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Sample records for radioactive airborne effluent

  1. Airborne radioactive effluent study at the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, R.L.; Broadway, J.A.; Sensintaffar, E.L.; Kirk, W.P.; Kahn, B.; Garrett, A.J.

    1984-07-01

    Under the Clean Air Act, Sections 112 and 122 as amended in 1977, the Office of Radiation Programs (OPR) of the United States Environmental Protection Agency is currently developing standards for radionuclides emitted to the air by several source categories. In order to confirm source-term measurements and pathway calculations for radiation exposures to humans offsite, the ORP performs field studies at selected facilities that emit radionuclides. This report describes the field study conducted at the Savannah River Plant (SRP), a laboratory operated by E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company for the US Department of Energy. This purpose of the study at ARP was to verify reported airborne releases and resulting radiation doses from the facility. Measurements of radionuclide releases for brief periods were compared with measurements performed by SRP staff on split samples and with annual average releases reported by SRP for the same facilities. The dispersion model used by SRP staff to calculate radiation doses offsite was tested by brief environmental radioactivity measurements performed simultaneously with the release measurements, and by examining radioactivity levels in environmental samples. This report describes in detail all measurements made and data collected during the field study and presents the results obtained. 34 references, 18 figures, 49 tables.

  2. Principles for Sampling Airborne Radioactivity from Stacks

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, John A.

    2010-10-18

    This book chapter describes the special processes involved in sampling the airborne effluents from nuclear faciities. The title of the book is Radioactive Air Sampling Methods. The abstract for this chapter was cleared as PNNL-SA-45941.

  3. Sampling for Airborne Radioactivity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    compared to betas, gammas and neutrons. For an airborne radioactivity detection system, it is most important to be able to detect alpha particles and... Airborne radioactive particles may emit alpha, beta, gamma or neutron radiation, depending on which radioisotope is present. From a health perspective...

  4. Automatic Searching Radioactive Sources by Airborne Radioactive Survey Using Multicopter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rim, H.; Eun, S. B.; Kim, K.; Park, S.; Jung, H. K.

    2015-12-01

    In order to prepare emergency situation lost a dangerous radioelement source in advance and to search a radioactive source automatically, we develop airborne radioelement survey system by multicopter. This multicopter radioelement survey system consists of a small portable customized BGO (Bismuth Germanate Oxide) detector, video recording part, wireless connecting part to ground pilot, GPS, and several equipments for automatic flight. This system is possible to search flight by preprogramed lines. This radioactive detecting system are tested to find intentional hidden source, The performance of detecting a source is well proved with very low flight altitude in spite of depending on the magnitude of radioelement sources. The advantage of multicopter system, one of UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle), is to avoid the potential of close access to a dangerous radioactive source by using fully automatic searching capability. In this paper, we introduce our multicopter system for detecting radioactive source and synthetic case history for demonstrating this system.

  5. Experience with airborne detection of radioactive pollution (ENMOS, IRIS).

    PubMed

    Pavlik, Bohuslav; Engelsmann, Jan

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the advantages of airborne monitoring of radioactive pollution and shows example maps indicating manmade pollution from different sources. The sensitivity of airborne radioactive detection is discussed. Comparisons of airborne and different ground measurements are presented. New instrumentation for airborne or ground moving vehicles is briefly described. Airborne footprinting provides rapid, well-defined spatial images of natural and manmade radioactive contamination. Data acquisition integrated with GPS navigation provides consistent data and guarantees proper data location. Real-time airborne measurements are re-calculated, with the use of special algorithms, into absolute units for individual radioactive nuclei contamination of the ground together with dose calculation. Raw records and calculated data are provided after enhanced post-flight processing. Dose rates and detection of different radioactive elements are presented. (ENMOS is a product of Picodas Group Inc. and IRIS is the product of Pico Envirotec Inc.)

  6. Radioactive Effluents from Nuclear Power Plants Annual Report 2007

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation

    2010-12-10

    This report describes radioactive effluents from commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States. This information was reported by the licensees for radioactive discharges that occurred in 2007. The report provides information relevant to the potential impact of NPPs on the environment and on public health.

  7. Radioactive Effluents from Nuclear Power Plants Annual Report 2008

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation

    2010-12-10

    This report describes radioactive effluents from commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States. This information was reported by the licensees for radioactive discharges that occurred in 2008. The report provides information relevant to the potential impact of NPPs on the environment and on public health.

  8. Radioactive effluent measurements at the Army Pulse Radiation Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Scherpelz, R.I.; Glissmeyer, J.A.

    1994-11-01

    Staff from the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) performed measurements of the radioactive effluents emitted by the Army Pulse Radiation Facility (APRF). These measurements were performed by collecting the cooling air that passed by the APRF reactor as it operated, passing the air through filters to collect the particulates and iodines, and collecting samples of the air to be analyzed for noble gases. The reactor operated for four test runs, including two pulses and two steady state runs. After each reactor run, the filters were counted using gamma spectrometry to identify the nuclides and to determine the activity of nuclides deposited on the filters. The study provided radionuclide release fraction data that can be used to estimate the airborne emissions resulting from APRF operations. The release fraction for particulate fission products and radioiodines, as derived from these measurements, was found to be 8.9 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} for reactor pulses and 4.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} for steady state operation. These values compare to a theoretical value of 1.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}5}.

  9. INEL historical dose evaluation: Reconstruction of operational airborne releases of radioactivity to the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Wenzel, D.R.; Peterson, H.K.; Dickson, R.L.

    1993-06-01

    Airborne releases of radioactivity from the operation of reactors and processes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) since the early 1950s have been reconstructed. Operational releases discussed are those which are continuous and somewhat uniform over a period of time. The primary source of information on operational releases was the measurement of stack effluents as reported in the Radioactive Waste Management Information System (RWMIS) data base and technical reports. The data in the RWMIS data base is generally complete and reliable for releases that occurred since the early 1970s. Data for the 1960s was found to be less detailed and reflected less sophisticated monitoring instrumentation and record keeping systems. Data for the 1950s in general did not identify the specific mixture of radionuclides released. Operational releases of airborne radioactivity from the INEL, particularly in the early years of operation, have been reconstructed using current computer programs with reactor operating and fuel processing knowledge. Techniques used to reconstruct releases of airborne radioactivity to the environment from INEL operational releases and problems encountered are discussed.

  10. 10 CFR 20.1203 - Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive... RADIATION Occupational Dose Limits § 20.1203 Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material. Licensees shall, when determining the dose from airborne radioactive material, include...

  11. 10 CFR 20.1203 - Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive... RADIATION Occupational Dose Limits § 20.1203 Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material. Licensees shall, when determining the dose from airborne radioactive material, include...

  12. 10 CFR 20.1203 - Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive... RADIATION Occupational Dose Limits § 20.1203 Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material. Licensees shall, when determining the dose from airborne radioactive material, include...

  13. 10 CFR 20.1203 - Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive... RADIATION Occupational Dose Limits § 20.1203 Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material. Licensees shall, when determining the dose from airborne radioactive material, include...

  14. 77 FR 24746 - Constraint on Releases of Airborne Radioactive Materials to the Environment for Licensees Other...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... COMMISSION Constraint on Releases of Airborne Radioactive Materials to the Environment for Licensees Other..., ``Constraint on Releases of Airborne Radioactive Materials to the Environment for Licensees other than Power... on airborne emissions of radioactive material to the environment. ADDRESSES: Please refer to...

  15. Functional requirements document for measuring emissions of airborne radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Criddle, J.D. Jr.

    1994-09-01

    This document states the functional requirements and procedures for systems making measurements of radioactive airborne emissions from facilities at the Hanford Site. The following issues are addressed in this document: Definition of the program objectives; Selection of the overall approach to collecting the samples; Sampling equipment design; Sampling equipment maintenance, and quality assurance issues. The intent of this document is to assist WHC in demonstrating a high quality of air emission measurements with verified system performance based on documented system design, testing, inspection, and maintenance.

  16. Radioactive effluents in Savannah River. Summary report for 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Winn, W.G.

    1997-05-28

    During 1996, the radioactive effluents in the Savannah River were generally comparable to (or lower than) those observed during the earlier years of these studies, being orders of magnitude below DOE and EPA/CFR guide levels. Relative to SRS and Plant Vogtle, the upstream site at Shell Bluff and the downstream side at Highway 301 Bridge are the only resin sampler sites still in service. Vogtle associated activities were largest during June to August, and they are dominated by {sup 60}Co as was the case in 1995. In earlier years, Vogtle effluents had been dominated by {sub 58}Co. The maximum observed {sub 58}Co and {sub 60}Co were 52 fCi/L and 162 fCi/L; however, values an order of magnitude greater are projected just downstream of Plant Vogtle, as noted earlier. In addition to {sub 58}Co and {sub 60}Co, Vogtle activities for {sub 54}Mn was correlated. SRS associated gamma activities were for {sub 137}Cs, which were observed at levels consistent with known SRS sources. In 1996, an isotope-specific resin was used for cesium collection, and this resulted in a maximum observed {sub 137}Cs of 85 fCi/L at Highway 301 Bridge. The standard resin yielded a maximum of 54 fCi/L, which is comparable to the 1995 result. Although the isotopic-specific resin generally yielded the higher {sub 137}Cs concentration, the larger of the two resin values was adopted for conservatism.

  17. 41 CFR 50-204.22 - Exposure to airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... radioactive material. 50-204.22 Section 50-204.22 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions... FEDERAL SUPPLY CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.22 Exposure to airborne radioactive material. (a) No employer shall possess, use or transport radioactive material in such a manner as to cause any...

  18. 41 CFR 50-204.22 - Exposure to airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... radioactive material. 50-204.22 Section 50-204.22 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions... FEDERAL SUPPLY CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.22 Exposure to airborne radioactive material. (a) No employer shall possess, use or transport radioactive material in such a manner as to cause any...

  19. 41 CFR 50-204.22 - Exposure to airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... radioactive material. 50-204.22 Section 50-204.22 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions... FEDERAL SUPPLY CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.22 Exposure to airborne radioactive material. (a) No employer shall possess, use or transport radioactive material in such a manner as to cause any...

  20. 41 CFR 50-204.22 - Exposure to airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... radioactive material. 50-204.22 Section 50-204.22 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions... FEDERAL SUPPLY CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.22 Exposure to airborne radioactive material. (a) No employer shall possess, use or transport radioactive material in such a manner as to cause any...

  1. Monitoring radioactive plumes by airborne gamma-ray spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Grasty, R.L.; Hovgaard, J.; Multala, J.

    1996-06-01

    Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer surveys using large volume sodium-iodide detectors are routinely flown throughout the world for mineral exploration and geological mapping. Techniques have now been developed to detect and map man-made sources of radiation. In Canada, airborne gamma-rays surveys have been flown around nuclear reactors to map {sup 41}Ar plumes from nuclear reactors and to calculate the dose rate at ground level. In May 1986, the Finnish Geological survey aircraft flew through a radioactive plume from the Chernobyl nuclear accident. As the aircraft flew through the plume, the aircraft became increasingly contaminated. By measuring the final aircraft contamination, the activity of the plume could be separated from the contamination due to the aircraft. Within 1 h of encountering the plume, the aircraft activity was comparable to the maximum levels found in the plume. From an analysis of the gamma-ray spectra, the concentration of {sup 131}I and {sup 140}La within the plume were calculated as a function of time.

  2. Radioactive effluents in Savannah River. Summary report for 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Winn, W.G.

    1997-07-07

    The Nonproliferation Technology Section (NTS), formerly Environmental Technology Section (ETS), has conducted radiometric studies of Plant Vogtle since late 1986, seven months prior to its startup. This program has now been terminated as of May of this year, as support funding is no longer available, The present report presents the final 1997 measurements, as a closeout of this program of study, Plant Vogtle has two 1100 MWe pressurized water reactors developed by Westinghouse. Unit 1 started commercial operations in June 1987, and Unit 2 began in May 1989, During powered operations, NTS routinely detected neutron-activated isotopes in controlled releases but all activities had been orders of magnitude below the DOE guide values and EPA/CFR levels. The Vogtle release data and the NTS measurements have tracked well over the past ten years. These very sensitive ultra low-level measurements of the radioactive effluents have been important to both institutions, as they could address abnormal trends before they became health and compliance concerns.

  3. Airborne measurements of launch vehicle effluent: Launch of Space Shuttle (STS-1) on 12 April 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, G. L.; Woods, D. C.; Sebacher, D. I.

    1983-01-01

    Launch vehicle effluent environmental impact activities from the first space shuttle (STS-1) included airborne measurements within the exhaust cloud from about 9 min after launch (T + 9) to T + 120 min. Measurements included total hydrogen chloride (gaseous plus aqueous) concentrations, particulate concentrations, temperature, and dewpoint temperature. The airborne measurements are summarized. The physical growth and behavior of exhaust clouds is presented as well as the results of laboratory analysis of elemental composition of particulate samples collected by the aircraft. Observed results from the STS-1 launch are compared with earlier Titan III results. Shuttle effluent concentrations are found to be within the range of Titan III observations.

  4. 10 CFR 50.34a - Design objectives for equipment to control releases of radioactive material in effluents-nuclear...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... radioactive material in effluents-nuclear power reactors. 50.34a Section 50.34a Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... objectives for equipment to control releases of radioactive material in effluents—nuclear power reactors. (a... nuclear power reactors to meet the requirements that radioactive material in effluents released...

  5. 10 CFR 50.34a - Design objectives for equipment to control releases of radioactive material in effluents-nuclear...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... radioactive material in effluents-nuclear power reactors. 50.34a Section 50.34a Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... objectives for equipment to control releases of radioactive material in effluents—nuclear power reactors. (a... nuclear power reactors to meet the requirements that radioactive material in effluents released...

  6. 10 CFR 50.34a - Design objectives for equipment to control releases of radioactive material in effluents-nuclear...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... radioactive material in effluents-nuclear power reactors. 50.34a Section 50.34a Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... objectives for equipment to control releases of radioactive material in effluents—nuclear power reactors. (a... nuclear power reactors to meet the requirements that radioactive material in effluents released...

  7. 10 CFR 50.34a - Design objectives for equipment to control releases of radioactive material in effluents-nuclear...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... radioactive material in effluents-nuclear power reactors. 50.34a Section 50.34a Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... objectives for equipment to control releases of radioactive material in effluents—nuclear power reactors. (a... nuclear power reactors to meet the requirements that radioactive material in effluents released...

  8. 10 CFR 50.34a - Design objectives for equipment to control releases of radioactive material in effluents-nuclear...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... radioactive material in effluents-nuclear power reactors. 50.34a Section 50.34a Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... objectives for equipment to control releases of radioactive material in effluents—nuclear power reactors. (a... nuclear power reactors to meet the requirements that radioactive material in effluents released...

  9. Airborne radioactivity survey in the vicinity of Grants, McKinley and Valencia Counties, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stead, Frank W.

    1951-01-01

    An airborne radioactivity survey in the vicinity of Grants, New Mexico, was made on May 28. 1951; aeromagnetic measurements were made concurrently with the radioactivity measurements. Several radioactivity anomalies were noted in conjunction with negative magnetic anomalies; this association is unusual and may reflect a genetic relationship between the uranium mineralization and the geologic structure causing the negative magnetic effect. Further investigation of the vicinity of the anomalies near the Haystack area, including ground magnetometer survey, seems warranted.

  10. Application of ultrafiltration and complexation to the treatment of low-level radioactive effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Chmielewski, A.G.; Harasimowicz, M.

    1995-04-01

    This paper addresses certain aspects of the design and development process aiming at reducing the radioactivity of liquid low-level waste streams (LLLW) to a very low level. Two types of membrane processes are being examined: ultrafiltration (UF) and seeded ultrafiltration (SUF). The UF membrane enables the removal of very fine particles of solid material from liquid radioactive waste. Only the particles with molecular weight above the cut-off of the UF membrane are retained. Much greater radioactivity removal may be achieved if the effluent is treated with high-molecular-molecules. This paper presents results of experiments consisting of decontamination of model radioactive effluents, simulated waste, and original LLLW by using several ligands for binding the radioactive ions of Cr, Co and Cs.

  11. Airborne radioactivity surveys in the Mojave Desert region, Kern, Riverside, and San Bernardino Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moxham, Robert M.

    1952-01-01

    Airborne radioactivity surveys in the Mojave Desert region Kern, Riverside, and Bernardino counties were made in five areas recommended as favorable for the occurrence of radioactive raw materials: (1) Rock Corral area, San Bernardino County. (2) Searles Station area, Kern county. (3) Soledad area, Kern County. (4) White Tank area, Riverside and San Bernardino counties. (5) Harvard Hills area, San Bernardino County. Anomalous radiation was detected in all but the Harvard Hills area. The radioactivity anomalies detected in the Rock Corral area are of the greatest amplitude yet recorded by the airborne equipment over natural sources. The activity is apparently attributable to the thorium-beating mineral associated with roof pendants of crystalline metamorphic rocks in a granitic intrusive. In the Searles Station, Soledad, and White Tank area, several radioactivity anomalies of medium amplitude were recorded, suggesting possible local concentrations of radioactive minerals.

  12. Airborne radioactivity survey of the Miller Hill area, Carbon county, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meuschke, J.L.; Moxham, R.M.

    1953-01-01

    The accompanying map shows the results of an airborne radioactivity survey covering 65 square miles northwest of Miller Hill, Carbon county, Wyoming. The survey was made by the U.S. Geological Survey as part of a cooperative program with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. At 500 feet above the ground, the width of the zone from which anomalous radioactivity is measured varies with the intensity of radiation of the source and, for strong sources, the width would be as much as 1,400 feet. Quarter-mile spacing of the flight paths of the aircraft should be adequate to detect anomalies from strong sources of radioactivity. However, small areas of considerable radioactivity midway between flight paths may not be noted. The approximate location of each radioactivity anomaly is shown on the accompanying map. The plotted position of an anomaly may be in error by as much as a quarter of a mile owing to errors in the available base maps up to several square miles in which it is impossible to find and plot recognizable landmarks. The radioactivity anomalies shown on the accompanying map cannot be interpreted in terms of either the radioactive content or the extent of the source materials. The present technique of airborne radioactivity measurement does not permit distinguishing between activity due to thorium and that due to uranium. An anomaly, therefore, may represent radioactivity due entirely to uranium, or to thorium, or to a combination of uranium and thorium. The radioactivity that is recorded by airborne measurements at 500 feet above the ground can be caused by: 1. A moderately large area in which the rocks and soils are slightly more radioactive than the rocks and soils of the surrounding area. 2. A smaller area in which the rocks and soils are considerably more radioactive than rocks and soils in the surrounding area. 3. A very small area in which to rocks and soils are much more radioactive than the rocks and soils of the surrounding area. Any particular anomaly

  13. Assessment of Radioactive Liquid Effluents Release at IPEN-CNEN/SP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nisti, Marcelo Bessa; dos Santos, Adir Janete Godoy

    2008-08-01

    A continuous effluent monitoring program has been established at IPEN's plant in order to allow an environmental impact assessment due to radioactive liquid effluent discharge to sanitary system. Representative samples of radioactive liquid effluents are analyzed by using high resolution gamma spectroscopy and instrumental neutron activation analysis, facing to Brazilian radioprotection regulatory rules. The results are consolidating yearly in the Institute source-term. In this paper, results of the source-term are presented, concerning to years 2004, 2005 and 2006. The total activity discharged was 8.5×l08 Bq, 5.7×108 Bq and 2.7×l08 Bq, respectively. As the release is strongly dependent on the total amount of the effluent and on the dilution factor, special attention is needed in order to obtain the correct value of that last one. The estimated inside plant dilution factor, considering the recent facilities and the reshaping of the sewerage system was 80, 180 and 130, for period of 2004, 2005 and 2006 discharged liquid radioactive effluent.

  14. Assessment of Radioactive Liquid Effluents Release at IPEN-CNEN/SP

    SciTech Connect

    Bessa Nisti, Marcelo; Godoy dos Santos, Adir Janete

    2008-08-07

    A continuous effluent monitoring program has been established at IPEN's plant in order to allow an environmental impact assessment due to radioactive liquid effluent discharge to sanitary system. Representative samples of radioactive liquid effluents are analyzed by using high resolution gamma spectroscopy and instrumental neutron activation analysis, facing to Brazilian radioprotection regulatory rules. The results are consolidating yearly in the Institute source-term. In this paper, results of the source-term are presented, concerning to years 2004, 2005 and 2006. The total activity discharged was 8.5xl0{sup 8} Bq, 5.7x10{sup 8} Bq and 2.7xl0{sup 8} Bq, respectively. As the release is strongly dependent on the total amount of the effluent and on the dilution factor, special attention is needed in order to obtain the correct value of that last one. The estimated inside plant dilution factor, considering the recent facilities and the reshaping of the sewerage system was 80, 180 and 130, for period of 2004, 2005 and 2006 discharged liquid radioactive effluent.

  15. Airborne radioactivity survey of parts of Atlantic Ocean beach, Virginia to Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moxham, R.M.; Johnson, R.W.

    1953-01-01

    The accompanying maps show the results of an airborne radioactivity survey along the Atlantic Ocean beach from Cape Henry, Virginia to Cape Fear, North Carolina and from Savannah Bach Georgia to Miami Beach, Florida. The survey was made March 23-24, 1953, as part of a cooperative program with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. The survey was made with scintillation detection equipment mounted in a Douglas DC-3 aircraft and consisted of one flight line, at a 500-foot altitude, parallel to the beach. The vertical projection of the flight line coincided approximately with the landward limit of the modern beach. The width of the zone on the ground from which anomalous radiation is measured at the normal 500 foot flight altitude varies with the areal extent radioactivity of the source. For strong sources of radioactivity the width of the zone would be as much as 1,400 feet. The location of the flight lines is shown on the index map below. No abnormal radioactivity was detected along the northern flight line between Cape Henry, Virginia and Cape Fear, North Carolina. Along the southern flight line fourteen areas of abnormal radioactivity were detected between Savannah Beach, Georgia and Anastasia Island, Florida as shown on the map on the left. The abnormal radioactivity is apparently due to radioactive minerals associated with "black sand" deposits with occur locally along the beach in this region. The present technique of airborne radioactivity measurement does not permit distinguishing between activity sue to thorium and that due to uranium. An anomaly, therefore, may represent radioactivity due entirely to one or to a combination of these elements. It is not possible to determine the extent or radioactive content of the materials responsible for the abnormal radioactivity. The information given on the accompanying map indicates only those localities of greater-than-average radioactivity and, therefore suggest areas in which uranium and thorium deposits are more

  16. 10 CFR 72.104 - Criteria for radioactive materials in effluents and direct radiation from an ISFSI or MRS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... radioactive materials, radon and its decay products excepted, to the general environment, (2) Direct radiation... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Criteria for radioactive materials in effluents and direct...) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE,...

  17. 10 CFR 72.104 - Criteria for radioactive materials in effluents and direct radiation from an ISFSI or MRS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... radioactive materials, radon and its decay products excepted, to the general environment, (2) Direct radiation... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criteria for radioactive materials in effluents and direct...) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE,...

  18. 10 CFR 72.104 - Criteria for radioactive materials in effluents and direct radiation from an ISFSI or MRS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... radioactive materials, radon and its decay products excepted, to the general environment, (2) Direct radiation... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Criteria for radioactive materials in effluents and direct...) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE,...

  19. 10 CFR 72.104 - Criteria for radioactive materials in effluents and direct radiation from an ISFSI or MRS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... radioactive materials, radon and its decay products excepted, to the general environment, (2) Direct radiation... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Criteria for radioactive materials in effluents and direct...) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE,...

  20. 10 CFR 72.104 - Criteria for radioactive materials in effluents and direct radiation from an ISFSI or MRS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... radioactive materials, radon and its decay products excepted, to the general environment, (2) Direct radiation... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Criteria for radioactive materials in effluents and direct...) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE,...

  1. 10 CFR 20.1203 - Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material. 20.1203 Section 20.1203 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST... equivalent to an individual should be based upon measurements using instruments or individual...

  2. 41 CFR 50-204.22 - Exposure to airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exposure to airborne radioactive material. 50-204.22 Section 50-204.22 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts PUBLIC CONTRACTS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 204-SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS...

  3. Savannah River Site Ingestion Pathway Methodology Manual for Airborne Radioactive Releases

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent, A.W. III

    2001-01-03

    This manual documents a recommended methodology for determining the ingestion pathway consequences of hypothetical accidental airborne radiological releases from facilities at the Savannah River Site. Both particulate and tritiated radioactive contaminants are addressed. Other approaches should be applied for evaluation of routine releases.

  4. Airborne radioactivity survey of parts of the Atlantic Ocean beach, North and South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meuschke, J.L.; Moxham, R.M.; Bortner, T.E.

    1953-01-01

    The accompanying map shows the results of an airborne radioactivity survey along the Atlantic Ocean beach between Edisto Island, South Carolina and Cape Fear, North Carolina. The survey was made May 20, 1953, as part of a cooperative program with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. The survey was made with scintillation detection equipment mounted in a Douglas DC-3 aircraft and consisted of one flight line, at a 500-foot altitude, parallel to the beach. The vertical projection of the flight line coincided approximately with the landward limit of the modern beach. The width of the zone on the ground from which anomalous radiation is measured at the nominal 500 foot flight altitude varies with areal extent and intensity of radioactivity of the source. For strong sources of radioactivity the width of the zone may be as much as 1400 feet. The accompanying maps show the approximate locations of the areas of greater-than-average radioactivity (at left) and the location of the traverse flown (at right). The abnormal radioactivity is apparently caused by radioactive minerals associated with "black sand" deposits which occur locally along the beach in this region. The present technique of airborne radioactivity measurement does not permit distinguishing between activity due to thorium and that due to uranium. An anomaly, therefore, may represent radioactivity due entirely to one or a combination of these elements. It is not possible to determine the extent or radioactive content of the materials responsible for the abnormal radioactivity. The information given in the accompanying map showing the localities of greater-than-average radioactivity therefore, suggests areas in which uranium and thorium deposits are more likely to occur.

  5. Airborne radioactivity survey of the Gulf of Mexico beach between Sanibel Island and Caladesi Island, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meuschke, J.L.; Moxham, R.M.; Bortner, T.E.

    1953-01-01

    The accompanying map shows the results of an airborne radioactivity survey along the Gulf of Mexico beach between Sanibel Island and Caladesi Island in Florida. This survey was made May 4, 1953, as part of a cooperative program with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. The survey was made with scintillation detection equipment mounted in a Douglas DC-3 aircraft and consisted of one flight line, at a 500-foot altitude , parallel to the beach. The vertical projection of the flight line coincided approximately with the landward limit of the modern beach. The width of the zone on the ground from which anomalous radiation is measured at the nominal 500 foot flight altitude varies with the areal extent and intensity of the radioactivity the width of the zone may be as much as 1400 feet. The accompanying map and index map show the approximate locations of the areas of greater-than-average radioactivity and the location of the traverse flown. The abnormal radioactivity is apparently caused by radioactive minerals associated with "black sand" deposits which occur locally along the beach in the region. The present technique of airborne radioactivity measurement does not permit distinguishing between activity due to thorium and that due to uranium. An anomaly, therefore, may represent radioactivity due entirely to one or to a combination of these elements. It is not possible to determine the extent or radioactive content of the materials responsible for the abnormal radioactivity. The information given in the accompanying map showing the localities of greater-than-average radioactivity therefore, suggests area in which uranium or thorium deposits are more likely to occur.

  6. Airborne radioactivity of portions of the Defiance Uplift and Carrizo Mountains, Apache county, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, R.W.; Moxham, R.M.

    1953-01-01

    The accompanying map shows the results of an airborne radioactivity survey covering 940 square miles in Apache county, Arizona. The survey was made by the U.S. Geological Survey from September 8 to October 3, 1952, as part of a cooperative program with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. The survey was made with scintillation-detection equipment mounted in a Douglas DC-3 aircraft. Parallel traverse lines, spaced at quarter-mile intervals, were flown approximately 500 feet above the ground. Aerial photographs were used for pilot guidance, and the flight path of the aircraft was recorded by a gyro-stabilized, continuous-strip-film camera. The distance of the aircraft from the ground was measured with a continuously recording radio altimeter. At 500 feet above the ground, the width of the zone from which anomalous radioactivity is measured varies with the intensity of radiation of the source and, for strong sources, the width would be as much as 1,400 feet. Quarter-mile spacing of the flight paths of the aircraft should be adequate to detect anomalies from strong sources of radioactivity. However, small areas of considerable radioactivity midway between flight paths may not be noted. The approximate location of each radioactivity anomaly is shown on the accompanying map. The plotted position of an anomaly may be in error by as much as a quarter of a mile owing to errors in the available base maps up to several square miles in which it is impossible to find and plot recognizable landmarks. The radioactivity anomaly that is recorded by airborne measurements at 500 feet above the ground can be caused by: 1. A moderately large area in which the rocks and soils are slightly more radioactive than the rocks and soils of the surrounding area. 2. A smaller area in which the rocks and soils are considerably more radioactive than rocks and soils in the surrounding area. 3. A very small area in which to rocks and soils are much more radioactive than the rocks and soils of the

  7. Airborne radioactivity survey of the Devils Tower area, Crook county, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henderson, J.R.; Moxham, R.M.

    1953-01-01

    The accompanying map shows the results of an airborne radioactivity survey covering 45 square miles northwest of Devils Tower, Crook County, Wyoming. The survey was made by the U.S. Geological Survey on September 4, 1952, as part of a cooperative program with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. The survey was made with scintillation-detection equipment mounted in a Douglas DC-3 aircraft. Parallel traverse lines, spaced at quarter-mile intervals, were flown approximately 500 feet above the ground. Aerial photographs were used for pilot guidance, and the flight path of the aircraft was recorded by a gyro-stabilized, continuous-strip-film camera. The distance of the aircraft from the ground was measured with a continuously recording radio altimeter. At 500 feet above the ground, the width of the zone from which anomalous radioactivity is measured varies with the intensity of radiation of the source and, for strong sources, the width would be as much as 1,400 feet. Quarter-mile spacing of the flight paths of the aircraft should be adequate to detect anomalies from strong sources of radioactivity. However, small areas of considerable radioactivity midway between flight paths may not be noted. The approximate location of each radioactivity anomaly is shown on the accompanying map. The plotted position of an anomaly may be in error by as much as a quarter of a mile owing to errors in the available base maps up to several square miles in which it is impossible to find and plot recognizable landmarks. The radioactivity that is recorded by airborne measurements at 500 feet above the ground can be caused by: 1. A moderately large area in which the rocks and soils are slightly more radioactive than the rocks and soils of the surrounding area. 2. A smaller area in which the rocks and soils are considerably more radioactive than rocks and soils in the surrounding area. 3. A very small area in which to rocks and soils are much more radioactive than the rocks and soils of the

  8. Airborne radioactivity survey of the West Lonetree area, Uinta county, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meuschke, J.L.; Moxham, R.M.

    1953-01-01

    The accompanying map shows the results of an airborne radioactivity survey in an area of 154 square miles in Uinta county, Wyoming. The survey was made by the U.S. Geological Survey, October 23, 1952, as part of a cooperative program with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. The survey was made with scintillation-detection equipment mounted in a Douglas DC-3 aircraft. Parallel traverse lines, spaced at quarter-mile intervals, were flown approximately 500 feet above the ground. Aerial photographs were used for pilot guidance, and the flight path of the aircraft was recorded by a gyro-stabilized, continuous-strip-film camera. The distance of the aircraft from the ground was measured with a continuously recording radio altimeter. At 500 feet above the ground, the width of the zone from which anomalous radioactivity is measured varies with the intensity of radiation of the source and, for strong sources, the width would be as much as 1,400 feet. Quarter-mile spacing of the flight paths of the aircraft should be adequate to detect anomalies from strong sources of radioactivity. However, small areas of considerable radioactivity midway between flight paths may not be noted. The approximate location of each radioactivity anomaly is shown on the accompanying map. The plotted position of an anomaly may be in error by as much as a quarter of a mile owing to errors in the available base maps up to several square miles in which it is impossible to find and plot recognizable landmarks. The radioactivity anomaly that is recorded by airborne measurements at 500 feet above the ground can be caused by: 1. A moderately large area in which the rocks and soils are slightly more radioactive than the rocks and soils of the surrounding area. 2. A smaller area in which the rocks and soils are considerably more radioactive than rocks and soils in the surrounding area. 3. A very small area in which to rocks and soils are much more radioactive than the rocks and soils of the surrounding area

  9. Airborne radioactivity survey of the Aspen Mountain area, Sweetwater county, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meuschke, J.L.; Moxham, R.M.

    1953-01-01

    The accompanying map shows the results of an airborne radioactivity survey covering 700 square miles in the Aspen Mountain area, Sweetwater county, Wyoming. The survey was made by the U.S. Geological Survey, October 22, 1952, as part of a cooperative program with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. The survey was made with scintillation-detection equipment mounted in a Douglas DC-3 aircraft. Parallel traverse lines, spaced at quarter-mile intervals, were flown approximately 500 feet above the ground. Aerial photographs were used for pilot guidance, and the flight path of the aircraft was recorded by a gyro-stabilized, continuous-strip-film camera. The distance of the aircraft from the ground was measured with a continuously recording radio altimeter. At 500 feet above the ground, the width of the zone from which anomalous radioactivity is measured varies with the intensity of radiation of the source and, for strong sources, the width would be as much as 1,400 feet. Quarter-mile spacing of the flight paths of the aircraft should be adequate to detect anomalies from strong sources of radioactivity. However, small areas of considerable radioactivity midway between flight paths may not be noted. The approximate location of each radioactivity anomaly is shown on the accompanying map. The plotted position of an anomaly may be in error by as much as a quarter of a mile owing to errors in the available base maps up to several square miles in which it is impossible to find and plot recognizable landmarks. The radioactivity anomaly that is recorded by airborne measurements at 500 feet above the ground can be caused by: 1. A moderately large area in which the rocks and soils are slightly more radioactive than the rocks and soils of the surrounding area. 2. A smaller area in which the rocks and soils are considerably more radioactive than rocks and soils in the surrounding area. 3. A very small area in which to rocks and soils are much more radioactive than the rocks and soils

  10. Airborne radioactivity survey of the Tabernacle Buttes area, Sublette and Fremont counties, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1953-01-01

    The accompanying map shows the results of an airborne radioactivity survey in an area of 670 square miles in Sublette and Fremont counties, Wyoming. The survey was made by the U.S. Geological Survey, October 20, 1952, as part of a cooperative program with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. The survey was made with scintillation-detection equipment mounted in a Douglas DC-3 aircraft. Parallel traverse lines, spaced at quarter-mile intervals, were flown approximately 500 feet above the ground. Aerial photographs were used for pilot guidance, and the flight path of the aircraft was recorded by a gyro-stabilized, continuous-strip-film camera. The distance of the aircraft from the ground was measured with a continuously recording radio altimeter. At 500 feet above the ground, the width of the zone from which anomalous radioactivity is measured varies with the intensity of radiation of the source and, for strong sources, the width would be as much as 1,400 feet. Quarter-mile spacing of the flight paths of the aircraft should be adequate to detect anomalies from strong sources of radioactivity. However, small areas of considerable radioactivity midway between flight paths may not be noted. The approximate location of each radioactivity anomaly is shown on the accompanying map. The plotted position of an anomaly may be in error by as much as a quarter of a mile owing to errors in the available base maps up to several square miles in which it is impossible to find and plot recognizable landmarks. The radioactivity anomaly that is recorded by airborne measurements at 500 feet above the ground can be caused by: 1. A moderately large area in which the rocks and soils are slightly more radioactive than the rocks and soils of the surrounding area. 2. A smaller area in which the rocks and soils are considerably more radioactive than rocks and soils in the surrounding area. 3. A very small area in which to rocks and soils are much more radioactive than the rocks and soils of the

  11. Identification of airborne radioactive spatial patterns in Europe - Feasibility study using Beryllium-7.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Ceballos, M A; Cinelli, G; Tollefsen, T; Marín-Ferrer, M

    2016-05-01

    The present study proposes a methodology to identify spatial patterns in airborne radioactive particles in Europe. The methodology is based on transforming the activity concentrations in the set of stations for each month (monthly index), due to the tightly spaced sampling intervals (daily to monthly), in combination with hierarchical and non-hierarchical clustering approaches, due to the lack of a priori knowledge of the number of clusters to be created. Three different hierarchical cluster methodologies are explored to set the optimal number of clusters necessary to initialize the non-hierarchical one (k-means). To evaluate this methodology, cosmogenic beryllium-7 ((7)Be) data, collected between 2007 and 2010 at 19 sampling stations in European Union (EU) countries and stored in the Radioactivity Environmental Monitoring (REM) database, are used. This methodology yields a solution with three distinguishable clusters (south, central and north), each with a different evolution of the (7)Be monthly index. Clear differences between monthly indices are shown in both intensity and time trends, following a latitudinal distribution of the sampling stations. This cluster result is evaluated performing ANOVA analysis, considering the original (7)Be activity concentrations grouped in each cluster. The statistical results (among clusters and sampling stations within clusters) confirm the spatial distribution of (7)Be in Europe, and, hence, reinforce the use of this methodology. Finally, the impact of tropopause height on this grouping is successfully tested, suggesting its influence on the spatial distribution of (7)Be in Europe. For airborne radioactive particles the analysis gave valuable results that improve knowledge of these atmospheric compounds in Europe. Hence, this work addresses a methodology to a grouping of airborne sampling stations, 1) allowing a better understanding of the distribution of (7)Be activity concentrations in the EU, and 2) serving as a basis for

  12. Enhanced airborne radioactivity during a pine pollen release episode.

    PubMed

    Tschiersch, J; Frank, G; Roth, P; Wagenpfeil, F; Watterson, F; Watterson, J

    1999-07-01

    A single episode of pine pollen release in the highly contaminated area of Novozybkov, Russian Federation, which led to enhanced atmospheric concentrations of 137Cs is discussed. The pollen grains were sampled by a rotating arm impactor and analysed by gamma-spectrometry for 137Cs activity and by image analysis for their size. In the vicinity of a forest, a maximum concentration of 4.5+/-0.4 mBq m(-3) was measured, and a mean activity per pollen grain of 260+/-80 nBq was determined. The emission rate of the Novozybkov mixed pine forest was estimated to be approximately 400 Bq m(-2) per year. Because of the large size of pine pollen grains (about 50 microm) and the short emission period of 5-8 days per year, the estimated potential annual inhalation doses are very low. Biological emissions including pollen release may be a source of increased airborne radionuclide concentrations at larger distances from the source areas as well.

  13. Separation and recovery of radioactive and non-radioactive toxic trace elements from aqueous industrial effluents.

    PubMed

    Iyer, R H

    2003-09-01

    An update is presented on liquid membrane-based processes as viable and relevant alternatives to conventional approaches such as precipitation, solvent extraction, ion exchange processes and electrochemical techniques for the removal and recovery of some toxic and/or valuable trace metal ions including some actinides and fission products e.g. U, Am, Y etc and As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn etc from radioactive as well as non-radioactive aqueous waste solutions respectively. In particular, results of experiments aimed at developing supported liquid membrane(SLM)-based process using commercially available porous membranes and indigenously prepared track--etch membranes (TEMs) have been critically examined in laboratory studies to generate basic data needed to evaluate their utility for continuous operation without regeneration. These include effect of pore size, porosity, optimum pore size and their reusability. It is clearly demonstrated that indigenously prepared 10 microm thick TEMs with a porosity in the range of 2-5% give comparable transport rates for metal ions-matching with that of commercial membranes of much higher thickness (160 microm) and higher porosity of 60-85%. The smaller thickness of TEMs more than compensates for their lower porosity. It is shown that because of their well defined pore characteristics TEMs could serve as model supports in SLM studies. By comparing the values of permeability coefficient (P) for TEM and polytetraflouroethylene (PTFE) supports for the transport of Pb2+ chosen as a typical divalent metal ion, and using di-2 ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) as the carrier, it is unambiguously proved that diffusion of the metal complex across the membrane is the rate controlling step in metal ion transport in SLM-based processes. An overview of the experimental findings along with future outlook and suggestions for further work are presented in this paper.

  14. Various consequences regarding hypothetical dispersion of airborne radioactivity in a city center.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Lage; Plamboeck, Agneta H; Johansson, Erik; Waldenvik, Mattias

    2013-02-01

    In case of dispersion of airborne radioactive material in a city center a number of questions will prompt for an answer. While many questions can get their answers in due course of time based on results of tests and sampling, a good understanding of the quantitative effect of dispersion will be very helpful to rescue staff, in particular in the early stage. In the following dose and dose rate estimates are presented for three scenarios including dispersion of radioactivity in a city center. In one case the activity is released in an open place, in another from a roof and in the third case from a source on a street where the wind is blowing along the street. In each case, at specific positions, estimates are made of dose from inhalation, and dose rates for contamination on skin as well as from radioactive particles deposited onto ground, walls and roofs (external exposure) in the city center. It should be noted that the deposition pattern in urban areas varies greatly which means that the consequences are difficult to predict. The dispersion is influenced by recirculation behind tall buildings and diverted flow close to street-ends, which have significant effects on the deposit pattern. Regarding the relative importance of contributions to total dose it is found that inhalation could play a major role for long term effects while dose to skin might dominate acute effects.

  15. 75 FR 36445 - Draft Regulatory Guide, DG-4018, “Constraint on Releases of Airborne Radioactive Materials To the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ... Environment for Licensees Other Than Power Reactors,'' Proposed Revision 1 of Regulatory Guide 4.20; Draft... of Airborne Radioactive Materials to the Environment for Licensees Other than Power Reactors.'' This... Materials to the Environment for Licensees Other than Power Reactors,'' is available electronically...

  16. GEANT4 calibration of gamma spectrometry efficiency for measurements of airborne radioactivity on filter paper.

    PubMed

    Alrefae, Tareq

    2014-11-01

    A simple method of efficiency calibration for gamma spectrometry was performed. This method, which focused on measuring airborne radioactivity collected on filter paper, was based on Monte Carlo simulations using the toolkit GEANT4. Experimentally, the efficiency values of an HPGe detector were calculated for a multi-gamma disk source. These efficiency values were compared to their counterparts produced by a computer code that simulated experimental conditions. Such comparison revealed biases of 24, 10, 1, 3, 7, and 3% for the radionuclides (photon energies in keV) of Ce (166), Sn (392), Cs (662), Co (1,173), Co (1,333), and Y (1,836), respectively. The output of the simulation code was in acceptable agreement with the experimental findings, thus validating the proposed method.

  17. Quality Assurance Project Plan for radioactive airborne emissions data compilation and reporting

    SciTech Connect

    Burris, S.A.; Thomas, S.P.

    1994-02-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for compiling data from radioactie aiborne emissions. These data will be reported to the US Environmental Protection Agency, the US Department of Energy, and the Washington State Department of Health. Hanford Site radioactive airborne emissions are reported to the US Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 61, ``National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants , ``Subpart H, ``National Emissions Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities`` (EPA 1989a). Reporting to US Department of Energy is performed in compliance with requirements of US Department of Energy Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program (DOE 1988a).

  18. Airborne radioactivity survey of parts of Baggs SW and Baggs SE quadrangles, Carbon and Sweetwater counties, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henderson, J.R.

    1954-01-01

    The accompanying map shows the results of an airborne radioactivity survey in 151 square miles of Baggs SW and Baggs SE quadrangles, Wyoming. This area is part of a larger survey made in southern Carbon and Sweetwater counties by the U.S. Geological Survey, November 9-24, 1953. The work was undertaken as part of a cooperative program with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. The survey was made with scintillation detection equipment mounted in a C-47 aircraft and consisted of parallel east-west flight lines spaced at quarter mile intervals, flown approximately 500 feet above the ground. Aerial photographs were used for pilot guidance, and the flight path of the aircraft was recorded by a gyrostabilized, continuous-strip-film camera. The distance of the aircraft from the ground was measured with a continuously recording radio altimeter. The width of the zone on the ground form which the anomalous radiation is measured at the nominal 500 foot flight altitude varied with the areal extent and the intensity of radioactivity of the source. For strong sources of radioactivity the width of the zone may be as much as 1,400 feet. Thus, quarter mile spacing of the flight lines would be adequate to detect anomalies from strong sources of radioactivity; however, small areas of considerable radioactivity midway between flight lines may not be noted. The approximate locations of twelve radioactivity anomalies are shown on the accompanying map. The plotted position of the anomalies may be in error by as much as a quarter mile owing to the errors in available base maps or to the existence of areas on the base maps up to several square miles in which it is impossible to find and plot recognizable landmarks. The present technique of airborne radioactivity measurement does not permit distinguishing between activity due to thorium and that due to uranium. An anomaly, therefore, may represent radioactivity due entirely to one or to a combination of these elements. The radioactivity

  19. Airborne radioactivity survey of parts of Sand Creek SW and Sand Creek SE quadrangles, Sweetwater county, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henderson, J.R.

    1954-01-01

    The accompanying map shows the results of an airborne radioactivity survey in 125 square miles of Sand Creek SW and Sand Creek SE quadrangles, Wyoming. This area is part of a larger survey made in southern Carbon and Sweetwater counties by the U.S. Geological Survey, November 9-24, 1953. The work was undertaken as part of a cooperative program with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. The survey was made with scintillation detection equipment mounted in a C-47 aircraft and consisted of parallel east-west flight lines spaced at quarter mile intervals, flown approximately 500 feet above the ground. Aerial photographs were used for pilot guidance, and the flight path of the aircraft was recorded by a gyrostabilized, continuous-strip-film camera. The distance of the aircraft from the ground was measured with a continuously recording radio altimeter. The width of the zone on the ground form which the anomalous radiation is measured at the nominal 500 foot flight altitude varied with the areal extent and the intensity of radioactivity of the source. For strong sources of radioactivity the width of the zone may be as much as 1,400 feet. Thus, quarter mile spacing of the flight lines would be adequate to detect anomalies from strong sources of radioactivity; however, small areas of considerable radioactivity midway between flight lines may not be noted. The approximate locations of nine radioactivity anomalies are shown on the accompanying map. The plotted position of the anomalies may be in error by as much as a quarter mile owing to the errors in available base maps or to the existence of areas on the base maps up to several square miles in which it is impossible to find and plot recognizable landmarks. The present technique of airborne radioactivity measurement does not permit distinguishing between activity due to thorium and that due to uranium. An anomaly, therefore, may represent radioactivity due entirely to one or to a combination of these elements. The

  20. Calculation of releases of radioactive materials in gaseous and liquid effluents from pressurized water reactors (PWR-GALE Code). Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Chandrasekaran, T.; Lee, J.Y.; Willis, C.A.

    1985-04-01

    This report revises the original issuance of NUREG-0017, ''Calculation of Releases of Radioactive Materials in Gaseous and Liquid Effluents from Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR-GALE-Code)'' (April 1976), to incorporate more recent operating data now available as well as the results of a number of in-plant measurement programs at operating pressurized water reactors. The PWR-GALE Code is a computerized mathematical model for calculating the releases of radioactive material in gaseous and liquid effluents (i.e., the gaseous and liquid source terms). The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission uses the PWR-GALE Code to determine conformance with the requirements of Appendix I to 10 CFR Part 50.

  1. Evaluation of radioactive environmental hazards in Area-3, Northern Palmyrides, Central Syria using airborne spectrometric gamma technique.

    PubMed

    Asfahani, J; Aissa, M; Al-Hent, R

    2016-01-01

    Airborne spectrometric gamma data are used in this paper to estimate the degree of radioactive hazard on humanity in Area-3, Northern Palmyrides, Central Syria. Exposure Rate (ER), Absorbed Dose Rate (ADR), Annual Effective Dose Rate (AEDR), and Heat Production (HP) of the eleven radiometric units included in the established lithological scored map in the study area have been computed to evaluate the radiation background influence in humans. The results obtained indicate that a human body in Area-3 is subjected to radiation hazards in the acceptable limits for long duration exposure. The highest radiogenetic heat production values in Area-3 correspond to the phosphatic locations characterized by relatively high values of uranium and thorium.

  2. Novel method for estimation of the indoor-to-outdoor airborne radioactivity ratio following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yanliang; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Janik, Miroslaw; Tokonami, Shinji; Hosoda, Masahiro; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Kearfott, Kimberlee

    2015-12-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) in Japan resulted in significant releases of fission products. While substantial data exist concerning outdoor air radioactivity following the accident, the resulting indoor radioactivity remains pure speculation without a proper method for estimating the ratio of the indoor to outdoor airborne radioactivity, termed the airborne sheltering factor (ASF). Lacking a meaningful value of the ASF, it is difficult to assess the inhalation doses to residents and evacuees even when outdoor radionuclide concentrations are available. A simple model was developed and the key parameters needed to estimate the ASF were obtained through data fitting of selected indoor and outdoor airborne radioactivity measurement data obtained following the accident at a single location. Using the new model with values of the air exchange rate, interior air volume, and the inner surface area of the dwellings, the ASF can be estimated for a variety of dwelling types. Assessment of the inhalation dose to individuals readily follows from the value of the ASF, the person's indoor occupancy factor, and the measured outdoor radioactivity concentration.

  3. Spectrum correction algorithm for detectors in airborne radioactivity monitoring equipment NH-UAV based on a ratio processing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Ye; Tang, Xiao-Bin; Wang, Peng; Meng, Jia; Huang, Xi; Wen, Liang-Sheng; Chen, Da

    2015-10-01

    The unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) radiation monitoring method plays an important role in nuclear accidents emergency. In this research, a spectrum correction algorithm about the UAV airborne radioactivity monitoring equipment NH-UAV was studied to measure the radioactive nuclides within a small area in real time and in a fixed place. The simulation spectra of the high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector and the lanthanum bromide (LaBr3) detector in the equipment were obtained using the Monte Carlo technique. Spectrum correction coefficients were calculated after performing ratio processing techniques about the net peak areas between the double detectors on the detection spectrum of the LaBr3 detector according to the accuracy of the detection spectrum of the HPGe detector. The relationship between the spectrum correction coefficient and the size of the source term was also investigated. A good linear relation exists between the spectrum correction coefficient and the corresponding energy (R2=0.9765). The maximum relative deviation from the real condition reduced from 1.65 to 0.035. The spectrum correction method was verified as feasible.

  4. Airborne Effluent Monitoring System Certification for New Canister Storage Building Ventilation Exhaust Stack

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, J.A.; Maughan, A.D.

    1999-04-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted three of the six tests needed to verify that the effluent monitoring system for the new Canister Storage Building ventilation exhaust stack meets applicable regulatory performance criteria for air sampling systems at nuclear facilities. These performance criteria address both the suitability of the location for the air-sampling probe and the transport of the sample to the collection devices. The criteria covering the location for the air-sampling probe ensure that the contaminants in the stack are well mixed with the airflow at the probe location such that the extracted sample represents the whole. The sample-transport criteria ensure that the sampled contaminants are quantitatively delivered to the collection device. The specific performance criteria are described in detail in this report. The tests reported here cover the contaminant tracer uniformity and particle delivery performance criteria. These criteria were successfully met. The other three tests were conducted by the start-up staff of Duke Engineering and Services Hanford Inc. (DESH) and reported elsewhere. The Canister Storage Building is located in the 200 East Area of the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The new air-exhaust system was built under the W379 Project. The air sampling system features a probe with a single shrouded sampling nozzle, a sample delivery line, and a filter holder to collect the sample.

  5. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the 327 Facility

    SciTech Connect

    1994-11-01

    The 327 Facility [Post-Irradiation Testing Laboratory] provides office and laboratory space for Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) scientific and engineering staff conducting multidisciplinary research in the areas of post-irradiated fuels and structural materials. The facility is designed to accommodate the use of radioactive and hazardous materials in the conduct of these activities. This report summarizes the airborne emissions and liquid effluents and the results of the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) determination for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterization of effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements.

  6. Computerized Mathematical Models of Spray Washout of Airborne Contaminants (Radioactivity) in Containment Vessels.

    SciTech Connect

    TAM, P. S.

    2003-05-23

    Version 01 Distribution is restricted to the United States Only. SPIRT predicts the washout of airborne contaminants in containment vessels under postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) conditions. SPIRT calculates iodine removal constants (lambdas) for post-LOCA containment spray systems. It evaluates the effect of the spectrum of drop sizes emitted by the spray nozzles, the effect of drop coalescence, and the precise solution of the time-dependent diffusion equation. STEAM-67 routines are included for calculating the properties of steam and water according to the 1967 ASME Steam Tables.

  7. Environmental radioactivity in the UK: the airborne geophysical view of dose rate estimates.

    PubMed

    Beamish, David

    2014-12-01

    This study considers UK airborne gamma-ray data obtained through a series of high spatial resolution, low altitude surveys over the past decade. The ground concentrations of the naturally occurring radionuclides Potassium, Thorium and Uranium are converted to air absorbed dose rates and these are used to assess terrestrial exposure levels from both natural and technologically enhanced sources. The high resolution airborne information is also assessed alongside existing knowledge from soil sampling and ground-based measurements of exposure levels. The surveys have sampled an extensive number of the UK lithological bedrock formations and the statistical information provides examples of low dose rate lithologies (the formations that characterise much of southern England) to the highest sustained values associated with granitic terrains. The maximum dose rates (e.g. >300 nGy h(-1)) encountered across the sampled granitic terrains are found to vary by a factor of 2. Excluding granitic terrains, the most spatially extensive dose rates (>50 nGy h(-1)) are found in association with the Mercia Mudstone Group (Triassic argillaceous mudstones) of eastern England. Geological associations between high dose rate and high radon values are also noted. Recent studies of the datasets have revealed the extent of source rock (i.e. bedrock) flux attenuation by soil moisture in conjunction with the density and porosity of the temperate latitude soils found in the UK. The presence or absence of soil cover (and associated presence or absence of attenuation) appears to account for a range of localised variations in the exposure levels encountered. The hypothesis is supported by a study of an extensive combined data set of dose rates obtained from soil sampling and by airborne geophysical survey. With no attenuation factors applied, except those intrinsic to the airborne estimates, a bias to high values of between 10 and 15 nGy h(-1) is observed in the soil data. A wide range of

  8. Simultaneous sampling of indoor and outdoor airborne radioactivity after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Arae, Hideki; Sahoo, Sarata Kumar; Janik, Miroslaw; Hosoda, Masahiro; Tokonami, Shinji

    2014-02-18

    Several studies have estimated inhalation doses for the public because of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. Most of them were based on measurement of radioactivity in outdoor air and included the assumption that people stayed outdoors all day. Although this assumption gives a conservative estimate, it is not realistic. The "air decontamination factor" (ratio of indoor to outdoor air radionuclide concentrations) was estimated from simultaneous sampling of radioactivity in both inside and outside air of one building. The building was a workplace and located at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) in Chiba Prefecture, Japan. Aerosol-associated radioactive materials in air were collected onto filters, and the filters were analyzed by γ spectrometry at NIRS. The filter sampling was started on March 15, 2011 and was continued for more than 1 year. Several radionuclides, such as (131)I, (134)Cs, and (137)Cs were found by measuring the filters with a germanium detector. The air decontamination factor was around 0.64 for particulate (131)I and 0.58 for (137)Cs. These values could give implications for the ratio of indoor to outdoor radionuclide concentrations after the FDNPP accident for a similar type of building.

  9. RADIOACTIVITY IN THE ATMOSPHERIC EFFLUENTS OF POWER PLANTS THAT USE FOSSIL FUELS.

    PubMed

    EISENBUD, M; PETROW, H G

    1964-04-17

    Analysis of the fly ash produced by combustion of pulverized Appalachian coal has shown that a 1000-megawatt coal-burning power plant will discharge into the atmosphere from about 28 millicuries to nearly 1 curie per year of radium-226 and radium-228. An oil-burning plant of similar size will discharge about 0.5 millicurie of radium per year. Comparison of these data with data on the release of fission products from nuclear-powered generating stations shows that when the physical and biological properties of the various radionuclides are taken into consideration, the conventional fossil-fueled plants discharge relatively greater quantities of radioactive materials into the atmosphere than nuclearpowered plants of comparable size.

  10. [Transport processes of low-level radioactive liquid effluent of nuclear power station in closed water body].

    PubMed

    Wu, Guo-Zheng; Xu, Zong-Xue

    2012-07-01

    The transport processes of low-level radioactive liquid effluent of Xianning nuclear power station in the closed water body Fushui Reservoir are simulated using the EFDC model. Six nuclides concentration distribution with different half-lives in the reservoir are analyzed under the condition of 97% guarantee rate incoming water and four-running nuclear power units. The results show that the nuclides concentration distribution is mainly affected by the flow field of the reservoir and the concentration is decided by the half-lives of nuclide and the volume of incoming water. In addition, the influence region is enlarged as increasing of half-life and tends to be stable when the half-life is longer than 5 years. Moreover, the waste water discharged from the outlet of the nuclear power plant has no effect on the water-intake for the outlet located at the upstream of the water-intake and the flow field flows to the dam of the reservoir.

  11. 10 CFR 835.603 - Radiological areas and radioactive material areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... radioactivity area. The words “Caution, Airborne Radioactivity Area” or “Danger, Airborne Radioactivity Area” shall be posted at each airborne radioactivity area. (e) Contamination area. The words...

  12. 10 CFR 835.603 - Radiological areas and radioactive material areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... radioactivity area. The words “Caution, Airborne Radioactivity Area” or “Danger, Airborne Radioactivity Area” shall be posted at each airborne radioactivity area. (e) Contamination area. The words...

  13. 10 CFR 835.603 - Radiological areas and radioactive material areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... radioactivity area. The words “Caution, Airborne Radioactivity Area” or “Danger, Airborne Radioactivity Area” shall be posted at each airborne radioactivity area. (e) Contamination area. The words...

  14. 10 CFR 835.603 - Radiological areas and radioactive material areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... radioactivity area. The words “Caution, Airborne Radioactivity Area” or “Danger, Airborne Radioactivity Area” shall be posted at each airborne radioactivity area. (e) Contamination area. The words...

  15. 10 CFR 835.603 - Radiological areas and radioactive material areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... radioactivity area. The words “Caution, Airborne Radioactivity Area” or “Danger, Airborne Radioactivity Area” shall be posted at each airborne radioactivity area. (e) Contamination area. The words...

  16. Assessment of derived emission limits for radioactive effluents resulted from the decommissioning activities of the VVR-S nuclear research reactor.

    PubMed

    Tuca, C; Stochioiu, A; Sahagia, M; Gurau, D; Dragusin, M

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents complex studies on establishment of derived emission limits for potential radionuclides emitted as gaseous and liquid effluents, during the decommissioning activities (2nd and 3rd phases) of a nuclear research reactor, cooled and moderated with distilled water, type VVR-S, owned by the IFIN-HH. In the present paper there are described: the analysis methods and equipment used, the methodologies for calculating doses and the Derived Emission Limits (DEL), the experimentally measured activities of the representative radionuclides found in gaseous and liquid effluents resulted from decommissioning activities, as well as the effective derived limits of liquid and gaseous effluents, applying the calculation methodologies, specific to critical categories of exposed subjects. A constraint effective dose limit for a person from the critical group of 50 μSv/year was considered in calculations. From the comparison of the two series of values, measured released activities and DELs, there has been concluded that for the gaseous effluents they comply with the DELs, while in the case of liquid effluents they are higher and consequently they must be treated as liquid radioactive wastes.

  17. Correlation between Asian Dust and Specific Radioactivities of Fission Products Included in Airborne Samples in Tokushima, Shikoku Island, Japan, Due to the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Sakama, M.; Nagano, Y.; Kitade, T.; Shikino, O.; Nakayama, S.

    2014-06-15

    Radioactive fission product {sup 131}I released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants (FD-NPP) was first detected on March 23, 2011 in an airborne aerosol sample collected at Tokushima, Shikoku Island, located in western Japan. Two other radioactive fission products, {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs were also observed in a sample collected from April 2 to 4, 2011. The maximum specific radioactivities observed in this work were about 2.5 to 3.5 mBq×m{sup -3} in a airborne aerosol sample collected on April 6. During the course of the continuous monitoring, we also made our first observation of seasonal Asian Dust and those fission products associated with the FDNPP accident concurrently from May 2 to 5, 2011. We found that the specific radioactivities of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs decreased drastically only during the period of Asian Dust. And also, it was found that this trend was very similar to the atmospheric elemental concentration (ng×m{sup -3}) variation of stable cesium ({sup 133}Cs) quantified by elemental analyses using our developed ICP-DRC-MS instrument.

  18. Development and calibration of a real-time airborne radioactivity monitor using direct gamma-ray spectrometry with two scintillation detectors.

    PubMed

    Casanovas, R; Morant, J J; Salvadó, M

    2014-07-01

    The implementation of in-situ gamma-ray spectrometry in an automatic real-time environmental radiation surveillance network can help to identify and characterize abnormal radioactivity increases quickly. For this reason, a Real-time Airborne Radioactivity Monitor using direct gamma-ray spectrometry with two scintillation detectors (RARM-D2) was developed. The two scintillation detectors in the RARM-D2 are strategically shielded with Pb to permit the separate measurement of the airborne isotopes with respect to the deposited isotopes.In this paper, we describe the main aspects of the development and calibration of the RARM-D2 when using NaI(Tl) or LaBr3(Ce) detectors. The calibration of the monitor was performed experimentally with the exception of the efficiency curve, which was set using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations with the EGS5 code system. Prior to setting the efficiency curve, the effect of the radioactive source term size on the efficiency calculations was studied for the gamma-rays from (137)Cs. Finally, to study the measurement capabilities of the RARM-D2, the minimum detectable activity concentrations for (131)I and (137)Cs were calculated for typical spectra at different integration times.

  19. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the 324 Facility

    SciTech Connect

    1994-11-01

    The 324 Facility [Waste Technology Engineering Laboratory] in the 300 Area primarily supports the research and development of radioactive and nonradioactive waste vitrification technologies, biological waste remediation technologies, spent nuclear fuel studies, waste mixing and transport studies, and tritium development programs. All of the above-mentioned programs deal with, and have the potential to, release hazardous and/or radioactive material. The potential for discharge would primarily result from (1) conducting research activities using the hazardous materials, (2) storing radionuclides and hazardous chemicals, and (3) waste accumulation and storage. This report summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents, and the results of the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) determination for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterizing effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements.

  20. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Annual report 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Benkovitz, C.

    1981-03-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commerical light water reactors during 1978 have been compiled and reported. Data on soild waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1978 release data are compared with previous years releases in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  1. Evaluating airborne and ground based gamma spectrometry methods for detecting particulate radioactivity in the environment: a case study of Irish Sea beaches.

    PubMed

    Cresswell, A J; Sanderson, D C W

    2012-10-15

    In several places, programmes are in place to locate and recover radioactive particles that have the potential to cause detrimental health effects in any member of the public who may encounter them. A model has been developed to evaluate the use of mobile gamma spectrometry systems within such programmes, with particular emphasis on large volume (16l) NaI(Tl) detectors mounted in low flying helicopters. This model uses a validated Monte Carlo code with assessment of local geochemistry and natural and anthropogenic background radiation concentrations and distributions. The results of the model, applied to the example of particles recovered from beaches in the vicinity of Sellafield, clearly show the ability of rapid airborne surveys conducted at 75 m ground clearance and 120 kph speeds to demonstrate the absence of sources greater than 5 MBq (137)Cs within large areas (10-20 km(2)h(-1)), and identify areas requiring further ground based investigation. Lowering ground clearance for airborne surveys to 15m whilst maintaining speeds covering 1-2 km(2) h(-1) can detect buried (137)Cs sources of 0.5MBq or greater activity. A survey design to detect 100 kBq (137)Cs sources at 10 cm depth has also been defined, requiring surveys at <15m ground clearance and <2 ms(-1) ground speed. The response of airborne systems to the Sellafield particles recovered to date has also been simulated, and the proportion of the existing radiocaesium background in the vicinity of the nuclear site has been established. Finally the rates of area coverage and sensitivities of both airborne and ground based approaches are compared, demonstrating the ability of airborne systems to increase the rate of particle recovery in a cost effective manner. The potential for equipment and methodological developments to improve performance are discussed.

  2. Estimating and interpretation of radioactive heat production using airborne gamma-ray survey data of Gabal Arrubushi area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youssef, Mohamed A. S.

    2016-02-01

    The present work deals with mapping of radioactive heat production from rocks in the Gabal Arrubushi area in the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt based on airborne spectral gamma-ray survey data. The results show that the radioactive heat production in the areas ranges from 0.01 μWm-3 to 5.2 μWm-3. Granites, muscovite and sericite schists in the western part of Gabal Arrubushi area have abnormally high radioactive heat production values from 2.57 μWm-3 to 4.44 μWm-3. Meanwhile, the higher averages of radioactive heat production of these rock units change from 1.21 μWm-3 to 1.5 μWm-3. The intermediate averages of heat production of felsitic mylonite schist, chlorite schist, felsites, amphibolites and Hammamat sediments are below the crustal average value range, i.e., from 0.8 μWm-3 to 1.2 μWm-3. The lowest averages of heat production values are less than 0.8 μWm-3 and found in the following rock units: Wadi sediments, rhyolites, andesites, gabbro and serpentinites.

  3. Environmental hazards and distribution of radioactive black sand along the Rosetta coastal zone in Egypt using airborne spectrometric and remote sensing data.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, M F; Aziz, A M; Ghieth, B M

    2014-11-01

    High-resolution airborne gamma ray spectrometry, conducted in 2003, was used to estimate radioactive elements spatial abundance along the Rosetta coastal zone area. It was noticed that both Uranium and Thorium are concentrated in the black sand deposits along the beach. In contrary, Potassium was observed in high level abundance at the cultivated Nile Delta lands due to the accumulated usage of fertilizers. Exposure Rate (ER), Absorbed Dose Rate (ADR) and Annual Effective Dose Rate (AEDR) were calculated to evaluate the radiation background influence in human. Results indicated that the human body in the study sites is subjected to radiation hazards exceeds the accepted limit for long duration exposure. In addition, the areas covered by the highest concentration of Uranium and Thorium show the highest level of radiogenic heat production. Detection the environmental hazards of the radioactive black sands in the study site encouraged this research to monitor the spatial and temporal distribution of these sediments. The Landsat Thematic Mapper images acquired in 1990, 2003 and 2013 were analyzed using remote sensing image processing techniques. Image enhancements, classification and changes detection indicated a positive significant relationship between the patterns of coastline changes and distribution of the radioactive black sand in the study sites. The radioactive black sands are usually concentrated in the eroded areas. Therefore, in 1990 high concentration of the radioactive black sands were observed along the eastern and western flanks of the Rosetta promontory. Distribution of these sediments decreased due to the construction of the protective sea walls. Most of the radioactive black sands are transported toward the east in Abu Khashaba bay under the effect of the longshore currents and toward the west in Alexandria and Abu Quir bay under the action of the seasonal reverse currents.

  4. Radioactivity and radiological risk associated with effluent sediment containing technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials in amang (tin tailings) processing industry.

    PubMed

    Bahari, Ismail; Mohsen, Nasirian; Abdullah, Pauzi

    2007-01-01

    The processing of amang, or tin tailings, for valuable minerals has been shown to technologically enhance NORM and this has stirred significant radiological safety and health concerns among Malaysia's regulatory authority. A growing radiological concern is now focused on the amang effluent containing NORM in recycling ponds, since these ponds may be reclaimed for future residential developments. A study was carried out to assess the radiological risk associated with amang processing and the accumulated effluent in the recycling ponds. Twenty-six sediment samples from the recycling ponds of two amang plants in the states of Selangor and Perak, Malaysia, were collected and analyzed. The maximum activity concentrations of (238)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K recorded in sediments from these ponds were higher than Malaysia's and the world's natural highest. Correspondingly, the mean radium equivalent activity concentration indices, Ra(eq), and gamma radiation representative level index, I(gammar), were higher than the world's average. The enhancement of NORM in effluent sediments as a consequence of amang processing, and the use of a closed water management recycling system created Effective Dose Rates, E (nSv h(-1)), that signal potential environmental radiological risks in these ponds, should they be reclaimed for future land use.

  5. Radioactive Air Emission Notice of Construction (NOC) for Construction of Liquid Effluent Transfer System Project W-519

    SciTech Connect

    HOMAN, N.A.

    2000-05-01

    The proposed action is to install a new liquid effluent transfer system (three underground waste transfer pipelines). As such, a potential new source will be created as a result of the construction activities. The anticipated emissions associated with this activity are insignificant.

  6. A study to identify and compare airborne systems for in-situ measurements of launch vehicle effluents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, T. J.; Chace, A. S.

    1974-01-01

    An in-situ system for monitoring the concentration of HCl, CO, CO2, and Al2O3 in the cloud of reaction products that form as a result of a launch of solid propellant launch vehicle is studied. A wide array of instrumentation and platforms are reviewed to yield the recommended system. An airborne system suited to monitoring pollution concentrations over urban areas for the purpose of calibrating remote sensors is then selected using a similar methodology to yield the optimal configuration.

  7. Use of the dynamic radioecology of unicellular algae populations in processes of biological desactivation of radioactive effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Polikarpov, G.G.; Egorov, V.N.; Gulin, S.B.

    1993-12-31

    The experimental data and the mathematical models on mineral exchange of radionuclides in unicellular algaes are considered. The kinetics of accumulation of radionuclides is mainly determined by the intensity of metabolism, the rate of cells division, the concentration of radioactive carriers and their chemical analogues.

  8. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the 325 Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Shields, K.D.; Ballinger, M.Y.

    1999-04-02

    This Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) has been prepared for the 325 Building Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to meet the requirements in DOE Order 5400.1, ''General Environmental Protection Programs.'' This FEMP has been prepared for the RPL primarily because it has a ''major'' (potential to emit >0.1 mrem/yr) emission point for radionuclide air emissions according to the annual National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) assessment performed. This section summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents and the inventory based NESHAP assessment for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterization of effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements. The RPL at PNNL houses radiochemistry research, radioanalytical service, radiochemical process development, and hazardous and radioactive mixed waste treatment activities. The laboratories and specialized facilities enable work ranging from that with nonradioactive materials to work with picogram to kilogram quantities of fissionable materials and up to megacurie quantities of other radionuclides. The special facilities within the building include two shielded hot-cell areas that provide for process development or analytical chemistry work with highly radioactive materials and a waste treatment facility for processing hazardous, mixed radioactive, low-level radioactive, and transuranic wastes generated by PNNL activities.

  9. RESULTS FROM ANALYSIS OF THE FIRST AND SECOND STRIP EFFLUENT COALESCER ELEMENTS FROM RADIOACTIVE OPERATIONS OF THE MODULAR CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

    2011-06-28

    The coalescer elements for the Strip Effluent (SE) acid within the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) experienced elevated differential pressure drop during radioactive operations. Following the end of operations for the first Macrobatch campaign and soon after start of the second Macrobatch campaign, personnel removed the coalescer media and provided to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for diagnostic investigation of the causes of reduced flow. This report summarizes those studies. Two Strip Effluent (SE) coalescers were delivered to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). One was removed from the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) between processing of Macrobatch 1 and 2 (coalescer 'Alpha'), and the second was removed from MCU after processing of {approx}24,000 gallons of salt solution (coalescer 'Beta'). Both coalescers underwent the same general strip acid flush program to reduce the dose and were delivered to SRNL for analysis of potential occluding solids. Analysis of Coalescer Alpha indicates the presence of aluminum hydroxide solids and aluminosilicate solids, while analysis of Coalescer Beta indicates the presence of aluminum hydroxide solids, but no aluminosilicates. Leaching studies on sections of both coalescers were performed. The results indicate that the coalescers had different amounts of solids present on them at the time of removal. Finally, samples of free liquids retrieved from both coalescers indicate no excessive amounts of CSSX solvent present. Given the strip acid flushing that occurred in the SE coalescers, the solids we detected on the coalescers are probably indicative of a larger quantity of these solids present before the strip acid flushing. Under this scenario, the excessive pressure drops are due to the solids and not from organic fouling.

  10. A computer code to estimate accidental fire and radioactive airborne releases in nuclear fuel cycle facilities: User's manual for FIRIN

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, M.K.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Owczarski, P.C.

    1989-02-01

    This manual describes the technical bases and use of the computer code FIRIN. This code was developed to estimate the source term release of smoke and radioactive particles from potential fires in nuclear fuel cycle facilities. FIRIN is a product of a broader study, Fuel Cycle Accident Analysis, which Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The technical bases of FIRIN consist of a nonradioactive fire source term model, compartment effects modeling, and radioactive source term models. These three elements interact with each other in the code affecting the course of the fire. This report also serves as a complete FIRIN user's manual. Included are the FIRIN code description with methods/algorithms of calculation and subroutines, code operating instructions with input requirements, and output descriptions. 40 refs., 5 figs., 31 tabs.

  11. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Annual report 1991, Volume 12

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Doty, K.; Congemi, J.

    1994-05-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1991 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1991 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data Covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  12. Utilization of airborne gamma ray spectrometric data for geological mapping, radioactive mineral exploration and environmental monitoring of southeastern Aswan city, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youssef, Mohamed A. S.; Elkhodary, Shadia T.

    2013-12-01

    The present work utilizes airborne gamma ray spectrometric data in a trial to refine surface geology of igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks, detect any radioactive mineralization and monitor environment at southeastern Aswan city, South Eastern Desert, Egypt. This area is mainly covered with igneous rocks (younger granites, older granites, metasediments, metavolcanics, metagabbro, Tertiary basalt and ring complex), metamorphic rocks as well as sedimentary rocks (Um Barmil Formation, Timsah Formation, Abu Aggag Formation and wadi sediments). Airborne gamma ray spectrometry can be very helpful in mapping surface geology. This provides estimates of the apparent surface concentrations of the most common naturally occurring radioactive elements, such as potassium (K), equivalent uranium (eU) and equivalent thorium (eTh). This is based on the assumption that, the absolute and relative concentrations of these radioelements vary measurably and significantly with lithology. The composite image technique is used to display simultaneously three parameters of the three radioelement concentrations and their three binary ratios on one image. The technique offers much in terms of lithological discrimination, based on colour differences and showed efficiency in defining areas, where different lithofacies occur within areas mapped as one continuous lithology. The integration between surface geological information and geophysical data led to detailing the surface geology and the contacts between different rock units. Significant locations or favourable areas for uranium exploration are defined, where the measurements exceed (X + 2S), taking X as the arithmetic mean of eU, eU/eTh and eU/K measurements and S as the standard deviation corresponding to each variables. The study area shows the presence of four relatively high uraniferous zones. These zones cannot be ignored and need further ground follow-up. In addition, the trend analysis based on the three radioelement maps and

  13. Facility effluent monitoring plan for WESF

    SciTech Connect

    SIMMONS, F.M.

    1999-09-01

    The FEMP for the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) provides sufficient information on the WESF effluent characteristics and the effluent monitoring systems so that a compliance assessment against applicable requirements may be performed. Radioactive and hazardous material source terms are related to specific effluent streams that are in turn, related to discharge points and, finally are compared to the effluent monitoring system capability.

  14. Rocketdyne division, environmental monitoring and facility effluent. Annual report, De Soto and Santa Susana Field Laboratories Sites, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J. D.

    1987-03-01

    Environmental and facility effluent radioactivity monitoring at the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International is performed by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Group of the Health, Safety, and Environment Department. Soil and surface water are routinely sampled to a distance of 10 miles from Division sites. Ground water from site supply water wells and other test wells is periodically sampled to measure radioactivity in these waters. Continuous ambient air sampling and direct radiation monitoring by thermoluminescent dosimetry are performed at several on=site and off-site locations for measuring airborne radioactivity concentrations and site ambient radiation levels. Radioactivity in effluents discharged to the atmosphere from nuclear facilities is continuously sampled and monitored to ensure that amounts released to uncontrolled areas are below appropriate limits and to identify processes that may require additional engineering safeguards to minimize radioactivity in such discharges. In addition, selected nonradioactive chemical constituent concentrations in surface water discharged to uncontrolled areas are determined. The environmental radioactivity reported herein is attributed to natural sources, to local fallout of radioactive debris from the Chernobyl reactor accident, and to residual fallout of radioactive material from past atmospheric testing of nuclear devices.

  15. Correlation of radioactive-waste-treatment costs and the environmental impact of waste effluents in the nuclear fuel cycle: conversion of yellow cake to uranium hexafluoride. Part II. The solvent extraction-fluorination process

    SciTech Connect

    Sears, M.B.; Etnier, E.L.; Hill, G.S.; Patton, B.D.; Witherspoon, J.P.; Yen, S.N.

    1983-03-01

    A cost/benefit study was made to determine the cost and effectiveness of radioactive waste (radwaste) treatment systems for decreasing the release of radioactive materials and chemicals from a model uranium hexafluoride (UF/sub 6/) production plant using the solvent extraction-fluorination process, and to evaluate the radiological impact (dose commitment) of the release materials on the environment. The model plant processes 10,000 metric tons of uranium per year. Base-case waste treatment is the minimum necessary to operate the process. Effluents meet the radiological requirements listed in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 20 (10 CFR 20), Appendix B, Table II, but may not be acceptable chemically at all sites. Additional radwaste treatment techniques are applied to the base-case plant in a series of case studies to decrease the amounts of radioactive materials released and to reduce the amounts of radioactive materials released and to reduce the radiological dose commitment to the population in the surrounding area. The costs for the added waste treatment operations and the corresponding dose committment are correlated with the annual cost for treatment of the radwastes. The status of the radwaste treatment methods used in the case studies is discussed. Much of the technology used in the advanced cases will require development and demonstration, or else is proprietary and unavailable for immediate use. The methodology and assumptions for the radiological doses are found in ORNL-4992.

  16. Nuclear reactor effluent monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Minns, J.L.; Essig, T.H.

    1993-12-31

    Radiological environmental monitoring and effluent monitoring at nuclear power plants is important both for normal operations, as well as in the event of an accident. During normal operations, environmental monitoring verifies the effectiveness of in-plant measures for controlling the release of radioactive materials in the plant. Following an accident, it would be an additional mechanism for estimating doses to members of the general public. This paper identifies the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulatory basis for requiring radiological environmental and effluent monitoring, licensee conditions for effluent and environmental monitoring, NRC independent oversight activities, and NRC`s program results.

  17. Rocketdyne division, environmental monitoring and facility effluent. Annual Report, De Soto and Santa Susana Field Laboratories Sites 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J. D.

    1988-03-01

    Environmental and facility effluent radioactivity monitoring at the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International is performed by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Group of the Health, Safety, and Environment Department. Soil and surface water are routinely sampled to a distance of 10 miles from Division sites. Ground water from site supply water wells and other test wells is periodically sampled to measure radioactivity in these waters. Continuous ambient air sampling and direct radiation monitoring by thermoluminescent dosimetry are performed at several on-site and off-site locations for measuring airborne radioactivity concentrations and site ambient radiation levels. Radioactivity in effluents discharged to the atmosphere from nuclear facilities is continually sampled and monitored to ensure that amounts released to uncontrolled areas are below appropriate limited and to identify processes that rnay require additional engineering safeguards to minimize radioactivity in such discharges. In addition, selected nonradioactive chemical constituent concentrations in surface water discharged to uncontrolled areas are determined. The environmental radioactivity reported herein is attributed to natural sources and to residual fallout of radioactive material from past atmospheric testing of nuclear devices. Work in nuclear energy research and development in what has become the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International Corporation began in 1946. In addition to a broad spectrum of conventional programs in rocket propulsion, utilization of space, and national defense, Rocketdyne is working on the design, development, and testing of components and systems for central station nuclear power plants, the decladding of irradiated nuclear fuel, and the decontamination and decommissioning of facilities.

  18. Rocketdyne division, envionmental monitoring and facility effluent. Annual report, De Soto and Santa Susana Field Laboratories Sites, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J. D.

    1989-05-01

    Environmental and facility effluent radioactivity monitoring at the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International is performed by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Group of the Health, Safety, and Environment Department. Soil and surface water are routinely sampled to a distance of 16 km from division sites. Groundwater from Santa Susana Field Laboratories (SSFL) supply water wells and other test wells is periodically sampled to measure radioactivity. Continuous ambient air sampling and direct radiation monitoring by thermoluminescent dosimetry are performed at several on-site and off-site locations for measuring airborne radioactivity concentrations and site ambient radiation levels. Radioactivity in effluents discharged to the atmosphere from nuclear facilities is continually sampled and monitored to assure that amounts released to uncontrolled areas are below appropriate limits. These procedures also help identify processes that may require additional engineering safeguards to minimize radioactivity in such discharges. In addition, selected nonradioactive chemical constituent concentrations in surface water discharged to uncontrolled areas are measured. The environmental radioactivity reported herein is attributed to natural sources and to residual fallout of radioactive material from past atmospheric testing of nuclear devices.

  19. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the 325 Facility

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    The Applied Chemistry Laboratory (325 Facility) houses radiochemistry research, radioanalytical service, radiochemical process development, and hazardous and mixed hazardous waste treatment activities. The laboratories and specialized facilities enable work ranging from that with nonradioactive materials to work with picogram to kilogram quantities of fissionable materials and up to megacurie quantities of other radionuclides. The special facilities include two shielded hot-cell areas that provide for process development or analytical chemistry work with highly radioactive materials, and a waste treatment facility for processing hazardous, mixed, low-level, and transuranic wastes generated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Radioactive material storage and usage occur throughout the facility and include a large number of isotopes. This material is in several forms, including solid, liquid, particulate, and gas. Some of these materials are also heated during testing which can produce vapors. The research activities have been assigned to the following activity designations: High-Level Hot Cell, Hazardous Waste Treatment Unit, Waste Form Development, Special Testing Projects, Chemical Process Development, Analytical Hot Cell, and Analytical Chemistry. The following summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents and the results of the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) determination for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterization of effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements.

  20. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the 3720 Building

    SciTech Connect

    Shields, K.D.; Ballinger, M.Y.

    1999-04-02

    This Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) has been prepared for the Environmental Science Laboratory (3720 Facility) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to meet the requirements in DOE Order 5400.1, ''General Environmental Protection Programs'' This FEMP has been prepared for the 3720 Facility primarily because it has a major (potential to emit >0.1 mrem/yr) emission point for radionuclide air emissions according to the annual National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) assessment performed. This section summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents and the inventory based NESHAP assessment for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterization of effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements. The 3720 Facility provides office and laboratory space for PNNL scientific and engineering staff conducting multidisciplinary research in the areas of materials characterization and testing and waste management. The facility is designed to accommodate the use of radioactive and hazardous materials to conduct these activities. Radioactive material storage and usage occur throughout the facility and include a large number of isotopes. This material is in several forms, including solid, liquid, and dispersible particulate. The facility is in the process of being vacated for shutdown, but is considered a Major Emission Point as of the date of this document approval.

  1. Radiological effluents released and public doses from nuclear power plants in Korea.

    PubMed

    Son, Jung Kwon; Kim, Hee Geun; Kong, Tae Young; Ko, Jong Hyun; Lee, Goung Jin

    2013-08-01

    As of the end of 2010, there were 20 commercially operating nuclear reactors in Korea. Releases of radioactive effluents from nuclear power plants (NPPs) have increased continuously; the total radioactivity of effluent amount released in 2010 was 547.12 TBq. From 2001 to 2010, the annual average radioactivity of gaseous and liquid effluents per reactor was 11.61 TBq for pressurised water reactors and 118.12 TBq for pressurised heavy water reactors. Most of the radioactivity from gaseous and liquid effluents came from tritium. Based on the results of release trends and analyses, the characteristics of effluents have been investigated to improve the management of radioactive effluents from NPPs.

  2. Method and means of monitoring the effluent from nuclear facilities

    DOEpatents

    Lattin, Kenneth R.; Erickson, Gerald L.

    1976-01-01

    Radioactive iodine is detected in the effluent cooling gas from a nuclear reactor or nuclear facility by passing the effluent gas through a continuously moving adsorbent filter material which is then purged of noble gases and conveyed continuously to a detector of radioactivity. The purging operation has little or no effect upon the concentration of radioactive iodine which is adsorbed on the filter material.

  3. A review of monitoring, sampling and analysis of reactor coolant, reactor containment atmosphere and airborne reactor effluents in post accident concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, A.P.; White, J.R.; Knox, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    A post-implementation review has been made in NRC Region I of the post-accident sampling systems (PASS), the gaseous effluent monitors, and the provisions for sampling effluent particulates and radioiodines which were required by the NRC subsequent to the TMI-2 accident (NUREG-0737). Prefabricated PASS systems were predominant. Problems included insufficient purge times, inadequate separation of dissolved gases, excessive dilution and the accuracy of analytical techniques in the presence of interferences. Microprocessor-controlled high-range gas monitors with integral provisions for sampling particulates and radioiodines in high concentrations were widely used. Calibration information was generally insufficient for the unambiguous conversion of monitor readings to release rates for a varying postaccident mixture of radiogases. The referenced sampling guidance (ANSI-N 13.1-1969) was inappropriate for the long sampling lines customarily used. Generic research is needed to establish the behavior of particulates and radioiodines in these lines.

  4. Dynamic radioactive particle source

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Murray E; Gauss, Adam Benjamin; Justus, Alan Lawrence

    2012-06-26

    A method and apparatus for providing a timed, synchronized dynamic alpha or beta particle source for testing the response of continuous air monitors (CAMs) for airborne alpha or beta emitters is provided. The method includes providing a radioactive source; placing the radioactive source inside the detection volume of a CAM; and introducing an alpha or beta-emitting isotope while the CAM is in a normal functioning mode.

  5. Radioactive Iodine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Phone Home » Radioactive Iodine Leer en Español Radioactive Iodine Iodine is essential for proper function of the ... that takes up and holds onto iodine. Radioactive Iodine FAQs WHAT IS RADIOACTIVE IODINE (RAI)? Iodine, in ...

  6. Airborne Oceanographic Lidar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bressel, C.; Itzkan, I.; Nunes, J. E.; Hoge, F.

    1977-01-01

    The Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL), a spatially scanning range-gated device installed on board a NASA C-54 aircraft, is described. The AOL system is capable of measuring topographical relief or water depth (bathymetry) with a range resolution of plus or minus 0.3 m in the vertical dimension. The system may also be used to measure fluorescent spectral signatures from 3500 to 8000 A with a resolution of 100 A. Potential applications of the AOL, including sea state measurements, water transparency assessments, oil spill identification, effluent identification and crop cover assessment are also mentioned.

  7. Radioactive Decay

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Radioactive decay is the emission of energy in the form of ionizing radiation. Example decay chains illustrate how radioactive atoms can go through many transformations as they become stable and no longer radioactive.

  8. Effluent Guidelines

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Effluent guidelines are national standards for wastewater discharges to surface waters and municipal sewage treatment plants. We issue the regulations for industrial categories based on the performance of treatment and control technologies.

  9. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the fast flux test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Nickels, J M; Dahl, N R

    1992-11-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in US Department of Energy Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could affect employee or public safety or the environment. A Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan determination was performed during calendar year 1991 and the evaluation requires the need for a facility effluent monitoring plan. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements.

  10. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the Plutonium Uranium Extraction Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Greager, E.M.

    1997-12-11

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-01. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether these systems are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan will ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated, at a minimum, every 3 years.

  11. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the uranium trioxide facility

    SciTech Connect

    Lohrasbi, J.; Johnson, D.L.; De Lorenzo, D.S.

    1993-12-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-01. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated at a minimum of every three years.

  12. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the plutonium uranium extraction facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wiegand, D.L.

    1994-09-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-01. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated at a minimum of every three years.

  13. 10 CFR 61.41 - Protection of the general population from releases of radioactivity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... radioactivity. 61.41 Section 61.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR... from releases of radioactivity. Concentrations of radioactive material which may be released to the... maintain releases of radioactivity in effluents to the general environment as low as is...

  14. 10 CFR 61.41 - Protection of the general population from releases of radioactivity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... radioactivity. 61.41 Section 61.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR... from releases of radioactivity. Concentrations of radioactive material which may be released to the... maintain releases of radioactivity in effluents to the general environment as low as is...

  15. 10 CFR 61.41 - Protection of the general population from releases of radioactivity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... radioactivity. 61.41 Section 61.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR... from releases of radioactivity. Concentrations of radioactive material which may be released to the... maintain releases of radioactivity in effluents to the general environment as low as is...

  16. 10 CFR 61.41 - Protection of the general population from releases of radioactivity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... radioactivity. 61.41 Section 61.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR... from releases of radioactivity. Concentrations of radioactive material which may be released to the... maintain releases of radioactivity in effluents to the general environment as low as is...

  17. 10 CFR 61.41 - Protection of the general population from releases of radioactivity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... radioactivity. 61.41 Section 61.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR... from releases of radioactivity. Concentrations of radioactive material which may be released to the... maintain releases of radioactivity in effluents to the general environment as low as is...

  18. Fourth Airborne Geoscience Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The focus of the workshop was on how the airborne community can assist in achieving the goals of the Global Change Research Program. The many activities that employ airborne platforms and sensors were discussed: platforms and instrument development; airborne oceanography; lidar research; SAR measurements; Doppler radar; laser measurements; cloud physics; airborne experiments; airborne microwave measurements; and airborne data collection.

  19. Effluent monitoring of the December 10, 1974, Titan 3-E launch at Air Force Eastern Test Range, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wornom, D. E.; Woods, D. C.

    1978-01-01

    Surface and airborne field measurements of the cloud behavior and effluent dispersion from a solid rocket motor launch vehicle are presented. The measurements were obtained as part of a continuing launch vehicle effluent monitoring program to obtain experimental field measurements in order to evaluate a model used to predict launch vehicle environmental impact. Results show that the model tends to overpredict effluent levels.

  20. Airborne Particles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojala, Carl F.; Ojala, Eric J.

    1987-01-01

    Describes an activity in which students collect airborne particles using a common vacuum cleaner. Suggests ways for the students to convert their data into information related to air pollution and human health. Urges consideration of weather patterns when analyzing the results of the investigation. (TW)

  1. Airborne Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    ATM (Airborne Thematic Mapper) was developed for NSTL (National Space Technology Companies) by Daedalus Company. It offers expanded capabilities for timely, accurate and cost effective identification of areas with prospecting potential. A related system is TIMS, Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner. Originating from Landsat 4, it is also used for agricultural studies, etc.

  2. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the tank farms facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Bachand, D.D.; Crummel, G.M.

    1995-05-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using specific guidelines. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated as a minimum every three years.

  3. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the tank farm facility

    SciTech Connect

    Crummel, G.M.

    1998-05-18

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements.

  4. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Balance-of-Plant Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Gervais, Todd L.

    2004-11-15

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operates a number of Research & Development (R&D) facilities for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on the Hanford Site. Facility effluent monitoring plans (FEMPs) have been developed to document the facility effluent monitoring portion of the Environmental Monitoring Plan (DOE 2000) for the Hanford Site. Three of PNNL’s R&D facilities, the 325, 331, and 3720 Buildings, are considered major emission points for radionuclide air sampling, and individual FEMPs were developed for these facilities in the past. In addition, a balance-of-plant (BOP) FEMP was developed for all other DOE-owned, PNNL-operated facilities at the Hanford Site. Recent changes, including shutdown of buildings and transition of PNNL facilities to the Office of Science, have resulted in retiring the 3720 FEMP and combining the 331 FEMP into the BOP FEMP. This version of the BOP FEMP addresses all DOE-owned, PNNL-operated facilities at the Hanford Site, excepting the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory, which has its own FEMP because of the unique nature of the building and operations. Activities in the BOP facilities range from administrative to laboratory and pilot-scale R&D. R&D activities include both radioactive and chemical waste characterization, fluid dynamics research, mechanical property testing, dosimetry research, and molecular sciences. The mission and activities for individual buildings are described in Appendix A. Potential radioactive airborne emissions in the BOP facilities are estimated annually using a building inventory-based approach provided in federal regulations. Sampling at individual BOP facilities is based on a potential-to-emit assessment. Some of these facilities are considered minor emission points and thus are sampled routinely, but not continuously, to confirm the low emission potential. One facility, the 331 Life Sciences Laboratory, has a major emission point and is sampled continuously. Sampling systems are

  5. Radioactive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2015-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste activities around the world in 2014. These include safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation and management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in water, soil and ecosystem alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes.

  6. Radioactive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2016-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste activities around the world in 2015. These include safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation and management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in water, soil and ecosystem alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes.

  7. Airborne Gamma-Spectrometry in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butterweck, Gernot; Bucher, Benno; Rybach, Ladislaus

    2008-08-01

    Airborne gamma-spectrometry is able to obtain fast radiological information over large areas. The airborne gamma-spectrometry unit deployed in Switzerland by the Swiss National Emergency Operations Centre (NEOC) consists of a Swiss army Super Puma helicopter equipped with four NaI-Detectors with a total volume of 17 liters, associated electronics and a real-time data evaluation and mapping unit developed by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) and the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI). The operational readiness of the airborne gamma-spectrometry system is validated in annual exercises of one week duration. Data from 2005 and 2006 exercises are represented in maps of 137Cs activity concentration for two towns located in southern and western Switzerland. An indicator of man-made radioactivity (MMGC ratio) is demonstrated for an area with four different types of nuclear installations. The intercomparison between airborne gamma-spectrometry and ground measurements showed good agreement between both methods.

  8. Airborne Gamma-Spectrometry in Switzerland

    SciTech Connect

    Butterweck, Gernot; Bucher, Benno; Rybach, Ladislaus

    2008-08-07

    Airborne gamma-spectrometry is able to obtain fast radiological information over large areas. The airborne gamma-spectrometry unit deployed in Switzerland by the Swiss National Emergency Operations Centre (NEOC) consists of a Swiss army Super Puma helicopter equipped with four NaI-Detectors with a total volume of 17 liters, associated electronics and a real-time data evaluation and mapping unit developed by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) and the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI). The operational readiness of the airborne gamma-spectrometry system is validated in annual exercises of one week duration. Data from 2005 and 2006 exercises are represented in maps of {sup 137}Cs activity concentration for two towns located in southern and western Switzerland. An indicator of man-made radioactivity (MMGC ratio) is demonstrated for an area with four different types of nuclear installations. The intercomparison between airborne gamma-spectrometry and ground measurements showed good agreement between both methods.

  9. Radioactivity Calculations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onega, Ronald J.

    1969-01-01

    Three problems in radioactive buildup and decay are presented and solved. Matrix algebra is used to solve the second problem. The third problem deals with flux depression and is solved by the use of differential equations. (LC)

  10. Concentrating Radioactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Richard A.

    1974-01-01

    By concentrating radioactivity contained on luminous dials, a teacher can make a high reading source for classroom experiments on radiation. The preparation of the source and its uses are described. (DT)

  11. Simulated Radioactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boettler, James L.

    1972-01-01

    Describes the errors in the sugar-cube experiment related to radioactivity as described in Project Physics course. The discussion considers some of the steps overlooked in the experiment and generalizes the theory beyond the sugar-cube stage. (PS)

  12. 10 CFR 835.209 - Concentrations of radioactive material in air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Concentrations of radioactive material in air. 835.209... External Exposure § 835.209 Concentrations of radioactive material in air. (a) The derived air... exposures to airborne radioactive material. (b) The estimation of internal dose shall be based on...

  13. Assessing inhalation exposure from airborne soil contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, J.H.

    1998-04-01

    A method of estimation of inhalation exposure to airborne soil contaminants is presented. this method is derived from studies of airborne soil particles with radioactive tags. The concentration of contaminants in air (g/m{sup 3}) can be derived from the product of M, the suspended respirable dust mass concentration (g/m{sup 3}), S, the concentration of contaminant in the soil (g/g), and E{sub f}, an enhancement factor. Typical measurement methods and values of M, and E{sub f} are given along with highlights of experiences with this method.

  14. Monitoring airborne alpha-emitter contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, P.L.; Koster, J.E.; Conaway, J.G.; Bounds, J.A.; Whitley, C.W.; Steadman, P.A.

    1998-02-01

    Facilities that may produce airborne alpha emitter contamination require a continuous air monitoring (CAM) system. However, these traditional CAMs have difficulty in environments with large quantities of non-radioactive particulates such as dust and salt. Los Alamos has developed an airborne plutonium sensor (APS) for the REBOUND experiment at the Nevada Test Site which detects alpha contamination directly in the air, and so is less vulnerable to the problems associated with counting activity on a filter. In addition, radon compensation is built into the detector by the use of two measurement chambers.

  15. Facility effluent monitoring plan for 242-A evaporator facility

    SciTech Connect

    Crummel, G.M.; Gustavson, R.D.

    1995-02-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the U.S. Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could affect employee or public safety or the environment. A facility effluent monitoring plan determination was performed during Calendar Year 1991 and the evaluation showed the need for a facility effluent monitoring plan. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-1. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated, as a minimum, every three years.

  16. RADIOACTIVE BATTERY

    DOEpatents

    Birden, J.H.; Jordan, K.C.

    1959-11-17

    A radioactive battery which includes a capsule containing the active material and a thermopile associated therewith is presented. The capsule is both a shield to stop the radiations and thereby make the battery safe to use, and an energy conventer. The intense radioactive decay taking place inside is converted to useful heat at the capsule surface. The heat is conducted to the hot thermojunctions of a thermopile. The cold junctions of the thermopile are thermally insulated from the heat source, so that a temperature difference occurs between the hot and cold junctions, causing an electrical current of a constant magnitude to flow.

  17. Radioactive Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaylock, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of radioactive waste disposal, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the studies included are: (1) high-level and long-lived wastes, and (2) release and burial of low-level wastes. A list of 42 references is also presented. (HM)

  18. Tritium recapture behavior at a nuclear power reactor due to airborne releases.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jason T; Miller, David W; Foster, Doug W

    2008-08-01

    This paper describes the initiatives taken by Cook Nuclear Plant to study the on-site behavior of recaptured tritium released in its airborne effluents. Recapture is the process where a released radioactive effluent, in this case tritium, is brought back on-site through some mechanism. Precipitation, shifts in wind direction, or anthropogenic structures that restrict or alter effluent movement can all lead to recapture. The investigation was started after tritium was detected in the north storm drain outfall. Recent inadvertent tritium releases by several other nuclear power plants, many of which entered the groundwater, have led to increased surveillance and scrutiny by regulatory authorities and the general public. To determine the source of tritium in the outfall, an on-site surface water, well water, rainwater and air-conditioning condensate monitoring program was begun. Washout coefficients were also determined to compare with results reported by other nuclear power plants. Program monitoring revealed detectable tritium concentrations in several precipitation sample locations downwind of the two monitored containment building release vents. Tritium was found in higher concentrations in air-conditioning condensate, with a mean value of 528 Bq L(-1) (14,300 pCi L(-1)). The condensate, and to a lesser extent rainwater, were contributing to the tritium found in the north storm drain outfall. Maximum concentration values for each sample type were used to estimate the most conservative dose. A maximum dose of 1.1 x 10(-10) mSv (1.1 x 10(-8) mrem) total body was calculated to determine the health impact of the tritium detected.

  19. Whole Effluent Toxicity (WET)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Whole Effluent Toxicity (WET) describes the aggregate toxic effect of an aqueous sample (e.g., whole effluent wastewater discharge) as measured by an organism's response upon exposure to the sample (e.g., lethality, impaired growth, or reproduction).

  20. Facility effluent monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the facility effluent monitoring programs and provides an evaluation of effluent monitoring data. These evaluations are useful in assessing the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control systems, as well as management practices.

  1. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the plutonium-uranium extraction facility

    SciTech Connect

    Lohrasbi, J.; Johnson, D.L.; De Lorenzo, D.S.

    1993-12-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-01. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated at a minimum of every three years.

  2. Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility Discharges in 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Del Signore, John C.

    2012-05-16

    This report documents radioactive discharges from the TA50 Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facilities (RLWTF) during calendar 2011. During 2011, three pathways were available for the discharge of treated water to the environment: discharge as water through NPDES Outfall 051 into Mortandad Canyon, evaporation via the TA50 cooling towers, and evaporation using the newly-installed natural-gas effluent evaporator at TA50. Only one of these pathways was used; all treated water (3,352,890 liters) was fed to the effluent evaporator. The quality of treated water was established by collecting a weekly grab sample of water being fed to the effluent evaporator. Forty weekly samples were collected; each was analyzed for gross alpha, gross beta, and tritium. Weekly samples were also composited at the end of each month. These flow-weighted composite samples were then analyzed for 37 radioisotopes: nine alpha-emitting isotopes, 27 beta emitters, and tritium. These monthly analyses were used to estimate the radioactive content of treated water fed to the effluent evaporator. Table 1 summarizes this information. The concentrations and quantities of radioactivity in Table 1 are for treated water fed to the evaporator. Amounts of radioactivity discharged to the environment through the evaporator stack were likely smaller since only entrained materials would exit via the evaporator stack.

  3. Concepts for Environmental Radioactive Air Sampling and Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew

    2011-11-04

    Environmental radioactive air sampling and monitoring is becoming increasingly important as regulatory agencies promulgate requirements for the measurement and quantification of radioactive contaminants. While researchers add to the growing body of knowledge in this area, events such as earthquakes and tsunamis demonstrate how nuclear systems can be compromised. The result is the need for adequate environmental monitoring to assure the public of their safety and to assist emergency workers in their response. Two forms of radioactive air monitoring include direct effluent measurements and environmental surveillance. This chapter presents basic concepts for direct effluent sampling and environmental surveillance of radioactive air emissions, including information on establishing the basis for sampling and/or monitoring, criteria for sampling media and sample analysis, reporting and compliance, and continual improvement.

  4. Quality Assurance Program Plan for radionuclide airborne emissions monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, L.M.

    1993-07-01

    This Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) describes the quality assurance requirements and responsibilities for radioactive airborne emissions measurements activities from regulated stacks are controlled at the Hanford Site. Detailed monitoring requirements apply to stacks exceeding 1% of the standard of 10 mrem annual effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual from operations of the Hanford Site.

  5. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility

    SciTech Connect

    DAVIS, W.E.

    2000-03-08

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the U.S. Department of Energy in Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee public safety, or the environment. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether these systems are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan ensures long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and must be updated, as a minimum, every 3 years.

  6. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System

    SciTech Connect

    Won, I.L.; Keiswetter, D.

    1995-12-31

    Ground-based surveys place personnel at risk due to the proximity of buried unexploded ordnance (UXO) items or by exposure to radioactive materials and hazardous chemicals. The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This non-intrusive system will provide stand-off capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak geophysical anomalies can be detected. The Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System (GAUSS) is designed to detect and locate small-scale anomalies at hazardous sites using magnetic and electromagnetic survey techniques. The system consists of a remotely-piloted, radio-controlled, model helicopter (RCH) with flight computer, light-weight geophysical sensors, an electronic positioning system, a data telemetry system, and a computer base-station. The report describes GAUSS and its test results.

  7. Radioactive decay.

    PubMed

    Groch, M W

    1998-01-01

    When a parent radionuclide decays to its daughter radionuclide by means of alpha, beta, or isomeric transition, the decay follows an exponential form, which is characterized by the decay constant lambda. The decay constant represents the probability per unit time that a single radioatom will decay. The decay equation can be used to provide a useful expression for radionuclide decay, the half-life, the time when 50% of the radioatoms present will have decayed. Radiotracer half-life has direct implications in nuclear imaging, radiation therapy, and radiation safety because radionuclide half-life affects the ability to evaluate tracer kinetics and create appropriate nuclear images and also affects organ, tumor, and whole-body radiation dose. The number of radioatoms present in a sample is equal to the activity, defined as the number of transitions per unit time, divided by the decay constant; the mass of radioatoms present in a sample can be calculated to determine the specific activity (activity per unit mass). The dynamic relationship between the number of parent and daughter atoms present over time may lead to radioactive equilibrium, which takes two forms--secular and transient--and has direct relevance to generator-produced radionuclides.

  8. Instrumentation of sampling aircraft for measurement of launch vehicle effluents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wornom, D. E.; Woods, D. C.; Thomas, M. E.; Tyson, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    An aircraft was selected and instrumented to measure effluents emitted from large solid propellant rockets during launch activities. The considerations involved in aircraft selection, sampling probes, and instrumentation are discussed with respect to obtaining valid airborne measurements. Discussions of the data acquisition system used, the instrument power system, and operational sampling procedures are included. Representative measurements obtained from an actual rocket launch monitoring activity are also presented.

  9. Position sensitive radioactivity detection for gas and liquid chromatography

    DOEpatents

    Cochran, Joseph L.; McCarthy, John F.; Palumbo, Anthony V.; Phelps, Tommy J.

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for the position sensitive detection of radioactivity in a fluid stream, particularly in the effluent fluid stream from a gas or liquid chromatographic instrument. The invention represents a significant advance in efficiency and cost reduction compared with current efforts.

  10. INEEL Liquid Effluent Inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Major, C.A.

    1997-06-01

    The INEEL contractors and their associated facilities are required to identify all liquid effluent discharges that may impact the environment at the INEEL. This liquid effluent information is then placed in the Liquid Effluent Inventory (LEI) database, which is maintained by the INEEL prime contractor. The purpose of the LEI is to identify and maintain a current listing of all liquid effluent discharge points and to identify which discharges are subject to federal, state, or local permitting or reporting requirements and DOE order requirements. Initial characterization, which represents most of the INEEL liquid effluents, has been performed, and additional characterization may be required in the future to meet regulations. LEI information is made available to persons responsible for or concerned with INEEL compliance with liquid effluent permitting or reporting requirements, such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Wastewater Land Application, Storm Water Pollution Prevention, Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures, and Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment. The State of Idaho Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Program also needs the information for tracking liquid effluent discharges at the INEEL. The information provides a baseline from which future liquid discharges can be identified, characterized, and regulated, if appropriate. The review covered new and removed buildings/structures, buildings/structures which most likely had new, relocated, or removed LEI discharge points, and at least 10% of the remaining discharge points.

  11. Estimating effluent COD

    SciTech Connect

    Eckenfelder, W.W.; Landine, R.

    1995-06-01

    In many parts of the world, chemical oxygen demand (COD) is a primary effluent parameter. Unlike BOD, which considers only biodegradable organics, COD also includes non-degradable organics and non-degradable biological oxidation by-products, generally referred to as soluble microbial products (SMP). The SMP can vary from 2% to 10% of the influent degradable COD. If the technology is limited to biological treatment only, the degradable COD will be removed. Further reductions in COD will require physical chemical treatments such as activated carbon. Effluent COD values for several industrial wastewaters are presented. Effluent characteristics from the anaerobic treatment of industrial wastewaters are also discussed.

  12. Genotoxicity of swine effluents.

    PubMed

    Techio, V H; Stolberg, J; Kunz, A; Zanin, E; Perdomo, C C

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of genotoxic effects of swine effluents from different stages of a treatment system for swine wastes through bioassay of stamen hairs and micronuclei in Tradescantia (clone BNL 4430). No significant differences (p≥0.05) regarding the genic mutations were found in the bioassay of stamen hairs, independently of the effluent analysed. For the genotoxicity test with micronuclei, the plants exposed to raw wastes, to sludge, and to effluent of the biodigester have presented higher rates of chromosomal damages (micronuclei), with significant differences in relation to the control group and other effluent of the waste treatment system (p≤0.05). The association between the chemical parameters and the genotoxicity data have shown that the variables COD and TKN have presented significant correlation (p≤0.05) with the number of mutagenic events in the tetrads.

  13. NATIONAL WWTP EFFLUENT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reports of potential wildlife risk from exposure to environmental estrogens emphasize the need to better understand both estrogenic presence and persistence in treated wastewater effluents. In addition to wildlife exposure, human exposure should also be examined, especially in si...

  14. Reactor radioactive emission monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Jester, W.A.; Mc Master, I.B.; Baratta, A.J.

    1987-05-05

    This patent describes a means for measuring quantities of a selected radioactive component in a stream of radioactive fluid. The means comprise: a first fluid path with a first means for retaining the selected radioactive component mounted in the fluid path for retaining the radioactive component while passing the remainder of the stream of radioactive fluid; a second fluid path with a second means for retaining the selected radioactive component mounted in the second fluid path for retaining the radioactive component while passing the remainder of the stream of the radioactive fluid; first and second detectors for detecting the level of radioactivity emitted by the retained radioactive component in the first and second retaining means; a means for integrating the output of one or more of the detectors as a function of time to measure any increase in the radioactivity emitted by the radioactive component retained by the retaining means, and the increase being representative of the amount of selected radioactive component present in the stream of radioactive fluid.

  15. RESRAD. Site-Specific Residual Radioactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, C.

    1989-06-01

    RESRAD is designed to derive site-specific guidelines for allowable residual concentrations of radionuclides in soil. A guideline is defined as a radionuclide concentration or a level of radiation or radioactivity that is acceptable if a site is to be used without radiological restrictions. Guidelines are expressed as (1) concentrations of residual radionuclides in soil, (2) concentrations of airborne radon decay products, (3) levels of external gamma radiation, (4) levels of radioactivity from surface contamination, and (5) concentrations of residual radionuclides in air and water. Soil is defined as unconsolidated earth material, including rubble and debris that may be present. The controlling principles of all guidelines are (1) the annual radiation dose received by a member of the critical population group from the residual radioactive material - predicted by a realistic but reasonably conservative analysis and averaged over a 50 year period - should not exceed 100 mrem/yr, and (2) doses should be kept as low as reasonably achievable. All significant exposure pathways for the critical population group are considered in deriving soil guidelines. These pathways include direct exposure to external radiation from the contaminated soil material; internal radiation from inhalation of airborne radionuclides; and internal radiation from ingestion of plant foods grown in the contaminated soil, meat and milk from livestock fed with contaminated fodder and water, drinking water from a contaminated well, and fish from a contaminated pond.

  16. RADIO-ACTIVE TRANSDUCER

    DOEpatents

    Wanetick, S.

    1962-03-01

    ABS>ure the change in velocity of a moving object. The transducer includes a radioactive source having a collimated beam of radioactive particles, a shield which can block the passage of the radioactive beam, and a scintillation detector to measure the number of radioactive particles in the beam which are not blocked by the shield. The shield is operatively placed across the radioactive beam so that any motion normal to the beam will cause the shield to move in the opposite direction thereby allowing more radioactive particles to reach the detector. The number of particles detected indicates the acceleration. (AEC)

  17. Airborne gamma spectrometry--towards integration of European operational capability.

    PubMed

    Toivonen, Harri

    2004-01-01

    Airborne gamma spectrometry is an excellent tool for finding out in a timely manner the extent and magnitude of the dispersion of radioactive materials resulting from a nuclear disaster. To utilise existing European airborne monitoring capabilities for multilateral assistance in an accident is a complex administrative and technical matter. Several international exercises have been organised demonstrating the capability to cooperate. However, efficient mutual assistance between European countries requires conceptual work, standards and harmonisation of software. A unified radiological vocabulary and data exchange format in XML need to be developed. A comprehensive database is essential for data assimilation. An operations centre is needed for management and planning of surveys.

  18. Launch vehicle effluent measurements during the May 12, 1977, Titan 3 launch at Air Force Eastern Test Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, G. L.; Bendura, R. J.; Woods, D. C.

    1979-01-01

    Airborne effluent measurements and cloud physical behavior for the May 21, 1977, Titan 3 launch from the Air Force Eastern Test Range, Fla. are presented. The monitoring program included airborne effluent measurements in situ in the launch cloud, visible and infrared photography of cloud growth and physical behavior, and limited surface collection of rain samples. Airborne effluent measurements included concentrations of HCl, NO, NOx, and aerosols as a function of time in the exhaust cloud. For the first time in situ particulate mass concentration and aerosol number density were measured as a function of time and size in the size range of 0.05 to 25 micro meters diameter. Measurement results were similar to those of earlier launch monitorings. Maximum HCl and NOx concentrations ranged from 10 ppm and 500 ppb, respectively, several minutes after launch to about 1 ppm and 100 ppb at 45 minutes after launch.

  19. Radioactive diagnostic agent

    SciTech Connect

    Shigematsu, A.; Aihara, M.; Matsuda, M.; Suzuki, A.; Tsuya, A.

    1984-02-07

    A radioactive diagnostic agent for renal cortex, adrenal cortex, myocardium, brain stem, spinal nerve, etc., which comprises as an essential component monoiodoacetic acid wherein the iodine atom is radioactive.

  20. Radioactive Iodine (Radioiodine) Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Stage Thyroid Cancer Treating Thyroid Cancer Radioactive Iodine (Radioiodine) Therapy for Thyroid Cancer Your thyroid gland absorbs nearly all of the iodine in your body. When radioactive iodine (RAI), also ...

  1. Airborne gravity is here

    SciTech Connect

    Hammer, S.

    1982-01-11

    After 20 years of development efforts, the airborne gravity survey has finally become a practical exploration method. Besides gravity data, the airborne survey can also collect simultaneous, continuous records of high-precision magneticfield data as well as terrain clearance; these provide a topographic contour map useful in calculating terrain conditions and in subsequent planning and engineering. Compared with a seismic survey, the airborne gravity method can cover the same area much more quickly and cheaply; a seismograph could then detail the interesting spots.

  2. Progress on detection of radioactivity by airborne equipment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stead, Frank W.

    1949-01-01

    Coincidence and anti-coincidence counting rate meters and also an air conductivity meter have been installed in a transport plane to measure gamma radiation from ground sources. Materials containing 0.01 percent uranium can be detected at 500 feet and at an airspeed of 150 miles per hour.

  3. Reverse osmosis applications to low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, L.

    1990-09-01

    The Hanford Site at Richland, Washington, is operated for the US Department of Energy (DOE) by Westinghouse Hanford Company. Since the Hanford Site was established in the 1940's, the operation of the various facilities has resulted in the contamination of liquid effluents and some groundwater with radioactive constituents. Westinghouse Hanford Company has been testing various technologies to determine their effectiveness in decontaminating these two types of liquids. Reverse osmosis (RO) has been applied to two process effluents and two groundwaters. Rejection data have been collected for uranium, technetium, tritium, strontium, cesium, and total alpha and beta. 4 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  4. Technical basis for removal of 221-T tunnel from airborne radiological area status

    SciTech Connect

    Geuther, W.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-30

    This document provides the technical basis for removal of the 221-T Tunnel from airborne radiological control. T Plant Radiological Control has evaluated air sampling data and engineering controls, and determined the necessary administrative controls to make this transition. With these administrative controls (specified within document) in place, the tunnel can be removed from Airborne Radioactive Area status. The removal of the tunnel from airborne status will allow work to be performed within the tunnel under controlled conditions, as outlined in this technical basis, without the use of respiratory protection equipment.

  5. An aerial survey of radioactivity associated with Atomic Energy plants

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, F.J.; Harlan, W.E.; Humphrey, P.A.; Kane, R.L.; Reinhardt, P.W.

    1992-09-02

    The project covered was an endeavor to (1) compare a group of laboratory instruments as airborne detectors of radioactivity and (2) simultaneously obtain data relative to the diffusion rate of radioactive contamination emitted into the atmosphere from off-gas stacks of production runs. Research was conducted in the Oak Ridge, Tennessee and Hanford, Washington areas. Detection was accomplished at a maximum distance of seventeen miles from the plant. Very little information of a conclusive nature was gained concerning the diffusion. Further research with the nuclear instruments, using a stronger source, is recommended. To obtain conclusive information concerning the meteorological aspects of the project, a larger observational program will be needed.

  6. Airborne Next: Rethinking Airborne Organization and Applying New Concepts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    structures since its employment on a large scale during World War II. It is puzzling to consider how little airborne organizational structures and employment...future potential of airborne concepts by rethinking traditional airborne organizational structures and employment concepts. Using a holistic approach in... structures of airborne forces to model a “small and many” approach over a “large and few” approach, while incorporating a “swarming” concept. Utilizing

  7. ORNL radioactive waste operations

    SciTech Connect

    Sease, J.D.; King, E.M.; Coobs, J.H.; Row, T.H.

    1982-01-01

    Since its beginning in 1943, ORNL has generated large amounts of solid, liquid, and gaseous radioactive waste material as a by-product of the basic research and development work carried out at the laboratory. The waste system at ORNL has been continually modified and updated to keep pace with the changing release requirements for radioactive wastes. Major upgrading projects are currently in progress. The operating record of ORNL waste operation has been excellent over many years. Recent surveillance of radioactivity in the Oak Ridge environs indicates that atmospheric concentrations of radioactivity were not significantly different from other areas in East Tennesseee. Concentrations of radioactivity in the Clinch River and in fish collected from the river were less than 4% of the permissible concentration and intake guides for individuals in the offsite environment. While some radioactivity was released to the environment from plant operations, the concentrations in all of the media sampled were well below established standards.

  8. Radioactivity and food

    SciTech Connect

    Olszyna-Marzys, A.E. )

    1990-03-01

    Two topics relating to radioactivity and food are discussed: food irradiation for preservation purposes, and food contamination from radioactive substances. Food irradiation involves the use of electromagnetic energy (x and gamma rays) emitted by radioactive substances or produced by machine in order to destroy the insects and microorganisms present and prevent germination. The sanitary and economic advantages of treating food in this way are discussed. Numerous studies have confirmed that under strictly controlled conditions no undesirable changes take place in food that has been irradiated nor is radioactivity induced. Reference is made to the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station, which aroused public concern about irradiated food. The events surrounding the accident are reviewed, and its consequences with regard to contamination of different foods with radioactive substances, particularly iodine-131 and cesium-137, are described. Also discussed are the steps that have been taken by different international organizations to set limits on acceptable radioactivity in food.15 references.

  9. Radioactive Waste Management Basis

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, B K

    2009-06-03

    The purpose of this Radioactive Waste Management Basis is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

  10. Silage effluent management: a review.

    PubMed

    Gebrehanna, M M; Gordon, R J; Madani, A; VanderZaag, A C; Wood, J D

    2014-10-01

    Silage effluent is a potent wastewater that can be produced when ensiling crops that have a high moisture content (MC). Silage effluent can cause fish-kills and eutrophication due to its high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and nutrient content, respectively. It has a high acidity (pH ≈ 3.5-5) making it corrosive to steel and damaging to concrete, which makes handling, storage and disposal a challenge. Although being recognized as a concentrated wastewater, most research has focused on preventing its production. Despite noted imprecision in effluent production models-and therefore limited ability to predict when effluent will flow-there has been little research aimed at identifying effective reactive management options, such as containment and natural treatment systems. Increasing climate variability and intensifying livestock agriculture are issues that will place a greater importance on developing comprehensive, multi-layered management strategies that include both preventative and reactive measures. This paper reviews important factors governing the production of effluent, approaches to minimize effluent flows as well as treatment and disposal options. The challenges of managing silage effluent are reviewed in the context of its chemical constituents. A multi-faceted approach should be utilized to minimize environmental risks associated with silage effluent. This includes: (i) managing crop moisture content prior to ensiling to reduce effluent production, (ii) ensuring the integrity of silos and effluent storages, and (iii) establishing infrastructure for effluent treatment and disposal. A more thorough investigation of constructed wetlands and vegetated infiltration areas for treating dilute silage effluent is needed. In particular, there should be efforts to improve natural treatment system design criteria by identifying pre-treatment processes and appropriate effluent loading rates. There is also a need for research aimed at understanding the effects of

  11. 10 CFR 63.112 - Requirements for preclosure safety analysis of the geologic repository operations area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to control access to high radiation areas or airborne radioactivity areas; (6) Means to prevent and..., concentrations of radioactive material in air, and increased radioactivity in effluents; (8) Ability...

  12. 10 CFR 63.112 - Requirements for preclosure safety analysis of the geologic repository operations area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to control access to high radiation areas or airborne radioactivity areas; (6) Means to prevent and..., concentrations of radioactive material in air, and increased radioactivity in effluents; (8) Ability...

  13. 10 CFR 63.112 - Requirements for preclosure safety analysis of the geologic repository operations area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to control access to high radiation areas or airborne radioactivity areas; (6) Means to prevent and..., concentrations of radioactive material in air, and increased radioactivity in effluents; (8) Ability...

  14. 10 CFR 63.112 - Requirements for preclosure safety analysis of the geologic repository operations area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... to control access to high radiation areas or airborne radioactivity areas; (6) Means to prevent and..., concentrations of radioactive material in air, and increased radioactivity in effluents; (8) Ability...

  15. 10 CFR 63.112 - Requirements for preclosure safety analysis of the geologic repository operations area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to control access to high radiation areas or airborne radioactivity areas; (6) Means to prevent and..., concentrations of radioactive material in air, and increased radioactivity in effluents; (8) Ability...

  16. Concentration of radioactive liquid streams by membrane processes

    SciTech Connect

    Ramachandhran, V.; Misra, B.M.

    1983-05-01

    The possibility of concentrating radioactive effluents by reverse osmosis was investigated. Cellulose acetate membranes of the Loeb-Sourirajan type were used, and their performance was evaluated the CsCl and SrCl/sub 2/ solutions in concentrations ranging from millimolar to trace level. The applicability of solution-diffusion and irreversible thermodynamic models for predicting solute separation in the above concentration range has been investigated. Some aspects of the selectivity with reference to trace radionuclides are also reported.

  17. Advanced Airborne Hyperspectral Imaging System (AAHIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topping, Miles Q.; Pfeiffer, Joel E.; Sparks, Andrew W.; Jim, Kevin T. C.; Yoon, Dugan

    2002-11-01

    The design, operation, and performance of the fourth generation of Science and Technology International's Advanced Airborne Hyperspectral Imaging Sensors (AAHIS) are described. These imaging spectrometers have a variable bandwidth ranging from 390-840 nm. A three-axis image stabilization provides spatially and spectrally coherent imagery by damping most of the airborne platform's random motion. A wide 40-degree field of view coupled with sub-pixel detection allows for a large area coverage rate. A software controlled variable aperture, spectral shaping filters, and high quantum efficiency, back-illuminated CCD's contribute to the excellent sensitivity of the sensors. AAHIS sensors have been operated on a variety of fixed and rotary wing platforms, achieving ground-sampling distances ranging from 6.5 cm to 2 m. While these sensors have been primarily designed for use over littoral zones, they are able to operate over both land and water. AAHIS has been used for detecting and locating submarines, mines, tanks, divers, camouflage and disturbed earth. Civilian applications include search and rescue on land and at sea, agricultural analysis, environmental time-series, coral reef assessment, effluent plume detection, coastal mapping, damage assessment, and seasonal whale population monitoring

  18. Radioactive Wastes. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Charles H.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. This booklet deals with the handling, processing and disposal of radioactive wastes. Among the topics discussed are: The Nature of Radioactive Wastes; Waste Management; and Research and Development. There are…

  19. Radioactive waste disposal package

    DOEpatents

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-11-04

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  20. Temporary Personal Radioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Fred

    2012-11-01

    As part of a bone scan procedure to look for the spread of prostate cancer, I was injected with radioactive technetium. In an effort to occupy/distract my mind, I used a Geiger counter to determine if the radioactive count obeyed the inverse-square law as a sensor was moved away from my bladder by incremental distances.

  1. Radioactive waste disposal package

    DOEpatents

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-01-01

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  2. A Remote Radioactivity Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jona, Kemi; Vondracek, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Imagine a high school with very few experimental resources and limited budgets that prevent the purchase of even basic laboratory equipment. For example, many high schools do not have the means of experimentally studying radioactivity because they lack Geiger counters and/or good radioactive sources. This was the case at the first high school one…

  3. International Symposium on Airborne Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogi, Toru; Ito, Hisatoshi; Kaieda, Hideshi; Kusunoki, Kenichiro; Saltus, Richard W.; Fitterman, David V.; Okuma, Shigeo; Nakatsuka, Tadashi

    2006-05-01

    Airborne geophysics can be defined as the measurement of Earth properties from sensors in the sky. The airborne measurement platform is usually a traditional fixed-wing airplane or helicopter, but could also include lighter-than-air craft, unmanned drones, or other specialty craft. The earliest history of airborne geophysics includes kite and hot-air balloon experiments. However, modern airborne geophysics dates from the mid-1940s when military submarine-hunting magnetometers were first used to map variations in the Earth's magnetic field. The current gamut of airborne geophysical techniques spans a broad range, including potential fields (both gravity and magnetics), electromagnetics (EM), radiometrics, spectral imaging, and thermal imaging.

  4. Radioactive Iodine Treatment for Hyperthyroidism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Balance › Radioactive Iodine for Hyperthyroidism Fact Sheet Radioactive Iodine for Hyperthyroidism April, 2012 Download PDFs English Zulu ... prepare for RAI or surgery. How does radioactive iodine treatment work? Iodine is important for making thyroid ...

  5. Airborne Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    NASA imaging technology has provided the basis for a commercial agricultural reconnaissance service. AG-RECON furnishes information from airborne sensors, aerial photographs and satellite and ground databases to farmers, foresters, geologists, etc. This service produces color "maps" of Earth conditions, which enable clients to detect crop color changes or temperature changes that may indicate fire damage or pest stress problems.

  6. Recognizing Airborne Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Christian M.

    1990-01-01

    The heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in older buildings often do not adequately handle air-borne contaminants. Outlines a three-stage Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) assessment and describes a case in point at a Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, school. (MLF)

  7. Airborne asbestos in buildings.

    PubMed

    Lee, R J; Van Orden, D R

    2008-03-01

    The concentration of airborne asbestos in buildings nationwide is reported in this study. A total of 3978 indoor samples from 752 buildings, representing nearly 32 man-years of sampling, have been analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. The buildings that were surveyed were the subject of litigation related to suits alleging the general building occupants were exposed to a potential health hazard as a result the presence of asbestos-containing materials (ACM). The average concentration of all airborne asbestos structures was 0.01structures/ml (s/ml) and the average concentration of airborne asbestos > or = 5microm long was 0.00012fibers/ml (f/ml). For all samples, 99.9% of the samples were <0.01 f/ml for fibers longer than 5microm; no building averaged above 0.004f/ml for fibers longer than 5microm. No asbestos was detected in 27% of the buildings and in 90% of the buildings no asbestos was detected that would have been seen optically (> or = 5microm long and > or = 0.25microm wide). Background outdoor concentrations have been reported at 0.0003f/ml > or = 5microm. These results indicate that in-place ACM does not result in elevated airborne asbestos in building atmospheres approaching regulatory levels and that it does not result in a significantly increased risk to building occupants.

  8. Effects of particle size and velocity on burial depth of airborne particles in glass fiber filters

    SciTech Connect

    Higby, D.P.

    1984-11-01

    Air sampling for particulate radioactive material involves collecting airborne particles on a filter and then determining the amount of radioactivity collected per unit volume of air drawn through the filter. The amount of radioactivity collected is frequently determined by directly measuring the radiation emitted from the particles collected on the filter. Counting losses caused by the particle becoming buried in the filter matrix may cause concentrations of airborne particulate radioactive materials to be underestimated by as much as 50%. Furthermore, the dose calculation for inhaled radionuclides will also be affected. The present study was designed to evaluate the extent to which particle size and sampling velocity influence burial depth in glass-fiber filters. Aerosols of high-fired /sup 239/PuO/sub 2/ were collected at various sampling velocities on glass-fiber filters. The fraction of alpha counts lost due to burial was determined as the ratio of activity detected by direct alpha count to the quantity determined by photon spectrometry. The results show that burial of airborne particles collected on glass-fiber filters appears to be a weak function of sampling velocity and particle size. Counting losses ranged from 0 to 25%. A correction that assumes losses of 10 to 15% would ensure that the concentration of airborne alpha-emitting radionuclides would not be underestimated when glass-fiber filters are used. 32 references, 21 figures, 11 tables.

  9. Assessment of Airborne Particles. Fundamentals, Applications, and Implications to Inhalation Toxicity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer, Thomas T., Ed.; And Others

    Concern over chemical and radioactive particulate matter in industry and over rapidly increasing air pollution has stimulated research both on the properties of airborne particles and methods for assessing them and on their biological effects following inhalation. The Third Rochester International Conference on Environmental Toxicity was,…

  10. Photoreactivation in Airborne Mycobacterium parafortuitum

    PubMed Central

    Peccia, Jordan; Hernandez, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Photoreactivation was observed in airborne Mycobacterium parafortuitum exposed concurrently to UV radiation (254 nm) and visible light. Photoreactivation rates of airborne cells increased with increasing relative humidity (RH) and decreased with increasing UV dose. Under a constant UV dose with visible light absent, the UV inactivation rate of airborne M. parafortuitum cells decreased by a factor of 4 as RH increased from 40 to 95%; however, under identical conditions with visible light present, the UV inactivation rate of airborne cells decreased only by a factor of 2. When irradiated in the absence of visible light, cellular cyclobutane thymine dimer content of UV-irradiated airborne M. parafortuitum and Serratia marcescens increased in response to RH increases. Results suggest that, unlike in waterborne bacteria, cyclobutane thymine dimers are not the most significant form of UV-induced DNA damage incurred by airborne bacteria and that the distribution of DNA photoproducts incorporated into UV-irradiated airborne cells is a function of RH. PMID:11526027

  11. Simulation of atmospheric dispersion of radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect

    Lange, R.; Sullivan, T.J.; Gudiksen, P.H. )

    1989-07-01

    Measurements of airborne radioactivity over Europe, Japan, and the United States indicated that the release from the Chernobyl reactor accident in the Soviet Union on April 26, 1986 contained a wide spectrum of fission up to heights of 7 km or more within a few days after the initial explosion. This high-altitude presence of radioactivity would in part be attributable to atmospheric dynamics factors other than the thermal energy released in the initial explosion. Indications were that two types of releases had taken place -- an initial powerful explosion followed by days of a less energetic reactor fire. The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) utilized three-dimensional atmospheric dispersion models to determine the characteristics of the source term (release) and the evolution of the spatial distributions of the airborne radioactivity as it was transported over Europe and subsequently over the northern hemisphere. This paper describes the ARAC involvement and the results of the hemispheric model calculations which graphically depict the extensive dispersal of radioactivity. 1 fig.

  12. A Remote Radioactivity Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jona, Kemi; Vondracek, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Imagine a high school with very few experimental resources and limited budgets that prevent the purchase of even basic laboratory equipment. For example, many high schools do not have the means of experimentally studying radioactivity because they lack Geiger counters and/or good radioactive sources. This was the case at the first high school one of us (MV) worked at, and after talking with numerous colleagues we know this is still the case at many schools. What options are there then for physics teachers to allow their students to experimentally investigate certain characteristics of radioactivity, such as how distance affects the intensity of radiation coming from a radioactive source? There are computer simulations that can be run, or perhaps the teacher has a light sensor and tries to make an analogy between the intensity of light from a light bulb and the intensity of radiation from a radioactive source based on geometric arguments to get an inverse-square law. But for many there is no direct experimental option if one does not possess a Geiger counter and good radioactive sample. It is for that teacher and class of students that an online, remote radioactivity experiment was created.

  13. Absolute airborne gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, Henri

    This work consists of a feasibility study of a first stage prototype airborne absolute gravimeter system. In contrast to relative systems, which are using spring gravimeters, the measurements acquired by absolute systems are uncorrelated and the instrument is not suffering from problems like instrumental drift, frequency response of the spring and possible variation of the calibration factor. The major problem we had to resolve were to reduce the influence of the non-gravitational accelerations included in the measurements. We studied two different approaches to resolve it: direct mechanical filtering, and post-processing digital compensation. The first part of the work describes in detail the different mechanical passive filters of vibrations, which were studied and tested in the laboratory and later in a small truck in movement. For these tests as well as for the airborne measurements an absolute gravimeter FG5-L from Micro-G Ltd was used together with an Inertial navigation system Litton-200, a vertical accelerometer EpiSensor, and GPS receivers for positioning. These tests showed that only the use of an optical table gives acceptable results. However, it is unable to compensate for the effects of the accelerations of the drag free chamber. The second part describes the strategy of the data processing. It is based on modeling the perturbing accelerations by means of GPS, EpiSensor and INS data. In the third part the airborne experiment is described in detail, from the mounting in the aircraft and data processing to the different problems encountered during the evaluation of the quality and accuracy of the results. In the part of data processing the different steps conducted from the raw apparent gravity data and the trajectories to the estimation of the true gravity are explained. A comparison between the estimated airborne data and those obtained by ground upward continuation at flight altitude allows to state that airborne absolute gravimetry is feasible and

  14. Bioremediation of organic pollutants in a radioactive wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Oboirien, Bilainu; Molokwane, P.E.; Chirwa, Evans

    2007-07-01

    Bioremediation holds the promise as a cost effective treatment technology for a wide variety of hazardous pollutants. In this study, the biodegradation of organic compounds discharged together with radioactive wastes is investigated. Nuclear process wastewater was simulated by a mixture of phenol and strontium, which is a major radionuclide found in radioactive wastewater. Phenol was used in the study as a model compound due to its simplicity of molecular structure. Moreover, the biodegradation pathway of phenol is well known. Biodegradation studies were conducted using pure cultures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas putida. The rate of phenol degradation by both species was found to be higher in the test without strontium. This suggests some degree of inhibition in the degradation of phenol by strontium. There was no phenol degradation in the sterile controls. The results indicate the feasibility of the biodegradation of organic pollutants discharged in radioactive effluents by specialised microbial cultures. (authors)

  15. Westinghouse Hanford Company effluent discharges and solid waste management report for calendar year 1989: 200/600 Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.J.; P'Pool, R.K.; Thomas, S.P.

    1990-05-01

    This report presents calendar year 1989 radiological and nonradiological effluent discharge data from facilities in the 200 Areas and the 600 Area of the Hanford Site. Both summary and detailed effluent data are presented. In addition, radioactive and nonradioactive solid waste storage and disposal data for calendar year 1989 are furnished. Where appropriate, comparisons to previous years are made. The intent of the report is to demonstrate compliance of Westinghouse Hanford Company-operated facilities with administrative control values for radioactive constituents and applicable guidelines and standards (including Federal permit limits) for nonradioactive constituents. 11 refs., 20 tabs.

  16. Experimental measurements of the ground cloud effluents and cloud growth for the May 20, 1975, Titan 3C launch at Air Force Eastern Test Range, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, G. L.; Storey, R. W., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The experiment included surface level and airborne in situ cloud measurements of the exhaust effluents from the Titan IIIC solid rocket boosters. Simultaneous visible spectrum photographic pictures of the ground cloud as well as infrared imaging of the cloud were obtained to study the cloud rise, growth, and direction of travel within the earth's surface mixing layer. The NASA multilayer diffusion model predictions of cloud growth, direction of travel, and expected surface level effluent concentrations were made prior to launch and after launch using measured meteorological conditions. Prelaunch predictions were used to position the effluent monitoring instruments, and the postlaunch predictions were compared with the measured data. Measurement results showed that surface level effluent values were low, often below the detection limits of the instrumentation. The maximum surface level hydrogen chloride concentration measured 50 parts per billion at about 8 km from the launch pad. The maximum observed in-cloud (airborne measurement) hydrogen chloride concentration was 7 per million.

  17. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project

    SciTech Connect

    HUNACEK, G.S.

    2000-08-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US. Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document was prepared using the specific guidelines identified in Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC)-EP-0438-1, ''A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans'', and assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan is the third revision to the original annual report. This document is reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it is updated as necessary.

  18. Understanding radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes). (ATT)

  19. Airborne Intercept Monitoring

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    Primary mirror of Zerodur with Pilkington 747 coating • FOV = 0.104 degrees Airborne Intercept Monitoring RTO-MP-SET-105 16 - 3 UNCLASSIFIED...Pointing System (SPS). The STS is a 0.75 meter aperture Mersenne Cassegrain telescope and the SAT is a 0.34 meter aperture 3- mirror anastigmat telescope...UNLIMITED UNCLASSIFIED/UNLIMITED • Air Flow to Mitigate Thermal “Seeing” Effects • Light weighted primary mirror to reduce mass The SAT

  20. Airborne forest fire research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattingly, G. S.

    1974-01-01

    The research relating to airborne fire fighting systems is reviewed to provide NASA/Langley Research Center with current information on the use of aircraft in forest fire operations, and to identify research requirements for future operations. A literature survey, interview of forest fire service personnel, analysis and synthesis of data from research reports and independent conclusions, and recommendations for future NASA-LRC programs are included.

  1. Airborne Infrared Astronomical Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Edwin F.

    2017-01-01

    A unique program of infrared astronomical observations from aircraft evolved at NASA’s Ames Research Center, beginning in the 1960s. Telescopes were flown on a Convair 990, a Lear Jet, and a Lockheed C-141 - the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) - leading to the planning and development of SOFIA: a 2.7 m telescope now flying on a Boeing 747SP. The poster describes these telescopes and highlights of some of the scientific results obtained from them.

  2. Airborne wireless communication systems, airborne communication methods, and communication methods

    DOEpatents

    Deaton, Juan D [Menan, ID; Schmitt, Michael J [Idaho Falls, ID; Jones, Warren F [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-12-13

    An airborne wireless communication system includes circuitry configured to access information describing a configuration of a terrestrial wireless communication base station that has become disabled. The terrestrial base station is configured to implement wireless communication between wireless devices located within a geographical area and a network when the terrestrial base station is not disabled. The circuitry is further configured, based on the information, to configure the airborne station to have the configuration of the terrestrial base station. An airborne communication method includes answering a 911 call from a terrestrial cellular wireless phone using an airborne wireless communication system.

  3. Container for radioactive materials

    DOEpatents

    Fields, Stanley R.

    1985-01-01

    A container for housing a plurality of canister assemblies containing radioactive material and disposed in a longitudinally spaced relation within a carrier to form a payload package concentrically mounted within the container. The payload package includes a spacer for each canister assembly, said spacer comprising a base member longitudinally spacing adjacent canister assemblies from each other and a sleeve surrounding the associated canister assembly for centering the same and conducting heat from the radioactive material in a desired flow path.

  4. Temporary Personal Radioactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Fred

    2012-01-01

    As part of a bone scan procedure to look for the spread of prostate cancer, I was injected with radioactive technetium. In an effort to occupy/distract my mind, I used a Geiger counter to determine if the radioactive count obeyed the inverse-square law as a sensor was moved away from my bladder by incremental distances. (Contains 1 table and 2…

  5. Radioactive gold ring dermatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.A.; Aldrich, J.E. )

    1990-08-01

    A superficial squamous cell carcinoma developed in a woman who wore a radioactive gold ring for more than 30 years. Only part of the ring was radioactive. Radiation dose measurements indicated that the dose to basal skin layer was 2.4 Gy (240 rad) per week. If it is assumed that the woman continually wore her wedding ring for 37 years since purchase, she would have received a maximum dose of approximately 4600 Gy.

  6. Airborne field strength monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bredemeyer, J.; Kleine-Ostmann, T.; Schrader, T.; Münter, K.; Ritter, J.

    2007-06-01

    In civil and military aviation, ground based navigation aids (NAVAIDS) are still crucial for flight guidance even though the acceptance of satellite based systems (GNSS) increases. Part of the calibration process for NAVAIDS (ILS, DME, VOR) is to perform a flight inspection according to specified methods as stated in a document (DOC8071, 2000) by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). One major task is to determine the coverage, or, in other words, the true signal-in-space field strength of a ground transmitter. This has always been a challenge to flight inspection up to now, since, especially in the L-band (DME, 1GHz), the antenna installed performance was known with an uncertainty of 10 dB or even more. In order to meet ICAO's required accuracy of ±3 dB it is necessary to have a precise 3-D antenna factor of the receiving antenna operating on the airborne platform including all losses and impedance mismatching. Introducing precise, effective antenna factors to flight inspection to achieve the required accuracy is new and not published in relevant papers yet. The authors try to establish a new balanced procedure between simulation and validation by airborne and ground measurements. This involves the interpretation of measured scattering parameters gained both on the ground and airborne in comparison with numerical results obtained by the multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA) accelerated method of moments (MoM) using a complex geometric model of the aircraft. First results will be presented in this paper.

  7. Radioactivity in gaseous waste discharged from the separations facilities during fourth quarter of 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Sliger, G. J.

    1980-02-22

    This document is issued quarterly for the purpose of summarizing the radioactive gaseous wastes that are discharged from the facilities of the Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell). Data on alpha and beta emissions during 1979 are presented where relevant to the gaseous effluent. Emission data are not included on gaseous wastes produced within the 200 areas by other Hanford contractors.

  8. Almost twenty years' search of transuranium isotopes in effluents discharged to air from nuclear power plants with VVER reactors.

    PubMed

    Hölgye, Z; Filgas, R

    2006-04-01

    Airborne effluents of 5 stacks (stacks 1-5) of three nuclear power plants, with 9 pressurized water reactors VVER of 4,520 MWe total power, were searched for transuranium isotopes in different time periods. The search started in 1985. The subject of this work is a presentation of discharge data for the period of 1998-2003 and a final evaluation. It was found that 238Pu, 239,240Pu, 241Am, 242Cm, and 244Cm can be present in airborne effluents. Transuranium isotope contents in most of the quarterly effluent samples from stacks 2, 4 and 5 were not measurable. Transuranium isotopes were present in the effluents from stack l during all 9 years of the study and from stack 3 since the 3rd quarter of 1996 as a result of a defect in the fuel cladding. A relatively high increase of transuranium isotopes in effluents from stack 3 occurred in the 3rd quarter of 1999, and a smaller increase occurred in the 3rd quarter of 2003. In each instance 242Cm prevailed in the transuranium isotope mixtures. 238Pu/239,240Pu, 241Am/239,240Pu, 242Cm/239,240Pu, and 244Cm/239,240Pu ratios in fuel for different burn-up were calculated, and comparison of these ratios in fuel and effluents was performed.

  9. Airborne Submillimeter Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zmuidzinas, J.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final technical report for NASA-Ames grant NAG2-1068 to Caltech, entitled "Airborne Submillimeter Spectroscopy", which extended over the period May 1, 1996 through January 31, 1998. The grant was funded by the NASA airborne astronomy program, during a period of time after the Kuiper Airborne Observatory was no longer operational. Instead. this funding program was intended to help develop instrument concepts and technology for the upcoming SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy) project. SOFIA, which is funded by NASA and is now being carried out by a consortium lead by USRA (Universities Space Research Association), will be a 747 aircraft carrying a 2.5 meter diameter telescope. The purpose of our grant was to fund the ongoing development of sensitive heterodyne receivers for the submillimeter band (500-1200 GHz), using sensitive superconducting (SIS) detectors. In 1997 July we submitted a proposal to USRA to construct a heterodyne instrument for SOFIA. Our proposal was successful [1], and we are now continuing our airborne astronomy effort with funding from USRA. A secondary purpose of the NAG2-1068 grant was to continue the anaIN'sis of astronomical data collected with an earlier instrument which was flown on the NASA Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO). The KAO instrument and the astronomical studies which were carried out with it were supported primarily under another grant, NAG2-744, which extended over October 1, 1991 through Januarv 31, 1997. For a complete description of the astronomical data and its anailysis, we refer the reader to the final technical report for NAG2-744, which was submitted to NASA on December 1. 1997. Here we report on the SIS detector development effort for SOFIA carried out under NAG2-1068. The main result of this effort has been the demonstration of SIS mixers using a new superconducting material niobium titanium nitride (NbTiN), which promises to deliver dramatic improvements in sensitivity in the 700

  10. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometry in uranium exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghuwanshi, S. S.

    1992-07-01

    Uranium exploration is of paramount importance to India to maximize the indigeneous resources to meet the ever increasing demand for energy. Comprehensive regional and local zones of uranium mineralization are needed to be resolved. Such data comprise information on radioactivity in various energy ranges and on lithological knowledge. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometric techniques are particularly suited to provide spatial information. This review briefly discusses the conventional data presentation, statistically significant maps and the schemes suitable for classification of mineralized zones. A brief introduction is provided to airborne gamma-ray data, their acquisition, analysis, processing and interpretation to bring out their role in designing suitable models of uranium resources. State-of-the-art in uranium exploration covers radiometric mapping through airborne gamma-ray surveys. Through the examples of the Indian work done during this decade, the state-of-the-art and its usefulness in the country has been illustrated. It is concluded that the high sensitivity airborne gamma-ray spectrometric surveys coupled with modern methods of data analysis can further narrow down the targets.

  11. Combustion aerosols formed during burning of radioactively contaminated materials: Experimental results

    SciTech Connect

    Halverson, M.A.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Dennis, G.W.

    1987-03-01

    Safety assessments and environmental impact statements for nuclear fuel cycle facilities require an estimate of potential airborne releases. Radioactive aerosols generated by fires were investigated in experiments in which combustible solids and liquids were contaminated with radioactive materials and burned. Uranium in powder and liquid form was used to contaminate five fuel types: polychloroprene, polystyrene, polymethylmethacrylate, cellulose, and a mixture of 30% tributylphosphate (TBP) in kerosene. Heat flux, oxygen concentration, air flow, contaminant concentration, and type of ignition were varied in the experiments. The highest release (7.1 wt %) came from burning TBP/kerosene over contaminated nitric acid. Burning cellulose contaminated with uranyl nitrate hexahydrate liquid gave the lowest release (0.01 wt %). Rate of release and particle size distribution of airborne radioactive particles were highly dependent on the type of fuel burned.

  12. Reduction of INTEC Analytical Radioactive Liquid Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Virgil James; Hu, Jian Sheng; Chambers, Andrea

    1999-06-01

    This report details the evaluation of the reduction in radioactive liquid waste from the analytical laboratories sent to the Process Effluent Waste system (deep tanks). The contributors are the Analytical Laboratories Department (ALD), the Waste Operations Department, the laboratories at CPP-637, and natural run off. Other labs were contacted to learn of methods used and if any new technologies had emerged. A waste generation database was made from the current methods in use in the ALD. From this database, methods were targeted to reduce waste. Individuals were contacted on ways to reduce waste. The results are: a new method generating much less waste, several methods being handled differently, some cleaning processes being changed to reduce waste, and changes to reduce chemicals to waste.

  13. Reduction of INTEC Analytical Radioactive Liquid Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    V. J. Johnson; J. S. Hu; A. G. Chambers

    1999-06-01

    This report details the evaluation of the reduction in radioactive liquid waste from the analytical laboratories sent to the Process Effluent Waste system (deep tanks). The contributors are the Analytical Laboratories Department (ALD), the Waste Operations Department, the laboratories at CPP-637, and natural run off. Other labs were contacted to learn the methods used and if any new technologies had emerged. A waste generation database was made from the current methods in used in the ALD. From this database, methods were targeted to reduce waste. Individuals were contacted on ways to reduce waste. The results are: a new method generating much less waste, several methods being handled differently, some cleaning processes being changed to reduce waste, and changes to reduce chemicals to waste.

  14. Radioactivity in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Nagel, D.J.; Edson, R.

    1995-12-01

    Natural and man-made radioactivities in the environment have been extensively researched in the second half of this century. Recently, increased attention has been given to (1) radioactive waste willfully placed in the environment by discharges from nuclear reprocessing plants or by dumping at sea, and (2) radioactive materials lost due to accidents in terrestrial (civilian power) or marine (submarine propulsion) reactors. Increasing field measurements, and disclosures of dumping and accidents in the former Soviet Union, are adding greatly to the knowledge of environmental radioactivity. New, more powerful computers are having a double impact. They make possible Geographical Information Systems for geo-referencing and correlating multi-variable datasets. Furthermore, supercomputers enable global atmospheric, oceanographic and terrestrial circulation and transport models, which include physical, chemical and biological processes. We will review exemplary work on the sources, transport, disposition and impact of anthropogenic environmental radioactivity. Such work both provides new knowledge of environmental processes and furnishes the basis for deciding on potential remediation actions.

  15. Radioactivity in food crops

    SciTech Connect

    Drury, J.S.; Baldauf, M.F.; Daniel, E.W.; Fore, C.S.; Uziel, M.S.

    1983-05-01

    Published levels of radioactivity in food crops from 21 countries and 4 island chains of Oceania are listed. The tabulation includes more than 3000 examples of 100 different crops. Data are arranged alphabetically by food crop and geographical origin. The sampling date, nuclide measured, mean radioactivity, range of radioactivities, sample basis, number of samples analyzed, and bibliographic citation are given for each entry, when available. Analyses were reported most frequently for /sup 137/Cs, /sup 40/K, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 226/Ra, /sup 228/Ra, plutonium, uranium, total alpha, and total beta, but a few authors also reported data for /sup 241/Am, /sup 7/Be, /sup 60/Co, /sup 55/Fe, /sup 3/H, /sup 131/I, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 95/Nb, /sup 210/Pb, /sup 210/Po, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 228/Th, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 95/Zr. Based on the reported data it appears that radioactivity from alpha emitters in food crops is usually low, on the order of 0.1 Bq.g/sup -1/ (wet weight) or less. Reported values of beta radiation in a given crop generally appear to be several orders of magnitude greater than those of alpha emitters. The most striking aspect of the data is the great range of radioactivity reported for a given nuclide in similar food crops with different geographical origins.

  16. Liquid Effluent Retention Facility/Effluent Treatment Facility Hazards Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Simiele, G.A.

    1994-09-29

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning activities for the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and Effluent Treatment Facility the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE ORDER 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated.

  17. Airborne concentrations of peanut protein.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rodney M; Barnes, Charles S

    2013-01-01

    Food allergy to peanut is a significant health problem, and there are reported allergic reactions to peanuts despite not eating or having physical contact with peanuts. It is presumed that an allergic reaction may have occurred from inhalation of airborne peanut allergens. The purpose of this study was to detect the possible concentrations of airborne peanut proteins for various preparations and during specific activities. Separate Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 monoclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and a polyclonal sandwich enzyme immunoassay for peanuts were used to detect the amount of airborne peanut protein collected using a Spincon Omni 3000 air collector (Sceptor Industries, Inc., Kansas City, MO) under different peanut preparation methods and situations. Air samples were measured for multiple peanut preparations and scenarios. Detectable amounts of airborne peanut protein were measured using a whole peanut immunoassay when removing the shells of roasted peanut. No airborne peanut allergen (Ara h 1 or Ara h 2) or whole peanut protein above the LLD was measured in any of the other peanut preparation collections. Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and polyclonal peanut proteins were detected from water used to boil peanuts. Small amounts of airborne peanut protein were detected in the scenario of removing shells from roasted peanuts; however, Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 proteins were unable to be consistently detected. Although airborne peanut proteins were detected, the concentration of airborne peanut protein that is necessary to elicit a clinical allergic reaction is unknown.

  18. Radioactive mixed waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Jasen, W.G.; Erpenbeck, E.G.

    1993-02-01

    Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) have led to the definition of radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). The radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes have resulted in the initiation of special projects for the management of these wastes. Other solid wastes at the Hanford Site include low-level wastes, transuranic (TRU), and nonradioactive hazardous wastes. This paper describes a system for the treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) of solid radioactive waste.

  19. Radioactivity of Consumer Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, David; Jokisch, Derek; Fulmer, Philip

    2006-11-01

    A variety of consumer products and household items contain varying amounts of radioactivity. Examples of these items include: FiestaWare and similar glazed china, salt substitute, bananas, brazil nuts, lantern mantles, smoke detectors and depression glass. Many of these items contain natural sources of radioactivity such as Uranium, Thorium, Radium and Potassium. A few contain man-made sources like Americium. This presentation will detail the sources and relative radioactivity of these items (including demonstrations). Further, measurements of the isotopic ratios of Uranium-235 and Uranium-238 in several pieces of china will be compared to historical uses of natural and depleted Uranium. Finally, the presenters will discuss radiation safety as it pertains to the use of these items.

  20. Role of livestock effluent suspended particulate in sealing effluent ponds.

    PubMed

    Bennett, J McL; Warren, B R

    2015-05-01

    Intensive livestock feed-lots have become more prevalent in recent years to help in meeting the predicted food production targets based on expected population growth. Effluent from these is stored in ponds, representing a potential concern for seepage and contamination of groundwater. Whilst previous literature suggests that effluent particulate can limit seepage adequately in combination with a clay liner, this research addresses potential concerns for sealing of ponds with low concentration fine and then evaluates this against proposed filter-cake based methodologies to describe and predict hydraulic reduction. Short soil cores were compacted to 98% of the maximum dry density and subject to ponded head percolation with unfiltered-sediment-reduced effluent, effluent filtered to <3 μm, and chemically synthesized effluent. Reduction in hydraulic conductivity was observed to be primarily due to the colloidal fraction of the effluent, with larger particulate fractions providing minimal further reduction. Pond sealing was shown to follow mathematical models of filter-cake formation, but without the formation of a physical seal on top of the soil surface. Management considerations based on the results are presented.

  1. Container for radioactive materials

    DOEpatents

    Fields, S.R.

    1984-05-30

    A container is claimed for housing a plurality of canister assemblies containing radioactive material. The several canister assemblies are stacked in a longitudinally spaced relation within a carrier to form a payload concentrically mounted within the container. The payload package includes a spacer for each canister assembly, said spacer comprising a base member longitudinally spacing adjacent canister assemblies from each other and sleeve surrounding the associated canister assembly for centering the same and conducting heat from the radioactive material in a desired flow path. 7 figures.

  2. Pulp mill effluent color removal process

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, H.L.; Adams, W.S. Jr.; Boyden, B.

    1991-07-16

    This paper describes a method for removing color from an effluent having a low pH and containing organic chromophores. It comprises: increasing the pressure of the effluent to between 200 and 600 psi to prevent the liquid within the effluent from changing phase; heating the effluent to a temperature between 200{degrees} and 250{degrees} C. for a retention time up to 20 minutes in accordance with the temperature to alter the chemical structure of lignin chromophores in the effluent; cooling the effluent to a temperature between 35{degrees} and 60{degrees} C.; adjusting the pressure of the effluent to between 0 to 10 psi; adjusting the pH of the effluent to between 10 and 12 to initiate flocculation of the altered chromophores in the effluent; and separating the chromophores from effluent.

  3. The New Airborne Disease

    PubMed Central

    Goldsmith, John R.

    1970-01-01

    Community air pollution is the new airborne disease of our generation's communities. It is caused by the increasing use of fuel, associated with both affluence and careless waste. Photochemical air pollution of the California type involves newly defined atmospheric reactions, is due mostly to motor vehicle exhaust, is oxidizing, and produces ozone, plant damage, impairment of visibility and eye and respiratory symptoms. Aggravation of asthma, impairment of lung function among persons with chronic respiratory disease and a possible causal role, along with cigarette smoking in emphysema and chronic bronchitis, are some of the effects of photochemical pollution. More subtle effects of pollution include impairment of oxygen transport by the blood due to carbon monoxide and interference with porphyrin metabolism due to lead. Carbon monoxide exposures may affect survival of patients who are in hospitals because of myocardial infarction. While many uncertainties in pollution-health reactions need to be resolved, a large number of people in California have health impairment due to airborne disease of this new type. PMID:5485227

  4. Method for radioactivity monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Umbarger, C. John; Cowder, Leo R.

    1976-10-26

    The disclosure relates to a method for analyzing uranium and/or thorium contents of liquid effluents preferably utilizing a sample containing counting chamber. Basically, 185.7-keV gamma rays following .sup.235 U alpha decay to .sup.231 Th which indicate .sup.235 U content and a 63-keV gamma ray doublet found in the nucleus of .sup.234 Pa, a granddaughter of .sup.238 U, are monitored and the ratio thereof taken to derive uranium content and isotopic enrichment .sup.235 U/.sup.235 U + .sup.238 U) in the liquid effluent. Thorium content is determined by monitoring the intensity of 238-keV gamma rays from the nucleus of .sup.212 Bi in the decay chain of .sup.232 Th.

  5. Radioactive Decay - An Analog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGeachy, Frank

    1988-01-01

    Presents an analog of radioactive decay that allows the student to grasp the concept of half life and the exponential nature of the decay process. The analog is devised to use small, colored, plastic poker chips or counters. Provides the typical data and a graph which supports the analog. (YP)

  6. Detecting Illicit Radioactive Sources

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, Joseph C.; Coursey, Bert; Carter, Michael

    2004-11-01

    Specialized instruments have been developed to detect the presence of illicit radioactive sources that may be used by terrorists in radiation dispersal devices, so-called ''dirty bombs'' or improvised nuclear devices. This article discusses developments in devices to detect and measure radiation.

  7. TABLE OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS.

    SciTech Connect

    HOLDEN,N.E.

    2001-06-29

    For those chemical elements which have no stable nuclides with a terrestrial isotopic composition, the data on radioactive half-lives and relative atomic masses for the nuclides of interest and importance have been evaluated and the recommended values and uncertainties are listed.

  8. AIR RADIOACTIVITY MONITOR

    DOEpatents

    Bradshaw, R.L.; Thomas, J.W.

    1961-04-11

    The monitor is designed to minimize undesirable background buildup. It consists of an elongated column containing peripheral electrodes in a central portion of the column, and conduits directing an axial flow of radioactively contaminated air through the center of the column and pure air through the annular portion of the column about the electrodes. (AEC)

  9. Radioactivity: A Natural Phenomenon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronneau, C.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is misinformation people have on the subject of radiation. The importance of comparing artificial source levels of radiation to natural levels is emphasized. Measurements of radioactivity, its consequences, and comparisons between the risks induced by radiation in the environment and from artificial sources are included. (KR)

  10. Viewer Makes Radioactivity "Visible"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yin, L. I.

    1983-01-01

    Battery operated viewer demonstrates feasibility of generating threedimensional visible light simulations of objects that emit X-ray or gamma rays. Ray paths are traced for two pinhold positions to show location of reconstructed image. Images formed by pinholes are converted to intensified visible-light images. Applications range from radioactivity contamination surveys to monitoring radioisotope absorption in tumors.

  11. Radioactivity and foods

    SciTech Connect

    Olszyna-Marzys, A.E. )

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe and contrast two relationships between radiation and food--on the one hand, beneficial preservation of food by controlled exposure to ionizing radiation; and, on the other, contamination of food by accidental incorporation of radioactive nuclides within the food itself. In food irradiation, electrons or electromagnetic radiation is used to destroy microorganisms and insects or prevent seed germination. The economic advantages and health benefits of sterilizing food in this manner are clear, and numerous studies have confirmed that under strictly controlled conditions no undersirable changes or induced radioactivity is produced in the irradiated food. An altogether different situation is presented by exposure of food animals and farming areas to radioactive materials, as occurred after the major Soviet nuclear reactor accident at Chenobyl. This article furnishes the basic information needed to understand the nature of food contamination associated with that event and describes the work of international organizations seeking to establish appropriate safe limits for levels of radioactivity in foods.

  12. Environmental Radioactivity, Temperature, and Precipitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riland, Carson A.

    1996-01-01

    Reports that environmental radioactivity levels vary with temperature and precipitation and these effects are due to radon. Discusses the measurement of this environmental radioactivity and the theory behind it. (JRH)

  13. Processor architecture for airborne SAR systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, C. M.

    1983-01-01

    Digital processors for spaceborne imaging radars and application of the technology developed for airborne SAR systems are considered. Transferring algorithms and implementation techniques from airborne to spaceborne SAR processors offers obvious advantages. The following topics are discussed: (1) a quantification of the differences in processing algorithms for airborne and spaceborne SARs; and (2) an overview of three processors for airborne SAR systems.

  14. Evaluation of meteorological airborne Doppler radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, P. H.; Mueller, C. K.

    1984-01-01

    This paper will discuss the capabilities of airborne Doppler radar for atmospheric sciences research. The evaluation is based on airborne and ground based Doppler radar observations of convective storms. The capability of airborne Doppler radar to measure horizontal and vertical air motions is evaluated. Airborne Doppler radar is shown to be a viable tool for atmospheric sciences research.

  15. Statistical Evaluation of Effluent Monitoring Data for the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Charissa J.; Johnson, Vernon G.

    2000-03-08

    This report updates the original effluent variability study for the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) and provides supporting justification for modifying the effluent monitoring portion of the discharge permit. Four years of monitoring data were evaluated and used to statistically justify changes in permit effluent monitoring conditions. As a result, the TEDF effluent composition and variability of the effluent waste stream are now well defined.

  16. Method for calcining radioactive wastes

    DOEpatents

    Bjorklund, William J.; McElroy, Jack L.; Mendel, John E.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for the preparation of radioactive wastes in a low leachability form by calcining the radioactive waste on a fluidized bed of glass frit, removing the calcined waste to melter to form a homogeneous melt of the glass and the calcined waste, and then solidifying the melt to encapsulate the radioactive calcine in a glass matrix.

  17. AIRBORNE RADIATION DETECTOR

    DOEpatents

    Cartmell, T.R.; Gifford, J.F.

    1959-08-01

    An ionization chamber used for measuring the radioactivity of dust present in atmospheric air is described. More particularly. the patent describes a device comprising two concentric open ended, electrically connected cylinders between which is disposed a wire electrcde. A heating source is disposed inside of the cylinder to circulate air through the space between the two cylinders by convective flow. A high voltage electric field between the wire electrcde of the electrically connected cylinder will cause ionization of the air as it passes therethrough.

  18. Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardman, Sean; Freeborn, Dana; Crichton, Dan; Law, Emily; Kay-Im, Liz

    2011-01-01

    Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE) is JPL's internal investment to improve the return on airborne missions. Improve development performance of the data system. Improve return on the captured science data. The investment is to develop a common science data system capability for airborne instruments that encompasses the end-to-end lifecycle covering planning, provisioning of data system capabilities, and support for scientific analysis in order to improve the quality, cost effectiveness, and capabilities to enable new scientific discovery and research in earth observation.

  19. Airborne agent concentration analysis

    DOEpatents

    Gelbard, Fred

    2004-02-03

    A method and system for inferring airborne contaminant concentrations in rooms without contaminant sensors, based on data collected by contaminant sensors in other rooms of a building, using known airflow interconnectivity data. The method solves a least squares problem that minimizes the difference between measured and predicted contaminant sensor concentrations with respect to an unknown contaminant release time. Solutions are constrained to providing non-negative initial contaminant concentrations in all rooms. The method can be used to identify a near-optimal distribution of sensors within the building, when then number of available sensors is less than the total number of rooms. This is achieved by having a system-sensor matrix that is non-singular, and by selecting that distribution which yields the lowest condition number of all the distributions considered. The method can predict one or more contaminant initial release points from the collected data.

  20. Airborne Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Makani Power is developing an Airborne Wind Turbine (AWT) that eliminates 90% of the mass of a conventional wind turbine and accesses a stronger, more consistent wind at altitudes of near 1,000 feet. At these altitudes, 85% of the country can offer viable wind resources compared to only 15% accessible with current technology. Additionally, the Makani Power wing can be economically deployed in deep offshore waters, opening up a resource which is 4 times greater than the entire U.S. electrical generation capacity. Makani Power has demonstrated the core technology, including autonomous launch, land, and power generation with an 8 meter wingspan, 20 kW prototype. At commercial scale, Makani Power aims to develop a 600 kW, 28 meter wingspan product capable of delivering energy at an unsubsidized cost competitive with coal, the current benchmark for low-cost power.

  1. Ground cloud effluent measurements during the May 30, 1974, Titan 3 launch at the Air Force eastern test range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bendura, R. J.; Crumbly, K. H.

    1977-01-01

    Surface-level exhaust effluent measurements of HCl, CO, and particulates, ground-cloud behavior, and some comparisons with model predictions for the launch of a Titan 3 rocket are presented along with a limited amount of airborne sampling measurements of other cloud species (O3, NO, NOX). Values above background levels for these effluents were obtained at 20 of the 30 instrument sites; these values were lower than model predictions and did not exceed public health standards. Cloud rise rate, stabilization altitude, and volume are compared with results from previous launches.

  2. Airborne Geophysical Surveys Applied to Hydrocarbon Resource Development Environmental Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, B. D.; Ball, L. B.; Finn, C.; Kass, A.; Thamke, J.

    2014-12-01

    mapping AEM surveys could also be effectively used in mapping tectonic features. Airborne radiometric methods have not been routinely used in hydrocarbon environmental studies but might be useful in understanding the surficial distribution of deposits related to naturally occurring radioactive materials.

  3. Water wash apparatus for cleaning radioactively contaminated garments

    SciTech Connect

    Sewter, B.R.; Jarvis, T.A.; Kirchner, M.A.; Prisco, A.J. Jr.; Bonneau, A.M.; Trendler, K.E.; Briggs, W.E.; Godfrey, L.E.

    1990-03-20

    This patent describes an apparatus for water washing fabrics and removing radioactive contaminants therefrom without the generation of liquid effluents. It comprises: a washing machine means for washing the fabrics having a wash water inlet, a rinse water inlet, and an outlet, and a hydraulically closed wash water system which includes a reservoir means of polished water connected to the wash water inlet of the machine means, a particulate filtration means connected to the outlet for removing particulate impurities from the wash water discharged from the outlet, and a water polishing means connected between the particulate filtration means and the wash water inlet for supplying the reservoir means with filtered and polished water.

  4. International radioactive material recycling challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Greeves, John T.; Lieberman, James

    2007-07-01

    The paper explores current examples of successful International radioactive recycling programs and also explores operational regulatory and political challenges that need to be considered for expanding international recycling world-wide. Most countries regulations are fully consistent with the International Atomic Agency (IAEA) Code of Practice on the International Transboundary Movement of Radioactive Material and the IAEA Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources. IAEA member States reported on the status of their efforts to control transboundary movement of radioactive material recently during the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management meeting in May 2006. (authors)

  5. Elimination of liquid discharge to the environment from the TA-50 Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, D.; Williams, N.; Hall, D.; Hargis, K.; Saladen, M.; Sanders, M.; Voit, S.; Worland, P.; Yarbro, S.

    1998-06-01

    Alternatives were evaluated for management of treated radioactive liquid waste from the radioactive liquid waste treatment facility (RLWTF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The alternatives included continued discharge into Mortandad Canyon, diversion to the sanitary wastewater treatment facility and discharge of its effluent to Sandia Canyon or Canada del Buey, and zero liquid discharge. Implementation of a zero liquid discharge system is recommended in addition to two phases of upgrades currently under way. Three additional phases of upgrades to the present radioactive liquid waste system are proposed to accomplish zero liquid discharge. The first phase involves minimization of liquid waste generation, along with improved characterization and monitoring of the remaining liquid waste. The second phase removes dissolved salts from the reverse osmosis concentrate stream to yield a higher effluent quality. In the final phase, the high-quality effluent is reused for industrial purposes within the Laboratory or evaporated. Completion of these three phases will result in zero discharge of treated radioactive liquid wastewater from the RLWTF.

  6. 40 CFR 414.71 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Bulk Organic Chemicals § 414.71 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

  7. 40 CFR 414.61 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Commodity Organic Chemicals § 414.61 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  8. 40 CFR 414.81 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Specialty Organic Chemicals § 414.81 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  9. 40 CFR 414.63 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Commodity Organic Chemicals § 414.63 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

  10. 40 CFR 414.61 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Commodity Organic Chemicals § 414.61 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  11. 40 CFR 414.62 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Commodity Organic Chemicals § 414.62 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

  12. 40 CFR 414.71 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Bulk Organic Chemicals § 414.71 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

  13. 40 CFR 414.81 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Specialty Organic Chemicals § 414.81 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  14. 40 CFR 414.63 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Commodity Organic Chemicals § 414.63 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

  15. 40 CFR 414.71 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Bulk Organic Chemicals § 414.71 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

  16. 40 CFR 414.62 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Commodity Organic Chemicals § 414.62 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

  17. 40 CFR 414.81 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Specialty Organic Chemicals § 414.81 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  18. 40 CFR 414.82 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Specialty Organic Chemicals § 414.82 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

  19. 40 CFR 414.61 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Commodity Organic Chemicals § 414.61 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  20. 40 CFR 414.82 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Specialty Organic Chemicals § 414.82 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

  1. 40 CFR 414.83 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Specialty Organic Chemicals § 414.83 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

  2. 40 CFR 414.62 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Commodity Organic Chemicals § 414.62 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

  3. 40 CFR 414.62 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Commodity Organic Chemicals § 414.62 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

  4. 40 CFR 414.82 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Specialty Organic Chemicals § 414.82 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

  5. 40 CFR 414.82 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Specialty Organic Chemicals § 414.82 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

  6. 40 CFR 414.81 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Specialty Organic Chemicals § 414.81 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  7. 40 CFR 414.81 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Specialty Organic Chemicals § 414.81 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  8. 40 CFR 414.71 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Bulk Organic Chemicals § 414.71 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

  9. 40 CFR 414.82 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Specialty Organic Chemicals § 414.82 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

  10. 40 CFR 414.83 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Specialty Organic Chemicals § 414.83 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

  11. 40 CFR 414.61 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Commodity Organic Chemicals § 414.61 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  12. 40 CFR 414.62 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Commodity Organic Chemicals § 414.62 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

  13. 40 CFR 414.71 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Bulk Organic Chemicals § 414.71 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

  14. 40 CFR 414.61 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Commodity Organic Chemicals § 414.61 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  15. 40 CFR 409.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar... beet sugar processing operation. Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum for any 1...

  16. 40 CFR 409.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar... beet sugar processing operation. Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum for any 1...

  17. 40 CFR 409.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar... beet sugar processing operation. Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum for any 1...

  18. 40 CFR 409.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar... beet sugar processing operation. Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum for any 1...

  19. 40 CFR 409.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar... beet sugar processing operation. Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum for any 1...

  20. 40 CFR 420.117 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....117 Section 420.117 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT... § 420.117 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

  1. 40 CFR 428.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Solution Crumb Rubber Subcategory § 428.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  2. 40 CFR 428.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Latex Rubber Subcategory § 428.42 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  3. 40 CFR 428.23 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Emulsion Crumb Rubber Subcategory § 428.23 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  4. 40 CFR 428.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Solution Crumb Rubber Subcategory § 428.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  5. 40 CFR 428.43 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Latex Rubber Subcategory § 428.43 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  6. 40 CFR 428.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Latex Rubber Subcategory § 428.42 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  7. 40 CFR 428.23 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Emulsion Crumb Rubber Subcategory § 428.23 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  8. 40 CFR 426.67 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.67 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  9. 40 CFR 426.67 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.67 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  10. 40 CFR 420.62 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Continuous Casting Subcategory § 420.62 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  11. 40 CFR 420.62 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Continuous Casting Subcategory § 420.62 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  12. 40 CFR 405.37 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cultured Products Subcategory § 405.37 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  13. 40 CFR 430.92 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Fiber Deink Subcategory § 430.92 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

  14. 40 CFR 463.27 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cleaning Water Subcategory § 463.27 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  15. 40 CFR 463.27 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cleaning Water Subcategory § 463.27 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  16. 40 CFR 440.35 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Uranium, Radium and Vanadium Ores Subcategory § 440.35 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

  17. Statement of Work (SOW) for services provided by the Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility for the Effluent and Environmental Monitoring Program during calendar year 1998

    SciTech Connect

    GLECKLER, B.P.

    1998-10-22

    This document defines the services the Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF) shall provide the Effluent and Environmental Monitoring Program (EEM) throughout the calendar year for analysis. The purpose of the EEM Program is to monitor liquid and gaseous effluents, and the environment immediately around the facilities which may contain radioactive and hazardous materials. Monitoring data are collected, evaluated, and reported to determine their degree of compliance with applicable federal and state regulations and permits.

  18. Releases of radioactivity at the Savannah River Plant, 1954--1985

    SciTech Connect

    Zeigler, C.C.; Lawrimore, I.B.

    1988-07-01

    Radioactive releases from Savannah River Plant (SRP) facilities to air, water and earthen seepage basins have been monitored and tabulated throughout the history of the site. The purpose of this report is to provide a source of data on routine releases of radioactivity to air, water and seepage basins that can be used for analyses of trends, environmental impact, etc. As used in this report, routine radioactive releases means radioactive materials that are released through established effluents from process facilities. This report is not intended to provide interpretation of the release values, their transport and impact or information on spills, leaks, buried waste or special use facilities. These subjects are covered in other SRP publications. This report provides a summary of radioactive releases that reflects the release values contained in records and documents from startup through 1985. Releases are tabulated in the following categories: Annual radioactive releases by emission source and radionuclide for 1954 through 1985; Annual radioactive releases by receptor medium and radionuclide for 1954 through 1985; Monthly releases by emission source and radionuclide for 1981 through 1985. The presentation of all SRP routine radioactive releases data in these categories provides a reference for historic data on SRP releases. 34 refs.

  19. Radioactive ion detector

    DOEpatents

    Bower, K.E.; Weeks, D.R.

    1997-08-12

    Apparatus for detecting the presence, in aqueous media, of substances which emit alpha and/or beta radiation and determining the oxidation state of these radioactive substances, that is, whether they are in cationic or anionic form. In one embodiment, a sensor assembly has two elements, one comprised of an ion-exchange material which binds cations and the other comprised of an ion-exchange material which binds anions. Each ion-exchange element is further comprised of a scintillation plastic and a photocurrent generator. When a radioactive substance to which the sensor is exposed binds to either element and emits alpha or beta particles, photons produced in the scintillation plastic illuminate the photocurrent generator of that element. Sensing apparatus senses generator output and thereby indicates whether cationic species or anionic species or both are present and also provides an indication of species quantity. 2 figs.

  20. Radioactive ion detector

    DOEpatents

    Bower, Kenneth E.; Weeks, Donald R.

    1997-01-01

    Apparatus for detecting the presence, in aqueous media, of substances which emit alpha and/or beta radiation and determining the oxidation state of these radioactive substances, that is, whether they are in cationic or anionic form. In one embodiment, a sensor assembly has two elements, one comprised of an ion-exchange material which binds cations and the other comprised of an ion-exchange material which binds anions. Each ion-exchange element is further comprised of a scintillation plastic and a photocurrent generator. When a radioactive substance to which the sensor is exposed binds to either element and emits alpha or beta particles, photons produced in the scintillation plastic illuminate the photocurrent generator of that element. Sensing apparatus senses generator output and thereby indicates whether cationic species or anionic species or both are present and also provides an indication of species quantity.

  1. PROCESSING OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, B.M. Jr.; Barton, G.B.

    1961-11-14

    A process for treating radioactive waste solutions prior to disposal is described. A water-soluble phosphate, borate, and/or silicate is added. The solution is sprayed with steam into a space heated from 325 to 400 deg C whereby a powder is formed. The powder is melted and calcined at from 800 to 1000 deg C. Water vapor and gaseous products are separated from the glass formed. (AEC)

  2. Table of radioactive elements

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N.E.

    1985-01-01

    As has been the custom in the past, the Commission publishes a table of relative atomic masses and halflives of selected radionuclides. The information contained in this table will enable the user to calculate the atomic weight for radioactive materials with a variety of isotopic compositions. The atomic masses have been taken from the 1984 Atomic Mass Table. Some of the halflives have already been documented.

  3. MARE: Mars Radioactivity Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Lellis, A. M.; Capria, M. T.; Espinasse, S.; Magni, G.; Orosei, R.; Piccioni, G.; Federico, C.; Minelli, G.; Pauselli, C.; Scarpa, G.

    1999-09-01

    MARE is an experiment for the measurement of the beta and gamma radioactivity in space and in the Martian soil, both at the surface and in the subsurface. This will be accomplished by means of a dosimeter and a spectrometer. The radiation dose rate to which crews will be exposed is one of the hazards that has to be quantified before the human exploration of Mars may begin. Data for evaluating radioactivity levels at Martian surface are of great interest for environmental studies related to life in general. The dosimeter will be able to measure the beta and gamma radiation dose received, with a responsivity which is very close to that of a living organism. The dosimeter is based on thermo-luminescence pills which emit an optical signal proportional to the absorbed dose when heated. Radioactive elements ((40) K, (235) U, (238) U and (232) Th) can be used as a mean of tracing the evolution of a terrestrial planet. These radioactive elements are the source of the internal heat, which drives convection in the mantle. They have been redistributed in this process and they are now concentrated in the crust where they are accessible for study. Their different behavior during the fractionation process can be used as a mean to investigate the geochemical characteristic of Mars. The spectrometer, a scintillation radiation absorber system for single event counting, is capable of detecting gamma photons with energies between 200 KeV and 10 MeV. The detected events will be processed in such a way to allow the recognition of the spectral signature of different decay processes, and thus the identification and the measurement of the concentrations of different radionuclides in the Martian soil.

  4. Experiences managing radioactive material at the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Thacker, Rick L

    2013-06-01

    The National Ignition Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is the world's largest and most energetic laser system for inertial confinement fusion and experiments studying high energy density science. Many experiments performed at the National Ignition Facility involve radioactive materials; these may take the form of tritium and small quantities of depleted uranium used in targets, activation products created by neutron-producing fusion experiments, and fission products produced by the fast fissioning of the depleted uranium. While planning for the introduction of radioactive material, it was recognized that some of the standard institutional processes would need to be customized to accommodate aspects of NIF operations, such as surface contamination limits, radiological postings, airborne tritium monitoring protocols, and personnel protective equipment. These customizations were overlaid onto existing work practices to accommodate the new hazard of radioactive materials. This paper will discuss preparations that were made prior to the introduction of radioactive material, the types of radiological work activities performed, and the hazards and controls encountered. Updates to processes based on actual monitoring results are also discussed.

  5. Radioactive waste storage issues

    SciTech Connect

    Kunz, Daniel E.

    1994-08-15

    In the United States we generate greater than 500 million tons of toxic waste per year which pose a threat to human health and the environment. Some of the most toxic of these wastes are those that are radioactively contaminated. This thesis explores the need for permanent disposal facilities to isolate radioactive waste materials that are being stored temporarily, and therefore potentially unsafely, at generating facilities. Because of current controversies involving the interstate transfer of toxic waste, more states are restricting the flow of wastes into - their borders with the resultant outcome of requiring the management (storage and disposal) of wastes generated solely within a state`s boundary to remain there. The purpose of this project is to study nuclear waste storage issues and public perceptions of this important matter. Temporary storage at generating facilities is a cause for safety concerns and underscores, the need for the opening of permanent disposal sites. Political controversies and public concern are forcing states to look within their own borders to find solutions to this difficult problem. Permanent disposal or retrievable storage for radioactive waste may become a necessity in the near future in Colorado. Suitable areas that could support - a nuclear storage/disposal site need to be explored to make certain the health, safety and environment of our citizens now, and that of future generations, will be protected.

  6. Radioactive deposits of Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovering, T.G.

    1954-01-01

    Thirty-five occurrences of radioactive rocks had been reported from Nevada prior to 1952. Twenty-five of these had been investigated by personnel of the U. S. Geological Surveyor of the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission. Of those investigated, uranium minerals were identified at 13 sites; two sites contained a thorium mineral (monazite); the source of radioactivity on nine properties was not ascertained, and one showed no abnormal radioactivity. Of the other reported occurrences, one is said to contain uraniferous hydrocarbons and nine are placers containing thorian monazite. Pitchblende occurs at two localities, the East Walker River area, and the Stalin's Present prospect, where it is sparsely disseminated in tabular bodies cutting granitic rocks. Other uranium minerals found in the state include: carnotite, tyuyamunite, autunite, torbernite, gummite, uranophane, kasolite, and an unidentified mineral which may be dumontite. Monazite is the only thorium mineral of possible economic importance that has been reported. From an economic standpoint, only four of the properties examined showed reserves of uranium ore in 1952; these are: the Green Monster mine, which shipped 5 tons of ore to Marysvale, Utah, during 1951; the Majuba Hill mine; the Stalin's Present prospect; and the West Willys claim in the Washington district. No estimate has been made of thorium reserves and no commercial deposits of thorium are known.

  7. Radioactive deposits of Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovering, T.G.

    1953-01-01

    Thirty-five occurrences of radioactive rocks had been reported from Nevada prior to 1952. Twenty-five of these had been investigated by the U. S. Geological Survey and the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission. Of those investigated, uranium minerals were identified in 13; two contained a thorium mineral (monazite); the source of radioactivity on 7 properties was not ascertained; and one showed no abnormal radioactivity. Of the other reported occurrences, one is said to contain uraniferous hydrocarbons and 9 are placers containing thorian monazite. Pitchblende occurs at two localities; the East Walker River area, and the Stalin's Present prospect, where it is sparsely disseminated in tabular bodies cutting granitic rocks. Other uranium minerals found in the state include: carnotite, tyuyamunite, autunite, torbernite, gummite, uranophane, kasolite, and an unidentified mineral which may be dumontit. Monazite is the only thorium mineral of possible economic importance that has been reported. From an economic standpoint 9 only 4 of the properties examined showed reserves of uranium ore in 1952; these are: the Green Monster mine, which shipped 5 tons of ore to Marysvale, Utah, during 1951, the Majuba Hill mine, the Stalin's Present prospect, and the West Willys claim in the Washington district. Reserves of ore grade are small on all of these properties and probably cannot be developed commercially unless an ore-buying station is set up nearby. No estimate has been made of thorium reserves and no commercial deposits of thorium are known.

  8. Measurement of airborne {sup 218}Po - A Bayesian approach

    SciTech Connect

    Groer, P.G.; Lo, Y.

    1996-12-01

    The standard mathematical treatment of the buildup and decay of airborne radionuclides on a filter paper uses the solutions of the so-called bateman equations adapted to the sampling process. The equations can be interpreted as differential equations for the expectation of an underlying stochastic process, which describes the random fluctuations in the accumulation and decay of the sampled radioactive atoms. The process for the buildup and decay of airborne {sup 218}Po can be characterized as an {open_quotes}immigration-death process{close_quotes} in the widely adopted, biologically based jargon. The probability distribution for the number of {sup 218}Po atoms, accumulated after sampling time t, is Poisson. We show that the distribution of the number of counts, registered by a detector with efficiency {epsilon} during a counting period T after the end of sampling, it also Poisson, with mean dependent on {epsilon},t,T, the flowrate and N{sub o}, the number of airborne {sup 218}Po atoms per unit volume. This Poisson distribution was used to construct the likelihood given the observed number of counts. After inversion with Bayes` Theorem we obtained the posterior density for N{sub o}. This density characterizes the remaining uncertainty about the measured under of {sup 218}Po atoms per unit volume of air. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Treado; Oksana Klueva; Jeffrey Beckstead

    2008-12-31

    Aerosol threat detection requires the ability to discern between threat agents and ambient background particulate matter (PM) encountered in the environment. To date, Raman imaging technology has been demonstrated as an effective strategy for the assessment of threat agents in the presence of specific, complex backgrounds. Expanding our understanding of the composition of ambient particulate matter background will improve the overall performance of Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) detection strategies for the autonomous detection of airborne chemical and biological hazards. Improving RCI detection performance is strategic due to its potential to become a widely exploited detection approach by several U.S. government agencies. To improve the understanding of the ambient PM background with subsequent improvement in Raman threat detection capability, ChemImage undertook the Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project in 2005-2008 through a collaborative effort with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-05NT42594. During Phase 1 of the program, a novel PM classification based on molecular composition was developed based on a comprehensive review of the scientific literature. In addition, testing protocols were developed for ambient PM characterization. A signature database was developed based on a variety of microanalytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR microspectroscopy, optical microscopy, fluorescence and Raman chemical imaging techniques. An automated particle integrated collector and detector (APICD) prototype was developed for automated collection, deposition and detection of biothreat agents in background PM. During Phase 2 of the program, ChemImage continued to refine the understanding of ambient background composition. Additionally, ChemImage enhanced the APICD to provide improved autonomy, sensitivity and specificity. Deliverables included a Final Report detailing our

  10. ASSESSMENT OF RADIOACTIVE AND NON-RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINANTS FOUND IN LOW LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    R.H. Little, P.R. Maul, J.S.S. Penfoldag

    2003-02-27

    This paper describes and presents the findings from two studies undertaken for the European Commission to assess the long-term impact upon the environment and human health of non-radioactive contaminants found in various low level radioactive waste streams. The initial study investigated the application of safety assessment approaches developed for radioactive contaminants to the assessment of nonradioactive contaminants in low level radioactive waste. It demonstrated how disposal limits could be derived for a range of non-radioactive contaminants and generic disposal facilities. The follow-up study used the same approach but undertook more detailed, disposal system specific calculations, assessing the impacts of both the non-radioactive and radioactive contaminants. The calculations undertaken indicated that it is prudent to consider non-radioactive, as well as radioactive contaminants, when assessing the impacts of low level radioactive waste disposal. For some waste streams with relatively low concentrations of radionuclides, the potential post-closure disposal impacts from non-radioactive contaminants can be comparable with the potential radiological impacts. For such waste streams there is therefore an added incentive to explore options for recycling the materials involved wherever possible.

  11. Influence of the arrival of radioactive industrially contaminated North Sea water upon the radiation conditions in the Baltic Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Vakulovskii, S.M.; Nikitin, A.I.; Chumichev, V.B.

    1987-08-01

    The authors present and evaluate data from a four-year period of monitoring the movement of radioactive effluents from the radiochemical plants of Western Europe from the North Sea to the Baltic Sea and determine the concentrations at various regions along this pathway for cesium 134 and 137 and strontium 90 isotopes.

  12. Effluent Charts Help | ECHO | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Effluent Charts present dynamic charts and tables of permitted effluent limits, releases, and violations over time for Clean Water Act (CWA) wastewater discharge permits issued under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES).

  13. Airborne rescue system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haslim, Leonard A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The airborne rescue system includes a boom with telescoping members for extending a line and collar to a rescue victim. The boom extends beyond the tip of the helicopter rotor so that the victim may avoid the rotor downwash. The rescue line is played out and reeled in by winch. The line is temporarily retained under the boom. When the boom is extended, the rescue line passes through clips. When the victim dons the collar and the tension in the line reaches a predetermined level, the clips open and release the line from the boom. Then the rescue line can form a straight line between the victim and the winch, and the victim can be lifted to the helicopter. A translator is utilized to push out or pull in the telescoping members. The translator comprises a tape and a rope. Inside the telescoping members the tape is curled around the rope and the tape has a tube-like configuration. The tape and rope are provided from supply spools.

  14. 40 CFR 417.163 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Detergents Subcategory § 417.163 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree... detergent operations the following values pertain: Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum...

  15. 40 CFR 417.163 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Detergents Subcategory § 417.163 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree... detergent operations the following values pertain: Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum...

  16. 40 CFR 417.163 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Detergents Subcategory § 417.163 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree... detergent operations the following values pertain: Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum...

  17. 40 CFR 417.163 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Detergents Subcategory § 417.163 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree... detergent operations the following values pertain: Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum...

  18. 40 CFR 417.163 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Detergents Subcategory § 417.163 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree... detergent operations the following values pertain: Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum...

  19. E-Alerts: Nuclear science and technology (radioactive wastes and radioactivity). E-mail newsletter

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    The newsletter discusses the following: Separation, processing, handling, storage, disposal, and reuse of radioactive wastes; Radioactive fallout; Fission products; Man-made or natural radioactivity; and Decommissioning.

  20. Dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites: Methodology and data base. Supplement 1

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.A.

    1996-06-01

    This manual describes a dose assessment system used to estimate the population or collective dose commitments received via both airborne and waterborne pathways by persons living within a 2- to 80-kilometer region of a commercial operating power reactor for a specific year of effluent releases. Computer programs, data files, and utility routines are included which can be used in conjunction with an IBM or compatible personal computer to produce the required dose commitments and their statistical distributions. In addition, maximum individual airborne and waterborne dose commitments are estimated and compared to 10 CFR Part 50, Appendix 1, design objectives. This supplement is the last report in the NUREG/CR-2850 series.

  1. Study of proton radioactivities

    SciTech Connect

    Davids, C.N.; Back, B.B.; Henderson, D.J.

    1995-08-01

    About a dozen nuclei are currently known to accomplish their radioactive decay by emitting a proton. These nuclei are situated far from the valley of stability, and mark the very limits of existence for proton-rich nuclei: the proton drip line. A new 39-ms proton radioactivity was observed following the bombardment of a {sup 96}Ru target by a beam of 420-MeV {sup 78}Kr. Using the double-sided Si strip detector implantation system at the FMA, a proton group having an energy of 1.05 MeV was observed, correlated with the implantation of ions having mass 167. The subsequent daughter decay was identified as {sup 166}Os by its characteristic alpha decay, and therefore the proton emitter is assigned to the {sup 167}Ir nucleus. Further analysis showed that a second weak proton group from the same nucleus is present, indicating an isomeric state. Two other proton emitters were discovered recently at the FMA: {sup 171}Au and {sup 185}Bi, which is the heaviest known proton radioactivity. The measured decay energies and half-lives will enable the angular momentum of the emitted protons to be determined, thus providing spectroscopic information on nuclei that are beyond the proton drip line. In addition, the decay energy yields the mass of the nucleus, providing a sensitive test of mass models in this extremely proton-rich region of the chart of the nuclides. Additional searches for proton emitters will be conducted in the future, in order to extend our knowledge of the location of the proton drip line.

  2. Radioactive and magnetic investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heye, D.; Beiersdorf, H.

    1979-01-01

    Age and growth pattern determination of manganese nodules were explored. Two methods are discussed: (1) measurement of the presence of radioactive iodine isotopes; which is effective only up to 3.105 years, and (2) measurements of magnetism. The growth rates of three nodules were determined. The surface of the nodule was recent, and the overall age of the nodule could be determined with accuracy of better than 30%. Measurement of paleomagnetic effect was attempted to determine wider age ranges, however, the measured sign changes could not be interpreted as paleomagnetic reversals.

  3. Material for radioactive protection

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, R.S.; Boyer, N.W.

    A boron containing burn resistant, low-level radiation protection material useful, for example, as a liner for radioactive waste disposal and storage, a component for neutron absorber, and a shield for a neutron source is described. The material is basically composed of borax in the range of 25 to 50%, coal tar in the range of 25 to 37.5%, with the remainder being an epoxy resin mix. A preferred composition is 50% borax, 25% coal tar and 25% epoxy resin. The material is not susceptible to burning and is about 1/5 the cost of existing radiation protection material utilized in similar applications.

  4. Radioactive waste material disposal

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, Charles W.; Beahm, Edward C.; Parker, George W.

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide.

  5. Radioactive waste material disposal

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.

    1995-10-24

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide. 3 figs.

  6. Dynamic Radioactive Source for Evaluating and Demonstrating Time-dependent Performance of Continuous Air Monitors.

    PubMed

    McLean, Thomas D; Moore, Murray E; Justus, Alan L; Hudston, Jonathan A; Barbé, Benoît

    2016-11-01

    Evaluation of continuous air monitors in the presence of a plutonium aerosol is time intensive, expensive, and requires a specialized facility. The Radiation Protection Services Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory has designed a Dynamic Radioactive Source, intended to replace plutonium aerosol challenge testing. The Dynamic Radioactive Source is small enough to be inserted into the sampler filter chamber of a typical continuous air monitor. Time-dependent radioactivity is introduced from electroplated sources for real-time testing of a continuous air monitor where a mechanical wristwatch motor rotates a mask above an alpha-emitting electroplated disk source. The mask is attached to the watch's minute hand, and as it rotates, more of the underlying source is revealed. The measured alpha activity increases with time, simulating the arrival of airborne radioactive particulates at the air sampler inlet. The Dynamic Radioactive Source allows the temporal behavior of puff and chronic release conditions to be mimicked without the need for radioactive aerosols. The new system is configurable to different continuous air monitor designs and provides an in-house testing capability (benchtop compatible). It is a repeatable and reusable system and does not contaminate the tested air monitor. Test benefits include direct user control, realistic (plutonium) aerosol spectra, and iterative development of continuous air monitor alarm algorithms. Data obtained using the Dynamic Radioactive Source has been used to elucidate alarm algorithms and to compare the response time of two commercial continuous air monitors.

  7. Dynamic Radioactive Source for Evaluating and Demonstrating Time-dependent Performance of Continuous Air Monitors

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, Thomas D.; Moore, Murray E.; Justus, Alan L.; Hudston, Jonathan A.; Barbé, Benoît

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of continuous air monitors in the presence of a plutonium aerosol is time intensive, expensive, and requires a specialized facility. The Radiation Protection Services Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory has designed a Dynamic Radioactive Source, intended to replace plutonium aerosol challenge testing. Furthermore, the Dynamic Radioactive Source is small enough to be inserted into the sampler filter chamber of a typical continuous air monitor. Time-dependent radioactivity is introduced from electroplated sources for real-time testing of a continuous air monitor where a mechanical wristwatch motor rotates a mask above an alpha-emitting electroplated disk source. The mask is attached to the watch’s minute hand, and as it rotates, more of the underlying source is revealed. The alpha activity we measured increases with time, simulating the arrival of airborne radioactive particulates at the air sampler inlet. The Dynamic Radioactive Source allows the temporal behavior of puff and chronic release conditions to be mimicked without the need for radioactive aerosols. The new system is configurable to different continuous air monitor designs and provides an in-house testing capability (benchtop compatible). It is a repeatable and reusable system and does not contaminate the tested air monitor. Test benefits include direct user control, realistic (plutonium) aerosol spectra, and iterative development of continuous air monitor alarm algorithms. We also used data obtained using the Dynamic Radioactive Source to elucidate alarm algorithms and to compare the response time of two commercial continuous air monitors.

  8. Dynamic Radioactive Source for Evaluating and Demonstrating Time-dependent Performance of Continuous Air Monitors

    DOE PAGES

    McLean, Thomas D.; Moore, Murray E.; Justus, Alan L.; ...

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of continuous air monitors in the presence of a plutonium aerosol is time intensive, expensive, and requires a specialized facility. The Radiation Protection Services Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory has designed a Dynamic Radioactive Source, intended to replace plutonium aerosol challenge testing. Furthermore, the Dynamic Radioactive Source is small enough to be inserted into the sampler filter chamber of a typical continuous air monitor. Time-dependent radioactivity is introduced from electroplated sources for real-time testing of a continuous air monitor where a mechanical wristwatch motor rotates a mask above an alpha-emitting electroplated disk source. The mask is attached tomore » the watch’s minute hand, and as it rotates, more of the underlying source is revealed. The alpha activity we measured increases with time, simulating the arrival of airborne radioactive particulates at the air sampler inlet. The Dynamic Radioactive Source allows the temporal behavior of puff and chronic release conditions to be mimicked without the need for radioactive aerosols. The new system is configurable to different continuous air monitor designs and provides an in-house testing capability (benchtop compatible). It is a repeatable and reusable system and does not contaminate the tested air monitor. Test benefits include direct user control, realistic (plutonium) aerosol spectra, and iterative development of continuous air monitor alarm algorithms. We also used data obtained using the Dynamic Radioactive Source to elucidate alarm algorithms and to compare the response time of two commercial continuous air monitors.« less

  9. Effluent Containment System for space thermal nuclear propulsion ground test facilities

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the research and development study work performed for the Space Reactor Power System Division of the U.S. Department of Energy on an innovative ECS that would be used during ground testing of a space nuclear thermal rocket engine. A significant portion of the ground test facilities for a space nuclear thermal propulsion engine are the effluent treatment and containment systems. The proposed ECS configuration developed recycles all engine coolant media and does not impact the environment by venting radioactive material. All coolant media, hydrogen and water, are collected, treated for removal of radioactive particulates, and recycled for use in subsequent tests until the end of the facility life. Radioactive materials removed by the treatment systems are recovered, stored for decay of short-lived isotopes, or packaged for disposal as waste. At the end of the useful life, the facility will be decontaminated and dismantled for disposal.

  10. Curved PVDF airborne transducer.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Toda, M

    1999-01-01

    In the application of airborne ultrasonic ranging measurement, a partially cylindrical (curved) PVDF transducer can effectively couple ultrasound into the air and generate strong sound pressure. Because of its geometrical features, the ultrasound beam angles of a curved PVDF transducer can be unsymmetrical (i.e., broad horizontally and narrow vertically). This feature is desired in some applications. In this work, a curved PVDF air transducer is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. Two resonances were observed in this transducer. They are length extensional mode and flexural bending mode. Surface vibration profiles of these two modes were measured by a laser vibrometer. It was found from the experiment that the surface vibration was not uniform along the curvature direction for both vibration modes. Theoretical calculations based on a model developed in this work confirmed the experimental results. Two displacement peaks were found in the piezoelectric active direction of PVDF film for the length extensional mode; three peaks were found for the flexural bending mode. The observed peak positions were in good agreement with the calculation results. Transient surface displacement measurements revealed that vibration peaks were in phase for the length extensional mode and out of phase for the flexural bending mode. Therefore, the length extensional mode can generate a stronger ultrasound wave than the flexural bending mode. The resonance frequencies and vibration amplitudes of the two modes strongly depend on the structure parameters as well as the material properties. For the transducer design, the theoretical model developed in this work can be used to optimize the ultrasound performance.

  11. Airborne Crowd Density Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meynberg, O.; Kuschk, G.

    2013-10-01

    This paper proposes a new method for estimating human crowd densities from aerial imagery. Applications benefiting from an accurate crowd monitoring system are mainly found in the security sector. Normally crowd density estimation is done through in-situ camera systems mounted on high locations although this is not appropriate in case of very large crowds with thousands of people. Using airborne camera systems in these scenarios is a new research topic. Our method uses a preliminary filtering of the whole image space by suitable and fast interest point detection resulting in a number of image regions, possibly containing human crowds. Validation of these candidates is done by transforming the corresponding image patches into a low-dimensional and discriminative feature space and classifying the results using a support vector machine (SVM). The feature space is spanned by texture features computed by applying a Gabor filter bank with varying scale and orientation to the image patches. For evaluation, we use 5 different image datasets acquired by the 3K+ aerial camera system of the German Aerospace Center during real mass events like concerts or football games. To evaluate the robustness and generality of our method, these datasets are taken from different flight heights between 800 m and 1500 m above ground (keeping a fixed focal length) and varying daylight and shadow conditions. The results of our crowd density estimation are evaluated against a reference data set obtained by manually labeling tens of thousands individual persons in the corresponding datasets and show that our method is able to estimate human crowd densities in challenging realistic scenarios.

  12. Radioactive waste processing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Robert E.; Ziegler, Anton A.; Serino, David F.; Basnar, Paul J.

    1987-01-01

    Apparatus for use in processing radioactive waste materials for shipment and storage in solid form in a container is disclosed. The container includes a top, and an opening in the top which is smaller than the outer circumference of the container. The apparatus includes an enclosure into which the container is placed, solution feed apparatus for adding a solution containing radioactive waste materials into the container through the container opening, and at least one rotatable blade for blending the solution with a fixing agent such as cement or the like as the solution is added into the container. The blade is constructed so that it can pass through the opening in the top of the container. The rotational axis of the blade is displaced from the center of the blade so that after the blade passes through the opening, the blade and container can be adjusted so that one edge of the blade is adjacent the cylindrical wall of the container, to insure thorough mixing. When the blade is inside the container, a substantially sealed chamber is formed to contain vapors created by the chemical action of the waste solution and fixant, and vapors emanating through the opening in the container.

  13. WESTERN AIRBORNE CONTAMINANTS ASSESSMENT PROJECT RESEARCH PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of the Western Airborne Contaminants Assessment Project (WACAP) is to assess the deposition of airborne contaminants in Western National Parks, providing regional and local information on exposure, accumulation, impacts, and probable sources. This project is being desig...

  14. An airborne isothermal haze chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hindman, E. E.

    1981-01-01

    Thermal gradient diffusion cloud chambers (TGDCC) are used to determine the concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) with critical supersaturations greater than or equal to about 0.2%. The CCN concentrations measured with the airborne IHC were lower than theoretically predicted by factors ranging between 7.9 and 9.0. The CCN concentrations measured with the airborne IHC were lower than the concentrations measured with the larger laboratory IHC's by factors ranging between 3.9 and 7.5. The bounds of the supersaturation ranges of the airborne IHC and the CSU-Mee TGDCC do not overlap. Nevertheless, the slopes of the interpolated data between the bounds agree favorably with the theoretical slopes.

  15. Using isotopic ratios for discrimination of environmental anthropogenic radioactivity.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Robert B; Akbarzadeh, Mansour

    2014-10-01

    When air is pulled into the WIPP repository for ventilation purposes, this air is unfiltered and contains all the components of ubiquitous anthropogenic radionuclides from global nuclear fallout (including Cs and Pu isotopes). Although the NORM in aeolian sand and dust contribute to the gross alpha beta activity on effluent air filters, there remains a need to discriminate effluent TRU generated in the disposal process at WIPP from TRU being pulled into the repository with the unfiltered surface air. This is only evaluated using ratios of Cs and Pu activity found through radioassay of air filters taken from the mine effluent. By characterizing both the credible range of Cs/Pu ratios from the environment and those known to exist in the waste, a rigorous test criteria is attained. The use of HPGE to assay Cs in the intake dust plated out in the mine allowed a gross assay of total TRU radioactivity pulled into the mine over time from global fallout. Radiochemistry of samples from deposition in the mine's air intake shaft was also carried out. The use of net activity ratios at background levels is also shown to follow a Cauchy distribution in terms of their expected statistical distributions.

  16. Radiological effluents released from US continental tests, 1961 through 1992. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Schoengold, C.R.; DeMarre, M.E.; Kirkwood, E.M.

    1996-08-01

    This report documents all continental tests from September 15, 1961, through September 23, 1992, from which radioactive effluents were released. The report includes both updated information previously published in the publicly available May, 1990 report, DOE/NV-317, ``Radiological Effluents Released from Announced US Continental Tests 1961 through 1988``, and effluent release information on formerly unannounced tests. General information provided for each test includes the date, time, location, type of test, sponsoring laboratory and/or agency or other sponsor, depth of burial, purpose, yield or yield range, extent of release (onsite only or offsite), and category of release (detonation-time versus post-test operations). Where a test with simultaneous detonations is listed, location, depth of burial and yield information are given for each detonation if applicable, as well as the specific source of the release. A summary of each release incident by type of release is included. For a detonation-time release, the effluent curies are expressed at R+12 hours. For a controlled releases from tunnel-tests, the effluent curies are expressed at both time of release and at R+12 hours. All other types are listed at the time of the release. In addition, a qualitative statement of the isotopes in the effluent is included for detonation-time and controlled releases and a quantitative listing is included for all other types. Offsite release information includes the cloud direction, the maximum activity detected in the air offsite, the maximum gamma exposure rate detected offsite, the maximum iodine level detected offsite, and the maximum distance radiation was detected offsite. A release summary incudes whatever other pertinent information is available for each release incident. This document includes effluent release information for 433 tests, some of which have simultaneous detonations. However, only 52 of these are designated as having offsite releases.

  17. Airborne transmission of Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed

    Warfel, Jason M; Beren, Joel; Merkel, Tod J

    2012-09-15

    Pertussis is a contagious, acute respiratory illness caused by the bacterial pathogen Bordetella pertussis. Although it is widely believed that transmission of B. pertussis occurs via aerosolized respiratory droplets, no controlled study has ever documented airborne transmission of pertussis. We set out to determine if airborne transmission occurs between infected and naive animals, utilizing the baboon model of pertussis. Our results showed that 100% of exposed naive animals became infected even when physical contact was prevented, demonstrating that pertussis transmission occurs via aerosolized respiratory droplets.

  18. Airborne and ground reconnaissance of part of the syenite complex near Wausau, Marathon county, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vickers, R.C.

    1955-01-01

    Airborne and ground reconnaissance for radioactive minerals in part of the syenite complex near Wausau, Marathon county, Wis., found 12 radioactive mineral localities. The rocks in the area are of Precambrian age and consist of syenite and nepheline syenite, which have intruded older granite, greenstone, quartzite, and argillite. There are very few outcrops, and much of the bedrock is deeply weathered and covered by residual soil. Thorium-bearing zircon pegatite float was found within the area of syenite and nepheline syenite at four localities. Reddish-brown euhedral to subeuhedral crystals of well-zoned zircon (variety cyrtolite) comprise more than 40 percent of some of the specimens. The radioactive mineral at four localities outside the area of syneites was identified as thorogummite, which occurred in nodular masses in residual soil. Alinement of the thorogummite float and associated radioactivity suggests that the thorogummite has resulted from weathering of narrow veins or pegmatites containing thorium-bearing minerals. Unidentified thorium-bearing minerals were found at three localities, and a specimen of allanite weighing about 2 pounds was found at one locality. Shallow trenches at two of the largest radioactivity anomalies showed that the radioactive material extended down into weathered bedrock. The occurrences might warrant additional physical exploration should there be sufficient demand for thorium. Further reconnaissance in the area would probably result in the discovery of additional occurrences.

  19. Radioactive elements in stellar atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Gopka, Vira; Yushchenko, Alexander; Goriely, Stephane; Shavrina, Angelina; Kang, Young Woon

    2006-07-12

    The identification of lines of radioactive elements (Tc, Pm and elements with 83radioactive decay of Th and U in the upper levels of stellar atmospheres, contamination of stellar atmosphere by recent SN explosion, and spallation reactions.

  20. PERSPECTIVE: Fireworks and radioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitenecker, Katharina

    2009-09-01

    both reaction products and unburnt constituents of a pyrotechnic mixture. One major environmental concern in pyrotechnics focuses on the emission of heavy metals. This is the topic discussed in the article by Georg Steinhauser and Andreas Musilek in this issue [4]. A possible interrelationship between respiratory effects and fireworks emissions of barium-rich aerosols was also raised last year [5]. In recent years the potential hazard of naturally occurring radioactive material has become of importance to the scientific community. Naturally occurring radionuclides can be of terrestrial or cosmological origin. Terrestrial radionuclides were present in the presolar cloud that later contracted in order to build our solar system. These radionuclides—mainly heavy metals—and their non-radioactive isotopes are nowadays fixed in the matrix of the Earth's structure. Usually, their percentage is quite small compared to their respective stable isotopes—though there are exceptions like in the case of radium. The problem with environmental pollution due to naturally occurring radioactive material begins when this material is concentrated due to mining and milling, and later further processed [6]. Environmental pollution due to radioactive material goes back as far as the Copper and Iron Ages, when the first mines were erected in order to mine ores (gold, silver, copper, iron, etc), resulting in naturally occurring radioactive material being set free with other dusts into the atmosphere. So where is the link between pyrotechnics and radioactivity? In this article presented by Georg Steinhauser and Andreas Musilek [4], the pyrotechnic ingredients barium nitrate and strontium nitrate are explored with respect to their chemical similarities to radium. The fundamental question, therefore, was whether radium can be processed together with barium and strontium. If so, the production and ignition of these pyrotechnic ingredients could cause atmospheric pollution with radium aerosols

  1. Radioactive waste processing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, R.E.; Ziegler, A.A.; Serino, D.F.; Basnar, P.J.

    1985-08-30

    Apparatus for use in processing radioactive waste materials for shipment and storage in solid form in a container is disclosed. The container includes a top, and an opening in the top which is smaller than the outer circumference of the container. The apparatus includes an enclosure into which the container is placed, solution feed apparatus for adding a solution containing radioactive waste materials into the container through the container opening, and at least one rotatable blade for blending the solution with a fixing agent such as cement or the like as the solution is added into the container. The blade is constructed so that it can pass through the opening in the top of the container. The rotational axis of the blade is displaced from the center of the blade so that after the blade passes through the opening, the blade and container can be adjusted so that one edge of the blade is adjacent the cylindrical wall of the container, to insure thorough mixing. When the blade is inside the container, a substantially sealed chamber is formed to contain vapors created by the chemical action of the waste solution and fixant, and vapors emanating through the opening in the container. The chamber may be formed by placing a removable extension over the top of the container. The extension communicates with the apparatus so that such vapors are contained within the container, extension and solution feed apparatus. A portion of the chamber includes coolant which condenses the vapors. The resulting condensate is returned to the container by the force of gravity.

  2. Liquid Effluents Program mission analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, S.S.

    1994-09-27

    Systems engineering is being used to identify work to cleanup the Hanford Site. The systems engineering process transforms an identified mission need into a set of performance parameters and a preferred system configuration. Mission analysis is the first step in the process. Mission analysis supports early decision-making by clearly defining the program objectives, and evaluating the feasibility and risks associated with achieving those objectives. The results of the mission analysis provide a consistent basis for subsequent systems engineering work. A mission analysis was performed earlier for the overall Hanford Site. This work was continued by a ``capstone`` team which developed a top-level functional analysis. Continuing in a top-down manner, systems engineering is now being applied at the program and project levels. A mission analysis was conducted for the Liquid Effluents Program. The results are described herein. This report identifies the initial conditions and acceptable final conditions, defines the programmatic and physical interfaces and sources of constraints, estimates the resources to carry out the mission, and establishes measures of success. The mission analysis reflects current program planning for the Liquid Effluents Program as described in Liquid Effluents FY 1995 Multi-Year Program Plan.

  3. Design, calibration, and application of an airborne gamma spectrometer system in Switzerland

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, G.F.; Rybach, L.; Klingele, E.E.

    1997-09-01

    Airborne radiometric surveys are finding increasingly wider application in environmental mapping and monitoring. They are the most efficient tool to delimit surface contamination and to locate lost radioactive sources. To secure radiometric capability in survey and emergency situations, a new sensitive airborne system has been built that includes an airborne spectrometer with 256 channels and a sodium iodide detector with a total volume of 16.8 liters. A rack-mounted PC with memory cards is used for data acquisition, with a GPS satellite navigation system for positioning. The system was calibrated with point sources using a mathematical correction to take into account the effects of gamma-ray scattering in the ground and in the atmosphere. The calibration was complemented by high precision ground gamma spectrometry and laboratory measurements on rock samples. In Switzerland, two major research programs make use of the capabilities of airborne radiometric measurements. The first one concerns nuclear power-plant monitoring. The five Swiss nuclear installations (four power plants and one research facility) and the surrounding regions of each site are surveyed annually. The project goal is to monitor the dose-rate distribution and to provide a documented baseline database. The measurements show that all sites (with the exception of the Goesgen power plant) can be identified clearly on the maps. No artificial radioactivity that could not be explained by the Chernobyl release or earlier nuclear weapons tests was detected outside of the fenced sites of the nuclear installations. The second program aims at a better evaluation of the natural radiation level in Switzerland. The survey focused on the crystalline rocks of the Central Massifs of the Swiss Alps because of their relatively high natural radioactivity and lithological variability.

  4. The Bayo Canyon/radioactive lanthanum (RaLa) program

    SciTech Connect

    Dummer, J.E.; Taschner, J.C.; Courtright, C.C.

    1996-04-01

    LANL conducted 254 radioactive lanthanum (RaLa) implosion experiments Sept. 1944-March 1962, in order to test implosion designs for nuclear weapons. High explosives surrounding common metals (surrogates for Pu) and a radioactive source containing up to several thousand curies of La, were involved in each experiment. The resulting cloud was deposited as fallout, often to distances of several miles. This report was prepared to summarize existing records as an aid in evaluating the off-site impact, if any, of this 18-year program. The report provides a historical setting for the program, which was conducted in Technical Area 10, Bayo Canyon about 3 miles east of Los Alamos. A description of the site is followed by a discussion of collateral experiments conducted in 1950 by US Air Force for developing an airborne detector for tracking atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. All known off-site data from the RaLa program are tabulated and discussed. Besides the radiolanthanum, other potential trace radioactive material that may have been present in the fallout is discussed and amounts estimated. Off-site safety considerations are discussed; a preliminary off-site dose assessment is made. Bibliographical data on 33 persons important to the program are presented as footnotes.

  5. Reconnaissance for radioactive materials in the southern part of Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierson, Charles T.; Haynes, Donald D.; Filho, Evaristo Ribeiro

    1957-01-01

    During 1954-1956 a reconnaissance for radioactive minerals was made with carborne, airborne and handborne scintillation equipment in the southern Brazilian states of Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Parana, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. During the traverse covering more than 5,000 kilometers the authors checked the radioactivity of Precambrian igneous and metamorphic rocks, Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks, and Mesozoic alkalic intrusive and basaltic extrusive rocks. The 22 samples collected contained from 0.003 to 0.029 percent equivalent uranium oxide and from 0.10 to 0.91 percent equivalent thorimn; two samples were taken from radioactive pegmati tes for mineralogic studies. None of the localities is at present a commercial source of uranium or thorium; however, additional work should be done near the alkalic stock at Lages in the State of Santa Catarina and at the Passo das Tropas fossil plant locality near Santa Maria in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Near Lages highly altered alkalic rock from a dike contained 0.026 percent uranium oxide. At Passo das Tropas highly altered, limonite-impregnated sandstone from the Rio do Rasto group of sedimentary rocks contained 0.029 percent uranium oxide.

  6. Airborne asbestos in public buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Chesson, J.; Hatfield, J.; Schultz, B.; Dutrow, E.; Blake, J. )

    1990-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sampled air in 49 government-owned buildings (six buildings with no asbestos-containing material, six buildings with asbestos-containing material in generally good condition, and 37 buildings with damaged asbestos-containing material). This is the most comprehensive study to date of airborne asbestos levels in U.S. public buildings during normal building activities. The air outside each building was also sampled. Air samples were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy using a direct transfer preparation technique. The results show an increasing trend in average airborne asbestos levels; outdoor levels are lowest and levels in buildings with damaged asbestos-containing material are highest. However, the measured levels and the differences between indoors and outdoors and between building categories are small in absolute magnitude. Comparable studies from Canada and the UK, although differing in their estimated concentrations, also conclude that while airborne asbestos levels may be elevated in buildings that contain asbestos, levels are generally low. This conclusion does not eliminate the possibility of higher airborne asbestos levels during maintenance or renovation that disturbs the asbestos-containing material.

  7. Tropospheric and Airborne Emission Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavich, Thomas; Beer, Reinhard

    1996-01-01

    X This paper describes the development of two related instruments, the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) and the Airborne Emission Spectrometer (AES). Both instruments are infrared imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometers, used for measuring the state of the lower atmosphere, and in particular the measurement of ozone and ozone sources and sinks.

  8. Airborne Imagery Collections Barrow 2013

    DOE Data Explorer

    Cherry, Jessica; Crowder, Kerri

    2015-07-20

    The data here are orthomosaics, digital surface models (DSMs), and individual frames captured during low altitude airborne flights in 2013 at the Barrow Environmental Observatory. The orthomosaics, thermal IR mosaics, and DSMs were generated from the individual frames using Structure from Motion techniques.

  9. AARD - Autonomous Airborne Refueling Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewers, Dick

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews the Autonomous Airborne Refueling Demonstration program, and NASA Dryden's work in the program. The primary goal of the program is to make one fully automatic probe-to-drogue engagement using the AARD system. There are pictures of the aircraft approaching to the docking.

  10. AMERICIUM SEPARATIONS FROM NITRIC ACID PROCESS EFFLUENT STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    M. BARR; G. JARVINEN; ET AL

    2000-08-01

    The aging of the US nuclear stockpile presents a number of challenges, including the ever-increasing radioactivity of plutonium residues from {sup 241}Am. Minimization of this weak gamma-emitter in process and waste solutions is desirable to reduce both worker exposure and the effects of radiolysis on the final waste product. Removal of americium from plutonium nitric acid processing effluents, however, is complicated by the presence of large.quantities of competing metals, particularly Fe and Al, and-strongly oxidizing acidic solutions. The reprocessing operation offers several points at which americium removal maybe attempted, and we are evaluating two classes of materials targeted at different steps in the process. Extraction chromatography resin materials loaded with three different alkylcarbamoyl phosphinates and phosphine oxides were accessed for Am removal efficiency and Am/Fe selectivity from 1-7 molar nitric acid solutions. Commercial and experimental mono- and bifunctional anion-exchange resins were evaluated for total alpha-activity removal from post-evaporator solutions whose composition, relative to the original nitric acid effluent, is reduced in acid and greatly increased in total salt content. With both classes of materials, americium/total alpha emission removal is sufficient to meet regulatory requirements even under sub-optimal conditions. Batch distribution coefficients, column performance data, and the effects of Fe-masking agents will be presented.

  11. Environmental radioactive intercomparison program and radioactive standards program

    SciTech Connect

    Dilbeck, G.

    1993-12-31

    The Environmental Radioactivity Intercomparison Program described herein provides quality assurance support for laboratories involved in analyzing public drinking water under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Regulations, and to the environmental radiation monitoring activities of various agencies. More than 300 federal and state nuclear facilities and private laboratories participate in some phase of the program. This presentation describes the Intercomparison Program studies and matrices involved, summarizes the precision and accuracy requirements of various radioactive analytes, and describes the traceability determinations involved with radioactive calibration standards distributed to the participants. A summary of program participants, sample and report distributions, and additional responsibilities of this program are discussed.

  12. Routing architecture and security for airborne networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Hongmei; Xie, Peng; Li, Jason; Xu, Roger; Levy, Renato

    2009-05-01

    Airborne networks are envisioned to provide interconnectivity for terrestial and space networks by interconnecting highly mobile airborne platforms. A number of military applications are expected to be used by the operator, and all these applications require proper routing security support to establish correct route between communicating platforms in a timely manner. As airborne networks somewhat different from traditional wired and wireless networks (e.g., Internet, LAN, WLAN, MANET, etc), security aspects valid in these networks are not fully applicable to airborne networks. Designing an efficient security scheme to protect airborne networks is confronted with new requirements. In this paper, we first identify a candidate routing architecture, which works as an underlying structure for our proposed security scheme. And then we investigate the vulnerabilities and attack models against routing protocols in airborne networks. Based on these studies, we propose an integrated security solution to address routing security issues in airborne networks.

  13. Airborne HCl - CO sensing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartle, E. R.; Hall, G.

    1977-01-01

    A system for measuring air pollutants in-situ using an aircraft was designed, fabricated, and tested. The system is based upon a technique called Gas Filter Correlation (GFC) which provides for high sensitivity and specificity in the presence of interfering species. This particular system was designed for measuring hydrochloric acid and carbon monoxide gases emitted from rocket exhaust effluents.

  14. Scaled tests and modeling of effluent stack sampling location mixing.

    PubMed

    Recknagle, Kurtis P; Yokuda, Satoru T; Ballinger, Marcel Y; Barnett, J Matthew

    2009-02-01

    A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics computer model was used to evaluate the mixing at a sampling system for radioactive air emissions. Researchers sought to determine whether the location would meet the criteria for uniform air velocity and contaminant concentration as prescribed in the American National Standards Institute standard, Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stacks and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities. This standard requires that the sampling location be well-mixed and stipulates specific tests to verify the extent of mixing. The exhaust system for the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory was modeled with a computational fluid dynamics code to better understand the flow and contaminant mixing and to predict mixing test results. The modeled results were compared to actual measurements made at a scale-model stack and to the limited data set for the full-scale facility stack. Results indicated that the computational fluid dynamics code provides reasonable predictions for velocity, cyclonic flow, gas, and aerosol uniformity, although the code predicts greater improvement in mixing as the injection point is moved farther away from the sampling location than is actually observed by measurements. In expanding from small to full scale, the modeled predictions for full-scale measurements show similar uniformity values as in the scale model. This work indicated that a computational fluid dynamics code can be a cost-effective aid in designing or retrofitting a facility's stack sampling location that will be required to meet standard ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999.

  15. Radioactive deposits in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, George W.; Lovering, Tom G.

    1954-01-01

    Reconnaissance examination by Government geologists of many areas, mine properties, and prospects in California during the period between 1948 and 1953 has confirmed the presence of radioactive materials in place at more than 40 localities. Abnormal radioactivity at these localities is due to concentrations of primary and secondary uranium minerals, to radon gas, radium (?), and to thorium minerals. Of the known occurrences only three were thought to contain uranium oxide (uranitite or pitchblende), 4 contained uranium-bearing columbate, tantalate, or titanate minerals, 12 contained secondary uranium minerals, such as autunite, carnotite, and torbernite, one contained radon gas, 7 contained thorium minerals, and, at the remaining 16 localities, the source of the anomalous radiation was not positively determined. The occurrences in which uranium oxide has been tentatively identified include the Rathgeb mine (Calaveras County), the Yerih group of claims (San Bernardino County), and the Rainbow claim (Madera County). Occurrences of secondary uranium minerals are largely confined to the arid desert regions of south-eastern California including deposits in San Bernardino, Kern, Inyo, and Imperial Counties. Uranium-bearing columbate, tantalate, or titanate minerals have been reported from pegmatite and granitic rock in southeastern and eastern California. Thorium minerals have been found in vein deposits in eastern San Bernardino County and from pegmatites and granitic rocks in various parts of southeastern California; placer concentrations of thorium minerals are known from nearly all areas in the State that are underlain, in part, by plutonic crystalline rocks. The primary uranium minerals occur principally as minute accessory crystals in pegmatite or granitic rock, or with base-metal sulfide minerals in veins. Thorium minerals also occur as accessory crystals in pegmatite or granitic rock, in placer deposits derived from such rock, and, at Mountain Pass, in veins

  16. An overview of radioactive waste disposal procedures of a nuclear medicine department.

    PubMed

    Ravichandran, R; Binukumar, J P; Sreeram, Rajan; Arunkumar, L S

    2011-04-01

    Radioactive wastes from hospitals form one of the various types of urban wastes, which are managed in developed countries in a safe and organized way. In countries where growth of nuclear medicine services are envisaged, implementations of existing regulatory policies and guidelines in hospitals in terms of handling of radioactive materials used in the treatment of patients need a good model. To address this issue, a brief description of the methods is presented. A designed prototype waste storage trolley is found to be of great help in decaying the I-131 solid wastes from wards before releasing to waste treatment plant of the city. Two delay tanks with collection time of about 2 months and delay time of 2 months alternately result in 6 releases of urine toilet effluents to the sewage treatment plant (STP) of the hospital annually. Samples of effluents collected at releasing time documented radioactive releases of I-131 much below recommended levels of bi-monthly release. External counting of samples showed good statistical correlation with calculated values. An overview of safe procedures for radioactive waste disposal is presented.

  17. Effluent treatment for nuclear thermal propulsion ground testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shipers, Larry R.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives are to define treatment functions, review concept options, discuss PIPET effluent treatment system (ETS), and outline future activities. The topics covered include the following: reactor exhaust; effluent treatment functions; effluent treatment categories; effluent treatment options; concept evaluation; PIPETS ETS envelope; PIPET effluent treatment concept; and future activities.

  18. SELF SINTERING OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES

    DOEpatents

    McVay, T.N.; Johnson, J.R.; Struxness, E.G.; Morgan, K.Z.

    1959-12-29

    A method is described for disposal of radioactive liquid waste materials. The wastes are mixed with clays and fluxes to form a ceramic slip and disposed in a thermally insulated container in a layer. The temperature of the layer rises due to conversion of the energy of radioactivity to heat boillng off the liquid to fomn a dry mass. The dry mass is then covered with thermal insulation, and the mass is self-sintered into a leach-resistant ceramic cake by further conversion of the energy of radioactivity to heat.

  19. Star formation and extinct radioactivities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, A. G. W.

    1984-01-01

    An assessment is made of the evidence for the existence of now-extinct radioactivities in primitive solar system material, giving attention to implications for the early stages of sun and solar system formation. The characteristics of possible disturbances in dense molecular clouds which can initiate the formation of cloud cores is discussed, with emphasis on these disturbances able to generate fresh radioactivities. A one-solar mass red giant star on the asymptotic giant branch appears to have been the best candidate to account for the short-lived extinct radioactivities in the early solar system.

  20. RADIOACTIVE CONCENTRATOR AND RADIATION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Hatch, L.P.

    1959-12-29

    A method is presented for forming a permeable ion exchange bed using Montmorillonite clay to absorb and adsorb radioactive ions from liquid radioactive wastes. A paste is formed of clay, water, and a material that fomns with clay a stable aggregate in the presence of water. The mixture is extruded into a volume of water to form clay rods. The rods may then be used to remove radioactive cations from liquid waste solutions. After use, the rods are removed from the solution and heated to a temperature of 750 to 1000 deg C to fix the ratioactive cations in the clay.

  1. Micropollutants produced by disinfection of wastewater effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Jolley, R.L.; Cumming, R.B.; Lee, N.E.; Thompson, J.E.; Lewis, L.R.

    1981-01-01

    Recent research conducted with the objective of determining some of the chemical mutagenic characteristics of nonvolatile micropollutants in treated wastewater effluents is summarized. The effluents from nine wastewater plants were examined relative to the chemical effects of the disinfectants chlorine, ozone, and uv light on nonvolatile organic constituents and the formation of mutagenic constituents during disinfection. Results indicate that disinfection by chlorine or ozone can lead to an increase in the number of mutagenic materials in the effluents. (JGB)

  2. Radioactive decay data tables

    SciTech Connect

    Kocher, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    The estimation of radiation dose to man from either external or internal exposure to radionuclides requires a knowledge of the energies and intensities of the atomic and nuclear radiations emitted during the radioactive decay process. The availability of evaluated decay data for the large number of radionuclides of interest is thus of fundamental importance for radiation dosimetry. This handbook contains a compilation of decay data for approximately 500 radionuclides. These data constitute an evaluated data file constructed for use in the radiological assessment activities of the Technology Assessments Section of the Health and Safety Research Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The radionuclides selected for this handbook include those occurring naturally in the environment, those of potential importance in routine or accidental releases from the nuclear fuel cycle, those of current interest in nuclear medicine and fusion reactor technology, and some of those of interest to Committee 2 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the estimation of annual limits on intake via inhalation and ingestion for occupationally exposed individuals.

  3. (Immobilization of radioactive wastes)

    SciTech Connect

    Dole, L.R.

    1986-12-18

    The traveler participated as the co-chairman of the France/US Workshop in Cadarache, France, on the immobilization of radioactive wastes in cement-based materials. These meetings and site visits were conducted under the bilateral exchange agreement between the US-DOE and the Commissariate a l'Energie Atomique (CEA-France). Visits in France included the Cadarache, Valduc, Saclay, and Fontenay-aux-Roses Nuclear Research Centers. As a result of these discussions, an exchange of scientists between Saclay and ORNL was proposed. The traveler continued on to the FRG to visit a hazardous waste site remedial action project in Sprendlingen and the nuclear research and production facilities at the Karlsruhe Kernforschungszentrum (KfK) and the Alkem/Nukem/Transnuklear facilities at Hanau. Visits in the FRG were under the bilateral exchange agreement between the US-DOE and the Bundes Ministerium fur Forschung und Technologie (BMFT). The FRG supplied the traveler data on studies of super-compaction volume reduction efficiencies by KfK and Nukem. Also, Transnuklear is considering contributing two of their larger Konrad-certified packages to the MDU studies at ORNL. 1 tab.

  4. Quality assurance program plan for radionuclide airborne emissions monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Boom, R.J.

    1995-03-01

    This Quality Assurance Program Plan identifies quality assurance program requirements and addresses the various Westinghouse Hanford Company organizations and their particular responsibilities in regards to sample and data handling of airborne emissions. The Hanford Site radioactive airborne emissions requirements are defined in National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1991a). Reporting of the emissions to the US Department of Energy is performed in compliance with requirements of US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program (DOE-RL 1988). This Quality Assurance Program Plan is prepared in accordance with and to the requirements of QAMS-004/80, Guidelines and Specifications for Preparing Quality Assurance Program Plans (EPA 1983). Title 40 CFR Part 61, Appendix B, Method 114, Quality Assurance Methods (EPA 1991b) specifies the quality assurance requirements and that a program plan should be prepared to meet the requirements of this regulation. This Quality Assurance Program Plan identifies NESHAP responsibilities and how the Westinghouse Hanford Company Environmental, Safety, Health, and Quality Assurance Division will verify that the methods are properly implemented.

  5. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, P.

    1997-02-01

    This paper discusses the broad problems presented by Naturally Occuring Radioactive Materials (NORM). Technologically Enhanced naturally occuring radioactive material includes any radionuclides whose physical, chemical, radiological properties or radionuclide concentration have been altered from their natural state. With regard to NORM in particular, radioactive contamination is radioactive material in an undesired location. This is a concern in a range of industries: petroleum; uranium mining; phosphorus and phosphates; fertilizers; fossil fuels; forestry products; water treatment; metal mining and processing; geothermal energy. The author discusses in more detail the problem in the petroleum industry, including the isotopes of concern, the hazards they present, the contamination which they cause, ways to dispose of contaminated materials, and regulatory issues. He points out there are three key programs to reduce legal exposure and problems due to these contaminants: waste minimization; NORM assesment (surveys); NORM compliance (training).

  6. Radioactive waste material melter apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Newman, D.F.; Ross, W.A.

    1990-04-24

    An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another. 8 figs.

  7. Radioactive waste material melter apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Newman, Darrell F.; Ross, Wayne A.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another.

  8. Low-Activity Radioactive Wastes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In 2003 EPA published an Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPR) to collect public comment on alternatives for disposal of waste containing low concentrations of radioactive material ('low-activity' waste).

  9. Predicted halflives for cluster radioactivities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poenaru, D. N.; Greiner, W.; Ivascu, M.

    1989-10-01

    The main results of the analytical superasymmetric fission model, describing in a unified manner cluster radioactivities, alpha-decay and cold fission processes, are briefly reviewed. Predicted halflives for 14C, 24, 25, 26Ne, 28, 30Mg and 32Si radioactivities in the range 10 11-10 26 s and the corresponding branching ratios relative to α-decay 10 -16 - 10 -9 have been experimentally confirmed within 1.5 orders of magnitude.

  10. Radioactivity of the Cooling Water

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Wigner, E. P.

    1943-03-01

    The most important source of radioactivity at the exit manifold of the pile will be due to O{sup 19}, formed by neutron absorption of O{sup 18}. A recent measurement of Fermi and Weil permits to estimate that it will be safe to stay about 80 minutes daily close to the exit manifolds without any shield. Estimates are given for the radioactivities from other sources both in the neighborhood and farther away from the pile.

  11. An assessment of Microtox{trademark} as a biomonitoring tool for whole effluent testing for Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Zachritz, W.H. II; Morrow, J.

    1994-06-13

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has special discharge problems relating to potential radioactive content of the effluent discharge waters. Because of this all testing must be performed on-site and results must be rapidly determined. There is a need to examine the development of a real-time procedure for effluent biomonitoring to met these site limitations. The Microtox{trademark} unit for toxicity testing is a microbially-based test system that shows great promise to be used for WET testing. The overall goal of this study is to develop an acceptable protocol for operational biomonitoring using the Microtox {trademark} toxicity test for LANL. The specific objectives include: development of an appropriate toxicity testing protocol using the Microtox{trademark} toxicity test for whole effluent toxicity testing and evaluation of the protocol based on factors such as sensitivity, response time, cost of analysis, and simplicity of operation.

  12. 49 CFR 172.556 - RADIOACTIVE placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE placard. 172.556 Section 172.556... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.556 RADIOACTIVE placard. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE... on the RADIOACTIVE placard must be white in the lower portion with a yellow triangle in the...

  13. 49 CFR 172.556 - RADIOACTIVE placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE placard. 172.556 Section 172.556... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.556 RADIOACTIVE placard. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE... on the RADIOACTIVE placard must be white in the lower portion with a yellow triangle in the...

  14. 49 CFR 172.556 - RADIOACTIVE placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE placard. 172.556 Section 172.556... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.556 RADIOACTIVE placard. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE... on the RADIOACTIVE placard must be white in the lower portion with a yellow triangle in the...

  15. 49 CFR 172.556 - RADIOACTIVE placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE placard. 172.556 Section 172.556... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.556 RADIOACTIVE placard. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE... on the RADIOACTIVE placard must be white in the lower portion with a yellow triangle in the...

  16. 49 CFR 172.556 - RADIOACTIVE placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE placard. 172.556 Section 172.556... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.556 RADIOACTIVE placard. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE... on the RADIOACTIVE placard must be white in the lower portion with a yellow triangle in the...

  17. Radioactive materials in recycled metals

    SciTech Connect

    Lubenau, J.O.; Yusko, J.G.

    1995-04-01

    In recent years, the metal recycling industry has become increasingly aware of an unwanted component in metal scrap-radioactive material. Worldwide, there have been 35 instances where radioactive sources were unintentionally smelted in the course of recycling metal scrap. In some cases contaminated metal consumer products were distributed internationally. In at least one case, serious radiation exposures of workers and the public occurred. Radioactive material appearing in metal scrap includes sources subject to licensing under the Atomic Energy Act and also naturally occurring radioactive material. U.S. mills that have smelted a radioactive source face costs resulting from decontamination, waste disposal, and lost profits that range from 7 to 23 million U.S. dollars for each event. To solve the problem, industry and the government have jointly undertaken initiatives to increase awareness of the problem within the metal recycling industry. Radiation monitoring of recycled metal scrap is being performed increasingly by mills and, to a lesser extent, by scrap processors. The monitoring does not, however, provide 100% protection. Improvements in regulatory oversight by the government could stimulate improved accounting and control of licensed sources. However, additional government effort in this area must be reconciled with competing priorities in radiation safety and budgetary constraints. The threat of radioactive material in recycled metal scrap will continue for the foreseeable future and, thus, poses regulatory policy challenges for both developed and developing nations.

  18. Radioactive materials in recycled metals.

    PubMed

    Lubenau, J O; Yusko, J G

    1995-04-01

    In recent years, the metal recycling industry has become increasingly aware of an unwanted component in metal scrap--radioactive material. Worldwide, there have been 35 instances where radioactive sources were unintentionally smelted in the course of recycling metal scrap. In some cases contaminated metal consumer products were distributed internationally. In at least one case, serious radiation exposures of workers and the public occurred. Radioactive material appearing in metal scrap includes sources subject to licensing under the Atomic Energy Act and also naturally occurring radioactive material. U.S. mills that have smelted a radioactive source face costs resulting from decontamination, waste disposal, and lost profits that range from 7 to 23 million U.S. dollars for each event. To solve the problem, industry and the government have jointly undertaken initiatives to increase awareness of the problem within the metal recycling industry. Radiation monitoring of recycled metal scrap is being performed increasingly by mills and, to a lesser extent, by scrap processors. The monitoring does not, however, provide 100% protection. Improvements in regulatory oversight by the government could stimulate improved accounting and control of licensed sources. However, additional government effort in this area must be reconciled with competing priorities in radiation safety and budgetary constraints. The threat of radioactive material in recycled metal scrap will continue for the foreseeable future and, thus, poses regulatory policy challenges for both developed and developing nations.

  19. Storage depot for radioactive material

    DOEpatents

    Szulinski, Milton J.

    1983-01-01

    Vertical drilling of cylindrical holes in the soil, and the lining of such holes, provides storage vaults called caissons. A guarded depot is provided with a plurality of such caissons covered by shielded closures preventing radiation from penetrating through any linear gap to the atmosphere. The heat generated by the radioactive material is dissipated through the vertical liner of the well into the adjacent soil and thus to the ground surface so that most of the heat from the radioactive material is dissipated into the atmosphere in a manner involving no significant amount of biologically harmful radiation. The passive cooling of the radioactive material without reliance upon pumps, personnel, or other factor which might fail, constitutes one of the most advantageous features of this system. Moreover this system is resistant to damage from tornadoes or earthquakes. Hermetically sealed containers of radioactive material may be positioned in the caissons. Loading vehicles can travel throughout the depot to permit great flexibility of loading and unloading radioactive materials. Radioactive material can be shifted to a more closely spaced caisson after ageing sufficiently to generate much less heat. The quantity of material stored in a caisson is restricted by the average capacity for heat dissipation of the soil adjacent such caisson.

  20. Detection of airborne polyoma virus.

    PubMed Central

    McGarrity, G. J.; Dion, A. S.

    1978-01-01

    Polyoma virus was recovered from the air of an animal laboratory housing mice infected with the virus. Air samples were obtained by means of a high volume air sampler and further concentrated by high speed centrifugation. Total concentration of the air samples was 7.5 x 10(7). Assay for polyoma virus was by mouse antibody production tests. Airborne polyoma virus was detected in four of six samples. PMID:211163

  1. The Future of Airborne Reconnaissance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    biplanes to the worldwide Cold War missions of the U - 2 and SR-71, airborne reconnaissance has become an indispensable tool to the intelligence community...Reconnaissance Operations (SRO) procedures, such as the U - 2 , RC- 135, and the EP-3, and traditional theater/fleet tactical reconnaissance systems like...upgraded sensor package on the U -2.14 The Army Staffs argument centers around command and control of the asset. The Army agreed that the U - 2 ’s

  2. Airborne particulate matter in spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Acceptability limits and sampling and monitoring strategies for airborne particles in spacecraft were considered. Based on instances of eye and respiratory tract irritation reported by Shuttle flight crews, the following acceptability limits for airborne particles were recommended: for flights of 1 week or less duration (1 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (AD) plus 1 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD); and for flights greater than 1 week and up to 6 months in duration (0.2 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in AD plus 0.2 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD. These numerical limits were recommended to aid in spacecraft atmosphere design which should aim at particulate levels that are a low as reasonably achievable. Sampling of spacecraft atmospheres for particles should include size-fractionated samples of 0 to 10, 10 to 100, and greater than 100 micron particles for mass concentration measurement and elementary chemical analysis by nondestructive analysis techniques. Morphological and chemical analyses of single particles should also be made to aid in identifying airborne particulate sources. Air cleaning systems based on inertial collection principles and fine particle collection devices based on electrostatic precipitation and filtration should be considered for incorporation into spacecraft air circulation systems. It was also recommended that research be carried out in space in the areas of health effects and particle characterization.

  3. Endangered and Extinct Radioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leising, M. D.

    1993-07-01

    Gamma ray spectroscopy holds great promise for probing nucleosynthesis in individual nucleosynthesis events, via observations of short-lived radioactivity, and for measuring global galactic nucleosynthesis today with detections of longer-lived radioactivity. Many of the astrophysical issues addressed by these observations are precisely those that must be understood in order to interpret observations of extinct radioactivity in meteorites. It was somewhat surprising that the former case was realized first for a Type II supernova, when both 56Co [1] and 57Co [2] were detected in SN 1987A. These provide unprecedented constraints on models of Type II explosions. Live 26Al in the galaxy might come from Type II supernovae and their progenitors, and if this is eventually shown to be the case, can constrain massive star evolution, supernova nucleosynthesis, the galactic Type II supernova rate, and even models of the chemical evolution of the galaxy [3]. Titanium-44 is produced primarily in the alpha-rich freezeout from nuclear statistical equilibrium, possibly in Type Ia [4] and almost certainly in Type II supernovae [5]. The galactic recurrence time of these events is comparable to the 44Ti lifetime, so we expect to be able to see at most a few otherwise unseen 44Ti remnants at any given time. No such remnants have been detected yet [6]. Very simple arguments lead to the expectation that about 4 x 10^-4 M(sub)solar mass of 44Ca are produced per century. The product of the supernova frequency times the 44Ti yield per event must equal this number. Even assuming that only the latest event would be seen, rates in excess of 2 century^-1 are ruled out at >=99% confidence by the gamma ray limits. Only rates less than 0.3 century^-1 are acceptable at >5% confidence, and this means that the yield per event must be >10^-3 M(sub)solar mass to produce the requisite 44Ca. Rates this low are incompatible with current estimates for Type II supernovae and yields this high are also very

  4. Liquid effluent study characterization data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-05-01

    During the development of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement), public comments were received regarding reduction of the discharge of liquid effluents into the soil column. As a result, the US Department of Energy (DOE), with concurrence of the Washington State Department of Ecology (WSDE)and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), committed to a special project designed to document the discharge history and the charter of Hanford Site liquid discharges. The results of this project will be used in determining the need for additional waste stream analysis, and/or to negotiate additional milestones pertaining to such discharges in the Tri-Party Agreement. Wastestream sampling data collected prior to October 1989 were reported in the Waste Stream Characterization Report. Preliminary Stream-specific Reports were prepared which evaluated that data and proposed dangerous waste designations for each stream. This document contains the wastestream sampling and analysis data collected as part of the liquid effluent study. Data contained in this report were obtained from samples collected from October 1989 through March 1990. Information is presented on the wastestreams that have been sampled, the parameters analyzed, and the dates and times at which the samples were collected. This information will be evaluated in the final Stream-Specific Reports. 9 refs., 4 tabs.

  5. Septic tank effluent pump systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, H.L.; Bounds, T.R.

    1998-07-01

    Septic tank effluent pump (STEP) systems are beginning to be recognized as the preferred and most economical method of collecting and transporting partially-treated wastewater to a treatment facility. A conventional septic tank provides pretreatment, removing most settable and floatable solids from the wastewater. Specially designed pumps convey the septic tank effluent under pressure through a network of small diameter plastic piping to a treatment site. Shallow collection lines, following the contours of the terrain, eliminate the need for costly deep excavations. Changes in both vertical and horizontal alignments may be made in the field. The impetus for this rapidly developing technology has come mainly from the western US. Oregon's Department of Environmental Quality, for example, requires engineers to consider STEP systems whenever a new wastewater collection project is contemplated. The success of a STEP system depends primarily on the skill of the engineer in designing and managing the project. Guidelines for designers are discussed and brief descriptions of several successful STEP systems are included.

  6. Process for treating effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor

    DOEpatents

    Barnes, C.M.; Shapiro, C.

    1997-11-25

    A method for treating a gaseous effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor containing entrained solids is provided comprising the steps of expanding the gas/solids effluent from a first to a second lower pressure at a temperature at which no liquid condenses; separating the solids from the gas effluent; neutralizing the effluent to remove any acid gases; condensing the effluent; and retaining the purified effluent to the supercritical water oxidation reactor. 6 figs.

  7. Process for treating effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor

    DOEpatents

    Barnes, Charles M.; Shapiro, Carolyn

    1997-01-01

    A method for treating a gaseous effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor containing entrained solids is provided comprising the steps of expanding the gas/solids effluent from a first to a second lower pressure at a temperature at which no liquid condenses; separating the solids from the gas effluent; neutralizing the effluent to remove any acid gases; condensing the effluent; and retaining the purified effluent to the supercritical water oxidation reactor.

  8. Animal alternatives for whole effluent toxicity testing ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Since the 1940s, effluent toxicity testing has been utilized to varying degrees in many countries to assess potential ecological impacts and assist in determining necessary treatment options for environmental protection. However, it was only in the early 1980’s that toxicity based effluent assessments and subsequent discharge controls became globally important, when it was recognized that physical and chemical measurements alone did not protect the environment from potential impacts. Consequently, various strategies using different toxicity tests, whole effluent assessment techniques (incorporating bioaccumulation potential and persistence) plus supporting analytical tools have been developed over 30 years of practice. Numerous workshops and meetings have focused on effluent risk assessment through ASTM, SETAC, OSPAR, UK competent authorities, and EU specific country rules. Concurrent with this drive to improve effluent quality using toxicity tests, interest in reducing animal use has risen. The Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) organized and facilitated an international workshop in March 2016 to evaluate strategies for concepts, tools, and effluent assessments and update the toolbox of for effluent testing methods. The workshop objectives were to identify opportunities to use a suite of strategies for effluents, and to identify opportunities to reduce the reliance on animal tests and to determine barriers to implementation of new methodologie

  9. 324 and 327 Facilities Environmental Effluent Specifications

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, D.L.

    1999-08-30

    These effluent specifications address requirements for the 324/321 Facilities, which are undergoing stabilization activities. Effluent specifications are imposed to protect personnel, the environment and the public, by ensuring adequate implementation and compliance with federal and state regulatory requirements and Hanford programs.

  10. 40 CFR 446.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PAINT FORMULATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Oil-Base Solvent Wash Paint Subcategory § 446.13 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  11. 40 CFR 446.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PAINT FORMULATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Oil-Base Solvent Wash Paint Subcategory § 446.13 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  12. 40 CFR 405.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Fluid Products Subcategory § 405.22 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent... application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT): (a) For fluid...

  13. 40 CFR 405.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cultured Products Subcategory § 405.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent... application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT): (a) For cultured...

  14. 40 CFR 430.102 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Fiber Non-Deink Subcategory § 430.102 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

  15. [Investigation of radioactivity measurement of medical radioactive waste].

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Masuda, Kazutaka; Kusakabe, Kiyoko; Kinoshita, Fujimi; Kobayashi, Kazumi; Yamamoto, Tetsuo; Kanaya, Shinichi; Kida, Tetsuo; Yanagisawa, Masamichi; Iwanaga, Tetsuo; Ikebuchi, Hideharu; Kusama, Keiji; Namiki, Nobuo; Okuma, Hiroshi; Fujimura, Yoko; Horikoshi, Akiko; Tanaka, Mamoru

    2004-11-01

    To explore the possibility of which medical radioactive wastes could be disposed as general wastes after keeping them a certain period of time and confirming that their radioactivity reach a background level (BGL), we made a survey of these wastes in several nuclear medicine facilities. The radioactive wastes were collected for one week, packed in a box according to its half-life, and measured its radioactivity by scintillation survey meter with time. Some wastes could reach a BGL within 10 times of half-life, but 19% of the short half-life group (group 1) including 99mTc and 123I, and 8% of the middle half-life group (group 2) including 67Ga, (111)In, and 201Tl did not reach a BGL within 20 times of half-life. A reason for delaying the time of reaching a BGL might be partially attributed to high initial radiation dose rate or heavy package weight. However, mixing with the nuclides of longer half-life was estimated to be the biggest factor affecting this result. When disposing medical radioactive wastes as general wastes, it is necessary to avoid mixing with radionuclide of longer half-life and confirm that it reaches a BGL by actual measurement.

  16. Management of radioactive waste gases from PET radiopharmaceutical synthesis using cost effective capture systems integrated with a cyclotron safety system.

    PubMed

    Stimson, D H R; Pringle, A J; Maillet, D; King, A R; Nevin, S T; Venkatachalam, T K; Reutens, D C; Bhalla, R

    2016-09-01

    The emphasis on the reduction of gaseous radioactive effluent associated with PET radiochemistry laboratories has increased. Various radioactive gas capture strategies have been employed historically including expensive automated compression systems. We have implemented a new cost-effective strategy employing gas capture bags with electronic feedback that are integrated with the cyclotron safety system. Our strategy is suitable for multiple automated (18)F radiosynthesis modules and individual automated (11)C radiosynthesis modules. We describe novel gas capture systems that minimize the risk of human error and are routinely used in our facility.

  17. Rail assembly for use in a radioactive environment

    DOEpatents

    Watts, Ralph E.

    1989-01-01

    An improved rail assembly and method of construction thereof is disclosed herein that is particularly adapted for use with a crane trolley in a hot cell environment which is exposed to airborne and liquidborne radioactive contaminants. The rail assembly is generally comprised of a support wall having an elongated, rail-housing recess having a floor, side wall and ceiling. The floor of the recess is defined at least in part by the load-bearing surface of a rail, and is substantially flat, level and crevice-free to facilitate the drainage of liquids out of the recess. The ceiling of the recess overhangs and thereby captures trolley wheels within the recess to prevent them from becoming dislodged from the recess during a seismic disturbance. Finally, the interior of the recess includes a power track having a slot for receiving a sliding electrical connector from the crane trolley. The power track is mounted in an upper corner of the recess with its connector-receiving groove oriented downwardly to facilitate the drainage of liquidborne contaminants and to discourage the collection of airborne contaminants within the track.

  18. 40 CFR 427.52 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Millboard Subcategory § 427.52 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  19. 40 CFR 427.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Pipe Subcategory § 427.13 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  20. 40 CFR 427.82 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Coating or Finishing of Asbestos Textiles Subcategory § 427.82 Effluent limitations guidelines...

  1. 40 CFR 427.23 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Sheet Subcategory § 427.23 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  2. 40 CFR 427.82 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Coating or Finishing of Asbestos Textiles Subcategory § 427.82 Effluent limitations...

  3. 40 CFR 427.82 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Coating or Finishing of Asbestos Textiles Subcategory § 427.82 Effluent limitations...

  4. 40 CFR 427.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Starch Binder) Subcategory § 427.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the...

  5. 40 CFR 427.43 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Elastomeric Binder) Subcategory § 427.43 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  6. 40 CFR 427.72 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Floor Tile Subcategory § 427.72 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the...

  7. 40 CFR 427.73 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Floor Tile Subcategory § 427.73 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  8. 40 CFR 427.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Roofing Subcategory § 427.62 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of...

  9. 40 CFR 427.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Sheet Subcategory § 427.22 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the...

  10. 40 CFR 427.52 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Millboard Subcategory § 427.52 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  11. 40 CFR 427.72 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Floor Tile Subcategory § 427.72 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the...

  12. 40 CFR 427.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Sheet Subcategory § 427.22 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  13. 40 CFR 427.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Pipe Subcategory § 427.12 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the...

  14. 40 CFR 427.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Starch Binder) Subcategory § 427.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the...

  15. 40 CFR 427.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Starch Binder) Subcategory § 427.32 Effluent limitations guidelines...

  16. 40 CFR 427.43 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Elastomeric Binder) Subcategory § 427.43 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  17. 40 CFR 427.52 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Millboard Subcategory § 427.52 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of...

  18. 40 CFR 427.73 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Floor Tile Subcategory § 427.73 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  19. 40 CFR 427.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Roofing Subcategory § 427.62 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  20. 40 CFR 427.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Sheet Subcategory § 427.22 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the...

  1. 40 CFR 427.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Starch Binder) Subcategory § 427.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the...

  2. 40 CFR 427.53 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Millboard Subcategory § 427.53 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of...

  3. 40 CFR 427.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Sheet Subcategory § 427.22 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the...

  4. 40 CFR 427.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Pipe Subcategory § 427.12 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  5. 40 CFR 427.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Roofing Subcategory § 427.62 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  6. 40 CFR 427.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Roofing Subcategory § 427.62 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  7. 40 CFR 427.72 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Floor Tile Subcategory § 427.72 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the...

  8. 40 CFR 427.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Sheet Subcategory § 427.22 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  9. 40 CFR 427.63 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Roofing Subcategory § 427.63 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of...

  10. 40 CFR 427.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Elastomeric Binder) Subcategory § 427.42 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  11. 40 CFR 427.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Pipe Subcategory § 427.13 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  12. 40 CFR 427.63 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Roofing Subcategory § 427.63 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of...

  13. 40 CFR 427.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Roofing Subcategory § 427.62 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of...

  14. 40 CFR 427.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Starch Binder) Subcategory § 427.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the...

  15. 40 CFR 427.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Pipe Subcategory § 427.13 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  16. 40 CFR 427.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Pipe Subcategory § 427.12 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  17. 40 CFR 427.63 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Roofing Subcategory § 427.63 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of...

  18. 40 CFR 427.43 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Elastomeric Binder) Subcategory § 427.43 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  19. 40 CFR 427.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Pipe Subcategory § 427.12 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the...

  20. 40 CFR 427.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Elastomeric Binder) Subcategory § 427.42 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  1. 40 CFR 427.83 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Coating or Finishing of Asbestos Textiles Subcategory § 427.83 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the...

  2. 40 CFR 427.72 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Floor Tile Subcategory § 427.72 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  3. 40 CFR 427.53 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Millboard Subcategory § 427.53 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of...

  4. 40 CFR 427.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Starch Binder) Subcategory § 427.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the...

  5. 40 CFR 427.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Starch Binder) Subcategory § 427.32 Effluent limitations guidelines...

  6. 40 CFR 427.52 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Millboard Subcategory § 427.52 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of...

  7. 40 CFR 427.52 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Millboard Subcategory § 427.52 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  8. 40 CFR 427.53 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Millboard Subcategory § 427.53 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of...

  9. 40 CFR 427.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Starch Binder) Subcategory § 427.32 Effluent limitations guidelines...

  10. 40 CFR 427.73 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Floor Tile Subcategory § 427.73 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  11. 40 CFR 427.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Pipe Subcategory § 427.12 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the...

  12. 40 CFR 427.72 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Floor Tile Subcategory § 427.72 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  13. 40 CFR 427.82 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Coating or Finishing of Asbestos Textiles Subcategory § 427.82 Effluent limitations...

  14. 40 CFR 427.23 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Sheet Subcategory § 427.23 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  15. 40 CFR 427.23 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Sheet Subcategory § 427.23 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  16. 40 CFR 469.29 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Electronic Crystals Subcategory § 469.29 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction... of the best conventional pollution control technology (BCT): Subpart B—Electronic Crystals...

  17. 40 CFR 469.29 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Electronic Crystals Subcategory § 469.29 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction... of the best conventional pollution control technology (BCT): Subpart B—Electronic Crystals...

  18. 40 CFR 469.29 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Crystals Subcategory § 469.29 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable... of the best conventional pollution control technology (BCT): Subpart B—Electronic Crystals...

  19. 40 CFR 469.29 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Crystals Subcategory § 469.29 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable... of the best conventional pollution control technology (BCT): Subpart B—Electronic Crystals...

  20. 40 CFR 469.29 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Electronic Crystals Subcategory § 469.29 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction... of the best conventional pollution control technology (BCT): Subpart B—Electronic Crystals...

  1. 40 CFR 440.105 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Copper, Lead, Zinc, Gold, Silver, and Molybdenum Ores Subcategory § 440.105 Effluent limitations representing...

  2. 40 CFR 440.105 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Copper, Lead, Zinc, Gold, Silver, and Molybdenum Ores Subcategory § 440.105 Effluent limitations representing...

  3. 40 CFR 426.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.62 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  4. 40 CFR 426.57 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Float Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.57 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  5. 40 CFR 426.133 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hand Pressed and Blown Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.133 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the...

  6. 40 CFR 426.37 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolled Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.37 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  7. 40 CFR 426.53 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Float Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.53 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  8. 40 CFR 426.67 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.67 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  9. 40 CFR 426.77 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating Subcategory § 426.77 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  10. 40 CFR 426.72 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating Subcategory § 426.72 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  11. 40 CFR 426.132 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hand Pressed and Blown Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.132 Effluent limitations...

  12. 40 CFR 426.67 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.67 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  13. 40 CFR 426.37 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolled Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.37 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  14. 40 CFR 426.72 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating Subcategory § 426.72 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  15. 40 CFR 426.57 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Float Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.57 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  16. 40 CFR 426.53 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Float Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.53 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  17. 40 CFR 426.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.62 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  18. 40 CFR 426.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Plate Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.42 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  19. 40 CFR 426.47 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Plate Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.47 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  20. 40 CFR 426.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolled Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  1. 40 CFR 426.72 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating Subcategory § 426.72 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  2. 40 CFR 426.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sheet Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.22 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  3. 40 CFR 426.37 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolled Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.37 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  4. 40 CFR 426.27 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sheet Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.27 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  5. 40 CFR 426.132 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hand Pressed and Blown Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.132 Effluent limitations...

  6. 40 CFR 426.47 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Plate Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.47 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  7. 40 CFR 426.52 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Float Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.52 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  8. 40 CFR 426.47 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Plate Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.47 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  9. 40 CFR 426.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolled Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  10. 40 CFR 426.27 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sheet Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.27 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  11. 40 CFR 426.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sheet Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.22 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  12. 40 CFR 426.72 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating Subcategory § 426.72 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  13. 40 CFR 426.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Plate Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.42 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  14. 40 CFR 426.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sheet Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.22 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  15. 40 CFR 426.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sheet Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.22 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  16. 40 CFR 426.73 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating Subcategory § 426.73 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  17. 40 CFR 426.57 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Float Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.57 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  18. 40 CFR 426.53 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Float Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.53 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  19. 40 CFR 426.73 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating Subcategory § 426.73 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  20. 40 CFR 426.132 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hand Pressed and Blown Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.132 Effluent limitations...