further investigated the regulatory functions of these neuropeptides derived from the ProSAAS family by performing an intra-NAc microinjection experiment using the identified ProSAAS neuropeptides, ‘Big-LEN’ and ‘PEN’. Big LEN significantly increased rats’ food and water intake, whereas both big LEN and PEN affected other behaviors including locomotion, drinking and grooming. In addition, we quantified the feeding-induced changes of peptides from hippocampus, hypothalamus and striatum to reveal the neuropeptide interplay among different anatomical regions. In summary, our study demonstrated neuropeptidomic changes in response to food intake in the rat NAc and other key brain regions. Importantly, the microinfusion of ProSAAS peptides into NAc revealed that they are behaviorally active in this brain site, suggesting the potential utility of these peptides as therapeutics for eating disorders. Copyright © 2017, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  10. Mercury Stable Isotopes Reveal Deep Methylation of Mercury and its Uptake into the Open Ocean Food Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motta, L. C.; Blum, J. D.; Johnson, M. W.; Popp, B. N.; Drazen, J.; Hannides, C. C.; Close, H. G.; Umhau, B.; benitez-Nelson, C. R.

    2016-02-01

    Knowledge of the biogeochemistry of methylmercury (MeHg) is required to understand its biomagnification in open ocean food webs. Mass dependent (MDF; δ202Hg) and mass independent (MIF; Δ199Hg) fractionation of Hg isotopes provides new insight into sources and transformations of marine Hg. We measured Hg isotope ratios of fish, zooplankton and sinking particles in vertical profiles at Station ALOHA in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre. Fish display large decreases in δ202Hg (1.6 to -0.2‰) and Δ199Hg (5.3 to 0.8‰) between 10 and 800 m mean feeding depth. Zooplankton also display decreases in δ202Hg (0.2 to -0.3‰) and Δ199Hg (2.2 to 0.8 ‰) between 25 and 1250 m depth, although not as large as in fish. In contrast, sinking particles (> 53 mm) display little variation in δ202Hg (-0.1 to -0.2‰) and Δ199Hg (0.1 to 0.3‰) between 50 and 400 m depth. Precipitation near Hawaii has δ202Hg (0.1 to 0.2‰) and Δ199Hg (0.2 to 0.4‰) similar to sinking particles. We developed a preliminary conceptual model to explain these observations. Inorganic Hg (IHg) is deposited to the ocean via precipitation, sorbs to sinking particles and is transported to ≥ 400 m depth without enough methylation or photochemical reduction to shift δ202Hg or Δ199Hg values appreciably. MeHg is formed and partially photo-demethylated in the photic zone: a small proportion of this also attaches to particles. Shallow zooplankton bioaccumulate MeHg more efficiently than IHg from particles and therefore acquire δ202Hg and Δ199Hg values midway between the values of MeHg (the value of surface feeding fish) and IHg (the value of precipitation). Some methylation also occurs within IHg-dominated particles as they sink to deeper waters; this new MeHg lacks the isotopic signature of photo-demethylation. At about 800 m depth the values of δ202Hg and Δ199Hg in fish and zooplankton converge, suggesting that deep IHg and MeHg have similar isotopic values, and that most MeHg in these

  11. Epigenome-wide association study reveals longitudinally stable DNA methylation differences in CD4+ T cells from children with IgE-mediated food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Martino, David; Joo, Jihoon E; Sexton-Oates, Alexandra; Dang, Thanh; Allen, Katrina; Saffery, Richard; Prescott, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Food allergy is mediated by a combination of genetic and environmental risk factors, potentially mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. CD4+ T-cells are key drivers of the allergic response, and may therefore harbor epigenetic variation in association with the disease phenotype. Here we retrospectively examined genome-wide DNA methylation profiles (~450 000 CpGs) from CD4+ T-cells on a birth cohort of 12 children with IgE-mediated food allergy diagnosed at 12-months, and 12 non-allergic controls. DNA samples were available at two time points, birth and 12-months. Case:control comparisons of CD4+ methylation profiles identified 179 differentially methylated probes (DMP) at 12-months and 136 DMP at birth (FDR-adjusted P value < 0.05, delta β > 0.1). Approximately 30% of DMPs were coincident with previously annotated SNPs. A total of 96 allergy-associated non-SNP DMPs were present at birth when individuals were initially disease-free, potentially implicating these loci in the causal pathway. Pathway analysis of differentially methylated genes identified several MAP kinase signaling molecules. Mass spectrometry was used to validate 15 CpG sites at 3 candidate genes. Combined analysis of differential methylation with gene expression profiles revealed gene expression differences at some but not all allergy associated differentially methylated genes. Thus, dysregulation of DNA methylation at MAPK signaling-associated genes during early CD4+ T-cell development may contribute to suboptimal T-lymphocyte responses in early childhood associated with the development of food allergy. PMID:24762976

  12. Four-trophic level food webs reveal the cascading impacts of an invasive plant targeted for biocontrol.

    PubMed

    López-Núñez, Francisco A; Heleno, Ruben H; Ribeiro, Sérgio; Marchante, Hélia; Marchante, Elizabete

    2017-03-01

    Biological invasions are a major threat to biodiversity and as such understanding their impacts is a research priority. Ecological networks provide a valuable tool to explore such impacts at the community level, and can be particularly insightful for planning and monitoring biocontrol programmes, including the potential for their seldom evaluated indirect non-target effects. Acacia longifolia is among the worst invasive species in Portugal, and has been recently targeted for biocontrol by a highly specific gall-wasp. Here we use an ambitious replicated network approach to: (1) identify the mechanisms by which direct and indirect impacts of A. longifolia can cascade from plants to higher trophic levels, including gallers, their parasitoids and inquilines; (2) reveal the structure of the interaction networks between plants, gallers, parasitoids and inquilines before the biocontrol; and (3) explore the potential for indirect interactions among gallers, including those established with the biocontrol agent, via apparent competition. Over a 15-month period, we collected 31,737 galls from native plants and identified all emerging insects, quantifying the interactions between 219 plant-, 49 galler-, 65 parasitoid- and 87 inquiline-species-one of the largest ecological networks to date. No galls were found on any of the 16 alien plant species. Invasion by A. longifolia caused an alarming simplification of plant communities, with cascading effects to higher trophic levels, namely: a decline of overall gall biomass, and on the richness, abundance and biomass of galler insects, their parasitoids, and inquilines. Correspondingly, we detected a significant decline in the richness of interactions between plants and galls. The invasion tended to increase overall interaction evenness by promoting the local extinction of the native plants that sustained more gall species. However, highly idiosyncratic responses hindered the detection of further consistent changes in network

  13. High-throughput screening of a large collection of non-conventional yeasts reveals their potential for aroma formation in food fermentation.

    PubMed

    Gamero, Amparo; Quintilla, Raquel; Groenewald, Marizeth; Alkema, Wynand; Boekhout, Teun; Hazelwood, Lucie

    2016-12-01

    Saccharomyces yeast species are currently the most important yeasts involved in industrial-scale food fermentations. However, there are hundreds of other yeast species poorly studied that are highly promising for flavour development, some of which have also been identified in traditional food fermentations. This work explores natural yeast biodiversity in terms of aroma formation, with a particular focus on aromas relevant for industrial fermentations such as wine and beer. Several non-Saccharomyces species produce important aroma compounds such as fusel alcohols derived from the Ehrlich pathway, acetate esters and ethyl esters in significantly higher quantities than the well-known Saccharomyces species. These species are Starmera caribaea, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Galactomyces geotrichum, Saccharomycopsis vini and Ambrosiozyma monospora. Certain species revealed a strain-dependent flavour profile while other species were very homogenous in their flavour profiles. Finally, characterization of a selected number of yeast species using valine or leucine as sole nitrogen sources indicates that the mechanisms of regulation of the expression of the Ehrlich pathway exist amongst non-conventional yeast species.

  14. Food web of a confined and anthropogenically affected coastal basin (the Mar Piccolo of Taranto) revealed by carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes analyses.

    PubMed

    Bongiorni, Lucia; Fiorentino, Federica; Auriemma, Rocco; Aubry, Fabrizio Bernardi; Camatti, Elisa; Camin, Federica; Nasi, Federica; Pansera, Marco; Ziller, Luca; Grall, Jacques

    2016-07-01

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis was used to examine the food web of the Mar Piccolo of Taranto, a coastal basin experiencing several anthropogenic impacts. Main food sources (algal detritus, seaweeds, particulate organic matter (POM) and sediment organic matter (SOM)) and benthic and pelagic consumers were collected during two contrasting seasons (June and April), at four sites distributed over two inlets, and characterized by different level of confinements, anthropogenic inputs and the presence of mussels farming. δ(13)C values of organic sources revealed an important contribution of POM to both planktonic and benthic pathways, as well as the influence of terrigenous inputs within both inlets, probably due to high seasonal land runoff. Although δ(13)C of both sources and consumers varied little between sampling sites and dates, δ(15)N spatial variability was higher and clearly reflected the organic enrichment in the second inlet as well as the uptake of anthropogenically derived material by benthic consumers. On the other hand, within the first inlet, the isotopic composition of consumers did not change in response to chemical contamination. However, the impact of polluted sediments near the Navy Arsenal in the first inlet was detectable at the level of the macrobenthic trophic structure, showing high dominance of motile, upper level consumers capable to face transient conditions and the reduction of the more resident deposit feeders. We therefore underline the great potential of matching stable isotope analysis with quantitative studies of community structure to assess the effects of multiple anthropogenic stressors.

  15. Stable isotope ratios reveal food source of benthic fish and crustaceans along a gradient of trophic status in the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ni-Na; Shiao, Jen-Chieh; Gong, Gwo-Ching; Kao, Shuh-Ji; Hsieh, Chih-hao

    2014-08-01

    The East China Sea (ECS) receives large quantities of particulate organic matter (POM) and inorganic nutrients transported from the Changjiang (Yangtze River), which have produced high productivity in the northwestern ECS. This study evaluated potential contributions of terrigenous POM (allochthonous food source) and nutrient-induced marine production (autochthonous source) to the ECS benthic ecosystem by analyzing stable isotopic compositions of phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthic crustaceans and fish. Benthic consumers exhibited δ13C values similar to those of their autochthonous food sources (i.e., phytoplankton and zooplankton), revealing their major reliance on marine production. In contrast, the δ13C values of benthic fish (-19.6‰ to -13.5‰) and crustaceans (-18.9‰ to -15.0‰) were much higher than that of terrigenous POM (-25.7‰), which generally accounted for less than 20% of the most fish diet. Phytoplankton and zooplankton generally exhibited higher δ13C values at eutrophic and highly productive inshore sites than at oligotrophic offshore sites. This enrichment of inshore δ13C values was mainly attributed to lower photosynthetic fractionation during algal blooms, an effect that was further enhanced during flood period of the Changjiang. The δ13C values of demersal fish assemblages were also significantly higher at inshore sites and decreased seaward. However, fish δ15N values and their estimated trophic levels showed relatively small spatial variation. The disproportionate variations in δ13C and δ15N values suggested that the enriched C isotopic signatures derived from an elevated δ13C baseline of the inshore food web instead of trophic enrichment of the isotopic ratios. The significantly positive correlations between concentrations of chlorophyll a and nutrients versus fish δ13C provided further evidence for the use of pelagic algal bloom materials by inshore consumers. The isotopic and oceanographic survey data suggested that

  16. Examination of Food Chain-Derived Listeria monocytogenes Strains of Different Serotypes Reveals Considerable Diversity in inlA Genotypes, Mutability, and Adaptation to Cold Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Kovacevic, Jovana; Arguedas-Villa, Carolina; Wozniak, Anna; Tasara, Taurai

    2013-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes strains belonging to serotypes 1/2a and 4b are frequently linked to listeriosis. While inlA mutations leading to premature stop codons (PMSCs) and attenuated virulence are common in 1/2a, they are rare in serotype 4b. We observed PMSCs in 35% of L. monocytogenes isolates (n = 54) recovered from the British Columbia food supply, including serotypes 1/2a (30%), 1/2c (100%), and 3a (100%), and a 3-codon deletion (amino acid positions 738 to 740) seen in 57% of 4b isolates from fish-processing facilities. Caco-2 invasion assays showed that two isolates with the deletion were significantly more invasive than EGD-SmR (P < 0.0001) and were either as (FF19-1) or more (FE13-1) invasive than a clinical control strain (08-5578) (P = 0.006). To examine whether serotype 1/2a was more likely to acquire mutations than other serotypes, strains were plated on agar with rifampin, revealing 4b isolates to be significantly more mutable than 1/2a, 1/2c, and 3a serotypes (P = 0.0002). We also examined the ability of 33 strains to adapt to cold temperature following a downshift from 37°C to 4°C. Overall, three distinct cold-adapting groups (CAG) were observed: 46% were fast (<70 h), 39% were intermediate (70 to 200 h), and 15% were slow (>200 h) adaptors. Intermediate CAG strains (70%) more frequently possessed inlA PMSCs than did fast (20%) and slow (10%) CAGs; in contrast, 87% of fast adaptors lacked inlA PMSCs. In conclusion, we report food chain-derived 1/2a and 4b serotypes with a 3-codon deletion possessing invasive behavior and the novel association of inlA genotypes encoding a full-length InlA with fast cold-adaptation phenotypes. PMID:23315746

  17. Examination of food chain-derived Listeria monocytogenes strains of different serotypes reveals considerable diversity in inlA genotypes, mutability, and adaptation to cold temperatures.

    PubMed

    Kovacevic, Jovana; Arguedas-Villa, Carolina; Wozniak, Anna; Tasara, Taurai; Allen, Kevin J

    2013-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes strains belonging to serotypes 1/2a and 4b are frequently linked to listeriosis. While inlA mutations leading to premature stop codons (PMSCs) and attenuated virulence are common in 1/2a, they are rare in serotype 4b. We observed PMSCs in 35% of L. monocytogenes isolates (n = 54) recovered from the British Columbia food supply, including serotypes 1/2a (30%), 1/2c (100%), and 3a (100%), and a 3-codon deletion (amino acid positions 738 to 740) seen in 57% of 4b isolates from fish-processing facilities. Caco-2 invasion assays showed that two isolates with the deletion were significantly more invasive than EGD-SmR (P < 0.0001) and were either as (FF19-1) or more (FE13-1) invasive than a clinical control strain (08-5578) (P = 0.006). To examine whether serotype 1/2a was more likely to acquire mutations than other serotypes, strains were plated on agar with rifampin, revealing 4b isolates to be significantly more mutable than 1/2a, 1/2c, and 3a serotypes (P = 0.0002). We also examined the ability of 33 strains to adapt to cold temperature following a downshift from 37°C to 4°C. Overall, three distinct cold-adapting groups (CAG) were observed: 46% were fast (<70 h), 39% were intermediate (70 to 200 h), and 15% were slow (>200 h) adaptors. Intermediate CAG strains (70%) more frequently possessed inlA PMSCs than did fast (20%) and slow (10%) CAGs; in contrast, 87% of fast adaptors lacked inlA PMSCs. In conclusion, we report food chain-derived 1/2a and 4b serotypes with a 3-codon deletion possessing invasive behavior and the novel association of inlA genotypes encoding a full-length InlA with fast cold-adaptation phenotypes.

  18. 13C-isotope analyses reveal that chemolithoautotrophic Gamma- and Epsilonproteobacteria feed a microbial food web in a pelagic redoxcline of the central Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Glaubitz, Sabine; Lueders, Tillmann; Abraham, Wolf-Rainer; Jost, Günter; Jürgens, Klaus; Labrenz, Matthias

    2009-02-01

    Marine pelagic redoxclines are zones of high dark CO(2) fixation rates, which can correspond up to 30% of the surface primary production. However, despite this significant contribution to the pelagic carbon cycle, the identity of most chemolithoautotrophic organisms is still unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to directly link the dark CO(2) fixation capacity of a pelagic redoxcline in the central Baltic Sea (Landsort Deep) with the identity of the main chemolithoautotrophs involved. Our approach was based on the analysis of natural carbon isotope signatures in fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and on measurements of CO(2) incorporation in (13)C-bicarbonate pulse experiments. The incorporation of (13)C into chemolithoautotrophic cells was investigated by rRNA-based stable isotope probing (RNA-SIP) and FAME analysis after incubation for 24 and 72 h under in situ conditions. Our results demonstrated that fatty acids indicative of Proteobacteria were significantly enriched in (13)C slightly below the chemocline. RNA-SIP analyses revealed that two different Gammaproteobacteria and three closely related Epsilonproteobacteria of the Sulfurimonas cluster were active dark CO(2)-fixing microorganisms, with a time-dependent community shift between these groups. Labelling of Archaea was not detectable, but after 72 h of incubation the (13)C-label had been transferred to a potentially bacterivorous ciliate related to Euplotes sp. Thus, RNA-SIP provided direct evidence for the contribution of chemolithoautotrophic production to the microbial food web in this marine pelagic redoxcline, emphasizing the importance of dark CO(2)-fixing Proteobacteria within this habitat.

  19. Systematic examination of publicly-available information reveals the diverse and extensive corporate political activity of the food industry in Australia.

    PubMed

    Mialon, Melissa; Swinburn, Boyd; Allender, Steven; Sacks, Gary

    2016-03-22

    The political influence of the food industry, referred to as corporate political activity (CPA), represents a potential barrier to the development and implementation of effective public health policies for non-communicable diseases prevention. This paper reports on the feasibility and limitations of using publicly-available information to identify and monitor the CPA of the food industry in Australia. A systematic search was conducted for information from food industry, government and other publicly-available data sources in Australia. Data was collected in relation to five key food industry actors: the Australian Food and Grocery Council; Coca Cola; McDonald's; Nestle; and Woolworths, for the period January 2012 to February 2015. Data analysis was guided by an existing framework for classifying CPA strategies of the food industry. The selected food industry actors used multiple CPA strategies, with 'information and messaging' and 'constituency building' strategies most prominent. The systematic analysis of publicly-available information over a limited period was able to identify diverse and extensive CPA strategies of the food industry in Australia. This approach can contribute to accountability mechanisms for NCD prevention.

  20. Healthy and Adverse Effects of Plant-Derived Functional Metabolites: The Need of Revealing their Content and Bioactivity in a Complex Food Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Lavecchia, Teresa; Rea, Giuseppina; Antonacci, Amina; Giardi, Maria T.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, both food quality and its effect on human health have become a fundamental issue all over the world. As a consequence of this new and increased awareness, American, European, and Asian policymakers have strongly encouraged the research programs on food quality and safety thematic. Attempts to improve human health and to satisfy people's desire for healthcare without intake of pharmaceuticals, has led the food industry to focus attention on functional or nutraceutical food. For a long time, compounds with nutraceutical activity have been produced chemically, but the new demands for a sustainable life have gradually led the food industry to move towards natural compounds, mainly those derived from plants. Many phytochemicals are known to promote good health, but, sometimes, undesirable effects are also reported. Furthermore, several products present on the market show few benefits and sometimes even the reverse – unhealthy effects; the evidence of efficacy is often unconvincing and epidemiological studies are necessary to prove the truth of their claims. Therefore, there is a need for reliable analytical control systems to measure the bioactivity, content, and quality of these additives in the complex food matrix. This review describes the most widespread nutraceutics and an analytical control of the same using recently developed biosensors which are promising candidates for routine control of functional foods. PMID:23072533

  1. Healthy and adverse effects of plant-derived functional metabolites: the need of revealing their content and bioactivity in a complex food matrix.

    PubMed

    Lavecchia, Teresa; Rea, Giuseppina; Antonacci, Amina; Giardi, Maria T

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, both food quality and its effect on human health have become a fundamental issue all over the world. As a consequence of this new and increased awareness, American, European, and Asian policymakers have strongly encouraged the research programs on food quality and safety thematic. Attempts to improve human health and to satisfy people's desire for healthcare without intake of pharmaceuticals, has led the food industry to focus attention on functional or nutraceutical food. For a long time, compounds with nutraceutical activity have been produced chemically, but the new demands for a sustainable life have gradually led the food industry to move towards natural compounds, mainly those derived from plants. Many phytochemicals are known to promote good health, but, sometimes, undesirable effects are also reported. Furthermore, several products present on the market show few benefits and sometimes even the reverse - unhealthy effects; the evidence of efficacy is often unconvincing and epidemiological studies are necessary to prove the truth of their claims. Therefore, there is a need for reliable analytical control systems to measure the bioactivity, content, and quality of these additives in the complex food matrix. This review describes the most widespread nutraceutics and an analytical control of the same using recently developed biosensors which are promising candidates for routine control of functional foods.

  2. Genetic and molecular characterization reveals a unique nucleobase cation symporter 1 in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Mourad, George S; Tippmann-Crosby, Julie; Hunt, Kevin A; Gicheru, Yvonne; Bade, Kaely; Mansfield, Tyler A; Schultes, Neil P

    2012-05-07

    Locus At5g03555 encodes a nucleobase cation symporter 1 (AtNCS1) in the Arabidopsis genome. Arabidopsis insertion mutants, AtNcs1-1 and AtNcs1-3, were used for in planta toxic nucleobase analog growth studies and radio-labeled nucleobase uptake assays to characterize solute transport specificities. These results correlate with similar growth and uptake studies of AtNCS1 expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Both in planta and heterologous expression studies in yeast revealed a unique solute transport profile for AtNCS1 in moving adenine, guanine and uracil. This is in stark contrast to the canonical transport profiles determined for the well-characterized S. cerevisiae NCS1 proteins FUR4 (uracil transport) or FCY2 (adenine, guanine, and cytosine transport).

  3. Differences between main-channel and off-channel food webs in the upper Mississippi River revealed by fatty acid profiles of consumers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, James H.; Bartsch, Michelle; Gutreuter, Steve; Knights, Brent C.; Bartsch, Lynn; Richardson, William B.; Vallazza, Jonathan M.; Arts, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    Large river systems are often thought to contain a mosaic of patches with different habitat characteristics driven by differences in flow and mixing environments. Off-channel habitats (e.g., backwater areas, secondary channels) can become semi-isolated from main-channel water inputs, leading to the development of distinct biogeochemical environments. Observations of adult bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) in the main channel of the Mississippi River led to speculation that the main channel offered superior food resources relative to off-channel areas. One important aspect of food quality is the quantity and composition of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). We sampled consumers from main-channel and backwater habitats to determine whether they differed in PUFA content. Main-channel individuals for relatively immobile species (young-of-year bluegill, zebra mussels [Dreissena polymorpha], and plain pocketbook mussels [Lampsilis cardium]) had significantly greater PUFA content than off-channel individuals. No difference in PUFA was observed for the more mobile gizzard shad (Dorsoma cepedianum), which may move between main-channel and off-channel habitats even at early life-history stages. As off-channel habitats become isolated from main-channel waters, flow and water column nitrogen decrease, potentially improving conditions for nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria and vascular plants that, in turn, have low PUFA content. We conclude that main-channel food webs of the upper Mississippi River provide higher quality food resources for some riverine consumers as compared to food webs in off-channel habitats.

  4. Invasive Mussels Alter the Littoral Food Web of a Large Lake: Stable Isotopes Reveal Drastic Shifts in Sources and Flow of Energy

    PubMed Central

    Ozersky, Ted; Evans, David O.; Barton, David R.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated how establishment of invasive dreissenid mussels impacted the structure and energy sources of the littoral benthic food web of a large temperate lake. We combined information about pre- and postdreissenid abundance, biomass, and secondary production of the littoral benthos with results of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis of archival (predreissenid) and recent (postdreissenid) samples of all common benthic taxa. This approach enabled us to determine the importance of benthic and sestonic carbon to the littoral food web before, and more than a decade after dreissenid establishment. Long term dreissenid presence was associated with a 32-fold increase in abundance, 6-fold increase in biomass, and 14-fold increase in secondary production of the littoral benthos. Dreissenids comprised a large portion of the post-invasion benthos, making up 13, 38, and 56% of total abundance, biomass, and secondary production, respectively. The predreissenid food web was supported primarily by benthic primary production, while sestonic material was relatively more important to the postdreissenid food web. The absolute importance of both sestonic material and benthic primary production to the littoral benthos increased considerably following dreissenid establishment. Our results show drastic alterations to food web structure and suggest that dreissenid mussels redirect energy and material from the water column to the littoral benthos both through biodeposition of sestonic material as well as stimulation of benthic primary production. PMID:23284673

  5. Invasive mussels alter the littoral food web of a large lake: stable isotopes reveal drastic shifts in sources and flow of energy.

    PubMed

    Ozersky, Ted; Evans, David O; Barton, David R

    2012-01-01

    We investigated how establishment of invasive dreissenid mussels impacted the structure and energy sources of the littoral benthic food web of a large temperate lake. We combined information about pre- and postdreissenid abundance, biomass, and secondary production of the littoral benthos with results of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis of archival (predreissenid) and recent (postdreissenid) samples of all common benthic taxa. This approach enabled us to determine the importance of benthic and sestonic carbon to the littoral food web before, and more than a decade after dreissenid establishment. Long term dreissenid presence was associated with a 32-fold increase in abundance, 6-fold increase in biomass, and 14-fold increase in secondary production of the littoral benthos. Dreissenids comprised a large portion of the post-invasion benthos, making up 13, 38, and 56% of total abundance, biomass, and secondary production, respectively. The predreissenid food web was supported primarily by benthic primary production, while sestonic material was relatively more important to the postdreissenid food web. The absolute importance of both sestonic material and benthic primary production to the littoral benthos increased considerably following dreissenid establishment. Our results show drastic alterations to food web structure and suggest that dreissenid mussels redirect energy and material from the water column to the littoral benthos both through biodeposition of sestonic material as well as stimulation of benthic primary production.

  6. Genome-wide-analyses of Listeria monocytogenes from food-processing plants reveal clonal diversity and date the emergence of persisting sequence types.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Gitte M; Nielsen, Jesper Boye; Marvig, Rasmus L; Ng, Yin; Worning, Peder; Westh, Henrik; Gram, Lone

    2017-08-01

    Whole genome sequencing is increasing used in epidemiology, e.g. for tracing outbreaks of food-borne diseases. This requires in-depth understanding of pathogen emergence, persistence and genomic diversity along the food production chain including in food processing plants. We sequenced the genomes of 80 isolates of Listeria monocytogenes sampled from Danish food processing plants over a time-period of 20 years, and analysed the sequences together with 10 public available reference genomes to advance our understanding of interplant and intraplant genomic diversity of L. monocytogenes. Except for three persisting sequence types (ST) based on Multi Locus Sequence Typing being ST7, ST8 and ST121, long-term persistence of clonal groups was limited, and new clones were introduced continuously, potentially from raw materials. No particular gene could be linked to the persistence phenotype. Using time-based phylogenetic analyses of the persistent STs, we estimate the L. monocytogenes evolutionary rate to be 0.18-0.35 single nucleotide polymorphisms/year, suggesting that the persistent STs emerged approximately 100 years ago, which correlates with the onset of industrialization and globalization of the food market. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Synthesis, DTPA coupling and radio labeling of cationic aminodextran

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, G.; McAfee, J.G.; Schneider, R.F.; Zapf-Longo, C.; Palladino, E.; Lyons, B.J.; Roskopf, M.

    1984-01-01

    In glomerular diseases, the normal anionic charge of the basement membrane is lost at an early stage. Glomerular damage in rats has been detected more readily with cationic dextrans than with inulin. Hence, the authors attempted to demonstrate this phenomenon in vivo in rats with labeled cationic dextran. Aminated Dextran (AMDEX) was prepared by treating Dextran(mol. wt approx. = 15k) with sodium methoxide followed by a bromethylamine HBr in DMSO resulting in 10-25 aminogroups per mole. DTPA cyclic dianhydride was coupled to AMDEX using a weight ratio of 1:10 in 0.2 - 1.0 ml 0.42 M Hepes buffer at pH 7.4. Free DTPA was removed by gel filtration (Sephadex P6DG) or by using Centricon-10 (AMICON) centrifugal microconcentrators. AMDEX coupled with DTPA was labeled with Indium-111 in 0.25 M acetate buffer. Labeling yields were >90% by gel chromatography and electrophoresis (pH8.2 Barbitol buffer). AMEXDTPA was labeled also by ligand exchange with Tc-99m-Sn-citrate at neutral pH with a labeling yield of 30%. On electrophoresis, all the labeled samples retained their cationic character. The distribution of purified In-111 AMDEX, was compared with simultaneously IV injected Tc-99m DTPA in rats. The 2 hour urinary excretion, and renal clearance (calculated from the biexponential plasma clearance) were slower (70 to 80%) than those of DTPA, due to the larger molecular size of AMDEX. By 1 hr., 5% of the administered activity was retained in each kidney, probably due to adherence to anionic binding sites.

  8. Reasons to Do Food Challenges

    MedlinePlus

    ... Doctors & Departments Research & Science Education & Training Home Conditions Food Allergies Diagnosis Reasons to Do Food Challenges Reasons to ... and management of patients with histories suggestive of food allergy. Indeed, their necessity is supported by studies revealing ...

  9. Combined use of mark-recapture and genetic analyses reveals response of a black bear population to changes in food productivity

    Treesearch

    Barbara S. McCall; Michael S. Mitchell; Michael K. Schwartz; Jim Hayden; Samuel A. Cushman; Pete Zager; Wayne F. Kasworm

    2013-01-01

    We used mark-recapture analysis to investigate the dynamics of a black bear (Ursus americanus) population in northern Idaho where food availability varies seasonally and annually. We conducted noninvasive genetic sampling (NGS) during 2003-2006 in the Purcell Mountains of Idaho to collect black bear DNA samples for individual identification of bears. We used a...

  10. Sweet lies: neural, visual, and behavioral measures reveal a lack of self-control conflict during food choice in weight-concerned women

    PubMed Central

    van der Laan, Laura N.; de Ridder, Denise T. D.; Charbonnier, Lisette; Viergever, Max A.; Smeets, Paul A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Despite their intentions, weight-concerned individuals generally fail to control their eating behavior. However, it is unknown whether this failure is due to a lack of effortful self-control, or to not experiencing an internal conflict between weight goals and food temptations. The present study used fMRI, eye tracking and reaction times to assess the degree of conflict experienced by weight-concerned women during food choices that posed either a self-control dilemma (i.e., requiring a choice between healthy and palatable foods), or not. Contrary to the common assumption in self-control theory that food choices posing a self-control dilemma evoke internal conflict, we found that choices requiring self-control induced no conflict, as demonstrated by lower reaction times, fixation durations, number of gaze switches between snacks, and lower activation of the anterior cingulate cortex. Our results suggest that self-control failure might be due to a lack of experienced conflict, rather than to failing to act upon the perception of such conflict. This implies that effectiveness of weight maintenance interventions might be improved if they also focus on increasing the ability to detect a self-control dilemma, in addition to the current focus on increasing self-regulatory capacity. PMID:24904336

  11. Materialism and food security.

    PubMed

    Allen, M W; Wilson, M

    2005-12-01

    The present studies examined if materialists have an elevated concern about food availability, presumably stemming from a general survival security motivation. Study 1 found that materialists set a greater life goal of food security, and reported more food insecurity during their childhood. Materialists reported less present-day food insecurity. Study 2 revealed that materialists stored/hoarded more food at home, and that obese persons endorsed materialism more than low/normal weight persons. Study 3 found that experimentally decreasing participants' feelings of survival security (via a mortality salience manipulation) led to greater endorsement of materialism, food security as goal, and using food for emotional comfort. The results imply that materialists overcame the food insecurity of their childhood by making food security a top life goal, but that materialists' current concerns about food security may not wholly stem from genuine threats to their food supply.

  12. Stability and flexibility of the message carried by semiochemical stimuli, as revealed by devaluation of carbon disulfide followed by social transmission of food preference.

    PubMed

    Maier, Joost X; Blankenship, Meredith L; Barry, Nicholas C; Richards, Sarah E; Katz, Donald B

    2014-08-01

    Semiochemicals are volatile compounds that communicate specific meaning between individuals and elicit specific behavioral and/or physiological responses mediated by highly sensitive and highly specific olfactory pathways. Recent work suggests that semiochemicals can activate multiple olfactory pathways at once, but the degree to which parallel pathways activated by the same semiochemical interact and what the behavioral consequences of such interactions are remains a topic of debate. Here, we approached this question behaviorally, investigating whether rats could be trained to avoid carbon disulfide (CS₂; conditional stimulus) via taste-potentiated odor aversion, and asking whether any such learning would have an impact on rats' subsequent use of CS₂ as a semiochemical cue (i.e., in a socially transmitted food preference paradigm). The results show that CS₂-mediated food preference learning is unimpaired by aversions conditioned to CS₂, a result indicating that canonical and semiochemical pathways for the processing of CS₂ function in a largely independent manner.

  13. Stomach temperature records reveal nursing behaviour and transition to solid food consumption in an unweaned mammal, the harbour seal pup (Phoca vitulina).

    PubMed

    Sauvé, Caroline C; Van de Walle, Joanie; Hammill, Mike O; Arnould, John P Y; Beauplet, Gwénaël

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of milk transfer from mother to offspring and early solid food ingestions in mammals allows for a greater understanding of the factors affecting transition to nutritional independence and pre-weaning growth and survival. Yet studies monitoring suckling behaviour have often relied on visual observations, which might not accurately represent milk intake. We assessed the use of stomach temperature telemetry to monitor suckling and foraging behaviour in free-ranging harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) pups during lactation. Stomach temperature declines were analysed using principal component and cluster analyses, as well as trials using simulated stomachs resulting in a precise classification of stomach temperature drops into milk, seawater and solid food ingestions. Seawater and solid food ingestions represented on average 15.3±1.6% [0-40.0%] and 0.7±0.2% [0-13.0%], respectively, of individual ingestions. Overall, 63.7% of milk ingestions occurred while the pups were in the water, of which 13.9% were preceded by seawater ingestion. The average time between subsequent ingestions was significantly less for seawater than for milk ingestions. These results suggest that seawater ingestion might represent collateral ingestion during aquatic suckling attempts. Alternatively, as solid food ingestions (n = 19) were observed among 7 pups, seawater ingestion could result from missed prey capture attempts. This study shows that some harbour seals start ingesting prey while still being nursed, indicating that weaning occurs more gradually than previously thought in this species. Stomach temperature telemetry represents a promising method to study suckling behaviour in wild mammals and transition to nutritional independence in various endotherm species.

  14. Assessing Interactions Between Ghsr and Mc3r Reveals a Role for AgRP in the Expression of Food Anticipatory Activity in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Girardet, Clemence; Mavrikaki, Maria; Southern, Mark R.; Smith, Roy G.

    2014-01-01

    The stomach hormone ghrelin and hypothalamic melanocortin neurons belong to a gut-brain circuit controlling appetite and metabolic homeostasis. Mice lacking melanocortin-3 receptor (Mc3rKO) or growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GhsrKO) genes exhibit attenuated food anticipatory activity (FAA), a rise in locomotor activity anticipating mealtime, suggesting common circuitry regulating anticipatory responses to nutrient loading. To investigate the interaction between Ghsrs and Mc3rs, we compared food anticipatory responses in GhsrKO, Mc3rKO, and double Ghsr;Mc3r knockout (DKO) mice subjected to a hypocaloric restricted feeding (RF) protocol in constant dark or 12-hour light, 12-hour dark settings. DKO are viable, exhibiting no overt behavioral or metabolic phenotypes in ad libitum or fasting conditions. FAA was initially attenuated in all mutant strains in constant darkness. However, GhsrKO eventually exhibited a robust food anticipatory response, suggesting compensation. Mc3rKO and DKO did not compensate, indicating a continued requirement for Mc3rs in maintaining the expression of FAA in situations of RF. Abnormal regulation of hypothalamic agouti-related peptide/neuropeptide Y (AgRP/Npy) neurons previously observed during fasting may contribute to attenuated FAA in Mc3rKO. AgRP and Npy expression measured 1 hour before food presentation correlated positively with FAA. Absence of Mc3rs (but not Ghsrs) was associated with lower AgRP/Npy expression, suggesting attenuated responses to signals of negative energy balance. These observations support the importance of Mc3rs as modulators of anticipatory responses to feeding, with mice able to compensate for loss of Ghsrs. The behavioral deficits of Mc3rKO displayed during RF may be partially explained by reduced hunger sensations owing to abnormal regulation of orexigenic AgRP/Npy neurons. PMID:25211592

  15. Stomach Temperature Records Reveal Nursing Behaviour and Transition to Solid Food Consumption in an Unweaned Mammal, the Harbour Seal Pup (Phoca vitulina)

    PubMed Central

    Sauvé, Caroline C.; Van de Walle, Joanie; Hammill, Mike O.; Arnould, John P. Y.; Beauplet, Gwénaël

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of milk transfer from mother to offspring and early solid food ingestions in mammals allows for a greater understanding of the factors affecting transition to nutritional independence and pre-weaning growth and survival. Yet studies monitoring suckling behaviour have often relied on visual observations, which might not accurately represent milk intake. We assessed the use of stomach temperature telemetry to monitor suckling and foraging behaviour in free-ranging harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) pups during lactation. Stomach temperature declines were analysed using principal component and cluster analyses, as well as trials using simulated stomachs resulting in a precise classification of stomach temperature drops into milk, seawater and solid food ingestions. Seawater and solid food ingestions represented on average 15.3±1.6% [0–40.0%] and 0.7±0.2% [0–13.0%], respectively, of individual ingestions. Overall, 63.7% of milk ingestions occurred while the pups were in the water, of which 13.9% were preceded by seawater ingestion. The average time between subsequent ingestions was significantly less for seawater than for milk ingestions. These results suggest that seawater ingestion might represent collateral ingestion during aquatic suckling attempts. Alternatively, as solid food ingestions (n = 19) were observed among 7 pups, seawater ingestion could result from missed prey capture attempts. This study shows that some harbour seals start ingesting prey while still being nursed, indicating that weaning occurs more gradually than previously thought in this species. Stomach temperature telemetry represents a promising method to study suckling behaviour in wild mammals and transition to nutritional independence in various endotherm species. PMID:24587327

  16. Comparative trophic structures of macrobenthic food web in two macrotidal wetlands with and without a dike on the temperate coast of Korea as revealed by stable isotopes.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun Je; Kang, Hee Yoon; Park, Tae Hee; Kang, Chang-Keun

    2017-09-27

    This study characterized trophic structures of the macrobenthic food webs in two contrasting estuarine wetlands, with and without a dike, on the southern coast of Korea, based on the δ(13)C and δ(15)N values of dominant macrobenthic consumers. The pelagic algal biomasses were similar in the upper Phragmites australis-covered and lower bare intertidal habitats partitioned by the dike, but the microphytobenthos (MPB) biomasses were extremely low in the Phragmites bed. The consumer δ(13)C values were more negative and their isotopic niche width was much narrower in the upper than in the lower habitat at the diked site. These dissimilar spatial patterns between sites suggest a simplified food-web structure, which reflects the reduced availability of MPB in the upper habitat in the dike-impacted site. Overall, our findings suggest that restriction of the tides by dike construction induces local changes in basal resource availability and faunal composition, leading to macrobenthic community trophic reorganization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Untargeted metabolomics of fresh and heat treatment Tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus L.) milks reveals further insight into food quality and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Rubert, Josep; Monforte, Andoni; Hurkova, Kamila; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Blesa, Jesús; Navarro, José L; Stranka, Milena; Soriano, José Miguel; Hajslova, Jana

    2017-09-08

    Tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus L.) is a crop traditionally grown in Valencia Region (Spain) and other temperate and tropical regions in the world, where its tubers are commonly consumed as tiger nut milk (horchata). Because of their nutritive potential and original taste, these products are beginning to spread internationally and, as consequence, analytical procedures to assess nutritional profiles, quality control issues are acquiring increasing relevance. The main objective of this study was to use an advance analytical method and chemometrics tools to determine if the ultra-high temperature (UHT) treatment necessary to extend the shelf life of tiger nut milk would affect the profile of nutrients when compared to fresh product. A cold solvent extraction followed by liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) was used. Datasets obtained from UHT and fresh tiger nut milk data were analyzed through an untargeted metabolomics approach to compare chemical patterns, highlighting differences in citric acid esters of mono- diglycerides (CITREM) and monoacylglycerol (MAG) used as emulsifiers of UHT products, and a remarkably higher abundance of biotin, phosphatidic acid (PA) and L-arginine in fresh products. These results showed that untargeted metabolomics through high resolution tandem mass spectrometry allowed fine differences between food products to be found, therefore, the nutrient lost caused by UHT treatment was clearly discerned. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Fecal Gluten Peptides Reveal Limitations of Serological Tests and Food Questionnaires for Monitoring Gluten-Free Diet in Celiac Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Comino, Isabel; Fernández-Bañares, Fernando; Esteve, María; Ortigosa, Luís; Castillejo, Gemma; Fambuena, Blanca; Ribes-Koninckx, Carmen; Sierra, Carlos; Rodríguez-Herrera, Alfonso; Salazar, José Carlos; Caunedo, Ángel; Marugán-Miguelsanz, J M; Garrote, José Antonio; Vivas, Santiago; lo Iacono, Oreste; Nuñez, Alejandro; Vaquero, Luis; Vegas, Ana María; Crespo, Laura; Fernández-Salazar, Luis; Arranz, Eduardo; Jiménez-García, Victoria Alejandra; Antonio Montes-Cano, Marco; Espín, Beatriz; Galera, Ana; Valverde, Justo; Girón, Francisco José; Bolonio, Miguel; Millán, Antonio; Cerezo, Francesc Martínez; Guajardo, César; Alberto, José Ramón; Rosinach, Mercé; Segura, Verónica; León, Francisco; Marinich, Jorge; Muñoz-Suano, Alba; Romero-Gómez, Manuel; Cebolla, Ángel; Sousa, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Treatment for celiac disease (CD) is a lifelong strict gluten-free diet (GFD). Patients should be followed-up with dietary interviews and serology as CD markers to ensure adherence to the diet. However, none of these methods offer an accurate measure of dietary compliance. Our aim was to evaluate the measurement of gluten immunogenic peptides (GIP) in stools as a marker of GFD adherence in CD patients and compare it with traditional methods of GFD monitoring. Methods: We performed a prospective, nonrandomized, multicenter study including 188 CD patients on GFD and 84 healthy controls. Subjects were given a dietary questionnaire and fecal GIP quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Serological anti-tissue transglutaminase (anti-tTG) IgA and anti-deamidated gliadin peptide (anti-DGP) IgA antibodies were measured simultaneously. Results: Of the 188 celiac patients, 56 (29.8%) had detectable GIP levels in stools. There was significant association between age and GIP in stools that revealed increasing dietary transgressions with advancing age (39.2% in subjects ≥13 years old) and with gender in certain age groups (60% in men ≥13 years old). No association was found between fecal GIP and dietary questionnaire or anti-tTG antibodies. However, association was detected between GIP and anti-DGP antibodies, although 46 of the 53 GIP stool-positive patients were negative for anti-DGP. Conclusions: Detection of gluten peptides in stools reveals limitations of traditional methods for monitoring GFD in celiac patients. The GIP ELISA enables direct and quantitative assessment of gluten exposure early after ingestion and could aid in the diagnosis and clinical management of nonresponsive CD and refractory CD. Trial registration number NCT02711397. PMID:27644734

  19. Fecal Gluten Peptides Reveal Limitations of Serological Tests and Food Questionnaires for Monitoring Gluten-Free Diet in Celiac Disease Patients.

    PubMed

    Comino, Isabel; Fernández-Bañares, Fernando; Esteve, María; Ortigosa, Luís; Castillejo, Gemma; Fambuena, Blanca; Ribes-Koninckx, Carmen; Sierra, Carlos; Rodríguez-Herrera, Alfonso; Salazar, José Carlos; Caunedo, Ángel; Marugán-Miguelsanz, J M; Garrote, José Antonio; Vivas, Santiago; Lo Iacono, Oreste; Nuñez, Alejandro; Vaquero, Luis; Vegas, Ana María; Crespo, Laura; Fernández-Salazar, Luis; Arranz, Eduardo; Jiménez-García, Victoria Alejandra; Antonio Montes-Cano, Marco; Espín, Beatriz; Galera, Ana; Valverde, Justo; Girón, Francisco José; Bolonio, Miguel; Millán, Antonio; Cerezo, Francesc Martínez; Guajardo, César; Alberto, José Ramón; Rosinach, Mercé; Segura, Verónica; León, Francisco; Marinich, Jorge; Muñoz-Suano, Alba; Romero-Gómez, Manuel; Cebolla, Ángel; Sousa, Carolina

    2016-10-01

    Treatment for celiac disease (CD) is a lifelong strict gluten-free diet (GFD). Patients should be followed-up with dietary interviews and serology as CD markers to ensure adherence to the diet. However, none of these methods offer an accurate measure of dietary compliance. Our aim was to evaluate the measurement of gluten immunogenic peptides (GIP) in stools as a marker of GFD adherence in CD patients and compare it with traditional methods of GFD monitoring. We performed a prospective, nonrandomized, multicenter study including 188 CD patients on GFD and 84 healthy controls. Subjects were given a dietary questionnaire and fecal GIP quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Serological anti-tissue transglutaminase (anti-tTG) IgA and anti-deamidated gliadin peptide (anti-DGP) IgA antibodies were measured simultaneously. Of the 188 celiac patients, 56 (29.8%) had detectable GIP levels in stools. There was significant association between age and GIP in stools that revealed increasing dietary transgressions with advancing age (39.2% in subjects ≥13 years old) and with gender in certain age groups (60% in men ≥13 years old). No association was found between fecal GIP and dietary questionnaire or anti-tTG antibodies. However, association was detected between GIP and anti-DGP antibodies, although 46 of the 53 GIP stool-positive patients were negative for anti-DGP. Detection of gluten peptides in stools reveals limitations of traditional methods for monitoring GFD in celiac patients. The GIP ELISA enables direct and quantitative assessment of gluten exposure early after ingestion and could aid in the diagnosis and clinical management of nonresponsive CD and refractory CD. Trial registration number NCT02711397.

  20. Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Food Allergies KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Allergies Print A ... cow's milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies happen when the immune system ...

  1. Food safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... or storing food can also cause contamination. Properly handling, storing, and preparing food greatly reduces the risk ... any cuts or sores, wear gloves suitable for handling food or avoid preparing food. To reduce your ...

  2. Emergency Food Supplies in Food Secure Households.

    PubMed

    Golem, Devon L; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2015-08-01

    -related resources of water and power. The mean food supply within the sampled households exceeds the current emergency preparedness recommendations, even when considering specific nutrients and emergency-related factors that affect ability to consume the food supply. Cross-sectional observation of the household food supply of food secure families in New Jersey reveals adequate dietary-based emergency preparedness and low vulnerability to emergency-induced food insecurity.

  3. Folklore and food habits.

    PubMed

    Shifflett, P A

    1976-04-01

    The folklore surrounding food habits developed from uncertainty and fear in mankind's quest for food. In an attempt to gain control of his destiny, man developed various magical practices which would perhaps assure an abundance of food. The practice and beliefs did not develop haphazardly, but, on examination, reveal a type of "folk logic" explained by Sir James Frazer's concepts of contagious and homeopathic magic. The "logic" was extended to specific practices in preparing foods, eating of foods on special days, the use of food in curing certain diseases, and forbidding foods at certain times. The folk were attempting to coordinate the phenomena of their world according to cause and effect much the same as modern Americans coordinate their world. However, the basic assuptions were different.

  4. Food for the photometrists - Faint galaxies revealed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malin, D. F.

    The advantages of photographic plates over CCD detectors for some types of astronomical photometry (uniformity over large areas and information-storage capacity) are discussed, and illustrated using images of faint galaxies and faint galactic structures. It is pointed out that the photographic amplification technique (Malin, 1978), although at present only qualitative, is much more time-efficient than digital scanning. Consideration is also given to the production of full-color images by superimposition of B, V, and R plates.

  5. Terminologie alimentaire (Food Terminology).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelletier, Jean-Francois

    1980-01-01

    Translations and descriptions are given in French for a number of English food terms: convenience foods, fast foods, fast foods industry, fast foods restaurant, frozen foods, deep frozen foods, fast frozen foods, quick frozen foods, dry frozen foods. (MSE)

  6. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002435.htm Food additives To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Food additives are substances that become part of a food ...

  7. Food Labels

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Food Labels KidsHealth > For Teens > Food Labels Print A ... have at least 95% organic ingredients. continue Making Food Labels Work for You The first step in ...

  8. Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Sathe, Shridhar K; Liu, Changqi; Zaffran, Valerie D

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is receiving increased attention in recent years. Because there is currently no known cure for food allergy, avoiding the offending food is the best defense for sensitive individuals. Type I food allergy is mediated by food proteins, and thus, theoretically, any food protein is a potential allergen. Variability of an individual's immune system further complicates attempts to understand allergen-antibody interaction. In this article, we briefly review food allergy occurrence, prevalence, mechanisms, and detection. Efforts aimed at reducing/eliminating allergens through food processing are discussed. Future research needs are addressed.

  9. Elements affecting food waste in the food service sector.

    PubMed

    Heikkilä, Lotta; Reinikainen, Anu; Katajajuuri, Juha-Matti; Silvennoinen, Kirsi; Hartikainen, Hanna

    2016-10-01

    Avoidable food waste is produced in the food service sector, with significant ecological and economical impacts. In order to understand and explain better the complex issue of food waste a qualitative study was conducted on the reasons for its generation in restaurants and catering businesses. Research data were collected during three participatory workshops for personnel from three different catering sector companies in Finland. Based on synthesized qualitative content analysis, eight elements influencing production and reduction of food waste were identified. Results revealed the diversity of managing food waste in the food service sector and how a holistic approach is required to prevent and reduce it. It is crucial to understand that food waste is manageable and should be an integral component of the management system. The model of eight factors provides a framework for recognition and management of food waste in the food service sector.

  10. Food Sensitivities

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, Paul

    1984-01-01

    Food sensitivities are a common but frequently unrecognized cause of chronic symptomatology in patients with known allergies. Food sensitivities often are not detected by skin testing. This article discusses the controversy surrounding the treatment of food sensitivities; the provocative sublingual and intradermal tests for sensitivities, and the importance of eliciting complete past and family histories from the allergic patient. Because patients with symptoms of food sensitivity are likely to visit their family doctor first, he should be the first to detect and treat them. Usually patients with a food sensitivity obtain relief from symptoms when the offending food(s) are excluded from their diet. PMID:21283500

  11. Food, ethics and aesthetics.

    PubMed

    Tivadar, Blanka; Luthar, Breda

    2005-04-01

    The authors test the popular thesis of some of the most influential theorists of contemporary societies about the erosion of the social structuring of consumption choices and their consequent individualisation in westernised societies, using the example of food practices. The analysis is based on data obtained from a random sample of the Slovenian population within a research project entitled 'Lifestyles in a Mediated Society.' The aims of the analysis were: (a) to explore the role of socio-demographic variables in food practices, and (b) to discover the inherent logic that motivates each particular set of food practices and which makes them meaningful for the individual, by studying an association of respondents' food practices with their worldview and cultural consumption. A cluster analysis revealed six food cultures (Male traditionalists, Yes-sayers, Male modernists, Weight-watchers, Carefree hedonists, and Health-conscious hedonists) lying along a continuum where traditionalism occupies one end and post-traditionalism the other. The authors conclude that although two out of six food cultures crosscut socio-demographic affiliations and transform food consumption into a constituent part of a lifestyle as an identity project, there is still a significant influence of socio-demographic characteristics (particularly gender and formal education) on food practices in contemporary Slovenia. Furthermore, significant associations exist between food practices, on the one hand, and the respondent's worldview and cultural consumption, on the other.

  12. Food allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... people of all ages) Soy (mostly in children) Tree nuts (people of all ages) Wheat (people of ... Allergies to peanuts, tree nuts, and shellfish tend to last a lifetime. Avoiding the problem foods may be easy if the food is ...

  13. Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... of food, most food allergies are caused by tree nuts, peanuts, milk, eggs, soy, wheat, fish and ... all do. People rarely outgrow allergies to peanuts, tree nuts, fish and shellfish QuestionsQuestions to Ask Your ...

  14. Food Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other sources include unpasteurized milk and contaminated water. Clostridium botulinum 12 to 72 hours Home-canned foods ... foods kept at warm temperatures for too long. Clostridium perfringens 8 to 16 hours Meats, stews and ...

  15. Food Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... comes from eating foods that contain germs like bad bacteria or toxins, which are poisonous substances. Bacteria ... But you can learn how to avoid those bad germs in food. Which Germs Are to Blame? ...

  16. Food Teaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anselmo, Sandra

    1975-01-01

    Offers practical suggestions for using food-related learning activities in an early childhood curriculum, ranging from food tasting to preparations that call for minimal directions and equipment. Included are three recipes. (ED)

  17. [Food allergy or food intolerance?].

    PubMed

    Maître, S; Maniu, C-M; Buss, G; Maillard, M H; Spertini, F; Ribi, C

    2014-04-16

    Adverse food reactions can be classified into two main categories depending on wether an immune mechanism is involved or not. The first category includes immune mediated reactions like IgE mediated food allergy, eosinophilic oesophagitis, food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome and celiac disease. The second category implies non-immune mediated adverse food reactions, also called food intolerances. Intoxications, pharmacologic reactions, metabolic reactions, physiologic, psychologic or reactions with an unknown mechanism belong to this category. We present a classification of adverse food reactions based on the pathophysiologic mechanism that can be useful for both diagnostic approach and management.

  18. Packaged Food

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    After studies found that many elderly persons don't eat adequately because they can't afford to, they have limited mobility, or they just don't bother, Innovated Foods, Inc. and JSC developed shelf-stable foods processed and packaged for home preparation with minimum effort. Various food-processing techniques and delivery systems are under study and freeze dried foods originally used for space flight are being marketed. (See 77N76140)

  19. Food Scorecard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Michael; Wilson, Wendy

    The importance of establishing good eating habits in youth as a means for laying the foundation of health in later life is discussed. This booklet contains charts that list nutritional scores for many common foods. These scores are measures of the overall nutritional content and value of the foods. Foods receive points for protein; vitamins A, B-2…

  20. Food Scorecard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Michael; Wilson, Wendy

    The importance of establishing good eating habits in youth as a means for laying the foundation of health in later life is discussed. This booklet contains charts that list nutritional scores for many common foods. These scores are measures of the overall nutritional content and value of the foods. Foods receive points for protein; vitamins A, B-2…

  1. Fuller Revealed

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-03-16

    MESSENGER's low-altitude campaign has enabled imaging of Fuller crater (named after American architect Buckminster Fuller) in greater detail than previously possible. The top left panel shows an image of Fuller, with the crater rim outlined in pink and the edge of a low-altitude broadband MDIS image in green. The large panel applies a different stretch to the same MDIS broadband image in the first panel, revealing details of the shadowed surface inside Fuller! In particular, as highlighted with yellow arrows in the bottom left panel, the image reveals a region inside Fuller that is lower in reflectance. The edge of the low-reflectance region has a sharp and well-defined boundary, even when imaged at 46 m/pixel, suggesting that the low-reflectance material is sufficiently young to have preserved a sharp boundary against lateral mixing by impact cratering. Models for surface and near-surface temperature within Fuller crater predict a region that is sufficiently cold to host long-lived water ice beneath the surface but too hot to support water ice at the surface. The low-reflectance region revealed in the images matches the thermal characteristics expected for a lag deposit of volatile, organic-rich material that overlies the water ice. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19244

  2. Community food webs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeAngelis, Donald L.; El-Shaarawi, Abdel H.; Piegorsch, Walter W.

    2002-01-01

    Community food webs describe the feeding relationships, or trophic interactions, between the species of an ecological community. Both the structure and dynamics of such webs are the focus of food web research. The topological structures of empirical food webs from many ecosystems have been published on the basis of field studies and they form the foundation for theory concerning the mean number of trophic levels, the mean number of trophic connections versus number of species, and other food web measures, which show consistency across different ecosystems. The dynamics of food webs are influenced by indirect interactions, in which changes in the level of a population in one part of the food web may have indirect effects throughout the web. The mechanisms of these interactions are typically studied microcosm experiments, or sometimes in-field experiments. The use of mathematical models is also a major approach to understanding the effects of indirect interactions. Both empirical and mathematical studies have revealed important properties of food webs, such as keystone predators and trophic cascades.

  3. Living and learning food processing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This year’s annual event promises to be both exciting and educational for those who wish to learn more about food processing. This column will provide a brief overview of the multitude of scientific sessions that reveal new research related to food processing. In addition to the symposia previewed h...

  4. Organic food.

    PubMed

    Jukes, T H

    1977-01-01

    "Organic" or "organically grown" foods are commonly represented as "food grown without pesticides; grown without artificial fertilizers; grown in soil whose humus content is increased by the additions of organic matter; grown in soil whose mineral content is increased with applications of natural mineral fertilizers; has not been treated with preservatives, hormones, antibiotics etc." The substitution of "organic" for "chemical" fertilizers during the growth of plants produces no change in the nutritional or chemical properties of foods. All foods are made of "chemicals." Traces of pesticides have been reported to be present in about 20 to 30% of both "organic" and conventional foods. These traces are usually within the official tolerance levels. Such levels are set low enough to protect consumers adequately. Indeed, there is no record of a single case of injury to a consumer resulting from the application of pesticides to food crops at permitted levels.

  5. Nuclear transit study in children with chronic faecal soiling after Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) surgery has revealed a group with rapid proximal colonic treatment and possible adverse reactions to food.

    PubMed

    Stathopoulos, Lefteris; King, Sebastian K; Southwell, Bridget R; Hutson, John M

    2016-08-01

    Long-term problems with faecal incontinence occur in up to 50 % of patients after pull-through for Hirschsprung disease (HSCR). The cause often remains unknown, leading to empirical treatments. Using nuclear transit study, we found some patients surprisingly had rapid proximal colonic transit, suspicious of occult diarrhoea. We aimed to assess whether these patients had unrecognized adverse reactions to food. Patients (n = 10, all males, 9.6 year; 4.25-15.5 years) with persistent faecal incontinence following pull-through for HSCR referred to the senior author and after exclusion of anatomical defects, underwent nuclear transit studies. Most (8) subsequently underwent breath hydrogen tests for sugar malabsorption and were tested for adverse reactions to food. Exclusion diets for protein allergens, lactose or fructose were then trialed. Of the 10 patients with rapid intestinal transit proven on nuclear transit study, breath hydrogen tests for fructose and/or lactose malabsorption were done in 8, and were positive in 7/8 patients. Exclusion diets contributed to either resolution or improvement in faecal incontinence in 9/10 patients. Rapid transit in the proximal, ganglionated colon may be present in children with faecal incontinence following pull-through for HSCR, possibly secondary to adverse reactions to food. This study suggests that children with post-operative soiling may benefit from a transit study and hydrogen breath tests to diagnose adverse reactions to food caused by sugar malabsorption.

  6. Food Allergies.

    PubMed

    Grief, Samuel N

    2016-09-01

    Food allergies are common and seem to be increasing in prevalence. Preventive measures have become far more evident in the public arena (schools, camps, sports venues, and so forth). Evaluation and management of food allergies has evolved such that primary care practitioners may choose to provide initial diagnostic and treatment care or refer to allergists for similar care. Food allergies, once considered incurable, are now being diminished in intensity by new strategies.

  7. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  8. Food retailing and food service.

    PubMed

    Capps, Oral; Park, John L

    2003-07-01

    The food retailing and food service sector is not only an important component of the food marketing channel but is also vital to the United States economy, accounting for more than 7% of the United States gross domestic product in 2001. The business of food retailing and food service is undergoing salient change. The authors argue that the singular force driving this change is the consumer. To understand the linkages in the food marketing channel, this article provides information on the farm-to-retail price spread and the economic forces that influence their magnitude. Examples are given of farm-to-retail price spreads for red meat and dairy industries. In addition, the economics behind the provision of retail services and the growth of the food service industry are discussed. Further, the authors demonstrate that the structure of the food market channel is consumer driven, and present three characteristics of convenience (preparation, delivery, and service) and identify four food distribution channels in terms of convenience (complete convenience, traditional food service, consumer direct, and traditional retail).

  9. Food jags

    MedlinePlus

    Refusal to eat; Fear of new foods ... you can do to help your child try new foods include: Have other family members help set ... that are pleasing to the eye. Start introducing new tastes, especially green vegetables, beginning at 6 months, ...

  10. [Food irradiation].

    PubMed

    Migdał, W

    1995-01-01

    A worldwide standard on food irradiation was adopted in 1983 by Codex Alimentarius Commission of the Joint Food Standard Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and the World Health Organization (WHO). As a result, 41 countries have approved the use of irradiation for treating one or more food items and the number is increasing. Generally, irradiation is used to: food loses, food spoilage, disinfestation, safety and hygiene. The number of countries which use irradiation for processing food for commercial purposes has been increasing steadily from 19 in 1987 to 33 today. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (19MeV, 1 kW) and an industrial unit Elektronika (10MeV, 10 kW). On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permission for irradiation for: spices, garlic, onions, mushrooms, potatoes, dry mushrooms and vegetables.

  11. Food Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwenk, Nancy E.

    1991-01-01

    An overall perspective on trends in food consumption is presented. Nutrition awareness is at an all-time high; consumption is influenced by changes in disposable income, availability of convenience foods, smaller household size, and an increasing proportion of ethnic minorities in the population. (18 references) (LB)

  12. Food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Watson, J. B. G.; Timmins, J.

    1979-01-01

    Two children with food allergy could not be successfully managed on dietary restriction alone. There was a good response to treatment with oral sodium cromoglycate but none to placebo treatment. The use of sodium cromoglycate in the management of food allergy should be studied further. PMID:105671

  13. Food labeling

    MedlinePlus

    ... States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has proposed making changes to the food labels that may correct these problems. AMOUNTS PER SERVING The total calories and the calories from fat are listed. These numbers help consumers make decisions about fat intake. The list of nutrients includes ...

  14. Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... delicious dessert, but then you see the crushed peanuts on top. Darn! You're allergic to peanuts. Maybe just one little bite? Nope. If you ... alone. These foods cause the most food allergies: peanuts and other nuts seafood, such as shrimp milk, ...

  15. Irradiated foods

    MedlinePlus

    ... it reduces the risk for food poisoning . Food irradiation is used in many countries. It was first approved in the U.S. to prevent sprouts on white potatoes, and to control insects on wheat and in certain spices and seasonings.

  16. Food porn.

    PubMed

    McBride, Anne E

    2010-01-01

    Since the term first appeared, food porn has typically referred to watching others cook on television or gazing at unattainable dishes in glossy magazines without actually cooking oneself. This forum seeks to revisit this notion of food porn that is mostly taken for granted in both popular and scholarly literature. It offers a brief perspective of the appearance and use of the term food porn to examine how it came to be a term used mostly by commentators rather than by people actively engaged in the world of cooking. Practitioners (chefs and a food television producer) and academics address whether or not food porn exists, what shape it might take, what purpose it might serve, and/or what usefulness it might have, showing that these contentious issues are more complex than the ease with which the term is used might let on.

  17. Finding food

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, Ann; Lytle, Leslie; Riper, David Van

    2011-01-01

    A significant amount of travel is undertaken to find food. This paper examines challenges in measuring access to food using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), important in studies of both travel and eating behavior. It compares different sources of data available including fieldwork, land use and parcel data, licensing information, commercial listings, taxation data, and online street-level photographs. It proposes methods to classify different kinds of food sales places in a way that says something about their potential for delivering healthy food options. In assessing the relationship between food access and travel behavior, analysts must clearly conceptualize key variables, document measurement processes, and be clear about the strengths and weaknesses of data. PMID:21837264

  18. Food irradiation and the consumer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A Thomas, P.

    The poster presents a review of research work undertaken on the perception and understanding that consumers have of food irradiation. Food irradiation is not a revolutionary new food processing technique, in fact it is probably one of the most investigated methods presently available. Many countries such as Belgium, France, Denmark, Italy, Spain, the Netherlands and the United States of America permit food irradiation. In Britain it is presently banned although this is currently under review. Awareness of food irradiation by the general public in Britain, although not extensively researched would appear to be increasing, especially in the light of recent media coverage. New quantitative and qualitative work indicates that the general public are concerned about the safety and effectiveness of food irradiation. Research has shown that a large proportion of consumers in Britain, if given the opportunity to purchase irradiated food, would not do so. Further exploration into this response revealed the fact that consumers are confused over what food irradiation is. In addition, there is concern over the detection of irradiated food. The views presented in this paper, of the consumer reaction to irradiated food are of great importance to those involved in the food industry and industries allied to it, which are ultimately dependent on the consumer for their commercial survival.

  19. Revealing Rembrandt

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    The power and significance of artwork in shaping human cognition is self-evident. The starting point for our empirical investigations is the view that the task of neuroscience is to integrate itself with other forms of knowledge, rather than to seek to supplant them. In our recent work, we examined a particular aspect of the appreciation of artwork using present-day functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Our results emphasized the continuity between viewing artwork and other human cognitive activities. We also showed that appreciation of a particular aspect of artwork, namely authenticity, depends upon the co-ordinated activity between the brain regions involved in multiple decision making and those responsible for processing visual information. The findings about brain function probably have no specific consequences for understanding how people respond to the art of Rembrandt in comparison with their response to other artworks. However, the use of images of Rembrandt's portraits, his most intimate and personal works, clearly had a significant impact upon our viewers, even though they have been spatially confined to the interior of an MRI scanner at the time of viewing. Neuroscientific studies of humans viewing artwork have the capacity to reveal the diversity of human cognitive responses that may be induced by external advice or context as people view artwork in a variety of frameworks and settings. PMID:24795552

  20. Space Food

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    In planning for the long duration Apollo missions, NASA conducted extensive research into space food. One of the techniques developed was freeze drying. Action Products commercialized this technique, concentrating on snack food including the first freeze-dried ice cream. The foods are cooked, quickly frozen and then slowly heated in a vacuum chamber to remove the ice crystals formed by the freezing process. The final product retains 98 percent of its nutrition and weighs only 20 percent of its original weight. Action snacks are sold at museums, NASA facilities and are exported to a number of foreign countries. Sales run to several million dollars annually.

  1. How does a carnivore guild utilise a substantial but unpredictable anthropogenic food source? Scavenging on hunter-shot ungulate carcasses by wild dogs/dingoes, red foxes and feral cats in south-eastern Australia revealed by camera traps.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, David M; Woodford, Luke; Moloney, Paul D; Hampton, Jordan O; Woolnough, Andrew P; Tucker, Mark

    2014-01-01

    There is much interest in understanding how anthropogenic food resources subsidise carnivore populations. Carcasses of hunter-shot ungulates are a potentially substantial food source for mammalian carnivores. The sambar deer (Rusa unicolor) is a large (≥ 150 kg) exotic ungulate that can be hunted throughout the year in south-eastern Australia, and hunters are not required to remove or bury carcasses. We investigated how wild dogs/dingoes and their hybrids (Canis lupus familiaris/dingo), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and feral cats (Felis catus) utilised sambar deer carcasses during the peak hunting seasons (i.e. winter and spring). We placed carcasses at 1-km intervals along each of six transects that extended 4-km into forest from farm boundaries. Visits to carcasses were monitored using camera traps, and the rate of change in edible biomass estimated at ∼ 14-day intervals. Wild dogs and foxes fed on 70% and 60% of 30 carcasses, respectively, but feral cats seldom (10%) fed on carcasses. Spatial and temporal patterns of visits to carcasses were consistent with the hypothesis that foxes avoid wild dogs. Wild dog activity peaked at carcasses 2 and 3 km from farms, a likely legacy of wild dog control, whereas fox activity peaked at carcasses 0 and 4 km from farms. Wild dog activity peaked at dawn and dusk, whereas nearly all fox activity occurred after dusk and before dawn. Neither wild dogs nor foxes remained at carcasses for long periods and the amount of feeding activity by either species was a less important predictor of the loss of edible biomass than season. Reasons for the low impacts of wild dogs and foxes on sambar deer carcass biomass include the spatially and temporally unpredictable distribution of carcasses in the landscape, the rapid rate of edible biomass decomposition in warm periods, low wild dog densities and the availability of alternative food resources.

  2. How Does a Carnivore Guild Utilise a Substantial but Unpredictable Anthropogenic Food Source? Scavenging on Hunter-Shot Ungulate Carcasses by Wild Dogs/Dingoes, Red Foxes and Feral Cats in South-Eastern Australia Revealed by Camera Traps

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, David M.; Woodford, Luke; Moloney, Paul D.; Hampton, Jordan O.; Woolnough, Andrew P.; Tucker, Mark

    2014-01-01

    There is much interest in understanding how anthropogenic food resources subsidise carnivore populations. Carcasses of hunter-shot ungulates are a potentially substantial food source for mammalian carnivores. The sambar deer (Rusa unicolor) is a large (≥150 kg) exotic ungulate that can be hunted throughout the year in south-eastern Australia, and hunters are not required to remove or bury carcasses. We investigated how wild dogs/dingoes and their hybrids (Canis lupus familiaris/dingo), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and feral cats (Felis catus) utilised sambar deer carcasses during the peak hunting seasons (i.e. winter and spring). We placed carcasses at 1-km intervals along each of six transects that extended 4-km into forest from farm boundaries. Visits to carcasses were monitored using camera traps, and the rate of change in edible biomass estimated at ∼14-day intervals. Wild dogs and foxes fed on 70% and 60% of 30 carcasses, respectively, but feral cats seldom (10%) fed on carcasses. Spatial and temporal patterns of visits to carcasses were consistent with the hypothesis that foxes avoid wild dogs. Wild dog activity peaked at carcasses 2 and 3 km from farms, a likely legacy of wild dog control, whereas fox activity peaked at carcasses 0 and 4 km from farms. Wild dog activity peaked at dawn and dusk, whereas nearly all fox activity occurred after dusk and before dawn. Neither wild dogs nor foxes remained at carcasses for long periods and the amount of feeding activity by either species was a less important predictor of the loss of edible biomass than season. Reasons for the low impacts of wild dogs and foxes on sambar deer carcass biomass include the spatially and temporally unpredictable distribution of carcasses in the landscape, the rapid rate of edible biomass decomposition in warm periods, low wild dog densities and the availability of alternative food resources. PMID:24918425

  3. 21 CFR 1.21 - Failure to reveal material facts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Failure to reveal material facts. 1.21 Section 1... GENERAL ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS General Labeling Requirements § 1.21 Failure to reveal material facts. (a) Labeling of a food, drug, device, or cosmetic shall be deemed to be misleading if it fails to reveal...

  4. 21 CFR 1.21 - Failure to reveal material facts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Failure to reveal material facts. 1.21 Section 1... GENERAL ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS General Labeling Requirements § 1.21 Failure to reveal material facts. (a) Labeling of a food, drug, device, or cosmetic shall be deemed to be misleading if it fails to reveal...

  5. Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... the safety of fish caught in your local lakes, rivers, and coastal areas. Advisories may recommend that ... Charts Picky Eating Physical Activity Food Safety Resources Kids Students Adults Families Professionals Multiple Languages MyPlate, MyWins ...

  6. Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... food allergy reactions: milk eggs peanuts soy wheat tree nuts (such as walnuts and cashews) fish shellfish ( ... peanut allergy and about 10% of kids with tree nut allergy outgrow their allergy. Fish and shellfish ...

  7. Food Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Shellfish, such as shrimp, lobster and crab Peanuts Tree nuts, such as walnuts and pecans Fish Eggs ... commonly triggered by proteins in: Eggs Milk Peanuts Tree nuts Wheat Food intolerance and other reactions There ...

  8. Food Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... trigger allergic reactions include fish, shellfish, peanuts, and tree nuts, such as walnuts. Problem foods for children can include eggs, milk, peanuts, tree nuts, soy, and wheat. The allergic reaction may ...

  9. Food Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... liver disease or AIDS — or receiving chemotherapy or radiation therapy for cancer reduces your immune response. Complications The most common serious complication of food poisoning is dehydration — a severe loss of water and ...

  10. Food packets

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-08-15

    ISS032-E-019031 (15 Aug. 2012) --- Various food items are featured in this image as an Expedition 32 crew member (mostly out of frame) prepares to eat a meal in the Unity node of the International Space Station.

  11. Food Labels

    MedlinePlus

    ... than others. Unsaturated fats , which are found in vegetable oils, nuts, and fish, are often called "good fats." ... these foods too, but they are also in vegetable oils that have been specially treated (hydrogenated) so they ...

  12. "Convenience Food."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemieux, Colette

    1980-01-01

    Defines the meaning of the American expression "convenience food," quoting definitions given by dictionaries and specialized publications. Discusses the problem of finding the exact equivalent of this expression in French, and recommends some acceptable translations. (MES)

  13. Food Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... in allergy and immunology to epidemiological and observational studies to identify risk factors and to clinical trials that are testing new strategies to prevent and treat food allergy. Read on ...

  14. Food Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... most likely source is food from animals, like meat, poultry (such as chicken), eggs, milk, and shellfish (such as shrimp). Some of the most common bacteria are: Salmonella (say: sal-meh-NEL-uh) Listeria (say: lis- ...

  15. Food safety.

    PubMed

    Borchers, Andrea; Teuber, Suzanne S; Keen, Carl L; Gershwin, M Eric

    2010-10-01

    Food can never be entirely safe. Food safety is threatened by numerous pathogens that cause a variety of foodborne diseases, algal toxins that cause mostly acute disease, and fungal toxins that may be acutely toxic but may also have chronic sequelae, such as teratogenic, immunotoxic, nephrotoxic, and estrogenic effects. Perhaps more worrisome, the industrial activities of the last century and more have resulted in massive increases in our exposure to toxic metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, and arsenic, which now are present in the entire food chain and exhibit various toxicities. Industrial processes also released chemicals that, although banned a long time ago, persist in the environment and contaminate our food. These include organochlorine compounds, such as 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene) (DDT), other pesticides, dioxins, and dioxin-like compounds. DDT and its breakdown product dichlorophenyl dichloroethylene affect the developing male and female reproductive organs. In addition, there is increasing evidence that they exhibit neurodevelopmental toxicities in human infants and children. They share this characteristic with the dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Other food contaminants can arise from the treatment of animals with veterinary drugs or the spraying of food crops, which may leave residues. Among the pesticides applied to food crops, the organophosphates have been the focus of much regulatory attention because there is growing evidence that they, too, affect the developing brain. Numerous chemical contaminants are formed during the processing and cooking of foods. Many of them are known or suspected carcinogens. Other food contaminants leach from the packaging or storage containers. Examples that have garnered increasing attention in recent years are phthalates, which have been shown to induce malformations in the male reproductive system in laboratory animals, and bisphenol A, which negatively

  16. Future food.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2016-12-01

    Food systems have changed markedly with human settlement and agriculture, industrialisation, trade, migration and now the digital age. Throughout these transitions, there has been a progressive population explosion and net ecosystem loss and degradation. Climate change now gathers pace, exacerbated by ecological dysfunction. Our health status has been challenged by a developing people-environment mismatch. We have regarded ecological conquest and innovative technology as solutions, but have not understood how ecologically dependent and integrated we are. We are ecological creatures interfaced by our sensoriness, microbiomes, shared regulatory (endocrine) mechanisms, immune system, biorhythms and nutritional pathways. Many of us are 'nature-deprived'. We now suffer what might be termed ecological health disorders (EHD). If there were less of us, nature's resilience might cope, but more than 9 billion people by 2050 is probably an intolerable demand on the planet. Future food must increasingly take into account the pressures on ecosystem-dependent food systems, with foods probably less biodiverse, although eating in this way allows optimal health; energy dysequilibrium with less physical activity and foods inappropriately energy dense; and less socially-conducive food habits. 'Personalised Nutrition', with extensive and resource-demanding nutrigenomic, metabolomic and microbiomic data may provide partial health solutions in clinical settings, but not be justified for ethical, risk management or sustainability reasons in public health. The globally prevalent multidimensional malnutritional problems of food insecurity, quality and equity require local, regional and global action to prevent further ecosystem degradation as well as to educate, provide sustainable livelihoods and encourage respectful social discourse and practice about the role of food.

  17. Food extrusion.

    PubMed

    Harper, J M

    1978-01-01

    Extrusion processing has become an important food process in the manufacture of pasta, ready-to-eat cereals, snacks, pet foods, and textured vegetable protein (TVP). An extruder consists of tightly fitting screw rotating within a stationary barrel. Preground and conditioned ingredients enter the screw where they are conveyed, mixed, and heated by a variety of processes. The product exits the extruder through a die where it usually puffs and changes texture from the release of steam and normal forces. Mathematical models for extruder flow and torque have been found useful in describing exclusion operations. Scale-up can be facilitated by the application of these models. A variety of food extruder designs have developed. The differences and similarity of design are discussed. Pertinent literature on the extrusion of cereal/snack products, full-fat soy, TVP, pet foods (dry and semi-moist), pasta, and beverage or other food bases are discussed. In many of these applications, the extruder is a high temperature, short time process which minimizes losses in vitamins and amino acids. Color, flavor, and product shape and texture are also affected by the extrusion process. Extrusion has been widely applied in the production of nutritious foods. Emphasis is placed on the use of extrusion to denature antinutritional factors and the improvement of protein quality and digestibility.

  18. Food Retailers Help Teach Food Buying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornmann, Priscilla G.

    1973-01-01

    Kroger Food Stores conducted five training sessions for Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) aides. The series translated basic marketing principles, as they affect food prices, into axioms for thrifty food buying. (BL)

  19. Food Retailers Help Teach Food Buying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornmann, Priscilla G.

    1973-01-01

    Kroger Food Stores conducted five training sessions for Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) aides. The series translated basic marketing principles, as they affect food prices, into axioms for thrifty food buying. (BL)

  20. Establish the biosynthesis of the plant toxin Fusaric Acid using non-radio labeled precursors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (F.o.v.) race 1 is a widespread plant pathogen that attacks cotton, alfalfa and okra in the U.S. The recent discovery of races 3 and 4 not previously found in the U.S. is of particular concern to the cotton industry. In addition, a similar but more virulent bi...

  1. Synthesis of fluorine-18 radio-labeled serum albumins for PET blood pool imaging.

    PubMed

    Basuli, Falguni; Li, Changhui; Xu, Biying; Williams, Mark; Wong, Karen; Coble, Vincent L; Vasalatiy, Olga; Seidel, Jurgen; Green, Michael V; Griffiths, Gary L; Choyke, Peter L; Jagoda, Elaine M

    2015-03-01

    We sought to develop a practical, reproducible and clinically translatable method of radiolabeling serum albumins with fluorine-18 for use as a PET blood pool imaging agent in animals and man. Fluorine-18 radiolabeled fluoronicotinic acid-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl ester, [(18)F]F-Py-TFP was prepared first by the reaction of its quaternary ammonium triflate precursor with [(18)F]tetrabutylammonium fluoride ([(18)F]TBAF) according to a previously published method for peptides, with minor modifications. The incubation of [(18)F]F-Py-TFP with rat serum albumin (RSA) in phosphate buffer (pH9) for 15 min at 37-40 °C produced fluorine-18-radiolabeled RSA and the product was purified using a mini-PD MiniTrap G-25 column. The overall radiochemical yield of the reaction was 18-35% (n=30, uncorrected) in a 90-min synthesis. This procedure, repeated with human serum albumin (HSA), yielded similar results. Fluorine-18-radiolabeled RSA demonstrated prolonged blood retention (biological half-life of 4.8 hours) in healthy awake rats. The distribution of major organ radioactivity remained relatively unchanged during the 4 hour observation periods either by direct tissue counting or by dynamic PET whole-body imaging except for a gradual accumulation of labeled metabolic products in the bladder. This manual method for synthesizing radiolabeled serum albumins uses fluorine-18, a widely available PET radionuclide, and natural protein available in both pure and recombinant forms which could be scaled up for widespread clinical applications. These preclinical biodistribution and PET imaging results indicate that [(18)F]RSA is an effective blood pool imaging agent in rats and might, as [(18)F]HSA, prove similarly useful as a clinical imaging agent.

  2. The Interconnected Challenges for Food Security from a Food Regimes Perspective: Energy, Climate and Malconsumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sage, Colin

    2013-01-01

    Recent experience of food price volatility in global markets encourages closer examination of the dynamics underlying the global food system and reveals a range of contingent factors. Meanwhile a common thread of many recent expert reports has emphasised the need to intensify agricultural production to double food output by 2050. Drawing upon a…

  3. The Interconnected Challenges for Food Security from a Food Regimes Perspective: Energy, Climate and Malconsumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sage, Colin

    2013-01-01

    Recent experience of food price volatility in global markets encourages closer examination of the dynamics underlying the global food system and reveals a range of contingent factors. Meanwhile a common thread of many recent expert reports has emphasised the need to intensify agricultural production to double food output by 2050. Drawing upon a…

  4. Organizational decisions for food procurement in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Unklesbay, N F; David, B D

    1977-08-01

    Effective food procurement is an important foodservice management function and has been established as a complex managerial process facilitated through organizational decision-making. Although the importance of decisions made by dietetic professionals responsible for food purchasing is currently increasing because of world and national concerns, the findings of this survey revealed a gap between theory and practice of food procurement. Some trends were revealed concerning the academic preparation for food procurement in the curricula of various educational programs. Entry-level competencies in buying food need to be defined. To educate students to be competent in food procurement decisions, effective planning and working relationships among administrative personnel in hospital foodservice operations and college and university educators are necessary. The twenty criteria for effective food purchasing and the associated specific practices provide a basic approach for such effective planning and working relationships.

  5. Food Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Library View All » Allergy-Free Recipes » Allergy-Free Play Dough Recipes » Anaphylaxis Action Plan » Anaphylaxis Wallet Card » ... D and Food Allergy » When Should Children and Adolescents Assume Responsibility for Self-Treatment of ... Free Zone » Peanut Free Zone » Information ...

  6. Food Labeling

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information on the amount of dietary fat, cholesterol, dietary fiber, dietary sodium, carbohydrates, dietary proteins, vitamins, and minerals in each serving Definitions for terms such as low-fat and high-fiber Information to help you see how a food ...

  7. Food Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkman, Susan J.

    1996-01-01

    Presents food science experiments designed for high school science classes that aim at getting students excited about science and providing them with real-life applications. Enables students to see the application of chemistry, microbiology, engineering, and other basic and applied sciences to the production, processing, preservation, evaluation,…

  8. Food Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furneisen, Barbara K.

    Written to teach deaf students skills in food services, this guide and the two related documents (see note) present practical skills needed to work in a school dining room setting serving approximately two hundred students and faculty. Eleven units are included, with each unit containing from three to eleven lessons. Each lesson includes an…

  9. Weaning Foods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauliac, Michel; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Described in this issue of "Children in the Tropics" are handicraft, semi-industrial, and industrial projects which produce weaning foods in developing countries. The introductory section briefly discusses the global epidemiology of malnutrition and offers guidelines for combatting malnutrition. Chapter I provides a framework for…

  10. Food Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkman, Susan J.

    1996-01-01

    Presents food science experiments designed for high school science classes that aim at getting students excited about science and providing them with real-life applications. Enables students to see the application of chemistry, microbiology, engineering, and other basic and applied sciences to the production, processing, preservation, evaluation,…

  11. Food Nanotechnology - Food Packaging Applications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part, the impetus for this predicted growth is the ...

  12. Food Nanotechnology: Food Packaging Applications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part the impetus for this predicted growth is the e...

  13. Medical foods for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Shah, Raj C

    2011-06-01

    years and supplemented by other articles known to meet the inclusion criteria, revealed that only two medical foods, AC-1202 and Souvenaid® with Fortasyn Connect™, have clinical trial results available for discussion. As medical food development for AD is a relatively new endeavour, a window of opportunity exists for all stakeholders to develop a comprehensive framework for assuring that medical food interventions for AD achieve the highest possible scientific and ethical standards to warrant commercialization.

  14. Polymer Composites for Intelligent Food Packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jiating; Yap, Ray Chin Chong; Wong, Siew Yee; Li, Xu

    2015-09-01

    Over the last 50 years, remarkable improvements in mechanical and barrier properties of polymer composites have been realized. Their improved properties have been widely studied and employed for food packaging to keep food fresh, clean and suitable for consumption over sufficiently long storage period. In this paper, the current progress of science and technology development of polymer composites for intelligent food packaging will be highlighted. Future directions and perspectives for exploring polymer composites for intelligent food packaging to reveal freshness and quality of food packaged will also be put forward.

  15. Characterization of Enterococci from Food and Food-Related Settings.

    PubMed

    Soares-Santos, Verónica; Barreto, António Salvador; Semedo-Lemsaddek, Teresa

    2015-07-01

    Enterococcus species are ubiquitous in nature, exist at high levels in food, and can cause severe diseases in humans. Thus, surveillance of enterococci harboring antibiotic resistance and virulence factors in food and food-related environments is needed. In the present study, 89 samples from food and food processing surfaces were collected in a cheese factory, a swine slaughterhouse, and a supermarket, and 132 Enterococcus isolates were recovered. Most isolates were identified as E. faecalis, which is considered the most pathogenic member of this genus. Safety analysis covering antibiotic resistance revealed that all isolates were resistant to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim and sensitive to amoxicillin-clavulanate, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, levofloxacin, linezolid, nitrofurantoin, or teicoplanin. More than half of the isolates were resistant to quinupristin-dalfopristin, tetracycline, and bacitracin, and less than half were resistant to the other antibiotics evaluated. Regarding virulence factors, 52% the isolates were beta-hemolytic, 39% were gelatinase producers, and 45% contained the gelE gene. For the remaining genes evaluated, efaAfs was detected in more than half of the isolates, and agg, esp, and efaAfm were found in less than half of the isolates. The present investigation revealed that food-related enterococci obtained from very different settings have multidrug resistance and virulence factors, highlighting the importance of effective surveillance networks to avoid the spread of putative pathogenic enterococci.

  16. Food as people: Teenagers' perspectives on food personalities and implications for healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Charlene

    2014-11-01

    In light of its influence on food preferences, purchase requests and consumption patterns, food marketing-particularly for unhealthy foods-has been increasingly recognized as a problem that affects the health of young people. This has prompted both a scrutiny of the nutritional quality of food products and various interventions to promote healthy eating. Frequently overlooked by the public health community, however, is the symbolic and social meaning of food for teenagers. Food has nutritive value, but it has symbolic value as well-and this qualitative study explores the meaning of non-branded foods for teenagers. Inspired by the construct of brand personality, we conduct focus groups with 12-14 year olds in to probe their perspectives on the "food personalities" of unbranded/commodity products and categories of food. Despite the lack of targeted marketing/promotional campaigns for the foods discussed, the focus groups found a remarkable consensus regarding the characteristics and qualities of foods for young people. Teenagers stigmatize particular foods (such as broccoli) and valorize others (such as junk food), although their discussions equally reveal the need to consider questions beyond that of social positioning/social status. We suggest that public health initiatives need to focus greater attention on the symbolic aspects of food, since a focus on nutritional qualities does not unveil the other significant factors that may make foods appealing, or distasteful, to young people.

  17. Finger Foods for Babies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Finger Foods for Babies KidsHealth > For Parents > Finger Foods for ... will accept a new food. previous continue Finger Foods to Avoid Finger feeding is fun and rewarding ...

  18. [Food toxicology].

    PubMed

    Würzner, H P

    1984-02-01

    The complex problems of food toxicology and especially of mutagenesis and carcinogenesis require continuing efforts for a better understanding of the mechanisms, risk evaluation and prevention. Essential progress was the recognition of mutation. In vitro tests now provide reproducible results within a short time. Risk evaluation remains a difficult problem, since is has not been possible yet to establish thresholds values for genotoxic substances. However, threshold levels for carcinogen promoters gain increasing importance as demonstrated for 3 representative classes of substances: mycotoxines , nitrosamines and pesticides.

  19. Food Fortification Stability Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdulmalik, T. O.; Cooper, M. R.; Douglas, G. L.

    2015-01-01

    NASA has established the goal of traveling beyond low-Earth orbit and extending manned exploration to Mars. The extended length of a Mars mission, along with the lack of resupply missions increases the importance of nutritional content in the food system. The purpose of this research is to assess the stability of vitamin supplementation in traditionally processed spaceflight foods. It is expected that commercially available fortificants will remain stable through long-duration missions if proper formulation, processing, and storage temperatures are all achieved. Five vitamins (vitamin E, vitamin K, pantothenic acid, folic acid, and thiamin) were blended into a vitamin premix (DSM, Freeport, TX); premixes were formulated to be compatible with current processing techniques (retort or freeze-dried), varied water activities (high or low), and packaging material. The overall goal of this process is to provide 25% of the recommended daily intake of each vitamin (per serving), following processing and two years of ambient storage. Four freeze-dried foods (Scrambled Eggs, Italian Vegetables, Potatoes Au Gratin, Noodles and Chicken) and four thermostabilized foods (Curry Sauce with Vegetables, Chicken Noodle Soup, Grilled Pork Chop, Rice with Butter) were produced (with and without the vitamin premix), to assess the impact of the added fortificant on color and taste, and to determine the stability of supplemental vitamins in spaceflight foods. The use of fortification in spaceflight foods appears to be a plausible mitigation step to inadequate nutrition. This is due to the ease of vitamin addition as well as the sustainability of the premixes through initial processing steps. Postprocessing analysis indicated that vitamin fortification with this premix did not immediately impact organoleptic properties of the food. At this stage, the largest hurdle to fortification is the preciseness to which vitamins can be added; the total amount of vitamins required for production is 10

  20. Tempting food words activate eating simulations

    PubMed Central

    Papies, Esther K.

    2013-01-01

    This study shows that tempting food words activate simulations of eating the food, including simulations of the taste and texture of the food, simulations of eating situations, and simulations of hedonic enjoyment. In a feature listing task, participants generated features that are typically true of four tempting foods (e.g., chips) and four neutral foods (e.g., rice). The resulting features were coded as features of eating simulations if they referred to the taste, texture, and temperature of the food (e.g., “crunchy”; “sticky”), to situations of eating the food (e.g., “movie”; “good for Wok dishes”), and to the hedonic experience when eating the food (e.g., “tasty”). Based on the grounded cognition perspective, it was predicted that tempting foods are more likely to be represented in terms of actually eating them, so that participants would list more features referring to eating simulations for tempting than for neutral foods. Confirming this hypothesis, results showed that eating simulation features constituted 53% of the features for tempting food, and 26% of the features for neutral food. Visual features, in contrast, were mentioned more often for neutral foods (45%) than for tempting foods (19%). Exploratory analyses revealed that the proportion of eating simulation features for tempting foods was positively correlated with perceived attractiveness of the foods, and negatively with participants’ dieting concerns, suggesting that eating simulations may depend on individuals’ goals with regard to eating. These findings are discussed with regard to their implications for understanding the processes guiding eating behavior, and for interventions designed to reduce the consumption of attractive, unhealthy food. PMID:24298263

  1. Integrating environmental management into food safety and food packaging in Malaysia: review of the food regulation 1985

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordin, N. H.; Hara, H.; Kaida, N.

    2017-05-01

    Food safety is an important issue that is related to public safety to prevent the toxicity threats of the food. Management through legal approach has been used in Malaysia as one of the predominant approaches to manage the environment. In this regard, the Food Regulation 1985 has been one of the mechanisms of environmental management through legal approach in controlling the safety of packaged food in food packaging industry in Malaysia. The present study aims to analyse and to explain the implementation of the Food Regulation 1985 in controlling the safety of packaged food in Malaysia and to integrate the concept of environmental management into the food safety issue. Qualitative analysis on the regulation document revealed that there are two main themes, general and specific, while their seven sub themes are included harmful packages, safety packages, reuse packages, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), alcoholic bottle, toys, money and others and iron powder. The implementation of the Food Regulation 1985 in controlling the safety of packaged food should not be regarded solely for regulation purposes but should be further developed for a broader sense of food safety from overcoming the food poisoning.

  2. Bibliotherapy and food cravings control.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Martín, Boris C; Gómez-Quintana, Anisleidy; Díaz-Martínez, Glendy; Molerio-Pérez, Osana

    2013-06-01

    The use of self-help manuals or bibliotherapy could be an effective resource to treat obesity, but their effects on the elaborative processes of food cravings remain unclear. The present study examined whether bibliotherapy can effectively reduce food cravings in an overweight and obese adult population. 80 participants were randomly allocated either to the Self-help Manual group or the Intention-control group. They had to apply each resource over a period of 3 months whenever they felt a craving arise. During the baseline period most of the participants reported grazing as the main cause of their weight gain. Compared to baseline, the results of the third month of the follow-up revealed that intentions had paradoxical effects on food thought suppression, preoccupation with food, negative affect and guilty feelings; but the Self-help Manual promoted positive changes on the food cravings trait and its dimensions, food thoughts suppression, emotional and behavioural reactions to intrusions and BMI. These findings suggest that the Self-help Manual could be useful in reducing food cravings.

  3. Fast Foods, Organic Foods, Fad Diets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is no standard definition of fast food. Generally, fast food is eaten without cutlery, and fast-food restaurants have no wait staff. Failure to have a standardized definition makes it difficult to compare studies. Foods available outside the home tend to be high in energy and fat compared w...

  4. Food cravings among bariatric surgery candidates.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Nina; Madan, Alok; Wedin, Sharlene; Correll, Jennifer A; Delustro, Laura M; Borckardt, Jeffery J; Byrne, T Karl

    2014-01-01

    Food cravings are common, more prevalent in the obese, and may differ in those who pursue surgical treatment for obesity. Food craving tools are most often validated in non-clinical, non-obese samples. In this retrospective study, 227 bariatric surgery candidates at a large medical center completed the Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait (FCQ-T). The aim was to explore the factor structure of the FCQ-T. Principal components analysis with varimax rotation revealed a seven-factor structure that explained 70.89 % of the variance. The seven factors were: (1) preoccupation with food, (2) emotional triggers, (3) environmental cues, (4) loss of control, (5) relief from negative emotions, (6) guilt, and (7) physiological response. The preoccupation with food factor accounted for 49.46 % of the variance in responses. Unlike other populations, food cravings in bariatric surgery candidates appear to be related most to preoccupations with food.

  5. Listening to food workers: Factors that impact proper health and hygiene practice in food service.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Megan L; Clegg Smith, Katherine; Neff, Roni A; Pollack, Keshia M; Ensminger, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne disease is a significant problem worldwide. Research exploring sources of outbreaks indicates a pronounced role for food workers' improper health and hygiene practice. To investigate food workers' perceptions of factors that impact proper food safety practice. Interviews with food service workers in Baltimore, MD, USA discussing food safety practices and factors that impact implementation in the workplace. A social ecological model organizes multiple levels of influence on health and hygiene behavior. Issues raised by interviewees include factors across the five levels of the social ecological model, and confirm findings from previous work. Interviews also reveal many factors not highlighted in prior work, including issues with food service policies and procedures, working conditions (e.g., pay and benefits), community resources, and state and federal policies. Food safety interventions should adopt an ecological orientation that accounts for factors at multiple levels, including workers' social and structural context, that impact food safety practice.

  6. Listening to food workers: Factors that impact proper health and hygiene practice in food service

    PubMed Central

    Clegg Smith, Katherine; Neff, Roni A.; Pollack, Keshia M.; Ensminger, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Background Foodborne disease is a significant problem worldwide. Research exploring sources of outbreaks indicates a pronounced role for food workers' improper health and hygiene practice. Objective To investigate food workers' perceptions of factors that impact proper food safety practice. Method Interviews with food service workers in Baltimore, MD, USA discussing food safety practices and factors that impact implementation in the workplace. A social ecological model organizes multiple levels of influence on health and hygiene behavior. Results Issues raised by interviewees include factors across the five levels of the social ecological model, and confirm findings from previous work. Interviews also reveal many factors not highlighted in prior work, including issues with food service policies and procedures, working conditions (e.g., pay and benefits), community resources, and state and federal policies. Conclusion Food safety interventions should adopt an ecological orientation that accounts for factors at multiple levels, including workers' social and structural context, that impact food safety practice. PMID:26243248

  7. Food Fortification Stability Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sirmons, T.; Cooper, M.; Douglas, G.

    2017-01-01

    NASA has established the goal of traveling beyond low-Earth orbit and extending manned exploration to Mars. The length of proposed Mars missions and the lack of resupply missions increases the importance of nutritional content in the food system, which will need a five-year shelf life. The purpose of this research is to assess the stability of vitamin supplementation in traditionally processed spaceflight foods. It is expected that commercially available fortification nutrients will remain stable through a long duration exploration mission at sufficient levels if compatible formulation, processing, and storage temperatures are achieved. Five vitamins (vitamin E, vitamin K, pantothenic acid, folic acid, and thiamin) were blended into a vitamin premix (DSM, Freeport, TX) such that the vitamin concentration per serving equaled 25% of the recommended daily intake after two years of ambient storage. Four freeze-dried foods (Scrambled Eggs, Italian Vegetables, Potatoes Au Gratin, Noodles and Chicken) and four thermo-stabilized foods (Curry Sauce with Vegetables, Chicken Noodle Soup, Grilled Pork Chop, Rice with Butter) were produced, with and without the vitamin premix, to assess the impact of the added fortification on color and taste and to determine the stability of supplemental vitamins in spaceflight foods. The addition of fortification to spaceflight foods did not greatly alter the organoleptic properties of most products. In most cases, overall acceptability scores remained above 6.0 (minimum acceptable score) following six months and one year of low-temperature storage. Likewise, the color of fortified products appears to be preserved over one year of storage. The only exceptions were Grilled pork Chop and Chicken Noodle Soup whose individual components appeareddegrade rapidly over one year of storage. Finally, most vitamins appeared to be stable during long-term storage. The only exception was thiamin, which degraded rapidly during the first year of storage at

  8. Food Fortification Stability Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sirmons, T.; Cooper, M.; Douglas, G.

    2016-01-01

    NASA has established the goal of traveling beyond low-Earth orbit and extending manned exploration to Mars. The length of proposed Mars missions and the lack of resupply missions increases the importance of nutritional content in the food system, which will need a five year shelf life. The purpose of this research is to assess the stability of vitamin supplementation in traditionally processed spaceflight foods. It is expected that commercially available fortification nutrients will remain stable through a long duration exploration mission at sufficient levels if compatible formulation, processing, and storage temperatures are achieved. Five vitamins (vitamin E, vitamin K, pantothenic acid, folic acid, and thiamin) were blended into a vitamin premix (DSM, Freeport, TX) such that the vitamin concentration per serving equaled 25% of the recommended daily intake after two years of ambient storage. Four freeze-dried foods (Scrambled Eggs, Italian Vegetables, Potatoes Au Gratin, Noodles and Chicken) and four thermostabilized foods (Curry Sauce with Vegetables, Chicken Noodle Soup, Grilled Pork Chop, Rice with Butter) were produced, with and without the vitamin premix, to assess the impact of the added fortification on color and taste and to determine the stability of supplemental vitamins in spaceflight foods. The addition of fortification to spaceflight foods did not greatly alter the organoleptic properties of most products. In most cases, overall acceptability scores remained above 6.0 (minimum acceptable score) following six months and one year of low-temperature storage. Likewise, the color of fortified products appears to be preserved over one year of storage. The only exception was Grilled pork Chop and Chicken Noodle Soup whose individual components appear to degrade rapidly over one year of storage. Finally, most vitamins appear to be stable during long-term storage. The only exception was thiamin, which degraded rapidly during the first year of storage at 35

  9. [Food allergy, food intolerance or functional disorder?].

    PubMed

    Wüthrich, B

    2009-04-01

    The term "food allergy" is widely misused for all sorts of symptoms and diseases caused by food. Food allergy (FA) is an adverse reaction to food (food hypersensitivity) occurring in susceptible individuals, which is mediated by a classical immune mechanism specific for the food itself. The best established mechanism in FA is due to the presence of IgE antibodies against the offending food. Food intolerance (FI) are all non-immune-mediated adverse reactions to food. The subgroups of FI are enzymatic (e.g. lactose intolerance due to lactase deficiency), pharmacological (reactions against biogenic amines, histamine intolerance), and undefined food intolerance (e.g. against some food additives). The diagnosis of an IgE-mediated FA is made by a carefully taken case history, supported by the demonstration of an IgE sensitization either by skin prick tests or by in vitro tests, and confirmed by positive oral provocation. For scientific purposes the only accepted test for the confirmation of FA/FI is a properly performed double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC). A panel of recombinant allergens, produced as single allergenic molecules, may in future improve the diagnosis of IgE-mediated FA. Due to a lack of causal treatment possibilities, the elimination of the culprit "food allergen" from the diet is the only therapeutic option for patients with real food allergy.

  10. Evaluating North Carolina Food Pantry Food Safety-Related Operating Procedures.

    PubMed

    Chaifetz, Ashley; Chapman, Benjamin

    2015-11-01

    Almost one in seven American households were food insecure in 2012, experiencing difficulty in providing enough food for all family members due to a lack of resources. Food pantries assist a food-insecure population through emergency food provision, but there is a paucity of information on the food safety-related operating procedures used in the pantries. Food pantries operate in a variable regulatory landscape; in some jurisdictions, they are treated equivalent to restaurants, while in others, they operate outside of inspection regimes. By using a mixed methods approach to catalog the standard operating procedures related to food in 105 food pantries from 12 North Carolina counties, we evaluated their potential impact on food safety. Data collected through interviews with pantry managers were supplemented with observed food safety practices scored against a modified version of the North Carolina Food Establishment Inspection Report. Pantries partnered with organized food bank networks were compared with those that operated independently. In this exploratory research, additional comparisons were examined for pantries in metropolitan areas versus nonmetropolitan areas and pantries with managers who had received food safety training versus managers who had not. The results provide a snapshot of how North Carolina food pantries operate and document risk mitigation strategies for foodborne illness for the vulnerable populations they serve. Data analysis reveals gaps in food safety knowledge and practice, indicating that pantries would benefit from more effective food safety training, especially focusing on formalizing risk management strategies. In addition, new tools, procedures, or policy interventions might improve information actualization by food pantry personnel.

  11. Use of Irradiated Foods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brynjolfsson, A.

    1985-01-01

    The safety of irradiated foods is reviewed. Guidelines and regulations for processing irradiated foods are considered. The radiolytic products formed in food when it is irradiated and its wholesomeness is discussed. It is concluded that food irradiation processing is not a panacea for all problems in food processing but when properly used will serve the space station well.

  12. Use of Irradiated Foods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brynjolfsson, A.

    1985-01-01

    The safety of irradiated foods is reviewed. Guidelines and regulations for processing irradiated foods are considered. The radiolytic products formed in food when it is irradiated and its wholesomeness is discussed. It is concluded that food irradiation processing is not a panacea for all problems in food processing but when properly used will serve the space station well.

  13. [Better health with ecologic food?].

    PubMed

    Holmboe-Ottesen, Gerd

    2004-06-03

    The goals of Norwegian food and nutrition policy are that food should not only be nutritionally adequate and safe, it should also be produced in a sustainable way. This implies a change towards food produced according to principles of organic agriculture. The issue discussed here is whether organic food is also better in terms of nutritional adequacy. A review of existing literature reveals that organic foods compared to conventionally produced foods seem to have a higher content of antioxidants in plant products and a higher content of fat-soluble vitamins and omega-3 fatty acids in animal products. Animal studies (among them, on rabbits and chickens) show higher fertility and less morbidity in animals fed organically. Furthermore, when given a choice, animals prefer organic to conventionally produced fodder. It is not possible to draw conclusions from these studies on health effects on humans. So far there have been no controlled studies in humans that have assessed such effects, though a higher content of antioxidants have been found in the urine of subjects put on an organic diet. In summary, a change to an organic diet may have a direct positive health effect on humans, as well as an indirect effect through a healthier environment.

  14. Energy, climate, food and health.

    PubMed

    Erwin, Patricia J

    2008-01-01

    On June 3-5, 2008, international organizations and heads of state met in Rome to discuss the critical situation in global food supplies and prices during the World Food Crisis Summit. The intent of this column is to provide approaches to identifying the complex issues that impact public health, public safety, and nutrition on a global basis. The Web sites selected provide a background for the complex issues involved (energy, climate and environment, agriculture, and politics) and reveal controversial and competing agendas with many far-reaching implications.

  15. Food insecurity, neighborhood food access, and food assistance in Philadelphia.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Victoria L; Hillier, Amy; Bachhuber, Marcus A; Long, Judith A

    2014-12-01

    An estimated 17.6 million American households were food insecure in 2012, meaning they were unable to obtain enough food for an active and healthy life. Programs to augment local access to healthy foods are increasingly widespread, with unclear effects on food security. At the same time, the US government has recently enacted major cuts to federal food assistance programs. In this study, we examined the association between food insecurity (skipping or reducing meal size because of budget), neighborhood food access (self-reported access to fruits and vegetables and quality of grocery stores), and receipt of food assistance using the 2008, 2010, and 2012 waves of the Southeastern Pennsylvania Household Health Survey. Of 11,599 respondents, 16.7% reported food insecurity; 79.4% of the food insecure found it easy or very easy to find fruits and vegetables, and 60.6% reported excellent or good quality neighborhood grocery stores. In our regression models adjusting for individual- and neighborhood-level covariates, compared to those who reported very difficult access to fruits and vegetables, those who reported difficult, easy or very easy access were less likely to report food insecurity (OR 0.62: 95% CI 0.43-0.90, 0.33: 95% CI 0.23-0.47, and 0.28: 95% CI 0.20-0.40). Compared to those who reported poor stores, those who reported fair, good, and excellent quality stores were also less likely to report food insecurity (OR 0.81: 95% CI 0.60-1.08, 0.58: 95% CI 0.43-0.78, and 0.43: 95% CI 0.31-0.59). Compared to individuals not receiving food assistance, those receiving Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits were significantly more likely to be food insecure (OR 1.36: 95% CI 1.11-1.67), while those receiving benefits from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) (OR 1.17: 95% CI 0.77-1.78) and those receiving both SNAP and WIC (OR 0.84: 95% CI 0.61-1.17) did not have significantly different odds of food insecurity

  16. When hunger does (or doesn't) increase unhealthy and healthy food consumption through food wanting: The distinctive role of impulsive approach tendencies toward healthy food.

    PubMed

    Cheval, Boris; Audrin, Catherine; Sarrazin, Philippe; Pelletier, Luc

    2017-09-01

    Hunger indirectly triggers unhealthy high-calorie food consumption through its positive effect on the incentive value (or "wanting") for food. Yet, not everyone consumes unhealthy food in excess, suggesting that some individuals react differently when they are exposed to unhealthy high-calorie food, even when they are hungry. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether individual differences in impulsive approach tendencies toward food may explain how, and for whom, hunger will influence unhealthy food consumption through its effect on food wanting. A complementary goal was to explore whether these individual differences also influence healthy food consumption. Students (N = 70) completed a questionnaire measuring their hunger and food wanting. Then, they performed a manikin task designed to evaluate their impulsive approach tendencies toward unhealthy food (IAUF) and healthy food (IAHF). The main outcomes variables were the amount of sweets (i.e., unhealthy food) and raisins (i.e., healthy food) consumed during a product-testing task. A moderated mediation analysis revealed that the indirect effect of hunger on unhealthy consumption through food wanting was moderated by IAHF. Specifically, hunger positively predicted sweets consumption through wanting for food among individuals with a low or moderate, but not high IAHF. The moderated mediation pattern was, however, not confirmed for IAUF. Finally, results revealed a direct and positive effect of IAHF on raisins consumption. These findings showed that IAHF play a protective role by preventing hunger to indirectly increase unhealthy food consumption through wanting for food. It confirms the importance of considering how individuals may differ in their impulsive approach tendencies toward food to better understand why some individuals will increase their unhealthy food intake when they are hungry, whereas other will not. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Electrotechnologies to process foods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Electrical energy is being used to process foods. In conventional food processing plants, electricity drives mechanical devices and controls the degree of process. In recent years, several processing technologies are being developed to process foods directly with electricity. Electrotechnologies use...

  18. Local Foods, Local Places

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Local Foods, Local Places technical assistance program protects human health and the environment, spurs revitalization, increases access to healthy foods, and creates economic opportunities by promoting local foods.

  19. The World Food Prospect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lester R.

    1975-01-01

    Cites evidence to support the theory that the world food shortage will become a chronic condition. Describes the depletion of surplus food supplies and the increasing dependence on North America for food supplies. (MLH)

  20. FoodSafety.gov

    MedlinePlus

    ... Temperatures Food Poisoning Food Safety News for Educators Report a Problem Contaminated Carbo Load Top Searches Cumin E.Coli Salmonella Listeria Ground Turkey Botulism Tuna Stay Connected Our Partners About FoodSafety.gov ...

  1. Space Food and Nutrition

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This is an introduction to the Space Food System and Nutritional Biochemistry Laboratory. Topics cover food systems of programs past, present and future, and issues surrounding food systems and foo...

  2. Arsenic in Food

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Food Home Food Foodborne Illness & Contaminants Metals Arsenic Share ... of the Method used to Measure Arsenic in Foods Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometric Determination of Arsenic, ...

  3. Food Safety for Seniors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Food Home Food Foodborne Illness & Contaminants People at Risk of Foodborne Illness To Your Health! Food Safety for Seniors Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ...

  4. The World Food Prospect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lester R.

    1975-01-01

    Cites evidence to support the theory that the world food shortage will become a chronic condition. Describes the depletion of surplus food supplies and the increasing dependence on North America for food supplies. (MLH)

  5. Mood Food

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Natalie; Koperski, Sabrina; Golomb, Beatrice A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Much lore but few studies describe a relation of chocolate to mood. We examined the cross-sectional relationship of chocolate consumption with depressed mood in adult men and women. Methods A sample of 1018 adults (694 men and 324 women) from San Diego, California, without diabetes or known coronary artery disease was studied in a cross-sectional analysis. The 931 subjects who were not using antidepressant medications and provided chocolate consumption information were the focus of the analysis. Mood was assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Cut points signaling a positive depression screen result (CES-D score, ≥16) and probable major depression (CES-D score, ≥22) were used. Chocolate servings per week were provided by 1009 subjects. Chocolate consumption frequency and rate data from the Fred Hutchinson Food Frequency Questionnaire were also available for 839 subjects. Chocolate consumption was compared for those with lower vs higher CES-D scores. In addition, a test of trend was performed. Results Those screening positive for possible depression (CES-D score ≥16) had higher chocolate consumption (8.4 servings per month) than those not screening positive (5.4 servings per month) (P = .004); those with still higher CES-D scores (≥22) had still higher chocolate consumption (11.8 servings per month) (P value for trend, <.01). These associations extended to both men and women. These findings did not appear to be explained by a general increase in fat, carbohydrate, or energy intake. Conclusion Higher CES-D depression scores were associated with greater chocolate consumption. Whether there is a causal connection, and if so in which direction, is a matter for future prospective study. PMID:20421555

  6. Flow cytometry applications in the food industry.

    PubMed

    Comas-Riu, Jaume; Rius, Núria

    2009-08-01

    Flow cytometry has become a valuable tool in food microbiology. By analysing large numbers of cells individually using light-scattering and fluorescence measurements, this technique reveals both cellular characteristics and the levels of cellular components. Flow cytometry has been developed to rapidly enumerate microorganisms; to distinguish between viable, metabolically active and dead cells, which is of great importance in food development and food spoilage; and to detect specific pathogenic microorganisms by conjugating antibodies with fluorochromes, which is of great use in the food industry. In addition, high-speed multiparametric data acquisition, analysis and cell sorting, which allow other characteristics of individual cells to be studied, have increased the interest of food microbiologists in this technique. This mini-review gives an overview of the principles of flow cytometry and examples of the application of this technique in the food industry.

  7. Food Insecurity and Diabetes in Developed Societies.

    PubMed

    Essien, Utibe R; Shahid, Naysha N; Berkowitz, Seth A

    2016-09-01

    Food insecurity is an important issue in public health even in developed societies, particularly for vulnerable populations. Food insecurity refers to the uncertain or limited access to adequate and safe foods. Emerging evidence shows an association between food insecurity, type 2 diabetes risk factors, and management of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. A review of the current literature describing the association between food insecurity and diabetes reveals possible mechanisms and pathophysiologic pathways. There is less evidence for effective interventions, and much of the current literature is limited to cross-sectional studies. Future work should evaluate longitudinal associations and ways to help vulnerable patients with diabetes access adequate food for effective diabetes management.

  8. Responses to GM food content in context with food integrity issues: results from Australian population surveys.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Philip; Golley, Sinéad

    2016-01-25

    This study examined community responses to use of genetically modified (GM) content in food in the context of responses to familiar food additives by testing an empirically and theoretically derived model of the predictors of responses to both GM content and food integrity issues generally. A nationwide sample of 849 adults, selected at random from the Australian Electoral Roll, responded to a postal Food and Health Survey. Structural equation modelling analyses confirmed that ratings of general concern about food integrity (related to the presence of preservatives and other additives) strongly predicted negativity towards GM content. Concern about food integrity was, in turn, predicted by environmental concern and health engagement. In addition, both concern about food integrity generally and responses to GM content specifically were weakly predicted by attitudes to benefits of science and an intuitive (i.e., emotionally-based) reasoning style. Data from a follow-up survey conducted under the same conditions (N=1184) revealed that ratings of concern were significantly lower for use of genetic engineering in food than for four other common food integrity issues examined. Whereas the question of community responses to GM is often treated as a special issue, these findings support the conclusion that responses to the concept of GM content in food in Australia are substantially a specific instance of a general sensitivity towards the integrity of the food supply. They indicate that the origins of responses to GM content may be largely indistinguishable from those of general responses to preservatives and other common food additives.

  9. Food allergy: an overview.

    PubMed

    Kagan, Rhoda Sheryl

    2003-02-01

    Food allergy affects between 5% and 7.5% of children and between 1% and 2% of adults. The greater prevalence of food allergy in children reflects both the increased predisposition of children to develop food allergies and the development of immunologic tolerance to certain foods over time. Immunoglobulin (Ig) E-mediated food allergies can be classified as those that persist indefinitely and those that are predominantly transient. Although there is overlap between the two groups, certain foods are more likely than others to be tolerated in late childhood and adulthood. The diagnosis of food allergy rests with the detection of food-specific IgE in the context of a convincing history of type I hypersensitivity-mediated symptoms after ingestion of the suspected food or by eliciting IgE-mediated symptoms after controlled administration of the suspected food. Presently, the only available treatment of food allergies is dietary vigilance and administration of self-injectable epinephrine.

  10. Space Food Systems Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele; Russo, Dane M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Space Food Systems Laboratory (SFSL) is a multipurpose laboratory responsible for space food and package research and development. It is located on-site at Johnson Space Center in Building 17. The facility supports the development of flight food, menus, packaging and food related hardware for Shuttle, International Space Station, and Advanced Life Support food systems. All foods used to support NASA ground tests and/or missions must meet the highest standards before they are 'accepted' for use on actual space flights. The foods are evaluated for nutritional content, sensory acceptability, safety, storage and shelf life, and suitability for use in micro-gravity. The food packaging is also tested to determine its functionality and suitability for use in space. Food Scientist, Registered Dieticians, Packaging Engineers, Food Systems Engineers, and Technicians staff the Space Food Systems Laboratory.

  11. Space Food Systems Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele; Russo, Dane M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Space Food Systems Laboratory (SFSL) is a multipurpose laboratory responsible for space food and package research and development. It is located on-site at Johnson Space Center in Building 17. The facility supports the development of flight food, menus, packaging and food related hardware for Shuttle, International Space Station, and Advanced Life Support food systems. All foods used to support NASA ground tests and/or missions must meet the highest standards before they are 'accepted' for use on actual space flights. The foods are evaluated for nutritional content, sensory acceptability, safety, storage and shelf life, and suitability for use in micro-gravity. The food packaging is also tested to determine its functionality and suitability for use in space. Food Scientist, Registered Dieticians, Packaging Engineers, Food Systems Engineers, and Technicians staff the Space Food Systems Laboratory.

  12. Ensuring food safety in food donations: Case study of the Belgian donation/acceptation chain.

    PubMed

    De Boeck, E; Jacxsens, L; Goubert, H; Uyttendaele, M

    2017-10-01

    The food donation process in Belgium is mapped and analyzed to identify bottlenecks in compliance with the legal framework and implementation of food safety management, based on literature search and interviews with stakeholders (donors, acceptors, regulators and facilitators) in Belgium and at EU level. The study revealed that the food donation/acceptation chain is far less structured and organized than the conventional food supply chain. The fragmented landscape of many small food banks and charity organizations (acceptors), often directed by and working with volunteers without training in food safety and lack of knowledge of legal food hygiene requirements is a bottleneck to generate trust among food donors and restricts the provision of perishable products in food donations. Lack of refrigerated transport and insufficient cold/freezing capacity in food banks and charity organizations was identified as a barrier to distribute perishable products. Furthermore, in two cities in Flanders (Belgium), at some food donation centers, donated perishable food samples (n=72) were taken and subjected to microbiological analysis to determine their overall food quality, hygiene and food safety status. Twenty-two of 72 analyzed samples showed marginal microbiological quality based on numbers of yeast, lactic acid bacteria or total viable count. In three samples Listeria monocytogenes was detected per 25g among which one ready-to-eat cooked meat product which showed increased numbers of L. monocytogenes (3.5logCFU/g) and Enterobacteriaceae (6.7logCFU/g). Overall, in Belgium, most of the donated foods considers nonperishable foods, with more or less half of the food collected by the food banks being purchased with funds from FEAD (Fund for European Aid to the Most Deprived) and thus not derived from food losses. Efforts are being made by facilitators to provide a platform for better coordination of donors and acceptors to make more efficient use of food losses. Regulators at the

  13. Diversity of Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy is defined as an immune system-mediated adverse reaction to food components. Food allergic reactions are mostly IgE mediated and also known as immediate type hypersensitivity (type I reaction). There are several characteristic clinical types of food allergy, such as Anaphylaxis, Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA), and Oral allergy syndrome (OAS). In addition, food allergy is also classified into two types (class 1 and class 2) based on the pathophysiological mechanism. In the class 2 food allergy, pollen allergy causes plant food allergy; therefore this type of allergy is sometimes called Pollen-food allergy syndrome (PFAS). The risk of food allergy (allergenicity) may vary with the treatment of the food allergens. The formation or status of the causative food affects its allergenicity. Class 1 food allergens are generally heat-, enzyme-, and low pH-resistant glycoproteins ranging in size from 10 to 70 kD. Class 1 food allergens induce allergic sensitization via the gastrointestinal tract and are responsible for systemic reactions. Class 2 food allergens are generally heat-labile, susceptible to digestion, and highly homologous with pollen allergens. Taken together, it may be important to consider the diversity of food allergy in order to fight against food allergy.

  14. Defying Food – How Distance Determines Monkeys’ Ability to Inhibit Reaching for Food

    PubMed Central

    Junghans, Astrid F.; Sterck, Elisabeth H. M.; Overduin de Vries, Anne; Evers, Catharine; De Ridder, Denise T. D.

    2016-01-01

    Objects, such as food, in the environment automatically activate and facilitate affordances, the possibilities for motoric movements in interaction with the objects. Previous research has shown that affordance activation is contingent upon the distance of the object with only proximal objects activating potential movements. However, the effect of affordance-activating proximal objects on the ability to inhibit movements has been unaddressed. The current study addressed this question with two experiments on long-tailed macaques. In both experiments monkeys were situated behind a Plexiglass screen that prevented direct access to food placed right behind the screen. The food could only be reached via a detour through one of two holes on the sides of the screen. It was assessed whether monkeys’ ability to inhibit the unsuccessful immediate reaching movement forward toward the food depended on the distance at which the food was presented. Results of both Experiments revealed that monkeys reached for the proximally positioned food significantly more than for the distally positioned food, despite this Plexiglass screen preventing successful obtainment of the food. The findings reveal the effect of proximal, affordance-activating objects on the ability to resist movements involved in interacting with the objects. Implications for humans, living in environments in which proximal, or accessible food is constantly available are discussed. The findings can contribute to an understanding of why resisting accessible food in the environment is often unsuccessful. PMID:26925001

  15. 21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10 Section 170.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.10 Food additives...

  16. 21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10 Section 170.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.10 Food additives...

  17. Presenting Food Science Effectively

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Carl K.

    2016-01-01

    While the need to present food science information effectively is viewed as a critical competency for food scientists by the Institute of Food Technologists, most food scientists may not receive adequate training in this area. Effective presentations combine both scientific content and delivery mechanisms that demonstrate presenter enthusiasm for…

  18. Prevention of Food Poisoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

    The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of…

  19. Food Business Entrepreneurship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Peter

    Though not a very traditional career path for food scientists, one option is to go into business for yourself by starting a food business. Food business entrepreneurship is a difficult career that entails long work hours, extensive decision making, and tasks that require knowledge beyond food science. However, there is high potential for rewards, including financial rewards, career progression, and personal flexibility.

  20. Prevention of Food Poisoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

    The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of…

  1. Presenting Food Science Effectively

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Carl K.

    2016-01-01

    While the need to present food science information effectively is viewed as a critical competency for food scientists by the Institute of Food Technologists, most food scientists may not receive adequate training in this area. Effective presentations combine both scientific content and delivery mechanisms that demonstrate presenter enthusiasm for…

  2. [Reactions to food].

    PubMed

    Halvorsen, R; Eggesb M; Botten, G

    1995-12-10

    Adverse reactions to food occur in about 1-2% of the population, but are reported more frequently by patients. Most reactions to food are not caused by allergy. IgE-mediated food reactions are well known and of major clinical significance owing to their potentially dangerous, even life-threatening character. Adverse reactions to food can also be caused by immunological mechanisms other than IgE-mediated reactions such as, enzyme deficiencies, active pharmacological substances in food and psychological mechanisms. Double-blind provocation is the only way to diagnose a positive reaction to a food item with some certainty. Regretably no objective measures for food reactions exist.

  3. Apollo 14 food system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. C., Jr.; Huber, C. S.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.

    1971-01-01

    The program for improving foods for use during space flights consists of introducing new foods and food-handling techniques on each successive manned space flight. Because of this continuing improvement program, the Apollo 14 food system was the most advanced and sophisticated food system to be used in the U.S. space program. The food system used during the Apollo 14 mission and recent space-food-system advances are described and discussed in regard to their usefulness for future manned space flights.

  4. Factors influencing food choice in an Australian Aboriginal community.

    PubMed

    Brimblecombe, Julie; Maypilama, Elaine; Colles, Susan; Scarlett, Maria; Dhurrkay, Joanne Garnggulkpuy; Ritchie, Jan; O'Dea, Kerin

    2014-03-01

    We explored with Aboriginal adults living in a remote Australian community the social context of food choice and factors perceived to shape food choice. An ethnographic approach of prolonged community engagement over 3 years was augmented by interviews. Our findings revealed that knowledge, health, and resources supporting food choice were considered "out of balance," and this imbalance was seen to manifest in a Western-imposed diet lacking variety and overrelying on familiar staples. Participants felt ill-equipped to emulate the traditional pattern of knowledge transfer through passing food-related wisdom to younger generations. The traditional food system was considered key to providing the framework for learning about the contemporary food environment. Practitioners seeking to improve diet and health outcomes for this population should attend to past and present contexts of food in nutrition education, support the educative role of caregivers, address the high cost of food, and support access to traditional foods.

  5. Slow food, fast food and the control of food intake.

    PubMed

    de Graaf, Cees; Kok, Frans J

    2010-05-01

    This Perspective focuses on two elements of our food supply and eating environment that facilitate high energy intake: a high eating rate and distraction of attention from eating. These two elements are believed to undermine our body's capacity to regulate its energy intake at healthy levels because they impair the congruent association between sensory signals and metabolic consequences. The findings of a number of studies show that foods that can be eaten quickly lead to high food intake and low satiating effects-the reason being that these foods only provide brief periods of sensory exposure, which give the human body insufficient cues for satiation. Future research should focus on the underlying physiological, neurological and molecular mechanisms through which our current eating environment affects our control of food intake.

  6. Genetically engineered foods: implications for food allergy.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Steve L; Hefle, Susan L

    2002-06-01

    The products of agricultural biotechnology, including such common foods as corn and soybeans, are already reaching the consumer marketplace. Consumer exposure to such foods is already fairly significant, particularly in the USA. Thus far, no reports exist regarding allergic reactions to the crops that have been approved for introduction into the food supply. These crops have been modified to only a minor extent by comparison with their traditional counterparts, and the level of expression of new and novel proteins is quite low. Thus, consumer exposure to these novel proteins is very low and unlikely to result in allergic sensitization. Nevertheless, foods produced through agricultural biotechnology must be assessed for safety, including their potential allergenicity, before they may be approved by worldwide regulatory agencies for entry into the food supply. However, the adequacy of the current approach to the assessment of the potential allergenicity of foods produced through agricultural biotechnology has been the subject of considerable scientific and regulatory debate.

  7. Low-Income Women's Conceptualizations of Food Craving and Food Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Malika, Nipher M.; Hayman, Lenwood W.; Miller, Alison L.; Lee, Hannah J.; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2015-01-01

    Food craving and food addiction have been proposed as targets for obesity focused interventions. However, individuals' conceptualizations of these constructs are not well understood and no studies have employed a qualitative approach. Therefore, we sought to understand how women conceptualize food craving and food addiction. Low-income women with preschool-aged children (2-5 years old) participated in either a semi-structured individual interview or focus group in which they were asked about their conceptualization of eating behaviors among adults and children. All responses were audio-recorded and transcribed. Themes were identified using the constant comparative method of qualitative analysis. Identified themes revealed that the women perceived food craving to be common, less severe and to a degree more humorous than food addiction. It was not felt that food cravings were something to be guarded against or resisted. Food addiction was described in a very “matter of fact” manner and was believed to be identifiable through its behavioral features including a compulsive need to have certain foods all the time. A more detailed understanding of how the general population perceives food craving and food addiction may enable more refined measurement of these constructs with questionnaire measures in the future. In addition, interventions may be designed to use the language most consistent with participants' conceptualizations of these constructs. PMID:25867800

  8. Low-income women's conceptualizations of food craving and food addiction.

    PubMed

    Malika, Nipher M; Hayman, Lenwood W; Miller, Alison L; Lee, Hannah J; Lumeng, Julie C

    2015-08-01

    Food craving and food addiction have been proposed as targets for obesity focused interventions. However, individuals' conceptualizations of these constructs are not well understood and no studies have employed a qualitative approach. Therefore, we sought to understand how women conceptualize food craving and food addiction. Low-income women with preschool-aged children (2-5years old) participated in either a semi-structured individual interview or focus group in which they were asked about their conceptualization of eating behaviors among adults and children. All responses were audio-recorded and transcribed. Themes were identified using the constant comparative method of qualitative analysis. Identified themes revealed that the women perceived food craving to be common, less severe and to a degree more humorous than food addiction. It was not felt that food cravings were something to be guarded against or resisted. Food addiction was described in a very "matter of fact" manner and was believed to be identifiable through its behavioral features including a compulsive need to have certain foods all the time. A more detailed understanding of how the general population perceives food craving and food addiction may enable more refined measurement of these constructs with questionnaire measures in the future. In addition, interventions may be designed to use the language most consistent with participants' conceptualizations of these constructs.

  9. [Street food: analysis of hygienic and sanitary conditions of food handlers].

    PubMed

    de Souza, Giovanna Carbonera; dos Santos, Celso Tadeu Barbosa; Andrade, Anderson Assunção; Alves, Luciene

    2015-08-01

    The consumption of street food is an economical and practical alternative for the population. However, concerns regarding the safety of these foods are increasing. Thus, this study aimed to analyze the hygienic and sanitary conditions of the street food trade in Uberaba in the State of Minas Gerais. For this purpose, 30 street vending sites were evaluated using a structured questionnaire and microbiological analysis of food handlers' hands and food contact recipients and surfaces. The findings showed low adequacy of street food regarding hand hygiene and food contact surfaces. With respect to surfaces, the results for mesophilic aerobic microorganisms revealed that only 23.3% had satisfactory sanitary conditions. The level of contamination of hands by fecal thermotolerant coliforms and/or Coagulase positive Staphylococci was unsatisfactory in approximately 47% of food handlers. The conclusion drawn is that the hygienic and sanitary conditions of food handlers in Uberaba are poor. It is therefore necessary to adopt effective and permanent training programs on food safety for food handlers urgently.

  10. The sanitary conditions of food service establishments and food safety knowledge and practices of food handlers in bahir dar town.

    PubMed

    Kibret, Mulugeta; Abera, Bayeh

    2012-03-01

    Lack of basic infrastructure, poor knowledge of hygiene and practices in food service establishments can contribute to outbreaks of foodborne illnesses. The aims of this study were to investigate the food safety knowledge and practices of food handlers and to assess the sanitary conditions of food service establishments in Bahir Dar town. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Bahir Dar in May 2011 and data were collected using questionnaire and observation checklist on employees' knowledge of food hygiene and their practices as well on sanitary conditions of the food service establishments The median age of the food handlers was 22 years and among the 455 subjects 99 (21.8%) have had food hygiene training. Sixty six percent of the establishments had flush toilets whereas 5.9% of the establishment had no toilet. Only 149 (33.6%) of the establishments had a proper solid waste collection receptacle and there was statistically significant association between the sanitary conditions and license status of the establishments (p=0.01). Most of all, knowledge gap in food hygiene and handling practice was observed. In addition, there was statistically significant difference between trained (professional) handlers and non-trained handlers with regard to food hygiene practices (p<0.05). While more than 50% of the handlers prepare meals ahead of the peak selling time, more than 50% of the left over was poorly managed. This study revealed poor sanitary conditions and poor food hygiene practices of handlers. Educational programs targeted at improving the attitude of food handlers and licensing and regular inspections have been recommended.

  11. Resources: food waste is energy waste

    SciTech Connect

    Borghese, A.

    1981-07-01

    Americans waste energy when they waste energy-intensive food, which requires one-sixth of the nation's energy resources to produce, distribute, and prepare. A two-year University of Arizona study of household food waste that divided refuse into straight waste and plate scrapings found that 9% of purchased food was thrown away, and over half that was discarded untouched. Samplings from schools, restaurants, and other institutions reveal similar habits. More food is discarded in the fields and processing plants. A California group (the Gleaners) is among those trying to eliminate harvesting waste, while urban groups are salvaging store and restaurant throwouts. A conscious effort by an informed public can lead to a more-efficient use of food and energy. (DCK)

  12. An exploration of parents' food purchasing behaviours.

    PubMed

    Maubach, Ninya; Hoek, Janet; McCreanor, Tim

    2009-12-01

    A qualitative study explored factors that influence parents' food purchasing behaviours in supermarkets and away-from-home settings, particularly the role played by nutrition information. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted with 15 parents of young children in a provincial city in New Zealand. A semi-structured protocol was used to elicit factors influencing food purchases and explore the understanding and influence of existing nutrition labels. Thematic analysis revealed that while parents wish to select good food for their families, practical factors dominate their decisions. Nutrition labels had little reported influence on food choice, largely because parents face competing demands when selecting food for their families. These factors militate against use of detailed nutrition information, especially formats that require considerable effort to comprehend.

  13. Defining food literacy: A scoping review.

    PubMed

    Truman, Emily; Lane, Daniel; Elliott, Charlene

    2017-09-01

    The term "food literacy" describes the idea of proficiency in food related skills and knowledge. This prevalent term is broadly applied, although its core elements vary from initiative to initiative. In light of its ubiquitous use-but varying definitions-this article establishes the scope of food literacy research by identifying all articles that define 'food literacy', analysing its key conceptualizations, and reporting outcomes/measures of this concept. A scoping review was conducted to identify all articles (academic and grey literature) using the term "food literacy". Databases included Medline, Pubmed, Embase, CAB Abstracts, CINAHL, Scopus, JSTOR, and Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Of 1049 abstracts, 67 studies were included. From these, data was extracted on country of origin, study type (methodological approach), primary target population, and the primary outcomes relating to food literacy. The majority of definitions of food literacy emphasize the acquisition of critical knowledge (information and understanding) (55%) over functional knowledge (skills, abilities and choices) (8%), although some incorporate both (37%). Thematic analysis of 38 novel definitions of food literacy reveals the prevalence of six themes: skills and behaviours, food/health choices, culture, knowledge, emotions, and food systems. Study outcomes largely focus on knowledge generating measures, with very few focusing on health related outcome measures. Current definitions of food literacy incorporate components of six key themes or domains and attributes of both critical and functional knowledge. Despite this broad definition of the term, most studies aiming to improve food literacy focus on knowledge related outcomes. Few articles address health outcomes, leaving an important gap (and opportunity) for future research in this field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Biotechnology and food allergy.

    PubMed

    Helm, Ricki M

    2002-01-01

    The production of genetically modified foods for an increasingly informed and selective consumer requires the coordinated activities of both the companies developing the transgenic food and regulatory authorities to ensure that these foods are at least as safe as the traditional foods they are supplementing in the diet. Although the size and complexity of the food sector ensures that no single player can control the process from seed production through farming and processing to final products marketed in a retail outlet, checks and balances are in place to ensure that transgenic foods will provide a convenient, wholesome, tasty, safe, affordable food source. Ultimately, it is the responsibility of companies developing the genetically modified food to provide relevant data to regulatory agencies, such as the US Department of Agriculture, Environmental Protection Agency, and Food and Drug Administration, to confirm that the transgenic product is reasonably safe for the consumer, as zero risk from allergen sensitization is nonexistent.

  15. Food reinforcement during infancy

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Kai Ling

    2017-01-01

    The motivation to eat, as operationalized by measuring how hard someone will work for food, is cross-sectionally and prospectively related to obesity. Persons high in food reinforcement consume more calories, and energy intake mediates the relationship between food reinforcement and obesity. Research has shown avid sucking for milk in early infancy predicts later adiposity, and the relationship between food reinforcement and excess body weight has been observed in infants as young as 9 months of age. New methodological developments in studying food reinforcement in infants and young children provide the first opportunity to study the origin of food reinforcement. This review seeks to provide background on the measurement of food reinforcement, and to present, for the first time, prenatal and postnatal predictors of infant food reinforcement. Lastly, potential mechanisms for an increasing trajectory of food reinforcement throughout development are proposed. PMID:27373207

  16. Government perspective: food labeling.

    PubMed

    Philipson, Tomas

    2005-07-01

    The Food and Drug Administration acknowledges the severity of the obesity epidemic. The Food and Drug Administration recognizes the importance of food labeling as a vehicle for dietary messages and, thus, enforces stringent guidelines to maintain the integrity of the food label. As food labels await another upgrade to make them more effective and easier to understand, the Food and Drug Administration considers what information will be most useful for consumers to make healthy choices. The causal relationship between food labels and subsequent diet choice is not well understood; more research in this area is needed. The Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration has recently appointed an Obesity Working Group to develop proposals on pertinent topics of obesity, including the role of food labeling as a dietary guide.

  17. Nanosensors for food safety.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhixiong; Sheng, Chenxing

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes recent research and development of nanosensors applied to the food safety. Since the food safety is directly related to the people's health and life, the food detection has received considerable attentions. However, this food security has emerged in China as a severe problem in recent years. Food safety problems frequently compromised due to formaldehyde, poison vegetables, excessive pesticide residues, etc. These kinds of food contaminations could not be detected efficiently by traditional methods. Applying nanotechnology and nanominerals, various food contaminations can be identified accurately. Therefore nanosensors have been widely used in the food detection. We introduce current research on nanosensors followed by the industrial application of nanosensors. Finally, the challenges for the future food safety using nanosensors are discussed.

  18. Radioactivity and food

    SciTech Connect

    Olszyna-Marzys, A.E. )

    1990-03-01

    Two topics relating to radioactivity and food are discussed: food irradiation for preservation purposes, and food contamination from radioactive substances. Food irradiation involves the use of electromagnetic energy (x and gamma rays) emitted by radioactive substances or produced by machine in order to destroy the insects and microorganisms present and prevent germination. The sanitary and economic advantages of treating food in this way are discussed. Numerous studies have confirmed that under strictly controlled conditions no undesirable changes take place in food that has been irradiated nor is radioactivity induced. Reference is made to the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station, which aroused public concern about irradiated food. The events surrounding the accident are reviewed, and its consequences with regard to contamination of different foods with radioactive substances, particularly iodine-131 and cesium-137, are described. Also discussed are the steps that have been taken by different international organizations to set limits on acceptable radioactivity in food.15 references.

  19. Is fast food addictive?

    PubMed

    Garber, Andrea K; Lustig, Robert H

    2011-09-01

    Studies of food addiction have focused on highly palatable foods. While fast food falls squarely into that category, it has several other attributes that may increase its salience. This review examines whether the nutrients present in fast food, the characteristics of fast food consumers or the presentation and packaging of fast food may encourage substance dependence, as defined by the American Psychiatric Association. The majority of fast food meals are accompanied by a soda, which increases the sugar content 10-fold. Sugar addiction, including tolerance and withdrawal, has been demonstrated in rodents but not humans. Caffeine is a "model" substance of dependence; coffee drinks are driving the recent increase in fast food sales. Limited evidence suggests that the high fat and salt content of fast food may increase addictive potential. Fast food restaurants cluster in poorer neighborhoods and obese adults eat more fast food than those who are normal weight. Obesity is characterized by resistance to insulin, leptin and other hormonal signals that would normally control appetite and limit reward. Neuroimaging studies in obese subjects provide evidence of altered reward and tolerance. Once obese, many individuals meet criteria for psychological dependence. Stress and dieting may sensitize an individual to reward. Finally, fast food advertisements, restaurants and menus all provide environmental cues that may trigger addictive overeating. While the concept of fast food addiction remains to be proven, these findings support the role of fast food as a potentially addictive substance that is most likely to create dependence in vulnerable populations.

  20. Avenues into Food Planning: A Review of Scholarly Food System Research

    PubMed Central

    Brinkley, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes several avenues of planning inquiry into food systems research, revealing gaps in the literature, allied fields of study and mismatches between scholarly disciplines and the food system life cycle. Planners and scholars in associated fields have identified and defined problems in the food system as ‘wicked’ problems, complex environmental issues that require systemic solutions at the community scale. While food justice scholars have contextualized problem areas, planning scholars have made a broad case for planning involvement in solving these wicked problems while ensuring that the functional and beneficial parts of the food system continue to thrive. This review maps the entry points of scholarly interest in food systems and planning’s contributions to its study, charting a research agenda for the future. PMID:24932131

  1. Integration of ethnic food into Swedish food rituals. The cultural fitness of tacos.

    PubMed

    Solér, Cecilia; Plazas, Maite Creixell

    2012-06-01

    This paper explores the meaning of the Mexican dish tacos for Swedish consumers. As such, this study examines the relationship between ethnic food and food culture in light of contemporary changing food rituals. The results reveal that the Swedish food ritual of Friday dinner can be enacted through eating tacos. Friday dinner is a point in time and space at which family members gather, after a busy week following divergent schedules that keep them from eating together, and to which children's food preferences are central. Tacos fulfil all the requirements for a quick-to-cook yet social dish that enables hardworking but time-constrained families to eat together. The much-debated informal and fragmented character of food consumption in contemporary society is accommodated in the taco meal.

  2. Avenues into Food Planning: A Review of Scholarly Food System Research.

    PubMed

    Brinkley, Catherine

    2013-04-01

    This review summarizes several avenues of planning inquiry into food systems research, revealing gaps in the literature, allied fields of study and mismatches between scholarly disciplines and the food system life cycle. Planners and scholars in associated fields have identified and defined problems in the food system as 'wicked' problems, complex environmental issues that require systemic solutions at the community scale. While food justice scholars have contextualized problem areas, planning scholars have made a broad case for planning involvement in solving these wicked problems while ensuring that the functional and beneficial parts of the food system continue to thrive. This review maps the entry points of scholarly interest in food systems and planning's contributions to its study, charting a research agenda for the future.

  3. Good Food, Bad Food, and White Rice: Understanding Child Feeding Using Visual-Narrative Elicitation.

    PubMed

    Wentworth, Chelsea

    2017-01-01

    Visual-narrative elicitation, a process combining photo elicitation and pile sorting in applied medical anthropology, sheds light on food consumption patterns in urban areas of Vanuatu where childhood malnutrition is a persistent problem. Groups of participants took photographs of the foods they feed their children, and the resources and barriers they encounter in accessing foodstuffs. This revealed how imported and local foods are assigned value as "good" or "bad" foods when contributing to dietary diversity and creating appropriate meals for children, particularly in the context of consuming white rice. The process of gathering and working with photographs illuminated the complex negotiations in which caregivers engaged when making food and nutritional choices for their children. At the nexus of visual and medical anthropology, the visual-narrative elicitation process yielded nuanced, comprehensive understandings of how caregivers value the various foods they feed their children.

  4. Country food sharing networks, household structure, and implications for understanding food insecurity in Arctic Canada.

    PubMed

    Collings, Peter; Marten, Meredith G; Pearce, Tristan; Young, Alyson G

    2016-01-01

    We examine the cultural context of food insecurity among Inuit in Ulukhaktok, Northwest Territories, Canada. An analysis of the social network of country food exchanges among 122 households in the settlement reveals that a household's betweenness centrality-a measure of brokerage-in the country food network is predicted by the age of the household. The households of married couples were better positioned within the sharing network than were the households of single females or single males. Households with an active hunter or elder were also better positioned in the network. The households of single men and women appear to experience limited access to country food, a considerable problem given the increasing number of single-adult households over time. We conclude that the differences between how single women and single men experience constrained access to country foods may partially account for previous findings that single women in arctic settlements appear to be at particular risk for food insecurity.

  5. 21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.10 Food additives... the Act, which proposes the inclusion of a food additive in such definition and standard of identity...

  6. 21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.10 Food additives... the Act, which proposes the inclusion of a food additive in such definition and standard of identity...

  7. 21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10... (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.10 Food additives in standardized foods. (a) The... inclusion of a food additive in such definition and standard of identity, the provisions of the regulations...

  8. Food cravings among Brazilian population.

    PubMed

    Queiroz de Medeiros, Anna Cecília; Pedrosa, Lucia de Fatima Campos; Yamamoto, Maria Emilia

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to develop and validate a Brazilian version of the Food Craving Inventory (FCI-Br), adapted to the cultural-gastronomic context of Brazil, and to explore this behavior among adult Brazilians. The Study 1 population consisted of 453 adults from all regions of Brazil. Participants responded to a preliminary form of the instrument online. Exploratory factor analysis revealed an FCI-Br presenting 23 items and three factors: High Fat, Sweet Food and Traditional Meal. The FCI-Br overall reliability was considered adequate (α = 0.82), as were each of the sub-scales. The food items receiving higher average scores from the application of the instrument were chocolate (3.14 ± 1.28; women) and bread (2.94 ± 1.44, men). A significant association was observed between the specific-craving for Sweet Food and female respondents. Most participants reported experiencing more frequent episodes of food craving when alone (68.0%; n = 391) and during the afternoon (32.2%; n = 127) or evening (43.8%; n = 173) hours. Application of the FCI-Br in a population of 649 university students (Study 2) demonstrated a good adjustment of the model developed according to the Confirmatory factor analysis (χ(2)/gl = 2.82, CFI = 0.94; TLI = 0.93; RMSEA = 0.06). The current findings indicate that the FCI-Br has adequate psychometric properties to measure craving behavior with respect to specific food groups in the resident population of Brazil. The results of this study also shed light on the importance of considering the cultural diversity of a population when investigating eating behaviors.

  9. Food Antimicrobials Nanocarriers

    PubMed Central

    Blanco-Padilla, Adriana; Soto, Karen M.; Hernández Iturriaga, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Natural food antimicrobials are bioactive compounds that inhibit the growth of microorganisms involved in food spoilage or food-borne illness. However, stability issues result in degradation and loss of antimicrobial activity. Nanoencapsulation allows protection of antimicrobial food agents from unfavorable environmental conditions and incompatibilities. Encapsulation of food antimicrobials control delivery increasing the concentration of the antimicrobials in specific areas and the improvement of passive cellular absorption mechanisms resulted in higher antimicrobial activity. This paper reviews the present state of the art of the nanostructures used as food antimicrobial carriers including nanoemulsions, nanoliposomes, nanoparticles, and nanofibers. PMID:24995363

  10. Food and feed enzymes.

    PubMed

    Fraatz, Marco Alexander; Rühl, Martin; Zorn, Holger

    2014-01-01

    Humans have benefited from the unique catalytic properties of enzymes, in particular for food production, for thousands of years. Prominent examples include the production of fermented alcoholic beverages, such as beer and wine, as well as bakery and dairy products. The chapter reviews the historic background of the development of modern enzyme technology and provides an overview of the industrial food and feed enzymes currently available on the world market. The chapter highlights enzyme applications for the improvement of resource efficiency, the biopreservation of food, and the treatment of food intolerances. Further topics address the improvement of food safety and food quality.

  11. Food Service System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The 3M Food Service System 2 employs a "cook/chill" concept for serving food in hospitals. The system allows staff to prepare food well in advance, maintain heat, visual appeal and nutritional value as well as reducing operating costs. The integral heating method, which keeps hot foods hot and cold foods cold, was developed by 3M for the Apollo Program. In the 1970s, the company commercialized the original system and in 1991, introduced Food Service System 2. Dishes are designed to resemble those used at home, and patient satisfaction has been high.

  12. Attentional biases towards familiar and unfamiliar foods in children. The role of food neophobia.

    PubMed

    Maratos, Frances A; Staples, Paul

    2015-08-01

    Familiarity of food stimuli is one factor that has been proposed to explain food preferences and food neophobia in children, with some research suggesting that food neophobia (and familiarity) is at first a predominant of the visual domain. Considering visual attentional biases are a key factor implicated in a majority of fear-related phobias/anxieties, the purpose of this research was to investigate attentional biases to familiar and unfamiliar fruit and vegetables in 8 to 11 year old children with differing levels of food neophobia. To this end, 70 primary aged children completed a visual-probe task measuring attentional biases towards familiar and unfamiliar fruit/vegetables, as well as the food neophobia, general neophobia and willingness to try self-report measures. Results revealed that as an undifferentiated population all children appeared to demonstrate an attentional bias towards the unfamiliar fruit and vegetable stimuli. However, when considering food neophobia, this bias was significantly exaggerated for children self-reporting high food neophobia and negligible for children self-reporting low food neophobia. In addition, willingness to try the food stimuli was inversely correlated with attentional bias towards the unfamiliar fruits/vegetables. Our results demonstrate that visual aspects of food stimuli (e.g. familiarity) play an important role in childhood food neophobia. This study provides the first empirical test of recent theory/models of food neophobia (e.g. Brown & Harris, 2012). Findings are discussed in light of these models and related anxiety models, along with implications concerning the treatment of childhood food neophobia.

  13. Food energy content influences food portion size estimation by nutrition students.

    PubMed

    Japur, C C; Diez-Garcia, R W

    2010-06-01

    Food portion size estimation involves a complex mental process that may influence food consumption evaluation. Knowing the variables that influence this process can improve the accuracy of dietary assessment. The present study aimed to evaluate the ability of nutrition students to estimate food portions in usual meals and relate food energy content with errors in food portion size estimation. Seventy-eight nutrition students, who had already studied food energy content, participated in this cross-sectional study on the estimation of food portions, organised into four meals. The participants estimated the quantity of each food, in grams or millilitres, with the food in view. Estimation errors were quantified, and their magnitude were evaluated. Estimated quantities (EQ) lower than 90% and higher than 110% of the weighed quantity (WQ) were considered to represent underestimation and overestimation, respectively. Correlation between food energy content and error on estimation was analysed by the Spearman correlation, and comparison between the mean EQ and WQ was accomplished by means of the Wilcoxon signed rank test (P < 0.05). A low percentage of estimates (18.5%) were considered accurate (+/-10% of the actual weight). The most frequently underestimated food items were cauliflower, lettuce, apple and papaya; the most often overestimated items were milk, margarine and sugar. A significant positive correlation between food energy density and estimation was found (r = 0.8166; P = 0.0002). The results obtained in the present study revealed a low percentage of acceptable estimations of food portion size by nutrition students, with trends toward overestimation of high-energy food items and underestimation of low-energy items.

  14. Food-Specific Decentering Experiences Are Associated with Reduced Food Cravings in Meditators: A Preliminary Investigation.

    PubMed

    Papies, Esther K; van Winckel, Martine; Keesman, Mike

    This study examined the association of food-specific decentering experiences with food cravings in a sample of meditators. Decentering refers to viewing one's thoughts as transient mental events and thus experiencing them as less subjectively real. This process has been suggested to be a key mechanism underlying the effects of mindfulness and many contemplative practices. Although most earlier studies have focused on the effects of decentering with regard to negative affect, some studies have shown that brief inductions of decentering among non-meditators reduce food cravings as well as unhealthy food choices. Here, we report a preliminary investigation of whether the food-specific decentering experiences that meditators have in daily life are associated with fewer food cravings. A small sample of meditators (N = 33, female = 15) answered a number of questions about decentering experiences with regard to thoughts about food, and they completed the short version of the Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait and a measure of meditation experience. Results confirmed that both more meditation experience and more food-specific decentering experiences were associated with fewer food cravings in daily life. In addition, results suggested that when participants had stronger decentering experiences, they experienced fewer food cravings, regardless of their level of meditation experience. Exploratory analyses further revealed that decentering was more strongly associated with reduced cravings in women than in men. These preliminary findings suggest that food-specific decentering experiences indeed help meditators deal with food desires, and thus extend the evidence for decentering effects into the domain of reward. Future research might investigate this in larger samples, validate a food-specific measure of decentering, and consider the broader implications of decentering experiences in daily life.

  15. [Food security in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Urquía-Fernández, Nuria

    2014-01-01

    An overview of food security and nutrition in Mexico is presented, based on the analysis of the four pillars of food security: availability, access, utilization of food, and stability of the food supply. In addition, the two faces of malnutrition in Mexico were analyzed: obesity and undernourishment. Data were gathered from the food security indicators of the United Nations's Food and Agriculture Organization, from the Mexican Scale of Food Security, and from the National Health and Nutrition Survey. Mexico presents an index of availability of 3 145 kilocalories per person per day, one of the highest indexes in the world, including both food production and imports. In contrast, Mexico is affected by a double burden of malnutrition: whereas children under five present 14% of stunt, 30% of the adult population is obese. Also, more than 18% of the population cannot afford the basic food basket (food poverty). Using perception surveys, people reports important levels of food insecurity, which concentrates in seven states of the Mexican Federation. The production structure underlying these indicators shows a very heterogeneous landscape, which translates in to a low productivity growth across the last years. Food security being a multidimensional concept, to ensure food security for the Mexican population requires a revision and redesign of public productive and social policies, placing a particular focus on strengthening the mechanisms of institutional governance.

  16. Food nanotechnology - an overview.

    PubMed

    Sekhon, Bhupinder S

    2010-05-04

    Food nanotechnology is an area of emerging interest and opens up a whole universe of new possibilities for the food industry. The basic categories of nanotechnology applications and functionalities currently in the development of food packaging include: the improvement of plastic materials barriers, the incorporation of active components that can deliver functional attributes beyond those of conventional active packaging, and the sensing and signaling of relevant information. Nano food packaging materials may extend food life, improve food safety, alert consumers that food is contaminated or spoiled, repair tears in packaging, and even release preservatives to extend the life of the food in the package. Nanotechnology applications in the food industry can be utilized to detect bacteria in packaging, or produce stronger flavors and color quality, and safety by increasing the barrier properties. Nanotechnology holds great promise to provide benefits not just within food products but also around food products. In fact, nanotechnology introduces new chances for innovation in the food industry at immense speed, but uncertainty and health concerns are also emerging. EU/WE/global legislation for the regulation of nanotechnology in food are meager. Moreover, current legislation appears unsuitable to nanotechnology specificity.

  17. Indigenous food ingredients for complementary food formulations to combat infant malnutrition in Benin: a review.

    PubMed

    Chadare, Flora J; Madode, Yann E; Fanou-Fogny, Nadia; Kindossi, Janvier M; Ayosso, Juvencio Og; Honfo, S Hermann; Kayodé, Ap Polycarpe; Linnemann, Anita R; Hounhouigan, D Joseph

    2017-07-21

    This paper reviews indigenous Beninese food resources as potential ingredients for complementary infant foods with the aim to develop affordable formulations for low-income households in each agro-ecological zone of the country. Potential ingredients were selected on their documented nutritional value. The selected foods encompass 347 food resources, namely 297 plant products from home gardens or collected from natural vegetation and 50 animals, either domesticated or from the wild. The compiled data reveal that the distribution of the available food resources was unbalanced between agro-ecological zones. Only a few animal ingredients are obtainable in northern Benin. Most resources are seasonal, but their availability may be extended. A high variation was observed in energy and nutrient contents. Antinutritional factors were identified in some resources, but processing techniques were reported to reduce their presence in meals. In general, ingredients from local tree foods (Adansonia digitata, Parkia biglobosa) were adequate as sources of nutrients for complementary infant foods. Based on this review, local foods for the development of complementary food formulas for Beninese infants and children may be selected for each agro-ecological zone. The approach used is exemplary for other sub-Saharan African countries in need of complementary infant foods. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Food Biotechnology: A Step Towards Improving Nutritional Quality of Food for Asian Countries.

    PubMed

    Dash, Archana; Kundu, Debajyoti; Das, Mohan; Bose, Debalina; Adak, Sunita; Banerjee, Rintu

    2016-01-01

    Food-based technologies established itself as a vast, inter-disciplinary and multifaceted research area are at crossroads of scientific and technological advancements. The review of patents reveals that growing concerns over the source of nourishment for the burgeoning population, its quality, quantity and safety, along with associated human and environmental welfare has inspired global researchers to implement several new bio-based technologies. Biotechnological interventions in food sector have been aimed at enhancing/modifying taste, aroma, shelf-life, texture and nutritional value of food products employing fermentation, enzyme technology, nanotechnology and molecular biology. The use of whole microbes as a source of nutrition and genetically modified microorganisms to be used as food or genetically modified food have been successfully attempted, which has addressed the mass population and malnutrition. Further, the processing techniques have been improved along with the proper utilization of food wastes for the generation of many useful byproducts. The article covers broadly the impact of biotechnological interventions in food sector. Techniques mostly discussed include not only the nutrient enriched food production but also byproduct utilization through proper improvisation of food waste into bioenergy, biomanure and other value added products, which is of great economic and environmental importance. This article reviews the overall aspects in relation to some of the recent advancements in food sector.

  19. Functional Foods for Women's Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindeman, Alice K.

    2002-01-01

    Describes functional foods for women's health (foods or food ingredients that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition), explaining that both whole and modified foods can be included as functional foods. The paper discusses the history, regulation, and promotion of functional foods; consumer interest in functional foods; how to incorporate…

  20. Functional Foods for Women's Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindeman, Alice K.

    2002-01-01

    Describes functional foods for women's health (foods or food ingredients that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition), explaining that both whole and modified foods can be included as functional foods. The paper discusses the history, regulation, and promotion of functional foods; consumer interest in functional foods; how to incorporate…

  1. Food reward, hyperphagia, and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Lenard, Natalie R.; Shin, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    Given the unabated obesity problem, there is increasing appreciation of expressions like “my eyes are bigger than my stomach,” and recent studies in rodents and humans suggest that dysregulated brain reward pathways may be contributing not only to drug addiction but also to increased intake of palatable foods and ultimately obesity. After describing recent progress in revealing the neural pathways and mechanisms underlying food reward and the attribution of incentive salience by internal state signals, we analyze the potentially circular relationship between palatable food intake, hyperphagia, and obesity. Are there preexisting individual differences in reward functions at an early age, and could they be responsible for development of obesity later in life? Does repeated exposure to palatable foods set off a cascade of sensitization as in drug and alcohol addiction? Are reward functions altered by secondary effects of the obese state, such as increased signaling through inflammatory, oxidative, and mitochondrial stress pathways? Answering these questions will significantly impact prevention and treatment of obesity and its ensuing comorbidities as well as eating disorders and drug and alcohol addiction. PMID:21411768

  2. Food For Thought

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Space food research meets the challenge of providing food that tastes good and travels well in space. This lesson emphasizes inquiry and cooperative involvement of students as they explore the uniq...

  3. Commonly Consumed Food Commodities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Commonly consumed foods are those ingested for their nutrient properties. Food commodities can be either raw agricultural commodities or processed commodities, provided that they are the forms that are sold or distributed for human consumption. Learn more.

  4. Food Applications and Regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gálvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate; Omar, Nabil Ben; Lucas, Rosario

    This chapter deals with food applications of bacteriocins. Regulatory issues on the different possibilities for incorporating bacteriocins as bioprotectants are discussed. Specific applications of bacteriocins or bacteriocin-producing strains are described for main food categories, including milk and dairy products, raw meats, ready-to-eat meat and poultry products, fermented meats, fish and fish products or fermented fish. The last section of the chapter deals with applications in foods and beverages derived from plant materials, such as raw vegetable foods, fruits and fruit juices, cooked food products, fermented vegetable foods and ­fermented beverages. Results obtained for application of bacteriocins in combination with other hurdles are also discussed for each specific case, with a special emphasis on novel food packaging and food-processing technologies, such as irradiation, pulsed electric field treatments or high hydrostatic pressure treatment.

  5. Fun With Food Webs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Karl D.

    1977-01-01

    Explains an upper elementary game of tag that illustrates energy flow in food webs using candy bars as food sources. A follow-up field trip to a river and five language arts projects are also suggested. (CS)

  6. Food allergies (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... upon subsequent exposure to the substance. An actual food allergy, as opposed to simple intolerance due to the lack of digesting enzymes, is indicated by the production of antibodies to the food allergen, and by the release of histamines and ...

  7. Fun With Food Webs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Karl D.

    1977-01-01

    Explains an upper elementary game of tag that illustrates energy flow in food webs using candy bars as food sources. A follow-up field trip to a river and five language arts projects are also suggested. (CS)

  8. Thermodynamics and Frozen Foods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, William L.; Reid, David S.

    1993-01-01

    The heat content of a food at a given temperature can be described by the thermodynamic property of enthalpy. Presents a method to construct a simple calorimeter for measuring the enthalpy changes of different foods during freezing. (MDH)

  9. Food and Your Bones

    MedlinePlus

    ... your bones. Learning about the foods that are rich in calcium, vitamin D and other nutrients that ... Calcium, Vitamin D Leafy greens and other nutrient-rich foods are good for your bones. More Examples ...

  10. MyFoodAdvisor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Password? Login Cancel Can I eat this? . . . Meal Planning and Tips Managing diabetes is a challenge that ... can make it easier. Discover more about meal planning options and how MyFoodAdvisor can help. Explore Foods ...

  11. Thermodynamics and Frozen Foods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, William L.; Reid, David S.

    1993-01-01

    The heat content of a food at a given temperature can be described by the thermodynamic property of enthalpy. Presents a method to construct a simple calorimeter for measuring the enthalpy changes of different foods during freezing. (MDH)

  12. Food Label and You

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Food Home Food Ingredients, ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  13. Food and Environmental Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falvey, Lindsay

    1997-01-01

    Argues that intensive agriculture restricted to suitable lands will be required in the future due to global population growth, declining food prices, and extreme poverty. Discusses the challenge of balancing environmental care with food production. (DDR)

  14. Apollo food technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. C., Jr.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Rambaut, P. C.; Rapp, R. M.; Wheeler, H. O.; Huber, C. S.; Bourland, C. T.

    1975-01-01

    Large improvements and advances in space food systems achieved during the Apollo food program are discussed. Modifications of the Apollo food system were directed primarily toward improving delivery of adequate nutrition to the astronaut. Individual food items and flight menus were modified as nutritional countermeasures to the effects of weightlessness. Unique food items were developed, including some that provided nutritional completeness, high acceptability, and ready-to-eat, shelf-stable convenience. Specialized food packages were also developed. The Apollo program experience clearly showed that future space food systems will require well-directed efforts to achieve the optimum potential of food systems in support of the physiological and psychological well-being of astronauts and crews.

  15. Fast food (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Fast foods are quick, reasonably priced, and readily available alternatives to home cooking. While convenient and economical for a busy lifestyle, fast foods are typically high in calories, fat, saturated ...

  16. Apollo food technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. C., Jr.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Rambaut, P. C.; Rapp, R. M.; Wheeler, H. O.; Huber, C. S.; Bourland, C. T.

    1975-01-01

    Large improvements and advances in space food systems achieved during the Apollo food program are discussed. Modifications of the Apollo food system were directed primarily toward improving delivery of adequate nutrition to the astronaut. Individual food items and flight menus were modified as nutritional countermeasures to the effects of weightlessness. Unique food items were developed, including some that provided nutritional completeness, high acceptability, and ready-to-eat, shelf-stable convenience. Specialized food packages were also developed. The Apollo program experience clearly showed that future space food systems will require well-directed efforts to achieve the optimum potential of food systems in support of the physiological and psychological well-being of astronauts and crews.

  17. Food and Drug Administration

    MedlinePlus

    ... Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products FDA Homepage Hurricane Safety Resources Information covering safety for your medications, ... food, water, pets and more. [Image courtesy NOAA] Hurricane Safety Resources FDA Launches Food Safety Plan Builder ...

  18. Food attitudes and well-being: The role of culture.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Arauz, Gloriana; Ramírez-Esparza, Nairán; Smith-Castro, Vanessa

    2016-10-01

    Previous cross-cultural studies have found differences in food attitudes. For example, Americans are more concerned about weight gain than people from France and India. This study aimed to add on the literature on cross-cultural differences in food attitudes by comparing Euro-Americans with Costa Ricans on three different food attitudes: concern about gaining weight, food negativity, and the belief in the link between diet and health. This study also analyzes the implications of food attitudes on well-being. Specifically, within and across cultures, analyses were done to test the relationship between food attitudes and both anxiety and depression. Results showed that Costa Ricans are significantly less concerned about weight and less food negative than Euro-Americans. In further analyses an interaction was revealed, in which Costa Ricans that are high on weight concern but low on food negativity show lower levels of depression, compared to Euro-Americans. Results and implications for further research are discussed.

  19. Which biotech foods are most acceptable to the public?

    PubMed

    Lusk, Jayson L; McFadden, Brandon R; Rickard, Bradley J

    2015-01-01

    New discoveries are prompting questions about which types of genetically engineered foods and applications are likely to be most accepted by the public. Results of a survey of over 1000 US consumers reveals that people prefer eating beef to eating corn or apples if the foods are not genetically engineered, but exactly the opposite is true if the foods are genetically engineered. Eating fresh food is preferred to processed, but much less so if both food types are genetically engineered. Desirability of genetic engineering depends on the reason for the biotechnology application. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Lead in food and food containers

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, A.O.

    1994-04-01

    We investigated food and food containers suspected of containing high levels of lead. Food containers investigated were bought in Northern California and were linked to several cases of lead poisoning in children and adults. Coffee mugs and Mexican pottery were leached with acetic and citric acid, respectively. The amount of lead leached from the lip and rim area of eleven coffee mugs ranged from non detectable to 79 ppm. Lead leached from Mexican potteries ranged from non detectable to 584 ppm of lead. Although there are no regulations pertaining to the amount of lead in the lip and rim area of ceramic ware, under California proposition 65 vendors are required to warn consumers of the presence of toxic materials in consumer products. Foods analyzed for lead content were candy and beans. A sample of tamarindo candy taken from the center of its storage container, a mexican clay pot, was found to contain 1.0 ppm of lead, while the candy in contact with the glaze contained 16 ppm of lead. Beans cooked in Mexican clay cooking pots contained lead ranging from 2.8 to 9.2 ppm. Two-thirds of the food containers investigated and the food analyzed did not meet the provisional Total Tolerable Daily Intake level let by the U.S. FDA, assuming a reasonable amount of liquid and food was ingested.

  1. Differentiating food allergies from food intolerances.

    PubMed

    Guandalini, Stefano; Newland, Catherine

    2011-10-01

    Adverse reactions to foods are extremely common, and generally they are attributed to allergy. However, clinical manifestations of various degrees of severity related to ingestion of foods can arise as a result of a number of disorders, only some of which can be defined as allergic, implying an immune mechanism. Recent epidemiological data in North America showed that the prevalence of food allergy in children has increased. The most common food allergens in the United States include egg, milk, peanut, tree nuts, wheat, crustacean shellfish, and soy. This review examines the various forms of food intolerances (immunoglobulin E [IgE] and non-IgE mediated), including celiac disease and gluten sensitivity. Immune mediated reactions can be either IgE mediated or non-IgE mediated. Among the first group, Immediate GI hypersensitivity and oral allergy syndrome are the best described. Often, but not always, IgE-mediated food allergies are entities such as eosinophilic esophagitis and eosinophilic gastroenteropathy. Non IgE-mediated immune mediated food reactions include celiac disease and gluten sensitivity, two increasingly recognized disorders. Finally, non-immune mediated reactions encompass different categories such as disorders of digestion and absorption, inborn errors of metabolism, as well as pharmacological and toxic reactions.

  2. Spectroscopic study of food and food toxins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Gavin; Walsh, James E.; Martin, Suzanne

    2003-03-01

    Fungal infection of food causes billions of dollars of lost revenue per annum as well as health problems, to animals and humans, if consumed in sufficient quantities. Modern food sorting techniques rely on colour or other physical characteristics to filter diseased or otherwise unsuitable foodstuffs from healthy foodstuffs. Their speeds are such that up to 40,000 objects per second can be moved at 4 metres per second, through 1 m wide chutes that offer a wide view for colour and shape sorting. Grain type foods such as coffee or peanuts are often vulnerable to toxic infection from invading fungi. If this happens, then their texture, taste and colour can change. Up to now, only visible wavelengths and colour identification have been used to bulk-sort food, but there has been little research in the ultra violet regions of the spectrum to help identify fungus or toxin infection. This research specifically concentrated on the ultra violet (UV) spectral characteristics of food in an attempt to identify possible spectral changes that occur when healthy food items like peanuts become infected with toxin-producing fungi. Ultimately, the goal is to design, build and construct an optical detection system that can use these 'spectral fingerprints' to more quickly and efficiently detect toxically infected food items.

  3. How Are Preferences Revealed?

    PubMed Central

    Beshears, John; Choi, James J.; Laibson, David; Madrian, Brigitte C.

    2009-01-01

    Revealed preferences are tastes that rationalize an economic agent’s observed actions. Normative preferences represent the agent’s actual interests. It sometimes makes sense to assume that revealed preferences are identical to normative preferences. But there are many cases where this assumption is violated. We identify five factors that increase the likelihood of a disparity between revealed preferences and normative preferences: passive choice, complexity, limited personal experience, third-party marketing, and intertemporal choice. We then discuss six approaches that jointly contribute to the identification of normative preferences: structural estimation, active decisions, asymptotic choice, aggregated revealed preferences, reported preferences, and informed preferences. Each of these approaches uses consumer behavior to infer some property of normative preferences without equating revealed and normative preferences. We illustrate these issues with evidence from savings and investment outcomes. PMID:24761048

  4. School Food Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pateman, Beth Collins; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The School Health Policies and Programs Study includes assessment of school food service at the state, district, and school levels. Questionnaire data indicate that the infrastructure to support school food service programs is well established at all levels, with few questioning the role of food service in child health. (SM)

  5. Personal Food System Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilsey, David; Dover, Sally

    2014-01-01

    Personal food system mapping is a practical means to engage community participants and educators in individualized and shared learning about food systems, decisions, and behaviors. Moreover, it is a useful approach for introducing the food system concept, which is somewhat abstract. We developed the approach to capture diversity of personal food…

  6. Growing Youth Food Citizens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Wynne; Nault, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    How can youth be educated and empowered to become responsible food citizens? Evidence from a university-community partnership with youth in Michigan is presented to illuminate participatory approaches to youth engagement in food systems. We found that youth have valuable knowledge to enhance our understanding of food environments. At the same…

  7. Soy Foods and Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can I Help Someone Who's Being Bullied? Volunteering Soy Foods and Health KidsHealth > For Teens > Soy Foods and Health Print A A A en español ... What Is Soy? You may have heard about soy foods in the news, including claims that soy prevents ...

  8. Addressing Food Allergies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVoe, Jeanne Jackson

    2008-01-01

    Since 1960, the incidence of food allergies in children has grown fivefold, from 1 in 100 children to 1 in 20 children, according to the Food Allergy Initiative. Food allergies cause anaphylactic shock, the most severe type of allergic reaction, which can lead to death within minutes if left untreated. While there are no standard guidelines from…

  9. SAFE HANDLING OF FOODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial food-borne illnesses pose a significant health problem in Japan. In 1996 the world's largest outbreak of Escherichia coli food illness occurred in Japan. Since then, new regulatory measures were established, including strict hygiene practices in meat and food processi...

  10. Food processing in action

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Radio frequency (RF) heating is a commonly used food processing technology that has been applied for drying and baking as well as thawing of frozen foods. Its use in pasteurization, as well as for sterilization and disinfection of foods, is more limited. This column will review various RF heating ap...

  11. The Biology of Food

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonner, J. Jose

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses "The Biology of Food" course. This course--a large lecture course with no laboratory section--is a mixture of kitchen chemistry, post-eating food metabolism, origins of different foods (from crop breeding to evolution), and ecological and environmental impacts of farming and harvesting practices. Nearly every…

  12. Food composition databases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Food composition is the determination of what is in the foods we eat and is the critical bridge between nutrition, health promotion and disease prevention and food production. Compilation of data into useable databases is essential to the development of dietary guidance for individuals and populat...

  13. Allergenicity of processed food.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Food allergies have become a major public health issue in many countries. In the U.S. it is estimated that approximately 150 individuals die each year from accidental ingestion of an allergic food. As a result, the federal government recently passed the food allergen labeling law which went into ef...

  14. ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF FOODS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Foods, especially liquid foods, conduct electricity. Unlike in metals, the charge carriers in foods are ions, instead of electrons. Under normal applications, ions carry the charges as the mass of ions moves along the electrical field. The concentration and mobility of ions determine the electrical ...

  15. Food To You!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearing, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Outlines an activity which requires students to monitor what they eat for 3-5 days, tabulate the nature and quantity of their food, trace the food's ingredients to their source, calculate the ecological footprint of their food intake, and extrapolate the effect on the earth if everyone ate as we do. (AIM)

  16. Metabolomics in food science.

    PubMed

    Cevallos-Cevallos, Juan Manuel; Reyes-De-Corcuera, José Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    Metabolomics, the newest member of the omics techniques, has become an important tool in agriculture, pharmacy, and environmental sciences. Advances in compound extraction, separation, detection, identification, and data analysis have allowed metabolomics applications in food sciences including food processing, quality, and safety. This chapter discusses recent advances and applications of metabolomics in food science. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. FOOD RISK ANALYSIS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Food risk analysis is a holistic approach to food safety because it considers all aspects of the problem. Risk assessment modeling is the foundation of food risk analysis. Proper design and simulation of the risk assessment model is important to properly predict and control risk. Because of knowl...

  18. Food allergy: current concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Fries, J.H.

    1981-05-01

    This commentary focuses on the author's concerns with various aspects of food allergy. Strict criteria should be applied to the definition of food allergy and its diagnostic techniques. Industrial inhalational exposures, food contaminations and cross-sensitization all are important influences which demand studious attention.

  19. Restaurant food cooling practices.

    PubMed

    Brown, Laura Green; Ripley, Danny; Blade, Henry; Reimann, Dave; Everstine, Karen; Nicholas, Dave; Egan, Jessica; Koktavy, Nicole; Quilliam, Daniela N

    2012-12-01

    Improper food cooling practices are a significant cause of foodborne illness, yet little is known about restaurant food cooling practices. This study was conducted to examine food cooling practices in restaurants. Specifically, the study assesses the frequency with which restaurants meet U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommendations aimed at reducing pathogen proliferation during food cooling. Members of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Environmental Health Specialists Network collected data on food cooling practices in 420 restaurants. The data collected indicate that many restaurants are not meeting FDA recommendations concerning cooling. Although most restaurant kitchen managers report that they have formal cooling processes (86%) and provide training to food workers on proper cooling (91%), many managers said that they do not have tested and verified cooling processes (39%), do not monitor time or temperature during cooling processes (41%), or do not calibrate thermometers used for monitoring temperatures (15%). Indeed, 86% of managers reported cooling processes that did not incorporate all FDA-recommended components. Additionally, restaurants do not always follow recommendations concerning specific cooling methods, such as refrigerating cooling food at shallow depths, ventilating cooling food, providing open-air space around the tops and sides of cooling food containers, and refraining from stacking cooling food containers on top of each other. Data from this study could be used by food safety programs and the restaurant industry to target training and intervention efforts concerning cooling practices. These efforts should focus on the most frequent poor cooling practices, as identified by this study.

  20. SAFE HANDLING OF FOODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial food-borne illnesses pose a significant health problem in Japan. In 1996 the world's largest outbreak of Escherichia coli food illness occurred in Japan. Since then, new regulatory measures were established, including strict hygiene practices in meat and food processi...

  1. Personal Food System Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilsey, David; Dover, Sally

    2014-01-01

    Personal food system mapping is a practical means to engage community participants and educators in individualized and shared learning about food systems, decisions, and behaviors. Moreover, it is a useful approach for introducing the food system concept, which is somewhat abstract. We developed the approach to capture diversity of personal food…

  2. Growing Youth Food Citizens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Wynne; Nault, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    How can youth be educated and empowered to become responsible food citizens? Evidence from a university-community partnership with youth in Michigan is presented to illuminate participatory approaches to youth engagement in food systems. We found that youth have valuable knowledge to enhance our understanding of food environments. At the same…

  3. Food To You!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearing, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Outlines an activity which requires students to monitor what they eat for 3-5 days, tabulate the nature and quantity of their food, trace the food's ingredients to their source, calculate the ecological footprint of their food intake, and extrapolate the effect on the earth if everyone ate as we do. (AIM)

  4. Food-Processing Wastes.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Val S; Cummings, Gregg A; Maillacheruvu, K Y; Tang, Walter Z

    2016-10-01

    Literature published in 2015 and early 2016 related to food processing wastes treatment for industrial applications are reviewed. This review is a subsection of the Treatment Systems section of the annual Water Environment Federation literature review and covers the following food processing industries and applications: general, meat and poultry, fruits and vegetables, dairy and beverage, and miscellaneous treatment of food wastes.

  5. Addressing Food Allergies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVoe, Jeanne Jackson

    2008-01-01

    Since 1960, the incidence of food allergies in children has grown fivefold, from 1 in 100 children to 1 in 20 children, according to the Food Allergy Initiative. Food allergies cause anaphylactic shock, the most severe type of allergic reaction, which can lead to death within minutes if left untreated. While there are no standard guidelines from…

  6. Food Stamps and Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkson, Kenneth W.

    The economics of food stamps - the America's major food assistance program is investigated in order to answer the following questions: (1) whether malnutrition be solved by food supplements or cash allowances; (2) what the benefits to recipients are; (3) whether eligibility requirements permit participation by the needy and exclude higher income…

  7. COMMERCIAL FOODS, MATHEMATICS - I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DORNFIELD, BLANCHE E.

    THE UNDERSTANDING AND MASTERY OF FUNDAMENTAL MATHEMATICS IS A NECESSARY PART OF COMMERCIAL FOODS WORK. THIS STUDENT HANDBOOK WAS DESIGNED TO ACCOMPANY A COMMERCIAL FOODS COURSE AT THE HIGH SCHOOL LEVEL FOR STUDENTS WITH APPROPRIATE APTITUDES AND COMMERCIAL FOOD SERVICE GOALS. THE MATERIAL, TESTED IN VARIOUS INTERESTED CLASSROOMS, WAS PREPARED BY…

  8. The Biology of Food

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonner, J. Jose

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses "The Biology of Food" course. This course--a large lecture course with no laboratory section--is a mixture of kitchen chemistry, post-eating food metabolism, origins of different foods (from crop breeding to evolution), and ecological and environmental impacts of farming and harvesting practices. Nearly every…

  9. Anaphylaxis to food.

    PubMed

    Fishbein, Anna B; Makhija, Melanie M; Pongracic, Jacqueline A

    2015-05-01

    This article provides a clinically focused review of food-induced anaphylaxis that includes epidemiology, risk factors, allergens, diagnosis, and management. Currently, there is no treatment for food allergy. Dietary avoidance and emergency preparedness are the cornerstones of management. Effective and safe therapies to reduce the risk of serious food-induced reactions are urgently needed, as are reliable biomarkers to predict severity.

  10. Food and Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA sets limits on how much of a pesticide may be used on food during growing and processing, and how much can remain on the food you buy. Learn about regulation of pesticides on food and how you can limit exposure.

  11. Food Rights Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This booklet, which describes federal food assistance programs, is designed to help large families, families on small budgets, and elderly people on fixed incomes get more food for less money. The book is divided into four chapters: Kids, Women and Children, Families, and Senior Citizens. Each chapter describes in detail the food assistance…

  12. Homeless "squeegee kids": food insecurity and daily survival.

    PubMed

    Dachner, Naomi; Tarasuk, Valerie

    2002-04-01

    Current knowledge about food insecurity in North America is largely based on research with low-income households. Much less is known about the food experiences of homeless people, a group who are particularly vulnerable to food insecurity. This study explored the food experiences of street youth, one of the fastest growing segments of the homeless population in Canada. To gain an in-depth understanding of food insecurity within the context of daily life, ethnographic research was undertaken with street youth at one inner-city drop-in centre in Toronto, Canada. Results of this study reveal that street youth's access to food was precarious amidst the instability and chaos of street life. The day-to-day lives of the street youth encountered in this study were characterized by a constant struggle to find safe, secure shelter, generate income, and obtain sufficient food. In this context, food was a precious commodity. Food access was inextricably linked to and contingent upon conditions of health, shelter, and income. Food access was precarious since everyday food sources purchased food and charitable food assistance were ultimately insecure. "Squeegeeing" (washing car windows), the primary source of income for youth in the study, was dependent on the weather, political and public will, and youth's physical health, and thus did not generate enough money to continuously meet basic food needs. Charitable food assistance was considered poor quality and was associated with food sickness. The often unsavoury atmosphere of charitable food programmes, their locations, capacity, and idiosyncratic rules, policies, and hours of operation also affected access. Findings from this study extend the current understanding of food insecurity to homeless youth and offer insight into current responses to hunger and homelessness.

  13. Food Signs in Radiology

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Mehboob; Al Damegh, Saleh

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Certain diseases show classic radiological signs that resemble various types of food items like fruits, meat, vegetables, eggs, bakery, grocery and confectionary items. In this article various food signs are discussed and correlated with the various food items in a pictorial way. The objective of this pictorial essay is to provide the information and learn the characteristic radiological signs resembling various food items. These food signs are easy to recognize and allows a confident diagnosis on the basis of imaging findings alone or can narrow down the differential diagnosis. PMID:21475464

  14. Reframing convenience food.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Peter; Viehoff, Valerie

    2016-03-01

    This paper provides a critical review of recent research on the consumption of 'convenience' food, highlighting the contested nature of the term and exploring its implications for public health and environmental sustainability. It distinguishes between convenience food in general and particular types of convenience food, such as ready-meals, tracing the structure and growth of the market for such foods with a particular emphasis on the UK which currently has the highest rate of ready-meal consumption in Europe. Having established the definitional complexities of the term, the paper presents the evidence from a systematic review of the literature, highlighting the significance of convenience food in time-saving and time-shifting, the importance of recent changes in domestic labour and family life, and the way the consumption of convenience food is frequently moralized. The paper shows how current debates about convenience food are part of a longer discursive history about food, health and nutrition. It discusses current levels of public understanding about the links between convenience food, environmental sustainability and food waste. The paper concludes by making a case for understanding the consumption of convenience food in terms of everyday social practices, emphasising its habitual and routine character.

  15. Food Protection Has Many Facets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Bailus, Jr.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Developments in food protection are described for microbiological contaminants, delicatessen foods, seafoods, mycotoxins, food additives, and regulatory surveillance. Proposed and advocated is a cooperative, basic data, monitoring program focusing on microbiological, chemical, nutritional, toxicological, and related food quality indices. (BL)

  16. Go, Slow, and Whoa Foods

    MedlinePlus

    ... quick tips for seasonal health, safety and fun Go, Slow, and Whoa Foods Past Issues / Summer 2007 ... of California and Flaghouse, Inc. 2002 Food Group GO Almost anytime foods SLOW Sometimes foods WHOA Once ...

  17. Food Protection Has Many Facets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Bailus, Jr.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Developments in food protection are described for microbiological contaminants, delicatessen foods, seafoods, mycotoxins, food additives, and regulatory surveillance. Proposed and advocated is a cooperative, basic data, monitoring program focusing on microbiological, chemical, nutritional, toxicological, and related food quality indices. (BL)

  18. Safe food manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, A; Mercier, C

    1994-03-31

    Food safety is a growing preoccupation of the health authorities and the major food companies in any European country. All the aspects of food manufacturing, from the raw materials until the product is consumed have to insure they are innoxious to human health, eliminate any harmful effects related either to food handling or consumption in domestic or common eating places, as well as protect, as much as possible, our environment. Thus, the food manufacturer has to examine step-by-step the security of the agro-cultures, their composition, but also the possible residues of pollutants and contaminants, or chemicals used to protect them against various pests and determine the possible loss or retention of these substances during technological processes. Animal raw materials should not contain veterinary drug residues or an abnormal amount of some components that result from inadequate feeding. Care should be taken to ensure the security of foods manufactured by biotechnology processes. The organisms and the whole processes used in food biotechnologies should eliminate any impurities. Any minor food ingredients, such as food additives, are under a permanent revision from the point of view of their safety. The industry reacts immediately if any justification requires that a particular food additive should not be used. In other words all the raw materials must conform to their specifications. Technological processes must create a food with an adequate microbiological quality, e.g. free of pathogens and their toxic metabolites. Any danger of microbiological contamination or accidental pollution, such as mechanical particles, chemical substances, etc. should be eliminated. The particular role of food packaging is crucial, since this is a barrier to protect the food against further parasites or microbial contamination and preserve the food from alterations due to enzymatic reactions that require particular oxygen and water activity conditions. The packaging should also

  19. Effect of pregnancy on food consumption and consciousness factors associated with food satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Lim, S W; Chun, J K; Cho, W I

    2008-01-01

    To examine the effect of pregnancy on food consumption, we surveyed the recall of past experience of two groups of women, those who had been pregnant (PY, n=188) and those who never had (PN, n=111), regarding their food consumption and related dietary behaviors. The questionnaire, answered with regard to potato chips, contained 135 objective components expressing sensorial stimuli and 103 subjective consciousness components, including knowledge, education, faith, memory, experience, lifestyle, family values, imagination, and mental state. In the PY group, 86% of the women change in food consumption and preference during pregnancy, and 60% experienced decreased food consumption during emesis gravidarum (EG). The change in food consumption during and after periods of EG was influenced by the number of previous births for the women in the PY group; in women pregnant for a second or third time, the change in food intake was less than during the previous pregnancy. The difference in food satisfaction with regard to potato chips between the PY and PN groups showed that overall food satisfaction could not be explained by a combination of objective sensorial components; the only objective components that were directly related to overall satisfaction were taste and texture. Multidimensional analysis with strength of sensorial stimulus, preference, and overall satisfaction revealed differences in patterns between the PN and PY groups. The effect of the consciousness components on food preference and satisfaction was comparable to that of the sensorial components.

  20. Approaches of the German food industry for addressing the issue of food losses.

    PubMed

    Richter, Beate; Bokelmann, Wolfgang

    2016-02-01

    In the food industry the subject of food losses is of great importance due to economic balance and an efficient application of resources as well as the development of an efficient food chain system. This paper presents the explorative results of a quantitative survey of leading companies of the German food industry to evaluate the relevance and handling of this issue. The investigation reveals that the topic food losses have a high significance in the food industry which will probably increase in future. A sample breakdown by branches indicates that the issue has the highest relevance for companies in the confectionery industry. These companies as well as those in the meat and fish industry want to consider the subject prospectively more powerful in their companies. Across the food industry, there is no communication to consumers of the efforts concerning food losses. And companies in the confectionery industry and in the fruit and vegetable industry rather want to engage more powerful in this topic if consumers' interest increases. But in order to minimize food losses at all stages along the supply chain, communication and collaboration at all stages is essential, especially the communication to consumers. Thus, it has to be verified whether a suitable communication can lead to advantages in competition and become an important issue for companies to differentiate from competitors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. What does the food handler in the home know about salmonellosis and food safety?

    PubMed

    Gauci, Charmaine; Gauci, Andrew Amato

    2005-05-01

    Food-borne illness causes a significant burden of disease globally. The majority of confirmed cases of food-borne illness in Malta are caused by salmonellosis. Detailed case investigations by the Disease Surveillance Unit, Malta, revealed that most of the notified cases of infectious intestinal disease are most likely to be due to poor food safety practices in the home. Consumer awareness studies have shown that, in general, consumers are aware of the recommended food safety precautions, yet still adopt high-risk behaviours. Three focus groups and a small case control group were formed to gather information on local consumer knowledge and attitudes towards safe food handling in the home. The responses from the three focus groups were analysed and grouped into general themes. The information obtained from these results was then used to plan a local food safety health promotion strategy. The results show that individuals who had been exposed to salmonellosis, or who had a dependant who had been exposed, had developed a higher level of food safety knowledge and awareness. Variations between knowledge and self-reported practices make it apparent that persons have to be convinced that food safety measures are effective before they take action to change their behaviour. In conclusion, consumer education strategies need to emphasise the burden of illness, making safe food handling meaningful to consumers. Continuous reinforcement of the messages may be effective in empowering the consumer to foster behaviour change.

  2. Processing- and product-related causes for food waste and implications for the food supply chain.

    PubMed

    Raak, Norbert; Symmank, Claudia; Zahn, Susann; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Rohm, Harald

    2017-03-01

    Reducing food waste is one of the prominent goals in the current research, which has also been set by the United Nations to achieve a more sustainable world by 2030. Given that previous studies mainly examined causes for food waste generation related to consumers, e.g., expectations regarding quality or uncertainties about edibility, this review aims at providing an overview on losses in the food industry, as well as on natural mechanisms by which impeccable food items are converted into an undesired state. For this, scientific literature was reviewed based on a keyword search, and information not covered was gathered by conducting expert interviews with representatives from 13 German food processing companies. From the available literature, three main areas of food waste generation were identified and discussed: product deterioration and spoilage during logistical operations, by-products from food processing, and consumer perception of quality and safety. In addition, expert interviews revealed causes for food waste in the processing sector, which were categorised as follows: losses resulting from processing operations and quality assurance, and products not fulfilling quality demands from trade. The interviewees explained a number of strategies to minimise food losses, starting with alternative tradeways for second choice items, and ending with emergency power supplies to compensate for power blackouts. It became clear that the concepts are not universally applicable for each company, but the overview provided in the present study may support researchers in finding appropriate solutions for individual cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Kindergarten food familiarization. An exploratory study of teachers' perspectives on food and nutrition in kindergartens.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Meghan

    2015-04-01

    This exploratory study employed a netnographic approach (netnography being a research methodology that adopts the practices of ethnography in an Internet-based setting) to reveal opportunities for kindergarten food familiarization. The study analyses kindergarten teachers' discussions on seven Internet message boards regarding the various food and nutrition experiences in their classes. Semi-structured interviews were then conducted with seven kindergarten teachers to explore further the message board findings. Five opportunities for how food familiarization occurs in kindergartens emerged from the analysis. These opportunities were categorized as being either "overt": (1) nutrition lessons, (2) snack times, (3) cooking experiences, or "covert" (4) food as teaching materials, and (5) dramatic play centres. Overt refers to any opportunity centred on food, healthy eating, or nutrition, whereas covert refers to opportunities where food was involved but in a non-exclusive manner. The five opportunities are examined and discussed in terms of their implications for children's food preference development. Results should be useful for future researchers for two main reasons. First, the results demonstrate the wide variety of food and nutrition experiences kindergarten students encounter throughout the day, beyond healthy eating interventions or foods served during meals. And second, because the findings are preliminary they require further research using various methods of data collection and samples of teachers.

  4. FoodQuest for Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Linda C.

    2000-01-01

    Explains the WebQuest framework developed to help students investigate the topic of nutrition. Highlights include food labels; the Food Guide Pyramid; three levels of inquiry related to nutrition and ingredients in foods; how food choices affect health; historical background of food and food companies; and online grocery shopping. (LRW)

  5. FoodQuest for Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Linda C.

    2000-01-01

    Explains the WebQuest framework developed to help students investigate the topic of nutrition. Highlights include food labels; the Food Guide Pyramid; three levels of inquiry related to nutrition and ingredients in foods; how food choices affect health; historical background of food and food companies; and online grocery shopping. (LRW)

  6. Tempting foods and the affordability axiom: Food cues change beliefs about the costs of healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Hill, Sarah E; Baskett, Kaily; Bradshaw, Hannah K; Prokosch, Marjorie L; DelPriore, Danielle J; Rodeheffer, Christopher D

    2016-12-01

    Many consumers report that healthy eating is more expensive than unhealthy eating (the affordability axiom). We hypothesize that endorsement of this belief may be driven by the motivation to eat unhealthy foods. We tested this hypothesis in three studies. Study 1 revealed that the affordability axiom is associated with poorer eating habits and higher Body Mass Index (BMI). Study 2 found that the presence of a tasty food cue in the environment increased endorsement of affordability axiom. Study 3 found that these effects were moderated by one's food intake goals. Food cues led non-dieters to increase endorsement of the affordability axiom, but had the opposite effect among those seeking to restrict their calorie intake. The affordability axiom might persist as a means of validating unhealthy food choices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dioxin in the agricultural food chain

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, J.B.; Gerbec, E.N.

    1988-09-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin's (PCDD) behavior in the agricultural food chain was modeled in this study. The source of PCDD was a municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator. Of the farm livestock investigated only the beef cow and the milk cow were shown to contribute significant amounts of PCDD to humans. Milk was the single highest dietary source of PCDD. Comparison of the calculated human dose of PCDD from the agricultural food chain with an estimate human PCDD dose from inhalation of contaminated air revealed that the agricultural food chain could be responsible for a vast majority of the dose to an individual impacted by these facilities. Thus, these data suggest that operating MSW facilities in agricultural areas may result in enhanced PCDD exposure to individuals via the agricultural food chain. The data also suggest that milk and beef may be good sentinels to evaluate environmental impacts of these facilities.

  8. Food irradiation and sterilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josephson, Edward S.

    Radiation sterilization of food (radappertization) requires exposing food in sealed containers to ionizing radiation at absorbed doses high enough (25-70 kGy) to kill all organisms of food spoilage and public health significance. Radappertization is analogous to thermal canning is achieving shelf stability (long term storage without refrigeration). Except for dry products in which autolysis is negligible, the radappertization process also requires that the food be heated to an internal temperature of 70-80°C (bacon to 53°C) to inactivate autolytic enzymes which catalyze spoilage during storage without refrigeration. To minimize the occurence of irradiation induced off-flavors and odors, undesirable color changes, and textural and nutritional losses from exposure to the high doses required for radappertization, the foods are vacuum sealed and irradiated frozen (-40°C to -20°C). Radappertozed foods have the characteristic of fresh foods prepared for eating. Radappertization can substitute in whole or in part for some chemical food additives such as ethylene oxide and nitrites which are either toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic. After 27 years of testing for "wholesomeness" (safety for consumption) of radappertized foods, no confirmed evidence has been obtained of any adverse effecys of radappertization on the "wholesomeness" characteristics of these foods.

  9. Mood, food, and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Minati

    2014-01-01

    Food is a potent natural reward and food intake is a complex process. Reward and gratification associated with food consumption leads to dopamine (DA) production, which in turn activates reward and pleasure centers in the brain. An individual will repeatedly eat a particular food to experience this positive feeling of gratification. This type of repetitive behavior of food intake leads to the activation of brain reward pathways that eventually overrides other signals of satiety and hunger. Thus, a gratification habit through a favorable food leads to overeating and morbid obesity. Overeating and obesity stems from many biological factors engaging both central and peripheral systems in a bi-directional manner involving mood and emotions. Emotional eating and altered mood can also lead to altered food choice and intake leading to overeating and obesity. Research findings from human and animal studies support a two-way link between three concepts, mood, food, and obesity. The focus of this article is to provide an overview of complex nature of food intake where various biological factors link mood, food intake, and brain signaling that engages both peripheral and central nervous system signaling pathways in a bi-directional manner in obesity. PMID:25225489

  10. Virus transmission via food.

    PubMed

    Cliver, D O

    1997-01-01

    Viruses are transmitted to humans via foods as a result of direct or indirect contamination of the foods with human faeces. Viruses transmitted by a faecal-oral route are not strongly dependent on foods as vehicles of transmission, but viruses are important among agents of foodborne disease. Vehicles are most often molluscs from contaminated waters, but many other foods are contaminated directly by infected persons. The viruses most often foodborne are the hepatitis A virus and the Norwalk-like gastroenteritis viruses. Detection methods for these viruses in foods are very difficult and costly; the methods are not routine. Indicators that would rapidly and reliably suggest the presence of viral contamination of foods are still being sought. Contamination can be prevented by keeping faeces out of food or by treating vehicles such as water in order to inactivate virus that might be carried to food in this way. Virus cannot multiply in food, but can usually be inactivated by adequate heating. Other methods of inactivating viruses within a food are relatively unreliable, but viruses in water and on exposed surfaces can be inactivated with ultraviolet light or with strong oxidizing agents.

  11. Radioactivity and foods

    SciTech Connect

    Olszyna-Marzys, A.E. )

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe and contrast two relationships between radiation and food--on the one hand, beneficial preservation of food by controlled exposure to ionizing radiation; and, on the other, contamination of food by accidental incorporation of radioactive nuclides within the food itself. In food irradiation, electrons or electromagnetic radiation is used to destroy microorganisms and insects or prevent seed germination. The economic advantages and health benefits of sterilizing food in this manner are clear, and numerous studies have confirmed that under strictly controlled conditions no undersirable changes or induced radioactivity is produced in the irradiated food. An altogether different situation is presented by exposure of food animals and farming areas to radioactive materials, as occurred after the major Soviet nuclear reactor accident at Chenobyl. This article furnishes the basic information needed to understand the nature of food contamination associated with that event and describes the work of international organizations seeking to establish appropriate safe limits for levels of radioactivity in foods.

  12. Mood, food, and obesity.

    PubMed

    Singh, Minati

    2014-01-01

    Food is a potent natural reward and food intake is a complex process. Reward and gratification associated with food consumption leads to dopamine (DA) production, which in turn activates reward and pleasure centers in the brain. An individual will repeatedly eat a particular food to experience this positive feeling of gratification. This type of repetitive behavior of food intake leads to the activation of brain reward pathways that eventually overrides other signals of satiety and hunger. Thus, a gratification habit through a favorable food leads to overeating and morbid obesity. Overeating and obesity stems from many biological factors engaging both central and peripheral systems in a bi-directional manner involving mood and emotions. Emotional eating and altered mood can also lead to altered food choice and intake leading to overeating and obesity. Research findings from human and animal studies support a two-way link between three concepts, mood, food, and obesity. The focus of this article is to provide an overview of complex nature of food intake where various biological factors link mood, food intake, and brain signaling that engages both peripheral and central nervous system signaling pathways in a bi-directional manner in obesity.

  13. Effect of TV food advertising restriction on food environment for children in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youngmi; Yoon, Jihyun; Chung, Sang-Jin; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Kim, Hyogyoo; Kim, Soyoung

    2013-11-12

    This study attempted to determine the effects of restrictions on television (TV) food advertising on children's food environments in South Korea. It examined changes that occurred in the marketing mix of food companies following enactment of those restrictions. An on-line survey was conducted with marketers or R&D managers of 108 food companies. A questionnaire was used to inquire about changes that occurred in Product, Place, Price and Promotion as a result of the restrictions placed on TV food advertising. Analysis was performed on the data collected from the responding 63 food companies (58.3%). The results of their answers showed that among the four marketing mix components the restrictions exerted relatively stronger effects on Product. Effects were stronger on companies that produced foods within the product categories of Energy-Dense and Nutrient-Poor foods (EDNP companies) in comparison with companies that did not (non-EDNP companies). The restrictions exerted positive effects on EDNP companies with respect to compliance with labeling requirements and reinforcement of nutritional contents examination, as well as changes to products such as reducing unhealthy ingredients and fortifying nutrients. Overall, the results revealed the possibility that restrictions on TV food advertising could improve children's food environments by encouraging EDNP companies to make favorable product changes. On the one hand, the results also found that some food companies attempted to bypass the regulations by changing marketing channels from TV to others and by reducing product serving sizes. Thus, future measures should be implemented to prevent food companies from bypassing regulations and to control children's exposure to marketing channels other than TV.

  14. Effect of TV food advertising restriction on food environment for children in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youngmi; Yoon, Jihyun; Chung, Sang-Jin; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Kim, Hyogyoo; Kim, Soyoung

    2017-02-01

    This study attempted to determine the effects of restrictions on television (TV) food advertising on children's food environments in South Korea. It examined changes that occurred in the marketing mix of food companies following enactment of those restrictions. An on-line survey was conducted with marketers or R&D managers of 108 food companies. A questionnaire was used to inquire about changes that occurred in Product, Place, Price and Promotion as a result of the restrictions placed on TV food advertising. Analysis was performed on the data collected from the responding 63 food companies (58.3%). The results of their answers showed that among the four marketing mix components the restrictions exerted relatively stronger effects on Product. Effects were stronger on companies that produced foods within the product categories of Energy-Dense and Nutrient-Poor foods (EDNP companies) in comparison with companies that did not (non-EDNP companies). The restrictions exerted positive effects on EDNP companies with respect to compliance with labeling requirements and reinforcement of nutritional contents examination, as well as changes to products such as reducing unhealthy ingredients and fortifying nutrients. Overall, the results revealed the possibility that restrictions on TV food advertising could improve children's food environments by encouraging EDNP companies to make favorable product changes. On the one hand, the results also found that some food companies attempted to bypass the regulations by changing marketing channels from TV to others and by reducing product serving sizes. Thus, future measures should be implemented to prevent food companies from bypassing regulations and to control children's exposure to marketing channels other than TV.

  15. Food-drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Lars E; Dalhoff, Kim

    2002-01-01

    Interactions between food and drugs may inadvertently reduce or increase the drug effect. The majority of clinically relevant food-drug interactions are caused by food-induced changes in the bioavailability of the drug. Since the bioavailability and clinical effect of most drugs are correlated, the bioavailability is an important pharmacokinetic effect parameter. However, in order to evaluate the clinical relevance of a food-drug interaction, the impact of food intake on the clinical effect of the drug has to be quantified as well. As a result of quality review in healthcare systems, healthcare providers are increasingly required to develop methods for identifying and preventing adverse food-drug interactions. In this review of original literature, we have tried to provide both pharmacokinetic and clinical effect parameters of clinically relevant food-drug interactions. The most important interactions are those associated with a high risk of treatment failure arising from a significantly reduced bioavailability in the fed state. Such interactions are frequently caused by chelation with components in food (as occurs with alendronic acid, clodronic acid, didanosine, etidronic acid, penicillamine and tetracycline) or dairy products (ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin), or by other direct interactions between the drug and certain food components (avitriptan, indinavir, itraconazole solution, levodopa, melphalan, mercaptopurine and perindopril). In addition, the physiological response to food intake, in particular gastric acid secretion, may reduce the bioavailability of certain drugs (ampicillin, azithromycin capsules, didanosine, erythromycin stearate or enteric coated, and isoniazid). For other drugs, concomitant food intake may result in an increase in drug bioavailability either because of a food-induced increase in drug solubility (albendazole, atovaquone, griseofulvin, isotretinoin, lovastatin, mefloquine, saquinavir and tacrolimus) or because of the secretion of

  16. Consumer response: the paradoxes of food and health.

    PubMed

    Biltekoff, Charlotte

    2010-03-01

    The papers in the session "Food Culture and Consumer Response," show how important people's values, beliefs, aspirations and social context are to their dietary health. They also reveal several tensions that shape consumer responses to healthy food. This essay discusses the paradoxical nature of eating habits in general, and describes three paradoxes related specifically to the challenges of providing food for health in the 21st century: pleasure/health, technology/nature, innovation/nostalgia.

  17. Ensuring Food Security Through Enhancing Microbiological Food Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikš-Krajnik, Marta; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun; Kumar, Amit; Yang, Yishan; Zheng, Qianwang; Kim, Min-Jeong; Ghate, Vinayak; Yuan, Wenqian; Pang, Xinyi

    2015-10-01

    Food safety and food security are interrelated concepts with a profound impact on the quality of human life. Food security describes the overall availability of food at different levels from global to individual household. While, food safety focuses on handling, preparation and storage of foods in order to prevent foodborne illnesses. This review focuses on innovative thermal and non-thermal technologies in the area of food processing as the means to ensure food security through improving food safety with emphasis on the reduction and control of microbiological risks. The antimicrobial efficiency and mechanism of new technologies to extend the shelf life of food product were also discussed.

  18. Food Label Accuracy of Common Snack Foods

    PubMed Central

    Jumpertz, Reiner; Venti, Colleen A; Le, Duc Son; Michaels, Jennifer; Parrington, Shannon; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Nutrition labels have raised awareness of the energetic value of foods, and represent for many a pivotal guideline to regulate food intake. However, recent data have created doubts on label accuracy. Therefore we tested label accuracy for energy and macronutrient content of prepackaged energy-dense snack food products. We measured “true” caloric content of 24 popular snack food products in the U.S. and determined macronutrient content in 10 selected items. Bomb calorimetry and food factors were used to estimate energy content. Macronutrient content was determined according to Official Methods of Analysis. Calorimetric measurements were performed in our metabolic laboratory between April 20th and May 18th and macronutrient content was measured between September 28th and October 7th of 2010. Serving size, by weight, exceeded label statements by 1.2% [median] (25th percentile −1.4, 75th percentile 4.3, p=0.10). When differences in serving size were accounted for, metabolizable calories were 6.8 kcal (0.5, 23.5, p=0.0003) or 4.3% (0.2, 13.7, p=0.001) higher than the label statement. In a small convenience sample of the tested snack foods, carbohydrate content exceeded label statements by 7.7% (0.8, 16.7, p=0.01); however fat and protein content were not significantly different from label statements (−12.8% [−38.6, 9.6], p=0.23; 6.1% [−6.1, 17.5], p=0.32). Carbohydrate content explained 40% and serving size an additional 55% of the excess calories. Among a convenience sample of energy-dense snack foods, caloric content is higher than stated on the nutrition labels, but overall well within FDA limits. This discrepancy may be explained by inaccurate carbohydrate content and serving size. PMID:23505182

  19. Food label accuracy of common snack foods.

    PubMed

    Jumpertz, Reiner; Venti, Colleen A; Le, Duc Son; Michaels, Jennifer; Parrington, Shannon; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Nutrition labels have raised awareness of the energetic value of foods, and represent for many a pivotal guideline to regulate food intake. However, recent data have created doubts on label accuracy. We tested label accuracy for energy and macronutrient content of prepackaged energy-dense snack food products. We measured "true" caloric content of 24 popular snack food products in the U.S. and determined macronutrient content in 10 selected items. Bomb calorimetry and food factors were used to estimate energy content. Macronutrient content was determined according to Official Methods of Analysis. Calorimetric measurements were performed in our metabolic laboratory between April 20th and May 18th and macronutrient content was measured between September 28th and October 7th of 2010. Serving size, by weight, exceeded label statements by 1.2% [median] (25th percentile -1.4, 75th percentile 4.3, P = 0.10). When differences in serving size were accounted for, metabolizable calories were 6.8 kcal (0.5, 23.5, P = 0.0003) or 4.3% (0.2, 13.7, P = 0.001) higher than the label statement. In a small convenience sample of the tested snack foods, carbohydrate content exceeded label statements by 7.7% (0.8, 16.7, P = 0.01); however fat and protein content were not significantly different from label statements (-12.8% [-38.6, 9.6], P = 0.23; 6.1% [-6.1, 17.5], P = 0.32). Carbohydrate content explained 40% and serving size an additional 55% of the excess calories. Among a convenience sample of energy-dense snack foods, caloric content is higher than stated on the nutrition labels, but overall well within FDA limits. This discrepancy may be explained by inaccurate carbohydrate content and serving size. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  20. Bacteriocin-based strategies for food biopreservation.

    PubMed

    Gálvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate; López, Rosario Lucas; Ben Omar, Nabil

    2007-11-30

    avoid development of resistant strains. The combination of bacteriocins and physical treatments like high pressure processing or pulsed electric fields also offer good opportunities for more effective preservation of foods, providing an additional barrier to more refractile forms like bacterial endospores as well. The effectiveness of bacteriocins is often dictated by environmental factors like pH, temperature, food composition and structure, as well as the food microbiota. Foods must be considered as complex ecosystems in which microbial interactions may have a great influence on the microbial balance and proliferation of beneficial or harmful bacteria. Recent developments in molecular microbial ecology can help to better understand the global effects of bacteriocins in food ecosystems, and the study of bacterial genomes may reveal new sources of bacteriocins.

  1. Food Web Topology in High Mountain Lakes.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Hernández, Javier; Cobo, Fernando; Amundsen, Per-Arne

    2015-01-01

    Although diversity and limnology of alpine lake systems are well studied, their food web structure and properties have rarely been addressed. Here, the topological food webs of three high mountain lakes in Central Spain were examined. We first addressed the pelagic networks of the lakes, and then we explored how food web topology changed when benthic biota was included to establish complete trophic networks. We conducted a literature search to compare our alpine lacustrine food webs and their structural metrics with those of 18 published lentic webs using a meta-analytic approach. The comparison revealed that the food webs in alpine lakes are relatively simple, in terms of structural network properties (linkage density and connectance), in comparison with lowland lakes, but no great differences were found among pelagic networks. The studied high mountain food webs were dominated by a high proportion of omnivores and species at intermediate trophic levels. Omnivores can exploit resources at multiple trophic levels, and this characteristic might reduce competition among interacting species. Accordingly, the trophic overlap, measured as trophic similarity, was very low in all three systems. Thus, these alpine networks are characterized by many omnivorous consumers with numerous prey species and few consumers with a single or few prey and with low competitive interactions among species. The present study emphasizes the ecological significance of omnivores in high mountain lakes as promoters of network stability and as central players in energy flow pathways via food partitioning and enabling energy mobility among trophic levels.

  2. Food Web Topology in High Mountain Lakes

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Hernández, Javier; Cobo, Fernando; Amundsen, Per-Arne

    2015-01-01

    Although diversity and limnology of alpine lake systems are well studied, their food web structure and properties have rarely been addressed. Here, the topological food webs of three high mountain lakes in Central Spain were examined. We first addressed the pelagic networks of the lakes, and then we explored how food web topology changed when benthic biota was included to establish complete trophic networks. We conducted a literature search to compare our alpine lacustrine food webs and their structural metrics with those of 18 published lentic webs using a meta-analytic approach. The comparison revealed that the food webs in alpine lakes are relatively simple, in terms of structural network properties (linkage density and connectance), in comparison with lowland lakes, but no great differences were found among pelagic networks. The studied high mountain food webs were dominated by a high proportion of omnivores and species at intermediate trophic levels. Omnivores can exploit resources at multiple trophic levels, and this characteristic might reduce competition among interacting species. Accordingly, the trophic overlap, measured as trophic similarity, was very low in all three systems. Thus, these alpine networks are characterized by many omnivorous consumers with numerous prey species and few consumers with a single or few prey and with low competitive interactions among species. The present study emphasizes the ecological significance of omnivores in high mountain lakes as promoters of network stability and as central players in energy flow pathways via food partitioning and enabling energy mobility among trophic levels. PMID:26571235

  3. Early emerging system for reasoning about the social nature of food.

    PubMed

    Liberman, Zoe; Woodward, Amanda L; Sullivan, Kathleen R; Kinzler, Katherine D

    2016-08-23

    Selecting appropriate foods is a complex and evolutionarily ancient problem, yet past studies have revealed little evidence of adaptations present in infancy that support sophisticated reasoning about perceptual properties of food. We propose that humans have an early-emerging system for reasoning about the social nature of food selection. Specifically, infants' reasoning about food choice is tied to their thinking about agents' intentions and social relationships. Whereas infants do not expect people to like the same objects, infants view food preferences as meaningfully shared across individuals. Infants' reasoning about food preferences is fundamentally social: They generalize food preferences across individuals who affiliate, or who speak a common language, but not across individuals who socially disengage or who speak different languages. Importantly, infants' reasoning about food preferences is flexibly calibrated to their own experiences: Tests of bilingual babies reveal that an infant's sociolinguistic background influences whether she will constrain her generalization of food preferences to people who speak the same language. Additionally, infants' systems for reasoning about food is differentially responsive to positive and negative information. Infants generalize information about food disgust across all people, regardless of those people's social identities. Thus, whereas food preferences are seen as embedded within social groups, disgust is interpreted as socially universal, which could help infants avoid potentially dangerous foods. These studies reveal an early-emerging system for thinking about food that incorporates social reasoning about agents and their relationships, and allows infants to make abstract, flexible, adaptive inferences to interpret others' food choices.

  4. Environmental fate of five radio-labeled coal conversion by-products evaluated in a laboratory model ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Po-Yung; Metcalf, Robert L.; Carlson, Elaine M.

    1978-01-01

    Anthracene, fluorene, carbazole, dibenzofuran, and dibenzothiophene are five typical by-products of coal conversion which are likely to be environmental pollutants. These were radiolabeled to high specific activity and purity by simple tritium exchange and evaluated for environmental fate in laboratory model ecosystems. Anthracene and fluorene were biologically converted to hydroxy and keto analogs. Carbazole was N-methylated and N-acetylated. Dibenzothiophene was microsomally oxidized to the sulfoxide and sulfone. Dibenzofuran was relatively inert to biodegradation. The octanol/water partition coefficient for the parent compounds was well correlated with ecological magnification indicating the possibility of predicting environmental behavior from physicochemical parameters. PMID:17539148

  5. Complementary optical and nuclear imaging of caspase-3 activity using combined activatable and radio-labeled multimodality molecular probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyeran; Akers, Walter J.; Cheney, Philip P.; Edwards, W. Barry; Liang, Kexian; Culver, Joseph P.; Achilefu, Samuel

    2009-07-01

    Based on the capability of modulating fluorescence intensity by specific molecular events, we report a new multimodal optical-nuclear molecular probe with complementary reporting strategies. The molecular probe (LS498) consists of tetraazacyclododecanetetraacetic acid (DOTA) for chelating a radionuclide, a near-infrared fluorescent dye, and an efficient quencher dye. The two dyes are separated by a cleavable peptide substrate for caspase-3, a diagnostic enzyme that is upregulated in dying cells. LS498 is radiolabeled with 64Cu, a radionuclide used in positron emission tomography. In the native form, LS498 fluorescence is quenched until caspase-3 cleavage of the peptide substrate. Enzyme kinetics assay shows that LS498 is readily cleaved by caspase-3, with excellent enzyme kinetic parameters kcat and KM of 0.55+/-0.01 s-1 and 1.12+/-0.06 μM, respectively. In mice, the initial fluorescence of LS498 is ten-fold less than control. Using radiolabeled 64Cu-LS498 in a controlled and localized in-vivo model of caspase-3 activation, a time-dependent five-fold NIR fluorescence enhancement is observed, but radioactivity remains identical in caspase-3 positive and negative controls. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using radionuclide imaging for localizing and quantifying the distribution of molecular probes and optical imaging for reporting the functional status of diagnostic enzymes.

  6. High contrast tumor imaging with radio-labeled antibody Fab fragments tailored for optimized pharmacokinetics via PASylation

    PubMed Central

    Mendler, Claudia T; Friedrich, Lars; Laitinen, Iina; Schlapschy, Martin; Schwaiger, Markus; Wester, Hans-Jürgen; Skerra, Arne

    2015-01-01

    Although antigen-binding fragments (Fabs) of antibodies constitute established tracers for in vivo radiodiagnostics, their functionality is hampered by a very short circulation half-life. PASylation, the genetic fusion with a long, conformationally disordered amino acid chain comprising Pro, Ala and Ser, provides a convenient way to expand protein size and, consequently, retard renal filtration. Humanized αHER2 and αCD20 Fabs were systematically fused with 100 to 600 PAS residues and produced in E. coli. Cytofluorimetric titration analysis on tumor cell lines confirmed that antigen-binding activities of the parental antibodies were retained. The radio-iodinated PASylated Fabs were studied by positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and biodistribution analysis in mouse tumor xenograft models. While the unmodified αHER2 and αCD20 Fabs showed weak tumor uptake (0.8% and 0.2% ID/g, respectively; 24 h p.i.) tumor-associated radioactivity was boosted with increasing PAS length (up to 9 and 26-fold, respectively), approaching an optimum for Fab-PAS400. Remarkably, 6- and 5-fold higher tumor-to-blood ratios compared with the unmodified Fabs were measured in the biodistribution analysis (48 h p.i.) for αHER2 Fab-PAS100 and Fab-PAS200, respectively. These findings were confirmed by PET studies, showing high imaging contrast in line with tumor-to-blood ratios of 12.2 and 5.7 (24 h p.i.) for αHER2 Fab-PAS100 and Fab-PAS200. Even stronger tumor signals were obtained with the corresponding αCD20 Fabs, both in PET imaging and biodistribution analysis, with an uptake of 2.8% ID/g for Fab-PAS100 vs. 0.24% ID/g for the unmodified Fab. Hence, by engineering Fabs via PASylation, plasma half-life can be tailored to significantly improve tracer uptake and tumor contrast, thus optimally matching reagent/target interactions. PMID:25484039

  7. High contrast tumor imaging with radio-labeled antibody Fab fragments tailored for optimized pharmacokinetics via PASylation.

    PubMed

    Mendler, Claudia T; Friedrich, Lars; Laitinen, Iina; Schlapschy, Martin; Schwaiger, Markus; Wester, Hans-Jürgen; Skerra, Arne

    2015-01-01

    Although antigen-binding fragments (Fabs) of antibodies constitute established tracers for in vivo radiodiagnostics, their functionality is hampered by a very short circulation half-life. PASylation, the genetic fusion with a long, conformationally disordered amino acid chain comprising Pro, Ala and Ser, provides a convenient way to expand protein size and, consequently, retard renal filtration. Humanized αHER2 and αCD20 Fabs were systematically fused with 100 to 600 PAS residues and produced in E. coli. Cytofluorimetric titration analysis on tumor cell lines confirmed that antigen-binding activities of the parental antibodies were retained. The radio-iodinated PASylated Fabs were studied by positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and biodistribution analysis in mouse tumor xenograft models. While the unmodified αHER2 and αCD20 Fabs showed weak tumor uptake (0.8% and 0.2% ID/g, respectively; 24 h p.i.) tumor-associated radioactivity was boosted with increasing PAS length (up to 9 and 26-fold, respectively), approaching an optimum for Fab-PAS400. Remarkably, 6- and 5-fold higher tumor-to-blood ratios compared with the unmodified Fabs were measured in the biodistribution analysis (48 h p.i.) for αHER2 Fab-PAS100 and Fab-PAS200, respectively. These findings were confirmed by PET studies, showing high imaging contrast in line with tumor-to-blood ratios of 12.2 and 5.7 (24 h p.i.) for αHER2 Fab-PAS100 and Fab-PAS200. Even stronger tumor signals were obtained with the corresponding αCD20 Fabs, both in PET imaging and biodistribution analysis, with an uptake of 2.8% ID/g for Fab-PAS100 vs. 0.24% ID/g for the unmodified Fab. Hence, by engineering Fabs via PASylation, plasma half-life can be tailored to significantly improve tracer uptake and tumor contrast, thus optimally matching reagent/target interactions.

  8. Pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and metabolism of squalenoyl adenosine nanoparticles in mice using dual radio-labeling and radio-HPLC analysis.

    PubMed

    Gaudin, Alice; Lepetre-Mouelhi, Sinda; Mougin, Julie; Parrod, Martine; Pieters, Grégory; Garcia-Argote, Sébastien; Loreau, Olivier; Goncalves, Jordan; Chacun, Hélène; Courbebaisse, Yann; Clayette, Pascal; Desmaële, Didier; Rousseau, Bernard; Andrieux, Karine; Couvreur, Patrick

    2015-08-28

    Adenosine is a pleiotropic endogenous nucleoside with potential neuroprotective pharmacological activity. However, clinical use of adenosine is hampered by its extremely fast metabolization. To overcome this limitation, we recently developed a new squalenoyl nanomedicine of adenosine [Squalenoyl-Adenosine (SQAd)] by covalent linkage of this nucleoside to the squalene, a natural lipid. The resulting nanoassemblies (NAs) displayed a dramatic pharmacological activity both in cerebral ischemia and spinal cord injury pre-clinical models. The aim of the present study was to investigate the plasma profile and tissue distribution of SQAd NAs using both Squalenoyl-[(3)H]-Adenosine NAs and [(14)C]-Squalenoyl-Adenosine NAs as respective tracers of adenosine and squalene moieties of the SQAd bioconjugate. This study was completed by radio-HPLC analysis allowing to determine the metabolization profile of SQAd. We report here that SQAd NAs allowed a sustained circulation of adenosine under its prodrug form (SQAd) for at least 1h after intravenous administration, when free adenosine was metabolized within seconds after injection. Moreover, the squalenoylation of adenosine and its formulation as NAs also significantly modified biodistribution, as SQAd NAs were mainly captured by the liver and spleen, allowing a significant release of adenosine in the liver parenchyma. Altogether, these results suggest that SQAd NAs provided a reservoir of adenosine into the bloodstream which may explain the previously observed neuroprotective efficacy of SQAd NAs against cerebral ischemia and spinal cord injury. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Arteriovenous shunts demonstrated in the apical circulation of rat incisor teeth by the use of radio-labeled microspheres.

    PubMed

    Feiglin, B; Reade, P C

    1979-04-01

    The distribution of systemically introduced 85Sr-labeled tracer microspheres to unexposed and previously exposed rat lower incisor tooth pulps was investigated. Fewer tracer microspheres entered the microcirculation of pulps that had been previously exposed as compared to control unexposed pulps. The presence of large numbers of dilated blood vessels in the apical tissues of teeth with exposed pulps was observed, and it is postulated that these vessels may be operating as arteriovenous anastomoses so that the pulpal microcirculation of teeth with inflamed pulps is bypassed by the tracer microspheres. The possible clinical significance of these findings is discussed.

  10. Reducing food losses by intelligent food logistics

    PubMed Central

    Jedermann, Reiner; Nicometo, Mike; Uysal, Ismail; Lang, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The need to feed an ever-increasing world population makes it obligatory to reduce the millions of tons of avoidable perishable waste along the food supply chain. A considerable share of these losses is caused by non-optimal cold chain processes and management. This Theme Issue focuses on technologies, models and applications to monitor changes in the product shelf life, defined as the time remaining until the quality of a food product drops below an acceptance limit, and to plan successive chain processes and logistics accordingly to uncover and prevent invisible or latent losses in product quality, especially following the first-expired-first-out strategy for optimized matching between the remaining shelf life and the expected transport duration. This introductory article summarizes the key findings of this Theme Issue, which brings together research study results from around the world to promote intelligent food logistics. The articles include three case studies on the cold chain for berries, bananas and meat and an overview of different post-harvest treatments. Further contributions focus on the required technical solutions, such as the wireless sensor and communication system for remote quality supervision, gas sensors to detect ethylene as an indicator of unwanted ripening and volatile components to indicate mould infections. The final section of this introduction discusses how improvements in food quality can be targeted by strategic changes in the food chain. PMID:24797131

  11. Reducing food losses by intelligent food logistics.

    PubMed

    Jedermann, Reiner; Nicometo, Mike; Uysal, Ismail; Lang, Walter

    2014-06-13

    The need to feed an ever-increasing world population makes it obligatory to reduce the millions of tons of avoidable perishable waste along the food supply chain. A considerable share of these losses is caused by non-optimal cold chain processes and management. This Theme Issue focuses on technologies, models and applications to monitor changes in the product shelf life, defined as the time remaining until the quality of a food product drops below an acceptance limit, and to plan successive chain processes and logistics accordingly to uncover and prevent invisible or latent losses in product quality, especially following the first-expired-first-out strategy for optimized matching between the remaining shelf life and the expected transport duration. This introductory article summarizes the key findings of this Theme Issue, which brings together research study results from around the world to promote intelligent food logistics. The articles include three case studies on the cold chain for berries, bananas and meat and an overview of different post-harvest treatments. Further contributions focus on the required technical solutions, such as the wireless sensor and communication system for remote quality supervision, gas sensors to detect ethylene as an indicator of unwanted ripening and volatile components to indicate mould infections. The final section of this introduction discusses how improvements in food quality can be targeted by strategic changes in the food chain.

  12. Effects of a model on food neophobia in humans.

    PubMed

    Hobden, K; Pliner, P

    1995-10-01

    In study 1, subjects who were high and low in trait food neophobia made a series of choices between novel or familiar foods in the presence of no model, a neophilic model who chose mostly novel foods, or a neophobic model who chose mostly familiar foods and made another series of choices in private from foods which were not modeled. Subjects who were low (but not high) in trait neophobia behaved in accordance with the behavior of the neophilic (but not neophobic) model in the model's presence (but not absence). Study 2 clarified the results of study 1, revealing that the phenomenon was modeling and not conformity, that even highly neophobic subjects can be influenced by a stronger modeling manipulation, that food neophobia can be both increased and decreased, and that the reduced neophobia induced by exposure to a neophilic model does not generalize to non-modeled foods.

  13. Impulsivity and emotion dysregulation as predictors of food addiction.

    PubMed

    Pivarunas, Bernadette; Conner, Bradley T

    2015-12-01

    Food addiction is the clinical occurrence in which individuals develop physical and psychological dependencies on high fat, high sugar, and highly palatable foods. Past research has demonstrated a number of similarities between food addiction and drug use disorders including the activation of specific brain regions and neurotransmitters, disrupted neuronal circuitry, and behavioral indicators of addiction such as continued use despite negative consequences. The present study examined the role of impulsivity and emotion dysregulation in food addiction as both play salient roles in drug use disorders. Poisson regression analyses using data from 878 undergraduate students revealed negative urgency, the tendency to act impulsively when under distress, and emotion dysregulation positively predicted symptom count on the Yale Food Addiction Scale (Gearhardt, Corbin, & Brownell, 2009) whereas a lack of premeditation negatively predicted symptom count (all ps<0.05). Future research is needed to confirm precursors to eating episodes in food addiction, elucidate causal mechanisms, and support an explanatory model of food addiction.

  14. Biophysics of food perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burbidge, Adam S.; Le Révérend, Benjamin J. D.

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we present food perception across a range of time and length scales as well as across the disciplines of physics, chemistry and biology. We achieve the objective of the article by presenting food from a material science angle as well as presenting the physiology of food perception that enables humans to probe materials in terms of aroma, taste and texture. We highlight that by using simple physical concepts, one can also decipher the mechanisms of transport that link food structure with perception physiology and define the regime in which physiology operates. Most importantly, we emphasise the notion that food/consumer interaction operates across the biological fluid interface grouped under the terminology of mucus, acting as a transfer fluid for taste, aroma and pressure between food and dedicated receptors.

  15. Food Retailers and Obesity.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Rosemary A

    2015-03-01

    We live in an 'obesogenic environment' where we are constantly bombarded with choices that encourage us to move less and eat more. Many factors influence our dietary choices, including the expert marketers who advise manufacturers on ways to encourage the population to buy more, especially profitable, palatable 'ultra-processed' foods. Supermarkets themselves have become skilled in manipulating buying behaviour, using their layout and specific product placement as well as advertising to maximise purchases of particular foods. Increasingly, supermarkets push their own 'house' brands. Those marketing fast foods also use persuasive tactics to attract customers, especially children who they entice with non-food items such as promotional or collectable toys. There is no mystery to the increase in obesity: our energy intake from foods and drinks has increased over the same period that energy output has decreased. Obesity has a range of relevant factors, but there is little doubt that marketing from supermarkets and fast food retailers has played a role.

  16. Space Station Food System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thurmond, Beverly A.; Gillan, Douglas J.; Perchonok, Michele G.; Marcus, Beth A.; Bourland, Charles T.

    1986-01-01

    A team of engineers and food scientists from NASA, the aerospace industry, food companies, and academia are defining the Space Station Food System. The team identified the system requirements based on an analysis of past and current space food systems, food systems from isolated environment communities that resemble Space Station, and the projected Space Station parameters. The team is resolving conflicts among requirements through the use of trade-off analyses. The requirements will give rise to a set of specifications which, in turn, will be used to produce concepts. Concept verification will include testing of prototypes, both in 1-g and microgravity. The end-item specification provides an overall guide for assembling a functional food system for Space Station.

  17. Uyghur food culture.

    PubMed

    Ayoufu, Ayixiamuguli; Yang, Degang; Yimit, Dilshat

    2017-01-01

    Uyghur food culture has a long history. It is rich in resources, with the strong characteristics of being "green" and healthy, and having high nutritional value. We analyze the development and current status of Uyghur food culture, and explore the value of developing this food culture's resources. Traditional Uyghur food culture formed with influences from many ethnic groups, and has evolved into an intangible element of cultural heritage. It has several components with different healthy and therapeutic functions and is widely utilized in local communities. Overall, Uyghur food is rich in nutrients and beneficial for health. We propose strategies to address issues associated with Uyghur food culture and cultural resources, and specific measures for the development of these resources.

  18. Food irradiation in perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henon, Y. M.

    1995-02-01

    Food irradiation already has a long history of hopes and disappointments. Nowhere in the world it plays the role that it should have, including in the much needed prevention of foodborne diseases. Irradiated food sold well wherever consumers were given a chance to buy them. Differences between national regulations do not allow the international trade of irradiated foods. While in many countries food irradiation is still illegal, in most others it is regulated as a food additive and based on the knowledge of the sixties. Until 1980, wholesomeness was the big issue. Then the "prerequisite" became detection methods. Large amounts of money have been spent to design and validate tests which, in fact, aim at enforcing unjustified restrictions on the use of the process. In spite of all the difficulties, it is believed that the efforts of various UN organizations and a growing legitimate demand for food safety should in the end lead to recognition and acceptance.

  19. Food environment and policies in private schools in Kolkata, India.

    PubMed

    Rathi, Neha; Riddell, Lynn; Worsley, Anthony

    2017-04-01

    School food policies and services have the potential to influence the food practices and eating behaviours of adolescents which in turn may affect their lifestyles and health in adulthood. The aim of this qualitative investigation was to describe the opinions of adolescents, their parents, nutrition educators and school principals about the prevailing food environment and canteen policies in Indian schools. Fifteen adolescents aged 14-15 years, 15 parents, 12 teachers and 10 principals from 10 private schools in Kolkata, India participated in semi-structured interviews. The interview questions were primarily based on the existing literature related to school food environments and policies. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim and assessed thematically. Throughout the 52 interviews, a number of inadequacies of the school food environment and policies were revealed. These included the absence of written food policies, the widespread supply of unhealthy foods, inadequate provision of healthy foods, misleading messages about food communicated by school authorities, lack of cleanliness in the school canteen and the high cost of canteen food. Current school food environments do not appear to promote healthy eating among adolescents. Therefore, it is important to upgrade the quality of food services in Indian schools through adoption of healthy eating policies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. 'I saw Santa drinking soda!' Advertising and children's food preferences.

    PubMed

    Lioutas, E D; Tzimitra-Kalogianni, I

    2015-05-01

    The influence of advertising on children's food preferences is well documented in the research literature. In this study we aim to examine the ways in which food advertising propels children's consumer behaviour and to investigate how food advertising affects the frequency of unhealthy food consumption. Data were drawn from a sample of elementary school children in the region of Thessaly (Greece). Three scales were used to measure children's lifestyle patterns, food consumption frequencies, and their response to advertising. Univariate and inferential statistics were used to answer the research questions. The analysis revealed that a significant proportion of children (47.4%) frequently consume unhealthy foods. Children who have little understanding of the persuasive intent of advertising rate advertised foods as healthier and more nutritious. The frequency of unhealthy food consumption is influenced by the entertaining dimension of advertising and the level of the motivational arousal after children's exposure to food advertisements. Food advertising impels children's consumer behaviour through four different modes. First, advertising engenders expectations, which raise purchase motivation. Second, the purchase of advertised foods is accompanied by positive feelings (happiness, satisfaction). Third, the entertaining dimension of advertising generates pleasant mood, which positively predisposes the evaluation of advertised foods. Fourth, children do not always possess the ability to recognize the persuasive nature of advertising. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Mechanisms of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Helm, R M; Burks, A W

    2000-12-01

    The prevalence of food allergy continues to rise, particularly in 'westernized' societies; it has been linked to the 'hygiene hypothesis' and the increased diversity of food consumption worldwide. The pathogenic mechanisms and Th1/Th2 paradigm are being closely examined with respect to the occurrence of inflammatory and injury/repair responses at different mucosal sites. Genetically modified plants as potential food sources and allergenicity are current topics of controversy.

  2. Gastrointestinal food allergies.

    PubMed

    Heine, Ralf G

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal food allergies present during early childhood with a diverse range of symptoms. Cow's milk, soy and wheat are the three most common gastrointestinal food allergens. Several clinical syndromes have been described, including food protein-induced enteropathy, proctocolitis and enterocolitis. In contrast with immediate, IgE-mediated food allergies, the onset of gastrointestinal symptoms is delayed for at least 1-2 hours after ingestion in non-IgE-mediated allergic disorders. The pathophysiology of these non-IgE-mediated allergic disorders is poorly understood, and useful in vitro markers are lacking. The results of the skin prick test or measurement of the food-specific serum IgE level is generally negative, although low-positive results may occur. Diagnosis therefore relies on the recognition of a particular clinical phenotype as well as the demonstration of clear clinical improvement after food allergen elimination and the re-emergence of symptoms upon challenge. There is a significant clinical overlap between non-IgE-mediated food allergy and several common paediatric gastroenterological conditions, which may lead to diagnostic confusion. The treatment of gastrointestinal food allergies requires the strict elimination of offending food allergens until tolerance has developed. In breast-fed infants, a maternal elimination diet is often sufficient to control symptoms. In formula-fed infants, treatment usually involves the use an extensively hydrolysed or amino acid-based formula. Apart from the use of hypoallergenic formulae, the solid diets of these children also need to be kept free of specific food allergens, as clinically indicated. The nutritional progress of infants and young children should be carefully monitored, and they should undergo ongoing, regular food protein elimination reassessments by cautious food challenges to monitor for possible tolerance development.

  3. Comfort Foods and Mood

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    an ice cream bar and a fast - food burger option at every meal.Five years into the war in Iraq, Forward Operating Bases such as this one - and...hall, where the meals are prepared by contractors, there are plenty of fast - food options - the kind many young troops typically reach for...Comfort Foods and Mood Tracy Sbrocco, Ph.D. Assoc. Prof. Dept Medical & Clinical Psychology Uniformed Services University QuickTime™ and a

  4. Commercial food irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Black, E.F.; Libby, L.M.

    1983-06-01

    Food irradiation is discussed. Irradiation exposes food to gamma rays from a cobalt-60 or a cesium-137 source, or to high-energy electrons emitted by an electron accelerator. A major advantage is that food can be packaged either before or after treatment. FDA regulations with regard to irradiation are discussed. Comments on an 'Advance Notice' on irradiation, published by the FDA in 1981 are summarized.

  5. Food table on ISS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-04-08

    ISS043E091650 (04/08/2015) --- A view of the food table located in the Russian Zvezda service module on the International Space Station taken by Expedition 43 Flight Engineer Scott Kelly. Assorted food, drink and condiment packets are visible. Kelly tweeted this image along with the comment: ""Looks messy, but it's functional. Our #food table on the @space station. What's for breakfast? #YearInSpace".

  6. Urban Food Initiative

    ScienceCinema

    Buluswar, Shashi

    2016-07-12

    Shashi Buluswar, Berkeley Lab's Executive Director of the Institute for Globally Transformative Technologies (LIGTT) discusses the issue of urban food deserts and malnutrition in American inner cities.

  7. ICON: food allergy.

    PubMed

    Burks, A Wesley; Tang, Mimi; Sicherer, Scott; Muraro, Antonella; Eigenmann, Philippe A; Ebisawa, Motohiro; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Chiang, Wen; Beyer, Kirsten; Wood, Robert; Hourihane, Jonathan; Jones, Stacie M; Lack, Gideon; Sampson, Hugh A

    2012-04-01

    Food allergies can result in life-threatening reactions and diminish quality of life. In the last several decades, the prevalence of food allergies has increased in several regions throughout the world. Although more than 170 foods have been identified as being potentially allergenic, a minority of these foods cause the majority of reactions, and common food allergens vary between geographic regions. Treatment of food allergy involves strict avoidance of the trigger food. Medications manage symptoms of disease, but currently, there is no cure for food allergy. In light of the increasing burden of allergic diseases, the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology; World Allergy Organization; and American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology have come together to increase the communication of information about allergies and asthma at a global level. Within the framework of this collaboration, termed the International Collaboration in Asthma, Allergy and Immunology, a series of consensus documents called International Consensus ON (ICON) are being developed to serve as an important resource and support physicians in managing different allergic diseases. An author group was formed to describe the natural history, prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment of food allergies in the context of the global community.

  8. CAN FOOD BY SYNTHESIZED.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    FOOD , SYNTHESIS, USSR, PROTEINS, FATS, CARBOHYDRATES, INORGANIC COMPOUNDS, VITAMINS, POLYMERS, CONDENSATION REACTIONS, GLUCOSE, FORMALDEHYDE, AMINO ACIDS, LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEMS, TASTE, SMELL, SENSES(PHYSIOLOGY).

  9. Carbohydrates: functionality in foods.

    PubMed

    Chinachoti, P

    1995-04-01

    Many functional requirements are met by the use of simple and complex carbohydrates in food. Carbohydrates offer a wide range of rheological and other properties, including solubility, cryoprotection, sweetening effect, hygroscopicity, crystallization inhibition, flavor encapsulation, and coating ability. These properties are based on chemical structure and interactions with other molecules through hydrogen bonding, ionic effect, and the formation of complexes with lipids and proteins. The ability to understand these properties directly affects the development of food products and processes. Thus, the functionality of carbohydrates in foods integrates precise knowledge of chemical structure and behavior with practical applications in the development and preparation of foods.

  10. [The food pyramid battle].

    PubMed

    Brasseur, D

    2000-09-01

    Two hundred years after Napoleon, nutritionists of the world are fighting against each other in front of the pyramids. In 1995, the USAD (US Agriculture Department) started the battle by publishing "new food recommendations" that should not be confounded with the recommended dietary allowances (RDA). The food choices proposed by the USAD aimed at improving the health of the general population and avoiding chronic diseases. Implicitly these proposals should also meet the RDA. In order to reach its target, the Committee has proposed two pre-requisites: to balance food consumption and energy expenditure and therefore control body weight and to eat among various food items.

  11. Keeping food safe.

    PubMed

    Conde, Crystal

    2011-11-01

    Legislation passed during this year's legislative session will help the Texas Department of State Health Services (DSHS) identify the source of food-borne illness outbreaks. Senate Bill 81 increases the number of food wholesalers and warehouse operators that must obtain licenses from DSHS. DSHS enforcement activities include follow-up inspections at establishments that have problems, sending warning letters, holding management meetings with the firms, and providing technical assistance. When a food-borne illness outbreak involves a Texas manufacturer, wholesaler, or warehouse, DSHS can recall contaminated products, close establishments temporarily until they can ensure their food is safe or close them permanently, and levy fines.

  12. Urban Food Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Buluswar, Shashi

    2015-05-06

    Shashi Buluswar, Berkeley Lab's Executive Director of the Institute for Globally Transformative Technologies (LIGTT) discusses the issue of urban food deserts and malnutrition in American inner cities.

  13. [Food hypersensitivity in children].

    PubMed

    Kolacek, Sanja

    2011-01-01

    Food hypersensitivity affects children and adults with an increasing prevalence, and is therefore an important public health problem in the majority of developed countries. Moreover, self-reported reactions to food are of several times higher prevalence, compared to hypersensitivity diagnosed following well established evidence-based diagnostic guidelines. In children, allergic food reactions are more common compared to non-allergic food hypersensitivity reactions, and 90% of them are caused with only 8 food allergens: cow's milk, soya, egg, fish, shellfish, peanut, tree-nuts and gluten. Diagnosis should be based on challenge tests with the potentially offending food allergens. Concerning other, more conservative diagnostic procedures, negative serology and negative skin-prick tests can exclude IgE-mediated food allergy, but positive tests, due to high rate of false positive reactions are not sufficient for diagnosis. Strict dietary avoidance of incriminated allergens is the only well established management strategy. However, this should be applied only if food allergy is well documented - following the exposition tests. Introducing elimination diet in a paediatric population, particularly with the elimination of multiple foods, could cause inappropriate growth and disturb organ maturation. Concerning allergy prevention, avoidance of allergens is not efficacious either during pregnancy and lactation or weaning period, and is therefore, not recommended neither as a population preventive measure, nor in children at risk.

  14. Ultrasonics in food processing.

    PubMed

    Chandrapala, Jayani; Oliver, Christine; Kentish, Sandra; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian

    2012-09-01

    In recent years, the physical and chemical effects of ultrasound in liquid and solid media have been extensively used in food processing applications. Harnessing the physical forces generated by ultrasound, in the absence and presence of cavitation, for specific food processing applications such as emulsification, filtration, tenderisation and functionality modification have been highlighted. While some applications, such as filtration and emulsification are "mature" industrial processes, other applications, such as functionality modification, are still in their early stages of development. However, various investigations discussed suggest that ultrasonic processing of food and dairy ingredients is a potential and viable technology that will be used by many food industries in the near future.

  15. International food patterns for space food

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmed, Selina; Cox, Amanda; Cornish, Pauline V.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to obtain basic data on ethnic foods by studying dietary patterns and multicultural foods, and to determine nutritional status of multicultural space explorers by evaluating dietary, clinical, biochemical, and socioeconomic factors. The study will plan a significant role in providing nutritional research for space explorers of different ethnic backgrounds. It will provide scientific background information by bringing together cross cultural dietary and nutritional from different ethnic groups. Results will also help the health care personnel including physicians, dietitians, and nutritionists to better understand and assist patients from other cultures illness. Also, the results will provide data which will help in the development of future food plans for long duration flights involving manned exploration to Mars and lunar base colonies.

  16. Development of Safe Food Handling Guidelines for Korean Consumers.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hee-Jin; Lee, Min-Woo; Hwang, In-Kyeong; Kim, Jeong-Weon

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop guidelines for Korean consumers with regard to safe food handling practices at home by identifying current food handling issues. Korean consumers' behaviors regarding their safe food handling were identified via survey questionnaires that included items on individual hygiene practices, prepreparation steps when cooking, the cooking process, and the storage of leftover foods. The subjects were 417 Korean parents with elementary school children living in Seoul and Gyeonggi Province in the central area of Korea. The survey results revealed gaps between the knowledge or practices of Korean consumers and scientific evidence pertaining to safe food handling practices. Based on these findings, a leaflet on safe food handling guidelines was developed in accordance with Korean food culture. These guidelines suggest personal hygiene practices as well as fundamental principles and procedures for safe food handling from the stage of food purchase to that of keeping leftover dishes. A pilot application study with 50 consumers revealed that the guidelines effectively improved Korean consumers' safe food handling practices, suggesting that they can serve as practical educational material suitable for Korean consumers.

  17. It’s who I am and what we eat: Mothers’ food-related identities in family food choice

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Cassandra M.; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Dean, Wesley R.; McIntosh, W. Alex; Kubena, Karen S.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to understand mothers’ everyday food choices using one type of visual method-participant-driven photo-elicitation (PDPE). The sample consisted of 12 low/moderate income mothers (26–53 years) living in Bryan/College Station, Texas. Each mother completed a photography activity, where she created photographs of her food experience, and an in-depth interview using the mother’s photographs. Interview transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach and coded using qualitative data analysis software ATLAS.ti. Mothers emphasized their identities related to food and eating as they described food-related decisions and activities. These identities influenced a mother’s food choices for herself and those she made for her children. Analysis revealed that mothers with a more defined health identity made healthier choices for themselves and similar food choices for their children. In addition, they exhibited behaviors that positively influenced their children’s food choices. Mothers who struggled to see themselves as healthy indulged with more junk food and indicated feelings of anxiety and guilt; these mothers’ food choices were more disconnected from their children’s. These findings underscore the importance of understanding how identities related to food and eating can influence food choices. Encouraging mothers to develop and maintain health identities may be one way to improve food and eating habits in families. PMID:21600253

  18. It's who I am and what we eat. Mothers' food-related identities in family food choice.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Cassandra M; Sharkey, Joseph R; Dean, Wesley R; Alex McIntosh, W; Kubena, Karen S

    2011-08-01

    This study aimed to understand mothers' everyday food choices using one type of visual method-participant-driven photo-elicitation (PDPE). The sample consisted of 12 low/moderate income mothers (26-53 years) living in Bryan/College Station, Texas. Each mother completed a photography activity, where she created photographs of her food experience, and an in-depth interview using the mother's photographs. Interview transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach and coded using qualitative data analysis software ATLAS.ti. Mothers emphasized their identities related to food and eating as they described food-related decisions and activities. These identities influenced a mother's food choices for herself and those she made for her children. Analysis revealed that mothers with a more defined health identity made healthier choices for themselves and similar food choices for their children. In addition, they exhibited behaviors that positively influenced their children's food choices. Mothers who struggled to see themselves as healthy indulged with more junk food and indicated feelings of anxiety and guilt; these mothers' food choices were more disconnected from their children's. These findings underscore the importance of understanding how identities related to food and eating can influence food choices. Encouraging mothers to develop and maintain health identities may be one way to improve food and eating habits in families. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. US weapons secrets revealed

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, R.S.; Arkin, W.M.

    1993-03-01

    Extraordinary details have only recently been revealed about the struggle over the control of early U.S. nuclear weapons and their initial deployments abroad. The information comes from a newly declassified top secret report, part of a larger study, The History of the Strategic Arms Competition, 1945-1972, commissioned by Defense Secretary James R. Schlisinger in summer 1974.

  20. Food, fizzy, and football: promoting unhealthy food and beverages through sport - a New Zealand case study.

    PubMed

    Carter, Mary-Ann; Signal, Louise; Edwards, Richard; Hoek, Janet; Maher, Anthony

    2013-02-11

    High participation rates in sport and increasing recognition of how diet benefits athletic performance suggest sports settings may be ideal locations for promoting healthy eating. While research has demonstrated the effect of tobacco and alcohol sponsorship on consumption, particularly among youth, few studies have examined the extent or impact of food and beverage company sponsorship in sport. Studies using brand logos as a measure suggest unhealthy foods and beverages dominate sports sponsorship. However, as marketing goes beyond the use of brand livery, research examining how marketers support sponsorships that create brand associations encouraging consumer purchase is also required. This study aimed to identify the characteristics and extent of sponsorships and associated marketing by food and non-alcoholic beverage brands and companies through a case study of New Zealand sport. We conducted a systematic review of 308 websites of national and regional New Zealand sporting organisations to identify food and beverage sponsors, which were then classified as healthy or unhealthy using nutrient criteria for energy, fat, sodium and fibre levels. We interviewed 18 key informants from national and regional sporting organisations about sponsorships. Food and beverage sponsorship of sport is not extensive in New Zealand. However, both healthy and unhealthy brands and companies do sponsor sport. Relatively few support their sponsorships with additional marketing. Interviews revealed that although many sports organisations felt concerned about associating themselves with unhealthy foods or beverages, others considered sponsorship income more important. While there is limited food and beverage sponsorship of New Zealand sport, unhealthy food and beverage brands and companies do sponsor sport. The few that use additional marketing activities create repeat exposure for their brands, many of which target children. The findings suggest policies that restrict sponsorship of

  1. Food, fizzy, and football: promoting unhealthy food and beverages through sport - a New Zealand case study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High participation rates in sport and increasing recognition of how diet benefits athletic performance suggest sports settings may be ideal locations for promoting healthy eating. While research has demonstrated the effect of tobacco and alcohol sponsorship on consumption, particularly among youth, few studies have examined the extent or impact of food and beverage company sponsorship in sport. Studies using brand logos as a measure suggest unhealthy foods and beverages dominate sports sponsorship. However, as marketing goes beyond the use of brand livery, research examining how marketers support sponsorships that create brand associations encouraging consumer purchase is also required. This study aimed to identify the characteristics and extent of sponsorships and associated marketing by food and non-alcoholic beverage brands and companies through a case study of New Zealand sport. Methods We conducted a systematic review of 308 websites of national and regional New Zealand sporting organisations to identify food and beverage sponsors, which were then classified as healthy or unhealthy using nutrient criteria for energy, fat, sodium and fibre levels. We interviewed 18 key informants from national and regional sporting organisations about sponsorships. Results Food and beverage sponsorship of sport is not extensive in New Zealand. However, both healthy and unhealthy brands and companies do sponsor sport. Relatively few support their sponsorships with additional marketing. Interviews revealed that although many sports organisations felt concerned about associating themselves with unhealthy foods or beverages, others considered sponsorship income more important. Conclusions While there is limited food and beverage sponsorship of New Zealand sport, unhealthy food and beverage brands and companies do sponsor sport. The few that use additional marketing activities create repeat exposure for their brands, many of which target children. The findings suggest

  2. Transforming Food Systems through Food Sovereignty: An Australian Urban Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davila, Federico; Dyball, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This article draws on La Via Campesina's definition of food sovereignty and its potential for reconceptualising food as a basic human right within the dominant Australian food discourse. We argue that the educative value that emerges from urban food production in Australia stems from the action of growing food and its capacity to transform…

  3. Transforming Food Systems through Food Sovereignty: An Australian Urban Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davila, Federico; Dyball, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This article draws on La Via Campesina's definition of food sovereignty and its potential for reconceptualising food as a basic human right within the dominant Australian food discourse. We argue that the educative value that emerges from urban food production in Australia stems from the action of growing food and its capacity to transform…

  4. Naturally Occurring Food Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Dolan, Laurie C.; Matulka, Ray A.; Burdock, George A.

    2010-01-01

    Although many foods contain toxins as a naturally-occurring constituent or, are formed as the result of handling or processing, the incidence of adverse reactions to food is relatively low. The low incidence of adverse effects is the result of some pragmatic solutions by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other regulatory agencies through the creative use of specifications, action levels, tolerances, warning labels and prohibitions. Manufacturers have also played a role by setting limits on certain substances and developing mitigation procedures for process-induced toxins. Regardless of measures taken by regulators and food producers to protect consumers from natural food toxins, consumption of small levels of these materials is unavoidable. Although the risk for toxicity due to consumption of food toxins is fairly low, there is always the possibility of toxicity due to contamination, overconsumption, allergy or an unpredictable idiosyncratic response. The purpose of this review is to provide a toxicological and regulatory overview of some of the toxins present in some commonly consumed foods, and where possible, discuss the steps that have been taken to reduce consumer exposure, many of which are possible because of the unique process of food regulation in the United States. PMID:22069686

  5. Food Exposures to Lead

    PubMed Central

    Kolbye, Albert C.; Mahaffey, Kathryn R.; Fiorino, John A.; Corneliussen, Paul C.; Jelinek, Charles F.

    1974-01-01

    Exposures to lead have emanated from various sources, including food, throughout human history. Occupational and environmental exposures (especially pica) appear to account for much of the identified human disease, however, food-borne exposures deserve further investigation. Lead residues in food can result from: biological uptake from soils into plants consumed by food animals or man, usage of lead arsenate pesticides, inadvertent addition during food processing, and by leaching them improperly glazed pottery used as food storage or dining utensils. Estimates of total dietary exposure should reflect frequency distribution data on lead levels in specific food commodities in relation to the quantities actually ingested by various sample populations to distinguish degrees of risk associated with particular dietary habits. Earlier estimates of average total dietary intake of lead by adults have been reported to range from above 500 μg/day downward with more recent estimates suggesting averages of 200 μg/day or lower. The strengths and weaknesses of these data are discussed along with analytical and sampling considerations. FDA programs related to food surveillance, epidemiology, and toxicological investigation are briefly described. PMID:4406646

  6. Yersiniosis and food safety

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This special issue of journal of food pathogens was designed to share some of the interested scientific studies published on yersiniosis, a foodborne outbreak associated with consumption of food contaminated with Yersinia. In this issue, the focus was on yersiniosis related foodborne illnesses, beh...

  7. Food for Thought.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harriman, Cliff; And Others

    This document describes "Food for Thought," a multidisciplinary project for grades 5 through 8, using nutrition as a focal point. The program focuses on the popular topic of food to make the study of different cultures and historic periods more relevant. In the program students research the diets and prepare the meals of cultures they…

  8. Naturally occurring food toxins.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Laurie C; Matulka, Ray A; Burdock, George A

    2010-09-01

    Although many foods contain toxins as a naturally-occurring constituent or, are formed as the result of handling or processing, the incidence of adverse reactions to food is relatively low. The low incidence of adverse effects is the result of some pragmatic solutions by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other regulatory agencies through the creative use of specifications, action levels, tolerances, warning labels and prohibitions. Manufacturers have also played a role by setting limits on certain substances and developing mitigation procedures for process-induced toxins. Regardless of measures taken by regulators and food producers to protect consumers from natural food toxins, consumption of small levels of these materials is unavoidable. Although the risk for toxicity due to consumption of food toxins is fairly low, there is always the possibility of toxicity due to contamination, overconsumption, allergy or an unpredictable idiosyncratic response. The purpose of this review is to provide a toxicological and regulatory overview of some of the toxins present in some commonly consumed foods, and where possible, discuss the steps that have been taken to reduce consumer exposure, many of which are possible because of the unique process of food regulation in the United States.

  9. Freezing and Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... 0 °F inactivates any microbes — bacteria, yeasts and molds — present in food. Once thawed, however, these microbes can again become ... If the product doesn't look and/or smell normal, throw it out. DO NOT TASTE IT! ... disposing the food where no one, including animals can get it. [ ...

  10. Pricing a Convenience Food.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabor, Andre

    1980-01-01

    Discusses a study undertaken by the Nottingham University Consumer Study Group to determine market operation for popular convenience foods in England. Information is presented on distribution of purchases, brand loyalties of respondents to a questionnaire regarding convenience foods, and market fluctuation due to inflation. (Author/DB)

  11. Rebuilding the Food Pyramid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willet, Walter C.; Stampfer, Meir J.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the old food guide pyramid released in 1992 by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Contradicts the message that fat is bad, which was presented to the public by nutritionists, and the effects of plant oils on cholesterol. Introduces a new food pyramid. (YDS)

  12. Food Affects Human Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolata, Gina

    1982-01-01

    A conference on whether food and nutrients affect human behavior was held on November 9, 1982 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Various research studies on this topic are reviewed, including the effects of food on brain biochemistry (particularly sleep) and effects of tryptophane as a pain reducer. (JN)

  13. Cafeteria Food. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2005-01-01

    Currently, high school students account for 60% of food sold in cafeterias. School lunches should provide 33% of the students' energy intake, however, according to some research, it was found that it tends to only provide 19% because of the sale of "competitive" foods. Research by the U.S. Department of Agriculture found that girls ages…

  14. Functional foods innovations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The aim of the Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit (DFFRU), ERRC, ARS, USDA, is to improve human health and well being by developing functional food and consumer products that utilize milk and fruit and vegetable processing residues of specialty crops. Major research approaches involve: biotec...

  15. Food Crystalization and Eggs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Food Crystalization and Eggs Deana R. Jones, Ph.D. USDA Agricultural Research Service Egg Safety and Quality Research Unit Athens, Georgia, USA Deana.Jones@ars.usda.gov Sugar, salt, lactose, tartaric acid and ice are examples of constituents than can crystallize in foods. Crystallization in a foo...

  16. Rebuilding the Food Pyramid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willet, Walter C.; Stampfer, Meir J.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the old food guide pyramid released in 1992 by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Contradicts the message that fat is bad, which was presented to the public by nutritionists, and the effects of plant oils on cholesterol. Introduces a new food pyramid. (YDS)

  17. Measuring Children's Food Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, Leann L.; Sullivan, Susan A.

    1991-01-01

    Measures of preference are useful predictors of children's food consumption patterns. The paper discusses children's affective response to food and describes the preference assessment procedure which obtains information on children's likes and dislikes. The methodology helps investigate factors influencing development of preferences and food…

  18. Survival Kit - Food Kit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1962-10-01

    S62-08742 (1962) --- Food kit used by Mercury astronauts. Some is dehydrated and needs water, other packets are ready to eat. Size is measured relative to a ruler. Included are packets of mushroom soup, orange-grapefruit juice, cocoa beverage, pineapple juice, chicken with gravy, pears, strawberries, beef and vegetables and other assorted food containers. Photo credit: NASA

  19. Survival Kit - Food Kit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1962-10-01

    S62-08743 (1962) --- Food kit used by Mercury astronauts. Some is dehydrated and needs water, other packets are ready to eat. Size is measured relative to a ruler. Included are packets of mushroom soup, orange-grapefruit juice, cocoa beverage, pineapple juice, chicken with gravy, pears, strawberries, beef and vegetables and other assorted food containers. Photo credit: NASA

  20. Food Service Fundamentals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on food service fundamentals is designed to provide a general background in the basic aspects of the food service program in the Marine Corps; it is adaptable for nonmilitary instruction. Introductory materials include specific information for MCI…

  1. Pricing a Convenience Food.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabor, Andre

    1980-01-01

    Discusses a study undertaken by the Nottingham University Consumer Study Group to determine market operation for popular convenience foods in England. Information is presented on distribution of purchases, brand loyalties of respondents to a questionnaire regarding convenience foods, and market fluctuation due to inflation. (Author/DB)

  2. Making Smart Food Choices

    MedlinePlus

    ... weight, balance the calories you take in from food and beverages with the calories burned through physical activity. VISIT ... and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). Read More "Healthy Aging" ... / Making Smart Food Choices / What's On Your Plate? Winter 2015 Issue: ...

  3. [Chemical food contaminants].

    PubMed

    Schrenk, D

    2004-09-01

    Chemical food contaminants are substances which are neither present naturally in the usual raw material used for food production nor are added during the regular production process. Examples are environmental pollutants or contaminants derived from agricultural production of crops or livestock or from inadequate manufacturing of the food product itself. More difficult is the classification of those compounds formed during regular manufacturing such as products of thermal processes including flavoring substances. In these cases, it is common practice to call those compounds contaminants which are known for their adverse effects such as acrylamide, whereas constituents which add to the food-specific flavor such as Maillard products formed during roasting, baking etc. are not termed contaminants. From a toxicological viewpoint this distinction is not always clear-cut. Important groups of chemical contaminants are metals such as mercury or lead, persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls and related pollutants, which are regularly found in certain types of food originating from background levels of these compounds in our environment. Furthermore, natural toxins form microorganisms or plants, and compounds formed during thermal treatment of food are of major interest. In general, a scientific risk assessment has to be carried out for any known contaminant. This comprises an exposure analysis and a toxicological and epidemiological assessment. On these grounds, regulatory and/or technological measures can often improve the situation. Major conditions for a scientific risk assessment and a successful implementation of regulations are highly developed food quality control, food toxicology and nutritional epidemiology.

  4. Food Stamps: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Colin; And Others

    A voluminous body of literature exists on the topic of food stamps including the administration of the federal and state programs and the question of abuses and fraud. This bibliography describes a portion of that material in print. An introduction provides general information and a chronology of the food stamp program and comments on the place of…

  5. Wholesomeness of irradiated food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlermann, Dieter A. E.

    2016-12-01

    Just with the emergence of the idea to treat food by ionizing radiation, the concerns were voiced whether it would be safe to consume such food. Now, we look back on more than hundred years of research into the 'wholesomeness', a terminology developed during those efforts. This review will cover the many questions which had been raised, explaining the most relevant ones in some detail; it will also give place to the concerns and elucidate their scientific relevance and background. There has never been any other method of food processing studied in such depth and in such detail as food irradiation. The conclusion based on science is: Consumption of any food treated at any high dose is safe, as long as the food remains palatable. This conclusion has been adopted by WHO, also by international and national bodies. Finally, this finding has also been adopted by Codex Alimentarius in 2003, the international standard for food. However, this conclusion has not been adopted and included at its full extent in most national regulations. As the literature about wholesomeness of irradiated food is abundant, this review will use only a few, most relevant references, which will guide the reader to further reading.

  6. Trends in Food Packaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ott, Dana B.

    1988-01-01

    This article discusses developments in food packaging, processing, and preservation techniques in terms of packaging materials, technologies, consumer benefits, and current and potential food product applications. Covers implications due to consumer life-style changes, cost-effectiveness of packaging materials, and the ecological impact of…

  7. Perspective on food irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-02-01

    Recent US Food and Drug Administration approval of irradiation treatment for fruit, vegetables and pork has stimulated considerable discussion in the popular press on the safety and efficacy of irradiation processing of food. This perspective is designed to summarize the current scientific information available on this issue.

  8. Niigugim Qalgadangis (Atkan Food).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirks, Moses; Dirks, Lydia

    A history of food gathering and food preparation techniques of Alaska natives on Atka Island in the Aleutians are presented in Western Aleut and English with illustrations by J. Leslie Boffa and Mike Dirks. Directions are given for preparing: various plants, including wild rice; salted, dried, or smoked fish; baked flour; fried dough; boiled…

  9. Food and mood.

    PubMed

    Ottley, C

    A number of specific nutrients and other active substances in foods are thought to have a direct impact on mood. Carol Ottley explores the evidence linking food with aspects of mood and behaviour. Areas covered include premenstrual syndrome, chocolate craving, mood swings, and how we eat in relation to specific mood states such as fear, happiness and anxiety.

  10. Rethinking brain food

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    If omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids are the functional food du jour, then that "jour" must first have been the 5th day of creation (according to Genesis 1:21), when the marine fish were created and exhorted to be fruitful and multiply. The exact time when these marine species became "brain food" for peopl...

  11. Processing of food wastes.

    PubMed

    Kosseva, Maria R

    2009-01-01

    Every year almost 45 billion kg of fresh vegetables, fruits, milk, and grain products is lost to waste in the United States. According to the EPA, the disposal of this costs approximately $1 billion. In the United Kingdom, 20 million ton of food waste is produced annually. Every tonne of food waste means 4.5 ton of CO(2) emissions. The food wastes are generated largely by the fruit-and-vegetable/olive oil, fermentation, dairy, meat, and seafood industries. The aim of this chapter is to emphasize existing trends in the food waste processing technologies during the last 15 years. The chapter consists of three major parts, which distinguish recovery of added-value products (the upgrading concept), the food waste treatment technologies as well as the food chain management for sustainable food system development. The aim of the final part is to summarize recent research on user-oriented innovation in the food sector, emphasizing on circular structure of a sustainable economy.

  12. Food Service Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rappole, C. L.; Louvier, S. A.

    1985-01-01

    A study to design a food service system using current technology to serve a small scale Space Station was conducted. The psychological, sociological and nutritional factors affecting feeding in microgravity conditions was investigated. The logistics of the food service system was defined.

  13. Food Service Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rappole, C. L.; Louvier, S. A.

    1985-01-01

    A study to design a food service system using current technology to serve a small scale Space Station was conducted. The psychological, sociological and nutritional factors affecting feeding in microgravity conditions was investigated. The logistics of the food service system was defined.

  14. Food Service Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This handbook presents a competency-based curriculum that provides information to teachers and administrators planning a secondary food service program in Alaska. The organization of the handbook is similar to the work stations commonly found in food service operations, although some competency areas, such as sanitation and safety and the care and…

  15. Food Service Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rifenbark, Ray

    This annotated bibliography included summaries of 14 articles and one report dealing with the topic of school and college food service programs. A brief introduction discusses the current trend toward more diversified use of food service facilities and describes recent innovations in the preparation and distribution of students' meals. Many of the…

  16. Niigugim Qalgadangis (Atkan Food).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirks, Moses; Dirks, Lydia

    A history of food gathering and food preparation techniques of Alaska natives on Atka Island in the Aleutians are presented in Western Aleut and English with illustrations by J. Leslie Boffa and Mike Dirks. Directions are given for preparing: various plants, including wild rice; salted, dried, or smoked fish; baked flour; fried dough; boiled…

  17. Food and Drug Interactions.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jong Hwan; Ko, Chang Mann

    2017-01-01

    Natural foods and vegetal supplements have recently become increasingly popular for their roles in medicine and as staple foods. This has, however, led to the increased risk of interaction between prescribed drugs and the bioactive ingredients contained in these foods. These interactions range from pharmacokinetic interactions (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion influencing blood levels of drugs) to pharmacodynamic interactions (drug effects). In a quantitative respect, these interactions occur mainly during metabolism. In addition to the systemic metabolism that occurs mainly in the liver, recent studies have focused on the metabolism in the gastrointestinal tract endothelium before absorption. Inhibition of metabolism causes an increase in the blood levels of drugs and could have adverse reactions. The food-drug interactions causing increased blood levels of drugs may have beneficial or detrimental therapeutic effects depending on the intensity and predictability of these interactions. It is therefore important to understand the potential interactions between foods and drugs should and the specific outcomes of such interactions.

  18. Food allergy in children.

    PubMed

    Baral, V R; Hourihane, J O'B

    2005-11-01

    Food allergy is being increasingly recognised with the highest prevalence being in preschool children. Pathogenesis varies so diagnosis rests on careful history and clinical examination, appropriate use of skin prick and serum-specific IgE testing, food challenge, and supervised elimination diets. A double blind placebo controlled food challenge is the gold standard diagnostic test. Avoidance of the allergenic food is the key towards successful management. IgE mediated food allergy may present as a potentially fatal anaphylactic reaction, and management consists of the appropriate use of adrenaline (epinephrine) and supportive measures. Sensitisation remains a key target for intervention. Disease modifying agents are currently under trial for managing difficult allergies. Management requires a multidisciplinary approach and follow up.

  19. Food waste management using an electrostatic separator with corona discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Koonchun; Lim, Sooking; Teh, Pehchiong

    2015-05-01

    In Malaysia, municipal solid waste contains a high portion of organic matters, typically contributed by food waste. It is estimated that about 45% of the municipal waste are food waste, followed by the non-food waste such as plastics, metals, glass and others. Food waste, while being properly sorted and contamination free from non-food waste, can be reused (e.g. fertiliser) instead of being landfilled. Therefore, recycling of food waste is crucial not only from the view point of waste management, but also with respect to the reduction of resource losses and greenhouse gases emission. A new waste separation process involved food particles, non-food particles and electrostatic discharge was investigated in this study. The empirical results reveal that the corona electrostatic separation is an environmental-friendly way in recovering foods from municipal waste. The efficiency of the separator, under same operating conditions, varies with the particle size of the food and non-food particles. The highest efficiency of 82% is recorded for the particle sizes between 1.5 and 3.0 mm.

  20. Food waste management using an electrostatic separator with corona discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Koonchun; Teh, Pehchiong; Lim, Sooking

    2015-05-15

    In Malaysia, municipal solid waste contains a high portion of organic matters, typically contributed by food waste. It is estimated that about 45% of the municipal waste are food waste, followed by the non-food waste such as plastics, metals, glass and others. Food waste, while being properly sorted and contamination free from non-food waste, can be reused (e.g. fertiliser) instead of being landfilled. Therefore, recycling of food waste is crucial not only from the view point of waste management, but also with respect to the reduction of resource losses and greenhouse gases emission. A new waste separation process involved food particles, non-food particles and electrostatic discharge was investigated in this study. The empirical results reveal that the corona electrostatic separation is an environmental-friendly way in recovering foods from municipal waste. The efficiency of the separator, under same operating conditions, varies with the particle size of the food and non-food particles. The highest efficiency of 82% is recorded for the particle sizes between 1.5 and 3.0 mm.

  1. Who regulates food? Australians' perceptions of responsibility for food safety.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Julie; Coveney, John; Ward, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Food scares have diminished trust in public institutions to guarantee food safety. Food governance after the food scare era is concerned with institutional independence and transparency leading to a hybrid of public and private sector management and to mechanisms for consumer involvement in food governance. This paper explores Australian consumers' perceptions of who is, and should be responsible for food safety. Forty-seven participants were interviewed as part of a larger study on trust in the food system. Participants associate food governance with government, industry, and the individual. While few participants can name the national food regulator, there is a strong belief that the government is responsible for regulating the quality and safety of food. Participants are wary of the role of the food industry in food safety, believing that profit motives will undermine effective food regulation. Personal responsibility for food safety practices was also identified. While there are fewer mechanisms for consumer involvement and transparency built into the food governance system, Australian consumers display considerable trust in government to protect food safety. There is little evidence of the politicisation of food, reflecting a level of trust in the Australian food governance system that may arise from a lack of exposure to major food scares.

  2. Food Safety, Farm to Fork.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rebecca

    1998-01-01

    In response to growing threat of food-borne illness, the federal government launched the Food Safety Initiative. A key element is the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points system (HACCP), designed to make everyone in the food-delivery chain responsible for ensuring a safe food supply. The Food and Drug Administration also announced a beef…

  3. Food Safety, Farm to Fork.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rebecca

    1998-01-01

    In response to growing threat of food-borne illness, the federal government launched the Food Safety Initiative. A key element is the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points system (HACCP), designed to make everyone in the food-delivery chain responsible for ensuring a safe food supply. The Food and Drug Administration also announced a beef…

  4. Food Labels Tell the Story!

    MedlinePlus

    ... My World From the Label to the Table! Food Labels Tell the Story! What is in food? Food provides your body with all of the ... your food choices. Nutrition Facts—the Labels on Food Products Beginning in 1994, the US government began ...

  5. Food safety knowledge retention study.

    PubMed

    Hislop, Nyall; Shaw, Keara

    2009-02-01

    Foodborne illness in Canada is an ongoing burden for public health and the economy. Many foodborne illnesses result from improper food handling practices. If food handlers had a greater knowledge of what causes foodborne illness, perhaps these illnesses would have less of an impact on society. This study gave researchers the opportunity to examine the current food safety knowledge of food handlers by using a standardized questionnaire. Questionnaires were distributed by environmental health officers to food handlers working in the food service industry during on-site inspections, and responses were used to evaluate immediate knowledge of key food safety issues. Both certified and noncertified food handlers were evaluated. Information also was collected on the number of years since food safety certification was achieved and the number of years experience noncertified food handlers had in the food service industry. Results indicated that certified food handlers had a greater knowledge of food safety information than did noncertified food handlers. The highest failure rates were observed among noncertified food handlers with more than 10 years of experience and less than 1 year of experience. The results support the need for mandatory food safety certification for workers in the food service industry and for recertification at least every 10 years. Although the study was not sufficiently rigorous to evaluate existing food safety courses, data collected provided valuable insight into what issues should be emphasized in existing food safety courses and which should be targeted by future food safety initiatives.

  6. Stress exposure, food intake and emotional state.

    PubMed

    Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M; Fulton, Stephanie; Wilson, Mark; Petrovich, Gorica; Rinaman, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript summarizes the proceedings of the symposium entitled, "Stress, Palatable Food and Reward", that was chaired by Drs. Linda Rinaman and Yvonne Ulrich-Lai at the 2014 Neurobiology of Stress Workshop held in Cincinnati, OH. This symposium comprised research presentations by four neuroscientists whose work focuses on the biological bases for complex interactions among stress, food intake and emotion. First, Dr Ulrich-Lai describes her rodent research exploring mechanisms by which the rewarding properties of sweet palatable foods confer stress relief. Second, Dr Stephanie Fulton discusses her work in which excessive, long-term intake of dietary lipids, as well as their subsequent withdrawal, promotes stress-related outcomes in mice. Third, Dr Mark Wilson describes his group's research examining the effects of social hierarchy-related stress on food intake and diet choice in group-housed female rhesus macaques, and compared the data from monkeys to results obtained in analogous work using rodents. Finally, Dr Gorica Petrovich discusses her research program that is aimed at defining cortical-amygdalar-hypothalamic circuitry responsible for curbing food intake during emotional threat (i.e. fear anticipation) in rats. Their collective results reveal the complexity of physiological and behavioral interactions that link stress, food intake and emotional state, and suggest new avenues of research to probe the impact of genetic, metabolic, social, experiential and environmental factors on these interactions.

  7. Stress Exposure, Food Intake, and Emotional State

    PubMed Central

    Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M.; Fulton, Stephanie; Wilson, Mark; Petrovich, Gorica; Rinaman, Linda

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript summarizes the proceedings of the symposium entitled, “Stress, Palatable Food and Reward”, that was chaired by Drs. Linda Rinaman and Yvonne Ulrich-Lai at the 2014 Neurobiology of Stress Workshop held in Cincinnati, OH. This symposium comprised research presentations by four neuroscientists whose work focuses on the biological bases for complex interactions among stress, food intake and emotion. First, Dr. Ulrich-Lai describes her rodent research exploring mechanisms by which the rewarding properties of sweet palatable foods confer stress relief. Second, Dr. Stephanie Fulton discusses her work in which excessive, long-term intake of dietary lipids, as well as their subsequent withdrawal, promotes stress-related outcomes in mice. Third, Dr. Mark Wilson describes his group’s research examining the effects of social hierarchy-related stress on food intake and diet choice in group-housed female rhesus macaques, and compared the data from monkeys to results obtained in analogous work using rodents. Lastly, Dr. Gorica Petrovich discusses her research program that is aimed at defining cortical–amygdalar–hypothalamic circuitry responsible for curbing food intake during emotional threat (i.e., fear anticipation) in rats. Their collective results reveal the complexity of physiological and behavioral interactions that link stress, food intake and emotional state, and suggest new avenues of research to probe the impact of genetic, metabolic, social, experiential, and environmental factors. PMID:26303312

  8. Using Insects to Make Healthy Space Foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Kok, Robert; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    Providing foods to space crew is the important requirements to support long term manned space exploration. Foods fill not only physiological requirements to sustain life, but psychological needs for refreshment and joy during the long and hard mission to extraterrestrial planets. We designed joyful and healthy recipe with materials (plants, insects, fish et.cet. la.), which can be produced by the bio-regenerative agricultural system operated at limited resources available in spaceship or on Moon and Mars. And we need to get the storage method of the food without the problem of food poisoning. The consideration about the food allergy is necessary, too. Nutritional analysis on the basic vegetable menu consisting of rice, barley, soybean, sweet potato cassava, quinoa and green reveals a shortage of vitamins D and B12, cholesterol and sodium salt. Since vitamin D deficiency results in demineralization of bone. Vitamin B12 is essential to prevent pernicious anemia. Fish contains both vitamins D and B12. The pupa of the silkworm becomes the important nourishment source as protein and lipid. The silk thread uses it as clothing and cosmetics and medical supplies. However, we can use the silk thread as food as protein. A law of nature shakes high quality oils and fats included in termite for cooking. I use the bee as food after having used it for the pollination of the plant. Of course the honey becomes the important food, too. The snail and mud snail become the food as protein. We decided to use the menu consisting of the basic vegetarian menu plus insect and loach for further conceptual design of space agriculture. We succeeded to develop joyful and nutritious space recipe at the end. Since energy consumption for physical exercise activities under micro-or sub-gravity is less than the terrestrial case, choice of our space foods is essential to suppress blood sugar level, and prevent the metabolic syndrome. Because of less need of agricultural resources at choosing

  9. Introduction to Food Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, S. Suzanne

    Investigations in food science and technology, whether by the food industry, governmental agencies, or universities, often require determination of food composition and characteristics. Trends and demands of consumers, the food industry, and national and international regulations challenge food scientists as they work to monitor food composition and to ensure the quality and safety of the food supply. All food products require analysis as part of a quality management program throughout the development process (including raw ingredients), through production, and after a product is in the market. In addition, analysis is done of problem samples and competitor products. The characteristics of foods (i.e., chemical composition, physical properties, sensory properties) are used to answer specific questions for regulatory purposes and typical quality control. The nature of the sample and the specific reason for the analysis commonly dictate the choice of analytical methods. Speed, precision, accuracy, and ruggedness often are key factors in this choice. Validation of the method for the specific food matrix being analyzed is necessary to ensure usefulness of the method. Making an appropriate choice of the analytical technique for a specific application requires a good knowledge of the various techniques (Fig. 1.1). For example, your choice of method to determine the salt content of potato chips would be different if it is for nutrition labeling than for quality control. The success of any analytical method relies on the proper selection and preparation of the food sample, carefully performing the analysis, and doing the appropriate calculations and interpretation of the data. Methods of analysis developed and endorsed by several nonprofit scientific organizations allow for standardized comparisons of results between different laboratories and for evaluation of less standard procedures. Such official methods are critical in the analysis of foods, to ensure that they meet

  10. Brain regions and molecular pathways responding to food reward type and value in honey bees.

    PubMed

    McNeill, M S; Kapheim, K M; Brockmann, A; McGill, T A W; Robinson, G E

    2016-03-01

    The ability of honey bees to evaluate differences in food type and value is crucial for colony success, but these assessments are made by individuals who bring food to the hive, eating little, if any, of it themselves. We tested the hypothesis that responses to food type (pollen or nectar) and value involve different subsets of brain regions, and genes responsive to food. mRNA in situ hybridization of c-jun revealed that brain regions responsive to differences in food type were mostly different from regions responsive to differences in food value, except those dorsal and lateral to the mushroom body calyces, which responded to all three. Transcriptomic profiles of the mushroom bodies generated by RNA sequencing gave the following results: (1) responses to differences in food type or value included a subset of molecular pathways involved in the response to food reward; (2) genes responsive to food reward, food type and food value were enriched for (the Gene Ontology categories) mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum activity; (3) genes responsive to only food and food type were enriched for regulation of transcription and translation; and (4) genes responsive to only food and food value were enriched for regulation of neuronal signaling. These results reveal how activities necessary for colony survival are channeled through the reward system of individual honey bees. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  11. Exposure to food advertising on television: associations with children's fast food and soft drink consumption and obesity.

    PubMed

    Andreyeva, Tatiana; Kelly, Inas Rashad; Harris, Jennifer L

    2011-07-01

    There is insufficient research on the direct effects of food advertising on children's diet and diet-related health, particularly in non-experimental settings. We employ a nationally-representative sample from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) and the Nielsen Company data on spot television advertising of cereals, fast food restaurants and soft drinks to children across the top 55 designated-market areas to estimate the relation between exposure to food advertising on television and children's food consumption and body weight. Our results suggest that soft drink and fast food television advertising is associated with increased consumption of soft drinks and fast food among elementary school children (Grade 5). Exposure to 100 incremental TV ads for sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drinks during 2002-2004 was associated with a 9.4% rise in children's consumption of soft drinks in 2004. The same increase in exposure to fast food advertising was associated with a 1.1% rise in children's consumption of fast food. There was no detectable link between advertising exposure and average body weight, but fast food advertising was significantly associated with body mass index for overweight and obese children (≥85th BMI percentile), revealing detectable effects for a vulnerable group of children. Exposure to advertising for calorie-dense nutrient-poor foods may increase overall consumption of unhealthy food categories.

  12. Changing food patterns across the seasons in rural Pakistan: analysis of food variety, dietary diversity and calorie intake.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Abid; Zulfiqar, Farhad; Saboor, Abdul

    2014-01-01

    This comparative study investigated variations in food patterns across the seasons in rural Pakistan through assessing the changes in food variety, dietary diversity and calorie intake. It analyzed the situation using the primary information of 97 and 114 households surveyed in summer and winter respectively. Findings revealed a significant difference of households' food variety, dietary diversity and calorie intake across the seasons. In the winter, households' food basket was more diverse, showing 30%, 13%, and 8% rise in food variety, dietary diversity, and caloric intake, respectively, due mainly to the changes in food choices in winter. Rural households preferred to consume items from nutritious food groups (i.e., dried fruits and nuts, oilseeds, and locally preserved foods) during the severe cold weather. However, they did not substitute significantly the items from basic food groups (i.e., cereals, vegetables and legumes, tubers, and dairy products), with those belonging to nutritious groups. Based on findings, it is concluded that food variety, dietary diversity and calorie intake fluctuate across the seasons, therefore surveys of dietary patterns and calorie intake in one particular season may not be reliable, and food security status of households may not be generalized on the basis of one season survey.

  13. Severe Allergic Reactions to Food in Norway: A Ten Year Survey of Cases Reported to the Food Allergy Register

    PubMed Central

    Namork, Ellen; Fæste, Christiane K.; Stensby, Berit A.; Egaas, Eliann; Løvik, Martinus

    2011-01-01

    The Norwegian Food Allergy Register was established at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health in 2000. The purpose of the register is to gain information about severe allergic reactions to food in Norway and to survey food products in relation to allergen labelling and contamination. Cases are reported on a voluntary basis by first line doctors, and submitted together with a serum sample for specific IgE analysis. The register has received a total of 877 reports from 1 July, 2000 to 31 December, 2010. Two age groups, small children and young adults are over-represented, and the overall gender distribution is 40:60 males-females. The legumes lupine and fenugreek have been identified as two “new” allergens in processed foods and cases of contamination and faults in production of processed foods have been revealed. The highest frequency of food specific IgE is to hazelnuts and peanuts, with a marked increase in reactions to hazelnuts during the last three years. The Food Allergy Register has improved our knowledge about causes and severity of food allergic reactions in Norway. The results show the usefulness of population based national food allergy registers in providing information for health authorities and to secure safe food for individuals with food allergies. PMID:21909296

  14. Food Processing Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    When NASA started plarning for manned space travel in 1959, the myriad challenges of sustaining life in space included a seemingly mundane but vitally important problem: How and what do you feed an astronaut? There were two main concerns: preventing food crumbs from contaminating the spacecraft's atmosphere or floating into sensitive instruments, and ensuring complete freedom from potentially catastrophic disease-producing bacteria, viruses, and toxins. To solve these concerns, NASA enlisted the help of the Pillsbury Company. Pillsbury quickly solved the first problem by coating bite-size foods to prevent crumbling. They developed the hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) concept to ensure against bacterial contamination. Hazard analysis is a systematic study of product, its ingredients, processing conditions, handling, storage, packing, distribution, and directions for consumer use to identify sensitive areas that might prove hazardous. Hazard analysis provides a basis for blueprinting the Critical Control Points (CCPs) to be monitored. CCPs are points in the chain from raw materials to the finished product where loss of control could result in unacceptable food safety risks. In early 1970, Pillsbury plants were following HACCP in production of food for Earthbound consumers. Pillsbury's subsequent training courses for Food and Drug Administration (FDA) personnel led to the incorporation of HACCP in the FDA's Low Acid Canned Foods Regulations, set down in the mid-1970s to ensure the safety of all canned food products in the U.S.

  15. Modeling Sustainable Food Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Thomas; Prosperi, Paolo

    2016-05-01

    The processes underlying environmental, economic, and social unsustainability derive in part from the food system. Building sustainable food systems has become a predominating endeavor aiming to redirect our food systems and policies towards better-adjusted goals and improved societal welfare. Food systems are complex social-ecological systems involving multiple interactions between human and natural components. Policy needs to encourage public perception of humanity and nature as interdependent and interacting. The systemic nature of these interdependencies and interactions calls for systems approaches and integrated assessment tools. Identifying and modeling the intrinsic properties of the food system that will ensure its essential outcomes are maintained or enhanced over time and across generations, will help organizations and governmental institutions to track progress towards sustainability, and set policies that encourage positive transformations. This paper proposes a conceptual model that articulates crucial vulnerability and resilience factors to global environmental and socio-economic changes, postulating specific food and nutrition security issues as priority outcomes of food systems. By acknowledging the systemic nature of sustainability, this approach allows consideration of causal factor dynamics. In a stepwise approach, a logical application is schematized for three Mediterranean countries, namely Spain, France, and Italy.

  16. Revealing power in truth

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kelley

    2015-01-01

    Jeremy Shiffman’s editorial appropriately calls on making all forms of power more apparent and accountable, notably productive power derived from expertise and claims to moral authority. This commentary argues that relationships based on productive power can be especially difficult to reveal in global health policy because of embedded notions about the nature of power and politics. Yet, it is essential to recognize that global health is shot through with power relationships, that they can take many forms, and that their explicit acknowledgement should be part of, rather than factored out of, any reform of global health governance. PMID:25844390

  17. Hybrid Food Preservation Program Improves Food Preservation and Food Safety Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Sarah L.

    2014-01-01

    The growing trend in home food preservation raises concerns about whether the resulting food products will be safe to eat. The increased public demand for food preservation information led to the development of the comprehensive food preservation program, Preserve the Taste of Summer (PTTS). PTTS is a comprehensive hybrid food preservation program…

  18. Hybrid Food Preservation Program Improves Food Preservation and Food Safety Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Sarah L.

    2014-01-01

    The growing trend in home food preservation raises concerns about whether the resulting food products will be safe to eat. The increased public demand for food preservation information led to the development of the comprehensive food preservation program, Preserve the Taste of Summer (PTTS). PTTS is a comprehensive hybrid food preservation program…

  19. Food environment and obesity.

    PubMed

    Mattes, Richard; Foster, Gary D

    2014-12-01

    The food environment plays an important and often dominant role in food choice, eating patterns, and ultimately, energy intake. The Obesity Society and the American Society for Nutrition jointly sponsored a series of reviews on topics of interest to both memberships. The goal was to consider the state of understanding on selected issues related to the food environment and obesity and to identify key knowledge gaps. The first article (not necessarily of importance) targeted energy density (ED) and focuses on the role of ED in the regulation of energy intake and body weight. It offers recommendations for prioritizing research. The second article addresses economic factors and examines food and beverage purchases as a function of price changes. It concludes that targeted food taxes and subsidies alone are unlikely to substantially affect obesity. The third article concerns sweetened beverages and points out the difficulty in establishing the strength of the association between intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain and obesity. In the fourth article, the contributions of palatability and variety to eating behavior and weight are reviewed. Article five explores the influence of portion size on energy intake and weight management. It finds that consumers generally tend to eat proportionally more as portion size increases. The sixth article focuses on the efficacy and effectiveness of eating frequency manipulations for body weight management and finds that such manipulations have consistently yielded null results. Finally, article seven identifies several limitations of the existing literature regarding neighborhood access to healthy foods. This series of reviews addresses important questions regarding the contribution of the food environment to obesity. Independent of physiological/genetic determinants, factors such as ED, cost, food form, palatability, variety, portion size, eating frequency, and access to healthy food are each evaluated for their role in

  20. Food-drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Bushra, Rabia; Aslam, Nousheen; Khan, Arshad Yar

    2011-03-01

    The effect of drug on a person may be different than expected because that drug interacts with another drug the person is taking (drug-drug interaction), food, beverages, dietary supplements the person is consuming (drug-nutrient/food interaction) or another disease the person has (drug-disease interaction). A drug interaction is a situation in which a substance affects the activity of a drug, i.e. the effects are increased or decreased, or they produce a new effect that neither produces on its own. These interactions may occur out of accidental misuse or due to lack of knowledge about the active ingredients involved in the relevant substances. Regarding food-drug interactions physicians and pharmacists recognize that some foods and drugs, when taken simultaneously, can alter the body's ability to utilize a particular food or drug, or cause serious side effects. Clinically significant drug interactions, which pose potential harm to the patient, may result from changes in pharmaceutical, pharmacokinetic, or pharmacodynamic properties. Some may be taken advantage of, to the benefit of patients, but more commonly drug interactions result in adverse drug events. Therefore it is advisable for patients to follow the physician and doctors instructions to obtain maximum benefits with least food-drug interactions. The literature survey was conducted by extracting data from different review and original articles on general or specific drug interactions with food. This review gives information about various interactions between different foods and drugs and will help physicians and pharmacists prescribe drugs cautiously with only suitable food supplement to get maximum benefit for the patient.

  1. The Role and Status of Food and Nutrition Literacy in Canadian School Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Heather; Falkenberg, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The obesity epidemic in North America has given greater attention to food and nutrition literacy in Canadian schools. However, the review of relevant literature on food and nutrition literacy reveals quite a range of understandings of what such literacy means. This raises the question of what understanding of food and nutrition literacy is…

  2. The Role and Status of Food and Nutrition Literacy in Canadian School Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Heather; Falkenberg, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The obesity epidemic in North America has given greater attention to food and nutrition literacy in Canadian schools. However, the review of relevant literature on food and nutrition literacy reveals quite a range of understandings of what such literacy means. This raises the question of what understanding of food and nutrition literacy is…

  3. Food For Elderly -Space Benefits

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-10-08

    View of men packaging special food for the elderly, a spinoff program from the space program under auspices of Technology Utilization Program. Men and food are in the Bldg.37, where food has been stowed.

  4. Food For Elderly -Space Benefits

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-10-08

    View of men packaging special food for the elderly, a spinoff program from the space program under auspices of Technology Utilization Program. Men and food are in the Bldg.37, where food has been stowed

  5. Food Allergy Treatment for Hyperkinesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, Doris J.

    1979-01-01

    Eleven hyperactive children (6 to 15 years old) were treated with a food extract after titration food allergy testing. They remained improved for 1 to 3 months while ingesting the foods to which they were sensitive. (Author)

  6. Food Allergy Treatment for Hyperkinesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, Doris J.

    1979-01-01

    Eleven hyperactive children (6 to 15 years old) were treated with a food extract after titration food allergy testing. They remained improved for 1 to 3 months while ingesting the foods to which they were sensitive. (Author)

  7. Shall We License Food Handlers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ben Meyr, Berl

    1973-01-01

    This article, reprinted from "The Sanitarian" of May/June 1946, supports a resolution passed by the National Association of Sanitarians advocating the examination of food handlers and operators of food establishments on basic knowledge relating to food sanitation. (JR)

  8. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  9. Food and water supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popov, I. G.

    1975-01-01

    Supplying astronauts with adequate food and water on short and long-term space flights is discussed based on experiences gained in space flight. Food consumption, energy requirements, and suitability of the foodstuffs for space flight are among the factors considered. Physicochemical and biological methods of food production and regeneration of water from astronaut metabolic wastes, as well as wastes produced in a closed ecological system, or as a result of technical processes taking place in various spacecraft systems are suggested for long-term space flights.

  10. SKYLAB (SL) - MANUFACTURING (FOOD)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-12-30

    S72-15409 (1972) --- A close-up view of a food tray which is scheduled to be used in the Skylab program. Several packages of space food lie beside the tray. The food in the tray is ready to eat. Out of tray, starting from bottom left: grape drink, beef pot roast, chicken and rice, beef sandwiches and sugar cookie cubes. In tray, from back left: orange drink, strawberries, asparagus, prime rib, dinner roll and butterscotch pudding in the center. Photo credit: NASA

  11. Waste from food processors

    SciTech Connect

    Sheehan, K.

    1993-12-01

    Food processing companies, by nature of the commodities they deal in and the products they provide, generate a much higher percentage of biodegradable, organic wastes than they do nonorganic wastes. The high percentage of food materials, and to a lesser extent, paper, found in a food processor's waste stream makes composting a highly cost-effective way to manage the wastes. This is the last in a series of articles that discussed solid waste management in various public arenas. Each segment highlighted particulars -- the waste stream; how the waste is handled; waste reduction and recovery programs; and the direction of future waste management -- that are specific to that area.

  12. Food and water supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popov, I. G.

    1975-01-01

    Supplying astronauts with adequate food and water on short and long-term space flights is discussed based on experiences gained in space flight. Food consumption, energy requirements, and suitability of the foodstuffs for space flight are among the factors considered. Physicochemical and biological methods of food production and regeneration of water from astronaut metabolic wastes, as well as wastes produced in a closed ecological system, or as a result of technical processes taking place in various spacecraft systems are suggested for long-term space flights.

  13. Food packing optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The development of a universal closure lid for the space shuttle food package is reported. The revised lid needs a folded configuration which, when unfolded, fully conforms to the interior surfaces of the food cup. Experimental thermoform molds were fabricated and test lids formed. The lid material not in contact with the food conformed to the cup interior without wrinkles, permitting full nesting of the cups. The final lid design was established and thermoform tooling designed and fabricated. Lids formed on these molds were tested for strength. The heating elements were replaced and repositioned to eliminate any hot spots which may cause warpage.

  14. The Universe Revealed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, Pam

    1998-10-01

    The Universe is a bewildering place to the uninitiated. The concepts and theories that govern space seem complex and often contradictory. The Universe Revealed provides the keys to unlocking the wonders of the cosmos. Elegantly written and lavishly illustrated, it begins with the Sun and stretches through our solar system into deepest space. Lucid prose, written by many of the people who have shaped our current thinking on space, and spectacular photographs make the physics of the Universe accessible and provide a solid background for understanding the most recent astronomical discoveries. Covering the most intriguing features of the cosmos, the topics discussed range from the Earth and global warming to cosmic collisions and the size of the Universe. Major sections examine the Solar System, stars, galaxies, cosmology, and the observational techniques used by astronomers, both amateur and professional. The Universe Revealed represents the collaboration of internationally renowned experts in astronomy and cosmology, with contributions from authors including David Malin, F. Duccio Macchetto, Iain Nicholson, Neil Bone, Ian Ridpath, Seth Shostak, Mike Lancaster, Steve Miller, Ken Croswell, Geoff McNamara, and Steven Young. This extraordinary blend of astronomy, astrophysics, and cosmology, will appeal to amateur and armchair astronomers alike.

  15. Mysterious Blob Galaxies Revealed

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-01-11

    This image composite shows a giant galactic blob (red) and the three merging galaxies NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope discovered within it (yellow). Blobs are intensely glowing clouds of hot hydrogen gas that envelop faraway galaxies. They are about 10 times as large as the galaxies they surround. Visible-light images reveal the vast extent of blobs, but don't provide much information about their host galaxies. Using its heat-seeking infrared eyes, Spitzer was able to see the dusty galaxies tucked inside one well-known blob located 11 billion light-years away. The findings reveal three monstrously bright galaxies, trillions of times brighter than the Sun, in the process of merging together. Spitzer also observed three other blobs located in the same cosmic neighborhood, all of which were found to be glaringly bright. One of these blobs is also known to be a galactic merger, only between two galaxies instead of three. It remains to be seen whether the final two blobs studied also contain mergers. The Spitzer data were acquired by its multiband imaging photometer. The visible-light image was taken by the Blanco Telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Chile. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA07220

  16. Nutrition program for the elderly: participants' perception of food quality by type of food service system.

    PubMed

    Kendrick, O W; Slezak, D

    1989-01-01

    A survey of 1028 clients who participated in 21 nutrition sites for the elderly funded by the Suburban Cook County Area Agency on Aging in Chicago, Illinois revealed that participants who received meals prepared on-site were more satisfied with the quality of the meals than participants who received meals that were satellited as hot bulk food or as preplated cook/freeze meals. Participants who judged the meals as fair or poor were more likely than those who rated the food as excellent or good to respond that they would increase their donation if the food were improved. Data from a national survey used as a standard for judging participant satisfaction of food service are presented in this article.

  17. A practical view of immunotherapy for food allergy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is common and sometimes life threatening for Korean children. The current standard treatment of allergen avoidance and self-injectable epinephrine does not change the natural course of food allergy. Recently, oral, sublingual, and epicutaneous immunotherapies have been studied for their effectiveness against food allergy. While various rates of desensitization (36% to 100%) and tolerance (28% to 75%) have been induced by immunotherapies for food allergy, no single established protocol has been shown to be both effective and safe. In some studies, immunologic changes after immunotherapy for food allergy have been revealed. Adverse reactions to these immunotherapies have usually been localized, but severe systemic reactions have been observed in some cases. Although immunotherapy cannot be recommended for routine practice yet, results from recent studies demonstrate that immunotherapies are promising for the treatment of food allergy. PMID:26958062

  18. Sensory detection of food rapidly modulates arcuate feeding circuits.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yiming; Lin, Yen-Chu; Kuo, Tzu-Wei; Knight, Zachary A

    2015-02-26

    Hunger is controlled by specialized neural circuits that translate homeostatic needs into motivated behaviors. These circuits are under chronic control by circulating signals of nutritional state, but their rapid dynamics on the timescale of behavior remain unknown. Here, we report optical recording of the natural activity of two key cell types that control food intake, AgRP and POMC neurons, in awake behaving mice. We find unexpectedly that the sensory detection of food is sufficient to rapidly reverse the activation state of these neurons induced by energy deficit. This rapid regulation is cell-type specific, modulated by food palatability and nutritional state, and occurs before any food is consumed. These data reveal that AgRP and POMC neurons receive real-time information about the availability of food in the external world, suggesting a primary role for these neurons in controlling appetitive behaviors such as foraging that promote the discovery of food.

  19. Sensory detection of food rapidly modulates arcuate feeding circuits

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yiming; Lin, Yen-Chu; Kuo, Tzu-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Summary Hunger is controlled by specialized neural circuits that translate homeostatic needs into motivated behaviors. These circuits are under chronic control by circulating signals of nutritional state, but their rapid dynamics on the timescale of behavior remain unknown. Here we report optical recording of the natural activity of two key cell types that control food intake, AgRP and POMC neurons, in awake behaving mice. We find unexpectedly that the sensory detection of food is sufficient to rapidly reverse the activation state of these neurons induced by energy deficit. This rapid regulation is cell-type-specific, modulated by food palatability and nutritional state, and occurs before any food is consumed. These data reveal that AgRP and POMC neurons receive real-time information about the availability of food in the external world, suggesting a primary role for these neurons in controlling appetitive behaviors such as foraging that promote the discovery of food. PMID:25703096

  20. Feather corticosterone reveals developmental stress in seabirds.

    PubMed

    Will, Alexis P; Suzuki, Yuya; Elliott, Kyle H; Hatch, Scott A; Watanuki, Yutaka; Kitaysky, Alexander S

    2014-07-01

    In nest-bound avian offspring, food shortages typically trigger a release of the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT). Recent studies indicate that CORT is passively deposited in the tissue of growing feathers and thus may provide an integrated measure of stress incurred during development in the nest. The current hypothesis predicts that, assuming a constant rate of feather growth, elevated CORT circulating in the blood corresponds to higher levels of CORT in feather tissue, but experimental evidence for nutritionally stressed chicks is lacking. Here, we examined how food limitation affects feather CORT content in the rhinoceros auklet (Cerorhinca moncerata). We (i) used captive chicks reared on control versus restricted diets, and (ii) applied this technique to free-living chicks with unknown nutritional histories that fledged at three separate colonies. We found that (i) feather growth was not affected by experimentally induced nutritional stress; (ii) captive chicks raised on a restricted diet had higher levels of CORT in their primary feathers; (iii) feather CORT deposition is a sensitive method of detecting nutritional stress; and (iv) free-living fledglings from the colony with poor reproductive performance had higher CORT in their primary feathers. We conclude that feather CORT is a sensitive integrated measure revealing the temporal dynamics of food limitations experienced by rhinoceros auklet nestlings. The use of feather CORT may be a powerful endocrine tool in ecological and evolutionary studies of bird species with similar preferential allocation of limited resources to feather development.

  1. [Public food service in Milan city and Hinterland: food-handlers training level (Part 2)].

    PubMed

    Pontello, M; Dal Vecchio, A; Doria, M G; Bertini, I

    2005-01-01

    The prevention and control of foodborne diseases play an important role in public health and the responsibility of food-handlers is of great concern: their training on food safety is particularly required in the critical sector of public food service establishments. The food-handlers knowledge has been evaluated by a questionnaire filled up in two Public Health Units (PHU) in Milan City and Milan hinterland. Only 11.5% of food-handlers turned at to be good trained; the wrong answers are concentrated on the section titled "temperatures management" (68 and 59% in Milan City and in Milan hinterland, respectively). Only for 31.4% of food-handlers the attendance to training courses is well documented, although the knowledge level seems to be partially influenced by training activity: exclusively in Milan City food-handlers an highly significant difference has been found among "trained" and "no-trained" workers in correct answers about temperatures management (p= 0.0046). The frequency of exact answers isn't associated to the satisfaction level revealed during inspection of restaurants. Focusing the attention on the insufficient efficacy of training courses and the lacking connection between knowledge and behaviour, a critical revision of training activity quality seems to be necessary. In future some professional training activities in the field should be promoted.

  2. Measuring salient food attitudes and food-related values. An elaborated, conflicting and interdependent system.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Mirjam; Jonas, Klaus; Riemann, Rainer

    2011-10-01

    Consumer food choice behaviour in post-industrial countries is complex and influenced by a multitude of interacting variables. This study looked at the antecedents of behaviour and examined salient food-related values and attitudes. To discover personal meanings and patterns of everyday food choices across different situations we used a qualitative approach in the form of repertory grid interviews. An analysis of the personal constructs elicited from a representative sample of 100 Swiss consumers revealed elaborated value systems. The food-related values can be summarised as: authenticity/naturalness, conviviality, health, quality/indulgence, convenience, and price. The salience of these values and their negatively evaluated counterparts differed for various social eating situations and product categories. Consumers' personal values also differed significantly from their perception of current trends in eating culture. In every-day food choices interdependent food-related values compete and are thus a possible cause of ambivalence and conflicts. The findings offer explanations of discrepancies between values/attitudes and behaviour that may be due to situational constraints and habits. Implications for companies include the need for strategic realignment to regain consumers' trust by providing comprehensive value-congruent food solutions that also consider health and ethical criteria. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Identifying rural food deserts: Methodological considerations for food environment interventions.

    PubMed

    Lebel, Alexandre; Noreau, David; Tremblay, Lucie; Oberlé, Céline; Girard-Gadreau, Maurie; Duguay, Mathieu; Block, Jason P

    2016-06-09

    Food insecurity in an important public health issue and affects 13% of Canadian households. It is associated with poor accessibility to fresh, diverse and affordable food products. However, measurement of the food environment is challenging in rural settings since the proximity of food supply sources is unevenly distributed. The objective of this study was to develop a methodology to identify food deserts in rural environments. In-store evaluations of 25 food products were performed for all food stores located in four contiguous rural counties in Quebec. The quality of food products was estimated using four indices: freshness, affordability, diversity and the relative availability. Road network distance between all residences to the closest food store with a favourable score on the four dimensions was mapped to identify residential clusters located in deprived communities without reasonable access to a "good" food source. The result was compared with the food desert parameters proposed by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), as well as with the perceptions of a group of regional stakeholders. When food quality was considered, food deserts appeared more prevalent than when only the USDA definition was used. Objective measurements of the food environment matched stakeholders' perceptions. Food stores' characteristics are different in rural areas and require an in-store estimation to identify potential rural food deserts. The objective measurements of the food environment combined with the field knowledge of stakeholders may help to shape stronger arguments to gain the support of decision-makers to develop relevant interventions.

  4. Food packages for Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fohey, M. F.; Sauer, R. L.; Westover, J. B.; Rockafeller, E. F.

    1978-01-01

    The paper reviews food packaging techniques used in space flight missions and describes the system developed for the Space Shuttle. Attention is directed to bite-size food cubes used in Gemini, Gemini rehydratable food packages, Apollo spoon-bowl rehydratable packages, thermostabilized flex pouch for Apollo, tear-top commercial food cans used in Skylab, polyethylene beverage containers, Skylab rehydratable food package, Space Shuttle food package configuration, duck-bill septum rehydration device, and a drinking/dispensing nozzle for Space Shuttle liquids. Constraints and testing of packaging is considered, a comparison of food package materials is presented, and typical Shuttle foods and beverages are listed.

  5. Gender and Weight Shape Brain Dynamics during Food Viewing

    PubMed Central

    Toepel, Ulrike; Knebel, Jean-François; Hudry, Julie; le Coutre, Johannes; Murray, Micah M.

    2012-01-01

    Hemodynamic imaging results have associated both gender and body weight to variation in brain responses to food-related information. However, the spatio-temporal brain dynamics of gender-related and weight-wise modulations in food discrimination still remain to be elucidated. We analyzed visual evoked potentials (VEPs) while normal-weighted men (n = 12) and women (n = 12) categorized photographs of energy-dense foods and non-food kitchen utensils. VEP analyses showed that food categorization is influenced by gender as early as 170 ms after image onset. Moreover, the female VEP pattern to food categorization co-varied with participants' body weight. Estimations of the neural generator activity over the time interval of VEP modulations (i.e. by means of a distributed linear inverse solution [LAURA]) revealed alterations in prefrontal and temporo-parietal source activity as a function of image category and participants' gender. However, only neural source activity for female responses during food viewing was negatively correlated with body-mass index (BMI) over the respective time interval. Women showed decreased neural source activity particularly in ventral prefrontal brain regions when viewing food, but not non-food objects, while no such associations were apparent in male responses to food and non-food viewing. Our study thus indicates that gender influences are already apparent during initial stages of food-related object categorization, with small variations in body weight modulating electrophysiological responses especially in women and in brain areas implicated in food reward valuation and intake control. These findings extend recent reports on prefrontal reward and control circuit responsiveness to food cues and the potential role of this reactivity pattern in the susceptibility to weight gain. PMID:22590605

  6. Children's food preferences: effects of weight status, food type, branding and television food advertisements (commercials).

    PubMed

    Halford, Jason C G; Boyland, Emma J; Cooper, Gillian D; Dovey, Terence M; Smith, Cerise J; Williams, Nicola; Lawton, Clare L; Blundell, John E

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To investigate the effects of weight status, food type and exposure to food and non-food advertisements on children's preference for branded and non-branded foods. DESIGN. A within-subjects, counterbalanced design with control (toy advertisement) and experimental (food advertisement) conditions. Subjects. A total of 37 school students (age: 11-13 years; weight status: 24 lean, 10 overweight, 3 obese). Measurements. Advertisement recall list, two food preference measures; the Leeds Food Preference Measure (LFPM), the Adapted Food Preference Measure (AFPM) and a food choice measure; the Leeds Forced-choice Test (LFCT). RESULTS. Normal weight children selected more branded and non-branded food items after exposure to food advertisements than in the control (toy advertisement) condition. Obese and overweight children showed a greater preference for branded foods than normal weight children per se, and also in this group only, there was a significant correlation between food advertisement recall and the total number of food items chosen in the experimental (food advertisement) condition. CONCLUSION. Exposure to food advertisements increased the preference for branded food items in the normal weight children. This suggests that television food advertisement exposure can produce the same 'obesigenic' food preference response found in overweight and obese children in their normal weight counterparts.

  7. Food Production Info Sharing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-12

    Bryan Onate, Advanced Plant Habitat project manager, with the Exploration Research and Technology Directorate, brainstorms innovative approaches to food production with industry representatives inside a laboratory at the Space Station Processing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida.

  8. Food Production Info Sharing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-13

    Scientists in the Exploration Research and Technology Directorate brainstorm innovative approaches to food production with industry representatives at the Space Station Processing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida.

  9. Make Better Food Choices

    MedlinePlus

    10 tips Nutrition Education Series make better food choices 10 tips for women’s health Fruits Grains Dairy Vegetables Protein Make yourself a priority and take time to care for yourself. ChooseMyPlate. gov ...

  10. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  11. Kids with Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us Living With Food Allergies Allergens Peanut Allergy Tree Nut Allergy Milk Allergy Egg Allergy Soy Allergy ... Gluten Substitutions for Soy Substitutions for Peanuts and Tree Nuts Substitutions for Corn Menu Planning for the ...

  12. Balance Food and Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... eNewsletters Calendar Balance Food and Activity What is Energy Balance? Energy is another word for "calories." Your ... adults, fewer calories are needed at older ages. Energy Balance in Real Life Think of it as ...

  13. Upgrading Food Service Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Business Affairs, 1983

    1983-01-01

    The Murphy Elementary School District in Phoenix, Arizona has cut food service costs and improved community relations by cooking and baking from "scratch" and utilizing the staff's ethnic cooking skills. (MLF)

  14. Estimation of food consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Callaway, J.M. Jr.

    1992-04-01

    The research reported in this document was conducted as a part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The objective of the HEDR Project is to estimate the radiation doses that people could have received from operations at the Hanford Site. Information required to estimate these doses includes estimates of the amounts of potentially contaminated foods that individuals in the region consumed during the study period. In that general framework, the objective of the Food Consumption Task was to develop a capability to provide information about the parameters of the distribution(s) of daily food consumption for representative groups in the population for selected years during the study period. This report describes the methods and data used to estimate food consumption and presents the results developed for Phase I of the HEDR Project.

  15. Facility Focus: Food Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Planning & Management, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Hawthorn Court Community Center at Iowa State University, Ames, and the HUB-Robeson Center at Pennsylvania State University. Focuses on the food service offered in these new student-life buildings. Includes photographs. (EV)

  16. STS-125 Food Tasting

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-01-24

    JSC2008-E-006897 (24 Jan. 2008) --- Astronauts Scott D. Altman (left), STS-125 commander, and Andrew J. Feustel, mission specialist, participate in a food tasting session in the Flight Projects Division Laboratory at the Johnson Space Center.

  17. STS-111 Food Testing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-08-27

    JSC2001-E-25713 (27 August 2001) --- Astronaut Franklin R. Chang-Diaz, STS-111 mission specialist, is photographed during food testing in the Flight Projects Division Laboratory at the Johnson Space Center (JSC).

  18. Immunotherapy in food allergy.

    PubMed

    Kamdar, Toral; Bryce, Paul J

    2010-05-01

    Food allergies are caused by immune responses to food proteins and represent a breakdown of oral tolerance. They can range from mild pruritus to life-threatening anaphylaxis. The only current consensus for treatment is food avoidance, which is fraught with compliance issues. For this reason, there has been recent interest in immunotherapy, which may induce desensitization and possibly even tolerance. Through these effects, immunotherapy may decrease the potential for adverse serious reactions with accidental ingestions while potentially leading to an overall health benefit. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of food allergy and give an overview of the various immunotherapeutic options and current supporting evidence, as well as look towards the future of potential novel therapeutic modalities.

  19. Healthy food trends -- microgreens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vitamin C Green daikon radish -- Vitamin E Cilantro -- Carotenoids (antioxidants that can turn into vitamin A ) Garnet ... Luo Y, Wang Q. Assessment of vitamin and carotenoid concentrations of emerging food products: edible microgreens. J ...

  20. Food, publics, science.

    PubMed

    Blue, Gwendolyn

    2010-03-01

    This paper draws attention to food as a site around which a historically particular form of public engagement has emerged. In the past decade, some of the most lively debates and policy actions for science and publics have focused on food related issues: first with BSE and subsequently with genetically modified organisms. Even though much of the literature surrounding publics and science acknowledges that the very definition of "publics" is shifting, little attention has been paid to food as a significant arena in which publics are engaging in politically motivated challenges to techno-scientific practices, policies and institutions. Taking food seriously means contextualizing publics as well as extending discursive models of democratic engagement to embrace consumer practices.

  1. Food decontamination using nanomaterials

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The research indicates that nanomaterials including nanoemulsions are promising decontamination media for the reduction of food contaminating pathogens. The inhibitory effect of nanoparticles for pathogens could be due to deactivate cellular enzymes and DNA; disrupting of membrane permeability; and/...

  2. Marketing School Food Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Wilma

    1990-01-01

    Marketing the food service program in an Ohio district is directed toward the students and also at the community, school administrators, teachers, and employees. Students are encouraged to follow a healthier way of eating. (MLF)

  3. Immunotherapy in food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Kamdar, Toral; Bryce, Paul J

    2010-01-01

    Food allergies are caused by immune responses to food proteins and represent a breakdown of oral tolerance. They can range from mild pruritis to life-threatening anaphylaxis. The only current consensus for treatment is food avoidance, which is fraught with compliance issues. For this reason, there has been recent interest in immunotherapy, which may induce desensitization and possibly even tolerance. Through these effects, immunotherapy may decrease the potential for adverse serious reactions with accidental ingestions while potentially leading to an overall health benefit. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of food allergy and give an overview of the various immunotherapeutic options and current supporting evidence, as well as look towards the future of potential novel therapeutic modalities. PMID:20543886

  4. Starchy foods (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... sugary foods, such as bread, rice, pasta, cereal, potatoes, peas, corn, fruit, fruit juice, milk, yogurt, cookies, candy, soda, and other sweets. Other possible sources include peas, milk, and yogurt.

  5. Antioxidant content of foods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant-based foods, especially fruits, vegetables, and nuts, contain bioactive components which have various biological functions, including free radical scavenging and metal chelating (antioxidant), inhibition of lipid peroxidation, anti-inflammatory properties, etc. Oxidative stress may contribute...

  6. Facility Focus: Food Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Planning & Management, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Examines three renovated college facilities that offer student-friendly dining space. Renovation problems in the areas of food and entertainment, service and choice, and image versus architectural history preservation are addressed. (GR)

  7. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  8. Food and Drug Administration

    MedlinePlus

    ... Reportable Food Registry Report an Emergency Report Suspected Criminal Activity For Industry: Drugs and Therapeutic Biologics News & ... FDA Organization FDA Basics Advisory Committees International Programs Criminal Investigations Emergency Preparedness & Response Working at FDA Training/ ...

  9. Skylab food system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, W. H.

    1974-01-01

    The Skylab food program was a major effort involving a complex spectrum of activities necessary for the preparation of a crew feeding system. Approximately 17,000 individual food packages and support items, weighing more than 1225 kg, were launched into space as a single unit on board the orbital workshop. This unit provided the three (three-man) Skylab crews with nourishing foods and beverages for a total of 156 days, as well as with eating utensils and accessory items. Additionally, provisions for 5 days (15 man-days) were provided in each of the three command and service modules in a manner similar to that of the Apollo flights. The Skylab food system not only provided the crew with a palatable balanced diet in a familiar and acceptable manner but also supported the formidable mineral balance medical experiment series (M070).

  10. Facility Focus: Food Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Planning & Management, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Hawthorn Court Community Center at Iowa State University, Ames, and the HUB-Robeson Center at Pennsylvania State University. Focuses on the food service offered in these new student-life buildings. Includes photographs. (EV)

  11. Soy Foods and Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... products, and used as a meat substitute in vegetarian products such as soy burgers and soy hot ... For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Becoming a Vegetarian Vegan Food Guide Figuring Out Fat and Calories ...

  12. Vitamin food fortification today

    PubMed Central

    de Lourdes Samaniego-Vaesken, Maria; Alonso-Aperte, Elena; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2012-01-01

    Historically, food fortification has served as a tool to address population-wide nutrient deficiencies such as rickets by vitamin D fortified milk. This article discusses the different policy strategies to be used today. Mandatory or voluntary fortification and fortified foods, which the consumer needs, also have to comply with nutritional, regulatory, food safety and technical issues. The ‘worldwide map of vitamin fortification’ is analysed, including differences between develop and developing countries. The vitamins, folate and vitamin D, are taken as practical examples in the review of the beneficial effect of different strategies on public health. The importance of the risk–benefit aspect, as well as how to identify the risk groups, and the food vehicles for fortification is discussed. PMID:22481896

  13. Facility Focus: Food Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Planning & Management, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Provides four examples of how colleges have incorporated the marketplace into their food service operations as one way of attracting new students. Dining room design features discussed include furniture selection and servery and serving-platform design. (GR)

  14. Upgrading Food Service Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Business Affairs, 1983

    1983-01-01

    The Murphy Elementary School District in Phoenix, Arizona has cut food service costs and improved community relations by cooking and baking from "scratch" and utilizing the staff's ethnic cooking skills. (MLF)

  15. Infrared processing of foods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Infrared (IR) processing of foods has been gaining popularity over conventional processing in several unit operations, including drying, peeling, baking, roasting, blanching, pasteurization, sterilization, disinfection, disinfestation, cooking, and popping . It has shown advantages over conventional...

  16. Food and Nutrition Service

    MedlinePlus

    ... Demos/Grant Projects FNS Strategic Plan Other Resources Food & Nutrition Information Center National Agriculture Library National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research Nutrition.gov Peer Review Plans and Guidelines ...

  17. Psychology and Food Faddism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vester, Nadine

    1983-01-01

    Defines food faddism, examines how people assess information for decision making, and looks at the psychological characteristics of faddist behavior. (Canadian Home Economics Association, 151 Slater Street, Suite 805, Ottawa, Ontario, K1P 5H3.) (SK)

  18. The dynamics of assembling food webs.

    PubMed

    Fahimipour, Ashkaan K; Hein, Andrew M

    2014-05-01

    Community assembly is central to ecology, yet ecologists have amassed little quantitative information about how food webs assemble. Theory holds that colonisation rate is a primary driver of community assembly. We present new data from a mesocosm experiment to test the hypothesis that colonisation rate also determines the assembly dynamics of food webs. By manipulating colonisation rate and measuring webs through time, we show how colonisation rate governs structural changes during assembly. Webs experiencing different colonisation rates had stable topologies despite significant species turnover, suggesting that some features of network architecture emerge early and change little through assembly. But webs experiencing low colonisation rates showed less variation in the magnitudes of trophic fluxes, and were less likely to develop coupled fast and slow resource channels--a common feature of published webs. Our results reveal that food web structure develops according to repeatable trajectories that are strongly influenced by colonisation rate. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  19. Commensal bacteria protect against food allergen sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Stefka, Andrew T.; Feehley, Taylor; Tripathi, Prabhanshu; Qiu, Ju; McCoy, Kathy; Mazmanian, Sarkis K.; Tjota, Melissa Y.; Seo, Goo-Young; Cao, Severine; Theriault, Betty R.; Antonopoulos, Dionysios A.; Zhou, Liang; Chang, Eugene B.; Fu, Yang-Xin; Nagler, Cathryn R.

    2014-01-01

    Environmentally induced alterations in the commensal microbiota have been implicated in the increasing prevalence of food allergy. We show here that sensitization to a food allergen is increased in mice that have been treated with antibiotics or are devoid of a commensal microbiota. By selectively colonizing gnotobiotic mice, we demonstrate that the allergy-protective capacity is conferred by a Clostridia-containing microbiota. Microarray analysis of intestinal epithelial cells from gnotobiotic mice revealed a previously unidentified mechanism by which Clostridia regulate innate lymphoid cell function and intestinal epithelial permeability to protect against allergen sensitization. Our findings will inform the development of novel approaches to prevent or treat food allergy based on modulating the composition of the intestinal microbiota. PMID:25157157

  20. Traces of cannibalistic instinct in food denomination.

    PubMed

    Modena, Maria Luisa Mayer

    2004-01-01

    Drawing attention to the associations evoked in the process of food denomination, the paper attempts to reveal the traces of cannibalistic instinct in this realm. By singling out some of the principal ways used in the semantic reticulum to name food, special attention is devoted to those names that allude to particular categories of enemies (devoured as wholes or as parts of the body). What is referred to as "anti-taboo" shows how the linguistic and more generally the anthropological 'substitution process' is a human reaction to the persistence of the cannibalistic taboo in the face of the belief that cannibalism is an impulse far removed from modern society. Finally it is noted that cannibalistic metaphors have been analysed in other fields, whereas in the area of food denomination they have been neglected. The suggestion is that the reason for such neglect may lie in an attempt to conceal our closeness to the cannibalistic instinct in the form of linguistic substitution.