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Sample records for radioactive cesium plutonium

  1. Cesium chloride: preventive medicine for radioactive cesium exposure?

    PubMed

    Braverman, E R; Sohler, A; Pfeiffer, C C

    1988-06-01

    Cesium is produced in high yield fission of uranium and plutonium. Radioactive cesium needles are a radiation hazard for radiotherapists. In this age of nuclear reactors, i.e. Chernobyl, radioactive cesium exposure may be a growing problem. Furthermore, there are numerous therapeutic potentials for cesium therapy, i.e. cancer, depression and schizophrenia. We explored the clearance of cesium in man and found that an oral dose of 50 mg maintains elevated blood cesium levels for 80 days. Cesium is accumulated mainly in the red blood cell fraction. Larger doses (6-9 grams) produce no observed harmful effects and maintain elevated blood levels of cesium for more than a year. Our data suggests there is a threshold of maximum cesium saturation in blood; if maintained, any additional cesium exposure, i.e. radioactive cesium, would be excreted at a more rapid rate. It is probable that large cesium doses can protect against radiation toxicity by blocking sites on red blood cells and thereby result in increased excretion and clearance of the radioactive forms of cesium. This hypothesis should be easily testable in laboratory animals.

  2. Plutonium and Cesium Colloid Mediated Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boukhalfa, H.; Dittrich, T.; Reimus, P. W.; Ware, D.; Erdmann, B.; Wasserman, N. L.; Abdel-Fattah, A. I.

    2013-12-01

    Plutonium and cesium have been released to the environment at many different locations worldwide and are present in spent fuel at significant levels. Accurate understanding of the mechanisms that control their fate and transport in the environment is important for the management of contaminated sites, for forensic applications, and for the development of robust repositories for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and nuclear waste. Plutonium, which can be present in the environment in multiple oxidations states and various chemical forms including amorphous oxy(hydr)oxide phases, adsorbs/adheres very strongly to geological materials and is usually immobile in all its chemical forms. However, when associated with natural colloids, it has the potential to migrate significant distances from its point of release. Like plutonium, cesium is not very mobile and tends to remain adhered to geological materials near its release point, although its transport can be enhanced by natural colloids. However, the reactivity of plutonium and cesium are very different, so their colloid-mediated transport might be significantly different in subsurface environments. In this study, we performed controlled experiments in two identically-prepared columns; one dedicated to Pu and natural colloid transport experiments, and the other to Cs and colloid experiments. Multiple flow-through experiments were conducted in each column, with the effluent solutions being collected and re-injected into the same column two times to examine the persistence and scaling behavior of the natural colloids, Pu and Cs. The data show that that a significant fraction of colloids were retained in the first elution through each column, but the eluted colloids collected from the first run transported almost conservatively in subsequent runs. Plutonium transport tracked natural colloids in the first run but deviated from the transport of natural colloids in the second and third runs. Cesium transport tracked natural

  3. [Surveillance of radioactive cesium in foods].

    PubMed

    Nabeshi, Hiromi; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Ikarashi, Atsuko; Hachisuka, Akiko; Matsuda, Rieko

    2013-01-01

    We surveyed foods on the market from areas that had been exposed to radioactive materials contamination following the Fukushima accident. We used a NaI (Tl) scintillation spectrometer for the screening tests and a germanium semiconductor detector for the final tests. Test results from 1,427 samples showed that 6 samples (0.4%) exceeded the regulatory limit of 500 Bq/kg. Considering the detection rate of radioactive cesium in each food category, we suggest that it is necessary to continue monitoring fruits such as chestnuts and ginkgo nuts, mushrooms (especially raw wood-shiitake), mountain vegetables, and sea fish.

  4. Removal of Radioactive Cesium Using Prussian Blue Magnetic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Sung-Chan; Hong, Sang-Bum; Yang, Hee-Man; Lee, Kune-Woo; Moon, Jei-Kwon; Seo, Bum-Kyoung; Huh, Yun Suk; Roh, Changhyun

    2014-01-01

    Radioactive cesium (137Cs) has inevitably become a human concern due to exposure from nuclear power plants and nuclear accident releases. Many efforts have been focused on removing cesium and the remediation of the contaminated environment. In this study, we elucidated the ability of Prussian blue-coated magnetic nanoparticles to eliminate cesium from radioactive contaminated waste. Thus, the obtained Prussian blue-coated magnetic nanoparticles were then characterized and examined for their physical and radioactive cesium adsorption properties. This Prussian blue-coated magnetic nanoparticle-based cesium magnetic sorbent can offer great potential for use in in situ remediation. PMID:28344255

  5. [Concentrations of radioactive cesium in different cuts of beef].

    PubMed

    Nabeshi, Hiromi; Kikuchi, Hiroyuki; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Hachisuka, Akiko; Matsuda, Rieko

    2013-01-01

    After the Fukushima No. 1 Nuclear Power Plant accident, high levels of radioactive cesium were detected in beef. Many prefectural governments decided to conduct blanket tests on meat from local beef cattle to prevent distribution of beef contaminated with radioactive cesium exceeding the provisional regulation value. In some cases, different concentrations of radioactive cesium were found in different cuts of beef from the same cows. These results raised questions about the reliability of the test results. Here, we investigated the reason for the differences in radioactive cesium concentration in different cuts of beef from the same cows. The concentrations of radioactive cesium in five different parts cuts of beef from three cows were negatively correlated with fat content, suggesting that the difference in radioactive cesium concentration is due to differences in fat content in the meat. In addition, our results showed that the concentration of radioactive cesium in muscle was more than 7-fold higher than that in fat in the same cow. These results suggested that it is necessary to use muscle for testing of radioactive cesium in cows.

  6. [Reduction of radioactive cesium content in pond smelt by cooking].

    PubMed

    Nabeshi, Hiromi; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Hachisuka, Akiko; Matsuda, Rieko

    2013-01-01

    In Japan, seafood may be eaten raw or after having been cooked in diverse ways. Therefore, it is important to understand the effect of cooking on the extent of contamination with radioactive materials in order to avoid internal exposure to radioactive materials via seafood. In this study, we investigated the changes in radioactive cesium content in pond smelt cooked in four different ways: grilled, stewed (kanroni), fried and soaked (nanbanzuke). The radioactive cesium content in grilled, kanroni and fried pond smelt was almost unchanged compared with the uncooked state. In contrast, radioactive cesium content in nanbanzuke pond smelt was decreased by about 30%. Our result suggests that soaking cooked pond smelt in seasoning is an effective method of reducing the burden radioactive cesium.

  7. METHOD OF PREPARING RADIOACTIVE CESIUM SOURCES

    DOEpatents

    Quinby, T.C.

    1963-12-17

    A method of preparing a cesium-containing radiation source with physical and chemical properties suitable for high-level use is presented. Finely divided silica is suspended in a solution containing cesium, normally the fission-product isotope cesium 137. Sodium tetraphenyl boron is then added to quantitatively precipitate the cesium. The cesium-containing precipitate is converted to borosilicate glass by heating to the melting point and cooling. Up to 60 weight percent cesium, with a resulting source activity of up to 21 curies per gram, is incorporated in the glass. (AEC)

  8. Removal of Cesium From Acidic Radioactive Tank Waste Using IONSIV IE-911 (CST)

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, Nicholas Robert; Todd, Terry Allen

    2004-10-01

    IONSIV IE-911, or the engineered form of crystalline silicotitanate (CST), manufactured by UOP Molecular Sieves, has been evaluated for the removal of cesium from Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) acidic radioactive tank waste. A series of batch contacts and column tests were performed by using three separate batches of CST. Batch contacts were performed to evaluate the concentration effects of nitric acid, sodium, and potassium ions on cesium sorption. Additional batch tests were performed to determine if americium, mercury, and plutonium would sorb onto IONSIV IE-911. An equilibrium isotherm was generated by using a concentrated tank waste simulant. Column tests using a 1.5 cm 3 column and flow rates of 3, 5, 10, 20, and 30 bed volumes (BV)/hr were performed to elucidate dynamic cesium sorption capacities and sorption kinetics. Additional experiments investigated the effect of CST batch and pretreatment on cesium sorption. The thermal stability of IONSIV IE-911 was evaluated by performing thermal gravimetric analysis/differential thermal analysis. Overall, IONSIV IE-911 was shown to be effective for cesium sorption from complex, highly acidic solutions; however, sorbent stability in these solutions may have a deleterious effect on cesium sorption.

  9. Distribution of radioactive cesium and stable cesium in cattle kept on a highly contaminated area of Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Sato, Itaru; Okada, Keiji; Sasaki, Jun; Chida, Hiroyuki; Satoh, Hiroshi; Miura, Kiyoshi; Kikuchi, Kaoru; Otani, Kumiko; Sato, Shusuke

    2015-07-01

    Radioactivity inspection of slaughtered cattle is generally conducted using a portion of the neck muscle; however, there is limited information about the distribution of radioactive cesium in cattle. In this study, therefore, we measured not only radioactive cesium but also stable cesium in various tissues of 19 cattle that had been kept in the area highly contaminated by the Fukushima nuclear accident. Skeletal muscles showed approximately 1.5-3.0 times higher concentration of radioactive cesium than internal organs. Radioactive cesium concentration in the tenderloin and top round was about 1.2 times as high as that in the neck muscle. The kidney showed the highest concentration of radioactive cesium among internal organs, whereas the liver was lowest. Radioactive cesium concentration in the blood was about 8% of that in the neck muscle. Characteristics of stable cesium distribution were almost the same as those of radioactive cesium. Correlation coefficient between radioactive cesium and stable cesium in tissues of individual cattle was 0.981 ± 0.012. When a suspicious level near 100 Bq/kg is detected in the neck of slaughtered cattle, re-inspection should be conducted using a different region of muscle, for example top round, to prevent marketing of beef that violates the Food Sanitation Act. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  10. Leachate tests with sewage sludge contaminated by radioactive cesium.

    PubMed

    Tsushima, Ikuo; Ogoshi, Masashi; Harada, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    The sewer systems of eastern Japan have transported radioactive fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident to wastewater treatment plants, where the radioisotopes have accumulated. To better understand the potential problems associated with the disposal of contaminated sewage sludge in landfills, leachate tests were conducted with radioactive incinerator ash, cement solidification incinerator ash, and dewatered sludge cake. Radioactivity was undetectable in the eluate from incinerator ash and dewatered sludge cake, but about 30% of the radioactivity initially in cement solidification incinerator ash appeared in the eluate during the leaching experiments. Moreover, modification of test conditions revealed that the presence of Ca(2+) ions and strong alkali in the water that contacted the incinerator ash enhanced leaching of cesium. Lastly, the capacity of pit soil to absorb radioactive cesium was estimated to be at least 3.0 Bq/g (dry).

  11. Distribution of radioactive cesium in edible parts of cattle.

    PubMed

    Okada, Keiji; Sato, Itaru; Deguchi, Yoshitaka; Morita, Shigeru; Yasue, Takeshi; Yayota, Masato; Takeda, Ken-Ichi; Sato, Shusuke

    2013-12-01

    After the disastrous incident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, various agricultural, livestock and fishery products have been inspected for radioactive contamination with cesium in Japan. In this study, radioactive cesium was measured in various edible parts of cattle to verify the current inspection method for cattle, in which the neck tissues are generally used as samples. Radioactive cesium concentration in the short plate, diaphragm, liver, lung, omasum, abomasum and small intestine were lower and sirloin, tenderloin, top round meat and tongue were higher than that in the neck. There was no significant difference between the other organs (heart, kidney, lumen and reticulum) and the neck. Ninety-five percent upper tolerance limits of the relative concentration to the neck were 1.88 for sirloin, 1.74 for tenderloin, 1.87 for top round and 1.45 for tongue. These results suggest that a safety factor of 2 is recommended for the radioactivity inspection of cattle to prevent a marketing of meat with higher cesium than the legal limit. Re-inspection should be conducted using another part of muscle, for example, top round, when suspicious levels of 50-100 Bq/kg are detected in the neck. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  12. Adsorption of Radioactive Cesium to Illite-Sericite Mixed Clays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, J. H.; Choung, S.; Park, C. S.; Jeon, S.; Han, J. H.; Han, W. S.

    2016-12-01

    Once radioactive cesium is released into aquatic environments through nuclear accidents such as Chernobyl and Fukushima, it is harmful to human and ecological system for a long time (t1/2 = 30.2 years) because of its chemical toxicity and γ-radiation. Sorption mechanism is mainly applied to remove the cesium from aquatic environments. Illite is one of effective sorbent, considering economical cost for remediation. Although natural illite is typically produced as a mixture with sericite formed by phyllic alteration in hydrothermal ore deposits, the effects of illite-sericite mixed clays on cesium sorption was rarely studied. This study evaluated the sorption properties of cesium to natural illite collected at Yeongdong in Korea as the world-largest illite producing areas (termed "Yeongdong illite"). The illite samples were analyzed by XRF, XRD, FT-IR and SEM-EDX to determine mineralogy, chemical composition, and morphological characteristics, and used for batch sorption experiments. Most of "Yeongdong illite" samples predominantly consist of sericite, quartz, albite, plagioclase feldspar and with minor illite. Cesium sorption distribution coefficients (Kd,Cs) of various "Yeongdong illite" samples ranged from 500 to 4000 L/kg at low aqueous concentration (Cw 10-7 M). Considering Kd,Cs values were 400 and 6000 using reference sericite and illite materials, respectively, in this study, these results suggested that high contents of sericite significantly affect the decrease of sorption capabilities for radiocesium by natural illite (i.e., illite-sericite mixed clay).

  13. Micro-PIXE evaluation of radioactive cesium transfer in contaminated soil samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujishiro, F.; Ishii, K.; Matsuyama, S.; Arai, H.; Ishizaki, A.; Osada, N.; Sugai, H.; Kusano, K.; Nozawa, Y.; Yamauchi, S.; Karahashi, M.; Oshikawa, S.; Kikuchi, K.; Koshio, S.; Watanabe, K.; Suzuki, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Micro-PIXE analysis has been performed on two soil samples with high cesium activity concentrations. These soil samples were contaminated by fallout from the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. One exhibits a radioactive cesium transfer of ˜0.01, and the other shows a radioactive cesium transfer of less than 0.001, even though both samples have high cesium activity concentrations exceeding 10,000 Bq/kg. X-ray spectra and elemental images of the soil samples revealed the presence of chlorine, which can react with cesium to produce an inorganic soluble compound, and phosphorus-containing cesium-capturable organic compounds.

  14. Radioactive cesium dynamics derived from hydrographic observations in the Abukuma River Estuary, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kakehi, Shigeho; Kaeriyama, Hideki; Ambe, Daisuke; Ono, Tsuneo; Ito, Shin-ichi; Shimizu, Yugo; Watanabe, Tomowo

    2016-03-01

    Large quantities of radioactive materials were released into the air and the ocean as a result of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, caused by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and the subsequent major tsunami off the Pacific coast. There is much concern about radioactive contamination in both the watershed of the Abukuma River, which flows through Fukushima Prefecture, and its estuary, where it discharges into the sea in Miyagi Prefecture. We investigated radioactive cesium dynamics using mixing diagrams obtained from hydrographic observations of the Abukuma River Estuary. Particulate radioactive cesium dominates the cesium load in the river, whereas the dissolved form dominates in the sea. As the salinity increased from <0.1 to 0.1-2.3, the mixing diagram showed that dissolved radioactive cesium concentrations increased, because of desorption. Desorption from suspended particles explained 36% of dissolved radioactive cesium in estuarine water. However, the dissolved and particulate radioactive cesium concentrations in the sea decreased sharply because of dilution. It is thought that more than 80% of the discharged particulate radioactive cesium was deposited off the river mouth, where the radioactive cesium concentrations in sediment were relatively high (217-2440 Bq kg(-1)). Radioactive cesium that was discharged to the sea was transported southward by currents driven by the density distribution.

  15. Chemical species of plutonium in Hanford radioactive tank waste

    SciTech Connect

    Barney, G.S.

    1997-10-22

    Large quantities of radioactive wastes have been generated at the Hanford Site over its operating life. The wastes with the highest activities are stored underground in 177 large (mostly one million gallon volume) concrete tanks with steel liners. The wastes contain processing chemicals, cladding chemicals, fission products, and actinides that were neutralized to a basic pH before addition to the tanks to prevent corrosion of the steel liners. Because the mission of the Hanford Site was to provide plutonium for defense purposes, the amount of plutonium lost to the wastes was relatively small. The best estimate of the amount of plutonium lost to all the waste tanks is about 500 kg. Given uncertainties in the measurements, some estimates are as high as 1,000 kg (Roetman et al. 1994). The wastes generally consist of (1) a sludge layer generated by precipitation of dissolved metals from aqueous wastes solutions during neutralization with sodium hydroxide, (2) a salt cake layer formed by crystallization of salts after evaporation of the supernate solution, and (3) an aqueous supernate solution that exists as a separate layer or as liquid contained in cavities between sludge or salt cake particles. The identity of chemical species of plutonium in these wastes will allow a better understanding of the behavior of the plutonium during storage in tanks, retrieval of the wastes, and processing of the wastes. Plutonium chemistry in the wastes is important to criticality and environmental concerns, and in processing the wastes for final disposal. Plutonium has been found to exist mainly in the sludge layers of the tanks along with other precipitated metal hydrous oxides. This is expected due to its low solubility in basic aqueous solutions. Tank supernate solutions do not contain high concentrations of plutonium even though some tanks contain high concentrations of complexing agents. The solutions also contain significant concentrations of hydroxide which competes with other

  16. [Variation in amount of radioactive cesium before and after cooking dry shiitake and beef].

    PubMed

    Nabeshi, Hiromi; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Hachisuka, Akiko; Matsuda, Rieko

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the change of radioactive cesium content in food due to cooking in order to estimate the internal radiation exposure due to from radioactive materials in food. Our results revealed that soaking dry shiitake in water decreased the radioactive cesium content by about 50%, compared with that present in uncooked shiitake. Radioactive cesium in beef was decreased by about 10%, 12%, 60-65% and 80% by grilling, frying, boiling and stewing, respectively, compared to uncooked beef. For cooked beef, the decrease in the ratio of radioactive cesium was significantly different among the types of cooking. The decrease ratio of radioactive cesium in boiled and stewed beef was 8 times higher than that in grilled and fried beef.

  17. Cesium Sorption/Desorption Experiments with IONSIV(R) IE-911 in Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.D.

    2001-02-13

    This report describes cesium desorption from IONSIV IE-911 during ambient temperature storage and following temperature increases to 35 and 55 degrees C. This report also describes cesium sorption following return to ambient temperature. The IONSIV IE-911 used in these tests was loaded with cesium from Tank 44F radioactive waste in an ion exchange column test in 1999. Cesium desorbed and resorbed in the presence of Tank 44F waste and simulated waste solutions.

  18. An assessment of potential health impacts on Utrok Atoll from exposure to cesium-137 (137Cs) and plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, T

    2007-07-24

    Residual fallout contamination from the nuclear test program in the Marshall Islands is a concern to Marshall Islanders because of the potential health risks associated with exposure to residual fallout contamination in the environment. Scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) have been monitoring the amount of fallout radiation delivered to Utrok Atoll residents over the past 4 years. This briefing document gives an outline of our findings from the whole body counting and plutonium bioassay monitoring programs. Additional information can be found on the Marshall Islands web site (http://eed.lnl.gov/mi/). Cesium-137 is an important radioactive isotope produced in nuclear detonations and can be taken up from coral soils into locally grown food crop products that form an important part of the Marshallese diet. The Marshall Islands whole body counting program has clearly demonstrated that the majority of Utrok Atoll residents acquire a very small but measurable quantity of cesium-137 in their bodies (Hamilton et al., 2006; Hamilton et. al., 2007a; 2007b;). During 2006, a typical resident of Utrok Atoll received about 3 mrem of radiation from internally deposited cesium-137 (Hamilton et al., 2007a). The population-average dose contribution from cesium-137 is around 2% of the total radiation dose that people normally experience from naturally occurring radiation sources in the Marshall Islands and is thousands of times lower than the level where radiation exposure is known to produce measurable health effects. The existing dose estimates from the whole body counting and plutonium bioassay programs are also well below radiological protection standards for protection of the public as prescribed by U.S. regulators and international agencies including the Marshall Islands Nuclear Claim Tribunal (NCT). Similarly, the level of internally deposited plutonium found in Utrok Atoll residents is well within the range normally expected for people living in the

  19. [Reduction of radioactive cesium content in beef by soaking in seasoning].

    PubMed

    Nabeshi, Hiromi; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Hachisuka, Akiko; Matsuda, Rieko

    2013-01-01

    It is important to obtain information about ways of removing radioactive cesium from foods in order to reduce internal radiation exposure from food and to ensure the safety and security of food. In this study, we investigated the change of radioactive cesium content in beef due to soaking in seasoning. Our results revealed that soaking beef in liquid seasoning (salt concentration: 8-10%) for 24 h or in miso seasoning (salt concentration: about 9%) for 7 days decreased the radioactive cesium content by about 20% and 55%, respectively, compared with that present in beef before soaking. Furthermore, soaking beef in 10% salt solution for 7 days while changing the salt solution every day or every three days decreased the radioactive cesium content by about 75%, compared with that present in beef before soaking. Because the seasoning is usually discarded after soaking, the procedure of soaking beef in seasoning is a useful method of reducing the burden of radioactive cesium.

  20. Radioactive and Stable Cesium Distributions in Fukushima Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioshchenko, V.; Kivva, S.; Konoplev, A.; Nanba, K.; Onda, Y.; Takase, T.; Zheleznyak, M.

    2015-12-01

    Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident has resulted in release into the environment of large amounts of 134Cs and 137Cs and in radioactive contamination of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. In Fukushima prefecture up to 2/3 of the most contaminated territory is covered with forests, and understanding of its further fate in the forest ecosystems is essential for elaboration of the long-term forestry strategy. At the early stage, radiocesium was intercepted by the trees' canopies. Numerous studies reported redistribution of the initial fallout in Fukushima forests in the followed period due to litterfall and leaching of radiocesium from the foliage with precipitations. By now these processes have transported the major part of deposited radiocesium to litter and soil compartments. Future levels of radiocesium activities in the aboveground biomass will depend on relative efficiencies of the radiocesium root uptake and its return to the soil surface with litterfall and precipitations. Radiocesium soil-to-plant transfer factors for typical tree species, soil types and landscape conditions of Fukushima prefecture have not been studied well; moreover, they may change in time with approaching to the equilibrium between radioactive and stable cesium isotopes in the ecosystem. The present paper reports the results of several ongoing projects carried out by Institute of Environmental Radioactivity of Fukushima University at the experimental sites in Fukushima prefecture. For typical Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) forest, we determined distributions of radiocesium in the ecosystem and in the aboveground biomass compartments by the end of 2014; available results for 2015 are presented, too, as well as the results of test application of D-shuttle dosimeters for characterization of seasonal variations of radiocesium activity in wood. Based on the radiocesium activities in biomass we derived the upper estimates of its incorporation and root uptake fluxes, 0.7% and 3% of the total

  1. Final storage of radioactive cesium by pollucite hydrothermal synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Yokomori, Yoshinobu; Asazuki, Kazuhito; Kamiya, Natsumi; Yano, Yudai; Akamatsu, Koki; Toda, Tetsuya; Aruga, Atsushi; Kaneo, Yoshiaki; Matsuoka, Seiko; Nishi, Koji; Matsumoto, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident has highlighted the importance of finding a better final storage method for radioactive cesium species. Cs is highly soluble in water, and can easily exchange with other alkali ions in zeolites or clays to form stable complexes. However, Cs+ is released from Cs+ complexes into water when surrounded by an excess of water. Pollucite may be the best final storage option for Cs+, but its typical synthesis requires heating to about 1200°C in air. Here, we show that the hydrothermal synthesis of pollucite can be completed at 300°C in three hours from any zeolite or clay. Furthermore, our procedure does not require ion exchange before synthesis. Radioactive Cs is usually found in complexes with clays. At that time, this method only requires calcium hydroxide, water, and three hours of hydrothermal synthesis, so the process is both inexpensive and practical for large-scale application. Pollucite is an analog of analcime zeolite, and contains a channel system 2.8 Å in diameter, which is formed by 6-oxygen rings. As the diameter of Cs+ is 3.34 Å and each Cs+ exists independently within a separate portion of the channel, Cs+ cannot exit the pollucite framework without breaking it. PMID:24569302

  2. Desorption of radioactive cesium by seawater from the suspended particles in river water.

    PubMed

    Onodera, Masaki; Kirishima, Akira; Nagao, Seiya; Takamiya, Kouichi; Ohtsuki, Tsutomu; Akiyama, Daisuke; Sato, Nobuaki

    2017-10-01

    In 2011, the accident at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant dispersed radioactive cesium throughout the environment, contaminating the land, rivers, and sea. Suspended particles containing clay minerals are the transportation medium for radioactive cesium from rivers to the ocean because cesium is strongly adsorbed between the layers of clay minerals, forming inner sphere complexes. In this study, the adsorption and desorption behaviors of radioactive cesium from suspended clay particles in river water have been investigated. The radioactive cesium adsorption and desorption experiments were performed with two kinds of suspended particulate using a batch method with (137)Cs tracers. In the cesium adsorption treatment performed before the desorption experiments, simulated river water having a total cesium concentration ([(133+137)Cs(+)]total) of 1.3 nM (10(-9) mol/L) was used. The desorption experiments were mainly conducted at a solid-to-liquid ratio of 0.17 g/L. The desorption agents were natural seawater collected at 10 km north of the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant, artificial seawater, solutions of NaCl, KCl, NH4Cl, and (133)CsCl, and ultrapure water. The desorption behavior, which depends on the preloaded cesium concentration in the suspended particles, was also investigated. Based on the cesium desorption experiments using suspended particles, which contained about 1000 ng/g loaded cesium, the order of cesium desorption ratios for each desorption agent was determined as 1 M NaCl (80%) > 470 mM NaCl (65%) > 1 M KCl (30%) ≈ seawater (natural seawater and Daigo artificial seawater) > 1 M NH4Cl (20%) > 1 M (133)CsCl (15%) ≫ ultrapure water (2%). Moreover, an interesting result was obtained: The desorption ratio in the 470 mM NaCl solution was much higher than that in seawater, even though the Na(+) concentrations were identical. These results indicate that the cesium desorption mechanism is not a simple ion exchange reaction

  3. Local variation of soil contamination with radioactive cesium at a farm in Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Sato, Itaru; Natsuhori, Masahiro; Sasaki, Jun; Satoh, Hiroshi; Murata, Takahisa; Nakamura, Tatsuro; Otani, Kumiko; Okada, Keiji

    2016-02-01

    Radioactive cesium concentration in soil was measured at 27 sections with 5 points per section, and surface dose of ground was measured at 10 sections with 13 points per section at a farm in Fukushima to assess local variation of soil contamination with radioactive cesium. As for the cesium in soil, averages of the coefficient of variance (CV) and the maximum/minimum ratio in each section were 49% and 4.9, respectively. As for the surface dose, average of its CV in each section was 20% and the maximum/minimum ratio reached a maximum of 3.0. These findings suggest that exact evaluation of soil contamination with cesium is difficult. Small changes or differences in soil contamination may not be detected in studies of the environmental radioactivity.

  4. Export of radioactive cesium from agricultural fields under simulated rainfall in Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Thai, Phong K; Suka, Yuma; Sakai, Masaru; Nanko, Kazuki; Yen, Jui-Hung; Watanabe, Hirozumi

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the impact of rainfall on runoff, soil erosion and consequently on the discharge of radioactive cesium in agricultural fields in Fukushima prefecture using a rainfall simulator. Simulated heavy rainfalls (50 mm h(-1)) generated significant runoff and soil erosion. The average concentration of radioactive cesium (the sum of (134)Cs and (137)Cs) in the runoff sediments was ∼3500 Bq kg(-1) dry soil, more than double the concentrations measured in the field soils which should be considered in studies using the (137)Cs loss to estimate long-term soil erosion. However, the estimated mass of cesium discharged through one runoff event was less than 2% of the cesium inventory in the field. This suggested that cesium discharge via soil erosion is not a significant factor in reducing the radioactivity of contaminated soils in Fukushima prefecture. However, the eroded sediment carrying radioactive cesium will deposit into the river systems and potentially pose a radioactivity risk for aquatic living organisms.

  5. Extraction processes and solvents for recovery of cesium, strontium, rare earth elements, technetium and actinides from liquid radioactive waste

    DOEpatents

    Zaitsev, Boris N.; Esimantovskiy, Vyacheslav M.; Lazarev, Leonard N.; Dzekun, Evgeniy G.; Romanovskiy, Valeriy N.; Todd, Terry A.; Brewer, Ken N.; Herbst, Ronald S.; Law, Jack D.

    2001-01-01

    Cesium and strontium are extracted from aqueous acidic radioactive waste containing rare earth elements, technetium and actinides, by contacting the waste with a composition of a complex organoboron compound and polyethylene glycol in an organofluorine diluent mixture. In a preferred embodiment the complex organoboron compound is chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide, the polyethylene glycol has the formula RC.sub.6 H.sub.4 (OCH.sub.2 CH.sub.2).sub.n OH, and the organofluorine diluent is a mixture of bis-tetrafluoropropyl ether of diethylene glycol with at least one of bis-tetrafluoropropyl ether of ethylene glycol and bis-tetrafluoropropyl formal. The rare earths, technetium and the actinides (especially uranium, plutonium and americium), are extracted from the aqueous phase using a phosphine oxide in a hydrocarbon diluent, and reextracted from the resulting organic phase into an aqueous phase by using a suitable strip reagent.

  6. MODELING AN ION EXCHANGE PROCESS FOR CESIUM REMOVAL FROM ALKALINE RADIOACTIVE WASTE SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F; Luther Hamm, L; Sebastian Aleman, S; Johnston Michael, J

    2008-08-26

    The performance of spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde ion-exchange resin for the removal of cesium from alkaline radioactive waste solutions has been investigated through computer modeling. Cesium adsorption isotherms were obtained by fitting experimental data using a thermodynamic framework. Results show that ion-exchange is an efficient method for cesium removal from highly alkaline radioactive waste solutions. On average, two 1300 liter columns operating in series are able to treat 690,000 liters of waste with an initial cesium concentration of 0.09 mM in 11 days achieving a decontamination factor of over 50,000. The study also tested the sensitivity of ion-exchange column performance to variations in flow rate, temperature and column dimensions. Modeling results can be used to optimize design of the ion exchange system.

  7. Accumulation of radioactive cesium released from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in terrestrial cyanobacteria Nostoc commune.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Hideaki; Shirato, Susumu; Tahara, Tomoya; Sato, Kenji; Takenaka, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident released large amounts of radioactive substances into the environment and contaminated the soil of Tohoku and Kanto districts in Japan. Removal of radioactive material from the environment is an urgent problem, and soil purification using plants is being considered. In this study, we investigated the ability of 12 seed plant species and a cyanobacterium to accumulate radioactive material. The plants did not accumulate radioactive material at high levels, but high accumulation was observed in the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune. In Nihonmatsu City, Fukushima Prefecture, N. commune accumulated 415,000 Bq/kg dry weight (134)Cs and 607,000 Bq kg(-1) dry weight (137)Cs. The concentration of cesium in N. commune tended to be high in areas where soil radioactivity was high. A cultivation experiment confirmed that N. commune absorbed radioactive cesium from polluted soil. These data demonstrated that radiological absorption using N. commune might be suitable for decontaminating polluted soil.

  8. Synergistically strengthened 3D micro-scavenger cage adsorbent for selective removal of radioactive cesium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Sung-Chan; Kang, Sung-Min; Haldorai, Yuvaraj; Giribabu, Krishnan; Lee, Go-Woon; Lee, Young-Chul; Hyun, Moon Seop; Han, Young-Kyu; Roh, Changhyun; Huh, Yun Suk

    2016-12-01

    A novel microporous three-dimensional pomegranate-like micro-scavenger cage (P-MSC) composite has been synthesized by immobilization of iron phyllosilicates clay onto a Prussian blue (PB)/alginate matrix and tested for the removal of radioactive cesium from aqueous solution. Experimental results show that the adsorption capacity increases with increasing the inactive cesium concentration from 1 ppm to 30 ppm, which may be attributed to greater number of adsorption sites and further increase in the inactive cesium concentration has no effect. The P-MSC composite exhibit maximum adsorption capacity of 108.06 mg of inactive cesium per gram of adsorbent. The adsorption isotherm is better fitted to the Freundlich model than the Langmuir model. In addition, kinetics studies show that the adsorption process is consistent with a pseudo second-order model. Furthermore, at equilibrium, the composite has an outstanding adsorption capacity of 99.24% for the radioactive cesium from aqueous solution. This may be ascribed to the fact that the AIP clay played a substantial role in protecting PB release from the P-MSC composite by cross-linking with alginate to improve the mechanical stability. Excellent adsorption capacity, easy separation, and good selectivity make the adsorbent suitable for the removal of radioactive cesium from seawater around nuclear plants and/or after nuclear accidents.

  9. Synergistically strengthened 3D micro-scavenger cage adsorbent for selective removal of radioactive cesium

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Sung-Chan; Kang, Sung-Min; Haldorai, Yuvaraj; Giribabu, Krishnan; Lee, Go-Woon; Lee, Young-Chul; Hyun, Moon Seop; Han, Young-Kyu; Roh, Changhyun; Huh, Yun Suk

    2016-01-01

    A novel microporous three-dimensional pomegranate-like micro-scavenger cage (P-MSC) composite has been synthesized by immobilization of iron phyllosilicates clay onto a Prussian blue (PB)/alginate matrix and tested for the removal of radioactive cesium from aqueous solution. Experimental results show that the adsorption capacity increases with increasing the inactive cesium concentration from 1 ppm to 30 ppm, which may be attributed to greater number of adsorption sites and further increase in the inactive cesium concentration has no effect. The P-MSC composite exhibit maximum adsorption capacity of 108.06 mg of inactive cesium per gram of adsorbent. The adsorption isotherm is better fitted to the Freundlich model than the Langmuir model. In addition, kinetics studies show that the adsorption process is consistent with a pseudo second-order model. Furthermore, at equilibrium, the composite has an outstanding adsorption capacity of 99.24% for the radioactive cesium from aqueous solution. This may be ascribed to the fact that the AIP clay played a substantial role in protecting PB release from the P-MSC composite by cross-linking with alginate to improve the mechanical stability. Excellent adsorption capacity, easy separation, and good selectivity make the adsorbent suitable for the removal of radioactive cesium from seawater around nuclear plants and/or after nuclear accidents. PMID:27917913

  10. Behavior of radioactive cesium during incineration of radioactively contaminated wastes from decontamination activities in Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Kuramochi, Hidetoshi; Nomura, Kazutaka; Maeseto, Tomoharu; Osako, Masahiro

    2017-09-18

    Large volumes of decontamination wastes (DW) generated by off-site decontamination activities in Fukushima Prefecture have been incinerated since 2015. The behavior of radioactive cesium during incineration of DW was investigated at a working incineration plant. The incineration discharged bottom ash (BA) and fly ash (FA) with similar levels of radiocesium, and the leachability of the radiocesium from both types of ash was very low (<1%). These results are significantly different from those obtained for the incineration of contaminated municipal solid waste (CMSW) reported in earlier studies. The source of radiocesium in DW-FA is chiefly small particles derived from DW and DW-BA blown into the flue gas, not the deposition of gaseous synthesized radiocesium compounds on the surfaces of ash particles in the flue gas as observed in CMSW incineration. This source difference causes the behavior of radiocesium during waste incineration to differ between DW and CMSW. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Using Radioactive Fallout Cesium (137Cs) to Distinguish Sediment Sources in an Agricultural Watershed

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Radioactive fallout Cesium (Cs-137) has been used for quantifying sources of accumulating sediment in water bodies and to determine the rates and pattern of soil erosion. The objectives of this research are to use Cs-137 as a tracer to determine patterns of soil erosion and deposition of eroding soi...

  12. [Estimation of the committed effective dose of radioactive cesium and potassium by the market basket method].

    PubMed

    Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Nabeshi, Hiromi; Ikarashi, Atsuko; Hachisuka, Akiko; Matsuda, Rieko

    2013-01-01

    The Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant disaster after the Great East Japan Earthquake has caused radioactive contamination in food. Using the market basket method, total diet samples in Tokyo, Miyagi prefecture and Fukushima prefecture were analyzed for cesium-134 and -137 (radioactive cesium) and naturally occurring potassium-40 (radioactive potassium) in order to estimate the committed effective doses of these radioactive materials from food. Doses were calculated on the assumption that "not detected" corresponded to zero or to half the limit of detection (values in brackets). The estimated doses of radioactive cesium in Tokyo, Miyagi and Fukushima were 0.0021 (0.0024), 0.017 (0.018) and 0.019 (0.019) mSv/year, respectively. Although the doses in Miyagi and Fukushima were more than 8 times the dose in Tokyo, they were significantly lower than the maximum permissible dose (1 mSv/year) determined by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan. The estimated doses of naturally occurring radioactive potassium in these areas were in the range of 0.17-0.20 (0.18-0.20) mSv/year, and there were no significant differences between the areas.

  13. An isotope dilution-precipitation process for removing radioactive cesium from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Harold; Bowers, John; Gates-Anderson, Dianne

    2012-12-01

    A novel isotope dilution-precipitation method has been developed to remove cesium-137 from radioactive wastewater. The process involves adding stable cesium chloride to wastewater in order to raise the total cesium concentration, which then allows both the stable and radioactive cesium ions to be precipitated together using sodium tetraphenylborate. This process was investigated utilizing laboratory solutions to determine stable cesium dose rates, mixing times, effects of pH, and filtration requirements. Once optimized, the process was then tested on synthetic wastewater and aqueous low-level waste. Experiments showed the reaction to be very quick and stable in the pH range tested, 2.5-11.5. The wastewater may need to be filtered using a 0.45-μm filter, though ferric sulfate has been shown to promote coagulation and settling, thereby eliminating the necessity for filtration. This investigation showed that this isotope dilution-precipitation process can remove Cs-37 levels below the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Derived Concentration Standard (DCS) of 3.0 × 10(-6) μCi/mL using a single dosage, potentially allowing the wastewater to be discharged directly to sanitary sewers.

  14. The transfer of radioactive cesium and potassium from rice to sake.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Masaki; Hashiguchi, Tomokazu; Joyo, Midori; Tsukamoto, Kaori; Endo, Michiko; Matsumaru, Katsumi; Goto-Yamamoto, Nami; Yamaoka, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Kenji; Shimoi, Hitoshi

    2013-09-01

    Using rice grains contaminated with radioactive cesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) that was released by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident in March of 2011, we investigated the behaviors of the radioactive cesium and potassium (total K and (40)K) during sake brewing. Cesiumis a congener of K, and yeast cells have the ability to take up Cs using known K transporters. During rice polishing, the concentrations of radioactive Cs and K in the polished rice grains decreased gradually until a milling ratio (polished rice weight/brown rice weight) of 70% was reached. No significant changes were observed below this milling ratio. Sake was brewed on a small scale using the 70% polished rice. The transfer ratio of radioactive Cs to sake and to the sake cake was significantly different than the ratio of K. Approximately 36% and 23% of radioactive Cs in the polished rice was transferred to the sake and sake cake, respectively; however, 40% was removed by washing and steeping the rice grains. On the other hand, 25% and 40% of K in the polished rice was recovered in the sake and sake cake, respectively, and 35% was removed by washing and steeping the rice grains. From the present results, the concentration of radioactive Cs in sake would be 4 Bq/kg fresh weight, which is well below the regulation values (100 Bq/kg), even using brown rice containing 100 Bq/kg of radioactive Cs.

  15. Distribution of radioactive cesium ((134)Cs plus (137)Cs) in rice fractions during polishing and cooking.

    PubMed

    Hachinohe, Mayumi; Okunishi, Tomoya; Hagiwara, Shoji; Todoriki, Setsuko; Kawamoto, Shinichi; Hamamatsu, Shioka

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the distribution of cesium-134 ((134)Cs) and cesium-137 ((137)Cs) during polishing and cooking of rice to obtain their processing factors (Pf) and food processing retention factors (Fr) to make the information available for an adequate understanding of radioactive Cs dynamics. Polishing brown rice resulted in a decreased radioactive Cs concentration of the polished rice, but the bran and germ (outer layers) exhibited higher concentrations than brown rice. The Pf values for 100% polished rice and outer layers ranged from 0.47 to 0.48 and 6.5 to 7.8, respectively. The Fr values for 100% polished rice and outer layers were 0.43 and 0.58 to 0.60, respectively. The distribution of radioactive Cs in polished rice and outer layers was estimated at approximately 40 and 60%, respectively. On the other hand, cooked rice showed significantly lower levels of radioactive Cs than polished rice, and transfer of radioactive Cs into wash water was observed. The Pf and Fr values for cooked rice were 0.28 and 0.65 to 0.66, respectively. From these results, we can calculate that if the radioactive Cs concentration in brown rice is 100 Bq/kg, the concentrations of Cs in polished rice and cooked rice will be 47 to 48 Bq/kg and 13 Bq/kg, respectively.

  16. Accumulation of Radioactive Cesium Released from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Terrestrial Cyanobacteria Nostoc commune

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Hideaki; Shirato, Susumu; Tahara, Tomoya; Sato, Kenji; Takenaka, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident released large amounts of radioactive substances into the environment and contaminated the soil of Tohoku and Kanto districts in Japan. Removal of radioactive material from the environment is an urgent problem, and soil purification using plants is being considered. In this study, we investigated the ability of 12 seed plant species and a cyanobacterium to accumulate radioactive material. The plants did not accumulate radioactive material at high levels, but high accumulation was observed in the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune. In Nihonmatsu City, Fukushima Prefecture, N. commune accumulated 415,000 Bq/kg dry weight 134Cs and 607,000 Bq kg−1 dry weight 137Cs. The concentration of cesium in N. commune tended to be high in areas where soil radioactivity was high. A cultivation experiment confirmed that N. commune absorbed radioactive cesium from polluted soil. These data demonstrated that radiological absorption using N. commune might be suitable for decontaminating polluted soil. PMID:24256969

  17. [Surveillance of radioactive cesium in domestic foods on the Japanese market (Fiscal Years 2012 and 2013)].

    PubMed

    Uekusa, Yoshinori; Nabeshi, Hiromi; Nakamura, Rika; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Hachisuka, Akiko; Matsuda, Rieko; Teshima, Reiko

    2015-01-01

    We surveyed the concentration of radioactive cesium in foods purchased at markets in areas where possible contamination has been a concern after the Fukushima accident. In fiscal years 2012 and 2013, we surveyed 1,735 and 1,674 foods, respectively, using a NaI (Tl) scintillation spectrometer for the screening test and a γ-ray spectrometer with a germanium semiconductor detector for the final test. Only 3 and 4 samples (0.2% of our total samples) exceeded the regulatory limit (100 Bq/kg) for radioactive cesium in fiscal years 2012 and 2013, respectively. Our surveillance indicates that the pre-shipment monitoring of foods by local governments has been working effectively.

  18. Preparation and characterization of cesium-137 aluminosilicate pellets for radioactive source applications

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, F.J.; Tompkins, J.A.; Haff, K.W.; Case, F.N.

    1981-07-01

    Twenty-seven fully loaded /sup 137/Cs aluminosilicate pellets were fabricated in a hot cell by the vacuum hot pressing of a cesium carbonate/montmorillonite clay mixture at 1500/sup 0/C and 570 psig. Four pellets were selected for characterization studies which included calorimetric measurements, metallography, scanning electron microscope and electron backscattering (SEM-BSE), electron microprobe, x-ray diffraction, and cesium ion leachability measurements. Each test pellet contained 437 to 450 curies of /sup 137/Cs as determined by calorimetric measurements. Metallographic examinations revealed a two-phase system: a primary, granular, gray matrix phase containing large and small pores and small pore agglomerations, and a secondary fused phase interspersed throughout the gray matrix. SEM-BSE analyses showed that cesium and silicon were uniformly distributed throughout both phases of the pellet. This indicated that the cesium-silicon-clay reaction went to completion. Aluminum homogeneity was unconfirmed due to the high background noise associated with the inherent radioactivity of the test specimens. X-ray diffraction analyses of both radioactive and non-radioactive aluminosilicate pellets confirmed the crystal lattice structure to be pollucite. Cesium ion quasistatic leachability measurements determined the leach rates of fully loaded /sup 137/Cs sectioned pollucite pellets to date to be 4.61 to 34.4 x 10/sup -10/ kg m/sup -2/s/sup -1/, while static leach tests performed on unsectioned fully loaded pellets showed the leach rates of the cesium ion to date to be 2.25 to 3.41 x 10/sup -12/ kg m/sup -2/s/sup -1/. The cesium ion diffusion coefficients through the pollucite pellet were calculated using Fick's first and second laws of diffusion. The diffusion coefficients calculated for three tracer level /sup 137/Cs aluminosilicate pellets were 1.29 x 10/sup -16/m/sup 2/s/sup -1/, 6.88 x 10/sup -17/m/sup 2/s/sup -1/, and 1.35 x 10/sup -17/m/sup 2/s/sup -1/, respectively.

  19. Cellulose nanofiber backboned Prussian blue nanoparticles as powerful adsorbents for the selective elimination of radioactive cesium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vipin, Adavan Kiliyankil; Fugetsu, Bunshi; Sakata, Ichiro; Isogai, Akira; Endo, Morinobu; Li, Mingda; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.

    2016-11-01

    On 11 March 2011, the day of the unforgettable disaster of the 9 magnitude Tohoku earthquake and quickly followed by the devastating Tsunami, a damageable amount of radionuclides had dispersed from the Fukushima Daiichi’s damaged nuclear reactors. Decontamination of the dispersed radionuclides from seawater and soil, due to the huge amounts of coexisting ions with competitive functionalities, has been the topmost difficulty. Ferric hexacyanoferrate, also known as Prussian blue (PB), has been the most powerful material for selectively trapping the radioactive cesium ions; its high tendency to form stable colloids in water, however, has made PB to be impossible for the open-field radioactive cesium decontamination applications. A nano/nano combinatorial approach, as is described in this study, has provided an ultimate solution to this intrinsic colloid formation difficulty of PB. Cellulose nanofibers (CNF) were used to immobilize PB via the creation of CNF-backboned PB. The CNF-backboned PB (CNF/PB) was found to be highly tolerant to water and moreover, it gave a 139 mg/g capability and a million (106) order of magnitude distribution coefficient (Kd) for absorbing of the radioactive cesium ion. Field studies on soil and seawater decontaminations in Fukushima gave satisfactory results, demonstrating high capabilities of CNF/PB for practical applications.

  20. Cellulose nanofiber backboned Prussian blue nanoparticles as powerful adsorbents for the selective elimination of radioactive cesium

    PubMed Central

    Vipin, Adavan Kiliyankil; Fugetsu, Bunshi; Sakata, Ichiro; Isogai, Akira; Endo, Morinobu; Li, Mingda; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.

    2016-01-01

    On 11 March 2011, the day of the unforgettable disaster of the 9 magnitude Tohoku earthquake and quickly followed by the devastating Tsunami, a damageable amount of radionuclides had dispersed from the Fukushima Daiichi’s damaged nuclear reactors. Decontamination of the dispersed radionuclides from seawater and soil, due to the huge amounts of coexisting ions with competitive functionalities, has been the topmost difficulty. Ferric hexacyanoferrate, also known as Prussian blue (PB), has been the most powerful material for selectively trapping the radioactive cesium ions; its high tendency to form stable colloids in water, however, has made PB to be impossible for the open-field radioactive cesium decontamination applications. A nano/nano combinatorial approach, as is described in this study, has provided an ultimate solution to this intrinsic colloid formation difficulty of PB. Cellulose nanofibers (CNF) were used to immobilize PB via the creation of CNF-backboned PB. The CNF-backboned PB (CNF/PB) was found to be highly tolerant to water and moreover, it gave a 139 mg/g capability and a million (106) order of magnitude distribution coefficient (Kd) for absorbing of the radioactive cesium ion. Field studies on soil and seawater decontaminations in Fukushima gave satisfactory results, demonstrating high capabilities of CNF/PB for practical applications. PMID:27845441

  1. Overview of insoluble radioactive cesium particles emitted from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satou, Yukihiko

    2017-04-01

    In the early stage of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station (F1NPS) accident, number of spot type contamination has been observed in computed autoradiography (Kashimura 2013, Shibata 2013, Satou 2014). It's means presence of radioactive particles, however, insoluble cesium particle was overlooked because cesium, which is dominant radioactive element in the accident, becomes ionized in the environment. Adachi et al. (2013) showed presence of cesium (Cs)-bearing particles within air dust sample collected at Tsukuba, 170 km south from the Fukushima site, in midnight of 14 to morning of 15 March 2011. These particles were micrometer order small particles and Cs was could be detectable as element using an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). However, other radioactive elements such as Co-60, Ru-103 and uranium, which were dominant element of radioactive particles delivered from Chernobyl accident, could not detected. Abe et al. (2014) employed a synchrotron radiation (SR)-micro(μ)-X-ray analysis to the Cs-bearing particles, and they were concluded that (1) contained elements derived from nuclear fission processes and from nuclear reactor and fuel materials; (2) were amorphous; (3) were highly oxidized; and (4) consisted of glassy spherules formed from a molten mixture of nuclear fuel and reactor material. In addition, Satou et al. (2016) and Yamaguchi et al. (2016) disclosed that silicate is main component of Cs-bearing particles. Satou et al. (2015) discovered two types of radioactive particles from soil samples collected in the vicinity of the F1NPS. These particles were remained in the natural environment more than four years, silicate is main component in common of each group particles. Group A particles were very similar to Cs-bearing particles reported by Adachi et al. except particle shape. On the other hand, group B is big particles found in north area from the F1NPS, and the strongest particles contained 20 kBq of Cs-137 within a particle

  2. Precursors for the Immobilization of Radioactive Cesium and Strontium from Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Ortega, Luis H.; McDeavitt, Sean M.

    2007-07-01

    Next generation processes for the recycling of spent nuclear fuel are being developed by the US Department of Energy; this includes solvent extraction methods developed to isolate Cs and Sr fission products and immobilize them in a stable storage form. In this study, simulated (i.e., non-radioactive) cesium and strontium bearing liquid wastes were created and treated with carbon, silica, and alumina at 700 deg. C. The overall goal of this 2006 Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) project is to synthesize candidate ceramics for Cs and Sr storage and characterize their behavior. The initial results described here confirm the formation of stable compounds resembling strontianite (SrCO{sub 3}) and cesium-aluminosilicate (CsAlSi{sub 2}O{sub 4}). (authors)

  3. Uptake and transport of radioactive cesium and strontium into grapevines after leaf contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehnder, H. J.; Kopp, P.; Eikenberg, J.; Feller, U.; Oertli, J. J.

    1995-07-01

    From 1989 to 1993 the foliar uptake of radioactive strontium (Sr-85) and cesium (Cs-134) by selected leaves of grapevine plants and the subsequent redistribution within the plants was examined under controlled conditions in a greenhouse. The radionuclides were applied as chlorides. These plants were grown in large pots containing a mixture of local soil and peat. Plant and soil samples were analyzed throughout the growing season and also during the following vegetation period. Only traces of the applied radiostrontium were taken up by the leaves. This element was essentially not redistributed within the plants. In contrast, radiocesium was easily taken up through the leaf surface, transported to other plant parts and to some extent released from the roots into the soil. Cesium reaching the soil may interact with clay particles causing a very reduced availability for plants. Therefore the soil may act as a long-term sink for radiocesium. On the other hand, grape berries represent transient sinks. The cesium levels in the berries decreased again in a late phase of maturation, but the mechanisms causing this loss are not yet identified. During the second vegetation period, only a very minor proportion of the radiocesium taken up previously by the plants was present in the above ground parts.

  4. Novel application of nanozeolite for radioactive cesium removal from high-salt wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lee, Keun-Young; Kim, Kwang-Wook; Park, Minsung; Kim, Jimin; Oh, Maengkyo; Lee, Eil-Hee; Chung, Dong-Yong; Moon, Jei-Kwon

    2016-05-15

    Finding a striking peculiarity of nanomaterials and evaluating its feasibility for practical use are interesting topics of research. We investigated the application of nanozeolite's outstanding reactivity for a rapid and effective method for radioactive cesium removal in the wastewater generated from nuclear power plant accident, as a new concept. Extremely fast removal of cesium, even without stirring, was achieved by the nanozeolite at efficiencies never observed with bulk materials. The nanozeolite reached an adsorption equilibrium state within 1 min. Cesium adsorption by nanozeolite was demonstrated at reaction rates of orders of magnitude higher than that of larger zeolite phases. This observation was strongly supported by the positive correlation between the rate constant ratio (k2,bulk/k2,nano) and the initial Cs concentrations with a correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.99. A potential drawback of a nanoadsorbent is the difficulty of particle settling and separation because of its high dispersivity in solution. However, our results also demonstrated that the nanozeolite could be easily precipitated from the high-salt solution with ferric flocculant. The flocculation index reached a steady state within 10 min. A series of our experimental results met the goal of rapid processing in the case of emergency by applying the well-suited nanozeolite adsorption and flocculation.

  5. Sintered bentonite ceramics for the immobilization of cesium- and strontium-bearing radioactive waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Luis Humberto

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) is a Department of Energy (DOE) program, that has been investigating technologies to improve fuel cycle sustainability and proliferation resistance. One of the program's goals is to reduce the amount of radioactive waste requiring repository disposal. Cesium and strontium are two primary heat sources during the first 300 years of spent nuclear fuel's decay, specifically isotopes Cs-137 and Sr-90. Removal of these isotopes from spent nuclear fuel will reduce the activity of the bulk spent fuel, reducing the heat given off by the waste. Once the cesium and strontium are separated from the bulk of the spent nuclear fuel, the isotopes must be immobilized. This study is focused on a method to immobilize a cesium- and strontium-bearing radioactive liquid waste stream. While there are various schemes to remove these isotopes from spent fuel, this study has focused on a nitric acid based liquid waste. The waste liquid was mixed with the bentonite, dried then sintered. To be effective sintering temperatures from 1100 to 1200°C were required, and waste concentrations must be at least 25 wt%. The product is a leach resistant ceramic solid with the waste elements embedded within alumino-silicates and a silicon rich phase. The cesium is primarily incorporated into pollucite and the strontium into a monoclinic feldspar. The simulated waste was prepared from nitrate salts of stable ions. These ions were limited to cesium, strontium, barium and rubidium. Barium and rubidium will be co-extracted during separation due to similar chemical properties to cesium and strontium. The waste liquid was added to the bentonite clay incrementally with drying steps between each addition. The dry powder was pressed and then sintered at various temperatures. The maximum loading tested is 32 wt. percent waste, which refers to 13.9 wt. percent cesium, 12.2 wt. percent barium, 4.1 wt. percent strontium, and 2.0 wt. percent rubidium. Lower loadings of waste

  6. ACCURATE QUANTIFICATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS BY X-RAY FLUORESCENCE: GALLIUM IN PLUTONIUM METAL.

    SciTech Connect

    WORLEY, CHRISTOPHER GORDON

    2002-09-04

    Determining the concentration of gallium in plutonium metal is imperative in manufacturing nuclear weapons. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is an effective method used to quantify the gallium content in plutonium; however, the sample and specimen preparation methods currently employed could be improved from a time and safety standpoint. Recently, a dried residue specimen preparation method was developed as an alternative to the established aqueous approach. The method currently certified to prepare plutonium for gallium analysis by XRF involves dissolving the sample and removing the plutonium with ion exchange chromatography. The gallium remaining in solution is then analyzed. This method has been thoroughly developed, and relative accuracy and precision values less than 1% can be achieved. However, this process is time consuming, and the specimen solution is radioactive due to the presence of residual plutonium and trace americium. Thus, an alternate process was developed to avoid these issues in which the plutonium solution is cast in {mu}L spots on Mylar XRF film, dried, and sealed inside a sample cell for analysis. This specimen preparation method is considerably faster and also safer than the solution process. Previous studies have demonstrated that a very linear calibration can be obtained from dried residue standards. In the present work, accuracy and precision results will be compared from using the aqueous and dried residue specimen preparation methods. The strengths and limitations of each method will also be discussed. In summary, this work will illustrate both the challenges faced with analyzing radioactive materials by XRF and the high accuracy and precision achievable with proper sample and specimen preparation.

  7. FULL-SCALE TESTING OF A CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION SYSTEM TO REMOVE CESIUM FROM SAVANNAH RIVER SITE RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M; Thomas Peters, T; Earl Brass, E; Stanley Brown, S; Mark Geeting, M; Lcurtis Johnson, L; Charles02 Coleman, C; S Crump, S; Mark Barnes, M; Samuel Fink, S

    2007-10-15

    Savannah River Site (SRS) personnel have completed construction and assembly of the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) facility. Following assembly, they conducted testing to evaluate the ability of the process to remove non-radioactive cesium and to separate the aqueous and organic phases. They conducted tests at salt solution flow rates of 3.5, 6.0, and 8.5 gpm. During testing, the MCU Facility collected samples and submitted them to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel for analysis of cesium, Isopar{reg_sign} L, and Modifier [1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol]. SRNL personnel analyzed the aqueous samples for cesium by Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and the solvent samples for cesium using a Parr Bomb Digestion followed by ICP-MS. They analyzed aqueous samples for Isopar{reg_sign} L and Modifier by gas chromatography (GC).

  8. [Estimation of the intake of radioactive cesium based on analysis of total diet samples in Nagoya].

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Hitoshi; Kato, Haruyasu; Kato, Yukari; Tsuchiyama, Tomoyuki; Terada, Hisaya

    2013-01-01

    Food samples were purchased in Nagoya based on daily intake in the Tokai region, and prepared as total diet samples according to the market basket method. The contents of radioactive cesium (Cs) were determined by using a γ-ray spectrometer with a germanium semiconductor detector, and a committed effective dose was estimated. Radioactive Cs was not detected in samples collected in 2006 before the Fukushima nuclear plant accident. Radioactive Cs was detected in samples prepared in August, 2011, five months after the accident. The sources were sugar and confectioneries (3rd food group), other vegetables, seaweeds and mushrooms (8th food group) and fishes, shellfishes and processed seafoods (10th food group). Only Cs-137 was detected in samples prepared in August, 2012, one year and five months after the accident. The sources were the 8th and the 10th food groups. The estimated committed effective dose for radioactive Cs was 0.0015 mSv in 2011 and 0.00016 mSv in 2012.

  9. Leaching of plutonium from a radioactive waste glass by eight groundwaters from the western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rees, T.F.; Cleveland, J.M.; Nash, K.L.

    1985-01-01

    The leachability of a radioactive waste glass formulated to Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory specification 80-270 has been studied using eight actual groundwaters with a range of chemical compositions as leachants. Waters collected from the Grande Ronde Basalt (Washington State) and from alluvial deposits in the Hualapai Valley (Arizona) were the most effective at removing plutonium from this glass. Leaching was shown to be incongruent; plutonium was removed from the glass more slowly than the overall glass matrix. The results of these experiments indicate the need to study the leachability of actual waste forms using the actual projected groundwaters that are most likely to come into contact with the waste should a radioactive waste repository be breached.

  10. Copper Ferrocyanide-Functionalized Magnetic Adsorbents Using Polyethyleneimine Coated Fe3O4 Nanoparticles for the Removal of Radioactive Cesium.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hee-Man; Hong, Sang Bum; Cho, Yong Suk; Lee, Kune-Woo; Seo, Bum-Kyoung; Moon, Jei-Kwon

    2016-03-01

    Copper ferrocyanide-functionalized magnetic nano-adsorbents were successfully synthesized by electrostatic coating of citric acid coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles with polyethyleneimine, and immobilizing copper and ferrocyanide on the surfaces of polyethyleneimine-coated nanoparticles. Radioactive cesium (Cs) adsorption tests were conducted to investigate the effectiveness of the copper ferrocyanide-functionalized magnetic nano-adsorbents toward the removal of radioactive Cs.

  11. Use of charcoals and broiler litter biochar for removal of radioactive cesium (Cs-134 plus Cs-137) from contaminated water

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Various charcoals (used in food processing and water treatment) and broiler litter biochar were examined for ability to adsorb water-soluble low-level radioactive cesium (ca. 200-250 Bq/kg) extracted from contaminated wheat bran. Among the materials tested, steam activated broiler litter biochar was...

  12. Radioactive fallout cesium in sewage sludge ash produced after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Kozai, Naofumi; Suzuki, Shinichi; Aoyagi, Noboru; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Ohnuki, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    The radioactive fallout cesium (¹³⁷Cs) in the sewage sludge ashes (SSAs) produced in Japan after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident was tested. Five samples of SSAs produced in 2011 and 2012 were tested. Two of the samples contained ¹³⁷Cs (23 and 9.6 kBq/kg, respectively) above the radioactivity criterion (8 kBq of radioactive Cs/kg of solid) for controlled landfill disposal in Japan. The mineral components of SSA are roughly divided into two groups: an HCl-soluble phase mainly composed of phosphates and oxides; and silicates, including quartz, feldspar, and clay. Both phases contained ¹³⁷Cs. The majority (up to 90%) of ¹³⁷Cs was contained in the HCl-soluble phase. Among the HCl-soluble subphases, Fe-bearing phases that were probably iron oxides were mainly responsible for ¹³⁷Cs retention. No positive evidence was obtained that showed that phosphate-bearing phases, which were included most in SSAs along with the silicate phase, retained ¹³⁷Cs. Pre-pulverizing SSAs and heating them at 95 °C in a 6 M or a concentrated aqueous HCl was the most effective method of dissolving the HCl-soluble phase. The radioactivity concentrations of ¹³⁷Cs in all the HCl-treatment residues were below the radioactivity criterion. This residue was mostly composed of silicates. After static leaching tests of the residue at 60 °C for 28 days, no ¹³⁷Cs was detected in simulated environmental water leachates (pure water and synthetic seawater), demonstrating that 137Cs in the residue is very stably immobilized in the silicates.

  13. Dealing with the aftermath of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident: decontamination of radioactive cesium enriched ash.

    PubMed

    Parajuli, Durga; Tanaka, Hisashi; Hakuta, Yukiya; Minami, Kimitaka; Fukuda, Shigeharu; Umeoka, Kuniyoshi; Kamimura, Ryuichi; Hayashi, Yukie; Ouchi, Masatoshi; Kawamoto, Tohru

    2013-04-16

    Environmental radioactivity, mainly in the Tohoku and Kanto areas, due to the long living radioisotopes of cesium is an obstacle to speedy recovery from the impacts of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Although incineration of the contaminated wastes is encouraged, safe disposal of the Cs enriched ash is the big challenge. To address this issue, safe incineration of contaminated wastes while restricting the release of volatile Cs to the atmosphere was studied. Detailed study on effective removal of Cs from ash samples generated from wood bark, household garbage, and municipal sewage sludge was performed. For wood ash and garbage ash, washing only with water at ambient conditions removed radioactivity due to (134)Cs and (137)Cs, retaining most of the components other than the alkali metals with the residue. However, removing Cs from sludge ash needed acid treatment at high temperature. This difference in Cs solubility is due to the presence of soil particle originated clay minerals in the sludge ash. Because only removing the contaminated vegetation is found to sharply decrease the environmental radioactivity, volume reduction of contaminated biomass by incineration makes great sense. In addition, need for a long-term leachate monitoring system in the landfill can be avoided by washing the ash with water. Once the Cs in solids is extracted to the solution, it can be loaded to Cs selective adsorbents such as Prussian blue and safely stored in a small volume.

  14. A method for estimating radioactive cesium concentrations in cattle blood using urine samples.

    PubMed

    Sato, Itaru; Yamagishi, Ryoma; Sasaki, Jun; Satoh, Hiroshi; Miura, Kiyoshi; Kikuchi, Kaoru; Otani, Kumiko; Okada, Keiji

    2017-08-04

    In the region contaminated by the Fukushima nuclear accident, radioactive contamination of live cattle should be checked before slaughter. In this study, we establish a precise method for estimating radioactive cesium concentrations in cattle blood using urine samples. Blood and urine samples were collected from a total of 71 cattle on two farms in the 'difficult-to-return zone'. Urine (137) Cs, specific gravity, electrical conductivity, pH, sodium, potassium, calcium, and creatinine were measured and various estimation methods for blood (137) Cs were tested. The average error rate of the estimation was 54.2% without correction. Correcting for urine creatinine, specific gravity, electrical conductivity, or potassium improved the precision of the estimation. Correcting for specific gravity using the following formula gave the most precise estimate (average error rate = 16.9%): [blood (137) Cs] = [urinary (137) Cs]/([specific gravity] - 1)/329. Urine samples are faster to measure than blood samples because urine can be obtained in larger quantities and has a higher (137) Cs concentration than blood. These advantages of urine and the estimation precision demonstrated in our study, indicate that estimation of blood (137) Cs using urine samples is a practical means of monitoring radioactive contamination in live cattle. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  15. Estimation of radioactive 137-cesium transportation by litterfall, stemflow and throughfall in the forests of Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Endo, Izuki; Ohte, Nobuhito; Iseda, Kohei; Tanoi, Keitaro; Hirose, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Natsuko I; Murakami, Masashi; Tokuchi, Naoko; Ohashi, Mizue

    2015-11-01

    Since the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011, large areas of the forests around Fukushima have become highly contaminated by radioactive nuclides. To predict the future dynamics of radioactive cesium ((137)Cs) in the forest catchment, it is important to measure each component of its movement within the forest. Two years after the accident, we estimated the annual transportation of (137)Cs from the forest canopy to the floor by litterfall, throughfall and stemflow. Seasonal variations in (137)Cs transportation and differences between forests types were also determined. The total amount of (137)Cs transported from the canopy to the floor in two deciduous and cedar plantation forests ranged between 3.9 and 11.0 kBq m(-2) year(-1). We also observed that (137)Cs transportation with litterfall increased in the defoliation period, simply because of the increased amount of litterfall. (137)Cs transportation with throughfall and stemflow increased in the rainy season, and (137)Cs flux by litterfall was higher in cedar plantation compared with that of mixed deciduous forest, while the opposite result was obtained for stemflow. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Software development for estimating the concentration of radioactive cesium in the skeletal muscles of cattle from blood samples.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Tomokazu; Hiji, Masahiro; Kino, Yasushi; Abe, Yasuyuki; Yamashiro, Hideaki; Kobayashi, Jin; Shimizu, Yoshinaka; Takahashi, Atsushi; Suzuki, Toshihiko; Chiba, Mirei; Inoue, Kazuya; Kuwahara, Yoshikazu; Morimoto, Motoko; Katayama, Masafumi; Donai, Kenichiro; Shinoda, Hisashi; Sekine, Tsutomu; Fukumoto, Manabu; Isogai, Emiko

    2016-06-01

    The 2011 earthquake severely damaged the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP), resulting in the release of large quantities of radioactive material into the environment. The deposition of these radionuclides in rice straw as livestock feed led to the circulation of contaminated beef in the market. Based on the safety concern of the consumers, a reliable method for estimating concentrations of radioactive cesium in muscle tissue is needed. In this study, we analyzed the concentrations of radioactive cesium in the blood and skeletal muscle of 88 cattle, and detected a linear correlation between them. We then developed software that can be used to estimate radioactive cesium concentrations in muscle tissue from blood samples. Distribution of this software to the livestock production field would allow us to easily identify high-risk cattle, which would be beyond the safety regulation, before shipping out to the market. This software is planned to be released as freeware. This software would contribute to food safety, and aid the recovery of the livestock industry from the damage creacted by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  17. RECENT STUDIES OF URANIUM AND PLUTONIUM CHEMISTRY IN ALKALINE RADIOACTIVE WASTE SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    King, W; Bill Wilmarth, B; David Hobbs, D; Tommy Edwards, T

    2006-06-13

    Solubility studies of uranium and plutonium in a caustic, radioactive Savannah River Site tank waste solution revealed the existence of uranium supersaturation in the as-received sample. Comparison of the results to predictions generated from previously published models for solubility in these waste types revealed that the U model poorly predicts solubility while Pu model predictions are quite consistent with experimental observations. Separate studies using simulated Savannah River Site evaporator feed solution revealed that the known formation of sodium aluminosilicate solids in waste evaporators can promote rapid precipitation of uranium from supersaturated solutions.

  18. Distribution of radioactive cesium ((134)Cs Plus(137)Cs) in a contaminated Japanese soybean cultivar during the preparation of tofu, natto, and nimame (Boiled Soybean).

    PubMed

    Hachinohe, Mayumi; Kimura, Keitarou; Kubo, Yuji; Tanji, Katsuo; Hamamatsu, Shioka; Hagiwara, Shoji; Nei, Daisuke; Kameya, Hiromi; Nakagawa, Rikio; Matsukura, Ushio; Todoriki, Setsuko; Kawamoto, Shinichi

    2013-06-01

    We investigated the fate of radioactive cesium ((134)Cs plus (137)Cs) during the production of tofu, natto, and nimame (boiled soybean) from a contaminated Japanese soybean cultivar harvested in FY2011. Tofu, natto, and nimame were made from soybean grains containing radioactive cesium (240 to 340 Bq/kg [dry weight]), and the radioactive cesium in the processed soybean foods and in by-product fractions such as okara, broth, and waste water was measured with a germanium semiconductor detector. The processing factor is the ratio of radioactive cesium concentration of a product before and after processing. For tofu, natto, nimame, and for the by-product okara, processing factors were 0.12, 0.40, 0.20, and 0.18, respectively; this suggested that these three soybean foods and okara, used mainly as an animal feed, can be considered safe for human and animal consumption according to the standard limit for radioactive cesium of soybean grains. Furthermore, the ratio of radioactive cesium concentrations in the cotyledon, hypocotyl, and seed coat portions of the soybean grain was found to be approximately 1:1:0.4.

  19. The existence state in the soil of radioactive cesium from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident by imaging plate photograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satou, Yukihiko; Sueki, Keisuke

    2013-04-01

    In the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, the wide area in east Japan was polluted seriously with radioactive cesium. But, unlike Chernobyl, reactor core explosion did not occur in Fukushima. Therefore, it is thought that many radioactive nuclides emitted into the atmosphere were in the gas state and aerosol. However, when the imaging plate photographs of the surface soils in Fukushima was observed, many granular radionuclides existed. Then, in order to confirm a radioactive cesium of particle state, the treatment for the soils contaminated with radioactive cesium by using chemical operation was tried. Three type soils, that is, paddy soil, river sediment, and sea sand, were made applicable to research. The contaminated soil samples were collected in Fukushima and Ibaraki prefecture. Radioactivity concentrations of 137Cs and 134Cs were measured by using gamma-ray spectrometry with a high pure germanium (HPGe) detector. After the radioactively measurement, soils had been burned in oven for five hours in 500 degree Celsius. Concentrated hydrochloric acid was added to soil samples, and they were heated for three hours. These samples were divided into residue and elution by centrifugal separation, and then radioactivity of cesium contained in residue was measured. After chemical operations, 70% and 85% of radioactive cesium from river sediment and sea sand were extracted approximately into elution, respectively. In contrast, in the soil of the paddy field, only 30% of radioactive cesium was approximately eluted. When radiation image photograph of the residues of all three types of soils were taken and observed, the granular radioactive nuclides remained clearly in paddy soil and river sediment. In contrast, all the granular radioactive nuclides in sea sand disappeared after treatment. The results of above things that desorption of radioactive cesium depend on the kind of soil. Furthermore, it was suggested that there was radioactive cesium of

  20. Whole-Body Counter Evaluation of Internal Radioactive Cesium in Dogs and Cats Exposed to the Fukushima Nuclear Disaster

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Seiichi; Ito, Nobuhiko; Watanabe, Masamichi; Kakizaki, Takehiko; Natsuhori, Masahiro; Kawamata, Jun; Urayama, Yoshio

    2017-01-01

    As a result of the 2011 nuclear incident that occurred at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant, a large number of abandoned dogs and cats were left within the disaster zone. A small number of these animals were rescued and cared for at shelters. Prior to the dispersal of these animals to their owners or fosterers, we evaluated the degree of internal radiocesium contamination using a specially designed whole-body counter. We conducted 863 non-invasive measurements of gamma rays due to internal radioactive cesium for 68 dogs and 120 cats at one shelter. After plotting graphs of 137Cs density we generated exponential functions of decay from seven dogs and six cats. From the regression formulae, we were able to determine the biological half-lives as 38.2 days for dogs and 30.8 days for cats. We found that in dogs there was a correlation between the biological half-life of radioactive cesium and age. Using our data, we estimated whole-body densities for each cat and dog at the time when they were rescued. We found that there were deviations in the data distributions among the different species, likely due to the timing of rescue, or living habits prior to rescue. A significant correlation was found when extracted feline reproductive organs were analyzed; the coefficients for the estimation of whole-body densities were approximately 7-fold higher than those based on the extracted feline reproductive organs. This may be due to the fact that majority of the radioactive cesium accumulates within muscular tissue with less distribution in other organs. It is possible to plan the appropriate management period in an animal shelter based on the use of the biological half-life of radioactive cesium calculated in this study. We believe that the correlations we uncovered in this work would be of great use for the management of companion animals in the event of a future nuclear accident. PMID:28099476

  1. Whole-Body Counter Evaluation of Internal Radioactive Cesium in Dogs and Cats Exposed to the Fukushima Nuclear Disaster.

    PubMed

    Wada, Seiichi; Ito, Nobuhiko; Watanabe, Masamichi; Kakizaki, Takehiko; Natsuhori, Masahiro; Kawamata, Jun; Urayama, Yoshio

    2017-01-01

    As a result of the 2011 nuclear incident that occurred at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant, a large number of abandoned dogs and cats were left within the disaster zone. A small number of these animals were rescued and cared for at shelters. Prior to the dispersal of these animals to their owners or fosterers, we evaluated the degree of internal radiocesium contamination using a specially designed whole-body counter. We conducted 863 non-invasive measurements of gamma rays due to internal radioactive cesium for 68 dogs and 120 cats at one shelter. After plotting graphs of 137Cs density we generated exponential functions of decay from seven dogs and six cats. From the regression formulae, we were able to determine the biological half-lives as 38.2 days for dogs and 30.8 days for cats. We found that in dogs there was a correlation between the biological half-life of radioactive cesium and age. Using our data, we estimated whole-body densities for each cat and dog at the time when they were rescued. We found that there were deviations in the data distributions among the different species, likely due to the timing of rescue, or living habits prior to rescue. A significant correlation was found when extracted feline reproductive organs were analyzed; the coefficients for the estimation of whole-body densities were approximately 7-fold higher than those based on the extracted feline reproductive organs. This may be due to the fact that majority of the radioactive cesium accumulates within muscular tissue with less distribution in other organs. It is possible to plan the appropriate management period in an animal shelter based on the use of the biological half-life of radioactive cesium calculated in this study. We believe that the correlations we uncovered in this work would be of great use for the management of companion animals in the event of a future nuclear accident.

  2. Plutonium and cesium baseline concentrations in seawater from northern Arabian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Uddin, S; Aba, A; Behbehani, M; Al-Ghadban, A N; Al-Zekri, W; Al-Shammari, H

    2017-07-15

    The Arabian Gulf is a semi-enclosed water body that has witnessed accelerated anthropogenic activity, in terms of commissioning of nuclear power plants, desalination facilities, oil refineries and extensive coastal development. Furthermore, three wars during the past three decades is a potential worry. This study presents the first plutonium baseline in seawater from the Northern Arabian Gulf. The (239+240)Pu concentrations in seawater vary, between 2.9 and 4.9mBqm(-3), a range that is comparable to other water masses at this latitude. The (238)Pu ranged between 0.04 and 0.05mBqm(-3) and the (137)Cs concentration between 1.04 and 1.18Bqm(-3). The ratio of (238)Pu/(239+240)Pu at all eight sampling stations was 0.01, while the ratio of (239+240)Pu/(137)Cs varied between 0.01 and 0.02. The presence of (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu in seawater from this region can mainly be attributed to the global atmospheric deposition and fluvial transport. The seawater concentration of (239+240)Pu is five order of magnitude lower than bottom sediments in the area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Selective cesium removal from radioactive liquid waste by crown ether immobilized new class conjugate adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Awual, Md Rabiul; Yaita, Tsuyoshi; Taguchi, Tomitsugu; Shiwaku, Hideaki; Suzuki, Shinichi; Okamoto, Yoshihiro

    2014-08-15

    Conjugate materials can provide chemical functionality, enabling an assembly of the ligand complexation ability to metal ions that are important for applications, such as separation and removal devices. In this study, we developed ligand immobilized conjugate adsorbent for selective cesium (Cs) removal from wastewater. The adsorbent was synthesized by direct immobilization of dibenzo-24-crown-8 ether onto inorganic mesoporous silica. The effective parameters such as solution pH, contact time, initial Cs concentration and ionic strength of Na and K ion concentrations were evaluated and optimized systematically. This adsorbent was exhibited the high surface area-to-volume ratios and uniformly shaped pores in case cavities, and its active sites kept open functionality to taking up Cs. The obtained results revealed that adsorbent had higher selectivity toward Cs even in the presence of a high concentration of Na and K and this is probably due to the Cs-π interaction of the benzene ring. The proposed adsorbent was successfully applied for radioactive Cs removal to be used as the potential candidate in Fukushima nuclear wastewater treatment. The adsorbed Cs was eluted with suitable eluent and simultaneously regenerated into the initial form for the next removal operation after rinsing with water. The adsorbent retained functionality despite several cycles during sorption-elution-regeneration operations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Plutonium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, David L.; Hecker, Siegfried S.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Neu, Mary P.

    The element plutonium occupies a unique place in the history of chemistry, physics, technology, and international relations. After the initial discovery based on submicrogram amounts, it is now generated by transmutation of uranium in nuclear reactors on a large scale, and has been separated in ton quantities in large industrial facilities. The intense interest in plutonium resulted fromthe dual-use scenario of domestic power production and nuclear weapons - drawing energy from an atomic nucleus that can produce a factor of millions in energy output relative to chemical energy sources. Indeed, within 5 years of its original synthesis, the primary use of plutonium was for the release of nuclear energy in weapons of unprecedented power, and it seemed that the new element might lead the human race to the brink of self-annihilation. Instead, it has forced the human race to govern itself without resorting to nuclear war over the past 60 years. Plutonium evokes the entire gamut of human emotions, from good to evil, from hope to despair, from the salvation of humanity to its utter destruction. There is no other element in the periodic table that has had such a profound impact on the consciousness of mankind.

  5. Dynamics of radioactive cesium (134Cs and 137Cs) during the milling of contaminated Japanese wheat cultivars and during the cooking of udon noodles made from wheat flour.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Keitarou; Kameya, Hiromi; Nei, Daisuke; Kakihara, Yoshiteru; Hagiwara, Shoji; Okadome, Hiroshi; Tanji, Katsuo; Todoriki, Setsuko; Matsukura, Ushio; Kawamoto, Ghinichi

    2012-10-01

    The fate of radioactive cesium ((134)Cs plus (137)Cs) during the milling of contaminated Japanese wheat cultivars harvested in FY2011, and during the cooking of Japanese udon noodles made from the wheat flour, was investigated. Grain samples containing various radioactive cesium concentrations (36.6 to 772 Bq/kg [dry weight]) were milled using a laboratory-scale test mill to produce eight fractions: three break flours (1B, 2B, and 3B), three reduction flours (1M, 2M, and 3M), bran, and shorts. The concentrations of radioactive cesium were found to be highest in the bran fractions of all the samples tested, with 2.3- to 2.5-fold higher values than that of the whole grain. Shorts contained radioactive cesium levels similar to that of the whole grain. In contrast, radioactive cesium concentrations in other fractions were found to be less than half the concentration in whole grain. The average processing factor (PF) value calculated for patent flour (0.401 ± 0.048), made from the mixture of 1B, 2B, 1M, and 2M for human consumption, or for low-grade flour (0.467 ± 0.045), made from the mixture of 3B and 3M, was found to be less than 0.5; whereas the average PF value (2.07 ± 0.232) for feed bran (mixture of bran and shorts), which has been used mainly as livestock feed in Japan, was over 2.0. Boiling udon noodles (made from patent flour) resulted in a substantial reduction (>70 % of initial amount) of radioactive cesium. Moreover, radioactive cesium was reduced further (<10 % of the initial amount) in the subsequent rinsing process, and the PF value of boiled noodles was recorded as 0.194. These results demonstrated that patent flour containing radioactive cesium can be made safe for human consumption by adopting the standard limit for radioactive cesium in wheat grain and that radioactive cesium in udon noodles is substantially reduced by cooking.

  6. Radionuclide Basics: Plutonium

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Plutonium (chemical symbol Pu) is a radioactive metal. Plutonium is considered a man-made element. Plutonium-239 is used to make nuclear weapons. Pu-239 and Pu-240 are byproducts of nuclear reactor operations and nuclear bomb explosions.

  7. Distribution of radioactive cesium and its seasonal variations in cattle living in the "difficult-to-return zone" of the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Sato, Itaru; Sasaki, Jun; Satoh, Hiroshi; Deguchi, Yoshitaka; Otani, Kumiko; Okada, Keiji

    2016-04-01

    The amount of radioactive cesium in various tissues of cattle which lived in the highly contaminated area designated as the "difficult-to-return zone", was measured in May and December of 2014. The average concentration of radioactive cesium in the skeletal muscles ranged from 3900 to 5500 Bq/kg, and there was no significant difference between May and December. The sirloin (in December), tenderloin and top round (in May and December) showed significantly higher concentrations of cesium than the neck muscle, which is generally used for the radioactivity inspection. The Longus colli muscle, which is also used for the inspection in some institutions, showed the same radioactivity as the neck muscle. Study results indicated that relative cesium concentrations in internal organs were higher in May compared to December. There were high correlations of cesium concentration between the blood and other tissues. However, regression coefficients between the blood and muscles were significantly higher in December than those in May. When radioactivity in the neck or Longus colli muscles between 50 to 100 Bq/kg is detected, the slaughtered cattle should be re-inspected using another muscle, such as top round or sirloin, to prevent marketing of meat that violates the criteria of the Food Sanitation Act. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  8. Web technology in the separation of strontium and cesium from INEL-ICPP radioactive acid waste (WM-185)

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, L.A.; Brown, G.N.

    1995-01-01

    Strontium and cesium were successfully removed from radioactive acidic waste (WM-185) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), with web technology from 3M and IBC Advanced Technologies, Inc. (IBC). A technical team from Pacific Northwest Laboratory, ICPP, 3M and IBC conducted a very successful series of experiments from August 15 through 18, 1994. The ICPP, Remote Analytical Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho, provided the hot cell facilities and staff to complete these milestone experiments. The actual waste experiments duplicated the initial `cold` simulated waste results and confirmed the selective removal provided by ligand-particle web technology.

  9. Estimation of Radiation Doses in the Marshall Islands Based on Whole Body Counting of Cesium-137 (137Cs) and Plutonium Urinalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, J; Hickman, D; Kehl, S; Hamilton, T

    2007-06-11

    Under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE), researchers from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) have recently implemented a series of initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former nuclear test sites in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI). The aim of this radiological surveillance monitoring program (RSMP) is to provide timely radiation protection for individuals in the Marshall Islands with respect to two of the most important internally deposited fallout radionuclides-cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) and long-lived isotopes 239 and 240 of plutonium ({sup 239+240}Pu) (Robison et al., 1997 and references therein). Therefore, whole-body counting for {sup 137}Cs and a sensitive bioassay for the presence of {sup 239+240}Pu excreted in urine were adopted as the two most applicable in vivo analytical methods to assess radiation doses for individuals in the RMI from internally deposited fallout radionuclides (see Hamilton et al., 2006a-c; Bell et al., 2002). Through 2005, the USDOE has established three permanent whole-body counting facilities in the Marshall Islands: the Enewetak Radiological Laboratory on Enewetak Atoll, the Utrok Whole-Body Counting Facility on Majuro Atoll, and the Rongelap Whole-Body Counting Facility on Rongelap Atoll. These whole-body counting facilities are operated and maintained by trained Marshallese technicians. Scientists from LLNL provide the technical support and training necessary for maintaining quality assurance for data acquisition and dose reporting. This technical basis document summarizes the methodologies used to calculate the annual total effective dose equivalent (TEDE; or dose for the calendar year of measurement) based on whole-body counting of internally deposited {sup 137}Cs and the measurement of {sup 239+240}Pu excreted in urine. Whole-body counting provides a direct measure of the total amount (or burden) of {sup 137}Cs present in the human body at the time of

  10. Radioactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Baratta, E.J.

    1987-01-01

    This report of the General Referee was presented at the 100th AOAC Annual International Meeting, Sept. 15-18, 1986, at Scottsdale, AZ. The method for determining cesium-137 and iodine-131 in milk and other foods by gamma-ray spectroscopy has been adopted official first action. Results have been received from 5 collaborators. A sixth collaborator was found and is in the process of analyzing the sample. When all results are in, the Associate Referee will perform a statistical analysis of the data. Other topics of interest include; plutonium; radium-228; and strontium-89 and -90. Recommendations are included which were reviewed by the Committee on Residues.

  11. Cesium radioactivity in peripheral blood is linearly correlated to that in skeletal muscle: analyses of cattle within the evacuation zone of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Tomokazu; Kino, Yasushi; Abe, Yasuyuki; Yamashiro, Hideaki; Kobayashi, Jin; Shimizu, Yoshinaka; Takahashi, Atsushi; Suzuki, Toshihiko; Chiba, Mirei; Takahashi, Shintaro; Inoue, Kazuya; Kuwahara, Yoshikazu; Morimoto, Motoko; Shinoda, Hisashi; Hiji, Masahiro; Sekine, Tsutomu; Fukumoto, Manabu; Isogai, Emiko

    2015-01-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) released a large amount of radioactive substances into the environment. Furthermore, beef contaminated with radioactive cesium above the 500 Bq/kg safety standard was circulated in the food chain in 2011. Japanese consumers remain concerned about the safety of radioactively contaminated food. In our previous study, we detected a linear correlation between radioactive cesium ((137) Cs) activity in blood and muscle around 500 to 2500 Bq/kg in cattle. However, it was unclear whether the correlation was maintained at a lower radioactivity close to the current safety standard of 100 Bq/kg. In this study, we evaluated 17 cattle in the FNPP evacuation zone that had a (137) Cs blood level less than 10 Bq/kg. The results showed a linear correlation between blood (137) Cs and muscle (137) Cs (Y = 28.0X, R(2)  = 0.590) at low radioactivity concentration, indicating that cesium radioactivity in the muscle can be estimated from blood radioactivity. This technique would be useful in detecting high-risk cattle before they enter the market, and will contribute to food safety.

  12. Evaluation of ambient dose equivalent rates influenced by vertical and horizontal distribution of radioactive cesium in soil in Fukushima Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Malins, Alex; Kurikami, Hiroshi; Nakama, Shigeo; Saito, Tatsuo; Okumura, Masahiko; Machida, Masahiko; Kitamura, Akihiro

    2016-01-01

    The air dose rate in an environment contaminated with (134)Cs and (137)Cs depends on the amount, depth profile and horizontal distribution of these contaminants within the ground. This paper introduces and verifies a tool that models these variables and calculates ambient dose equivalent rates at 1 m above the ground. Good correlation is found between predicted dose rates and dose rates measured with survey meters in Fukushima Prefecture in areas contaminated with radiocesium from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. This finding is insensitive to the choice for modeling the activity depth distribution in the ground using activity measurements of collected soil layers, or by using exponential and hyperbolic secant fits to the measurement data. Better predictions are obtained by modeling the horizontal distribution of radioactive cesium across an area if multiple soil samples are available, as opposed to assuming a spatially homogeneous contamination distribution. Reductions seen in air dose rates above flat, undisturbed fields in Fukushima Prefecture are consistent with decrement by radioactive decay and downward migration of cesium into soil. Analysis of remediation strategies for farmland soils confirmed that topsoil removal and interchanging a topsoil layer with a subsoil layer result in similar reductions in the air dose rate. These two strategies are more effective than reverse tillage to invert and mix the topsoil.

  13. Radioactive waste management and plutonium recovery within the context of the development of nuclear energy in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Kushnikov, V.

    1996-05-01

    The Russian strategy for radioactive waste and plutonium management is based on the concept of the closed fuel cycle that has been adopted in Russia, and, to a great degree, falls under the jurisdiction of the existing Russian nuclear energy structures. From its very beginning, Russian atomic energy policy was based on finding the most effective method of developing the new fuel direction with the maximum possible utilization of the energy potential from the fission of heavy atoms and the achievement of fuel self-sufficiency through the recycling of secondary fuel. Although there can be no doubt about the importance of economic considerations (for the future), concerns for the safety of the environment are currently of the utmost importance. In this context, spent NPP fuel can be viewed as a waste to be buried only if there is persuasive evidence that such an approach is both economically and environmentally sound. The production of I GW of energy per year is accompanied by the accumulation of up to 800-1000 kg of highly radioactive fission products and approximately 250 kg of plutonium. Currently, spent fuel from the VVER 100 and the RBNK reactors contains approximately 25 tons of plutonium. There is an additional 30 tons of fuel-grade plutonium in the form of purified oxide, separated from spent fuels used in VVER440 reactors and other power production facilities, as well as approximately 100 tons of weapons-grade plutonium from dismantled warheads. The spent fuel accumulates significant amounts of small actinoids - neptunium americium, and curium. Science and technology have not yet found technical solutions for safe and secure burial of non-reprocessed spent fuel with such a broad range of products, which are typically highly radioactive and will continue to pose a threat for hundreds of thousands of years.

  14. Radionuclide Basics: Cesium-137

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The most common radioactive form of cesium (chemical symbol Cs) is Cesium-137. Cesium-137 is produced by nuclear fission for use in medical devices and gauges and is one of the byproducts of nuclear fission in nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons testing.

  15. Decontamination of Radioactive Cesium Released from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant - 13277

    SciTech Connect

    Parajuli, Durga; Minami, Kimitaka; Tanaka, Hisashi; Kawamoto, Tohru

    2013-07-01

    Peculiar binding of Cesium to the soil clay minerals remained the major obstacle for the immediate Cs-decontamination of soil and materials containing clay minerals like sludge. Experiments for the removal of Cesium from soil and ash samples from different materials were performed in the lab scale. For soil and sludge ash formed by the incineration of municipal sewage sludge, acid treatment at high temperature is effective while washing with water removed Cesium from ashes of plants or burnable garbage. Though total removal seems a difficult task, water-washing of wood-ash or garbage-ash at 40 deg. C removes >90% radiocesium, while >60% activity can be removed from soil and sludge-ash by acid washing at 95 deg. C. (authors)

  16. Removal of radioactive cesium (134Cs plus 137Cs) from low-level contaminated water by charcoal and broiler litter biochar

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Various charcoals (used in food processing and water treatment) and broiler litter biochar were examined for ability to adsorb water-soluble low-level radioactive cesium (ca. 200-250 Bq/kg) extracted from contaminated wheat bran. Among the materials tested, steam activated broiler litter biochar was...

  17. Numerical simulation on the long-term variation of radioactive cesium concentration in the North Pacific due to the Fukushima disaster.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Hideyuki; Kobayashi, Takuya; Furuno, Akiko; Usui, Norihisa; Kamachi, Masafumi

    2014-10-01

    Numerical simulations on oceanic (134)Cs and (137)Cs dispersions were intensively conducted in order to assess an effect of the radioactive cesium on the North Pacific environment with a focus on the long-term variation of the radioactive cesium concentration after the Fukushima disaster that occurred in March 2011. The amounts of (134)Cs and (137)Cs released into the ocean were estimated using oceanic monitoring data, whereas the atmospheric deposition was calculated through atmospheric dispersion simulations. The highly accurate ocean current reanalyzed through a three-dimensional variational data assimilation enabled us to clarify the time series of the (134)Cs and (137)Cs concentrations in the North Pacific. It was suggested that the main radioactive cesium cloud due to the direct oceanic release reached the central part of the North Pacific, crossing 170°W one year after the Fukushima disaster. The radioactive cesium was efficiently diluted by meso-scale eddies in the Kuroshio Extension region and its concentration in the surface, intermediate, and deep layers had already been reduced to the pre-Fukushima background value in the wide area within the North Pacific 2.5 years after the Fukushima disaster. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Solution speciation of plutonium and Americium at an Australian legacy radioactive waste disposal site.

    PubMed

    Ikeda-Ohno, Atsushi; Harrison, Jennifer J; Thiruvoth, Sangeeth; Wilsher, Kerry; Wong, Henri K Y; Johansen, Mathew P; Waite, T David; Payne, Timothy E

    2014-09-02

    During the 1960s, radioactive waste containing small amounts of plutonium (Pu) and americium (Am) was disposed in shallow trenches at the Little Forest Burial Ground (LFBG), located near the southern suburbs of Sydney, Australia. Because of periodic saturation and overflowing of the former disposal trenches, Pu and Am have been transferred from the buried wastes into the surrounding surface soils. The presence of readily detected amounts of Pu and Am in the trench waters provides a unique opportunity to study their aqueous speciation under environmentally relevant conditions. This study aims to comprehensively investigate the chemical speciation of Pu and Am in the trench water by combining fluoride coprecipitation, solvent extraction, particle size fractionation, and thermochemical modeling. The predominant oxidation states of dissolved Pu and Am species were found to be Pu(IV) and Am(III), and large proportions of both actinides (Pu, 97.7%; Am, 86.8%) were associated with mobile colloids in the submicron size range. On the basis of this information, possible management options are assessed.

  19. Trench ‘Bathtubbing’ and Surface Plutonium Contamination at a Legacy Radioactive Waste Site

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive waste containing a few grams of plutonium (Pu) was disposed between 1960 and 1968 in trenches at the Little Forest Burial Ground (LFBG), near Sydney, Australia. A water sampling point installed in a former trench has enabled the radionuclide content of trench water and the response of the water level to rainfall to be studied. The trench water contains readily measurable Pu activity (∼12 Bq/L of 239+240Pu in 0.45 μm-filtered water), and there is an associated contamination of Pu in surface soils. The highest 239+240Pu soil activity was 829 Bq/kg in a shallow sample (0–1 cm depth) near the trench sampling point. Away from the trenches, the elevated concentrations of Pu in surface soils extend for tens of meters down-slope. The broader contamination may be partly attributable to dispersion events in the first decade after disposal, after which a layer of soil was added above the trenched area. Since this time, further Pu contamination has occurred near the trench-sampler within this added layer. The water level in the trench-sampler responds quickly to rainfall and intermittently reaches the surface, hence the Pu dispersion is attributed to saturation and overflow of the trenches during extreme rainfall events, referred to as the ‘bathtub’ effect. PMID:24256473

  20. Trench 'bathtubbing' and surface plutonium contamination at a legacy radioactive waste site.

    PubMed

    Payne, Timothy E; Harrison, Jennifer J; Hughes, Catherine E; Johansen, Mathew P; Thiruvoth, Sangeeth; Wilsher, Kerry L; Cendón, Dioni I; Hankin, Stuart I; Rowling, Brett; Zawadzki, Atun

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive waste containing a few grams of plutonium (Pu) was disposed between 1960 and 1968 in trenches at the Little Forest Burial Ground (LFBG), near Sydney, Australia. A water sampling point installed in a former trench has enabled the radionuclide content of trench water and the response of the water level to rainfall to be studied. The trench water contains readily measurable Pu activity (~12 Bq/L of (239+240)Pu in 0.45 μm-filtered water), and there is an associated contamination of Pu in surface soils. The highest (239+240)Pu soil activity was 829 Bq/kg in a shallow sample (0-1 cm depth) near the trench sampling point. Away from the trenches, the elevated concentrations of Pu in surface soils extend for tens of meters down-slope. The broader contamination may be partly attributable to dispersion events in the first decade after disposal, after which a layer of soil was added above the trenched area. Since this time, further Pu contamination has occurred near the trench-sampler within this added layer. The water level in the trench-sampler responds quickly to rainfall and intermittently reaches the surface, hence the Pu dispersion is attributed to saturation and overflow of the trenches during extreme rainfall events, referred to as the 'bathtub' effect.

  1. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction for vertical calciner operation at the plutonium finishing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, C.B., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-17

    This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC) for construction, installation, and operation of a vertical calciner to stabilize plutonium at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)Complex, pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060. The PFP Complex activities are focused on the cleanout and stabilization of plutonium residue left from plutonium weapons material processing activities. The prime purpose of the vertical calciner is to convert plutonium acid solutions to a more stable plutonium oxide. A test calciner has been developed and put in place in the 234-5Z Building. Development testing of this vertical calciner is ongoing. A new vertical calciner will be assembled for actual stabilization operation in Room 230C of the 234-5Z Building. The test calciner may be upgraded or replaced as an alternative to building a new calciner in Room 230C.

  2. Bench-scale treatability studies for simulated incinerator scrubber blowdown containing radioactive cesium and strontium

    SciTech Connect

    Coroneos, A.C.; Taylor, P.A.; Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bostick, D.A.; Perona, J.J.

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the results of bench-scale testing completed to remove {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr from the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator blowdown at the K-25 Site Central Neutralization Facility, a wastewater treatment facility designed to remove heavy metals and uranium from various wastewaters. The report presents results of bench-scale testing using chabazite and clinoptilolite zeolites to remove cesium and strontium; using potassium cobalt ferrocyanide (KCCF) to remove cesium; and using strontium chloride coprecipitation, sodium phosphate coprecipitation, and calcium sulfate coprecipitation to remove strontium. Low-range, average-range, and high-range concentration blowdown surrogates were used to complete the bench-scale testing.

  3. Simulation of radioactive cesium transfer in the southern Fukushima coastal biota using a dynamic food chain transfer model.

    PubMed

    Tateda, Yutaka; Tsumune, Daisuke; Tsubono, Takaki

    2013-10-01

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (1F NPP) accident occurred on 11 March 2011. The accident introduced (137)Cs into the coastal waters which was subsequently transferred to the local coastal biota thereby elevating the concentration of this radionuclide in coastal organisms. In this study, the radioactive cesium levels in coastal biota from the southern Fukushima area were simulated using a dynamic biological compartment model. The simulation derived the possible maximum radioactive cesium levels in organisms, indicating that the maximum (137)Cs concentrations in invertebrates, benthic fish and predator fish occurred during late April, late May and late July, respectively in the studied area where the source was mainly the direct leakage of (137)Cs effluent from the 1F NPP. The delay of a (137)Cs increase in fish was explained by the gradual food chain transfer of (137)Cs introduced to the ecosystem from the initial contamination of the seawater. The model also provided the degree of radionuclide depuration in organisms, and it demonstrated the latest start of the decontamination phase in benthic fish. The ecological half-lives, derived both from model simulation and observation, were 1-4 months in invertebrates, and 2-9 months in plankton feeding fish and coastal predator fish from the studied area. In contrast, it was not possible to similarly calculate these parameters in benthic fish because of an unidentified additional radionuclide source which was deduced from the biological compartment model. To adequately reconstruct the in-situ depuration of radiocesium in benthic fish in the natural ecosystem, a contamination source associated with the bottom sediments is necessary.

  4. Derivation of strontium-90 and cesium-137 residual radioactive material guidelines for the Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research, University of California, Davis

    SciTech Connect

    Nimmagadda, M.; Yu, C.

    1993-04-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for strontium-90 and cesium-137 were derived for the Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research (LEHR) site in Davis, California. The guideline derivation was based on a dose limit of 100 mrem/yr. The US Department of Energy (DOE) residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, was used in this evaluation; this code implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines. Three potential site utilization scenarios were considered with the assumption that, for a period of 1,000 years following remedial action, the site will be utilized without radiological restrictions. The defined scenarios vary with regard to use of the site, time spent at the site, and sources of food consumed. The results of the evaluation indicate that the basic dose limit of 100 mrem/yr will not be exceeded within 1,000 years for either strontium-90 or cesium-137, provided that the soil concentrations of these radionuclides at the LEHR site do not exceed the following levels: 71,000 pCi/g for strontium-90 and 91 pCi/g for cesium-137 for Scenario A (researcher: the expected scenario); 160,000 pCi/g for strontium-90 and 220 pCi/g for cesium-137 for Scenario B (recreationist: a plausible scenario); and 37 pCi/g for strontium-90 and 32 pCi/g for cesium-137 for Scenario C (resident farmer ingesting food produced in the contaminated area: a plausible scenario). The derived guidelines are single-radionuclide guidelines and are linearly proportional to the dose limit used in the calculations. In setting the actual strontium-90 and cesium-137 guidelines for the LEHR site, DOE will apply the as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) policy to the decision-making process, along with other factors such as whether a particular scenario is reasonable and appropriate.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of hollandite-type material intended for the specific containment of radioactive cesium

    SciTech Connect

    Leinekugel-le-Cocq, A.Y.; Deniard, P. . E-mail: philippe.deniard@cnrs-imn.fr; Jobic, S.; Cerny, R.; Bart, F.; Emerich, H.

    2006-10-15

    The hollandite Ba{sub 1}Cs{sub 0.28}Fe{sub 0.82}Al{sub 1.46}Ti{sub 5.72}O{sub 16}, which has been proposed for the cesium-specific conditioning, can be synthesized either by an alcoxyde or a dry route. In both cases, a two-step protocol is applied, i.e., a calcination at 1000 deg. C followed by a sintering at 1200 deg. C . After sintering, both synthetic processes lead to a tetragonal form. According to the X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns collected at the barium and the cesium K absorption edges, the different positions of these two elements have been evidenced with a more centered position in the oxygen cubic site of the tunnel for Ba than for Cs. On the contrary, after calcination, the two synthetic routes yield different products. The alcoxyde route gives rise to a mixture of the aforementioned Cs- and Ba-containing tetragonal I4/m hollandite, a Cs-only-containing monoclinic I2/m hollandite and an unidentified phase with a weak coherence length containing only Ba. The dry route yields a single tetragonal hollandite material containing Ba and Cs stly different in composition from the targeted compound. - Graphical abstract: Ba and Cs location along the tunnel axis in BaCs{sub 0.28}Fe{sub 0.82}Al{sub 1.46}Ti{sub 5.72}O{sub 16}.

  6. Method of removing cesium from steam

    DOEpatents

    Carson, Jr., Neill J.; Noland, Robert A.; Ruther, Westly E.

    1991-01-01

    Method for removal of radioactive cesium from a hot vapor, such as high temperature steam, including the steps of passing input hot vapor containing radioactive cesium into a bed of silicate glass particles and chemically incorporating radioactive cesium in the silicate glass particles at a temperature of at least about 700.degree. F.

  7. Efficient removal of cesium from low-level radioactive liquid waste using natural and impregnated zeolite minerals.

    PubMed

    Borai, E H; Harjula, R; Malinen, Leena; Paajanen, Airi

    2009-12-15

    The objective of the proposed work was focused to provide promising solid-phase materials that combine relatively inexpensive and high removal capacity of some radionuclides from low-level radioactive liquid waste (LLRLW). Four various zeolite minerals including natural clinoptilolite (NaNCl), natural chabazite (NaNCh), natural mordenite (NaNM) and synthetic mordenite (NaSM) were investigated. The effective key parameters on the sorption behavior of cesium (Cs-134) were investigated using batch equilibrium technique with respect to the waste solution pH, contacting time, potassium ion concentration, waste solution volume/sorbent weight ratio and Cs ion concentration. The obtained results revealed that natural chabazite (NaNCh) has the higher distribution coefficients and capacity towards Cs ion rather than the other investigated zeolite materials. Furthermore, novel impregnated zeolite material (ISM) was prepared by loading Calix [4] arene bis(-2,3 naphtho-crown-6) onto synthetic mordenite to combine the high removal uptake of the mordenite with the high selectivity of Calix [4] arene towards Cs radionuclide. Comparing the obtained results for both NaSM and the impregnated synthetic mordenite (ISM-25), it could be observed that the impregnation process leads to high improvement in the distribution coefficients of Cs+ ion (from 0.52 to 27.63 L/g). The final objective in all cases was aimed at determining feasible and economically reliable solution to the management of LLRLW specifically for the problems related to the low decontamination factor and the effective recovery of monovalent cesium ion.

  8. Radioactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Baratta, E.J.

    1997-01-01

    Cesium-134 and -137 in Foods, Gamma-Ray Spectrophotometric Methods. The method entitled {open_quotes}Cs-134 and Cs-137 in Foods, Gamma-Ray Spectrophotometric Method{close_quotes} has been adopted official first action, with minor revisions. Iodine 131: The method {open_quotes}Iodine-131 in Milk, Radiochemical Separation Method{close_quotes} has been accepted by the Committee on Residues and Related Topics and has been recommended to the Methods Committee for adoption first action. Search is continuing for a new Associated Referee. Plutonium-239: The Associate Referee is doing a literature search for a method for the determination of plutonium in foods. When one is selected, she will prepared a protocol for a collaborative study and submit it for approval. Radium-228: Search is ongoing for a new Associate Referee. When one is appointed, a method should be selected and tested. Strontium-89 and -90: The Associate Referee is investigating methods using resin discs and/or resin columns for these radionuclides. These methods are now being used in analyses for strontium-89 and -90 in water. She will now attempt to apply it to milk. If successful, she will prepare a protocol for a collaborative study and submit it for approval. Tritium: Search is continuing for a new Associate Referee for this topic.

  9. Preferential removal and immobilization of stable and radioactive cesium in contaminated fly ash with nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension.

    PubMed

    Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy; Mitoma, Yoshiharu; Okuda, Tetsuji; Sakita, Shogo; Simion, Cristian

    2014-08-30

    In this work, the capability of nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension in removing and/or immobilizing stable ((133)Cs) and radioactive cesium species ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) in contaminated fly ash was investigated. After a first methanol and second water washing yielded only 45% of (133)Cs removal. While, after a first methanol washing, the second solvent with nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension yielded simultaneous enhanced removal and immobilization about 99% of (133)Cs. SEM-EDS analysis revealed that the mass percent of detectable (133)Cs on the fly ash surface recorded a 100% decrease. When real radioactive cesium contaminated fly ash (containing an initial 14,040Bqkg(-1)(134)Cs and (137)Cs cumulated concentration) obtained from burning wastes from Fukushima were reduced to 3583Bqkg(-1) after treatment with nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension. Elution test conducted on the treated fly ash gave 100BqL(-1) total (134)Cs and (137)Cs concentrations in eluted solution. Furthermore, both ash content and eluted solution concentrations of (134)Cs and (137)Cs were much lower than the Japanese Ministry of the Environment regulatory limit of 8000Bqkg(-1) and 150BqL(-1) respectively. The results of this study suggest that the nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension is a highly potential amendment for the remediation of radioactive cesium-contaminated fly ash.

  10. Radioactive Air Emission Notice of Construction (NOC) for Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Project W-460 Plutonium Stabilization and Handling

    SciTech Connect

    JANSKY, M.T.

    2000-05-01

    The following description and any attachments and references are provided to the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH), Division of Radiation Protection, Air Emissions & Defense Waste Section as a notice of construction (NOC) in accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247, Radiation Protection-Air Emissions. The WAC 246-247-060, ''Applications, registration, and licensing'', states ''This section describes the information requirements for approval to construct, modify, and operate an emission unit. Any NOC requires the submittal of information listed in Appendix A.'' Additionally, the following description, attachments, and references are provided to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as an NOC, in accordance with Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants''. The information required for submittal to the EPA is specified in 40 CFR 61.07. The potential emissions from this activity are estimated to provide greater than 0.1 millirem year total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to the hypothetical offsite maximally exposed individual (MEI) and commencement is needed within a short time. Therefore, this application also is intended to provide notification of the anticipated date of initial startup in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(1), and it is requested that approval of this application also constitutes EPA acceptance of this initial startup notification. Written notification of the actual date of initial startup, in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(2), will be provided later. This NOC covers the activities associated with the construction and operation activities involving stabilization and/or repackaging of plutonium in the 2736-ZB Building. A new exhaust stack will be built and operated at the 2736-ZB Building to handle the effluents associated with the operation of the stabilization and repackaging process

  11. Radioactive Air Emission Notice of Construction for (NOC) Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Project W-460 Plutonium Stabilization and Handling

    SciTech Connect

    JANSKY, M.T.

    2000-03-01

    The following description and any attachments and references are provided to the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH), Division of Radiation Protection, Air Emissions & Defense Waste Section as a notice of construction (NOC) in accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247, Radiation Protection-Air Emissions. The WAC 246-247-060, ''Applications, registration, and licensing'', states ''This section describes the information requirements for approval to construct, modify, and operate an emission unit. Any NOC requires the submittal of information listed in Appendix A,'' Appendix A (WAC 246-247-1 IO) lists the requirements that must be addressed. Additionally, the following description, attachments, and references are provided to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as an NOC, in accordance with Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants.'' The information required for submittal to the EPA is specified in 40 CFR 61.07. The potential emissions from this activity are estimated to provide greater than 0.1 millirem year total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to the hypothetical offsite maximally exposed individual (MEI) and commencement is needed within a short time. Therefore, this application also is intended to provide notification of the anticipated date of initial startup in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(1), and it is requested that approval of this application also constitutes EPA acceptance of this initial startup notification. Written notification of the actual date of initial startup, in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(2), will be provided later. This NOC covers the activities associated with the construction and operation activities involving stabilization and/or repackaging of plutonium in the 2736-ZB Building. An operations support trailer will be installed in the proximity of the 2736-ZB Building. A new

  12. A Reliable Hybrid Adsorbent for Efficient Radioactive Cesium Accumulation from Contaminated Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Awual, Md Rabiul; Yaita, Tsuyoshi; Miyazaki, Yuji; Matsumura, Daiju; Shiwaku, Hideaki; Taguchi, Tomitsugu

    2016-01-28

    Cesium (Cs) removal from nuclear liquid wastewater has become an emerging issue for safeguarding public health after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. A novel macrocyclic ligand of o-benzo-p-xylyl-22-crown-6-ether (OBPX22C6) was developed and successfully immobilized onto mesoporous silica for the preparation of hybrid adsorbent. The benzene ring π electron is the part of crown ether of OBPX22C6 for easy orientation of the macrocyclic compound for making the π electron donation with Cs complexation. The potential and feasibility of the hybrid adsorbent as being Cs selective was evaluated in terms of sensitivity, selectivity and reusability. The results clarified that the Cs removal process was rapid and reached saturation within a short time. Considering the effect of competitive ions, sodium (Na) did not markedly affect the Cs adsorption whereas potassium (K) was slightly affected due to the similar ionic radii. However, the oxygen in long ethylene glycol chain in OBPX22C6 was expected to show strong coordination, including Cs-π interaction with Cs even in the presence of the high amount of K and Na. Due to its high selectivity and reusability, significant volume reduction is expected as this promising hybrid adsorbent is used for Cs removal in Fukushima wastewater.

  13. A Reliable Hybrid Adsorbent for Efficient Radioactive Cesium Accumulation from Contaminated Wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awual, Md. Rabiul; Yaita, Tsuyoshi; Miyazaki, Yuji; Matsumura, Daiju; Shiwaku, Hideaki; Taguchi, Tomitsugu

    2016-01-01

    Cesium (Cs) removal from nuclear liquid wastewater has become an emerging issue for safeguarding public health after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. A novel macrocyclic ligand of o-benzo-p-xylyl-22-crown-6-ether (OBPX22C6) was developed and successfully immobilized onto mesoporous silica for the preparation of hybrid adsorbent. The benzene ring π electron is the part of crown ether of OBPX22C6 for easy orientation of the macrocyclic compound for making the π electron donation with Cs complexation. The potential and feasibility of the hybrid adsorbent as being Cs selective was evaluated in terms of sensitivity, selectivity and reusability. The results clarified that the Cs removal process was rapid and reached saturation within a short time. Considering the effect of competitive ions, sodium (Na) did not markedly affect the Cs adsorption whereas potassium (K) was slightly affected due to the similar ionic radii. However, the oxygen in long ethylene glycol chain in OBPX22C6 was expected to show strong coordination, including Cs-π interaction with Cs even in the presence of the high amount of K and Na. Due to its high selectivity and reusability, significant volume reduction is expected as this promising hybrid adsorbent is used for Cs removal in Fukushima wastewater.

  14. A Reliable Hybrid Adsorbent for Efficient Radioactive Cesium Accumulation from Contaminated Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Awual, Md. Rabiul; Yaita, Tsuyoshi; Miyazaki, Yuji; Matsumura, Daiju; Shiwaku, Hideaki; Taguchi, Tomitsugu

    2016-01-01

    Cesium (Cs) removal from nuclear liquid wastewater has become an emerging issue for safeguarding public health after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. A novel macrocyclic ligand of o-benzo-p-xylyl-22-crown-6-ether (OBPX22C6) was developed and successfully immobilized onto mesoporous silica for the preparation of hybrid adsorbent. The benzene ring π electron is the part of crown ether of OBPX22C6 for easy orientation of the macrocyclic compound for making the π electron donation with Cs complexation. The potential and feasibility of the hybrid adsorbent as being Cs selective was evaluated in terms of sensitivity, selectivity and reusability. The results clarified that the Cs removal process was rapid and reached saturation within a short time. Considering the effect of competitive ions, sodium (Na) did not markedly affect the Cs adsorption whereas potassium (K) was slightly affected due to the similar ionic radii. However, the oxygen in long ethylene glycol chain in OBPX22C6 was expected to show strong coordination, including Cs-π interaction with Cs even in the presence of the high amount of K and Na. Due to its high selectivity and reusability, significant volume reduction is expected as this promising hybrid adsorbent is used for Cs removal in Fukushima wastewater. PMID:26818070

  15. Evaluation of the adsorptive behavior of cesium and strontium on hydroxyapatite and zeolite for decontamination of radioactive substances.

    PubMed

    Ozeki, K; Aoki, H

    2016-08-12

    Removal of radioactive substances, such as cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr), has become an emerging issue after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Disaster. To assess the possibility that hydroxyapatite (HA) and zeolites can be used for removal of radioactive substances, the adsorption capacities of Cs and Sr on the HA and a zeolite were investigated. The influence of Fe ions on Cs and Sr adsorption on the HA and the zeolite was also evaluated, because Fe ions are the most effective inhibitor of Cs adsorption on the zeolite.In the Cs adsorption process on the HA and the zeolite, the zeolite showed a higher adsorption ratio than the HA, and the maximum sorption capacity of the zeolite was calculated as 196 mg/g, whereas the HA showed a higher Sr adsorption ratio than the zeolite. The maximum sorption capacity of Sr on the HA was 123 mg/g. Under coexistence with Fe, Cs adsorption on the zeolite decreased with increasing Fe concentration, reaching 2.0 ± 0.8% at 0.1 M Fe concentration. In contrast, Cs adsorption on the zeolite was improved by adding the HA. In the case of coexistence of the HA, the Cs adsorption on the mixture of the HA and the zeolite was 52.4% ± 3.6 % at 0.1 M Fe concentration, although Cs adsorption on the HA alone was quite low. In the Fe adsorption processes of the HA and the zeolite, the HA exhibited a maximum sorption capacity of 256 mg/g, which was much higher than that of the zeolite (111 mg/g). The high affinity of Fe on the HA contributes to the improvement of the deteriorated Cs adsorption on the zeolite due to Fe ions.

  16. Absence of internal radiation contamination by radioactive cesium among children affected by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant disaster.

    PubMed

    Tsubokura, Masaharu; Kato, Shigeaki; Nomura, Shuhei; Morita, Tomohiro; Sugimoto, Amina; Gilmour, Stuart; Kami, Masahiro; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Kanazawa, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    Chronic internal radiation contamination accounts for a substantial fraction of long-term cumulative radiation exposure among residents in radiation-contaminated areas. However, little information is available on ongoing chronic internal radiation contamination among residents near the crippled Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Using a whole body counter, internal radiation contamination levels among elementary and middle school students who commute to 22 schools located within Minamisoma city were assessed between May and July 2013 (26 to 28 mo after the disaster). Of 3,299 elementary and middle school students in the city, 3,255 individuals (98%) were screened through school health check-ups. Not a single student was detected with internal radiation contamination due to radioactive cesium. The study found no risk of chronic internal radiation exposure among residents near the crippled nuclear power plant. Current food inspection by local governments, volunteers, and farmers has been functioning well within Fukushima prefecture. However, food management by screening suspected contamination along with whole body counter screening are key public health interventions and should be continued to avoid further internal radiation exposure in radiation-contaminated areas.

  17. A new route to the stable capture and final immobilization of radioactive cesium.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jae Hwan; Han, Ahreum; Yoon, Joo Young; Park, Hwan-Seo; Cho, Yung-Zun

    2017-10-05

    Radioactive Cs released from damaged fuel materials in the event of nuclear accidents must be controlled to prevent the spreading of hazardous Cs into the environment. This study describes a simple and novel process to safely manage Cs gas by capturing it within ceramic filters and converting it into monolithic waste forms. The results of Cs trapping tests showed that CsAlSiO4 was a reaction product of gas-solid reactions between Cs gas and our ceramic filters. Monolithic waste forms were readily prepared from the Cs-trapping filters by the addition of a glass frit followed by thermal treatment at 1000°C for 3h. Major findings revealed that the Cs-trapping filters could be added up to 50wt% to form durable monoliths. In 30-50wt% of waste fraction, CsAlSiO4 was completely converted to pollucite (CsAlSi2O6), which is a potential phase for radioactive Cs due to its excellent thermal and chemical stability. A static leaching test for 28 d confirmed the excellent chemical resistance of the pollucite structure, with a Cs leaching rate as low as 7.21×10(-5)gm(-2)/d. This simple scheme of waste processing promises a new route for radioactive Cs immobilization by synthesizing pollucite-based monoliths. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Restoration of water environment contaminated by radioactive cesium released from Fukushima Daiichi NPP

    SciTech Connect

    Takeshita, K.; Takahashi, H.; Jinbo, Y.; Ishido, A.

    2013-07-01

    In the Fukushima Daiichi NPP Accident, large amounts of volatile radioactive nuclides, such as {sup 131}I, {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs, were released to the atmosphere and huge areas surrounding the nuclear site were contaminated by the radioactive fallout. In this study, a combined process with a hydrothermal process and a coagulation settling process was proposed for the separation of radioactive Cs from contaminated soil and sewage sludge. The coagulation settling operation uses Prussian Blue (Ferric ferrocyanide) and an inorganic coagulant. The recovery of Cs from sewage sludge sampled at Fukushima city (100.000 Bq/kg) and soil at a nearby village (55.000 Bq/kg), was tested. About 96% of Cs in the sewage sludge was removed successfully by combining simple hydrothermal decomposition and coagulation settling. However, Cs in the soil was not removed sufficiently by the combined process (Cs removal is only 56%). The hydrothermal decomposition with blasting was carried out. The Cs removal from the soil was increased to 85%. When these operations were repeated twice, the Cs recovery was over 90%. The combined process with hydrothermal blasting and coagulation settling is applicable to the removal of Cs from highly contaminated soil.

  19. Individual Radiological Protection Monitoring of Utrok Atoll Residents Based on Whole Body Counting of Cesium-137 (137Cs) and Plutonium Bioassay

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, T; Kehl, S; Brown, T; Martinelli, R; Hickman, D; Jue, T; Tumey, S; Langston, R

    2007-06-08

    This report contains individual radiological protection surveillance data developed during 2006 for adult members of a select group of families living on Utrok Atoll. These Group I volunteers all underwent a whole-body count to determine levels of internally deposited cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) and supplied a bioassay sample for analysis of plutonium isotopes. Measurement data were obtained and the results compared with an equivalent set of measurement data for {sup 137}Cs and plutonium isotopes from a second group of adult volunteers (Group II) who were long-term residents of Utrok Atoll. For the purposes of this comparison, Group II volunteers were considered representative of the general population on Utrok Atoll. The general aim of the study was to determine residual systemic burdens of fallout radionuclides in each volunteer group, develop data in response to addressing some specific concerns about the preferential uptake and potential health consequences of residual fallout radionuclides in Group I volunteers, and generally provide some perspective on the significance of radiation doses delivered to volunteers (and the general Utrok Atoll resident population) in terms of radiological protection standards and health risks. Based on dose estimates from measurements of internally deposited {sup 137}Cs and plutonium isotopes, the data and information developed in this report clearly show that neither volunteer group has acquired levels of internally deposited fallout radionuclides specific to nuclear weapons testing in the Marshall Islands that are likely to have any consequence on human health. Moreover, the dose estimates are well below radiological protection standards as prescribed by U.S. regulators and international agencies, and are very small when compared to doses from natural sources of radiation in the Marshall Islands and the threshold where radiation health effects could be either medically diagnosed in an individual or epidemiologically discerned in a

  20. Depth profiles of radioactive cesium in soil using a scraper plate over a wide area surrounding the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant, Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Norihiro; Mikami, Satoshi; Shimoura, Susumu; Takahashi, Junko; Nakano, Masakazu; Shimada, Kiyotaka; Uno, Kiichiro; Hagiwara, Shigetomo; Saito, Kimiaki

    2015-01-01

    During the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident, radioactive cesium was released in the environment and deposited on the soils. Depth profiles of radioactive cesium in contaminated soils provide useful information not only for radiation protection and decontamination operations but also for geoscience and radioecology studies. Soil samples were collected using a scraper plate three times between December 2011 and December 2012 at 84 or 85 locations within a 100-km radius of the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP. In most of the obtained radioactive cesium depth profiles, it was possible to fit the concentration to a function of mass depth as either an exponential or hyperbolic secant function. By using those functions, following three parameters were estimated: (i) relaxation mass depth β (g cm(-2)), (ii) effective relaxation mass depth βeff (g cm(-2)), which is defined for a hyperbolic secant function as the relaxation mass depth of an equivalent exponential function giving the same air kerma rate at 1 m above the ground as the inventory, and (iii) 1/10 depth L1/10 (cm), at which the soil contains 90% of the inventory. The average β value (wet weight) including ones by hyperbolic secant function in December 2012, was 1.29 times higher than that in December 2011. In fact, it was observed that depth profiles at some study sites deviated from the typical exponential distributions over time. These results indicate the gradual downward migration of radioactive cesium in the soils. The L1/10 values in December 2012 were summarized and presented on a map surrounding the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP, and the average value of L1/10 was 3.01 cm (n = 82) at this time. It was found that radioactive cesium remained within 5 cm of the ground surface at most study sites (71 sites). The sech function can also be used to estimate the downward migration rate V (kg m(-2) y(-1)). The V values in December 2012 (n = 25) were in good agreement with those found by a

  1. Multi-decadal projections of surface and interior pathways of the Fukushima Cesium-137 radioactive plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Vincent; Van Sebille, Erik; Sen Gupta, Alexander; Garçon, Véronique; England, Matthew H.

    2013-10-01

    Following the March 2011 Fukushima disaster, large amounts of water contaminated with radionuclides, including Cesium-137, were released into the Pacific Ocean. With a half-life of 30.1 years, Cs-137 has the potential to travel large distances within the ocean. Using an ensemble of regional eddy-resolving simulations, this study investigates the long-term ventilation pathways of the leaked Cs-137 in the North Pacific Ocean. The simulations suggest that the contaminated plume would have been rapidly diluted below 10,000 Bq/m3 by the energetic Kuroshio Current and Kurushio Extension by July 2011. Based on our source function of 22 Bq/m3, which sits at the upper range of the published estimates, waters with Cs-137 concentrations >10 Bq/m3 are projected to reach the northwestern American coast and the Hawaiian archipelago by early 2014. Driven by quasi-zonal oceanic jets, shelf waters north of 45°N experience Cs-137 levels of 10-30 Bq/m3 between 2014 and 2020, while the Californian coast is projected to see lower concentrations (10-20 Bq/m3) slightly later (2016-2025). This late but prolonged exposure is related to subsurface pathways of mode waters, where Cs-137 is subducted toward the subtropics before being upwelled from deeper sources along the southern Californian coast. The model suggests that Fukushima-derived Cs-137 will penetrate the interior ocean and spread to other oceanic basins over the next two decades and beyond. The sensitivity of our results to uncertainties in the source function and to inter-annual to multi-decadal variability is discussed.

  2. Distribution of radioactive Cesium in trees and effect of decontamination of forest contaminated by the Fukushima nuclear accident

    SciTech Connect

    Iijima, K.; Funaki, H.; Tokizawa, T.; Nakayama, S.

    2013-07-01

    In decontamination pilot projects conducted by Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), many different techniques were tested to determine their applicability to remediate areas evacuated after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident following the Great Tohoku earthquake and tsunami of March 11, 2011. In addition to buildings, roads and farmland, the forest adjacent to living areas was one of the main decontamination targets. The projects evaluated the radioactive contamination of trees and the effectiveness of decontaminating a highly contaminated evergreen forest. This forest was located 1.3 km southwest of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant and is dominated by Japanese cedar trees and fir trees. As the first step, three Japanese cedar trees and three fir trees were cut down and the distributions of radioactive cesium (Cs) were measured in each. The total concentrations of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs in the leaves and branches were about 1 MBq/kg for both cedar and fir trees, and were appreciably higher than in the bark for cedar. The concentrations in the outer part of the trunks (under the bark) were lower, on the order of 10 kBq/kg, and those in the core of the trunks were lower than 1 kBq/kg for both kinds of trees. The observation that the Cs concentrations are higher in the outer part of trees, is compatible with the assumption that radio-Cs was mostly adsorbed on the surface of trees and partly penetrated into the trunks through the bark. Evolution of air dose rates in a 100 x 60 m pasture adjacent to the forest was monitored during decontamination of the forest and of the pasture itself. The dose rates in the pasture decreased drastically after stripping contaminated topsoil from the pasture and decreased slightly more after stripping contaminated topsoil of the forest floor and pruning the trees. Cutting down and removing 84 trees in the outermost area (10- m width) of the forest also slightly decreased these dose rates. After decontamination, the

  3. On radiocarbon and plutonium leakage to groundwater in the vicinity of a shallow-land radioactive waste repository.

    PubMed

    Gudelis, A; Gvozdaite, R; Kubareviciene, V; Druteikiene, R; Lukosevicius, S; Sutas, A

    2010-06-01

    A shallow-land radioactive waste repository operated in boggy forest environment from 1963 to 1989. During the operation period, a considerable amount of technogenic radionuclides, in solidified state, was disposed into the vault established in the geological structure at the depth of up to 3m. Environmental monitoring activities started after the closure of the repository in 1989. Recent investigations revealed transfer of radiocarbon and plutonium to the groundwater in the prevailing flow direction. Activity concentration of (239,240)Pu in non-filtered fraction of the groundwater from observation well no. 4 determined by alpha-spectrometry was 6.4 x 10(-5) Bq l(-1) in 2005, and 3.2 x 10(-4) Bq l(-1) in 2006. Further analysis of colloid-facilitated transport of plutonium is planned. Variation of (14)C activity concentration in the same well was monitored in 2006. It varied from 0.2+/-0.1 Bq l(-1) in October to 2.8+/-0.6 Bq l(-1) in June and July. Results imply further research into radiocarbon transfer to atmosphere and selected plant species.

  4. Cesium removal and kinetics equilibrium: Precipitation kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, M.J.

    1999-12-17

    This task consisted of both non-radioactive and radioactive (tracer) tests examining the influence of potentially significant variables on cesium tetraphenylborate precipitation kinetics. The work investigated the time required to reach cesium decontamination and the conditions that affect the cesium precipitation kinetics.

  5. Removal efficiency of radioactive cesium and iodine ions by a flow-type apparatus designed for electrochemically reduced water production.

    PubMed

    Hamasaki, Takeki; Nakamichi, Noboru; Teruya, Kiichiro; Shirahata, Sanetaka

    2014-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on March 11, 2011 attracted people's attention, with anxiety over possible radiation hazards. Immediate and long-term concerns are around protection from external and internal exposure by the liberated radionuclides. In particular, residents living in the affected regions are most concerned about ingesting contaminated foodstuffs, including drinking water. Efficient removal of radionuclides from rainwater and drinking water has been reported using several pot-type filtration devices. A currently used flow-type test apparatus is expected to simultaneously provide radionuclide elimination prior to ingestion and protection from internal exposure by accidental ingestion of radionuclides through the use of a micro-carbon carboxymethyl cartridge unit and an electrochemically reduced water production unit, respectively. However, the removability of radionuclides from contaminated tap water has not been tested to date. Thus, the current research was undertaken to assess the capability of the apparatus to remove radionuclides from artificially contaminated tap water. The results presented here demonstrate that the apparatus can reduce radioactivity levels to below the detection limit in applied tap water containing either 300 Bq/kg of 137Cs or 150 Bq/kg of 125I. The apparatus had a removal efficiency of over 90% for all concentration ranges of radio-cesium and -iodine tested. The results showing efficient radionuclide removability, together with previous studies on molecular hydrogen and platinum nanoparticles as reactive oxygen species scavengers, strongly suggest that the test apparatus has the potential to offer maximum safety against radionuclide-contaminated foodstuffs, including drinking water.

  6. Adsorption capacities of poly-γ-glutamic acid and its sodium salt for cesium removal from radioactive wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Shigeki; Kawase, Yoshinori

    2016-12-01

    Cesium removal from radioactive wastewaters was examined using water-insoluble poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) and water-soluble sodium salt form poly-γ-L-glutamic acid (γ-PGANa) as biosorbents. The maximum adsorption capacities at equilibrium of γ-PGA and γ-PGANa for Cs were 345 mg-Cs(g-γ-PGA)(-1) at pH 6.0 and 290 mg-Cs(g-γ-PGANa)(-1) at pH 9.0, respectively. At lower pH < pKa, the carboxyl groups of γ-PGA primarily remained in the protonated form and adsorption of Cs only slightly occurred. At higher pH > pKa, the adsorption of Cs was significantly facilitated due to ionization of carboxyl groups to carboxylate ion. Adsorption of Cs at pH > 9.0 was inhibited due to the hydrolysis of Cs. The Langmuir model could successfully describe the isotherm data. For γ-PGA and γ-PGANa, the maximum adsorption capacities at equilibrium in the Langmuir model were 446 and 333 mg-Cs(g-adsorbent)(-1), respectively. The high adsorption capacities confirmed a potential utilization of γ-PGA and γ-PGANa for Cs removal. The adsorption of Cs by both γ-PGA and γ-PGANa attained the equilibrium within 0.5 min. The very quick equilibration is a benefit from the viewpoint of practical application. The spectra of FT-IR and XPS before and after adsorption confirmed the adsorption of Cs onto γ-PGA and γ-PGANa via electrostatic interaction with carboxylate anions.

  7. Synthesis, characterization and application of titanium oxide nanocomposites for removal of radioactive cesium, cobalt and europium ions.

    PubMed

    Borai, E H; Breky, M M E; Sayed, M S; Abo-Aly, M M

    2015-07-15

    New nanocomposite material containing TiO2/Poly (acrylamide-styrene sodium sulfonate) [TiO2/(P (AAm-SSS)] was prepared by in-situ intercalative polymerization of poly acrylamide (PAAm) and styrene sodium sulfonate (SSS) in the presence of TiO2 nanoparticles as inorganic filler. N, N-methylene bis acrylamide (MBA) was used as a cross linker. The polymerization process was performed using γ-radiation as reaction initiator. Moreover, new nanocomposite material containing poly styrene-TiO2 (PS-TiO2) was also prepared by ionic polymerization method. Styrene was catalytically polymerized by Ti(4+) via an ionic polymerization route to produce polystyrene (PS). The structure characteristics of the nanocomposites were investigated by XRD, TGA, SEM, surface area, and FTIR. The nanoparticles and nanocomposites were investigated for removal of some metal ions from aqueous solutions. The effective key parameters on the sorption behavior of radioactive cesium (Cs(+)), cobalt (Co(2+)) and europium (Eu(3+)) were investigated using batch equilibrium technique with respect to solution pH and contact time. The obtained results revealed that the equilibrium for Cs(+), Co(2+) and Eu(3)(+) is reached at 2-3 h for all nanocomposites. The data indicated that there is no significant change in the uptake between TiO2 nanoparticles and TiO2-PS. On the contrary, the uptake process is significantly improved using TiO2/(P (AAm-SSS) nanocomposite and the maximum experimental retention capacities for Cs(+), Co(2+) and Eu(3+) were found to be 120, 100.9 and 85.7 mg/g, respectively.

  8. Removal Efficiency of Radioactive Cesium and Iodine Ions by a Flow-Type Apparatus Designed for Electrochemically Reduced Water Production

    PubMed Central

    Hamasaki, Takeki; Nakamichi, Noboru; Teruya, Kiichiro; Shirahata, Sanetaka

    2014-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on March 11, 2011 attracted people’s attention, with anxiety over possible radiation hazards. Immediate and long-term concerns are around protection from external and internal exposure by the liberated radionuclides. In particular, residents living in the affected regions are most concerned about ingesting contaminated foodstuffs, including drinking water. Efficient removal of radionuclides from rainwater and drinking water has been reported using several pot-type filtration devices. A currently used flow-type test apparatus is expected to simultaneously provide radionuclide elimination prior to ingestion and protection from internal exposure by accidental ingestion of radionuclides through the use of a micro-carbon carboxymethyl cartridge unit and an electrochemically reduced water production unit, respectively. However, the removability of radionuclides from contaminated tap water has not been tested to date. Thus, the current research was undertaken to assess the capability of the apparatus to remove radionuclides from artificially contaminated tap water. The results presented here demonstrate that the apparatus can reduce radioactivity levels to below the detection limit in applied tap water containing either 300 Bq/kg of 137Cs or 150 Bq/kg of 125I. The apparatus had a removal efficiency of over 90% for all concentration ranges of radio–cesium and –iodine tested. The results showing efficient radionuclide removability, together with previous studies on molecular hydrogen and platinum nanoparticles as reactive oxygen species scavengers, strongly suggest that the test apparatus has the potential to offer maximum safety against radionuclide-contaminated foodstuffs, including drinking water. PMID:25029447

  9. Temporal and spatial variations of radioactive cesium levels in Northeast Japan following the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Arai, Takaomi

    2016-10-01

    Radioactive emissions into the environment from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident led to global contamination. Radionuclides such as (131)I, (134)Cs, and (137)Cs were further transported to North America and Europe. Thus, the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident is a global concern for both human health and the ecosystem because a number of countries ban or impose restrictions the import of Japanese products. In the present study, three-year (May 2011 to May 2014) fluctuations and accumulations of Cs, (134)Cs, and (137)Cs in two salmonid fish, white-spotted char and masu salmon were examined in Northeast Japan. The total Cs, (134)Cs, and (137)Cs levels in the fish gradually decreased throughout the three-year studied period after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident; however, higher levels (more than 100 Bq kg(-1)) were still detected in the Fukushima prefecture and neighboring prefectures in Japan 3 years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Spatial radiocesium levels gradually decreased with increasing distance from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (Fukushima prefecture). The radiocesium levels facing the Pacific Ocean area were generally higher than those facing the Sea of Japan area. These results suggest that radionuclides from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant are still widely distributed and remain in the natural environment in Northeast Japan.

  10. Radioactive Cesium Isotope Ratios as a Tool for determining Dispersal and Re-dispersal Mechanisms Downwind from the Nevada Nuclear Security Site

    SciTech Connect

    Darin C. Snyder; James E. Delmore; Troy J. Tranter; Nick R. Mann; Michael L. Abbott; John E. Olson

    2012-08-01

    Fractionation of the two longer lived radioactive cesium isotopes (135 and 137) produced by above ground nuclear tests have been measured and used to clarify the dispersal mechanisms of cesium deposited in the area between the Nevada Nuclear Security Site (NNSS) and Lake Mead in the southwestern United States. Fractionation of these isotopes is due to the 135 decay chain requiring several days to completely decay to Cs and the 137 decay chain less than one hour. Since the Cs precursors are gases, iodine and xenon, the 135Cs plume was deposited farther downwind than the 137Cs plume. Samples were obtained from the Las Vegas arm of Lake Mead, separated into segments, gamma counted to identify layers of activity and analyzed for 135Cs/137Cs ratios. The layers proved to have nearly identical highly fractionated isotope ratios. This information is consistent with a model where the cesium was initially deposited onto the land area draining into Lake Mead and the composite from all the above ground shots subsequently washed onto the Lake by high intensity rain and windstorms producing a layering of Cs activity where each layer is a portion of the composite.

  11. Radioactive cesium isotope ratios as a tool for determining dispersal and re-dispersal mechanisms downwind from the Nevada Nuclear Security Site.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Darin C; Delmore, James E; Tranter, Troy; Mann, Nick R; Abbott, Michael L; Olson, John E

    2012-08-01

    Fractionation of the two longer-lived radioactive cesium isotopes ((135)Cs and (137)Cs) produced by above ground nuclear tests have been measured and used to clarify the dispersal mechanisms of cesium deposited in the area between the Nevada Nuclear Security Site and Lake Mead in the southwestern United States. Fractionation of these isotopes is due to the 135-decay chain requiring several days to completely decay to (135)Cs, and the 137-decay chain less than one hour decay to (137)Cs. Since the Cs precursors are gases, iodine and xenon, the (135)Cs plume was deposited farther downwind than the (137)Cs plume. Sediment core samples were obtained from the Las Vegas arm of Lake Mead, sub-sampled and analyzed for (135)Cs/(137)Cs ratios by thermal ionization mass spectrometry. The layers proved to have nearly identical highly fractionated isotope ratios. This information is consistent with a model where the cesium was initially deposited onto the land area draining into Lake Mead and the composite from all of the above ground shots subsequently washed onto Lake Mead by high intensity rain and wind storms producing a layering of Cs activity, where each layer is a portion of the composite.

  12. Determining Sources and Transport of Nuclear Contamination in Hudson River Sediments with Plutonium, Neptunium, and Cesium isotope ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenna, T. C.; Chillrud, S. N.; Chaky, D. A.; Simpson, H. J.; McHugh, C. M.; Shuster, E. L.; Bopp, R. F.

    2004-12-01

    Different sources of radioactive contamination contain characteristic and identifiable isotopic signatures, which can be used to study sediment transport. We focus on Pu-239, Pu-240, Np-237 and Cs-137, which are strongly bound to fine grained sediments. The Hudson River drainage basin has received contamination from at least three separate sources: 1) global fallout from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons, which contributed Pu, Np and Cs; 2) contamination resulting from reactor releases at the Indian Point Nuclear Power Plant (IPNPP) located on the Hudson River Estuary ˜70km north of New York Harbor, where records document releases of Cs-137; 3) contamination resulting from activities at the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) located on the Mohawk River, where incomplete records document releases of Cs-137 but no mention is made of Pu or Np. Here we report measurements of Pu isotopes, Np-237 and Cs-137 for a series of sediment cores collected from various locations within the drainage basin: 1) Mohawk River downstream of KAPL, 2) Hudson River upstream of its confluence with the Mohawk River, and 3) lower Hudson River at a location in close proximity to IPNPP. In addition, we present data from selected samples from two other lower Hudson River locations: One site located ˜30km downstream of IPNPP and another ˜30km upstream of IPNPP. By comparing the isotopic ratios Pu-240/Pu-239, Np-237/Pu-239, and Cs-137/Pu-239, measured in fluvial sediments to mean global fallout values, it is possible to identify and resolve different sources of non-fallout contamination. To date, isotopic data for sediments indicate non-fallout sources of Pu-239, Pu-240, and Cs-137; Np-237, however, appears to originate from global fallout only. Mohawk River sediments downstream of KAPL exhibit enrichments in Pu-239, Pu-240, and Cs-137 that are 7 to 20 times higher than levels expected from global fallout as indicated from Np-237. The elevated levels, non-fallout isotopic signatures

  13. Removal of radioactive and other hazardous material from fluid waste

    DOEpatents

    Tranter, Troy J.; Knecht, Dieter A.; Todd, Terry A.; Burchfield, Larry A.; Anshits, Alexander G.; Vereshchagina, Tatiana; Tretyakov, Alexander A.; Aloy, Albert S.; Sapozhnikova, Natalia V.

    2006-10-03

    Hollow glass microspheres obtained from fly ash (cenospheres) are impregnated with extractants/ion-exchangers and used to remove hazardous material from fluid waste. In a preferred embodiment the microsphere material is loaded with ammonium molybdophosphonate (AMP) and used to remove radioactive ions, such as cesium-137, from acidic liquid wastes. In another preferred embodiment, the microsphere material is loaded with octyl(phenyl)-N-N-diisobutyl-carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and used to remove americium and plutonium from acidic liquid wastes.

  14. Vitrification of simulated radioactive Rocky Flats plutonium containing ash residue with a Stir Melter System

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J.C.; Kormanyos, K.R.; Overcamp, T.J.

    1996-10-01

    A demonstration trial has been completed in which a simulated Rocky Flats ash consisting of an industrial fly-ash material doped with cerium oxide was vitrified in an alloy tank Stir-Melter{trademark} System. The cerium oxide served as a substitute for plutonium oxide present in the actual Rocky Flats residue stream. The glass developed falls within the SiO{sub 2} + Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/{Sigma}Alkali/B{sub 2}O{sub 3} system. The glass batch contained approximately 40 wt% of ash, the ash was modified to contain {approximately} 5 wt% CeO{sub 2} to simulate plutonium chemistry in the glass. The ash simulant was mixed with water and fed to the Stir-Melter as a slurry with a 60 wt% water to 40 wt% solids ratio. Glass melting temperature was maintained at approximately 1,050 C during the melting trials. Melting rates as functions of impeller speed and slurry feed rate were determined. An optimal melting rate was established through a series of evolutionary variations of the control variables` settings. The optimal melting rate condition was used for a continuous six hour steady state run of the vitrification system. Glass mass flow rates of the melter were measured and correlated with the slurry feed mass flow. Melter off-gas was sampled for particulate and volatile species over a period of four hours during the steady state run. Glass composition and durability studies were run on samples collected during the steady state run.

  15. Geochemical and grain-size distribution of radioactive and stable cesium in Fukushima soils: implications for their long-term behavior.

    PubMed

    Saito, Takumi; Makino, Hisashi; Tanaka, Satoru

    2014-12-01

    Availability and mobility of radioactive cesium, (137)Cs, in soils are crucial for recovery from the accident in the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plants. In this study we investigated the geochemical and grain-size distribution of (137)Cs in 11 soil samples collected in the eastern area of Fukushima Prefecture after the accident. Sequential extractions were performed to evaluate the distribution of (137)Cs having different geochemical interactions with soil components. The result was further compared with that of the stable cesium, (133)Cs, which had occurred in the soils before the accident. The distribution of (137)Cs in different grain-size fractions was also determined. Radioactive cesium was predominantly found in the extract obtained by strong-acid dissolution and the extraction residue and was more concentrated in silt and clay grains. X-ray diffraction analyses revealed that micaceous minerals as well as kaolin minerals were predominantly dissolved by the strong-acid treatment. Correlation between the fraction of (137)Cs and the content of micaceous minerals in different grain-size fractions of soil minerals suggests that micaceous minerals are responsible for the fixation of (137)Cs in the soils. The isotopic ratio of (137)Cs and (133)Cs in the extract by strong-acid dissolution was more than three times smaller than those in the extracts by water, ion exchange, and reductive dissolution. This indicates that the distribution of (137)Cs was not in the steady state in 2 y after the accident due to relatively slow fixation by the soil clay minerals.

  16. RESULTS OF IONSIV® IE-95 STUDIES FOR THE REMOVAL OF RADIOACTIVE CESIUM FROM K-EAST BASIN SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL POOL DURING DECOMMISSIONING ACTIVITIES

    SciTech Connect

    DUNCAN JB; BURKE SP

    2008-07-07

    This report delineates the results obtained from laboratory testing of IONISIV{reg_sign} IE-95 to determine the efficacy of the zeolite for the removal of radioactive cesium from the KE Basin water prior to transport to the Effluent Treatment Facility, as described in RPP-PLAN-36158, IONSIV{reg_sign} IE-95 Studies for the removal of Radioactive Cesium from KE Basin Spent Nuclear Fuel Pool during Decommissioning Activities. The spent nuclear fuel was removed from KE Basin and the remaining sludge was layered with a grout mixture consisting of 26% Lehigh Type I/II portland cement and 74% Boral Mohave type F fly ash with a water-to-cement ratio of 0.43. The first grout pour was added to the basin floor to a depth of approximately 14 in. covering an area of 12,000 square feet. A grout layer was also added to the sludge containers located in the attached Weasel and Technical View pits.

  17. SODIUM ALUMINOSILICATE SOLIDS AFFINITY FOR CESIUM AND ACTINIDES

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T; Bill Wilmarth, B; Samuel Fink, S

    2007-07-31

    Washed sodium-aluminosilicate (NAS) solids at initial concentrations of 3.55 and 5.4 g/L sorb or uptake virtually no cesium over 288 hours, nor do any NAS solids generated during that time. These concentrations of solids are believed to conservatively bound current and near-term operations. Hence, the NAS solids should not have affected measurements of the cesium during the mass transfer tests and there is minimal risk of accumulating cesium during routine operations (and hence posing a gamma radiation exposure risk in maintenance). With respect to actinide uptake, it appears that NAS solids sorb minimal quantities of uranium - up to 58 mg U per kg NAS solid. The behavior with plutonium is less well understood. Additional study may be needed for radioactive operations relative to plutonium or other fissile component sorption or trapping by the solids. We recommend this testing be incorporated in the planned tests using samples from Tank 25F and Tank 49H to extend the duration to bound expected inventory time for solution.

  18. Radioactive pollution: Ocean environments. (Latest citations from Oceanic abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning radioactive pollution of the marine environment. Distrubutions of radionuclides that indicate artificial radioactive contamination are discussed including iodine-131, various uranium isotopes, Cesium-137, Cobalt-60, Strontium-90, Ruthenium-160, and plutonium isotopes. Ecosystems considered include coral reefs and atolls, planktonic zones in the open ocean, salt marshes, estuaries, coastal waters, and the Mediterranean Sea. Sources of radioactive contamination examined include atomic bomb blasts, fossil fuel combustion, radioactive waste disposal, and nuclear accidents. Experimental simulation of radionuclide transport in marine biota is included. (Contains a minimum of 161 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. Radioactive pollution: Oean environments. (Latest citations from Oceanic abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning radioactive pollution of the marine environment. Distrubutions of radionuclides that indicate artificial radioactive contamination are discussed including iodine-131, various uranium isotopes, Cesium-137, Cobalt-60, Strontium-90, Ruthenium-160, and plutonium isotopes. Ecosystems considered include coral reefs and atolls, planktonic zones in the open ocean, salt marshes, estuaries, coastal waters, and the Mediterranean Sea. Sources of radioactive contamination examined include atomic bomb blasts, fossil fuel combustion, radioactive waste disposal, and nuclear accidents. Experimental simulation of radionuclide transport in marine biota is included. (Contains a minimum of 168 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  20. Radioactive pollution: Ocean environments. (Latest citations from Oceanic abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning radioactive pollution of the marine environment. Distrubutions of radionuclides that indicate artificial radioactive contamination are discussed including iodine-131, various uranium isotopes, Cesium-137, Cobalt-60, Strontium-90, Ruthenium-160, and plutonium isotopes. Ecosystems considered include coral reefs and atolls, planktonic zones in the open ocean, salt marshes, estuaries, coastal waters, and the Mediterranean Sea. Sources of radioactive contamination examined include atomic bomb blasts, fossil fuel combustion, radioactive waste disposal, and nuclear accidents. Experimental simulation of radionuclide transport in marine biota is included. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  1. Radioactive pollution: Ocean environments. (Latest citations from Oceanic abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning radioactive pollution of the marine environment. Distrubutions of radionuclides that indicate artificial radioactive contamination are discussed including iodine-131, various uranium isotopes, Cesium-137, Cobalt-60, Strontium-90, Ruthenium-160, and plutonium isotopes. Ecosystems considered include coral reefs and atolls, planktonic zones in the open ocean, salt marshes, estuaries, coastal waters, and the Mediterranean Sea. Sources of radioactive contamination examined include atomic bomb blasts, fossil fuel combustion, radioactive waste disposal, and nuclear accidents. Experimental simulation of radionuclide transport in marine biota is included. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  2. Vaporization Rate of Cesium from Molten Slag in a Plasma Melting Furnace for the Treatment of Simulated Low-Level Radioactive Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Yasui, Shinji; Amakawa, Tadashi

    2003-02-15

    The vaporization phenomena of cesium (Cs) from molten slag have been investigated in a plasma melting process for simulated radioactive waste materials. A direct current transfer-type plasma with a maximum output of 50 kW was used to melt carbon steel and granular oxide mixtures (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}, CaO, and MgO) containing nonradioactive cesium nitrate, to measure Cs vaporization. These materials are the main components of low-level miscellaneous solid wastes. The vaporization rate of Cs from the molten slag during the plasma melting was observed and was compared with the vaporization rate obtained in an electric resistance furnace. The apparent vaporization rate of Cs was found to follow the first-order rate equation with respect to the molten slag's Cs content, and its rate constant values varied (3.5 to 21.0) x 10{sup -6} m/s varying with the chemical composition of the miscellaneous solid wastes. These rate constants were about one order larger than those obtained in the electric resistant furnace and also the diffusion coefficients of basic elements in the molten slag. These results suggest that the vaporization rate of Cs is controlled by the vaporization step from the free molten slag furnace to the gas phase and depends predominantly on the thermodynamic properties of the molten slag.

  3. Measurement of stable and radioactive cesium in natural waters by the diffusive gradients in thin films technique with new selective binding phases.

    PubMed

    Li, Weijia; Wang, Feiyue; Zhang, Weihua; Evans, Douglas

    2009-07-15

    A cesium-specific diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique was developed using copper ferrocyanide (CFCN) as the binding agent. Two types of DGT binding phases were evaluated, one by immobilizing CFCN on Chelex 100 resin gels (Chelex-CFCN) and the other on poly(acrylic acid) gels (PAA-CFCN). Both DGT devices were successfully applied to the measurement of low levels of stable 133Cs and radioactive 137Cs in synthetic solutions and in natural river waters. In all cases, the DGT labile concentrations measured with the PAA-CFCN DGT agreed very well with total dissolved Cs concentrations, whereas those measured by the Chelex-CFCN DGT were much lower than total Cs concentrations. The difference was attributed to the different binding kinetics of Cs+ on the two gels suggesting that this might be a promising means of measuring biologically relevant Cs concentrations in natural waters.

  4. Plutonium, Am, Cm and Sr in ducks maintained on radioactive leaching ponds in southeastern Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Markham, O.D.; Halford, D.K.; Rope, S.K.; Kuzo, G.B.

    1988-09-01

    Concentrations of 90Sr, 238Pu, 239,240Pu, 241Am, 242Cm and 244Cm were determined in tissues of mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) maintained for 43-145 d on radioactive leaching ponds in southeastern Idaho. Highest concentrations of transuranics occurred in the gastrointestinal tract, followed closely by feathers. Approximately 75%, 18%, 6% and 1% of the total transuranic activity in tissues analyzed were associated with the bone, feathers, GI tract and liver, respectively. Concentrations in GI tracts were similar to concentrations in vegetation and insects in the littoral area of the ponds. The calculated total dose rate to the ducks from both 90Sr and the transuranic nuclides was 0.69 mGy d-1 (69 mrad d-1), of which 99% was to the bone. The potential effective dose equivalent to a human consuming the entire muscle and liver mass of one experimental duck with average nuclide concentrations was 0.46 microSv (0.046 mrem). Based upon average concentrations in experimental ducks and on surveys of wild waterfowl using this area, a conservative estimate of transuranic activity exported by wild ducks using the ponds during one year was 11.3 kBq (305 nCi). Similarly, the total amount of 90Sr exported in muscle, bone and lung of wild ducks in one year was 2.5 MBq (68.7 microCi).

  5. Determination of the radioactive material and plutonium holdup in ducts and piping in the 325 Building

    SciTech Connect

    Haggard, D.L.; Tanner, J.E.; Tomeraasen, P.L.

    1996-08-01

    This report describes the measurements performed to determine the radionuclide content and mass of Pu in exposed ducts, filters, and piping in the 325 Building at the Hanford Site. This information is needed to characterize facility radiation levels, to verify compliance with criticality safety specifications, and to allow more accurate nuclear material control using nondestructive assay. Gamma assay was used to determine the gamma-emitting isotopes in ducts, filters, and piping. Passive neutron counting was used to estimate the Pu content. A high-purity Ge detector and a neutron slab detector containing 5 {sup 3}He proportional counters were used. Almost all the gamma activity is from {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co. Estimated Pu mass gram equivalents in the basement ductwork and filters are 31 g; the radioactive liquid waste system (RLWS) line has 12 g; the laboratory vacuum system has 2 g equiv. Pu; the retention process sewer has 3 g. Total Pu mass holdup for basement areas range from 48 to 27 g. Estimated Pu mass gram equivalents for all laboratories range from 385 to 581 g. Individual laboratory estimates are tabulated. Total estimated Pu gram equivalent holdup and material in process for the facility is 410 g. In summary, results indicate that no significant Pu levels, from a criticality safety perspective, reside in the ductwork, laboratory vacuum system lines, RLWS pipes, or any one laboratory in the 325 Building.

  6. Radioactive pollution: ocean environments. January 1974-May 1989 (Citations from Oceanic Abstracts). Report for January 1974-May 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning radioactive pollution of the marine environment. Distributions of radionuclides indicative of artificial radioactive contamination are discussed including iodine-131, various uranium isotopes, cesium-137, cobalt-60, strontium-90, ruthenium-160, and plutonium isotopes. Ecosystems considered include coral reefs and atolls, planktonic zones in the open ocean, salt marshes, estuaries, coastal waters, and the Mediterranean Sea. Sources of radioactive contamination examined include atomic bomb blasts, fossil-fuel combustion, radioactive waste disposal, and nuclear accidents. Experimental simulation of radionuclide transport in marine biota is included. (Contains 108 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  7. Direct accumulation pathway of radioactive cesium to fruit-bodies of edible mushroom from contaminated wood logs

    PubMed Central

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Aiba, Yukitoshi; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Kozai, Naofumi; Niizato, Tadafumi; Sasaki, Yoshito

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the accumulation process of radioactive Cs in edible mushrooms. We here first report the direct accumulation pathway of radioactive Cs from contaminated wood logs to the fruit-bodies of shiitake mushrooms through the basal portion of the stipe. In this pathway, radioactive Cs is not transported through the hyphae. This pathway results in a high accumulation of radioactive Cs in the fruit-body, more by the excess accumulation of radioactive Cs from the wood logs than that through the hyphae. We grew the fruit-bodies of Shiitake mushroom from radioactive-Cs-contaminated wood logs. The spatial distributions of radioactive Cs and Prussian blue as a tracer of interstitial water in the cross section of the wood log measured after the harvest of the fruit-body from the inoculated sawdust spawn area indicated that some fraction of the radioactive Cs and Prussian blue were transported directly to the basal portion of the stipe during the growth of the fruit-bodies. PMID:27430163

  8. Direct accumulation pathway of radioactive cesium to fruit-bodies of edible mushroom from contaminated wood logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Aiba, Yukitoshi; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Kozai, Naofumi; Niizato, Tadafumi; Sasaki, Yoshito

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the accumulation process of radioactive Cs in edible mushrooms. We here first report the direct accumulation pathway of radioactive Cs from contaminated wood logs to the fruit-bodies of shiitake mushrooms through the basal portion of the stipe. In this pathway, radioactive Cs is not transported through the hyphae. This pathway results in a high accumulation of radioactive Cs in the fruit-body, more by the excess accumulation of radioactive Cs from the wood logs than that through the hyphae. We grew the fruit-bodies of Shiitake mushroom from radioactive-Cs-contaminated wood logs. The spatial distributions of radioactive Cs and Prussian blue as a tracer of interstitial water in the cross section of the wood log measured after the harvest of the fruit-body from the inoculated sawdust spawn area indicated that some fraction of the radioactive Cs and Prussian blue were transported directly to the basal portion of the stipe during the growth of the fruit-bodies.

  9. Intracellular imaging of cesium distribution in Arabidopsis using Cesium Green.

    PubMed

    Akamatsu, Masaaki; Komatsu, Hirokazu; Mori, Taizo; Adams, Eri; Shin, Ryoung; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Hill, Jonathan P; Ariga, Katsuhiko

    2014-06-11

    The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, which was one of the most serious adverse effects of the Great East Japan Earthquake, was accompanied by the release of a large quantity of radioactive materials including (137)Cs to the environment. In a previous report, we developed and proposed a cesium (Cs) fluorescent probe, "Cesium Green", that enables the detection of cesium carbonate particles by spraying an alcoholic solution of the Cesium Green probe. In this paper, the sensing activity of this probe was investigated for its selectivity (by using an optode method) and for its application to detect micrometer-sizes Cs particles. Cesium Green was also assessed for its use in plant cellular imaging of Cs localization in Arabidopsis. Cesium Green enabled high-resolution Cs imaging of Cs-containing particles and of Cs contained in plants.

  10. Status of plutonium ceramic immobilization processes and immobilization forms

    SciTech Connect

    Ebbinghaus, B.B.; Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Vance, E.R.; Jostsons, A.

    1996-05-01

    Immobilization in a ceramic followed by permanent emplacement in a repository or borehole is one of the alternatives currently being considered by the Fissile Materials Disposition Program for the ultimate disposal of excess weapons-grade plutonium. To make Pu recovery more difficult, radioactive cesium may also be incorporated into the immobilization form. Valuable data are already available for ceramics form R&D efforts to immobilize high-level and mixed wastes. Ceramics have a high capacity for actinides, cesium, and some neutron absorbers. A unique characteristic of ceramics is the existence of mineral analogues found in nature that have demonstrated actinide immobilization over geologic time periods. The ceramic form currently being considered for plutonium disposition is a synthetic rock (SYNROC) material composed primarily of zirconolite (CaZrTi{sub 2}O{sub 7}), the desired actinide host phase, with lesser amounts of hollandite (BaAl{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 16}) and rutile (TiO{sub 2}). Alternative actinide host phases are also being considered. These include pyrochlore (Gd{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}), zircon (ZrSiO{sub 4}), and monazite (CePO{sub 4}), to name a few of the most promising. R&D activities to address important technical issues are discussed. Primarily these include moderate scale hot press fabrications with plutonium, direct loading of PuO{sub 2} powder, cold press and sinter fabrication methods, and immobilization form formulation issues.

  11. [Survey of Radioactive Cesium and Potassium Intake from Food Using Duplicate Diet (Fiscal Years 2011-2014)].

    PubMed

    Hirokawa, Daishiro; Omori, Shota; Nishimura, Noriaki; Yoshida, Kazuo; Wada, Ichirou; Yamakoshi, Akihiro

    2016-01-01

    Dietary intake of radioactive substances ((134)Cs, (137)Cs, (40)K) from food in fiscal 2011--2014 was surveyed using the duplicate diet method. 1,612 diet samples were collected from general households of 18 prefectures. (134)Cs and (137)Cs were detected in samples from Fukushima Prefecture, Miyagi Prefecture and Tokyo Prefecture. (134)Cs and (137)Cs were detected in 11 samples in fiscal 2011, 12 samples in fiscal 2012, and 7 samples in fiscal 2013, but none was detected in fiscal 2014. The largest radioactivity in a sample was 12 Bq/kg in Fukushima Prefecture in fiscal 2011. The detected levels gradually decreased and were less than 1.0 Bq/kg in fiscal 2014. The maximum estimated dose of radioactive cecium was 0.14 mSv/year in fiscal 2011. Radioactive potassium was detected in every meal, and showed little change through the four years (median around 30 Bq/kg).

  12. Radioactive pollution of the waters of the baltic sea during 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarev, L.N.; Kuznetsov, Yu.V.; Gedeonov, L.I.; Gavrilov, V.M.; Gritchenko, Z.G.; Ivanova, L.M.; Orlova, T.E.; Tishkova, N.A.

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented from an investigation of radioactive pollution of the waters of the Baltic Sea during 1986. Inhomogeneities in the pollution of this area of water, due to varying density of atmospheric radioactive fallout, are detected. It is found that among the radionuclides entering the surface of the Baltic Sea in 1986 as a result of atmospheric transport, the main one in terms of radiation dose is cesium-137. Comparisons are made of the level of cesium-137 content in the waters of the Baltic Sea in 1986 and in preceding years. It is noted that even in the most polluted regions of the sea the cesium-137 content was 500 times less than the maximum allowable concentration (MAC) in the USSR for drinking water. The first results of the determination of plutonium-239 and 240 in the Baltic Sea are presented.

  13. Removal of radioactive iodine and cesium in water purification processes after an explosion at a nuclear power plant due to the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Kosaka, Koji; Asami, Mari; Kobashigawa, Naoya; Ohkubo, Keiko; Terada, Hiroshi; Kishida, Naohiro; Akiba, Michihiro

    2012-09-15

    The presence of radionuclides at five water purification plants was investigated after an explosion at a nuclear power plant hit by the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011. Radioactive iodine (¹³¹I) and cesium (¹³⁴Cs and ¹³⁷Cs) were detected in raw water in Fukushima and neighboring prefectures. ¹³¹I was not removed by coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation. ¹³¹I was removed by granular activated carbon (GAC) and powdered activated carbon (PAC) at a level of about 30%-40%, although ¹³¹I was not removed in some cases. This was also confirmed by laboratory-scale experiments using PAC. The removal percentages of ¹³¹I in river and pond waters by 25 mg dry/L of PAC increased from 36% to 59% and from 41% to 48%, respectively, with chlorine dosing before PAC. ¹³⁴Cs and ¹³⁷Cs were effectively removed by coagulation at both a water purification plant and in laboratory-scale experiments when turbidity was relatively high. In contrast, ¹³⁴Cs and ¹³⁷Cs in pond water with low turbidity were not removed by coagulation. This was because ¹³⁴Cs and ¹³⁷Cs in river water were present mainly in particulate form, while in pond water they were present mainly as cesium ions (¹³⁴Cs+ and ¹³⁷Cs+). However, the removal of ¹³⁴Cs and ¹³⁷Cs in pond water by coagulation increased markedly when ¹³⁴Cs and ¹³⁷Cs were mixed with sediment 24 h before coagulation.

  14. Simple method for estimating soil mass loading onto plant surface using magnetic material content as a soil indicator - Influence of soil adhesion to vegetation on radioactive cesium concentration in forage.

    PubMed

    Sunaga, Yoshihito; Harada, Hisatomi

    2016-11-01

    A simple technique for estimating soil mass loading on vegetation was developed using magnetic material content as an indicator of soil adhesion. Magnetic material contents in plant and soil samples were determined by a magnetic analyzer. High recovery rates of 85-97% were achieved in a recovery test in which additional soil was added to powdered plant materials [stem of forage corn (Zea mays L.), aboveground part of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.)] at addition rates of 12.3-200 g dry soil kg(-1) dry plant material including soil. Samples of different Japanese cultivated soils were tested and showed a range of magnetic contents of 1.27-16.1 g kg(-1) on a dry weight basis. These levels are considered adequate for determining soil contamination in plant materials. Then, we applied this method for confirming the effect of soil adhesion on radioactive cesium concentrations in plant samples obtained at the area affected by the 2011 nuclear accident in Japan. The mean soil mass loading (±standard deviation) on forage rye (Secale cereale L.) showing mild lodging was 0.8 ± 0.6 g kg(-1), but was 7.4 ± 5.0 g kg(-1) for plants with serious lodging. No soil loading was detected on rye plants that showed no lodging. Radioactive cesium concentrations in the rye samples increased linearly with the increase in soil mass loading caused by plant lodging, and consequently mean radioactive cesium concentration for rye plants with serious lodging was about 2.7 times higher than that with no lodging. Cesium radioactivity in forage was affected by variations in soil mass loading onto forage plants caused by changes in plant growth and differences between plant species.

  15. Method for aqueous radioactive waste treatment

    DOEpatents

    Bray, L.A.; Burger, L.L.

    1994-03-29

    Plutonium, strontium, and cesium found in aqueous waste solutions resulting from nuclear fuel processing are removed by contacting the waste solutions with synthetic zeolite incorporating up to about 5 wt % titanium as sodium titanate in an ion exchange system. More than 99.9% of the plutonium, strontium, and cesium are removed from the waste solutions. 3 figures.

  16. Method for aqueous radioactive waste treatment

    DOEpatents

    Bray, Lane A.; Burger, Leland L.

    1994-01-01

    Plutonium, strontium, and cesium found in aqueous waste solutions resulting from nuclear fuel processing are removed by contacting the waste solutions with synthetic zeolite incorporating up to about 5 wt % titanium as sodium titanate in an ion exchange system. More than 99.9% of the plutonium, strontium, and cesium are removed from the waste solutions.

  17. Radioactive cesium (¹³⁴Cs and ¹³⁷Cs) content in human placenta after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Makoto; Terada, Hiroshi; Unno, Nobuya; Yamaguchi, Ichiro; Kunugita, Naoki; Minakami, Hisanori

    2013-09-01

    The degree of contamination with radioactive cesium (¹³⁴Cs and ¹³⁷Cs) in the human placenta after the accident at Fukushima nuclear power plant (FNP), which occurred on 11 March 2011, has not been assessed. ¹³⁴Cs and ¹³⁷Cs contents were determined in 10 placentas from 10 women who gave birth to term singleton infants during the period between October 2011 and August 2012 using high-purity germanium detectors for gamma ray spectrometry. Five women resided within 50 km of FNP (neighbor group) and gave birth by the end of February 2012, while the other five women resided within 210-290 km of FNP (distant group) and gave birth in July and August 2012. All except one of the 10 placentas contained detectable levels of ¹³⁴Cs and ¹³⁷Cs, ranging 0.042-0.742 Bq/kg for ¹³⁴Cs and 0.078-0.922 Bq/kg for ¹³⁷Cs. One placenta from a woman living in Tokyo contained 0.109 Bq/kg ¹³⁷Cs and no detectable level of ¹³⁴Cs (<0.054 Bq/kg). ¹³⁷Cs content was more than 0.2 Bq/kg in four and one placentas in the neighbor and distant groups, respectively. Degree of contamination of the placenta with radioactive Cs was lower even in women who resided within 50 km of FNP compared to Japanese and Canadian placentas in the mid-1960s after repeated nuclear tests and in northern Italian placentas from 1986-1987 after the Chernobyl power plant accident. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  18. Trophic position and metabolic rate predict the long-term decay process of radioactive cesium in fish: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Doi, Hideyuki; Takahara, Teruhiko; Tanaka, Kazuya

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the long-term behavior of radionuclides in organisms is important for estimating possible associated risks to human beings and ecosystems. As radioactive cesium (¹³⁷Cs) can be accumulated in organisms and has a long physical half-life, it is very important to understand its long-term decay in organisms; however, the underlying mechanisms determining the decay process are little known. We performed a meta-analysis to collect published data on the long-term ¹³⁷Cs decay process in fish species to estimate biological (metabolic rate) and ecological (trophic position, habitat, and diet type) influences on this process. From the linear mixed models, we found that 1) trophic position could predict the day of maximum ¹³⁷Cs activity concentration in fish; and 2) the metabolic rate of the fish species and environmental water temperature could predict ecological half-lives and decay rates for fish species. These findings revealed that ecological and biological traits are important to predict the long-term decay process of ¹³⁷Cs activity concentration in fish.

  19. Trophic Position and Metabolic Rate Predict the Long-Term Decay Process of Radioactive Cesium in Fish: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Hideyuki; Takahara, Teruhiko; Tanaka, Kazuya

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the long-term behavior of radionuclides in organisms is important for estimating possible associated risks to human beings and ecosystems. As radioactive cesium (137Cs) can be accumulated in organisms and has a long physical half-life, it is very important to understand its long-term decay in organisms; however, the underlying mechanisms determining the decay process are little known. We performed a meta-analysis to collect published data on the long-term 137Cs decay process in fish species to estimate biological (metabolic rate) and ecological (trophic position, habitat, and diet type) influences on this process. From the linear mixed models, we found that 1) trophic position could predict the day of maximum 137Cs activity concentration in fish; and 2) the metabolic rate of the fish species and environmental water temperature could predict ecological half-lives and decay rates for fish species. These findings revealed that ecological and biological traits are important to predict the long-term decay process of 137Cs activity concentration in fish. PMID:22279534

  20. Plutonium, cesium and uranium series radionuclides in the Hudson River estuary and other environments. Annual technical progress report, December 1, 1979-November 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, H. J.; Trier, R. M.; Olsen, C. R.

    1980-01-01

    Radionuclide activities were measured in a large number of sediment cores and suspended particle samples throughout the salinity range of the Hudson River estuary. Activities of /sup 137/Cs, /sup 134/Cs and /sup 60/Co determined by gamma spectrometry and /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu and /sup 238/Pu determined by alpha spectrometry indicate reasonably rapid accumulation rates in the sediments of marginal cove areas, and very rapid deposition in the harbor region adjacent to New York City, resulting in /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu accumulations there more than an order of magnitude greater than the fallout delivery rate. Measurable amounts of reactor-derived /sup 134/Cs and /sup 60/Co are found in nearly al sediment samples containing appreciable /sup 137/Cs between 15 km upstream of Indian Point and the downstream extent of our sampling about 70 km south of the reactor. Fallout /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu reaching the Hudson appears to be almost completely retained within the systems by particle deposition, while 70 to 90% of the /sup 137/Cs derived from both reactor releases and fallout has been exported to the coastal waters in solution. Activity levels of /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu in New York harbor sediments indicate a significant source in addition to suspended particles carried down the Hudson. The most likely cause appears to be transport into the estuary of particles from offshore waters having higher specific activities of /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu. Measurements of fallout /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu in a saline lake with a high carbonate ion concentration yielded water column activities about two orders of magnitude greater than has been found for fallout plutonium in other continental waters, indicating extensive mobility in some natural water environments. Experiments using lake water suggest that carbonate ion may indeed be a critical factor in regulating plutonium solubility and that low molecular weight complexes are primarily responsible for enhanced plutonium solubility.

  1. Plutonium Equivalent Inventory for Belowground Radioactive Waste at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Technical Area 54, Area G Disposal Facility - Fiscal Year 2011

    SciTech Connect

    French, Sean B.; Shuman, Rob

    2012-04-18

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) generates radioactive waste as a result of various activities. Many aspects of the management of this waste are conducted at Technical Area 54 (TA-54); Area G plays a key role in these management activities as the Laboratory's only disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste (LLW). Furthermore, Area G serves as a staging area for transuranic (TRU) waste that will be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for disposal. A portion of this TRU waste is retrievably stored in pits, trenches, and shafts. The radioactive waste disposed of or stored at Area G poses potential short- and long-term risks to workers at the disposal facility and to members of the public. These risks are directly proportional to the radionuclide inventories in the waste. The Area G performance assessment and composite analysis (LANL, 2008a) project long-term risks to members of the public; short-term risks to workers and members of the public, such as those posed by accidents, are addressed by the Area G Documented Safety Analysis (LANL, 2011a). The Documented Safety Analysis uses an inventory expressed in terms of plutonium-equivalent curies, referred to as the PE-Ci inventory, to estimate these risks. The Technical Safety Requirements for Technical Area 54, Area G (LANL, 2011b) establishes a belowground radioactive material limit that ensures the cumulative projected inventory authorized for the Area G site is not exceeded. The total belowground radioactive waste inventory limit established for Area G is 110,000 PE-Ci. The PE-Ci inventory is updated annually; this report presents the inventory prepared for 2011. The approach used to estimate the inventory is described in Section 2. The results of the analysis are presented in Section 3.

  2. Composition and process for separating cesium ions from an acidic aqueous solution also containing other ions

    DOEpatents

    Dietz, M.L.; Horwitz, E.P.; Bartsch, R.A.; Barrans, R.E. Jr.; Rausch, D.

    1999-03-30

    A crown ether cesium ion extractant is disclosed as is its synthesis. The crown ether cesium ion extractant is useful for the selective purification of cesium ions from aqueous acidic media, and more particularly useful for the isolation of radioactive cesium-137 from nuclear waste streams. Processes for isolating cesium ions from aqueous acidic media using the crown ether cesium extractant are disclosed as are processes for recycling the crown ether cesium extractant and processes for recovering cesium from a crown ether cesium extractant solution. 4 figs.

  3. Composition and process for separating cesium ions from an acidic aqueous solution also containing other ions

    DOEpatents

    Dietz, Mark L.; Horwitz, E. Philip; Bartsch, Richard A.; Barrans, Jr., Richard E.; Rausch, David

    1999-01-01

    A crown ether cesium ion extractant is disclosed as is its synthesis. The crown ether cesium ion extractant is useful for the selective purification of cesium ions from aqueous acidic media, and more particularly useful for the isolation of radioactive cesium-137 from nuclear waste streams. Processes for isolating cesium ions from aqueous acidic media using the crown ether cesium extractant are disclosed as are processes for recycling the crown ether cesium extractant and processes for recovering cesium from a crown ether cesium extractant solution.

  4. Cesium distribution and phases in proxy experiments on the incineration of radioactively contaminated waste from the Fukushima area.

    PubMed

    Saffarzadeh, Amirhomayoun; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Kakuta, Yoshitada; Kawano, Takashi

    2014-10-01

    After the March 11, 2011 Tohoku earthquake and Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant accident, incineration was initially adopted as an effective technique for the treatment of post-disaster wastes. Accordingly, considerable amounts of radioactively contaminated residues were immediately generated through incineration. The level of radioactivity associated with radiocesium in the incineration ash residues (bottom ash and fly ash) became significantly high (several thousand to 100,000 Bq/kg) as a result of this treatment. In order to understand the modes of occurrence of radiocesium, bottom ash products were synthesized through combusting of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) with stable Cs salts in a pilot incinerator. Microscopic and microanalytical (SEM-EDX) techniques were applied and the following Cs categories were identified: low and high concentrations in the matrix glass, low-level partitioning into some newly-formed silicate minerals, partitioning into metal-sulfide compounds, and occurring in newly-formed Cs-rich minerals. These categories that are essentially silicate-bound are the most dominant forms in large and medium size bottom ash particles. It is expected that these achievements provide solutions to the immobilization of radiocesium in the incineration ash products contaminated by Fukushima nuclear accident.

  5. Investigation of radioactive cesium transportation from forest canopy to floor by litterfall, stemflow and throughfall in northern Fukushima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, I.; Ohte, N.; Iseda, K.; Tanoi, K.; Hirose, A.; Kobayashi, N. I.; Murakami, M.; Tokuchi, N.; Ohashi, M.

    2015-12-01

    After the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident due to Great East Japan Earthquake in March 11th 2011, large areas of forest have been highly contaminated by the radioactive nuclides. Most of the deposited radioactive material to the canopy is then washed out with rainfall or leaf fall due to the tree phenology. There have been studies showing that the amount of 137Cs transportation differs among litter components and water pathways, and was affected by seasonal variations. Thus, to evaluate the amount of 137Cs flux from canopy to forest floor, continuous monitoring of each component (litterfall, throughfall and stemflow) is required. We investigated the annual transfer of 137Cs from the forest canopy to the floor by litterfall, throughfall and stemflow at two different forest types in northern Fukushima after two years from the accident. Seasonal variations in 137Cs transportation and differences between forests types were also determined. Forest sites were set in the upstream part of Kami-Oguni River catchment at Date city, which locates approximately 50km northwest from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. The study sites consisted of two deciduous (Mixed deciduous-1, Mixed deciduous-2) and one cedar (Cedar plantation) stands. The cumulative 137Cs transportation from the forest canopy to the floor was 6.6 kBq m-2 year-1 for the Mixed deciduous-1, 3.9 kBq m-2 year-1 for the Mixed deciduous-2 and 11.0 kBq m-2 year-1 for the Cedar plantation. 137Cs transportation with litterfall increased in the defoliation period which correlated with the increased amount of litterfall. 137Cs transportation with throughfall and stemflow increased in the rainy season. 137Cs flux by litterfall was higher in Cedar plantation compared with that of mixed deciduous forests, while the opposite result was obtained for stemflow. The ratio of annual 137Cs flux and the estimated 137Cs amount deposited in the forests will be discussed.

  6. Copper Ferrocyanide Functionalized Core-Shell Magnetic Silica Composites for the Selective Removal of Cesium Ions from Radioactive Liquid Waste.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Kyu; Yang, Da Som; Oh, Wonzin; Choi, Sang-June

    2016-06-01

    The copper ferrocyanide functionalized core-shell magnetic silica composite (mag@silica-CuFC) was prepared and was found to be easily separated from aqueous solutions by using magnetic field. The synthesized mag@silica-CuFC composite has a high sorption ability of Cs owing to its strong affinity for Cs as well as the high surface area of the supports. Cs sorption on the mag@silica-CuFC composite quickly reached the sorption equilibrium after 2 h of contact time. The effect of the presence of salts with a high concentration of up to 3.5 wt% on the efficiency of Cs sorption onto the composites was also studied. The maximum sorption ability was found to be maintained in the presence of up to 3.5 wt% of NaCl in the solution. Considering these results, the mag@silica-CuFC composite has great potential for use as an effective sorbent for the selective removal of radioactive Cs ions.

  7. Biological half-life of radioactive cesium in Japanese rockfish Sebastes cheni contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Akira; Shigeoka, Yu; Arakawa, Hisayuki; Hirakawa, Naoto; Morioka, Yoshiaki; Mizuno, Takuji

    2015-12-01

    Since the Fukushima accident in March 2011 the concentration of radioactive cesium in Japanese rockfish (Sebastes cheni) has been decreasing slower than other fish species. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the possibility of slow elimination rate (i.e., relatively longer Tb) as one of the reasons for the slow decrease in (137)Cs concentrations in Japanese rockfish (S. cheni). To do this, we reared twenty-three individuals of this species for a period of about 1 year, during which time we measured the (137)Cs concentrations and γ-ray spectra 14 times by using a high-efficiency NaI(Tl) scintillator. We then examined the relationship between the (137)Cs concentrations and the total length of each individual. We estimated the biological half-life (Tb, day) for each individual using the total number of (137)Cs counts in the energy region, and examined the effects of total length and (137)Cs concentration on Tb by generalized linear model (GLM). We also examined the effect of sex, total length, seawater temperature, and the (137)Cs concentration of seawater on temporal changes in the (137)Cs count reduction rate by GLM. There was no clear relationship between the corrected whole-body (137)Cs concentrations and the total length in females, however there was a significant positive correlation between these two variables in males. The difference between males and females may be attributable to variation in the degree of dilution because of variable growth of individuals, and suggests that the (137)Cs concentrations of small individuals may be greatly diluted because of faster growth. However, there was no significant difference in Tb between sexes. The mean Tb (±SD) in all individuals was 269 (±39) days; this Tb value is 2.7-5.4 times longer than past Tb values (marine fish: 50-100 days), and is thought to be one of the reasons for the slower decrease in (137)Cs concentrations in this species than other fish species on the coast of Fukushima. The GLM

  8. Technology for Treatment of Liquid Radioactive Waste Generated during Uranium and Plutonium Chemical and Metallurgical Manufacturing in FSUE PO Mayak - 13616

    SciTech Connect

    Adamovich, D.

    2013-07-01

    Created technological scheme for treatment of liquid radioactive waste generated while uranium and plutonium chemical and metallurgical manufacturing consists of: - Liquid radioactive waste (LRW) purification from radionuclides and its transfer into category of manufacturing waste; - Concentration of suspensions containing alpha-nuclides and their further conversion to safe dry state (calcinate) and moving to long controlled storage. The following technologies are implemented in LRW treatment complex: - Settling and filtering technology for treatment of liquid intermediate-level waste (ILW) with volume about 1500m{sup 3}/year and alpha-activity from 10{sup 6} to 10{sup 8} Bq/dm{sup 3} - Membrane and sorption technology for processing of low-level waste (LLW) of radioactive drain waters with volume about 150 000 m{sup 3}/year and alpha-activity from 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 4} Bq/dm{sup 3}. Settling and filtering technology includes two stages of ILW immobilization accompanied with primary settling of radionuclides on transition metal hydroxides with the following flushing and drying of the pulp generated; secondary deep after settling of radionuclides on transition metal hydroxides with the following solid phase concentration by the method of tangential flow ultrafiltration. Besides, the installation capacity on permeate is not less than 3 m{sup 3}/h. Concentrates generated are sent to calcination on microwave drying (MW drying) unit. Membrane and sorption technology includes processing of averaged sewage flux by the method of tangential flow ultrafiltration with total capacity of installations on permeate not less than 18 m{sup 3}/h and sorption extraction of uranium from permeate on anionite. According to radionuclide contamination level purified solution refers to general industrial waste. Concentrates generated during suspension filtering are evaporated in rotary film evaporator (RFE) in order to remove excess water, thereafter they are dried on infrared heating

  9. Solvent-free synthesis and application of nano-Fe/Ca/CaO/[PO4] composite for dual separation and immobilization of stable and radioactive cesium in contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy; Mitoma, Yoshiharu; Okuda, Tetsuji; Simion, Cristian; Lee, Byeong Kyu

    2015-10-30

    This study assessed the synthesis and application of nano-Fe/Ca/CaO-based composite material for use as a separation and immobilizing treatment of dry soil contaminated by stable ((133)Cs) and radioactive cesium species ((134)Cs and (137)Cs). After grinding with nano-Fe/CaO, nano-Fe/Ca/CaO, and nano-Fe/Ca/CaO/[PO4], approximately 31, 25, and 22 wt% of magnetic fraction soil was separated. Their resultant (133)Cs immobilization values were about 78, 81, and 100%, respectively. When real radioactive cesium contaminated soil obtained from Fukushima was treated with nano-Fe/Ca/CaO/[PO4], approximately 27.3 wt% of magnetic and 72.75% of non-magnetic soil fractions were separated. The highest amount of entrapped (134)Cs and (137)Cs was found in the lowest weight of the magnetically separated soil fraction (i.e., 80% in 27.3% of treated soil). Results show that (134)Cs and (137)Cs either in the magnetic or non-magnetic soil fractions was 100% immobilized. The morphology and mineral phases of the nano-Fe/Ca/CaO/[PO4] treated soil were characterized using SEM-EDS, EPMA, and XRD analysis. The EPMA and XRD patterns indicate that the main fraction of enclosed/bound materials on treated soil included Ca/PO4 associated crystalline complexes. These results suggest that simple grinding treatment with nano-Fe/Ca/CaO/[PO4] under dry conditions might be an extremely efficient separation and immobilization method for radioactive cesium contaminated soil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Dissolved Concentration Limits of Radioactive Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Y. Chen; E.R. Thomas; F.J. Pearson; P.L. Cloke; T.L. Steinborn; P.V. Brady

    2003-06-20

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of radioactive elements under possible repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, and measurements made in laboratory experiments and field work. The scope of this modeling activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for 14 radioactive elements (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium), which are important to calculated dose. Model outputs are mainly in the form of look-up tables plus one or more uncertainty terms. The rest are either in the form of distributions or single values. The results of this analysis are fundamental inputs for total system performance assessment to constrain the release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Solubilities of plutonium, neptunium, uranium, americium, actinium, thorium, protactinium, lead, and radium have been re-evaluated using the newly updated thermodynamic database (Data0.ymp.R2). For all of the actinides, identical modeling approaches and consistent environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models in this revision. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so that they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, activity coefficients, and selection of solubility controlling phase have been quantified or otherwise addressed. Moreover, a new blended plutonium solubility model has been developed in this revision, which gives a mean solubility that is three orders of magnitude lower than the plutonium solubility model used for the Total System Performance Assessment for the Site Recommendation. Two alternative neptunium solubility models have also been

  11. PIXE analyses of cesium in rice grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugai, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Keizo; Matsuyama, Shigeo; Terakawa, Atsuki; Kikuchi, Yohei; Takahashi, Hiroaki; Ishizaki, Azusa; Fujishiro, Fumito; Arai, Hirotsugu; Osada, Naoyuki; Karahashi, Masahiro; Nozawa, Yuichiro; Yamauchi, Shosei; Kikuchi, Kosuke; Koshio, Shigeki; Watanabe, Koji

    2014-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear power plant accident released vast amounts of radioactive material into the environment. For instance, 134Cs and 137Cs have half-lives of about 2 and 30 years, respectively, and emit many harmful gamma rays. In 2012, rice with radioactivity >100 Bq/kg was occasionally reported in Fukushima prefecture. To determine where and how cesium accumulates in rice, we grew rice in soil containing stable cesium and investigated the distribution of cesium in rice using particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). This study found that cesium is accumulated in bran and germ at high concentrations, and white rice contains 40% of the cesium found in brown rice.

  12. Radioactive substances in tap water.

    PubMed

    Atsuumi, Ryo; Endo, Yoshihiko; Suzuki, Akihiko; Kannotou, Yasumitu; Nakada, Masahiro; Yabuuchi, Reiko

    2014-01-01

    A 9.0 magnitude (M) earthquake with an epicenter off the Sanriku coast occurred at 14: 46 on March 11, 2011. TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F-1 NPP) was struck by the earthquake and its resulting tsunami. Consequently a critical nuclear disaster developed, as a large quantity of radioactive materials was released due to a hydrogen blast. On March 16(th), 2011, radioiodine and radioactive cesium were detected at levels of 177 Bq/kg and 58 Bq/kg, respectively, in tap water in Fukushima city (about 62km northwest of TEPCO F-1 NPP). On March 20th, radioiodine was detected in tap water at a level of 965 Bq/kg, which is over the value-index of restrictions on food and drink intake (radioiodine 300 Bq/kg (infant intake 100 Bq/kg)) designated by the Nuclear Safety Commission. Therefore, intake restriction measures were taken regarding drinking water. After that, although the all intake restrictions were lifted, in order to confirm the safety of tap water, an inspection system was established to monitor all tap water in the prefecture. This system has confirmed that there has been no detection of radioiodine or radioactive cesium in tap water in the prefecture since May 5(th), 2011. Furthermore, radioactive strontium ((89) Sr, (90)Sr) and plutonium ((238)Pu, (239)Pu+(240)Pu) in tap water and the raw water supply were measured. As a result, (89) Sr, (238)Pu, (239)Pu+(240)Pu were undetectable and although (90)Sr was detected, its committed effective dose of 0.00017 mSv was much lower than the yearly 0.1 mSv of the World Health Organization guidelines for drinking water quality. In addition, the results did not show any deviations from past inspection results.

  13. Plutonium controversy

    SciTech Connect

    Richmond, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    The toxicity of plutonium is discussed, particularly in relation to controversies surrounding the setting of radiation protection standards. The sources, amounts of, and exposure pathways of plutonium are given and the public risk estimated. (ACR)

  14. Preparation and characterization of (Ba,Cs)(M,Ti) 8O 16 (M = Al 3+, Fe 3+, Ga 3+, Cr 3+, Sc 3+, Mg 2+) hollandite ceramics developed for radioactive cesium immobilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubin-Chevaldonnet, V.; Caurant, D.; Dannoux, A.; Gourier, D.; Charpentier, T.; Mazerolles, L.; Advocat, T.

    2007-06-01

    Among the different matrices proposed for selective and durable immobilization of radioactive cesium, (Ba x,Cs y)(M,Ti) 8O 16 hollandite ceramics, with x + y < 2 and M = divalent or trivalent cation appeared as the best candidates. In this study, hollandite ceramics were prepared using oxide route from oxide, carbonate and nitrate powders with and without Cs for different cations M (Al 3+, Cr 3+, Ga 3+, Fe 3+, Mg 2+, Sc 3+) of increasing size, in order to evaluate the effect of composition on ceramics microstructure and structure and on cesium incorporation. To reduce the risks of Cs vaporization during synthesis, calcined powders were sintered in air at moderate temperature (1200 °C). This oxide route appeared as an alternative to the alkoxide route generally proposed to prepare hollandite waste form. For y = 0, single phase Ba x(M,Ti) 8O 16 was obtained only for M 3+ = Al 3+, Cr 3+ and Fe 3+. For y ≠ 0 and Fe 3+, all cesium was incorporated in hollandite and ceramic was well densified. For Cr 3+ and Ga 3+, only 46% and 63%, respectively, of Cs were retained in hollandite phase. For these samples, a high fraction of Cs was either evaporated and/or concentrated in a Cs-rich parasitic phase. Mixed hollandite samples with M 3+ = Ga 3+ + Al 3+ and M 3+ = Fe 3+ + Al 3+ were also synthesized and the best results regarding Cs immobilization and ceramic density were obtained with iron + aluminum but the sample porosity was higher than that of the sample containing only iron. All results were discussed by considering cations size and refractory character of oxides and hollandite ceramics.

  15. Spectrophotometric determination of plutonium in highly radioactive liquid waste using an internal standardization technique with neodymium(III).

    PubMed

    Surugaya, Naoki; Taguchi, Shigeo; Sato, Soichi; Watahiki, Masaru; Hiyama, Toshiaki

    2008-03-01

    A simple and rapid spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of Pu in highly radioactive liquid waste. This method uses Nd(III) as an internal standard, which enables us to determine the concentration of Pu and to authenticate the whole analytical scheme as well. A Nd(III) standard mixed with a sample solution and Pu was quantitatively oxidized to Pu(VI) with Ce(IV) in a nitric acid medium, having the maximum absorbance at 830 nm. A spectrophotometric measurement of Pu(VI) was subsequently performed to determine the concentration compared with the maximum absorbance of Nd(III) at 795 nm. It was estimated that the relative expanded uncertainty for a real sample is less than 10%. The limit of detection was calculated to be 1.8 mg/L (3 sigma). The proposed method was also validated through comparison experiments with isotope dilution mass spectrometry, and was successfully applied to analysis for nuclear waste management at spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plants.

  16. The Universal Solvent Extraction (UNEX) Process I: Development of the UNEX Process Solvent for the Separation of Cesium, Strontium, and the Actinides from Acidic Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Law, Jack Douglas; Todd, Terry Allen; Herbst, Ronald Scott; Brewer, Ken Neal; Romanovskiy, V. N.; Smirnov, I. V.; Babain, V. A.

    2001-01-01

    A synergistic extraction mixture containing chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (CCD), carbamoylmethyl phosphine oxide (CMPO), and polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been investigated for the simultaneous recovery of cesium, strontium, lanthanides, and actinides from highly acidic media. The extraction properties of this mixture depend on the concentration ratio of the components. For recovery of all major radionuclides, the optimal ratio of [CCD]:[PEG]: [CMPO] = 5:1:1 should be used. The use of diphenyl-N,N-dibutylcarbamoylmethyl phosphine oxide and PEG-400 provides the most efficient recovery of cesium, strontium, lanthanides, and actinides. The possibility of using polyfluorinated ethers, esters, ketones, and sulfones as diluents was examined. Phenyltrifluoromethyl sulfone was the most suitable diluent tested. The use of this diluent allows good extraction properties, chemical and radiation stability, excellent explosion/fire-safety properties, and favorable hydrodynamic characteristics. The extraction of radionuclides from HNO3 media by mixtures of CCD:PEG:CMPO in phenyltrifluoromethyl sulfone and the subsequent stripping behavior were evaluated.

  17. IODATE METHOD FOR PURIFYING PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Stoughton, R.W.; Duffield, R.B.

    1958-10-14

    A method is presented for removing radioactive fission products from aqueous solutions containing such fission products together with plutonium. This is accomplished by incorporating into such solutions a metal iodate precipitate to remove fission products which form insoluble iodates. Suitable metal iodates are those of thorium and cerium. The plutonium must be in the hexavalent state and the pH of the solution must be manintained at less than 2.

  18. DISSOLVED CONCENTRATION LIMITS OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    2004-11-22

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of elements with radioactive isotopes under probable repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, field measurements, and laboratory experiments. The scope of this modeling activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for 14 elements with radioactive isotopes (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium) important to calculated dose. Model outputs for uranium, plutonium, neptunium, thorium, americium, and protactinium are in the form of tabulated functions with pH and log (line integral) CO{sub 2} as independent variables, plus one or more uncertainty terms. The solubility limits for the remaining elements are either in the form of distributions or single values. The output data from this report are fundamental inputs for Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) to determine the estimated release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Consistent modeling approaches and environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models for all of the actinides. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so that they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, and activity coefficients have been quantified or otherwise addressed.

  19. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 distribution in Baltic Sea waters

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarev, L.N.; Gedeonov, L.I.; Ivanova, L.M.; Stepanov, A.V.

    1988-09-01

    The strontium-90 and cesium-137 concentrations determined in 1983 in the Baltic Sea proper and the Gulf of Finland and in the Soviet Baltic rivers are furnished. The cesium-137 content has been found to be directly proportional to the salinity of the water. Significant influx of technogenic radioactive contaminants from the North to the Baltic Sea was noted in 1983.

  20. Crystalline silicotitanates for cesium/strontium removal

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N.; Miller, J.; Sherman, J.

    1996-10-01

    A new class of inorganic ion exchangers called crystalline silicotitanates (CST) has been developed that exhibits very high selectivity for cesium and strontium in the highly alkaline radioactive wastes at the Hanford Site and other DOE sites. Tests have also shown that CSTs have high selectivity for cesium in acidic and neutral solutions. The ESP is supporting an effort at Sandia National Laboratories and Texas A & M University to further develop and characterize the important chemical and physical properties that will determine the applicability of CST to radioactive waste treatment at Hanford and other DOE facilities.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF PROTOTYPE TITANATE ION EXCHANGE LOADED MEMBRANES FOR STRONTIUM, CESIUM AND ACTINIDE DECONTAMINATION FROM AQUEOUS MEDIA

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L; Keisha Martin, K; David Hobbs, D

    2008-05-30

    We have successfully incorporated high surface area particles of titanate ion exchange materials (monosodium titanate and crystalline silicotitanate) with acceptable particle size distribution into porous and inert support membrane fibrils consisting of polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon{reg_sign}), polyethylene and cellulose materials. The resulting membrane sheets, under laboratory conditions, were used to evaluate the removal of surrogate radioactive materials for cesium-137 and strontium-90 from high caustic nuclear waste simulants. These membrane supports met the nominal requirement for nonchemical interaction with the embedded ion exchange materials and were porous enough to allow sufficient liquid flow. Some of this 47-mm size stamped out prototype titanium impregnated ion exchange membrane discs was found to remove more than 96% of dissolved cesium-133 and strontium-88 from a caustic nuclear waste salt simulants. Since in traditional ion exchange based column technology monosodium titanate (MST) is known to have great affinity for the sorbing of other actinides like plutonium, neptunium and even uranium, we expect that the MST-based membranes developed here, although not directly evaluated for uptake of these three actinides because of costs associated with working with actinides which do not have 'true' experimental surrogates, would also show significant affinity for these actinides in aqueous media. It was also observed that crystalline silicotitanate impregnated polytetrafluoroethylene or polyethylene membranes became less selective and sorbed both cesium and strontium from the caustic aqueous salt simulants.

  2. Global searches for microalgae and aquatic plants that can eliminate radioactive cesium, iodine and strontium from the radio-polluted aquatic environment: a bioremediation strategy.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Shin-Ya; Iwamoto, Koji; Atsumi, Mika; Yokoyama, Akiko; Nakayama, Takeshi; Ishida, Ken-Ichiro; Inouye, Isao; Shiraiwa, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    The Fukushima 1 Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011 released an enormously high level of radionuclides into the environment, a total estimation of 6.3 × 10¹⁷ Bq represented by mainly radioactive Cs, Sr, and I. Because these radionuclides are biophilic, an urgent risk has arisen due to biological intake and subsequent food web contamination in the ecosystem. Thus, urgent elimination of radionuclides from the environment is necessary to prevent substantial radiopollution of organisms. In this study, we selected microalgae and aquatic plants that can efficiently eliminate these radionuclides from the environment. The ability of aquatic plants and algae was assessed by determining the elimination rate of radioactive Cs, Sr and I from culture medium and the accumulation capacity of radionuclides into single cells or whole bodies. Among 188 strains examined from microalgae, aquatic plants and unidentified algal species, we identified six, three and eight strains that can accumulate high levels of radioactive Cs, Sr and I from the medium, respectively. Notably, a novel eustigmatophycean unicellular algal strain, nak 9, showed the highest ability to eliminate radioactive Cs from the medium by cellular accumulation. Our results provide an important strategy for decreasing radiopollution in Fukushima area.

  3. Fundamental study of cesium decontamination from soil by superconducting magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igarashi, Susumu; Mishima, Fumihito; Akiyama, Yoko; Nishijima, Shigehiro

    2013-11-01

    The radioactive substances have been spread out all over the surrounding area of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant caused by the accident in March 2011. Decontamination and volume reduction of radioactive substances, especially cesium ion, are desired issue. This study proposed a decontamination method of the soil by the magnetic separation using superconducting magnet. Cesium ion was adsorbed by Prussian blue in the potassium iodide solution. We succeeded in separating selectively the cesium ion-adsorbed Prussian blue out of the liquid phase by high gradient magnetic separation. High recovery ratio of the Prussian blue was achieved by this method.

  4. RESORCINOL-FORMALDEHYDE ADSORPTION OF CESIUM (Cs+) FROM HANFORD WASTE SOLUTIONS-PART I: BATCH EQUILIBRIUM STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    HASSAN, NEGUIBM

    2004-03-30

    Batch equilibrium measurements were conducted with a granular Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (RF) resin to determine the distribution coefficients (Kds) for cesium. In the tests, Hanford Site actual waste sample containing radioactive cesium and a pretreated waste sample that was spiked with non-radioactive cesium were used. Initial concentrations of non-radioactive cesium in the waste sample were varied to generate an equilibrium isotherm for cesium. Two additional tests were conducted using a liquid to solid phase ratio of 10 and a contact time of 120 hours. The measured distribution coefficient (Kd) for radioactive cesium (137Cs) was 948 mL/g; the Kd for non-radioactive cesium (133Cs) was 1039 mL/g. The Kd for non-radioactive cesium decreased from 1039 to 691 mL/g as the initial cesium concentration increased. Very little change of the Kd was observed at initial cesium concentrations above 64 mg/mL. The maximum sorption capacity for cesium on granular RF resin was 1.17 mmole/g dry resin. T his value was calculated from the fit of the equilibrium isotherm data to the Dubinin-Radushkevich equation. Previously, a total capacity of 2.84 mmole/g was calculated by Bibler and Wallace for air-dried RF resin.

  5. [Decorporation agents for internal radioactive contamination].

    PubMed

    Ohmachi, Yasushi

    2015-01-01

    When radionuclides are accidentally ingested or inhaled, blood circulation or tissue/organ deposition of the radionuclides causes systemic or local radiation effects. In such cases, decorporation therapy is used to reduce the health risks due to their intake. Decorporation therapy includes reduction and/or inhibition of absorption from the gastrointestinal tract, isotopic dilution, and the use of diuretics, adsorbents, and chelating agents. For example, penicillamine is recommended as a chelating agent for copper contamination, and diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid is approved for the treatment of internal contamination with plutonium. During chelation therapy, the removal effect of the drugs should be monitored using a whole-body counter and/or bioassay. Some authorities, such as the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements and International Atomic Energy Agency, have reported recommended decorporation agents for each radionuclide. However, few drugs are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, and many are off-label-use agents. Because many decontamination agents are drugs that have been available for a long time and have limited efficacy, the development of new, higher-efficacy drugs has been carried out mainly in the USA and France. In this article, in addition to an outline of decorporation agents for internal radioactive contamination, an outline of our research on decorporation agents for actinide (uranium and plutonium) contamination and for radio-cesium contamination is also presented.

  6. Background Radioactivity in River and Reservoir Sediments near Los Alamos, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    S.G.McLin; D.W. Lyons

    2002-05-05

    As part of its continuing Environmental Surveillance Program, regional river and lake-bottom sediments have been collected annually by Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) since 1974 and 1979, respectively. These background samples are collected from three drainage basins at ten different river stations and five reservoirs located throughout northern New Mexico and southern Colorado. Radiochemical analyses for these sediments include tritium, strontium-90, cesium-137, total uranium, plutonium-238, plutonium-239,-240, americium-241, gross alpha, gross beta, and gross gamma radioactivity. Detection-limit radioactivity originates as worldwide fallout from aboveground nuclear weapons testing and satellite reentry into Earth's atmosphere. Spatial and temporal variations in individual analyte levels originate from atmospheric point-source introductions and natural rate differences in airborne deposition and soil erosion. Background radioactivity values on sediments reflect this variability, and grouped river and reservoir sediment samples show a range of statistical distributions that appear to be analyte dependent. Traditionally, both river and reservoir analyte data were blended together to establish background levels. In this report, however, we group background sediment data according to two criteria. These include sediment source (either river or reservoir sediments) and station location relative to the Laboratory (either upstream or downstream). These grouped data are statistically evaluated through 1997, and background radioactivity values are established for individual analytes in upstream river and reservoir sediments. This information may be used to establish the existence and areal extent of trace-level environmental contamination resulting from historical Laboratory research activities since the early 1940s.

  7. A novel role for methyl cysteinate, a cysteine derivative, in cesium accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Eri; Miyazaki, Takae; Hayaishi-Satoh, Aya; Han, Minwoo; Kusano, Miyako; Khandelia, Himanshu; Saito, Kazuki; Shin, Ryoung

    2017-02-01

    Phytoaccumulation is a technique to extract metals from soil utilising ability of plants. Cesium is a valuable metal while radioactive isotopes of cesium can be hazardous. In order to establish a more efficient phytoaccumulation system, small molecules which promote plants to accumulate cesium were investigated. Through chemical library screening, 14 chemicals were isolated as ‘cesium accumulators’ in Arabidopsis thaliana. Of those, methyl cysteinate, a derivative of cysteine, was found to function within the plant to accumulate externally supplemented cesium. Moreover, metabolite profiling demonstrated that cesium treatment increased cysteine levels in Arabidopsis. The cesium accumulation effect was not observed for other cysteine derivatives or amino acids on the cysteine metabolic pathway tested. Our results suggest that methyl cysteinate, potentially metabolised from cysteine, binds with cesium on the surface of the roots or inside plant cells and improve phytoaccumulation.

  8. A novel role for methyl cysteinate, a cysteine derivative, in cesium accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Eri; Miyazaki, Takae; Hayaishi-Satoh, Aya; Han, Minwoo; Kusano, Miyako; Khandelia, Himanshu; Saito, Kazuki; Shin, Ryoung

    2017-01-01

    Phytoaccumulation is a technique to extract metals from soil utilising ability of plants. Cesium is a valuable metal while radioactive isotopes of cesium can be hazardous. In order to establish a more efficient phytoaccumulation system, small molecules which promote plants to accumulate cesium were investigated. Through chemical library screening, 14 chemicals were isolated as ‘cesium accumulators’ in Arabidopsis thaliana. Of those, methyl cysteinate, a derivative of cysteine, was found to function within the plant to accumulate externally supplemented cesium. Moreover, metabolite profiling demonstrated that cesium treatment increased cysteine levels in Arabidopsis. The cesium accumulation effect was not observed for other cysteine derivatives or amino acids on the cysteine metabolic pathway tested. Our results suggest that methyl cysteinate, potentially metabolised from cysteine, binds with cesium on the surface of the roots or inside plant cells and improve phytoaccumulation. PMID:28230101

  9. First-Principles Calculation Study of Mechanism of Cation Adsorption Selectivity of Zeolites: A Guideline for Effective Removal of Radioactive Cesium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Hiroki; Okumura, Masahiko; Machida, Masahiko

    2013-02-01

    Zeolites have attracted attention in the reprocessing of radioactive nuclear waste because of their high selective affinity for radioisotopes of Cs. Very recently, their useful properties have been widely utilized in decontamination after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants. In this study, we study the high selectivity in the Cs adsorption of zeolites using first-principles calculations and clarify the mechanism of the cation selectivity of zeolites. We obtain energy surfaces on all capture locations for Cs/Na ions inside the micropores of a zeolite, ``mordenite'', and find three crucial conditions for the highly ion-selective exchange of Na for Cs: i) micropores with a radius of ˜3 Å, ii) a moderate Al/Si ratio, and iii) a uniform distribution of Al atoms around each micropore. These insights suggest a guideline for developing zeolites with high Cs selectivity and for enhancing the cation selectivity in more general situations.

  10. Initial evaluation of Sandia National Laboratory-prepared crystalline silico-titanates for cesium recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, L.A.; Carson, K.J.; Elovich, R.J.

    1993-10-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory initiated a study of a new class of inorganic ion exchange materials that selectively extracts cesium (Cs), strontium (Sr), and plutonium (Pu) from alkaline radioactive waste solutions. These materials, identified as crystalline silico-titanates (CST), were developed by scientists at the Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) and Texas A&M. This report summarizes preliminary results for the measurement of batch distribution coefficient (K{sub d}) values for the powdered CST materials compared to previously tested ion exchange materials: IONSIV IE-96 (a zeolite produced by UOP), CS-100 (an organic resin produced by Rohm and Haas), and BIB-DJ (a new resorcinol-formaldehyde organic resin produced by Boulder Scientific). Excellent results were obtained for CST inorganic exchangers that could be significant in the development of processes for the near-term pretreatment of Hanford alkaline wastes. The following observations and conclusions resulted from this study: (1) Several CST samples prepared at SNL had a higher capacity to remove Cs from solution as compared to BIB-DJ, IE-96, and CS-100. (2) Cesium distribution results showed that CST samples TAM-40, -42, -43, -70, and -74 had {lambda} values of {approximately}2,200 ({lambda} = Cs K{sub d} {times} {rho}{sub b}; where {lambda} represents the number of exchanger bed volumes of feed that can be loaded on an ion exchange column) at a pH value >14. (3) Cesium distribution values for CST exchangers doubled as the aqueous temperature decreased from 40{degrees} to 10{degrees}C. (4) Crystalline silico-titanates have the capacity to remove Cs as well as Sr and Pu from alkaline wastes unless organic complexants are present. Experimental results indicated that complexed Sr was not removed, and Pu is not expected to be removed.

  11. Stable solidification of silica-based ammonium molybdophosphate by allophane: Application to treatment of radioactive cesium in secondary solid wastes generated from fukushima.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan; Lee, Chuan-Pin; Mimura, Hitoshi; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Wei, Yuezhou

    2018-01-05

    Silica-based ammonium molybdophosphate (AMP/SiO2) is an absorbent material that can effectively remove Cs from radioactive-contaminated wastewater (RCW) generated by Fukushima nuclide accident. Pressing/sintering method was used for final disposal of secondary waste (spent absorbent) to achieve the volume reduction of AMP-Cs/SiO2 (AMP/SiO2 saturation adsorption of Cs) and stable solidification of Cs by adding natural allophane. The structure of AMP-Cs completely collapsed at approximately 700°C, and most Mo and P species in AMP sublimed. The optimal sintering temperature was estimated as 900°C. The stable crystalline phase of Cs4Al4Si20O48 was recrystallized by the reaction of Cs2O, Al2O3, and SiO2, and the immobilization ratio of Cs was approximately 100%. The leachability of Cs from the sintered product in distilled water was approximately 0.41%. The high immobilization and low leachability of Cs were attributed to the excellent solidification properties of the sintered products of AMP-Cs/SiO2-allophane. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. CONVERSION OF PLUTONIUM TRIFLUORIDE TO PLUTONIUM TETRAFLUORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Fried, S.; Davidson, N.R.

    1957-09-10

    A large proportion of the trifluoride of plutonium can be converted, in the absence of hydrogen fluoride, to the tetrafiuoride of plutonium. This is done by heating plutonium trifluoride with oxygen at temperatures between 250 and 900 deg C. The trifiuoride of plutonium reacts with oxygen to form plutonium tetrafluoride and plutonium oxide, in a ratio of about 3 to 1. In the presence of moisture, plutonium tetrafluoride tends to hydrolyze at elevated temperatures and therefore it is desirable to have the process take place under anhydrous conditions.

  13. METHOD FOR THE RECOVERY OF CESIUM VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Rimshaw, S.J.

    1960-02-16

    A method is given for recovering Cs/sup 137/ from radioactive waste solutions together with extraneous impurities. Ammonium alum is precipitated in the waste solution. The alum, which carries the cesium, is separated from the supernatant liquid and then dissolved in water. The resulting aqueous solution is then provided with a source of hydroxyl ions, which precipitates aluminum as the hydroxide, and the aluminum hydroxide is separated from the resulting liquid. This liquid, which contains anionic impurities together with ammonium and cesium, is passed through an anion exchange resin bed which removes the anionic impurities. The ammonium in the effluent is removed by destructive distiilation, leaving a substantiaily pure cesium salt in the effluent.

  14. Cleaning Cesium Radionuclides from BN-350 Primary Sodium

    SciTech Connect

    Romanenko, O.G.; Allen, K.J.; Wachs, D.M.; Planchon, H.P.; Wells, P.B.; Michelbacher, J.A.; Nazarenko, P.; Dumchev, I.; Maev, V.; Zemtzev, B.; Tikhomirov, L.; Yakovlev, V.; Synkov, A

    2005-04-15

    This paper reports the successful design and operation of a system to remove highly radioactive cesium from the sodium coolant of the BN-350 reactor in Aktau, Kazakhstan. As an international effort between the United States and the Republic of Kazakhstan, a cesium-trapping system was jointly designed, fabricated, installed, and successfully operated. The results are significant for a number of reasons, including (a) a significant reduction of radioactivity levels of the BN-350 coolant and reactor surfaces, thereby reducing exposure to workers during shutdown operations; (b) demonstration of scientific ideas; and (c) the engineering application of effective cesium trap deployment for commercial-sized liquid-metal reactors. About 255 300 GBq (6900 Ci) of cesium was trapped, and the {sup 137}Cs specific activity in BN-350 primary sodium was decreased from 296 MBq/kg (8000 {mu}Ci/kg) to 0.37 MBq/kg (10 {mu}Ci/kg) by using seven cesium traps containing reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) as the cesium adsorbent. Cesium trapping was accomplished by pumping sodium from the primary circuit, passing it through a block of RVC within each trap, and returning the cleaned sodium to the primary circuit. Both to predict and to analyze the behavior of the cesium traps in the BN-350 reactor primary circuit, a model was developed that satisfactorily describes the observed results of the cesium trapping. By using this model, thermodynamic parameters, such as the heat of adsorption of cesium atoms on RVC and on internal piping surfaces of the BN-350 reactor primary circuit, -22.7 and -5.0 kJ/mole, respectively, were extracted from the experimental data.

  15. DISSOLVED CONCENTRATION LIMITS OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    P. Bernot

    2005-07-13

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of elements with radioactive isotopes under probable repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, field measurements, and laboratory experiments. The scope of this activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for elements with radioactive isotopes (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium) relevant to calculated dose. Model outputs for uranium, plutonium, neptunium, thorium, americium, and protactinium are provided in the form of tabulated functions with pH and log fCO{sub 2} as independent variables, plus one or more uncertainty terms. The solubility limits for the remaining elements are either in the form of distributions or single values. Even though selection of an appropriate set of radionuclides documented in Radionuclide Screening (BSC 2002 [DIRS 160059]) includes actinium, transport of Ac is not modeled in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) model because of its extremely short half-life. Actinium dose is calculated in the TSPA-LA by assuming secular equilibrium with {sup 231}Pa (Section 6.10); therefore, Ac is not analyzed in this report. The output data from this report are fundamental inputs for TSPA-LA used to determine the estimated release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Consistent modeling approaches and environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models for the actinides discussed in this report. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, and activity coefficients have been quantified or

  16. Method for removing cesium from a nuclear reactor coolant

    DOEpatents

    Colburn, Richard P.

    1986-01-01

    A method of and system for removing cesium from a liquid metal reactor coolant including a carbon packing trap in the primary coolant system for absorbing a major portion of the radioactive cesium from the coolant flowing therethrough at a reduced temperature. A regeneration subloop system having a secondary carbon packing trap is selectively connected to the primary system for isolating the main trap therefrom and connecting it to the regeneration system. Increasing the temperature of the sodium flowing through the primary trap diffuses a portion of the cesium

  17. Adsorption of cesium on cement mortar from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Volchek, Konstantin; Miah, Muhammed Yusuf; Kuang, Wenxing; DeMaleki, Zack; Tezel, F Handan

    2011-10-30

    The adsorption of cesium on cement mortar from aqueous solutions was studied in series of bench-scale tests. The effects of cesium concentration, temperature and contact time on process kinetics and equilibrium were evaluated. Experiments were carried out in a range of initial cesium concentrations from 0.0103 to 10.88 mg L(-1) and temperatures from 278 to 313 K using coupons of cement mortar immersed in the solutions. Non-radioactive cesium chloride was used as a surrogate of the radioactive (137)Cs. Solution samples were taken after set periods of time and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Depending on the initial cesium concentration, its equilibrium concentration in solution ranged from 0.0069 to 8.837 mg L(-1) while the respective surface concentration on coupons varied from 0.0395 to 22.34 μg cm(-2). Equilibrium test results correlated well with the Freundlich isotherm model for the entire test duration. Test results revealed that an increase in temperature resulted in an increase in adsorption rate and a decrease in equilibrium cesium surface concentration. Among several kinetic models considered, the pseudo-second order reaction model was found to be the best to describe the kinetic test results in the studied range of concentrations. The adsorption activation energy determined from Arrhenius equation was found to be approximately 55.9 kJ mol(-1) suggesting that chemisorption was the prevalent mechanism of interaction between cesium ions and cement mortar.

  18. 10 CFR 71.23 - General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material... RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL General Licenses § 71.23 General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material. (a... form of plutonium-beryllium (Pu-Be) special form sealed sources, or to deliver Pu-Be sealed sources to...

  19. 10 CFR 71.23 - General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material... RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL General Licenses § 71.23 General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material. (a... form of plutonium-beryllium (Pu-Be) special form sealed sources, or to deliver Pu-Be sealed sources to...

  20. 10 CFR 71.23 - General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material... RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL General Licenses § 71.23 General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material. (a... form of plutonium-beryllium (Pu-Be) special form sealed sources, or to deliver Pu-Be sealed sources to...

  1. 10 CFR 71.23 - General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material... RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL General Licenses § 71.23 General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material. (a... form of plutonium-beryllium (Pu-Be) special form sealed sources, or to deliver Pu-Be sealed sources to...

  2. 10 CFR 71.23 - General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material... RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL General Licenses § 71.23 General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material. (a... form of plutonium-beryllium (Pu-Be) special form sealed sources, or to deliver Pu-Be sealed sources to...

  3. Sci-Tech Feature: Plutonium. Fuel for Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iikubo, Ryuko

    1993-01-01

    Despite opposition by environmental organizations, Japan plans to import plutonium from France and Great Britain. Interviews Toichi Sakata, director of the nuclear fuel division of the Science and Technology Agency, who explains why Japan needs the radioactive substance. (MDH)

  4. Sci-Tech Feature: Plutonium. Fuel for Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iikubo, Ryuko

    1993-01-01

    Despite opposition by environmental organizations, Japan plans to import plutonium from France and Great Britain. Interviews Toichi Sakata, director of the nuclear fuel division of the Science and Technology Agency, who explains why Japan needs the radioactive substance. (MDH)

  5. Plutonium story

    SciTech Connect

    Seaborg, G T

    1981-09-01

    The first nuclear synthesis and identification (i.e., the discovery) of the synthetic transuranium element plutonium (isotope /sup 238/Pu) and the demonstration of its fissionability with slow neutrons (isotope /sup 239/Pu) took place at the University of California, Berkeley, through the use of the 60-inch and 37-inch cyclotrons, in late 1940 and early 1941. This led to the development of industrial scale methods in secret work centered at the University of Chicago's Metallurgical Laboratory and the application of these methods to industrial scale production, at manufacturing plants in Tennessee and Washington, during the World War II years 1942 to 1945. The chemical properties of plutonium, needed to devise the procedures for its industrial scale production, were studied by tracer and ultramicrochemical methods during this period on an extraordinarily urgent basis. This work, and subsequent investigations on a worldwide basis, have made the properties of plutonium very well known. Its well studied electronic structure and chemical properties give it a very interesting position in the actinide series of inner transition elements.

  6. Plutonium Story

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Seaborg, G. T.

    1981-09-01

    The first nuclear synthesis and identification (i.e., the discovery) of the synthetic transuranium element plutonium (isotope /sup 238/Pu) and the demonstration of its fissionability with slow neutrons (isotope /sup 239/Pu) took place at the University of California, Berkeley, through the use of the 60-inch and 37-inch cyclotrons, in late 1940 and early 1941. This led to the development of industrial scale methods in secret work centered at the University of Chicago's Metallurgical Laboratory and the application of these methods to industrial scale production, at manufacturing plants in Tennessee and Washington, during the World War II years 1942 to 1945. The chemical properties of plutonium, needed to devise the procedures for its industrial scale production, were studied by tracer and ultramicrochemical methods during this period on an extraordinarily urgent basis. This work, and subsequent investigations on a worldwide basis, have made the properties of plutonium very well known. Its well studied electronic structure and chemical properties give it a very interesting position in the actinide series of inner transition elements.

  7. Survey of glass plutonium contents and poison selection

    SciTech Connect

    Plodinec, M.J.; Ramsey, W.G.; Ellison, A.J.G.; Shaw, H.

    1996-05-01

    If plutonium and other actinides are to be immobilized in glass, then achieving high concentrations in the glass is desirable. This will lead to reduced costs and more rapid immobilization. However, glasses with high actinide concentrations also bring with them undersirable characteristics, especially a greater concern about nuclear criticality, particularly in a geologic repository. The key to achieving a high concentration of actinide elements in a glass is to formulate the glass so that the solubility of actinides is high. At the same time, the glass must be formulated so that the glass also contains neutron poisons, which will prevent criticality during processing and in a geologic repository. In this paper, the solubility of actinides, particularly plutonium, in three types of glasses are discussed. Plutonium solubilities are in the 2-4 wt% range for borosilicate high-level waste (HLW) glasses of the type which will be produced in the US. This type of glass is generally melted at relatively low temperatures, ca. 1150{degrees}C. For this melting temperature, the glass can be reformulated to achieve plutonium solubilities of at least 7 wt%. This low melting temperature is desirable if one must retain volatile cesium-137 in the glass. If one is not concerned about cesium volatility, then glasses can be formulated which can contain much larger amounts of plutonium and other actinides. Plutonium concentrations of at least 15 wt% have been achieved. Thus, there is confidence that high ({ge}5 wt%) concentrations of actinides can be achieved under a variety of conditions.

  8. 30. VIEW OF A GLOVEBOX LINE USED IN PLUTONIUM OPERATIONS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. VIEW OF A GLOVEBOX LINE USED IN PLUTONIUM OPERATIONS. SAFETY AND HEALTH CONCERNS WERE OF MAJOR IMPORTANCE AT THE PLANT, BECAUSE OF THE RADIOACTIVE NATURE OF THE MATERIALS USED. PLUTONIUM GIVES OFF ALPHA AND BETA PARTICLES, GAMMA PROTONS, NEUTRONS, AND IS ALSO PYROPHORIC. AS A RESULT, PLUTONIUM OPERATIONS ARE PERFORMED UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITIONS THAT INCLUDE CONTAINMENT, FILTERING, SHIELDING, AND CREATING AN INERT ATMOSPHERE. PLUTONIUM WAS HANDLED WITHIN GLOVEBOXES THAT WERE INTERCONNECTED AND RAN SEVERAL HUNDRED FEET IN LENGTH (5/5/70). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  9. A review of job-exposure matrix methodology for application to workers exposed to radiation from internally deposited plutonium or other radioactive materials.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hanhua; Wakeford, Richard; Riddell, Anthony; O'Hagan, Jacqueline; MacGregor, David; Agius, Raymond; Wilson, Christine; Peace, Mark; de Vocht, Frank

    2016-03-01

    Any potential health effects of radiation emitted from radionuclides deposited in the bodies of workers exposed to radioactive materials can be directly investigated through epidemiological studies. However, estimates of radionuclide exposure and consequent tissue-specific doses, particularly for early workers for whom monitoring was relatively crude but exposures tended to be highest, can be uncertain, limiting the accuracy of risk estimates. We review the use of job-exposure matrices (JEMs) in peer-reviewed epidemiological and exposure assessment studies of nuclear industry workers exposed to radioactive materials as a method for addressing gaps in exposure data, and discuss methodology and comparability between studies. We identified nine studies of nuclear worker cohorts in France, Russia, the USA and the UK that had incorporated JEMs in their exposure assessments. All these JEMs were study or cohort-specific, and although broadly comparable methodologies were used in their construction, this is insufficient to enable the transfer of any one JEM to another study. Moreover there was often inadequate detail on whether, or how, JEMs were validated. JEMs have become more detailed and more quantitative, and this trend may eventually enable better comparison across, and the pooling of, studies. We conclude that JEMs have been shown to be a valuable exposure assessment methodology for imputation of missing exposure data for nuclear worker cohorts with data not missing at random. The next step forward for direct comparison or pooled analysis of complete cohorts would be the use of transparent and transferable methods.

  10. PLUTONIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Chynoweth, W.

    1959-06-16

    The preparation of low-melting-point plutonium alloys is described. In a MgO crucible Pu is placed on top of the lighter alloying metal (Fe, Co, or Ni) and the temperature raised to 1000 or 1200 deg C. Upon cooling, the alloy slug is broke out of the crucible. With 14 at. % Ni the m.p. is 465 deg C; with 9.5 at. % Fe the m.p. is 410 deg C; and with 12.0 at. % Co the m.p. is 405 deg C. (T.R.H.) l6262 l6263 ((((((((Abstract unscannable))))))))

  11. PRODUCTION OF PLUTONIUM METAL

    DOEpatents

    Lyon, W.L.; Moore, R.H.

    1961-01-17

    A process is given for producing plutonium metal by the reduction of plutonium chloride, dissolved in alkali metal chloride plus or minus aluminum chloride, with magnesium or a magnesium-aluminum alloy at between 700 and 800 deg C and separating the plutonium or plutonium-aluminum alloy formed from the salt.

  12. Radioactivity and food

    SciTech Connect

    Olszyna-Marzys, A.E. )

    1990-03-01

    Two topics relating to radioactivity and food are discussed: food irradiation for preservation purposes, and food contamination from radioactive substances. Food irradiation involves the use of electromagnetic energy (x and gamma rays) emitted by radioactive substances or produced by machine in order to destroy the insects and microorganisms present and prevent germination. The sanitary and economic advantages of treating food in this way are discussed. Numerous studies have confirmed that under strictly controlled conditions no undesirable changes take place in food that has been irradiated nor is radioactivity induced. Reference is made to the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station, which aroused public concern about irradiated food. The events surrounding the accident are reviewed, and its consequences with regard to contamination of different foods with radioactive substances, particularly iodine-131 and cesium-137, are described. Also discussed are the steps that have been taken by different international organizations to set limits on acceptable radioactivity in food.15 references.

  13. SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Maddock, A.G.; Smith, F.

    1959-08-25

    A method is described for separating plutonium from uranium and fission products by treating a nitrate solution of fission products, uranium, and hexavalent plutonium with a relatively water-insoluble fluoride to adsorb fission products on the fluoride, treating the residual solution with a reducing agent for plutonium to reduce its valence to four and less, treating the reduced plutonium solution with a relatively insoluble fluoride to adsorb the plutonium on the fluoride, removing the solution, and subsequently treating the fluoride with its adsorbed plutonium with a concentrated aqueous solution of at least one of a group consisting of aluminum nitrate, ferric nitrate, and manganous nitrate to remove the plutonium from the fluoride.

  14. Cesium: a bibliography update

    SciTech Connect

    Messiha, F.S.

    1984-01-01

    A brief outline of both industrial and medicinal uses of cesium is given. This is followed by a survey of literature on cesium salts for the period between January 1981 to May 1984. The bibliography searched indicates an interesting pharmacological and behavioral effect for Cs-salts in addition to its well known physiological and itopic effects. A pattern of clinical trials suggests the potential of cesium salts in certain cancer therapies, affective disorders, tumor imaging, radiotherapy and certain cardiovascular usages. The need for continued probing into the biological activity of this alkalimetal is suggested.

  15. STRIPPING PROCESS FOR PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Kolodney, M.

    1959-10-01

    A method for removing silver, nickel, cadmium, zinc, and indium coatings from plutonium objects while simultaneously rendering the plutonium object passive is described. The coated plutonium object is immersed as the anode in an electrolyte in which the plutonium is passive and the coating metal is not passive, using as a cathode a metal which does not dissolve rapidly in the electrolyte. and passing an electrical current through the electrolyte until the coating metal is removed from the plutonium body.

  16. PRECIPITATION METHOD OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM CONTAMINATING ELEMENTS

    DOEpatents

    Sutton, J.B.

    1958-02-18

    This patent relates to an improved method for the decontamination of plutonium. The process consists broadly in an improvement in a method for recovering plutonium from radioactive uranium fission products in aqueous solutions by decontamination steps including byproduct carrier precipitation comprising the step of introducing a preformed aqueous slurry of a hydroxide of a metal of group IV B into any aqueous acidic solution which contains the plutonium in the hexavalent state, radioactive uranium fission products contaminant and a by-product carrier precipitate and separating the metal hydroxide and by-product precipitate from the solution. The process of this invention is especially useful in the separation of plutonium from radioactive zirconium and columbium fission products.

  17. A glass-encapsulated calcium phosphate wasteform for the immobilization of actinide-, fluoride-, and chloride-containing radioactive wastes from the pyrochemical reprocessing of plutonium metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donald, I. W.; Metcalfe, B. L.; Fong, S. K.; Gerrard, L. A.; Strachan, D. M.; Scheele, R. D.

    2007-03-01

    Chloride-containing radioactive wastes are generated during the pyrochemical reprocessing of Pu metal. Immobilization of these wastes in borosilicate glass or Synroc-type ceramics is not feasible due to the very low solubility of chlorides in these hosts. Alternative candidates have therefore been sought including phosphate-based glasses, crystalline ceramics and hybrid glass/ceramic systems. These studies have shown that high losses of chloride or evolution of chlorine gas from the melt make vitrification an unacceptable solution unless suitable off-gas treatment facilities capable of dealing with these corrosive by-products are available. On the other hand, both sodium aluminosilicate and calcium phosphate ceramics are capable of retaining chloride in stable mineral phases, which include sodalite, Na 8(AlSiO 4) 6Cl 2, chlorapatite, Ca 5(PO 4) 3Cl, and spodiosite, Ca 2(PO 4)Cl. The immobilization process developed in this study involves a solid state process in which waste and precursor powders are mixed and reacted in air at temperatures in the range 700-800 °C. The ceramic products are non-hygroscopic free-flowing powders that only require encapsulation in a relatively low melting temperature phosphate-based glass to produce a monolithic wasteform suitable for storage and ultimate disposal.

  18. Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition: Plutonium Packaging, Storage and Transportation and Waste Treatment, Storage and Disposal Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L J; Borisov, G B

    2004-07-21

    A fifth annual Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition meeting organized by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was held February 16-18, 2004, at the State Education Center (SEC), 4 Aerodromnya Drive, St. Petersburg, Russia. The meeting discussed Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition topics for which LLNL has the US Technical Lead Organization responsibilities. The technical areas discussed included Radioactive Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal, Plutonium Oxide and Plutonium Metal Packaging, Storage and Transportation and Spent Fuel Packaging, Storage and Transportation. The meeting was conducted with a conference format using technical presentations of papers with simultaneous translation into English and Russian. There were 46 Russian attendees from 14 different Russian organizations and six non-Russian attendees, four from the US and two from France. Forty technical presentations were made. The meeting agenda is given in Appendix B and the attendance list is in Appendix C.

  19. METHOD OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Brown, H.S.; Hill, O.F.

    1958-02-01

    Plutonium hexafluoride is a satisfactory fluorinating agent and may be reacted with various materials capable of forming fluorides, such as copper, iron, zinc, etc., with consequent formation of the metal fluoride and reduction of the plutonium to the form of a lower fluoride. In accordance with the present invention, it has been found that the reactivity of plutonium hexafluoride with other fluoridizable materials is so great that the process may be used as a method of separating plutonium from mixures containing plutonium hexafluoride and other vaporized fluorides even though the plutonium is present in but minute quantities. This process may be carried out by treating a mixture of fluoride vapors comprising plutonium hexafluoride and fluoride of uranium to selectively reduce the plutonium hexafluoride and convert it to a less volatile fluoride, and then recovering said less volatile fluoride from the vapor by condensation.

  20. Plutonium Training Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Balatsky, Galya Ivanovna; Wolkov, Benjamin

    2015-03-26

    This report was created to examine the current state of plutonium training in the United States and to discover ways in which to ensure that the next generation of plutonium workers are fully qualified.

  1. PREPARATION OF PLUTONIUM TRIFLUORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Burger, L.L.; Roake, W.E.

    1961-07-11

    A process of producing plutonium trifluoride by reacting dry plutonium(IV) oxalate with chlorofluorinated methane or ethane at 400 to 450 deg C and cooling the product in the absence of oxygen is described.

  2. PROCESS FOR PURIFYING PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Mastick, D.F.; Wigner, E.P.

    1958-05-01

    A method is described of separating plutonium from small amounts of uranium and other contaminants. An acidic aqueous solution of higher valent plutonium and hexavalent uranium is treated with a soluble iodide to obtain the plutonium in the plus three oxidation state while leaving the uranium in the hexavalent state, adding a soluble oxalate such as oxalic acid, and then separating the insoluble plus the plutonium trioxalate from the solution.

  3. Examination of the effect of alpha radiolysis on plutonium(V) sorption to quartz using multiple plutonium isotopes.

    PubMed

    Hixon, Amy E; Arai, Yuji; Powell, Brian A

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this research was to determine if radiolysis at the mineral surface was a plausible mechanism for surface-mediated reduction of plutonium. Batch sorption experiments were used to monitor the amount of plutonium sorbed to high-purity quartz as a function of time, pH, and total alpha radioactivity. Three systems were prepared using both (238)Pu and (242)Pu in order to increase the total alpha radioactivity of the mineral suspensions while maintaining a constant plutonium concentration. The fraction of sorbed plutonium increased with increasing time and pH regardless of the total alpha radioactivity of the system. Increasing the total alpha radioactivity of the solution had a negligible effect on the sorption rate. This indicated that surface-mediated reduction of Pu(V) in these systems was not due to radiolysis. Additionally, literature values for the Pu(V) disproportionation rate constant did not describe the experimental results. Therefore, Pu(V) disproportionation was also not a main driver for surface-mediated reduction of plutonium. Batch desorption experiments and X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy were used to show that Pu(IV) was the dominant oxidation state of sorbed plutonium. Thus, it appears that the observed surface-mediated reduction of Pu(V) in the presence of high-purity quartz was based on the thermodynamic favorability of a Pu(IV) surface complex.

  4. A study on determination of potentially hazardous plutonium isotopes in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Strumińska-Parulska, Dagmara I

    2013-01-01

    Due to the lack of stable plutonium isotopes, and the high mobility as well as long half-life, plutonium is considered one of the most important radioelement in safety assessment of environmental radioactivity and nuclear waste management. A number of analytical methods have been developed over the past decades for determination of plutonium in environmental samples. The article discusses different analytical techniques and presents the results of plutonium isotopes determination by alpha spectrometry and accelerator mass spectrometry in environmental samples. The concentrations of plutonium isotopes in analyzed samples indicates its measurement is of great importance for environmental and safety assessment, especially in contaminated areas.

  5. PLUTONIUM CLEANING PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Kolodney, M.

    1959-12-01

    A method is described for rapidly removing iron, nickel, and zinc coatings from plutonium objects while simultaneously rendering the plutonium object passive. The method consists of immersing the coated plutonium object in an aqueous acid solution containing a substantial concentration of nitrate ions, such as fuming nitric acid.

  6. PLUTONIUM-THORIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Schonfeld, F.W.

    1959-09-15

    New plutonium-base binary alloys useful as liquid reactor fuel are described. The alloys consist of 50 to 98 at.% thorium with the remainder plutonium. The stated advantages of these alloys over unalloyed plutonium for reactor fuel use are easy fabrication, phase stability, and the accompanying advantuge of providing a means for converting Th/sup 232/ into U/sup 233/.

  7. NPB Cesium Space Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, George M., III

    1992-01-01

    Neutral Particle Beam (NPB) weapons systems are planned to perform the ballistic missile defense functions of nuclear weapon/decoy discrimination and warhead kill at appropriate energy levels and ion currents. Negatively charged ions are produced in a specialized ion source and focused into a high quality particle beam. NPB linear accelerators accelerate and steer the negatively charged ions using electric and magnetic fields. After acceleration and steering the neutralizer system strips away extra electrons from ions to form the electrically neutral particle beam. The neutral beam then travels through space to the target unaffected by the Earth's magnetic fields. Continuing technological advances have greatly reduced the size and weight of NPB accelerator systems. Ion current production has been enhanced by over 100 percent with the intermittent addition of cesium at the NPB ion source device. This increase in current is essential to attain the most light weight, compact NPB platforms and minimize expensive launch costs. Addition of cesium into the ion source has been identified by the NPB community as the highest priority risk reduction space experiment necessary prior to planned NPB accelerator experiments and later weapons systems. The NPB Cesium Space Experiment is planned to successfully demonstrate controlled cesium introduction and vaporization into a simulated ion source chamber. Microgravity effects on the cesium deposition will be studied as will the effects of small amounts of cesium on high voltage accelerator components that might be susceptible to electrical insulator break downs. The experiment design will simulate as closely as possible the environment, physical and operational characteristics of the actual NPB ion source.

  8. Variation in available cesium concentration with parameters during temperature induced extraction of cesium from soil.

    PubMed

    Parajuli, Durga; Takahashi, Akira; Tanaka, Hisashi; Sato, Mutsuto; Fukuda, Shigeharu; Kamimura, Ryuichi; Kawamoto, Tohru

    2015-02-01

    Cesium extraction behavior of brown forest type soil collected from paddy fields in Fukushima nuclear accident affected areas was studied. In nitric acid or sulfuric acid solutions at elevated temperature, the concentration of Cs in soil available for extraction, m0, has been estimated on the basis of modified canonical equation and the equations derived from assumed equilibria. With the variation in temperature, mixing time, and soil to solvent ratio, the observed m0 values in 0.5 M acid solution ranged between 1.5 and 2.9 mg cesium per kilogram of soil. By increasing the acid concentration to 3 M, the value of m0 could be sharply increased to 5.1 mg/kg even at 95 °C. This variation in the extractable concentration of cesium with the parameters signifies the existence of different binding sites in the soil matrix. The results observed for uncontaminated sample could be reproduced with the radioactive cesium contaminated sample belonging to the same soil group.

  9. Preliminary Evaluation of Cesium Distribution for Wet Sieving Process Planned for Soil Decontamination in Japan - 13104

    SciTech Connect

    Enokida, Y.; Tanada, Y.; Hirabayashi, D.; Sawada, K.

    2013-07-01

    For the purpose of decontaminating radioactive cesium from a huge amount of soil, which has been estimated to be 1.2x10{sup 8} m{sup 3} by excavating to a 5-cm depth from the surface of Fukushima Prefecture where a severe nuclear accident occurred at TEPCO's power generating site and has emitted a significant amount of radioactive materials, mainly radioactive cesium, a wet sieving process was selected as one of effective methods available in Japan. Some private companies have demonstrated this process for soil treatment in the Fukushima area by testing at their plants. The results were very promising, and a full-fledged application is expected to follow. In the present study, we spiked several aqueous samples containing soil collected from an industrial wet sieving plant located near our university for the recycling of construction wastes with non-radioactive cesium hydroxide. The present study provides scientific data concerning the effectiveness in volume reduction of the contaminated soil by a wet sieving process as well as the cesium distribution between the liquid phase and clay minerals for each sub-process of the full-scale one, but a simulating plant equipped with a process of coagulating sedimentation and operational safety fundamentals for the plant. Especially for the latter aspect, the study showed that clay minerals of submicron size strongly bind a high content of cesium, which was only slightly removed by coagulation with natural sedimentation (1 G) nor centrifugal sedimentation (3,700 G) and some of the cesium may be transferred to the effluent or recycled water. By applying ultracentrifugation (257,000 G), most of submicron clay minerals containing cesium was removed, and the cesium amount which might be transferred to the effluent or recycled water, could be reduced to less than 2.3 % of the original design by the addition of a cesium barrier consisting of ultracentrifugation or a hollow fiber membrane. (authors)

  10. A pilot-scale radioactive test using in situ vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Timmerman, C.L.; Oma, K.M.

    1985-11-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is developing in situ vitrification (ISV) as a potential remedial action technique for previously disposed radioactive liquid drain sites. The process melts the contaminated soil to produce a durable glass and crystalline waste form and encapsulates the radionuclides. The development of this alternative technology is being performed for the US Department of Energy. The results of an ISV pilot-scale test conducted in June 1983 are discussed in which soils contaminated with actual radioactive transuranic and mixed fission product elements were vitrified. The test successfully demonstrated the containment of radionuclides during processing, both within the vitrified mass and in the off-gas system. No environmental release of radioactive material was detectable during testing operations. The vitrified soil retained >99% of all radionuclides. Losses to the offgas system varied from less than or equal to 0.03% for particulate materials (plutonium and strontium) to 0.8% for cesium, which is a more volatile element. The off-gas system effectively contained both volatile and entrained radioactive materials. Analysis of the vitrified soil revealed that all radionuclides were distributed throughout the vitrified zone, some more uniformly than others. Analysis of soil samples taken adjacent to the block indicated that no migration of radionuclides outside the vitrification zone occurred. Leaching studies have shown that the ISV process generates a highly durable waste form, comparable to Pyrex and granite. Based on geologic data from the hydration of obsidian, which is chemically similar to the ISV glass, the hydration or weathering rate is predicted to be much less than 1 mm in 10,000 yr.

  11. Methods of producing cesium-131

    DOEpatents

    Meikrantz, David H; Snyder, John R

    2012-09-18

    Methods of producing cesium-131. The method comprises dissolving at least one non-irradiated barium source in water or a nitric acid solution to produce a barium target solution. The barium target solution is irradiated with neutron radiation to produce cesium-131, which is removed from the barium target solution. The cesium-131 is complexed with a calixarene compound to separate the cesium-131 from the barium target solution. A liquid:liquid extraction device or extraction column is used to separate the cesium-131 from the barium target solution.

  12. A Note on the Reaction of Hydrogen and Plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Noone, Bailey C

    2012-08-15

    Plutonium hydride has many practical and experimental purposes. The reaction of plutonium and hydrogen has interesting characteristics, which will be explored in the following analysis. Plutonium is a radioactive actinide metal that emits alpha particles. When plutonium metal is exposed to air, the plutonium oxides and hydrides, and the volume increases. PuH{sub 2} and Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3} are the products. Hydrogen is a catalyst for plutonium's corrosion in air. The reaction can take place at room temperature because it is fairly insensitive to temperature. Plutonium hydride, or PuH{sub 2}, is black and metallic. After PuH{sub 2} is formed, it quickly flakes off and burns. The reaction of hydrogen and plutonium is described as pyrophoric because the product will spontaneously ignite when oxygen is present. This tendency must be considered in the storage of metal plutonium. The reaction is characterized as reversible and nonstoichiometric. The reaction goes as such: Pu + H{sub 2} {yields} PuH{sub 2}. When PuH{sub 2} is formed, the hydrogen/plutonium ratio is between 2 and 2.75 (approximately). As more hydrogen is added to the system, the ratio increases. When the ratio exceeds 2.75, PuH{sub 3} begins to form along with PuH{sub 2}. Once the ratio surpasses 2.9, only PuH{sub 3} remains. The volume of the plutonium sample increases because of the added hydrogen and the change in crystal structure which the sample undergoes. As more hydrogen is added to a system of metal plutonium, the crystal structure evolves. Plutonium has a crystal structure classified as monoclinic. A monoclinic crystal structure appears to be a rectangular prism. When plutonium reacts with hydrogen, the product PuH{sub 2}, becomes a fluorite structure. It can also be described as a face centered cubic structure. PuH{sub 3} forms a hexagonal crystal structure. As plutonium evolves from metal plutonium to plutonium hydride to plutonium trihydride, the crystal structure evolves from monoclinic to

  13. Excess plutonium disposition: The deep borehole option

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, K.L.

    1994-08-09

    This report reviews the current status of technologies required for the disposition of plutonium in Very Deep Holes (VDH). It is in response to a recent National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report which addressed the management of excess weapons plutonium and recommended three approaches to the ultimate disposition of excess plutonium: (1) fabrication and use as a fuel in existing or modified reactors in a once-through cycle, (2) vitrification with high-level radioactive waste for repository disposition, (3) burial in deep boreholes. As indicated in the NAS report, substantial effort would be required to address the broad range of issues related to deep bore-hole emplacement. Subjects reviewed in this report include geology and hydrology, design and engineering, safety and licensing, policy decisions that can impact the viability of the concept, and applicable international programs. Key technical areas that would require attention should decisions be made to further develop the borehole emplacement option are identified.

  14. Mobility of cesium through the Callovo-Oxfordian claystones under partially saturated conditions.

    PubMed

    Savoye, S; Beaucaire, C; Fayette, A; Herbette, M; Coelho, D

    2012-03-06

    The diffusion of cesium was studied in an unsaturated core of Callovo-Oxfordian claystone, which is a potential host rock for retrievable disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. In-diffusion laboratory experiments were performed on rock samples with water saturation degrees ranging from 81% to 100%. The analysis of both cesium concentration monitoring in the source reservoir and post-mortem cesium rock concentration profile of the samples was carried out using a chemical-transport code where the sorption of cesium was described by a multisite ion-exchange model. The results showed that cesium exhibited a clear trend related to the saturation degree of the sample. The more dehydrated the rock sample, the slower the decrease of cesium concentration, and the thinner the penetration depth of cesium was. The effective diffusion coefficient (De) for cesium decreased from 18.5 × 10(-11) m(2) s(-1) at full-saturation to 0.3 × 10(-11) m(2) s(-1) for the more dehydrated sample. This decrease is almost 1 order of magnitude higher than that for tritiated water (HTO), although a similar behavior could have been expected, since cesium is known to diffuse in the same parts of the pore space as HTO in fully saturated claystones.

  15. Crystalline silicotitanates--new ion exchanger for selective removal of cesium and strontium from radwastes

    SciTech Connect

    Dosch, R.G.; Klavetter, E.A.; Stephens, H.P.; Brown, N.E.; Anthony, R.G.

    1996-08-01

    A new class of inorganic ion exchange material called crystalline silicotitanates (CST) has been developed for radioactive waste treatment in a collaborative effort between Sandia National Laboratories and Texas A&M University. The Sandia National Laboratories Laboratory Directed Research and Development program provided the initial funding for this effort and this report summarizes the rapid progress that was achieved. A wide range of compositions were synthesized, evaluated for cesium (Cs) removal efficiency, and a composition called TAM-5 was developed that exhibits high selectivity and affinity for Cs and strontium (Sr). Tests show it can remove parts per million concentrations of Cs{sup +} from highly alkaline, high-sodium, simulated radioactive waste solutions modeled after those at Hanford, Oak Ridge, and Savannah River. In experiments with solutions that simulate highly alkaline Hanford defense wastes, the crystalline silicotitanates exhibit distribution coefficients for Cs{sup +} of greater than 2,000 ml/g, and distribution coefficients greater than 10,000 ml/g for solutions adjusted to a pH between 1 and 10. In addition, the CSTs were found to exhibit distribution coefficients for Sr{sup +} greater than 100,000 ml/g and for plutonium of 2,000 ml/g from simulated Hanford waste. The CST crystal structure was determined and positions of individual atoms identified using x-ray and neutron diffraction. The structural information has permitted identification of the ion exchange sites and provided insights into the strong effect of pH on Cs ion exchange. Information on the synthesis, composition, and structure of CST is considered proprietary and is not discussed in this report.

  16. Plutonium solution analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, D.A.

    1994-09-01

    A fully automated analyzer has been developed for plutonium solutions. It was assembled from several commercially available modules, is based upon segmented flow analysis, and exhibits precision about an order of magnitude better than commercial units (0.5%-O.05% RSD). The system was designed to accept unmeasured, untreated liquid samples in the concentration range 40-240 g/L and produce a report with sample identification, sample concentrations, and an abundance of statistics. Optional hydraulics can accommodate samples in the concentration range 0.4-4.0 g/L. Operating at a typical rate of 30 to 40 samples per hour, it consumes only 0.074 mL of each sample and standard, and generates waste at the rate of about 1.5 mL per minute. No radioactive material passes through its multichannel peristaltic pump (which remains outside the glovebox, uncontaminated) but rather is handled by a 6-port, 2-position chromatography-type loop valve. An accompanying computer is programmed in QuickBASIC 4.5 to provide both instrument control and data reduction. The program is truly user-friendly and communication between operator and instrument is via computer screen displays and keyboard. Two important issues which have been addressed are waste minimization and operator safety (the analyzer can run in the absence of an operator, once its autosampler has been loaded).

  17. Method for removing cesium from a nuclear reactor coolant

    DOEpatents

    Colburn, R.P.

    1983-08-10

    A method of and system for removing cesium from a liquid metal reactor coolant including a carbon packing trap in the primary coolant system for absorbing a major portion of the radioactive cesium from the coolant flowing therethrough at a reduced temperature. A regeneration subloop system having a secondary carbon packing trap is selectively connected to the primary system for isolating the main trap therefrom and connecting it to the regeneration system. Increasing the temperature of the sodium flowing through the primary trap diffuses a portion of the cesium inventory thereof further into the carbon matrix while simultaneously redispersing a portion into the regeneration system for absorption at a reduced temperature by the secondary trap.

  18. Concentration of Cs in plants and water resulting from radioactive pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizaki, A.; Ishii, K.; Matsuyama, S.; Fujishiro, F.; Arai, H.; Osada, N.; Sugai, H.; Koshio, S.; Yamauchi, S.; Kusano, K.; Nozawa, Y.; Karahashi, M.; Oshikawa, S.; Kikuchi, K.; Watanabe, K.; Itoh, S.; Kasahara, K.; Toyama, S.; Suzuki, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of plants cultivated in soils contaminated by radioactive cesium can lead to internal exposure and health problems in humans. It is therefore very important to clarify the uptake mechanism of radioactive cesium from contaminated soils. In this study, the variation of cesium concentrations in plants was examined using mediums that contained no potassium and different cesium concentrations of 50, 100, 250 and 500 ppm. Raphanus sativus was selected as a typical edible vegetable and hydroponically cultivated. Cesium concentrations in leaves were analyzed with a submilli-PIXE camera. The concentration of cesium in plants was observed to increase as concentrations in the medium increased. As the concentration of cesium in the medium increased, the transfer coefficient decreased. However, there was little difference between the 250 and 500 ppm treatments. In future work, PIXE analysis will be performed on different mediums and the relationship with other materials will be investigated.

  19. METHOD OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Heal, H.G.

    1960-02-16

    BS>A method of separating plutonium from aqueous nitrate solutions of plutonium, uranium. and high beta activity fission products is given. The pH of the aqueous solution is adjusted between 3.0 to 6.0 with ammonium acetate, ferric nitrate is added, and the solution is heated to 80 to 100 deg C to selectively form a basic ferric plutonium-carrying precipitate.

  20. PREPARATION OF PLUTONIUM HALIDES

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, N.R.; Katz, J.J.

    1958-11-01

    A process ls presented for the preparation of plutonium trihalides. Plutonium oxide or a compound which may be readily converted to plutonlum oxide, for example, a plutonium hydroxide or plutonlum oxalate is contacted with a suitable halogenating agent. Speciflc agents mentioned are carbon tetrachloride, carbon tetrabromide, sulfur dioxide, and phosphorus pentachloride. The reaction is carried out under superatmospberic pressure at about 300 icient laborato C.

  1. PLUTONIUM-ZIRCONIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Schonfeld, F.W.; Waber, J.T.

    1960-08-30

    A series of nuclear reactor fuel alloys consisting of from about 5 to about 50 at.% zirconium (or higher zirconium alloys such as Zircaloy), balance plutonium, and having the structural composition of a plutonium are described. Zirconium is a satisfactory diluent because it alloys readily with plutonium and has desirable nuclear properties. Additional advantages are corrosion resistance, excellent fabrication propenties, an isotropie structure, and initial softness.

  2. Evaluation of Elution Parameters for Cesium Ion Exchange Resins

    SciTech Connect

    Burgeson, Ingrid E.; Deschane, Jaquetta R.; Cook, Bryan J.; Blanchard, David L.; Weier, Dennis R.

    2006-08-28

    Cesium ion exchange is one of the planned processes for treating and disposing of waste at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. Radioactive supernatant liquids from the waste tanks will undergo ultrafiltration, followed by cesium ion exchange using a regenerable organic ion exchange resin. Two resins, SuperLig?644 and a Resorcinol-formaldehyde resin are being evaluated for cesium removal and cesium elution characteristics. The main purpose of this study is to optimize the cesium elution to provide a resin which after undergoing elution would meet the U.S. Department of Energy/Office of River Protection Project-Waste Treatment Plant processing and resin disposal criteria. Columns of each resin type were loaded to greater or equal to 90% breakthrough with a Hanford waste stimulant and eluted with nitric acid. The temperature, flow rate and nitric acid concentration were varied to determine the optimal elution conditions. Temperature and eluant flow rate were the most important elution parameters. As would be predicted based upon kinetic consideration alone, decreasing the eluant flow rate and increasing the temperature provided the optimal elution conditions. Varying the nitric acid concentration did not have a significant effect on the elution; however, elutions performed using both high acid concentration (1M) and elevated temperature (45 C) resulted in resin degradation, causing gas generation and resin bed disruption.

  3. Isolation and characterization of cesium-accumulating bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Tomioka, N; Uchiyama, H; Yagi, O

    1992-01-01

    Cesium-accumulating bacteria, strains CS98 and CS402, were isolated from soil by a radioactive autoradiographic method using 137Cs. These strains displayed the rod-coccus growth cycle and contained mesodiaminopimelic acid, mycolic acids, and tuberculostearic acids. The major menaquinone of CS98 was MK-8(H2). On the basis of these characteristics, strain CS98 was identified as Rhodococcus erythropolis and strain CS402 was classified in the genus Rhodococcus. The maximum values of cesium removal efficiencies in the liquid culture containing 10 mumol of cesium per liter for strains CS98 and CS402 were 90 and 47%, respectively. The maximum cesium contents in strains CS98 and CS402 were 52.0 and 18.8 mumol/g (dry weight) of cells, respectively. Maximum values of cesium concentration factors for strains CS98 and CS402 were 3.5 x 10(4) and 3.6 x 10(3), respectively. Images PMID:1575473

  4. Cesium-137 Decorporation Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Decorporation Medical countermeasure Cesium 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER (of pages) 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE...Development (RD) Enterprise of the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). Contract HDTRA1-10-C- 0025 is titled Medical Countermeasures for CBR Agents...Accurate modeling of medical countermeasure efficacy against chemical, biological and radiological agents (CBR agents) is essential to understanding the

  5. PREPARATION OF PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Kolodney, M.

    1959-07-01

    Methods are presented for the electro-deposition of plutonium from fused mixtures of plutonium halides and halides of the alkali metals and alkaline earth metals. Th salts, preferably chlorides and with the plutonium prefer ably in the trivalent state, are placed in a refractory crucible such as tantalum or molybdenam and heated in a non-oxidizing atmosphere to 600 to 850 deg C, the higher temperatatures being used to obtain massive plutonium and the lower for the powder form. Electrodes of graphite or non reactive refractory metals are used, the crucible serving the cathode in one apparatus described in the patent.

  6. Continuous plutonium dissolution apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, F.G.; Tesitor, C.N.

    1974-02-26

    This invention is concerned with continuous dissolution of metals such as plutonium. A high normality acid mixture is fed into a boiler vessel, vaporized, and subsequently condensed as a low normality acid mixture. The mixture is then conveyed to a dissolution vessel and contacted with the plutonium metal to dissolve the plutonium in the dissolution vessel, reacting therewith forming plutonium nitrate. The reaction products are then conveyed to the mixing vessel and maintained soluble by the high normality acid, with separation and removal of the desired constituent. (Official Gazette)

  7. North Korean plutonium production

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, D.

    1994-12-01

    In 1992, as part of its obligations under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, North Korea declared that it had earlier separated about 100 grams of plutonium from damaged fuel rods removed from a 25 megawatt-thermal (MW{sub t}) gas-graphite reactor at Yongbyon. The plutonium was separated at the nearby {open_quotes}Radiochemical Laboratory.{close_quotes} Separated plutonium is the raw ingredient for making nuclear weapons, but 100 grams is too little to make a crude bomb. Based on intelligence reports and IAEA inspections, North Korea may have separated enough plutonium for a nuclear weapon. Regardless of whether this is true, there is no doubt that North Korea has enough weapons-grade plutonium in spent fuel to make four or five nuclear weapons. But it cannot turn this plutonium into nuclear weapons unless it separates the plutonium from the spent fuel. Preventing the North from separating any more plutonium must remain a global priority. The IAEA must also be able to verify North Korea`s past nuclear activities and determine the amount of plutonium North Korea may have diverted in the past.

  8. Recovery of cesium

    DOEpatents

    Izatt, Reed M.; Christensen, James J.; Hawkins, Richard T.

    1984-01-01

    A process of recovering cesium ions from mixtures of ions containing them and other ions, e.g., a solution of nuclear waste materials, which comprises establishing a separate source phase containing such a mixture of ions, establishing a separate recipient phase, establishing a liquid membrane phase in interfacial contact with said source and recipient phases, said membrane phase containing a ligand, preferably a selected calixarene as depicted in the drawing, maintaining said interfacial contact for a period of time long enough to transport by said ligand a substantial portion of the cesium ion from the source phase to the recipient phase, and recovering the cesium ion from the recipient phase. The separation of the source and recipient phases may be by the membrane phase only, e.g., where these aqueous phases are emulsified as dispersed phases in a continuous membrane phase, or may include a physical barrier as well, e.g., an open-top outer container with an inner open-ended container of smaller cross-section mounted in the outer container with its open bottom end spaced from and above the closed bottom of the outer container so that the membrane phase may fill the outer container to a level above the bottom of the inner container and have floating on its upper surface a source phase and a recipient phase separated by the wall of the inner container as a physical barrier. A preferred solvent for the ligand is a mixture of methylene chloride and carbon tetrachloride.

  9. Fiscal year 1996 laboratory scale studies of cesium elution in tank 8D-1

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, R.L.; Patello, G.K.; Sills, J.A.

    1996-09-01

    This report details work performed as part of the West Valley Support Project (WVSP) by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). This work is intended to support residual waste removal during high-level waste (HLW) tank stabilization activities to be performed by the West valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). The HLW originated from a now inactive commercial nuclear fuel-reprocessing plant at West Valley, New York. It is stored in a carbon-steel tank designated 8D-2. Cesium-loaded zeolite was generated by a supernatant decontamination process involving ion exchange. The exchange columns and the spent zeolite are stored in a carbon-steel tank designated 8D-1. During the vitrification phase of the WVDP waste remediation, and estimated 95 percent of the zeolite will be transferred from tank 8D-1 to tank 8D- 2. The remaining cesium-loaded zeolite will require treatment to remove the highly radioactive cesium. This report summarizes the findings of laboratory experiments. The primary objectives of these experiments were: to refine the optimum process conditions for use of oxalic acid to elute cesium from zeolite; minimize iron dissolution during cesium elution; investigation of the effect of neutralization on cesium elution; determination of effects of zeolite particle size on cesium elution; and determine if aluminum can be used as an indicator for cesium in solution.

  10. DELTA PHASE PLUTONIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Cramer, E.M.; Ellinger, F.H.; Land. C.C.

    1960-03-22

    Delta-phase plutonium alloys were developed suitable for use as reactor fuels. The alloys consist of from 1 to 4 at.% zinc and the balance plutonium. The alloys have good neutronic, corrosion, and fabrication characteristics snd possess good dimensional characteristics throughout an operating temperature range from 300 to 490 deg C.

  11. PLUTONIUM-CERIUM ALLOY

    DOEpatents

    Coffinberry, A.S.

    1959-01-01

    An alloy is presented for use as a reactor fuel. The binary alloy consists essentially of from about 5 to 90 atomic per cent cerium and the balance being plutonium. A complete phase diagram for the cerium--plutonium system is given.

  12. ELECTRODEPOSITION OF PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Wolter, F.J.

    1957-09-10

    A process of electrolytically recovering plutonium from dilute aqueous solutions containing plutonium ions comprises electrolyzing the solution at a current density of about 0.44 ampere per square centimeter in the presence of an acetate-sulfate buffer while maintaining the pH of the solution at substantially 5 and using a stirred mercury cathode.

  13. 31. VIEW OF A WORKER HOLDING A PLUTONIUM 'BUTTON.' PLUTONIUM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. VIEW OF A WORKER HOLDING A PLUTONIUM 'BUTTON.' PLUTONIUM, A MAN-MADE SUBSTANCE, WAS RARE. SCRAPS RESULTING FROM PRODUCTION AND PLUTONIUM RECOVERED FROM RETIRED NUCLEAR WEAPONS WERE REPROCESSED INTO VALUABLE PURE-PLUTONIUM METAL (9/19/73). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  14. PLUTONIUM-CERIUM-COBALT AND PLUTONIUM-CERIUM-NICKEL ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Coffinberry, A.S.

    1959-08-25

    >New plutonium-base teroary alloys useful as liquid reactor fuels are described. The alloys consist of 10 to 20 atomic percent cobalt with the remainder plutonium and cerium in any desired proportion, with the plutonium not in excess of 88 atomic percent; or, of from 10 to 25 atomic percent nickel (or mixture of nickel and cobalt) with the remainder plutonium and cerium in any desired proportion, with the plutonium not in excess of 86 atomic percent. The stated advantages of these alloys over unalloyed plutonium for reactor fuel use are a lower melting point and a wide range of permissible plutonium dilution.

  15. Plutonium storage criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, D.; Ascanio, X.

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy has issued a technical standard for long-term (>50 years) storage and will soon issue a criteria document for interim (<20 years) storage of plutonium materials. The long-term technical standard, {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides,{close_quotes} addresses the requirements for storing metals and oxides with greater than 50 wt % plutonium. It calls for a standardized package that meets both off-site transportation requirements, as well as remote handling requirements from future storage facilities. The interim criteria document, {open_quotes}Criteria for Interim Safe Storage of Plutonium-Bearing Solid Materials{close_quotes}, addresses requirements for storing materials with less than 50 wt% plutonium. The interim criteria document assumes the materials will be stored on existing sites, and existing facilities and equipment will be used for repackaging to improve the margin of safety.

  16. Plutonium bioaccumulation in seabirds.

    PubMed

    Strumińska-Parulska, Dagmara I; Skwarzec, Bogdan; Fabisiak, Jacek

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the paper was plutonium (²³⁸Pu and ²³⁹⁺²⁴⁰Pu) determination in seabirds, permanently or temporarily living in northern Poland at the Baltic Sea coast. Together 11 marine birds species were examined: 3 species permanently residing in the southern Baltic, 4 species of wintering birds and 3 species of migrating birds. The obtained results indicated plutonium is non-uniformly distributed in organs and tissues of analyzed seabirds. The highest plutonium content was found in the digestion organs and feathers, the smallest in skin and muscles. The plutonium concentration was lower in analyzed species which feed on fish and much higher in herbivorous species. The main source of plutonium in analyzed marine birds was global atmospheric fallout.

  17. Plutonium Immobilization Canister Loading

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, E.L.

    1999-01-26

    This disposition of excess plutonium is determined by the Surplus Plutonium Disposition Environmental Impact Statement (SPD-EIS) being prepared by the Department of Energy. The disposition method (Known as ''can in canister'') combines cans of immobilized plutonium-ceramic disks (pucks) with vitrified high-level waste produced at the SRS Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). This is intended to deter proliferation by making the plutonium unattractive for recovery or theft. The envisioned process remotely installs cans containing plutonium-ceramic pucks into storage magazines. Magazines are then remotely loaded into the DWPF canister through the canister neck with a robotic arm and locked into a storage rack inside the canister, which holds seven magazines. Finally, the canister is processed through DWPF and filled with high-level waste glass, thereby surrounding the product cans. This paper covers magazine and rack development and canister loading concepts.

  18. Metals fact sheet--cesium

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    Cesium, the most alkaline and electropositive metal, is used by several industries for a variety of applications, including chemical catalysis, biomedical, photoelectrical, and glass manufacturing. While the traditional market for cesium has remained small, potential growth areas exist in the chemical catalysis and the oil and gas industry.

  19. Clinical effects of cesium intake.

    PubMed

    Melnikov, Petr; Zanoni, Lourdes Zélia

    2010-06-01

    The knowledge about cesium metabolism and toxicity is sparse. Oral intake of cesium chloride has been widely promoted on the basis of the hypothesis referred to as "high pH cancer therapy", a complimentary alternative medicine method for cancer treatment. However, no properly confirmed tumor regression was reported so far in all probability because of neither theoretical nor experimental grounds for this proposal. The aim of the present review was to resume and discuss the material currently available on cesium salts and their applications in medicine. The presence of cesium in the cell does not guarantee high pH of its content, and there is no clinical evidence to support the claims that cancer cells are vulnerable to cesium. Cesium is relatively safe; signs of its mild toxicity are gastrointestinal distress, hypotension, syncope, numbness, or tingling of the lips. Nevertheless, total cesium intakes of 6 g/day have been found to produce severe hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, prolonged QTc interval, episodes of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, with or without torsade de pointes, and even acute heart arrest. However, full information on its acute and chronic toxicity is not sufficiently known. Health care providers should be aware of the cardiac complications, as a result of careless cesium usage as alternative medicine.

  20. First-principles study of cesium adsorption to weathered micaceous clay minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumura, Masahiko; Nakamura, Hiroki; Machida, Masahiko

    2014-05-01

    A large amount of radioactive nuclides was produced into environment due to the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. Residents near FDNPP were suffering from radioactive cesium and then evacuated, because which has long half-life and is retained by surface soil for long time. The Japanese government has been decontaminating the cesium by removing the surface soil in order to return them to their home. This decontamination method is very effective, but which produces huge amount of waste soil. This becomes another big problem in Fukushima, because it is not easy to find large storage sites. Then effective and economical methods to reduce the volume of the waste soil are needed. However, it has not been invented yet. One of the reasons is lack of knowledge about microscopic process of adsorption/desorption of cesium to/from soil. It is known that weathered micaceous clay minerals play crucial role on adsorption and retention of cesium. They are expected to have special sorption sites, called frayed edge sites (FESs), which adsorb cesium selectively and irreversibly. Properties of FES have been intensely investigated by experiments. But microscopic details of the adsorption process on FES are still unclear. Because direct observation of the process with current experimental techniques is quite difficult. We investigated the adsorption of cesium to FES in muscovite, which is a typical micaceous clay mineral, via first-principles calculations (density functional theory). We made a minimal model of FES and evaluate the energy difference before and after cesium adsorption to FES. This is the first numerical modeling of FES. It was shown that FES does adsorb cesium if the weathering of muscovite has been weathered. In addition, we revealed the mechanism of cesium adsorption to FES, which is competition between ion radius of cesium and the degree of weathering. I plan to discuss volume reduction of the waste soil based on our result. Reference M. Okumura

  1. Selected radionuclides important to low-level radioactive waste management

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide information to state representatives and developers of low level radioactive waste (LLW) management facilities about the radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of selected radionuclides and their behavior in the environment. Extensive surveys of available literature provided information for this report. Certain radionuclides may contribute significantly to the dose estimated during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. Among these are the radionuclides listed in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 61.55, Tables 1 and 2 (including alpha emitting transuranics with half-lives greater than 5 years). This report discusses these radionuclides and other radionuclides that may be significant during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. This report not only includes essential information on each radionuclide, but also incorporates waste and disposal information on the radionuclide, and behavior of the radionuclide in the environment and in the human body. Radionuclides addressed in this document include technetium-99, carbon-14, iodine-129, tritium, cesium-137, strontium-90, nickel-59, plutonium-241, nickel-63, niobium-94, cobalt-60, curium -42, americium-241, uranium-238, and neptunium-237.

  2. Method for dissolving plutonium dioxide

    DOEpatents

    Tallent, Othar K.

    1978-01-01

    The fluoride-catalyzed, non-oxidative dissolution of plutonium dioxide in HNO.sub.3 is significantly enhanced in rate by oxidizing dissolved plutonium ions. It is believed that the oxidation of dissolved plutonium releases fluoride ions from a soluble plutonium-fluoride complex for further catalytic action.

  3. PLUTONIUM PURIFICATION PROCESS EMPLOYING THORIUM PYROPHOSPHATE CARRIER

    DOEpatents

    King, E.L.

    1959-04-28

    The separation and purification of plutonium from the radioactive elements of lower atomic weight is described. The process of this invention comprises forming a 0.5 to 2 M aqueous acidffc solution containing plutonium fons in the tetravalent state and elements with which it is normally contaminated in neutron irradiated uranium, treating the solution with a double thorium compound and a soluble pyrophosphate compound (Na/sub 4/P/sub 2/O/sub 7/) whereby a carrier precipitate of thorium A method is presented of reducing neptunium and - trite is advantageous since it destroys any hydrazine f so that they can be removed from solutions in which they are contained is described. In the carrier precipitation process for the separation of plutonium from uranium and fission products including zirconium and columbium, the precipitated blsmuth phosphate carries some zirconium, columbium, and uranium impurities. According to the invention such impurities can be complexed and removed by dissolving the contaminated carrier precipitate in 10M nitric acid, followed by addition of fluosilicic acid to about 1M, diluting the solution to about 1M in nitric acid, and then adding phosphoric acid to re-precipitate bismuth phosphate carrying plutonium.

  4. Low-level detection and quantification of Plutonium(III, IV, V,and VI) using a liquid core waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Richard E.; Hu, Yung-Jin; Nitsche, Heino

    2003-06-28

    Understanding the aqueous chemistry of plutonium, in particular in environmental conditions, is often complicated by plutonium's complex redox chemistry. Because plutonium possesses four oxidation states, all of which can coexist in solution, a reliable method for the identification of these oxidation states is needed. The identification of plutonium oxidation states at low levels in aqueous solution is often accomplished through an indirect determination using series of liquid-liquid extraction procedures using oxidation state specific reagents such as HDEHP and TTA. While these methods, coupled with radioactive counting techniques provide superior limits of detection they may influence the plutonium redox equilibrium, are time consuming, waste intensive and costly. Other analytical methods such as mass spectrometry and radioactive counting as stand alone methods provide excellent detection limits but lack the ability to discriminate between the oxidation states of the plutonium ions in solution.

  5. Development of Urinary Biomarkers for Internal Exposure by Cesium-137 Using a Metabolomics Approach in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Goudarzi, Maryam; Weber, Waylon; Mak, Tytus D.; Chung, Juijung; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Melo, Dunstana; Brenner, David J.; Guilmette, Raymond A.; Fornace, Albert J.

    2014-01-01

    Cesium-137 is a fission product of uranium and plutonium in nuclear reactors and is released in large quantities during nuclear explosions or detonation of an improvised device containing this isotope. This environmentally persistent radionuclide undergoes radioactive decay with the emission of beta particles as well as gamma radiation. Exposure to 137Cs at high doses can cause acute radiation sickness and increase risk for cancer and death. The serious health risks associated with 137Cs exposure makes it critical to understand how it affects human metabolism and whether minimally invasive and easily accessible samples such as urine and serum can be used to triage patients in case of a nuclear disaster or a radiologic event. In this study, we have focused on establishing a time-dependent metabolomic profile for urine collected from mice injected with 137CsCl. The samples were collected from control and exposed mice on days 2, 5, 20 and 30 after injection. The samples were then analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/TOFMS) and processed by an array of informatics and statistical tools. A total of 1,412 features were identified in ESI+ and ESI− modes from which 200 were determined to contribute significantly to the separation of metabolomic profiles of controls from those of the different treatment time points. The results of this study highlight the ease of use of the UPLC/TOFMS platform in finding urinary biomarkers for 137Cs exposure. Pathway analysis of the statistically significant metabolites suggests perturbations in several amino acid and fatty acid metabolism pathways. The results also indicate that 137Cs exposure causes: similar changes in the urinary excretion levels of taurine and citrate as seen with external-beam gamma radiation; causes no attenuation in the levels of hexanoylglycine and N-acetylspermidine; and has unique effects on the levels of isovalerylglycine and tiglylglycine. PMID

  6. Development of urinary biomarkers for internal exposure by cesium-137 using a metabolomics approach in mice.

    PubMed

    Goudarzi, Maryam; Weber, Waylon; Mak, Tytus D; Chung, Juijung; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Melo, Dunstana; Brenner, David J; Guilmette, Raymond A; Fornace, Albert J

    2014-01-01

    Cesium-137 is a fission product of uranium and plutonium in nuclear reactors and is released in large quantities during nuclear explosions or detonation of an improvised device containing this isotope. This environmentally persistent radionuclide undergoes radioactive decay with the emission of beta particles as well as gamma radiation. Exposure to (137)Cs at high doses can cause acute radiation sickness and increase risk for cancer and death. The serious health risks associated with (137)Cs exposure makes it critical to understand how it affects human metabolism and whether minimally invasive and easily accessible samples such as urine and serum can be used to triage patients in case of a nuclear disaster or a radiologic event. In this study, we have focused on establishing a time-dependent metabolomic profile for urine collected from mice injected with (137)CsCl. The samples were collected from control and exposed mice on days 2, 5, 20 and 30 after injection. The samples were then analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/TOFMS) and processed by an array of informatics and statistical tools. A total of 1,412 features were identified in ESI(+) and ESI(-) modes from which 200 were determined to contribute significantly to the separation of metabolomic profiles of controls from those of the different treatment time points. The results of this study highlight the ease of use of the UPLC/TOFMS platform in finding urinary biomarkers for (137)Cs exposure. Pathway analysis of the statistically significant metabolites suggests perturbations in several amino acid and fatty acid metabolism pathways. The results also indicate that (137)Cs exposure causes: similar changes in the urinary excretion levels of taurine and citrate as seen with external-beam gamma radiation; causes no attenuation in the levels of hexanoylglycine and N-acetylspermidine; and has unique effects on the levels of isovalerylglycine and

  7. Development of isotope dilution gamma-ray spectrometry for plutonium analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Li, T.K.; Parker, J.L. ); Kuno, Y.; Sato, S.; Kurosawa, A.; Akiyama, T. )

    1991-01-01

    We are studying the feasibility of determining the plutonium concentration and isotopic distribution of highly radioactive, spent-fuel dissolver solutions by employing high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The study involves gamma-ray plutonium isotopic analysis for both dissolver and spiked dissolver solution samples, after plutonium is eluted through an ion-exchange column and absorbed in a small resin bead bag. The spike is well characterized, dry plutonium containing {approximately}98% of {sup 239}Pu. By using measured isotopic information, the concentration of elemental plutonium in the dissolver solution can be determined. Both the plutonium concentration and the isotopic composition of the dissolver solution obtained from this study agree well with values obtained by traditional isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS). Because it is rapid, easy to operate and maintain, and costs less, this new technique could be an alternative method to IDMS for input accountability and verification measurements in reprocessing plants. 7 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Migration Behavior of Plutonium in Compacted Bentonite Under Reducing Condition Using Electromigration

    SciTech Connect

    Kazuya Idemitsu; Yosuke Yamasaki; Syeda Afsarun Nessa; Yaohiro Inagaki; Tatsumi Arima; Toshiaki Mitsugashira; Mitsuo Hara; Yoshimitsu Suzuki

    2007-07-01

    Carbon steel is one of the candidate overpack materials for high-level waste disposal and is expected to assure complete containment of vitrified waste glass during an initial period of 1000 years in Japan. Carbon steel overpack will be corroded by consuming oxygen introduced by repository construction after closure of repository and then will keep the reducing environment in the vicinity of repository. The migration of iron corrosion products through the buffer material will affect migration of redox-sensitive radionuclides. Therefore the authors have carried out electromigration experiments with source of iron ions supplied by anode corrosion of iron coupons attached to compacted bentonite. Authors tried to use plutonium in this experimental configuration to obtain the knowledge of migration behavior of actinides. Authors also used cesium as reference. The concentrations of iron and sodium showed nearly complementary distributions. It is expected that iron ion could migrate as ferrous ion through the interlayer of montmorillonite replacing exchangeable sodium ions in the interlayer. Concentration profiles of plutonium in bentonite grew as time supplying electric potential as long as 168 h. Plutonium migrated from the iron anode toward cathode as deeper than 1 mm of the interior of bentonite even in 48 h, though plutonium could not diffuse 1 mm for 2 years. On the other hand, profiles of cesium were reported to be controlled by ordinary diffusion because of large diffusion coefficient of cesium in bentonite as large as 10{sup -12} m{sup 2}/s. Drift of the cesium profile by electric potential gradient could be observed clearly after 240 h at individual experiment for cesium. Apparent dispersion coefficients of plutonium were calculated from the profiles and were as large as 10{sup -13} m{sup 2}/s. Since plutonium migration was accelerated by electric potential, plutonium chemical species would have positive charge and were estimated as PuOH{sup 2+} or PuCl{sup 2

  9. Plutonium Vulnerability Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    This Plutonium Vulnerability Management Plan describes the Department of Energy`s response to the vulnerabilities identified in the Plutonium Working Group Report which are a result of the cessation of nuclear weapons production. The responses contained in this document are only part of an overall, coordinated approach designed to enable the Department to accelerate conversion of all nuclear materials, including plutonium, to forms suitable for safe, interim storage. The overall actions being taken are discussed in detail in the Department`s Implementation Plan in response to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 94-1. This is included as Attachment B.

  10. Progress on plutonium stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Hurt, D.

    1996-05-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has safety oversight responsibility for most of the facilities where unstable forms of plutonium are being processed and packaged for interim storage. The Board has issued recommendations on plutonium stabilization and has has a considerable influence on DOE`s stabilization schedules and priorities. The Board has not made any recommendations on long-term plutonium disposition, although it may get more involved in the future if DOE develops plans to use defense nuclear facilities for disposition activities.

  11. PLUTONIUM SEPARATION METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Beaufait, L.J. Jr.; Stevenson, F.R.; Rollefson, G.K.

    1958-11-18

    The recovery of plutonium ions from neutron irradiated uranium can be accomplished by bufferlng an aqueous solutlon of the irradiated materials containing tetravalent plutonium to a pH of 4 to 7, adding sufficient acetate to the solution to complex the uranyl present, adding ferric nitrate to form a colloid of ferric hydroxide, plutonlum, and associated fission products, removing and dissolving the colloid in aqueous nitric acid, oxldizlng the plutonium to the hexavalent state by adding permanganate or dichromate, treating the resultant solution with ferric nitrate to form a colloid of ferric hydroxide and associated fission products, and separating the colloid from the plutonlum left in solution.

  12. PLUTONIUM ELECTROREFINING CELLS

    DOEpatents

    Mullins, L.J. Jr.; Leary, J.A.; Bjorklund, C.W.; Maraman, W.J.

    1963-07-16

    Electrorefining cells for obtaining 99.98% plutonium are described. The cells consist of an impure liquid plutonium anode, a molten PuCl/sub 3/-- alkali or alkaline earth metal chloanode, a molten PuCl/sub 3/-alkali or alkaline earth metal chloride electrolyte, and a nonreactive cathode, all being contained in nonreactive ceramic containers which separate anode from cathode by a short distance and define a gap for the collection of the purified liquid plutonium deposited on the cathode. Important features of these cells are the addition of stirrer blades on the anode lead and a large cathode surface to insure a low current density. (AEC)

  13. Plutonium radiation surrogate

    DOEpatents

    Frank, Michael I [Dublin, CA

    2010-02-02

    A self-contained source of gamma-ray and neutron radiation suitable for use as a radiation surrogate for weapons-grade plutonium is described. The source generates a radiation spectrum similar to that of weapons-grade plutonium at 5% energy resolution between 59 and 2614 keV, but contains no special nuclear material and emits little .alpha.-particle radiation. The weapons-grade plutonium radiation surrogate also emits neutrons having fluxes commensurate with the gamma-radiation intensities employed.

  14. Pretreatment of high-level radioactive waste at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, P.J.; Gessner, R.F.; Yeazel, J.A.

    1993-12-31

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) is an environmental remediation effort focused on demonstrating technologies to solidify high-level radioactive waste (HLW). The HLW remains from reprocessing activities conducted between 1966 and 1972 at the Western New York Nuclear Services Center (WNYNSC) in West Valley, New York, where spent nuclear fuel was reprocessed using essentially the Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) process. The waste (approximately 2,518 m{sup 3}) is stored in an underground carbon steel tank and consists of an alkaline supernate (90%) and precipitated sludge (10%). To prepare for HLW solidification, the WVDP is actively pretreating the waste by removing liquid HLW from the underground tank, extracting radioactive cesium from the liquid by an ion-exchange process, and stabilizing the resulting low-level liquid waste (LLW) in cement. Sludge at the tank bottom is washed to remove undesirable sodium salts, and the resulting liquid is again treated by ion-exchange before stabilizing the LLW waste in cement. This paper describes the pretreatment processes used for both the liquid and sludge phases of the HLW tank and the cementation of the resulting LLW.

  15. Mineral resource of the month: cesium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angulo, Marc A.

    2010-01-01

    The article offers information on cesium, a golden alkali metal derived from the Latin word caesium which means bluish gray. It mentions that cesium is the first element discovered with the use of spectroscopy. It adds that the leading producer and supplier of cesium is Canada and there are 50,000 kilograms of cesium consumed of the world in a year. Moreover, it states that only 85% of the cesium formate can be retrieved and recycled.

  16. Biokinetics of cesium in Perna viridis

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, P.K.N.; Lam, P.K.S.; Ng, B.K.P.; Li, A.M.Y.

    2000-02-01

    The biokinetics of Cs in four compartments in the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis, namely, gill, viscera, adductor muscle, and foot, were studied. First-order linear differential equations were set up for these four compartments, and their solutions were used to fit the experimental data. The parameters governing the biokinetics, which depend on the elimination rate from each compartment and the transfer coefficient between compartments, were found. These are useful in understanding the physiology of Perna viridis, in predicting the activity of cesium in each compartment of Perna viridis from a contamination history, or in using Perna viridis as a sentinel organism for surveying and monitoring radioactive contamination. The results showed that the viscera should be represented by more than one compartment. Concentration factors for the four compartments and for Perna viridis were also determined, and these agreed well with reported values in the literature.

  17. Novel Solvent for the Simultaneous recovery of Radioactive Nuclides from Liquid Radioactive Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Romanovskiy, Valeriy Nicholiavich; Smirnov, Lgor V.; Babain, Vasiliy A.; Todd, Terry A.; Brewer, Ken N.

    1999-10-07

    The present invention relates to solvents, and methods, for selectively extracting and recovering radionuclides, especially cesium and strontium, rare earths and actinides from liquid radioactive wastes. More specifically, the invention relates to extracting agent solvent compositions comprising complex organoboron compounds, substituted polyethylene glycols, and neutral organophosphorus compounds in a diluent. The preferred solvent comprises a chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide, diphenyl-dibutylmethylenecarbamoylphosphine oxide, PEG-400, and a diluent of phenylpolyfluoroalkyl sulfone. The invention also provides a method of using the invention extracting agents to recover cesium, strontium, rare earths and actinides from liquid radioactive waste.

  18. Prussian blue caged in spongiform adsorbents using diatomite and carbon nanotubes for elimination of cesium.

    PubMed

    Hu, Baiyang; Fugetsu, Bunshi; Yu, Hongwen; Abe, Yoshiteru

    2012-05-30

    We developed a spongiform adsorbent that contains Prussian blue, which showed a high capacity for eliminating cesium. An in situ synthesizing approach was used to synthesize Prussian blue inside diatomite cavities. Highly dispersed carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were used to form CNT networks that coated the diatomite to seal in the Prussian blue particles. These ternary (CNT/diatomite/Prussian-blue) composites were mixed with polyurethane (PU) prepolymers to produce a quaternary (PU/CNT/diatomite/Prussian-blue), spongiform adsorbent with an in situ foaming procedure. Prussian blue was permanently immobilized in the cell walls of the spongiform matrix and preferentially adsorbed cesium with a theoretical capacity of 167 mg/g cesium. Cesium was absorbed primarily by an ion-exchange mechanism, and the absorption was accomplished by self-uptake of radioactive water by the quaternary spongiform adsorbent. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Hot demonstration of proposed commercial cesium removal technology

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D.D.; Travis, J.R.; Gibson, M.R.

    1997-12-01

    This report describes the work done in support of the development of technology for the continuous removal and concentration of radioactive cesium in supernatant from Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs) at the ORNL site. The primary objective was to test candidate absorbers and ion exchangers under continuous-flow conditions using actual supernatant from the MVSTs. An experimental system contained in a hot-cell facility was constructed to test the materials in columns or modules using the same batch of supernatant to allow comparison on an equal basis. Resorcinol/formaldehyde (RF) resin was evaluated at three flow rates with 50% breakthrough ranges of 35 to 50 column volumes (CV) and also through a series of five loading/elution/regeneration cycles. The results reported here include the cesium loading breakthrough curves, elution curves (when applicable), and operational problems and observations for each material. The comparative evaluations should provide critical data for the selection of the sorbent for the ORNL Cesium Removal Demonstration project. These results will be used to help determine the design parameters for demonstration-scale systems. Such parameters include rates of cesium removal, quantity of resin or sorbent to be used, and elution and regeneration requirements, if applicable.

  20. Cesium Ion Exchange Using Tank 241-AN-104 Supernate

    SciTech Connect

    Adu-Wusu, K.

    2003-12-22

    The River Protection Project is to design and build a high level nuclear waste treatment facility. The waste treatment plant is to process millions of gallons of radioactive waste stored in tanks at the Hanford Site. The high level nuclear waste treatment process includes various unit operations, such as ultrafiltration, precipitation, evaporation, ion exchange, and vitrification. Ion exchange is identified as the optimal treatment method for removal of cesium-137 and Tc-99 from the waste. Extensive ion exchange testing was performed using small-scale columns with actual waste samples. The objectives of this study were to: demonstrate SuperLig 644 ion exchange performance and process steps for the removal of cesium from actual AN-104 tank waste; pretreat actual AN-104 tank waste to reduce the concentration of cesium-137 in the waste below LAW vitrification limit; produce and characterize cesium eluate solutions for use in eluate evaporation tests. The experiments consisted of batch contact and small-scale column tests. The batch contact tests measured sorption partition coefficients Kds. The Kds were used to predict the effective resin capacity. The small-scale column tests, which closely mimic plant conditions, generated loading and elution profile data used to determine whether removal targets and design requirements were met.

  1. Validation and Application of Concentrated Cesium Eluate Physical Property Models

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, A.S.

    2004-03-18

    This work contained two objectives. To verify the mathematical equations developed for the physical properties of concentrated cesium eluate solutions against experimental test results obtained with simulated feeds. To estimate the physical properties of the radioactive AW-101 cesium eluate at saturation using the validated models. The Hanford River Protection Project (RPP) Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is currently being built to extract radioisotopes from the vast inventory of Hanford tank wastes and immobilize them in a silicate glass matrix for eventual disposal at a geological repository. The baseline flowsheet for the pretreatment of supernatant liquid wastes includes removal of cesium using regenerative ion-exchange resins. The loaded cesium ion-exchange columns will be eluted with nitric acid nominally at 0.5 molar, and the resulting eluate solution will be concentrated in a forced-convection evaporator to reduce the storage volume and to recover the acid for reuse. The reboiler pot is initially charged with a concentrated nitric acid solution and kept under a controlled vacuum during feeding so the pot contents would boil at 50 degrees Celsius. The liquid level in the pot is maintained constant by controlling both the feed and boilup rates. The feeding will continue with no bottom removal until the solution in the pot reaches the target endpoint of 80 per cent saturation with respect to any one of the major salt species present.

  2. Cesium-137 accumulation in higher plants before and after Chernobyl

    SciTech Connect

    Sawidis, T.; Drossos, E.; Papastefanou, C. ); Heinrick, G. )

    1990-01-01

    Cesium-137 concentrations in plant species of three biotypes of northern Greece, differing in location as well as in vegetation, are reported following the Chernobyl reactor accident. The cesium uptake by plants was due to the foliar deposition rather than the root uptake. The highest level of cesium in plants was found in Ranunculus sardous, a pubescent plant. The {sup 137}Cs concentration was about 22kBq kg{sup {minus}1}d.w. A high level of cesium was also found in Salix alba ({sup 137}Cs: 19.6 kBq kg{sup {minus}1} d.w.), a deciduous tree showing that hairy leaves or leaves having rough and large surfaces can absorb greater amounts of radioactivity (surface effect). A comparison is also made between the results of measurements of the present study and the results of measurements of some herbarium plants collected one year before the accident as well as the results of measurements of some new plants grown and collected one year after the accident resulting in a natural removal rate of {sup 137}Cs in plants varying from 14 to 130 days.

  3. Plutonium dissolution process

    DOEpatents

    Vest, Michael A.; Fink, Samuel D.; Karraker, David G.; Moore, Edwin N.; Holcomb, H. Perry

    1996-01-01

    A two-step process for dissolving plutonium metal, which two steps can be carried out sequentially or simultaneously. Plutonium metal is exposed to a first mixture containing approximately 1.0M-1.67M sulfamic acid and 0.0025M-0.1M fluoride, the mixture having been heated to a temperature between 45.degree. C. and 70.degree. C. The mixture will dissolve a first portion of the plutonium metal but leave a portion of the plutonium in an oxide residue. Then, a mineral acid and additional fluoride are added to dissolve the residue. Alteratively, nitric acid in a concentration between approximately 0.05M and 0.067M is added to the first mixture to dissolve the residue as it is produced. Hydrogen released during the dissolution process is diluted with nitrogen.

  4. Plutonium: Requiem or reprieve

    SciTech Connect

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1996-01-01

    Many scientific discoveries have had profound effects on humanity and its future. However, the discovery of fissionable characteristics of a man-made element, plutonium, discovered in 1941 by Glenn Seaborg and associates, has probably had the greatest impact on world affairs. Although about 20 new elements have been synthesized since 1940, element 94 unarguably had the most dramatic impact when it was introduced to the world as the core of the nuclear bomb dropped on Nagasaki. Ever since, large quantities of this element have been produced, and it has had a major role in maintaining peace during the past 50 years. in addition, the rapid spread of nuclear power technology worldwide contributed to major growth in the production of plutonium as a by-product. This article discusses the following issues related to plutonium: plutonium from Nuclear Power Generation; environmental safety and health issues; health effects; safeguards issues; extended storage; disposal options.

  5. Cesium diffusion in graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, R.B. III; Davis, W. Jr.; Sutton, A.L. Jr.

    1980-05-01

    Experiments on diffusion of /sup 137/Cs in five types of graphite were performed. The document provides a completion of the report that was started and includes a presentation of all of the diffusion data, previously unpublished. Except for data on mass transfer of /sup 137/Cs in the Hawker-Siddeley graphite, analyses of experimental results were initiated but not completed. The mass transfer process of cesium in HS-1-1 graphite at 600 to 1000/sup 0/C in a helium atmosphere is essentially pure diffusion wherein values of (E/epsilon) and ..delta..E of the equation D/epsilon = (D/epsilon)/sub 0/ exp (-..delta..E/RT) are about 4 x 10/sup -2/ cm/sup 2//s and 30 kcal/mole, respectively.

  6. Interaction of the cesium cation with mono-, di-, and tricarboxylic acids in the gas phase. A Cs+ affinity scale for cesium carboxylates ion pairs.

    PubMed

    Mayeux, Charly; Tammiku-Taul, Jaana; Massi, Lionel; Lohu, Ene-Liis; Burk, Peeter; Maria, Pierre-Charles; Gal, Jean-François

    2009-10-01

    Humic substances (HS), including humic and fulvic acids, play a significant role in the fate of metals in soils. The interaction of metal cations with HS occurs predominantly through the ionized (anionic) acidic functions. In the context of the effect of HS on transport of radioactive cesium isotopes in soils, a study of the interaction between the cesium cation and model carboxylic acids was undertaken. Structure and energetics of the adducts formed between Cs+ and cesium carboxylate salts [Cs+RCOO-] were studied by the kinetic method and density functional theory (DFT). Clusters generated by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry from mixtures of a cesium salt (nitrate, iodide, trifluoroacetate) and carboxylic acids were quantitatively studied by CID. By combining the results of the kinetic method and the energetic data from DFT calculations, a scale of cesium cation affinity, CsCA, was built for 33 cesium carboxylates representing the first scale of cation affinity of molecular salts. The structural effects on the CsCA values are discussed.

  7. Cesium isotope ratios as indicators of nuclear power plant operations.

    PubMed

    Delmore, James E; Snyder, Darin C; Tranter, Troy; Mann, Nick R

    2011-11-01

    There are multiple paths by which radioactive cesium can reach the effluent from reactor operations. The radioactive (135)Cs/(137)Cs ratios are controlled by these paths. In an effort to better understand the origin of this radiation, these (135)Cs/(137)Cs ratios in effluents from three power reactor sites have been measured in offsite samples. These ratios are different from global fallout by up to six fold and as such cannot have a significant component from this source. A cesium ratio for a sample collected outside of the plant boundary provides integration over the operating life of the reactor. A sample collected inside the plant at any given time can be much different from this lifetime ratio. The measured cesium ratios vary significantly for the three reactors and indicate that the multiple paths have widely varying levels of contributions. There are too many ways these isotopes can fractionate to be useful for quantitative evaluations of operating parameters in an offsite sample, although it may be possible to obtain limited qualitative information for an onsite sample.

  8. Cesium Isotope Ratios as Indicators of Nuclear Power Plant Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Darin Snyder; James Delmore; Troy Tranter; Nick Mann; Michael Abbott; John Olson

    2011-11-01

    There are multiple paths by which radioactive cesium can reach the effluent from reactor operations. The radioactive 135Cs/137Cs ratios are controlled by these paths. In an effort to better understand the origin of this radiation, these 135Cs/137Cs ratios in effluents from three power reactor sites have been measured in offsite samples. These ratios are different from global fallout by up to six fold and as such cannot have a significant component from this source. A cesium ratio for a sample collected outside of the plant boundary provides integration over the operating life of the reactor. A sample collected inside the plant at any given time can be much different from this lifetime ratio. The measured cesium ratios vary significantly for the three reactors and indicate that the multiple paths have widely varying levels of contributions. There are too many ways these isotopes can fractionate to be useful for quantitative evaluations of operating parameters in an offsite sample, although it may be possible to obtain limited qualitative information for an onsite sample.

  9. Assessment of plutonium exposure in the Enewetak population by urinalysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, L C; Meinhold, C B; Moorthy, A R; Kaplan, E; Baum, J W

    1997-07-01

    Since 1980, the inhabitants of Enewetak Atoll have been monitored periodically by scientists from Brookhaven National Laboratory for internally deposited radioactive material. In 1989, the establishment of fission track analysis and of a protocol for shipboard collection of 24-h urine samples significantly improved our ability to assess the internal uptake of plutonium. The purpose of this report is to show the distribution of plutonium concentrations in urine collected in 1989 and 1991, and to assess the associated committed effective doses for the Enewetak population based on a long-term chronic uptake of low-level plutonium. To estimate dose, we derived the plutonium dose-per-unit-uptake coefficients based on the dosimetric system of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Assuming a continuous uptake, an integrated Jones's plutonium urine excretion function was developed to interpret the Enewetak urine data. The Appendix shows how these values were derived. The committed effective doses were 0.2 mSv, calculated from the 1991 average plutonium content in 69 urine samples.

  10. Preparation and use of polymeric materials containing hydrophobic anions and plasticizers for separation of cesium and strontium

    DOEpatents

    Abney, K.D.; Kinkead, S.A.; Mason, C.F.V.; Rais, J.

    1997-09-09

    Preparation and use is described for polymeric materials containing hydrophobic anions and plasticizers for extraction of cesium and strontium. The use of polymeric materials containing plasticizers which are solvents for hydrophobic anions such as derivatives of cobalt dicarbollide or tetraphenylborate which are capable of extracting cesium and strontium ions from aqueous solutions in contact with the polymeric materials, is described. The polymeric material may also include a synergistic agent for a given ion like polyethylene glycol or a crown ether, for removal of radioactive isotopes of cesium and strontium from solutions of diverse composition and, in particular, for solutions containing large excess of sodium nitrate.

  11. Preparation and use of polymeric materials containing hydrophobic anions and plasticizers for separation of cesium and strontium

    DOEpatents

    Abney, Kent D.; Kinkead, Scott A.; Mason, Caroline F. V.; Rais, Jiri

    1997-01-01

    Preparation and use of polymeric materials containing hydrophobic anions and plasticizers for extraction of cesium and strontium. The use of polymeric materials containing plasticizers which are solvents for hydrophobic anions such as derivatives of cobalt dicarbollide or tetraphenylborate which are capable of extracting cesium and strontium ions from aqueous solutions in contact with the polymeric materials, is described. The polymeric material may also include a synergistic agent for a given ion like polyethylene glycol or a crown ether, for removal of radioactive isotopes of cesium and strontium from solutions of diverse composition and, in particular, for solutions containing large excess of sodium nitrate.

  12. Cesium chloride-induced torsades de pointes.

    PubMed

    Wiens, Matthew; Gordon, Wendy; Baulcomb, Daisy; Mattman, Andre; Mock, Tom; Brown, Robert

    2009-09-01

    The chloride salt of cesium, a group 1A element, is gaining popularity as an alternative treatment of advanced cancers. Cesium chloride has primarily been used in cardiovascular research for arrhythmogenesis in animals because of its potassium-blocking effects. The present report describes a 45-year-old woman with metastatic breast cancer who experienced repeated episodes of torsades de pointes polymorphic ventricular tachycardia after several months of oral cesium therapy. There was a clear temporal relationship between cesium ingestion and the arrhythmia, which later resolved following discontinuation of cesium therapy. Serial cesium plasma and whole blood levels were measured over the ensuing six months and pharmacokinetic analysis was performed.

  13. METHOD OF MAKING PLUTONIUM DIOXIDE

    DOEpatents

    Garner, C.S.

    1959-01-13

    A process is presented For converting both trivalent and tetravalent plutonium oxalate to substantially pure plutonium dioxide. The plutonium oxalate is carefully dried in the temperature range of 130 to300DEC by raising the temperature gnadually throughout this range. The temperature is then raised to 600 C in the period of about 0.3 of an hour and held at this level for about the same length of time to obtain the plutonium dioxide.

  14. METHOD OF PRODUCING PLUTONIUM TETRAFLUORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Tolley, W.B.; Smith, R.C.

    1959-12-15

    A process is presented for preparing plutonium tetrafluoride from plutonium(IV) oxalate. The oxalate is dried and decomposed at about 300 deg C to the dioxide, mixed with ammonium bifluoride, and the mixture is heated to between 50 and 150 deg C whereby ammonium plutonium fluoride is formed. The ammonium plutonium fluoride is then heated to about 300 deg C for volatilization of ammonium fluoride. Both heating steps are preferably carried out in an inert atmosphere.

  15. Radioactivity in food crops

    SciTech Connect

    Drury, J.S.; Baldauf, M.F.; Daniel, E.W.; Fore, C.S.; Uziel, M.S.

    1983-05-01

    Published levels of radioactivity in food crops from 21 countries and 4 island chains of Oceania are listed. The tabulation includes more than 3000 examples of 100 different crops. Data are arranged alphabetically by food crop and geographical origin. The sampling date, nuclide measured, mean radioactivity, range of radioactivities, sample basis, number of samples analyzed, and bibliographic citation are given for each entry, when available. Analyses were reported most frequently for /sup 137/Cs, /sup 40/K, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 226/Ra, /sup 228/Ra, plutonium, uranium, total alpha, and total beta, but a few authors also reported data for /sup 241/Am, /sup 7/Be, /sup 60/Co, /sup 55/Fe, /sup 3/H, /sup 131/I, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 95/Nb, /sup 210/Pb, /sup 210/Po, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 228/Th, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 95/Zr. Based on the reported data it appears that radioactivity from alpha emitters in food crops is usually low, on the order of 0.1 Bq.g/sup -1/ (wet weight) or less. Reported values of beta radiation in a given crop generally appear to be several orders of magnitude greater than those of alpha emitters. The most striking aspect of the data is the great range of radioactivity reported for a given nuclide in similar food crops with different geographical origins.

  16. Plutonium Disposition Now!

    SciTech Connect

    Buckner, M.R.

    1995-05-24

    A means for use of existing processing facilities and reactors for plutonium disposition is described which requires a minimum capital investment and allows rapid implementation. The scenario includes interim storage and processing under IAEA control, and fabrication into MOX fuel in existing or planned facilities in Europe for use in operating reactors in the two home countries. Conceptual studies indicate that existing Westinghouse four-loop designs can safety dispose of 0.94 MT of plutonium per calendar year. Thus, it would be possible to consume the expected US excess stockpile of about 50 MT in two to three units of this type, and it is highly likely that a comparable amount of the FSU excess plutonium could be deposed of in a few VVER-1000`s. The only major capital project for this mode of plutonium disposition would be the weapons-grade plutonium processing which could be done in a dedicated international facility or using existing facilities in the US and FSU under IAEA control. This option offers the potential for quick implementation at a very low cost to the governments of the two countries.

  17. Aqueous Solution Chemistry of Plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, David L.

    2014-01-28

    Things I have learned working with plutonium: Chemistry of plutonium is complex; Redox equilibria make Pu solution chemistry particularly challenging in the absence of complexing ligands; Understanding this behavior is key to successful Pu chemistry experiments; There is no suitable chemical analog for plutonium.

  18. Lithium metal reduction of plutonium oxide to produce plutonium metal

    DOEpatents

    Coops, Melvin S.

    1992-01-01

    A method is described for the chemical reduction of plutonium oxides to plutonium metal by the use of pure lithium metal. Lithium metal is used to reduce plutonium oxide to alpha plutonium metal (alpha-Pu). The lithium oxide by-product is reclaimed by sublimation and converted to the chloride salt, and after electrolysis, is removed as lithium metal. Zinc may be used as a solvent metal to improve thermodynamics of the reduction reaction at lower temperatures. Lithium metal reduction enables plutonium oxide reduction without the production of huge quantities of CaO--CaCl.sub.2 residues normally produced in conventional direct oxide reduction processes.

  19. Quantitative determination of cesium binding to ferric hexacyanoferrate: Prussian blue.

    PubMed

    Faustino, Patrick J; Yang, Yongsheng; Progar, Joseph J; Brownell, Charles R; Sadrieh, Nakissa; May, Joan C; Leutzinger, Eldon; Place, David A; Duffy, Eric P; Houn, Florence; Loewke, Sally A; Mecozzi, Vincent J; Ellison, Christopher D; Khan, Mansoor A; Hussain, Ajaz S; Lyon, Robbe C

    2008-05-12

    Ferric hexacyanoferrate (Fe4III[FeII(CN)6]3), also known as insoluble Prussian blue (PB) is the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) of the drug product, Radiogardase. Radiogardase is the first FDA approved medical countermeasure for the treatment of internal contamination with radioactive cesium (Cs) or thallium in the event of a major radiological incident such as a "dirty bomb". A number of pre-clinical and clinical studies have evaluated the use of PB as an investigational decorporation agent to enhance the excretion of metal cations. There are few sources of published in vitro data that detail the binding capacity of cesium to insoluble PB under various chemical and physical conditions. The study objective was to determine the in vitro binding capacity of PB APIs and drug products by evaluating certain chemical and physical factors such as medium pH, particle size, and storage conditions (temperature). In vitro experimental conditions ranged from pH 1 to 9, to cover the range of pH levels that PB may encounter in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in humans. Measurements of cesium binding were made between 1 and 24h, to cover gastric and intestinal tract residence time using a validated atomic emission spectroscopy (AES) method. The results indicated that pH, exposure time, storage temperature (affecting moisture content) and particle size play significant roles in the cesium binding to both the PB API and the drug product. The lowest cesium binding was observed at gastric pH of 1 and 2, whereas the highest cesium binding was observed at physiological pH of 7.5. It was observed that dry storage conditions resulted in a loss of moisture from PB, which had a significant negative effect on the PB cesium binding capacity at time intervals consistent with gastric residence. Differences were also observed in the binding capacity of PB with different particle sizes. Significant batch to batch differences were also observed in the binding capacity of some PB API and

  20. Cesium Concentration in MCU Solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D

    2006-01-18

    During Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) operations, Cs-137 concentrations in product streams will vary depending on the location in the process and on the recent process conditions. Calculations of cesium concentrations under a variety of operating conditions reveal the following: (1) Under nominal operations with salt solution feed containing 1.1 Ci Cs-137 per gallon, the maximum Cs-137 concentration in the process will occur in the strip effluent (SE) and equal 15-16.5 Ci/gal. (2) Under these conditions, the majority of the solvent will contain 0.005 to 0.01 Ci/gal, with a limited portion of the solvent in the contactor stages containing {approx}4 Ci/gal. (3) When operating conditions yield product near 0.1 Ci Cs-137/gal in the decontaminated salt solution (DSS), the SE cesium concentration will be the same or lower than in nominal operations, but majority of the stripped solvent will increase to {approx}2-3 Ci/gal. (4) Deviations in strip and waste stream flow rates cause the largest variations in cesium content: (a) If strip flow rates deviate by -30% of nominal, the SE will contain {approx}23 Ci/gal, although the cesium content of the solvent will increase to only 0.03 Ci/gal; (b) If strip flow rate deviates by -77% (i.e., 23% of nominal), the SE will contain 54 Ci/gal and solvent will contain 1.65 Ci/gal. At this point, the product DSS will just reach the limit of 0.1 Ci/gal, causing the DSS gamma monitors to alarm; and (c) Moderate (+10 to +30%) deviations in waste flow rate cause approximately proportional increases in the SE and solvent cesium concentrations. Recovery from a process failure due to poor cesium stripping can achieve any low cesium concentration required. Passing the solvent back through the contactors while recycling DSS product will produce a {approx}70% reduction during one pass through the contactors (assuming the stripping D value is no worse than 0.36). If the solvent is returned to the solvent hold tank

  1. Plutonium 239 Equivalency Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, J

    2011-05-31

    This document provides the basis for converting actual weapons grade plutonium mass to a plutonium equivalency (PuE) mass of Plutonium 239. The conversion can be accomplished by performing calculations utilizing either: (1) Isotopic conversions factors (CF{sub isotope}), or (2) 30-year-old weapons grade conversion factor (CF{sub 30 yr}) Both of these methods are provided in this document. Material mass and isotopic data are needed to calculate PuE using the isotopic conversion factors, which will provide the actual PuE value at the time of calculation. PuE is the summation of the isotopic masses times their associated isotopic conversion factors for plutonium 239. Isotopic conversion factors are calculated by a normalized equation, relative to Plutonium 239, of specific activity (SA) and cumulated dose inhalation affects based on 50-yr committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE). The isotopic conversion factors for converting weapons grade plutonium to PuE are provided in Table-1. The unit for specific activity (SA) is curies per gram (Ci/g) and the isotopic SA values come from reference [1]. The cumulated dose inhalation effect values in units of rem/Ci are based on 50-yr committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE). A person irradiated by gamma radiation outside the body will receive a dose only during the period of irradiation. However, following an intake by inhalation, some radionuclides persist in the body and irradiate the various tissues for many years. There are three groups CEDE data representing lengths of time of 0.5 (D), 50 (W) and 500 (Y) days, which are in reference [2]. The CEDE values in the (W) group demonstrates the highest dose equivalent value; therefore they are used for the calculation.

  2. Hybrid micro-particles as a magnetically-guidable decontaminant for cesium-eluted ash slurry

    PubMed Central

    Namiki, Yoshihisa; Ueyama, Toshihiko; Yoshida, Takayuki; Watanabe, Ryoei; Koido, Shigeo; Namiki, Tamami

    2014-01-01

    Decontamination of the radioactive cesium that is widely dispersed owing to a nuclear power station accident and concentrated in fly ash requires an effective elimination system. Radioactive fly ash contains large amounts of water-soluble cesium that can cause severe secondary contamination and represents a serious health risk, yet its complete removal is complicated and difficult. Here it is shown that a new fine-powder formulation can be magnetically guided to eliminate cesium after being mixed with the ash slurry. This formulation, termed MagCE, consists of a ferromagnetic porous structure and alkaline- and salt-resistant nickel ferrocyanide. It has potent cesium-adsorption- and magnetic-separation-properties. Because of its resistance against physical and chemical attack such as with ash particles, as well as with the high pH and salt concentration of the ash slurry, MagCE simplifies the decontamination process without the need of the continued presence of the hazardous water-soluble cesium in the treated ash. PMID:25192495

  3. SULFIDE METHOD PLUTONIUM SEPARATION

    DOEpatents

    Duffield, R.B.

    1958-08-12

    A process is described for the recovery of plutonium from neutron irradiated uranium solutions. Such a solution is first treated with a soluble sullide, causing precipitation of the plutoniunn and uraniunn values present, along with those impurities which form insoluble sulfides. The precipitate is then treated with a solution of carbonate ions, which will dissolve the uranium and plutonium present while the fission product sulfides remain unaffected. After separation from the residue, this solution may then be treated by any of the usual methods, such as formation of a lanthanum fluoride precipitate, to effect separation of plutoniunn from uranium.

  4. Superconductivity in plutonium compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarrao, J. L.; Bauer, E. D.; Mitchell, J. N.; Tobash, P. H.; Thompson, J. D.

    2015-07-01

    Although the family of plutonium-based superconductors is relatively small, consisting of four compounds all of which crystallize in the tetragonal HoCoGa5 structure, these materials serve as an important bridge between the known Ce- and U-based heavy fermion superconductors and the high-temperature cuprate superconductors. Further, the partial localization of 5f electrons that characterizes the novel electronic properties of elemental plutonium appears to be central to the relatively high superconducting transition temperatures that are observed in PuCoGa5, PuRhGa5, PuCoIn5, and PuRhIn5.

  5. Plutonium in Concentrated Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Sue B.; Delegard, Calvin H.

    2002-08-01

    Complex, high ionic strength media are used throughout the plutonium cycle, from its processing and purification in nitric acid, to waste storage and processing in alkaline solutions of concentrated electrolytes, to geologic disposal in brines. Plutonium oxidation/reduction, stability, radiolysis, solution and solid phase chemistry have been studied in such systems. In some cases, predictive models for describing Pu chemistry under such non-ideal conditions have been developed, which are usually based on empirical databases describing specific ion interactions. In Chapter 11, Non-Ideal Systems, studies on the behavior of Pu in various complex media and available model descriptions are reviewed.

  6. Cesium control and diagnostics in surface plasma negative ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Dudnikov, Vadim; Chapovsky, Pavel; Dudnikov, Andrei

    2010-02-15

    For efficient and reliable negative ion generation it is very important to improve a cesium control and diagnostics. Laser beam attenuation and resonance fluorescence can be used for measurement of cesium distribution and cesium control. Resonant laser excitation and two-photon excitation can be used for improved cesium ionization and cesium trapping in the discharge chamber. Simple and inexpensive diode lasers can be used for cesium diagnostics and control. Cesium migration along the surface is an important mechanism of cesium escaping. It is important to develop a suppression of cesium migration and cesium accumulation on the extraction system.

  7. Modeling Ion-Exchange Processing With Spherical Resins For Cesium Removal

    SciTech Connect

    Hang, T.; Nash, C. A.; Aleman, S. E.

    2012-09-19

    The spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde and hypothetical spherical SuperLig(r) 644 ion-exchange resins are evaluated for cesium removal from radioactive waste solutions. Modeling results show that spherical SuperLig(r) 644 reduces column cycling by 50% for high-potassium solutions. Spherical Resorcinol Formaldehyde performs equally well for the lowest-potassium wastes. Less cycling reduces nitric acid usage during resin elution and sodium addition during resin regeneration, therefore, significantly decreasing life-cycle operational costs. A model assessment of the mechanism behind ''cesium bleed'' is also conducted. When a resin bed is eluted, a relatively small amount of cesium remains within resin particles. Cesium can bleed into otherwise decontaminated product in the next loading cycle. The bleed mechanism is shown to be fully isotherm-controlled vs. mass transfer controlled. Knowledge of residual post-elution cesium level and resin isotherm can be utilized to predict rate of cesium bleed in a mostly non-loaded column. Overall, this work demonstrates the versatility of the ion-exchange modeling to study the effects of resin characteristics on processing cycles, rates, and cold chemical consumption. This evaluation justifies further development of a spherical form of the SL644 resin.

  8. Management of plutonium contaminated waste

    SciTech Connect

    Grover, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    This study surveys the current management schemes for plutonium contaminated wastes arising from a reference mixed oxide fuel fabrication plant, and identifies possible areas of future research. It also outlines strategies for the future management of plutonium contaminated wastes. Topics of discussion include: the quantities and characteristics of various plutonium contaminated wastes produced by a plant; the current waste management practices for both solid and liquid plutonium contaminated wastes, considering measurement methods, transportation, storage and disposal; current practice for the problems of decommissioning and decontamination, and possible methods for the recovery of plutonium contaminated wastes.

  9. Process for cesium decontamination and immobilization

    DOEpatents

    Komarneni, S.; Roy, R.

    1988-04-25

    Cesium can be selectively recovered from a nuclear waste solution containing cesium together with other metal ions by contact with a modified phlogopite which is a hydrated, sodium phlogopite mica. Once the cesium has entered the modified phlogopite it is fixed and can be safely stored for long periods of time. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Process for cesium decontamination and immobilization

    DOEpatents

    Komarneni, Sridhar; Roy, Rustum

    1989-01-01

    Cesium can be selectively recovered from a nuclear waste solution containing cesium together with other metal ions by contact with a modified phlogopite which is a hydrated, sodium phlogopite mica. Once the cesium has entered the modified phlogopite it is fixed and can be safely stored for long periods of time.

  11. XAF/XANES studies of plutonium-loaded sodalite/glass composite waste forms.

    SciTech Connect

    Aase, S. B.; Kropf, A. J.; Lewis, M. A.; Reed, D. T.; Richmann, M. K.

    1999-07-14

    A sodalite/glass ceramic waste form has been developed to immobilize highly radioactive nuclear wastes in chloride form, as part of an electrochemical cleanup process. Simulated waste forms have been fabricated which contain plutonium and are representative of the salt from the electrometallurgical process to recover uranium from spent nuclear fuel. X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS) and x-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) studies were performed to determine the location, oxidation state and form of the plutonium within these waste forms. Plutonium, in the non-fission-element case, was found to segregate as plutonium(IV) oxide with a crystallite size of at least 20 nm. With fission elements present, the crystallite size was about 2 nm. No plutonium was observed within the sodalite or glass in the waste form.

  12. Radioactive Decay

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Radioactive decay is the emission of energy in the form of ionizing radiation. Example decay chains illustrate how radioactive atoms can go through many transformations as they become stable and no longer radioactive.

  13. Hazardous chemical and radioactive wastes at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, J.F.; Stewart, T.L.

    1991-07-01

    The Hanford Site was established in 1944 to produce plutonium for defense. During the past four decades, a number of reactors, processing facilities, and waste management facilities have been built at Hanford for plutonium production. Generally, Hanford's 100 Area was dedicated to reactor operation; the 200 Area to fuel reprocessing, plutonium recovery, and waste management; and the 300 Area to fuel fabrication and research and development. Wastes generated from these operations included highly radioactive liquid wastes, which were discharged to single- and double-shell tanks; solid wastes, including both transuranic (TRU) and low-level wastes, which were buried or discharged to caissons; and waste water containing low- to intermediate-level radioactivity, which was discharged to the soil column via near-surface liquid disposal units such as cribs, ponds, and retention basins. Virtually all of the wastes contained hazardous chemical as well as radioactive constituents. This paper will focus on the hazardous chemical components of the radioactive mixed waste generated by plutonium production at Hanford. The processes, chemicals used, methods of disposition, fate in the environment, and actions being taken to clean up this legacy are described by location.

  14. Hazardous chemical and radioactive wastes at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, J.F.; Stewart, T.L.

    1991-07-01

    The Hanford Site was established in 1944 to produce plutonium for defense. During the past four decades, a number of reactors, processing facilities, and waste management facilities have been built at Hanford for plutonium production. Generally, Hanford`s 100 Area was dedicated to reactor operation; the 200 Area to fuel reprocessing, plutonium recovery, and waste management; and the 300 Area to fuel fabrication and research and development. Wastes generated from these operations included highly radioactive liquid wastes, which were discharged to single- and double-shell tanks; solid wastes, including both transuranic (TRU) and low-level wastes, which were buried or discharged to caissons; and waste water containing low- to intermediate-level radioactivity, which was discharged to the soil column via near-surface liquid disposal units such as cribs, ponds, and retention basins. Virtually all of the wastes contained hazardous chemical as well as radioactive constituents. This paper will focus on the hazardous chemical components of the radioactive mixed waste generated by plutonium production at Hanford. The processes, chemicals used, methods of disposition, fate in the environment, and actions being taken to clean up this legacy are described by location.

  15. METHOD OF SEPARATING URANIUM, PLUTONIUM AND FISSION PRODUCTS BY BROMINATION AND DISTILLATION

    DOEpatents

    Jaffey, A.H.; Seaborg, G.T.

    1958-12-23

    The method for separation of plutonium from uranium and radioactive fission products obtained by neutron irradiation of uranlum consists of reacting the lrradiated material with either bromine, hydrogen bromide, alumlnum bromide, or sulfur and bromine at an elevated temperature to form the bromides of all the elements, then recovering substantlally pure plutonium bromide by dlstillatlon in combinatlon with selective condensatlon at prescribed temperature and pressure.

  16. Cesium-induced inhibition of bacterial growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and their possible potential applications for bioremediation of wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sung-Min; Jang, Sung-Chan; Heo, Nam Su; Oh, Seo Yeong; Cho, Hye-Jin; Rethinasabapathy, Muruganantham; Vilian, A T Ezhil; Han, Young-Kyu; Roh, Changhyun; Huh, Yun Suk

    2017-09-15

    Radioactive isotopes and fission products have attracted considerable attention because of their long lasting serious damage to the health of humans and other organisms. This study examined the toxicity and accumulation behavior of cesium towards P. aeruginosa PAO1 and its capacity to remove cesium from waste water. Interestingly, the programmed bacterial growth inhibition occurred according to the cesium environment. The influence of cesium was analyzed using several optical methods for quantitative evaluation. Cesium plays vital role in the growth of microorganisms and functions as an anti-microbial agent. The toxicity of Cs to P. aeruginosa PAO1 increases as the concentration of cesium is increased in concentration-dependent manner. P. aeruginosa PAO1 shows excellent Cs removal efficiency of 76.1% from the contaminated water. The toxicity of cesium on the cell wall and in the cytoplasm were studied by transmission electron microscopy and electron dispersive X-ray analysis. Finally, the removal of cesium from wastewater using P. aeruginosa PAO1 as a potential biosorbent and the blocking of competitive interactions of other monovalent cation, such as potassium, were assessed. Overall, P. aeruginosa PAO1 can be used as a high efficient biomaterial in the field of radioactive waste disposal and management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Separation of Plutonium from Irradiated Fuels and Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Leonard W.; Holliday, Kiel S.; Murray, Alice; Thompson, Major; Thorp, Donald T.; Yarbro, Stephen; Venetz, Theodore J.

    2015-09-30

    Spent nuclear fuel from power production reactors contains moderate amounts of transuranium (TRU) actinides and fission products in addition to the still slightly enriched uranium. Originally, nuclear technology was developed to chemically separate and recover fissionable plutonium from irradiated nuclear fuel for military purposes. Military plutonium separations had essentially ceased by the mid-1990s. Reprocessing, however, can serve multiple purposes, and the relative importance has changed over time. In the 1960’s the vision of the introduction of plutonium-fueled fast-neutron breeder reactors drove the civilian separation of plutonium. More recently, reprocessing has been regarded as a means to facilitate the disposal of high-level nuclear waste, and thus requires development of radically different technical approaches. In the last decade or so, the principal reason for reprocessing has shifted to spent power reactor fuel being reprocessed (1) so that unused uranium and plutonium being recycled reduce the volume, gaining some 25% to 30% more energy from the original uranium in the process and thus contributing to energy security and (2) to reduce the volume and radioactivity of the waste by recovering all long-lived actinides and fission products followed by recycling them in fast reactors where they are transmuted to short-lived fission products; this reduces the volume to about 20%, reduces the long-term radioactivity level in the high-level waste, and complicates the possibility of the plutonium being diverted from civil use – thereby increasing the proliferation resistance of the fuel cycle. In general, reprocessing schemes can be divided into two large categories: aqueous/hydrometallurgical systems, and pyrochemical/pyrometallurgical systems. Worldwide processing schemes are dominated by the aqueous (hydrometallurgical) systems. This document provides a historical review of both categories of reprocessing.

  18. PLUTONIUM METALLOGRAPHY AT LOS ALAMOS

    SciTech Connect

    PEREYRA, RAMIRO A.; LOVATO, DARRYL

    2007-01-08

    From early days of the Manhattan program to today, scientists and engineers have continued to investigate the metallurgical properties of plutonium (Pu). Although issues like aging was not a concern to the early pioneers, today the reliability of our aging stockpile is of major focus. And as the country moves toward a new generation of weapons similar problems that the early pioneers faced such as compatibility, homogeneity and malleability have come to the forefront. And metallography will continue to be a principle tool for the resolution of old and new issues. Standard metallographic techniques are used for the preparation of plutonium samples. The samples are first cut with a slow speed idamond saw. After mounting in Epon 815 epoxy resin, the samples are ground through 600 grit silicon carbide paper. PF 5070 (a Freon substitute) is used as a coolant, lubricant, and solvent for most operations. Rough mechanical polished is done with 9-{mu} diamond using a nap less cloth, for example nylon or cotton. Final polish is done with 1-{mu} diamond on a nappy cloth such as sylvet. Ethyl alcohol is then used ultrasonically to clean the samples before electro polishing. The sample is then electro-polished and etched in an electrolyte containing 10% nitric acid, and 90% dimethyleneformalmide. Ethyl alcohol is used as a final cleaning agent. Although standard metallographic preparation techniques are used, there are several reasons why metallography of Pu is difficult and challenging. Firstly, because of the health hazards associated with its radioactive properties, sample preparation is conducted in glove boxes. Figure 1 shows the metallography line, in an R and D facility. Since they are designed to be negative in pressure to the laboratory, cross-contamination of abrasives is a major problem. In addition, because of safety concerns and waste issues, there is a limit to the amount of solvent that can be used. Secondly, Pu will readily hydride or oxidize when in contact

  19. Plutonium Disposition by Immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, T.; DiSabatino, A.; Mitchell, M.

    2000-03-07

    The ultimate goal of the Department of Energy (DOE) Immobilization Project is to develop, construct, and operate facilities that will immobilize between 17 to 50 tonnes (MT) of U.S. surplus weapons-usable plutonium materials in waste forms that meet the ''spent fuel'' standard and are acceptable for disposal in a geologic repository. Using the ceramic can-in-canister technology selected for immobilization, surplus plutonium materials will be chemically combined into ceramic forms which will be encapsulated within large canisters of high level waste (HLW) glass. Deployment of the immobilization capability should occur by 2008 and be completed within 10 years. In support of this goal, the DOE Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (MD) is conducting development and testing (D&T) activities at four DOE laboratories under the technical leadership of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Savannah River Site has been selected as the site for the planned Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP). The D&T effort, now in its third year, will establish the technical bases for the design, construction, and operation of the U. S. capability to immobilize surplus plutonium in a suitable and cost-effective manner. Based on the D&T effort and on the development of a conceptual design of the PIP, automation is expected to play a key role in the design and operation of the Immobilization Plant. Automation and remote handling are needed to achieve required dose reduction and to enhance operational efficiency.

  20. Plutonium: An introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Condit, R.H.

    1993-10-01

    This report is a summary of the history and properties of plutonium. It presents information on the atoms, comparing chemical and nuclear properties. It looks at the history of the atom, including its discovery and production methods. It summarizes the metallurgy and chemistry of the element. It also describes means of detecting and measuring the presence and quantity of the element.

  1. Atomic spectrum of plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Blaise, J.; Fred, M.; Gutmacher, R.G.

    1984-08-01

    This report contains plutonium wavelengths, energy level classifications, and other spectroscopic data accumulated over the past twenty years at Laboratoire Aime Cotton (LAC) Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The primary purpose was term analysis: deriving the energy levels in terms of quantum numbers and electron configurations, and evaluating the Slater-Condon and other parameters from the levels.

  2. Experiments Performed in Substantiation of the Conditioning of BN-350 Spent Cesium Traps Using Lead or Lead-Bismuth Alloy Filling Technology

    SciTech Connect

    O. Romanenko; I. Tazhibaeva; I. Yakovlev; A. Ivanov; D. Wells; A. Herrick; J. Michelbacher; S. Shiganakov

    2009-05-01

    The technology of cleaning cesium radionuclides from sodium coolant at the BN-350 fast reactor was realized in the form of cesium traps of two types: stationary devices connected to the circuit that was to be cleaned and in-core devices installed into the core of reactor when it was not under operation. Carbon-graphite materials were used as sorbents to collect and concentrate radioactive cesium, accumulated in the BN-350 reactor circuits over the decades of their operation, in relatively small volume traps which provided effective radiation-safe conditions for personnel working in proximity to the coolant and equipment of the primary circuit during BN-350 decommissioning. Spent cesium traps, as products unfit for further use, represent solid radioactive wastes. The presence of chemically active sodium, potassium and cesium that are able to react violently with water results in series of problems related to their disposal in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Considering the technology of filling spent cesium traps with lead/lead-bismuth alloy as a priority one for their conditioning, evaluations for safety substantiation were implemented. A set of experiments was implemented aimed at verification of calculations performed in substantiation of the proposed technology: filling a full scale cesium trap mock-up with sodium followed by its draining to determine the optimal regimes of draining; filling bench scale cesium trap mock-ups with sodium and cesium followed by sodium draining and filling with lead or lead-bismuth alloy at different temperatures and filling rates to chose the optimal regimes for filling spent cesium traps; implementation of leachability tests to determine the rate of cesium release from the filling materials into water. This paper provides a description of the experimental program carried out and the main results obtained.

  3. Cesium oxide-cesium solution as a source of cesium and oxygen.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunther, B.; Rufeh, F.; Pigford, T. H.

    1972-01-01

    Examination of the feasibility of using the solution as a source of cesium and oxygen, with description of an experimental system designed for a systematic investigation. Preliminary data are presented. Thermionic performance of the converter was recorded before the injection of oxygen at emitter temperatures of 1600, 1700, 1800, and 1900 K. The power of this converter, which had a polycrystalline tungsten emitter and a polycrystalline molybdenum collector, is compared with other converters. Experimental results show that cesium oxide mole factors higher than 0.18 are needed to achieve oxygen effects. It appears not to be necessary to be concerned about avoiding oxygen impurities in the cesium reservoir, since mole fractions as high as 0.18 have failed to influence the performance.

  4. Cesium in the Savannah River Site environment

    SciTech Connect

    Carlton, W.H.; Bauer, L.R.; Evans, A.G.; Geary, L.A.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Pinder, J.E.; Strom, R.N.

    1992-03-01

    Cesium in the Savannah River Site Environment is published as a part of the Radiological Assessment Program (RAP). It is the fourth in a series of eight documents on individual radioisotopes released to the environment as a result of Savannah River Site (SRS) operations. The earlier documents describe the environmental consequences of tritium, iodine, and uranium. Documents on plutonium, strontium, carbon, and technetium will be published in the future. These are dynamic documents and current plans call for revising and updating each one on a two-year schedule.Radiocesium exists in the environment as a result of above-ground nuclear weapons tests, the Chernobyl accident, the destruction of satellite Cosmos 954, small releases from reactors and reprocessing plants, and the operation of industrial, medical, and educational facilities. Radiocesium has been produced at SRS during the operation of five production reactors. Several hundred curies of [sup 137]Cs was released into streams in the late 50s and 60s from leaking fuel elements. Smaller quantities were released from the fuel reprocessing operations. About 1400 Ci of [sup 137]Cs was released to seepage basins where it was tightly bound by clay in the soil. A much smaller quantity, about four Ci. was released to the atmosphere. Radiocesium concentration and mechanisms for atmospheric, surface water, and groundwater have been extensively studied by Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) and ecological mechanisms have been studied by Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL). The overall radiological impact of SRS releases on the offsite maximum individual can be characterized by total doses of 033 mrem (atmospheric) and 60 mrem (liquid), compared with a dose of 12,960 mrem from non-SRS sources during the same period of time. Isotope [sup 137]Cs releases have resulted in a negligible risk to the environment and the population it supports.

  5. Cesium in the Savannah River Site environment

    SciTech Connect

    Carlton, W.H.; Bauer, L.R.; Evans, A.G.; Geary, L.A.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Pinder, J.E.; Strom, R.N.

    1992-03-01

    Cesium in the Savannah River Site Environment is published as a part of the Radiological Assessment Program (RAP). It is the fourth in a series of eight documents on individual radioisotopes released to the environment as a result of Savannah River Site (SRS) operations. The earlier documents describe the environmental consequences of tritium, iodine, and uranium. Documents on plutonium, strontium, carbon, and technetium will be published in the future. These are dynamic documents and current plans call for revising and updating each one on a two-year schedule.Radiocesium exists in the environment as a result of above-ground nuclear weapons tests, the Chernobyl accident, the destruction of satellite Cosmos 954, small releases from reactors and reprocessing plants, and the operation of industrial, medical, and educational facilities. Radiocesium has been produced at SRS during the operation of five production reactors. Several hundred curies of {sup 137}Cs was released into streams in the late 50s and 60s from leaking fuel elements. Smaller quantities were released from the fuel reprocessing operations. About 1400 Ci of {sup 137}Cs was released to seepage basins where it was tightly bound by clay in the soil. A much smaller quantity, about four Ci. was released to the atmosphere. Radiocesium concentration and mechanisms for atmospheric, surface water, and groundwater have been extensively studied by Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) and ecological mechanisms have been studied by Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL). The overall radiological impact of SRS releases on the offsite maximum individual can be characterized by total doses of 033 mrem (atmospheric) and 60 mrem (liquid), compared with a dose of 12,960 mrem from non-SRS sources during the same period of time. Isotope {sup 137}Cs releases have resulted in a negligible risk to the environment and the population it supports.

  6. Cesium Uptake by Rice Roots Largely Depends Upon a Single Gene, HAK1, Which Encodes a Potassium Transporter.

    PubMed

    Rai, Hiroki; Yokoyama, Saki; Satoh-Nagasawa, Namiko; Furukawa, Jun; Nomi, Takiko; Ito, Yasuka; Fujimura, Shigeto; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Suzuki, Ryuichiro; Yousra, ELMannai; Goto, Akitoshi; Fuji, Shinichi; Nakamura, Shin-Ichi; Shinano, Takuro; Nagasawa, Nobuhiro; Wabiko, Hiroetsu; Hattori, Hiroyuki

    2017-09-01

    Incidents at the Fukushima and Chernobyl nuclear power stations have resulted in widespread environmental contamination by radioactive nuclides. Among them, 137cesium has a 30 year half-life, and its persistence in soil raises serious food security issues. It is therefore important to prevent plants, especially crop plants, from absorbing radiocesium. In Arabidopsis thaliana, cesium ions are transported into root cells by several different potassium transporters such as high-affinity K+ transporter 5 (AtHAK5). Therefore, the cesium uptake pathway is thought to be highly redundant, making it difficult to develop plants with low cesium uptake. Here, we isolated rice mutants with low cesium uptake and reveal that the Oryza sativa potassium transporter OsHAK1, which is expressed on the surfaces of roots, is the main route of cesium influx into rice plants, especially in low potassium conditions. During hydroponic cultivation with low to normal potassium concentrations (0-206 µM: the normal potassium level in soil), cesium influx in OsHAK1-knockout lines was no greater than one-eighth that in the wild type. In field experiments, knockout lines of O. sativa HAK1 (OsHAK1) showed dramatically reduced cesium concentrations in grains and shoots, but their potassium uptake was not greatly affected and their grain yields were similar to that of the wild type. Our results demonstrate that, in rice roots, potassium transport systems other than OsHAK1 make little or no contribution to cesium uptake. These results show that low cesium uptake rice lines can be developed for cultivation in radiocesium-contaminated areas. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Plutonium contamination in soils and sediments at Mayak PA, Russia.

    PubMed

    Skipperud, Lindis; Salbu, Brit; Oughton, Deborah H; Drozcho, Eugeny; Mokrov, Yuri; Strand, Per

    2005-09-01

    The Mayak Production Association (Mayak PA) was established in the late 1940's to produce plutonium for the Soviet Nuclear Weapons Programme. In total, seven reactors and two reprocessing plants have been in operation. Today, the area comprises both military and civilian reactors as well as reprocessing and metallurgical plants. Authorized and accidental releases of radioactive waste have caused severe contamination to the surrounding areas. In the present study, [alpha]-spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) have been used to determine plutonium activities and isotope ratios in soil and sediment samples collected from reservoirs of the Techa River at the Mayak area and downstream Techa River. The objective of the study was to determine the total inventory of plutonium in the reservoirs and to identify the different sources contributing to the plutonium contamination. Results based on [alpha]-spectrometry and ICP-MS measurements show the presence of different sources and confirmed recent reports of civilian reprocessing at Mayak. Determination of activity levels and isotope ratios in soil and sediment samples from the Techa River support the hypothesis that most of the plutonium, like other radionuclides in the Techa River, originated from the very early waste discharges to the Techa River between 1949 and 1951. Analysis of reservoir sediment samples suggest that about 75% of the plutonium isotopes could have been released to Reservoir 10 during the early weapons production operation of the plant, and that the majority of plutonium in Reservoir 10 originates from discharges from power production or reprocessing. Enhanced 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios in river sediment upper layers (0-2 cm) between 50 and 250 km downstream from the plant indicate a contribution from other, non-fallout sources.

  8. Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP) Precursor Material Calcine Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Cozzi, A.D.

    1999-07-29

    As a result of the end of the Cold War, approximately 50 metric tons of plutonium are no longer needed and have been identified for disposition. A ceramic waste form is the chosen option for immobilization of the excess plutonium. The plutonium ceramic form then will be encased in high-level waste glass using can-in-canister technology for final disposition. The precursor materials are the non-radioactive components that are added to the plutonium feed stream to form the desired phases in the immobilization product. The precursor materials are blended and calcined prior to being mixed with the plutonium feed stream. The purpose of the calcine step is to remove any physical or chemical water retained in the precursors and convert any hydroxides or carbonates to the oxides. Initially, a temperature of 750 degrees C for a period of one hour was chosen for the calcining of the precursors. In this effort, several different calcine temperatures were investigated to evaluate the effect on initial phase formation (in the calcined precursors), thermal expansion of the pressed pellets during heating, and mineralogy and porosity of the final product.

  9. Plutonium Finishing Plant. Interim plutonium stabilization engineering study

    SciTech Connect

    Sevigny, G.J.; Gallucci, R.H.; Garrett, S.M.K.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Goheen, R.S.; Molton, P.M.; Templeton, K.J.; Villegas, A.J.; Nass, R.

    1995-08-01

    This report provides the results of an engineering study that evaluated the available technologies for stabilizing the plutonium stored at the Plutonium Finishing Plant located at the hanford Site in southeastern Washington. Further processing of the plutonium may be required to prepare the plutonium for interim (<50 years) storage. Specifically this document provides the current plutonium inventory and characterization, the initial screening process, and the process descriptions and flowsheets of the technologies that passed the initial screening. The conclusions and recommendations also are provided. The information contained in this report will be used to assist in the preparation of the environmental impact statement and to help decision makers determine which is the preferred technology to process the plutonium for interim storage.

  10. Assessment of commercially available ion exchange materials for cesium removal from highly alkaline wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, K.P.; Kim, A.Y.; Kurath, D.E.

    1996-04-01

    Approximately 61 million gallons of nuclear waste generated in plutonium production, radionuclide removal campaigns, and research and development activities is stored on the Department of Energy`s Hanford Site, near Richland, Washington. Although the pretreatment process and disposal requirements are still being defined, most pretreatment scenarios include removal of cesium from the aqueous streams. In many cases, after cesium is removed, the dissolved salt cakes and supernates can be disposed of as LLW. Ion exchange has been a leading candidate for this separation. Ion exchange systems have the advantage of simplicity of equipment and operation and provide many theoretical stages in a small space. The organic ion exchange material Duolite{trademark} CS-100 has been selected as the baseline exchanger for conceptual design of the Initial Pretreatment Module (IPM). Use of CS-100 was chosen because it is considered a conservative, technologically feasible approach. During FY 96, final resin down-selection will occur for IPM Title 1 design. Alternate ion exchange materials for cesium exchange will be considered at that time. The purpose of this report is to conduct a search for commercially available ion exchange materials which could potentially replace CS-100. This report will provide where possible a comparison of these resin in their ability to remove low concentrations of cesium from highly alkaline solutions. Materials which show promise can be studied further, while less encouraging resins can be eliminated from consideration.

  11. Cesium Eluate Physical Property Determination

    SciTech Connect

    Baich, M.A.

    2001-02-13

    Two bench-scale process simulations of the proposed cesium eluate evaporation process of concentrating eluate produced in the Hanford Site Waste Treatment Plant were conducted. The primary objective of these experiments was to determine the physical properties and the saturation concentration of the eluate evaporator bottoms while producing condensate approximately 0.50 molar HN03.

  12. CESIUM RECOVERY FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Goodall, C.A.

    1960-09-13

    A process is given for precipitating cesium on zinc ferricyanide (at least 0.0004 M) from aqueous solutions containing mineral acid in a concentration of from 0.2 N acidity to 0.61 N acid-deficiency and advantageously, but not necessarily, also aluminum nitrate in a concentration of from l to 2.5 M.

  13. 4. VIEW OF PLUTONIUM CANISTER ON CHAINVEYOR. SCRAP PLUTONIUM WAS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF PLUTONIUM CANISTER ON CHAINVEYOR. SCRAP PLUTONIUM WAS COLLECTED INTO CANS AT INDIVIDUAL WORKSTATIONS. THE CANS WERE TRANSFERRED VIA THE CHAIN CONVEYOR TO A WORKSTATION IN MODULE C WHERE THE MATERIAL WAS COMPRESSED INTO BRIQUETTES FOR LATER USE. (6/20/93) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Manufacturing Facility, North-central section of Plant, just south of Building 776/777, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  14. Plutonium age dating reloaded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturm, Monika; Richter, Stephan; Aregbe, Yetunde; Wellum, Roger; Mayer, Klaus; Prohaska, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Although the age determination of plutonium is and has been a pillar of nuclear forensic investigations for many years, additional research in the field of plutonium age dating is still needed and leads to new insights as the present work shows: Plutonium is commonly dated with the help of the 241Pu/241Am chronometer using gamma spectrometry; in fewer cases the 240Pu/236U chronometer has been used. The age dating results of the 239Pu/235U chronometer and the 238Pu/234U chronometer are scarcely applied in addition to the 240Pu/236U chronometer, although their results can be obtained simultaneously from the same mass spectrometric experiments as the age dating result of latter. The reliability of the result can be tested when the results of different chronometers are compared. The 242Pu/238U chronometer is normally not evaluated at all due to its sensitivity to contamination with natural uranium. This apparent 'weakness' that renders the age dating results of the 242Pu/238U chronometer almost useless for nuclear forensic investigations, however turns out to be an advantage looked at from another perspective: the 242Pu/238U chronometer can be utilized as an indicator for uranium contamination of plutonium samples and even help to identify the nature of this contamination. To illustrate this the age dating results of all four Pu/U clocks mentioned above are discussed for one plutonium sample (NBS 946) that shows no signs of uranium contamination and for three additional plutonium samples. In case the 242Pu/238U chronometer results in an older 'age' than the other Pu/U chronometers, contamination with either a small amount of enriched or with natural or depleted uranium is for example possible. If the age dating result of the 239Pu/235U chronometer is also influenced the nature of the contamination can be identified; enriched uranium is in this latter case a likely cause for the missmatch of the age dating results of the Pu/U chronometers.

  15. History and stabilization of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) complex, Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, M.S., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-18

    The 231-Z Isolation Building or Plutonium Metallurgy Building is located in the Hanford Site`s 200 West Area, approximately 300 yards north of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) (234-5 Building). When the Hanford Engineer Works (HEW) built it in 1944 to contain the final step for processing plutonium, it was called the Isolation Building. At that time, HEW used a bismuth phosphate radiochemical separations process to make `AT solution,` which was then dried and shipped to Los Alamos, New Mexico. (AT solution is a code name used during World War II for the final HEW product.) The process was carried out first in T Plant and the 224-T Bulk Reduction Building and B Plant and the 224-B Bulk Reduction Building. The 224-T and -B processes produced a concentrated plutonium nitrate stream, which then was sent in 8-gallon batches to the 231-Z Building for final purification. In the 231-Z Building, the plutonium nitrate solution underwent peroxide `strikes` (additions of hydrogen peroxide to further separate the plutonium from its carrier solutions), to form the AT solution. The AT solution was dried and shipped to the Los Alamos Site, where it was made into metallic plutonium and then into weapons hemispheres.` The 231-Z Building began `hot` operations (operations using radioactive materials) with regular runs of plutonium nitrate on January 16, 1945.

  16. Radionuclide concentrations in vegetation at radioactive-waste disposal Area G during the 1994 growing season

    SciTech Connect

    Fresquez, P.R.; Biggs, J.B.; Bennett, K.D.

    1995-07-01

    Overstory (pinon pine) and understory (grass and forb) vegetation samples were collected within and around selected points at Area G-a low-level radioactive solid-waste disposal facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory-for the analysis of tritium ({sup 3}H), strontium ({sup 90}Sr), plutonium ({sup 238} Pu and {sup 239}Pu), cesium ({sup 137}Cs), americium ({sup 241}Am), and total uranium. In general, most vegetation samples collected within and around Area G contained radionuclide levels in higher concentrations than vegetation collected from background areas. Tritium, in particular, was detected as high as 5,800 pCi/mL in overstory vegetation collected outside the fence just west of the tritium shafts; this suggests that tritium is migrating from this waste repository through subsurface pathways. Also, understory vegetation collected north of the transuranic (TRU) pads (outside the fence of Area G) contained the highest values of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 241}Am, and may be a result of surface holding, storage, or disposal activities.

  17. Surprising Coordination for Plutonium in the First Plutonium (III) Borate

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shuao; Alekseev, Evgeny V.; Depmeier, Wulf; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.

    2011-02-22

    The first plutonium(III) borate, Pu2[B12O18(OH)4Br2(H2O)3]·0.5H2O, has been prepared by reacting plutonium(III) with molten boric acid under strictly anaerobic conditions. This compound contains a three-dimensional polyborate network with triangular holes that house the plutonium(III) sites. The plutonium sites in this compound are 9- and 10-coordinate and display atypical geometries.

  18. Foliar uptake of cesium, iodine and strontium and their transfer to the edible parts of beans, potatoes and radishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oestling, O.; Kopp, P.; Burkart, W.

    Considerable fractions of radionuclide solutions deposited on the surface of the leaves may be transferred to the edible parts of plants. In radishes we observed a transfer of more than 40% of the applied cesium radioisotope within a few days. A rather similar uptake was found for beans and potatoes when harvested a month after application of radioactivity. As much as 60% of the applied cesium-isotope remained in (or on) the potato leaves even 8 days after application. The major part could however be washed off the leaves a few hours after application. When radishes were showered with water within 7 h after the application of activity the uptake was greatly reduced. No competitive effect of potassium chloride for the foliar uptake of cesium was found. A 10 -2 M colloidal suspension of Prussian Blue, a chelating agent for monovalent alkali metals such as potassium, cesium, or other monovalent cations, applied as droplets to the leaves one day prior to application of active cesium was found to strongly inhibit the transfer of cesium to the radish. The transfer of iodine and strontium to the edible parts was found to be negligible (or slower) as compared to cesium. In most cases no detectable amounts of these two nuclides were transfered to the edible parts of the radish after 2-5 weeks.

  19. Application of Prompt Gamma-Ray Analysis to Identify Electrorefining Salt-Bearing Plutonium Oxide at the Plutonium Finishing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Fazzari, Dennis M.; Jones, Susan A.; Delegard, Calvin H. )

    2003-09-25

    Prompt gamma-ray analysis is being implemented at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) to screen impure plutonium oxide inventory items, received in the mid-1980s from the Rocky Flats Plant, for the presence of sodium chloride and potassium chloride salts from the electrorefining process. A large fraction of these items are suspected to contain electrorefining salts. Because the salts evaporate at the=950C stabilization temperature mandated for long-term storage under the U.S. Department of Energy plutonium oxide stabilization and storage criteria to plug and corrode process equipment, items found to have these salts qualify for thermal stabilization at 750C. The prompt gamma ray energies characteristic of sodium, potassium, chlorine, and other low atomic weight elements arise from the interaction the light elements with alpha radiation from plutonium and americium radioactive decay. High-resolution gamma ray spectrometers designed to detect energies up to {approx}4.5 MeV are used to gather the high-energy prompt gamma spectra.Observation of the presence of the high-energy gamma peaks representing the natural chlorine-35, sodium-23, and potassium-39 isotopes and the sodium-to-chlorine peak area ratios in the range for plutonium oxide materials known to contain the electrorefining salts give the evidence needed to identify plutonium oxide materials at the PFP that qualify for the lower-temperature processing. Conversely, the absence of these telltale signals in the prompt gamma analysis provides evidence that the materials do not contain the electrorefining salts. Furthermore, based on calibrations using known assayed items, semiquantitative measurement of the quantity of chlorine present in materials containing electrorefining salt also can be performed by using the count rates observed for the chlorine peak, the plutonium quantity present in the measured item, and the plutonium- and chlorine-specific response of the gamma detection system. The origin and

  20. Test Plan for Radioactive Testing of a Vertical Direct Denitration Calciner

    SciTech Connect

    COMPTON, J.A.

    1999-10-05

    A vertical calciner will be used to demonstrate the direct denitration process for converting plutonium-bearing liquors to stable plutonium rich solids. The calciner and some of its associated equipment were previously tested with non-radioactive chemicals to demonstrate operability.

  1. Test plan for radioactive testing of a vertical direct denitration calciner

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, F.D., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-17

    A vertical calciner will be used to demonstrate the direct denitration process for converting plutonium-bearing liquors to stable plutonium rich solids. The calciner and come of its associated equipment were previously tested with non-radioactive chemicals to demonstrate operability.

  2. Gamma radiation characteristics of plutonium dioxide fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gingo, P. J.

    1969-01-01

    Investigation of plutonium dioxide as an isotopic fuel for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators yielded the isotopic composition of production-grade plutonium dioxide fuel, sources of gamma radiation produced by plutonium isotopes, and the gamma flux at the surface.

  3. Detection of the actinides and cesium from environmental samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snow, Mathew Spencer

    Detection of the actinides and cesium in the environment is important for a variety of applications ranging from environmental remediation to safeguards and nuclear forensics. The utilization of multiple different elemental concentrations and isotopic ratios together can significantly improve the ability to attribute contamination to a unique source term and/or generation process; however, the utilization of multiple elemental "signatures" together from environmental samples requires knowledge of the impact of chemical fractionation for various elements under a variety of environmental conditions (including predominantly aqueous versus arid conditions). The research reported in this dissertation focuses on three major areas: 1. Improving the understanding of actinide-mineral interactions at ultra-low concentrations. Chapter 2 reports a batch sorption and modeling study of Np(V) sorption to the mineral goethite from attomolar to micromolar concentrations. 2. Improving the detection capabilities for Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS) analyses of ultra-trace cesium from environmental samples. Chapter 4 reports a new method which significantly improves the chemical yields, purification, sample processing time, and ultimately, the detection limits for TIMS analyses of femtogram quantities of cesium from a variety of environmental sample matrices. 3. Demonstrating how actinide and cesium concentrations and isotopic ratios from environmental samples can be utilized together to determine a wealth of information including environmental transport mechanisms (e.g. aqueous versus arid transport) and information on the processes which generated the original material. Chapters1, 3 and 5 demonstrate these principles using Pu, Am, Np, and Cs concentrations and isotopic ratios from contaminated soils taken near the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) of Idaho National Laboratory (INL) (a low level radioactive waste disposal site in southeastern Idaho).

  4. Plutonium process monitoring (PPM) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, A. S.; Ricketts, T. E.; Pansoy-Hejlvik, M. E.; Ramsey, K. B.; Hansel, K. M.; Romero, M. K.

    2000-07-01

    In mid-1980, Marsh and Pope developed an online gamma system to monitor americium, uranium and plutonium gamma rays during anion-exchange process for plutonium aqueous recovery operations. It has been shown that the real-time elution profiles of actinide impurities are important for plutonium loss via break-through, waste minimization, and process monitoring. However, the current monitoring equipment and data acquisition software are obsolete and are frequently problematic. In 1999, we redesigned the on-line gamma monitoring system in collaboration with Perkin-Elmer ORTEC (Oak Ridge, TN) to enhance and upgrade the current system. This paper describes the new integrated plutonium process monitoring (PPM) system for the aqueous plutonium recovery and anion-exchange processes at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility.

  5. Fluoro-alcohol phase modifiers and process for cesium solvent extraction

    DOEpatents

    Bonnesen, Peter V.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Sachleben, Richard A.

    2003-05-20

    The invention relates to a class of phenoxy fluoro-alcohols, their preparation, and their use as phase modifiers and solvating agents in a solvent composition for the extraction of cesium from alkaline solutions. These phenoxy fluoro-alcohols comply with the formula: ##STR1## in which n=2 to 4; X represents a hydrogen or a fluorine atom, and R.sup.2 -R.sup.6 are hydrogen or alkyl substituents. These phenoxy fluoro-alcohol phase modifiers are a necessary component to a robust solvent composition and process useful for the removal of radioactive cesium from alkaline nuclear waste streams. The fluoro-alcohols can also be used in solvents designed to extract other cesium from acidic or neutral solutions.

  6. Physical Property Modeling of Concentrated Cesium Eluate Solutions, Part I - Derivation of Models

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, A.S.; Pierce, R. A.; Edwards, T. B.; Calloway, T. B.

    2005-09-15

    Major analytes projected to be present in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant cesium ion-exchange eluate solutions were identified from the available analytical data collected during radioactive bench-scale runs, and a test matrix of cesium eluate solutions was designed within the bounding concentrations of those analytes. A computer model simulating the semi-batch evaporation of cesium eluate solutions was run in conjunction with a multi-electrolyte aqueous system database to calculate the physical properties of each test matrix solution concentrated to the target endpoints of 80% and 100% saturation. The calculated physical properties were analyzed statistically and fitted into mathematical expressions for the bulk solubility, density, viscosity, heat capacity and volume reduction factor as a function of temperature and concentration of each major analyte in the eluate feed. The R{sup 2} of the resulting physical property models ranged from 0.89 to 0.99.

  7. Measurements of cesium in Arctic beluga and caribou before and after the Fukushima accident of 2011.

    PubMed

    Stocki, T J; Gamberg, M; Loseto, L; Pellerin, E; Bergman, L; Mercier, J-F; Genovesi, L; Cooke, M; Todd, B; Sandles, D; Whyte, J; Wang, X

    2016-10-01

    Concern from northern communities following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident of March 2011 has prompted a reassessment of the safety of their traditional foods with respect to radioactivity levels. To this end, a study was conducted to measure the levels of radionuclides in Arctic caribou (Rangifer tarandus) and beluga (Delphinapterus leucas). The main radionuclide of concern is cesium-137, which is easily transferred through the lichen-caribou food chain. Previous studies have been conducted on the cesium-137 levels in Canadian caribou herds from 1958 to 2000, allowing researchers to determine the amount of cesium-137 in caribou specifically attributable to atmospheric weapons testing and the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986. In this study, samples of lichens, mushrooms, caribou, beluga and beluga prey collected before and after the Fukushima accident were analyzed for radioactivity levels. Samples were processed and measured using gamma ray spectroscopy to identify the radionuclides present and determine the radioactivity concentration. Both calibration standards and Monte Carlo simulations were used to determine the efficiency of the detectors for the samples, taking into account differences in individual sample sizes as well as matrices. In particular, a careful analysis of the atomic composition of lichens and mushrooms was performed to ensure the efficiencies for these sample types were correct. A comparison of the concentrations from before and after the accident indicated that there was no increase in radioactivity as a result of the atmospheric plume from the Fukushima accident. Some cesium-137, likely attributable to fallout from atmospheric weapons testing of the 1950s and 1960s (since there was no cesium-134 measured in the samples), was measured in the post Fukushima caribou and beluga whale samples; however, this amount was determined to be insignificant for any radiological concern (9.1 ± 1.8 and 0.63 ± 0.23 Bq kg(-1) ww respectively

  8. Plutonium recovery from organic materials

    DOEpatents

    Deaton, R.L.; Silver, G.L.

    1973-12-11

    A method is described for removing plutonium or the like from organic material wherein the organic material is leached with a solution containing a strong reducing agent such as titanium (III) (Ti/sup +3None)/, chromium (II) (Cr/ sup +2/), vanadium (II) (V/sup +2/) ions, or ferrous ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), the leaching yielding a plutonium-containing solution that is further processed to recover plutonium. The leach solution may also contain citrate or tartrate ion. (Official Gazette)

  9. PROCESS OF PRODUCING SHAPED PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Anicetti, R.J.

    1959-08-11

    A process is presented for producing and casting high purity plutonium metal in one step from plutonium tetrafluoride. The process comprises heating a mixture of the plutonium tetrafluoride with calcium while the mixture is in contact with and defined as to shape by a material obtained by firing a mixture consisting of calcium oxide and from 2 to 10% by its weight of calcium fluoride at from 1260 to 1370 deg C.

  10. Manufacturing of Plutonium Tensile Specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Cameron M

    2012-08-01

    Details workflow conducted to manufacture high density alpha Plutonium tensile specimens to support Los Alamos National Laboratory's science campaigns. Introduces topics including the metallurgical challenge of Plutonium and the use of high performance super-computing to drive design. Addresses the utilization of Abaqus finite element analysis, programmable computer numerical controlled (CNC) machining, as well as glove box ergonomics and safety in order to design a process that will yield high quality Plutonium tensile specimens.

  11. [Examination of radioactive contamination in foods].

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Hitoshi; Tsuchiyama, Tomoyuki; Terada, Hisaya

    2013-01-01

    Following the Fukushima nuclear plant accident in Mar. 2011, the examination of radioactive contamination in foods is being carried out in Nagoya. During the period between 30 Mar. 2011 and 31 Oct. 2012, a total of 300 food samples were collected and the concentrations of radioactive nuclides were determined by means of γ-ray spectrometry using a high-purity germanium semiconductor detector. The results of analysis indicate that the concentrations of radioactive iodine (I) and cesium (Cs) were below the regulatory limits. Radioactive I ((131)I) was detected in 7 samples which belonged to the categories of green and yellow vegetables and other vegetables. Radioactive Cs ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) was detected in 60 samples which belonged to the categories of rice and its processed products, potatoes and its processed products, nuts and seeds, green and yellow vegetables, other vegetables, fruits, mushrooms, fishes and shellfishes, processed sea foods, meat, milk and dairy products and other beverages.

  12. PLUTONIUM-URANIUM ALLOY

    DOEpatents

    Coffinberry, A.S.; Schonfeld, F.W.

    1959-09-01

    Pu-U-Fe and Pu-U-Co alloys suitable for use as fuel elements tn fast breeder reactors are described. The advantages of these alloys are ease of fabrication without microcracks, good corrosion restatance, and good resistance to radiation damage. These advantages are secured by limitation of the zeta phase of plutonium in favor of a tetragonal crystal structure of the U/sub 6/Mn type.

  13. MOLDS FOR CASTING PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, J.W.; Miley, F.; Pritchard, W.C.

    1962-02-27

    A coated mold for casting plutonium comprises a mold base portion of a material which remains solid and stable at temperatures as high as the pouring temperature of the metal to be cast and having a thin coating of the order of 0.005 inch thick on the interior thereof. The coating is composed of finely divided calcium fluoride having a particle size of about 149 microns. (AEC)

  14. Welding Plutonium Storage Containers

    SciTech Connect

    HUDLOW, SL

    2004-04-20

    The outer can welder (OCW) in the FB-Line Facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is a Gas Tungsten Arc Weld (GTAW) system used to create outer canisters compliant with the Department of Energy 3013 Standard, DOE-STD-3013-2000, Stabilization, Packaging, and Storage of Plutonium-Bearing Materials. The key welding parameters controlled and monitored on the outer can welder Data Acquisition System (DAS) are weld amperage, weld voltage, and weld rotational speed. Inner 3013 canisters from the Bagless Transfer System that contain plutonium metal or plutonium oxide are placed inside an outer 3013 canister. The canister is back-filled with helium and welded using the outer can welder. The completed weld is screened to determine if it is satisfactory by reviewing the OCW DAS key welding parameters, performing a helium leak check, performing a visual examination by a qualified weld inspector, and performing digital radiography of the completed weld. Canisters with unsatisfactory welds are cut open and repackaged. Canisters with satisfactory welds are deemed compliant with the 3013 standard for long-term storage.

  15. Scintillation Characterization of Doped Cesium Hafnium Chloride (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, Emmanuel; Goodwin, Brandon; Bhattacharya, Pijush; Burger, Arnold; Stowe, Ashley; Cherepy, Nerine; Payne, Steve

    2016-09-01

    The scintillators currently providing the best energy resolution lower than 2.6% at 662 keV and sizes larger than 1 in. dia. 1 in. height are LaBr3(Ce) and SrI2(Eu). Despite energy resolution and decay time performance of LaBr3(Ce), the intrinsic radioactivity, due to naturally occurring 138La isotope in the matrix is a limitation for low count rate applications such as radioisotope identification of weak sources. Cesium Hafnium Chloride (CHC) is a high effective atomic number (Zeff=58) moderate density (3.86 g/cm3) scintillator for gamma spectroscopy, offering a cubic crystal structure, no intrinsic radioactivity, and highly proportional light yield, without intentional doping. CHC boasts a cubic crystal structure that is isostructural to K2HfCl6 and analogous to calcium fluoride with cesium ions in the fluorine ion position and the [HfCl6]2- octahedral replacing calcium ions. The scintillation of CHC is centered at 400 nm, with a principal decay time of 4.37 μs, a light yield of up to 54,000 photons/MeV and energy resolution of 3.3% at 662 keV and we report on the effects of doping on the scintillation properties of CHC.

  16. Plutonium worker dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Birchall, Alan; Puncher, M; Harrison, J; Riddell, A; Bailey, M R; Khokryakov, V; Romanov, S

    2010-05-01

    Epidemiological studies of the relationship between risk and internal exposure to plutonium are clearly reliant on the dose estimates used. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is currently reviewing the latest scientific information available on biokinetic models and dosimetry, and it is likely that a number of changes to the existing models will be recommended. The effect of certain changes, particularly to the ICRP model of the respiratory tract, has been investigated for inhaled forms of (239)Pu and uncertainties have also been assessed. Notable effects of possible changes to respiratory tract model assumptions are (1) a reduction in the absorbed dose to target cells in the airways, if changes under consideration are made to the slow clearing fraction and (2) a doubling of absorbed dose to the alveolar region for insoluble forms, if evidence of longer retention times is taken into account. An important factor influencing doses for moderately soluble forms of (239)Pu is the extent of binding of dissolved plutonium to lung tissues and assumptions regarding the extent of binding in the airways. Uncertainty analyses have been performed with prior distributions chosen for application in epidemiological studies. The resulting distributions for dose per unit intake were lognormal with geometric standard deviations of 2.3 and 2.6 for nitrates and oxides, respectively. The wide ranges were due largely to consideration of results for a range of experimental data for the solubility of different forms of nitrate and oxides. The medians of these distributions were a factor of three times higher than calculated using current default ICRP parameter values. For nitrates, this was due to the assumption of a bound fraction, and for oxides due mainly to the assumption of slower alveolar clearance. This study highlights areas where more research is needed to reduce biokinetic uncertainties, including more accurate determination of particle transport rates

  17. Preparation methods of copper-ferrocyanide functionalized magnetic nanoparticles for selective removal of cesium in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Hee-Man Yang; Kune Woo Lee; Bum-Kyoung Seo; Jei Kwon Moon

    2013-07-01

    Copper ferrocyanide functionalized magnetite nanoparticles (Cu-FC-MNPs) were successfully synthesized by the immobilization of copper and ferrocyanide on the surface of [1-(2 amino-ethyl)-3-aminopropyl] trimethoxysilane modified magnetite nanoparticles. A radioactive cesium (Cs) adsorption test was carried out to investigate the effectiveness of Cu-FC-MNPS for the removal of radioactive Cs. Furthermore, the Cu-FC-MNPs showed excellent separation ability by an external magnet in an aqueous solution. (authors)

  18. Method for primary containment of cesium wastes

    DOEpatents

    Angelini, Peter; Lackey, Walter J.; Stinton, David P.; Blanco, Raymond E.; Bond, Walter D.; Arnold, Jr., Wesley D.

    1983-01-01

    A method for producing a cesium-retentive waste form, characterized by a high degree of compositional stability and mechanical integrity, is provided by subjecting a cesium-loaded zeolite to heat under conditions suitable for stabilizing the zeolite and immobilizing the cesium, and coating said zeolite for sufficient duration within a suitable environment with at least one dense layer of pyrolytic carbon to seal therein said cesium to produce a final, cesium-bearing waste form. Typically, the zeolite is stabilized and the cesium immobilized in less than four hours by confinement within an air environment maintained at about 600.degree. C. Coatings are thereafter applied by confining the calcined zeolite within a coating environment comprising inert fluidizing and carbon donor gases maintained at 1,000.degree. C. for a suitable duration.

  19. METHOD FOR OBTAINING PLUTONIUM METAL AND ALLOYS OF PLUTONIUM FROM PLUTONIUM TRICHLORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Reavis, J.G.; Leary, J.A.; Maraman, W.J.

    1962-11-13

    A process is given for both reducing plutonium trichloride to plutonium metal using cerium as the reductant and simultaneously alloying such plutonium metal with an excess of cerium or cerium and cobalt sufficient to yield the desired nuclear reactor fuel composition. The process is conducted at a temperature from about 550 to 775 deg C, at atmospheric pressure, without the use of booster reactants, and a substantial decontamination is effected in the product alloy of any rare earths which may be associated with the source of the plutonium. (AEC)

  20. RUBIDIUM AND CESIUM FLUXES IN MUSCLE AS RELATED TO THE MEMBRANE POTENTIAL

    PubMed Central

    Sjodin, Raymond A.

    1959-01-01

    The reduction of membrane potential in frog sartorius muscle produced by rubidium and cesium ions has been studied over a wide concentration range and compared with depolarization occasioned by potassium ions. The constant field theory of passive flux has been used to predict the potential changes observed. The potential data suggest certain permeability coefficient ratios and these are compared with ratios obtained from flux data using radioactive tracers. The agreement of the flux with the potential data is good if account is taken of the inhibition of potassium flux which occurs in the presence of rubidium and cesium ions. A high temperature dependence has been observed for cesium influx (Q10 = 2.5) which is correlated with the observation that cesium ions depolarize very little at low temperatures. The observations suggest that cesium ions behave more like sodium ions at low temperatures and more like potassium ions at room temperature with respect to their effect on the muscle cell resting potential. The constant field theory of passive ion flux appears to be in general agreement with the experimental results observed if account is taken of the dependence of permeability coefficients on the concentrations of ions used and of possible interactions between the permeabilities of ions. PMID:13654746

  1. In situ mobilization of colloids and transport of cesium in Hanford sediments.

    PubMed

    Flury, Markus; Mathison, Jon B; Harsh, James B

    2002-12-15

    Radioactive waste, accumulated during Pu production, has leaked into the subsurface from underground storage tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford site. The leaking solutions contained 137Cs and were of high ionic strength. Such a tank leak was simulated experimentally in steady-state flow experiments with packed Hanford sediments. The initial leak was simulated by a 1 M NaNO3 solution, followed by a decrease of ionic strength to 1 mM NaNO3. Cesium breakthrough curves were determined in both 1 M and 1 mM NaNO3 background. Colloidal particles were mobilized during the change of ionic strength. Mobilized colloids consisted mainly of quartz, mica, illite, kaolinite, and chlorite. Electrophoretic mobilities of colloids in the eluent solution were -3(microm/s)(V/cm) and increased to less negative values during later stages of mobilization. Mobilized colloids carried a fraction of the cesium along. While transport of cesium in 1 M NaNO3 background was much faster than in 1 mM NaNO3, cesium attached to colloids moved almost unretarded through the sediments. Cesium attached to mobilized colloids was likely associated with high affinity sorption sites on micas and illites.

  2. Alternate Methods For Eluting Cesium From Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Resin

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Paul Allen; Johnson, Heather Lauren

    2009-01-01

    A Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) system has been proposed for removing cesium from the supernate and dissolved salt solutions in the high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The SCIX system could use either crystalline silicotitanate (CST) an inorganic, non-regenerable sorbent or spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF), a new regenerable resin, to remove cesium from the waste solutions. The standard method for eluting the cesium from the RF resin uses 15-20 bed volumes (BV) of 0.5 M nitric acid (HNO3). The nitric acid eluate, containing the radioactive cesium, would be combined with the sludge from the waste tanks, and would be converted into glass at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at SRS. The amount of nitric acid generated by the standard elution method exceeds the capacity of DWPF to destroy the nitrate ions and maintain the required chemical reducing conditions in the glass melt. Alternate methods for eluting the resin have been tested, including using lower concentrations of nitric acid, other acids, and changing the flow regimes. About 4 bed volumes of 0.5 M nitric acid are required to remove the sodium (titrate the resin) and most of the cesium from the resin, so the bulk of the acid used for the standard elution method removes a very small quantity of cesium from the resin. The resin was loaded with 9.5 g Cs/L of resin prior to elution, which is the maximum expected loading for RF resin treating the actual dissolved salt waste at SRS. For the baseline elution method, 465 g of nitrate is used per liter of resin, and >99.9999% of the cesium is removed from the resin. An alternative method that used 4 bed volumes of 0.5 M HNO3 followed by 11 bed volumes of 0.05 M HNO3, used 158 g of nitrate per liter of resin (66% less nitrate than used for the standard elution) and removed >99.998% of the cesium. A staccato flow mode using 0.5 M HNO3 (1 hr on at 1 BV/hr, followed by 3 hrs off) after the resin had been titrated using a continuous

  3. Cesium-specific phenolic ion exchange resin

    DOEpatents

    Bibler, J.P.; Wallace, R.M.

    1995-08-15

    A phenolic, cesium-specific, cation exchange resin is prepared by neutralizing resorcinol with potassium hydroxide, condensing/polymerizing the resulting intermediate with formaldehyde, heat-curing the resulting polymer to effect cross-linking and grinding it to desired particle size for use. This resin will selectively and efficiently adsorb cesium ions in the presence of a high concentration of sodium ions with a low carbon to cesium ratio. 2 figs.

  4. Cesium-specific phenolic ion exchange resin

    DOEpatents

    Bibler, Jane P.; Wallace, Richard M.

    1995-01-01

    A phenolic, cesium-specific, cation exchange resin is prepared by neutralizing resorcinol with potassium hydroxide, condensing/polymerizing the resulting intermediate with formaldehyde, heat-curing the resulting polymer to effect cross-linking and grinding it to desired particle size for use. This resin will selectively and efficiently adsorb cesium ions in the presence of a high concentration of sodium ions with a low carbon to cesium ratio.

  5. Cesium standard for satellite application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloch, M. B.; Meirs, M.; Pascaru, I.; Weinstein, B.

    1983-01-01

    A Cesium frequency standard that was developed for satellite applications is discussed. It weighs 23 lbs. and uses 23.5 watts of power, achieves a stability of 1 x ten to the minus 13th power/100,000 seconds, and is radiation hardened. To achieve the weight and reliability requirements, both thick and thin film hybrid circuits were utilized. A crystal oscillator is used to improve short-term stability and performance on a moving platform.

  6. Cesium recovery from aqueous solutions

    DOEpatents

    Goodhall, C. A.

    1960-09-13

    A process for recovering cesium from aqueous solutions is given in which precipitation on zinc ferricyanide is used. The precipitation is preferably carried out in solutions containing at least 0.0004M zinc ferricyanide, an acidity ranging from 0.2N mineral acid to 0.61N acid deficiency, and 1 to 2.5M aluminum nitrate. (D.L.C.)

  7. Cesium heat-pipe thermostat

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, F.; Song, D.; Sheng, K.; Wu, J.; Yi, X.; Yu, Z.

    2013-09-11

    In this paper the authors report a newly developed Cesium Heat-Pipe Thermostat (Cs HPT) with the operation range of 400 °C to 800 °C. The working medium is cesium (Cs) of 99.98% purity and contains no radioisotope. A Cs filing device is developed which can prevent Cs being in contact with air. The structural material is stainless steel. A 5000 h test has been made to confirm the compatibility between cesium and stainless steel. The Cs HPT has several thermometer wells of 220mm depth with different diameters for different sizes of thermometers. The temperature uniformity of the Cs HPT is 0.06 °C to 0.20 °C. A precise temperature controller is used to ensure the temperature fluctuation within ±0.03 °C. The size of Cs HPT is 380mm×320mm×280mm with foot wheels for easy moving. The thermostat has been successfully used for the calibration of industrial platinum resistance thermometers and thermocouples.

  8. Development of characterization of plutonium storage containers

    SciTech Connect

    James, D.; Stevkovski, S.

    1999-02-01

    As a result of the end of the Cold War, at least 11,000 (possibly 20,000 or more) plutonium pits are projected to be stored at Pantex for up to fifty years. The current pit container, the ALR8 was not designed for this length of storage duration. As a result, Pantex officials have searched for alternative container options. The objective of this research is to develop and validate a model to predict the temperature distribution within the stored components and the internal structure of the proposed ALR8(SI) container, and to consider and analyze the safety features of the ALR8(SI) container as seen from the thermal performance view. Due to the time scale involved with the current simulations, the radioactive decay of the plutonium may be assumed to provide a uniform rate of heat generation. This heat is conducted to the surroundings through the solid structures of the assembly. In addition to conduction, the inert gas that fills the volume within the steel container convects a fraction of the generated heat from the plutonium to the colder steel surfaces. Radiation must also be accounted for as natural convection and limited conduction paths are present within the container. The research efforts in this project have been directed into two paths, numerical and experimental. First, the temperature distribution within the stored components are being determined experimentally as a function of fill gases, energy generation rate, and boundary conditions. Second, a finite element model of the ALR8 container has been developed so that the temperature distribution can be predicted as a function of the same experimental parameters. This paper presents the experimental method and data that have been obtained thus far, as well as the finite element model created using SDRC I-DEAS.

  9. Integrated development and testing plan for the plutonium immobilization project

    SciTech Connect

    Kan, T.

    1998-07-01

    This integrated plan for the DOE Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (MD) describes the technology development and major project activities necessary to support the deployment of the immobilization approach for disposition of surplus weapons-usable plutonium. The plan describes details of the development and testing (D&T) tasks needed to provide technical data for design and operation of a plutonium immobilization plant based on the ceramic can-in-canister technology (''Immobilization Fissile Material Disposition Program Final Immobilization Form Assessment and Recommendation'', UCRL-ID-128705, October 3, 1997). The plan also presents tasks for characterization and performance testing of the immobilization form to support a repository licensing application and to develop the basis for repository acceptance of the plutonium form. Essential elements of the plant project (design, construction, facility activation, etc.) are described, but not developed in detail, to indicate how the D&T results tie into the overall plant project. Given the importance of repository acceptance, specific activities to be conducted by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (RW) to incorporate the plutonium form in the repository licensing application are provided in this document, together with a summary of how immobilization D&T activities provide input to the license activity. The ultimate goal of the Immobilization Project is to develop, construct, and operate facilities that will immobilize from about 18 to 50 tonnes (MT) of U.S. surplus weapons usable plutonium materials in a manner that meets the ''spent fuel'' standard (Fissile Materials Storage and Disposition Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision, ''Storage and Disposition Final PEIS'', issued January 14, 1997, 62 Federal Register 3014) and is acceptable for disposal in a geologic repository. In the can-in-canister technology, this is accomplished by encapsulating the plutonium

  10. PREPARATION OF HALIDES OF PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Garner, C.S.; Johns, I.B.

    1958-09-01

    A dry chemical method is described for preparing plutonium halides, which consists in contacting plutonyl nitrate with dry gaseous HCl or HF at an elevated temperature. The addition to the reaction gas of a small quantity of an oxidizing gas or a reducing gas will cause formation of the tetra- or tri-halide of plutonium as desired.

  11. Photochemical preparation of plutonium pentafluoride

    DOEpatents

    Rabideau, Sherman W.; Campbell, George M.

    1987-01-01

    The novel compound plutonium pentafluoride may be prepared by the photodissociation of gaseous plutonium hexafluoride. It is a white solid of low vapor pressure, which consists predominantly of a face-centered cubic structure with a.sub.o =4.2709.+-.0.0005 .ANG..

  12. PLUTONIUM-URANIUM-TITANIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Coffinberry, A.S.

    1959-07-28

    A plutonium-uranium alloy suitable for use as the fuel element in a fast breeder reactor is described. The alloy contains from 15 to 60 at.% titanium with the remainder uranium and plutonium in a specific ratio, thereby limiting the undesirable zeta phase and rendering the alloy relatively resistant to corrosion and giving it the essential characteristic of good mechanical workability.

  13. METHOD OF REDUCING PLUTONIUM COMPOUNDS

    DOEpatents

    Johns, I.B.

    1958-06-01

    A method is described for reducing plutonium compounds in aqueous solution from a higher to a lower valence state. This reduction of valence is achieved by treating the aqueous solution of higher valence plutonium compounds with hydrogen in contact with an activated platinum catalyst.

  14. SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM FROM URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Feder, H.M.; Nuttall, R.L.

    1959-12-15

    A process is described for extracting plutonium from powdered neutron- irradiated urarium metal by contacting the latter, while maintaining it in the solid form, with molten magnesium which takes up the plutonium and separating the molten magnesium from the solid uranium.

  15. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, H.H.; Asprey, L.B.

    1960-02-01

    A process of separating plutonium in at least the tetravalent state from fission products contained in an aqueous acidic solution by extraction with alkyl phosphate is reported. The plutonium can then be back-extracted from the organic phase by contact with an aqueous solution of sulfuric, phosphoric, or oxalic acid as a complexing agent.

  16. PLUTONIUM-CERIUM-COPPER ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Coffinberry, A.S.

    1959-05-12

    A low melting point plutonium alloy useful as fuel is a homogeneous liquid metal fueled nuclear reactor is described. Vessels of tungsten or tantalum are useful to contain the alloy which consists essentially of from 10 to 30 atomic per cent copper and the balance plutonium and cerium. with the plutontum not in excess of 50 atomic per cent.

  17. Plutonium Multiple Recycling In PWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Nigon, Jean-Louis; Lenain, Richard; Zaetta, Alain

    2002-07-01

    Reprocessing and recycling open the road to a sustainable management of nuclear materials and an environment friendly management of nuclear waste. However, long or very long term recycling implies fast neutron reactors. High burn-ups of irradiated standard UO{sub 2} fuel as well as recycling of plutonium fuel in thermal reactors lead to a 'degradation' of plutonium that means a low fissile content, which is hardly compatible with recycling in LWRs. Thus the question of plutonium management has been raised; although there are some limitations, a truly large variety of options do exist; no one of the presently selected ways of plutonium management is a dead end road. Among these various options, some are fully compatible with the existing reactors and may be considered for the mid term future; they offer a competitive management of plutonium during the transition from thermal to fast reactors. (authors)

  18. Tags to Track Illicit Uranium and Plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Haire, M. Jonathan; Forsberg, Charles W.

    2007-07-01

    With the expansion of nuclear power, it is essential to avoid nuclear materials from falling into the hands of rogue nations, terrorists, and other opportunists. This paper examines the idea of detection and attribution tags for nuclear materials. For a detection tag, it is proposed to add small amounts [about one part per billion (ppb)] of {sup 232}U to enriched uranium to brighten its radioactive signature. Enriched uranium would then be as detectable as plutonium and thus increase the likelihood of intercepting illicit enriched uranium. The use of rare earth oxide elements is proposed as a new type of 'attribution' tag for uranium and thorium from mills, uranium and plutonium fuels, and other nuclear materials. Rare earth oxides are chosen because they are chemically compatible with the fuel cycle, can survive high-temperature processing operations in fuel fabrication, and can be chosen to have minimal neutronic impact within the nuclear reactor core. The mixture of rare earths and/or rare earth isotopes provides a unique 'bar code' for each tag. If illicit nuclear materials are recovered, the attribution tag can identify the source and lot of nuclear material, and thus help police reduce the possible number of suspects in the diversion of nuclear materials based on who had access. (authors)

  19. Management of disused plutonium sealed sources

    SciTech Connect

    Whitworth, Julia Rose; Pearson, Michael W; Abeyta, Cristy

    2010-01-01

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative's (GTRI) Offsite Source Recovery Project (OSRP) has been recovering excess and unwanted radioactive sealed sources since 1999, including more than 2,400 Plutonium (Pu)-238 sealed sources and 653 Pu-239-bearing sources that represent more than 10% of the total sources recovered by GTRI/OSRP to date. These sources have been recovered from hundreds of sites within the United States (US) and around the world. OSRP grew out of early efforts at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to recover and disposition excess Plutonium-239 (Pu-239) sealed sources that were distributed in the 1960s and 1970s under the Atoms for Peace Program, a loan-lease program that serviced 31 countries, as well as domestic users. In the conduct of these recovery operations, GTRI/OSRP has been required to solve problems related to knowledge-of-inventory, packaging and transportation of fissile and heat-source materials, transfer of ownership, storage of special nuclear material (SNM) both at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities and commercially, and disposal. Unique issues associated with repatriation from foreign countries, including end user agreements required by some European countries and denials of shipment, will also be discussed.

  20. Collector for recovering gallium from weapons plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Philip, C.V.; Anthony, R.G.; Chokkaram, S.

    1998-09-01

    Currently, the separation of gallium from weapons plutonium involves the use of aqueous processing using either solvent extraction of ion exchange. However, this process generates significant quantities of liquid radioactive wastes. A Thermally Induced Gallium Removal process, or TIGR, developed by researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratories, is a simpler alternative to aqueous processing. This research examined this process, and the behavior of gallium suboxide, a vapor that is swept away by passing hydrogen/argon over gallium trioxide/plutonium oxide heated at 1100 C during the TIGR process. Through experimental procedures, efforts were made to prevent the deposition of corrosive gallium onto furnace and vent surfaces. Experimental procedures included three options for gallium removal and collection: (1) collection of gallium suboxide through use of a cold finger; (2) collection by in situ air oxidation; and (3) collection of gallium on copper. Results conclude all three collection mechanisms are feasible. In addition, gallium trioxide exists in three crystalline forms, and each form was encountered during each experiment, and that each form will have a different reactivity.

  1. Probing Phonons in Plutonium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Joe

    2004-03-01

    The phonon spectra of plutonium and its alloys have been sought after in the past few decades following the discovery of this actinide element in 1941, but with no success. This was due to a combination of the high neutron absorption cross section of 239Pu, the common isotope, and non-availability of large single crystals of any Pu-bearing materials. We have recent designed a high resolution inelastic x-ray scattering experiment using a bright synchrotron x-ray beam at the European Sychrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), Grenoble and mapped the full phonon dispersion curves of an fcc delta-phase polycrystalline Pu-Ga alloy (1). Several unusual features including, a large elastic anisotropy, a small shear elastic modulus C', a Kohn-like anomaly in the T1[011] branch, and a pronounced softening of the [111] transverse modes are found. These features can be related to the phase transitions of plutonium and to strong coupling between the lattice structure and the 5f valence instabilities. Our results also provide a critical test for theoretical treatments of highly correlated 5f electron systems as exemplified by recent dynamical mean field theory (DMFT) calculations for d-plutonium.(2) This work was performed in collaboration with Dr. M. Krisch (ESRF)) and Prof. T.-C. Chiang (UIU), and under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48. 1. Joe Wong et al. Science, vol.301, 1078 (2003) 2. X. Dai et al. Science, vol.300, 953 (2003)

  2. Ion-exchange material and method of storing radioactive wastes

    DOEpatents

    Komarneni, S.; Roy, D.M.

    1983-10-31

    A new cation exchanger is a modified tobermorite containing aluminum isomorphously substituted for silicon and containing sodium or potassium. The exchanger is selective for lead, rubidium, cobalt, and cadmium and is selective for cesium over calcium or sodium. The tobermorites are compatible with cement and are useful for the long-term fixation and storage of radioactive nuclear wastes.

  3. Method of storing radioactive wastes using modified tobermorite

    DOEpatents

    Komarneni, Sridhar; Roy, Della M.

    1985-01-01

    A new cation exchanger is a modified tobermorite containing aluminum isomorphously substituted for silicon and containing sodium or potassium. The exchanger is selective for lead, rubidium, cobalt and cadmium and is selective for cesium over calcium or sodium. The tobermorites are compatable with cement and are useful for the long-term fixation and storage of radioactive nuclear wastes.

  4. [Emergency care for acute wound entering of plutonium and americium into the body (real case)].

    PubMed

    Krasniuk, V I; Gasteva, G N; Blinov, A P; Kuz'menko, L G

    2005-01-01

    The article describes a case of slowly soluble plutonium and americium compounds entering human body via skin wound. During the wound healing, the authors followed features of biokinetics of the radioactive substances, determined the major route of their excretion, evaluated efficiency of surgical d-bridement and complexation medicine (pentacin). clinical and biophysicdata collected could serve to increase efficiency of urgent therapeutic and prophylactic measures aimed to individuals with wounds contaminated with radioactive substances.

  5. Observation challenges in a glovebox environment : behavior based safety at a plutonium facility.

    SciTech Connect

    Montalvo, M. L.

    2002-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is one of the Nation's leading scientific and defense laboratories, owned by the Department of Energy and managed by the University of California. LANL is one of the original weapons complex labs dating back to the days of the Manhattan Project during World War II. Since then, radioactive materials research has continued at LANLs Plutonium Facility, and remains a primary responsibility of the Laboratory. The Nuclear Materials Technology Division (NMT) is a multidisciplinary organization responsible for daily operations of the Plutonium Facility and the Chemistry Research Metallurgy Facility. NMT Division is responsible for the saence, engineering and technology of plutonium and other actinides in support of the Nation's nuclear weapons stockpile, nuclear materials disposition, and nuclear energy programs. A wide amy of activities are performed within NMT Division, such as analytical chemistry, metallurgical operations, actinide processes, waste operations, radioactive materials research and related administrative tasks.

  6. Crystalline matrices for the immobilization of plutonium and actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, E.B.; Burakov, E.E.; Galkin, Ya.B.; Starchenko, V.A.; Vasiliev, V.G.

    1996-05-01

    The management of weapon plutonium, disengaged as a result of conversion, is considered together with the problem of the actinide fraction of long-lived high level radioactive wastes. It is proposed to use polymineral ceramics based on crystalline host-phases: zircon ZrSiO{sub 4} and zirconium dioxide ZrO{sub 2}, for various variants of the management of plutonium and actinides (including the purposes of long-term safe storage or final disposal from the human activity sphere). It is shown that plutonium and actinides are able to form with these phases on ZrSiO{sub 4} and ZrO{sub 2} was done on laboratory level by the hot pressing method, using the plasmochemical calcination technology. To incorporate simulators of plutonium into the structure of ZrSiO{sub 4} and ZrO{sub 2} in the course of synthesis, an original method developed by the authors as a result of studying the high-uranium zircon (Zr,U) SiO{sub 4} form Chernobyl {open_quotes}lavas{close_quotes} was used.

  7. Transport of plutonium in snowmelt run-off

    SciTech Connect

    Purtymun, W.D.; Peters, R.; Maes, M.N.

    1990-07-01

    Plutonium in treated low-level radioactive effluents released into intermittent streams is bound by ion exchange or adsorption to bed sediments in the stream channel. These sediments are subject to transport with summer and spring snowmelt run-off. A study was made of the transport of plutonium during seven spring run-off events in Los Alamos and Pueblo canyons from the Laboratory boundary to Otowi on the Rio Grande. The melting of the snowpack during these years resulted in run-off that was large enough to reach the eastern edge of the Laboratory. Of these seven run-off events recorded at the Laboratory boundary, only five had sufficient flow to reach the Rio Grande. The volume of the five events that reached the river ranged from 5 {times} 10{sup 3} m{sup 3} to 104 {times} 10{sup 3} m{sup 3}. The five run-off events carried 119 {times} 10{sup 3} kg of suspended sediments and 1073 {times} 10{sup 3} kg of bed sediments, and transported 598 {mu}Ci of plutonium to the river. Of the 598 {mu}Ci of plutonium, 3% was transported in solution, 57% with suspended sediments, and 40% with bed sediments. 13 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Study on magnetic separation for decontamination of cesium contaminated soil by using superconducting magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igarashi, Susumu; Nomura, Naoki; Mishima, Fumihito; Akiyama, Yoko

    2014-09-01

    The accident of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant caused the diffusion of radioactive cesium over the wide area. We examined the possibility of applying magnetic separation method using the superconducting magnet, which can process a large amount of the soil in high speed, to the soil decontamination and volume reduction of the radioactive cesium contaminated soil. Clay minerals are classified as 2:1 and 1:1 types by the difference of their layer structures, and these types of minerals are respectively paramagnetic and diamagnetic including some exception. It is known that most of the radioactive cesium is strongly adsorbed on the clay, especially on 2:1 type clay minerals. It is expected that the method which can separate only 2:1 type clay minerals selectively from the mixture clay minerals can enormously contribute to the volume reduction of the contaminated soil. In this study, the components in the clay before and after separation were evaluated to estimate the magnetic separation efficiency by using X-ray diffraction. From the results, the decontamination efficiency and the volume reduction ratio were estimated in order to examine the appropriate separation conditions for the practical decontamination of the soil.

  9. Preconceptual design for separation of plutonium and gallium by ion exchange

    SciTech Connect

    DeMuth, S.F.

    1997-09-30

    The disposition of plutonium from decommissioned nuclear weapons, by incorporation into commercial UO{sub 2}-based nuclear reactor fuel, is a viable means to reduce the potential for theft of excess plutonium. This fuel, which would be a combination of plutonium oxide and uranium oxide, is referred to as a mixed oxide (MOX). Following power generation in commercial reactors with this fuel, the remaining plutonium would become mixed with highly radioactive fission products in a spent fuel assembly. The radioactivity, complex chemical composition, and large size of this spent fuel assembly, would make theft difficult with elaborate chemical processing required for plutonium recovery. In fabricating the MOX fuel, it is important to maintain current commercial fuel purity specifications. While impurities from the weapons plutonium may or may not have a detrimental affect on the fuel fabrication or fuel/cladding performance, certifying the effect as insignificant could be more costly than purification. Two primary concerns have been raised with regard to the gallium impurity: (1) gallium vaporization during fuel sintering may adversely affect the MOX fuel fabrication process, and (2) gallium vaporization during reactor operation may adversely affect the fuel cladding performance. Consequently, processes for the separation of plutonium from gallium are currently being developed and/or designed. In particular, two separation processes are being considered: (1) a developmental, potentially lower cost and lower waste, thermal vaporization process following PuO{sub 2} powder preparation, and (2) an off-the-shelf, potentially higher cost and higher waste, aqueous-based ion exchange (IX) process. While it is planned to use the thermal vaporization process should its development prove successful, IX has been recommended as a backup process. This report presents a preconceptual design with material balances for separation of plutonium from gallium by IX.

  10. Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium. Quarterly technical progress report, May 1--July 31, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    Progress is reported on research projects related to the following: Electronic resource library; Environment, safety, and health; Communication, education, training, and community involvement; Nuclear and other materials; and Reporting, evaluation, monitoring, and administration. Technical studies investigate remedial action of high explosives-contaminated lands, radioactive waste management, nondestructive assay methods, and plutonium processing, handling, and storage.

  11. THE VISCOSITY OF HELIUM-CESIUM MIXTURES,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The viscosities of helium-cesium mixtures having mole fractions of cesium from zero to unity were evaluated using a Lennard - Jones 6-12 interaction potential for all encounters in the Enskog Chapman expressions for the viscosity of a binary mixture. (Author)

  12. PLUTONIUM-HYDROGEN REACTION PRODUCT, METHOD OF PREPARING SAME AND PLUTONIUM POWDER THEREFROM

    DOEpatents

    Fried, S.; Baumbach, H.L.

    1959-12-01

    A process is described for forming plutonlum hydride powder by reacting hydrogen with massive plutonium metal at room temperature and the product obtained. The plutonium hydride powder can be converted to plutonium powder by heating to above 200 deg C.

  13. Radionuclide concentrations in/on vegetation at radioactive-waste disposal Area G during the 1995 growing season. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Fresquez, P.R.; Vold, E.L.; Naranjo, L. Jr.

    1996-03-01

    Overstory (pinon pine) and understory (grass and forb) vegetation were collected within and around selected points at Area G--a low- level radioactive solid-waste disposal facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory--for the analysis of tritium ({sup 3}H), strontium ({sup 90}Sr), plutonium ({sup 238}Pu and {sup 239}Pu), cesium ({sup 137}Cs), and total uranium. Also, heavy metals (Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and Tl) in/on vegetation were determined. In general, most (unwashed) vegetation collected within and around Area G contained {sup 3}H, uranium, {sup 238}Pu, and {sup 239}Pu in higher concentrations than vegetation collected from background areas. Tritium, in particular, was detected as high as 7300 pCi mL{sup -1} in understory vegetation collected from the west side of the transuranic (TRU) pads. The south and west ends of the tritium shaft field also contained elevated levels of {sup 3}H in overstory, and especially in understory vegetation, as compared to background; this suggests that {sup 3}H may be migrating from this waste repository through surface and subsurface pathways. Also, understory vegetation collected north of the TRU pads (adjacent to the fence line of Area G) contained the highest values of {sup 238}Pu and {sup 239}Pu as compared to background, and may be a result of surface holding, storage, and/or disposal activities.

  14. Low temperature oxidation of plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Art J.; Roussel, Paul

    2013-05-15

    The initial oxidation of gallium stabilized {delta}-plutonium metal at 193 K has been followed using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. On exposure to Langmuir quantities of oxygen, plutonium rapidly forms a trivalent oxide followed by a tetravalent plutonium oxide. The growth modes of both oxides have been determined. Warming the sample in vacuum, the tetravalent oxide reduces to the trivalent oxide. The kinetics of this reduction reaction have followed and the activation energy has been determined to be 38.8 kJ mol{sup -1}.

  15. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1959-04-14

    The separation of plutonium from aqueous inorganic acid solutions by the use of a water immiscible organic extractant liquid is described. The plutonium must be in the oxidized state, and the solvents covered by the patent include nitromethane, nitroethane, nitropropane, and nitrobenzene. The use of a salting out agents such as ammonium nitrate in the case of an aqueous nitric acid solution is advantageous. After contacting the aqueous solution with the organic extractant, the resulting extract and raffinate phases are separated. The plutonium may be recovered by any suitable method.

  16. CESIUM RECOVERY FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Schneider, R.A.

    1961-06-20

    Cesium may be precipitated from an aqueous solution whose acidity ranges between a pH of 1.5 and a molarity of 5 on cobaltous, zinc, cadmium, nickel, or ferrous cobalticyanide. This precipitation brings about a separation from most fission products. Ruthenium which coprecipitates to a great degree can be removed by dissolving in sulfuric acid and boiling the solution in the presence of periodic acid for volatilization; other coprecipitated fission products can then be precipitated from the sulfuric acid solution with a ferric hydroxide carrier.

  17. Probing phonons in plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Joe; Krisch, M.; Farber, D.; Occelli, F.; Schwartz, A.; Chiang, T.C.; Wall, M.; Boro, C.; Xu, Ruqing

    2010-11-16

    Plutonium (Pu) is well known to have complex and unique physico-chemical properties. Notably, the pure metal exhibits six solid-state phase transformations with large volume expansions and contractions along the way to the liquid state: {alpha} {yields} {beta} {yields} {gamma} {yields} {delta} {yields} {delta}{prime} {yields} {var_epsilon} {yields} liquid. Unalloyed Pu melts at a relatively low temperature {approx}640 C to yield a higher density liquid than that of the solid from which it melts, (Figure 1). Detailed understanding of the properties of plutonium and plutonium-based alloys is critical for the safe handling, utilization, and long-term storage of these important, but highly toxic materials. However, both technical and and safety issues have made experimental observations extremely difficult. Phonon dispersion curves (PDCs) are key experimenta l data to the understanding of the basic properties of Pu materials such as: force constants, sound velocities, elastic constants, thermodynamics, phase stability, electron-phonon coupling, structural relaxation, etc. However, phonon dispersion curves (PDCs) in plutonium (Pu) and its alloys have defied measurement for the past few decades since the discovery of this element in 1941. This is due to a combination of the high thermal-neutron absorption cross section of plutonium and the inability to grow the large single crystals (with dimensions of a few millimeters) necessary for inelastic neutron scattering. Theoretical simulations of the Pu PDC continue to be hampered by the lack of suitable inter -atomic potentials. Thus, until recently the PDCs for Pu and its alloys have remained unknown experimentally and theoretically. The experimental limitations have recently been overcome by using a tightly focused undulator x-ray micro-beam scattered from single -grain domains in polycrystalline specimens. This experimental approach has been applied successfully to map the complete PDCs of an fcc d-Pu-Ga alloy using the

  18. Removal efficiency of water purifier and adsorbent for iodine, cesium, strontium, barium and zirconium in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Sato, Itaru; Kudo, Hiroaki; Tsuda, Shuji

    2011-01-01

    The severe incident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station has caused radioactive contamination of environment including drinking water. Radioactive iodine, cesium, strontium, barium and zirconium are hazardous fission products because of the high yield and/or relatively long half-life. In the present study, 4 pot-type water purifiers and several adsorbents were examined for the removal effects on these elements from drinking water. Iodide, iodate, cesium and barium were removed by all water purifiers with efficiencies about 85%, 40%, 75-90% and higher than 85%, respectively. These efficiencies lasted for 200 l, which is near the recommended limits for use of filter cartridges, without decay. Strontium was removed with initial efficiencies from 70% to 100%, but the efficiencies were slightly decreased by use. Zirconium was removed by two models, but hardly removed by the other models. Synthetic zeolite A4 efficiently removed cesium, strontium and barium, but had no effect on iodine and zirconium. Natural zeolite, mordenite, removed cesium with an efficiency as high as zeolite A4, but the removal efficiencies for strontium and barium were far less than those of zeolite A4. Activated carbon had little removal effects on these elements. In case of radioactive contamination of tap water, water purifiers may be available for convenient decontamination of drinking water in the home.

  19. Waste Handling Practices for the Plutonium Immobilization Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Severynse, T.F.

    2000-08-04

    Solid waste handling operations refers to all activities associated with the segregation, collection, packaging, assay, storage, and removal of solid radioactive waste from radiological facilities. The Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) is expected to generate the following types of radiological waste, as defined in WSRC Manual 1S, ''Waste Acceptance Criteria'': Low level waste; Mixed hazardous waste; TRU waste; and Mixed TRU waste. Historically, waste handling activities have been demanding proportionately larger amounts of labor, time, and space to effectively manage waste in accordance with increasing regulatory requirements. Since the PIP will be designed for an annual throughput of five metric tonnes plutonium, the facility waste handling operations can be expected to have at least twice the impact of such operations at existing facilities.

  20. Interaction of Plutonium with Bacteria in the Repository Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Gillow, J. B.; Francis, A. J.; Lucero, D. A.; Papenguth, H. W.

    2000-07-01

    Microorganisms in the nuclear waste repository environment may interact with plutonium through (1) sorption, (2) intracellular accumulation, and (3) transformation speciation. These interactions may retard or enhance the mobility of Pu by precipitation reactions, biocolloid formation, or production of more soluble species. Current and planned radioactive waste repository environments, such as deep subsurface halite and granite formations, are considered extreme relative to life processes in the near-surface terrestrial environment. There is a paucity of information on the biotransformation of radionuclides by microorganisms present in such extreme environments. In order to gain a better understanding of the interaction of plutonium with microorganisms present in the waste repository sites we investigated a pure culture (Halomonas sp.) and a mixed culture of bacteria (Haloarcula sinaiiensis, Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus, Altermonas sp., and a {gamma}-proteobacterium) isolated from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site and an Acetobacterium sp. from alkaline groundwater at the Grimsel Test Site in Switzerland.

  1. Report by a special panel of the American Nuclear Society: Protection and management of plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Bengelsdorf, H.

    1996-07-01

    The American Nuclear Society (ANS) established an independent and prestigious panel several months ago to take the matter up where the US National Academy of Science (NAS) left off. The challenge was to look at the broader issue of what to do with civil plutonium, as well as excess weapons material. In terms of approach, the report focused on several short- and long-term issues. The short-term focus was on the disposition of excess weapons plutonium, while the longer-range issue concerned the disposition of the plutonium being produced in the civil nuclear fuel cycle. For the short term, the ANS panel strongly endorsed the concept that all plutonium scheduled for release from the US and Russian weapons stocks should be converted to a form that is intensively radioactive in order to protect the plutonium from theft of seizure (the spent fuel standard). However, since the conversion will at best take several years to complete, the panel has concluded that immediate emphasis should be placed on the assurance that all unconverted materials are protected as securely as when they were part of the active weapon stockpiles. More importantly, the panel also recommended prompt implementation of the so-called reactor option for disposing of surplus US and Russian weapons plutonium. The longer-term issues covered by the panel were those posed by the growing stocks of both separated plutonium and spent fuel generated in the world`s civil nuclear power programs. These issues included what fuel cycle policies should be prudently pursued in light of proliferation risks and likely future energy needs, what steps should be taken in regard to the increase in the demand for nuclear power in the future, and how civil plutonium in its various forms should be protected and managed to minimize proliferation. Overall, the panel concluded that plutonium is an energy resource that should be used and not a waste material to be disposed of.

  2. Alternate Methods for Eluting Cesium from Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Resin

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Paul Allen; Johnson, Heather Lauren

    2009-02-01

    A small-column ion exchange (SCIX) system has been proposed for removing cesium from the supernate and dissolved salt solutions in the high-level-waste tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The SCIX system could use either crystalline silicotitanate (CST), an inorganic, non-regenerable sorbent, or spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF), a new regenerable resin, to remove cesium from the waste solutions. The baseline method for eluting the cesium from the RF resin uses 15 bed volumes (BV) of 0.5 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}). The nitric acid eluate, containing the radioactive cesium, would be combined with the sludge from the waste tanks and would be converted into glass at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at SRS. The amount of nitric acid that would be used to elute the RF resin, using the current elution protocol, exceeds the capacity of DWPF to destroy the nitrate ions and maintain the required chemical reducing environment in the glass melt. Installing a denitration evaporator at SRS is technically feasible but would add considerable cost to the project. Alternate methods for eluting the resin have been tested, including using lower concentrations of nitric acid, other acids, and changing the flow regimes. About 4 BV of 0.5 M HNO{sub 3} are required to remove the sodium (titrate the resin) and most of the cesium from the resin, so the bulk of the acid used for the baseline elution method removes a very small quantity of cesium from the resin. A summary of the elution methods that have been tested are listed.

  3. Transport of the radioisotopes iodine-131, cesium-134, and cesium-137 from the fallout following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor into cheesemaking products

    SciTech Connect

    Assimakopoulos, P.A.; Ioannides, K.G.; Pak; Paradopoulou, C.V.

    1987-07-01

    The transport of radiation contamination from milk to products of the cheese making process has been studied. The concentration of radioactive iodine and cesium in samples of sheep milk and cheese (Gruyere) products was measured for 10 consecutive production d. Milk with concentration 100 Bq/L in each of the radionuclides /sup 131/I, /sup 134/Cs, and /sup 137/Cs cheese with concentration 82.2 +/- 3.9 Bq/kg in iodine and an average of 42.3 +/- 2.3 Bq/kg in the cesium isotopes is produced. The corresponding concentrations in cream extracted from the same milk are 26.7 +/- 2.8 Bq/kg (/sup 131/I) and 18.6 +/- 1.9 Bq/kg (/sup 134/Cs, /sup 137/Cs).

  4. Measurements of plutonium, 237Np, and 137Cs in the BCR 482 lichen reference material

    DOE PAGES

    Lavelle, Kevin B.; Miller, Jeffrey L.; Hanson, Susan K.; ...

    2015-10-01

    Select anthropogenic radionuclides were measured in lichen reference material, BCR 482. This material was originally collected in Axalp, Switzerland in 1991 and is composed of the epiphytic lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea. Samples from three separate bottles of BCR 482 were analyzed for uranium, neptunium, and plutonium isotopes by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and analyzed for cesium-137 by gamma-ray spectrometry. The isotopic composition of the radionuclides measured in BCR 482 suggests contributions from both global fallout resulting from historical nuclear weapons testing and more volatile materials released following the Chernobyl accident.

  5. Re-suspension of Cesium-134/137 into the Canadian Environment and the Contribution Stemming from the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Incident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercier, Jean-Francois; Zhang, Weihua; Loignon-Houle, Francis; Cooke, Michael W.; Ungar, Kurt R.; Pellerin, Eric R.

    2013-04-01

    Cesium-137 (t1/2 = 30 yr) and cesium-134 (t1/2 = 2yr) constitute major fission by-products observed as the result of a nuclear incident. Such radioisotopes become integrated into the soil and biomass, and can therefore undergo re-suspension into the environment via activities such as forest fires. The Canadian Radiological Monitoring Network (CRMN), which consists of 26 environmental monitoring stations spread across the country, commonly observes cesium-137 in air filters due to re-suspension of material originating from long-past weapons testing. Cesium-134 is not observed owing to its relatively short half-life. The Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant incident of March 2011 caused a major release of radioactive materials into the environment. In Canada, small quantities of both cesium-137 and cesium-134 fallout were detected with great frequency in the weeks which followed, falling off rapidly beginning in July 2011. Since September 2011, the CRMN has detected both cesium-137 and cesium-134 from air filters collected at Yellowknife, Resolute, and Quebec City locations. Using the known initial cesium-134/cesium-137 ratio stemming from this incident, along with a statistical assessment of the normality of the data distribution, we herein present evidence that strongly suggests that these activity spikes are due to re-suspended hot particles originating from the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant incident. Moreover, we have evidence to suggest that this re-suspension is localized in nature. This study provided empirical insight into the transport and uptake of radionuclides over vast distances, and it demonstrates that the CRMN was able to detect evidence of a re-suspension of Fukushima-Daiichi related isotopes.

  6. TERNARY ALLOY-CONTAINING PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Waber, J.T.

    1960-02-23

    Ternary alloys of uranium and plutonium containing as the third element either molybdenum or zirconium are reported. Such alloys are particularly useful as reactor fuels in fast breeder reactors. The alloy contains from 2 to 25 at.% of molybdenum or zirconium, the balance being a combination of uranium and plutonium in the ratio of from 1 to 9 atoms of uranlum for each atom of plutonium. These alloys are prepared by melting the constituent elements, treating them at an elevated temperature for homogenization, and cooling them to room temperature, the rate of cooling varying with the oomposition and the desired phase structure. The preferred embodiment contains 12 to 25 at.% of molybdenum and is treated by quenching to obtain a body centered cubic crystal structure. The most important advantage of these alloys over prior binary alloys of both plutonium and uranium is the lack of cracking during casting and their ready machinability.

  7. METHOD OF PREPARING PLUTONIUM TETRAFLUORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Beede, R.L.; Hopkins, H.H. Jr.

    1959-11-17

    C rystalline plutonium tetrafluoride is precipitated from aqueous up to 1.6 N mineral acid solutions of a plutorium (IV) salt with fluosilicic acid anions, preferably at room temperature. Hydrogen fluoride naay be added after precipitation to convert any plutonium fluosilicate to the tetrafluoride and any silica to fluosilicic acid. This process results in a purer product, especially as to iron and aluminum, than does the precipitation by the addition of hydrogen fluoride.

  8. Radiological Threat Reduction (RTR) program : implementing physical security to protect large radioactive sources worldwide.

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, Daniel L.

    2004-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Radiological Threat Reduction (RTR) Program strives to reduce the threat of a Radiological Dispersion Device (RDD) incident that could affect U.S. interests worldwide. Sandia National Laboratories supports the RTR program on many different levels. Sandia works directly with DOE to develop strategies, including the selection of countries to receive support and the identification of radioactive materials to be protected. Sandia also works with DOE in the development of guidelines and in training DOE project managers in physical protection principles. Other support to DOE includes performing rapid assessments and providing guidance for establishing foreign regulatory and knowledge infrastructure. Sandia works directly with foreign governments to establish cooperative agreements necessary to implement the RTR Program efforts to protect radioactive sources. Once necessary agreements are in place, Sandia works with in-country organizations to implement various security related initiatives, such as installing security systems and searching for (and securing) orphaned radioactive sources. The radioactive materials of interest to the RTR program include Cobalt 60, Cesium 137, Strontium 90, Iridium 192, Radium 226, Plutonium 238, Americium 241, Californium 252, and Others. Security systems are implemented using a standardized approach that provides consistency through out the RTR program efforts at Sandia. The approach incorporates a series of major tasks that overlap in order to provide continuity. The major task sequence is to: Establish in-country contacts - integrators, Obtain material characterizations, Perform site assessments and vulnerability assessments, Develop upgrade plans, Procure and install equipment, Conduct acceptance testing and performance testing, Develop procedures, and Conduct training. Other tasks are incorporated as appropriate and commonly include such as support of reconfiguring infrastructure, and developing security

  9. Overview of active cesium contamination of freshwater fish in Fukushima and Eastern Japan

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Toshiaki; Kubo, Hideya

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on an overview of radioactive cesium 137 (quasi-Cs137 included Cs134) contamination of freshwater fish in Fukushima and eastern Japan based on the data published by the Fisheries Agency of the Japanese Government in 2011. In the area north and west of the Fukushima Nuclear plant, freshwater fish have been highly contaminated. For example, the mean of active cesium (quasi-Cs137) contamination of Ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis) is 2,657 Bq/kg at Mano River, 20–40 km north-west from the plant. Bioaccumulation is observed in the Agano river basin in Aizu sub-region, 70–150 km west from the plant. The active cesium (quasi-Cs137) contamination of carnivorous Salmondae is around 2 times higher than herbivorous Ayu. The extent of active cesium (quasi-Cs137) contamination of Ayu is observed in the entire eastern Japan. The some level of the contamination is recognized even in Shizuoka prefecture, 400 km south-west from the plant. PMID:23625055

  10. What are Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste ?

    SciTech Connect

    DOE

    2002-12-01

    Spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste are materials from nuclear power plants and government defense programs. These materials contain highly radioactive elements, such as cesium, strontium, technetium, and neptunium. Some of these elements will remain radioactive for a few years, while others will be radioactive for millions of years. Exposure to such radioactive materials can cause human health problems. Scientists worldwide agree that the safest way to manage these materials is to dispose of them deep underground in what is called a geologic repository.

  11. PLUTONIUM LOADING CAPACITY OF REILLEX HPQ ANION EXCHANGE COLUMN - AFS-2 PLUTONIUM FLOWSHEET FOR MOX

    SciTech Connect

    Kyser, E.; King, W.; O'Rourke, P.

    2012-07-26

    Radioactive plutonium (Pu) anion exchange column experiments using scaled HB-Line designs were performed to investigate the dependence of column loading performance on the feed composition in the H-Canyon dissolution process for plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) product shipped to the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). These loading experiments show that a representative feed solution containing {approx}5 g Pu/L can be loaded onto Reillex{trademark} HPQ resin from solutions containing 8 M total nitrate and 0.1 M KF provided that the F is complexed with Al to an [Al]/[F] molar ratio range of 1.5-2.0. Lower concentrations of total nitrate and [Al]/[F] molar ratios may still have acceptable performance but were not tested in this study. Loading and washing Pu losses should be relatively low (<1%) for resin loading of up to 60 g Pu/L. Loading above 60 g Pu/L resin is possible, but Pu wash losses will increase such that 10-20% of the additional Pu fed may not be retained by the resin as the resin loading approaches 80 g Pu/L resin.

  12. Evaluation of Crystalline Silicotitanate and Self-Assembled Monolayers on Mesoporous Support for Cesium and Mercury Removal from DWPF Recycle

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L.N.

    1999-11-05

    The affinities for cesium and mercury ions contained in DWPF recycle simulants and Tank-22H waste have been evaluated using Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) and Self-Assembled Monolayers on Mesoporous Support (SAMMS) ion-exchange materials, respectively. Results of the performance evaluations of CST on the uptake of cesium with simulants and actual DWPF recycle samples (Tank 22H) indicate that, in practice, this inorganic ion-exchange material can be used to remove radioactive cesium from the DWPF recycle. SAMMS material showed little or no affinity for mercury from highly alkaline DWPF waste. However, at near neutral conditions (DWPF simulant solution pH adjusted to 7), SAMMS was found to have a significant affinity for mercury. Conventional Duolite/256 ion exchange material showed an increase in affinity for mercury with increase in DWPF recycle simulant pH. Duolite/256 GT-73 also had a high batch distribution coefficient for mercury uptake from actual Tank 22H waste.

  13. Evaluation of a method for removing cesium and reducing the volume of leaf litter from broad-leaved trees contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident during the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Harada, Shigeki; Yanagisawa, Mitsunori

    2017-04-01

    The town of Marumori in southern Miyagi Prefecture borders on Fukushima Prefecture, and following the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, there were concerns about cesium deposition in forested areas. One of the authors of this paper has continually surveyed leaf litter from the forested areas. As leaf litter may be a source of cesium contamination from the forest to downstream areas, we considered a simplified version of wet oxidation, a method previously presented by one of the authors of this study, as a technology to reduce leaf litter weight and cesium concentration, separating radioactive nuclides from non-radioactive ones, in leaf litter. We tested our method in three experiments. Experiment 1 used new leaf litter (232 Bq/kg) from the surface of a small stream at the forest edge nearby an area with air dose level higher than the national standard threshold of 0.23 μSv/h for the implementation of governmental decontamination works. Experiment 2 applied wet oxidation to older leaf litter (705 Bq/kg) harvested from a pasture nearby the stream mentioned above. We also used the same leaf litter in experiment 3 for a cesium release tests using pure water. In experiment 1 and 2 we treated leaf litter with a sodium hypochlorite solution, optimizing sodium hypochlorite concentration and reaction temperature. We measured a 50-60% decrease in the leaf litter weight and a 60% decrease in the cesium concentration. Moreover, we also measured the amount of cesium washout. The cesium budget of experiment 1 showed no cesium gasification (wet oxidation avoids airborne cesium as this element is prone to be volatile at 600 °C), and that high sodium hypochlorite concentration and high temperature had a strong positive effect on leaf litter volume reduction and cesium decontamination. Experiment 2 confirmed the reproducibility of these results in leaves with different cesium concentration and harvested in different conditions. We could also explain the

  14. Overview of Modeling and Simulations of Plutonium Aging

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, A J; Wolfer, W G

    2007-04-24

    . The alpha particle traverses the lattice, slowly loosing energy through electronic excitations, acquiring two electrons to become a helium atom, then finally coming to rest approximately 10 microns away with the generation of a few-hundred Frenkel pairs. The uranium recoil immediately displaces a couple-thousand Pu atoms from their original lattice sites. This process, which occurs at a rate of approximately 41 parts-per-million per year, is the source of potential property changes in aging plutonium. Plutonium aging encompasses many areas of research: radiation damage and radiation effects, diffusion of point defects, impurities and alloying elements, solid state phase transformations, dislocation dynamics and mechanical properties, equations of state under extreme pressures, as well as surface oxidation and corrosion. Theory, modeling, and computer simulations are involved to various degrees in many of these areas. The joint research program carried out at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory encompassed experimental measurements of numerous properties of newly fabricated reference alloys, archival material that have accumulated the effects of several decades of radioactive decay, and accelerated aging alloys in which the isotropic composition was adjusted to increase the rate of self-irradiation damage. In particular, the physical and chemical processes of nuclear materials degradation were to be studied individually and in great depth. Closely coupled to the experimental efforts are theory, modeling, and simulations. These efforts, validated by the experiments, aim to develop predictive models to evaluate the effects of age on the properties of plutonium. The need to obtain a scientific understanding of plutonium aging has revitalized fundamental research on actinides and plutonium in particular. For example, the experimental discovery of superconductivity in Pu-based compounds, the observation of helium bubbles in naturally

  15. Sintered wire cesium dispenser photocathode

    DOEpatents

    Montgomery, Eric J; Ives, R. Lawrence; Falce, Louis R

    2014-03-04

    A photoelectric cathode has a work function lowering material such as cesium placed into an enclosure which couples a thermal energy from a heater to the work function lowering material. The enclosure directs the work function lowering material in vapor form through a low diffusion layer, through a free space layer, and through a uniform porosity layer, one side of which also forms a photoelectric cathode surface. The low diffusion layer may be formed from sintered powdered metal, such as tungsten, and the uniform porosity layer may be formed from wires which are sintered together to form pores between the wires which are continuous from the a back surface to a front surface which is also the photoelectric surface.

  16. The biological impacts of ingested radioactive materials on the pale grass blue butterfly

    PubMed Central

    Nohara, Chiyo; Hiyama, Atsuki; Taira, Wataru; Tanahara, Akira; Otaki, Joji M.

    2014-01-01

    A massive amount of radioactive materials has been released into the environment by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, but its biological impacts have rarely been examined. Here, we have quantitatively evaluated the relationship between the dose of ingested radioactive cesium and mortality and abnormality rates using the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha. When larvae from Okinawa, which is likely the least polluted locality in Japan, were fed leaves collected from polluted localities, mortality and abnormality rates increased sharply at low doses in response to the ingested cesium dose. This dose-response relationship was best fitted by power function models, which indicated that the half lethal and abnormal doses were 1.9 and 0.76 Bq per larva, corresponding to 54,000 and 22,000 Bq per kilogram body weight, respectively. Both the retention of radioactive cesium in a pupa relative to the ingested dose throughout the larval stage and the accumulation of radioactive cesium in a pupa relative to the activity concentration in a diet were highest at the lowest level of cesium ingested. We conclude that the risk of ingesting a polluted diet is realistic, at least for this butterfly, and likely for certain other organisms living in the polluted area. PMID:24844938

  17. The biological impacts of ingested radioactive materials on the pale grass blue butterfly.

    PubMed

    Nohara, Chiyo; Hiyama, Atsuki; Taira, Wataru; Tanahara, Akira; Otaki, Joji M

    2014-05-15

    A massive amount of radioactive materials has been released into the environment by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, but its biological impacts have rarely been examined. Here, we have quantitatively evaluated the relationship between the dose of ingested radioactive cesium and mortality and abnormality rates using the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha. When larvae from Okinawa, which is likely the least polluted locality in Japan, were fed leaves collected from polluted localities, mortality and abnormality rates increased sharply at low doses in response to the ingested cesium dose. This dose-response relationship was best fitted by power function models, which indicated that the half lethal and abnormal doses were 1.9 and 0.76 Bq per larva, corresponding to 54,000 and 22,000 Bq per kilogram body weight, respectively. Both the retention of radioactive cesium in a pupa relative to the ingested dose throughout the larval stage and the accumulation of radioactive cesium in a pupa relative to the activity concentration in a diet were highest at the lowest level of cesium ingested. We conclude that the risk of ingesting a polluted diet is realistic, at least for this butterfly, and likely for certain other organisms living in the polluted area.

  18. The biological impacts of ingested radioactive materials on the pale grass blue butterfly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nohara, Chiyo; Hiyama, Atsuki; Taira, Wataru; Tanahara, Akira; Otaki, Joji M.

    2014-05-01

    A massive amount of radioactive materials has been released into the environment by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, but its biological impacts have rarely been examined. Here, we have quantitatively evaluated the relationship between the dose of ingested radioactive cesium and mortality and abnormality rates using the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha. When larvae from Okinawa, which is likely the least polluted locality in Japan, were fed leaves collected from polluted localities, mortality and abnormality rates increased sharply at low doses in response to the ingested cesium dose. This dose-response relationship was best fitted by power function models, which indicated that the half lethal and abnormal doses were 1.9 and 0.76 Bq per larva, corresponding to 54,000 and 22,000 Bq per kilogram body weight, respectively. Both the retention of radioactive cesium in a pupa relative to the ingested dose throughout the larval stage and the accumulation of radioactive cesium in a pupa relative to the activity concentration in a diet were highest at the lowest level of cesium ingested. We conclude that the risk of ingesting a polluted diet is realistic, at least for this butterfly, and likely for certain other organisms living in the polluted area.

  19. Effect of microorganisms on the plutonium oxidation states.

    PubMed

    Lukšienė, Benedikta; Druteikienė, Rūta; Pečiulytė, Dalia; Baltrūnas, Dalis; Remeikis, Vidmantas; Paškevičius, Algimantas

    2012-03-01

    Particular microbes from substrates at the low-level radioactive waste repository in the Ignalina NPP territory were exposed to (239)Pu (IV) at low pH under aerobic conditions. Pu(III) and Pu(IV) were separated and quantitatively evaluated using the modified anion exchange method and alpha spectrometry. Tested bacteria Bacillus mycoides and Serratia marcescens were more effective in Pu reduction than Rhodococcus fascians. Fungi Paecillomyces lilacinus and Absidia spinosa var. spinosa as well as bacterium Rhodococcus fascians did not alter the plutonium oxidation state.

  20. Environmental Tests Of Cesium Frequency Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sydnor, Richard L.; Tucker, Thomas K.; Greenhall, Charles A.; Diener, William A.; Maleki, Lutfollah

    1992-01-01

    Report describes environmental tests of cesium-beam frequency standards of United States Naval Observatory. Purpose of tests to determine effects of atmospheric temperature, relative humidity, and pressure on frequencies.

  1. Primary cesium time and frequency standards

    SciTech Connect

    Abashev, Yu.G.; Elkin, G.A.; Pushkin, S.B.

    1984-05-01

    Cesium frequency standards are used to determine the atomic second in SI units and to provide a national atomic-time scale at the leading meteorological laboratories of the world. In this paper, the state of cesium and atomic frequency standards are examined and methods of increasing their accuracy are analyzed. High-purity polycrystals of platinum-iridium alloy or high-purity and structurally perfect single crystals of tungsten and molybdenum are used as ionizers in beam detection. Relative frequency instabilities that have been obtained at the various laboratories are presented. The main sources of error in reproducing the unperturbed-transition frequency of cesium atoms are discussed, including the second-order Doppler effect and the Majorana effect. Accuracy estimates for cesium frequency standards of the world's leading meteorological laboratories are shown.

  2. RECOVERY OF CESIUM FROM WASTE SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Burgus, W.H.

    1959-06-30

    This patent covers the precipitation of fission products including cesium on nickel or ferric ferrocyanide and subsequent selective dissolution from the carrier with a solution of ammonia or mercurlc nitrate.

  3. WESF cesium capsule behavior at high temperature or during thermal cycling

    SciTech Connect

    Tingey, G.L.; Gray, W.J.; Shippell, R.J.; Katayama, Y.B.

    1985-06-01

    Double-walled stainless steel (SS) capsules prepared for storage of radioactive /sup 137/Cs from defense waste are now being considered for use as sources for commercial irradiation. Cesium was recovered at B-plant from the high-level radioactive waste generated during processing of defense nuclear fuel. It was then purified, converted to the chloride form, and encapsulated at the Hanford Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). The molten cesium chloride salt was encapsulated by pouring it into the inner of two concentric SS cylinders. Each cylinder was fitted with a SS end cap that was welded in place by inert gas-tungsten arc welding. The capsule configuration and dimensions are shown in Figure 1. In a recent review of the safety of these capsules, Tingey, Wheelwright, and Lytle (1984) indicated that experimental studies were continuing to produce long-term corrosion data, to reaffirm capsule integrity during a 90-min fire where capsule temperatures reached 800/sup 0/C, to monitor mechanical properties as a function of time, and to assess the effects of thermal cycling due to periodic transfer of the capsules from a water storage pool to the air environment of an irradiator facility. This report covers results from tests that simulated the effects of the 90-min fire and from thermal cycling actual WESF cesium capsules for 3845 cycles over a period of six months. 11 refs., 39 figs., 9 tabs.

  4. Cesium removal demonstration utilizing crystalline silicotitanate sorbent for processing Melton Valley Storage Tank supernate: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, J.F. Jr.; Taylor, P.A.; Cummins, R.L.

    1998-03-01

    This report provides details of the Cesium Removal Demonstration (CsRD), which was conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on radioactive waste from the Melton Valley Storage Tanks. The CsRD was the first large-scale use of state-of-the-art sorbents being developed by private industry for the selective removal of cesium and other radionuclides from liquid wastes stored across the DOE complex. The crystalline silicotitanate sorbent used in the demonstration was chosen because of its effectiveness in laboratory tests using bench-scale columns. The demonstration showed that the cesium could be removed from the supernate and concentrated on a small-volume, solid waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Nevada Test Site. During this project, the CsRD system processed > 115,000 L (30,000 gal) of radioactive supernate with minimal operational problems. Sluicing, drying, and remote transportation of the sorbent, which could not be done on a bench scale, were successfully demonstrated. The system was then decontaminated to the extent that it could be contact maintained with the use of localized shielding only. By utilizing a modular, transportable design and placement within existing facilities, the system can be transferred to different sites for reuse. The initial unit has now been removed from the process building and is presently being reinstalled for use in baseline operations at ORNL.

  5. Low-Level Plutonium Bioassay Measurements at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, T; Brown, T; Hickman, D; Marchetti, A; Williams, R; Kehl, S

    2007-06-18

    Plutonium-239 ({sup 239}Pu) and plutonium-240 ({sup 240}Pu) are important alpha emitting radionuclides contained in radioactive debris from nuclear weapons testing. {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu are long-lived radionuclides with half-lives of 24,400 years and 6580 years, respectively. Concerns over human exposure to plutonium stem from knowledge about the persistence of plutonium isotopes in the environment and the high relative effectiveness of alpha-radiation to cause potential harm to cells once incorporated into the human body. In vitro bioassay tests have been developed to assess uptakes of plutonium based on measured urinary excretion patterns and modeled metabolic behaviors of the absorbed radionuclides. Systemic plutonium absorbed by the deep lung or from the gastrointestinal tract after ingestion is either excreted or distributed to other organs, primarily to the liver and skeleton, where it is retained for biological half-times of around 20 and 50 years, respectively. Dose assessment and atoll rehabilitation programs in the Marshall Islands have historically given special consideration to residual concentrations of plutonium in the environment even though the predicted dose from inhalation and/or ingestion of plutonium accounts for less than 5% of the annual effective dose from exposure to fallout contamination. Scientists from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) have developed a state-of-the-art bioassay test to assess urinary excretion rates of plutonium from Marshallese populations. This new heavy-isotope measurement system is based on Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). The AMS system at LLNL far exceeds the standard measurement requirements established under the latest United States Department of Energy (DOE) regulation, 10CFR 835, for occupational monitoring of plutonium, and offers several advantages over classical as well as competing new technologies for low-level detection and measurement of plutonium isotopes. The United States

  6. Recent plutonium science and technology at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, J.T.

    1985-01-01

    Plutonium research and development (R and D) at ORNL has generally followed development of the nuclear fuel cycle. Basic plutonium chemistry studies have diminished since the mid-1970s; however, significant efforts have been made recently to determine fundamental characteristics of the aqueous plutonium polymer and to develop thermodynamic representations of plutonium oxides. Some studies have also been made on plutonium phosphates related to waste isolation and on definition of the oxidation states of environmental plutonium. The remaining work has been supported by the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) and includes: (1) establishment of boundary limits for polymer formation in Purex systems; (2) preparation of mixed uranium-plutonium oxide microspheres by internal gelation sol-gel techniques; (3) direct thermal denitration of aqueous systems; and (4) plutonium/uranium extraction from spent fast reactor fuels.

  7. Plutonium and americium separation from salts

    DOEpatents

    Hagan, Paul G.; Miner, Frend J.

    1976-01-01

    Salts or materials containing plutonium and americium are dissolved in hydrochloric acid, heated, and contacted with an alkali metal carbonate solution to precipitate plutonium and americium carbonates which are thereafter readily separable from the solution.

  8. Merging Maser and Cesium Clocks in Timescales

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    OCT 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Merging Maser And Cesium Clocks In Timescales 5a...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Merging Maser and Cesium Clocks In Timescales Demetrios...recent maser data relatively higher than older maser data. A Kalman Filter could assign different phase, frequency, and frequency drift process

  9. Cesium and strontium ion specific exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, S.

    1996-10-01

    This work is one of two parallel projects that are part of an ESP task to develop high-capacity, selective, solid extractants for cesium, strontium, and technetium from nuclear wastes. In this subtask, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is collaborating with AlliedSignal, Inc. (Des Plaines, Illinois) to develop inorganic ion exchangers that are selective for strontium and cesium from alkaline high-level waste and groundwater streams.

  10. Statistical properties of high performance cesium standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Percival, D. B.

    1973-01-01

    The intermediate term frequency stability of a group of new high-performance cesium beam tubes at the U.S. Naval Observatory were analyzed from two viewpoints: (1) by comparison of the high-performance standards to the MEAN(USNO) time scale and (2) by intercomparisons among the standards themselves. For sampling times up to 5 days, the frequency stability of the high-performance units shows significant improvement over older commercial cesium beam standards.

  11. Plutonium focus area

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this new approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to the creation of specific Focus Areas. These organizations were designed to focus the scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on the major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The Focus Area approach provides the framework for intersite cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major Focus Areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50, now called the Office of Science and Technology), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (EM-66) followed the structure already in place in EM-50 and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). The following information outlines the scope and mission of the EM, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure.

  12. Radioactive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2016-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste activities around the world in 2015. These include safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation and management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in water, soil and ecosystem alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes.

  13. Radioactive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2015-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste activities around the world in 2014. These include safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation and management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in water, soil and ecosystem alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes.

  14. Radioactive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Choudri, B S; Charabi, Yassine; Baawain, Mahad; Ahmed, Mushtaque

    2017-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste related activities around the world in 2016. The current reveiw include studies related to safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation. Further, the review highlights on management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in ecosystem, water and soil alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes.

  15. Radioactive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2016-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste activities around the world in 2015. These include safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation and management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in water, soil and ecosystem alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes.

  16. PROCESS OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Brown, H.S.; Hill, O.F.

    1958-09-01

    A process is presented for recovering plutonium values from aqueous solutions. It comprises forming a uranous hydroxide precipitate in such a plutonium bearing solution, at a pH of at least 5. The plutonium values are precipitated with and carried by the uranium hydroxide. The carrier precipitate is then redissolved in acid solution and the pH is adjusted to about 2.5, causing precipitation of the uranous hydroxide but leaving the still soluble plutonium values in solution.

  17. Plutonium Proliferation: The Achilles Heel of Disarmament

    SciTech Connect

    Leventhal, Paul

    2001-02-07

    Plutonium is a byproduct of nuclear fission, and it is produced at the rate of about 70 metric tons a year in the world's nuclear power reactors. Concerns about civilian plutonium ran high in the 1970s and prompted enactment of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978 to give the United States a veto over separating plutonium from U.S.-supplied uranium fuel. Over the years, however, so-called reactor-grade plutonium has become the orphan issue of nuclear non-proliferation, largely as a consequence of pressures from plutonium-separating countries. The demise of the fast breeder reactor and the reluctance of utilities to introduce plutonium fuel in light-water reactors have resulted in large surpluses of civilian, weapons-usable plutonium, which now approach in size the 250 tons of military plutonium in the world. Yet reprocessing of spent fuel for recovery and use of plutonium proceeds apace outside the United States and threatens to overwhelm safeguards and security measures for keeping this material out of the hands of nations and terrorists for weapons. A number of historical and current developments are reviewed to demonstrate that plutonium commerce is undercutting efforts both to stop the spread of nuclear weapons and to work toward eliminating existing nuclear arsenals. These developments include the breakdown of U.S. anti-plutonium policy, the production of nuclear weapons by India with Atoms-for-Peace plutonium, the U.S.-Russian plan to introduce excess military plutonium as fuel in civilian power reactors, the failure to include civilian plutonium and bomb-grade uranium in the proposed Fissile Material Cutoff Treaty, and the perception of emerging proliferation threats as the rationale for development of a ballistic missile defense system. Finally, immobilization of separated plutonium in high-level waste is explored as a proliferation-resistant and disarmament-friendly solution for eliminating excess stocks of civilian and military plutonium.

  18. Selecting a plutonium vitrification process

    SciTech Connect

    Jouan, A.

    1996-05-01

    Vitrification of plutonium is one means of mitigating its potential danger. This option is technically feasible, even if it is not the solution advocated in France. Two situations are possible, depending on whether or not the glass matrix also contains fission products; concentrations of up to 15% should be achievable for plutonium alone, whereas the upper limit is 3% in the presence of fission products. The French continuous vitrification process appears to be particularly suitable for plutonium vitrification: its capacity is compatible with the required throughout, and the compact dimensions of the process equipment prevent a criticality hazard. Preprocessing of plutonium metal, to convert it to PuO{sub 2} or to a nitric acid solution, may prove advantageous or even necessary depending on whether a dry or wet process is adopted. The process may involve a single step (vitrification of Pu or PuO{sub 2} mixed with glass frit) or may include a prior calcination step - notably if the plutonium is to be incorporated into a fission product glass. It is important to weigh the advantages and drawbacks of all the possible options in terms of feasibility, safety and cost-effectiveness.

  19. A convenient iodination method for alcohols using cesium iodide/methanesulfonic acid and its comparison using cesium iodide/p-toluenesulfonic acid or cesium iodide/aluminium chloride.

    PubMed

    Khan, Khalid Mohammed; Zia-Ullah; Perveen, Shahnaz; Hayat, Safdar; Ali, Muhammad; Voelter, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    In situ generation of hydrogen iodide from cesium iodide/methanesulfonic acid was found to be an attractive reagent combination for the conversion of alkyl, allyl, and benzyl alcohols to their corresponding iodides under mild conditions. The method is compared with that using cesium iodide/p-toluenesulfonic acid or cesium iodide/aluminium chloride.

  20. IONSIV(R) IE-911 Performance in Savannah River Site Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.D.

    2001-06-04

    This report describes cesium sorption from high-level radioactive waste solutions onto IONSIV(R) IE-911 at ambient temperature. Researchers characterized six radioactive waste samples from five high-level waste tanks in the Savannah River Site tank farm, diluted the wastes to 5.6 M Na+, and made equilibrium and kinetic measurements of cesium sorption. The equilibrium measurements were compared to ZAM (Zheng, Anthony, and Martin) model predictions. The kinetic measurements were compared to simulant solutions whose column performance has been measured.

  1. Method for the simultaneous recovery of radionuclides from liquid radioactive wastes using a solvent

    DOEpatents

    Romanovskiy, Valeriy Nicholiavich; Smirnov, Igor V.; Babain, Vasiliy A.; Todd, Terry A.; Brewer, Ken N.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates to solvents, and methods, for selectively extracting and recovering radionuclides, especially cesium and strontium, rare earths and actinides from liquid radioactive wastes. More specifically, the invention relates to extracting agent solvent compositions comprising complex organoboron compounds, substituted polyethylene glycols, and neutral organophosphorus compounds in a diluent. The preferred solvent comprises a chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide, diphenyl-dibutylmethylenecarbamoylphosphine oxide, PEG-400, and a diluent of phenylpolyfluoroalkyl sulfone. The invention also provides a method of using the invention extracting agents to recover cesium, strontium, rare earths and actinides from liquid radioactive waste.

  2. Solvent for the simultaneous recovery of radionuclides from liquid radioactive wastes

    DOEpatents

    Romanovskiy, Valeriy Nicholiavich; Smirnov, Igor V.; Babain, Vasiliy A.; Todd, Terry A.; Brewer, Ken N.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to solvents, and methods, for selectively extracting and recovering radionuclides, especially cesium and strontium, rare earths and actinides from liquid radioactive wastes. More specifically, the invention relates to extracting agent solvent compositions comprising complex organoboron compounds, substituted polyethylene glycols, and neutral organophosphorus compounds in a diluent. The preferred solvent comprises a chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide, diphenyl-dibutylmethylenecarbamoylphosphine oxide, PEG-400, and a diluent of phenylpolyfluoroalkyl sulfone. The invention also provides a method of using the invention extracting agents to recover cesium, strontium, rare earths and actinides from liquid radioactive waste.

  3. Direct vitrification of plutonium-containing materials (PCM`s) with the glass material oxidation and dissolution system (GMODS)

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W. Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.; Rudolph, J.C.; Haas, P.A.; Malling, G.F.; Elam, K.; Ott, L.

    1995-10-30

    The end of the cold war has resulted in excess PCMs from nuclear weapons and associated production facilities. Consequently, the US government has undertaken studies to determine how best to manage and dispose of this excess material. The issues include (a) ensurance of domestic health, environment, and safety in handling, storage, and disposition, (b) international arms control agreements with Russia and other countries, and (c) economics. One major set of options is to convert the PCMs into glass for storage or disposal. The chemically inert characteristics of glasses make them a desirable chemical form for storage or disposal of radioactive materials. A glass may contain only plutonium, or it may contain plutonium along with other radioactive materials and nonradioactive materials. GMODS is a new process for the direct conversion of PCMs (i.e., plutonium metal, scrap, and residues) to glass. The plutonium content of these materials varies from a fraction of a percent to pure plutonium. GMODS has the capability to also convert other metals, ceramics, and amorphous solids to glass, destroy organics, and convert chloride-containing materials into a low-chloride glass and a secondary clean chloride salt strewn. This report is the initial study of GMODS for vitrification of PCMs as input to ongoing studies of plutonium management options. Several tasks were completed: initial analysis of process thermodynamics, initial flowsheet analysis, identification of equipment options, proof-of-principle experiments, and identification of uncertainties.

  4. 49 CFR 175.704 - Plutonium shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Plutonium shipments. 175.704 Section 175.704... Regulations Applicable According to Classification of Material § 175.704 Plutonium shipments. Shipments of plutonium which are subject to 10 CFR 71.88(a)(4) must comply with the following: (a) Each...

  5. 49 CFR 175.704 - Plutonium shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Plutonium shipments. 175.704 Section 175.704... Regulations Applicable According to Classification of Material § 175.704 Plutonium shipments. Shipments of plutonium which are subject to 10 CFR 71.88(a)(4) must comply with the following: (a) Each...

  6. 49 CFR 175.704 - Plutonium shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plutonium shipments. 175.704 Section 175.704... Regulations Applicable According to Classification of Material § 175.704 Plutonium shipments. Shipments of plutonium which are subject to 10 CFR 71.88(a)(4) must comply with the following: (a) Each...

  7. 49 CFR 175.704 - Plutonium shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Plutonium shipments. 175.704 Section 175.704... Regulations Applicable According to Classification of Material § 175.704 Plutonium shipments. Shipments of plutonium which are subject to 10 CFR 71.88(a)(4) must comply with the following: (a) Each...

  8. Rapid Radiochemical Method for Plutonium-238 and ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical Fact Sheet Technique: Alpha spectrometry Method Developed for: Plutonium-238 and plutonium-239 in building materials Method Selected for: SAM lists this method for qualitative analysis of plutonium-238 and -239 in concrete or brick building materials. Summary of subject analytical method which will be posted to the SAM website to allow access to the method.

  9. 49 CFR 175.704 - Plutonium shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Plutonium shipments. 175.704 Section 175.704... Regulations Applicable According to Classification of Material § 175.704 Plutonium shipments. Shipments of plutonium which are subject to 10 CFR 71.88(a)(4) must comply with the following: (a) Each...

  10. Plutonium Oxide Process Capability Work Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, David E.; Tingey, Joel M.

    2014-02-28

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked to develop a Pilot-scale Plutonium-oxide Processing Unit (P3U) providing a flexible capability to produce 200g (Pu basis) samples of plutonium oxide using different chemical processes for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production. Materials produced can also be used as exercise and reference materials.

  11. Monitoring of radioactive contamination of water systems after Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, Y.V.

    1993-12-31

    The contamination of the water systems within the Russian North-West region, the Danube river and the reservoir of the Dnieper River during the period from June 1986 to 1992 was studied. The water reservoirs in the vicinity of the Chernobyl NPP contained suspended matter and the bottom sediments contained a wide range of radionuclides, including the isotopes of Pu and TPE. In the Baltic Sea and the allied river and lake reservoirs the concentrations of {sup 137}Cs ({sup 134}Cs was also detected) increased drastically, however, the concentrations of {sup 90}Sr and plutonium isotopes remained essentially at the global level. The Danube River contained increased concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr as compared with 1985; no rise in the concentration of plutonium was observed. In subsequent years (1987--1990) the concentration of cesium isotopes in the reservoirs decreased sharply; but, on the other hand, their concentrations in sediments increased.

  12. Concentrating Radioactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Richard A.

    1974-01-01

    By concentrating radioactivity contained on luminous dials, a teacher can make a high reading source for classroom experiments on radiation. The preparation of the source and its uses are described. (DT)

  13. Simulated Radioactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boettler, James L.

    1972-01-01

    Describes the errors in the sugar-cube experiment related to radioactivity as described in Project Physics course. The discussion considers some of the steps overlooked in the experiment and generalizes the theory beyond the sugar-cube stage. (PS)

  14. Radioactivity Calculations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onega, Ronald J.

    1969-01-01

    Three problems in radioactive buildup and decay are presented and solved. Matrix algebra is used to solve the second problem. The third problem deals with flux depression and is solved by the use of differential equations. (LC)

  15. Concentrating Radioactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Richard A.

    1974-01-01

    By concentrating radioactivity contained on luminous dials, a teacher can make a high reading source for classroom experiments on radiation. The preparation of the source and its uses are described. (DT)

  16. Radioactivity Calculations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onega, Ronald J.

    1969-01-01

    Three problems in radioactive buildup and decay are presented and solved. Matrix algebra is used to solve the second problem. The third problem deals with flux depression and is solved by the use of differential equations. (LC)

  17. Simulated Radioactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boettler, James L.

    1972-01-01

    Describes the errors in the sugar-cube experiment related to radioactivity as described in Project Physics course. The discussion considers some of the steps overlooked in the experiment and generalizes the theory beyond the sugar-cube stage. (PS)

  18. An Inorganic Microsphere Composite for the Selective Removal of Cesium 137 from Acidic Nuclear Waste Solutions - Parts 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    T. J. Tranter; T. A. Vereschchagina; V. Utgikar

    2009-03-01

    A new inorganic ion exchange composite for removing radioactive cesium from acidic waste streams has been developed. The new material consists of ammonium molybdophosphate, (NH4)3P(Mo3O10)4•3H2O (AMP), synthesized within hollow aluminosilicate microspheres (AMP-C), which are produced as a by-product from coal combustion. The selective cesium exchange capacity of this inorganic composite was evaluated in bench-scale column tests using simulated sodium bearing waste solution as a surrogate for the acidic tank waste currently stored at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Total cesium loading on the columns at saturation agreed very well with equilibrium values predicted from isotherm experiments performed previously. A numerical algorithm for solving the governing partial differential equations (PDE) for cesium uptake was developed using the intraparticle mass transfer coefficient obtained from previous batch kinetic experiments. Solutions to the governing equations were generated to obtain the cesium concentration at the column effluent as a function of throughput volume using the same conditions as those used for the actual column experiments. The numerical solutions of the PDE fit the column break through data quite well for all the experimental conditions in the study. The model should therefore provide a reliable prediction of column performance at larger scales. A new inorganic ion exchange composite consisting of ammonium molybdophosphate, (NH4)3P(Mo3O10)4•3H2O (AMP), synthesized within hollow aluminosilicate microspheres (AMP-C) has been developed. Two different batches of the sorbent were produced resulting in 20% and 25% AMP loading for two and three loading cycles, respectively. The selective cesium exchange capacity of this inorganic composite was evaluated using simulated sodium bearing waste solution as a surrogate for the acidic tank waste currently stored at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Equilibrium isotherms obtained from these experiments

  19. COMPARISONS OF CRYSTALLINE SILICOTITANATE AND RESORCINOL FORMALDEHYDE MEDIA FOR CESIUM REMOVAL BY IN-TANK COLUMN PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    King, W; Frank02 Smith, F; Si Lee, S; Daniel McCabe, D

    2007-11-07

    Chemical and thermal performance of crystalline silicotitanate (CST) and resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) ion exchange media were predicted for column configurations designed for installation in high level waste tanks and intended for cesium removal from radioactive waste supernates. Modeling predictions for the processing of a known Savannah River Site tank waste composition were generated. In a two column configuration under presumed nominal operating conditions (432 gallon packed bed, 10 gpm liquid flow, 25 C, 45 nCi/g average breakthrough limit) with lead/lag column rotation between processing cycles, approximately two cycles were predicted to treat 1,000,000 gallons of radioactive waste with CST as compared to three cycles predicted for RF. However, this processing mode was shown to be highly unfavorable for RF due to the fact that the lead column is unnecessarily exposed to large radiation doses during movement of the cesium mass transfer zone into the lag column. Thermal modeling calculations indicated that maximum temperatures within stagnant, packed CST and RF columns containing the highest anticipated cesium loading and no active cooling will reach 128 and 78 C, respectively, within 6 days. Active cooling maintains the cesium-saturated CST and RF columns below 88 and 41 C, respectively, under stagnant flow conditions.

  20. Preliminary Ion Exchange Modeling for Removal of Cesium from Hanford Waste Using SuperLig 644 Resin

    SciTech Connect

    Hamm, L.L.

    2000-08-23

    A proposed facility is being designed for the immobilization of Hanford high-level radioactive waste. One unit process in the facility is designed to remove radioactive cesium by ion-exchange from the strongly alkaline aqueous phase. A resin specifically designed with high selectivity of cesium under alkaline conditions is being investigated. The resin also is elutable under more acidic conditions. The proposed design of the facility consists of two sets of two packed columns placed in series (i.e., a lead column followed by a lag (guard) column configuration). During operation, upon reaching a specified cesium concentration criterion at the exit of the lag column, operation is switched to the second set of lead and lag columns. The cesium-loaded lead column is processed (i.e., washed and eluted) and switched to the lag position. the previous lag column is then placed in the lead position (without eluting) and the system is ready for use in the next cycle. For a well designed process, the loading and elution processes result in significant volume reductions in aqueous high-level waste.

  1. Intermediate-Scale Ion Exchange Removal of Cesium and Technetium from Hanford Tank 241-AN-102

    SciTech Connect

    King, W.D.

    2001-02-15

    Ion exchange tests have been completed at the Savannah River Technology Center for British Nuclear Fuels Limited, Inc. as part of the Hanford River Protection Project. Radioactive cesium and technetium (pertechnetate form only) were removed by ion exchange from a sample of Envelope C salt solution from Hanford Tank 241-AN-102 (sample volume: approximately 17 L at 4.8 M Na plus). The original sample was diluted and subjected to strontium/transuranics (Sr/TRU) precipitation and filtration processes before ion exchange processing was performed. Batch contact and column tests for the ion exchange removal of cesium and technetium were then completed on the Sr/TRU-decontaminated product. Previous ion exchange tests were conducted on a smaller portion (0.5 L) of the Tank 241-AN-102 supernate sample, which had been similarly pretreated, and the results were reported in a separate document.

  2. Intermediate-Scale Ion Exchange Removal of Cesium and Technetium from Hanford Tank 241-AN-102

    SciTech Connect

    King, W.D.

    2001-09-10

    Ion exchange tests have been completed at the Savannah River Technology Center for British Nuclear Fuels Limited, Inc. as part of the Hanford River Protection Project. Radioactive cesium and technetium (pertechnetate form only) were removed by ion exchange from a sample of Envelope C salt solution from Hanford Tank 241-AN-102 (sample volume: approximately 18 L at 4.8 M Na plus). The original sample was diluted and subjected to strontium/transuranics (Sr/TRU) precipitation and filtration processes before ion exchange processing was performed. Batch contact and column tests for the ion exchange removal of cesium and technetium were then completed on the Sr/TRU-decontaminated product. Previous ion exchange tests were conducted on a smaller portion (0.5 L) of the Tank 241-AN-102 supernate sample, which had been similarly pretreated, and the results were reported in a separate document.

  3. Sorption of cesium and strontium on Savannah River soils impregnated with colloidal silica

    SciTech Connect

    Hakem, N.; Al Mahamid, I.; Apps, J.; Moridis, G.

    1997-01-01

    Colloidal silica (CS) is being considered as an injectable low viscosity fluid for creation of impermeable barrier containment of low level radioactive waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina. The sorption behavior of cesium and strontium on Savannah River Site Soils impregnated with Colloidal Silica was studied using a batch experimental method. The samples were prepared by addition of CS and an aqueous solution of CaCl{sub 2} to the soil materials. Sorption studies were conducted after the gelation of the CS samples had occurred. The variation of the sorption ratio, R, as a function of cesium or strontium concentration was examined. The Freundlich isotherm was used to fit the data and very good results were obtained.

  4. Plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This document describes the functional design of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (Pu SPS). The objective of this system is to stabilize and package plutonium metals and oxides of greater than 50% wt, as well as other selected isotopes, in accordance with the requirements of the DOE standard for safe storage of these materials for 50 years. This system will support completion of stabilization and packaging campaigns of the inventory at a number of affected sites before the year 2002. The package will be standard for all sites and will provide a minimum of two uncontaminated, organics free confinement barriers for the packaged material.

  5. Extraction of Plutonium From Spiked INEEL Soil Samples Using the Ligand-Assisted Supercritical Fluid Extraction (LA-SFE) Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, R.V.; Mincher, B.J.; Holmes, R.G.G.

    1999-08-01

    In order to investigate the effectiveness of ligand-assisted supercritical fluid extraction for the removal of transuranic contaminations from soils an Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) silty-clay soil sample was obtained from near the Radioactive Waste Management Complex area and subjected to three different chemical preparations before being spiked with plutonium. The spiked INEEL soil samples were subjected to a sequential aqueous extraction procedure to determine radionuclide portioning in each sample. Results from those extractions demonstrate that plutonium consistently partitioned into the residual fraction across all three INEEL soil preparations whereas americium partitioned 73% into the iron/manganese fraction for soil preparation A, with the balance partitioning into the residual fraction. Plutonium and americium were extracted from the INEEL soil samples using a ligand-assisted supercritical fluid extraction technique. Initial supercritical fluid extraction runs produced plutonium extraction technique. Initial supercritical fluid extraction runs produced plutonium extraction efficiencies ranging from 14% to 19%. After a second round wherein the initial extraction parameters were changed, the plutonium extraction efficiencies increased to 60% and as high as 80% with the americium level in the post-extracted soil samples dropping near to the detection limits. The third round of experiments are currently underway. These results demonstrate that the ligand-assisted supercritical fluid extraction technique can effectively extract plutonium from the spiked INEEL soil preparations.

  6. PROCESS FOR SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM IMPURITIES

    DOEpatents

    Wahl, A.C.

    1957-11-12

    A method is described for separating plutonium from aqueous solutions containing uranium. It has been found that if the plutonium is reduced to its 3+ valence state, and the uranium present is left in its higher valence state, then the differences in solubility between certain salts (e.g., oxalates) of the trivalent plutonium and the hexavalent uranium can be used to separate the metals. This selective reduction of plutonium is accomplished by adding iodide ion to the solution, since iodide possesses an oxidation potential sufficient to reduce plutonium but not sufficient to reduce uranium.

  7. PLUTONIUM COMPOUNDS AND PROCESS FOR THEIR PREPARATION

    DOEpatents

    Wolter, F.J.; Diehl, H.C. Jr.

    1958-01-01

    This patent relates to certain new compounds of plutonium, and to the utilization of these compounds to effect purification or separation of the plutonium. The compounds are organic chelate compounds consisting of tetravalent plutonium together with a di(salicylal) alkylenediimine. These chelates are soluble in various organic solvents, but not in water. Use is made of this property in extracting the plutonium by contacting an aqueous solution thereof with an organic solution of the diimine. The plutonium is chelated, extracted and effectively separated from any impurities accompaying it in the aqueous phase.

  8. Plutonium inventory characterization technical evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Wittman, G.R., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-10

    This is a technical report on the data, gathered to date, under WHC- SD-CP-TP-086, Rev. 1, on the integrity of the food pack cans currently being used to store plutonium or plutonium compounds at the Plutonium Finishing Plant. Workplan PFP-96-VO-009, `Inspection of Special Nuclear Material Using X-ray`, was used to gather data on material and containment conditions using real time radiography. Some of those images are included herein. A matrix found in the `Plutonium Inventory Characterization Implementation Plan` was used to categorize different plutonium items based upon the type of material being stored and the life expectancy of the containers.

  9. Method of separating thorium from plutonium

    DOEpatents

    Clifton, D.G.; Blum, T.W.

    A method of chemically separating plutonium from thorium is claimed. Plutonium and thorium to be separated are dissolved in an aqueous feed solution, preferably as the nitrate salts. The feed solution is acidified and sodium nitrite is added to the solution to adjust the valence of the plutonium to the +4 state. A chloride salt, preferably sodium chloride, is then added to the solution to induce formation of an anionic plutonium chloride complex. The anionic plutonium chloride complex and the thorium in solution are then separated by ion exchange on a strong base anion exchange column.

  10. Plutonium immobilization feed batching system concept report

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, S.

    2000-07-19

    The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with high level waste glass for permanent storage. Feed batching is one of the first process steps involved with first stage plutonium immobilization. It will blend plutonium oxide powder before it is combined with other materials to make pucks. This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization feed batching process preliminary concept, batch splitting concepts, and includes a process block diagram, concept descriptions, a preliminary equipment list, and feed batching development areas.

  11. Method of separating thorium from plutonium

    DOEpatents

    Clifton, D.G.; Blum, T.W.

    1984-07-10

    A method is described for chemically separating plutonium from thorium. Plutonium and thorium to be separated are dissolved in an aqueous feed solution, preferably as the nitrate salts. The feed solution is acidified and sodium nitrite is added to the solution to adjust the valence of the plutonium to the +4 state. A chloride salt, preferably sodium chloride, is then added to the solution to induce formation of an anionic plutonium chloride complex. The anionic plutonium chloride complex and the thorium in solution are then separated by ion exchange on a strong base anion exchange column.

  12. Method of separating thorium from plutonium

    DOEpatents

    Clifton, David G.; Blum, Thomas W.

    1984-01-01

    A method of chemically separating plutonium from thorium. Plutonium and thorium to be separated are dissolved in an aqueous feed solution, preferably as the nitrate salts. The feed solution is acidified and sodium nitrite is added to the solution to adjust the valence of the plutonium to the +4 state. A chloride salt, preferably sodium chloride, is then added to the solution to induce formation of an anionic plutonium chloride complex. The anionic plutonium chloride complex and the thorium in solution are then separated by ion exchange on a strong base anion exchange column.

  13. Electrorefining of cerium: Part 2, Cerium as a surrogate for plutonium electrorefining studies

    SciTech Connect

    Raraz, A.G.; Mishra, B.; Olson, D.L.; Moore, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    The plutonium metal produced by the Direct Oxide Reduction Process is associated with other metallic impurities that have to be removed. The purification of plutonium is achieved using electrorefining process through a molten salt medium. The optimization of process parameters involved in electrorefining is required to make the process effective, in terms of the metal purity, cell efficiency and overall process reliability. Since the study of strategic and radioactive metals requires the use of a surrogate, it is important to choose surrogates that simulate the process as closely as possible. Cerium has been chosen to study the electrorefining behavior of plutonium. The differences that exist in the physico-chemical properties between the two metals have been critically examined and appropriate models have been developed to study the behavior. Cerium is a justified choice for the investigation.

  14. Laser ablation absorption spectroscopy for isotopic analysis of plutonium: Spectroscopic properties and analytical performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyabe, M.; Oba, M.; Jung, K.; Iimura, H.; Akaoka, K.; Kato, M.; Otobe, H.; Khumaeni, A.; Wakaida, I.

    2017-08-01

    Spectroscopic properties of atomic species of plutonium were investigated by combining laser ablation and resonance absorption techniques for the analysis of a plutonium oxide sample. For 17 transitions of Pu atoms and ions, the absorbance, isotope shift, and hyperfine splitting were determined via Voigt profile fitting of the recorded absorption spectra. Three transitions were selected as candidates for analytical use. Using these transitions, we investigated the analytical performance that was attainable and determined a correlation coefficient R2 between the absorbance and plutonium concentration of 0.9999, a limit of detection of 30-130 ppm, and a relative standard deviation of approximately 6% for an abundance of 240Pu of 2.4%. These results demonstrate that laser ablation absorption spectroscopy is applicable to the remote isotopic analysis of highly radioactive nuclear fuels and waste materials containing multiple actinide elements.

  15. Evaluation of filter media for clarification of partially dissolved residues containing plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, E.S.

    1989-10-09

    A common process in the chemical industry employs the leaching of a desirable component from an insoluble substrate, followed by filtration to produce a clarified solution of the desirable component and a discardable residue. The work described here involved evaluating sintered metal filter media for separating dissolved plutonium from undissolved residues generated at various locations owned by the Department of Energy throughout the United States. The work was performed during a six-week assignment at the Savannah River Laboratory as part of a high school science enrichment program conducted in the summer of 1989. The leach step used included dissolving the plutonium-containing solids in a solution of nitric-hydrofluoric acid. To simulate the partial solubility of the actual plutonium-containing residues, a non-radioactive power plant flyash was used. 6 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Plutonium inventories for stabilization and stabilized materials

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, A.K.

    1996-05-01

    The objective of the breakout session was to identify characteristics of materials containing plutonium, the need to stabilize these materials for storage, and plans to accomplish the stabilization activities. All current stabilization activities are driven by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 94-1 (May 26, 1994) and by the recently completed Plutonium ES&H Vulnerability Assessment (DOE-EH-0415). The Implementation Plan for accomplishing stabilization of plutonium-bearing residues in response to the Recommendation and the Assessment was published by DOE on February 28, 1995. This Implementation Plan (IP) commits to stabilizing problem materials within 3 years, and stabilizing all other materials within 8 years. The IP identifies approximately 20 metric tons of plutonium requiring stabilization and/or repackaging. A further breakdown shows this material to consist of 8.5 metric tons of plutonium metal and alloys, 5.5 metric tons of plutonium as oxide, and 6 metric tons of plutonium as residues. Stabilization of the metal and oxide categories containing greater than 50 weight percent plutonium is covered by DOE Standard {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides{close_quotes} December, 1994 (DOE-STD-3013-94). This standard establishes criteria for safe storage of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides for up to 50 years. Each of the DOE sites and contractors with large plutonium inventories has either started or is preparing to start stabilization activities to meet these criteria.

  17. MPC&A for plutonium disposition in the Russian federation

    SciTech Connect

    Sutcliffe, W.G.

    1995-08-08

    The issue of what to do with excess fissile materials from dismantled nuclear weapons has been discussed for a number of years. The options or alternatives commanding the most attention were identified by the American National Academy of Sciences. For plutonium these options are: (1) the fabrication and use of mixed-oxide (MOX) reactor fuel followed by the disposal of the spent fuel, or (2) vitrification (immobilization) of plutonium combined with highly radioactive material followed by direct disposal. The Academy report also identified the alternative of disposal in a deep borehole as requiring further study before being eliminated or accepted. The report emphasized security of nuclear materials as a principal factor in considering management and disposition decisions. Security of materials is particularly important in the near term-now-long before ultimate disposition can be accomplished. The MOX option was the subject of a NATO workshop held at Obninsk, Russia in October 1994. Hence this paper does not deal with the MOX alternative in detail. It deals with the following: materials protection, control, and accounting (MPC&A) for immobilization and disposal; the immobilization vs MOX alternatives; the security of disposed plutonium; the need to demonstrate MTC&A for plutonium disposition; and, finally, a recommended investment to quickly and inexpensively improve the protection of fissile materials in Russia. It is the author`s view that near-term management is of overriding importance. That is, with respect to the ultimate disposition of excess nuclear materials, how we get there is more important than where we are going.

  18. The First Weighing of Plutonium

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Seaborg, Glenn T.

    1967-09-10

    Recollections and reminiscences at the 25th Anniversary of the First Weighing of Plutonium, Chicago, IL, September 10, 1967, tell an important part of the story of this fascinating new element that is destined to play an increasingly significant role in the future of man.

  19. Plutonium disposition and storage model

    SciTech Connect

    Krupa, J.F.

    2000-03-01

    An EXTEND/SDI-Industry model of DOE plutonium disposition and storage has been created which can easily accommodate changes in scenarios by changing input parameters. It matches well with hand-crafted spreadsheet analyses, and has the advantage that it shows system logic and can be documented easily.

  20. Plutonium disposition and storage model

    SciTech Connect

    Krupa, J.F.

    1999-12-06

    An EXTEND/SDI-Industry model of DOE plutonium disposition and storage has been created which can easily accommodate changes in scenarios by changing input parameters. It matches well with hand-crafted spreadsheet analyses, and has the advantage that it shows system logic and can be documented easily.

  1. Plutonium Recycle: The Fateful Step

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speth, J. Gustave; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Calls attention to the fact that if the Atomic Energy Commission proceeds with its plans to authorize the nuclear power industry to use plutonium as a fuel in commercial nuclear reactors around the country, this will result in a dramatic escalation in the risks posed by nuclear power. (PEB)

  2. Plutonium Recycle: The Fateful Step

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speth, J. Gustave; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Calls attention to the fact that if the Atomic Energy Commission proceeds with its plans to authorize the nuclear power industry to use plutonium as a fuel in commercial nuclear reactors around the country, this will result in a dramatic escalation in the risks posed by nuclear power. (PEB)

  3. Plutonium waste incineration using pyrohydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, M.L.

    1991-12-31

    Waste generated by Savannah River Site (SRS) plutonium operations includes a contaminated organic waste stream. A conventional method for disposing of the organic waste stream and recovering the nuclear material is by incineration. When the organic material is burned, the plutonium remains in the incinerator ash. Plutonium recovery from incinerator ash is highly dependent on the maximum temperature to which the oxide is exposed. Recovery via acid leaching is reduced for a high fired ash (>800{degree}C), while plutonium oxides fired at lower decomposition temperatures (400--800{degrees}C) are more soluble at any given acid concentration. To determine the feasibility of using a lower temperature process, tests were conducted using an electrically heated, controlled-air incinerator. Nine nonradioactive, solid, waste materials were batch-fed and processed in a top-heated cylindrical furnace. Waste material processing was completed using a 19-liter batch over a nominal 8-hour cycle. A processing cycle consisted of 1 hour for heating, 4 hours for reacting, and 3 hours for chamber cooling. The water gas shift reaction was used to hydrolyze waste materials in an atmosphere of 336% steam and 4.4% oxygen. Throughput ranged from 0.14 to 0.27 kg/hr depending on the variability in the waste material composition and density.

  4. Plutonium waste incineration using pyrohydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    Waste generated by Savannah River Site (SRS) plutonium operations includes a contaminated organic waste stream. A conventional method for disposing of the organic waste stream and recovering the nuclear material is by incineration. When the organic material is burned, the plutonium remains in the incinerator ash. Plutonium recovery from incinerator ash is highly dependent on the maximum temperature to which the oxide is exposed. Recovery via acid leaching is reduced for a high fired ash (>800{degree}C), while plutonium oxides fired at lower decomposition temperatures (400--800{degrees}C) are more soluble at any given acid concentration. To determine the feasibility of using a lower temperature process, tests were conducted using an electrically heated, controlled-air incinerator. Nine nonradioactive, solid, waste materials were batch-fed and processed in a top-heated cylindrical furnace. Waste material processing was completed using a 19-liter batch over a nominal 8-hour cycle. A processing cycle consisted of 1 hour for heating, 4 hours for reacting, and 3 hours for chamber cooling. The water gas shift reaction was used to hydrolyze waste materials in an atmosphere of 336% steam and 4.4% oxygen. Throughput ranged from 0.14 to 0.27 kg/hr depending on the variability in the waste material composition and density.

  5. RADIOACTIVE BATTERY

    DOEpatents

    Birden, J.H.; Jordan, K.C.

    1959-11-17

    A radioactive battery which includes a capsule containing the active material and a thermopile associated therewith is presented. The capsule is both a shield to stop the radiations and thereby make the battery safe to use, and an energy conventer. The intense radioactive decay taking place inside is converted to useful heat at the capsule surface. The heat is conducted to the hot thermojunctions of a thermopile. The cold junctions of the thermopile are thermally insulated from the heat source, so that a temperature difference occurs between the hot and cold junctions, causing an electrical current of a constant magnitude to flow.

  6. Radioactive Waste Incineration: Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Diederich, A.R.; Akins, M.J.

    2008-07-01

    Incineration is generally accepted as a method of reducing the volume of radioactive waste. In some cases, the resulting ash may have high concentrations of materials such as Plutonium or Uranium that are valuable materials for recycling. Incineration can also be effective in treating waste that contains hazardous chemicals as well as radioactive contamination. Despite these advantages, the number of operating incinerators currently in the US currently appears to be small and potentially declining. This paper describes technical, regulatory, economic and political factors that affect the selection of incineration as a preferred method of treating radioactive waste. The history of incinerator use at commercial and DOE facilities is summarized, along with the factors that have affected each of the sectors, thus leading to the current set of active incinerator facilities. In summary: Incineration has had a long history of use in radioactive waste processing due to their ability to reduce the volume of the waste while destroying hazardous chemicals and biological material. However, combinations of technical, regulatory, economic and political factors have constrained the overall use of incineration. In both the Government and Private sectors, the trend is to have a limited number of larger incineration facilities that treat wastes from a multiple sites. Each of these sector is now served by only one or two incinerators. Increased use of incineration is not likely unless there is a change in the factors involved, such as a significant increase in the cost of disposal. Medical wastes with low levels of radioactive contamination are being treated effectively at small, local incineration facilities. No trend is expected in this group. (authors)

  7. 40 CFR 721.10168 - Cesium tungsten oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cesium tungsten oxide. 721.10168... Substances § 721.10168 Cesium tungsten oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as cesium tungsten oxide (PMN P-08-275; CAS No....

  8. 40 CFR 721.10168 - Cesium tungsten oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cesium tungsten oxide. 721.10168... Substances § 721.10168 Cesium tungsten oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as cesium tungsten oxide (PMN P-08-275; CAS No....

  9. 40 CFR 721.10168 - Cesium tungsten oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cesium tungsten oxide. 721.10168... Substances § 721.10168 Cesium tungsten oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as cesium tungsten oxide (PMN P-08-275; CAS No....

  10. 40 CFR 721.10168 - Cesium tungsten oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cesium tungsten oxide. 721.10168... Substances § 721.10168 Cesium tungsten oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as cesium tungsten oxide (PMN P-08-275; CAS No....

  11. 40 CFR 721.10168 - Cesium tungsten oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cesium tungsten oxide. 721.10168... Substances § 721.10168 Cesium tungsten oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as cesium tungsten oxide (PMN P-08-275; CAS No....

  12. REMOVAL OF CESIUM BY SORPTION FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Ames, L.L.

    1962-01-16

    ABS>A process is given for selectively removing cesium from acid aqueous solutions containing cesium in microquantities and other cations in macroquantities by absorption on clinoptilolite. The cesium can be eluted from the clinoptilolite with a solution of ammonia, potassium hydroxide, or rubidium hydroxide. (AEC)

  13. A review of research programs related to the behavior of plutonium in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Bartram, Bart W.; Wilkinson, Martha J.

    1983-06-15

    Plutonium-fueled radioisotopic heat sources find application in a spectrum of space, terrestrial, and underseas applications to generate electrical power by thermoelectric or dynamic-cycle conversion. Such systems under postulated accident conditions could release radioactivity into the environment resulting in risks to the general population. The released radioactivity could be dispersed into various environmental media, such as air, soil, and water and interact with people through various exposure pathways leading to inhalation, ingestion, and external radiological doses and associated health effects. The authors developed short-term exposure (RISK II) and long-term exposure (RISK III) models for use in safety risk assessments of space missions utilizing plutonium-fueled electric power systems. To effectively use these models in risk assessments, representative input values must be selected for a spectrum of environmental transfer parameters that characterize the behavior of plutonium in the environment. The selection of appropriate transfer parameters to be used in a given analysis will depend on the accident scenarios to be modeled and the terrestrial and aquatic environments to be encountered. The authors reviewed the availability of plutonium in the environment. This report summarizes the research programs presently being conducted at six Department of Energy Laboratories and makes recommendations on areas where further research is needed to fill gaps in the data necessary for risk assessments

  14. Properties of Plutonium-Containing Colloids Released from Glass-Bonded Sodalite Nuclear Waste Form

    SciTech Connect

    Morss, L.R.; Mertz, C.J.; Kropf, A.J.; Holly, J.L.

    2004-10-11

    In glass-bonded sodalite, which is the ceramic waste form (CWF) to immobilize radioactive electrorefiner salt from spent metallic reactor fuel, uranium and plutonium are found as 20-50 nm (U,Pu)O{sub 2} particles encapsulated in glass near glass-sodalite phase boundaries. In order to determine whether the (U,Pu)O{sub 2} affects the durability of the CWF, and to determine release behavior of uranium and plutonium during CWF corrosion, tests were conducted to measure the release of matrix and radioactive elements from crushed CWF samples into water and the properties of released plutonium. Released colloids have been characterized by sequential filtration of test solutions followed by elemental analysis, dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. This paper reports the composition, size, and agglomeration of these colloids. Significant amounts of colloidal, amorphous aluminosilicates and smaller amounts of colloidal crystalline (U,Pu)O{sub 2} were identified in test solutions. The normalized releases of uranium and plutonium were significantly less than the normalized releases of matrix elements.

  15. Evaluation of Rocky Flats Plant stored plutonium inventory at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, T.L. Jr.; Einerson, J.J.

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to evaluate reported inventories of plutonium contained in stored transuranic (TRU) waste generated by the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). From 1970 to 1989, this waste was shipped to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and placed in aboveground retrievable storage at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC)-Transuranic Storage Area (TSA). This evaluation was initiated to address potential uncertainty in quantities of stored plutonium reported in the Radioactive Waste Management Information System (RWMIS). The RWMIS includes radionuclide information from generators that shipped TRU waste to INEL for storage. Recent evaluations performed on buried TRU waste (1954-1970) resulted in significant revision to the original reported values of plutonium, americium, and enriched uranium. These evaluations were performed based on Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) Inventory Difference (ID) records. This evaluation for stored TRU waste was performed to: (1) identify if significant discrepancies exist between RWMIS reported values and RFP ID records, (2) describe the methodology used to perform the RWMIS evaluation, (3) determine a Best Estimate (BE) and 95% Upper Confidence Bound (UB) on the plutonium inventory, (4) provide conclusions based on this evaluation, and (5) identify recommendations and/or actions that might be needed.

  16. Geochemical dynamics of cesium sorption by selected clay minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Noll, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    This study focuses on the interactions of cesium with selected clay minerals. Cesium is of interest as it is a chief component of high level radioactive waste. Primarily, the thermodynamics and kinetics of Cs exchange reactions were investigated to determine the preference for Cs of a kaolinite, illite, and vermiculite. Thermodynamic studies indicated that Cs was most strongly preferred by Ca saturated clays. Of the three minerals studied, illite proved to be the most effective in adsorbing Cs as indicated by the Vanselow Selectivity Coefficients (k{sub v}). The k{sub v} values for illite ranged from 5.87 to over 10{sup 10}, depending on the mineral and saturating cation. Kinetics experiments proved to be the most interesting. On 2:1 clay minerals (illite and vermiculite), two simultaneous reactions are postulated. The first, and faster of the two reactions, is believed to correspond to Cs adsorption on surface planar sites. The second reaction may be the adsorption of Cs on interlayer and wedge exchange sites. Kaolinite only shows a single reaction since it is a 1:1 clay mineral. Rate coefficients were calculated and the first reaction was found to be on the order of one magnitude greater than the second reaction. The reactions on kaolinite were similar to this faster reaction. Desorption data indicated that the rate of desorption was one or more orders of magnitude less than the corresponding adsorption rate. It is important to note, however, that studies on the effect of temperature indicated that Arrhenius behavior is not followed in many of these experiments. It is postulated that changes in cation radius ratio, or the availability of exchange sites is causing this Anti-Arrhenius behavior. Finally, it is concluded that illite exhibits the greatest preference for the adsorption of Cs.

  17. Vitrification of cesium-contaminated organic ion exchange resin

    SciTech Connect

    Sargent, Jr., Thomas N.

    1994-08-01

    Vitrification has been declared by the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) as the Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT) for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Savannah River Site currently uses a sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) precipitation process to remove Cs-137 from a wastewater solution created from the processing of nuclear fuel. This process has several disadvantages such as the formation of a benzene waste stream. It has been proposed to replace the precipitation process with an ion exchange process using a new resorcinol-formaldehyde resin developed by Savannah River Technical Center (SRTC). Preliminary tests, however, showed that problems such as crust formation and a reduced final glass wasteform exist when the resin is placed in the melter environment. The newly developed stirred melter could be capable of overcoming these problems. This research explored the operational feasibility of using the stirred tank melter to vitrify an organic ion exchange resin. Preliminary tests included crucible studies to determine the reducing potential of the resin and the extent of oxygen consuming reactions and oxygen transfer tests to approximate the extent of oxygen transfer into the molten glass using an impeller and a combination of the impeller and an external oxygen transfer system. These preliminary studies were used as a basis for the final test which was using the stirred tank melter to vitrify nonradioactive cesium loaded organic ion exchange resin. Results from this test included a cesium mass balance, a characterization of the semi-volatile organic compounds present in the off gas as products of incomplete combustion (PIC), a qualitative analysis of other volatile metals, and observations relating to the effect the resin had on the final redox state of the glass.

  18. Startup of Savannah River`s Defense Waste Processing Facility to produce radioactive glass

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, W.M.

    1997-08-06

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) began production of radioactive glass in the Defense Waste Process Facility (DWPF) in 1996 following an extensive test program discussed earlier. Currently DWPF is operating in a `sludge only` mode to produce radioactive glass consisting of washed high-level waste sludge and glass frit. Future operations will produce radioactive glass consisting of washed high-level waste sludge, precipitated cesium, and glass frit. This paper provides an update of processing activities to date, operational problems encountered since entering radioactive operations, and the programs underway to solve them.

  19. Cesium injection system for negative ion duoplasmatrons

    DOEpatents

    Kobayashi, Maasaki; Prelec, Krsto; Sluyters, Theodorus J

    1978-01-01

    Longitudinally extending, foraminous cartridge means having a cylindrical side wall forming one flat, circular, tip end surface and an opposite end; an open-ended cavity, and uniformly spaced orifices for venting the cavity through the side wall in the annulus of a plasma ring for uniformly ejecting cesium for coating the flat, circular, surface. To this end, the cavity is filled with a cesium containing substance and attached to a heater in a hollow-discharge duoplasmatron. By coating the flat circular surface with a uniform monolayer of cesium and locating it in an electrical potential well at the end of a hollow-discharge, ion duoplasmatron source of an annular hydrogen plasma ring, the negative hydrogen production from the duoplasmatron is increased. The negative hydrogen is produced on the flat surface of the cartridge and extracted by the electrical potential well along a trajectory coaxial with the axis of the plasma ring.

  20. a Biokinetic Model for CESIUM-137 in the Fetus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Karen Lynn

    1995-01-01

    Previously, there was no method to determine the dose to the embryo, fetus, fetal organs or placenta from radionuclides within the embryo, fetus, or placenta. In the past, the dose to the fetus was assumed to be equivalent to the dose to the uterus. Watson estimated specific absorbed fractions from various maternal organs to the uterine contents which included the fetus, placenta, and amniotic fluid and Sikov estimated the absorbed dose to the embryo/fetus after assuming 1 uCi of radioactivity was made available to the maternal blood.^{1,2} However, this method did not allow for the calculation of a dose to individual fetal organs or the placenta. The radiation dose to the embryo or fetus from Cs-137 in the fetus and placenta due to a chronic ingestion by the mother was determined. The fraction of Cs-137 in the maternal plasma crossing the placenta to the fetal plasma was estimated. The absorbed dose from Cs-137 in each modelled fetal organ was estimated. Since there has been more research regarding potassium in the human body, and particularly in the pregnant woman, a biokinetic model for potassium was developed first and used as a basis and confirmation of the cesium model. Available pertinent information in physiology, embryology, biokinetics, and radiation dosimetry was utilized. Due to the rapid growth of the fetus and placenta, the pregnancy was divided into four gestational periods. The numerous physiological changes that occurred during pregnancy were considered and an appropriate biokinetic model was developed for each of the gestational periods. The amount of cesium in the placenta, embryo, and fetus was estimated for each period. The dose to the fetus from cesium deposited in the embryo or fetus and in the placenta was determined for each period using Medical Internal Radiation Dosimetry (MIRD) methodology. An uncertainty analysis was also performed to account for the variability of the parameters in the biokinetic model based on the experimental data

  1. Plasma etching of cesium iodide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X.; Hopwood, J.; Tipnis, S.; Nagarkar, V.; Gaysinskiy, V.

    2002-01-01

    Thick films of cesium iodide (CsI) are often used to convert x-ray images into visible light. Spreading of the visible light within CsI, however, reduces the resolution of the resulting image. Anisotropic etching of the CsI film into an array of micropixels can improve the image resolution by confining light within each pixel. The etching process uses a high-density inductively coupled plasma to pattern CsI samples held by a heated, rf-biased chuck. Fluorine-containing gases such as CF4 are found to enhance the etch rate by an order of magnitude compared to Ar+ sputtering alone. Without inert-gas ion bombardment, however, the CF4 etch becomes self-limited within a few microns of depth due to the blanket deposition of a passivation layer. Using CF4+Ar continuously removes this layer from the lateral surfaces, but the formation of a thick passivation layer on the unbombarded sidewalls of etched features is observed by scanning electron microscopy. At a substrate temperature of 220 °C, the minimum ion-bombardment energy for etching is Ei~50 eV, and the rate depends on Ei1/2 above 65 eV. In dilute mixtures of CF4 and Ar, the etch rate is proportional to the gas-phase density of atomic fluorine. Above 50% CF4, however, the rate decreases, indicating the onset of net surface polymer deposition. These observations suggest that anisotropy is obtained through the ion-enhanced inhibitor etching mechanism. Etching exhibits an Arrhenius-type behavior in which the etch rate increases from ~40 nm/min at 40 °C to 380 nm/min at 330 °C. The temperature dependence corresponds to an activation energy of 0.13+/-0.01 eV. This activation energy is consistent with the electronic sputtering mechanism for alkali halides.

  2. Conversion of radioactive ferrocyanide compounds to immobile glasses

    DOEpatents

    Schulz, Wallace W.; Dressen, A. Louise

    1977-04-26

    Complex radioactive ferrocyanide compounds result from the scavenging of cesium from waste products produced in the chemical reprocessing of nuclear fuel. These ferrocyanides, in accordance with this process, are converted to an immobile glass, resistant to leaching by water, by fusion together with sodium carbonate and a mixture of (a) basalt and boron trioxide (B.sub.2 O.sub.3) or (b) silica (SiO.sub.2) and lime (CaO).

  3. Radioactive Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaylock, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of radioactive waste disposal, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the studies included are: (1) high-level and long-lived wastes, and (2) release and burial of low-level wastes. A list of 42 references is also presented. (HM)

  4. Radioactive Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaylock, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of radioactive waste disposal, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the studies included are: (1) high-level and long-lived wastes, and (2) release and burial of low-level wastes. A list of 42 references is also presented. (HM)

  5. Microbial accumulation of uranium, radium, and cesium

    SciTech Connect

    Strandberg, G.W.; Shumate, S.E. II; Parrott, J.R. Jr.; North, S.E.

    1981-05-01

    Diverse microbial species varied considerably in their ability to accumulate uranium, cesium, and radium. Mechanistic differences in uranium uptake by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were indicated. S. serevisiae exhibited a slow (hours) surface accumulation of uranium which was subject to environmental factors, while P. aeruginosa accumulated uranium rapidly (minutes) as dense intracellular deposits and did not appear to be affected by environmental parameters. Metabolism was not required for uranium uptake by either organism. Cesium and radium were concentrated to a considerably lesser extent than uranium by the several species tested.

  6. Study on the Volatility of Cesium in Dry Ashing Pretreatment and Dissolution of Ash by Microwave Digestion System - 13331

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Kwang-Soon; Lee, Chang Heon; Ahn, Hong-Joo; Park, Yong Joon; Song, Kyuseok

    2013-07-01

    Based on the regulation of the activity concentration of Cs-137, Co-58, Co-60, Fe-55, Ni-59, Ni-63, Sr-90, Nb-94, and Tc-99, and the total alpha from the radioactive waste acceptance criteria, the measurement of the activity concentration of these nuclides in low and intermediate levels of radioactive waste such as in paper, cotton, vinyl and plastic samples was investigated. A dry ashing method was applied to obtain a concentration effect of the samples. Owing to the temperature dependence of the volatility for cesium, the temperature of 300 to 650 deg. C was examined. It was found that 450 deg. C is the optimum dry ashing temperature. After dry ashing, the produced ash was dissolved with HNO{sub 3}, HCl, and HF by a high-performance microwave digestion system. The ash sample, for the most part, was completely dissolved with 10 mL of HNO{sub 3}, 4 mL of HCl, and 0.25 mL of HF by a high-performance microwave digestion system using a nova high temperature rotor at 250 deg. C for 90 min until reaching 0.2 g. To confirm the reliability of cesium loss after the performance of the dry ashing procedure, a cesium standard solution for AAS and a Cs-137 standard solution for gamma spectrometry were added to a paper towel or a planchet of stainless steel, respectively. Cesium was measured by AAS, ICP-MS, and gamma spectrometry. The volatility of cesium did not occur until 450 deg. C ashing. (authors)

  7. Radioactive waste treatment: Russian/U.S. partnership in R&D

    SciTech Connect

    Fryberger, T.B.; Romanovskiy, V.; Esimantovskiy, V.

    1994-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Waste Management is sponsoring joint U.S.-Russian research and development projects on chemical separations for treatment of radioactive wastes. This paper describes a project at the Khlopin Radium Institute in St. Petersburg. Scientists there, in cooperation with U.S. scientists, are investigating the applicability to U.S. waste streams of a Russian process for removal of cesium and strontium from highly radioactive wastes.

  8. Advances in containment methods and plutonium recovery strategies that led to the structural characterization of plutonium(IV) tetrachloride tris-diphenylsulfoxide, PuCl4(OSPh2)3

    DOE PAGES

    Schrell, Samantha K.; Boland, Kevin Sean; Cross, Justin Neil; ...

    2017-01-18

    In an attempt to further advance the understanding of plutonium coordination chemistry, we report a robust method for recycling and obtaining plutonium aqueous stock solutions that can be used as a convenient starting material in plutonium synthesis. This approach was used to prepare and characterize plutonium(IV) tetrachloride tris-diphenylsulfoxide, PuCl4(OSPh2)3, by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The PuCl4(OSPh2)3 compound represents a rare example of a 7-coordinate plutonium(IV) complex. Structural characterization of PuCl4(OSPh2)3 by X-ray diffraction utilized a new containment method for radioactive crystals. The procedure makes use of epoxy, polyimide loops, and a polyester sheath to provide a robust method for safelymore » containing and easily handling radioactive samples. Lastly, the described procedure is more user friendly than traditional containment methods that employ fragile quartz capillary tubes. Additionally, moving to polyester, instead of quartz, lowers the background scattering from the heavier silicon atoms.« less

  9. Proceedings of the Plutonium Futures ? The Science 2006 Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Fluss, M; Hobart, D; Allan, P; Jarvinen, G

    2007-07-12

    'cradle-to-grave' accountability for various reactor types. Related work is presented on identification of the unique reaction mechanisms and identification of the intermediate products, including Pu(III), at the end of the PUREX process. In the important area of nuclear forensics, actual scenarios of nuclear materials confiscation and the successes of applying forensics protocols to determine attribution and possible intention are provided. In the area of reactor incidents, there is no other place on Earth like the Chernobyl Site Object Shelter and radioactive aerosol particle characterization studies reflect an important effort described herein. An additional report from another unique environmental site presents results on radionuclide monitoring, fate, and transport in the ecosystem of the Yenisei River in the Krasoyarsk region. In the area of nuclear waste disposal, a study of the ion irradiation damage to pyrochlore compounds with varying amounts of host elements and actinide dopants is presented. Papers on both the aqueous and nonaqueous chemistry of plutonium and other actinides are presented including anhydrous coordination chemistry and redox behavior in the presence of humic materials and the their sorption on common minerals in the environment. Also published herein are reports on the field of anhydrous coordination chemistry of the transuranic elements where there is scarce information. Solid-State and Materials Highlights--Plutonium solid-state and materials research is represented in these proceedings by a wealth of leading edge discovery class research. The breadth of this research is reflected in the topics covered: solid-state; materials science; superconductivity; phase changes, phonons, and entropy; electronic structure and physical properties; surface science and corrosion; and radiation effects, defects, impurities, and property changes. Indeed the scientific challenge and excitement of plutonium can best be highlighted by quoting the tutorial

  10. PRECIPITATION METHOD FOR THE SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM AND RARE EARTHS

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, S.G.

    1960-04-26

    A method of purifying plutonium is given. Tetravalent plutonium is precipitated with thorium pyrophosphate, the plutonium is oxidized to the tetravalent state, and then impurities are precipitated with thorium pyrophosphate.

  11. Surprising coordination for plutonium in the first plutonium(III) borate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuao; Alekseev, Evgeny V; Depmeier, Wulf; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E

    2011-03-21

    The first plutonium(III) borate, Pu(2)[B(12)O(18)(OH)(4)Br(2)(H(2)O)(3)]·0.5H(2)O, has been prepared by reacting plutonium(III) with molten boric acid under strictly anaerobic conditions. This compound contains a three-dimensional polyborate network with triangular holes that house the plutonium(III) sites. The plutonium sites in this compound are 9- and 10-coordinate and display atypical geometries.

  12. Air transport of plutonium metal: content expansion initiative for the plutonium air transportable (PAT01) packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Caviness, Michael L; Mann, Paul T

    2010-01-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has submitted an application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the air shipment of plutonium metal within the Plutonium Air Transportable (PAT-1) packaging. The PAT-1 packaging is currently authorized for the air transport of plutonium oxide in solid form only. The INMM presentation will provide a limited overview of the scope of the plutonium metal initiative and provide a status of the NNSA application to the NRC.

  13. [Radioactive contamination of foods marketed in saitama prefecture].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Terumitsu; Nagahama, Yoshiyuki; Takekuma, Mikiko; Miyake, Sadaaki; Nomoto, Kahoru; Takano, Mariko

    2013-01-01

    Up to October 31, 2012, a total of 170 food samples marketed in Saitama Prefecture were examined following the setting of provisional regulatory limits for radioactivity in drinking water and foodstuffs by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare on 1 April 2012. No sample exceeded the regulatory limits as determined by gamma ray spectrometry with a germanium semiconductor detector. However the radioactive cesium concentrations of food samples such as raw wood-shiitake and maccha (powdered green tea) produced in Saitama were nearly at the regulatory limits, being 74 Bq/kg and 84 Bq/kg, respectively.

  14. SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM HYDROXIDE FROM BISMUTH HYDROXIDE

    DOEpatents

    Watt, G.W.

    1958-08-19

    An tmproved method is described for separating plutonium hydroxide from bismuth hydroxide. The end product of the bismuth phosphate processes for the separation amd concentration of plutonium is a inixture of bismuth hydroxide amd plutonium hydroxide. It has been found that these compounds can be advantageously separated by treatment with a reducing agent having a potential sufficient to reduce bismuth hydroxide to metalltc bisinuth but not sufficient to reduce the plutonium present. The resulting mixture of metallic bismuth and plutonium hydroxide can then be separated by treatment with a material which will dissolve plutonium hydroxide but not metallic bismuth. Sodiunn stannite is mentioned as a preferred reducing agent, and dilute nitric acid may be used as the separatory solvent.

  15. Multi-generational stewardship of plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1997-10-01

    The post-cold war era has greatly enhanced the interest in the long-term stewardship of plutonium. The management of excess plutonium from proposed nuclear weapons dismantlement has been the subject of numerous intellectual discussions during the past several years. In this context, issues relevant to long-term management of all plutonium as a valuable energy resource are also being examined. While there are differing views about the future role of plutonium in the economy, there is a recognition of the environmental and health related problems and proliferation potentials of weapons-grade plutonium. The long-term management of plutonium as an energy resource will require a new strategy to maintain stewardship for many generations to come.

  16. Biokinetics of Plutonium in Nonhuman Primates.

    PubMed

    Poudel, Deepesh; Guilmette, Raymond A; Gesell, Thomas F; Harris, Jason T; Brey, Richard R

    2016-10-01

    A major source of data on metabolism, excretion and retention of plutonium comes from experimental animal studies. Although old world monkeys are one of the closest living relatives to humans, certain physiological differences do exist between these nonhuman primates and humans. The objective of this paper was to describe the metabolism of plutonium in nonhuman primates using the bioassay and retention data obtained from macaque monkeys injected with plutonium citrate. A biokinetic model for nonhuman primates was developed by adapting the basic model structure and adapting the transfer rates described for metabolism of plutonium in adult humans. Significant changes to the parameters were necessary to explain the shorter retention of plutonium in liver and skeleton of the nonhuman primates, differences in liver to bone partitioning ratio, and significantly higher excretion of plutonium in feces compared to that in humans.

  17. Cesium vapor thermionic converter anomalies arising from negative ion emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasor, Ned S.

    2016-08-01

    Compelling experimental evidence is given that a longstanding limit encountered on cesium vapor thermionic energy converter performance improvement and other anomalies arise from thermionic emission of cesium negative ions. It is shown that the energy that characterizes thermionic emission of cesium negative ions is 1.38 eV and, understandably, is not the electron affinity 0.47 eV determined for the photodetachment threshold of the cesium negative ion. The experimental evidence includes measurements of collector work functions and volt-ampere characteristics in quasi-vacuum cesium vapor thermionic diodes, along with reinterpretation of the classic Taylor-Langmuir S-curve data on electron emission in cesium vapor. The quantitative effects of negative ion emission on performance in the ignited, unignited, and quasi-vacuum modes of cesium vapor thermionic converter operation are estimated.

  18. Cesium promotion in styrene epoxidation on silver catalysts.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ling; Gorin, Craig F; Madix, Robert J

    2010-01-20

    The adsorption of a small amount of cesium on Ag(110) redirects the partial oxidation products of styrene from phenylacetaldehyde and phenylketene to styrene oxide. The cesium stabilizes the oxametallacycle intermediate and hinders its transformation to the intermediate that leads to the other products. Cesium does not appear to create any electronic effects on the bonding of the intermediates. Low coverages of cesium induce a (1 x 2) missing-row reconstruction of the entire clean Ag(110) surface and a (3 x 5) surface oxide structure on the cesium-reconstructed Ag(110) surface. This (3 x 5)-ordered surface oxide is superimposed on the Ag(111) microfacets produced by the cesium-induced reconstruction, which leads to selectivity and reactivity very similar to those of the extended (111) surface. These studies provide insight into the microscopic origins of the structural effects of cesium in styrene epoxidation on silver catalysts.

  19. ION EXCHANGE MODELING FOR REMOVAL OF CESIUM FROM HANFORD WASTE USING SUPERLIG 644 RESIN

    SciTech Connect

    Hamm, L

    2004-05-01

    The expected performance of a proposed ion exchange column using SuperLig{reg_sign} 644 resin for the removal of cesium from Hanford high level radioactive alkaline waste is discussed. This report represents a final report on the ability and knowledge with regard to modeling the Cesium-SuperLig{reg_sign} 644 resin ion exchange system. Only the loading phase of the cycle process is addressed within this report. Pertinent bench-scale column tests and batch equilibrium experiments are addressed. The methodology employed and sensitivity analyses are also included (i.e., existing methodology employed is referenced to prior developmental efforts while updated methodology is discussed). Pilot-scale testing is not assessed since no pilot-scale testing was available at the time of this report. Column performance predictions are made considering three selected feed compositions under nominal operating conditions. The sensitivity analyses provided help to identify key parameters that aid in resin procurement acceptance criteria. The methodology and application presented within this report reflect the expected behavior of SuperLig{reg_sign} 644 resin manufactured at the production-scale (i.e, 250 gallon batch size level). The primary objective of this work was, through modeling and verification based on experimental assessments, to predict the cesium removal performance of SuperLig{reg_sign} 644 resin for application in the RPP pretreatment facility.

  20. Equilibrium sorption of cobalt, cesium, and strontium on Bandelier Tuff: analysis of alternative mathematical modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Polzer, W.L.; Fuentes, H.R.; Essington, E.H.; Roensch, F.R.

    1985-01-01

    Sorption isotherms are derived from batch equilibrium data for cobalt, cesium and strontium on Bandelier Tuff. Experiments were conducted at an average temperature of 23/sup 0/C and equilibrium was defined at 48 hours. The solute concentrations ranged from 0 to 500 mg/L. The radioactive isotopes /sup 60/Co, /sup 137/Cs, and /sup 85/Sr were used to trace the sorption of the stable solutes. The Linear, Langmuir, Freundlich and a Modified Freundlich isotherm equations are evaluated. The Modified Freundlich isotherm equation is validated as a preferred general mathematical tool for representing the sorption of the three solutes. The empirical constants derived from the Modified Freundlich isotherm equation indicate that under dynamic flow conditions strontium will move most rapidly and cobalt least rapidly. On the other hand, chemical dispersion will be greatest for cesium and least for strontium. Hill Plots of the sorption data suggest that in the region of low saturation sorption of all three solutes is impeded by interactions among sorption sites; cobalt exhibits the greatest effect of interactions and strontium shows only a minimal effect. In the saturation region of 50% or more, sorption of cobalt is enhanced slightly by interactions among sorption sites whereas sorption of cesium and strontium appears to be independent of site interactions. 9 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.