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Sample records for radioactive elements arsenic

  1. TABLE OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS.

    SciTech Connect

    HOLDEN,N.E.

    2001-06-29

    For those chemical elements which have no stable nuclides with a terrestrial isotopic composition, the data on radioactive half-lives and relative atomic masses for the nuclides of interest and importance have been evaluated and the recommended values and uncertainties are listed.

  2. Radioactive elements in stellar atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Gopka, Vira; Yushchenko, Alexander; Goriely, Stephane; Shavrina, Angelina; Kang, Young Woon

    2006-07-12

    The identification of lines of radioactive elements (Tc, Pm and elements with 83radioactive decay of Th and U in the upper levels of stellar atmospheres, contamination of stellar atmosphere by recent SN explosion, and spallation reactions.

  3. Table of radioactive elements

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N.E.

    1985-01-01

    As has been the custom in the past, the Commission publishes a table of relative atomic masses and halflives of selected radionuclides. The information contained in this table will enable the user to calculate the atomic weight for radioactive materials with a variety of isotopic compositions. The atomic masses have been taken from the 1984 Atomic Mass Table. Some of the halflives have already been documented.

  4. Radioactive dating of the elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowan, John J.; Thielemann, Friedrich-Karl; Truran, James W.

    1991-01-01

    The extent to which an accurate determination of the age of the Galaxy, and thus a lower bound on the age of the universe, can be obtained from radioactive dating is discussed. Emphasis is given to the use of the long-lived radioactive nuclei Re-187, Th-232, U-238, and U-235. The nature of the production sites of these and other potential Galactic chronometers is examined along with their production ratios. Age determinations from models of nucleocosmochronology are reviewed and compared with age determination from stellar sources and age constraints form cosmological considerations.

  5. Radioactive Elements in Coal and Fly Ash: Abundance, Forms, and Environmental Significance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zielinski, Robert A.; Finkelman, Robert B.

    1997-01-01

    Coal is largely composed of organic matter, but it is the inorganic matter in coal—minerals and trace elements— that have been cited as possible causes of health, environmental, and technological problems associated with the use of coal. Some trace elements in coal are naturally radioactive. These radioactive elements include uranium (U), thorium (Th), and their numerous decay products, including radium (Ra) and radon (Rn). Although these elements are less chemically toxic than other coal constituents such as arsenic, selenium, or mercury, questions have been raised concerning possible risk from radiation. In order to accurately address these questions and to predict the mobility of radioactive elements during the coal fuel-cycle, it is important to determine the concentration, distribution, and form of radioactive elements in coal and fly ash.

  6. RADIOACTIVE CHEMICAL ELEMENTS IN THE ATOMIC TABLE.

    SciTech Connect

    HOLDEN, N.E.

    2005-08-13

    In the 1949 Report of the Atomic Weights Commission, a series of new elements were added to the Atomic Weights Table. Since these elements had been produced in the laboratory and were not discovered in nature, the atomic weight value of these artificial products would depend upon the production method. Since atomic weight is a property of an element as it occurs in nature, it would be incorrect to assign an atomic weight value to that element. As a result of that discussion, the Commission decided to provide only the mass number of the most stable (longest-lived) known isotope as the number to be associated with these entries in the Atomic Weights Table. As a function of time, the mass number associated with various elements has changed as longer-lived isotopes of a particular elements has been found in nature, or as improved half-life values of an element's isotopes might cause a shift in the longest-lived isotope from one mass number to another. In the 1957 Report of the Atomic Weights Commission, it was decided to discontinue the listing of the mass number in the Atomic Weights Table on the grounds that the kind of information supplied by the mass number is inconsistent with the primary purpose of the Table, i.e., to provide accurate values of ''these constants'' for use in chemical calculations. In addition to the Table of Atomic Weights, the Commission included an auxiliary Table of Radioactive Elements for the first time, where the entry would be the isotope of that element which was most stable, i.e., it had the longest known half-life. In their 1973 report, the Commission noted that the users of the Atomic Weights Table were dissatisfied with the omission of values in the Table for some elements and it was decided to reintroduce the mass number for elements. In their 1983 report, the Commission decided that radioactive elements were considered to lack a characteristic terrestrial isotopic composition, from which an atomic weight value could be calculated to

  7. DISSOLVED CONCENTRATION LIMITS OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    2004-11-22

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of elements with radioactive isotopes under probable repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, field measurements, and laboratory experiments. The scope of this modeling activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for 14 elements with radioactive isotopes (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium) important to calculated dose. Model outputs for uranium, plutonium, neptunium, thorium, americium, and protactinium are in the form of tabulated functions with pH and log (line integral) CO{sub 2} as independent variables, plus one or more uncertainty terms. The solubility limits for the remaining elements are either in the form of distributions or single values. The output data from this report are fundamental inputs for Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) to determine the estimated release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Consistent modeling approaches and environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models for all of the actinides. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so that they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, and activity coefficients have been quantified or otherwise addressed.

  8. DISSOLVED CONCENTRATION LIMITS OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    P. Bernot

    2005-07-13

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of elements with radioactive isotopes under probable repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, field measurements, and laboratory experiments. The scope of this activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for elements with radioactive isotopes (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium) relevant to calculated dose. Model outputs for uranium, plutonium, neptunium, thorium, americium, and protactinium are provided in the form of tabulated functions with pH and log fCO{sub 2} as independent variables, plus one or more uncertainty terms. The solubility limits for the remaining elements are either in the form of distributions or single values. Even though selection of an appropriate set of radionuclides documented in Radionuclide Screening (BSC 2002 [DIRS 160059]) includes actinium, transport of Ac is not modeled in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) model because of its extremely short half-life. Actinium dose is calculated in the TSPA-LA by assuming secular equilibrium with {sup 231}Pa (Section 6.10); therefore, Ac is not analyzed in this report. The output data from this report are fundamental inputs for TSPA-LA used to determine the estimated release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Consistent modeling approaches and environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models for the actinides discussed in this report. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, and activity coefficients have been quantified or

  9. Dissolved Concentration Limits of Radioactive Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Y. Chen; E.R. Thomas; F.J. Pearson; P.L. Cloke; T.L. Steinborn; P.V. Brady

    2003-06-20

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of radioactive elements under possible repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, and measurements made in laboratory experiments and field work. The scope of this modeling activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for 14 radioactive elements (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium), which are important to calculated dose. Model outputs are mainly in the form of look-up tables plus one or more uncertainty terms. The rest are either in the form of distributions or single values. The results of this analysis are fundamental inputs for total system performance assessment to constrain the release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Solubilities of plutonium, neptunium, uranium, americium, actinium, thorium, protactinium, lead, and radium have been re-evaluated using the newly updated thermodynamic database (Data0.ymp.R2). For all of the actinides, identical modeling approaches and consistent environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models in this revision. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so that they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, activity coefficients, and selection of solubility controlling phase have been quantified or otherwise addressed. Moreover, a new blended plutonium solubility model has been developed in this revision, which gives a mean solubility that is three orders of magnitude lower than the plutonium solubility model used for the Total System Performance Assessment for the Site Recommendation. Two alternative neptunium solubility models have also been

  10. Microbial transformation of elements: the case of arsenic and selenium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stolz, J.; Basu, P.; Oremland, R.

    2002-01-01

    Microbial activity is responsible for the transformation of at least one third of the elements in the periodic table. These transformations are the result of assimilatory, dissimilatory, or detoxification processes and form the cornerstones of many biogeochemical cycles. Arsenic and selenium are two elements whose roles in microbial ecology have only recently been recognized. Known as "essential toxins", they are required in trace amounts for growth and metabolism but are toxic at elevated concentrations. Arsenic is used as an osmolite in some marine organisms while selenium is required as selenocysteine (i.e. the twenty-first amino acid) or as a ligand to metal in some enzymes (e.g. FeNiSe hydrogenase). Arsenic resistance involves a small-molecular-weight arsenate reductase (ArsC). The use of arsenic and selenium oxyanions for energy is widespread in prokaryotes with representative organisms from the Crenarchaeota, thermophilic bacteria, low and high G+C gram-positive bacteria, and Proteobacteria. Recent studies have shown that both elements are actively cycled and play a significant role in carbon mineralization in certain environments. The occurrence of multiple mechanisms involving different enzymes for arsenic and selenium transformation indicates several different evolutionary pathways (e.g. convergence and lateral gene transfer) and underscores the environmental significance and selective impact in microbial evolution of these two elements.

  11. Microbial transformation of elements: the case of arsenic and selenium.

    PubMed

    Stolz, J F; Basu, P; Oremland, R S

    2002-12-01

    Microbial activity is responsible for the transformation of at least one third of the elements in the periodic table. These transformations are the result of assimilatory, dissimilatory, or detoxification processes and form the cornerstones of many biogeochemical cycles. Arsenic and selenium are two elements whose roles in microbial ecology have only recently been recognized. Known as "essential toxins", they are required in trace amounts for growth and metabolism but are toxic at elevated concentrations. Arsenic is used as an osmolite in some marine organisms while selenium is required as selenocysteine (i.e. the twenty-first amino acid) or as a ligand to metal in some enzymes (e.g. FeNiSe hydrogenase). Arsenic resistance involves a small-molecular-weight arsenate reductase (ArsC). The use of arsenic and selenium oxyanions for energy is widespread in prokaryotes with representative organisms from the Crenarchaeota, thermophilic bacteria, low and high G+C gram-positive bacteria, and Proteobacteria. Recent studies have shown that both elements are actively cycled and play a significant role in carbon mineralization in certain environments. The occurrence of multiple mechanisms involving different enzymes for arsenic and selenium transformation indicates several different evolutionary pathways (e.g. convergence and lateral gene transfer) and underscores the environmental significance and selective impact in microbial evolution of these two elements.

  12. Inorganic arsenic and trace elements in Ghanaian grain staples.

    PubMed

    Adomako, Eureka E; Williams, Paul N; Deacon, Claire; Meharg, Andrew A

    2011-10-01

    A total of 549 samples of rice, maize, wheat, sorghum and millet were obtained from markets in Ghana, the EU, US and Asia. Analysis of the samples, originating from 21 countries in 5 continents, helped to establish global mean trace element concentrations in grains; thus placing the Ghanaian data within a global context. Ghanaian rice was generally low in potentially toxic elements, but high in essential nutrient elements. Arsenic concentrations in rice from US (0.22 mg/kg) and Thailand (0.15 mg/kg) were higher than in Ghanaian rice (0.11 mg/kg). Percentage inorganic arsenic content of the latter (83%) was, however, higher than for US (42%) and Thai rice (67%). Total arsenic concentration in Ghanaian maize, sorghum and millet samples (0.01 mg/kg) was an order of magnitude lower than in Ghanaian rice, indicating that a shift from rice-centric to multigrain diets could help reduce health risks posed by dietary exposure to inorganic As.

  13. Prompt gamma neutron activation analysis of toxic elements in radioactive waste packages.

    PubMed

    Ma, J-L; Carasco, C; Perot, B; Mauerhofer, E; Kettler, J; Havenith, A

    2012-07-01

    The French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) are conducting an R&D program to improve the characterization of long-lived and medium activity (LL-MA) radioactive waste packages. In particular, the amount of toxic elements present in radioactive waste packages must be assessed before they can be accepted in repository facilities in order to avoid pollution of underground water reserves. To this aim, the Nuclear Measurement Laboratory of CEA-Cadarache has started to study the performances of Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) for elements showing large capture cross sections such as mercury, cadmium, boron, and chromium. This paper reports a comparison between Monte Carlo calculations performed with the MCNPX computer code using the ENDF/B-VII.0 library and experimental gamma rays measured in the REGAIN PGNAA cell with small samples of nickel, lead, cadmium, arsenic, antimony, chromium, magnesium, zinc, boron, and lithium to verify the validity of a numerical model and gamma-ray production data. The measurement of a ∼20kg test sample of concrete containing toxic elements has also been performed, in collaboration with Forschungszentrum Jülich, to validate the model in view of future performance studies for dense and large LL-MA waste packages.

  14. Radioactive Elements in Soils of Siberia (Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranovskaya, N. V.; Rikhvanov, L. P.; Matveenko, I. N.; Strakhovenko, V. D.; Malikova, I. N.; Shcherbakov, B. L.; Sukhorukov, F. V.; Aturova, V. P.

    2012-04-01

    The Center of State Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance Department in Krasnoyarsk Territory, Krasnoyarsk In the course of long-term research a great deal of information on the content of natural and artificial radionuclides in soils of the Siberian regions has been obtained and summarized (Altai and Krasnoyarsk Territories, Altai Republic, Buryatia, Yakutia, Khakassia, Irkutsk, Novosibirsk, Tomsk Oblasts and a number of other Siberian regions). The content level of U(Ra), Th and K in soil of studied areas is within the range of values obtained for soil of other areas of Russia and the world and defined, first of all, by radioactivity of parent rocks. The authors have studied the total level of specific activity for 137Cs most completely in soils of different Siberian regions. The maximum density of such sites with global fallouts (nuclear air explosions in Novaya Zemlya, Lop Nor, Semipalatinsk etc.) is typical for the areas of Altai Territory and Buryatia Republic. Elevated level of radiocesium (to 1000 and more than Bq/kg) is characteristic for the sites adjacent to the area of NFP (Seversk, Zheleznogorsk). Our data obtained in determination of plutonium in soils of different Siberian regions excess remarkably its background accepted for Siberia. Particularly high accumulation levels of Pu in soil were observed in the zones of NFP operation (Seversk, Tomsk Oblast; Zheleznogorsk, Krasnoyarsk Territory, in the sites of accidents fallouts at underground nuclear explosions in Sakha Republic (Yakutia). Abnormally high ratio of 238Pu/239,240Pu in soils of Sakha republic, Aginsk Buryatia Autonomous District, Krasnoyarsk Territory has engaged our attention.

  15. Arsenic

    MedlinePlus

    ... and minerals. Arsenic compounds are used to preserve wood, as pesticides, and in some industries. Arsenic can ... Breathing sawdust or burning smoke from arsenic-treated wood Living in an area with high levels of ...

  16. STATUS OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS IN THE ATOMIC WEIGHTS TABLE.

    SciTech Connect

    HOLDEN,N.E.

    2003-08-08

    During discussions within the Inorganic Chemistry Division Committee, that dealt with the Periodic Table of the Chemical Elements and the official IUPAC position on its presentation, the following question was raised. When the various chemical elements are presented, each with their appropriate atomic weight value, how should the radioactive elements be presented? The Atomic Weights Commission has treated this question in a number of different ways during the past century, almost in a random manner. This report reviews the position that the Commission has taken as a function of time, as a prelude to a discussion in Ottawa about how the Commission should resolve this question for the future.

  17. Radioactive Elements in the Standard Atomic Weights Table.

    SciTech Connect

    Holden,N.E.

    2007-08-04

    In the 1949 Report of the Atomic Weights Commission, a series of new elements were added to the Atomic Weights Table. Since these elements had been produced in the laboratory and were not discovered in nature, the atomic weight value of these artificial products would depend upon the production method. Since atomic weight is a property of an element as it occurs in nature, it would be incorrect to assign an atomic weight value to that element. As a result of that discussion, the Commission decided to provide only the mass number of the most stable (or longest-lived) known isotope as the number to be associated with these entries in the Atomic Weights Table. As a function of time, the mass number associated with various elements has changed as longer-lived isotopes of a particular element has been found in nature, or as improved half-life values of an element's isotopes might cause a shift in the longest-lived isotope from one mass to another. In the 1957 Report of the Atomic Weights Commission, it was decided to discontinue the listing of the mass number in the Atomic Weights Table on the grounds that the kind of information supplied by the mass number is inconsistent with the primary purpose of the Table, i.e., to provide accurate values of 'these constants' for use in various chemical calculations. In addition to the Table of Atomic Weights, the Commission included an auxiliary Table of Radioactive Elements for the first time, where the entry would be the isotope of that element which was the most stable, i.e., the one with the longest known half-life. In their 1973 Report, the Commission noted that the users of the main Table of Atomic Weights were dissatisfied with the omission of values for some elements in that Table and it was decided to reintroduce the mass number for the radioactive elements into the main Table. In their 1983 Report, the Commission decided that radioactive elements were considered to lack a characteristic terrestrial isotopic composition

  18. RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS IN THE STANDARD ATOMIC WEIGHTS TABLE

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N.E.; Holden, N.; Holden,N.E.

    2011-07-27

    In the 1949 Report of the Atomic Weights Commission, a series of new elements were added to the Atomic Weights Table. Since these elements had been produced in the laboratory and were not discovered in nature, the atomic weight value of these artificial products would depend upon the production method. Since atomic weight is a property of an element as it occurs in nature, it would be incorrect to assign an atomic weight value to that element. As a result of that discussion, the Commission decided to provide only the mass number of the most stable (or longest-lived) known isotope as the number to be associated with these entries in the Atomic Weights Table. As a function of time, the mass number associated with various elements has changed as longer-lived isotopes of a particular element has been found in nature, or as improved half-life values of an element's isotopes might cause a shift in the longest-lived isotope from one mass to another. In the 1957 Report of the Atomic Weights Commission, it was decided to discontinue the listing of the mass number in the Atomic Weights Table on the grounds that the kind of information supplied by the mass number is inconsistent with the primary purpose of the Table, i.e., to provide accurate values of 'these constants' for use in various chemical calculations. In addition to the Table of Atomic Weights, the Commission included an auxiliary Table of Radioactive Elements for the first time, where the entry would be the isotope of that element which was the most stable, i.e., the one with the longest known half-life. In their 1973 Report, the Commission noted that the users of the main Table of Atomic Weights were dissatisfied with the omission of values for some elements in that Table and it was decided to reintroduce the mass number for the radioactive elements into the main Table. In their 1983 Report, the Commission decided that radioactive elements were considered to lack a characteristic terrestrial isotopic composition

  19. Arsenic

    MedlinePlus

    ... basis for regulation and standard setting worldwide. The current recommended limit of arsenic in drinking-water is 10 μg/litre, although this guideline value is designated as provisional because of measurement difficulties and the practical difficulties in removing arsenic ...

  20. Elemental contents in Napoleon's hair cut before and after his death: did Napoleon die of arsenic poisoning?

    PubMed

    Lin, Xilei; Alber, D; Henkelmann, R

    2004-05-01

    Whether or not Napoleon died of arsenic poisoning is an open question on which debate has been active since 1960. This work examined several of his hairs, cut at different times and in different places: two pieces cut the day after his death on the island of St. Helena (1821) and two pieces cut seven years earlier (1814) during his first exile on the island of Elba. INAA results show that all of the samples of Napoleon's hair have an elevated arsenic concentration. These results disfavor the arsenic poisoning theory. Aside from arsenic, 18 other elements are reported, providing additional information for examining the arsenic poisoning theory.

  1. Distribution and variation of arsenic in Wisconsin surface soils, with data on other trace elements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stensvold, Krista A.

    2012-01-01

    Soils with sandy glacial outwash as a parent material have a lower median arsenic concentration (1.0 mg/kg) than soils forming in other parent materials (1.5 to 3.0 mg/kg). Soil texture and drainage category also influence median arsenic concentration. Finer grained soils have a higher observed range of concentrations. For loamy and loess-dominated soil groups, drainage category influences the median arsenic concentration and observed range of values, but a consistent relationship within the data is not apparent. Statistical analysis of the 16 other elements are presented in this report, but the relationships of concentrations to soil properties or geographic areas were not examined.

  2. Bioleaching of rare earth and radioactive elements from red mud using Penicillium tricolor RM-10.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yang; Lian, Bin

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate biological leaching of rare earth elements (REEs) and radioactive elements from red mud, and to evaluate the radioactivity of the bioleached red mud used for construction materials. A filamentous, acid-producing fungi named RM-10, identified as Penicillium tricolor, is isolated from red mud. In our bioleaching experiments by using RM-10, a total concentration of 2% (w/v) red mud under one-step bioleaching process was generally found to give the maximum leaching ratios of the REEs and radioactive elements. However, the highest extraction yields are achieved under two-step bioleaching process at 10% (w/v) pulp density. At pulp densities of 2% and 5% (w/v), red mud processed under both one- and two-step bioleaching can meet the radioactivity regulations in China.

  3. Arsenic in Bangladeshi soils related to physiographic region, paddy management, and mirco- and macro-elemental status.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, M Tanvir A; Deacon, Claire M; Jones, Gerrad D; Imamul Huq, S M; Williams, Paul N; Manzurul Hoque, A F M; Winkel, Lenny H E; Price, Adam H; Norton, Gareth J; Meharg, Andrew A

    2017-07-15

    While the impact of arsenic in irrigated agriculture has become a major environmental concern in Bangladesh, to date there is still a limited understanding of arsenic in Bangladeshi paddy soils at a landscape level. A soil survey was conducted across ten different physiographic regions of Bangladesh, which encompassed six types of geomorphology (Bil, Brahmaputra floodplain, Ganges floodplain, Meghna floodplain, Karatoya-Bangali floodplain and Pleistocene terrace). A total of 1209 paddy soils and 235 matched non-paddy soils were collected. The source of irrigation water (groundwater and surface water) was also recorded. The concentrations of arsenic and sixteen other elements were determined in the soil samples. The concentration of arsenic was higher in paddy soils compared to non-paddy soils, with soils irrigated with groundwater being higher in arsenic than those irrigated with surface water. There was a clear difference between the Holocene floodplains and the Pleistocene terraces, with Holocene floodplain soils being higher in arsenic and other elements. The results suggest that arsenic is most likely associated with less well weathered/leached soils, suggesting it is either due to the geological newness of Holocene sediments or differences between the sources of sediments, which gives rise to the arsenic problems in Bangladeshi soils.

  4. Distribution of a suite of elements including arsenic and mercury in Alabama coal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldhaber, Martin B.; Bigelow, R.C.; Hatch, J.R.; Pashin, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    Arsenic and other elements are unusually abundant in Alabama coal. This conclusion is based on chemical analyses of coal in the U.S. Geological Survey's National Coal Resources Data System (NCRDS; Bragg and others, 1994). According to NCRDS data, the average concentration of arsenic in Alabama coal (72 ppm) is three times higher than is the average for all U.S. coal (24 ppm). Of the U.S. coal analyses for arsenic that are at least 3 standard deviations above the mean, approximately 90% are from the coal fields of Alabama. Figure 1 contrasts the abundance of arsenic in coal of the Warrior field of Alabama (histogram C) with that of coal of the Powder River Basin, Wyoming (histogram A), and the Eastern Interior Province including the Illinois Basin and nearby areas (histogram B). The Warrior field is by far the largest in Alabama. On the histogram, the large 'tail' of very high values (> 200 ppm) in the Warrior coal contrasts with the other two regions that have very few analyses greater than 200 ppm.

  5. The problem of burying radioactive wastes containing transplutonium elements (TPE)

    SciTech Connect

    Bryzgalova, R.V.; Krivokhatskii, A.S.; Rogozin, Y.M.; Sinitsyna, G.S.

    1986-09-01

    This paper discusses the problem of burying radioactive wastes containing TPE. The most acceptable and developed method at present is that of disposal into continental, deep-lying, geological formatins. Based on an analysis of estimates of the thermal conditions on burying highly active wastes, including TPE concentrates, data on the filtration and sorption characteristics of rocks, estimates of the diffusion of radionuclide species capable of migrating, and taking into account the retention powers of rocks it is concluded that it is possible to bury such wastes in weakly permeable geological formations possessing shielding characteristics which ensure reliability and safety in burial.

  6. Strategies for the engineered phytoremediation of toxic element pollution: mercury and arsenic.

    PubMed

    Meagher, Richard B; Heaton, Andrew C P

    2005-12-01

    Plants have many natural properties that make them ideally suited to clean up polluted soil, water, and air, in a process called phytoremediation. We are in the early stages of testing genetic engineering-based phytoremediation strategies for elemental pollutants like mercury and arsenic using the model plant Arabidopsis. The long-term goal is to develop and test vigorous, field-adapted plant species that can prevent elemental pollutants from entering the food-chain by extracting them to aboveground tissues, where they can be managed. To achieve this goal for arsenic and mercury, and pave the way for the remediation of other challenging elemental pollutants like lead or radionucleides, research and development on native hyperaccumulators and engineered model plants needs to proceed in at least eight focus areas: (1) Plant tolerance to toxic elementals is essential if plant roots are to penetrate and extract pollutants efficiently from heterogeneous contaminated soils. Only the roots of mercury- and arsenic-tolerant plants efficiently contact substrates heavily contaminated with these elements. (2) Plants alter their rhizosphere by secreting various enzymes and small molecules, and by adjusting pH in order to enhance extraction of both essential nutrients and toxic elements. Acidification favors greater mobility and uptake of mercury and arsenic. (3) Short distance transport systems for nutrients in roots and root hairs requires numerous endogenous transporters. It is likely that root plasma membrane transporters for iron, copper, zinc, and phosphate take up ionic mercuric ions and arsenate. (4) The electrochemical state and chemical speciation of elemental pollutants can enhance their mobility from roots up to shoots. Initial data suggest that elemental and ionic mercury and the oxyanion arsenate will be the most mobile species of these two toxic elements. (5) The long-distance transport of nutrients requires efficient xylem loading in roots, movement through the

  7. Enhanced carcinogenicity by coexposure to arsenic and iron and a novel remediation system for the elements in well drinking water.

    PubMed

    Kumasaka, Mayuko Y; Yamanoshita, Osamu; Shimizu, Shingo; Ohnuma, Shoko; Furuta, Akio; Yajima, Ichiro; Nizam, Saika; Khalequzzaman, Md; Shekhar, Hossain U; Nakajima, Tamie; Kato, Masashi

    2013-03-01

    Various carcinomas including skin cancer are explosively increasing in arsenicosis patients who drink arsenic-polluted well water, especially in Bangladesh. Although well drinking water in the cancer-prone areas contains various elements, very little is known about the effects of elements except arsenic on carcinogenicity. In order to clarify the carcinogenic effects of coexposure to arsenic and iron, anchorage-independent growth and invasion in human untransformed HaCaT and transformed A431 keratinocytes were examined. Since the mean ratio of arsenic and iron in well water was 1:10 in cancer-prone areas of Bangladesh, effects of 1 μM arsenic and 10 μM iron were investigated. Iron synergistically promoted arsenic-mediated anchorage-independent growth in untransformed and transformed keratinocytes. Iron additionally increased invasion in both types of keratinocytes. Activities of c-SRC and ERK that regulate anchorage-independent growth and invasion were synergistically enhanced in both types of keratinocytes. Our results suggest that iron promotes arsenic-mediated transformation of untransformed keratinocytes and progression of transformed keratinocytes. We then developed a low-cost and high-performance adsorbent composed of a hydrotalcite-like compound for arsenic and iron. The adsorbent rapidly reduced concentrations of both elements from well drinking water in cancer-prone areas of Bangladesh to levels less than those in WHO health-based guidelines for drinking water. Thus, we not only demonstrated for the first time increased carcinogenicity by coexposure to arsenic and iron but also proposed a novel remediation system for well drinking water.

  8. Separation and recovery of radioactive and non-radioactive toxic trace elements from aqueous industrial effluents.

    PubMed

    Iyer, R H

    2003-09-01

    An update is presented on liquid membrane-based processes as viable and relevant alternatives to conventional approaches such as precipitation, solvent extraction, ion exchange processes and electrochemical techniques for the removal and recovery of some toxic and/or valuable trace metal ions including some actinides and fission products e.g. U, Am, Y etc and As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn etc from radioactive as well as non-radioactive aqueous waste solutions respectively. In particular, results of experiments aimed at developing supported liquid membrane(SLM)-based process using commercially available porous membranes and indigenously prepared track--etch membranes (TEMs) have been critically examined in laboratory studies to generate basic data needed to evaluate their utility for continuous operation without regeneration. These include effect of pore size, porosity, optimum pore size and their reusability. It is clearly demonstrated that indigenously prepared 10 microm thick TEMs with a porosity in the range of 2-5% give comparable transport rates for metal ions-matching with that of commercial membranes of much higher thickness (160 microm) and higher porosity of 60-85%. The smaller thickness of TEMs more than compensates for their lower porosity. It is shown that because of their well defined pore characteristics TEMs could serve as model supports in SLM studies. By comparing the values of permeability coefficient (P) for TEM and polytetraflouroethylene (PTFE) supports for the transport of Pb2+ chosen as a typical divalent metal ion, and using di-2 ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) as the carrier, it is unambiguously proved that diffusion of the metal complex across the membrane is the rate controlling step in metal ion transport in SLM-based processes. An overview of the experimental findings along with future outlook and suggestions for further work are presented in this paper.

  9. Consumption of arsenic and other elements from vegetables and drinking water from an arsenic-contaminated area of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Asaduzzaman, Md; Naidu, Ravi

    2013-11-15

    The study assesses the daily consumption by adults of arsenic (As) and other elements in drinking water and home-grown vegetables in a severely As-contaminated area of Bangladesh. Most of the examined elements in drinking water were below the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline values except As. The median concentrations of As, cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), Mn, nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in vegetables were 90 μg kg(-1), 111 μg kg(-1), 0.80 mg kg(-1), 168 μg kg(-1), 13 mg kg(-1), 2.1 mg kg(-1), 65 mg kg(-1), 1.7 mg kg(-1), and 50 mg kg(-1), respectively. Daily intakes of As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Pb, manganese (Mn), Ni, and Zn from vegetables and drinking water for adults were 839 μg, 2.9 μg, 20.8 μg, 5.5 μg, 0.35 mg, 56.4 μg, 2.0mg, 49.1 μg, and 1.3mg, respectively. The health risks from consuming vegetables were estimated by comparing these figures with the WHO/FAO provisional tolerable weekly or daily intake (PTWI or PTDI). Vegetables alone contribute 0.05 μg of As and 0.008 mg of Cu per kg of body weight (bw) daily; 0.42 μg of Cd, 8.77 mg of Pb, and 0.03 mg of Zn per kg bw weekly. Other food sources and particularly dietary staple rice need to be evaluated to determine the exact health risks from such foods.

  10. Radioactivity and elemental analysis in the Ruseifa municipal landfill, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Jundi, J; Al-Tarazi, E

    2008-01-01

    In this study, a low background gamma-ray spectrometer based on a Hyper Pure Germanium detector was used to determine the activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in soil samples from various locations within the Ruseifa municipal landfill in Jordan. The chemical composition of the samples was also determined using a Wavelength Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer. The maximum and minimum annual outdoor effective doses were found to be 103 and 36microSva(-1) in the old landfill and Abu-Sayaah village, respectively. The annual outdoor effective dose at the recent landfill site was found to be 91microSva(-1). The annual effective dose equivalents from outdoor terrestrial gamma radiation at the old landfill and the recent landfill were higher than the typical worldwide value of 70microSva(-1). Thus, some remediation of the soils on both old and recent landfills should be considered before any development for public activities. This could be achieved by mixing with clean soil from areas which are known to have lower radiation background. The concentration of heavy metals Zn, Cr, and Ba in the three sites included in this study were found to be higher than the background levels in the soil samples of the control area (Abu-Sayaah village). The enrichment factors for the above three elements were calculated and found to be: complex building site: Zn=2.52 and Ba=1.33; old landfill site: Cr=1.88, Zn=3.64, and Ba=1.26; and recent landfill site: Cr=1.57, Zn=2.19, and Ba=1.28. There was a strong negative correlation between the concentrations of the metallic elements (Mg, Al, Mn, Fe and Rb) and the concentrations of Zn, Ba, and Cr. Moreover, a strong positive correlation was found between Zn, Ba, and Cr. Thus these elements were enriched in the solid waste.

  11. Method for disposing of radioactive graphite and silicon carbide in graphite fuel elements

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, R.L.

    1995-09-12

    Method is described for destroying radioactive graphite and silicon carbide in fuel elements containing small spheres of uranium oxide coated with silicon carbide in a graphite matrix, by treating the graphite fuel elements in a molten salt bath in the presence of air, the salt bath comprising molten sodium-based salts such as sodium carbonate and a small amount of sodium sulfate as catalyst, or calcium-based salts such as calcium chloride and a small amount of calcium sulfate as catalyst, while maintaining the salt bath in a temperature range of about 950 to about 1,100 C. As a further feature of the invention, large radioactive graphite fuel elements, e.g. of the above composition, can be processed to oxidize the graphite and silicon carbide, by introducing the fuel element into a reaction vessel having downwardly and inwardly sloping sides, the fuel element being of a size such that it is supported in the vessel at a point above the molten salt bath therein. Air is bubbled through the bath, causing it to expand and wash the bottom of the fuel element to cause reaction and destruction of the fuel element as it gradually disintegrates and falls into the molten bath. 4 figs.

  12. Radioactive Fission Product Release from Defective Light Water Reactor Fuel Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Konyashov, Vadim V.; Krasnov, Alexander M.

    2002-04-15

    Results are provided of the experimental investigation of radioactive fission product (RFP) release, i.e., krypton, xenon, and iodine radionuclides from fuel elements with initial defects during long-term (3 to 5 yr) irradiation under low linear power (5 to 12 kW/m) and during special experiments in the VK-50 vessel-type boiling water reactor.The calculation model for the RFP release from the fuel-to-cladding gap of the defective fuel element into coolant was developed. It takes into account the convective transport in the fuel-to-cladding gap and RFP sorption on the internal cladding surface and is in good agreement with the available experimental data. An approximate analytical solution of the transport equation is given. The calculation dependencies of the RFP release coefficients on the main parameters such as defect size, fuel-to-cladding gap, temperature of the internal cladding surface, and radioactive decay constant were analyzed.It is shown that the change of the RFP release from the fuel elements with the initial defects during long-term irradiation is, mainly, caused by fuel swelling followed by reduction of the fuel-to-cladding gap and the fuel temperature. The calculation model for the RFP release from defective fuel elements applicable to light water reactors (LWRs) was developed. It takes into account the change of the defective fuel element parameters during long-term irradiation. The calculation error according to the program does not exceed 30% over all the linear power change range of the LWR fuel elements (from 5 to 26 kW/m)

  13. Influence of waterborne arsenic on nutritive and potentially harmful elements in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Sirvent, Carmen; Martínez-Sánchez, Maria José; López, Salvadora Martínez; Del Carmen Gómez Martínez, Maria; Guardiola, Francisco A; Esteban, María Ángeles

    2016-11-01

    Fish are an important source of nutrients in human nutrition. Although arsenic (As) is considered potentially carcinogenic for human being, very little is known about its toxicity in fish biology. To increase our knowledge of the effect of exposure to waterborne As on fish, gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) were exposed to 5 μM As2O3 and the bioaccumulation of macronutrients (Ca, K, Mg, Na, P), micronutrients (Fe, Mn, Zn) and Potentially Harmful Elements (As, Cd) was determined using spectrometric techniques. All elements were determined in the muscle and liver of non-exposed fish and those exposed to As for 2, 10 or 30 days. The concentrations of K, Na, Mg, Mn and Zn (in muscle) and Fe and Mn (in liver) of control (non-exposed) fish were higher than those determined in exposed fish. Furthermore, neither As nor Cd accumulated in the edible part (muscle) of seabream and were only evident in liver after 30 days of continuous exposure to As, but both concentrations remained below legally established limits.

  14. Geochemistries of arsenic, antimony, mercury, and related elements in sediments of puget sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crecelius, E.A.; Bothner, Michael H.; Carpenter, R.

    1975-01-01

    The natural distributions of arsenic, antimony mercury, chromium, cobalt, iron, aluminum, and carbon in the surface sediments of Puget Sound are perturbed by two major anthropogenic sources of trace metals: a copper smelter near Tacoma, Wash., that discharges large amounts of arsenic and antimony, and a chlor-alkali plant in Bellingham, Wash., which, in the recent past, discharged significant amounts of mercury. Arsenic and antimony inputs from the smelter over the past 80 years are evident in sediment cores whose accumulation rates have been determined by the lead-210 technique. An arsenic budget for Puget Sound reveals the importance of atmospheric input resulting from smokestack emissions of the smelter. Chemical extraction studies of sediments showed that more than 82% of the mercury was associated with easily oxidizable organic matter, whereas about 50% of both arsenic and antimony was associated with extractable iron and aluminum compounds.

  15. Geochemistry of arsenic and other trace elements in a volcanic aquifer system of Kumamoto Area, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Shahadat; Hosono, Takahiro; Shimada, Jun

    2015-04-01

    Total arsenic (As), As(III) species, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), methane (CH4), sulfur isotope ratios of sulfate (δ34SSO4), major ions and trace elements were measured in groundwater collected from boreholes and wells along the flow lines of western margins of Kumamoto basin, at central part of Kyushu island in southern Japan. Kumamoto city is considered as the largest groundwater city in Japan. 100% people of this city depends on groundwater for their drinking purpose. In this study, we used trace elements data and δ34SSO4 values to better understand the processes that are likely controlling mobilization of As in this area. Arsenic concentrations ranges from 1 to 60.6 μg/L. High concentrations were found in both shallow and deep aquifers. The aquifers are composed of Quaternary volcanic (pyroclastic) flow deposits. In both aquifers, groundwaters evolve along the down flow gradient from oxidizing conditions of recharge area to the reducing conditions of stagnant area of Kumamoto plain. 40% samples from the Kumamoto plain area excced the maximum permissible limit of Japan drinking water quality standard (10 μg/L). In the reducing groundwater, As(III) constitutes typically more, however; 50% samples dominated with As(III) and 50% samples dominated with As(V) species. High As concentrations occur in anaerobic stagnant groundwaters from this plain area with high dissolved Fe, Mn, moderately dissolved HCO3, PO4, DOC and with very low concentrations of NO3 and SO4 suggesting the reducing condition of subsurface aquifer. Moderately positive correlation between As and dissolved Fe, Mn and strong negative correlation between As(III)/As(V) ratio and V, Cr and U reflect the dependence of As concentration on the reductive process. The wide range of δ34SSO4 values (6.8 to 36.1‰) indicate that sulfur is undergoing redox cycling. Highly enriched values suggesting the process was probably mediated by microbial activity. It also be noted from positive values of sulfur

  16. Fact Sheet on Arsenic

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Arsenic is a naturally occurring element that is found in combination with either inorganic or organic substances to form many different compounds. Inorganic arsenic compounds are found in soils, sediments, and groundwater.

  17. Radioactive elements on Mercury's surface from MESSENGER: implications for the planet's formation and evolution.

    PubMed

    Peplowski, Patrick N; Evans, Larry G; Hauck, Steven A; McCoy, Timothy J; Boynton, William V; Gillis-Davis, Jeffery J; Ebel, Denton S; Goldsten, John O; Hamara, David K; Lawrence, David J; McNutt, Ralph L; Nittler, Larry R; Solomon, Sean C; Rhodes, Edgar A; Sprague, Ann L; Starr, Richard D; Stockstill-Cahill, Karen R

    2011-09-30

    The MESSENGER Gamma-Ray Spectrometer measured the average surface abundances of the radioactive elements potassium (K, 1150 ± 220 parts per million), thorium (Th, 220 ± 60 parts per billion), and uranium (U, 90 ± 20 parts per billion) in Mercury's northern hemisphere. The abundance of the moderately volatile element K, relative to Th and U, is inconsistent with physical models for the formation of Mercury requiring extreme heating of the planet or its precursor materials, and supports formation from volatile-containing material comparable to chondritic meteorites. Abundances of K, Th, and U indicate that internal heat production has declined substantially since Mercury's formation, consistent with widespread volcanism shortly after the end of late heavy bombardment 3.8 billion years ago and limited, isolated volcanic activity since.

  18. Prolong Restoration of the Water Quality of River Ganga Effect of Heavy Metals and Radioactive Elements.

    PubMed

    Tare, Vinod; Basu, Subhankar

    2014-04-01

    The genesis of the present research was the belief since ages and the observations made through some studies that the water of river Ganga has unique characteristics, which allows storage of water quality even on prolong storage. Very few systematic studies have been conducted to support the contention that the Ganga water indeed has some special composition that could be attributed to its unique storage capacity. It was postulated that prolong restoration of water quality depends on the ability to arrest microbial activity that is generally responsible for deterioration in water quality on prolong storage. Hence, attempt has been made to identify the parameters that are likely to influence the prolong storage of river water. Along with Ganga river water, other three major rivers, viz. Yamuna, Godavari and Narmada, were selected for comparison. Emphasis was made on estimation of heavy metals, radioactive elements, dissolved carbon and other physicochemical parameters such as temperature, pH, alkalinity, hardness and dissolved organic carbon. Based on the available information regarding the impact of heavy metals, radioactive elements vis-à-vis the chemical composition of water on microorganisms in the aquatic environment, an overall impact score for the waters of the four Indian rivers selected in the study has been assigned.

  19. Analytical microscopy and environment. Current developments using bioindicators of pollution by stable and radioactive elements.

    PubMed

    Chassard-Bouchaud, C

    1996-05-01

    Ecotoxicological investigations were performed on three sets of bioindicators. The first one concerns marine pollution of invertebrates (molluscs: the mussel Mytilus edulis and related species, crustaceans: the crab Liocarcinus puber and related species), contaminated by stable or radioactive elements originating from wastes discharged into sea water. The second one concerns freshwater pollution of vertebrates (fish: the brown trout Salmo trutta fario), contaminated by aluminium dissolved in rivers, as a consequence of an atmospheric pollution by acid rain. The third one concerns the atmospheric pollution of trees by plutonium (Casuarina equisetifolia). Mechanisms involved in the uptake, storage and elimination processes of these toxicants were studied, with a special emphasis on cellular and subcellular aspects of concentration sites. Two microanalytical methods were employed: Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), using the ion microscope and the ion microprobe, and X-ray spectrometry using the electron microprobe (EMP). In marine organisms, the target organs and tissues of bioaccumulation of stable and radioactive elements (238U, 239Pu and 241Am), were shown to be mainly digestive gland, gill and exoskeleton. The target organelles were shown to be spherocrystals and lysosomes. Amoebocytes, enzymatically equipped with lysosomal phosphatase, were involved in the phagocytic clearance of metal pollutants. In trout, insolubilisation of Al phosphate within lysosomes and a high metal concentration within bones were observed. The tree Casuarina equisetifolia exhibits a particular ability to concentrate atmospheric plutonium within its leaves.

  20. Earth Abides Arsenic Biotransformations

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yong-Guan; Yoshinaga, Masafumi; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Rosen, Barry P.

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic is the most prevalent environmental toxic element and causes health problems throughout the world. The toxicity, mobility, and fate of arsenic in the environment are largely determined by its speciation, and arsenic speciation changes are driven, at least to some extent, by biological processes. In this article, biotransformation of arsenic is reviewed from the perspective of the formation of Earth and the evolution of life, and the connection between arsenic geochemistry and biology is described. The article provides a comprehensive overview of molecular mechanisms of arsenic redox and methylation cycles as well as other arsenic biotransformations. It also discusses the implications of arsenic biotransformation in environmental remediation and food safety, with particular emphasis on groundwater arsenic contamination and arsenic accumulation in rice. PMID:26778863

  1. Earth Abides Arsenic Biotransformations.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yong-Guan; Yoshinaga, Masafumi; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Rosen, Barry P

    2014-05-01

    Arsenic is the most prevalent environmental toxic element and causes health problems throughout the world. The toxicity, mobility, and fate of arsenic in the environment are largely determined by its speciation, and arsenic speciation changes are driven, at least to some extent, by biological processes. In this article, biotransformation of arsenic is reviewed from the perspective of the formation of Earth and the evolution of life, and the connection between arsenic geochemistry and biology is described. The article provides a comprehensive overview of molecular mechanisms of arsenic redox and methylation cycles as well as other arsenic biotransformations. It also discusses the implications of arsenic biotransformation in environmental remediation and food safety, with particular emphasis on groundwater arsenic contamination and arsenic accumulation in rice.

  2. Earth Abides Arsenic Biotransformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yong-Guan; Yoshinaga, Masafumi; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Rosen, Barry P.

    2014-05-01

    Arsenic is the most prevalent environmental toxic element and causes health problems throughout the world. The toxicity, mobility, and fate of arsenic in the environment are largely determined by its speciation, and arsenic speciation changes are driven, at least to some extent, by biological processes. In this article, biotransformation of arsenic is reviewed from the perspective of the formation of Earth and the evolution of life, and the connection between arsenic geochemistry and biology is described. The article provides a comprehensive overview of molecular mechanisms of arsenic redox and methylation cycles as well as other arsenic biotransformations. It also discusses the implications of arsenic biotransformation in environmental remediation and food safety, with particular emphasis on groundwater arsenic contamination and arsenic accumulation in rice.

  3. Naturally occurring heavy radioactive elements in the geothermal microcosm of the Los Azufres (Mexico) volcanic complex.

    PubMed

    Abuhani, W A; Dasgupta-Schubert, N; Villaseñor, L M; García Avila, D; Suárez, L; Johnston, C; Borjas, S E; Alexander, S A; Landsberger, S; Suárez, M C

    2015-01-01

    The Los Azufres geothermal complex of central Mexico is characterized by fumaroles and boiling hot-springs. The fumaroles form habitats for extremophilic mosses and ferns. Physico-chemical measurements of two relatively pristine fumarolic microcosms point to their resemblance with the paleo-environment of earth during the Ordovician and Devonian periods. These geothermal habitats were analysed for the distribution of elemental mass fractions in the rhizospheric soil (RS), the native volcanic substrate (VS) and the sediments (S), using the new high-sensitivity technique of polarized x-ray energy dispersive fluorescence spectrometry (PEDXRF) as well as instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for selected elements. This work presents the results for the naturally occurring heavy radioactive elements (NOHRE) Bi, Th and U but principally the latter two. For the RS, the density was found to be the least and the total organic matter content the most. Bi was found to be negligibly present in all substrate types. The average Th and U mass fractions in the RS were higher than in the VS and about equal to their average mass fractions in the S. The VS mass fraction of Th was higher, and of U lower, than the mass fractions in the earth's crust. In fact for the fumaroles of one site, the average RS mass fractions of these elements were higher than the averaged values for S (without considering the statistical dispersion). The immobilization of the NOHRE in the RS is brought about by the bio-geochemical processes specific to these extremophiles. Its effectiveness is such that despite the small masses of these plants, it compares with, or may sometimes exceed, the immobilization of the NOHRE in the S by the abiotic and aggressive chemical action of the hot-springs. These results indicate that the fumarolic plants are able to transform the volcanic substrate to soil and to affect the NOHRE mass fractions even though these elements are not plant nutrients. Mirrored back to

  4. Metal complexes containing natural and and artificial radioactive elements and their applications.

    PubMed

    Kharissova, Oxana V; Méndez-Rojas, Miguel A; Kharisov, Boris I; Méndez, Ubaldo Ortiz; Martínez, Perla Elizondo

    2014-07-24

    Recent advances (during the 2007-2014 period) in the coordination and organometallic chemistry of compounds containing natural and artificially prepared radionuclides (actinides and technetium), are reviewed. Radioactive isotopes of naturally stable elements are not included for discussion in this work. Actinide and technetium complexes with O-, N-, N,O, N,S-, P-containing ligands, as well π-organometallics are discussed from the view point of their synthesis, properties, and main applications. On the basis of their properties, several mono-, bi-, tri-, tetra- or polydentate ligands have been designed for specific recognition of some particular radionuclides, and can be used in the processes of nuclear waste remediation, i.e., recycling of nuclear fuel and the separation of actinides and fission products from waste solutions or for analytical determination of actinides in solutions; actinide metal complexes are also usefulas catalysts forcoupling gaseous carbon monoxide,as well as antimicrobial and anti-fungi agents due to their biological activity. Radioactive labeling based on the short-lived metastable nuclide technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) for biomedical use as heart, lung, kidney, bone, brain, liver or cancer imaging agents is also discussed. Finally, the promising applications of technetium labeling of nanomaterials, with potential applications as drug transport and delivery vehicles, radiotherapeutic agents or radiotracers for monitoring metabolic pathways, are also described.

  5. Comparison of Barium and Arsenic Concentrations in Well Drinking Water and in Human Body Samples and a Novel Remediation System for These Elements in Well Drinking Water.

    PubMed

    Kato, Masashi; Kumasaka, Mayuko Y; Ohnuma, Shoko; Furuta, Akio; Kato, Yoko; Shekhar, Hossain U; Kojima, Michiyo; Koike, Yasuko; Dinh Thang, Nguyen; Ohgami, Nobutaka; Ly, Thuy Bich; Jia, Xiaofang; Yetti, Husna; Naito, Hisao; Ichihara, Gaku; Yajima, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Health risk for well drinking water is a worldwide problem. Our recent studies showed increased toxicity by exposure to barium alone (≤700 µg/L) and coexposure to barium (137 µg/L) and arsenic (225 µg/L). The present edition of WHO health-based guidelines for drinking water revised in 2011 has maintained the values of arsenic (10 µg/L) and barium (700 µg/L), but not elements such as manganese, iron and zinc. Nevertheless, there have been very few studies on barium in drinking water and human samples. This study showed significant correlations between levels of arsenic and barium, but not its homologous elements (magnesium, calcium and strontium), in urine, toenail and hair samples obtained from residents of Jessore, Bangladesh. Significant correlation between levels of arsenic and barium in well drinking water and levels in human urine, toenail and hair samples were also observed. Based on these results, a high-performance and low-cost adsorbent composed of a hydrotalcite-like compound for barium and arsenic was developed. The adsorbent reduced levels of barium and arsenic from well water in Bangladesh and Vietnam to <7 µg/L within 1 min. Thus, we have showed levels of arsenic and barium in humans and propose a novel remediation system.

  6. Natural radioactivity and rare earth elements in feldspar samples, Central Eastern desert, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Walley El-Dine, Nadia; El-Shershaby, Amal; Afifi, Sofia; Sroor, Amany; Samir, Eman

    2011-05-01

    The pegmatite bodies of the Eastern Desert of Egypt are widely distributed especially along the Marsa-Alam-Idfu road. The Abu Dob area covers about 150km(2) of the Arabian Nubian shield at the central part of the Eastern Desert of Egypt. Most of the pegmatite is zoned; the zonation starts with milky quartz at the core followed by alkali feldspar at the margins. The feldspars vary in color from rose to milky and in composition from K-feldspar to Na-feldspar, sometimes interactions of both types are encountered. Thirteen feldspar samples were collected from different locations in the Abu Dob area for measuring the natural radioactivity of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K using an HPGe detector. The variation in concentration of radionuclides for the area under investigation can be classified into regions of high, medium and low natural radioactivity. The average concentration in BqKg(-1) has been observed to be from 9.5 to 183675.7BqKg(-1) for (238)U, between 6.1 and 94,314.2BqKg(-1) for (232)Th and from 0 to 7894.6BqKg(-1) for (40)K. Radium equivalent activities (Ra(eq)), dose rate (D(R)) and external hazard (H(ex)) have also been determined. In the present work, the concentration of rare earth elements are measured for two feldspar samples using two techniques, Environmental Scanning Electron microscope XIL 30 ESEM, Philips, and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The existence of rare earth elements in this area are very high and can be used in different important industries.

  7. The concentrations of arsenic and other toxic elements in Bangladesh's drinking water.

    PubMed Central

    Frisbie, Seth H; Ortega, Richard; Maynard, Donald M; Sarkar, Bibudhendra

    2002-01-01

    For drinking water, the people of Bangladesh used to rely on surface water, which was often contaminated with bacteria causing diarrhea, cholera, typhoid, and other life-threatening diseases. To reduce the incidences of these diseases, millions of tubewells were installed in Bangladesh since independence in 1971. This recent transition from surface water to groundwater has significantly reduced deaths from waterborne pathogens; however, new evidence suggests disease and death from arsenic (As) and other toxic elements in groundwater are affecting large areas of Bangladesh. In this evaluation, the areal and vertical distribution of As and 29 other inorganic chemicals in groundwater were determined throughout Bangladesh. This study of 30 analytes per sample and 112 samples suggests that the most significant health risk from drinking Bangladesh's tubewell water is chronic As poisoning. The As concentration ranged from < 0.0007 to 0.64 mg/L, with 48% of samples above the 0.01 mg/L World Health Organization drinking water guideline. Furthermore, this study reveals unsafe levels of manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and chromium (Cr). Our survey also suggests that groundwater with unsafe levels of As, Mn, Pb, Ni, and Cr may extend beyond Bangladesh's border into the four adjacent and densely populated states in India. In addition to the health risks from individual toxins, possible multimetal synergistic and inhibitory effects are discussed. Antimony was detected in 98% of the samples from this study and magnifies the toxic effects of As. In contrast, Se and Zn were below our detection limits in large parts of Bangladesh and prevent the toxic effects of As. PMID:12417487

  8. Finite element modelling of an evacuated canister for removal of molten radioactive glass

    SciTech Connect

    Hatchell, B.K.; Deibler, J.E.; Ketner, G.L.

    1994-05-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has prepared a preliminary design for the West Valley Demonstration Project evacuated canister system. The function of the evacuated canister is to remove radioactive molten glass from a hot cell melter cavity during a planned melter shutdown. The proposed evacuated canister system consists of an L-shaped 4-inch 304L stainless steel (SS) schedule 40 pipe, sealed at one end with an aluminum plug and attached at the other end to a canister. While the canister is being filled, it is positioned and held above the melter at approximately 15{degree} from horizontal by two turntable-mounted cranes. ANSYS finite element analyses were conducted to evaluate the heat transfer from the glass to the canister and establish a maximum canister temperature for material strength evaluation. Finite element structural analyses were conducted to identify areas that required reinforcement for high temperature use. Finite element results will be used to locate strain gauges at high stress locations during prototype testing.

  9. Radioactivity, granulometric and elemental analysis of river sediments samples from the coast of Calabria, south of Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caridi, F.; D'Agostino, M.; Marguccio, S.; Belvedere, A.; Belmusto, G.; Marcianò, G.; Sabatino, G.; Mottese, A.

    2016-05-01

    River sediment samples from different sites of the coast of Calabria, south of Italy, were analyzed to determine the natural radioactivity concentration of the studied area and to investigate about their geological provenience. The radioactivity investigation was performed by using HPGe gamma spectrometry. Activity concentration data were reported and the influence of the particle size on the radionuclides concentration was investigated. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) measurements were performed for the quantitative elemental analysis of the river sediments, revealing the major and minor elements present in the investigated samples. From XRF experimental results it was possible to estimate the geological provenience of the analyzed river sediments. Data obtained in this article provide useful information on the background radioactivity of the studied area and can be further used for radiological mapping of the coast of the Calabria rivers.

  10. Identification and quantitation of arsenic species in a dogfish muscle reference material for trace elements

    SciTech Connect

    Beauchemin, D.; Bednas, M.E.; Berman, S.S.; McLaren, J.W.; Siu, K.W.M.; Sturgeon, R.E.

    1988-10-15

    The arsenic species present in a dogfish muscle reference material (DORM-1) have been identified by using high-performance liquid chromatography/inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC/ICP-MS), thin-layer chromatography, and electron impact mass spectrometry and quantified by using HPLC/ICP-MS and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The major species is arsenobetaine (15.7 +/- 0.8 ..mu..g of As/g of DORM-1), constituting about 84% of the total arsenic. For this species, the HPLC/ICP-MS detection limit was 0.3 ng of As.

  11. Calculations of the moon's heat history at different concentrations of radioactive elements taking account of the material differentiation with melting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnatskaya, O. I.; Alber, Y. I.; Ryazantseva, I. L.

    1974-01-01

    A mathematical procedure for analyzing the heat conductivity of the lunar surface is discussed. The solution is based on homogeneous and laminated moon models and considers the effects of radioactive elements conveyed to the lunar surface by melting. The various parameters which introduce uncertainties into the numerical analysis are identified. The application of data obtained from radio astronomy and from analyses of lunar samples returned by the Apollo flights is explained. Tables of data are included to show the types and amounts of radioactive materials which have been identified.

  12. Elements of natural radioactive decay series in Iranian drinking water and cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Saeed

    2010-06-01

    The uranium (238U) decay series provides the most important isotopes of elements radium (226Ra), radon (222Rn), and polonium (210Po) with half-lives of about 1600 years, 3.8 days, and 140 days, respectively. Although the chemical structure of radium is very similar to calcium, the fact that it produces a radioactive gas (radon) complicates its handling in the laboratory and natural environment. In this study, we used the average concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclide 226Ra in drinking water at different parts of Iran to estimate the annual effective dose. In the other part of the study, we measured the concentrations of 210Po in Iranian cigarettes to estimate the internal intake of this radionuclide and its concentration in the lung tissues of smokers. The results indicate that the average concentration of 226Ra in Iranian drinking water was below the 100 mBq L(-1) recommended by the World Health Organization while the average concentration of 210Po and 210Pb in Iranian cigarettes was relatively high in comparison with other cigarettes found on the market.

  13. Removal of mercury (II), elemental mercury and arsenic from simulated flue gas by ammonium sulphide.

    PubMed

    Ning, Ping; Guo, Xiaolong; Wang, Xueqian; Wang, Ping; Ma, Yixing; Lan, Yi

    2015-01-01

    A tubular resistance furnace was used as a reactor to simulate mercury and arsenic in smelter flue gases by heating mercury and arsenic compounds. The flue gas containing Hg(2+), Hg(0) and As was treated with ammonium sulphide. The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of varying the concentration of ammonium sulphide, the pH value of ammonium sulphide, the temperature of ammonium sulphide, the presence of SO2 and the presence of sulphite ion on removal efficiency. The prepared adsorption products were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the optimal concentration of ammonium sulphide was 0.8 mol/L. The optimal pH value of ammonium sulphide was 10, and the optimal temperature of ammonium sulphide was 20°C.Under the optimum conditions, the removal efficiency of Hg(2+), Hg(0) and As could reach 99%, 88.8%, 98%, respectively. In addition, SO2 and sulphite ion could reduce the removal efficiency of mercury and arsenic from simulated flue gas.

  14. Determination of toxic elements (mercury, cadmium, lead, tin and arsenic) in fish and shellfish samples. Risk assessment for the consumers.

    PubMed

    Olmedo, P; Pla, A; Hernández, A F; Barbier, F; Ayouni, L; Gil, F

    2013-09-01

    Although fish intake has potential health benefits, the presence of metal contamination in seafood has raised public health concerns. In this study, levels of mercury, cadmium, lead, tin and arsenic have been determined in fresh, canned and frozen fish and shellfish products and compared with the maximum levels currently in force. In a further step, potential human health risks for the consumers were assessed. A total of 485 samples of the 43 most frequently consumed fish and shellfish species in Andalusia (Southern Spain) were analyzed for their toxic elements content. High mercury concentrations were found in some predatory species (blue shark, cat shark, swordfish and tuna), although they were below the regulatory maximum levels. In the case of cadmium, bivalve mollusks such as canned clams and mussels presented higher concentrations than fish, but almost none of the samples analyzed exceeded the maximum levels. Lead concentrations were almost negligible with the exception of frozen common sole, which showed median levels above the legal limit. Tin levels in canned products were far below the maximum regulatory limit, indicating that no significant tin was transferred from the can. Arsenic concentrations were higher in crustaceans such as fresh and frozen shrimps. The risk assessment performed indicated that fish and shellfish products were safe for the average consumer, although a potential risk cannot be dismissed for regular or excessive consumers of particular fish species, such as tuna, swordfish, blue shark and cat shark (for mercury) and common sole (for lead).

  15. Localization and speciation of arsenic and trace elements in rice tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Euan; Kempson, Ivan; Juhasz, Albert L.; Weber, John; Skinner, William M.; Gräfe, Markus

    2009-09-14

    The consumption of arsenic (As) contaminated rice is an important exposure route for humans in countries where rice cultivation employs As contaminated irrigation water. Arsenic toxicity and mobility are a function of its chemical-speciation. The distribution and identification of As in the rice plant are hence necessary to determine the uptake, transformation and potential risk posed by As contaminated rice. In this study we report on the distribution and chemical-speciation of As in rice (Oryza sativa Quest) by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) measurements of rice plants grown in As contaminated paddy water. Investigations of {mu}XRF images from rice tissues found that As was present in all rice tissues, and its presence correlated with the presence of iron at the root surface and copper in the rice leaf. X-ray absorption near edge structure analysis of rice tissues identified that inorganic As was the predominant form of As in all rice tissues studied, and that arsenite became increasingly dominant in the aerial portion of the rice plant.

  16. [Determination of content and specific activity of radioactive elements in phosphate slag by spectral and energy spectrum analysis].

    PubMed

    Bao, P Y

    2001-10-01

    Phosphate slag is the slag discarded after phosphate ore is smelted. The content and specific activity of radioactive elements in slag must be determined accurately for environmental protection and comprehensive utilization. This paper discusses how IR spectrum and X-ray diffraction method are used to study its components. The main phase composition is glassy slag. The samples are decomposed with HF-HNO3-HClO4. After anion-exchange separation, arsenazo III is used to determine the content of uranium and thorium in slag. The average content of U is 32.11 micrograms.g-1 and 8.5 micrograms.g-1 for Th. gamma spectrum is used to determine the specific activity of radioactive nuclear elements in it. The specific activities of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K are 112 +/- 2.0% Bq.kg-1, 18.8 +/- 6.4% Bq.kg-1 and 77.6 +/- 3.7% Bq.kg-1, respectively. The values are calculated as follow: M(Ra) = 0.6 Bq.kg-1, M gamma = 0.5 Bq.kg-1. The results show that the values are below 1.0 Bq.kg-1, which is stipulated by national GB6566-86 standard for radioactivity of building materials. The slag is therefore can be utilized to produce slag cement. This provides theoretical basis for the treatment of it.

  17. Arsenic pollution sources.

    PubMed

    Garelick, Hemda; Jones, Huw; Dybowska, Agnieszka; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic is a widely dispersed element in the Earth's crust and exists at an average concentration of approximately 5 mg/kg. There are many possible routes of human exposure to arsenic from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Arsenic occurs as a constituent in more than 200 minerals, although it primarily exists as arsenopyrite and as a constituent in several other sulfide minerals. The introduction of arsenic into drinking water can occur as a result of its natural geological presence in local bedrock. Arsenic-containing bedrock formations of this sort are known in Bangladesh, West Bengal (India), and regions of China, and many cases of endemic contamination by arsenic with serious consequences to human health are known from these areas. Significant natural contamination of surface waters and soil can arise when arsenic-rich geothermal fluids come into contact with surface waters. When humans are implicated in causing or exacerbating arsenic pollution, the cause can almost always be traced to mining or mining-related activities. Arsenic exists in many oxidation states, with arsenic (III) and (V) being the most common forms. Similar to many metalloids, the prevalence of particular species of arsenic depends greatly on the pH and redox conditions of the matrix in which it exists. Speciation is also important in determining the toxicity of arsenic. Arsenic minerals exist in the environment principally as sulfides, oxides, and phosphates. In igneous rocks, only those of volcanic origin are implicated in high aqueous arsenic concentrations. Sedimentary rocks tend not to bear high arsenic loads, and common matrices such as sands and sandstones contain lower concentrations owing to the dominance of quartz and feldspars. Groundwater contamination by arsenic arises from sources of arsenopyrite, base metal sulfides, realgar and orpiment, arsenic-rich pyrite, and iron oxyhydroxide. Mechanisms by which arsenic is released from minerals are varied and are accounted for by

  18. In Vivo Effect of Arsenic Trioxide on Keap1-p62-Nrf2 Signaling Pathway in Mouse Liver: Expression of Antioxidant Responsive Element-Driven Genes Related to Glutathione Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Ritu; Sengupta, Archya; Mukherjee, Sandip; Chatterjee, Sarmishtha; Sudarshan, Muthammal; Chakraborty, Anindita; Bhattacharya, Shelley; Chattopadhyay, Ansuman

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic is a Group I human carcinogen, and chronic arsenic exposure through drinking water is a major threat to human population. Liver is one of the major organs for the detoxification of arsenic. The present study was carried out in mice in vivo after arsenic treatment through drinking water at different doses and time of exposure. Arsenic toxicity is found to be mediated by reactive oxygen species. Nuclear factor (erythroid-2 related) factor 2 (Nrf2)/Keap1 (Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1)/ARE (antioxidant response element)—driven target gene system protects cells against oxidative stress and maintains cellular oxidative homeostasis. Our result showed 0.4 ppm, 2 ppm, and 4 ppm arsenic trioxide treatment through drinking water for 30 days and 90 days induced damages in the liver of Swiss albino mice as evidenced by histopathology, disturbances in liver function, induction of heat shock protein 70, modulation of trace elements, alteration in reduced glutathione level, glutathione-s-transferase and catalase activity, malondialdehyde production, and induction of apoptosis. Cellular Nrf2 protein level and mRNA level increased in all treatment groups. Keap1 protein as well as mRNA level decreased concomitantly in arsenic treated mice. Our study clearly indicates the important role of Nrf2 in activating ARE driven genes related to GSH metabolic pathway and also the adaptive response mechanisms in arsenic induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:27335833

  19. In Vivo Effect of Arsenic Trioxide on Keap1-p62-Nrf2 Signaling Pathway in Mouse Liver: Expression of Antioxidant Responsive Element-Driven Genes Related to Glutathione Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Ritu; Sengupta, Archya; Mukherjee, Sandip; Chatterjee, Sarmishtha; Sudarshan, Muthammal; Chakraborty, Anindita; Bhattacharya, Shelley; Chattopadhyay, Ansuman

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic is a Group I human carcinogen, and chronic arsenic exposure through drinking water is a major threat to human population. Liver is one of the major organs for the detoxification of arsenic. The present study was carried out in mice in vivo after arsenic treatment through drinking water at different doses and time of exposure. Arsenic toxicity is found to be mediated by reactive oxygen species. Nuclear factor (erythroid-2 related) factor 2 (Nrf2)/Keap1 (Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1)/ARE (antioxidant response element)-driven target gene system protects cells against oxidative stress and maintains cellular oxidative homeostasis. Our result showed 0.4 ppm, 2 ppm, and 4 ppm arsenic trioxide treatment through drinking water for 30 days and 90 days induced damages in the liver of Swiss albino mice as evidenced by histopathology, disturbances in liver function, induction of heat shock protein 70, modulation of trace elements, alteration in reduced glutathione level, glutathione-s-transferase and catalase activity, malondialdehyde production, and induction of apoptosis. Cellular Nrf2 protein level and mRNA level increased in all treatment groups. Keap1 protein as well as mRNA level decreased concomitantly in arsenic treated mice. Our study clearly indicates the important role of Nrf2 in activating ARE driven genes related to GSH metabolic pathway and also the adaptive response mechanisms in arsenic induced hepatotoxicity.

  20. Arsenic Exposure and Toxicology: A Historical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Michael F.; Beck, Barbara D.; Chen, Yu; Lewis, Ari S.; Thomas, David J.

    2011-01-01

    The metalloid arsenic is a natural environmental contaminant to which humans are routinely exposed in food, water, air, and soil. Arsenic has a long history of use as a homicidal agent, but in the past 100 years arsenic, has been used as a pesticide, a chemotherapeutic agent and a constituent of consumer products. In some areas of the world, high levels of arsenic are naturally present in drinking water and are a toxicological concern. There are several structural forms and oxidation states of arsenic because it forms alloys with metals and covalent bonds with hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, and other elements. Environmentally relevant forms of arsenic are inorganic and organic existing in the trivalent or pentavalent state. Metabolism of arsenic, catalyzed by arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase, is a sequential process of reduction from pentavalency to trivalency followed by oxidative methylation back to pentavalency. Trivalent arsenic is generally more toxicologically potent than pentavalent arsenic. Acute effects of arsenic range from gastrointestinal distress to death. Depending on the dose, chronic arsenic exposure may affect several major organ systems. A major concern of ingested arsenic is cancer, primarily of skin, bladder, and lung. The mode of action of arsenic for its disease endpoints is currently under study. Two key areas are the interaction of trivalent arsenicals with sulfur in proteins and the ability of arsenic to generate oxidative stress. With advances in technology and the recent development of animal models for arsenic carcinogenicity, understanding of the toxicology of arsenic will continue to improve. PMID:21750349

  1. Monomethylated trivalent arsenic species disrupt steroid receptor interactions with their DNA response elements at non-cytotoxic cellular concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Gosse, Julie A.; Taylor, Vivien F.; Jackson, Brian P.; Hamilton, Joshua W.; Bodwell, Jack E.

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is considered a top environmental chemical of human health because it has been linked to adverse health effects including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and reproductive and developmental problems. In several cell culture and animal models, As acts as an endocrine disruptor, which may underlie many of its health effects. Previous work showed that steroid receptor (SR)-driven gene expression is disrupted in cells treated with inorganic As (arsenite, iAs+3). In those studies, low iAs+3 concentrations (0.1–0.7 μM) stimulated hormone-inducible transcription, whereas somewhat higher but still non-cytotoxic levels (1–3 μM) inhibited transcription. This investigation focuses on the mechanisms underlying these inhibitory effects and evaluates the role of methylated trivalent As metabolites on SR function. Recent evidence suggests that, compared with iAs, methylated forms may have distinct biochemical effects. Here, fluorescence polarization (FP) experiments utilizing purified, hormone-bound human glucocorticoid (GR) and progesterone receptor (PR) have demonstrated that neither inorganic (iAs+3) nor dimethylated (DMA+3) species of trivalent As affect receptor interactions with glucocorticoid DNA response elements (GREs). However, monomethylated forms (monomethylarsenite, MMA+3 and monomethylarsonic diglutathione, MADG) strongly inhibit GR-GRE and PR-GRE binding. Additionally, speciation studies of iAs+3-treated H4IIE rat hepatoma cells show that, under treatment conditions that cause inhibition of hormone-inducible gene transcription, the intracellular concentration of MADG is sufficient to inhibit GR-GRE and PR-GRE interactions in vivo. These results indicate that arsenic’s inhibitory endocrine disruption effects are probably caused in part by methylated metabolites’ disruption of SR ability to bind DNA response elements that are crucial to hormone-driven gene transcription. PMID:23765520

  2. Heat production rate from radioactive elements in igneous and metamorphic rocks in Eastern Desert, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abbady, Adel G E; El-Arabi, A M; Abbady, A

    2006-01-01

    Radioactive heat-production data of Igneous and Metamorphic outcrops in the Eastern Desert are presented. Samples were analysed using a low level gamma-ray spectrometer (HPGe) in the laboratory. A total of 205 rock samples were investigated, covering all major rock types of the area. The heat-production rate of igneous rocks ranges from 0.11 (basalt) to 9.53 microWm(-3) (granite). In metamorphic rocks it varies from 0.28 (serpentinite ) to 0.91 microWm(-3) (metagabbro). The contribution due to U is about 51%, as that from Th is 31% and 18% from K. The corresponding values in igneous rocks are 76%, 19% and 5%, respectively. The calculated values showed good agreement with global values except in some areas containing granites.

  3. Design and adaptation of a novel supercritical extraction facility for operation in a glove box for recovery of radioactive elements

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, V. Suresh; Kumar, R.; Sivaraman, N.; Ravisankar, G.; Vasudeva Rao, P. R.

    2010-09-15

    The design and development of a novel supercritical extraction experimental facility adapted for safe operation in a glove box for the recovery of radioactive elements from waste is described. The apparatus incorporates a high pressure extraction vessel, reciprocating pumps for delivering supercritical fluid and reagent, a back pressure regulator, and a collection chamber. All these components of the system have been specially designed for glove box adaptation and made modular to facilitate their replacement. Confinement of these materials must be ensured in a glove box to protect the operator and prevent contamination to the work area. Since handling of radioactive materials under high pressure (30 MPa) and temperature (up to 333 K) is involved in this process, the apparatus needs elaborate safety features in the design of the equipment, as well as modification of a standard glove box to accommodate the system. As a special safety feature to contain accidental leakage of carbon dioxide from the extraction vessel, a safety vessel has been specially designed and placed inside the glove box. The extraction vessel was enclosed in the safety vessel. The safety vessel was also incorporated with pressure sensing and controlling device.

  4. Extraction processes and solvents for recovery of cesium, strontium, rare earth elements, technetium and actinides from liquid radioactive waste

    DOEpatents

    Zaitsev, Boris N.; Esimantovskiy, Vyacheslav M.; Lazarev, Leonard N.; Dzekun, Evgeniy G.; Romanovskiy, Valeriy N.; Todd, Terry A.; Brewer, Ken N.; Herbst, Ronald S.; Law, Jack D.

    2001-01-01

    Cesium and strontium are extracted from aqueous acidic radioactive waste containing rare earth elements, technetium and actinides, by contacting the waste with a composition of a complex organoboron compound and polyethylene glycol in an organofluorine diluent mixture. In a preferred embodiment the complex organoboron compound is chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide, the polyethylene glycol has the formula RC.sub.6 H.sub.4 (OCH.sub.2 CH.sub.2).sub.n OH, and the organofluorine diluent is a mixture of bis-tetrafluoropropyl ether of diethylene glycol with at least one of bis-tetrafluoropropyl ether of ethylene glycol and bis-tetrafluoropropyl formal. The rare earths, technetium and the actinides (especially uranium, plutonium and americium), are extracted from the aqueous phase using a phosphine oxide in a hydrocarbon diluent, and reextracted from the resulting organic phase into an aqueous phase by using a suitable strip reagent.

  5. Radioactive resistance of elements for over-voltage protection of low-voltage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osmokrovic, P.; Stojanovic, M.; Loncar, B.; Kartalovic, N.; Krivokapic, I.

    1998-04-01

    Aim of this work is to examine the over-voltage protection under the ionizing radiation influence. The use of modern electronic devices (nuclear, military and space technology) in the conditions of ionizing radiation brings up the question of radioactive resistance of electronic components and over-voltage protection components. The question of reliability of these components under the influence of ionizing radiation is also a relevant one. The entire effects of radiation, which cause the irreversible changes of the material characteristics, are defined as the dosage or integral effects. The resistance of the over-voltage material (the Transient Suppresser Diodes (TSD), Metaloxide Varistors, Gas Filled Surge Arresters (GFSA) and Polycarbon Capacitors) subjected to influence of n +γ radiation caused by californium source was examined in order to determine the radiation effects. It was determined that TSD are highly sensitive to the radiation. The radiation effects on Metaloxide Varistors are similar to the effects on the TSD. GFSA showed the temporary characteristics improvement. It was determined that the Polycarbon Capacitor capacity decreases under the influence of radiation. The obtained results are explained theoretically.

  6. Physical property analysis of C-doped GaAs as function of the carrier concentration grown by MOCVD using elemental arsenic as precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Reyes, J.; Avendaño, M. A.; Galván-Arellano, M.; Peña-Sierra, R.

    2006-03-01

    This work presents the characterization of GaAs layers grown in a metallic-arsenic-based-MOCVD system. The gallium precursor was the compound trimethylgallium (TMG) and elemental arsenic as precursor of arsenic. The most important parameters of the growth process include the substrate temperature and the composition of the carrier gas; an N2+H2 gas mixture. The influence of carbon doping on the optical and electrical properties of GaAs layers have been studied by photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, Photoreflectance (PR) and Hall Effect measurements. To carry out doping with carbon in the range of around 1016 to 1020 cm-3, it was necessary to modifying the hydrogen activity in the reacting atmosphere with the control of the N{2}+H{2}, mixture which was used as carrier gas. The PL response of the samples is strongly dependent on the growth temperature and showed mainly two radiative transitions, band-to-band and band-to C-acceptor. PR spectra present transitions associated to GaAs. Besides, short period oscillations near the GaAs band-gap energy are observed, interpreted as Franz-Keldysh oscillations associated to the hole-ionized acceptor (h-A-) pair modulations. For investigating the chemical bonds of impurity-related species in the GaAs layers optical absorption was measured using a FT-IR spectrometer. Device quality GaAs layers have been grown in a broad range of growth temperatures.

  7. Geochemistry of redox-sensitive elements and sulfur isotopes in the high arsenic groundwater system of Datong Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xianjun; Ellis, Andre; Wang, Yanxin; Xie, Zuoming; Duan, Mengyu; Su, Chunli

    2009-06-01

    High arsenic groundwater in the Quaternary aquifers of Datong Basin, northern China contain As up to 1820 microg/L and the high concentration plume is located in the slow flowing central parts of the basin. In this study we used hydrochemical data and sulfur isotope ratios of sulfate to better understand the conditions that are likely to control arsenic mobilization. Groundwater and spring samples were collected along two flow paths from the west and east margins of the basin and a third set along the basin flow path. Arsenic concentrations range from 68 to 670 microg/L in the basin and from 3.1 to 44 microg/L in the western and eastern margins. The margins have relatively oxidized waters with low contents of arsenic, relatively high proportions of As(V) among As species, and high contents of sulfate and uranium. By contrast, the central parts of the basin are reducing with high contents of arsenic in groundwater, commonly with high proportions of As(III) among As species, and low contents of sulfate and uranium. No statistical correlations were observed between arsenic and Eh, sulfate, Fe, Mn, Mo and U. While the mobility of sulfate, uranium and molybdenum is possibly controlled by the change in redox conditions as the groundwater flows towards central parts of the basin, the reducing conditions alone cannot account for the occurrence of high arsenic groundwater in the basin but it does explain the characteristics of arsenic speciation. With one exception, all the groundwaters with As(III) as the major As species have low Eh and those with As(V) have high Eh. Reductive dissolution of Fe-oxyhydroxides or reduction of As(V) are consistent with the observations, however no increase in dissolved Fe concentration was noted. Furthermore, water from the well with the highest arsenic was relatively oxidizing and contained mostly As(V). From previous work Fe-oxyhydroxides are speculated to exist as coatings rather than primary minerals. The wide range of delta(34)S([SO4

  8. Calculations of the moon's thermal history at different concentrations of radioactive elements, taking into account differentiation on melting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ornatskaya, O. I.; Alber, Y. I.; Ryazantseva, I. L.

    1977-01-01

    Calculations of the thermal history of the moon were done by solving the thermal conductivity equation for the case in which the heat sources are the long lived radioactive elements Th, U, and K-40. The concentrations of these elements were adjusted to give 4 variations of heat flow. Calculations indicated that the moon's interior was heated to melting during the first 0.7 to 2.3 x 10 to the 9th power years. The maximum fusion involved practically the entire moon to a distance from 15 to 45 km beneath the surface, and started 3.5 to 4.0 x 10 to the 9th power years ago, or 2.5 x 3.0 x 10 to the 9th power years ago and continued for 1 to 2 x 10 to the 9th power years. The moon today is cooling. The current thickness of the solid crust is from 150 to 200 km and the heat flow exceeds the stationary value 1.5 fold.

  9. Arsenic and other trace elements in thermal springs and in cold waters from drinking water wells on the Bolivian Altiplano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormachea Muñoz, Mauricio; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Sracek, Ondra; Ramos Ramos, Oswaldo; Quintanilla Aguirre, Jorge; Bundschuh, Jochen; Maity, Jyoti Prakash

    2015-07-01

    Numerous hot springs and fumaroles occur along the Andes Mountains, in the Bolivian Altiplano, where people use thermal springs for recreational purposes as pools, baths and also for consumption as drinking water and irrigation once it is mixed with natural surface waters; most of these thermal springs emerge from earth surface and flow naturally into the rivers streams which drain further into the Poopó Lake. Physicochemical characteristics of the thermal water samples showed pH from 6.3 to 8.3 with an average of 7.0, redox potential from +106 to +204 mV with an average of +172 mV, temperatures from 40 to 75 °C with an average of 56 °C and high electrical conductivity ranging from 1.8 to 75 mS/cm and averaged 13 mS/cm. Predominant major ions are Na+ and Cl- and the principal water types are 37.5% Na-Cl type and 37.5% Na-Cl-HCO3 type. Arsenic concentrations ranged from 7.8 to 65.3 μg/L and arsenic speciation indicate the predominance of As(III) species. Sediments collected from the outlets of thermal waters show high iron content, and ferric oxides and hydroxides are assumed to be principal mineral phases for arsenic attenuation by adsorption/co-precipitation processes. Arsenic concentrations in cold water samples from shallow aquifers are higher than those in thermal springs (range < 5.6-233.2 μg/L), it is likely that thermal water discharge is not the main source of high arsenic content in the shallow aquifer as they are very immature and may only have a small component corresponding to the deep geothermal reservoir. As people use both thermal waters and cold waters for consumption, there is a high risk for arsenic exposure in the area.

  10. Reduction of inorganic compounds with molecular hydrogen by Micrococcus lactilyticus. I. Stoichiometry with compounds of arsenic, selenium, tellurium, transition and other elements.

    PubMed

    WOOLFOLK, C A; WHITELEY, H R

    1962-10-01

    Woolfolk, C. A. (University of Washington, Seattle) and H. R. Whiteley. Reduction of inorganic compounds with molecular hydrogen by Micrococcus lactilyticus. I. Stoichiometry with compounds of arsenic, selenium, tellurium, transition and other elements. J. Bacteriol. 84:647-658. 1962.-Extracts of Micrococcus lactilyticus (Veillonella alcalescens) oxidize molecular hydrogen at the expense of certain compounds of arsenic, bismuth, selenium, tellurium, lead, thallium, vanadium, manganese, iron, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, osmium, ruthenium, gold, silver, and uranium, as well as molecular oxygen. Chemical and manometric data indicate that the following reductions are essentially quantitative: arsenate to arsenite, pentavalent and trivalent bismuth to the free element, selenite via elemental selenium to selenide, tellurate and tellurite to tellurium, lead dioxide and manganese dioxide to the divalent state, ferric to ferrous iron, osmium tetroxide to osmate ion, osmium dioxide and trivalent osmium to the metal, uranyl uranium to the tetravalent state, vanadate to the level of vanadyl, and polymolybdate ions to molybdenum blues with an average valence for molybdenum of +5. The results of a study of certain other hydrogenase-containing bacteria with respect to their ability to carry out some of the same reactions are also presented.

  11. High mobilization of arsenic, metals and rare earth elements in seepage waters driven by respiration of old allochthonous organic carbon.

    PubMed

    Weiske, Arndt; Schaller, Jörg; Hegewald, Tilo; Machill, Susanne; Werner, Ingo; Dudel, E Gert

    2013-12-01

    Metal and metalloid mobilization processes within seepage water are of major concern in a range of water reservoir systems. The mobilization process of arsenic and heavy metals within a dam and sediments of a drinking water reservoir was investigated. Principle component analysis (PCA) on time series data of seepage water showed a clear positive correlation of arsenic with iron and DOC (dissolved organic carbon), and a negative correlation with nitrate due to respiratory processes. A relationship of reductive metal and metalloid mobilization with respiration of old carbon was shown. The system is influenced by sediment layers as well as a recent DOC input from degraded ombrotrophic peatbogs in the catchment area. The isotopic composition ((12)C, (13)C and (14)C) of DOC is altered along the path from basin to seepage water, but no significant changes in structural parameters (LC-OCD-OND, FT-IR) could be seen. DIC (dissolved inorganic carbon) in seepage water partly originates from respiratory processes, and a higher relationship of it with sediment carbon than with the DOC inventory of infiltrating water was found. This study revealed the interaction of respiratory processes with metal and metalloid mobilization in sediment water flows. In contrast to the presumption that emerging DOC via respiratory processes mainly controls arsenic and metal mobilization it could be shown that the presence of aged carbon compounds is essential. The findings emphasize the importance of aged organic carbon for DOC, DIC, arsenic and metal turnover.

  12. Extinct radioactivities and protosolar cosmic-rays : self-shielding and light elements.

    SciTech Connect

    Gounelle, M.; Shu, F. H.; Shang, H.; Glassgold, A. E.; Rehm, K. E.; Lee, T.; Physics; Univ. of California at Berkeley; Inst. of Earth Science

    2001-02-20

    We study the effects of self-shielding in the X-wind model of protosolar cosmic-ray irradiation of early solar-system rocks. We adopt a two-component picture of protoCAIs consisting of cores with the elemental abundances of type B1 CAIs (calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions) and mantles of less refractory material. The cores have a power-law distribution of sizes between R{sub min} and R{sub max}. The mantles have a uniform thickness, whose value is chosen to bring the total inventory of elements at least as refractory as sulfur to cosmic abundances for the entire population of protoCAIs. Each object is irradiated with a fluence consistent with the product of their residence time in the reconnection ring and the flux of solar cosmic rays obtained by a scaling of impulsive flares from the hard X-rays observed from low-mass protostars. For R{sub min} in the 50 {mu}m regime and R{sub max} in the few centimeter regime, which corresponds to the range of sizes of observed CAIs in micrometeorites and chondrites, we recover approximately the canonical values quoted for the ratios {sup 26}Al/{sup 27}Al, {sup 53}Mn/{sup 55}Mn, and {sup 41}Ca/{sup 40}Ca in CV3 meteorites. Moreover, the excess {sup 138}La (denoted as {sup 138}La*) produced by proton bombardment of {sup 138}Ba lies within the CAI range obtained in the experiments of Shen et al. When we include fragmentation reactions that produce {sup 10}Be from the impact of protons, alphas, and {sup 3}He on the {sup 16}O that is bound up in rocks, we further obtain a level of {sup 10}Be/{sup 9}Be that agrees approximately with the report of McKeegan et al. for a CAI from the Allende meteorite. Similar calculations for the expected anomalies in the stable isotopes of lithium show rough consistency with the measured values and further support our interpretation. The value for {sup 10}Be/{sup 9}Be is particularly difficult to produce by any other astrophysical mechanism. Thus, the {sup 10}Be discovery greatly strengthens the case

  13. A METHOD FOR DETERMINING TOTAL PROTEIN OF ISOLATED CELLULAR ELEMENTS AND CORRESPONDING TRITIUM RADIOACTIVITY

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, Edward

    1968-01-01

    A method is described for the microanalysis of protein, obtained from isolated tissue elements, in the range of 500 µµg-500 mµg. The method entails solubilization of cellular protein with phosphoric acid and heat after extraction of acid-soluble compounds, lipids, and RNA. A procedure for the extraction and recovery of cellular RNA by the use of 40% trichloroacetic acid is presented. The solubilized protein, in the form of a microdroplet, is photomicrographed with monochromatic light at 230 mµ. Total density in the microdroplet is determined from calibrated photographic plates by microdensitometry, and is converted to protein mass by using an experimentally determined average specific absorbance value. A solubilized protein labeled with tritium can be recovered after photomicrography, combusted, and reduced to generate tritiated gas for high-efficiency tritium radiometry. Total protein was analyzed in (a) nerve cells of three different sizes from Deiters' nucleus of the rabbit; and the whole rod cell and rod cell nucleus of the rabbit retina. PMID:5664225

  14. Physical simulation of precipitation of radioactive element oxalates by using the harmless neodymium oxalate for studying the agglomeration phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalleman, Sophie; Bertrand, Murielle; Plasari, Edouard

    2012-03-01

    Oxalic precipitation is usually applied in nuclear industry to process radioactive wastes or to recover actinides from a multicomponent solution. This paper deals with the development of methods adapted to a nuclear environment in order to study the agglomeration phenomena during actinide oxalic precipitation. These methods are previously setup with harmless elements that simulate the actinide behaviour: the lanthanides. A parametric study is carried out to quantify the influence of operating parameters on the agglomeration kernel and to determine a kinetic law for this mechanism. The experimental study is performed in a continuous-MSMPR precipitator at steady-state. The method is based on the resolution of two population balances using the moment approach, one for elementary crystals and the other for agglomerates. Provided that the kinetic rates of nucleation and growth are known, the agglomeration kernel can be obtained from a mathematical treatment of the experimental particle size distributions. Results point out that experimental crystal sizes are consistent with an independent kernel. It appears that the agglomeration kernel is directly proportional to supersaturation, increases with temperature but is limited by ionic strength and shear rate.

  15. Arsenic poisoning in dairy cattle from naturally occurring arsenic pyrites.

    PubMed

    Hopkirk, R G

    1987-10-01

    An outbreak of arsenic poisoning occurred in which most of a 200 cow dairy herd were affected and six died. The source of the arsenic was naturally occurring arsenic pyrites from the Waiotapu Stream, near Rotorua. Arsenic levels in the nearby soil were as high as 6618 ppm. There was little evidence to suggest that treatment affected the course of the disease. Haematology was of little use in diagnosis, post-mortem signs were not always consistent and persistence of the element in the liver appeared short. Control of further outbreaks have been based on practical measures to minimise the intake of contaminated soil and free laying water by the stock.

  16. Arsenic Methyltransferase

    EPA Science Inventory

    The metalloid arsenic enters the environment by natural processes (volcanic activity, weathering of rocks) and by human activity (mining, smelting, herbicides and pesticides). Although arsenic has been exploited for homicidal and suicidal purposes since antiquity, its significan...

  17. BEHAVIOR OF ARSENIC AND OTHER REDOX-SENSITIVE ELEMENTS IN CROWLEY LAKE, CA: A RESERVOIR IN THE LOS ANGELES AQUEDUCT SYSTEM. (R826202)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Elevated arsenic concentrations in Crowley Lake derive from upstream geothermal inputs. We examined the water column of Crowley Lake under stratified and unstratified conditions, seeking evidence for algal uptake and transformation of arsenic and its deposition to and release fro...

  18. Ultra-Sensitive Elemental Analysis Using Plasmas 5.Speciation of Arsenic Compounds in Biological Samples by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaise, Toshikazu

    Arsenic originating from the lithosphere is widely distributed in the environment. Many arsenicals in the environment are in organic and methylated species. These arsenic compounds in drinking water or food products of marine origin are absorbed in human digestive tracts, metabolized in the human body, and excreted viatheurine. Because arsenic shows varying biological a spects depending on its chemical species, the biological characteristics of arsenic must be determined. It is thought that some metabolic pathways for arsenic and some arsenic circulation exist in aqueous ecosystems. In this paper, the current status of the speciation analysis of arsenic by HPLC/ICP-MS (High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass spectrometry) in environmental and biological samples is summarized using recent data.

  19. Arsenic: The Silent Killer

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, Andrea

    2006-02-28

    Andrea Foster uses x-rays to determine the forms of potentially toxic elements in environmentally-important matrices such as water, sediments, plants, and microorganisms. In this free public lecture, Foster will discuss her research on arsenic, which is called the silent killer because dissolved in water, it is colorless, odorless, and tasteless, yet consumption of relatively small doses of this element in its most toxic forms can cause rapid and violent death. Arsenic is a well-known poison, and has been used as such since ancient times. Less well known is the fact that much lower doses of the element, consumed over years, can lead to a variety of skin and internal cancers that can also be fatal. Currently, what has been called the largest mass poisoning in history is occurring in Bangladesh, where most people are by necessity drinking ground water that is contaminated with arsenic far in excess of the maximum amounts determined to be safe by the World Health Organization. This presentation will review the long and complicated history with arsenic, describe how x-rays have helped explain the high yet spatially variable arsenic concentrations in Bangladesh, discuss the ways in which land use in Bangladesh may be exacerbating the problem, and summarize the impact of this silent killer on drinking water systems worldwide.

  20. Radioactive Iodine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Phone Home » Radioactive Iodine Leer en Español Radioactive Iodine Iodine is essential for proper function of the ... that takes up and holds onto iodine. Radioactive Iodine FAQs WHAT IS RADIOACTIVE IODINE (RAI)? Iodine, in ...

  1. Arsenic pesticides and environmental pollution: exposure, poisoning, hazards and recommendations.

    PubMed

    El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M; Mohammad, Amina El-Hosini; Morsy, Tosson A

    2013-08-01

    Arsenic is a metalloid element. Acute high-dose exposure to arsenic can cause severe systemic toxicity and death. Lower dose chronic arsenic exposure can result in subacute toxicity that can include peripheral sensorimotor neuropathy, skin eruptions, and hepatotoxicity. Long-term effects of arsenic exposure include an in Due to the physiologic effects of the arsenic on all body systems, thus, chronic arsenic-poisoned patient is a major nursing challenge. The critical care nurse provides valuable assessment and interventions that prevent major multisystem complications from arsenic toxicity.

  2. [Arsenic - Poison or medicine?].

    PubMed

    Kulik-Kupka, Karolina; Koszowska, Aneta; Brończyk-Puzoń, Anna; Nowak, Justyna; Gwizdek, Katarzyna; Zubelewicz-Szkodzińska, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is commonly known as a poison. Only a few people know that As has also been widely used in medicine. In the past years As and its compounds were used as a medicine for the treatment of such diseases as diabetes, psoriasis, syphilis, skin ulcers and joint diseases. Nowadays As is also used especially in the treatment of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has recognized arsenic as an element with carcinogenic effect evidenced by epidemiological studies, but as previously mentioned it is also used in the treatment of neoplastic diseases. This underlines the specificity of the arsenic effects. Arsenic occurs widely in the natural environment, for example, it is present in soil and water, which contributes to its migration to food products. Long exposure to this element may lead to liver damages and also to changes in myocardium. Bearing in mind that such serious health problems can occur, monitoring of the As presence in the environmental media plays a very important role. In addition, the occupational risk of As exposure in the workplace should be identified and checked. Also the standards for As presence in food should be established. This paper presents a review of the 2015 publications based on the Medical database like PubMed and Polish Medical Bibliography. It includes the most important information about arsenic in both forms, poison and medicine.

  3. Mineral resource of the month: arsenic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, William E.

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic has a long and varied history: Although it was not isolated as an element until the 13th century, it was known to the ancient Chinese, Egyptians and Greeks in compound form in the minerals arsenopyrite, realgar and orpiment. In the 1400s, “Scheele’s Green” was first used as an arsenic pigment in wallpaper, and leached arsenic from wallpaper may have contributed to Napoleon’s death in 1821. The 1940s play and later movie, Arsenic and Old Lace, dramatizes the metal’s more sinister role. Arsenic continues to be an important mineral commodity with many modern applications.

  4. Geochemical processes controlling mobilization of arsenic and trace elements in shallow aquifers and surface waters in the Antequera and Poopó mining regions, Bolivian Altiplano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos Ramos, Oswaldo Eduardo; Rötting, Tobias S.; French, Megan; Sracek, Ondra; Bundschuh, Jochen; Quintanilla, Jorge; Bhattacharya, Prosun

    2014-10-01

    A geochemical approach was applied to understand the factors controlling the mobilization of As and trace elements (TEs) in mining areas of the Poopó and Antequera River sub-basins on the Bolivian Altiplano. A total of 52 samples (surface, groundwater and geothermal water) were collected during the rainy season (2009). Arsenic, Cd and Mn concentrations exceed World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water guidelines and Bolivian regulations for drinking water in 28 groundwater samples, but Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn do not. Arsenic, Cd, Mn, Pb and Zn concentrations exceed World Health Organization guidelines for drinking water and Bolivian regulations Class A standard for discharge to water bodies in 20 surface water samples, whereas levels of Cu do not, and Ni and Fe rarely exceed regulation and guideline values. Factor analysis was applied to 18 hydrochemical parameters of 52 samples. Five factors for groundwater (plagioclase weathering, dissolution of gypsum and halite, TEs mobilization at acidic pH, sulfide oxidation, and release of As) account for 86.5% of the total variance for Antequera and 83.9% for Poopó sub-basins. Four factors for surface water data (weathering and mobilization of TEs influenced by pH, dissolution of evaporate salts, neutralization of acid mine drainage, and As release due to dissolution of Mn and Fe oxides) account for 91% of the total variance in Antequera and 96% in Poopó sub-basins. The As and TEs mobilized in these regions could affect the local water sources, which is a prevalent concern with respect to water resource management in this semi-arid Altiplano region. Presence of both natural and anthropogenic sources of contamination requires careful monitoring of water quality.

  5. Arsenic Uptake by Muskmelon (Cucumis melo) Plants from Contaminated Water.

    PubMed

    Hettick, Bryan E; Cañas-Carrell, Jaclyn E; Martin, Kirt; French, Amanda D; Klein, David M

    2016-09-01

    Arsenic is a carcinogenic element that occurs naturally in the environment. High levels of arsenic are found in water in some parts of the world, including Texas. The aims of this study were to determine the distribution of arsenic in muskmelon (Cucumis melo) plants accumulated from arsenic spiked water and to observe effects on plant biomass. Plants were grown and irrigated using water spiked with variable concentrations of arsenic. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to quantify arsenic in different parts of the plant and fruit. Under all conditions tested in this study, the highest concentrations of arsenic were found in the leaves, soil, and roots. Arsenic in the water had no significant effect on plant biomass. Fruits analyzed in this study had arsenic concentrations of 101 μg/kg or less. Consuming these fruits would result in less arsenic exposure than drinking water at recommended levels.

  6. Arsenic, Anaerobes, and Astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolz, J. F.; Oremland, R. S.; Switzer Blum, J.; Hoeft, S. E.; Baesman, S. M.; Bennett, S.; Miller, L. G.; Kulp, T. R.; Saltikov, C.

    2013-12-01

    Arsenic is an element best known for its highly poisonous nature, so it is not something one would associate with being a well-spring for life. Yet discoveries made over the past two decades have delineated that not only are some microbes resistant to arsenic, but that this element's primary redox states can be exploited to conserve energy and support prokaryotic growth ('arsenotrophy') in the absence of oxygen. Hence, arsenite [As(III)] can serve as an electron donor for chemo- or photo-autotrophy while arsenate [As(V)] will serve as an electron acceptor for chemo-heterotrophs and chemo-autotrophs. The phylogenetic diversity of these microbes is broad, encompassing many individual species from diverse taxonomic groups in the Domain Bacteria, with fewer representatives in the Domain Archaea. Speculation with regard to the evolutionary origins of the key functional genes in anaerobic arsenic transformations (arrA and arxA) and aerobic oxidation (aioB) has led to a disputation as to which gene and function is the most ancient and whether arsenic metabolism extended back into the Archaean. Regardless of its origin, robust arsenic metabolism has been documented in extreme environments that are rich in their arsenic content, such as hot springs and especially hypersaline soda lakes associated with volcanic regions. Searles Lake, CA is an extreme, salt-saturated end member where vigorous arsenic metabolism occurs, but there is no detectable sulfate-reduction or methanogenesis. The latter processes are too weak bio-energetically to survive as compared with arsenotrophy, and are also highly sensitive to the abundance of borate ions present in these locales. These observations have implications with respect to the search for microbial life elsewhere in the Solar System where volcanic-like processes have been operative. Hence, because of the likelihood of encountering dense brines in the regolith of Mars (formed by evapo-concentration) or beneath the ice layers of Europa

  7. Spatial gradient of human health risk from exposure to trace elements and radioactive pollutants in soils at the Puchuncaví-Ventanas industrial complex, Chile.

    PubMed

    Salmani-Ghabeshi, S; Palomo-Marín, M R; Bernalte, E; Rueda-Holgado, F; Miró-Rodríguez, C; Cereceda-Balic, F; Fadic, X; Vidal, V; Funes, M; Pinilla-Gil, E

    2016-11-01

    The Punchuncaví Valley in central Chile, heavily affected by a range of anthropogenic emissions from a localized industrial complex, has been studied as a model environment for evaluating the spatial gradient of human health risk, which are mainly caused by trace elemental pollutants in soil. Soil elemental profiles in 121 samples from five selected locations representing different degrees of impact from the industrial source were used for human risk estimation. Distance to source dependent cumulative non-carcinogenic hazard indexes above 1 for children (max 4.4 - min 1.5) were found in the study area, ingestion being the most relevant risk pathway. The significance of health risk differences within the study area was confirmed by statistical analysis (ANOVA and HCA) of individual hazard index values at the five sampling locations. As was the dominant factor causing unacceptable carcinogenic risk levels for children (<10(-4)) at the two sampling locations which are closer to the industrial complex, whereas the risk was just in the tolerable range (10(-6) - 10(-4)) for children and adults in the rest of the sampling locations at the study area. Furthermore, we assessed gamma ray radiation external hazard indexes and annual effective dose rate from the natural radioactivity elements ((226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K) levels in the surface soils of the study area. The highest average values for the specific activity of (232)Th (31 Bq kg(-1)), (40)K (615 Bq kg(- 1)), and (226)Ra (25 Bq kg(-1)) are lower than limit recommended by OECD, so no significant radioactive risk was detected within the study area. In addition, no significant variability of radioactive risk was observed among sampling locations.

  8. Methods of analysis for toxic elements in food products. 2. Review of USSR standards on determinations of heavy metals and arsenic

    SciTech Connect

    Skurikhin, I.M.

    1989-03-01

    Methods of analysis prescribed by USSR standards for Hg, Pb, Zn, As, Cd, Cu, Fe, and Sn in foods are described: for Hg--colorimetry of tetraiodide mercurate and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS); for Pb, Cd, Zn, and Cu--polarography; for Cu--colorimetry with sodium diethyldithiocarbamate and zinc dibenzyldithiocarbamate; for As--colorimetry with silver diethyldithiocarbamate; for Sn--colorimetry with quercetin; and for Fe--colorimetry with o-phenanthroline. All of the methods have the necessary metrological characteristics, including intralaboratory repeatability value (r), interlaboratory reproducibility value (R), minimum quantity of the element to be determined in the analytical test portion (MQSM), and the coefficients that account for mercury and arsenic losses during analysis. Establishing constant r- and R-values for the methods under consideration is expedient because (a) the methods suggested are used for safety purposes; and (b) the optimum amount of the element studied in the test sample is determined, to a certain degree, by the mass of the test portion.

  9. Geogenic arsenic and other trace elements in the shallow hydrogeologic system of Southern Poopó Basin, Bolivian Altiplano.

    PubMed

    Ormachea Muñoz, Mauricio; Wern, Hannes; Johnsson, Fredrick; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Sracek, Ondra; Thunvik, Roger; Quintanilla, Jorge; Bundschuh, Jochen

    2013-11-15

    Environmental settings in the southern area of Lake Poopó in the Bolivian highlands, the Altiplano, have generated elevated amounts of arsenic (As) in the water. The area is characterised by a semiarid climate, slow hydrological flow and geologic formations of predominantly volcanic origin. The present study aimed at mapping the extent of the water contamination in the area and to investigate the geogenic sources and processes involved in the release of As to the groundwater. Ground- and surface-water samples were collected from 24 different sites, including drinking water wells and rivers, in the southern Poopó basin in two different field campaigns during the dry and rainy seasons. The results revealed variable levels of As in shallow drinking water wells and average concentration exceeding the WHO guidelines value. Arsenic concentrations range from below 5.2 μg/L (the detection level) to 207 μg/L and averages 72 μg/L. Additionally, high boron (B) concentrations (average 1902 μg/L), and high salinity are further serious concerns for deteriorating the groundwater quality and rendering it unsuitable for drinking. Groundwater is predominantly of the Na-Cl-HCO3 type or the Ca-Na-HCO3 type with neutral or slightly alkaline pH and oxidising character. While farmers are seriously concerned about the water scarcity, and on a few occasions about salinity, there are no concerns about As and B present at levels exceeding the WHO guidelines, and causing negative long term effects on human health. Sediment samples from two soil profiles and a river bed along with fourteen rock samples were also collected and analysed. Sequential extractions of the sediments together with the calculation of the mineral saturation indices indicate that iron oxides and hydroxides are the important secondary minerals phases which are important adsorbents for As. High pH values, and the competition of As with HCO3 and dissolved silica for the adsorption sites probably seems to be an

  10. Arsenic and other elements in drinking water and dietary components from the middle Gangetic plain of Bihar, India: Health risk index.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manoj; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Ramanathan, A L; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the level of contamination and health risk assessment for arsenic (As) and other elements in drinking water, vegetables and other food components in two blocks (Mohiuddinagar and Mohanpur) from the Samastipur district, Bihar, India. Groundwater (80%) samples exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline value (10μg/L) of As while Mn exceeded the previous WHO limit of 400μg/L in 28% samples. The estimated daily intake of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn from drinking water and food components were 169, 19, 26, 882, 4645, 14582, 474, 1449 and 12,955μg, respectively (estimated exposure 3.70, 0.41, 0.57, 19.61, 103.22, 324.05, 10.53, 32.21 and 287.90μg per kg bw, respectively). Twelve of 15 cooked rice contained high As concentration compared to uncooked rice. Water contributes (67%) considerable As to daily exposure followed by rice and vegetables. Whereas food is the major contributor of other elements to the dietary exposure. Correlation and principal component analysis (PCA) indicated natural source for As but for other elements, presence of diffused anthropogenic activities were responsible. The chronic daily intake (CDI) and health risk index (HRI) were also estimated from the generated data. The HRI were >1 for As in drinking water, vegetables and rice, for Mn in drinking water, vegetables, rice and wheat, for Pb in rice and wheat indicated the potential health risk to the local population. An assessment of As and other elements of other food components should be conducted to understand the actual health hazards caused by ingestion of food in people residing in the middle Gangetic plain.

  11. A Phytoremediation Strategy for Arsenic

    SciTech Connect

    Meagher, Richard B.

    2005-06-01

    . Phytochelatins bind diverse thiol-reactive elements like As(III) and are synthesized from amino acids in a three-step enzymatic pathway utilizing three enzymes: ECS = gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase; GS = GSH synthetase; and PS = phytochelatin synthase. We cloned each of the genes that encode these enzymes and used at least two different plant promoters to express them in transgenic Arabidopsis. We have shown that all three confer significant resistance to arsenic and allow rapid growth on a concentration of arsenic (300 micromolar) that kills wild-type seeds and plants.

  12. Radioactive Decay

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Radioactive decay is the emission of energy in the form of ionizing radiation. Example decay chains illustrate how radioactive atoms can go through many transformations as they become stable and no longer radioactive.

  13. Radioactively Contaminated Sites | RadTown USA | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-01-17

    If radioactive materials are used or disposed of improperly, they can contaminate buildings and the environment. Every site requiring cleanup is different depending on the type of facility, the radioactive elements involved and the concentration of the radioactive elements.

  14. Clean process to destroy arsenic-containing organic compounds with recovery of arsenic

    DOEpatents

    Upadhye, Ravindra S.; Wang, Francis T.

    1996-01-01

    A reduction method is provided for the treatment of arsenic-containing organic compounds with simultaneous recovery of pure arsenic. Arsenic-containing organic compounds include pesticides, herbicides, and chemical warfare agents such as Lewisite. The arsenic-containing compound is decomposed using a reducing agent. Arsine gas may be formed directly by using a hydrogen-rich reducing agent, or a metal arsenide may be formed using a pure metal reducing agent. In the latter case, the arsenide is reacted with an acid to form arsine gas. In either case, the arsine gas is then reduced to elemental arsenic.

  15. Clean process to destroy arsenic-containing organic compounds with recovery of arsenic

    DOEpatents

    Upadhye, R.S.; Wang, F.T.

    1996-08-13

    A reduction method is provided for the treatment of arsenic-containing organic compounds with simultaneous recovery of pure arsenic. Arsenic-containing organic compounds include pesticides, herbicides, and chemical warfare agents such as Lewisite. The arsenic-containing compound is decomposed using a reducing agent. Arsine gas may be formed directly by using a hydrogen-rich reducing agent, or a metal arsenide may be formed using a pure metal reducing agent. In the latter case, the arsenide is reacted with an acid to form arsine gas. In either case, the arsine gas is then reduced to elemental arsenic. 1 fig.

  16. Mobilization of arsenic and other trace elements of health concern in groundwater from the Salí River Basin, Tucumán Province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Nicolli, Hugo B; García, Jorge W; Falcón, Carlos M; Smedley, Pauline L

    2012-04-01

    The Salí River Basin in north-west Argentina (7,000 km(2)) is composed of a sequence of Tertiary and Quaternary loess deposits, which have been substantially reworked by fluvial and aeolian processes. As with other areas of the Chaco-Pampean Plain, groundwater in the basin suffers a range of chemical quality problems, including arsenic (concentrations in the range of 12.2-1,660 μg L(-1)), fluoride (50-8,740 μg L(-1)), boron (34.0-9,550 μg L(-1)), vanadium (30.7-300 μg L(-1)) and uranium (0.03-125 μg L(-1)). Shallow groundwater (depths up to 15 m) has particularly high concentrations of these elements. Exceedances above WHO (2011) guideline values are 100% for As, 35% for B, 21% for U and 17% for F. Concentrations in deep (>200 m) and artesian groundwater in the basin are also often high, though less extreme than at shallow depths. The waters are oxidizing, with often high bicarbonate concentrations (50.0-1,260 mg L(-1)) and pH (6.28-9.24). The ultimate sources of these trace elements are the volcanic components of the loess deposits, although sorption reactions involving secondary Al and Fe oxides also regulate the distribution and mobility of trace elements in the aquifers. In addition, concentrations of chromium lie in range of 79.4-232 μg L(-1) in shallow groundwater, 129-250 μg L(-1) in deep groundwater and 110-218 μg L(-1) in artesian groundwater. All exceed the WHO guideline value of 50 μg L(-1). Their origin is likely to be predominantly geogenic, present as chromate in the ambient oxic and alkaline aquifer conditions.

  17. Evidence against the nuclear in situ binding of arsenicals-oxidative stress theory of arsenic carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kitchin, Kirk T. Wallace, Kathleen

    2008-10-15

    A large amount of evidence suggests that arsenicals act via oxidative stress in causing cancer in humans and experimental animals. It is possible that arsenicals could bind in situ close to nuclear DNA followed by Haber-Weiss type oxidative DNA damage. Therefore, we tested this hypothesis by using radioactive {sup 73}As labeled arsenite and vacuum filtration methodology to determine the binding affinity and capacity of {sup 73}As arsenite to calf thymus DNA and Type 2A unfractionated histones, histone H3, H4 and horse spleen ferritin. Arsenicals are known to release redox active Fe from ferritin. At concentrations up to about 1 mM, neither DNA nor any of the three proteins studied, Type II-A histones, histone H3, H4 or ferritin, bound radioactive arsenite in a specific manner. Therefore, it appears highly unlikely that initial in situ binding of trivalent arsenicals, followed by in situ oxidative DNA damage, can account for arsenic's carcinogenicity. This experimental evidence (lack of arsenite binding to DNA, histone Type II-A and histone H3, H4) does not rule out other possible oxidative stress modes of action for arsenic such as (a) diffusion of longer lived oxidative stress molecules, such as H{sub 2}O{sub 2} into the nucleus and ensuing oxidative damage, (b) redox chemistry by unbound arsenicals in the nucleus, or (c) arsenical-induced perturbations in Fe, Cu or other metals which are already known to oxidize DNA in vitro and in vivo.

  18. Impact of sedimentary provenance and weathering on arsenic distribution in aquifers of the Datong basin, China: Constraints from elemental geochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Xianjun; Wang, Yanxin; Ellis, Andre; Liu, Chongxuan; Duan, Mengyu; Li, Junxia

    2014-11-01

    Arsenic (As)-contaminated aquifer sediments from Datong basin, China have been analyzed to infer the provenance and depositional environment related to As distribution in the aquifer sediments. The As content in the sediments ranged from 2.45 to 27.38 mg/kg with an average value of 9.54 mg/kg, which is comparable to the average value in modern unconsolidated sediments. However, minor variation in As concentration with depth has been observed in the core. There was a significant correlation between Fe, and Al and As, which was attributed to the adsorption or co-precipitation of As onto/with Fe oxides/hydroxides and/or Fe-coated clay minerals. Post-Archean Australian Shale (PAAS)-normalized REEs patterns of sediment samples along the borehole were constant, and the sediments had a notably restricted range of La-N/Yb-N ratios from 0.7 to 1.0. These results suggested that the provenance of the Datong basin remained similar throughout the whole depositional period. The analysis of major geochemical compositions confirmed that all core sediments were from the same sedimentary source and experienced significant sedimentary recycling. The co-variation of As, V/Al, Ni/Al and chemical index of alteration (CIA) values in the sediments along the borehole suggested that As distribution in the sediments was primarily controlled by weathering processes. The calculated CIA values of the sediments along the borehole indicate that a relative strong chemical weathering occurred during the deposition of sediments at depths of similar to 35 to 88 m, which was corresponding to the depth at which high As groundwater was observed at the site. Strong chemical weathering favored the deposition of Fe-bearing minerals including poorly crystalline and crystalline Fe oxide mineral phases and concomitant co-precipitation of As with these minerals in the sediments. Subsequent reductive dissolution of As-bearing poorly crystalline and crystalline Fe oxides would result in the enrichment of As in

  19. Impact of sedimentary provenance and weathering on arsenic distribution in aquifers of the Datong basin, China: Constraints from elemental geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xianjun; Wang, Yanxin; Ellis, Andre; Liu, Chongxuan; Duan, Mengyu; Li, Junxia

    2014-11-01

    Arsenic (As)-contaminated aquifer sediments from Datong basin, China have been analyzed to infer the provenance and depositional environment related to As distribution in the aquifer sediments. The As content in the sediments ranged from 2.45 to 27.38 mg/kg with an average value of 9.54 mg/kg, which is comparable to the average value in modern unconsolidated sediments. However, minor variation in As concentration with depth has been observed in the core. There was a significant correlation between Fe, and Al and As, which was attributed to the adsorption or co-precipitation of As onto/with Fe oxides/hydroxides and/or Fe-coated clay minerals. Post-Archean Australian Shale (PAAS)-normalized REEs patterns of sediment samples along the borehole were constant, and the sediments had a notably restricted range of LaN/YbN ratios from 0.7 to 1.0. These results suggested that the provenance of the Datong basin remained similar throughout the whole depositional period. The analysis of major geochemical compositions confirmed that all core sediments were from the same sedimentary source and experienced significant sedimentary recycling. The co-variation of As, V/Al, Ni/Al and chemical index of alteration (CIA) values in the sediments along the borehole suggested that As distribution in the sediments was primarily controlled by weathering processes. The calculated CIA values of the sediments along the borehole indicate that a relative strong chemical weathering occurred during the deposition of sediments at depths of ∼35 to 88 m, which was corresponding to the depth at which high As groundwater was observed at the site. Strong chemical weathering favored the deposition of Fe-bearing minerals including poorly crystalline and crystalline Fe oxide mineral phases and concomitant co-precipitation of As with these minerals in the sediments. Subsequent reductive dissolution of As-bearing poorly crystalline and crystalline Fe oxides would result in the enrichment of As in groundwater

  20. Distribution of arsenic, selenium, and other trace elements in high pyrite Appalachian coals: evidence for multiple episodes of pyrite formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diehl, S.F.; Goldhaber, M.B.; Koenig, A.E.; Lowers, H.A.; Ruppert, L.F.

    2012-01-01

    Pennsylvanian coals in the Appalachian Basin host pyrite that is locally enriched in potentially toxic trace elements such as As, Se, Hg, Pb, and Ni. A comparison of pyrite-rich coals from northwestern Alabama, eastern Kentucky, and West Virginia reveals differences in concentrations and mode of occurrence of trace elements in pyrite. Pyrite occurs as framboids, dendrites, or in massive crystalline form in cell lumens or crosscutting veins. Metal concentrations in pyrite vary over all scales, from microscopic to mine to regional, because trace elements are inhomogeneously distributed in the different morphological forms of pyrite, and in the multiple generations of sulfide mineral precipitates. Early diagenetic framboidal pyrite is usually depleted in As, Se, and Hg, and enriched in Pb and Ni, compared to other pyrite forms. In dendritic pyrite, maps of As distribution show a chemical gradient from As-rich centers to As-poor distal branches, whereas Se concentrations are highest at the distal edges of the branches. Massive crystalline pyrite that fills veins is composed of several generations of sulfide minerals. Pyrite in late-stage veins commonly exhibits As-rich growth zones, indicating a probable epigenetic hydrothermal origin. Selenium is concentrated at the distal edges of veins. A positive correlation of As and Se in pyrite veins from Kentucky coals, and of As and Hg in pyrite-filled veins from Alabama coals, suggests coprecipitation of these elements from the same fluid. In the Kentucky coal samples (n = 18), As and Se contents in pyrite-filled veins average 4200 ppm and 200 ppm, respectively. In Alabama coal samples, As in pyrite-filled veins averages 2700 ppm (n = 34), whereas As in pyrite-filled cellular structures averages 6470 ppm (n = 35). In these same Alabama samples, Se averages 80 ppm in pyrite-filled veins, but was below the detection limit in cell structures. In samples of West Virginia massive pyrite, As averages 1700 ppm, and Se averages 270

  1. Mineral resource of the month: Arsenic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bedinger, George M.

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is a gray metal rarely encountered as a free element, but is widely distributed in minerals and ores that contain copper, iron and lead. Arsenic is often found in groundwater as a result of the natural weathering of rock and soil.

  2. Industrial contributions of arsenic to the environment.

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, K W

    1977-01-01

    Arsenic is present in all copper, lead, and zinc sulfide ores and is carried along with those metals in the mining, milling and concentrating process. Separation, final concentration and refining of by-product arsenic as the trioxide is achieved at smelters. Arsenic is the essential consistent element of many compounds important and widely used in agriculture and wood preservation. Lesser amounts are used in metal alloys, glass-making, and feed additives. There is no significant recycling. Current levels of arsenic emissions to the atmosphere from smelters and power plants and ambient air concentrations are given as data of greatest environmental interest. PMID:908308

  3. Health Effects of Chronic Arsenic Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Young-Seoub; Song, Ki-Hoon; Chung, Jin-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is a unique element with distinct physical characteristics and toxicity whose importance in public health is well recognized. The toxicity of arsenic varies across its different forms. While the carcinogenicity of arsenic has been confirmed, the mechanisms behind the diseases occurring after acute or chronic exposure to arsenic are not well understood. Inorganic arsenic has been confirmed as a human carcinogen that can induce skin, lung, and bladder cancer. There are also reports of its significant association to liver, prostate, and bladder cancer. Recent studies have also suggested a relationship with diabetes, neurological effects, cardiac disorders, and reproductive organs, but further studies are required to confirm these associations. The majority of research to date has examined cancer incidence after a high exposure to high concentrations of arsenic. However, numerous studies have reported various health effects caused by chronic exposure to low concentrations of arsenic. An assessment of the health effects to arsenic exposure has never been performed in the South Korean population; thus, objective estimates of exposure levels are needed. Data should be collected on the biological exposure level for the total arsenic concentration, and individual arsenic concentration by species. In South Korea, we believe that biological exposure assessment should be the first step, followed by regular health effect assessments. PMID:25284195

  4. Radioactive mineral springs in Delta County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cadigan, Robert A.; Rosholt, John N.; Felmlee, J. Karen

    1976-01-01

    The system of springs in Delta County, Colo., contains geochemical clues to the nature and location of buried uranium-mineralized rock. The springs, which occur along the Gunnison River and a principal tributary between Delta and Paonia, are regarded as evidence of a still-functioning hydrothermal system. Associated with the springs are hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide gas seeps, carbon dioxide gas-powered geysers, thick travertine deposits including radioactive travertine, and a flowing warm-water (41?C) radioactive well. Geochemical study of the springs is based on surface observations, on-site water-property measurements, and sampling of water, travertine, soft precipitates, and mud. The spring deposits are mostly carbonates, sulfates, sulfides, and chlorides that locally contain notable amounts of some elements, such as arsenic, barium, lithium, and radium. Samples from five localities have somewhat different trace element assemblages even though they are related to the same hydrothermal system. All the spring waters but one are dominated by sodium chloride or sodium bicarbonate. The exception is an acid sulfate water with a pH of 2.9, which contains high concentrations of aluminum and iron. Most of the detectable radioactivity is due to the presence of radium-226, a uranium daughter product, but at least one spring precipitate contains abundant radium-228, a thorium daughter product. The 5:1 ratio of radium-228 to radium-226 suggests the proximity of a vein-type deposit as a source for the radium. The proposed locus of a thorium-uranium mineral deposit is believed to lie in the vicinity of Paonia, Colo. Exact direction and depth are not determinable from data now available.

  5. Arsenic in stream sediments of northern Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldhaber, M.B.; Irwin, Elise; Atkins, Brian; Lee, Lopaka; Black, D.D.; Zappia, Humbert; Hatch, Joe; Pashin, Jack; Barwick, L.H.; Cartwright, W.E.; Sanzolone, Rick; Rupert, Leslie; Kolker, Allan; Finkelman, Robert

    2001-01-01

    OVERVIEW OF ARSENIC IN STREAM SEDIMENTS The overall range of arsenic in the NURE stream sediments was from 0.3 to 44 mg/kg sediment (ppm) As in the sample data set. The mean value was 4.3 ppm with a standard deviation of 4.1 ppm. For comparison, the crustal abundance of arsenic is 1.8 ppm (Taylor, 1964). Shale is higher, with average values of 15 ppm. Coal samples from the entire USGS National Coal Resource Data System coal database (Finkelman, 1994) average 24 ppm arsenic. A study of stream sediments from throughout the U.S. by the USGS NAWQA program reported that the 75th percentile for arsenic in 541 stream sediments was 9.5 ppm (Rice, 1999). Given the relatively low crustal abundance of arsenic, a number of stream-sediment samples in this study may be considered geochemically anomalous in this element.

  6. Metabolic interrelationships between arsenic and selenium

    PubMed Central

    Levander, Orville A.

    1977-01-01

    In 1938, Moxon discovered that arsenic protected against selenium toxicity. Since that time it has been shown that this protective effect of arsenic against selenium poisoning can be demonstrated in many different animal species under a wide variety of conditions. Antagonistic effects between arsenic and selenium have also been noted in teratologic experiments. Early metabolic studies showed that arsenic inhibited the expiration of volatile selenium compounds by rats injected with acutely toxic doses of both elements. This was puzzling since pulmonary excretion had long been regarded as a means by which animals could rid themselves of excess selenium. However, later work demonstrated that arsenic increased the biliary excretion of selenium. Not only did arsenic stimulate the excretion of selenium in the bile, but selenium also stimulated the excretion of arsenic in the bile. This increased biliary excretion of selenium caused by arsenic provides a reasonable rationale for the ability of arsenic to counteract the toxicity of selenium, although the chemical mechanism by which arsenic does this is not certain. The most satisfactory explanation is that these two elements react in the liver to form a detoxication conjugate which is then excreted into the bile. This is consistent with the fact that both arsenic and selenium each increase the biliary excretion of the other. Several other metabolic interactions between arsenic and selenium have been demonstrated in vitro, but their physiological significance is not clear. Although arsenic decreased selenium toxicity under most conditions, there is a pronounced synergistic toxicity between arsenic and two methylated selenium metabolites, trimethylselenonium ion or dimethyl selenide. The ecological consequences of these synergisms are largely unexplored, although it is likely that selenium methylation occurs in the environment. All attempts to promote or prevent selenium deficiency diseases in animals by feeding arsenic have

  7. Arsenic chemistry in soils and sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Fendorf, S.; Nico, P.; Kocar, B.D.; Masue, Y.; Tufano, K.J.

    2009-10-15

    Arsenic is a naturally occurring trace element that poses a threat to human and ecosystem health, particularly when incorporated into food or water supplies. The greatest risk imposed by arsenic to human health results from contamination of drinking water, for which the World Health Organization recommends a maximum limit of 10 {micro}g L{sup -1}. Continued ingestion of drinking water having hazardous levels of arsenic can lead to arsenicosis and cancers of the bladder, skin, lungs and kidneys. Unfortunately, arsenic tainted drinking waters are a global threat and presently having a devastating impact on human health within Asia. Nearly 100 million people, for example, are presently consuming drinking water having arsenic concentrations exceeding the World Health Organization's recommended limit (Ahmed et al., 2006). Arsenic contamination of the environment often results from human activities such as mining or pesticide application, but recently natural sources of arsenic have demonstrated a devastating impact on water quality. Arsenic becomes problematic from a health perspective principally when it partitions into the aqueous rather than the solid phase. Dissolved concentrations, and the resulting mobility, of arsenic within soils and sediments are the combined result of biogeochemical processes linked to hydrologic factors. Processes favoring the partitioning of As into the aqueous phase, potentially leading to hazardous concentrations, vary extensively but can broadly be grouped into four categories: (1) ion displacement, (2) desorption (or limited sorption) at pH values > 8.5, (3) reduction of arsenate to arsenite, and (4) mineral dissolution, particularly reductive dissolution of Fe and Mn (hydr)oxides. Although various processes may liberate arsenic from solids, a transition from aerobic to anaerobic conditions, and commensurate arsenic and iron/manganese reduction, appears to be a dominant, but not exclusive, means by which high concentrations of dissolved

  8. Toxicity of arsenic (III) and (V) on plant growth, element uptake, and total amylolytic activity of mesquite (Prosopis juliflora x P. velutina).

    PubMed

    Mokgalaka-Matlala, Ntebogeng S; Flores-Tavizón, Edith; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2008-01-01

    The effects of arsenite [As(III)] and arsenate [As(V)] on the growth of roots, stems, and leaves and the uptake of arsenic (As), micro- and macronutrients, and total amylolytic activity were investigated to elucidate the phytotoxicity of As to the mesquite plant (Prosopis juliflora x P. velutina). The plant growth was evaluated by measuring the root and shoot length, and the element uptake was determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The root and leaf elongation decreased significantly with increasing As(III) and As(V) concentrations; whereas, stem elongation remained unchanged. The As uptake increased with increasing As(III) or As(V) concentrations in the medium. Plants treated with 50 mg/L As(III) accumulated up to 920 mg/kg dry weight (d wt) in roots and 522 mg/kg d wt in leaves, while plants exposed to 50 mg/L As(V) accumulated 1980 and 210 mg/kg d wt in roots and leaves, respectively. Increasing the As(V) concentration up to 20 mg/L resulted in a decrease in the total amylolytic activity. On the contrary, total amylolytic activity in As(III)-treated plants increased with increasing As concentration up to 20 mg/L. The macro- and micronutrient concentrations changed in As-treated plants. In shoots, Mo and K were reduced but Ca was increased, while in roots Fe and Ca were increased but K was reduced. These changes reduced the size of the plants, mainly in the As(III)-treated plants; however, there were no visible sign of As toxicity.

  9. Long-term monitoring of arsenic, copper, selenium, and other elements in Great Salt Lake (Utah, USA) surface water, brine shrimp, and brine flies.

    PubMed

    Adams, William J; DeForest, David K; Tear, Lucinda M; Payne, Kelly; Brix, Kevin V

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents long-term monitoring data for 19 elements with a focus on arsenic (As), copper (Cu), and selenium (Se), in surface water (2002-2011), brine shrimp (2001-2011), and brine flies (1995-1996) collected from Great Salt Lake (GSL, Utah, USA). In open surface waters, mean (±standard deviation [SD]; range; n) As concentrations were 112 (±22.1; 54.0-169; 47) and 112 μg/L (±35.6; 5.1-175; 68) in filtered and unfiltered surface water samples, respectively, and 16.3 μg/g (±5.6; 5.1-35.2; 62) dry weight (dw) in brine shrimp. Mean (±SD; range; n) Cu concentrations were 4.2 (±2.1; 1.3-12.5; 47) and 6.9 μg/L (±6.6; 1.9-38.1; 68) in filtered and unfiltered surface water samples, respectively, and 20.6 μg/g (±18.4; 5.4-126; 62) dw in brine shrimp. Finally, mean (±SD; range; n) dissolved and total recoverable Se concentrations were 0.6 (±0.1; 0.4-1.2; 61) and 0.9 μg/L (±0.7; 0.5-3.6; 89), respectively, and 3.6 μg/g (±2.2; 1.1-14.9; 98) dw in brine shrimp. Thus, Se in open lake surface waters was most often in the range of 0.5-1 μg/L, and concentrations in both surface water and brine shrimp were comparable to concentrations measured in other monitoring programs for the GSL. Temporally, the statistical significance of differences in mean dissolved or total recoverable As, Cu, and Se concentrations between years was highly variable depending which test statistic was used, and there was no clear evidence of increasing or decreasing trends. In brine shrimp, significant differences in annual mean concentrations of As, Cu, and Se were observed using both parametric and nonparametric statistical approaches, but, as for water, there did not appear to be a consistent increase or decrease in concentrations of these elements over time.

  10. NATURAL RADIOACTIVITY LEVEL AND ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF SOIL SAMPLES FROM A HIGH BACKGROUND RADIATION AREA ON EASTERN COAST OF INDIA (ODISHA).

    PubMed

    Sahoo, S K; Kierepko, R; Sorimachi, A; Omori, Y; Ishikawa, T; Tokonami, S; Prasad, G; Gusain, G S; Ramola, R C

    2016-10-01

    A comprehensive study was carried out to determine the radioactivity concentration of soil samples from different sites of a high background radiation area in the eastern coast of India, Odisha state. The dose rate measured in situ varied from 0.25 to 1.2 µSv h(-1) The gamma spectrometry measurements indicated Th series elements as the main contributors to the enhanced level of radiation and allowed the authors to find the mean level of the activity concentration (±SD) for (226)Ra, (228)Th and (40)K as 130±97, 1110±890 and 360±140 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Human exposure from radionuclides occurring outdoor was estimated based on the effective dose rate, which ranged from 0.14±0.02 to 2.15±0.26 mSv and was higher than the UNSCEAR annual worldwide average value 0.07 mSv. Additionally, X-ray fluorescence analysis provided information about the content of major elements in samples and indicated the significant amount of Ti (7.4±4.9 %) in soils.

  11. Arsenic speciation and sorption in natural environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, Kate M.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2014-01-01

    Aqueous arsenic speciation, or the chemical forms in which arsenic exists in water, is a challenging, interesting, and complicated aspect of environmental arsenic geochemistry. Arsenic has the ability to form a wide range of chemical bonds with carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and sulfur, resulting in a large variety of compounds that exhibit a host of chemical and biochemical properties. Besides the intriguing chemical diversity, arsenic also has the rare capacity to capture our imaginations in a way that few elements can duplicate: it invokes images of foul play that range from sinister to comedic (e.g., “inheritance powder” and arsenic-spiked elderberry wine). However, the emergence of serious large-scale human health problems from chronic arsenic exposure in drinking water has placed a high priority on understanding environmental arsenic mobility, toxicity, and bioavailability, and chemical speciation is key to these important questions. Ultimately, the purpose of arsenic speciation research is to predict future occurrences, mitigate contamination, and provide successful management of water resources.

  12. Determination of radioactive elements and heavy metals in sediments and soil from domestic water sources in northern peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Bashir G; Jaafar, Mohammad Suhaimi; Abdul Rahman, Azhar; Ingawa, Farouk Abdulrasheed

    2012-08-01

    Soil serves as a major reservoir for contaminants as it posseses an ability to bind various chemicals together. To safeguard the members of the public from an unwanted exposure, studies were conducted on the sediments and soil from water bodies that form the major sources of domestic water supply in northern peninsular Malaysia for their trace element concentration levels. Neutron Activation Analysis, using Nigeria Research Reactor-1 (NIRR-1) located at the Centre for Energy Research and Training, Zaria, Nigeria was employed as the analytical tool. The elements identified in major quantities include Na, K, and Fe while As, Br, Cr, U, Th, Eu, Cs, Co, La, Sm, Yb, Sc, Zn, Rb, Ba, Lu, Hf, Ta, and Sb were also identified in trace quantities. Gamma spectroscopy was also employed to analyze some soil samples from the same area. The results indicated safe levels in terms of the radium equivalent activity, external hazard index as well as the mean external exposure dose rates from the soil. The overall screening of the domestic water sources with relatively high heavy metals concentration values in sediments and high activity concentration values in soil is strongly recommended as their accumulation overtime as a consequence of leaching into the water may be of health concern to the members of the public.

  13. REDOX state analysis of platinoid elements in simulated high-level radioactive waste glass by synchrotron radiation based EXAFS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Yoshihiro; Shiwaku, Hideaki; Nakada, Masami; Komamine, Satoshi; Ochi, Eiji; Akabori, Mitsuo

    2016-04-01

    Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) analyses were performed to evaluate REDOX (REDuction and OXidation) state of platinoid elements in simulated high-level nuclear waste glass samples prepared under different conditions of temperature and atmosphere. At first, EXAFS functions were compared with those of standard materials such as RuO2. Then structural parameters were obtained from a curve fitting analysis. In addition, a fitting analysis used a linear combination of the two standard EXAFS functions of a given elements metal and oxide was applied to determine ratio of metal/oxide in the simulated glass. The redox state of Ru was successfully evaluated from the linear combination fitting results of EXAFS functions. The ratio of metal increased at more reducing atmosphere and at higher temperatures. Chemical form of rhodium oxide in the simulated glass samples was RhO2 unlike expected Rh2O3. It can be estimated rhodium behaves according with ruthenium when the chemical form is oxide.

  14. Arsenic levels in immigrant children from countries at risk of consuming arsenic polluted water compared to children from Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Piñol, S; Sala, A; Guzman, C; Marcos, S; Joya, X; Puig, C; Velasco, M; Velez, D; Vall, O; Garcia-Algar, O

    2015-11-01

    Arsenic is a highly toxic element that pollutes groundwater, being a major environmental problem worldwide, especially in the Bengal Basin. About 40% of patients in our outpatient clinics come from those countries, and there is no published data about their arsenic exposure. This study compares arsenic exposure between immigrant and native children. A total of 114 children (57 natives, 57 immigrants), aged 2 months to 16 years, were recruited and sociodemographic and environmental exposure data were recorded. Total arsenic in urine, hair, and nails and arsenic-speciated compounds in urine were determined. We did not find significant differences in total and inorganic arsenic levels in urine and hair, but in organic arsenic monomethylarsenic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinous acid (DMA) in urine and in total arsenic in nails. However, these values were not in the toxic range. There were significant differences between longer than 5 years exposure and less than 5 years exposure (consumption of water from tube wells), with respect to inorganic and organic MMA arsenic in urine and total arsenic in nails. There was partial correlation between the duration of exposure and inorganic arsenic levels in urine. Immigrant children have higher arsenic levels than native children, but they are not toxic. At present, there is no need for specific arsenic screening or follow-up in immigrant children recently arrived in Spain from exposure high-risk countries.

  15. Arsenic, inorganic

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Arsenic , inorganic ; CASRN 7440 - 38 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  16. Arsenic. Can this toxic metalloid sustain life?

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Dean E

    2013-01-01

    It was recently reported that a bacterium, Halomonas species GFAJ-1, isolated from arsenic-rich Mono Lake and further selected for growth under conditions of high arsenate and low phosphate, is able to grow using arsenic instead of phosphorus. This claim, and subsequent studies to evaluate GFAJ-1, has brought new attention to the question of whether arsenic can play an essential or sustaining role for living organisms. If true, this would be in stark contrast to the well known toxicity of this element and its ability to cause a number of diseases, including cancer of the skin, lung, bladder, liver, and kidney. However, while deadly at high doses, arsenic oxide is also an approved and effective chemotherapeutic drug for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). This review examines the evidence that arsenic may be a beneficial nutrient at trace levels below the background to which living organisms are normally exposed. It also examines whether arsenic can be used to sustain organisms growing under high arsenic conditions, specifically the results from recent studies of arsenic biochemistry motivated by the report of GFAJ-1. Both of these topics are considered in the context of the toxicity of this element and its ability to cause cancer and other diseases, yet its Janus-faced ability to effectively treat APL.

  17. Both Phosphorus Fertilizers and Indigenous Bacteria Enhance Arsenic Release into Groundwater in Arsenic-Contaminated Aquifers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tzu-Yu; Wei, Chia-Cheng; Huang, Chi-Wei; Chang, Chun-Han; Hsu, Fu-Lan; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan

    2016-03-23

    Arsenic (As) is a human carcinogen, and arsenic contamination in groundwater is a worldwide public health concern. Arsenic-affected areas are found in many places but are reported mostly in agricultural farmlands, yet the interaction of fertilizers, microorganisms, and arsenic mobilization in arsenic-contaminated aquifers remains uncharacterized. This study investigates the effects of fertilizers and bacteria on the mobilization of arsenic in two arsenic-contaminated aquifers. We performed microcosm experiments using arsenic-contaminated sediments and amended with inorganic nitrogenous or phosphorus fertilizers for 1 and 4 months under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The results show that microcosms amended with 100 mg/L phosphorus fertilizers (dipotassium phosphate), but not nitrogenous fertilizers (ammonium sulfate), significantly increase aqueous As(III) release in arsenic-contaminated sediments under anaerobic condition. We also show that concentrations of iron, manganese, potassium, sodium, calcium, and magnesium are increased in the aqueous phase and that the addition of dipotassium phosphate causes a further increase in aqueous iron, potassium, and sodium, suggesting that multiple metal elements may take part in the arsenic release process. Furthermore, microbial analysis indicates that the dominant microbial phylum is shifted from α-proteobacteria to β- and γ-proteobacteria when the As(III) is increased and phosphate is added in the aquifer. Our results provide evidence that both phosphorus fertilizers and microorganisms can mediate the release of arsenic to groundwater in arsenic-contaminated sediments under anaerobic condition. Our study suggests that agricultural activity such as the use of fertilizers and monitoring phosphate concentration in groundwater should be taken into consideration for the management of arsenic in groundwater.

  18. Trace Elements and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettyjohn, Wayne A.

    1972-01-01

    Summarizes the effects of arsenic, lead, zinc, mercury, and cadmium on human health, indicates the sources of the elements in water, and considers the possibility of students in high schools analyzing water for trace amounts of the elements. (AL)

  19. Arsenic and selenium in microbial metabolism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stolz, John F.; Basu, Partha; Santini, Joanne M.; Oremland, Ronald S.

    2006-01-01

    Arsenic and selenium are readily metabolized by prokaryotes, participating in a full range of metabolic functions including assimilation, methylation, detoxification, and anaerobic respiration. Arsenic speciation and mobility is affected by microbes through oxidation/reduction reactions as part of resistance and respiratory processes. A robust arsenic cycle has been demonstrated in diverse environments. Respiratory arsenate reductases, arsenic methyltransferases, and new components in arsenic resistance have been recently described. The requirement for selenium stems primarily from its incorporation into selenocysteine and its function in selenoenzymes. Selenium oxyanions can serve as an electron acceptor in anaerobic respiration, forming distinct nanoparticles of elemental selenium that may be enriched in (76)Se. The biogenesis of selenoproteins has been elucidated, and selenium methyltransferases and a respiratory selenate reductase have also been described. This review highlights recent advances in ecology, biochemistry, and molecular biology and provides a prelude to the impact of genomics studies.

  20. Radioactive ion detector

    DOEpatents

    Bower, K.E.; Weeks, D.R.

    1997-08-12

    Apparatus for detecting the presence, in aqueous media, of substances which emit alpha and/or beta radiation and determining the oxidation state of these radioactive substances, that is, whether they are in cationic or anionic form. In one embodiment, a sensor assembly has two elements, one comprised of an ion-exchange material which binds cations and the other comprised of an ion-exchange material which binds anions. Each ion-exchange element is further comprised of a scintillation plastic and a photocurrent generator. When a radioactive substance to which the sensor is exposed binds to either element and emits alpha or beta particles, photons produced in the scintillation plastic illuminate the photocurrent generator of that element. Sensing apparatus senses generator output and thereby indicates whether cationic species or anionic species or both are present and also provides an indication of species quantity. 2 figs.

  1. Radioactive ion detector

    DOEpatents

    Bower, Kenneth E.; Weeks, Donald R.

    1997-01-01

    Apparatus for detecting the presence, in aqueous media, of substances which emit alpha and/or beta radiation and determining the oxidation state of these radioactive substances, that is, whether they are in cationic or anionic form. In one embodiment, a sensor assembly has two elements, one comprised of an ion-exchange material which binds cations and the other comprised of an ion-exchange material which binds anions. Each ion-exchange element is further comprised of a scintillation plastic and a photocurrent generator. When a radioactive substance to which the sensor is exposed binds to either element and emits alpha or beta particles, photons produced in the scintillation plastic illuminate the photocurrent generator of that element. Sensing apparatus senses generator output and thereby indicates whether cationic species or anionic species or both are present and also provides an indication of species quantity.

  2. Arsenic exposure and cardiovascular disorders: an overview.

    PubMed

    Balakumar, Pitchai; Kaur, Jagdeep

    2009-12-01

    The incidence of arsenic toxicity has been observed in various countries including Taiwan, Bangladesh, India, Argentina, Australia, Chile, China, Hungary, Peru, Thailand, Mexico and United States of America. Arsenic is a ubiquitous element present in drinking water, and its exposure is associated with various cardiovascular disorders. Arsenic exposure plays a key role in the pathogenesis of vascular endothelial dysfunction as it inactivates endothelial nitric oxide synthase, leading to reduction in the generation and bioavailability of nitric oxide. In addition, the chronic arsenic exposure induces high oxidative stress, which may affect the structure and function of cardiovascular system. Further, the arsenic exposure has been noted to induce atherosclerosis by increasing the platelet aggregation and reducing fibrinolysis. Moreover, arsenic exposure may cause arrhythmia by increasing the QT interval and accelerating the cellular calcium overload. The chronic exposure to arsenic upregulates the expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule and vascular endothelial growth factor to induce cardiovascular pathogenesis. The present review critically discussed the detrimental role of arsenic in the cardiovascular system.

  3. Arsenic surveillance program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background information about arsenic is presented including forms, common sources, and clinical symptoms of arsenic exposure. The purpose of the Arsenic Surveillance Program and LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Arsenic Exposure at LeRC are discussed.

  4. Determination of total arsenic, inorganic and organic arsenic species in wine.

    PubMed

    Herce-Pagliai, C; Moreno, I; González, G; Repetto, M; Cameán, A M

    2002-06-01

    Forty-five wine samples from the south of Spain of different alcoholic strength were analysed for total arsenic and its inorganic [As(III), As(V)] and organic (monomethylarsonic acid [MMAA], dimethylarsinic acid [DMAA]) species. The As levels of the wine samples ranged from 2.1 to 14.6 microg l(-1). The possible effect of the alcoholic fermentation process on the levels of the total arsenic and arsenical species was studied. The average total arsenic levels for the different samples were very similar, without significant differences between all types of wines. In table wines and sherry, the percentages of total inorganic arsenic were 18.6 and 15.6%, with DMAA or MMAA being the predominant species, respectively. In most samples, DMAA was the most abundant species, but the total inorganic aresenic fraction was considerable, representing 25.4% of the total concentration of the element. The estimated daily intakes of total arsenic and total inorganic arsenic for average Spanish consumers were 0.78 and 0.15 microg/person day(-1), respectively. The results suggest that the consumption of these types of wines makes no significant contribution to the total and inorganic arsenic intake for normal drinkers. However, wine consumption contributes a higher arsenic intake than through consumption of beers and sherry brandies.

  5. Toxic Elements in Soil and Groundwater: Short-Time Study on Electrokinetic Removal of Arsenic in the Presence of other Ions

    PubMed Central

    Leszczynska, Danuta; Ahmad, Hafiz

    2006-01-01

    The electrokinetic technique is an emerging technology presently tested in situ to remove dissolved heavy metals from contaminated groundwater. There is a growing interest for using this system to cleanse clayey soil contaminated by toxic metallic ions. Currently, there are very few available non-destructive treatment methods that could be successfully applied in situ on low permeable type of soil matrix. The main objective of presented study was to validate and possibly enhance the overall efficiency of decontamination by the electrokinetic technique of the low permeable soil polluted by the arsenic in combination with chromium and copper ions. The chosen mixture of ions was imitating leak of pesticide well known as chromate copper arsenate (CCA). The chosen technique is showing a big promise to be used in the future as a portable, easy to install and run on sites with spills or leaks hard to reach otherwise; such as in the dense populated and urbanized areas. Laboratory electrokinetic experiments were designed to understand and possibly manipulate main mechanisms involved during forced migration of ions. All tests were conducted on artificially contaminated kaolinite (low permeable clay soil). Electrokinetic migration was inducted by the low voltage dc current applied through soil column. Series of experiments were designed to assess the efficiency of arsenic-chromium-copper remediation by applying (1) only dc current; and (2) by altering the soil environment. Obtained results showed that arsenic could be successfully removed from the soil in one day (25 hours) span. It was significant time reduction, very important during emergency response. Mass recovered at the end of each test depended on initial condition of soil and type of flushing solution. The best results were obtained, when soil was flushed with either NaOH or NaOCl (total removal efficiency 74.4% and 78.1%, respectively). Direct analysis of remained arsenic in soil after these tests confirmed

  6. Comparison of extraction procedures for the determination of arsenic and other elements in lobster tissue by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Brisbin, Judith A; Caruso, Joseph A

    2002-07-01

    A variety of extraction procedures were evaluated for the extraction of arsenic and other analytes from lobster tissue samples using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection. Soxhlet, room temperature mixing, sonication, microwave assisted, supercritical carbon dioxide and subcritical water extractions were evaluated for a variety of solvent systems and optimum conditions determined using a partially defatted Lobster Hepatopancreas marine certified reference material, TORT-2 (National Research Council of Canada). The solubility trends and solvents into which the analytes extracted gave an indication as to the polar/non-polar nature of the compounds present. Analytes that prefer water are probably more polar or inorganic, while those preferring methanol solutions are less polar or organic in nature. Arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, molybdenum and selenium were probably all present in TORT-2 in both polar inorganic and non-polar organic forms. While TORT-2 may have contained similar amounts of selenium in both forms, the results suggested that more of the arsenic was present as less polar or more organic compounds, and cobalt existed mainly as more polar or inorganic species. Most of the extraction techniques suggested that, although there may be some less polar organic forms present, more of the cadmium was probably present as polar inorganic compounds. Additionally, most techniques indicated that molybdenum was possibly all less polar or more organic in nature. In general, microwave assisted extraction (MAE) yielded comparable or improved recoveries for all of the analytes monitored and usually required less solvent. Additionally, MAE proved to be the mildest, fastest, least complicated and most reproducible extraction technique evaluated. MAE at 75 degrees C for 2 min exposure time yielded quantitative recovery of arsenic from TORT-2. These conditions were evaluated for lobster tissue samples purchased from a local restaurant. Separate evaluation

  7. RESULTS FROM ANALYSIS OF THE FIRST AND SECOND STRIP EFFLUENT COALESCER ELEMENTS FROM RADIOACTIVE OPERATIONS OF THE MODULAR CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

    2011-06-28

    The coalescer elements for the Strip Effluent (SE) acid within the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) experienced elevated differential pressure drop during radioactive operations. Following the end of operations for the first Macrobatch campaign and soon after start of the second Macrobatch campaign, personnel removed the coalescer media and provided to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for diagnostic investigation of the causes of reduced flow. This report summarizes those studies. Two Strip Effluent (SE) coalescers were delivered to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). One was removed from the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) between processing of Macrobatch 1 and 2 (coalescer 'Alpha'), and the second was removed from MCU after processing of {approx}24,000 gallons of salt solution (coalescer 'Beta'). Both coalescers underwent the same general strip acid flush program to reduce the dose and were delivered to SRNL for analysis of potential occluding solids. Analysis of Coalescer Alpha indicates the presence of aluminum hydroxide solids and aluminosilicate solids, while analysis of Coalescer Beta indicates the presence of aluminum hydroxide solids, but no aluminosilicates. Leaching studies on sections of both coalescers were performed. The results indicate that the coalescers had different amounts of solids present on them at the time of removal. Finally, samples of free liquids retrieved from both coalescers indicate no excessive amounts of CSSX solvent present. Given the strip acid flushing that occurred in the SE coalescers, the solids we detected on the coalescers are probably indicative of a larger quantity of these solids present before the strip acid flushing. Under this scenario, the excessive pressure drops are due to the solids and not from organic fouling.

  8. Radioactive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2015-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste activities around the world in 2014. These include safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation and management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in water, soil and ecosystem alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes.

  9. Radioactive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2016-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste activities around the world in 2015. These include safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation and management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in water, soil and ecosystem alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes.

  10. THE CELLUAR METABOLISM OF ARSENIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because the methylation of arsenic produces intermediates and terminal products that exceed inorganic arsenic in potency as enzyme inhibitors, cytotoxins, and genotoxins, the methylation of arsenic is properly regarded as an activation process. The methylation of arsenic is an e...

  11. Anthropogenic Cycles of Arsenic in Mainland China: 1990-2010.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ya-Lan; Chen, Wei-Qiang; Wu, Shi-Liang; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2017-02-07

    Arsenic (As) is a trace element in the global environment with toxicity to both humans and ecosystem. This study characterizes China's historical anthropogenic arsenic cycles (AACs) from 1990 to 2010. Key findings include the following: (1) the scale of China's AACs grew significantly during the studied period, making China the biggest miner, producer, and user of arsenic today; (2) the majority of arsenic flows into China's anthroposphere are the impurity of domestically mined nonferrous metal ores, which far exceeds domestic intentional demands; (3) China has been a net exporter of arsenic trioxide and arsenic metalloid, thus suffering from the environmental burdens of producing arsenic products for other economies; (4) the growth of arsenic use in China is driven by simultaneous increases in many applications including glass making, wood preservatives, batteries, semiconductors, and alloys, implying the challenge for regulating arsenic uses in multiple applications/industries at the same time; (5) the dissipative arsenic emissions resulting from intentional applications are at the same order of magnitude as atmospheric emissions from coal combustion, and their threats to human and ecosystem health can spread widely and last years to decades. Our results demonstrate that the characterization of AACs is indispensable for developing a complete arsenic emission inventory.

  12. Tracing the source of sedimentary organic carbon in the Loess Plateau of China: An integrated elemental ratio, stable carbon signatures, and radioactive isotopes approach.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun; Dong, Yuting; Li, Zhongwu; Chang, Xiaofeng; Nie, Xiaodong; Liu, Lin; Xiao, Haibing; Bashir, Hassan

    2017-02-01

    Soil erosion, which will induce the redistribution of soil and associated soil organic carbon (SOC) on the Earth's surface, is of critically importance for biogeochemical cycling of essential elements and terrestrial carbon sequestration. Despite the importance of soil erosion, surprisingly few studies have evaluated the sources of eroded carbon (C). This study used natural abundance levels of the stable isotope signature ((13)C) and radioactive isotopes ((137)Cs and (210)Pbex), along with elements ratio (C/N) based on a two end member mixing model to qualitatively and quantitatively identify the sources of sedimentary OC retained by check dam in the Qiaozigou small watershed in the Loess Plateau, China. Sediment profiles (0-200 cm) captured at natural depositional area of the basin was compared to possible source materials, which included: superficial Loess mineral soils (0-20 cm) from three land use types [i.e., grassland (Medicago sativa), forestland (Robinia pseudoacacia.), shrubland (Prunus sibirica), and gully land (Loess parent material.)]. The results demonstrated that SOC in sediments showed significantly negative correlation with pH (P < 0.01), and positive correlation with soil water content (SWC) (P < 0.05). The sedimentary OC was not derived from grasslands or gullies. Forestland and shrubland were two main sources of eroded organic carbon within the surface sediment (0-60 cm deep), except for that in the 20-40 cm soil layer. Radionuclides analyses also implied that the surface sediments retained by check-dams mainly originated from soils of forestland and shrubland. Results of the two end-member mixing model demonstrated that more than 50% SOC (mean probability estimate (MPE) 50.13% via (13)C and 60.53% via C/N) in surface sediment (0-20 cm deep) derived from forestland, whereas subsurface sedimentary SOC (20-200 cm) mainly resulted from shrubland (MPE > 50%). Although uncertainties on the sources of SOC in deep soils exist, the soil

  13. Chem I Supplement: Arsenic and Old Myths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarquis, Mickey

    1979-01-01

    Describes the history of arsenic, the properties of arsenic, production and uses of arsenicals, arsenic in the environment; toxic levels of arsenic, arsenic in the human body, and the Marsh Test. (BT)

  14. Radioactivity Calculations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onega, Ronald J.

    1969-01-01

    Three problems in radioactive buildup and decay are presented and solved. Matrix algebra is used to solve the second problem. The third problem deals with flux depression and is solved by the use of differential equations. (LC)

  15. Concentrating Radioactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Richard A.

    1974-01-01

    By concentrating radioactivity contained on luminous dials, a teacher can make a high reading source for classroom experiments on radiation. The preparation of the source and its uses are described. (DT)

  16. Simulated Radioactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boettler, James L.

    1972-01-01

    Describes the errors in the sugar-cube experiment related to radioactivity as described in Project Physics course. The discussion considers some of the steps overlooked in the experiment and generalizes the theory beyond the sugar-cube stage. (PS)

  17. The ecology of arsenic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oremland, Ronald S.; Stolz, John F.

    2003-01-01

    Arsenic is a metalloid whose name conjures up images of murder. Nonetheless, certain prokaryotes use arsenic oxyanions for energy generation, either by oxidizing arsenite or by respiring arsenate. These microbes are phylogenetically diverse and occur in a wide range of habitats. Arsenic cycling may take place in the absence of oxygen and can contribute to organic matter oxidation. In aquifers, these microbial reactions may mobilize arsenic from the solid to the aqueous phase, resulting in contaminated drinking water. Here we review what is known about arsenic-metabolizing bacteria and their potential impact on speciation and mobilization of arsenic in nature.

  18. Geochemical anomalies of toxic elements and arsenic speciation in airborne particles from Cu mining and smelting activities: influence on air quality.

    PubMed

    Sánchez de la Campa, Ana M; Sánchez-Rodas, Daniel; González Castanedo, Yolanda; de la Rosa, Jesús D

    2015-06-30

    A characterization of chemical composition and source contribution of PM10 in three representative environments of southwest Spain related to mining activities (mineral extraction, mining waste and Cu-smelting) has been performed. A study of geochemical anomalies was conducted in the samples collected at the three stations between July 2012 and October 2013. The influence of Cu-smelting processes was compared to other mining activities, where common tracers were identified. The Cu and As concentrations in the study area are higher than in other rural and urban stations of Spain, in which geochemical anomalies of As, Se, Bi, Cd, and Pb have been reported. The results of source contribution showed similar geochemical signatures in the industrial and mining factors. However, the contribution to PM10 is different according to the type of industrial activity. These results have been confirmed performing an arsenic speciation analysis of the PM10 samples, in which the mean extraction efficiency of arsenic depended on the origin of the samples. These finding indicate that the atmospheric particulate matter emitted from Cu-smelting has a high residence time in the atmosphere. This indicates that the Cu-smelter can impact areas of high ecological interest and considered as clean air.

  19. Aquatic arsenic: phytoremediation using floating macrophytes.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M Azizur; Hasegawa, H

    2011-04-01

    Phytoremediation, a plant based green technology, has received increasing attention after the discovery of hyperaccumulating plants which are able to accumulate, translocate, and concentrate high amount of certain toxic elements in their above-ground/harvestable parts. Phytoremediation includes several processes namely, phytoextraction, phytodegradation, rhizofiltration, phytostabilization and phytovolatilization. Both terrestrial and aquatic plants have been tested to remediate contaminated soils and waters, respectively. A number of aquatic plant species have been investigated for the remediation of toxic contaminants such as As, Zn, Cd, Cu, Pb, Cr, Hg, etc. Arsenic, one of the deadly toxic elements, is widely distributed in the aquatic systems as a result of mineral dissolution from volcanic or sedimentary rocks as well as from the dilution of geothermal waters. In addition, the agricultural and industrial effluent discharges are also considered for arsenic contamination in natural waters. Some aquatic plants have been reported to accumulate high level of arsenic from contaminated water. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), duckweeds (Lemna gibba, Lemna minor, Spirodela polyrhiza), water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica), water ferns (Azolla caroliniana, Azolla filiculoides, and Azolla pinnata), water cabbage (Pistia stratiotes), hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata) and watercress (Lepidium sativum) have been studied to investigate their arsenic uptake ability and mechanisms, and to evaluate their potential in phytoremediation technology. It has been suggested that the aquatic macrophytes would be potential for arsenic phytoremediation, and this paper reviews up to date knowledge on arsenic phytoremediation by common aquatic macrophytes.

  20. Arsenic stress after the Proterozoic glaciations

    PubMed Central

    Chi Fru, Ernest; Arvestål, Emma; Callac, Nolwenn; El Albani, Abderrazak; Kilias, Stephanos; Argyraki, Ariadne; Jakobsson, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Protection against arsenic damage in organisms positioned deep in the tree of life points to early evolutionary sensitization. Here, marine sedimentary records reveal a Proterozoic arsenic concentration patterned to glacial-interglacial ages. The low glacial and high interglacial sedimentary arsenic concentrations, suggest deteriorating habitable marine conditions may have coincided with atmospheric oxygen decline after ~2.1 billion years ago. A similar intensification of near continental margin sedimentary arsenic levels after the Cryogenian glaciations is also associated with amplified continental weathering. However, interpreted atmospheric oxygen increase at this time, suggests that the marine biosphere had widely adapted to the reorganization of global marine elemental cycles by glaciations. Such a glacially induced biogeochemical bridge would have produced physiologically robust communities that enabled increased oxygenation of the ocean-atmosphere system and the radiation of the complex Ediacaran-Cambrian life. PMID:26635187

  1. Arsenic stress after the Proterozoic glaciations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi Fru, Ernest; Arvestål, Emma; Callac, Nolwenn; El Albani, Abderrazak; Kilias, Stephanos; Argyraki, Ariadne; Jakobsson, Martin

    2015-12-01

    Protection against arsenic damage in organisms positioned deep in the tree of life points to early evolutionary sensitization. Here, marine sedimentary records reveal a Proterozoic arsenic concentration patterned to glacial-interglacial ages. The low glacial and high interglacial sedimentary arsenic concentrations, suggest deteriorating habitable marine conditions may have coincided with atmospheric oxygen decline after ~2.1 billion years ago. A similar intensification of near continental margin sedimentary arsenic levels after the Cryogenian glaciations is also associated with amplified continental weathering. However, interpreted atmospheric oxygen increase at this time, suggests that the marine biosphere had widely adapted to the reorganization of global marine elemental cycles by glaciations. Such a glacially induced biogeochemical bridge would have produced physiologically robust communities that enabled increased oxygenation of the ocean-atmosphere system and the radiation of the complex Ediacaran-Cambrian life.

  2. Arsenic stress after the Proterozoic glaciations.

    PubMed

    Fru, Ernest Chi; Arvestål, Emma; Callac, Nolwenn; El Albani, Abderrazak; Kilias, Stephanos; Argyraki, Ariadne; Jakobsson, Martin

    2015-12-04

    Protection against arsenic damage in organisms positioned deep in the tree of life points to early evolutionary sensitization. Here, marine sedimentary records reveal a Proterozoic arsenic concentration patterned to glacial-interglacial ages. The low glacial and high interglacial sedimentary arsenic concentrations, suggest deteriorating habitable marine conditions may have coincided with atmospheric oxygen decline after ~2.1 billion years ago. A similar intensification of near continental margin sedimentary arsenic levels after the Cryogenian glaciations is also associated with amplified continental weathering. However, interpreted atmospheric oxygen increase at this time, suggests that the marine biosphere had widely adapted to the reorganization of global marine elemental cycles by glaciations. Such a glacially induced biogeochemical bridge would have produced physiologically robust communities that enabled increased oxygenation of the ocean-atmosphere system and the radiation of the complex Ediacaran-Cambrian life.

  3. Arsenic in Food

    MedlinePlus

    ... been measuring total arsenic concentrations in foods, including rice and juices, through its Total Diet Study program ... found in certain food and beverage products, including rice, fruit juices and juice concentrates. How does arsenic ...

  4. Arsenic Treatment Technology Demonstrations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA’s research for the new Arsenic Rule focused on the development and evaluation of innovative methods and cost-effective technologies for improving the assessment and control of arsenic contamination.

  5. Arsenic Trioxide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Arsenic trioxide is used to treat acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL; a type of cancer in which there ... worsened following treatment with other types of chemotherapy. Arsenic trioxide is in a class of medications called ...

  6. Arsenic in water treatment.

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, Malcolm Dean

    2004-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is collaborating with the Awwa Research Foundation (AwwaRF) and WERC (A Consortium for Environmental Education and Technology Development) in a program for the development and testing of innovative technologies that have the potential to substantially reduce the costs associated with arsenic removal from drinking water. Sandia National Laboratories will administer contracts placed with AwwaRF and WERC to carry out bench scale studies and economic analyses/outreach activities, respectively. The elements of the AwwaRF program include (1) identification of new technologies, (2) proof-of-concept laboratory studies and, (3) a research program that will meet the other needs of small utilities by providing solutions to small utilities so that they may successfully meet the new arsenic MCL. WERC's activities will include development of an economic analysis tool for Pilot Scale Demonstrations and development of educational training and technical assistance tools. The objective of the Sandia Program is the field demonstration testing of innovative technologies. The primary deliverables of the Sandia program will be engineering analyses of candidate technologies; these will be contained in preliminary reports and final analysis reports. Projected scale-up costs will be generated using a cost model provided by WERC or another suitable model.

  7. RADIOACTIVE BATTERY

    DOEpatents

    Birden, J.H.; Jordan, K.C.

    1959-11-17

    A radioactive battery which includes a capsule containing the active material and a thermopile associated therewith is presented. The capsule is both a shield to stop the radiations and thereby make the battery safe to use, and an energy conventer. The intense radioactive decay taking place inside is converted to useful heat at the capsule surface. The heat is conducted to the hot thermojunctions of a thermopile. The cold junctions of the thermopile are thermally insulated from the heat source, so that a temperature difference occurs between the hot and cold junctions, causing an electrical current of a constant magnitude to flow.

  8. Reduction and Coordination of Arsenic in Indian Mustard1

    PubMed Central

    Pickering, Ingrid J.; Prince, Roger C.; George, Martin J.; Smith, Robert D.; George, Graham N.; Salt, David E.

    2000-01-01

    The bioaccumulation of arsenic by plants may provide a means of removing this element from contaminated soils and waters. However, to optimize this process it is important to understand the biological mechanisms involved. Using a combination of techniques, including x-ray absorption spectroscopy, we have established the biochemical fate of arsenic taken up by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea). After arsenate uptake by the roots, possibly via the phosphate transport mechanism, a small fraction is exported to the shoot via the xylem as the oxyanions arsenate and arsenite. Once in the shoot, the arsenic is stored as an AsIII-tris-thiolate complex. The majority of the arsenic remains in the roots as an AsIII-tris-thiolate complex, which is indistinguishable from that found in the shoots and from AsIII-tris-glutathione. The thiolate donors are thus probably either glutathione or phytochelatins. The addition of the dithiol arsenic chelator dimercaptosuccinate to the hydroponic culture medium caused a 5-fold-increased arsenic level in the leaves, although the total arsenic accumulation was only marginally increased. This suggests that the addition of dimercaptosuccinate to arsenic-contaminated soils may provide a way to promote arsenic bioaccumulation in plant shoots, a process that will be essential for the development of an efficient phytoremediation strategy for this element. PMID:10759512

  9. ARSENIC TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation will discuss the state-of-the-art technology for removal of arsenic from drinking water. Presentation also includes results of several EPA field studies on removal of arsenic from existing arsenic removal plants and key results from several EPA sponsored research st...

  10. ARSENIC REMOVAL TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation will discuss the state-of-art technology for removal of arsenic from drinking water. Presentation includes results of several EPA field studies on removal of arsenic from existing arsenic removal plants and key results from several EPA sponsored research studies. T...

  11. ARSENIC SOURCES AND ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent research has identified a number of potential and current links between environmental arsenic releases and the management of operational and abandoned landfills. Many landfills will receive an increasing arsenic load due to the disposal of arsenic-bearing solid residuals ...

  12. Simultaneous depth-profiling of electrical and elemental properties of ion-implanted arsenic in silicon by combining secondary-ion mass spectrometry with resistivity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, N. S.; Wong, C. S.; McNally, P. J.

    2016-07-01

    A method is proposed to extract the electrical data for surface doping profiles of semiconductors in unison with the chemical profile acquired by secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS)—a method we call SIMSAR (secondary-ion mass spectrometry and resistivity). The SIMSAR approach utilizes the inherent sputtering process of SIMS, combined with sequential four-point van der Pauw resistivity measurements, to surmise the active doping profile as a function of depth. The technique is demonstrated for the case of ion-implanted arsenic doping profiles in silicon. Complications of the method are identified, explained, and corrections for these are given. While several techniques already exist for chemical dopant profiling and numerous for electrical profiling, since there is no technique which can measure both electrical and chemical profiles in parallel, SIMSAR has significant promise as an extension of the conventional dynamic SIMS technique, particularly for applications in the semiconductor industry.

  13. Simultaneous depth-profiling of electrical and elemental properties of ion-implanted arsenic in silicon by combining secondary-ion mass spectrometry with resistivity measurements.

    PubMed

    Bennett, N S; Wong, C S; McNally, P J

    2016-07-01

    A method is proposed to extract the electrical data for surface doping profiles of semiconductors in unison with the chemical profile acquired by secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS)-a method we call SIMSAR (secondary-ion mass spectrometry and resistivity). The SIMSAR approach utilizes the inherent sputtering process of SIMS, combined with sequential four-point van der Pauw resistivity measurements, to surmise the active doping profile as a function of depth. The technique is demonstrated for the case of ion-implanted arsenic doping profiles in silicon. Complications of the method are identified, explained, and corrections for these are given. While several techniques already exist for chemical dopant profiling and numerous for electrical profiling, since there is no technique which can measure both electrical and chemical profiles in parallel, SIMSAR has significant promise as an extension of the conventional dynamic SIMS technique, particularly for applications in the semiconductor industry.

  14. Case studies--arsenic.

    PubMed

    Chou, C H Selene J; De Rosa, Christopher T

    2003-08-01

    Arsenic is found naturally in the environment. People may be exposed to arsenic by eating food, drinking water, breathing air, or by skin contact with soil or water that contains arsenic. In the U.S., the diet is a predominant source of exposure for the general population with smaller amounts coming from drinking water and air. Children may also be exposed to arsenic because of hand to mouth contact or eating dirt. In addition to the normal levels of arsenic in air, water, soil, and food, people could by exposed to higher levels in several ways such as in areas containing unusually high natural levels of arsenic in rocks which can lead to unusually high levels of arsenic in soil or water. People living in an area like this could take in elevated amounts of arsenic in drinking water. Workers in an occupation that involves arsenic production or use (for example, copper or lead smelting, wood treatment, pesticide application) could be exposed to elevated levels of arsenic at work. People who saw or sand arsenic-treated wood could inhale/ingest some of the sawdust which contains high levels of arsenic. Similarly, when pressure-treated wood is burned, high levels of arsenic could be released in the smoke. In agricultural areas where arsenic pesticides were used on crops the soil could contain high levels of arsenic. Some hazardous waste sites contain large quantities of arsenic. Arsenic ranks #1 on the ATSDR/EPA priority list of hazardous substances. Arsenic has been found in at least 1,014 current or former NPL sites. At the hazardous waster sites evaluated by ATSDR, exposure to arsenic in soil predominated over exposure to water, and no exposure to air had been recorded. However, there is no information on morbidity or mortality from exposure to arsenic in soil at hazardous waste sites. Exposure assessment, community and tribal involvement, and evaluation and surveillance of health effects are among the ATSDR future Superfund research program priority focus areas

  15. Radioactive Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaylock, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of radioactive waste disposal, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the studies included are: (1) high-level and long-lived wastes, and (2) release and burial of low-level wastes. A list of 42 references is also presented. (HM)

  16. Arsenic: homicidal intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Massey, E.W.; Wold, D.; Heyman, A.

    1984-07-01

    Arsenic-induced deaths have been known to occur from accidental poisoning, as a result of medical therapy, and from intentional poisonings in homicide and suicide. Twenty-eight arsenic deaths in North Carolina from 1972 to 1982 included 14 homicides and seven suicides. In addition, 56 hospitalized victims of arsenic poisoning were identified at Duke Medical Center from 1970 to 1980. Four case histories of arsenic poisoning in North Carolina are presented and clinical manifestations are discussed. In view of the continued widespread use of arsenic in industry and agriculture, and its ubiquity in the environment, arsenic poisoning will continue to occur. A need for knowledge of its toxicity and of the clinical manifestations of acute and chronic arsenic poisoning will also continue.

  17. Arsenic geochemistry and health.

    PubMed

    Duker, Alfred A; Carranza, E J M; Hale, Martin

    2005-07-01

    Arsenic occurs naturally in the earth's crust and is widely distributed in the environment. Natural mineralization and activities of microorganisms enhance arsenic mobilization in the environment but human intervention has exacerbated arsenic contamination. Although arsenic is useful for industrial, agricultural, medicinal and other purposes, it exerts a toxic effect in a variety of organisms, including humans. Arsenic exposure may not only affect and disable organs of the body, especially the skin, but may also interfere with the proper functioning of the immune system. This paper, therefore, generally highlights the toxic effects of arsenic as well as its mobilization in the natural environment and possible controls. It also briefly attempts to outline the impact of arsenic on the immune system, whose alteration could lead to viral/bacterial infections.

  18. Arsenic removal from water

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Robert C.; Anderson, D. Richard

    2007-07-24

    Methods for removing arsenic from water by addition of inexpensive and commonly available magnesium oxide, magnesium hydroxide, calcium oxide, or calcium hydroxide to the water. The hydroxide has a strong chemical affinity for arsenic and rapidly adsorbs arsenic, even in the presence of carbonate in the water. Simple and commercially available mechanical methods for removal of magnesium hydroxide particles with adsorbed arsenic from drinking water can be used, including filtration, dissolved air flotation, vortex separation, or centrifugal separation. A method for continuous removal of arsenic from water is provided. Also provided is a method for concentrating arsenic in a water sample to facilitate quantification of arsenic, by means of magnesium or calcium hydroxide adsorption.

  19. NIOSH Method 9102: Elements on Wipes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Method 9102 describes procedures for analysis of elements, including arsenic, vanadium, osmium, thallium and titanium, on wipe samples using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) – atomic emission spectrometry (AES).

  20. ARSENIC (+3 OXIDATION STATE) METHYLTRANSFERASE AND THE METHYLATION OF ARSENICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metabolic conversion of inorganic arsenic into methylated products is a multistep process that yields mono, di, and trimethylated arsenicals. In recent years, it has become apparent that formation of methylated metabolites of inorganic arsenic is not necessarily a detoxification...

  1. Bioaccessibility and excretion of arsenic in Niu Huang Jie Du Pian pills

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Iris; Sylvester, Steven; Lai, Vivian W.-M.; Owen, Andrew; Reimer, Kenneth J. Cullen, William R.

    2007-08-01

    Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) often contain significant levels of potentially toxic elements, including arsenic. Niu Huang Jie Du Pian pills were analyzed to determine the concentration, bioaccessibility (arsenic fraction soluble in the human gastrointestinal system) and chemical form (speciation) of arsenic. Arsenic excretion in urine (including speciation) and facial hair were studied after a one-time ingestion. The pills contained arsenic in the form of realgar, and although the total arsenic that was present in a single pill was high (28 mg), the low bioaccessibility of this form of arsenic predicted that only 4% of it was available for absorption into the bloodstream (1 mg of arsenic per pill). The species of arsenic that were solubilized were inorganic arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III)) but DMAA and MMAA were detected in urine. Two urinary arsenic excretion peaks were observed: an initial peak several (4-8) hours after ingestion corresponding to the excretion of predominantly As(III), and a larger peak at 14 h corresponding predominantly to DMAA and MMAA. No methylated As(III) species were observed. Facial hair analysis revealed that arsenic concentrations did not increase significantly as a result of the ingestion. Arsenic is incompletely soluble under human gastrointestinal conditions, and is metabolized from the inorganic to organic forms found in urine. Bioaccessible arsenic is comparable to the quantity excreted. Facial hair as a bio-indicator should be further tested.

  2. Distribution and hosts of arsenic in a sediment core from the Chianan Plain in SW Taiwan: Implications on arsenic primary source and release mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huai-Jen; Lee, Chi-Yu; Chiang, Yu-Ju; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Shau, Yen-Hong; Takazawa, Eiichi; Jiang, Wei-Teh

    2016-11-01

    High arsenic abundance of 50-700μg/L in the groundwater from the Chianan Plain in southwestern Taiwan is a well-known environmental hazard. The groundwater-associated sediments, however, have not been geochemically characterized, thus hindering a comprehensive understanding of arsenic cycling in this region. In this study, samples collected from a 250m sediment core at the centre of the Chianan Plain were analyzed for arsenic and TOC concentrations (N=158), constituent minerals (N=25), major element abundances (N=105), and sequential arsenic extraction (N=23). The arsenic data show a prevalence of >10mg/kg with higher concentrations of 20-50mg/kg concentrated at 60-80 and 195-210m. Arsenic was extracted mainly as an adsorbate on clay minerals, as a co-precipitate in amorphous iron oxyhydroxide, and as a structural component in clay minerals. Since the sediments consist mainly of quartz, chlorite, and illite, the correlations between arsenic concentration and abundances of K2O and MgO pinpoint illite and chlorite as the major arsenic hosts. The arsenic-total iron correlation reflects the role of chlorite along with the contribution from amorphous iron oxyhydroxide as indicated by arsenic extraction data. Organic matter is not the dominant arsenic host for low TOC content, low arsenic abundance extracted from it, and a relatively low R(2) of the arsenic-TOC correlation. The major constituent minerals in the sediments are the same as those of the upriver metapelites, establishing a sink-source relationship. Composition data from two deep groundwater samples near the sediment core show Eh values and As(V)/As(III) ratios of reducing environments and high arsenic, K, Mg, and Fe contents necessary for deriving arsenic from sediments by desorption from clay and dissolution of iron oxyhydroxide. Therefore, groundwater arsenic was mainly derived from groundwater-associated sediments with limited contributions from other sources, such as mud volcanoes.

  3. Emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers: Arsenic

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelsohn, M.H.; Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.

    1994-08-01

    Concerns over emissions of hazardous air pollutants (air toxics) have emerged as a major environmental issue; the authority of the US Environmental Protection Agency to regulate such pollutants has been greatly expanded through passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Arsenic and arsenic compounds are of concern mainly because of their generally recognized toxicity. Arsenic is also regarded as one of the trace elements in coal subject to significant vaporization. This report summarizes and evaluates available published information on the arsenic content of coals mined in the United States, on arsenic emitted in coal combustion, and on the efficacy of various environmental control technologies for controlling airborne emissions. Bituminous and lignite coals have the highest mean arsenic concentrations, with subbituminous and anthracite coals having the lowest. However, all coal types show very significant variations in arsenic concentrations. Arsenic emissions from coal combustion are not well-characterized, particularly with regard to determination of specific arsenic compounds. Variations in emission, rates of more than an order of magnitude have been reported for some boiler types. Data on the capture of arsenic by environmental control technologies are available primarily for systems with cold electrostatic precipitators, where removals of approximately 50 to 98% have been reported. Limited data for wet flue-gas-desulfurization systems show widely varying removals of from 6 to 97%. On the other hand, waste incineration plants report removals in a narrow range of from 95 to 99%. This report briefly reviews several areas of research that may lead to improvements in arsenic control for existing flue-gas-cleanup technologies and summarizes the status of analytical techniques for measuring arsenic emissions from combustion sources.

  4. Arsenic in Ground-Water Resources of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, Alan H.; Watkins, Sharon A.; Helsel, Dennis R.; Focazio, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Arsenic is a naturally occurring element in rocks, soils, and the waters in contact with them. Recognized as a toxic element for centuries, arsenic today also is a human health concern because it can contribute to skin, bladder, and other cancers (National Research Council, 1999). Recently, the National Research Council (1999) recommended lowering the current maximum contaminant level (MCL) allowed for arsenic in drinking water of 50 ?g/L (micrograms per liter), citing risks for developing bladder and other cancers. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) will propose a new, and likely lower, arsenic MCL during 2000 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2000). This fact sheet provides information on where and to what extent natural concentrations of arsenic in ground water exceed possible new standards. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has collected and analyzed arsenic in potable (drinkable) water from 18,850 wells in 595 counties across the United States during the past two decades. These wells are used for irrigation, industrial purposes, and research, as well as for public and private water supply. Arsenic concentrations in samples from these wells are similar to those found in nearby public supplies (see Focazio and others, 1999). The large number of samples, broad geographic coverage, and consistency of methods produce a more accurate and detailed picture of arsenic concentrations than provided by any previous studies.

  5. MARE: Mars Radioactivity Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Lellis, A. M.; Capria, M. T.; Espinasse, S.; Magni, G.; Orosei, R.; Piccioni, G.; Federico, C.; Minelli, G.; Pauselli, C.; Scarpa, G.

    1999-09-01

    MARE is an experiment for the measurement of the beta and gamma radioactivity in space and in the Martian soil, both at the surface and in the subsurface. This will be accomplished by means of a dosimeter and a spectrometer. The radiation dose rate to which crews will be exposed is one of the hazards that has to be quantified before the human exploration of Mars may begin. Data for evaluating radioactivity levels at Martian surface are of great interest for environmental studies related to life in general. The dosimeter will be able to measure the beta and gamma radiation dose received, with a responsivity which is very close to that of a living organism. The dosimeter is based on thermo-luminescence pills which emit an optical signal proportional to the absorbed dose when heated. Radioactive elements ((40) K, (235) U, (238) U and (232) Th) can be used as a mean of tracing the evolution of a terrestrial planet. These radioactive elements are the source of the internal heat, which drives convection in the mantle. They have been redistributed in this process and they are now concentrated in the crust where they are accessible for study. Their different behavior during the fractionation process can be used as a mean to investigate the geochemical characteristic of Mars. The spectrometer, a scintillation radiation absorber system for single event counting, is capable of detecting gamma photons with energies between 200 KeV and 10 MeV. The detected events will be processed in such a way to allow the recognition of the spectral signature of different decay processes, and thus the identification and the measurement of the concentrations of different radionuclides in the Martian soil.

  6. Arsenic-Induced Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Connelly, Sean; Zancosky, Krysia; Farah, Katie

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide has brought about tremendous advancement in the treatment of acute promyelocytic myelogenous leukemia (APML). In most instances, the benefits of these treatments outweigh the risks associated with their respective safety profiles. Although acute pancreatitis is not commonly associated with arsenic toxicity, it should be considered as a possible side effect. We report a case of arsenic-induced pancreatitis in a patient with APML. PMID:22606427

  7. The global menace of arsenic and its conventional remediation - A critical review.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Arpan; Paul, Biswajit

    2016-09-01

    Arsenic is a ubiquitous element found in the earth crust with a varying concentration in the earth soil and water. Arsenic has always been under the scanner due to its toxicity in human beings. Contamination of arsenic in drinking water, which generally finds its source from arsenic-containing aquifers; has severely threatened billions of people all over the world. Arsenic poisoning is worse in Bangladesh where As(III) is abundant in waters of tube wells. Natural occurrence of arsenic in groundwater could result from both, oxidative and reductive dissolution. Geothermally heated water has the potential to liberate arsenic from surrounding rocks. Inorganic arsenic has been found to have more toxicity than the organic forms of arsenic. MMA and DMA are now been considered as the organic arsenic compounds having the potential to impair DNA and that is why MMA and DMA are considered as carcinogens. Endless efforts of researchers have elucidated the source, behavior of arsenic in various parts of the environment, mechanism of toxicity and various remediation processes; although, there are lots of areas still to be addressed. In this article, attempts have been made to lay bare an overview of geochemistry, toxicity and current removal techniques of arsenic together.

  8. Radioactive waste material disposal

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, Charles W.; Beahm, Edward C.; Parker, George W.

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide.

  9. Radioactive waste material disposal

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.

    1995-10-24

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide. 3 figs.

  10. Thermal-electric coupled-field finite element modeling and experimental testing of high-temperature ion sources for the production of radioactive ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Manzolaro, M. Andrighetto, A.; Meneghetti, G.; Vivian, G.; D’Agostini, F.

    2016-02-15

    In isotope separation on line facilities the target system and the related ion source are two of the most critical components. In the context of the selective production of exotic species (SPES) project, a 40 MeV 200 μA proton beam directly impinges a uranium carbide target, generating approximately 10{sup 13} fissions per second. The radioactive isotopes produced in this way are then directed to the ion source, where they can be ionized and finally accelerated to the subsequent areas of the facility. In this work both the surface ion source and the plasma ion source adopted for the SPES facility are presented and studied by means of numerical thermal-electric models. Then, numerical results are compared with temperature and electric potential difference measurements, and finally the main advantages of the proposed simulation approach are discussed.

  11. Electrical-thermal-structural finite element simulation and experimental study of a plasma ion source for the production of radioactive ion beams.

    PubMed

    Manzolaro, M; Meneghetti, G; Andrighetto, A; Vivian, G

    2016-03-01

    The production target and the ion source constitute the core of the selective production of exotic species (SPES) facility. In this complex experimental apparatus for the production of radioactive ion beams, a 40 MeV, 200 μA proton beam directly impinges a uranium carbide target, generating approximately 10(13) fissions per second. The transfer line enables the unstable isotopes generated by the (238)U fissions in the target to reach the ion source, where they can be ionized and finally accelerated to the subsequent areas of the facility. In this work, the plasma ion source currently adopted for the SPES facility is analyzed in detail by means of electrical, thermal, and structural numerical models. Next, theoretical results are compared with the electric potential difference, temperature, and displacement measurements. Experimental tests with stable ion beams are also presented and discussed.

  12. Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase and the methylation of arsenicals in the invertebrate chordate Ciona intestinalis

    EPA Science Inventory

    The biotransformation of inorganic arsenic (iAs) involves methylation by an arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT), yielding methyl arsenic (MA), dimethyl arsenic (DMA), and trimethylarsenic (TMA). To identify molecular mechanisms that coordinate arsenic biotra...

  13. Arsenic activation neutron detector

    DOEpatents

    Jacobs, Eddy L.

    1981-01-01

    A detector of bursts of neutrons from a deuterium-deuteron reaction includes a quantity of arsenic adjacent a gamma detector such as a scintillator and photomultiplier tube. The arsenic is activated by the 2.5 Mev neutrons to release gamma radiation which is detected to give a quantitative representation of detected neutrons.

  14. Arsenic activation neutron detector

    DOEpatents

    Jacobs, E.L.

    1980-01-28

    A detector of bursts of neutrons from a deuterium-deuteron reaction includes a quantity of arsenic adjacent a gamma detector such as a scintillator and photomultiplier tube. The arsenic is activated by the 2.5-MeV neutrons to release gamma radiation which is detected to give a quantitative representation of detected neutrons.

  15. Arsenic exposure and DNA methylation among elderly men

    PubMed Central

    Lambrou, Angeliki; Baccarelli, Andrea; Wright, Robert O.; Weisskopf, Marc; Bollati, Valentina; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra; Vokonas, Pantel; Schwartz, Joel

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Arsenic exposure has been linked to epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation in in vitro and animal studies. This association has also been explored in highly exposed human populations, but studies among populations environmentally exposed to low arsenic levels are lacking. METHODS We evaluated the association between exposure to arsenic, measured in toenails, and blood DNA methylation in Alu and Long Interspersed Nucleotide Element-1 (LINE-1) repetitive elements in elderly men environmentally exposed to low levels of arsenic. We also explored potential effect modification by plasma folate, cobalamin (vitamin B12), and pyridoxine (vitamin B6). The study population was 581 participants from the Normative Aging Study in Boston, of whom 434, 140, and 7 had 1, 2, and 3 visits, respectively, between 1999-2002 and 2006-2007. We used mixed-effects models and included interaction terms to assess potential effect modification by nutritional factors. RESULTS There was a trend of increasing Alu and decreasing LINE-1 DNA methylation as arsenic exposure increased. In subjects with plasma folate below the median (< 14.1 ng/ml), arsenic was positively associated with Alu DNA methylation (β=0.08 [95% confidence interval = 0.03 to 0.13] for one interquartile range [0.06μg/g] increase in arsenic) while a negative association was observed in subjects with plasma folate above the median (β=-0.08 [-0.17 to 0.01]). CONCLUSIONS We found an association between arsenic exposure and DNA methylation in Alu repetitive elements that varied by folate level. This suggests a potential role for nutritional factors in arsenic toxicity. PMID:22833016

  16. Estimation of annual effective dose due to natural radioactive elements in ingestion of foodstuffs in tin mining area of Jos-Plateau, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Jibiri, N N; Farai, I P; Alausa, S K

    2007-01-01

    Soils and food crops from a former tin mining location in a high background radiation area on the Jos-Plateau, Nigeria were collected and analyzed by gamma spectrometry to measure their contents of 40K, 238U and 232Th. As well as collecting samples, in situ dose rates on farms were measured using a precalibrated survey meter. Activity concentrations determined in food crops were compared with the local food derivatives or diets to investigate the possible removal or addition of radionuclides during food preparation by cooking or other means. Potassium-40 was found to contribute the highest activity in all the food products. The activity concentration of 40K, 238U and 232Th in local prepared diets ranged between 60 and 494 Bq kg-1, between BDL and 48 Bq kg-1 and between BDL and 17 Bq kg-1, respectively. The internal effective dose to individuals from the consumption of the food types was estimated on the basis of the measured radionuclide contents in the food crops. It ranged between 0.2 microSv y-1 (beans) and 2164 microSv y-1 (yam) while the annual external gamma effective dose in the farms due to soil radioactivity ranged between 228 microSv and 4065 microSv.

  17. Multi-trace element levels and arsenic speciation in urine of e-waste recycling workers from Agbogbloshie, Accra in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Asante, Kwadwo Ansong; Agusa, Tetsuro; Biney, Charles Augustus; Agyekum, William Atuobi; Bello, Mohammed; Otsuka, Masanari; Itai, Takaaki; Takahashi, Shin; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2012-05-01

    To understand human contamination by multi-trace elements (TEs) in electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) recycling site at Agbogbloshie, Accra in Ghana, this study analyzed TEs and As speciation in urine of e-waste recycling workers. Concentrations of Fe, Sb, and Pb in urine of e-waste recycling workers were significantly higher than those of reference sites after consideration of interaction by age, indicating that the recycling workers are exposed to these TEs through the recycling activity. Urinary As concentration was relatively high, although the level in drinking water was quite low. Speciation analysis of As in human urine revealed that arsenobetaine and dimethylarsinic acid were the predominant As species and concentrations of both species were positively correlated with total As concentration as well as between each other. These results suggest that such compounds may be derived from the same source, probably fish and shellfish and greatly influence As exposure levels. To our knowledge, this is the first study on human contamination resulting from the primitive recycling of e-waste in Ghana. This study will contribute to the knowledge about human exposure to trace elements from an e-waste site in a less industrialized region so far scantly covered in the literature.

  18. How Certain Trace Elements Behave.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zingaro, Ralph A.

    1979-01-01

    Fluorine, selenium, tin, and arsenic are among the trace elements occurring in the environment which are considered. Emphasis is given to developing a qualitative survey of the extent and kinds of metal transformations and their resultant effects. (CS)

  19. Radioactive decay.

    PubMed

    Groch, M W

    1998-01-01

    When a parent radionuclide decays to its daughter radionuclide by means of alpha, beta, or isomeric transition, the decay follows an exponential form, which is characterized by the decay constant lambda. The decay constant represents the probability per unit time that a single radioatom will decay. The decay equation can be used to provide a useful expression for radionuclide decay, the half-life, the time when 50% of the radioatoms present will have decayed. Radiotracer half-life has direct implications in nuclear imaging, radiation therapy, and radiation safety because radionuclide half-life affects the ability to evaluate tracer kinetics and create appropriate nuclear images and also affects organ, tumor, and whole-body radiation dose. The number of radioatoms present in a sample is equal to the activity, defined as the number of transitions per unit time, divided by the decay constant; the mass of radioatoms present in a sample can be calculated to determine the specific activity (activity per unit mass). The dynamic relationship between the number of parent and daughter atoms present over time may lead to radioactive equilibrium, which takes two forms--secular and transient--and has direct relevance to generator-produced radionuclides.

  20. Binational arsenic exposure survey: methodology and estimated arsenic intake from drinking water and urinary arsenic concentrations.

    PubMed

    Roberge, Jason; O'Rourke, Mary Kay; Meza-Montenegro, Maria Mercedes; Gutiérrez-Millán, Luis Enrique; Burgess, Jefferey L; Harris, Robin B

    2012-04-01

    The Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey (BAsES) was designed to evaluate probable arsenic exposures in selected areas of southern Arizona and northern Mexico, two regions with known elevated levels of arsenic in groundwater reserves. This paper describes the methodology of BAsES and the relationship between estimated arsenic intake from beverages and arsenic output in urine. Households from eight communities were selected for their varying groundwater arsenic concentrations in Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico. Adults responded to questionnaires and provided dietary information. A first morning urine void and water from all household drinking sources were collected. Associations between urinary arsenic concentration (total, organic, inorganic) and estimated level of arsenic consumed from water and other beverages were evaluated through crude associations and by random effects models. Median estimated total arsenic intake from beverages among participants from Arizona communities ranged from 1.7 to 14.1 µg/day compared to 0.6 to 3.4 µg/day among those from Mexico communities. In contrast, median urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations were greatest among participants from Hermosillo, Mexico (6.2 µg/L) whereas a high of 2.0 µg/L was found among participants from Ajo, Arizona. Estimated arsenic intake from drinking water was associated with urinary total arsenic concentration (p < 0.001), urinary inorganic arsenic concentration (p < 0.001), and urinary sum of species (p < 0.001). Urinary arsenic concentrations increased between 7% and 12% for each one percent increase in arsenic consumed from drinking water. Variability in arsenic intake from beverages and urinary arsenic output yielded counter intuitive results. Estimated intake of arsenic from all beverages was greatest among Arizonans yet participants in Mexico had higher urinary total and inorganic arsenic concentrations. Other contributors to urinary arsenic concentrations should be evaluated.

  1. Isotopic evidence for a link between agricultural irrigation and high arsenic concentrations in groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M.; Wang, Y.; Shock, E.

    2011-12-01

    An isotope-based survey was carried out in the Datong Basin, northern China to investigate the hydrogeology of groundwater with high arsenic concentrations. Oxygen isotope (δ18O), hydrogen isotope (δD) and radioactive hydrogen isotope (3H) measurements were conducted with the aim of characterizing the groundwater origins and flow dynamics in this arsenic-contaminated groundwater system. Groundwater dating results from 3H measurements show that groundwaters from 20m ~ 70m have a wide range of ages (10a~ 191a), indicating diverse groundwater sources. In contrast, deeper groundwaters (70m ~90m) display a narrower age range (35a ~ 47a). In addition, the shallow-aquifer (<70m), groundwaters exhibit wide variations in δ18O and δD, from -12.7% to -6.96% and -97.1% to -49.8%, respectively. Deep groundwaters (>70m) possess relatively narrower isotopic ranges and mostly lighter isotopic ratios, from -12.8% to -8.88% and -97.6% to -71.7%, respectively. Comparison with the local meteoric water line shows that groundwater δ18O and δD values plot with a shallower slope, consistent with the arid-semiarid climate of the Datong Basin, as well as a meteoric origin of the groundwater, and points to precipitation as the dominant source of recharge to the deeper aquifers in the study area. Groundwaters with high arsenic concentrations (100μg/L ~ 309μg/L) mainly occur in aquifers at depths between 20m and 70m, while shallower (<20m) and deeper (>70m) groundwaters carry relatively lower arsenic concentrations (<50μg/L). This result differs from previous studies[1] [2], which documented that groundwaters with high arsenic concentrations occur primarily in the upper aquifers (<50m). It is striking that the groundwaters with elevated arsenic concentrations are also those with the greatest diversity of tritium ages and dispersion of δ18O and δD values, suggesting that a single process may explain all three data sets. One explanation is that extensive irrigation with groundwaters

  2. Effects of soil composition and mineralogy on the bioaccessibility of arsenic from tailings and soil in gold mine districts of Nova Scotia.

    PubMed

    Meunier, Louise; Walker, Stephen R; Wragg, Joanna; Parsons, Michael B; Koch, Iris; Jamieson, Heather E; Reimer, Kenneth J

    2010-04-01

    Bioaccessibility tests and mineralogical analyses were performed on arsenic-contaminated tailings and soils from gold mine districts of Nova Scotia, Canada, to examine the links between soil composition, mineralogy, and arsenic bioaccessibility. Arsenic bioaccessibility ranges from 0.1% to 49%. A weak correlation was observed between total and bioaccessible arsenic concentrations, and the arsenic bioaccessibility was not correlated with other elements. Bulk X-ray absorption near-edge structure analysis shows arsenic in these near-surface samples is mainly in the pentavalent form, indicating that most of the arsenopyrite (As(1-)) originally present in the tailings and soils has been oxidized during weathering reactions. Detailed mineralogical analyses of individual samples have identified up to seven arsenic species, the relative proportions of which appear to affect arsenic bioaccessibility. The highest arsenic bioaccessibility (up to 49%) is associated with the presence of calcium-iron arsenate. Samples containing arsenic predominantly as arsenopyrite or scorodite have the lowest bioaccessibility (<1%). Other arsenic species identified (predominantly amorphous iron arsenates and arsenic-bearing iron(oxy)hydroxides) are associated with intermediate bioaccessibility (1 to 10%). The presence of a more soluble arsenic phase, even at low concentrations, results in increased arsenic bioaccessibility from the mixed arsenic phases associated with tailings and mine-impacted soils.

  3. Effects of Soil Composition and Mineralogy on the Bioaccessibility of Arsenic from Tailings and Soil in Gold Mine Districts of Nova Scotia

    SciTech Connect

    Meunier, Louise; Walker, Stephen R.; Wragg, Joanna; Parsons, Michael B.; Koch, Iris; Jamieson, Heather E.; Reimer, Kenneth J.

    2010-10-20

    Bioaccessibility tests and mineralogical analyses were performed on arsenic-contaminated tailings and soils from gold mine districts of Nova Scotia, Canada, to examine the links between soil composition, mineralogy, and arsenic bioaccessibility. Arsenic bioaccessibility ranges from 0.1% to 49%. A weak correlation was observed between total and bioaccessible arsenic concentrations, and the arsenic bioaccessibility was not correlated with other elements. Bulk X-ray absorption near-edge structure analysis shows arsenic in these near-surface samples is mainly in the pentavalent form, indicating that most of the arsenopyrite (As{sup 1-}) originally present in the tailings and soils has been oxidized during weathering reactions. Detailed mineralogical analyses of individual samples have identified up to seven arsenic species, the relative proportions of which appear to affect arsenic bioaccessibility. The highest arsenic bioaccessibility (up to 49%) is associated with the presence of calcium-iron arsenate. Samples containing arsenic predominantly as arsenopyrite or scorodite have the lowest bioaccessibility (<1%). Other arsenic species identified (predominantly amorphous iron arsenates and arsenic-bearing iron(oxy)hydroxides) are associated with intermediate bioaccessibility (1 to 10%). The presence of a more soluble arsenic phase, even at low concentrations, results in increased arsenic bioaccessibility from the mixed arsenic phases associated with tailings and mine-impacted soils.

  4. Water hyacinth removes arsenic from arsenic-contaminated drinking water.

    PubMed

    Misbahuddin, Mir; Fariduddin, Atm

    2002-01-01

    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) removes arsenic from arsenic-contaminated drinking water. This effect depends on several factors, such as the amount of water hyacinth, amount of arsenic present in the water, duration of exposure, and presence of sunlight and air. On the basis of the present study, the authors suggest that water hyacinth is useful for making arsenic-contaminated drinking water totally arsenic free. Water hyacinth provides a natural means of removing arsenic from drinking water at the household level without monetary cost.

  5. Size-dependent characterisation of historical gold mine wastes to examine human pathways of exposure to arsenic and other potentially toxic elements.

    PubMed

    Martin, Rachael; Dowling, Kim; Pearce, Dora C; Florentine, Singarayer; Bennett, John W; Stopic, Attila

    2016-10-01

    Abandoned historical gold mining wastes often exist as geographically extensive, unremediated, and poorly contained deposits that contain elevated levels of As and other potentially toxic elements (PTEs). One of the key variables governing human exposure to PTEs in mine waste is particle size. By applying a size-resolved approach to mine waste characterisation, this study reports on the proportions of mine waste relevant to human exposure and mobility, as well as their corresponding PTE concentrations, in four distinct historical mine wastes from the gold province in Central Victoria, Australia. To the best of our knowledge, such a detailed investigation and comparison of historical mining wastes has not been conducted in this mining-affected region. Mass distribution analysis revealed notable proportions of waste material in the readily ingestible size fraction (≤250 µm; 36.1-75.6 %) and the dust size fraction (≤100 µm; 5.9-45.6 %), suggesting a high potential for human exposure and dust mobilisation. Common to all mine waste types were statistically significant inverse trends between particle size and levels of As and Zn. Enrichment of As in the finest investigated size fraction (≤53 µm) is of particular concern as these particles are highly susceptible to long-distance atmospheric transport. Human populations that reside in the prevailing wind direction from a mine waste deposit may be at risk of As exposure via inhalation and/or ingestion pathways. Enrichment of PTEs in the finer size fractions indicates that human health risk assessments based on bulk contaminant concentrations may underestimate potential exposure intensities.

  6. A survey of arsenic, manganese, boron, thorium, and other toxic metals in the groundwater of a West Bengal, India neighbourhood.

    PubMed

    Bacquart, Thomas; Bradshaw, Kelly; Frisbie, Seth; Mitchell, Erika; Springston, George; Defelice, Jeffrey; Dustin, Hannah; Sarkar, Bibudhendra

    2012-07-01

    Around 150 million people are at risk from arsenic-contaminated groundwater in India and Bangladesh. Multiple metal analysis in Bangladesh has found other toxic elements above the World Health Organization (WHO) health-based drinking water guidelines which significantly increases the number of people at risk due to drinking groundwater. In this study, drinking water samples from the Bongaon area (North 24 Parganas district, West Bengal, India) were analyzed for multiple metal contamination in order to evaluate groundwater quality on the neighbourhood scale. Each sample was analyzed for arsenic (As), boron (B), barium (Ba), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and uranium (U). Arsenic was found above the WHO health-based drinking water guideline in 50% of these tubewells. Mn and B were found at significant concentrations in 19% and 6% of these tubewells, respectively. The maps of As, Mn, and B concentrations suggest that approximately 75% of this area has no safe tubewells. The concentrations of As, Mn, B, and many other toxic elements are independent of each other. The concentrations of Pb and U were not found above WHO health-based drinking water guidelines but they were statistically related to each other (p-value = 0.001). An analysis of selected isotopes in the Uranium, Actinium, and Thorium Radioactive Decay Series revealed the presence of thorium (Th) in 31% of these tubewells. This discovery of Th, which does not have a WHO health-based drinking water guideline, is a potential public health challenge. In sum, the widespread presence and independent distribution of other metals besides As must be taken into consideration for drinking water remediation strategies involving well switching or home-scale water treatment.

  7. Bioaccessibility of lead and arsenic in traditional Indian medicines

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Iris; Moriarty, Maeve; House, Kim; Sui, Jie; Cullen, William R.; Saper, Robert B.; Reimer, Kenneth J.

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic and lead have been found in a number of traditional Ayurvedic medicines, and the practice of Rasa Shastra (combining herbs with metals, minerals and gems), or plant ingredients that contain these elements, may be possible sources. To obtain an estimate of arsenic and lead solubility in the human gastrointestinal tract, bioaccessibility of the two elements was measured in 42 medicines, using a physiologically-based extraction test. The test consisted of a gastric phase at pH 1.8 containing organic acids, pepsin and salt, followed by an intestinal phase, at pH 7 and containing bile and pancreatin. Arsenic speciation was measured in a subset of samples that had sufficiently high arsenic concentrations for the X-ray absorption near edge structure analysis used. Bioaccessible lead was found in 76% of samples, with a large range of bioaccessibility results, but only 29% of samples had bioaccessible arsenic. Lead bioaccessibility was high (close to 100%) in a medicine (Mahayograj Guggulu) that had been compounded with bhasmas (calcined minerals), including naga (lead) bhasma. For the samples in which arsenic speciation was measured, bioaccessible arsenic was correlated with the sum of As(V)–O and As(III)–O and negatively correlated with As–S. These results suggest that the bioaccessible species in the samples had been oxidized from assumed As–S raw medicinal ingredients (realgar, As4S4, added to naga (lead) bhasma and As(III)–S species in plants). Consumption at recommended doses of all medicines with bioaccessibile lead or arsenic would lead to the exceedance of at least one standard for acceptable daily intake of toxic elements. PMID:21864885

  8. Chromated Arsenicals (CCA)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) is a wood preservative pesticide containing chromium, copper, and arsenic that protects wood against termites, fungi, mites and other pests that can degrade or threaten the integrity of wood products.

  9. ENZYMOLOGY OF ARSENIC METHYLATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enzymology of Arsenic Methylation

    David J. Thomas, Pharmacokinetics Branch, Experimental Toxicology Division, National
    Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park...

  10. Studying the effect of radioactive wastes at the Ak-Tyuz deposit on radionuclide and elemental composition of water objects of Kichi-Kemin River.

    PubMed

    Solodukhin, V; Poznyak, V

    2015-06-01

    This article reports on radionuclide and elemental composition studies of water and bottom sediment samples taken from Kichi-Kemin River in vicinity of the industrial area of the Ak-Tyuz thorium deposit in Kyrgyzstan near the border with Kazakhstan. The methods used included instrumental γ-spectrometry, neutron activation analysis, X-ray fluorescent analysis and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The obtained results demonstrated the pronounced negative anthropogenic impact of this area on the quality of water in the Kichi-Kemin River imposing radiological hazards on this tributary of the trans-boundary Shu River.

  11. Barium inhibits arsenic-mediated apoptotic cell death in human squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yajima, Ichiro; Uemura, Noriyuki; Nizam, Saika; Khalequzzaman, Md; Thang, Nguyen D; Kumasaka, Mayuko Y; Akhand, Anwarul A; Shekhar, Hossain U; Nakajima, Tamie; Kato, Masashi

    2012-06-01

    Our fieldwork showed more than 1 μM (145.1 μg/L) barium in about 3 μM (210.7 μg/L) arsenic-polluted drinking well water (n = 72) in cancer-prone areas in Bangladesh, while the mean concentrations of nine other elements in the water were less than 3 μg/L. The types of cancer include squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). We hypothesized that barium modulates arsenic-mediated biological effects, and we examined the effect of barium (1 μM) on arsenic (3 μM)-mediated apoptotic cell death of human HSC-5 and A431 SCC cells in vitro. Arsenic promoted SCC apoptosis with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and JNK1/2 and caspase-3 activation (apoptotic pathway). In contrast, arsenic also inhibited SCC apoptosis with increased NF-κB activity and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) expression level and decreased JNK activity (antiapoptotic pathway). These results suggest that arsenic bidirectionally promotes apoptotic and antiapoptotic pathways in SCC cells. Interestingly, barium in the presence of arsenic increased NF-κB activity and XIAP expression and decreased JNK activity without affecting ROS production, resulting in the inhibition of the arsenic-mediated apoptotic pathway. Since the anticancer effect of arsenic is mainly dependent on cancer apoptosis, barium-mediated inhibition of arsenic-induced apoptosis may promote progression of SCC in patients in Bangladesh who keep drinking barium and arsenic-polluted water after the development of cancer. Thus, we newly showed that barium in the presence of arsenic might inhibit arsenic-mediated cancer apoptosis with the modulation of the balance between arsenic-mediated promotive and suppressive apoptotic pathways.

  12. Reactor radioactive emission monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Jester, W.A.; Mc Master, I.B.; Baratta, A.J.

    1987-05-05

    This patent describes a means for measuring quantities of a selected radioactive component in a stream of radioactive fluid. The means comprise: a first fluid path with a first means for retaining the selected radioactive component mounted in the fluid path for retaining the radioactive component while passing the remainder of the stream of radioactive fluid; a second fluid path with a second means for retaining the selected radioactive component mounted in the second fluid path for retaining the radioactive component while passing the remainder of the stream of the radioactive fluid; first and second detectors for detecting the level of radioactivity emitted by the retained radioactive component in the first and second retaining means; a means for integrating the output of one or more of the detectors as a function of time to measure any increase in the radioactivity emitted by the radioactive component retained by the retaining means, and the increase being representative of the amount of selected radioactive component present in the stream of radioactive fluid.

  13. Process for decontaminating radioactive liquids using a calcium cyanamide-containing composition. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Silver, G.L.

    1980-09-24

    The present invention provides a process for decontaminating a radioactive liquid containing a radioactive element capable of forming a hydroxide. This process includes the steps of contacting the radioactive liquid with a decontaminating composition and separating the resulting radioactive sludge from the resulting liquid. The decontaminating composition contains calcium cyanamide.

  14. Determination of Arsenic in Sinus Wash and Tap Water by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnell, Anna M.; Nahan, Keaton; Holloway, Dawone; Vonderheide, Anne P.

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic is a toxic element to which humans are primarily exposed through food and water; it occurs as a result of human activities and naturally from the earth's crust. An experiment was developed for a senior level analytical laboratory utilizing an Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) for the analysis of arsenic in household…

  15. RADIO-ACTIVE TRANSDUCER

    DOEpatents

    Wanetick, S.

    1962-03-01

    ABS>ure the change in velocity of a moving object. The transducer includes a radioactive source having a collimated beam of radioactive particles, a shield which can block the passage of the radioactive beam, and a scintillation detector to measure the number of radioactive particles in the beam which are not blocked by the shield. The shield is operatively placed across the radioactive beam so that any motion normal to the beam will cause the shield to move in the opposite direction thereby allowing more radioactive particles to reach the detector. The number of particles detected indicates the acceleration. (AEC)

  16. Arsenic (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water Waterborne Diseases & Illnesses Water Cycle Water Treatment Videos Games Experiments For Teachers Home ... Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water Waterborne Diseases & Illnesses Water Cycle Water Treatment Arsenic The Basics Arsenic is an ...

  17. The environmental geochemistry of Arsenic – An overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowell, Robert J; Alpers, Charles N.; Jamieson, Heather E; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Majzlan, Juraj

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is one of the most prevalent toxic elements in the environment. The toxicity, mobility, and fate of arsenic in the environment are determined by a complex series of controls dependent on mineralogy, chemical speciation, and biological processes. The element was first described by Theophrastus in 300 B.C. and named arsenikon (also arrhenicon; Caley and Richards 1956) referring to its “potent” nature, although it was originally considered an alternative form of sulfur (Boyle and Jonasson 1973). Arsenikon is believed to be derived from the earlier Persian, zarnik (online etymology dictionary, http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=arsenic). It was not until the thirteenth century that an alchemist, Albertus Magnus, was able to isolate the element from orpiment, an arsenic sulfide (As2S3). The complex chemistry required to do this led to arsenic being considered a “bastard metal” or what we now call a “metalloid,” having properties of both metals and non-metals. As a chemical element, arsenic is widely distributed in nature and can be concentrated in many different ways. In the Earth’s crust, arsenic is concentrated by magmatic and hydrothermal processes and has been used as a “pathfinder” for metallic ore deposits, particularly gold, tin, copper, and tungsten (Boyle and Jonasson 1973; Cohen and Bowell 2014). It has for centuries been considered a potent toxin, is a common poison in actual and fictional crimes, and has led to significant impacts on human health in many areas of the world (Cullen 2008; Wharton 2010).

  18. Crop Uptake of Arsenic from Flooded Paddy Fields in the Mekong Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, K.; Boye, K.

    2014-12-01

    Arsenic is found naturally in the soils in the Mekong delta in Vietnam and Cambodia. It originates from erosion in the Himalayas. When similar levels of arsenic are present in well aerated soil, it is not dangerous, because it is strongly bound to soil particles and not readily plant available. Arsenic is released when the soil is saturated with water, and therefore contaminates crops grown in flooded fields. This results in people being exposed to unsafe levels of arsenic from their food, such as rice and lotus, which are normally grown under flooded conditions. Rice is a staple food in these regions, so the transfer of arsenic from soil, to water, and ultimately into the grain, poses a threat to human health. We have conducted a limited, preliminary field survey of arsenic levels in soil, flood water, and crops from distinctly different paddy fields in the lower Mekong delta in Vietnam and Cambodia. The purpose of the study was to identify soils and crops (or specific plant parts) that are especially prone to arsenic transfer from soil to crop, and vice versa (i.e. arsenic uptake is prevented in spite of being present in the soil). In addition to arsenic concentration in soil, plant and water, we are examining other elements, such as carbon, nitrogen, sulfur and iron, which give us clues about what chemical and microbial processes that control the overall arsenic uptake.

  19. ELECTRONIC ANALOG COMPUTER FOR DETERMINING RADIOACTIVE DISINTEGRATION

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, H.P.

    1959-07-14

    A computer is presented for determining growth and decay curves for elements in a radioactive disintegration series wherein one unstable element decays to form a second unstable element or isotope, which in turn forms a third element, etc. The growth and decay curves of radioactive elements are simulated by the charge and discharge curves of a resistance-capacitance network. Several such networks having readily adjustable values are connected in series with an amplifier between each successive pair. The time constant of each of the various networks is set proportional to the half-life of a corresponding element in the series represented and the charge and discharge curves of each of the networks simulates the element growth and decay curve.

  20. Issues of natural radioactivity in phosphates

    SciTech Connect

    Schnug, E.; Haneklaus, S.; Schnier, C.; Scholten, L.C.

    1996-12-31

    The fertilization of phosphorus (P) fertilizers is essential in agricultural production, but phosphates contain in dependence on their origin different amounts of trace elements. The problem of cadmium (Cd) loads and other heavy metals is well known. However, only a limited number of investigations examined the contamination of phosphates with the two heaviest metals, uranium (U) and thorium (Th), which are radioactive. Also potassium (K) is lightly radioactive. Measurements are done n the radioactivity content of phosphates, P fertilizers and soils. The radiation doses to workers and public as well as possible contamination of soils from phosphate rock or fertilizer caused by these elements or their daughter products is of interest with regard to radiation protection. The use of P fertilizers is necessary for a sustainable agriculture, but it involves radioactive contamination of soils. The consequences of the use of P fertilizers is discussed, also with regard to existing and proposed legislation. 11 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. On-Line Analysis and Kinetic Behavior of Arsenic Release during Coal Combustion and Pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Fenghua; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Zhen; Dai, Jinxin

    2015-11-17

    The kinetic behavior of arsenic (As) release during coal combustion and pyrolysis in a fluidized bed was investigated by applying an on-line analysis system of trace elements in flue gas. This system, based on inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), was developed to measure trace elements concentrations in flue gas quantitatively and continuously. Obvious variations of arsenic concentration in flue gas were observed during coal combustion and pyrolysis, indicating strong influences of atmosphere and temperature on arsenic release behavior. Kinetic laws governing the arsenic release during coal combustion and pyrolysis were determined based on the results of instantaneous arsenic concentration in flue gas. A second-order kinetic law was determined for arsenic release during coal combustion, and the arsenic release during coal pyrolysis followed a fourth-order kinetic law. The results showed that the arsenic release rate during coal pyrolysis was faster than that during coal combustion. Thermodynamic calculations were carried out to identify the forms of arsenic in vapor and solid phases during coal combustion and pyrolysis, respectively. Ca3(AsO4)2 and Ca(AsO2)2 are the possible species resulting from As-Ca interaction during coal combustion. Ca(AsO2)2 is the most probable species during coal pyrolysis.

  2. Evaluation of potential effects of soil available phosphorus on soil arsenic availability and paddy rice inorganic arsenic content.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei; Hou, Qingye; Yang, Zhongfang; Zhong, Cong; Zheng, Guodong; Yang, Zhiqiang; Li, Jie

    2014-05-01

    The transfer of arsenic from paddy field to rice is a major exposure route of the highly toxic element to humans. The aim of our study is to explore the effects of soil available phosphorus on As uptake by rice, and identify the effects of soil properties on arsenic transfer from soil to rice under actual field conditions. 56 pairs of topsoil and rice samples were collected. The relevant parameters in soil and the inorganic arsenic in rice grains were analyzed, and then all the results were treated by statistical methods. Results show that the main factors influencing the uptake by rice grain include soil pH and available phosphorus. The eventual impact of phosphorus is identified as the suppression of As uptake by rice grains. The competition for transporters from soil to roots between arsenic and phosphorus in rhizosphere soil has been a dominant feature.

  3. ARSENIC REMOVAL COST ESTIMATING PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Arsenic Removal Cost Estimating program (Excel) calculates the costs for using adsorptive media and anion exchange treatment systems to remove arsenic from drinking water. The program is an easy-to-use tool to estimate capital and operating costs for three types of arsenic re...

  4. PATHWAY OF INORGANIC ARSENIC METABOLISM

    EPA Science Inventory

    A remarkable aspect of the metabolism of inorganic arsenic in humans is its conversion to methylated metabolites. These metabolites account for most of the arsenic found in urine after exposure to inorganic arsenic. At least some of the adverse health effects attributed to inor...

  5. PROPOSED CARCINOGENIC MECHANISMS FOR ARSENIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    PROPOSED CARCINOGENIC MECHANISMS FOR ARSENIC.

    Arsenic is a human carcinogen in skin, lung, liver, urinary bladder and kidney. In contrast,
    there is no accepted experimental animal model of inorganic arsenic carcinogenesis.
    Proposed mechanisms/modes of action for a...

  6. A laboratory activity for teaching natural radioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilakouta, M.; Savidou, A.; Vasileiadou, S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an educational approach for teaching natural radioactivity using commercial granite samples. A laboratory activity focusing on the topic of natural radioactivity is designed to develop the knowledge and understanding of undergraduate university students on the topic of radioactivity, to appreciate the importance of environmental radioactivity and familiarize them with the basic technology used in radioactivity measurements. The laboratory activity is divided into three parts: (i) measurements of the count rate with a Geiger-Muller counter of some granite samples and the ambient background radiation rate, (ii) measurement of one of the samples using gamma ray spectrometry with a NaI detector and identification of the radioactive elements of the sample, (iii) using already recorded 24 h gamma ray spectra of the samples from the first part (from the Granite Gamma-Ray Spectrum Library (GGRSL) of our laboratory) and analyzing selected peaks in the spectrum, students estimate the contribution of each radioactive element to the total specific activity of each sample. A brief description of the activity as well as some results and their interpretation are presented.

  7. Concentrations of arsenic, antimony, and boron in steam and steam condensate at The Geysers, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, C.L.; Ficklin, W.H.; Thompson, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Studies at The Geysers Geothermal Field, California indicate that under some circumstances elements that are transported in the vapor phase can become enriched in the liquid phase. Waters from two condensate traps (steam traps) on steam lines at The Geysers are enriched with arsenic, antimony, and boron compared to the concentrations of these elements in coexisting steam. Concentrations of boron in condensate-trap waters were as high as 160 mg/L, arsenic as high as 35 mg/L, and antimony as high as 200 ??g/L. Enrichment of arsenic, antimony, and boron is at least partially controlled by the partitioning of these elements into the liquid phase, according to their vapor-liquid distribution coefficients, after they are transported in steam. Several of the elements that are most soluble in steam, including arsenic and antimony, are part of the trace-element suite that characterizes precious-metal epithermal ore deposits. ?? 1987.

  8. Determination of total arsenic and arsenic species in drinking water, surface water, wastewater, and snow from Wielkopolska, Kujawy-Pomerania, and Lower Silesia provinces, Poland.

    PubMed

    Komorowicz, Izabela; Barałkiewicz, Danuta

    2016-09-01

    Arsenic is a ubiquitous element which may be found in surface water, groundwater, and drinking water. In higher concentrations, this element is considered genotoxic and carcinogenic; thus, its level must be strictly controlled. We investigated the concentration of total arsenic and arsenic species: As(III), As(V), MMA, DMA, and AsB in drinking water, surface water, wastewater, and snow collected from the provinces of Wielkopolska, Kujawy-Pomerania, and Lower Silesia (Poland). The total arsenic was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and arsenic species were analyzed with use of high-performance liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC/ICP-MS). Obtained results revealed that maximum total arsenic concentration determined in drinking water samples was equal to 1.01 μg L(-1). The highest concentration of total arsenic in surface water, equal to 3778 μg L(-1) was determined in Trująca Stream situated in the area affected by geogenic arsenic contamination. Total arsenic concentration in wastewater samples was comparable to those determined in drinking water samples. However, significantly higher arsenic concentration, equal to 83.1 ± 5.9 μg L(-1), was found in a snow sample collected in Legnica. As(V) was present in all of the investigated samples, and in most of them, it was the sole species observed. However, in snow sample collected in Legnica, more than 97 % of the determined concentration, amounting to 81 ± 11 μg L(-1), was in the form of As(III), the most toxic arsenic species.

  9. Radioactive diagnostic agent

    SciTech Connect

    Shigematsu, A.; Aihara, M.; Matsuda, M.; Suzuki, A.; Tsuya, A.

    1984-02-07

    A radioactive diagnostic agent for renal cortex, adrenal cortex, myocardium, brain stem, spinal nerve, etc., which comprises as an essential component monoiodoacetic acid wherein the iodine atom is radioactive.

  10. Radioactive Iodine (Radioiodine) Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Stage Thyroid Cancer Treating Thyroid Cancer Radioactive Iodine (Radioiodine) Therapy for Thyroid Cancer Your thyroid gland absorbs nearly all of the iodine in your body. When radioactive iodine (RAI), also ...

  11. Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase and the methylation of arsenicals in the invertebrate chordate Ciona intestinalis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biotransformation of inorganic arsenic (iAs) involves methylation catalyzed by arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (As3mt), yielding mono- , di- , and trimethylated arsenicals. To investigate the evolution of molecular mechanisms that mediate arsenic biotransformation,...

  12. Toxic Compounds in Our Food: Arsenic Uptake By Rice and Potential Mitigation By Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyfferth, A.; Gill, R.; Penido, E.

    2014-12-01

    Arsenic is a ubiquitous element in soils worldwide and has the potential to negatively impact human and ecosystem health under certain biogeochemical conditions. While arsenic is relatively immobile in most oxidized soils due to a high affinity for soil solids, arsenic becomes mobilized under reduced soil conditions due to the reductive dissolution of iron(III) oxides thereby releasing soil-bound arsenic. Since arsenic is a well-known carcinogen, this plant-soil process has the potential to negatively impact the lives of billions of rice consumers worldwide upon plant uptake and grain storage of released arsenic. Moreover, arsenic uptake by rice is excacerbated by the use of As-laden groundwater for rice irrigation. One proposed strategy to decrease arsenic uptake by rice plants is via an increase in dissolved silicon in paddy soil solution (pore-water), since silicic acid and arsenous acid share an uptake pathway. However, several soil processes that influence arsenic cycling may be affected by silicon including desorption from bulk soil, formation and mineralogy of iron(III) oxide plaque, and adsorption/desorption onto/from iron plaque; the effect of silicon on these soil processes will ultimately dictate the effectiveness of altered dissolved silicon in decreasing arsenic uptake at the root, which in turn dictates the concentration of arsenic found in grains. Furthermore, the source of silicon may impact carbon cycling and, in particular, methane emissions. Here, impacts of altered dissolved silicon on processes that affect rhizospheric biogeochemical cycling of arsenic and subsequent plant-uptake, and how it influences other biogeochemical cycles such as carbon and iron are investigated. We show that silicon can decrease arsenic uptake and grain storage under certain conditions, and that altered silicon affects the type of iron (III) oxide that comprises iron plaque.

  13. A novel arsenic removal process for water using cupric oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Reddy, K J; McDonald, K J; King, H

    2013-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that the cupric oxide (CuO) nanoparticles effectively adsorb aqueous arsenic species under a wide range of water chemistries. However, to develop CuO nanotechnology to a field application level, further studies are necessary. Batch adsorption kinetic experiments were conducted to determine the time course of uptake of arsenic by CuO nanoparticles. A reactor with CuO nanoparticles was developed to conduct continuous flow-through experiments to filter arsenic from groundwater samples. Groundwater samples spiked with 100 μg/L of arsenic were passed through (1L/h) the flow-through reactor. Samples from the flow-through reactor were collected at a regular interval and analyzed for arsenic and other chemical components (e.g., pH, major and trace elements). The CuO nanoparticles adsorbed with arsenic were regenerated with a sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution and tested again in the flow-through reactor. Three natural groundwater samples with above 10 μg/L of arsenic were also tested with the flow-through reactor. The arsenic adsorption process by CuO nanoparticles was kinetically rapid and followed the pseudo-second-order rate. The continuous flow-through reactor with CuO nanoparticles was effective in filtering arsenic from spiked or natural groundwater. The regenerated CuO nanoparticles were also effective in filtering arsenic from groundwater. Arsenic mass balance data from regeneration studies suggested that 99% of input arsenic concentration was recovered. The CuO nanoparticle treatment did not show any discernible effects on the chemical quality of groundwater samples. Results of this study suggest that CuO nanoparticles show potential for developing a simple process for field applications to remove arsenic from water.

  14. Radioactivity and uranium content of some Cretaceous shales, central Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tourtelot, Harry A.

    1955-01-01

    The Sharon Springs member of the Pierre shale of Cretaceous age, a hard black organic-rich shale similar to the Chattanooga shale, is radioactive throughout central and western South Dakota, most of Nebraska, northern Kansas, and northeastern Colorado. In the Missouri River valley, thin beds of the shale contain as much as 0.01 percent uranium. Beds as much as 20 feet thick or more have a radioactivity of about 0.01 percent equivalent uranium in southwestern Nebraska according to interpretation of gamma-ray well logs. The radioactivity and uranium content is highest in the Missouri River valley in South Dakota and in southwestern Nebraska where the shale rests disconformably on the underlying Niobrara formation of Cretaceous age. Near the Black Hills, and in the area to the north, the shale of the Sharon Springs member rests on a wedge of the Gammon ferruginous member of the Pierre, which is represented by a disonformity to the east and south, and the radioactivity of the shale is low although greater than that of over-lying strata. The shale also contains a suite of trace elements in which arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and vanadium are conspicuous. Molybdenum and tin are less abundant in the Sharon Springs than in similar shales of Palezoic age and silver and selenium are more abundant. In the Great Plains region, the upper 30-50 feet of Cretaceous shales overlain unconformably by the White River group of Oligocene age has been altered to bright-colored material. This altered zone is chiefly the result of pre-Oligocene weathering although post-Oligocene ground water conditions also have affected the zone. The greatest radioactivity occurs in masses of unaltered shale measuring about 1 x 4 feet in cross section included in the lower part of the altered zone. Where the zone is developed on shale and marl of the Niobrara formation, parts of the included unaltered shale contains as much as 0.1 percent equivalent uranium and 0

  15. Radioactivity level and toxic elemental concentration in groundwater at Dei-Dei and Kubwa areas of Abuja, north-central Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxwell, O.; Wagiran, H.; Lee, S. K.; Embong, Z.; Ugwuoke, P. E.

    2015-02-01

    The activity concentrations of uranium and toxic elements in Dei-Dei borehole, Kubwa borehole, Water Board and hand-dug well water samples in Abuja area were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) system. The results obtained were used to calculate human radiological risk over lifetime consumption by the inhabitants in the area. The activity concentrations of 238U in all the water supplies for drinking ranges from 0.849 mBq L-1 to 2.699 mBq L-1 with the highest value of 2.699 mBq L-1 noted at Dei-Dei borehole whereas the lowest value of 0.849 mBq L-1 was noted in Kubwa borehole. The highest annual effective dose from natural 238U in all the water samples was found in Dei-Dei borehole with a value of 8.9×10-5 mSv y-1 whereas the lowest value was noted in Kubwa borehole with a value of 2.8×10-5 mSv y-1. The radiological risks for cancer mortality were found distinctly low, with the highest value of 1.01×10-7 reported at Dei-Dei borehole compared to Kubwa borehole with a value of 3.01×10-8. The cancer morbidity risk was noted higher in Dei-Dei borehole with a value of 1.55×10-7 whereas lower value of 4.88×10-9 was reported in Kubwa borehole. The chemical toxicity risk of 238U in drinking water over a lifetime consumption has a value of 0.006 μg kg-1 day-1 in Dei-Dei borehole whereas lower value of 0.002 μg kg-1 day-1 was found in Kubwa borehole. Measured lead (Pb) and chromium (Cr) concentrations reported higher in Water Board compared to Dei-Dei and Kubwa borehole samples. Significantly, this study inferred that the 238U concentrations originate from granitic strata of the tectonic events in the area; thus, there was a trend of diffusion towards north to south and re-deposition towards Dei-Dei area.

  16. Characterizations of intracellular arsenic in a bacterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe-Simon, F.; Yannone, S. M.; Tainer, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    Life requires a key set of chemical elements to sustain growth. Yet, a growing body of literature suggests that microbes can alter their nutritional requirements based on the availability of these chemical elements. Under limiting conditions for one element microbes have been shown to utilize a variety of other elements to serve similar functions often (but not always) in similar molecular structures. Well-characterized elemental exchanges include manganese for iron, tungsten for molybdenum and sulfur for phosphorus or oxygen. These exchanges can be found in a wide variety of biomolecules ranging from protein to lipids and DNA. Recent evidence suggested that arsenic, as arsenate or As(V), was taken up and incorporated into the cellular material of the bacterium GFAJ-1. The evidence was interpreted to support As(V) acting in an analogous role to phosphate. We will therefore discuss our ongoing efforts to characterize intracellular arsenate and how it may partition among the cellular fractions of the microbial isolate GFAJ-1 when exposed to As(V) in the presence of various levels of phosphate. Under high As(V) conditions, cells express a dramatically different proteome than when grown given only phosphate. Ongoing studies on the diversity and potential role of proteins and metabolites produced in the presence of As(V) will be reported. These investigations promise to inform the role and additional metabolic potential for As in biology. Arsenic assimilation into biomolecules contributes to the expanding set of chemical elements utilized by microbes in unusual environmental niches.

  17. Arsenic Speciation of Terrestrial Invertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Moriarty, M.M.; Koch, I.; Gordon, R.A.; Reimer, K.J. ); )

    2009-07-01

    The distribution and chemical form (speciation) of arsenic in terrestrial food chains determines both the amount of arsenic available to higher organisms, and the toxicity of this metalloid in affected ecosystems. Invertebrates are part of complex terrestrial food webs. This paper provides arsenic concentrations and arsenic speciation profiles for eight orders of terrestrial invertebrates collected at three historical gold mine sites and one background site in Nova Scotia, Canada. Total arsenic concentrations, determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), were dependent upon the classification of invertebrate. Arsenic species were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) ICP-MS and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Invertebrates were found by HPLC ICP-MS to contain predominantly arsenite and arsenate in methanol/water extracts, while XAS revealed that most arsenic is bound to sulfur in vivo. Examination of the spatial distribution of arsenic within an ant tissue highlighted the differences between exogenous and endogenous arsenic, as well as the extent to which arsenic is transformed upon ingestion. Similar arsenic speciation patterns for invertebrate groups were observed across sites. Trace amounts of arsenobetaine and arsenocholine were identified in slugs, ants, and spiders.

  18. Environmental source of arsenic exposure.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jin-Yong; Yu, Seung-Do; Hong, Young-Seoub

    2014-09-01

    Arsenic is a ubiquitous, naturally occurring metalloid that may be a significant risk factor for cancer after exposure to contaminated drinking water, cigarettes, foods, industry, occupational environment, and air. Among the various routes of arsenic exposure, drinking water is the largest source of arsenic poisoning worldwide. Arsenic exposure from ingested foods usually comes from food crops grown in arsenic-contaminated soil and/or irrigated with arsenic-contaminated water. According to a recent World Health Organization report, arsenic from contaminated water can be quickly and easily absorbed and depending on its metabolic form, may adversely affect human health. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration regulations for metals found in cosmetics to protect consumers against contaminations deemed deleterious to health; some cosmetics were found to contain a variety of chemicals including heavy metals, which are sometimes used as preservatives. Moreover, developing countries tend to have a growing number of industrial factories that unfortunately, harm the environment, especially in cities where industrial and vehicle emissions, as well as household activities, cause serious air pollution. Air is also an important source of arsenic exposure in areas with industrial activity. The presence of arsenic in airborne particulate matter is considered a risk for certain diseases. Taken together, various potential pathways of arsenic exposure seem to affect humans adversely, and future efforts to reduce arsenic exposure caused by environmental factors should be made.

  19. Environmental Source of Arsenic Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jin-Yong; Yu, Seung-Do; Hong, Young-Seoub

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is a ubiquitous, naturally occurring metalloid that may be a significant risk factor for cancer after exposure to contaminated drinking water, cigarettes, foods, industry, occupational environment, and air. Among the various routes of arsenic exposure, drinking water is the largest source of arsenic poisoning worldwide. Arsenic exposure from ingested foods usually comes from food crops grown in arsenic-contaminated soil and/or irrigated with arsenic-contaminated water. According to a recent World Health Organization report, arsenic from contaminated water can be quickly and easily absorbed and depending on its metabolic form, may adversely affect human health. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration regulations for metals found in cosmetics to protect consumers against contaminations deemed deleterious to health; some cosmetics were found to contain a variety of chemicals including heavy metals, which are sometimes used as preservatives. Moreover, developing countries tend to have a growing number of industrial factories that unfortunately, harm the environment, especially in cities where industrial and vehicle emissions, as well as household activities, cause serious air pollution. Air is also an important source of arsenic exposure in areas with industrial activity. The presence of arsenic in airborne particulate matter is considered a risk for certain diseases. Taken together, various potential pathways of arsenic exposure seem to affect humans adversely, and future efforts to reduce arsenic exposure caused by environmental factors should be made. PMID:25284196

  20. ELUCIDATING THE PATHWAY FOR ARSENIC METHYLATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enzymatically-catalyzed methylation of arsenic is part of a metabolic pathway that converts inorganic arsenic into methylated products. Hence, in humans chronically exposed to inorganic arsenic, methyl and dimethyl arsenic account for most of the arsenic that is excreted in the ...

  1. ARSENIC SPECIATION ANALYSIS IN HUMAN SALIVA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Determination of arsenic species in human saliva is potentially useful for biomonitoring of human exposure to arsenic and for studying arsenic metabolism. However, there is no report on the speciation analysis of arsenic in saliva. Methods: Arsenic species in saliva ...

  2. Arsenic doped zinc oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Volbers, N.; Lautenschlaeger, S.; Leichtweiss, T.; Laufer, A.; Graubner, S.; Meyer, B. K.; Potzger, K.; Zhou Shengqiang

    2008-06-15

    As-doping of zinc oxide has been approached by ion implantation and chemical vapor deposition. The effect of thermal annealing on the implanted samples has been investigated by using secondary ion mass spectrometry and Rutherford backscattering/channeling geometry. The crystal damage, the distribution of the arsenic, the diffusion of impurities, and the formation of secondary phases is discussed. For the thin films grown by vapor deposition, the composition has been determined with regard to the growth parameters. The bonding state of arsenic was investigated for both series of samples using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  3. ARSENIC REMOVAL TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR SINGLE FAMILY HOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation provides information on POU and POE arsenic removal drinking water treatment systems. The presentation provides information on the arsenic rule, arsenic chemistry and arsenic treatment. The arsenic treatment options proposed for POU and POE treatment consist prim...

  4. Efficacy of arsenic filtration by Kanchan arsenic filter in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anjana; Smith, Linda S; Shrestha, Shreekrishna; Maden, Narendra

    2014-09-01

    Groundwater arsenic contamination has caused a significant public health burden in lowland regions of Nepal. For arsenic mitigation purposes, the Kanchan Arsenic Filter (KAF) was developed and validated for use in 2003 after pilot studies showed its effectiveness in removing arsenic. However, its efficacy in field conditions operating for a long period has been scarcely observed. In this study, we observe the efficacy of KAFs running over 6 months in highly arsenic-affected households in Nawalparasi district. We assessed pair-wise arsenic concentrations of 62 randomly selected household tubewells before filtration and after filtration via KAFs. Of 62 tubewells, 41 had influent arsenic concentration exceeding the Nepal drinking water quality standard value (50 μg/L). Of the 41 tubewells having unsafe arsenic levels, KAFs reduced arsenic concentration to the safe level for only 22 tubewells, an efficacy of 54%. In conclusion, we did not find significantly high efficacy of KAFs in reducing unsafe influent arsenic level to the safe level under the in situ field conditions.

  5. EPA STUDIES OF ARSENIC SPECIATION IN SEAFOOD MATRICES WITH AN EMPHASIS ON EXTRACTABILITY AND ARSENOSUGAR INTEGRITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The anthropogenic and geological occurrence of arsenic (As) results in human exposure to a potentially carcinogenic element. The two predominant pathways to As exposure are drinking water (DW) and dietary ingestion (DI). DW exposures are almost exclusively toxic inorganic As. ...

  6. Life Redefined: Microbes Built with Arsenic

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, Sam

    2011-03-22

    Life can survive in many harsh environments, from extreme heat to the presence of deadly chemicals. However, life as we know it has always been based on the same six elements -- carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, sulfur and phosphorus. Now it appears that even this rule has an exception. In the saline and poisonous environment of Mono Lake, researchers have found a bacterium that can grow by incorporating arsenic into its structure in place of phosphorus. X-ray images taken at SLAC's synchrotron light source reveal that this microbe may even use arsenic as a building block for DNA. Please join us as we describe this discovery, which rewrites the textbook description of how living cells work.

  7. Biogeochemistry of arsenic and antimony in the North Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutter, Gregory A.; Cutter, Lynda S.

    2006-05-01

    The biogeochemical cycles of the metalloid elements arsenic and antimony were examined along a 15,000 km surface water transect and at 9 vertical profile stations in the western North Pacific Ocean as part of the 2002 IOC Contaminant Baseline Survey. Results show that the speciation of dissolved arsenic (As III, As V, and methylated As) was subtly controlled by the arsenate (AsV)/phosphate ratio. An additional fraction of presumed organic arsenic previously reported in coastal waters was also present (˜15% of the total As) in oceanic surface waters. Dissolved inorganic antimony displayed mildly scavenged behavior that was confirmed by correlations with aluminum, but atmospheric inputs that may be anthropogenic in origin also affected its concentrations. Monomethyl antimony, the predominant organic form of the element, behaved almost conservatively throughout the water column, radically changing the known biogeochemical cycle of antimony.

  8. Invertebrates control metals and arsenic sequestration as ecosystem engineers.

    PubMed

    Schaller, Jörg; Weiske, Arndt; Mkandawire, Martin; Dudel, E Gert

    2010-03-01

    Organic sediments are known to be a significant sink of inorganic elements in polluted freshwater ecosystems. Hence, we investigated the role of invertebrate shredders (the freshwater shrimp Gammarus pulex L.) in metal and arsenic enrichment into organic partitions of sediments in a wetland stream at former uranium mining site. Metal and metalloid content in leaf litter increased significantly during decomposition, while at the same time the carbon content decreased. During decomposition, G. pulex as a ecosystem engineer facilitated significantly the enrichment of magnesium (250%), manganese (560%), cobalt (310%), copper (200%), zinc (43%), arsenic (670%), cadmium (100%) and lead (1340%) into small particle sizes. The enrichments occur under very high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon. Small particles have high surface area that results in high biofilm development. Further, the highest amounts of elements were observed in biofilms. Therefore, invertebrate shredder like G. pulex can enhance retention of large amounts of metal and arsenic in wetlands.

  9. Speciation and toxicity of arsenic in mining-affected lake sediments in the Quinsam watershed, British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Moriarty, Maeve M; Lai, Vivian W-M; Koch, Iris; Cui, Longpeng; Combs, Chris; Krupp, Eva M; Feldmann, Jörg; Cullen, William R; Reimer, Kenneth J

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic arsenic inputs into fresh water lakes in the Quinsam watershed, British Columbia, were probed by using multiple methods of inquiry including sediment coring combined with (210)Pb dating, a principal components analysis of elemental composition of sediments, arsenic speciation, bioaccessibility, and toxicity testing. The quantification of arsenic inputs from anthropogenic sources was not trivial because a variety of processes redistribute the element throughout lakes. However, elevated arsenic and sulfate concentrations in Long Lake, a lake that receives arsenic from a seep, suggest that this lake is influenced by mine operations. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra reveal similar arsenic speciation for all sediments within the studied lakes. Bioaccessibility tests, which in this study were used to approximate the solubility and availability of arsenic to benthic organisms, indicate moderate bioaccessibility of arsenic in sediments (7.9-35%). Toxicity testing indicates that not all benthic organisms should be used for evaluating arsenic toxicity, and suggests that the amphipod, Corophium volutator, shows promise as a candidate for widespread use for arsenic sediment toxicity testing.

  10. Arsenic and diabetes: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun Fa; Chen, Ya Wen; Yang, Ching Yao; Tsai, Keh Sung; Yang, Rong Sen; Liu, Shing Hwa

    2011-09-01

    Arsenic is a naturally occurring toxic metalloid of global concern. Many studies have indicated a dose-response relationship between accumulative arsenic exposure and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in arseniasis-endemic areas in Taiwan and Bangladesh, where arsenic exposure occurs through drinking water. Epidemiological researches have suggested that the characteristics of arsenic-induced DM observed in arseniasis-endemic areas in Taiwan and Mexico are similar to those of non-insulin-dependent DM (Type 2 DM). These studies analyzed the association between high and chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic in drinking water and the development of DM, but the effect of exposure to low to moderate levels of inorganic arsenic on the risk of DM is unclear. Navas-Acien et al. recently proposed that a positive association existed between total urine arsenic and the prevalence of Type 2 DM in people exposed to low to moderate levels of arsenic. However, the diabetogenic role played by arsenic is still debated upon. An increase in the prevalence of DM has been observed among residents of highly arsenic-contaminated areas, whereas the findings from community-based and occupational studies in low-arsenic-exposure areas have been inconsistent. Recently, a population-based cross-sectional study showed that the current findings did not support an association between arsenic exposure from drinking water at levels less than 300 μg/L and a significantly increased risk of DM. Moreover, although the precise mechanisms for the arsenic-induced diabetogenic effect are still largely undefined, recent in vitro experimental studies indicated that inorganic arsenic or its metabolites impair insulin-dependent glucose uptake or glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Nevertheless, the dose, the form of arsenic used, and the experimental duration in the in vivo studies varied greatly, leading to conflicting results and ambiguous interpretation of these data with respect to human exposure

  11. Exercise Prevents Memory Impairment Induced by Arsenic Exposure in Mice: Implication of Hippocampal BDNF and CREB.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bao-Fei; Wang, Qing-Qing; Yu, Zi-Jiang; Yu, Yan; Xiao, Chao-Lun; Kang, Chao-Sheng; Ge, Guo; Linghu, Yan; Zhu, Jun-De; Li, Yu-Mei; Li, Qiang-Ming; Luo, Shi-Peng; Yang, Dang; Li, Lin; Zhang, Wen-Yan; Tian, Guang

    2015-01-01

    High concentrations of arsenic, which can be occasionally found in drinking water, have been recognized as a global health problem. Exposure to arsenic can disrupt spatial memory; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we tested whether exercise could interfere with the effect of arsenic exposure on the long-term memory (LTM) of object recognition in mice. Arsenic (0, 1, 3, and 10 mg/ kg, i.g.) was administered daily for 12 weeks. We found that arsenic at dosages of 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg decreased body weight and increased the arsenic content in the brain. The object recognition LTM (tested 24 h after training) was disrupted by 3 mg/ kg and 10 mg/ kg, but not 1 mg/ kg arsenic exposure. Swimming exercise also prevented LTM impairment induced by 3 mg/ kg, but not with 10 mg/ kg, of arsenic exposure. The expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and phosphorylated cAMP-response element binding protein (pCREB) in the CA1 and dentate gyrus areas (DG) of the dorsal hippocampus were decreased by 3 mg/ kg and 10 mg/ kg, but not by 1 mg/ kg, of arsenic exposure. The decrease in BDNF and pCREB in the CA1 and DG induced by 3 mg/ kg, but not 10 mg/ kg, of arsenic exposure were prevented by swimming exercise. Arsenic exposure did not affect the total CREB expression in the CA1 or DG. Taken together, these results indicated that swimming exercise prevented the impairment of object recognition LTM induced by arsenic exposure, which may be mediated by BDNF and CREB in the dorsal hippocampus.

  12. [Inventories of atmospheric arsenic emissions from coal combustion in China, 2005].

    PubMed

    Tian, He-Zhong; Qu, Yi-Ping

    2009-04-15

    Anthropogenic arsenic (As) emitted from coal combustion is one of key trace elements leading to negative air pollution and national economy loss. It is of great significance to estimate the atmospheric arsenic emission for proposing relevant laws or regulations and selecting proper pollution control technologies. The inventories of atmospheric arsenic emissions from coal combustion in China were evaluated by adopting the emission factor method based on fuel consumption. Arsenic emission sources were firstly classified into several categories by economic sectors, combustion types and pollution control technologies. Then, according to provincial coal consumption and averaged arsenic concentration in the feed fuel, the inventories of atmospheric arsenic emission from coal combustion in China in 2005 were established. Coal outputand consumption in China in 2005 were 2,119.8 and 2,099.8 Mt, respectively. The total emissions of arsenic released into the atmosphere in 2005 in China were estimated at about 1,564.4 t, and Shandong ranked the largest province with 144.4 t arsenic release, followed by Hunan (141.1 t), Hebei (108.5 t), Henan (77.7 t), and Jiangsu (77.0 t), which were mainly concentrated in the eastern and central provinces of China. The arsenic emissions were largely emitted by industry sector (818.8 t) and thermal power generation sector (303.4 t), contributing 52.3% and 19.4% of the totals, respectively. About 375.5 t arsenic was estimated to be released into the atmosphere in the form of gas phase in China in 2005, with a share of 24% of the totals. In general, arsenic pollution control from coal combustion should be highlighted for the power and industry sectors in the whole country. However, arsenic poisoning caused by residential coal burning should also be paid great attention in some areas such as Xinjiang, Gansu, Qinghai and Guishou.

  13. Atherosclerosis induced by arsenic in drinking water in rats through altering lipid metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Tain-Junn; Chuu, Jiunn-Jye; Chang, Chia-Yu; Tsai, Wan-Chen; Chen, Kuan-Jung; Guo, How-Ran

    2011-10-15

    Arsenic in drinking water is a global environmental health problem, and the exposure may increase cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases mortalities, most likely through causing atherosclerosis. However, the mechanism of atherosclerosis formation after arsenic exposure is still unclear. To study the mechanism of atherosclerosis formation after arsenic exposure and explore the role of high cholesterol diet (HCD) in this process, we fed spontaneous hypertensive rats and Wistar Kyoto rats with basal diet or HCD and provided with them drinking water containing arsenic at different ages and orders for 20 consecutive weeks. We measured high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol, triglycerides, heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70), and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) at predetermined intervals and determined expressions of cholesteryl ester transfer protein-1 (CETP-1) and liver X receptor {beta} (LXR{beta}) in the liver. Atherosclerosis was determined by examining the aorta with hematoxylin and eosin stain. After 20 weeks, we found arsenic, alone or combined with HCD, may promote atherosclerosis formation with transient increases in HSP 70 and hs-CRP. Early combination exposure decreased the HDL-C/LDL-C ratio without changing the levels of total cholesterol and triglyceride until 30 weeks old. Both CETP-1 and LXR{beta} activities were suppressed, most significantly in early combination exposure. In conclusion, arsenic exposure may induce atherosclerosis through modifying reverse cholesterol transport in cholesterol metabolism and suppressing LXR{beta} and CEPT-1 expressions. For decreasing atherosclerosis related mortality associated with arsenic, preventing exposure from environmental sources in early life is an important element. - Highlights: > Arsenic causes cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases through atherosclerosis. > Arsenic may promote atherosclerosis with transient increase in HSP

  14. Exercise Prevents Memory Impairment Induced by Arsenic Exposure in Mice: Implication of Hippocampal BDNF and CREB

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zi-Jiang; Yu, Yan; Xiao, Chao-Lun; Kang, Chao-Sheng; Ge, Guo; Linghu, Yan; Zhu, Jun-De; Li, Yu-Mei; Li, Qiang-Ming; Luo, Shi-Peng; Yang, Dang; Li, Lin; Zhang, Wen-Yan; Tian, Guang

    2015-01-01

    High concentrations of arsenic, which can be occasionally found in drinking water, have been recognized as a global health problem. Exposure to arsenic can disrupt spatial memory; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we tested whether exercise could interfere with the effect of arsenic exposure on the long-term memory (LTM) of object recognition in mice. Arsenic (0, 1, 3, and 10 mg/ kg, i.g.) was administered daily for 12 weeks. We found that arsenic at dosages of 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg decreased body weight and increased the arsenic content in the brain. The object recognition LTM (tested 24 h after training) was disrupted by 3 mg/ kg and 10 mg/ kg, but not 1 mg/ kg arsenic exposure. Swimming exercise also prevented LTM impairment induced by 3 mg/ kg, but not with 10 mg/ kg, of arsenic exposure. The expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and phosphorylated cAMP-response element binding protein (pCREB) in the CA1 and dentate gyrus areas (DG) of the dorsal hippocampus were decreased by 3 mg/ kg and 10 mg/ kg, but not by 1 mg/ kg, of arsenic exposure. The decrease in BDNF and pCREB in the CA1 and DG induced by 3 mg/ kg, but not 10 mg/ kg, of arsenic exposure were prevented by swimming exercise. Arsenic exposure did not affect the total CREB expression in the CA1 or DG. Taken together, these results indicated that swimming exercise prevented the impairment of object recognition LTM induced by arsenic exposure, which may be mediated by BDNF and CREB in the dorsal hippocampus. PMID:26368803

  15. Acute and chronic arsenic toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ratnaike, R

    2003-01-01

    Arsenic toxicity is a global health problem affecting many millions of people. Contamination is caused by arsenic from natural geological sources leaching into aquifers, contaminating drinking water and may also occur from mining and other industrial processes. Arsenic is present as a contaminant in many traditional remedies. Arsenic trioxide is now used to treat acute promyelocytic leukaemia. Absorption occurs predominantly from ingestion from the small intestine, though minimal absorption occurs from skin contact and inhalation. Arsenic exerts its toxicity by inactivating up to 200 enzymes, especially those involved in cellular energy pathways and DNA synthesis and repair. Acute arsenic poisoning is associated initially with nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and severe diarrhoea. Encephalopathy and peripheral neuropathy are reported. Chronic arsenic toxicity results in multisystem disease. Arsenic is a well documented human carcinogen affecting numerous organs. There are no evidence based treatment regimens to treat chronic arsenic poisoning but antioxidants have been advocated, though benefit is not proven. The focus of management is to reduce arsenic ingestion from drinking water and there is increasing emphasis on using alternative supplies of water. PMID:12897217

  16. Arsenic in shrimp from Kuwait

    SciTech Connect

    Bou-Olayan, A.H.; Al-Yakoob, S.; Al-Hossaini, M.

    1995-04-01

    Arsenic is ubiquitous in the environment and can accumulate in food via contaminated soil, water or air. It enters the food chain through dry and wet atmospheric deposition. Combustion of oil and coal, use of arsenical fertilizers and pesticides and smelting of ores contributes significantly to the natural background of arsenic in soils and sediments. The metal can be transferred from soil to man through plants. In spite of variation in acute, subacute, and chronic toxic effects to plants and animals, evidence of nutritional essentiality of arsenic for rats, goats, and guinea pigs has been suggested, but has not been confirmed for humans. Adverse toxic effects of arsenic as well as its widespread distribution in the environment raises concern about levels of arsenic in man`s diet. Higher levels of arsenic in the diet can result in a higher accumulation rate. Arsenic levels in marine organisms are influenced by species differences, size of organism, and human activities. Bottom dwellers such as shrimp, crab, and lobster accumulate more arsenic than fish due to their frequent contact with bottom sediments. Shrimp constitute approximately 30% of mean total seafood consumption in Kuwait. This study was designed to determine the accumulation of arsenic in the commercially important jinga shrimp (Metapenaeus affinis) and grooved tiger prawn (Penaeus semisulcatus). 13 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Amphoteric arsenic in GaN

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, U.; Correia, J. G.; Araujo, J. P.; Rita, E.; Soares, J. C.

    2007-04-30

    The authors have determined the lattice location of implanted arsenic in GaN by means of conversion electron emission channeling from radioactive {sup 73}As. They give direct evidence that As is an amphoteric impurity, thus settling the long-standing question as to whether it prefers cation or anion sites in GaN. The amphoteric character of As and the fact that As{sub Ga} 'antisites' are not minority defects provide additional aspects to be taken into account for an explanantion of the so-called miscibility gap in ternary GaAs{sub 1-x}N{sub x} compounds, which cannot be grown with a single phase for values of x in the range of 0.1

  18. ORNL radioactive waste operations

    SciTech Connect

    Sease, J.D.; King, E.M.; Coobs, J.H.; Row, T.H.

    1982-01-01

    Since its beginning in 1943, ORNL has generated large amounts of solid, liquid, and gaseous radioactive waste material as a by-product of the basic research and development work carried out at the laboratory. The waste system at ORNL has been continually modified and updated to keep pace with the changing release requirements for radioactive wastes. Major upgrading projects are currently in progress. The operating record of ORNL waste operation has been excellent over many years. Recent surveillance of radioactivity in the Oak Ridge environs indicates that atmospheric concentrations of radioactivity were not significantly different from other areas in East Tennesseee. Concentrations of radioactivity in the Clinch River and in fish collected from the river were less than 4% of the permissible concentration and intake guides for individuals in the offsite environment. While some radioactivity was released to the environment from plant operations, the concentrations in all of the media sampled were well below established standards.

  19. Radioactivity and food

    SciTech Connect

    Olszyna-Marzys, A.E. )

    1990-03-01

    Two topics relating to radioactivity and food are discussed: food irradiation for preservation purposes, and food contamination from radioactive substances. Food irradiation involves the use of electromagnetic energy (x and gamma rays) emitted by radioactive substances or produced by machine in order to destroy the insects and microorganisms present and prevent germination. The sanitary and economic advantages of treating food in this way are discussed. Numerous studies have confirmed that under strictly controlled conditions no undesirable changes take place in food that has been irradiated nor is radioactivity induced. Reference is made to the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station, which aroused public concern about irradiated food. The events surrounding the accident are reviewed, and its consequences with regard to contamination of different foods with radioactive substances, particularly iodine-131 and cesium-137, are described. Also discussed are the steps that have been taken by different international organizations to set limits on acceptable radioactivity in food.15 references.

  20. Radioactive Waste Management Basis

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, B K

    2009-06-03

    The purpose of this Radioactive Waste Management Basis is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

  1. Arsenic, microbes and contaminated aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oremland, Ronald S.; Stolz, John F.

    2005-01-01

    The health of tens of millions of people world-wide is at risk from drinking arsenic-contaminated well water. In most cases this arsenic occurs naturally within the sub-surface aquifers, rather than being derived from identifiable point sources of pollution. The mobilization of arsenic into the aqueous phase is the first crucial step in a process that eventually leads to human arsenicosis. Increasing evidence suggests that this is a microbiological phenomenon.

  2. Landscape of two-proton radioactivity.

    PubMed

    Olsen, E; Pfützner, M; Birge, N; Brown, M; Nazarewicz, W; Perhac, A

    2013-05-31

    Ground-state two-proton (2p) radioactivity is a decay mode found in isotopes of elements with even atomic numbers located beyond the two-proton drip line. So far, this exotic process has been experimentally observed in a few light- and medium-mass nuclides with Z≤30. In this study, using state-of-the-art nuclear density functional theory, we globally analyze 2p radioactivity and for the first time identify 2p-decay candidates in elements heavier than strontium. We predict a few cases where the competition between 2p emission and α decay may be observed. In nuclei above lead, the α-decay mode is found to be dominating and no measurable candidates for the 2p radioactivity are expected.

  3. Low radioactivity spectral gamma calibration facility

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, M.A.; Bowman, H.R.; Huang, L., H.; Lavelle, M.J.; Smith, A.R.; Hearst, J.R.; Wollenberg, H.A.; Flexser, S.

    1986-01-01

    A low radioactivity calibration facility has been constructed at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This facility has four calibration models of natural stone that are 3 ft in diameter and 6 ft long, with a 12 in. cored borehole in the center of each model and a lead-shielded run pipe below each model. These models have been analyzed by laboratory natural gamma ray spectroscopy (NGRS) and neutron activation analysis (NAA) for their K, U, and Th content. Also, 42 other elements were analyzed in the NAA. The /sup 222/Rn emanation data were collected. Calibrating the spectral gamma tool in this low radioactivity calibration facility allows the spectral gamma log to accurately aid in the recognition and mapping of subsurface stratigraphic units and alteration features associated with unusual concentrations of these radioactive elements, such as clay-rich zones.

  4. SHIPPING CONTAINER FOR RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL

    DOEpatents

    Nachbar, H.D.; Biggs, B.B.; Tariello, P.J.; George, K.O.

    1963-01-15

    A shipping container is described for transponting a large number of radioactive nuclear fuel element modules which produce a substantial amount of heat. The container comprises a primary pressure vessel and shield, and a rotatable head having an access port that can be indexed with module holders in the container. In order to remove heat generated in the fuel eleme nts, a heat exchanger is arranged within the container and in contact with a heat exchange fluid therein. The heat exchanger communicates with additional external heat exchangers, which dissipate heat to the atmosphere. (AEC)

  5. Radioactive Wastes. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Charles H.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. This booklet deals with the handling, processing and disposal of radioactive wastes. Among the topics discussed are: The Nature of Radioactive Wastes; Waste Management; and Research and Development. There are…

  6. Radioactive waste disposal package

    DOEpatents

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-11-04

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  7. Temporary Personal Radioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Fred

    2012-11-01

    As part of a bone scan procedure to look for the spread of prostate cancer, I was injected with radioactive technetium. In an effort to occupy/distract my mind, I used a Geiger counter to determine if the radioactive count obeyed the inverse-square law as a sensor was moved away from my bladder by incremental distances.

  8. Radioactive waste disposal package

    DOEpatents

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-01-01

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  9. A Remote Radioactivity Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jona, Kemi; Vondracek, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Imagine a high school with very few experimental resources and limited budgets that prevent the purchase of even basic laboratory equipment. For example, many high schools do not have the means of experimentally studying radioactivity because they lack Geiger counters and/or good radioactive sources. This was the case at the first high school one…

  10. Sampling for Airborne Radioactivity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    compared to betas, gammas and neutrons. For an airborne radioactivity detection system, it is most important to be able to detect alpha particles and... Airborne radioactive particles may emit alpha, beta, gamma or neutron radiation, depending on which radioisotope is present. From a health perspective...

  11. Canister arrangement for storing radioactive waste

    DOEpatents

    Lorenzo, D.K.; Van Cleve, J.E. Jr.

    1980-04-23

    The subject invention relates to a canister arrangement for jointly storing high level radioactive chemical waste and metallic waste resulting from the reprocessing of nuclear reactor fuel elements. A cylindrical steel canister is provided with an elongated centrally disposed billet of the metallic waste and the chemical waste in vitreous form is disposed in the annulus surrounding the billet.

  12. Canister arrangement for storing radioactive waste

    DOEpatents

    Lorenzo, Donald K.; Van Cleve, Jr., John E.

    1982-01-01

    The subject invention relates to a canister arrangement for jointly storing high level radioactive chemical waste and metallic waste resulting from the reprocessing of nuclear reactor fuel elements. A cylindrical steel canister is provided with an elongated centrally disposed billet of the metallic waste and the chemical waste in vitreous form is disposed in the annulus surrounding the billet.

  13. Thiolated arsenicals in arsenic metabolism: Occurrence, formation, and biological implications.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuzhen; Liu, Guangliang; Cai, Yong

    2016-11-01

    Arsenic (As) is a notoriously toxic pollutant of health concern worldwide with potential risk of cancer induction, but meanwhile it is used as medicines for the treatment of different conditions including hematological cancers. Arsenic can undergo extensive metabolism in biological systems, and both toxicological and therapeutic effects of arsenic compounds are closely related to their metabolism. Recent studies have identified methylated thioarsenicals as a new class of arsenic metabolites in biological systems after exposure of inorganic and organic arsenicals, including arsenite, dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)), dimethylarsinous glutathione (DMA(III)GS), and arsenosugars. The increasing detection of thiolated arsenicals, including monomethylmonothioarsonic acid (MMMTA(V)), dimethylmonothioarsinic acid (DMMTA(V)) and its glutathione conjugate (DMMTA(V)GS), and dimethyldithioarsinic acid (DMDTA(V)) suggests that thioarsenicals may be important metabolites and play important roles in arsenic toxicity and therapeutic effects. Here we summarized the reported occurrence of thioarsenicals in biological systems, the possible formation pathways of thioarsenicals, and their toxicity, and discussed the biological implications of thioarsenicals on arsenic metabolism, toxicity, and therapeutic effects.

  14. INFLUENCE OF DIETARY ARSENIC ON URINARY ARSENIC METABOLITE EXCRETION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Influence of Dietary Arsenic on Urinary Arsenic Metabolite Excretion

    Cara L. Carty, M.S., Edward E. Hudgens, B.Sc., Rebecca L. Calderon, Ph.D., M.S.P.H., Richard Kwok, M.S.P.H., Epidemiology and Biomarkers Branch/HSD, NHEERL/US EPA; David J. Thomas, Ph.D., Pharmacokinetics...

  15. Arsenic contamination in water, soil, sediment and rice of central India.

    PubMed

    Patel, K S; Shrivas, K; Brandt, R; Jakubowski, N; Corns, W; Hoffmann, P

    2005-04-01

    Arsenic contamination in the environment (i.e. surface, well and tube-well water, soil, sediment and rice samples) of central India (i.e. Ambagarh Chauki, Chhattisgarh) is reported. The concentration of the total arsenic in the samples i.e. water (n = 64), soil (n = 30), sediment (n = 27) and rice grain (n = 10) were ranged from 15 to 825 microg L(-1), 9 to 390 mg kg(-1), 19 to 489 mg kg(-1) and 0.018 to 0.446 mg kg(-1), respectively. In all type of waters, the arsenic levels exceeded the permissible limit, 10 microg L(-1). The most toxic and mobile inorganic species i.e. As(III) and As(V) are predominantly present in water of this region. The soils have relatively higher contents of arsenic and other elements i.e. Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Ga, Zr, Sn, Sb, Pb and U. The mean arsenic contents in soil of this region are much higher than in arsenic soil of West Bengal and Bangladesh. The lowest level of arsenic in the soil of this region is 3.7 mg kg(-1) with median value of 9.5 mg kg(-1). The arsenic contents in the sediments are at least 2-folds higher than in the soil. The sources of arsenic contamination in the soil of this region are expected from the rock weathering as well as the atmospheric deposition. The environmental samples i.e. water, soil dust, food, etc. are expected the major exposure for the arsenic contamination. The most of people living in this region are suffering with arsenic borne diseases (i.e. melanosis, keratosis, skin cancer, etc.).

  16. Culturable associated-bacteria of the sponge Theonella swinhoei show tolerance to high arsenic concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Keren, Ray; Lavy, Adi; Mayzel, Boaz; Ilan, Micha

    2015-01-01

    Sponges are potent filter feeders and as such are exposed to high fluxes of toxic trace elements, which can accumulate in their body over time. Such is the case of the Red Sea sponge Theonella swinhoei, which has been shown to accumulate up to 8500 mg/Kg of the highly toxicelement arsenic. T. swinhoei is known to harbor a multitude of sponge-associated bacteria, so it is hypothesized that the associated-bacteria will be tolerant to high arsenic concentration. This study also investigates the fate of the arsenic accumulated in the sponge to test if the associated-bacteria have an important role in the arsenic accumulation process of their host, since bacteria are key players in the natural arsenic cycle. Separation of the sponge to sponge cells and bacteria enriched fractions showed that arsenic is accumulated by the bacteria. Sponge-associated, arsenic-tolerant bacteria were cultured in the presence of 5 mM of either arsenate or arsenite (equivalent to 6150 mg/Kg arsenic, dry weight). The 54 isolated bacteria were grouped to 15 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and isolates belonging to 12 OTUs were assessed for tolerance to arsenate at increased concentrations up to 100 mM. Eight of the 12 OTUs tolerated an order of magnitude increase in the concentration of arsenate, and some exhibited external biomineralization of arsenic–magnesium salts. The biomineralization of this unique mineral was directly observed in bacteria for the first time. These results may provide an explanation for the ability of the sponge to accumulate considerable amounts of arsenic. Furthermore arsenic-mineralizing bacteria can potentially be used for the study of bioremediation, as arsenic toxicity affects millions of people worldwide. PMID:25762993

  17. Arsenic and fluoride in the groundwater of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Armienta, M A; Segovia, N

    2008-08-01

    Concentrations of arsenic and fluoride above Mexican drinking water standards have been detected in aquifers of various areas of Mexico. This contamination has been found to be mainly caused by natural sources. However, the specific processes releasing these toxic elements into groundwater have been determined in a few zones only. Many studies, focused on arsenic-related health effects, have been performed at Comarca Lagunera in northern México. High concentrations of fluoride in water were also found in this area. The origin of the arsenic there is still controversial. Groundwater in active mining areas has been polluted by both natural and anthropogenic sources. Arsenic-rich minerals contaminate the fractured limestone aquifer at Zimapán, Central México. Tailings and deposits smelter-rich fumes polluted the shallow granular aquifer. Arsenic contamination has also been reported in the San Antonio-El Triunfo mining zone, southern Baja California, and Santa María de la Paz, in San Luis Potosí state. Even in the absence of mining activities, hydrogeochemistry and statistical techniques showed that arsenopyrite oxidation may also contaminate water, as in the case of the Independencia aquifer in the Mexican Altiplano. High concentrations of arsenic have also been detected in geothermal areas like Los Azufres, Los Humeros, and Acoculco. Prevalence of dental fluorosis was revealed by epidemiological studies in Aguascalientes and San Luis Potosí states. Presence of fluoride in water results from dissolution of acid-volcanic rocks. In Mexico, groundwater supplies most drinking water. Current knowledge and the geology of Mexico indicate the need to include arsenic and fluoride determinations in groundwater on a routine basis, and to develop interdisciplinary studies to assess the contaminant's sources in all enriched areas.

  18. Case Report: Potential Arsenic Toxicosis Secondary to Herbal Kelp Supplement

    PubMed Central

    Amster, Eric; Tiwary, Asheesh; Schenker, Marc B.

    2007-01-01

    Context Medicinal use of dietary herbal supplements can cause inadvertent arsenic toxicosis. Case Presentation A 54-year-old woman was referred to the University of California, Davis, Occupational Medicine Clinic with a 2-year history of worsening alopecia and memory loss. She also reported having a rash, increasing fatigue, nausea, and vomiting, disabling her to the point where she could no longer work full-time. A thorough exposure history revealed that she took daily kelp supplements. A urine sample showed an arsenic level of 83.6 μg/g creatinine (normal < 50 μg/g creatinine). A sample from her kelp supplements contained 8.5 mg/kg (ppm) arsenic. Within weeks of discontinuing the supplements, her symptoms resolved and arsenic blood and urine levels were undetectable. Discussion To evaluate the extent of arsenic contamination in commercially available kelp, we analyzed nine samples randomly obtained from local health food stores. Eight of the nine samples showed detectable levels of arsenic higher than the Food and Drug Administration tolerance level of 0.5 to 2 ppm for certain food products. None of the supplements contained information regarding the possibility of contamination with arsenic or other heavy metals. The 1994 Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) has changed the way dietary herbal therapies are marketed and regulated in the United States. Less regulation of dietary herbal therapies will make inadvertent toxicities a more frequent occurrence. Relevance to Clinical Practice Clinicians should be aware of the potential for heavy metal toxicity due to chronic use of dietary herbal supplements. Inquiring about use of dietary supplements is an important element of the medical history. PMID:17450231

  19. Arsenic speciation in edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Nearing, Michelle M; Koch, Iris; Reimer, Kenneth J

    2014-12-16

    The fruiting bodies, or mushrooms, of terrestrial fungi have been found to contain a high proportion of the nontoxic arsenic compound arsenobetaine (AB), but data gaps include a limited phylogenetic diversity of the fungi for which arsenic speciation is available, a focus on mushrooms with higher total arsenic concentrations, and the unknown formation and role of AB in mushrooms. To address these, the mushrooms of 46 different fungus species (73 samples) over a diverse range of phylogenetic groups were collected from Canadian grocery stores and background and arsenic-contaminated areas. Total arsenic was determined using ICP-MS, and arsenic speciation was determined using HPLC-ICP-MS and complementary X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The major arsenic compounds in mushrooms were found to be similar among phylogenetic groups, and AB was found to be the major compound in the Lycoperdaceae and Agaricaceae families but generally absent in log-growing mushrooms, suggesting the microbial community may influence arsenic speciation in mushrooms. The high proportion of AB in mushrooms with puffball or gilled morphologies may suggest that AB acts as an osmolyte in certain mushrooms to help maintain fruiting body structure. The presence of an As(III)-sulfur compound, for the first time in mushrooms, was identified in the XAS analysis. Except for Agaricus sp. (with predominantly AB), inorganic arsenic predominated in most of the store-bought mushrooms (albeit with low total arsenic concentrations). Should inorganic arsenic predominate in these mushrooms from contaminated areas, the risk to consumers under these circumstances should be considered.

  20. Radioactive Iodine Treatment for Hyperthyroidism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Balance › Radioactive Iodine for Hyperthyroidism Fact Sheet Radioactive Iodine for Hyperthyroidism April, 2012 Download PDFs English Zulu ... prepare for RAI or surgery. How does radioactive iodine treatment work? Iodine is important for making thyroid ...

  1. Reconnaissance of radioactive rocks of Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, John M.; Narten, Perry F.

    1951-01-01

    The state of Maine was traversed with car-mounted Geiger-Mueller equipment in the late summer of 1948 and the radioactivity of approximately 4,600 miles of road was logged. All samples were analyzed, both in the field by comparing the radioactivity of each sample to the radioactivity of a stranded measured with a simple scaling modification of a portable counter, and in the Geological Survey’s Trace Elements Section Washington Laboratory. Differences between both types of analyses were negligible. The maximum equivalent uranium content of the most radioactive rocks thus analyzed was 0.008 percent. A 1,400-square-mile abnormally radioactive province in southwestern Maine was outlined. The outcrop data obtained from car traversing are evaluated statistically. Cumulative frequency distribution curves are drawn to show the distribution of outcrops at various levels of radioactivity, and straight-line extensions are made to show to maximum probable grade for various rock types and areas in Maine. A maximum grade of 0.055 percent equivalent uranium is thus predicted for the entire state. This prediction necessarily is a broad generalization because large areas of Main are inaccessible for car traversing. A concept of evaluation of an area for possible mineral deposits is proposed on the basis of lithology, and observed and indicated ranges in grade.

  2. Arsenic toxicity changes in the presence of sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, G.A. Jr.; Lazorchak, J.M.; Waller, W.T.; Lanza, G.R.

    1987-03-01

    Arsenic has been widely used in herbicides resulting in high soil and sediment concentrations in some areas. D. magna has been a commonly used indicator of aquatic toxicity and standardized methods have been developed for acute toxicity testing. Arsenic is quite similar chemically to phosphorus and sulfur, thus it produces toxic effects, in part, by replacing these elements in essential metabolic processes. The effect of sediments on ameliorating metal toxicity to Daphnia has not been reported. However, arsenic and other metalloids/metal are known to concentrate in sediment and adsorb to particulates. This study investigated the effect of sediments on standard arsenite LC50 determinations with D. magna and alkaline phosphatase activity (APA).

  3. Detection of trace amount of arsenic in groundwater by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haider, A. F. M. Y.; Hedayet Ullah, M.; Khan, Z. H.; Kabir, Firoza; Abedin, K. M.

    2014-03-01

    LIBS technique coupled with adsorption has been applied for the efficient detection of arsenic in liquid. Several adsorbents like tea leaves, bamboo slice, charcoal and zinc oxide have been used to enable sensitive detection of arsenic presence in water using LIBS. Among these, zinc oxide and charcoal show the better results. The detection limits for arsenic in water were 1 ppm and 8 ppm, respectively, when ZnO and charcoal were used as adsorbents of arsenic. To date, the determination of 1 ppm of As in water is the lowest concentration of detected arsenic in water by the LIBS technique. The detection limit of As was lowered to even less than 100 ppb by a combination of LIBS technique, adsorption by ZnO and concentration enhancement technique. Using the combination of these three techniques the ultimate concentration of arsenic was found to be 0.083 ppm (83 ppb) for arsenic polluted water collected from a tube-well of Farajikandi union (longitude 90.64°, latitude 23.338° north) of Matlab Upozila of Chandpur district in Bangladesh. This result compares fairly well with the finding of arsenic concentration of 0.078 ppm in the sample by the AAS technique at the Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (BCSIR) lab. Such a low detection limit (1 ppm) of trace elements in liquid matrix has significantly enhanced the scope of LIBS as an analytical tool.

  4. Distribution of arsenic in groundwater in the area of Chalkidiki, Northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Kouras, A; Katsoyiannis, I; Voutsa, D

    2007-08-25

    An integrate study aiming at the occurrence and distribution of arsenic in groundwater in the area of Chalkidiki, Northern Greece has been carried out. Groundwater samples from public water supply wells and private wells were analysed for arsenic and other quality parameters (T, pH, EC, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cl, HCO(3), NO(3), SO(4), B, Fe, Mn). Arsenic showed high spatial variation; ranged from 0.001 to 1.840mg/L. Almost 65% of the examined groundwaters exhibit arsenic concentrations higher than the maximum concentration limit of 0.010mg/L, proposed for water intended for human consumption. Correlation analysis and principal component analysis were employed to find out possible relationships among the examined parameters and groundwater samples. Arsenic is highly correlated with potassium, boron, bicarbonate, sodium, manganese and iron suggesting common geogenic origin of these elements and conditions that enhance their mobility. Three groups of groundwater with different physicochemical characteristics were found in the study area: (a) groundwater with extremely high arsenic concentrations (1.6-1.9mg/L) and high temperature (33-42 degrees C) from geothermal wells, (b) groundwater with relatively high arsenic concentrations (>0.050mg/L), lower temperatures and relatively high concentrations of major ions, iron and manganese and, (c) groundwater with low arsenic concentrations that fulfil the proposed limits for dinking water.

  5. Adsorption and desorption characteristics of arsenic onto ceria nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Qinzhong; Zhang, Zhiyong; Ma, Yuhui; He, Xiao; Zhao, Yuliang; Chai, Zhifang

    2012-01-01

    The rapid increase in the use of engineered nanoparticles [ENPs] has resulted in an increasing concern over the potential impacts of ENPs on the environmental and human health. ENPs tend to adsorb a large variety of toxic chemicals when they are emitted into the environment, which may enhance the toxicity of ENPs and/or adsorbed chemicals. The study was aimed to investigate the adsorption and desorption behaviors of arsenic on ceria NPs in aqueous solution using batch technique. Results show that the adsorption behavior of arsenic on ceria NPs was strongly dependent on pH and independent of ionic strength, indicating that the electrostatic effect on the adsorption of these elements was relatively not important compared to surface chemical reactions. The adsorption isotherms fitted very well to both the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The thermodynamic parameters (Δ H 0 , Δ S 0 , and Δ G 0 ) for the adsorption of arsenic were determined at three different temperatures of 283, 303, and 323 K. The adsorption reaction was endothermic, and the process of adsorption was favored at high temperature. The desorption data showed that desorption hysteresis occurred at the initial concentration studied. High adsorption capacity of arsenic on ceria NPs suggests that the synergistic effects of ceria NPs and arsenic on the environmental systems may exist when they are released into the environment.

  6. ARSENIC - SUSCEPTIBILITY & IN UTERO EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to inorganic arsenic remains a serious public health problem at many locations worldwide. If has often been noted that prevalences of signs and symptoms of chronic arsenic poisoning differ among various populations. For example, skin lesions or peripheral vascular dis...

  7. Drinking Water Arsenic Rule History

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA published the final arsenic rule on January 22, 2001. In response to the national debate surrounding the arsenic rule related to science and costs, the EPA announced on March 20, 2001 that the agency would reassess the science and cost issues.

  8. Arsenic Is A Genotoxic Carcinogen

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic is a recognized human carcinogen; however, there is controversy over whether or not it should be considered a genotoxic carcinogen. Many possible modes of action have been proposed on how arsenic induces cancer, including inhibiting DNA repair, altering methylation patter...

  9. TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR ARSENIC REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) recently reduced the arsenic maximum contaminant level (MCL) from 0.050 mg/L to 0.010 mg/L. In order to increase arsenic outreach efforts, a summary of the new rule, related health risks, treatment technologies, and desig...

  10. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Web cast presentation covered six topics: 1), Arsenic Chemistry, 2), Technology Selection/Arsenic Demonstration Program, 3), Case Study 1, 4), Case Study 2,5), Case Study 3, and 6), Media Regeneration Project. The presentation consists of material presented at other training sess...

  11. Microbial Methylation of Metalloids: Arsenic, Antimony, and Bismuth

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, Ronald; Chasteen, Thomas G.

    2002-01-01

    A significant 19th century public health problem was that the inhabitants of many houses containing wallpaper decorated with green arsenical pigments experienced illness and death. The problem was caused by certain fungi that grew in the presence of inorganic arsenic to form a toxic, garlic-odored gas. The garlic odor was actually put to use in a very delicate microbiological test for arsenic. In 1933, the gas was shown to be trimethylarsine. It was not until 1971 that arsenic methylation by bacteria was demonstrated. Further research in biomethylation has been facilitated by the development of delicate techniques for the determination of arsenic species. As described in this review, many microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, and yeasts) and animals are now known to biomethylate arsenic, forming both volatile (e.g., methylarsines) and nonvolatile (e.g., methylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid) compounds. The enzymatic mechanisms for this biomethylation are discussed. The microbial conversion of sodium arsenate to trimethylarsine proceeds by alternate reduction and methylation steps, with S-adenosylmethionine as the usual methyl donor. Thiols have important roles in the reductions. In anaerobic bacteria, methylcobalamin may be the donor. The other metalloid elements of the periodic table group 15, antimony and bismuth, also undergo biomethylation to some extent. Trimethylstibine formation by microorganisms is now well established, but this process apparently does not occur in animals. Formation of trimethylbismuth by microorganisms has been reported in a few cases. Microbial methylation plays important roles in the biogeochemical cycling of these metalloid elements and possibly in their detoxification. The wheel has come full circle, and public health considerations are again important. PMID:12040126

  12. A Remote Radioactivity Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jona, Kemi; Vondracek, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Imagine a high school with very few experimental resources and limited budgets that prevent the purchase of even basic laboratory equipment. For example, many high schools do not have the means of experimentally studying radioactivity because they lack Geiger counters and/or good radioactive sources. This was the case at the first high school one of us (MV) worked at, and after talking with numerous colleagues we know this is still the case at many schools. What options are there then for physics teachers to allow their students to experimentally investigate certain characteristics of radioactivity, such as how distance affects the intensity of radiation coming from a radioactive source? There are computer simulations that can be run, or perhaps the teacher has a light sensor and tries to make an analogy between the intensity of light from a light bulb and the intensity of radiation from a radioactive source based on geometric arguments to get an inverse-square law. But for many there is no direct experimental option if one does not possess a Geiger counter and good radioactive sample. It is for that teacher and class of students that an online, remote radioactivity experiment was created.

  13. Recent Advances in the Measurement of Arsenic, Cadmium, and Mercury in Rice and Other Foods.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Brian P; Punshon, Tracy

    2015-03-01

    Trace element analysis of foods is of increasing importance because of raised consumer awareness and the need to evaluate and establish regulatory guidelines for toxic trace metals and metalloids. This paper reviews recent advances in the analysis of trace elements in food, including challenges, state-of-the-art methods, and use of spatially resolved techniques for localizing the distribution of arsenic and mercury within rice grains. Total elemental analysis of foods is relatively well-established, but the push for ever lower detection limits requires that methods be robust from potential matrix interferences, which can be particularly severe for food. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is the method of choice, allowing for multi-element and highly sensitive analyses. For arsenic, speciation analysis is necessary because the inorganic forms are more likely to be subject to regulatory limits. Chromatographic techniques coupled to ICP-MS are most often used for arsenic speciation, and a range of methods now exist for a variety of different arsenic species in different food matrices. Speciation and spatial analysis of foods, especially rice, can also be achieved with synchrotron techniques. Sensitive analytical techniques and methodological advances provide robust methods for the assessment of several metals in animal- and plant-based foods, particularly for arsenic, cadmium, and mercury in rice and arsenic speciation in foodstuffs.

  14. Enrichment processes of arsenic in oxidic sedimentary rocks - from geochemical and genetic characterization to potential mobility.

    PubMed

    Banning, Andre; Rüde, Thomas R

    2010-11-01

    Sedimentary marine iron ores of Jurassic age and Tertiary marine sandy sediments containing iron hydroxides concretions have been sampled from boreholes and outcrops in two study areas in Germany to examine iron and arsenic accumulation processes. Samples were analyzed for bulk rock geochemistry (INAA/ICP-OES), quantitative mineralogy (XRD with Rietveld analysis), element distribution (electron microprobe) and arsenic fractionation (sequential extraction). Bulk Jurassic ores contain an average arsenic content of 123 μg g(-1) hosted in mainly goethite ooids which slowly formed in times of condensed sedimentation. Enrichment occurred syndepositionally and is therefore characterized as primary. Iron concretions in Tertiary sediments mainly consist of goethite and yield arsenic up to 1860 μg g(-1). The accumulation process is secondary as it took place in the course of oxidation of the originally reduced marine sediments under terrestrial conditions, leading to element redistribution and local enrichment in the near-surface part. The scale of enrichment was assessed calculating Enrichment Factors, indicating that arsenic accumulation was favoured over other potential contaminants. In spite of higher bulk arsenic contents in the oxidic rocks, the mainly pyrite-hosted As pool within the reduced deeper part of the Tertiary sediments is shown to have a higher potential for remobilization and creation of elevated arsenic concentrations in groundwater.

  15. The role of irrigation techniques in arsenic bioaccumulation in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Spanu, Antonino; Daga, Leonardo; Orlandoni, Anna Maria; Sanna, Gavino

    2012-08-07

    The bioaccumulation of arsenic compounds in rice is of great concern worldwide because rice is the staple food for billions of people and arsenic is one of the most toxic and carcinogenic elements at even trace amounts. The uptake of arsenic compounds in rice comes mainly from its interaction with system soil/water in the reducing conditions typical of paddy fields and is influenced by the irrigation used. We demonstrate that the use of sprinkler irrigation produces rice kernels with a concentration of total arsenic about fifty times lower when compared to rice grown under continuous flooding irrigation. The average total amount of arsenic, measured by a fully validated ICP-MS method, in 37 rice grain genotypes grown with sprinkler irrigation was 2.8 ± 2.5 μg kg(-1), whereas the average amount measured in the same genotypes grown under identical conditions, but using continuous flooding irrigation was 163 ± 23 μg kg(-1). In addition, we find that the average concentration of total arsenic in rice grains cultivated under sprinkler irrigation is close to the total arsenic concentration found in irrigation waters. Our results suggest that, in our experimental conditions, the natural bioaccumulation of this element in rice grains may be completely circumvented by adopting an appropriate irrigation technique.

  16. Arsenic concentrations in Chinese coals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingshi; Zheng, Baoshan; Wang, Binbin; Li, Shehong; Wu, Daishe; Hu, Jun

    2006-03-15

    The arsenic concentrations in 297 coal samples were collected from the main coal-mines of 26 provinces in China were determined by molybdenum blue coloration method. These samples were collected from coals that vary widely in coal rank and coal-forming periods from the five main coal-bearing regions in China. Arsenic content in Chinese coals range between 0.24 to 71 mg/kg. The mean of the concentration of Arsenic is 6.4+/-0.5 mg/kg and the geometric mean is 4.0+/-8.5 mg/kg. The level of arsenic in China is higher in northeastern and southern provinces, but lower in northwestern provinces. The relationship between arsenic content and coal-forming period, coal rank is studied. It was observed that the arsenic contents decreases with coal rank in the order: Tertiary>Early Jurassic>Late Triassic>Late Jurassic>Middle Jurassic>Late Permian>Early Carboniferous>Middle Carboniferous>Late Carboniferous>Early Permian; It was also noted that the arsenic contents decrease in the order: Subbituminous>Anthracite>Bituminous. However, compared with the geological characteristics of coal forming region, coal rank and coal-forming period have little effect on the concentration of arsenic in Chinese coal. The average arsenic concentration of Chinese coal is lower than that of the whole world. The health problems in China derived from in coal (arsenism) are due largely to poor local life-style practices in cooking and home heating with coal rather than to high arsenic contents in the coal.

  17. THE ROLE OF PROTEIN BINDING OF TRIVALENT ARSENICALS IN ARSENIC CARCINOGENESIS AND TOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three of the most plausible biological theories of arsenic carcinogenesis are protein binding, oxidative stress and altered DNA methylation. This review presents the role of trivalent arsenicals binding to proteins in arsenic carcinogenesis. Using vacuum filtration based receptor...

  18. *Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase and the methylation of arsenicals in the invertebrate chordate ciona intestinalis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biotransformation of inorganic arsenic (iAs) involves methylation catalyzed by arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (As3mt) , yielding mono-, di-, and trimethylated arsenicals. A comparative genomic approach focused on Ciona intestinaJis, an invertebrate chordate, was u...

  19. Production of selenium-72 and arsenic-72

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, D.R.

    1994-12-06

    Methods and apparatus are described for producing selenium-72, separating it from its daughter isotope arsenic-72, and generating multiple portions of a solution containing arsenic-72 from a reusable parent substance comprised of selenium-72. The invention provides apparatus which can be located at a site where arsenic-72 is used, for purposes such as PET imaging, to produce arsenic-72 as needed, since the half-life of arsenic-72 is very short. 2 figures.

  20. Production of selenium-72 and arsenic-72

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Dennis R.

    1994-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for producing selenium-72, separating it from its daughter isotope arsenic-72, and generating multiple portions of a solution containing arsenic-72 from a reusable parent substance comprised of selenium-72. The invention provides apparatus which can be located at a site where arsenic-72 is used, for purposes such as PET imaging, to produce arsenic-72 as needed, since the half-life of arsenic-72 is very short.

  1. Production of selenium-72 and arsenic-72

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Dennis R.

    1995-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for producing selenium-72, separating it from its daughter isotope arsenic-72, and generating multiple portions of a solution containing arsenic-72 from a reusable parent substance comprised of selenium-72. The invention provides apparatus which can be located at a site where arsenic-72 is used, for purposes such as PET imaging, to produce arsenic-72 as needed, since the half-life of arsenic-72 is very short.

  2. Microbiology: A microbial arsenic cycle in a salt-saturated, extreme environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oremland, R.S.; Kulp, T.R.; Blum, J.S.; Hoeft, S.E.; Baesman, S.; Miller, L.G.; Stolz, J.F.

    2005-01-01

    Searles Lake is a salt-saturated, alkaline brine unusually rich in the toxic element arsenic. Arsenic speciation changed from arsenate [As(V)] to arsenite [As(III)] with sediment depth. Incubated anoxic sediment slurries displayed dissimilatory As(V)-reductase activity that was markedly stimulated by H2 or sulfide, whereas aerobic slurries had rapid As(III)-oxidase activity. An anaerobic, extremely haloalkaliphilic bacterium was isolated from the sediment that grew via As(V) respiration, using either lactate or sulfide as its electron donor. Hence, a full biogeochemical cycle of arsenic occurs in Searles Lake, driven in part by inorganic electron donors.

  3. What are Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste ?

    SciTech Connect

    DOE

    2002-12-01

    Spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste are materials from nuclear power plants and government defense programs. These materials contain highly radioactive elements, such as cesium, strontium, technetium, and neptunium. Some of these elements will remain radioactive for a few years, while others will be radioactive for millions of years. Exposure to such radioactive materials can cause human health problems. Scientists worldwide agree that the safest way to manage these materials is to dispose of them deep underground in what is called a geologic repository.

  4. Understanding radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes). (ATT)

  5. Dynamic radioactive particle source

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Murray E; Gauss, Adam Benjamin; Justus, Alan Lawrence

    2012-06-26

    A method and apparatus for providing a timed, synchronized dynamic alpha or beta particle source for testing the response of continuous air monitors (CAMs) for airborne alpha or beta emitters is provided. The method includes providing a radioactive source; placing the radioactive source inside the detection volume of a CAM; and introducing an alpha or beta-emitting isotope while the CAM is in a normal functioning mode.

  6. Container for radioactive materials

    DOEpatents

    Fields, Stanley R.

    1985-01-01

    A container for housing a plurality of canister assemblies containing radioactive material and disposed in a longitudinally spaced relation within a carrier to form a payload package concentrically mounted within the container. The payload package includes a spacer for each canister assembly, said spacer comprising a base member longitudinally spacing adjacent canister assemblies from each other and a sleeve surrounding the associated canister assembly for centering the same and conducting heat from the radioactive material in a desired flow path.

  7. Temporary Personal Radioactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Fred

    2012-01-01

    As part of a bone scan procedure to look for the spread of prostate cancer, I was injected with radioactive technetium. In an effort to occupy/distract my mind, I used a Geiger counter to determine if the radioactive count obeyed the inverse-square law as a sensor was moved away from my bladder by incremental distances. (Contains 1 table and 2…

  8. Radioactive gold ring dermatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.A.; Aldrich, J.E. )

    1990-08-01

    A superficial squamous cell carcinoma developed in a woman who wore a radioactive gold ring for more than 30 years. Only part of the ring was radioactive. Radiation dose measurements indicated that the dose to basal skin layer was 2.4 Gy (240 rad) per week. If it is assumed that the woman continually wore her wedding ring for 37 years since purchase, she would have received a maximum dose of approximately 4600 Gy.

  9. Effects of low arsenic concentration exposure on freshwater fish in the presence of fluvial biofilms.

    PubMed

    Tuulaikhuu, Baigal-Amar; Bonet, Berta; Guasch, Helena

    2016-02-15

    Arsenic (As) is a highly toxic element and its carcinogenic effect on living organisms is well known. However, predicting real effects in the environment requires an ecological approach since toxicity is influenced by many environmental and biological factors. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate if environmentally-realistic arsenic exposure causes toxicity to fish. An experiment with four different treatments (control (C), biofilm (B), arsenic (+As) and biofilm with arsenic (B+As)) was conducted and each one included sediment to enhance environmental realism, allowing the testing of the interactive effects of biofilm and arsenic on the toxicity to fish. Average arsenic exposure to Eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) was 40.5 ± 7.5 μg/L for +As treatment and 34.4 ± 1.4 μg/L for B+As treatment for 56 days. Fish were affected directly and indirectly by this low arsenic concentration since exposure did not only affect fish but also the function of periphytic biofilms. Arsenic effects on the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities in the liver of mosquitofish were ameliorated in the presence of biofilms at the beginning of exposure (day 9). Moreover, fish weight gaining was only affected in the treatment without biofilm. After longer exposure (56 days), effects of exposure were clearly seen. Fish showed a marked increase in the catalase (CAT) activity in the liver but the interactive influence of biofilms was not further observed since the arsenic-affected biofilm had lost its role in water purification. Our results highlight the interest and application of incorporating some of the complexity of natural systems in ecotoxicology and support the use of criterion continuous concentration (CCC) for arsenic lower than 150 μg/L and closer to the water quality criteria to protect aquatic life recommended by the Canadian government which is 5 μg As/L.

  10. Monitoring the arsenic and iodine exposure of seaweed-eating North Ronaldsay sheep from the gestational and suckling periods to adulthood by using horns as a dietary archive.

    PubMed

    Caumette, Guilhem; Ouypornkochagorn, Sairoong; Scrimgeour, Charlie M; Raab, Andrea; Feldmann, Jörg

    2007-04-15

    Trace elements often accumulate in keratin-rich tissues. Hair, nails, and horns grow steadily but once formed are metabolically inactive and provide an archive of trace element exposure when analyzed in segments. Here we demonstrate the use of laser ablation ICP-MS for the high-resolution monitoring of trace elements in the horns of seaweed-eating sheep from North Ronaldsay, which live on grass only during lambing time. Due to this peculiar husbandry/dietary pattern and the fact that seaweed is rich in arsenic and iodine, we hoped to use iodine and arsenic as markers for seaweed ingestion. Cross sections and scans along the growing axis (representing the first 8-10 months of the sheep's life) revealed that these elements were not homogeneously distributed in the horn, with arsenic representing the amount of seaweed intake. The scans show the periods in which the lambs were fed on milk and grass and the change to seaweed ingestion with the successive replacement of milk with seaweed; this was supported by the carbon and nitrogen isotope signatures (delta13C and delta15N) of the horn and the arsenic speciation in the horn. The period of low arsenic accumulation in the horn had terrestrial isotope signatures and accumulated arsenic of mainly inorganic origin. The period of high arsenic accumulation was characterized by isotope signatures of marine origin, and the majority of accumulated arsenic in the horn was the main arsenosugar metabolite dimethylarsinic acid. Although we have investigated only four different horns of individual sheep, this study shows that arsenic is not significantly transported with milk. However, the high concentration of arsenic in the oldest part of the horn, which was formed in utero, points to a relatively high placental transport of arsenic while the ewe was eating seaweed. In contrast to arsenic, iodine is transported not only through milk ingestion but also through the placenta in large quantities.

  11. Mouse arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase genotype affects metabolism and tissue dosimetry of arsenicals after arsenite administration in drinking water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (As3mt) catalyzes methylation of inorganic arsenic producing a number of methylated arsenic metabolites. Although methylation has been commonly considered a pathway for detoxification of arsenic, some highly reactive methylated ars...

  12. Arsenic encapsulation using Portland cement with ferrous sulfate/lime and Terra-Bond™ technologies - Microcharacterization and leaching studies.

    PubMed

    Randall, Paul M

    2012-03-15

    This work reports the results of an investigation on the treatment and encapsulation of arsenic-containing materials by Portland cement with ferrous sulfate and lime (PFL) and Terra-Bond™, a commercially available patented technology. The arsenic materials included: chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood materials; scorodite-rich mine tailings from the La Trinidad Mine in California; and a soil/smelter dust mixture from the Anaconda Superfund site spiked with monosodium methyl arsenate (MSMA) to simulate an organoarsenic soil material. SEM/EDS and XRD spectra of PFL treated samples showed similarity across all three waste materials while Terra-Bond treated samples showed predominance of elemental sulfur. SEM/EDS of PFL treated samples showed that calcium was imbedded in the structure while micrographs of Terra-Bond treated samples showed the appearance of an epoxy material on the surface. The epoxy material appears to be responsible for encapsulating and reducing the leachability of arsenic. XANES spectra for the PFL treatment of CCA-containing samples showed that arsenic has a predominant pentavalent form (As +5), and the PFL treatment process did not alter the arsenic oxidation state. But, distinct differences were observed for XANES spectra of untreated and PFL treated scorodite-rich mine tailing which changed the arsenic coordination structure from a mixture of As (+3/+5) to exclusively As (+5). Both S/S techniques reduced the amount of arsenic released in the leaching tests. Most cases show lower amounts of arsenic released from wastes treated by the Terra-Bond™ technique when compared to the PFL technique. The pH of the solution significantly affected the leachability, with the amount of arsenic released increasing with pH. Sequential extraction results indicate that sodium hydroxide was favorable in releasing arsenic in the mine tailings. This is due to ligand displacement reactions of hydroxyl ions with arsenic species and high pH conditions that

  13. Microbial contributions to coupled arsenic and sulfur cycling in the acid-sulfide hot spring Champagne Pool, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Hug, Katrin; Maher, William A; Stott, Matthew B; Krikowa, Frank; Foster, Simon; Moreau, John W

    2014-01-01

    Acid-sulfide hot springs are analogs of early Earth geothermal systems where microbial metal(loid) resistance likely first evolved. Arsenic is a metalloid enriched in the acid-sulfide hot spring Champagne Pool (Waiotapu, New Zealand). Arsenic speciation in Champagne Pool follows reaction paths not yet fully understood with respect to biotic contributions and coupling to biogeochemical sulfur cycling. Here we present quantitative arsenic speciation from Champagne Pool, finding arsenite dominant in the pool, rim and outflow channel (55-75% total arsenic), and dithio- and trithioarsenates ubiquitously present as 18-25% total arsenic. In the outflow channel, dimethylmonothioarsenate comprised ≤9% total arsenic, while on the outflow terrace thioarsenates were present at 55% total arsenic. We also quantified sulfide, thiosulfate, sulfate and elemental sulfur, finding sulfide and sulfate as major species in the pool and outflow terrace, respectively. Elemental sulfur concentration reached a maximum at the terrace. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes from metagenomic sequencing revealed the dominance of Sulfurihydrogenibium at all sites and an increased archaeal population at the rim and outflow channel. Several phylotypes were found closely related to known sulfur- and sulfide-oxidizers, as well as sulfur- and sulfate-reducers. Bioinformatic analysis revealed genes underpinning sulfur redox transformations, consistent with sulfur speciation data, and illustrating a microbial role in sulfur-dependent transformation of arsenite to thioarsenate. Metagenomic analysis also revealed genes encoding for arsenate reductase at all sites, reflecting the ubiquity of thioarsenate and a need for microbial arsenate resistance despite anoxic conditions. Absence of the arsenite oxidase gene, aio, at all sites suggests prioritization of arsenite detoxification over coupling to energy conservation. Finally, detection of methyl arsenic in the outflow channel, in conjunction with

  14. Microbial contributions to coupled arsenic and sulfur cycling in the acid-sulfide hot spring Champagne Pool, New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Hug, Katrin; Maher, William A.; Stott, Matthew B.; Krikowa, Frank; Foster, Simon; Moreau, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Acid-sulfide hot springs are analogs of early Earth geothermal systems where microbial metal(loid) resistance likely first evolved. Arsenic is a metalloid enriched in the acid-sulfide hot spring Champagne Pool (Waiotapu, New Zealand). Arsenic speciation in Champagne Pool follows reaction paths not yet fully understood with respect to biotic contributions and coupling to biogeochemical sulfur cycling. Here we present quantitative arsenic speciation from Champagne Pool, finding arsenite dominant in the pool, rim and outflow channel (55–75% total arsenic), and dithio- and trithioarsenates ubiquitously present as 18–25% total arsenic. In the outflow channel, dimethylmonothioarsenate comprised ≤9% total arsenic, while on the outflow terrace thioarsenates were present at 55% total arsenic. We also quantified sulfide, thiosulfate, sulfate and elemental sulfur, finding sulfide and sulfate as major species in the pool and outflow terrace, respectively. Elemental sulfur concentration reached a maximum at the terrace. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes from metagenomic sequencing revealed the dominance of Sulfurihydrogenibium at all sites and an increased archaeal population at the rim and outflow channel. Several phylotypes were found closely related to known sulfur- and sulfide-oxidizers, as well as sulfur- and sulfate-reducers. Bioinformatic analysis revealed genes underpinning sulfur redox transformations, consistent with sulfur speciation data, and illustrating a microbial role in sulfur-dependent transformation of arsenite to thioarsenate. Metagenomic analysis also revealed genes encoding for arsenate reductase at all sites, reflecting the ubiquity of thioarsenate and a need for microbial arsenate resistance despite anoxic conditions. Absence of the arsenite oxidase gene, aio, at all sites suggests prioritization of arsenite detoxification over coupling to energy conservation. Finally, detection of methyl arsenic in the outflow channel, in conjunction with

  15. Arsenic behavior in newly drilled wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kim, M.-J.; Nriagu, J.; Haack, S.

    2003-01-01

    In the present paper, inorganic arsenic species and chemical parameters in groundwater were determined to investigate the factors related to the distribution of arsenic species and their dissolution from rock into groundwater. For the study, groundwater and core samples were taken at different depths of two newly drilled wells in Huron and Lapeer Counties, Michigan. Results show that total arsenic concentrations in the core samples varied, ranging from 0.8 to 70.7 mg/kg. Iron concentration in rock was about 1800 times higher than that of arsenic, and there was no correlation between arsenic and iron occurrences in the rock samples. Arsenic concentrations in groundwater ranged from <1 to 171 ??g/l. The arsenic concentration in groundwater depended on the amount of arsenic in aquifer rocks, and as well decreased with increasing depth. Over 90% of arsenic existed in the form of As(III), implying that the groundwater systems were in the reduced condition. The results such as high ferrous ion, low redox potential and low dissolved oxygen supported the observed arsenic species distribution. There was no noticeable difference in the total arsenic concentration and arsenic species ratio between unfiltered and filtered (0.45 ??m) waters, indicating that the particulate form of arsenic was negligible in the groundwater samples. There were correlations between water sampling depth and chemical parameters, and between arsenic concentration and chemical parameters, however, the trends were not always consistent in both wells. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Association of oxidative stress with arsenic methylation in chronic arsenic-exposed children and adults

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Yuanyuan; Wang Yi; Zheng Quanmei; Li Xin; Li Bing; Jin Yaping; Sun Xiance; Sun Guifan

    2008-10-01

    Though oxidative stress is recognized as an important pathogenic mechanism of arsenic, and arsenic methylation capacity is suggested to be highly involved in arsenic-related diseases, the association of arsenic methylation capacity with arsenic-induced oxidative stress remains unclear. To explore oxidative stress and its association with arsenic methylation, cross-sectional studies were conducted among 208 high and 59 low arsenic-exposed subjects. Levels of urinary arsenic species [inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylated arsenic (MMA) and dimethylated arsenic (DMA)] were determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Proportions of urinary arsenic species, the first methylation ratio (FMR) and the secondary methylation ratio (SMR) were used as indicators for arsenic methylation capacity. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) concentrations were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in whole blood were determined to reflect anti-oxidative status. The high arsenic-exposed children and adults were significantly increased in urinary 8-OHdG concentrations but decreased in blood GSH levels compared with the low exposed children and adults. In multiple linear regression models, blood GSH levels and urinary 8-OHdG concentrations of arsenic-exposed children and adults showed strong associations with the levels of urinary arsenic species. Arsenic-exposed subjects in the lower and the upper quartiles of proportions of urinary arsenic species, FMR or SMR were significantly different in urinary 8-OHdG, blood GSH and SOD. The associations of arsenic methylation capacity with 8-OHdG, GSH and SOD were also observed in multivariate regression analyses. These results may provide linkage between arsenic methylation capacity and oxidative stress in humans and suggest that adverse health effects induced by arsenic are related to arsenic methylation through oxidative stress.

  17. Construction of a Modular Arsenic-Resistance Operon in E. coli and the Production of Arsenic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Edmundson, Matthew Charles; Horsfall, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic is a widespread contaminant of both land and water around the world. Current methods of decontamination such as phytoremediation and chemical adsorbents can be resource and time intensive, and may not be suitable for some areas such as remote communities where cost and transportation are major issues. Bacterial decontamination, with strict controls preventing environmental release, may offer a cost-effective alternative or provide a financial incentive when used in combination with other remediation techniques. In this study, we have produced Escherichia coli strains containing arsenic-resistance genes from a number of sources, overexpressing them and testing their effects on arsenic resistance. While the lab E. coli strain JM109 (the “wild-type”) is resistant up to 20 mM sodium arsenate, the strain containing our plasmid pEC20 is resistant up to 80 mM. When combined with our construct pArsRBCC arsenic-­containing nanoparticles were observed at the cell surface; the elements of pEC20 and pArsRBCC were therefore combined in a modular construct, pArs, in order to evaluate the roles and synergistic effects of the components of the original plasmids in arsenic resistance and nanoparticle formation. We have also investigated introducing the lac operator in order to more tightly control expression from pArs. We demonstrate that our strains are able to reduce toxic forms of arsenic into stable, insoluble metallic As(0), providing one way to remove arsenate contamination, and which may also be of benefit for other heavy metals. PMID:26539432

  18. [Arsenic as an environmental problem].

    PubMed

    Jensen, K

    2000-12-04

    Chronic exposure to arsenic through drinking water is known in different continents. Arsenic compounds from disintegrating rock may be solubilized after reduction by organic material, and harmful concentrations of arsenic may be found in surface water as well as in water from drilled wells. Because of well drilling since the sixties in the Ganges delta numerous millions of people have been exposed to toxic amounts, and hundreds of thousands demonstrate signs of chronic poisoning. A changed water technology and chemical precipitation of arsenic in the drinking water can reduce the size of the problem, but the late sequelae i.e. malignant disease are incalculable. Indications for antidotal treatment of exposed individuals have not yet been outlined.

  19. New Arsenic Cross Section Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Kawano, Toshihiko

    2015-03-04

    This report presents calculations for the new arsenic cross section. Cross sections for 73,74,75 As above the resonance range were calculated with a newly developed Hauser-Feshbach code, CoH3.

  20. THE PATHWAY OF ARSENIC METABLISM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pathway of Arsenic Methylation

    David J. Thomas, Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC

    Understanding ...

  1. SEPARATION OF RADIOACTIVE COLUMBIUM TRACER

    DOEpatents

    Glendenin, L.E.; Gest, H.

    1958-08-26

    A process is presented for the recovery of radioactive columbium from solutions containing such columbium together with radioactive tellurium. The columbium and tellurium values are separated from such solutions by means of an inorganic oxide carrier precipitate, such as MnO/sub 2/. This oxide carrier precipitate and its associated columbium and telluriuan values are then dissolved in an aqueous acidic solution and nonradioactive tellurium, in an ionic form, is then introduced into such solution, for example in the form of H/sub 2/TeO/sub 3/. The tellurium present in the solution is then reduced to the elemental state and precipitates, and is then separated from the supernataat solution. A basic acetate precipitate is formed in the supernatant and carries the remaining columblum values therefrom. After separation, this basic ferric acetate precipitate is dissolved, and the ferric ions are removed by means of an organic solvent extraction process utilizing ether. The remaining solution contains carrier-free columbium as its only metal ion.

  2. Fate of heavy metals and radioactive metals in gasification of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Marrero, Thomas W; McAuley, Brendan P; Sutterlin, William R; Steven Morris, J; Manahan, Stanley E

    2004-01-01

    The fates of radioactive cadmium, strontium, cesium, cobalt, arsenic, mercury, zinc, and copper spiked into sewage sludge were determined when the sludge was gasified by a process that maximizes production of char from the sludge (ChemChar process). For the most part the metals were retained in the char product in the gasifier. Small, but measurable quantities of arsenic were mobilized by gasification and slightly more than 1% of the arsenic was detected in the effluent gas. Mercury was largely mobilized from the solids in the gasifier, but most of the mercury was retained in a filter composed of char prepared from the sludge. The small amounts of mercury leaving the gasification system were found to be associated with an aerosol product generated during gasification. The metals retained in the char product of gasification were only partially leachable with 50% concentrated nitric acid.

  3. Radioactivity in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Nagel, D.J.; Edson, R.

    1995-12-01

    Natural and man-made radioactivities in the environment have been extensively researched in the second half of this century. Recently, increased attention has been given to (1) radioactive waste willfully placed in the environment by discharges from nuclear reprocessing plants or by dumping at sea, and (2) radioactive materials lost due to accidents in terrestrial (civilian power) or marine (submarine propulsion) reactors. Increasing field measurements, and disclosures of dumping and accidents in the former Soviet Union, are adding greatly to the knowledge of environmental radioactivity. New, more powerful computers are having a double impact. They make possible Geographical Information Systems for geo-referencing and correlating multi-variable datasets. Furthermore, supercomputers enable global atmospheric, oceanographic and terrestrial circulation and transport models, which include physical, chemical and biological processes. We will review exemplary work on the sources, transport, disposition and impact of anthropogenic environmental radioactivity. Such work both provides new knowledge of environmental processes and furnishes the basis for deciding on potential remediation actions.

  4. Radioactivity in food crops

    SciTech Connect

    Drury, J.S.; Baldauf, M.F.; Daniel, E.W.; Fore, C.S.; Uziel, M.S.

    1983-05-01

    Published levels of radioactivity in food crops from 21 countries and 4 island chains of Oceania are listed. The tabulation includes more than 3000 examples of 100 different crops. Data are arranged alphabetically by food crop and geographical origin. The sampling date, nuclide measured, mean radioactivity, range of radioactivities, sample basis, number of samples analyzed, and bibliographic citation are given for each entry, when available. Analyses were reported most frequently for /sup 137/Cs, /sup 40/K, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 226/Ra, /sup 228/Ra, plutonium, uranium, total alpha, and total beta, but a few authors also reported data for /sup 241/Am, /sup 7/Be, /sup 60/Co, /sup 55/Fe, /sup 3/H, /sup 131/I, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 95/Nb, /sup 210/Pb, /sup 210/Po, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 228/Th, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 95/Zr. Based on the reported data it appears that radioactivity from alpha emitters in food crops is usually low, on the order of 0.1 Bq.g/sup -1/ (wet weight) or less. Reported values of beta radiation in a given crop generally appear to be several orders of magnitude greater than those of alpha emitters. The most striking aspect of the data is the great range of radioactivity reported for a given nuclide in similar food crops with different geographical origins.

  5. Variations of arsenic species content in edible Boletus badius growing at polluted sites over four years.

    PubMed

    Mleczek, Mirosław; Niedzielski, Przemysław; Rzymski, Piotr; Siwulski, Marek; Gąsecka, Monika; Kozak, Lidia

    2016-07-02

    The content of arsenic (As) in mushrooms can vary depending on the concentration level of this metalloid in the soil/substrate. The present study evaluated the content of arsenic in Boletus badius fruiting bodies collected from polluted and non-polluted sites in relation to the content of this element in overgrown substrate. It was found that mushrooms from the arsenic-polluted sites contained mean concentrations from 49 to 450 mg As kg(-1) dry matter (d.m.), with the greatest content found for specimens growing in close proximity of sludge deposits (490±20 mg As kg(-1)d.m.). The mean content of total arsenic in mushrooms from clean sites ranged from 0.03 to 0.37 mg kg(-1) It was found that B. badius could tolerate arsenic in soil substrate at concentrations of up to 2500 mg kg(-1), at least. In different years of investigation, shifts in particular arsenic forms, as well as a general increase in the accumulation of organic arsenic content, were observed. The results of this study clearly indicate that B. badius should not be collected for culinary purposes from any sites that may be affected by pollution.

  6. Arsenic compounds: revived ancient remedies in the fight against human malignancies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian-Xiang; Zhou, Guang-Biao; Chen, Sai-Juan; Chen, Zhu

    2012-04-01

    Arsenic, the 20th most abundant element in the earth crust, is one of the oldest drugs in the world. It was used in the 18th century in treating hematopoietic malignancies, discarded in 1950s in favor of chemotherapeutic agents (busulphan and others), and was revived in the 1970s due to its dramatic efficacy on acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) driven by the t(15;17) translocation-generated PML-RARα fusion. Arsenic represents the most potent single agent for APL, and achieves a five-year overall survival of 90% in APL patients when combined with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and chemotherapy (daunorubicin and cytarabine), turning this disease from highly fatal to highly curable. Arsenic triggers sumoylation/ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of PML-RARα via directly binding to the C3HC4 zinc finger motif in the RBCC domain of the PML moiety and induction of its homodimerization/multimerization and interaction with the SUMO E2 conjugase Ubc9. Because of its multiplicity of targets and complex mechanisms of action, arsenic is widely tested in combination with other agents in a variety of malignancies. Other arsenic containing recipes including oral formulations and organic arsenicals are being developed and tested, and progress in these areas will definitely expand the use of arsenicals in other malignant diseases.

  7. Arsenic in Norway lobster (Nephrophs norvegicus L. ) from Kvarneric Bay - Northeastern Adriatic

    SciTech Connect

    Sekulic, B. ); Sapunar, J.; Bazulic, D. )

    1993-09-01

    Arsenic is of concern as environmental pollutant because it is a ubiquitous element known to give rise to adverse human health effects ranging from minor disorders to cancer and acute death. Arsenic occurrence in the environment depends on such human activities as coal burning, use of pesticides, glass industry, electric application, veterinary medicine, etc. It has long been known that marine fishery products may contain high levels of arsenic. Fortunately, mainly in the organic, non-toxic form, with the average proportion of organic form in total arsenic between 71-79% and 50-97%. According to Lawrence et al., arsenic in marine fish was identified as arsenobetaine and, in shrimp only, arsenocholine. This paper examines the levels of total arsenic in the sample of the muscle and hepatopancreas of female and male Norway lobster, Nephrophs norvegicus L. from the area of Kvarneric Bay, Northeastern Adriatic (Croatia). The average values of arsenic in muscle from female and male lobster were 13.26 mg (kg and 14.20. mg/kg), respectively. In hepatopancreas the values were 17.12 mg/kg and 13.34 mg/kg for female and male, respectively. 11 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  8. Investigating Arsenic Mobilization Mechanisms as well as Complexation Between Arsenic and Polysulfides Associated With a Bangladeshi Rice Paddy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, T.; Kampalath, R.; Jay, J.

    2009-12-01

    The presence of arsenic in the groundwater has led to the largest environmental poisoning in history. Although it is a worldwide issue that affects numerous countries, including Taiwan, Bangladesh, India, China, Mexico, Peru, Australia, and the United States, the issue is of greatest concern in the West Bengal region. In the Ganges Delta, as many as 2 million people are diagnosed with arsenicosis each year. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates 200,000 to 270,000 arsenic-induced cancer-related deaths in Bangladesh alone. More than 100 million people in the country consume groundwater that exceeds the WHO limit as 50% of the 8 million wells contain groundwater with more than 10 μg/L. Despite the tragic public health implications of this problem, we do not yet have a complete answer to the question of why dissolved arsenic concentrations are so high in the groundwater of the Ganges Delta. Since 1999, we have been intensively studying a field site in Munshiganj, Bangladesh with extremely high levels of arsenic in groundwater (up to 1.2 mg/L). Sediment cores were collected from two locations at the field site: 1) the rice paddy and 2) edge of a nearby irrigation pond. Recharge from irrigation ponds have recently been hypothesized to be an important site of arsenic mobilization. Recent work has proposed mineral dissolution under phosphorus-limited conditions as an important mechanism for arsenic mobilization. Using microcosms with paddy and pond sediment, we are comparing arsenic release via this mechanism with that resulting from reduction of iron hydroxides at our site. Concurrently, we are looking at enhanced solubility of As in the presence of polysulfides as the effects of elemental sulfur on As solubility have not been well researched. We hypothesize that the presence of elemental sulfur, and consequent formation of polysulfides, will substantially increase the solubility of orpiment in sulfidic water and that sorption of these complexes will

  9. REACTOR FUEL ELEMENTS TESTING CONTAINER

    DOEpatents

    Whitham, G.K.; Smith, R.R.

    1963-01-15

    This patent shows a method for detecting leaks in jacketed fuel elements. The element is placed in a sealed tank within a nuclear reactor, and, while the reactor operates, the element is sparged with gas. The gas is then led outside the reactor and monitored for radioactive Xe or Kr. (AEC)

  10. Radioactive mixed waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Jasen, W.G.; Erpenbeck, E.G.

    1993-02-01

    Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) have led to the definition of radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). The radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes have resulted in the initiation of special projects for the management of these wastes. Other solid wastes at the Hanford Site include low-level wastes, transuranic (TRU), and nonradioactive hazardous wastes. This paper describes a system for the treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) of solid radioactive waste.

  11. Radioactivity of Consumer Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, David; Jokisch, Derek; Fulmer, Philip

    2006-11-01

    A variety of consumer products and household items contain varying amounts of radioactivity. Examples of these items include: FiestaWare and similar glazed china, salt substitute, bananas, brazil nuts, lantern mantles, smoke detectors and depression glass. Many of these items contain natural sources of radioactivity such as Uranium, Thorium, Radium and Potassium. A few contain man-made sources like Americium. This presentation will detail the sources and relative radioactivity of these items (including demonstrations). Further, measurements of the isotopic ratios of Uranium-235 and Uranium-238 in several pieces of china will be compared to historical uses of natural and depleted Uranium. Finally, the presenters will discuss radiation safety as it pertains to the use of these items.

  12. Experience with airborne detection of radioactive pollution (ENMOS, IRIS).

    PubMed

    Pavlik, Bohuslav; Engelsmann, Jan

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the advantages of airborne monitoring of radioactive pollution and shows example maps indicating manmade pollution from different sources. The sensitivity of airborne radioactive detection is discussed. Comparisons of airborne and different ground measurements are presented. New instrumentation for airborne or ground moving vehicles is briefly described. Airborne footprinting provides rapid, well-defined spatial images of natural and manmade radioactive contamination. Data acquisition integrated with GPS navigation provides consistent data and guarantees proper data location. Real-time airborne measurements are re-calculated, with the use of special algorithms, into absolute units for individual radioactive nuclei contamination of the ground together with dose calculation. Raw records and calculated data are provided after enhanced post-flight processing. Dose rates and detection of different radioactive elements are presented. (ENMOS is a product of Picodas Group Inc. and IRIS is the product of Pico Envirotec Inc.)

  13. Arsenic Mobilization Influenced By Iron Reduction And Sulfidogenesis Under Dynamic Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocar, B. D.; Stewart, B. D.; Herbel, M.; Fendorf, S.

    2004-12-01

    Sulfidogenesis and iron reduction are ubiquitous processes that occur in a variety of anoxic subsurface and surface environments, which profoundly impact the cycling of arsenic. Of the iron (hydr)oxides, ferrihydrite possesses one of the highest capacities to retain arsenic, and is globally distributed within soils and sediments. Upon dissimilatory iron reduction, ferrihydrite may transform to lower surface area minerals, such as goethite and magnetite, which decreases arsenic retention, thus enhancing its transport. Here we examine how arsenic retained on ferrihydrite is mobilized under dynamic flow in the presence of Sulfurosprillum barnesii strain SES-3, a bacteria capable of reducing both As(V) and Fe(III). Ferrihydrite coated sands, loaded with 150 mg kg-1 As(V), were inoculated with S. barnesii, packed into a column and reacted with a synthetic groundwater solution. Within several days after initiation of flow, the concentration of arsenic in the column effluent increased dramatically coincident with the mineralogical transformation of ferrihydrite and As(V) reduction to As(III). Following the initial pulse of arsenic, effluent concentration then declined to less than 10 μ M. Thus, arsenic release into the aqueous phase is contingent upon the incongruent reduction of As(V) and Fe(III) as mediated by biological activity. Reaction of abiotically or biotically generated dissolved sulfide with iron (hydr)oxides may have a dramatic influence on the fate of arsenic within surface and subsurface environments. Accordingly, we examined the reaction of dissolved bisulfide and iron (hydr)oxide complexed with arsenic in both batch and column systems. Low ratios of sulfide to iron in batch reaction systems result in the formation of elemental sulfur and concomitant arsenic release from the iron (hydr)oxide surface. High sulfide to iron ratios, in contrast, appear to favor the formation of iron and arsenic sulfides. Our findings demonstrate that iron (hydr)oxides may

  14. Arsenic Toxicity to Juvenile Fish: Effects of Exposure Route, Arsenic Speciation, and Fish Species

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic toxicity to juvenile rainbow trout and fathead minnows was evaluated in 28-day tests using both dietborne and waterborne exposures, both inorganic and organic arsenic species, and both a live diet and an arsenic-spiked pellet diet. Effects of inorganic arsenic on rainbow...

  15. Approaches to Increase Arsenic Awareness in Bangladesh: An Evaluation of an Arsenic Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Christine Marie; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Khan, Khalid; Islam, Tariqul; Singha, Ashit; Moon-Howard, Joyce; van Geen, Alexander; Graziano, Joseph H.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to design and evaluate a household-level arsenic education and well water arsenic testing intervention to increase arsenic awareness in Bangladesh. The authors randomly selected 1,000 study respondents located in 20 villages in Singair, Bangladesh. The main outcome was the change in knowledge of arsenic from…

  16. Human biomonitoring of arsenic and antimony in case of an elevated geogenic exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Gebel, T W; Suchenwirth, R H; Bolten, C; Dunkelberg, H H

    1998-01-01

    Part of the northern Palatinate region in Germany is characterized by elevated levels of arsenic and antimony in the soil due to the presence of ore sources and former mining activities. In a biomonitoring study, 218 residents were investigated for a putative increased intake of these elements. Seventy-six nonexposed subjects in a rural region in south lower Saxony were chosen as the reference group. Urine and scalp hair samples were obtained as surrogates to determine the internal exposures to arsenic and antimony. The analyses were performed using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry except for arsenic in urine, which was determined by the hydride technique. This method does not detect organoarsenicals from seafood, which are not toxicologically relevant. In the northern Palatinate subjects, slightly elevated arsenic contents in urine and scalp hair (presumably not hazardous) could be correlated with an increased arsenic content in the soil. On the other hand, the results did not show a correlation between the antimony contents in the soil of the housing area and those in urine and hair. Except for antimony in scalp hair, age tended to be associated with internal exposures to arsenic and antimony in both study groups. Consumption of seafood had a slight impact on the level of urinary arsenic, which is indicative of the presence of low quantities of inorganic arsenicals and dimethylarsinic acid in seafood. The arsenic and antimony contents in scalp hair were positively correlated with the 24-hr arsenic excretion in urine. However, antimony in scalp hair was not correlated with seafood consumption as was arsenic in scalp hair and in urine. This indicated the existence of unidentified common pathways of exposure contributing to the alimentary body burden. Short time peaks in the 24-hr excretion of arsenic in urine, which could not be assigned to a high consumption of seafood, were detected for six study participants. This suggests that additional factors

  17. Geochemistry and migration of anthropogenic arsenic emissions in Yara Siilinjärvi industrial site, Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turunen, Kaisa; Backnäs, Soile; Pasanen, Antti

    2013-04-01

    Arsenic is a problematic element due to its relatively high mobility over a wide range of redox-conditions and its toxicity to humans, animals and plants. In extractive and industrial minerals arsenic is a common element and cannot be eluded in mining and quarrying activities. Therefore, mining and industrial activities are one of the most serious arsenic polluters at local scale. In assessing environmental effects, it is important to compare anthropogenic arsenic load to geological background. The aim of this study was to characterize environmental effects and risks of the arsenic bearing calcinate tailings to the surrounding environment. Yara Finland industrial site in Siilinjärvi, Eastern Finland produces mainly fertilizers and phosphoric acid, but also 250 000 t/a iron calcinate is recovered as by-product at the sulphuric acid plant. The tailings area is located about 200 m from Lake Kuuslahti and surrounded by double ditches collecting runoff and seepage waters to seepage ponds. Some seepage water migrates to a bedrock fracture zone under the tailings area and contaminant transport from the fracture zone is controlled by pumping the water back to seepage ponds. The arsenic content (500 mg/kg) of the calcinate tailings is very high considering that the natural arsenic concentrations of the local bedrock and soil are low (<2 mg/kg). A total of 55 soil and sediment samples were analyzed for hot aqua regia, ammonium oxalate and acetate extractable arsenic representing total, chemically adsorbed and bioavailable fractions. In addition 14 water samples were analyzed for total and soluble metal and metalloid concentrations, anions, DOC, TOC, pH, redox and alkalinity. The metal speciation in surface and ground waters was modeled by PhreeqC. According to the results main arsenic pathways from the tailings to environment and into the Lake Kuuslahti are by dust and surface runoff. Close to the tailings arsenic concentrations are high and exceed the Finnish threshold

  18. Container for radioactive materials

    DOEpatents

    Fields, S.R.

    1984-05-30

    A container is claimed for housing a plurality of canister assemblies containing radioactive material. The several canister assemblies are stacked in a longitudinally spaced relation within a carrier to form a payload concentrically mounted within the container. The payload package includes a spacer for each canister assembly, said spacer comprising a base member longitudinally spacing adjacent canister assemblies from each other and sleeve surrounding the associated canister assembly for centering the same and conducting heat from the radioactive material in a desired flow path. 7 figures.

  19. Cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic in animal feed and feed materials - trend analysis of monitoring results.

    PubMed

    Adamse, Paulien; Van der Fels-Klerx, H J Ine; de Jong, Jacob

    2017-03-02

    This study aimed to obtain insights into the presence of cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic in feed materials and feed over time, for the purpose of guiding national monitoring. Data from the Dutch feed monitoring program and from representatives of the feed industry in the period 2007-2013 were used. Data covered the concentrations of cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic in a variety of feed materials and compound feeds in The Netherlands. Trends in the percentage of samples that exceeded the maximum limit (ML), set by the European Commission, and trends in average, median and 90(th) percentile concentrations of each of these elements per feed material or compound feed were investigated. Based on the results, monitoring for cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic should focus on feed material of mineral origin, feed material of marine origin, especially fish meal, seaweed and algae as well as feed additives belonging to the functional groups of (i) trace elements (notably cupric sulphate, zinc oxide and manganese oxide for arsenic) and (ii) binders and anti-caking agents. Mycotoxin binders are a new group of feed additives that also need attention. For complementary feed it is important to make a proper distinction between mineral and non-mineral feed because the ML in the latter group is usually lower. In seaweed/algae products a relatively large number of samples contained arsenic concentrations that exceeded the ML. Forage crops in general do not need high priority in monitoring programs, although for arsenic grass meal still needs attention.

  20. Accumulation and loss of arsenic and boron, alone and in combination, in mallard ducks

    SciTech Connect

    Pendleton, G.W.; Whitworth, M.R.; Olsen, G.H.

    1995-08-01

    Arsenic and boron are common in the environment, and wildlife can be exposed to toxic concentrations through both natural and human-influenced processes. The authors exposed adult male mallard ducks to dietary concentrations of 300 ppm arsenic as sodium arsenate, 1,600 ppm boron as boric acid, or both and estimated the tissue accumulation and loss rates when the ducks were returned to uncontaminated food. Both elements were accumulated rapidly; equilibrium levels were reached for arsenic in 10 to 30 d and for boron in 2 to 15 d. Accumulation of each element was slowed by the presence of the other in the diet. Boron was eliminated by mallards very rapidly, with few detectable residues {ge}1 d after removal of boron from the diet; arsenic was also rapidly lost with half-lives of 1 to 3 d (half-lives were not constant throughout the loss period). Arsenic loss rate was not affected by the presence of boron. Arsenic accumulated to the highest level in liver tissue, with blood and brain levels lower; concentrations in the liver and blood were proportional but affected by the presence of boron. Boron concentrations were highest in the blood, followed by the brain and liver; concentrations in the liver and blood were proportional but affected by the presence of boron. Boron concentrations were highest in the blood, followed by the brain and liver; concentrations in the blood and liver were proportional.

  1. Oak Ridge National Laboratory shipping containers for radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Schaich, R.W.

    1980-05-01

    The types of containers used at ORNL for the transport of radioactive materials are described. Both returnable and non-returnable types are included. Containers for solids, liquids and gases are discussed. Casks for the shipment of uranium, irradiated fuel elements, and non-irradiated fuel elements are also described. Specifications are provided. (DC)

  2. A direct determination of a glucose-arsenic complex by electrospray ionization time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Santi M

    2011-10-01

    Electrospray ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS) was used to identify elemental ions from the glucose-arsenic interaction in the aqueous phase. In glucose solution, the most abundant ions were m/z 203, m/z 163, m/z 158, m/z 145 and m/z 115, whereas some additional arsenic bearing ions, m/z 271, m/z 235 and m/z 213 were observed from a glucose-arsenic solution in alkaline pH (≥ 7.5) at 37 °C. The binding was best fitted to 1:1 isotherm model and the value of the dissociation constant (K(d)) was 39.8 μM. Results suggest that the polyatomic ions derived from glucose interact with the available arsenic ions in blood and form a complex which might play a role in diseases caused by arsenic exposure.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of multi-amino-functionalized cellulose for arsenic adsorption.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaolin; Tong, Shengrui; Ge, Maofa; Wu, Lingyan; Zuo, Junchao; Cao, Changyan; Song, Weiguo

    2013-01-30

    A multi-amino adsorbent for arsenic adsorption was reported in this paper. Glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) was first grafted onto the surface of cotton cellulose using ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) as the initiator, and then the introduced epoxy groups reacted with tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) to obtain a multi-amino adsorbent. The adsorbent was characterized by FTIR, elemental analysis, (13)C NMR and SEM. Then, the adsorption of arsenic for this adsorbent was investigated. The results showed that the GMA and TEPA were successfully grafted onto the surface of cellulose, and the modification improved the arsenic adsorption performances. Kinetic study suggested that the chemisorptions were the rate-limiting step. Among the three adsorption isotherm models used, Langmuir model fitted the experimental data best. The adsorption capacities of arsenic were less affected by coexisting ions. The adsorbent could be effectively regenerated for four cycles with 0.1 mol/L NaOH solution.

  4. Spontaneous arsenic (III) oxidation with bioelectricity generation in single-chamber microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunlong; Zhang, Baogang; Cheng, Ming; Li, Yalong; Hao, Liting; Guo, Huaming

    2016-04-05

    Arsenic is one of the most toxic elements commonly found in groundwater. With initial concentration of 200μgL(-1), spontaneous As(III) oxidation is realized completely during 7 days operation in single-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) in the present study, with the maximum power density of 752.6±17mWm(-2). The product is less toxic and mobile As(V), which can be removed from aqueous solution more easily. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing analysis indicates the existence of arsenic-resistant bacteria as Actinobacteria, Comamonas, Pseudomonas and arsenic-oxidizing bacteria as Enterobacter, with electrochemically active bacteria as Lactococcus, Enterobacter. They interact together and are responsible for As(III) oxidation and bioelectricity generation in MFCs. This study offers a potential attractive method for remediation of arsenic-polluted groundwater.

  5. Production of selenium-72 and arsenic-72

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, D.R.

    1993-04-20

    Methods are described for producing selenium-72, separating it from its daughter isotope arsenic-72, and generating multiple portions of a solution containing arsenic-72 from a reusable parent substance comprised of selenium-72.

  6. Production of selenium-72 and arsenic-72

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Dennis R.

    1993-01-01

    Methods for producing selenium-72, separating it from its daughter isotope arsenic-72, and generating multiple portions of a solution containing arsenic-72 from a reusable parent substance comprised of selenium-72.

  7. Arsenic Speciation in Groundwater: Role of Thioanions

    EPA Science Inventory

    The behavior of arsenic in groundwater environments is fundamentally linked to its speciation. Understanding arsenic speciation is important because chemical speciation impacts reactivity, bioavailability, toxicity, and transport and fate processes. In aerobic environments arsen...

  8. Recent Advances in the Measurement of Arsenic, Cadmium, and Mercury in Rice and Other Foods

    PubMed Central

    Punshon, Tracy

    2015-01-01

    Trace element analysis of foods is of increasing importance because of raised consumer awareness and the need to evaluate and establish regulatory guidelines for toxic trace metals and metalloids. This paper reviews recent advances in the analysis of trace elements in food, including challenges, state-of-the art methods, and use of spatially resolved techniques for localizing the distribution of As and Hg within rice grains. Total elemental analysis of foods is relatively well-established but the push for ever lower detection limits requires that methods be robust from potential matrix interferences which can be particularly severe for food. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is the method of choice, allowing for multi-element and highly sensitive analyses. For arsenic, speciation analysis is necessary because the inorganic forms are more likely to be subject to regulatory limits. Chromatographic techniques coupled to ICP-MS are most often used for arsenic speciation and a range of methods now exist for a variety of different arsenic species in different food matrices. Speciation and spatial analysis of foods, especially rice, can also be achieved with synchrotron techniques. Sensitive analytical techniques and methodological advances provide robust methods for the assessment of several metals in animal and plant-based foods, in particular for arsenic, cadmium and mercury in rice and arsenic speciation in foodstuffs. PMID:25938012

  9. Can Periodic Cicadas be used as a Biomonitor for Arsenical Pesticide Contamination?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, G. R.; Sibrell, P. L.; Boughton, C. J.; Yang, L.; Hancock, T. C.

    2004-12-01

    Widespread use of arsenical pesticides on fruit crops, particularly apple orchards, during the first half of the 20th century is a significant source of arsenic to agricultural soil in the Mid-Atlantic region. Cumulative application rates may be as high as 37 Kg/hectare of arsenic in orchard areas. Brood X 17-year periodic cicadas (Magicicada spp.) emerged at densities up to 30,000 or more individuals per hectare in orchard and forest habitats during May-June, 2004, in Clarke and Frederick Counties, Virginia and in Berkeley and Jefferson Counties, West Virginia. These cicadas were sampled to evaluate the bioavailability of arsenic in orchard and non-orchard reference site soils. Potentially toxic elements, such as arsenic and other heavy metals bind to sulfhydryl groups, and thus may accumulate in keratin-rich tissues, such as cicada nymphal exuviae and adult exoskeletons. These cicadas feed on plant roots underground for 17 years before emerging to molt into their adult form. Adult cicadas have very limited dispersal, rarely traveling more than 50 m in a flight. As such, their body and exoskeleton keratin has potential value as a biomonitor for arsenic and other metals that is spatially referenced to local conditions for the duration of time the nymphs live in the soil. This study addresses the following research questions: (1) do the soils in and adjacent to orchard sites where arsenical pesticide was used contain elevated concentrations of arsenic and other metals relative to likely background conditions?; (2) can periodic cicadas be used as an easily sampled biomonitor measuring bioavailability of pesticide residues in soils?; and (3) do the concentration levels of arsenical pesticide residues in periodic cicadas emerging from contaminated orchard sites pose a dietary threat to birds and other wildlife that preferentially feed upon cicadas during emergence events?

  10. Geogenic sources of local arsenic enrichment in groundwater from northwestern Thuringia, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abratis, Michael; Viereck, Lothar

    2014-05-01

    Aqueous fluids migrating in the Earth's crust interact with the host rocks and partially take up their geochemical signatures. Mineralization and sometimes geogenic contamination of the groundwater may be the consequence: The aquifer systems of the Lower Triassic Buntsandstein Formation, an important source of drinking water in north-western Thuringia, and the Rotliegend Formation are locally affected by elevated arsenic concentrations. Data from water wells locally show arsenic concentrations above the limit value for drinking water (10 μg/L). The regional distribution as well as lack of secondary vein mineralizations or anthropogenic sources within this area point to a geogenic stratibound source of arsenic. The average concentration of the toxic, carcinogenic trace element arsenic in rocks of Phanerozoic rocks in Germany range from 5 to 12 μg/g for different lithologies, being generally higher in Variscan rocks. However, it can be several times enriched in certain sedimentary lithologies such as pelites and even more so in coal beds. In our present study we investigate all sequences of the Buntsandstein and Rotliegend Formation with their different lithologies in order to identify the relevant carriers of arsenic. Geochemical analyses on samples from selected drill cores and outcrops show arsenic of >50 μg/g especially in carbonaceous sediment sections as well as in primarily gray-green lacustrine clay stones. Elevated arsenic concentrations seem to be related to lithofacies of lacustrine origin in the Buntsandstein and carbonaceous sediment sections in the Rotliegend. Aim of the current study is now to identify the appropriate synsedimentary mineral phases that incorporate arsenic and to identify the processes and conditions under which arsenic is mobilized from these phases and transferred into the groundwater.

  11. Inhibition of Androgen Receptor Transcriptional Activity as a Novel Mechanism of Action of Arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblatt, Adena E.; Burnstein, Kerry L.

    2009-01-01

    Environmental sodium arsenite is a toxin that is associated with male infertility due to decreased and abnormal sperm production. Arsenic trioxide (ATO), another inorganic trivalent semimetal, is an effective therapy for acute promyelocytic leukemia, and there is investigation of its possible efficacy in prostate cancer. However, the mechanism of arsenic action in male urogenital tract tissues is not clear. Because the androgen receptor (AR) plays an important role in spermatogenesis and prostate cancer, we explored the possibility that trivalent arsenic regulates AR function. We found that arsenic inhibited AR transcriptional activity in prostate cancer and Sertoli cells using reporter gene assays testing several androgen response element-containing regions and by assessing native target gene expression. Arsenic inhibition of AR activity was not due to down-regulation of AR protein levels, decreased hormone binding to AR, disruption of AR nuclear translocation, or interference with AR-DNA binding in vitro. However, chromatin immunoprecipitation studies revealed that arsenic inhibited AR recruitment to an AR target gene enhancer in vivo. Consistent with a deficiency in AR-chromatin binding, arsenic disrupted AR amino and carboxyl termini interaction. Furthermore, ATO caused a significant decrease in prostate cancer cell proliferation that was more pronounced in cells expressing AR compared with cells depleted of AR. In addition, inhibition of AR activity by ATO and by the AR antagonist, bicalutamide, was additive. Thus, arsenic-induced male infertility may be due to inhibition of AR activity. Further, because AR is an important target in prostate cancer therapy, arsenic may serve as an effective therapeutic option. PMID:19131511

  12. Effects of Arsenic on Osteoblast Differentiation in Vitro and on Bone Mineral Density and Microstructure in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Cheng-Tien; Lu, Tung-Ying; Chan, Ding-Cheng; Tsai, Keh-Sung; Yang, Rong-Sen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Arsenic is a ubiquitous toxic element and is known to contaminate drinking water in many countries. Several epidemiological studies have shown that arsenic exposure augments the risk of bone disorders. However, the detailed effect and mechanism of inorganic arsenic on osteoblast differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells and bone loss still remain unclear. Objectives: We investigated the effects and mechanism of arsenic on osteoblast differentiation in vitro and evaluated bone mineral density (BMD) and bone microstructure in rats at doses relevant to human exposure from drinking water. Methods: We used a cell model of rat primary bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and a rat model of long-term exposure with arsenic-contaminated drinking water, and determined bone microstructure and BMD in rats by microcomputed tomography (μCT). Results: We observed significant attenuation of osteoblast differentiation after exposure of BMSCs to arsenic trioxide (0.5 or 1 μM). After arsenic treatment during differentiation, expression of runt-related transcription factor-2 (Runx2), bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), and osteocalcin in BMSCs was inhibited and phosphorylation of enhanced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) was increased. These altered differentiation-related molecules could be reversed by the ERK inhibitor PD98059. Exposure of rats to arsenic trioxide (0.05 or 0.5 ppm) in drinking water for 12 weeks altered BMD and microstructure, decreased Runx2 expression, and increased ERK phosphorylation in bones. In BMSCs isolated from arsenic-treated rats, osteoblast differentiation was inhibited. Conclusions: Our results suggest that arsenic is capable of inhibiting osteoblast differentiation of BMSCs via an ERK-dependent signaling pathway and thus increasing bone loss. Citation: Wu CT, Lu TY, Chan DC, Tsai KS, Yang RS, Liu SH. 2014. Effects of arsenic on osteoblast differentiation in vitro and on bone mineral density and microstructure in rats. Environ

  13. Radioactive Decay - An Analog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGeachy, Frank

    1988-01-01

    Presents an analog of radioactive decay that allows the student to grasp the concept of half life and the exponential nature of the decay process. The analog is devised to use small, colored, plastic poker chips or counters. Provides the typical data and a graph which supports the analog. (YP)

  14. Detecting Illicit Radioactive Sources

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, Joseph C.; Coursey, Bert; Carter, Michael

    2004-11-01

    Specialized instruments have been developed to detect the presence of illicit radioactive sources that may be used by terrorists in radiation dispersal devices, so-called ''dirty bombs'' or improvised nuclear devices. This article discusses developments in devices to detect and measure radiation.

  15. AIR RADIOACTIVITY MONITOR

    DOEpatents

    Bradshaw, R.L.; Thomas, J.W.

    1961-04-11

    The monitor is designed to minimize undesirable background buildup. It consists of an elongated column containing peripheral electrodes in a central portion of the column, and conduits directing an axial flow of radioactively contaminated air through the center of the column and pure air through the annular portion of the column about the electrodes. (AEC)

  16. Radioactivity: A Natural Phenomenon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronneau, C.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is misinformation people have on the subject of radiation. The importance of comparing artificial source levels of radiation to natural levels is emphasized. Measurements of radioactivity, its consequences, and comparisons between the risks induced by radiation in the environment and from artificial sources are included. (KR)

  17. Viewer Makes Radioactivity "Visible"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yin, L. I.

    1983-01-01

    Battery operated viewer demonstrates feasibility of generating threedimensional visible light simulations of objects that emit X-ray or gamma rays. Ray paths are traced for two pinhold positions to show location of reconstructed image. Images formed by pinholes are converted to intensified visible-light images. Applications range from radioactivity contamination surveys to monitoring radioisotope absorption in tumors.

  18. Radioactivity and foods

    SciTech Connect

    Olszyna-Marzys, A.E. )

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe and contrast two relationships between radiation and food--on the one hand, beneficial preservation of food by controlled exposure to ionizing radiation; and, on the other, contamination of food by accidental incorporation of radioactive nuclides within the food itself. In food irradiation, electrons or electromagnetic radiation is used to destroy microorganisms and insects or prevent seed germination. The economic advantages and health benefits of sterilizing food in this manner are clear, and numerous studies have confirmed that under strictly controlled conditions no undersirable changes or induced radioactivity is produced in the irradiated food. An altogether different situation is presented by exposure of food animals and farming areas to radioactive materials, as occurred after the major Soviet nuclear reactor accident at Chenobyl. This article furnishes the basic information needed to understand the nature of food contamination associated with that event and describes the work of international organizations seeking to establish appropriate safe limits for levels of radioactivity in foods.

  19. Background X-ray Spectrum of Radioactive Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon Yee; Dawn E. Janney

    2008-02-01

    An energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) is commonly used with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to analyze the elemental compositions and microstructures of a variety of samples. For example, the microstructures of nuclear fuels are commonly investigated with this technique. However, the radioactivity of some materials introduces additional X-rays that contribute to the EDS background spectrum. These X-rays are generally not accounted for in spectral analysis software, and can cause misleading results. X-rays from internal conversion [1], Bremsstrahlung [2] radiation associated with alpha ionizations and beta particle interactions [3], and gamma rays from radioactive decay can all elevate the background of radioactive materials.

  20. Determination of Trace Elements in Nickel Base Alloys by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    elements such as silver (Ag), bismuth (Bi), cadmium (Cd), lead ( Pb ), phosphorus (P), and arsenic (As) in nickel alloys such as Udimet 500 without interference of other constituent elements. (Author)

  1. Environmental Radioactivity, Temperature, and Precipitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riland, Carson A.

    1996-01-01

    Reports that environmental radioactivity levels vary with temperature and precipitation and these effects are due to radon. Discusses the measurement of this environmental radioactivity and the theory behind it. (JRH)

  2. Prenatal Arsenic Exposure and DNA Methylation in Maternal and Umbilical Cord Blood Leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Baccarelli, Andrea; Hoffman, Elaine; Tarantini, Letizia; Quamruzzaman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmuder; Mahiuddin, Golam; Mostofa, Golam; Hsueh, Yu-Mei; Wright, Robert O.; Christiani, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Arsenic is an epigenetic toxicant and could influence fetal developmental programming. Objectives: We evaluated the association between arsenic exposure and DNA methylation in maternal and umbilical cord leukocytes. Methods: Drinking-water and urine samples were collected when women were at ≤ 28 weeks gestation; the samples were analyzed for arsenic using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. DNA methylation at CpG sites in p16 (n = 7) and p53 (n = 4), and in LINE-1 and Alu repetitive elements (3 CpG sites in each), was quantified using pyrosequencing in 113 pairs of maternal and umbilical blood samples. We used general linear models to evaluate the relationship between DNA methylation and tertiles of arsenic exposure. Results: Mean (± SD) drinking-water arsenic concentration was 14.8 ± 36.2 μg/L (range: < 1–230 μg/L). Methylation in LINE-1 increased by 1.36% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.52, 2.21%] and 1.08% (95% CI: 0.07, 2.10%) in umbilical cord and maternal leukocytes, respectively, in association with the highest versus lowest tertile of total urinary arsenic per gram creatinine. Arsenic exposure was also associated with higher methylation of some of the tested CpG sites in the promoter region of p16 in umbilical cord and maternal leukocytes. No associations were observed for Alu or p53 methylation. Conclusions: Exposure to higher levels of arsenic was positively associated with DNA methylation in LINE-1 repeated elements, and to a lesser degree at CpG sites within the promoter region of the tumor suppressor gene p16. Associations were observed in both maternal and fetal leukocytes. Future research is needed to confirm these results and determine if these small increases in methylation are associated with any health effects. PMID:22466225

  3. Radioactivity in fossils at the Hagerman Fossil Beds National Monument.

    PubMed

    Farmer, C Neal; Kathren, Ronald L; Christensen, Craig

    2008-08-01

    Since 1996, higher than background levels of naturally occurring radioactivity have been documented in both fossil and mineral deposits at Hagerman Fossil Beds National Monument in south-central Idaho. Radioactive fossil sites occur primarily within an elevation zone of 900-1000 m above sea level and are most commonly found associated with ancient river channels filled with sand. Fossils found in clay rich deposits do not exhibit discernable levels of radioactivity. Out of 300 randomly selected fossils, approximately three-fourths exhibit detectable levels of natural radioactivity ranging from 1 to 2 orders of magnitude above ambient background levels when surveyed with a portable hand held Geiger-Muller survey instrument. Mineral deposits in geologic strata also show above ambient background levels of radioactivity. Radiochemical lab analysis has documented the presence of numerous natural radioactive isotopes. It is postulated that ancient groundwater transported radioactive elements through sand bodies containing fossils which precipitated out of solution during the fossilization process. The elevated levels of natural radioactivity in fossils may require special precautions to ensure that exposures to personnel from stored or displayed items are kept as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA).

  4. SPECIATION OF ARSENIC IN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT MATRICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The speciaton of arsenic in water, food and urine are analytical capabilities which are an essential part in arsenic risk assessment. The cancer risk associated with arsenic has been the driving force in generating the analytical research in each of these matrices. This presentat...

  5. ARSENIC SEPARATION FROM WATER USING ZEOLITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic is known to be a hazardous contaminant in drinking water. The presence of arsenic in water supplies has been linked to arsenical dermatosis and skin cancer . Zeolites are well known for their ion exchange capacities. In the present work, the potential use of a variety of ...

  6. Arsenic Exposure and Toxicology: A Historical Perspective

    EPA Science Inventory

    The metalloid arsenic is a natural environmental contaminant to which humans are routinely exposed in food, water, air and soil. Arsenic has a long history of use as a homicidal agent, but in the past 100 years arsenic, in various forms, has also been used as a pesticide and a ch...

  7. TYPES OF ARSENIC AND TREATMENT OPTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation will discuss the state-of-the-art technology for removal of arsenic from drinking water. Presentation includes results of several EPA field studies on removal of arsenic from existing arsenic removal plants and key results from several EPA sponsored research studies...

  8. 21 CFR 556.60 - Arsenic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arsenic. 556.60 Section 556.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND... New Animal Drugs § 556.60 Arsenic. Tolerances for total residues of combined arsenic (calculated as...

  9. 21 CFR 556.60 - Arsenic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Arsenic. 556.60 Section 556.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND... New Animal Drugs § 556.60 Arsenic. Tolerances for total residues of combined arsenic (calculated as...

  10. 21 CFR 556.60 - Arsenic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Arsenic. 556.60 Section 556.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND... New Animal Drugs § 556.60 Arsenic. Tolerances for total residues of combined arsenic (calculated as...

  11. Understanding Arsenic Dynamics in Agronomic Systems to ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This review is on arsenic in agronomic systems, and covers processes that influence the entry of arsenic into the human food supply. The scope is from sources of arsenic (natural and anthropogenic) in soils, biogeochemical and rhizosphere processes that control arsenic speciation and availability, through to mechanisms of uptake by crop plants and potential mitigation strategies. This review makes a case for taking steps to prevent or limit crop uptake of arsenic, wherever possible, and to work toward a long-term solution to the presence of arsenic in agronomic systems. The past two decades have seen important advances in our understanding of how biogeochemical and physiological processes influence human exposure to soil arsenic, and thus must now prompt an informed reconsideration and unification of regulations to protect the quality of agricultural and residential soils. Consumption of staple foods such as rice, beverages such as apple juice, or vegetables grown in historically arsenic-contaminated soils is now recognized as a tangible route of arsenic exposure that, in many cases, is more significant than exposure from drinking water. Understanding the sources of arsenic to crop plants and the factors that influence them is key to reducing exposure now and preventing exposure in future. In addition to the abundant natural sources of arsenic, there are a large number of industrial and agricultural sources of arsenic to the soil; from mining wastes, coal fly

  12. Arsenic - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Arsenic URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/arsenic.html Other topics A-Z A B C ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Arsenic - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  13. 21 CFR 556.60 - Arsenic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Arsenic. 556.60 Section 556.60 Food and Drugs FOOD... New Animal Drugs § 556.60 Arsenic. (a) (b) Tolerances. The tolerances for total residue of combined arsenic (calculated as As) are: (1) Turkeys—(i) Muscle and eggs: 0.5 parts per million (ppm). (ii)...

  14. 21 CFR 556.60 - Arsenic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Arsenic. 556.60 Section 556.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND... New Animal Drugs § 556.60 Arsenic. Tolerances for total residues of combined arsenic (calculated as...

  15. Arsenic Metabolism and Distribution in Developing Organisms

    EPA Science Inventory

    A growing body of evidence suggests that exposure to inorganic arsenic during early life has long term adverse effects. The extent of exposure to inorganic arsenic and its methylated metabolites in utero is determined not only by the rates of formation and transfer of arsenicals...

  16. Linking Arsenic Metabolism and Toxic Effects

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although arsenic has been long recognized as a toxicant and a carcinogen, the molecular basis for few of its adverse effects are well understood. Like other metalloids, arsenic undergoes extensive metabolism involving oxidation state changes and formation of methyl-arsenic bonds ...

  17. GROUND WATER TREATMENT PROCESSES FOR ARSENIC REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1975 EPA established a maximum contaminant level (MCL) for arsenic at 0.05 mg/L. In 1996, Congress amended the SDWA and these amendments required that EPA develop an arsenic research strategy and publish a proposal to revise the arsenic MCL by January 2000. The Agency proposed...

  18. Radioactive heat sources in the lunar interior.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    Published models for the moon's thermal history typically imply present day central temperatures far too high to be consistent with the recently proposed lunar temperature profile of Sonett et al. (1971). Furthermore, chemical data on Apollo samples show that the moon is depleted relative to chondrites in volatile elements, and possibly enriched relative to chondrites in refractory elements. Additional thermal models have therefore been investigated in order to set upper limits on lunar radioactivity consistent with the proposed temperature distribution. For an initially cold, uniform moon, devoid of potassium, a maximum uranium content of 23 parts per billion is inferred.

  19. Diversity and Distribution of Arsenic-Related Genes Along a Pollution Gradient in a River Affected by Acid Mine Drainage.

    PubMed

    Desoeuvre, Angélique; Casiot, Corinne; Héry, Marina

    2016-04-01

    Some microorganisms have the capacity to interact with arsenic through resistance or metabolic processes. Their activities contribute to the fate of arsenic in contaminated ecosystems. To investigate the genetic potential involved in these interactions in a zone of confluence between a pristine river and an arsenic-rich acid mine drainage, we explored the diversity of marker genes for arsenic resistance (arsB, acr3.1, acr3.2), methylation (arsM), and respiration (arrA) in waters characterized by contrasted concentrations of metallic elements (including arsenic) and pH. While arsB-carrying bacteria were representative of pristine waters, Acr3 proteins may confer to generalist bacteria the capacity to cope with an increase of contamination. arsM showed an unexpected wide distribution, suggesting biomethylation may impact arsenic fate in contaminated aquatic ecosystems. arrA gene survey suggested that only specialist microorganisms (adapted to moderately or extremely contaminated environments) have the capacity to respire arsenate. Their distribution, modulated by water chemistry, attested the specialist nature of the arsenate respirers. This is the first report of the impact of an acid mine drainage on the diversity and distribution of arsenic (As)-related genes in river waters. The fate of arsenic in this ecosystem is probably under the influence of the abundance and activity of specific microbial populations involved in different As biotransformations.

  20. Method for calcining radioactive wastes

    DOEpatents

    Bjorklund, William J.; McElroy, Jack L.; Mendel, John E.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for the preparation of radioactive wastes in a low leachability form by calcining the radioactive waste on a fluidized bed of glass frit, removing the calcined waste to melter to form a homogeneous melt of the glass and the calcined waste, and then solidifying the melt to encapsulate the radioactive calcine in a glass matrix.

  1. The heaviest elements

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.C. Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA )

    1994-05-02

    How long does an atom need to exist before it's possible to do any meaningful chemistry on it Is it possible to learn anything at all about the reactions of an element for which no more than a few dozen atoms have ever existed simultaneously These are some of the questions colleagues in a few laboratories worldwide attempt to answer as they investigate the chemistry of the heaviest elements--elements produced one atom at a time in accelerators by bombarding radioactive targets with high-intensity beams of heavy ions. All of these elements spontaneously decay; the most stable of them have half-lives of only a few minutes, some that are less stable exist for only milliseconds. So far, no chemical studies have been performed on elements whose longest lived isotopes last only milliseconds because the difficulties of doing chemistry on this time scale under highly radioactive conditions are enormous. Over the past 10 years, however, nuclear chemists have developed new techniques or adapted existing ones to begin to probe the chemical properties of those very heavy elements that have half-lives in the range of seconds to minutes. Although the classic experiments are now nearly 40 years old, they are worth describing, as they were the first of their kind and illustrate many of the techniques that are still used and essential in studying these very short-lived, radioactive elements.

  2. Transplacental arsenic carcinogenesis in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Waalkes, Michael P. Liu, Jie; Diwan, Bhalchandra A.

    2007-08-01

    Our work has focused on the carcinogenic effects of in utero arsenic exposure in mice. Our data show that a short period of maternal exposure to inorganic arsenic in the drinking water is an effective, multi-tissue carcinogen in the adult offspring. These studies have been reproduced in three temporally separate studies using two different mouse strains. In these studies pregnant mice were treated with drinking water containing sodium arsenite at up to 85 ppm arsenic from days 8 to 18 of gestation, and the offspring were observed for up to 2 years. The doses used in all these studies were well tolerated by both the dam and offspring. In C3H mice, two separate studies show male offspring exposed to arsenic in utero developed liver carcinoma and adrenal cortical adenoma in a dose-related fashion during adulthood. Prenatally exposed female C3H offspring show dose-related increases in ovarian tumors and lung carcinoma and in proliferative lesions (tumors plus preneoplastic hyperplasia) of the uterus and oviduct. In addition, prenatal arsenic plus postnatal exposure to the tumor promoter, 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in C3H mice produces excess lung tumors in both sexes and liver tumors in females. Male CD1 mice treated with arsenic in utero develop tumors of the liver and adrenal and renal hyperplasia while females develop tumors of urogenital system, ovary, uterus and adrenal and hyperplasia of the oviduct. Additional postnatal treatment with diethylstilbestrol or tamoxifen after prenatal arsenic in CD1 mice induces urinary bladder transitional cell proliferative lesions, including carcinoma and papilloma, and enhances the carcinogenic response in the liver of both sexes. Overall this model has provided convincing evidence that arsenic is a transplacental carcinogen in mice with the ability to target tissues of potential human relevance, such as the urinary bladder, lung and liver. Transplacental carcinogenesis clearly occurs with other agents in humans

  3. Seasonal Variation in Arsenic Speciation in a Shallow Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illera, V.; O'Day, P. A.; Root, R. A.; Rivera, N.; Rafferty, M. T.; Vlassopoulos, D.

    2007-12-01

    Seasonal variation in arsenic speciation and concentration in sediments in a shallow aquifer were studied with respect to changes in water table elevation and rainfall. Sediment cores were collected at different times from 2004 to 2007 at a marsh site adjacent to San Francisco Bay (in East Palo Alto, CA), which experiences a strong wet winter/dry summer seasonality. The site is a former pesticide manufacturing plant that has undergone remediation and surface capping. Mobilization of post-remediation residual arsenic in sediments is inhibited by natural subsurface attenuation. This study examines the dynamics of seasonal changes on groundwater level and subsurface redox conditions, and its potential impact on arsenic mobilization. Cores (3-cm diameter) were collected from depths of 2.7-3.5 m, intersecting the range of seasonal elevation change in the water table. Groundwater level from a nearby well was monitored with continuous data logging. Sediment samples were analyzed for total and extractable element concentrations and characterized by arsenic and iron synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XANES and EXAFS). Three distinct redox zones are recognized spectroscopically within the shallow aquifer: a reduced zone in unsaturated sediments (~0.5-1.5 m depth) where arsenic is present as As-sulfide phases (orpiment or realgar); a transition zone between reduced and oxidized zones at the depth of water table (~1.5 m ±0.5 m) with mixed arsenic oxidation states; and an oxidized zone permeated with oxic groundwaters (~1.5-3 m depth) where only As(V) is present. Sediment samples from the reduced zone had arsenic concentrations from 50 to 150 mg kg-1. Arsenic concentrations decreased to a minimum in the transition zone to 20 mg kg-1, and reached a maximum in the oxidized zone (around 200 mg kg-1). Arsenic XANES spectra showed a progressive change from mostly arsenic sulfides in the upper reduced sediments (component sum ~100%\\) to a mixture of orpiment and As

  4. Magentite nanoparticle for arsenic remotion.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viltres, H.; Odio, O. F.; Borja, R.; Aguilera, Y.; Reguera, E.

    2017-01-01

    Inorganic As (V) and As (III) species are commonly found in groundwater in many countries around the world. It is known that arsenic is highly toxic and carcinogenic, at present exist reports of diverse countries with arsenic concentrations in drinking water higher than those proposed by the World Health Organization (10 μg/L). It has been reported that adsorption strategies using magnetic nanoparticles as magnetite (<20 nm) proved to be very efficient for the removal of arsenic in drinking water. Magnetic nanoparticles (magnetite) were prepared using a co-precipitation method with FeCl3 and FeCl2 as metal source and NaOH aqueous solution as precipitating agent. Magnetite nanoparticles synthesized were put in contact with As2O3 and As2O5 solutions at room temperature to pH 4 and 7. The nanoparticles were characterized by FT-IR, DRX, UV-vis, and XRF. The results showed that synthesized magnetite had an average diameter of 11 nm and a narrow size distribution. The presence of arsenic on magnetite nanoparticles surface was confirmed, which is more remarkable when As (V) is employed. Besides, it is possible to observe that no significant changes in the band gap values after adsorption of arsenic in the nanoparticles.

  5. Groundwater arsenic in Chimaltenango, Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Lotter, Jason T; Lacey, Steven E; Lopez, Ramon; Socoy Set, Genaro; Khodadoust, Amid P; Erdal, Serap

    2014-09-01

    In the Municipality of Chimaltenango, Guatemala, we sampled groundwater for total inorganic arsenic. In total, 42 samples were collected from 27 (43.5%) of the 62 wells in the municipality, with sites chosen to achieve spatial representation throughout the municipality. Samples were collected from household faucets used for drinking water, and sent to the USA for analysis. The only site found to have a concentration above the 10 μg/L World Health Organization provisional guideline for arsenic in drinking water was Cerro Alto, where the average concentration was 47.5 μg/L. A health risk assessment based on the arsenic levels found in Cerro Alto showed an increase in noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic risks for residents as a result of consuming groundwater as their primary drinking water source. Using data from the US Geological Survey and our global positioning system data of the sample locations, we found Cerro Alto to be the only site sampled within the tertiary volcanic rock layer, a known source of naturally occurring arsenic. Recommendations were made to reduce the levels of arsenic found in the community's drinking water so that the health risks can be managed.

  6. Stress proteins induced by arsenic.

    PubMed

    Del Razo, L M; Quintanilla-Vega, B; Brambila-Colombres, E; Calderón-Aranda, E S; Manno, M; Albores, A

    2001-12-01

    The elevated expression of stress proteins is considered to be a universal response to adverse conditions, representing a potential mechanism of cellular defense against disease and a potential target for novel therapeutics. Exposure to arsenicals either in vitro or in vivo in a variety of model systems has been shown to cause the induction of a number of the major stress protein families such as heat shock proteins (Hsp). Among them are members with low molecular weight, such as metallotionein and ubiquitin, as well as ones with masses of 27, 32, 60, 70, 90, and 110 kDa. In most of the cases, the induction of stress proteins depends on the capacity of the arsenical to reach the target, its valence, and the type of exposure, arsenite being the biggest inducer of most Hsp in several organs and systems. Hsp induction is a rapid dose-dependent response (1-8 h) to the acute exposure to arsenite. Thus, the stress response appears to be useful to monitor the sublethal toxicity resulting from a single exposure to arsenite. The present paper offers a critical review of the capacity of arsenicals to modulate the expression and/or accumulation of stress proteins. The physiological consequences of the arsenic-induced stress and its usefulness in monitoring effects resulting from arsenic exposure in humans and other organisms are discussed.

  7. BREAST CANCER, DERMATOFIBROMAS AND ARSENIC

    PubMed Central

    Dantzig, Paul I

    2009-01-01

    Background: Dermatofibromas are common benign tumors in women, and breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. The aim of this study is to determine if there is any relationship between the two conditions. Materials and Methods: Five patients with dermatofibromas and 10 control patients (two groups) had their skin biopsies measured for arsenic by inductively coupled mass spectrometry. Fifty randomly selected patients with breast cancer and 50 control patients were examined for the presence of dermatofibromas. Results: The dermatofibromas were found to have an arsenic concentration of 0.171 micrograms/gram, compared with 0.06 and 0.07 micrograms/gram of the two control groups. Forty-three out of 50 patients with breast cancer had dermatofibromas and 32/50 patients with breast cancer had multiple dermatofibromas, compared to 10/50 control patients with dermatofibromas and only 1/50 with multiple dermatofibromas. Conclusions: Arsenic is important in the development of dermatofibromas and dermatofibromas represent a reservoir and important sign of chronic arsenic exposure. Dermatofibromas represent an important sign for women at risk for breast cancer, and arsenic may represent the cause of the majority of cases of breast cancer. PMID:20049264

  8. Arsenic in groundwaters in the Northern Appalachian Mountain belt: a review of patterns and processes.

    PubMed

    Peters, Stephen C

    2008-07-29

    Naturally occurring arsenic in the bedrock of the Northern Appalachian Mountain belt was first recognized in the late 19th century. The knowledge of the behavior of arsenic in groundwater in this region has lagged behind nearly a century, with the popular press reporting on local studies in the early 1980s, and most peer-reviewed research articles on regional patterns conducted and written in the late 1990s and early 2000s. Research reports have shown that within this high arsenic region, between 6% and 22% of households using private drinking water wells contain arsenic in excess of 10 microg/L, the United States Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant level. In nearly all reports, arsenic in drinking water was derived from naturally occurring geologic sources, typically arsenopyrite, substituted sulfides such as arsenian pyrite, and nanoscale minerals such as westerveldite. In most studies, arsenic concentrations in groundwater were controlled by pH dependent adsorption to mineral surfaces, most commonly iron oxide minerals. In some cases, reductive dissolution of iron minerals has been shown to increase arsenic concentrations in groundwater, more commonly associated with anthropogenic activities such as landfills. Evidence of nitrate reduction promoting the presence of arsenic(V) and iron(III) minerals in anoxic environments has been shown to occur in surface waters, and in this manuscript we show this process perhaps applies to groundwater. The geologic explanation for the high arsenic region in the Northern Appalachian Mountain belt is most likely the crustal recycling of arsenic as an incompatible element during tectonic activity. Accretion of multiple terranes, in particular Avalonia and the Central Maine Terrane of New England appear to be connected to the presence of high concentrations of arsenic. Continued tectonic activity and recycling of these older terranes may also be responsible for the high arsenic observed in the Triassic rift

  9. Process for decontaminating radioactive waste water using a ferrofluid and magnetic separation

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, G.L.

    1980-07-31

    The present invention provides a process for decontaminating radioactive waste water containing a radioactive element that forms a water-insoluble compound. This process includes the steps of forming the compound of the radioactive element, treating the resulting waste water with a ferrofluid, dispersing the ferrofluid, diluting the solids concentration of the resulting mixture with a coagulation initiator, such as ethyl alcohol or acetone, and collecting by use of a magnetic field, the resulting radioactive sludge. In a variation of the process, the steps involving the use of the coagulation initiator and the use of the ferrofluid are reversed.

  10. Arsenic and boron in the Tongonan environment

    SciTech Connect

    Darby, d'E.C.

    1980-09-01

    Arsenic and boron occur in higher concentrations in Tongonan hydrothermal fluids than in those of most other geothermal projects, and are the elements most likely to cause problems in the local environment. Mercury levels are low, and H/sub 2/S is unlikely to have adverse effects in view of local geography and rainfall. Streams in the steam field join rivers flowing through a rice irrigation scheme and out to sea in an area which is intensively fished, hence the clear necessity to minimize environmental damage. Studies during project development led to the proposal of site-specific concentration limits for As and B, with subsequent monitoring to assess their validity. Well testing is programmed to take account of these limits in conjunction with expected flow-rates and chemical characteristics of the separated fluids. Injection wells are or will be provided to accept all effluents except those from isolated exploration wells in distant parts of the field.

  11. Antimony and arsenic biogeochemistry in the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jing-Ling; Zhang, Xu-Zhou; Sun, You-Xu; Liu, Su-Mei; Huang, Daji; Zhang, Jing

    2016-02-01

    The biogeochemical cycles of the metalloid elements arsenic and antimony in the East China Sea (ECS), one of the most important marginal seas for western Pacific, were examined in May 2011. Dissolved inorganic arsenic (As(V) and As(III)) and antimony (Sb(V) and Sb(III)) species were determined by selective hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS). Results show that total dissolved inorganic arsenic (TDIAs; [TDIAs]=[As(V)]+[As(III)]) were moderately depleted in the surface water and enriched in the deep water. Arsenite (As(III)) showed different vertical profiles with that of TDIAs, with significant surface enrichment in the middle shelf region where the concentrations of phosphate were extremely low. Speciation of dissolved arsenic was subtly controlled by the stoichiometric molar ratio of arsenate (As(V)) to phosphate. The average As(V)/P ratio for the ECS in spring 2011 was 10.8×10-3, which is higher than previous results and indicates the arsenate stress. The concentrations of total dissolved inorganic antimony (TDISb; [TDISb]=[Sb(V)]+[Sb(III)]) were high near the Changjiang Estuary and the coastal area of Hangzhou Bay and decreased moderately off the coast. TDISb displayed moderate conservative behavior in the ECS that confirms by the correlations with salinity and dissolved aluminum. Different with that of As(III), antimonite (Sb(III)) concentrations were extremely lower in the ECS, with relative higher concentration appeared at the bottom layer which indicates the contribution from sediment-water interface. A preliminary box model was established to estimate the water-mass balance and antimony budgets for the ECS. Compared with other areas in the world, the concentrations of dissolved inorganic arsenic and antimony in the ECS remain at natural levels.

  12. International radioactive material recycling challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Greeves, John T.; Lieberman, James

    2007-07-01

    The paper explores current examples of successful International radioactive recycling programs and also explores operational regulatory and political challenges that need to be considered for expanding international recycling world-wide. Most countries regulations are fully consistent with the International Atomic Agency (IAEA) Code of Practice on the International Transboundary Movement of Radioactive Material and the IAEA Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources. IAEA member States reported on the status of their efforts to control transboundary movement of radioactive material recently during the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management meeting in May 2006. (authors)

  13. The studying of washing of arsenic and sulfur from coals having different ranges of arsenic contents

    SciTech Connect

    Mingshi Wang; Dangyu Song; Baoshan Zheng; R.B. Finkelman

    2008-10-15

    To study the effectiveness of washing in removal of arsenic and sulfur from coals with different ranges of arsenic concentration, coal was divided into three groups on the basis of arsenic content: 0-5.5 mg/kg, 5.5 mg/kg-8.00 mg/kg, and over 8.00 mg/kg. The result shows that the arsenic in coals with higher arsenic content occurs mainly in an inorganic state and can be relatively easily removed. Arsenic removal is very difficult and less complete when the arsenic content is lower than 5.5 mg/kg because most of this arsenic is in an organic state. There is no relationship between washing rate of total sulfur and arsenic content, but the relationship between the washing rate of total sulfur and percent of organic sulfur is very strong.

  14. The studying of washing of arsenic and sulfur from coals having different ranges of arsenic contents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, M.; Song, D.; Zheng, B.; Finkelman, R.B.; ,

    2008-01-01

    To study the effectiveness of washing in removal of arsenic and sulfur from coals with different ranges of arsenic concentration, coal was divided into three groups on the basis of arsenic content: 0-5.5 mg/kg, 5.5 mg/kg-8.00 mg/kg, and over 8.00 mg/kg. The result shows that the arsenic in coals with higher arsenic content occurs mainly in an inorganic state and can be relatively easily removed. Arsenic removal is very difficult and less complete when the arsenic content is lower than 5.5 mg/kg because most of this arsenic is in an organic state. There is no relationship between washing rate of total sulfur and arsenic content, but the relationship between the washing rate of total sulfur and percent of organic sulfur is very strong. ?? 2008 New York Academy of Sciences.

  15. Tissue distribution of arsenic after subcutaneous implantation of arsenic trioxide pellet in rats.

    PubMed

    ASO, T; Abiko, Y

    1978-05-01

    In control rats, the arsenic level in the spleen and blood cells was 1.59 and 10.79 microgram/g wet tissue, respectively. In the kidney, lung, heart, brain, and hair, the arsenic level was lower than 1.1 microgram/g wet tissue. In rats in which a pellet containing 2 mg of arsenic tsioxide was implanted subcutaneously, the arsenic level in the spleen and blood cells was markedly high for at least 2 months after implantation; after 67 days of implantation, the arsenic level in the spleen and blood cells was 16.79 and 66.34 microgram/g wet tissue, respectively. In the kidney, liver, lung, heart, brain, and hair, the increase in arsenic after implantation was smaller than that in the spleen. In the plasma, arsenic was not detected before and after arsenic implantation. It is concluded that arsenic implanted subcutaneously concentrates in the blood cells, possibly in the red cells, in rats.

  16. Chemical, Biochemical, and Genetic Approaches to Arsenic Metabolism" -An overview of arsenic metabolism and toxicity- A series of five papers to appear together in Current Protocols in Toxicology

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxic properties of arsenic (As) were recognized long before Albertus Magnus in the 13th century prepared its elemental form (Buchanan, 1962). Its use as a poison has played lethal and decisive roles in domestic and dynastic intrigues throughout history (Cullen, 2008). Inorga...

  17. Antimony and arsenic biogeochemistry in the western Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutter, Gregory A.; Cutter, Lynda S.; Featherstone, Alison M.; Lohrenz, Steven E.

    The subtropical to equatorial Atlantic Ocean provides a unique regime in which one can examine the biogeochemical cycles of antimony and arsenic. In particular, this region is strongly affected by inputs from the Amazon River and dust from North Africa at the surface, and horizontal transport at depth from high-latitude northern (e.g., North Atlantic Deep Water) and southern waters (e.g., Antarctic Bottom and Intermediate Waters). As a part of the 1996 Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission's Contaminant Baseline Survey, data for dissolved As(III+V), As(III), mono- and dimethyl arsenic, Sb(III+V), Sb(III), and monomethyl antimony were obtained at six vertical profile stations and 44 sites along the 11,000 km transect from Montevideo, Uruguay, to Bridgetown, Barbados. The arsenic results were similar to those in other oceans, with moderate surface depletion, deep-water enrichment, a predominance of arsenate (>85% As(V)), and methylated arsenic species and As(III) in surface waters that are likely a result of phytoplankton conversions to mitigate arsenate "stress" (toxicity). Perhaps the most significant discovery in the arsenic results was the extremely low concentrations in the Amazon Plume (as low as 9.8 nmol/l) that appear to extend for considerable distances offshore in the equatorial region. The very low concentration of inorganic arsenic in the Amazon River (2.8 nmol/l; about half those in most rivers) is probably the result of intense iron oxyhydroxide scavenging. Dissolved antimony was also primarily in the pentavalent state (>95% antimonate), but Sb(III) and monomethyl antimony were only detected in surface waters and displayed no correlations with biotic tracers such as nutrients and chlorophyll a. Unlike As(III+V)'s nutrient-type vertical profiles, Sb(III+V) displayed surface maxima and decreased into the deep waters, exhibiting the behavior of a scavenged element with a strong atmospheric input. While surface water Sb had a slight correlation with

  18. Arsenic occurrence in New Hampshire drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, S.C.; Blum, J.D.; Klaue, B.; Karagas, M.R.

    1999-05-01

    Arsenic concentrations were measured in 992 drinking water samples collected from New Hampshire households using online hydride generation ICP-MS. These randomly selected household water samples contain much less arsenic than those voluntarily submitted for analysis to the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES). Extrapolation of the voluntarily submitted sample set to all New Hampshire residents significantly overestimates arsenic exposure. In randomly selected households, concentrations ranged from <0.0003 to 180 {micro}g/L, with water from domestic wells containing significantly more arsenic than water from municipal sources. Water samples from drilled bedrock wells had the highest arsenic concentrations, while samples from surficial wells had the lowest arsenic concentrations. The authors suggest that much of the groundwater arsenic in New Hampshire is derived from weathering of bedrock materials and not from anthropogenic contamination. The spatial distribution of elevated arsenic concentrations correlates with Late-Devonian Concord-type granitic bedrock. Field observations in the region exhibiting the highest groundwater arsenic concentrations revealed abundant pegmatite dikes associated with nearby granites. Analysis of rock digests indicates arsenic concentrations up to 60 mg/kg in pegmatites, with much lower values in surrounding schists and granites. Weak acid leaches show that approximately half of the total arsenic in the pegmatites is labile and therefore can be mobilized during rock-water interaction.

  19. Arsenic and bladder cancer: observations and suggestions.

    PubMed

    Radosavljević, Vladan; Jakovljević, Branko

    2008-10-01

    Arsenic from drinking water is a well-known risk factor for bladder cancer. The purpose of this paper is to systematize some important yet often overlooked facts considering the relationship between arsenic exposure and the occurrence of bladder cancer. Since the exposure to inorganic arsenic from food, inhaled air, and skin absorption as well as arsenic methylation ability are not fully investigated, our assumption is that the exposure of arsenic only from drinking water is underestimated and its role as a risk factor is highly overestimated. This paper proposes some qualitative and quantitative parameters of arsenic as a risk factor for bladder cancer. The recommended qualitative parameters of arsenic intake are first, pathways of exposure, and second, toxicity and metabolism. The suggested quantitative parameters of arsenic intake include amounts of arsenic absorbed in the body, duration of arsenic exposure, and duration of arsenic presence in the urinary bladder. This approach can be implemented in a systematic classification and explanation of various risk factors and their mutual interactions for other types of cancer or diseases in general.

  20. Removal processes for arsenic in constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Lizama A, Katherine; Fletcher, Tim D; Sun, Guangzhi

    2011-08-01

    Arsenic pollution in aquatic environments is a worldwide concern due to its toxicity and chronic effects on human health. This concern has generated increasing interest in the use of different treatment technologies to remove arsenic from contaminated water. Constructed wetlands are a cost-effective natural system successfully used for removing various pollutants, and they have shown capability for removing arsenic. This paper reviews current understanding of the removal processes for arsenic, discusses implications for treatment wetlands, and identifies critical knowledge gaps and areas worthy of future research. The reactivity of arsenic means that different arsenic species may be found in wetlands, influenced by vegetation, supporting medium and microorganisms. Despite the fact that sorption, precipitation and coprecipitation are the principal processes responsible for the removal of arsenic, bacteria can mediate these processes and can play a significant role under favourable environmental conditions. The most important factors affecting the speciation of arsenic are pH, alkalinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, the presence of other chemical species--iron, sulphur, phosphate--,a source of carbon, and the wetland substrate. Studies of the microbial communities and the speciation of arsenic in the solid phase using advanced techniques could provide further insights on the removal of arsenic. Limited data and understanding of the interaction of the different processes involved in the removal of arsenic explain the rudimentary guidelines available for the design of wetlands systems.

  1. Linking Microbial Activity with Arsenic Fate during Cow Dung Disposal of Arsenic-Bearing Wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clancy, T. M.; Reddy, R.; Tan, J.; Hayes, K. F.; Raskin, L.

    2014-12-01

    To address widespread arsenic contamination of drinking water sources numerous technologies have been developed to remove arsenic. All technologies result in the production of an arsenic-bearing waste that must be evaluated and disposed in a manner to limit the potential for environmental release and human exposure. One disposal option that is commonly recommended for areas without access to landfills is the mixing of arsenic-bearing wastes with cow dung. These recommendations are made based on the ability of microorganisms to create volatile arsenic species (including mono-, di-, and tri-methylarsine gases) to be diluted in the atmosphere. However, most studies of environmental microbial communities have found only a small fraction (<0.1 %) of the total arsenic present in soils or rice paddies is released via volatilization. Additionally, past studies often have not monitored arsenic release in the aqueous phase. Two main pathways for microbial arsenic volatilization are known and include methylation of arsenic during methanogenesis and methylation by arsenite S-adenosylmethionine methyltransferase. In this study, we compare the roles of these two pathways in arsenic volatilization and aqueous mobilization through mesocosm experiments with cow dung and arsenic-bearing wastes produced during drinking water treatment in West Bengal, India. Arsenic in gaseous, aqueous, and solid phases was measured. Consistent with previous reports, less than 0.02% of the total arsenic present was volatilized. A much higher amount (~5%) of the total arsenic was mobilized into the liquid phase. Through the application of molecular tools, including 16S rRNA sequencing and quantification of gene transcripts involved in methanogenesis, this study links microbial community activity with arsenic fate in potential disposal environments. These results illustrate that disposal of arsenic-bearing wastes by mixing with cow dung does not achieve its end goal of promoting arsenic volatilization

  2. Diet and toenail arsenic concentrations in a New Hampshire population with arsenic-containing water

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Limited data exist on the contribution of dietary sources of arsenic to an individual’s total exposure, particularly in populations with exposure via drinking water. Here, the association between diet and toenail arsenic concentrations (a long-term biomarker of exposure) was evaluated for individuals with measured household tap water arsenic. Foods known to be high in arsenic, including rice and seafood, were of particular interest. Methods Associations between toenail arsenic and consumption of 120 individual diet items were quantified using general linear models that also accounted for household tap water arsenic and potentially confounding factors (e.g., age, caloric intake, sex, smoking) (n = 852). As part of the analysis, we assessed whether associations between log-transformed toenail arsenic and each diet item differed between subjects with household drinking water arsenic concentrations <1 μg/L versus ≥1 μg/L. Results As expected, toenail arsenic concentrations increased with household water arsenic concentrations. Among the foods known to be high in arsenic, no clear relationship between toenail arsenic and rice consumption was detected, but there was a positive association with consumption of dark meat fish, a category that includes tuna steaks, mackerel, salmon, sardines, bluefish, and swordfish. Positive associations between toenail arsenic and consumption of white wine, beer, and Brussels sprouts were also observed; these and most other associations were not modified by exposure via water. However, consumption of two foods cooked in water, beans/lentils and cooked oatmeal, was more strongly related to toenail arsenic among those with arsenic-containing drinking water (≥1 μg/L). Conclusions This study suggests that diet can be an important contributor to total arsenic exposure in U.S. populations regardless of arsenic concentrations in drinking water. Thus, dietary exposure to arsenic in the US warrants consideration as a potential

  3. Arsenic for the fool: an exponential connection.

    PubMed

    Dani, Sergio U

    2010-03-15

    Anthropogenic arsenic is insidiously building up together with natural arsenic to a level unprecedented in the history of mankind. Arsenopyrite (FeAsS) is the principal ore of arsenic and gold in hard rock mines; it is formed by a coupled substitution of sulphur by arsenic in the structure of pyrite (FeS(2)) - nicknamed "fool's gold". Other important sources of anthropogenic arsenic are fossil fuels such as coal and oil. Here I report on the first indication that the environmental concentration of total arsenic in topsoils - in the 7-18ppm range - is exponentially related to the prevalence and mortality of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias in European countries. This evidence defies the imputed absence of verified cases of human morbidity or mortality resulting from exposure to low-level arsenic in topsoils.

  4. Effects of arsenic deprivation in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Uthus, E O

    1990-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to ascertain the effects of arsenic deprivation in hamsters. Male weanling Golden Syrian hamsters were fed a casein-corn-based diet containing approximately 12 ng arsenic/g. Controls were fed 1 microgram arsenic/g of diet, as Na2HAsO4.7 H2O. After 6 weeks arsenic deprivation elevated heart weight/body weight ratio and the concentration of liver zinc and decreased the concentrations of the plasma amino acids alanine, glycine, phenylalanine and taurine. Although no biological role has been found for arsenic, the findings indicate that the hamster is a suitable animal for arsenic deprivation studies and support the hypothesis that arsenic may have a physiological role that influences methionine/methyl metabolism.

  5. System for removal of arsenic from water

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Robert C.; Anderson, D. Richard

    2004-11-23

    Systems for removing arsenic from water by addition of inexpensive and commonly available magnesium oxide, magnesium hydroxide, calcium oxide, or calcium hydroxide to the water. The hydroxide has a strong chemical affinity for arsenic and rapidly adsorbs arsenic, even in the presence of carbonate in the water. Simple and commercially available mechanical systems for removal of magnesium hydroxide particles with adsorbed arsenic from drinking water can be used, including filtration, dissolved air flotation, vortex separation, or centrifugal separation. A system for continuous removal of arsenic from water is provided. Also provided is a system for concentrating arsenic in a water sample to facilitate quantification of arsenic, by means of magnesium or calcium hydroxide adsorption.

  6. PROCESSING OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, B.M. Jr.; Barton, G.B.

    1961-11-14

    A process for treating radioactive waste solutions prior to disposal is described. A water-soluble phosphate, borate, and/or silicate is added. The solution is sprayed with steam into a space heated from 325 to 400 deg C whereby a powder is formed. The powder is melted and calcined at from 800 to 1000 deg C. Water vapor and gaseous products are separated from the glass formed. (AEC)

  7. Radioactive waste storage issues

    SciTech Connect

    Kunz, Daniel E.

    1994-08-15

    In the United States we generate greater than 500 million tons of toxic waste per year which pose a threat to human health and the environment. Some of the most toxic of these wastes are those that are radioactively contaminated. This thesis explores the need for permanent disposal facilities to isolate radioactive waste materials that are being stored temporarily, and therefore potentially unsafely, at generating facilities. Because of current controversies involving the interstate transfer of toxic waste, more states are restricting the flow of wastes into - their borders with the resultant outcome of requiring the management (storage and disposal) of wastes generated solely within a state`s boundary to remain there. The purpose of this project is to study nuclear waste storage issues and public perceptions of this important matter. Temporary storage at generating facilities is a cause for safety concerns and underscores, the need for the opening of permanent disposal sites. Political controversies and public concern are forcing states to look within their own borders to find solutions to this difficult problem. Permanent disposal or retrievable storage for radioactive waste may become a necessity in the near future in Colorado. Suitable areas that could support - a nuclear storage/disposal site need to be explored to make certain the health, safety and environment of our citizens now, and that of future generations, will be protected.

  8. Radioactive deposits of Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovering, T.G.

    1954-01-01

    Thirty-five occurrences of radioactive rocks had been reported from Nevada prior to 1952. Twenty-five of these had been investigated by personnel of the U. S. Geological Surveyor of the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission. Of those investigated, uranium minerals were identified at 13 sites; two sites contained a thorium mineral (monazite); the source of radioactivity on nine properties was not ascertained, and one showed no abnormal radioactivity. Of the other reported occurrences, one is said to contain uraniferous hydrocarbons and nine are placers containing thorian monazite. Pitchblende occurs at two localities, the East Walker River area, and the Stalin's Present prospect, where it is sparsely disseminated in tabular bodies cutting granitic rocks. Other uranium minerals found in the state include: carnotite, tyuyamunite, autunite, torbernite, gummite, uranophane, kasolite, and an unidentified mineral which may be dumontite. Monazite is the only thorium mineral of possible economic importance that has been reported. From an economic standpoint, only four of the properties examined showed reserves of uranium ore in 1952; these are: the Green Monster mine, which shipped 5 tons of ore to Marysvale, Utah, during 1951; the Majuba Hill mine; the Stalin's Present prospect; and the West Willys claim in the Washington district. No estimate has been made of thorium reserves and no commercial deposits of thorium are known.

  9. Radioactive deposits of Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovering, T.G.

    1953-01-01

    Thirty-five occurrences of radioactive rocks had been reported from Nevada prior to 1952. Twenty-five of these had been investigated by the U. S. Geological Survey and the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission. Of those investigated, uranium minerals were identified in 13; two contained a thorium mineral (monazite); the source of radioactivity on 7 properties was not ascertained; and one showed no abnormal radioactivity. Of the other reported occurrences, one is said to contain uraniferous hydrocarbons and 9 are placers containing thorian monazite. Pitchblende occurs at two localities; the East Walker River area, and the Stalin's Present prospect, where it is sparsely disseminated in tabular bodies cutting granitic rocks. Other uranium minerals found in the state include: carnotite, tyuyamunite, autunite, torbernite, gummite, uranophane, kasolite, and an unidentified mineral which may be dumontit. Monazite is the only thorium mineral of possible economic importance that has been reported. From an economic standpoint 9 only 4 of the properties examined showed reserves of uranium ore in 1952; these are: the Green Monster mine, which shipped 5 tons of ore to Marysvale, Utah, during 1951, the Majuba Hill mine, the Stalin's Present prospect, and the West Willys claim in the Washington district. Reserves of ore grade are small on all of these properties and probably cannot be developed commercially unless an ore-buying station is set up nearby. No estimate has been made of thorium reserves and no commercial deposits of thorium are known.

  10. Retention of arsenic and selenium compounds using limestone in a coal gasification flue gas.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Somoano, Mercedes; Martinez-Tarazona, M Rosa

    2004-02-01

    Volatile arsenic and selenium compounds present in coals may cause environmental problems during coal combustion and gasification. A possible way to avoid such problems may be the use of solid sorbents capable of retaining these elements from flue gases in gas cleaning systems. Lime and limestone are materials that are extensively employed for the capture of sulfur during coal processing. Moreover, they have also proven to have good retention characteristics for arsenic and selenium during combustion. The aim of this work was to ascertain whether this sorbent is also useful for retaining arsenic and selenium species in gases produced in coal gasification. The study was carried out in a laboratory-scale reactor in which the sorbent was employed as a fixed bed, using synthetic gas mixtures. In these conditions, retention capacities for arsenic may reach 17 mg g(-1) in a gasification atmosphere free of H2S, whereas the presence of H2S implies a significant decrease in arsenic retention. In the case of selenium, H2S does not influence retention which may reach 65 mg g(-1). Post-retention sorbent characterization, thermal stability, and water solubility tests have shown that chemical reaction is one of the mechanisms responsible for the capture of arsenic and selenium, with Ca(AsO2)2 and CaSe being the main compounds formed.

  11. [Study on an enhancing agent for removing arsenic from drinking water].

    PubMed

    Ling, B; Li, S; Zhu, Y; Zhang, B

    2001-05-01

    Drinking water contaminated by arsenic for an extended period of time could be detrimental to the health of people. Some preliminary symptoms could be alleviated by drinking water non-contaminated. It is important to develop an arsenic removal agent with a specific property of most efficient, cost-effective and easy for operation. The results showed that the capacity of the agent developed in this study was 10 times higher for arsenic removal than other agent available. The lowest arsenic content of the treated water was 0.05 mg/L. The special function of this agent was arsenic removing without changing other components and the concentrations of other elements in the treated water. The operation and management was simple without adjusting pH of the influent and effluent water. The agent was 5 times cheaper in cost than alumina or activated carbon, because it was a reusable oxidation-catalyst. Therefore, the agent could be widely applied in drinking water plants or used as a purifier at home in the high arsenic areas.

  12. A Tale of Two Oxidation States: Bacterial Colonization of Arsenic-Rich Environments

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Daniel; Médigue, Claudine; Koechler, Sandrine; Barbe, Valérie; Barakat, Mohamed; Talla, Emmanuel; Bonnefoy, Violaine; Krin, Evelyne; Arsène-Ploetze, Florence; Carapito, Christine; Chandler, Michael; Cournoyer, Benoît; Cruveiller, Stéphane; Dossat, Caroline; Duval, Simon; Heymann, Michael; Leize, Emmanuelle; Lieutaud, Aurélie; Lièvremont, Didier; Makita, Yuko; Mangenot, Sophie; Nitschke, Wolfgang; Ortet, Philippe; Perdrial, Nicolas; Schoepp, Barbara; Siguier, Patricia; Simeonova, Diliana D; Rouy, Zoé; Segurens, Béatrice; Turlin, Evelyne; Vallenet, David; Dorsselaer, Alain Van; Weiss, Stéphanie; Weissenbach, Jean; Lett, Marie-Claire; Danchin, Antoine; Bertin, Philippe N

    2007-01-01

    Microbial biotransformations have a major impact on contamination by toxic elements, which threatens public health in developing and industrial countries. Finding a means of preserving natural environments—including ground and surface waters—from arsenic constitutes a major challenge facing modern society. Although this metalloid is ubiquitous on Earth, thus far no bacterium thriving in arsenic-contaminated environments has been fully characterized. In-depth exploration of the genome of the β-proteobacterium Herminiimonas arsenicoxydans with regard to physiology, genetics, and proteomics, revealed that it possesses heretofore unsuspected mechanisms for coping with arsenic. Aside from multiple biochemical processes such as arsenic oxidation, reduction, and efflux, H. arsenicoxydans also exhibits positive chemotaxis and motility towards arsenic and metalloid scavenging by exopolysaccharides. These observations demonstrate the existence of a novel strategy to efficiently colonize arsenic-rich environments, which extends beyond oxidoreduction reactions. Such a microbial mechanism of detoxification, which is possibly exploitable for bioremediation applications of contaminated sites, may have played a crucial role in the occupation of ancient ecological niches on earth. PMID:17432936

  13. Arsenic speciation in natural water samples by coprecipitation-hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry combination.

    PubMed

    Tuzen, Mustafa; Citak, Demirhan; Mendil, Durali; Soylak, Mustafa

    2009-04-15

    A speciation procedure for As(III) and As(V) ions in environmental samples has been presented. As(V) was quantitatively recovered on aluminum hydroxide precipitate. After oxidation of As(III) by using dilute KMnO(4), the developed coprecipitation was applied to determination of total arsenic. Arsenic(III) was calculated as the difference between the total arsenic content and As(V) content. The determination of arsenic levels was performed by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS). The analytical conditions for the quantitative recoveries of As(V) including pH, amount of aluminum as carrier element and sample volume, etc. on the presented coprecipitation system were investigated. The effects of some alkaline, earth alkaline, metal ions and also some anions were also examined. Preconcentration factor was calculated as 25. The detection limits (LOD) based on three times sigma of the blank (N: 21) for As(V) was 0.012 microg L(-1). The satisfactory results for the analysis of arsenic in NIST SRM 2711 Montana soil and LGC 6010 Hard drinking water certified reference materials for the validation of the method was obtained. The presented procedure was successfully applied to real samples including natural waters for arsenic speciation.

  14. Evaluation of Arsenic Removal Technology: Arsenic Demonstration Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    Specific objectives of this program are to evaluate the reliability of the arsenic technologies of small scale systems; to gauge the simplicity of system operations, maintenance and operator skill; to determine the cost-effectiveness of the treatment technologies; and to characte...

  15. Dietary arsenic exposure with low level of arsenic in drinking water and biomarker: a study in West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Mazumder, Debendra Nath Guha; Deb, Debasree; Biswas, Anirban; Saha, Chandan; Nandy, Ashoke; Das, Arabinda; Ghose, Aloke; Bhattacharya, Kallol; Mazumdar, Kunal Kanti

    2014-01-01

    The authors investigated association of arsenic intake through water and diet and arsenic level in urine in people living in arsenic endemic region in West Bengal supplied with arsenic-safe water (<50 μg L(-1)). Out of 94 (Group-1A) study participants using water with arsenic level <50 μg L(-1), 72 participants (Group-1B) were taking water with arsenic level <10 μg L(-1). Multiple regressions analysis conducted on the Group-1A participants showed that daily arsenic dose from water and diet were found to be significantly positively associated with urinary arsenic level. However, daily arsenic dose from diet was found to be significantly positively associated with urinary arsenic level in Group-1B participants only, but no significant association was found with arsenic dose from water in this group. In a separate analysis, out of 68 participants with arsenic exposure through diet only, urinary arsenic concentration was found to correlate positively (r = 0.573) with dietary arsenic in 45 participants with skin lesion while this correlation was insignificant (r = 0.007) in 23 participants without skin lesion. Our study suggested that dietary arsenic intake was a potential pathway of arsenic exposure even where arsenic intake through water was reduced significantly in arsenic endemic region in West Bengal. Observation of variation in urinary arsenic excretion in arsenic-exposed subjects with and without skin lesion needed further study.

  16. ASSESSMENT OF RADIOACTIVE AND NON-RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINANTS FOUND IN LOW LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    R.H. Little, P.R. Maul, J.S.S. Penfoldag

    2003-02-27

    This paper describes and presents the findings from two studies undertaken for the European Commission to assess the long-term impact upon the environment and human health of non-radioactive contaminants found in various low level radioactive waste streams. The initial study investigated the application of safety assessment approaches developed for radioactive contaminants to the assessment of nonradioactive contaminants in low level radioactive waste. It demonstrated how disposal limits could be derived for a range of non-radioactive contaminants and generic disposal facilities. The follow-up study used the same approach but undertook more detailed, disposal system specific calculations, assessing the impacts of both the non-radioactive and radioactive contaminants. The calculations undertaken indicated that it is prudent to consider non-radioactive, as well as radioactive contaminants, when assessing the impacts of low level radioactive waste disposal. For some waste streams with relatively low concentrations of radionuclides, the potential post-closure disposal impacts from non-radioactive contaminants can be comparable with the potential radiological impacts. For such waste streams there is therefore an added incentive to explore options for recycling the materials involved wherever possible.

  17. Inorganic arsenic speciation by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry using thoria nanoparticles-carbon paste electrodes.

    PubMed

    Pereira, F J; Vázquez, M D; Debán, L; Aller, A J

    2016-05-15

    Two novel thoria (ThO2) nanoparticles-carbon paste electrodes were used to evaluate an anodic stripping voltammetric method for the direct determination of arsenite and total inorganic arsenic (arsenite plus arsenate) in water samples. The effect of Ag((I)), Cu((II)), Hg((II)), Sb((III)) and Se((IV)) ions on the electrochemical response of arsenic was assayed. The developed electroanalytical method offers a rapid procedure with improved analytical characteristics including good repeatability (3.4%) at low As((III)) concentrations, high selectivity, lower detection limit (0.1 μg L(-1)) and high sensitivity (0.54 μA μg(-1) L). The analytical capability of the optimized method was demonstrated by the determination of arsenic in certified reference materials (trace elements in natural water, trace elements in water and coal fly ash).

  18. Radioactivity of the moon, planets, and meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surkou, Y. A.; Fedoseyev, G. A.

    1977-01-01

    Analytical data is summarized for the content of natural radioactive elements in meteorites, eruptive terrestrial rocks, and also in lunar samples returned by Apollo missions and the Luna series of automatic stations. The K-U systematics of samples analyzed in the laboratory are combined with data for orbital gamma-ray measurements for Mars (Mars 5) and with the results of direct gamma-ray measurements of the surface of Venus by the Venera 8 lander. Using information about the radioactivity of solar system bodies and evaluations of the content of K, U, and Th in the terrestrial planets, we examine certain aspects of the evolution of material in the protoplanetary gas-dust cloud and then in the planets of the solar system.

  19. Nuclear astrophysics with radioactive ions at FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reifarth, R.; Altstadt, S.; Göbel, K.; Heftrich, T.; Heil, M.; Koloczek, A.; Langer, C.; Plag, R.; Pohl, M.; Sonnabend, K.; Weigand, M.; Adachi, T.; Aksouh, F.; Al-Khalili, J.; AlGarawi, M.; AlGhamdi, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alkhomashi, N.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Alvarez-Rodriguez, R.; Andreev, V.; Andrei, B.; Atar, L.; Aumann, T.; Avdeichikov, V.; Bacri, C.; Bagchi, S.; Barbieri, C.; Beceiro, S.; Beck, C.; Beinrucker, C.; Belier, G.; Bemmerer, D.; Bendel, M.; Benlliure, J.; Benzoni, G.; Berjillos, R.; Bertini, D.; Bertulani, C.; Bishop, S.; Blasi, N.; Bloch, T.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Bonaccorso, A.; Boretzky, K.; Botvina, A.; Boudard, A.; Boutachkov, P.; Boztosun, I.; Bracco, A.; Brambilla, S.; Briz Monago, J.; Caamano, M.; Caesar, C.; Camera, F.; Casarejos, E.; Catford, W.; Cederkall, J.; Cederwall, B.; Chartier, M.; Chatillon, A.; Cherciu, M.; Chulkov, L.; Coleman-Smith, P.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Crespi, F.; Crespo, R.; Cresswell, J.; Csatlós, M.; Déchery, F.; Davids, B.; Davinson, T.; Derya, V.; Detistov, P.; Diaz Fernandez, P.; DiJulio, D.; Dmitry, S.; Doré, D.; Dueñas, J.; Dupont, E.; Egelhof, P.; Egorova, I.; Elekes, Z.; Enders, J.; Endres, J.; Ershov, S.; Ershova, O.; Fernandez-Dominguez, B.; Fetisov, A.; Fiori, E.; Fomichev, A.; Fonseca, M.; Fraile, L.; Freer, M.; Friese, J.; Borge, M. G.; Galaviz Redondo, D.; Gannon, S.; Garg, U.; Gasparic, I.; Gasques, L.; Gastineau, B.; Geissel, H.; Gernhäuser, R.; Ghosh, T.; Gilbert, M.; Glorius, J.; Golubev, P.; Gorshkov, A.; Gourishetty, A.; Grigorenko, L.; Gulyas, J.; Haiduc, M.; Hammache, F.; Harakeh, M.; Hass, M.; Heine, M.; Hennig, A.; Henriques, A.; Herzberg, R.; Holl, M.; Ignatov, A.; Ignatyuk, A.; Ilieva, S.; Ivanov, M.; Iwasa, N.; Jakobsson, B.; Johansson, H.; Jonson, B.; Joshi, P.; Junghans, A.; Jurado, B.; Körner, G.; Kalantar, N.; Kanungo, R.; Kelic-Heil, A.; Kezzar, K.; Khan, E.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kiselev, O.; Kogimtzis, M.; Körper, D.; Kräckmann, S.; Kröll, T.; Krücken, R.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Kratz, J.; Kresan, D.; Krings, T.; Krumbholz, A.; Krupko, S.; Kulessa, R.; Kumar, S.; Kurz, N.; Kuzmin, E.; Labiche, M.; Langanke, K.; Lazarus, I.; Le Bleis, T.; Lederer, C.; Lemasson, A.; Lemmon, R.; Liberati, V.; Litvinov, Y.; Löher, B.; Lopez Herraiz, J.; Münzenberg, G.; Machado, J.; Maev, E.; Mahata, K.; Mancusi, D.; Marganiec, J.; Martinez Perez, M.; Marusov, V.; Mengoni, D.; Million, B.; Morcelle, V.; Moreno, O.; Movsesyan, A.; Nacher, E.; Najafi, M.; Nakamura, T.; Naqvi, F.; Nikolski, E.; Nilsson, T.; Nociforo, C.; Nolan, P.; Novatsky, B.; Nyman, G.; Ornelas, A.; Palit, R.; Pandit, S.; Panin, V.; Paradela, C.; Parkar, V.; Paschalis, S.; Pawłowski, P.; Perea, A.; Pereira, J.; Petrache, C.; Petri, M.; Pickstone, S.; Pietralla, N.; Pietri, S.; Pivovarov, Y.; Potlog, P.; Prokofiev, A.; Rastrepina, G.; Rauscher, T.; Ribeiro, G.; Ricciardi, M.; Richter, A.; Rigollet, C.; Riisager, K.; Rios, A.; Ritter, C.; Rodriguez Frutos, T.; Rodriguez Vignote, J.; Röder, M.; Romig, C.; Rossi, D.; Roussel-Chomaz, P.; Rout, P.; Roy, S.; Söderström, P.; Saha Sarkar, M.; Sakuta, S.; Salsac, M.; Sampson, J.; Sanchez, J.; Rio Saez, del; Sanchez Rosado, J.; Sanjari, S.; Sarriguren, P.; Sauerwein, A.; Savran, D.; Scheidenberger, C.; Scheit, H.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, C.; Schnorrenberger, L.; Schrock, P.; Schwengner, R.; Seddon, D.; Sherrill, B.; Shrivastava, A.; Sidorchuk, S.; Silva, J.; Simon, H.; Simpson, E.; Singh, P.; Slobodan, D.; Sohler, D.; Spieker, M.; Stach, D.; Stan, E.; Stanoiu, M.; Stepantsov, S.; Stevenson, P.; Strieder, F.; Stuhl, L.; Suda, T.; Sümmerer, K.; Streicher, B.; Taieb, J.; Takechi, M.; Tanihata, I.; Taylor, J.; Tengblad, O.; Ter-Akopian, G.; Terashima, S.; Teubig, P.; Thies, R.; Thoennessen, M.; Thomas, T.; Thornhill, J.; Thungstrom, G.; Timar, J.; Togano, Y.; Tomohiro, U.; Tornyi, T.; Tostevin, J.; Townsley, C.; Trautmann, W.; Trivedi, T.; Typel, S.; Uberseder, E.; Udias, J.; Uesaka, T.; Uvarov, L.; Vajta, Z.; Velho, P.; Vikhrov, V.; Volknandt, M.; Volkov, V.; von Neumann-Cosel, P.; von Schmid, M.; Wagner, A.; Wamers, F.; Weick, H.; Wells, D.; Westerberg, L.; Wieland, O.; Wiescher, M.; Wimmer, C.; Wimmer, K.; Winfield, J. S.; Winkel, M.; Woods, P.; Wyss, R.; Yakorev, D.; Yavor, M.; Zamora Cardona, J.; Zartova, I.; Zerguerras, T.; Zgura, M.; Zhdanov, A.; Zhukov, M.; Zieblinski, M.; Zilges, A.; Zuber, K.

    2016-01-01

    The nucleosynthesis of elements beyond iron is dominated by neutron captures in the s and r processes. However, 32 stable, proton-rich isotopes cannot be formed during those processes, because they are shielded from the s-process flow and r-process, β-decay chains. These nuclei are attributed to the p and rp process. For all those processes, current research in nuclear astrophysics addresses the need for more precise reaction data involving radioactive isotopes. Depending on the particular reaction, direct or inverse kinematics, forward or time-reversed direction are investigated to determine or at least to constrain the desired reaction cross sections. The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) will offer unique, unprecedented opportunities to investigate many of the important reactions. The high yield of radioactive isotopes, even far away from the valley of stability, allows the investigation of isotopes involved in processes as exotic as the r or rp processes.

  20. Industrial-Scale Processes For Stabilizing Radioactively Contaminated Mercury Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Broderick, T. E.; Grondin, R.

    2003-02-24

    This paper describes two industrial-scaled processes now being used to treat two problematic mercury waste categories: elemental mercury contaminated with radionuclides and radioactive solid wastes containing greater than 260-ppm mercury. The stabilization processes were developed by ADA Technologies, Inc., an environmental control and process development company in Littleton, Colorado. Perma-Fix Environmental Services has licensed the liquid elemental mercury stabilization process to treat radioactive mercury from Los Alamos National Laboratory and other DOE sites. ADA and Perma-Fix also cooperated to apply the >260-ppm mercury treatment technology to a storm sewer sediment waste collected from the Y-12 complex in Oak Ridge, TN.

  1. Radioactive nanoparticles and their main applications: recent advances.

    PubMed

    Kharisov, Boris I; Kharissova, Oxana V; Berdonosov, Sergei S

    2014-01-01

    Selected nanoparticles and nanocomposites on the basis of radioactive elements are reviewed. Isotopes of metallic gold, iodine and technetium salts, CeO2 and other lanthanide and actinide compounds, as well as several p- (P, C, F, Te) and d- (Fe, Co, Cu, Cd, Zn) elements form most common radioactive nanoparticles. Methods for their fabrication, including dopation with radionuclides and neutron/proton/deuteron activation, are discussed. These nanocomposites possess a series of useful applications, in particular in biology and medicine, including cancer therapeutics, drug delivery systems and radiotracers, as well as in the studies of several catalytic processes and materials structure.

  2. Urinary arsenic metabolites of subjects exposed to elevated arsenic present in coal in Shaanxi Province, China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jianwei; Yu, Jiangping; Yang, Linsheng

    2011-06-01

    In contrast to arsenic (As) poisoning caused by naturally occurring inorganic arsenic-contaminated water consumption, coal arsenic poisoning (CAP) induced by elevated arsenic exposure from coal combustion has rarely been reported. In this study, the concentrations and distributions of urinary arsenic metabolites in 57 volunteers (36 subjects with skin lesions and 21 subjects without skin lesions), who had been exposed to elevated levels of arsenic present in coal in Changshapu village in the south of Shaanxi Province (China), were reported. The urinary arsenic species, including inorganic arsenic (iAs) [arsenite (iAsIII) and arsenate (iAsV)], monomethylarsonic acid (MMAV) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV), were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The relative distributions of arsenic species, the primary methylation index (PMI=MMAV/iAs) and the secondary methylation index (SMI=DMAV/MMAV) were calculated to assess the metabolism of arsenic. Subjects with skin lesions had a higher concentration of urinary arsenic and a lower arsenic methylation capability than subjects without skin lesions. Women had a significantly higher methylation capability of arsenic than men, as defined by a higher percent DMAV and SMI in urine among women, which was the one possible interpretation of women with a higher concentration of urinary arsenic but lower susceptibility to skin lesions. The findings suggested that not only the dose of arsenic exposure but also the arsenic methylation capability have an impact on the individual susceptibility to skin lesions induced by coal arsenic exposure.

  3. Factors Affecting Arsenic Methylation in Arsenic-Exposed Humans: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hui; Niu, Qiang; Xu, Mengchuan; Rui, Dongsheng; Xu, Shangzhi; Feng, Gangling; Ding, Yusong; Li, Shugang; Jing, Mingxia

    2016-02-06

    Chronic arsenic exposure is a critical public health issue in many countries. The metabolism of arsenic in vivo is complicated because it can be influenced by many factors. In the present meta-analysis, two researchers independently searched electronic databases, including the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Springer, Embase, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure, to analyze factors influencing arsenic methylation. The concentrations of the following arsenic metabolites increase (p< 0.000001) following arsenic exposure: inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethyl arsenic (MMA), dimethyl arsenic (DMA), and total arsenic. Additionally, the percentages of iAs (standard mean difference (SMD): 1.00; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.60-1.40; p< 0.00001) and MMA (SMD: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.21-0.77; p = 0.0006) also increase, while the percentage of DMA (SMD: -0.57; 95% CI: -0.80--0.31; p< 0.0001), primary methylation index (SMD: -0.57; 95% CI: -0.94--0.20; p = 0.002), and secondary methylation index (SMD: -0.27; 95% CI: -0.46--0.90; p = 0.004) decrease. Smoking, drinking, and older age can reduce arsenic methylation, and arsenic methylation is more efficient in women than in men. The results of this analysis may provide information regarding the role of arsenic oxidative methylation in the arsenic poisoning process.

  4. Differential Methylation of the Arsenic (III) Methyltransferase Promoter According to Arsenic Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Gribble, Matthew O.; Tang, Wan-yee; Shang, Yan; Pollak, Jonathan; Umans, Jason G.; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Goessler, Walter; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Guallar, Eliseo; Cole, Shelley A.; Fallin, M. Daniele; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic is methylated in the body by arsenic (III) methyltransferase. Arsenic methylation is thought to play a role in arsenic-related epigenetic phenomena including aberrant DNA and histone methylation. However, it is unclear whether the promoter of the AS3MT gene, which codes for arsenic (III) methyltransferase, is differentially methylated as a function of arsenic exposure. In this study we evaluated AS3MT promoter methylation according to exposure, assessed by urinary arsenic excretion in a stratified random sample of 48 participants from the Strong Heart Study who had urine arsenic measured at baseline and DNA available from 1989–1991 and 1998–1999. For this study, all data are from the 1989–1991 visit. We measured AS3MT promoter methylation at its 48 CpG loci by bisulphite sequencing. We compared mean % methylation at each CpG locus by arsenic exposure group using linear regression adjusted for study centre, age and sex. A hypomethylated region in the AS3MT promoter was associated with higher arsenic exposure. In vitro, arsenic induced AS3MT promoter hypomethylation and it increased AS3MT expression in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These findings may suggest that arsenic exposure influences the epigenetic regulation of a major arsenic metabolism gene. PMID:24154821

  5. E-Alerts: Nuclear science and technology (radioactive wastes and radioactivity). E-mail newsletter

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    The newsletter discusses the following: Separation, processing, handling, storage, disposal, and reuse of radioactive wastes; Radioactive fallout; Fission products; Man-made or natural radioactivity; and Decommissioning.

  6. Bimetallic nanoparticles for arsenic detection.

    PubMed

    Moghimi, Nafiseh; Mohapatra, Mamata; Leung, Kam Tong

    2015-06-02

    Effective and sensitive monitoring of heavy metal ions, particularly arsenic, in drinking water is very important to risk management of public health. Arsenic is one of the most serious natural pollutants in soil and water in more than 70 countries in the world. The need for very sensitive sensors to detect ultralow amounts of arsenic has attracted great research interest. Here, bimetallic FePt, FeAu, FePd, and AuPt nanoparticles (NPs) are electrochemically deposited on the Si(100) substrate, and their electrochemical properties are studied for As(III) detection. We show that trace amounts of As(III) in neutral pH could be determined by using anodic stripping voltammetry. The synergistic effect of alloying with Fe leads to better performance for Fe-noble metal NPs (Au, Pt, and Pd) than pristine noble metal NPs (without Fe alloying). Limit of detection and linear range are obtained for FePt, FeAu, and FePd NPs. The best performance is found for FePt NPs with a limit of detection of 0.8 ppb and a sensitivity of 0.42 μA ppb(-1). The selectivity of the sensor has also been tested in the presence of a large amount of Cu(II), as the most detrimental interferer ion for As detection. The bimetallic NPs therefore promise to be an effective, high-performance electrochemical sensor for the detection of ultratrace quantities of arsenic.

  7. Controlled Containment, Radioactive Waste Management in the Netherlands

    SciTech Connect

    Codee, H.

    2002-02-26

    All radioactive waste produced in The Netherlands is managed by COVRA, the central organization for radioactive waste. The Netherlands forms a good example of a country with a small nuclear power program which will end in the near future. However, radioisotope production, nuclear research and other industrial activities will continue to produce radioactive waste. For the small volume, but broad spectrum of radioactive waste, including TENORM, The Netherlands has developed a management system based on the principles to isolate, to control and to monitor the waste. Long term storage is an essential element of the management system and forms a necessary step in the strategy of controlled containment that will ultimately result in final removal of the waste. Since the waste will remain retrievable for long time new technologies and new disposal options can be applied when available and feasible.

  8. Determination of arsenic compounds in earthworms

    SciTech Connect

    Geiszinger, A.; Goessler, W.; Kuehnelt, D.; Kosmus, W.; Francesconi, K.

    1998-08-01

    Earthworms and soil collected from six sites in Styria, Austria, were investigated for total arsenic concentrations by ICP-MS and for arsenic compounds by HPLC-ICP-MS. Total arsenic concentrations ranged from 3.2 to 17.9 mg/kg dry weight in the worms and from 5.0 to 79.7 mg/kg dry weight in the soil samples. There was no strict correlation between the total arsenic concentrations in the worms and soil. Arsenic compounds were extracted from soil and a freeze-dried earthworm sample with a methanol/water mixture (9:1, v/v). The extracts were evaporated to dryness, redissolved in water, and chromatographed on an anion- and a cation-exchange column. Arsenic compounds were identified by comparison of the retention times with known standards. Only traces of arsenic acid could be extracted from the soil with the methanol/water (9:1, v/v) mixture. The major arsenic compounds detected in the extracts of the earthworms were arsenous acid and arsenic acid. Arsenobetaine was present as a minor constituent, and traces of dimethylarsinic acid were also detected. Two dimethylarsinoyltribosides were also identified in the extracts by co-chromatography with standard compounds. This is the first report of the presence of dimethylarsinoylribosides in a terrestrial organism. Two other minor arsenic species were present in the extract, but their retention times did not match with the retention times of the available standards.

  9. Sequestration of arsenic in ombrotrophic peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothwell, James; Hudson-Edwards, Karen; Taylor, Kevin; Polya, David; Evans, Martin; Allott, Tim

    2014-05-01

    Peatlands can be important stores of arsenic but we are lacking spectroscopic evidence of the sequestration pathways of this toxic metalloid in peatland environments. This study reports on the solid-phase speciation of anthropogenically-derived arsenic in atmospherically contaminated peat from the Peak District National Park (UK). Surface and sub-surface peat samples were analysed by synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy on B18 beamline at Diamond Light Source (UK). The results suggest that there are contrasting arsenic sequestration mechanisms in the peat. The bulk arsenic speciation results, in combination with strong arsenic-iron correlations at the surface, suggest that iron (hydr)oxides are key phases for the immobilisation of arsenic at the peat surface. In contrast, the deeper peat samples are dominated by arsenic sulphides (arsenopyrite, realgar and orpiment). Given that these peats receive inputs solely from the atmosphere, the presence of these sulphide phases suggests an in-situ authigenic formation. Redox oscillations in the peat due to a fluctuating water table and an abundant store of legacy sulphur from historic acid rain inputs may favour the precipitation of arsenic sequestering sulphides in sub-surface horizons. Oxidation-induced loss of these arsenic sequestering sulphur species by water table drawdown has important implications for the mobility of arsenic and the quality of waters draining peatlands.

  10. Cellular arsenic transport pathways in mammals.

    PubMed

    Roggenbeck, Barbara A; Banerjee, Mayukh; Leslie, Elaine M

    2016-11-01

    Natural contamination of drinking water with arsenic results in the exposure of millions of people world-wide to unacceptable levels of this metalloid. This is a serious global health problem because arsenic is a Group 1 (proven) human carcinogen and chronic exposure is known to cause skin, lung, and bladder tumors. Furthermore, arsenic exposure can result in a myriad of other adverse health effects including diseases of the cardiovascular, respiratory, neurological, reproductive, and endocrine systems. In addition to chronic environmental exposure to arsenic, arsenic trioxide is approved for the clinical treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia, and is in clinical trials for other hematological malignancies as well as solid tumors. Considerable inter-individual variability in susceptibility to arsenic-induced disease and toxicity exists, and the reasons for such differences are incompletely understood. Transport pathways that influence the cellular uptake and export of arsenic contribute to regulating its cellular, tissue, and ultimately body levels. In the current review, membrane proteins (including phosphate transporters, aquaglyceroporin channels, solute carrier proteins, and ATP-binding cassette transporters) shown experimentally to contribute to the passage of inorganic, methylated, and/or glutathionylated arsenic species across cellular membranes are discussed. Furthermore, what is known about arsenic transporters in organs involved in absorption, distribution, and metabolism and how transport pathways contribute to arsenic elimination are described.

  11. Arsenic contamination in groundwater of Samta, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Yokota, H; Tanabe, K; Sezaki, M; Yano, Y; Hamabe, K; Yabuuchi, K; Tokunaga, H

    2002-01-01

    In March 1997, we analyzed the water of all tubewells used for drinking in Samta village in the Jessore district, Bangladesh. It has been confirmed from the survey that the arsenic contamination in Samta was one of the worst in the Ganges basin including West Bengal, India. 90% of the tubewells had arsenic concentrations above the Bangladesh standard of 0.05 mg/l. Tubewells with higher arsenic concentrations of over 0.50 mg/l were distributed in the southern area with a belt-like shape from east to west, and the distribution of arsenic concentration showed gradual decreasing toward northern area of the village. In order to examine the characteristics of the arsenic distribution in Samta, we have performed investigations such as: 1) the characteristics of groundwater flow, 2) the distribution of arsenic in the ground, 3) the concentration of arsenic and the other dissolved materials in groundwater, and 4) the distribution of arsenic concentration of trivalence and pentavalence. This paper examines the mechanism of arsenic release to groundwater and explains the above-mentioned characteristics of the arsenic contamination in Samta through the investigations of the survey results for these years.

  12. Arsenic, Prokaryotes, and Closed Basin Soda Lakes of the Western USA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oremland, R. S.

    2006-12-01

    A number of saline, alkaline soda lakes in the Great Basin and Mojave Desert of the United States have unusually high concentrations of inorganic arsenic dissolved in their brine-waters. The arsenic originates from natural rather than anthropogenic sources, namely volcanic hydrothermal inputs. When this influx is coupled with evapo-concentration and the unique chemical behavior of arsenic oxyanions in alkaline waters, it results in extremely elevated As concentrations. For example, the salinity and arsenate levels of 3 comparable soda lakes (pH 9.8) are: Big Soda Lake, NV (27 g/L; 20 uM), Mono Lake, CA (90 g/L; 200 uM), and Searles Lake, CA (340 g/L; 3,900 uM). The arsenic oxidation state changes from As5+ (arsenate) to As3+ (arsenite) with vertical transition from their oxygenated surface water to their anoxic bottom water. Similar phenomena occur in their littoral sediments. These lakes also harbor active populations of prokaryotes that achieve these As redox changes either by using arsenate as an electron acceptor for respiration, or by employing arsenite as a chemoautotrophic electron donor. Diverse microorganisms have been identified in these systems that are involved in the biogeochemical cycling of arsenic therein, and in situ studies made with radiotracer (73As) and other means showed that these redox reactions occur at rapid rates. However, other than their use for waterfowl hunting (Big Soda Lake), as a region of scenic beauty (Mono Lake), or as a resource for the chemical industry (Searles Lake), there is little concern about the arsenic in these systems because the waters are not potable and their chemistry is too extreme to allow for the presence of fish. Nonetheless, microbial processes that govern arsenic biogeochemistry can greatly influence the hydrologic mobility and toxicity of this element in freshwater systems, such as drinking water aquifers. Moreover, anthropogenic inputs of arsenic can also occur in closed basin lakes in this region, such as

  13. Champagne Pool (New Zealand) Thermophiles Yield Insights into the Evolution of Microbial Arsenic Resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hug, K.; Krikowa, F.; Morgan, X.; Maher, W. A.; Stott, M. B.; Moreau, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    Arsenic is a highly toxic metalloid typically enriched in geothermal waters due to aqueous weathering of arsenic-bearing minerals. Investigation of enzymatic pathways by which thermophilic microorganisms cope with toxic arsenic levels may yield insights into the evolution of arsenic resistance mechanisms on the early Earth. At Wai-O-Tapu in the Taupo Volcanic Zone on the North Island of New Zealand, hot springs with temperatures of 30-90°C and elemental sulfur concentrations (expressed as equivalent sulfate) from 340 to 850 mg/l establish a range of environmental conditions. Total arsenic concentrations varied from 0.083 mg/l to 56 mg/l. Arsenic speciation analysis elucidated various biogeochemical arsenic transformations occurring within different springs. For example, in the Alum Cliff spring oxidizing conditions (Eh = 225 mV) were expected to stabilize dissolved arsenate (AsO43-). However, HPLC-ICPMS analyses yielded dissolved arsenate and arsenite (AsO33-) concentrations of 0.25 mg/l versus 43.3 mg/l, respectively, and point towards microbial arsenate reduction as the likely mechanism for arsenic redox transformation. 16S rRNA gene cloning of Alum Cliff DNA showed a predominantly archaeal population with the dominant clone "AC1_A1" most closely related (99% sequence similarity, NCBI BLAST°) to the uncultured Sulfolobus clone "ChP_97P" found in Champagne Pool (Childs et al., 2008). The closest isolated relative to AC1_A1 is Sulfolobus tokodaii str. TW with a sequence similarity of 94%. Arsenic speciation measurements from the Alum Cliff spring suggest that clone AC1_A1 features the arsenate reduction resistance mechanism, and we hypothesize therefore that an arsC (homolog or analog) provides this functionality. The organic arsenic species monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), detected via HPLC-ICPMS at concentrations ranging from 1 μg/l to 12 μg/l in various springs, may also implicate microbial methyl-group transfers as an active

  14. Arsenic in Drinking Water-A Global Environmental Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Joanna Shaofen; Wai, Chien M.

    2004-01-01

    Information on the worldwide occurrence of groundwater pollution by arsenic, the ensuing health hazards, and the debatable government regulations of arsenic in drinking water, is presented. Diagnostic identification of arsenic, and methods to eliminate it from water are also discussed.

  15. Chapter4: Toxicology and Epidemiology of Arsenic and its Compounds

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic poses numerous environmental challenges, especially in the groundwater of Bangladesh and other developing nations. As a metalloid, arsenic has the properties of both a metal and a nonmetal. In organisms, metabolism of arsenic consists ofcomplex and multiple reduction and ...

  16. Effects of reaction conditions on the emission behaviors of arsenic, cadmium and lead during sewage sludge pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Han, Hengda; Hu, Song; Syed-Hassan, Syed Shatir A; Xiao, Yiming; Wang, Yi; Xu, Jun; Jiang, Long; Su, Sheng; Xiang, Jun

    2017-03-31

    Sewage sludge is an important class of bioresources whose energy content could be exploited using pyrolysis technology. However, some harmful trace elements in sewage sludge can escape easily to the gas phase during pyrolysis, increasing the potential of carcinogenic material emissions to the atmosphere. This study investigates emission characteristics of arsenic, cadmium and lead under different pyrolysis conditions for three different sewage sludge samples. The increased temperature (within 723-1123K) significantly promoted the cadmium and lead emissions, but its influence on arsenic emission was not pronounced. The releasing rate order of the three trace elements is volatile arsenic compounds>cadmium>lead in the beginning of pyrolysis. Fast heating rates promoted the emission of trace elements for the sludge containing the highest amount of ash, but exhibited an opposite effect for other studied samples. Overall, the high ash sludge released the least trace elements almost under all reaction conditions.

  17. Urinary arsenic species, toenail arsenic, and arsenic intake estimates in a Michigan population with low levels of arsenic in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Núñez, Zorimar; Meliker, Jaymie R; Meeker, John D; Slotnick, Melissa J; Nriagu, Jerome O

    2012-01-01

    The large disparity between arsenic concentrations in drinking water and urine remains unexplained. This study aims to evaluate predictors of urinary arsenic in a population exposed to low concentrations (≤50 μg/l) of arsenic in drinking water. Urine and drinking water samples were collected from a subsample (n=343) of a population enrolled in a bladder cancer case-control study in southeastern Michigan. Total arsenic in water and arsenic species in urine were determined using ICP-MS: arsenobetaine (AsB), arsenite (As[III]), arsenate (As[V]), methylarsenic acid (MMA[V]), and dimethylarsenic acid (DMA[V]). The sum of As[III], As[V], MMA[V], and DMA[V] was denoted as SumAs. Dietary information was obtained through a self-reported food intake questionnaire. Log(10)-transformed drinking water arsenic concentration at home was a significant (P<0.0001) predictor of SumAs (R(2)=0.18). Associations improved (R(2)=0.29, P<0.0001) when individuals with less than 1 μg/l of arsenic in drinking water were removed and further improved when analyses were applied to individuals who consumed amounts of home drinking water above the median volume (R(2)=0.40, P<0.0001). A separate analysis indicated that AsB and DMA[V] were significantly correlated with fish and shellfish consumption, which may suggest that seafood intake influences DMA[V] excretion. The Spearman correlation between arsenic concentration in toenails and SumAs was 0.36 and between arsenic concentration in toenails and arsenic concentration in water was 0.42. Results show that arsenic exposure from drinking water consumption is an important determinant of urinary arsenic concentrations, even in a population exposed to relatively low levels of arsenic in drinking water, and suggest that seafood intake may influence urinary DMA[V] concentrations.

  18. ARSENIC (+3 OXIDATION STATE) METHYLTRANSFERASE AND THE INORGANIC ARSENIC METHYLATION PHENOTYPE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inorganic arsenic is enzymatically methylated; hence, its ingestion results in exposure to the parent compound and various methylated arsenicals. Both experimental and epidemiological evidence suggest that some of the adverse health effects associated with chronic exposure to in...

  19. ARSENIC INTERACTION WITH IRON (II, III) HYDROXYCARBONATE GREEN RUST: IMPLICATIONS FOR ARSENIC REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zerovalent iron is being used in permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) to remediate groundwater arsenic contamination. Iron(II, III) hydroxycarbonate green rust is a major corrosion product of zerovalent iron under anaerobic conditions. The interaction between arsenic and this green...

  20. Study of proton radioactivities

    SciTech Connect

    Davids, C.N.; Back, B.B.; Henderson, D.J.

    1995-08-01

    About a dozen nuclei are currently known to accomplish their radioactive decay by emitting a proton. These nuclei are situated far from the valley of stability, and mark the very limits of existence for proton-rich nuclei: the proton drip line. A new 39-ms proton radioactivity was observed following the bombardment of a {sup 96}Ru target by a beam of 420-MeV {sup 78}Kr. Using the double-sided Si strip detector implantation system at the FMA, a proton group having an energy of 1.05 MeV was observed, correlated with the implantation of ions having mass 167. The subsequent daughter decay was identified as {sup 166}Os by its characteristic alpha decay, and therefore the proton emitter is assigned to the {sup 167}Ir nucleus. Further analysis showed that a second weak proton group from the same nucleus is present, indicating an isomeric state. Two other proton emitters were discovered recently at the FMA: {sup 171}Au and {sup 185}Bi, which is the heaviest known proton radioactivity. The measured decay energies and half-lives will enable the angular momentum of the emitted protons to be determined, thus providing spectroscopic information on nuclei that are beyond the proton drip line. In addition, the decay energy yields the mass of the nucleus, providing a sensitive test of mass models in this extremely proton-rich region of the chart of the nuclides. Additional searches for proton emitters will be conducted in the future, in order to extend our knowledge of the location of the proton drip line.

  1. Limited effectiveness of household sand filters for removal of arsenic from well water in North Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Ilmiawati, Cimi; Thang, Nguyen Dinh; Iida, Machiko; Maeda, Masao; Ohnuma, Shoko; Yajima, Ichiro; Ohgami, Nobutaka; Oshino, Reina; Al Hossain, M M Aeorangajeb; Ninomiya, Hiromasa; Kato, Masashi

    2016-12-01

    Since well water utilized for domestic purposes in the Red River Delta of North Vietnam has been reported to be polluted by arsenic, barium, iron, and manganese, household sand filters consisting of various components are used. Information regarding the effectiveness of various sand filters for removal of the four toxic elements in well water is limited. In this study, arsenic levels in 13/20 of well water samples and 1/7 of tap water samples exceeded World Health Organization (WHO) health-based guideline value for drinking water. Moreover, 2/20, 6/20, and 4/20 of well water samples had levels exceeding the present and previous guideline levels for barium, iron, and manganese, respectively. Levels of iron and manganese, but not arsenic, in well water treated by sand filters were lower than those in untreated water, although previous studies showed that sand filters removed all of those elements from water. A low ratio of iron/arsenic in well water may not be sufficient for efficient removal of arsenic from household sand filters. The levels of barium in well water treated by sand filters, especially a filter composed of sand and charcoal, were significantly lower than those in untreated water. Thus, we demonstrated characteristics of sand filters in North Vietnam.

  2. Radioactive and magnetic investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heye, D.; Beiersdorf, H.

    1979-01-01

    Age and growth pattern determination of manganese nodules were explored. Two methods are discussed: (1) measurement of the presence of radioactive iodine isotopes; which is effective only up to 3.105 years, and (2) measurements of magnetism. The growth rates of three nodules were determined. The surface of the nodule was recent, and the overall age of the nodule could be determined with accuracy of better than 30%. Measurement of paleomagnetic effect was attempted to determine wider age ranges, however, the measured sign changes could not be interpreted as paleomagnetic reversals.

  3. Material for radioactive protection

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, R.S.; Boyer, N.W.

    A boron containing burn resistant, low-level radiation protection material useful, for example, as a liner for radioactive waste disposal and storage, a component for neutron absorber, and a shield for a neutron source is described. The material is basically composed of borax in the range of 25 to 50%, coal tar in the range of 25 to 37.5%, with the remainder being an epoxy resin mix. A preferred composition is 50% borax, 25% coal tar and 25% epoxy resin. The material is not susceptible to burning and is about 1/5 the cost of existing radiation protection material utilized in similar applications.

  4. Determination of 20 trace elements and arsenic species for a realgar-containing traditional Chinese medicine Niuhuang Jiedu tablets by direct inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jin, Pengfei; Liang, Xiaoli; Xia, Lufeng; Jahouh, Farid; Wang, Rong; Kuang, Yongmei; Hu, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Niuhuang Jiedu tablet (NHJDT) is a realgar-containing traditional Chinese medicine. A direct inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method for the simultaneous determination of 20 trace elements (Mg, K, Ca, Na, Fe, As, Zn, Sr, Ba, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, Cr, Se, Co, Mo, Cd, Hg) in NHJDT, as well as in water, gastric fluid and intestinal fluid was established. Meanwhile, a high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) method was developed for the determination of arsenite (As(III)), arsenate (As(V)), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and for the identification of arsenobetaine (AsB) and arsenocholine (AsC) in these extracts. Both methods were fully validated in the respect of linearity, sensitivity, precision, stability and accuracy. The reliability of the ICP-MS method was further evaluated using a certified standard reference material prepared from dried tomato leaves (NIST, SRM 1572a). The analysis showed that some manufacturers formulated lower amount of realgar than required in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (ChP) in their preparations. In addition, almost same extraction profiles for total As and inorganic As were found in water and in gastrointestinal fluids, while higher extraction rates for other 19 elements were observed in gastrointestinal fluids. Our findings show that the toxicities of Hg, Cu, Cd and Pb in NHJDP are low, while the real As toxicity in NHJDT should be deeply investigated.

  5. Role of Metabolism in Arsenic-Induced Toxicity: Identification and Quantification of Arsenic Metabolites in Tissues and Excreta

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic is a known toxicant and carcinogen. Methylation of inorganic arsenic was once thought to be a detoxification mechanism because of the rapid excretion and relatively lower toxicity of the pentavalent organic arsenical metabolites. Advances in analytical chemistry have al...

  6. Soil Remediation of an Arsenic-Contaminated Site With Ferrous Sulfate and Type V Portland Cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illera, V.; O'Day, P. A.; Rivera, N.; Root, R.; Rafferty, M. T.; Vlassopoulos, D.

    2005-12-01

    High levels of arsenic are present in a site adjacent to San Francisco Bay (in East Palo Alto, CA) as a consequence of the activity of a former pesticide manufacturing plant. Most of the readily accessible arsenic at the site has been removed by remedial excavation and surface capping. In-situ fixation of residual arsenic was performed close to the source about 10 years ago where arsenic values in capped soils ranged from 500 to 5000 mg kg-1. The fixation method consisted of the addition of ferrous sulfate (3% w/w), type V Portland cement (10% w/w) and water. Both products were mixed with the contaminated soil to a treatment depth between 1.5 and 9 meters. The treated soil was then capped to prevent weathering. This long-term amended soil offers an opportunity to compare the processes that prevent microbial arsenic reduction and control the immobilization of arsenic in the treated soils versus natural soils, and to study the aging effects of arsenic sorption. Solid phase characterization of soil samples from both the field and controlled laboratory experiments were carried out to study the speciation and bioavailability of arsenic and to ascertain the mechanisms of the arsenic immobilization in the treated soil. These methods included physical description by field observations, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy, total elemental concentrations, and solid phase fractionation by sequential extraction. Both synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and XRD measurements were used to determine oxidation state of arsenic and iron and host phases present in the soil. The remedial treatment was successful in immobilizing the arsenic in the contaminated soil, and decreasing its leachability. Measurements taken at short aging times (during the first month) showed that the treatment was effective in reducing leachable arsenic as evidenced by the TCLP wet test (< 5 mg l-1 leached). The field amendment influenced

  7. Simultaneous speciation of selenium and arsenic using elevated temperature liquid chromatography separation with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, X. C.; Li, X.-F.; Lai, V.; Ma, M.; Yalcin, S.; Feldmann, J.

    1998-08-01

    A method was developed for the simultaneous speciation of both arsenic and selenium based on the separation of arsenic and selenium species using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) under elevated column temperatures followed by dual-element detection using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Thirteen arsenic and selenium species, including arsenate, arsenite, monomethylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid, arsenobetaine, arsenocholine, tetramethylarsonium, two arsenosugars, selenate, selenite, selenocystine and selenomethionine, were studied using this approach. The HPLC separation using 70°C constant column temperature resulted in an improved resolution and faster separation of arsenic and selenium species. Nearly baseline resolution of these species was achieved on a reversed phase C18 column using hexanesulfonate as an ion pair reagent. The ICPMS detection of m/ z 75, 77 and 78 enabled simultaneous monitoring of arsenic, selenium, and potential interfering species, such as ArCl. An application of the HPLC/ICPMS technique was demonstrated by the speciation of arsenic and selenium in canned tuna fish. Arsenobetaine and selenocystine were detected as the major arsenic and selenium species, respectively. The technique was also applied to a study on the metabolism of arsenosugars. Speciation of six arsenosugar metabolites in human urine was complete in 19 min at 70°C column temperature, compared to 37 min at room temperature.

  8. An arsenic fluorescent compound as a novel probe to study arsenic-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Femia, A Lis; Temprana, C Facundo; Santos, Javier; Carbajal, María Laura; Amor, María Silvia; Grasselli, Mariano; Alonso, Silvia Del V

    2012-12-01

    Arsenic-binding proteins are under continuous research. Their identification and the elucidation of arsenic/protein interaction mechanisms are important because the biological effects of these complexes may be related not only to arsenic but also to the arsenic/protein structure. Although many proteins bearing a CXXC motif have been found to bind arsenic in vivo, new tools are necessary to identify new arsenic targets and allow research on protein/arsenic complexes. In this work, we analyzed the performance of the fluorescent compound APAO-FITC (synthesized from p-aminophenylarsenoxide, APAO, and fluorescein isothiocyanate, FITC) in arsenic/protein binding assays using thioredoxin 1 (Trx) as an arsenic-binding protein model. The Trx-APAO-FITC complex was studied through different spectroscopic techniques involving UV-Vis, fluorescence, atomic absorption, infrared and circular dichroism. Our results show that APAO-FITC binds efficiently and specifically to the Trx binding site, labeling the protein fluorescently, without altering its structure and activity. In summary, we were able to study a protein/arsenic complex model, using APAO-FITC as a labeling probe. The use of APAO-FITC in the identification of different protein and cell targets, as well as in in vivo biodistribution studies, conformational studies of arsenic-binding proteins, and studies for the design of drug delivery systems for arsenic anti-cancer therapies, is highly promising.

  9. Method of arsenic removal from water

    SciTech Connect

    Gadgil, Ashok

    2010-10-26

    A method for low-cost arsenic removal from drinking water using chemically prepared bottom ash pre-treated with ferrous sulfate and then sodium hydroxide. Deposits on the surface of particles of bottom ash form of activated iron adsorbent with a high affinity for arsenic. In laboratory tests, a miniscule 5 grams of pre-treated bottom ash was sufficient to remove the arsenic from 2 liters of 2400 ppb (parts per billion) arsenic-laden water to a level below 50 ppb (the present United States Environmental Protection Agency limit). By increasing the amount of pre-treated bottom ash, even lower levels of post-treatment arsenic are expected. It is further expected that this invention supplies a very low-cost solution to arsenic poisoning for large population segments.

  10. Natural Antioxidants Against Arsenic-Induced Genotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Munesh; Lalit, Minakshi; Thakur, Rajesh

    2016-03-01

    Arsenic is present in water, soil, and air in organic as well as in inorganic forms. However, inorganic arsenic is more toxic than organic and can cause many diseases including cancers in humans. Its genotoxic effect is considered as one of its carcinogenic actions. Arsenic can cause DNA strand breaks, deletion mutations, micronuclei formation, DNA-protein cross-linking, sister chromatid exchange, and DNA repair inhibition. Evidences indicate that arsenic causes DNA damage by generation of reactive free radicals. Nutritional supplementation of antioxidants has been proven highly beneficial against arsenic genotoxicity in experimental animals. Recent studies suggest that antioxidants protect mainly by reducing excess free radicals via restoring the activities of cellular enzymatic as well as non-enzymatic antioxidants and decreasing the oxidation processes such as lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation. The purpose of this review is to summarize the recent literature on arsenic-induced genotoxicity and its mitigation by naturally derived antioxidants in various biological systems.

  11. Arsenic ingestion and internal cancers: a review

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, M.N.; Smith, A.H.; Hopenhayn-Rich, C. )

    1992-03-01

    Inorganic arsenic is known to cause skin cancer by ingestion and lung cancer by inhalation. However, whether arsenic ingestion causes internal cancers is still a matter of debate. This paper has reviewed the epidemiologic literature that bears on this question. Published studies of populations who have ingested arsenic in medicines, wine substitutes, or water supplies, as well as workers exposed to arsenic by inhalation, were considered in terms of whether the observed associations might be explained by the presence of biases, the consistency of the evidence, and the biologic plausibility of the associations. Many studies were found to be uninformative because of low statistical power or potential biases. The most informative studies, which were from Taiwan and Japan, involved exposure to arsenic in drinking water. These studies strongly suggest that ingested inorganic arsenic does cause cancers of the bladder, kidney, lung, and liver, and possibly other sites. However, confirmatory studies are needed.82 references.

  12. METHODS TO EVALUATE ARSENIC BIOAVAILABILITY ASSOCIATED WITH THE PRESENCE OF CCA-TREATED WOOD PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is an invited paper to be presented by Dr. Karen Bradham at the 8th International Conference on the Biogeochemistry of Trace Elements, Adelaide, Australia, April 3 - 7, 2005. The abstract describes methods to evaluate arsenic bioavailability associated with the presence of ...

  13. Redox Chemistry and Transformation of Arsenic and Selenium in Agricultural Drainage Disposal Ponds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaporation ponds are being used for disposal of agricultural drainage waters in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) of California since there is no option for disposal outside of the valley. The drainage water contains elevated levels of salts and trace elements including arsenic (As) and selenium (Se). T...

  14. Radioactive waste processing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Robert E.; Ziegler, Anton A.; Serino, David F.; Basnar, Paul J.

    1987-01-01

    Apparatus for use in processing radioactive waste materials for shipment and storage in solid form in a container is disclosed. The container includes a top, and an opening in the top which is smaller than the outer circumference of the container. The apparatus includes an enclosure into which the container is placed, solution feed apparatus for adding a solution containing radioactive waste materials into the container through the container opening, and at least one rotatable blade for blending the solution with a fixing agent such as cement or the like as the solution is added into the container. The blade is constructed so that it can pass through the opening in the top of the container. The rotational axis of the blade is displaced from the center of the blade so that after the blade passes through the opening, the blade and container can be adjusted so that one edge of the blade is adjacent the cylindrical wall of the container, to insure thorough mixing. When the blade is inside the container, a substantially sealed chamber is formed to contain vapors created by the chemical action of the waste solution and fixant, and vapors emanating through the opening in the container.

  15. Utilization of coal fly ash in solidification of liquid radioactive waste from research reactor.

    PubMed

    Osmanlioglu, Ahmet Erdal

    2014-05-01

    In this study, the potential utilization of fly ash was investigated as an additive in solidification process of radioactive waste sludge from research reactor. Coal formations include various percentages of natural radioactive elements; therefore, coal fly ash includes various levels of radioactivity. For this reason, fly ashes have to be evaluated for potential environmental implications in case of further usage in any construction material. But for use in solidification of radioactive sludge, the radiological effects of fly ash are in the range of radioactive waste management limits. The results show that fly ash has a strong fixing capacity for radioactive isotopes. Specimens with addition of 5-15% fly ash to concrete was observed to be sufficient to achieve the target compressive strength of 20 MPa required for near-surface disposal. An optimum mixture comprising 15% fly ash, 35% cement, and 50% radioactive waste sludge could provide the solidification required for long-term storage and disposal. The codisposal of radioactive fly ash with radioactive sludge by solidification decreases the usage of cement in solidification process. By this method, radioactive fly ash can become a valuable additive instead of industrial waste. This study supports the utilization of fly ash in industry and the solidification of radioactive waste in the nuclear industry.

  16. The Discovery of Artificial Radioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, Francesco; Leone, Matteo; Robotti, Nadia

    2012-03-01

    We reconstruct Frédéric Joliot and Irène Curie's discovery of artificial radioactivity in January 1934 based in part on documents preserved in the Joliot-Curie Archives in Paris, France. We argue that their discovery followed from the convergence of two parallel lines of research, on the neutron and on the positron, that were focused on a well-defined experimental problem, the nuclear transmutation of aluminum and other light elements. We suggest that a key role was played by a suggestion that Francis Perrin made at the seventh Solvay Conference at the end of October 1933, that the alpha-particle bombardment of aluminum produces an intermediate unstable isotope of phosphorus, which then decays by positron emission. We also suggest that a further idea that Perrin published in December 1933, and the pioneering theory of beta decay that Enrico Fermi also first published in December 1933, established a new theoretical framework that stimulated Joliot to resume the researches that he and Curie had interrupted after the Solvay Conference, now for the first time using a Geiger-Müller counter to detect the positrons emitted when he bombarded aluminum with polonium alpha particles.

  17. Arsenic geochemistry of groundwater in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Chanpiwat, Penradee; Hanh, Hoang Thi; Phan, Kongkea; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong

    2011-12-01

    The occurrence of high concentrations of arsenic in the groundwater of the Southeast Asia region has received much attention in the past decade. This study presents an overview of the arsenic contamination problems in Vietnam, Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic and Thailand. Most groundwater used as a source of drinking water in rural areas has been found to be contaminated with arsenic exceeding the WHO drinking water guideline of 10 μg·L(-1). With the exception of Thailand, groundwater was found to be contaminated with naturally occurring arsenic in the region. Interestingly, high arsenic concentrations (> 10 μg·L(-1)) were generally found in the floodplain areas located along the Mekong River. The source of elevated arsenic concentrations in groundwater is thought to be the release of arsenic from river sediments under highly reducing conditions. In Thailand, arsenic has never been found naturally in groundwater, but originates from tin mining activities. More than 10 million residents in Southeast Asia are estimated to be at risk from consuming arsenic-contaminated groundwater. In Southeast Asia, groundwater has been found to be a significant source of daily inorganic arsenic intake in humans. A positive correlation between groundwater arsenic concentration and arsenic concentration in human hair has been observed in Cambodia and Vietnam. A substantial knowledge gap exists between the epidemiology of arsenicosis and its impact on human health. More collaborative studies particularly on the scope of public health and its epidemiology are needed to conduct to fulfill the knowledge gaps of As as well as to enhance the operational responses to As issue in Southeast Asian countries.

  18. System for handling and storing radioactive waste

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, John K.; Lindemann, Paul E.

    1984-01-01

    A system and method for handling and storing spent reactor fuel and other solid radioactive waste, including canisters to contain the elements of solid waste, storage racks to hold a plurality of such canisters, storage bays to store these racks in isolation by means of shielded doors in the bays. This system also includes means for remotely positioning the racks in the bays and an access tunnel within which the remotely operated means is located to position a rack in a selected bay. The modular type of these bays will facilitate the construction of additional bays and access tunnel extension.

  19. System for handling and storing radioactive waste

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, J.K.; Lindemann, P.E.

    1982-07-19

    A system and method are claimed for handling and storing spent reactor fuel and other solid radioactive waste, including canisters to contain the elements of solid waste, storage racks to hold a plurality of such canisters, storage bays to store these racks in isolation by means of shielded doors in the bays. This system also includes means for remotely positioning the racks in the bays and an access tunnel within which the remotely operated means is located to position a rack in a selected bay. The modular type of these bays will facilitate the construction of additional bays and access tunnel extension.

  20. In-tank recirculating arsenic treatment system

    DOEpatents

    Brady, Patrick V.; Dwyer, Brian P.; Krumhansl, James L.; Chwirka, Joseph D.

    2009-04-07

    A low-cost, water treatment system and method for reducing arsenic contamination in small community water storage tanks. Arsenic is removed by using a submersible pump, sitting at the bottom of the tank, which continuously recirculates (at a low flow rate) arsenic-contaminated water through an attached and enclosed filter bed containing arsenic-sorbing media. The pump and treatment column can be either placed inside the tank (In-Tank) by manually-lowering through an access hole, or attached to the outside of the tank (Out-of-Tank), for easy replacement of the sorption media.

  1. XAS Studies of Arsenic in the Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Charnock, J. M.; Polya, D. A.; Gault, A. G.; Morgan, A. J.

    2007-02-02

    Arsenic is present in low concentrations in much of the Earth's crust and changes in its speciation are vital to understanding its transport and toxicity in the environment. We have used X-ray absorption spectroscopy to investigate the coordination sites of arsenic in a wide variety of samples, including soil and earthworm tissues from arsenic-contaminated land, and human hair and nail samples from people exposed to arsenic in Cambodia. Our results confirm the effectiveness of using X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy to determine speciation changes in environmental samples.

  2. Magnetotransport properties in a compensated semimetal gray arsenic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lingxiao; Xu, Qiunan; Wang, Xinmin; He, Junbao; Li, Jing; Yang, Huaixin; Long, Yujia; Chen, Dong; Liang, Hui; Li, Chunhong; Xue, Mianqi; Li, Jianqi; Ren, Zhian; Lu, Li; Weng, Hongmin; Fang, Zhong; Dai, Xi; Chen, Genfu

    2017-03-01

    We report the observation of an extremely large magnetoresistance (up to 15 000 000% at 1.8 K in a magnetic field of 9 T) in a simple chemical element, gray arsenic, in which the magnitude of the magnetoresistance increases as approximately the square of the magnetic field strength without any signs of saturation. The Hall-effect study confirms that gray arsenic is a nearly perfect "compensated semimetal," with a small concentration of very mobile carriers, which lead to an extremely large magnetoresistance. The analysis of Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations reveals a nontrivial π Berry phase, a strong signature of Dirac fermions with three-dimensional dispersion. Furthermore, in the presence of parallel magnetic and electric fields, a weak antilocalization effect and a pronounced negative longitudinal magnetoresistance, which may be linked to novel topological states, are also observed. These findings which uncover the material's basis in gray arsenic not only open avenues in spintronics and magnetic sensor applications but also provide more platforms to study topological materials.

  3. Arsenic Accumulation by Pteris vittata L. in Two Chemically Variant Soils Treated with Arsenical Pesticides - Greenhouse Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Therapong, C.; Datta, R.; Sarkar, D.; Pachanoor, D.

    2006-05-01

    Arsenic (As) is one of the most toxic elements present in the environment. Over the years, arsenic has found its way to the environment due to its extensive use in agriculture and in industrial practices as pesticides, fertilizers, wood preservatives, smelter wastes and coal combustion ash, all of which are of great environmental concern. Arsenic contamination affects biological activities because it is a carcinogen and a mutagen, which has detrimental effects on the immune system of animals. Remediation of arsenic-contaminated soils has become a major environmental issue in the recent years. Several physical and chemical treatment methods, such as soil washing, co-precipitation, and excavation, have used to remediate As, but all of these methods are rather expensive and can disturb soil physiology and ecology. Phytoremediation, a plant based technology for the removal of toxic contaminants from soil and water is an attractive approach. Of late, this technology has received a high degree of attention from the scientific community because it is environment-friendly and also because of its tremendous cost efficiency compared to the conventional methods. Chinese Brake Fern (Pteris vittata L.) is a known arsenic hyperaccumulator that is being used extensively at present to remove As from soils. However, the degree of efficiency of this plant in accumulating As is likely to be a function of the soil properties. The objective of the reported study was to investigate arsenic uptake by Chinese Brake Fern in As-contaminated soils from the Immokalee (acid sand with minimal As-retention potential) and Millhopper series (sandy loam with high Fe/Al content, hence, high As-retention potential). A greenhouse experiment was designed to evaluate the effects on As uptake by Chinese Brake Fern at two pesticide application rates: 225 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg As in two chemical forms, namely sodium arsenate (AsV) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). Each treatment was replicated three times in

  4. Questions concerning environmental mobility of arsenic: needs for a chemical data base and means for speciation of trace organoarsenicals.

    PubMed Central

    Brinckman, F E; Parris, G E; Blair, W R; Jewett, K L; Iverson, W P; Bellama, J M

    1977-01-01

    Biomethylation of metals, including arsenic, apparently occurs as a global process. Health control strategies therefore depend on accurate analysis of arsenic's environmental mobility. Determining to what extent biotransformations occur and how resultant organometal(loids) are sequestered in food chains requires sophistication beyond present-day total element determinations. Rather, active molecular forms of arsenic must be speciated for each environmental compartment, and it is necessary to quantify the dynamics of arsenic's mobility. Thus, new chemical facts are needed yielding rates of methylation or demethylation of arsenic; partition coefficients of organoarsenicals between air, water, and organic phases; and arsenic redox chemistry in polar media. NBS research in this context is reviewed with examples of recent results emphasizing speciation methodology. Topic areas discussed are: the nature of aquated methylarsenic species (NMR and laser-Raman spectroscopy); transport of methylarsenicals from aqueous media (gas chromatography-graphic furnace AA detection applied to metabolic Me3As formation); and speciation of involatile organoarsenicals in aqueous media (demonstration of HPLC utilizing element-specific AA detection and appraisal of electrochemical detectors). PMID:908286

  5. A Study on Extraction Method of Inorganic Arsenic Species in Abandoned Mine Soils of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, M.; Yoon, H.; Suh, J.

    2006-12-01

    It is important to determine the concentration of many toxic elements in environmental samples. However, the total concentration provides no information concerning the fate of the elements. Environmental fate, behavior, bioavailability, and toxicity of metals often vary dramatically with the chemical forms (species) in which metals exist. For example, inorganic arsenite [As (III)] and arsenate [As (V)] are toxic while methylarsonic acid [MMA(V)] and dimethylarseinic acid [DMA(V)] are less toxic. Thus, the assessments of environmental impact and human health risk solely based on the measurements of total element concentration become no longer reliable. It is important to identify and quantify individual chemical species of the element. A method to separate two inorganic arsenic species As(III) and As(V) by SPE HG-ICP-AES has been developed, based on extraction with a mixture of 1 mol phosphoric acid and 0.1 mol ascorbic acid. Hydride generation method by ICP-AES improved effectively the detection limit of the arsenic. Extraction instruments used in this study were the microwave system (Milestone 1200 Mega) and the ultrasound extraction method (Sonic Dismembrator 500, Fisher scientific). The separation of arsenic species was achieved on the anion exchange cartridge (Accell Plus QMA, Waters) with ammonium dihydrogen phosphate as mobile phase. SPE HG--ICP-AES coupled technique was applied to analyzed extracts of contaminated soil and SRM 2710. Analysis is performed as soon as possible (approximately within 1hour) after extraction. SPE HG--ICP-AES analysis showed the majority of solid phase arsenic to be arsenate (AsV), with AsIII accounting for <3% of extracted total inorganic arsenic. SRM 2710 (Montana soil) is not detected the AsIII. Both arsenite (AsIII) and arsenate (AsV) is increasing, according as size decreases (<64μm, 64-200μm, 2mm- 200μm). The extraction efficiency of contaminated soil samples, relative to the total arsenic concentration, varied from 15 to

  6. Postnatal arsenic exposure and attention impairment in school children.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel; Gil, Fernando; Hernández, Antonio F; Alguacil, Juan; Lorca, Andres; Mendoza, Ramón; Gómez, Inmaculada; Molina-Villalba, Isabel; González-Alzaga, Beatriz; Aguilar-Garduño, Clemente; Rohlman, Diane S; Lacasaña, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few decades there has been an increased concern about the health risks from exposure to metallic trace elements, including arsenic, because of their potential neurotoxic effects on the developing brain. This study assessed whether urinary arsenic (UA) levels are associated with attention performance and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children living in an area with high industrial and mining activities in Southwestern Spain. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 261 children aged 6-9 years. Arsenic levels were determined in urine samples. Attention was measured by using 4 independent tools: a) tests from the Behavioral Assessment and Research System (BARS) designed to measure attention function: Simple Reaction Time Test (RTT), Continuous Performance Test (CPT) and Selective Attention Test (SAT); b) AULA Test, a virtual reality (VR)-based test that evaluates children's response to several stimuli in an environment simulating a classroom; c) Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), administered to parents; and d) Teacher's Report Form (TRF), administered to teachers. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models, adjusted for potential confounders, were used to estimate the magnitude of the association between UA levels and attention performance scores. Higher UA levels were associated with an increased latency of response in RTT (β = 12.3; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.5-21.1) and SAT (β = 3.6; 95% CI: .4-6.8) as well as with worse performance on selective and focalized attention in the AULA test (β for impulsivity = .6; 95% CI: .1-1.1; β for inattention = .5; 95% CI: .03-1.0). A dose-response relationship was observed between UA levels and inattention and impulsivity scores. In contrast, results from the CBCL and TRF tests failed to show a significant association with UA levels. In conclusion, UA levels were associated with impaired attention/cognitive function, even at levels considered safe. These results provide

  7. Blackfoot disease and arsenic: a never-ending story.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Chin-Hsiao

    2005-01-01

    Blackfoot disease (BFD) is an endemic peripheral vascular disease confined to the southwestern coast of Taiwan. This article reviews the epidemiology, clinical manifestations and diagnosis, pathology, etiology and pathogenesis of this disease. Sporadic cases of BFD occurred as early as in the early 20th century, and peak incidence was noted between 1956 and 1960, with prevalence rates ranging from 6.51 to 18.85 per 1,000 population in different villages. Typical clinical symptoms and signs of progressive arterial occlusion mainly found in the lower extremities, but in rare cases, the upper extremities might also be involved. Ulceration, gangrene and spontaneous or surgical amputation were typical fate. An extensive pathological study concluded that 30% of the BFD patients had histologic lesions compatible with thromboangiitis obliterans and 70% showed changes of arteriosclerosis obliterans. Epidemiologic studies carried out since mid-20th century revealed that BFD was associated with the consumption of inorganic arsenic from the artesian wells. Recent studies confirmed the existence of preclinical peripheral vascular disease, subclinical arterial insufficiency and defects in cutaneous microcirculation in the residents of the endemic villages. A more recent study suggested that the methylation capacity of arsenic can interact with arsenic exposure in the development of peripheral vascular disease among residents of BFD-endemic areas. The incidence of BFD decreased dramatically after the implementation of tap water in these villages over the past 2-3 decades. The atherogenicity of arsenic could be associated with its effects of hypercoagulability, endothelial injury, smooth muscle cell proliferation, somatic mutation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. However, its interaction with some trace elements and its association with hypertension and diabetes mellitus could also explain part of its higher risk of developing atherosclerosis. Although humic substances have also

  8. Reduction of arsenic content in a complex galena concentrate by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans

    PubMed Central

    Makita, Mario; Esperón, Margarita; Pereyra, Benito; López, Alejandro; Orrantia, Erasmo

    2004-01-01

    the bioleaching system such as: pH, dissolved oxygen concentration, redox potentials, nature of concentrate and temperature among others. At. ferrooxidans was able to completely oxidize the minerals present during the arsenic bioleaching. Other elements present originally in the concentrate such as Zn, Sb, and Cu were also solubilized. The process of bioleaching is expected to be influenced by mechanisms that still need to be established due to the diversity of the minerals involved and by the presence of traces of metals in the concentrate. The increase in pulp density generates a decrease in the dissolved arsenic concentration. This decrease is greater in runs where air was not injected to the system. The maximum rate of arsenic dissolution in the concentrate was found using; small surface area of particle exposure, low pulp density, injecting air and adding 9 K medium to the system. The effect of addition of ferric chloride during the arsenic bioleaching resulted in a decrease of the solubilized arsenic in the system. The presence of CO2 is associated to the decrease in arsenic dissolution. PMID:15482595

  9. Assessment of arsenic and fluorine in surface soil to determine environmental and health risk factors in the Comarca Lagunera, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sariñana-Ruiz, Yareli A; Vazquez-Arenas, Jorge; Sosa-Rodríguez, Fabiola S; Labastida, Israel; Armienta, Ma Aurora; Aragón-Piña, Antonio; Escobedo-Bretado, Miguel A; González-Valdez, Laura S; Ponce-Peña, Patricia; Ramírez-Aldaba, Hugo; Lara, René H

    2017-07-01

    Total, bioaccessible and mobile concentrations of arsenic and fluorine are determined in polluted surface soil within the Comarca Lagunera region using standardized protocols to obtain a full description of the environmental behavior for these elements. The composition of mineral phases associated with them is evaluated with microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. Mineralogical characterizations indicate that ultra-fine particles (<1-5 μm) including mimetite-vanadite (Pb5(AsO4)3Cl, Pb5(AsO4, VO4)3Cl)-like, lead arseniate (Pb3(AsO4)2)-like and complex arsenic-bearing compounds are main arsenic-bearing phases, while fluorite (CaF2) is the only fluorine-bearing phase. Total fluorine and arsenic concentrations in surface soil range from 89.75 to 926.63 and 2.7-78.6 mg kg(-1), respectively, exceeding in many points a typical baseline value for fluorine (321 mg kg(-1)), and trigger level criterion for arsenic soil remediation (20 mg kg(-1)); whereas fluoride and arsenic concentrations in groundwater vary from 0.24 to 1.8 mg L(-1) and 0.12-0.650 mg L(-1), respectively. The main bioaccessible percentages of soil in the gastric phase (SBRC-G) are estimated for arsenic from 1 to 63%, and this parameter in the intestinal phase (SBRC-I) fluorine from 2 to 46%, suggesting human health risks for this region. While a negligible/low mobility is found in soil for arsenic (0.1-11%), an important mobility is determined for fluorine (2-39%), indicating environmental risk related to potential fluorine release. The environmental and health risks connected to arsenic and fluorine are discussed based on experimental data.

  10. Arsenic in groundwater: a summary of sources and the biogeochemical and hydrogeologic factors affecting arsenic occurrence and mobility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barringer, Julia L.; Reilly, Pamela A.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is a metalloid element (atomic number 33) with one naturally occurring isotope of atomic mass 75, and four oxidation states (-3, 0, +3, and +5) (Smedley and Kinniburgh, 2002). In the aqueous environment, the +3 and +5 oxidation states are most prevalent, as the oxyanions arsenite (H3AsO3 or H2AsO3- at pH ~9-11) and arsenate (H2AsO4- and HAsO42- at pH ~4-10) (Smedley and Kinniburgh, 2002). In soils, arsine gases (containing As3-) may be generated by fungi and other organisms (Woolson, 1977). The different forms of As have different toxicities, with arsine gas being the most toxic form. Of the inorganic oxyanions, arsenite is considered more toxic than arsenate, and the organic (methylated) arsenic forms are considered least toxic (for a detailed discussion of toxicity issues, the reader is referred to Mandal and Suzuki (2002)). Arsenic is a global health concern due to its toxicity and the fact that it occurs at unhealthful levels in water supplies, particularly groundwater, in more than 70 countries (Ravenscroft et al., 2009) on six continents.

  11. PERSPECTIVE: Fireworks and radioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitenecker, Katharina

    2009-09-01

    both reaction products and unburnt constituents of a pyrotechnic mixture. One major environmental concern in pyrotechnics focuses on the emission of heavy metals. This is the topic discussed in the article by Georg Steinhauser and Andreas Musilek in this issue [4]. A possible interrelationship between respiratory effects and fireworks emissions of barium-rich aerosols was also raised last year [5]. In recent years the potential hazard of naturally occurring radioactive material has become of importance to the scientific community. Naturally occurring radionuclides can be of terrestrial or cosmological origin. Terrestrial radionuclides were present in the presolar cloud that later contracted in order to build our solar system. These radionuclides—mainly heavy metals—and their non-radioactive isotopes are nowadays fixed in the matrix of the Earth's structure. Usually, their percentage is quite small compared to their respective stable isotopes—though there are exceptions like in the case of radium. The problem with environmental pollution due to naturally occurring radioactive material begins when this material is concentrated due to mining and milling, and later further processed [6]. Environmental pollution due to radioactive material goes back as far as the Copper and Iron Ages, when the first mines were erected in order to mine ores (gold, silver, copper, iron, etc), resulting in naturally occurring radioactive material being set free with other dusts into the atmosphere. So where is the link between pyrotechnics and radioactivity? In this article presented by Georg Steinhauser and Andreas Musilek [4], the pyrotechnic ingredients barium nitrate and strontium nitrate are explored with respect to their chemical similarities to radium. The fundamental question, therefore, was whether radium can be processed together with barium and strontium. If so, the production and ignition of these pyrotechnic ingredients could cause atmospheric pollution with radium aerosols

  12. Radioactive waste processing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, R.E.; Ziegler, A.A.; Serino, D.F.; Basnar, P.J.

    1985-08-30

    Apparatus for use in processing radioactive waste materials for shipment and storage in solid form in a container is disclosed. The container includes a top, and an opening in the top which is smaller than the outer circumference of the container. The apparatus includes an enclosure into which the container is placed, solution feed apparatus for adding a solution containing radioactive waste materials into the container through the container opening, and at least one rotatable blade for blending the solution with a fixing agent such as cement or the like as the solution is added into the container. The blade is constructed so that it can pass through the opening in the top of the container. The rotational axis of the blade is displaced from the center of the blade so that after the blade passes through the opening, the blade and container can be adjusted so that one edge of the blade is adjacent the cylindrical wall of the container, to insure thorough mixing. When the blade is inside the container, a substantially sealed chamber is formed to contain vapors created by the chemical action of the waste solution and fixant, and vapors emanating through the opening in the container. The chamber may be formed by placing a removable extension over the top of the container. The extension communicates with the apparatus so that such vapors are contained within the container, extension and solution feed apparatus. A portion of the chamber includes coolant which condenses the vapors. The resulting condensate is returned to the container by the force of gravity.

  13. Hydrochemical study of an arsenic-contaminated plain in Guandu, north Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, Yu-Hsiang

    2015-04-01

    Arsenic pollution in Guandu Plain, north Taiwan is a critical issue due to highly developed anthropogenic activities. It was considered that arsenic was carried in by surface water system. Two major rivers, Huanggang Creek and South Huang Greek, flow through Guandu Plain. Both creeks originate from Tatung Volcano Group, which is extensively active in post-volcanic activities. In this study, the hydrochemistry along the two major rivers was studied for tracing the source of arsenic pollution in Guandu Plain. The pH values in the upstream water are in the range from 6 to 8 but dramatically decrease down to 2-4.5 in the downstream area. It can be concluded that the creeks are recharged with very low pH geothermal water. In addition, arsenic shows a different spatial distribution. In Huanggang Creek, arsenic concentration is much higher, about 200 ppb to 500 ppb, in the downstream than in the upstream while arsenic concentration is extremely low, below 1 ppb, in the downstream of South Huang Greek. The geochemical results show that rare earth elements (REEs) are depleted in the upstream both in Huanggang creek and South Huang creek, and the NASC-normalized ratios of heavy to light REE (Lu/La) in the upstream are very close to 1. This demonstrates that the upstream water is geochemically dominated by the interaction between water and sedimentary rock. In the downstream, the NASC-normalized REE pattern shows a quit different type which is depleted in light REEs (much higher Lu/La ratio). It is well known that igneous rock is depleted in light REEs; therefore, arsenic is possibly volcanic origin. In this study, PHREEQC, a thermodynamic modeling program, was also utilized to calculate the saturation index (SI) of hydrous ferric oxide (HFO), which can effectively scavenge arsenic in water. The results demonstrate that SI of HFO is mainly controlled by pH in this study. When pH is greater than 3.5, HFO start to precipitate and remove arsenic from water. Therefore, it is

  14. Tissue dosimetry, metabolism and excretion of pentavalent and trivalent monomethylated arsenic in mice after oral administration

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Michael F.; Devesa, Vicenta; Adair, Blakely M.; Styblo, Miroslav; Kenyon, Elaina M.; Thomas, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Exposure to monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)) and monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)) can result from their formation as metabolites of inorganic arsenic and by the use of the sodium salts of MMA(V) as herbicides. This study compared the disposition of MMA(V) and MMA(III) in adult female B6C3F1 mice. Mice were gavaged po with MMA(V), either unlabeled or labeled with 14C at two dose levels (0.4 or 40 mg As/kg). Other mice were dosed po with unlabeled MMA(III) at one dose level (0.4 mg As/kg). Mice were housed in metabolism cages for collection of excreta and sacrificed serially over 24 h for collection of tissues. MMA(V)-derived radioactivity was rapidly absorbed, distributed and excreted. By 8 h post-exposure, 80% of both doses of MMA(V) were eliminated in urine and feces. Absorption of MMA(V) was dose dependent; that is, there was less than a 100-fold difference between the two dose levels in the area under the curves for the concentration-time profiles of arsenic in blood and major organs. In addition, urinary excretion of MMA(V)-derived radioactivity in the low dose group was significantly greater (P < 0.05) than in the high dose group. Conversely, fecal excretion of MMA(V)-derived radioactivity was significantly greater (P < 0.05) in the high dose group than in the low dose group. Speciation of arsenic by hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry in urine and tissues of mice administered MMA(V) or MMA(III) found that methylation of MMA(V) was limited while the methylation of MMA(III) was extensive. Less than 10% of the dose excreted in urine of MMA(V)-treated mice was in the form of methylated products, whereas it was greater than 90% for MMA(III)-treated mice. In MMA(V)-treated mice, 25% or less of the tissue arsenic was in the form of dimethylarsenic, whereas in MMA(III)-treated mice, 75% or more of the tissue arsenic was in the form of dimethylarsenic. Based on urinary analysis, administered dose of MMA(V) did not affect the level of its metabolites

  15. Emulsion Liquid Membrane Removal of Arsenic and Strontium from Wastewater: AN Experimental and Theoretical Study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ding-Wei

    The emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) technique has been successfully applied on the removal of arsenic (As) from metallurgical wastewater and the removal of strontium (Sr) from radioactive wastewater. This study consisted of experimental work and mathematical modeling. Extraction of arsenic by an emulsion liquid membrane was firstly investigated. The liquid membrane used was composed of 2-ethylhexyl alcohol (2EHA) as the extractant, ECA4360J as the surfactant, and Exxsol D-80 solvent (or heptane) as the diluent. The sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide solutions were used as the external and internal phases, respectively. The arsenic removal efficiency reached 92% within 15 minutes in one stage. Extraction and stripping chemistries were postulated and investigated. It was observed that extraction efficiency and rate increase with the increase of acidic strength and alkali strength in the external and internal phases, respectively. It was also observed that the removal selectivity of arsenic over copper is extremely high. Strontium-90 is one of the major radioactive metals appearing in nuclear wastewater. The emulsion liquid membrane process was investigated as a separation method by using the non-radioactive ^{87}Sr as its substitute. In our study, the membrane phase was composed of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) as the extractant, ECA4360J as the surfactant and Exxsol D-80 as the diluent. A sulfuric acid solution was used in the internal phase as the stripping agent. The pH range in the external phase was determined by the extraction isotherm. Under the most favorable operating condition, the strontium removal efficiency can reach 98% in two minutes. Mass transfer of the emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) system was modeled mathematically. Our model took into account the following: mass transfer of solute across the film between the external phase and the membrane phase, chemical equilibrium of the extraction reaction at the external phase-membrane interface

  16. Arsenic resistance and accumulation by two bacteria isolated from a natural arsenic contaminated site.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Neha; Bhatt, Renu

    2015-11-01

    Forty-three indigenous arsenic resistant bacteria were isolated from arsenic rich soil of Rajnandgaon district in the state of Chhattisgarh, India by enrichment culture technique. Among the isolates, two of the bacteria (As-9 and As-14) exhibited high resistance to As(V) [MIC ≥ 700 mM] and As(III) [MIC ≥ 10 mM] and were selected for further studies. Both these bacteria grew well in the presence of arsenic [20 mM As(V) and 5 mM As(III)], but the isolate As-14 strictly required arsenic for its survival and growth and was characterized as a novel arsenic dependent bacterium. The isolates contributed to 99% removal of arsenic from the growth medium which was efficiently accumulated in the cell. Quantitative estimation of arsenic through Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer revealed that there was >60% accumulation of both As(V) and As(III) by the two isolates. Scanning Electron Microscopic analysis showed a fourfold increase in bacterial cell volume when grown in the presence of arsenic and the results of Transmission Electron Microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy proved that such an alteration was due to arsenic accumulation. Such arsenic resistant bacteria with efficient accumulating property could be effectively applied in the treatment of arsenic contaminated water.

  17. Atherosclerosis induced by arsenic in drinking water in rats through altering lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tain-Junn; Chuu, Jiunn-Jye; Chang, Chia-Yu; Tsai, Wan-Chen; Chen, Kuan-Jung; Guo, How-Ran

    2011-10-15

    Arsenic in drinking water is a global environmental health problem, and the exposure may increase cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases mortalities, most likely through causing atherosclerosis. However, the mechanism of atherosclerosis formation after arsenic exposure is still unclear. To study the mechanism of atherosclerosis formation after arsenic exposure and explore the role of high cholesterol diet (HCD) in this process, we fed spontaneous hypertensive rats and Wistar Kyoto rats with basal diet or HCD and provided with them drinking water containing arsenic at different ages and orders for 20 consecutive weeks. We measured high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol, triglycerides, heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70), and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) at predetermined intervals and determined expressions of cholesteryl ester transfer protein-1 (CETP-1) and liver X receptor β (LXRβ) in the liver. Atherosclerosis was determined by examining the aorta with hematoxylin and eosin stain. After 20 weeks, we found arsenic, alone or combined with HCD, may promote atherosclerosis formation with transient increases in HSP 70 and hs-CRP. Early combination exposure decreased the HDL-C/LDL-C ratio without changing the levels of total cholesterol and triglyceride until 30 weeks old. Both CETP-1 and LXRβ activities were suppressed, most significantly in early combination exposure. In conclusion, arsenic exposure may induce atherosclerosis through modifying reverse cholesterol transport in cholesterol metabolism and suppressing LXRβ and CEPT-1 expressions. For decreasing atherosclerosis related mortality associated with arsenic, preventing exposure from environmental sources in early life is an important element.

  18. Biogenic mineral production by a novel arsenic-metabolizing thermophilic bacterium from the Alvord Basin, OR

    SciTech Connect

    Ledbetter, Rhesa N.; Connon, Stephanie A.; Neal, Andrew L.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Magnuson, Timothy S.

    2007-09-01

    The Alvord Basin in southeast Oregon, USA contains a variety of hydrothermal features, which have never been microbiologically characterized. Murky Pot (61°C, pH 7.1) was selected for this study. Sampling of Murky Pot led to the isolation of a novel arsenic-metabolizing organism (YeAs), which produces an arsenic sulfide mineral known as beta-realgar, a mineral that has not previously been observed as a product of bacterial arsenic metabolism. Our goal was to characterize and identify YeAs based on its phylogenetic, physiological, and morphological characteristics. 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed that YeAs has 98.9% sequence similarity to that of Thermobrachium celere. YeAs was grown on a freshwater medium and could utilize a variety of organic substrates, particularly carbohydrates and organic acids. Optimum growth of the organism was seen at 55ºC, but showed growth at a range of 37° to 75°C. No growth was observed when YeAs was grown under aerobic conditions. Microscopic examination revealed Gram-indeterminate, non-spore forming, rod shaped cells. Electron microscopy and elemental analysis revealed significant arsenic sulfide mineralization of cell walls, and extracellular particulate deposition of arsenic sulfide minerals. YeAs showed no detectable respiratory arsenate reductase; however, the organism did display significant detoxification arsenate reductase activity. The phylogenetic, physiological, and morphological characteristics of YeAs demonstrate that it is an anaerobic, moderately thermophilic, arsenic-reducing bacterium. This organism and its associated metabolism could have major implications in the search for innovative methods for arsenic waste management and in the search for novel biogenic signatures.

  19. Assessment of health risks due to arsenic from iron ore lumps in a beach setting.

    PubMed

    Swartjes, Frank A; Janssen, Paul J C M

    2016-09-01

    In 2011, an artificial hook-shaped peninsula of 128ha beach area was created along the Dutch coast, containing thousands of iron ore lumps, which include arsenic from natural origin. Elemental arsenic and inorganic arsenic induce a range of toxicological effects and has been classified as proven human carcinogens. The combination of easy access to the beach and the presence of arsenic raised concern about possible human health effects by the local authorities. The objective of this study is therefore to investigate human health risks from the presence of arsenic-containing iron ore lumps in a beach setting. The exposure scenarios underlying the human health-based risk limits for contaminated land in The Netherlands, based on soil material ingestion and a residential setting, are not appropriate. Two specific exposure scenarios related to the playing with iron ore lumps on the beach ('sandcastle building') are developed on the basis of expert judgement, relating to children in the age of 2 to 12years, i.e., a worst case exposure scenario and a precautionary scenario. Subsequently, exposure is calculated by the quantification of the following factors: hand loading, soil-mouth transfer effectivity, hand-mouth contact frequency, contact surface, body weight and the relative oral bioavailability factor. By lack of consensus on a universal reference dose for arsenic for use in the stage of risk characterization, three different types of assessments have been evaluated: on the basis of the current Provisional Tolerable Daily Intake (PTWI), on the basis of the Benchmark Dose Lower limit (BMDL), and by a comparison of exposure from the iron ore lumps with background exposure. It is concluded, certainly from the perspective of the conservative exposure assessment, that unacceptable human health risks due to exposure to arsenic from the iron ore lumps are unlikely and there is no need for risk management actions.

  20. Impaired arsenic metabolism in children during weaning

    SciTech Connect

    Faengstroem, Britta; Hamadani, Jena; Nermell, Barbro; Grander, Margaretha; Palm, Brita; Vahter, Marie

    2009-09-01

    Background: Methylation of inorganic arsenic (iAs) via one-carbon metabolism is a susceptibility factor for a range of arsenic-related health effects, but there is no data on the importance of arsenic metabolism for effects on child development. Aim: To elucidate the development of arsenic metabolism in early childhood. Methods: We measured iAs, methylarsonic acid (MA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), the metabolites of iAs, in spot urine samples of 2400 children at 18 months of age. The children were born to women participating in a population-based longitudinal study of arsenic effects on pregnancy outcomes and child development, carried out in Matlab, a rural area in Bangladesh with a wide range of arsenic concentrations in drinking water. Arsenic metabolism was evaluated in relation to age, sex, anthropometry, socio-economic status and arsenic exposure. Results: Arsenic concentrations in child urine (median 34 {mu}g/L, range 2.4-940 {mu}g/L), adjusted to average specific gravity of 1.009 g/mL, were considerably higher than that measured at 3 months of age, but lower than that in maternal urine. Child urine contained on average 12% iAs, 9.4% MA and 78% DMA, which implies a marked change in metabolite pattern since infancy. In particular, there was a marked increase in urinary %MA, which has been associated with increased risk of health effects. Conclusion: The arsenic metabolite pattern in urine of children at 18 months of age in rural Bangladesh indicates a marked decrease in arsenic methylation efficiency during weaning.

  1. Arsenic mobilization and immobilization in paddy soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kappler, A.; Hohmann, C.; Zhu, Y. G.; Morin, G.

    2010-05-01

    Arsenic is oftentimes of geogenic origin and in many cases bound to iron(III) minerals. Iron(III)-reducing bacteria can harvest energy by coupling the oxidation of organic or inorganic electron donors to the reduction of Fe(III). This process leads either to dissolution of Fe(III)-containing minerals and thus to a release of the arsenic into the environment or to secondary Fe-mineral formation and immobilisation of arsenic. Additionally, aerobic and anaerobic iron(II)-oxidizing bacteria have the potential to co-precipitate or sorb arsenic during iron(II) oxidation at neutral pH that is usually followed by iron(III) mineral precipitation. We are currently investigating arsenic immobilization by Fe(III)-reducing bacteria and arsenic co-precipitation and immobilization by anaerobic iron(II)-oxidizing bacteria in batch, microcosm and rice pot experiments. Co-precipitation batch experiments with pure cultures of nitrate-dependent Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria are used to quantify the amount of arsenic that can be immobilized during microbial iron mineral precipitation, to identify the minerals formed and to analyze the arsenic binding environment in the precipitates. Microcosm and rice pot experiments are set-up with arsenic-contaminated rice paddy soil. The microorganisms (either the native microbial population or the soil amended with the nitrate-dependent iron(II)-oxidizing Acidovorax sp. strain BoFeN1) are stimulated either with iron(II), nitrate, or oxygen. Dissolved and solid-phase arsenic and iron are quantified. Iron and arsenic speciation and redox state in batch and microcosm experiments are determined by LC-ICP-MS and synchrotron-based methods (EXAFS, XANES).

  2. Arsenic Removal by Liquid Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Marino, Tiziana; Figoli, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Water contamination with harmful arsenic compounds represents one of the most serious calamities of the last two centuries. Natural occurrence of the toxic metal has been revealed recently for 21 countries worldwide; the risk of arsenic intoxication is particularly high in Bangladesh and India but recently also Europe is facing similar problem. Liquid membranes (LMs) look like a promising alternative to the existing removal processes, showing numerous advantages in terms of energy consumption, efficiency, selectivity, and operational costs. The development of different LM configurations has been a matter of investigation by several researching groups, especially for the removal of As(III) and As(V) from aqueous solutions. Most of these LM systems are based on the use of phosphine oxides as carriers, when the metal removal is from sulfuric acid media. Particularly promising for water treatment is the hollow fiber supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) configuration, which offers high selectivity, easy transport of the targeted metal ions, large surface area, and non-stop flow process. The choice of organic extractant(s) plays an essential role in the efficiency of the arsenic removal. Emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) systems have not been extensively investigated so far, although encouraging results have started to appear in the literature. For such LM configuration, the most relevant step toward efficiency is the choice of the surfactant type and its concentration. PMID:25826756

  3. On the relation between fluvio-deltaic flood basin geomorphology and the wide-spread occurrence of arsenic pollution in shallow aquifers.

    PubMed

    Donselaar, Marinus E; Bhatt, Ajay G; Ghosh, Ashok K

    2017-01-01

    Pollution of groundwater with natural (geogenic) arsenic occurs on an enormous, world-wide scale, and causes wide-spread, serious health risks for an estimated more than hundred million people who depend on the use of shallow aquifers for drinking and irrigation water. A literature review of key studies on arsenic concentration levels yields that Holocene fluvial and deltaic flood basins are the hotspots of arsenic pollution, and that the dominant geomorphological setting of the arsenic-polluted areas consists of shallow-depth meandering-river deposits with sand-prone fluvial point-bar deposits surrounded by clay-filled (clay plug) abandoned meander bends (oxbow lakes). Analysis of the lithofacies distribution and related permeability contrasts of the geomorphological elements in two cored wells in a point bar and adjacent clay plug along the Ganges River, in combination with data of arsenic concentrations and organic matter content reveals that the low-permeable clay-plug deposits have a high organic matter content and the adjacent permeable point-bar sands show high but spatially very variable arsenic concentrations. On the basis of the geomorphological juxtaposition, the analysis of fluvial depositional processes and lithofacies characteristics, inherent permeability distribution and the omnipresence of the two geomorphological elements in Holocene flood basins around the world, a generic model is presented for the wide-spread arsenic occurrence. The anoxic deeper part (hypolimnion) of the oxbow lake, and the clay plugs are identified as the loci of reactive organic carbon and microbial respiration in an anoxic environment that triggers the reductive dissolution of iron oxy-hydroxides and the release of arsenic on the scale of entire fluvial floodplains and deltaic basins. The adjacent permeable point-bar sands are identified as the effective trap for the dissolved arsenic, and the internal permeability heterogeneity is the cause for aquifer compartmentalization

  4. Environmental radioactive intercomparison program and radioactive standards program

    SciTech Connect

    Dilbeck, G.

    1993-12-31

    The Environmental Radioactivity Intercomparison Program described herein provides quality assurance support for laboratories involved in analyzing public drinking water under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Regulations, and to the environmental radiation monitoring activities of various agencies. More than 300 federal and state nuclear facilities and private laboratories participate in some phase of the program. This presentation describes the Intercomparison Program studies and matrices involved, summarizes the precision and accuracy requirements of various radioactive analytes, and describes the traceability determinations involved with radioactive calibration standards distributed to the participants. A summary of program participants, sample and report distributions, and additional responsibilities of this program are discussed.

  5. Nationwide residues of mercury, lead, cadmium, arsenic, and selenium in starlings, 1973

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; Bean, J.R.; Longcore, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) collected in 1973 at 51 sites throughout the continental United States were analyzed for mercury, lead, cadmium, arsenic, and selenium. All samples contained detectable levels of these elements. In general, residues were low: mercury residues ranged from <0.01 to 0.20 ppm: lead, from <0.10 10 3.20 ppm: cadmium, from <0.05 to 0.20 ppm: arsenic, from <0.05 to 1.40 ppm: and selenium, from 0.10 to 1.10 ppm. There was a significant overall decline in mercury and lead residues in starlings since 1971, and a significant increase in arsenic residues. Lead residues were significantly higher in starlings from urban areas than from rural areas.

  6. How to distinguish natural and anthropogenic arsenic emissions? - A case study of Kittilä Suurikuusikko gold mine in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backnäs, Soile; Turunen, Kaisa; Pasanen, Antti

    2013-04-01

    Areas with bedrock abundant in ore minerals have naturally high amount of harmful elements in soil as well as in ground and in surface waters. After the beginning of the mining also the anthropogenic contamination tends to increase. Thus it is important to compare this load to the natural background when assessing the contamination of mine area and surrounding environment. Arsenic is common element in extractive and industrial minerals, and due to its relatively high mobility and toxicity, one of the most important local scale pollutants in the environments of mine areas in Finland. In this study natural and anthropogenic arsenic geochemisty in Suurikuusikko gold mine at Kittilä, Finland was characterized by using hot aqua regia, ammonium acetate and oxalate extractions. In total 35 samples of humus, peat, glacial till and bedrock were analyzed. In addition 11 water samples were analyzed for total and soluble metal and metalloid concentrations, anions, DOC, TOC, pH, redox and alkalinity. The metal speciation in surface and ground waters was modeled by PHREEQC. Due to gold bearing arsenopyrite ore, the arsenic concentrations in the Kittilä municipality and Central Lapland are naturally high. According to the geochemical analysis the percentage of oxalate and especially acetate extractable arsenic fractions in soil and bedrock samples indicates an increase in anthropogenic arsenic pollution. The results show higher aqua regia extractable arsenic concentrations and percentage of oxalate and acetate extractable fractions (30-97 %; 10-30 %) in glacial till and humus near the tailings and waste rock areas, but above all in samples taken from wetlands receiving tailings seepage waters. The background samples of humus and glacial till contained only 0-3 % of acetate and 17-77 % of oxalate extractable arsenic. The weathered bedrock samples in the mine area contained higher aqua regia extractable arsenic concentrations and acetate extractable arsenic fractions (14

  7. Arsenic removal from groundwater by MnO2-modified natural clinoptilolite zeolite: effects of pH and initial feed concentration.

    PubMed

    Camacho, Lucy M; Parra, Ramona R; Deng, Shuguang

    2011-05-15

    Adsorption of arsenic (As(5+)) on natural and MnO(2)-modified clinoptilolite-Ca zeolite adsorbents was investigated to explore the feasibility of removing arsenic from groundwater using natural zeolite adsorbents. The natural and MnO(2)-modified clinoptilolite-Ca zeolite adsorbents were characterized with nitrogen adsorption at 77K for pore textural properties, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence for morphology, elemental composition and distribution. Batch adsorption equilibrium experiments were conducted to study the effects of pH and initial feed concentration on arsenic removal efficiency. It was found that the amphoteric properties and arsenic removal efficiency of the natural clinoptilolite-Ca zeolite were significantly improved after modification with MnO(2). The MnO(2)-modified zeolite could effectively remove arsenic from water at a wide pH range, and the arsenic removal efficiency that is basically independent of the pH of feed solutions varies slightly with the initial arsenic concentration in the feed solutions. The removal efficiency obtained on the modified zeolite was doubled as compared to that obtained on the unmodified zeolite. The MnO(2)-modified clinoptilolite-Ca zeolite appears to be a promising adsorbent for removing trace arsenic amounts from water.

  8. Lead, cadmium, arsenic and mercury in canned tuna fish marketed in Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Andayesh, Shirin; Hadiani, Mohammad Rasoul; Mousavi, Zahra; Shoeibi, Shahram

    2015-01-01

    Fifty-four canned tuna fish samples corresponding to 10 widely used different brands were purchased from local markets in Tehran, Iran during 2012-2013 and analysed on heavy metals. Mercury was determined by a direct mercury analyser without any sample preparation. For analysis of other elements samples were digested using a microwave apparatus. Lead and cadmium were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and arsenic via hydride vapour generation. All samples had arsenic and mercury contamination. Arsenic levels showed a range of 0.25-1.42 mg kg(-1), which might be due to lack of national and international limits for arsenic in canned tuna fish. Lead and cadmium were measured in a small number of samples with a mean of 0.053 ± 0.058 mg kg(-1) and 0.013 ± 0.015 mg kg(-1), respectively. Results obtained for these heavy metals in all samples were lower than the corresponding limits, whereas arsenic and mercury contents might raise some attention.

  9. Radioactive powered transients from compact object mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Luke

    2017-01-01

    The origin of the r-process elements remains the biggest unsolved question in our understanding of chemical evolution in the Milky Way. The most likely astrophysical sites for the formation of these nuclei involve dynamical events in the lives of neutron stars: the merger of a neutron star and another compact object. In these environments, nuclear physics plays a paramount role in determining both the evolution of the dense object itself and what nuclei are synthesized in material that is ejected from the system. When the radioactive nuclei produced in these events decay, they can heat material that is unbound during the merger and power optical or infrared transients. In this talk, I will discuss nucleosynthesis and matter ejection in neutron star mergers, with an eye toward electromagnetic observables associated with these events that may give us a direct window into the formation of the r-process elements.

  10. Radioactive sample effects on EDXRF spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Worley, Christopher G

    2008-01-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) is a rapid, straightforward method to determine sample elemental composition. A spectrum can be collected in a few minutes or less, and elemental content can be determined easily if there is adequate energy resolution. Radioactive alpha emitters, however, emit X-rays during the alpha decay process that complicate spectral interpretation. This is particularly noticeable when using a portable instrument where the detector is located in close proximity to the instrument analysis window held against the sample. A portable EDXRF instrument was used to collect spectra from specimens containing plutonium-239 (a moderate alpha emitter) and americium-241 (a heavy alpha emitter). These specimens were then analyzed with a wavelength dispersive XRF (WDXRF) instrument to demonstrate the differences to which sample radiation-induced X-ray emission affects the detectors on these two types of XRF instruments.

  11. 21 CFR 862.3120 - Arsenic test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Arsenic test system. 862.3120 Section 862.3120....3120 Arsenic test system. (a) Identification. An arsenic test system is a device intended to measure arsenic, a poisonous heavy metal, in urine, vomitus, stomach contents, nails, hair, and...

  12. 21 CFR 862.3120 - Arsenic test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Arsenic test system. 862.3120 Section 862.3120....3120 Arsenic test system. (a) Identification. An arsenic test system is a device intended to measure arsenic, a poisonous heavy metal, in urine, vomitus, stomach contents, nails, hair, and...

  13. 21 CFR 862.3120 - Arsenic test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arsenic test system. 862.3120 Section 862.3120....3120 Arsenic test system. (a) Identification. An arsenic test system is a device intended to measure arsenic, a poisonous heavy metal, in urine, vomitus, stomach contents, nails, hair, and...

  14. 21 CFR 862.3120 - Arsenic test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Arsenic test system. 862.3120 Section 862.3120....3120 Arsenic test system. (a) Identification. An arsenic test system is a device intended to measure arsenic, a poisonous heavy metal, in urine, vomitus, stomach contents, nails, hair, and...

  15. 21 CFR 862.3120 - Arsenic test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Arsenic test system. 862.3120 Section 862.3120....3120 Arsenic test system. (a) Identification. An arsenic test system is a device intended to measure arsenic, a poisonous heavy metal, in urine, vomitus, stomach contents, nails, hair, and...

  16. 29 CFR 1926.1118 - Inorganic arsenic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Inorganic arsenic. 1926.1118 Section 1926.1118 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Inorganic arsenic. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are...

  17. 29 CFR 1915.1018 - Inorganic arsenic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Inorganic arsenic. 1915.1018 Section 1915.1018 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1018 Inorganic arsenic. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under...

  18. Process for upgrading arsenic-containing oils

    DOEpatents

    Sullivan, Richard F.

    1979-01-01

    A method is provided for avoiding feed-transfer-line plugging by a deposit comprising arsenic in hydroprocessing an oil containing an arsenic contaminant. In the method, a mixture of hydrogen gas and the oil is formed in situ in a bed of porous particulate contact material.

  19. 29 CFR 1915.1018 - Inorganic arsenic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Inorganic arsenic. 1915.1018 Section 1915.1018 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1018 Inorganic arsenic. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under...

  20. 29 CFR 1926.1118 - Inorganic arsenic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inorganic arsenic. 1926.1118 Section 1926.1118 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Inorganic arsenic. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are...

  1. 29 CFR 1915.1018 - Inorganic arsenic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Inorganic arsenic. 1915.1018 Section 1915.1018 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1018 Inorganic arsenic. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under...

  2. 29 CFR 1926.1118 - Inorganic arsenic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Inorganic arsenic. 1926.1118 Section 1926.1118 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Inorganic arsenic. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are...

  3. 29 CFR 1926.1118 - Inorganic arsenic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Inorganic arsenic. 1926.1118 Section 1926.1118 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Inorganic arsenic. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are...

  4. 29 CFR 1926.1118 - Inorganic arsenic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Inorganic arsenic. 1926.1118 Section 1926.1118 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Inorganic arsenic. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are...

  5. 29 CFR 1915.1018 - Inorganic arsenic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Inorganic arsenic. 1915.1018 Section 1915.1018 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1018 Inorganic arsenic. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under...

  6. 29 CFR 1915.1018 - Inorganic arsenic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inorganic arsenic. 1915.1018 Section 1915.1018 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1018 Inorganic arsenic. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under...

  7. Arsenic Species in the Ground Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Arsenic concentrations in ground varies widely and regionally across the United States and exists as oxyanions having two oxidation states: As(+III) and As(+V). As(V) is effectively removed by most arsenic treatment processes whereas uncharged As(III) is poorly removed...

  8. Hijacking membrane transporters for arsenic phytoextraction

    PubMed Central

    LeBlanc, Melissa S.; McKinney, Elizabeth C.; Meagher, Richard B.; Smith, Aaron P.

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic is a toxic metalloid and recognized carcinogen. Arsenate and arsenite are the most common arsenic species available for uptake by plants. As an inorganic phosphate (Pi) analog, arsenate is acquired by plant roots through endogenous Pi transport systems. Inside the cell, arsenate is reduced to the thiol-reactive form arsenite. Glutathione (GSH)-conjugates of arsenite may be extruded from the cell or sequestered in vacuoles by members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family of transporters. In the present study we sought to enhance both plant arsenic uptake through Pi transporter overexpression, and plant arsenic tolerance through ABC transporter overexpression. We demonstrate that Arabidopsis thaliana plants overexpressing the high-affinity Pi transporter family members, AtPht1;1 or AtPht1;7, are hypersensitive to arsenate due to increased arsenate uptake. These plants do not exhibit increased sensitivity to arsenite. Co-overexpression of the yeast ABC transporter YCF1 in combination with AtPht1;1 or AtPht1;7 suppresses the arsenate-sensitive phenotype while further enhancing arsenic uptake. Taken together, our results support an arsenic transport mechanism in which arsenate uptake is increased through Pi transporter overexpression, and arsenic tolerance is enhanced through YCF1-mediated vacuolar sequestration. This work substantiates the viability of coupling enhanced uptake and vacuolar sequestration as a means for developing a prototypical engineered arsenic hyperaccumulator. PMID:23108027

  9. Tracking the pathway of arsenic metabolism

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although the toxic and carcinogenic properties of arsenic have been recognized for centuries, only in the past few decades has research focused on understanding the metabolic fate of arsenic in humans and relating metabolism to adverse health effects. In humans, conversion of in...

  10. Arsenic and human health effects: A review.

    PubMed

    Abdul, Khaja Shameem Mohammed; Jayasinghe, Sudheera Sammanthi; Chandana, Ediriweera P S; Jayasumana, Channa; De Silva, P Mangala C S

    2015-11-01

    Arsenic (As) is ubiquitous in nature and humans being exposed to arsenic via atmospheric air, ground water and food sources are certain. Major sources of arsenic contamination could be either through geological or via anthropogenic activities. In physiological individuals, organ system is described as group of organs that transact collectively and associate with other systems for conventional body functions. Arsenic has been associated with persuading a variety of complications in body organ systems: integumentary, nervous, respiratory, cardiovascular, hematopoietic, immune, endocrine, hepatic, renal, reproductive system and development. In this review, we outline the effects of arsenic on the human body with a main focus on assorted organ systems with respective disease conditions. Additionally, underlying mechanisms of disease development in each organ system due to arsenic have also been explored. Strikingly, arsenic has been able to induce epigenetic changes (in utero) and genetic mutations (a leading cause of cancer) in the body. Occurrence of various arsenic induced health effects involving emerging areas such as epigenetics and cancer along with their respective mechanisms are also briefly discussed.

  11. ARSENIC EFFECTS ON TELOMERE AND TELOMERASE ACTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic effects on telomere and telomerase activity. T-C. Zhang, M. T. Schmitt, J. Mo, J. L. Mumford, National Research Council and U.S Environmental Protection Agency, NHEERL, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711
    Arsenic is a known carcinogen and also an anticancer agent for acut...

  12. Iron Amendments to Reduce Bioaccessible Arsenic

    EPA Science Inventory

    Former sugarcane lands on the Island of Hawaii have elevated soil arsenic (As) from historical use of arsenical pesticides. The bioaccessible fraction of total As (AsTOT), a measure of the potential for human As uptake by incidental ingestion of soil, is used in the a...

  13. Inorganic Arsenic and Human Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Benbrahim-Tallaa, Lamia; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective We critically evaluated the etiologic role of inorganic arsenic in human prostate cancer. Data sources We assessed data from relevant epidemiologic studies concerning environmental inorganic arsenic exposure. Whole animal studies were evaluated as were in vitro model systems of inorganic arsenic carcinogenesis in the prostate. Data synthesis Multiple studies in humans reveal an association between environmental inorganic arsenic exposure and prostate cancer mortality or incidence. Many of these human studies provide clear evidence of a dose–response relationship. Relevant whole animal models showing a relationship between inorganic arsenic and prostate cancer are not available. However, cellular model systems indicate arsenic can induce malignant transformation of human prostate epithelial cells in vitro. Arsenic also appears to impact prostate cancer cell progression by precipitating events leading to androgen independence in vitro. Conclusion Available evidence in human populations and human cells in vitro indicates that the prostate is a target for inorganic arsenic carcinogenesis. A role for this common environmental contaminant in human prostate cancer initiation and/or progression would be very important. PMID:18288312

  14. The Chemistry and Metabolism of Arsenic

    EPA Science Inventory

    I. IntrodctionA century of study of the process by which many organisms convert inorganic arsenic into an array of methylated metabolites has answered many questions and has posed some new ones. The capacity of microorganisms to. form volatile arsenic compounds was first recogniz...

  15. Questions and Answers: Apple Juice and Arsenic

    MedlinePlus

    ... in its juice than any other company. Does organic apple juice have less arsenic than non-organic apple juice? The FDA is unaware of any ... States. Is the arsenic in apple juice predominantly organic or inorganic? Due to limited data available to ...

  16. METHYLATED TRIVALENT ARSENIC SPECIES ARE GENOTOXIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT

    The genotoxic effects of arsenic compounds are generally believed to result from other than direct interacton with DNA. The reactivties of methyloxarsine (MAsIII) and iododimethylarsine (DMAsIII), two methylated trivalent arsenicals, toward supercoiled X174 RFI ...

  17. REACTION PROCESSES OF ARSENIC IN SULFIDIC SOLUTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fate of arsenic in the environment is fundamentally linked to its speciation. Arsenic in aerobic environments is predominantly arsenate, however under reducing conditions arsenite species dominate. In anoxic or sulfidic environments thioarsenite ((As(OH)x(SH)yz-) species alon...

  18. Safer sips: removing arsenic from drinking water.

    PubMed

    Breslin, K

    1998-11-01

    U.S. researchers are developing technologies that may someday protect millions of people worldwide whose drinking water is tainted with arsenic. Arsenic is released into water from soil and rock erosion, and is also a by-product of industrial processes including semiconductor manufacturing, petroleum refining, and mining and smelting operations.

  19. DRINKING WATER ARSENIC AND PERINATAL OUTCOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drinking Water Arsenic and Perinatal Outcomes
    DT Lobdell, Z Ning, RK Kwok, JL Mumford, ZY Liu, P Mendola

    Many studies have documented an association between drinking water arsenic (DWA) and cancer, vascular diseases, and dermatological outcomes, but few have investigate...

  20. Urinary excretion of arsenic following rice consumption.

    PubMed

    Meharg, A A; Williams, P N; Deacon, C M; Norton, G J; Hossain, M; Louhing, D; Marwa, E; Lawgalwi, Y; Taggart, M; Cascio, C; Haris, P

    2014-11-01

    Patterns of arsenic excretion were followed in a cohort (n = 6) eating a defined rice diet, 300 g per day d.wt. where arsenic speciation was characterized in cooked rice, following a period of abstinence from rice, and other high arsenic containing foods. A control group who did not consume rice were also monitored. The rice consumed in the study contained inorganic arsenic and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) at a ratio of 1:1, yet the urine speciation was dominated by DMA (90%). At steady state (rice consumption/urinary excretion) ∼40% of rice derived arsenic was excreted via urine. By monitoring of each urine pass throughout the day it was observed that there was considerable variation (up to 13-fold) for an individual's total arsenic urine content, and that there was a time dependent variation in urinary total arsenic content. This calls into question the robustness of routinely used first pass/spot check urine sampling for arsenic analysis.