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Sample records for radioactive iodines evaluation

  1. Radioactive Iodine

    MedlinePlus

    ... No Comments IDD NEWSLETTER – February 2017 VOLUME 45 NUMBER 1 FEBRUARY 2017 IODINE GLOBAL NETWORK (formerly ICCIDD Global Network) is a ... 2015 (PDF File, 9.42 MB) VOLUME 44 NUMBER 4 NOVEMBER 2016 IODINE GLOBAL NETWORK (formerly ICCIDD Global Network) is a ...

  2. Radioactive Iodine (I-131) Therapy for Hyperthyroidism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Radioactive Iodine (I-131) Therapy Radioiodine therapy is a nuclear ... thyroid cancer. When a small dose of radioactive iodine I-131 (an isotope of iodine that emits ...

  3. Radioactive iodine uptake

    MedlinePlus

    ... too much thyroid hormone medicine or supplements) Iodine overload Subacute thyroiditis (swelling or inflammation of the thyroid ... to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A. ...

  4. PRODUCTION OF RADIOACTIVE IODINE.

    SciTech Connect

    SCHLYER,D.J.

    2001-08-08

    Probably the most widely used cyclotron produced radiohalogen is I-123. It has gradually replaced I-131 as the isotope of choice for diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals containing radioiodine. It gives a much lower radiation dose to the patient and the gamma ray energy of 159 keV is ideally suited for use in a gamma camera. The gamma ray will penetrate tissue very effectively without excessive radiation dose. For this reason, it has in many instances replaced the reactor produced iodine-131 (Lambrecht and Wolf 1973). A great number of radiopharmaceuticals have been labeled using I-123 and the number is increasing. One of the most promising uses of I-123 is in the imaging of monoclonal antibodies to localize and visualize tumors. However, preclinical and clinical experiences with radiolabeled antibodies have not realized the expectations regarding specificity and sensitivity of tumor localization with these agents. It appears that much of the administered activity is not associated with the tumor site and only a small fraction actually accumulates there. Work continues in this area and tumor-associated antigens can be targets for specific antibody reagents.

  5. Radioactive Iodine (I-131) Therapy for Hyperthyroidism

    MedlinePlus

    ... of your treatment team. top of page What equipment is used? There is no equipment used during ... iodine therapy. top of page Who operates the equipment? There is no equipment used during radioactive iodine ...

  6. Radioactive Iodine Therapy and Glucose Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Samadi, Roghaieh; Shafiei, Babak; Azizi, Fereidoun; Ghasemi, Asghar

    2017-01-01

    Radioactive iodine therapy is commonly used as an adjuvant therapy in follicular and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and in the treatment of Graves’ disease (GD). The basis of this therapy is the accumulation of radioactive iodine by the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) in the thyroid gland. Expression of NIS by extrathyroidal tissues such as islets of pancreas has been reported. Radioactive iodine uptake by pancreatic beta-cells can potentially damage these cells. In this study, we discuss the possible associations between radioactive iodine and glucose intolerance. Overall, radioactive iodine uptake by the pancreas may damage beta-cells and predispose patients to glucose intolerance or type 2 diabetes, particularly in patients exposed to radioactive iodine therapy following total thyroidectomy. Further studies are needed to clarify and confirm this association. PMID:28670511

  7. Salivary gland dysfunction following radioactive iodine therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wiesenfeld, D.; Webster, G.; Cameron, F.; Ferguson, M.M.; MacFadyen, E.E.; MacFarlane, T.W.

    1983-02-01

    Radioactive iodine is used extensively for the treatment of thyrotoxicosis and thyroid carcinoma. Iodine is actively taken up by the salivary glands and, following its use, salivary dysfunction may result as a consequence of radiation damage. The literature is reviewed and a case is reported in which a patient presented with a significant increase in caries rate attributed to salivary dysfunction following radioactive iodine therapy for a thyroid carcinoma.

  8. Method for immobilizing radioactive iodine

    DOEpatents

    Babad, Harry; Strachan, Denis M.

    1980-01-01

    Radioactive iodine, present as alkali metal iodides or iodates in an aqueous solution, is incorporated into an inert solid material for long-term storage by adding to the solution a stoichiometric amount with respect to the formation of a sodalite (3M.sub.2 O.3Al.sub.2 O.sub.3. 6SiO.sub.2.2MX, where M=alkali metal; X=I.sup.- or IO.sub.3.sup.-) of an alkali metal, alumina and silica, stirring the solution to form a homogeneous mixture, drying the mixture to form a powder, compacting and sintering the compacted powder at 1073 to 1373 K (800.degree. to 1100.degree. C.) for a time sufficient to form sodalite.

  9. Chalcogenide aerogels as sorbents for radioactive iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Subrahmanyam, Kota S.; Sarma, Debajit; Malliakas, Christos; Polychronopoulou, Kyriaki; Riley, Brian J.; Pierce, David A.; Chun, Jaehun; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2015-04-14

    Iodine (129I) is one of the radionuclides released in nuclear fuel reprocessing and poses risk to public safety due to its involvement in human metabolic processes. In order to prevent the leaching of hazardous radioactive iodine into the environment, its effective capture and sequestration is pivotal. In the context of finding a suitable matrix for capturing radioactive iodine the chalcogels, NiMoS4, CoMoS4, Sb4Sn4S12, Zn2Sn2S6, and CoSx (x = 4-5) were explored as iodine sorbents. All the chalcogels showed high uptake, reaching up to 225 mass% (2.25 g/g) of the final mass owing to strong chemical and physical iodine-chalcogen interactions. Analysis of the iodine-loaded specimens revealed that the iodine chemically reacted with Sb4Sn4S12, Zn2Sn2S6, and CoSx to form metal complexes SbI3, SnI4, and, KI respectively. The NiMoS4 and CoMoS4 chalcogels did not appear to undergo a chemical reaction with iodine since iodide complexes were not observed with these samples. Once heated, the iodine-loaded chalcogels released iodine in the temperature range of 75 °C to 220 °C, depending on the nature of iodine speciation. In the case of Sb4Sn4S12 and Zn2Sn2S6 iodine release was observed around 150 °C in the form of SnI4 and SbI3, respectively. The NiMoS4, CoMoS4, and CoSx released iodine at ~75 °C, which is consistent with physisorbed iodine. Preliminary investigations on consolidation of iodine-loaded Zn2Sn2S6 with Sb2S3 as a glass forming additive showed the content of iodine in consolidated glass ingots at around 25 mass%.

  10. METHOD OF REMOVING RADIOACTIVE IODINE FROM GASES

    DOEpatents

    Silverman, L.

    1962-01-23

    A method of removing radioactive iodine from a gaseous medium is given in which the gaseous medium is adjusted to a temperature not exceeding 400 deg C and then passed over a copper fibrous pad having a coating of cupric sulfide deposited thereon. An ionic exchange on the pad results in the formation of cupric iodide and the release of sulfur. (AEC)

  11. Radioactive iodine therapy in cats with hyperthyroidism

    SciTech Connect

    Turrel, J.M.; Feldman, E.C.; Hays, M.; Hornof, W.J.

    1984-03-01

    Eleven cats with hyperthyroidism were treated with radioactive iodine (/sup 131/I). Previous unsuccessful treatments for hyperthyroidism included hemithyroidectomy (2 cats) and an antithyroid drug (7 cats). Two cats had no prior treatment. Thyroid scans, using technetium 99m, showed enlargement and increased radionuclide accumulation in 1 thyroid lobe in 5 cats and in both lobes in 6 cats. Serum thyroxine concentrations were high and ranged from 4.7 to 18 micrograms/dl. Radioactive iodine tracer studies were used to determine peak radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) and effective and biological half-lives. Activity of /sup 131/I administered was calculated from peak RAIU, effective half-life, and estimated thyroid gland weight. Activity of /sup 131/I administered ranged from 1.0 to 5.9 mCi. The treatment goal was to deliver 20,000 rad to hyperactive thyroid tissue. However, retrospective calculations based on peak RAIU and effective half-life obtained during the treatment period showed that radiation doses actually ranged from 7,100 to 64,900 rad. Complete ablation of the hyperfunctioning thyroid tissue and a return to euthyroidism were seen in 7 cats. Partial responses were seen in 2 cats, and 2 cats became hypothyroid. It was concluded that /sup 131/I ablation of thyroid tumors was a reasonable alternative in the treatment of hyperthyroidism in cats. The optimal method of dosimetry remains to be determined.

  12. Hyperparathyroidism after radioactive iodine therapy for Graves disease

    SciTech Connect

    Esselstyn, C.B. Jr.; Schumacher, O.P.; Eversman, J.; Sheeler, L.; Levy, W.J.

    1982-11-01

    The association of external ionizing radiation to the head and neck and the subsequent development of hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands has been documented in recent years. This also has been demonstrated experimentally in animals. Despite the numbers of patients with Graves disease who have been treated with radioactive iodine, there are no reports in the literature of parathyroid surgery for hyperparathyroidism secondary to earlier treatment with radioactive iodine for Graves disease. This report describes the operative and pathologic findings in four patients with hyperparathyroidism. These patients had previously been treated with radioactive iodine for Graves disease. The pathologic findings at surgery included in three cases a single enlarged hyperplastic gland consistent with a parathyroid adenoma. One patient had hyperplasia of all four glands. The two largest glands and halves of the two remaining glands were removed. In a long-term follow-up of children and adolescents treated with radioactive iodine for Graves disease, Levy and Schumacher found calcium elevations in 10 of 159 patients. The increased incidence of hyperparathyroidism following radioactive iodine treatment for Graves disease in children and adolescents would seem several times higher than normal. Whether adults who have radioactive iodine treatment for Graves disease have a similar increase incidence is not known. Meanwhile it would seem reasonable to suggest that patients whose hyperthyroidism is treated with radioactive iodine should have their serum calcium levels determined at 5-year intervals.

  13. [Stable iodine as a prophylaxis therapy following exposure to radioactive iodines: pharmacological and pharmaceutical characteristics].

    PubMed

    Hosten, B; Rizzo-Padoin, N; Scherrmann, J-M; Bloch, V

    2012-03-01

    More or less rapid radio-induction of thyroidian cancers is the main pathological consequence of an accidental exposure to ingested or inhaled radioactive iodines following a nuclear power plant accident. The prophylactic administration of potassium iodine in a single oral dose has to be practiced as soon as possible after the nuclear accident. The efficacy of this therapy depends on pharmacokinetics of radioidines. Iodines are rapidly and completely absorbed as iodides. The radioactive iodines, mainly iodine 131, concentrate in the thyroid gland because of a carrier-mediated transport by the Na-I symporter. Administration of stable iodine results in the symporter blockade, which limits the uptake of radioactive iodines by the thyroid and the duration of the internal irradiation. This irradiation will never exceed 3days if the therapy is started between 6h before the accidental exposure and 1h after. The pharmacist asked to dispense the tablets of stable iodine has a important place because, besides his advices on the optimal modalities of taking stable iodine and the risks of unwanted effects, he extend these advices to information on the radioactive risk and on measures of civil and sanitary protection.

  14. Evaluation of Ovarian Reserve with AMH Level in Patients with Well-Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Receiving Radioactive Iodine Ablation Treatment.

    PubMed

    Acıbucu, F; Acıbucu, D O; Akkar, Ö B; Dokmetas, H S

    2016-11-01

    Introduction: Radioactive iodine (RAI) ablation treatment is used for patients diagnosed with well-differentiated thyroid cancer in order to reduce the risk of recurrence. RAI ablation treatment can adversely affect gonads in males and females. In this study, we aimed to determine ovary damage and infertility risk due to RAI, using serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) level, in females who received RAI ablation treatment. Materials and Methods: 45 female patients who have not gone through the menopause and had received RAI ablation treatment for well-differentiated thyroid cancer in premenopausal period, and 40 healthy females as control groups were included in this study. The serum AMH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol (E2), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and creatinine levels of the patients included in the study were analyzed and compared to those of the control group with similar demographical characteristics. Results: No differences were found between the patient group and control group in terms of age, height, weight, body mass index, LH, E2 and creatinine. The difference in AMH, FSH and TSH between both groups were found to be significant. There was no statistically significant relation between the age and AMH levels. Similarly, no statistically significant relation between RAI exposure duration and AMH levels was determined. When the patients below and above the age of 35 were compared with regard to AMH (2.95±1.79 and 2.75±1.94, respectively) and FSH (5.45±1.63 and 5.99±3.06, respectively), the difference between them was found to be statistically insignificant. Oligo/anovulation was detected in 7 patients (15.6% of the patient group) after RAI treatment, 8 (17.8%) patients became pregnant after RAI treatment, and none of the patients, who were actively trying to get pregnant, were unable to achieve it. Conclusion: According to these results, it may be concluded that low AMH levels due to RAI treatment can cause

  15. Disposal of radioactive iodine in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, R. E.; Defield, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    The possibility of space disposal of iodine waste from nuclear power reactors is investigated. The space transportation system utilized relies upon the space shuttle, a liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen orbit transfer vehicle, and a solid propellant final stage. The iodine is assumed to be in the form of either an iodide or an iodate, and calculations assume that the final destination is either solar orbit or solar system escape. It is concluded that space disposal of iodine is feasible.

  16. Treatment of non-toxic multinodular goiter with radioactive iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Kay, T.W.; d'Emden, M.C.; Andrews, J.T.; Martin, F.I.

    1988-01-01

    Fourteen patients with large non-toxic multinodular goiters were treated with 20 to 100 mCi (740 to 3700 MBq) of radioactive iodine (iodine-131). In seven, the goiter had recurred after a partial thyroidectomy and four of these had had two operations. Eight had symptoms of respiratory obstruction, two had dysphagia, and the others sought treatment for cosmetic reasons. After administration of iodine-131, there was a significant decrease in goiter size in 11 of the 14 patients, and all those with obstructive symptoms showed improvement. No significant local side effects occurred, but hypothyroidism and Graves' disease each occurred once during follow-up from one to 13 years. Radioactive iodine in doses of 20 to 100 mCi is an effective, safe therapeutic alternative in patients with large non-toxic multinodular goiter, particularly when there is recurrence following surgery or when there are contraindications to surgery.

  17. Twenty-four hour radioactive iodine uptake in 35 patients with amiodarone associated thyrotoxicosis

    SciTech Connect

    Martino, E.; Aghini-Lombardi, F.; Lippi, F.; Baschieri, L.; Safran, M.; Braverman, L.E.; Pinchera, A.

    1985-12-01

    Amiodarone associated thyrotoxicosis (AAT) occurs in approximately 10% of patients treated with this iodine rich drug in areas of mild iodine deficiency. The thyroid radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) is usually undetectable or very low in iodine-induced thyrotoxicosis. In the present study, 35 patients with AAT were evaluated. Twelve patients had no thyroid abnormalities by physical exam and all had 24-hr RAIU less than or equal to 4%. In contrast, nine of 11 patients with AAT and diffuse goiters and eight of 12 patients with AAT and nodular goiters had RAIU values greater than 8%. In patients with AAT and goiter it appears possible that the thyroid fails to adapt normally to the excess iodide load, resulting in an inappropriately high RAIU in the presence of excess plasma iodine.

  18. Mixed-layered bismuth-oxygen-iodine materials for capture and waste disposal of radioactive iodine

    DOEpatents

    Krumhansl, James L; Nenoff, Tina M

    2013-02-26

    Materials and methods of synthesizing mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine materials, which can be synthesized in the presence of aqueous radioactive iodine species found in caustic solutions (e.g. NaOH or KOH). This technology provides a one-step process for both iodine sequestration and storage from nuclear fuel cycles. It results in materials that will be durable for repository conditions much like those found in Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and estimated for Yucca Mountain (YMP). By controlled reactant concentrations, optimized compositions of these mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine inorganic materials are produced that have both a high iodine weight percentage and a low solubility in groundwater environments.

  19. Mixed-layered bismuth--oxygen--iodine materials for capture and waste disposal of radioactive iodine

    DOEpatents

    Krumhansl, James L; Nenoff, Tina M

    2015-01-06

    Materials and methods of synthesizing mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine materials, which can be synthesized in the presence of aqueous radioactive iodine species found in caustic solutions (e.g. NaOH or KOH). This technology provides a one-step process for both iodine sequestration and storage from nuclear fuel cycles. It results in materials that will be durable for repository conditions much like those found in Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and estimated for Yucca Mountain (YMP). By controlled reactant concentrations, optimized compositions of these mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine inorganic materials are produced that have both a high iodine weight percentage and a low solubility in groundwater environments.

  20. Treatment of a Down's Syndrome Patient for Hyperthyroidism With Radioactive Iodine

    PubMed Central

    Nibhanupudy, J. Rao; Streeter, O. E.; King, G. C.; Mahan, J.; Talley, G.; Lander, C.; Ashayeri, E.

    1986-01-01

    A Down's syndrome patient was hospitalized for evaluation of vomiting, abdominal pain, and a history of weight loss. A subsequent workup revealed that she had hyperthyroidism. The treatment of choice was radioactive iodine therapy. The patient had a history of consistent nausea and incontinence for urine and feces. Special problems posed by the patient and radiation safety are discussed. PMID:2936892

  1. Urinary iodine excretion after contrast computed tomography scan: implications for radioactive iodine use.

    PubMed

    Nimmons, Grace L; Funk, Gerry F; Graham, Michael M; Pagedar, Nitin A

    2013-05-01

    Patients who undergo radiographic studies with contrast receive an enormous bolus of iodine. This can delay subsequent use of radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy because the iodine can compete for uptake. There is a paucity of literature on the minimum interval between contrast administration and RAI therapy. To better characterize how long it takes for the iodine load from an intravenous contrast bolus to clear from the body. A prospective cohort of 21 adults undergoing intravenous contrast CT studies at a tertiary academic medical center; exclusion criteria included history of thyroid disease or thyroidectomy, history of renal insufficiency, pregnancy, and other contrast administration within 1 year. Morning urine samples were taken before the scan for analysis and then every 2 weeks thereafter for 12 weeks. RESULTS The median baseline iodine level was 135 μg/L (range, 29-1680 μg/L), and median peak level was 552 μg/L (range, 62-6172 μg/L). Median time for urinary iodine level to normalize was 43 days, with 75% of subjects returning to baseline within 60 days, and 90% of subjects within 75 days. Baseline iodine level was a significant predictor of postcontrast iodine levels. Age, sex, weight, and estimated glomerular filtration rate were not significant. These results may be used for guidance on the timing of RAI use following contrast exposure. The practice at our institution is to wait 2 months and then check a 24-hour urinary iodine level. This alleviates concerns about contrast use in patients with thyroid carcinoma interfering with adjuvant radioiodine therapy.

  2. Low sintering temperature glass waste forms for sequestering radioactive iodine

    DOEpatents

    Nenoff, Tina M.; Krumhansl, James L.; Garino, Terry J.; Ockwig, Nathan W.

    2012-09-11

    Materials and methods of making low-sintering-temperature glass waste forms that sequester radioactive iodine in a strong and durable structure. First, the iodine is captured by an adsorbant, which forms an iodine-loaded material, e.g., AgI, AgI-zeolite, AgI-mordenite, Ag-silica aerogel, ZnI.sub.2, CuI, or Bi.sub.5O.sub.7I. Next, particles of the iodine-loaded material are mixed with powdered frits of low-sintering-temperature glasses (comprising various oxides of Si, B, Bi, Pb, and Zn), and then sintered at a relatively low temperature, ranging from 425.degree. C. to 550.degree. C. The sintering converts the mixed powders into a solid block of a glassy waste form, having low iodine leaching rates. The vitrified glassy waste form can contain as much as 60 wt % AgI. A preferred glass, having a sintering temperature of 500.degree. C. (below the silver iodide sublimation temperature of 500.degree. C.) was identified that contains oxides of boron, bismuth, and zinc, while containing essentially no lead or silicon.

  3. Thyroid cancer following exposure to radioactive iodine.

    PubMed

    Robbins, J; Schneider, A B

    2000-04-01

    The thyroid gland is one of the most sensitive organs for radiation-induced oncogenesis and the magnitude of the risk from external radiation is well understood. This is not the case for internal radiation derived from the radioiodines, a matter of practical importance because of medical use and potential accidental exposure. This article reviews current knowledge derived from the follow-up of patients receiving diagnostic or therapeutic 131I and populations exposed to radioactive fallout. The latter includes the nuclear power station accident at Chernobyl and the results of atomic bomb development and testing at Hanford, the Nevada Test Site and the Marshall Islands. The most cogent information comes from Chernobyl where an epidemic of childhood thyroid cancer has followed exposure to radioiodine that was mainly 131I. Although much has been learned from this experience about the nature of radioiodine induced thyroid cancer in young children, the reconstruction of thyroid radiation doses is too preliminary to provide accurate knowledge of the risk in comparison to that from external radiation. In the Marshall Islands, much of the exposure was from short-lived radioiodines as well as external radiation, obviating the possibility to determine the risk from 131I. Exposure to 131I in the continental United States from atomic bomb testing is expected to have caused some thyroid cancers, but only in the immediate vicinity of the Nevada Test Site has any evidence of radiation-induced thyroid neoplasms been adduced. This evidence is minimally significant statistically, and not significant for thyroid cancer per se. Medical use of radioiodine has not been observed to cause thyroid cancer but very few of the patients studied were young children, the group most sensitive to thyroid radiation. Despite these limitations, this information is sufficient to make some suggestions concerning protective measures in the case of nuclear accidents and the follow up of individuals who

  4. Determination of Iodine-129 in Low Level Radioactive Wastes - 13334

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, K.C.; Ahn, J.H.; Park, Y.J.; Song, K.S.

    2013-07-01

    For the radioactivity determination of {sup 129}I in the radioactive wastes, alkali fusion and anion-exchange resin separation methods, which are sample pretreatment methods, have been investigated in this study. To separate and quantify the {sup 129}I radionuclide in an evaporator bottom and spent resin, the radionuclide was chemically leached from the wastes and adsorbed on an anion exchange resin at pH 4, 7, 9. In the case of dry active waste and another solid type, the alkali fusion method was applied. KNO{sub 3} was added as a KOH and oxidizer to the wastes. It was then fused at 450 deg. C for 1 hour. The radioactivity of the separated iodine was measured with a low energy gamma spectrometer after the sample pretreatment. Finally, it was confirmed that the recovery rate of the iodine for the alkali fusion method was 83.6±3.8%, and 86.4±1.6% for the anionic exchange separation method. (authors)

  5. Radioactive Iodine Therapy of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma: Redesigning the Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Goldsmith, Stanley J.

    2017-01-01

    Radioactive iodine therapy has evolved over the past 70 years from treatment of known metastatic thyroid carcinoma to include adjuvant use to decrease the incidence of recurrent disease and to ablation of normal remnant tissue following thyroidectomy, even for minimal tumor involvement. Advances in laboratory testing, development of drugs useful in radioiodine treatment, as well as advances in radiation detection and imaging instrumentation, have progressively improved the utility of radioiodine therapy of differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Guidelines have proliferated and they have become more detailed and complex. This trend is likely to continue as the science and technology involved increases in sophistication and efficacy. PMID:28117291

  6. Radioactive Iodine Remnant Ablation: The Beta-knife Completion Thyroidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Gulec, Seza; Kuker, Russ

    2017-01-01

    The rationale and objectives for radioactive iodine (RAI) ablation remain perplexing to many. This review addresses the meaning, clinical context and the goals of “ablation”: the RAI treatment after a total thyroidectomy. This article also aims to clarify the definition of a total thyroidectomy and how a thyroid remnant can introduce a confounding factor in the postoperative management of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. The implications of an existing thyroid remnant on RAI diagnostic imaging and serum thyroglobulin levels are discussed. This review provides a rational approach validating the utility of RAI remnant ablation regardless of the patient’s risk stratification. PMID:28117286

  7. Euthyroid range reevaluation for radioactive iodine uptake test

    SciTech Connect

    Vohs, J.S.; Petersen, R.J.

    1985-12-01

    A new radioactive iodine uptake euthyroid range with /sup 131/I was obtained at their institution. The thyroid status of 150 patients seen at this institution for RAIU tests was determined utilizing thyroid hormone levels. A mean and standard deviation (s.d.) of the RAIU was calculated on the 57 patients with normal hormone levels. Two s.ds. about the mean yielded a range of 3.0-37.4%. The authors established a new normal range of 10-35% with the previous normal range being 10-30%.

  8. Daily urine iodine excretion while consuming a low-iodine diet in preparation for radioactive iodine therapy in a high iodine intake area.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Lee, Soo Youn; Lee, Ji In; Jang, Hye Won; Kim, Soo Kyoung; Chung, Hye Soo; Tan, Alice Hyun Kyung; Hur, Kyu Yeon; Kim, Jae Hyeon; Chung, Jae Hoon; Kim, Sun Wook

    2011-12-01

    Recommended durations of low-iodine diet (LID) in preparation for radioactive iodine therapy (RAIT) vary among major guidelines and are important for patients in areas where iodine intake is high. The aim of this study was to investigate daily changes in urine iodine excretion after starting a LID. The daily iodine/creatinine (I/Cr) ratios and simple iodine concentration (simple I) of morning spot urine from 19 patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma were measured for 2 weeks from the start of LID for RAIT preparation. We set the cut-off of I/Cr and simple I for poor LID preparation at >66·2 μg/gCr and >150 μg/l, respectively. The day when daily I/Cr or simple I became equal to or below the cut-off both by 95% CI and 90th percentile was defined as the end-point for the appropriate duration of LID for RAIT. On day 6 of LID, the I/Cr ratio decreased below the cut-off (≤66·2 μg/gCr) both by 95% CI (0-60·8) and by 90th percentile (51·9). Simple I reached the cut-off (≤150 μg/l) on day 3 by both parameters (95%CI: 2·3-90·5; 90th percentile: 126·5). The morning spot-urine I/Cr and simple I on day 7 and day 14 were significantly lower than on day 0 (P < 0·05). One week of a strict LID is enough to decrease the level of urine iodine excretion in preparation for RAIT even in high iodine intake areas. These results provide essential data for future outcome studies regarding LID preparation for RAIT. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Hyposalivation: the roles of radioactive iodine and stapes surgery.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Louis

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study is to call attention to the role that radioactive iodine ((131)I) and stapes surgery may play in causing hyposalivation. The manner in which (131)I and stapes surgery can cause salivary damage was reviewed. A case report is presented to illustrate the involved pathophysiology. The case report clearly shows the significant injury to the parotid glands caused by the (131)I. However, subjective symptoms of oral dryness only developed after injury to the chorda tympani nerve (CTN) during stapes surgery. The loss of function of both parotid glands after (131)I therapy for thyroid cancer was initially compensated by the secretions of the more radiation-resistant submandibular and sublingual salivary glands (SMSG/SLSG). Damage to the CTN's secretory fibers in one SMSG/SLSG complex led to subjective oral dryness by accentuating an existing objective hyposalivation. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Gold-Nanoparticle-Immobilized Desalting Columns for Highly Efficient and Specific Removal of Radioactive Iodine in Aqueous Media.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mi Hee; Shim, Ha-Eun; Yun, Seong-Jae; Park, Sang-Hyun; Choi, Dae Seong; Jang, Beom-Su; Choi, Yong Jun; Jeon, Jongho

    2016-11-02

    There has been worldwide attention on the efficient removal of radioactive iodine, because it is commonly released in nuclear plant accidents. Increasing concerns on environmental problems due to the radioactive iodine are leading us to develop stable and sustainable technology for remediation of radioelement contaminants. In this work, we report a highly efficient chromatographic method for specific and rapid capture of radioactive iodine. The gold nanoparticles immobilized dextran gel columns showed excellent removal capabilities of radioactive iodine in various conditions. These results suggested that our platform technology can be a promising method for the desalination of radioactive iodines in water.

  11. Thyroid Peroxidase Antibodies in Non-Autoimmune Hyperthyroidism Treated with Radioactive Iodine.

    PubMed

    Listewnik, M H; Listewnik, M J; Miazgowski, T; Jaskólska, K; Jasiakiewicz, K; Birkenfeld, B

    2016-10-01

    Introduction: Earlier studies suggest increased serum levels of thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb) in some cases with non-autoimmune hyperthyroidism. The aim of the study was to assess the incidence of hypothyroidism in patients with nodular toxic goitre and toxic adenoma at 12 months after radioactive iodine therapy in the relation to TPOAb levels. Patients & Measurements: The study comprised 100 patients (83 females; 17 males) treated with radioactive iodine therapy. Serum concentrations of thyrotropin, free thyroxin, TPOAb, and anti-TSH receptor antibodies were assessed at baseline and 12 months after radioactive iodine therapy. Results: High TPOAb level (>60.0 IU/mL) was found in 27% of patients at baseline and 32% at the follow-up. Baseline TPOAb values were higher in subjects with coexisting non-thyroid autoimmune disease (p=0.041). After radioactive iodine therapy, the mean TPOAb level increased in patients with normal baseline TPOAb (p=0.03) and the rates of euthyroidism and hypothyroidism were 61 and 34%, respectively. The rate of hypothyroidism after radioactive iodine therapy was not significantly different in groups with normal and high baseline TPOAb. Conclusions: 27% of patients with non-autoimmune hyperthyroidism were positive for TPOAb. However, baseline TPOAb level did not influence the rate of hypothyroidism at 12 months after radioactive iodine therapy. Our results suggest a more close surveillance after radioactive iodine therapy of patients harboring these antibodies.

  12. Radioactive iodine capture in silver-containing mordenites through nanoscale silver iodide formation.

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, K. W.; Chupas, P. J.; Nenoff, T. M.; X-Ray Science Division; SNL

    2010-01-01

    The effective capture and storage of radiological iodine ({sup 129}I) remains a strong concern for safe nuclear waste storage and safe nuclear energy. Silver-containing mordenite (MOR) is a longstanding benchmark for iodine capture; however, the molecular level understanding of this process needed to develop more effective iodine getters has remained elusive. Here we probe the structure and distribution of iodine sorbed by silver-containing MOR using differential pair distribution function analysis. While iodine is distributed between {gamma}-AgI nanoparticles on the zeolite surface and subnanometer {alpha}-AgI clusters within the pores for reduced silver MOR, in the case of unreduced silver-exchanged MOR, iodine is exclusively confined to the pores as subnanometer {alpha}-AgI. Consequently, unreduced silver-containing zeolites may offer a more secure route for radioactive iodine capture, with the potential to more effectively trap the iodine for long-term storage.

  13. Cancer risk following radioactive iodine-131 exposures in medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Ron, E.

    1997-03-01

    Most types of cancer have been associated with external radiotherapy and exposures from the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Although epidemiologic, and some experimental studies, suggest that iodine-131 (I-131) may be less effective in inducing malignancies, the potential late health effects of I-131 remain a concern to both the general public and the medical community. Other radionuclides are currently used for diagnosis, but it is estimated that over 10 million adults have had I-131 treatment of choice for hyperthyroidism and is used frequently to treat thyroid cancer. Since 1942, when I-131 therapy for hyperthyroidism was introduced, millions of patients, almost all adults, have had this treatment. In contrast to the substantial medical use of iodine-131 in adults, its use in children and adolescents has been extremely limited because of concerns regarding its long-term carcinogenic and genetic effects. Some physicians, however, are advising re-evaluation of treatment for children because it is convenient, effective and relatively inexpensive. Over the last few decades, case reports and some small epidemiologic studies have linked medical exposure to I-131 with thyroid cancer and leukemia. Attention also has focused on breast cancer and cancers occuring in organs that concentrate appreciable quantities of iodine, i.e. salivary glands, stomach, kidney, and bladder. In this report, the author briefly summarizes the major epidemiologic studies of medical exposures to I-131 and compares the results with what is known about external radiation exposure.

  14. Low-Dose Radioactive Iodine Destroys Thyroid Tissue Left after Surgery

    Cancer.gov

    A low dose of radioactive iodine given after surgery for thyroid cancer destroyed (ablated) residual thyroid tissue as effectively as a higher dose, with fewer side effects and less exposure to radiation, according to two randomized controlled trials.

  15. Salts of the iodine oxyacids in the impregnation of adsorbent charcoal for trapping radioactive methyliodide

    DOEpatents

    Deitz, Victor R.; Blachly, Charles H.

    1977-04-05

    Radioactive iodine and radioactive methyliodide can be more than 99.7 per cent removed from the air stream of a nuclear reactor by passing the air stream through a 2-inch thick filter which is made up of impregnated charcoal prepared by contacting the charcoal with a solution containing KOH, iodine or an iodide, and an oxyacid, followed by contacting with a solution containing a tertiary amine.

  16. Immobilization of radioactive iodine in silver aluminophosphate glasses.

    PubMed

    Lemesle, Thomas; Méar, François O; Campayo, Lionel; Pinet, Olivier; Revel, Bertrand; Montagne, Lionel

    2014-01-15

    Silver aluminophosphate glasses have been investigated as matrices for the immobilization of radioactive iodine. In this study, up to 28mol% AgI have been incorporated without volatilization thanks to a low temperature synthesis protocol. Alumina was added in the composition in order to increase the glass transition temperature for a better thermal stability in a repository conditions. Two series of glasses have been investigated, based on AgPO3 and Ag5P3O10 compositions, and with 0-5mol% Al2O3. We report (31)P, (27)Al and (109)Ag NMR study of these glasses, including advanced measurement of the connectivities through {(27)Al}-(31)P cross-polarization and (31)P-(31)P double-quantum correlation. We confirm that AgI is inserted in the aluminophosphate glasses and does not form clusters. AgI does not induce any modification of the glass polymerization but only an expansion of the network. Despite no evidence for crystallization could be obtained from XRD, NMR revealed that the introduction of AgI induces an exclusion of alumina from the network, leading to the crystallization of aluminophosphate phases such as Al(PO3)3 or AlPO4. As a consequence, despite NMR gives evidence for the presence of aluminophosphate bonds, only a limited effect of alumina addition on thermal properties is observed.

  17. Lenvatinib in Advanced, Radioactive Iodine-Refractory, Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Kay T; Cohen, Ezra E W

    2015-12-15

    Management options are limited for patients with radioactive iodine refractory, locally advanced, or metastatic differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Prior to 2015, sorafenib, a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, was the only approved treatment and was associated with a median progression-free survival (PFS) of 11 months and overall response rate (ORR) of 12% in a phase III trial. Lenvatinib, a multikinase inhibitor with high potency against VEGFR and FGFR demonstrated encouraging results in phase II trials. Recently, the pivotal SELECT trial provided the basis for the FDA approval of lenvatinib as a second targeted therapy for these patients. Median PFS of 18.3 months in the lenvatinib group was significantly improved from 3.6 months in the placebo group, with an HR of 0.21 (95% confidence interval, 0.4-0.31; P < 0.0001). ORR was also significantly increased in the lenvatinib arm (64.7%) compared with placebo (1.5%). In this article, we will review the molecular mechanisms of lenvatinib, the data from preclinical studies to the recent phase III clinical trial, and the biomarkers being studied to further guide patient selection and predict treatment response.

  18. FAILURE OF RADIOACTIVE IODINE IN TREATMENT OF HYPERTHYROIDISM

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, David F.; Sonderman, Philip E.; Jones, Michaela F.; Ojomo, Kristin A.; Chen, Herbert; Jaume, Juan C.; Elson, Diane F.; Perlman, Scott B.; Sippel, Rebecca S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Persistent or recurrent hyperthyroidism after treatment with radioactive iodine (RAI) is common, and many patients require either additional doses or surgery before they are cured. The purpose of this study was to identify patterns and predictors of failure of RAI in patients with hyperthyroidism. Methods We conducted a retrospective review of patients treated with RAI from 2007–2010. Failure of RAI was defined as receipt of additional dose(s) and/or total thyroidectomy. Using a Cox proportional hazards model, we conducted univariate analysis to identify factors associated with failure of RAI. A final multivariate model was then constructed with significant (p < 0.05) variables from the univariate analysis. Results Of the 325 patients analyzed, 74 patients (22.8%) failed initial RAI treatment. 53 (71.6%) received additional RAI, 13 (17.6%) received additional RAI followed by surgery, and the remaining 8 (10.8%) were cured after thyroidectomy. The percentage of patients who failed decreased in a step-wise fashion as RAI dose increased. Similarly, the incidence of failure increased as the presenting T3 level increased. Sensitivity analysis revealed that RAI doses < 12.5 mCi were associated with failure while initial T3 and free T4 levels of at least 4.5 pg/mL and 2.3 ng/dL, respectively, were associated with failure. In the final multivariate analysis, higher T4 (HR 1.13, 95% CI 1.02–1.26, p=0.02) and methimazole treatment (HR 2.55, 95% CI 1.22–5.33, p=0.01) were associated with failure. Conclusions Laboratory values at presentation can predict which patients with hyperthyroidism are at risk for failing RAI treatment. Higher doses of RAI or surgical referral may prevent the need for repeat RAI in selected patients. PMID:25001092

  19. Radioactive iodine therapy: Effect on functioning metastases of adenocarcinoma of the thyroid

    SciTech Connect

    Seidlin, S.M.; Marinelli, L.D.; Oshry, E. )

    1990-09-01

    A case of metastatic adenocarcinoma of the thyroid is reported in which treatment by means of radioactive iodine has been successful. The patient was completely thyroidectomized for malignant adenoma in 1923, with neither thyrotoxicosis then nor hypothyroidism postoperatively; 15 years later there developed classic symptoms of hyperthyroidism and severe pain in the lower back. In October 1939 a pulsating tumor removed from the level of the 12th thoracic vertebra proved to be metastatic thyroid adenocarcinoma (histologically well differentiated, with small follicles and colloid). In the next two years hyperthyroidism increased and roentgenograms revealed new metastases in the lungs, upper part of the right femur, second rib on the left side, left ilium, and skull. Roentgenologic irradiation of the metastases proved ineffectual. In March 1943 a tracer dose of radioactive iodine revealed iodine retention by all the known lesions and no evidence of residual thyroid tissue in the neck. Therapeutic amounts of radioactive iodine were administered orally between May and October 1943. Definite and lasting clinical improvement followed. In April 1944 and March 1945 additional I* was administered with a resultant disappearance of pain, increase in weight, and progressive change in all clinical criteria in the direction of hypothyroidism. Roentgenographic evidence pointed to an arrest if not a regression of the disease. No untoward effects followed this therapy. Radioactive iodine seems to be an effective therapeutic agent in the control of this type of tumor.

  20. Acute myeloid leukemia following radioactive iodine therapy for papillary carcinoma of the thyroid.

    PubMed

    Ankit, Jain; S, Premalata C; S, Saini K; P, Bapsy P; V, Sajeevan K; Singh, Tejinder; Batra, Ullas; Govind, Babu; Dasappa, Lokanatha; Atilli, Suresh; R, Permeshwar

    2009-06-05

    Radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy plays an important role in the management of thyroid malignancies. Leukemia is a very rare complication of radioactive therapy. There are very few case reports with doses below 100 mCi causing leukemia. We report a case of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid treated with 80 mCi RAI who later developed acute myeloid leukemia. Thus, all patients with thyroid carcinoma treated with RAI should undergo periodic hematological examinations irrespective of RAI dose.

  1. Use of radioactive iodine I-131 and monitoring of radioactivity in patients with chronic kidney disease on haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Gallegos-Villalobos, Angel; García-López, Fernando; Escalada, Carmen; Ortiz, Juan J; Cardona, Jorge; Medina, Amparo; Portolés, José

    2014-05-21

    Thyroid carcinoma is a neoplasia with a higher incidence in patients with chronic kidney disease. In recent years advances have been made in diagnostic and therapeutic trials. Dialysis patients are a particular group, their cancer being detected indirectly in the study of secondary hyperparathyroidism and during the study prior to renal transplantation. Thyroidectomy is the definitive treatment, but in patients with risk of recurrence, ablative therapy is required using radioactive iodine I-131, which is predominantly eliminated by renal excretion, therefore its use in patients on dialysis poses a problem in terms of dosage. Two cases are presented of patients on haemodialysis undergoing radioablation with radioactive iodine I-131, which with multidisciplinary treatment had the expected results in the patients.

  2. Preliminary results of the TMI-2 radioactive iodine mass balance study

    SciTech Connect

    Pelletier, C.A.; Cox, T.E.; Reeder, D.L.; Vollique, P.G.; Thomas, C.D.

    1982-01-01

    Analysis of samples taken from the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor building following the 1979 accident indicates the fraction of the radioactive iodine (radioiodine) inventory in the core released to the uilding atmosphere is smaller tan assumed in Regulatory Guide 1.4. This summary presents analytical results supporting this conclusion.

  3. Late effect of subtotal thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine therapy on calcitonin secretion and bone mineral density in women treated for Graves' disease

    SciTech Connect

    Lowery, W.D.; Thomas, C.G. Jr.; Awbrey, B.J.; Rosenstein, B.D.; Talmage, R.V.

    1986-12-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of subtotal thyroidectomy and/or radioactive iodine therapy on plasma immunocalcitonin (iCT) levels and bone densities in patients treated for Graves' disease. Forty-eight women whose ages ranged from 29 to 79 years (mean, 55 years) were evaluated. All were at least 10 years beyond treatment. Fourteen patients had undergone subtotal thyroidectomy, 22 had received radioactive iodine therapy, and 12 had received both. Serum calcitonin levels were measured with the patient fasting and at 30 minutes and 2 hours after the ingestion of 15 mg of calcium in orange juice. Single photon absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral density of the middle and distal radius. The mean fasting plasma levels of iCT for patients undergoing subtotal thyroidectomy was 27 +/- 2 mumol/L; women treated with radioactive iodine, 26 +/- 2; women undergoing subtotal thyroidectomy followed by radioactive iodine, 24 +/- 2, and for normal control women, 48.5 +/- 4.7. The mean stimulated iCT level of each of the patient groups was significantly lower than that of the normal controls (p = 0.01). There were no significant differences among the groups. Although there was an increased loss of bone mineral density in postmenopausal patients, with age and race as covariates, the bone densities of the distal radius in women undergoing subtotal thyroidectomy and/or receiving radioactive iodine were not significantly lower than those of normal control subjects (p greater than 0.05). These findings are consistent with other observations that patients treated by thyroidectomy and/or radioactive iodine for Graves' disease have lower basal levels of calcitonin and decreased calcitonin response to a provocative stimulus. Whether this loss of calcitonin reserve is a significant factor in development of postmenopausal osteoporosis remains unanswered.

  4. Sequestration of radioactive iodine in silver-palladium phases in commercial spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, Edgar C.; Mausolf, Edward J.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2016-12-01

    Radioactive iodine is the Achilles’ heel in the design for the safe geological disposal of spent UO2 nuclear fuel. Iodine’s high solubility and anticipated instant release during waste package compromise jeopardize performance assessment calculations. However, dissolution studies have indicated that the instant release fraction (IRF) of radioiodine (I) does not correlate with increasing fuel burn-up. In fact, there is a peak in the release iodine at around 50-60 Mwd/kgU and with increasing burn-up the instant release of iodine decreases. Detailed electron microscopy analysis of high burn-up fuel (~80 MWd/kgU) has revealed the presence of (Pd,Ag)(I,Br) nano-particles. As UO2 fuels are irradiated, the Ag and Pd content increases, from 239Pu fission, enabling radioiodine to be retained. The occurrence of these phases in nuclear fuels may have significant implications for the long-term behavior of iodine.

  5. Radioactive Iodine and Krypton Control for Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Soelberg, Nick R.; Garn, Troy G.; Greenhalgh, Mitchell R.; Law, Jack D.; Jubin, Robert; Strachan, Denis M.; Thallapally, Praveen K.

    2013-01-01

    The removal of volatile radionuclides generated during used nuclear fuel reprocessing in the US is almost certain to be necessary for the licensing of a reprocessing facility in the US. Various control technologies have been developed, tested, or used over the past 50 years for control of volatile radionuclide emissions from used fuel reprocessing plants. The US DOE has sponsored, since 2009, an Off-gas Sigma Team to perform research and development focused on the most pressing volatile radionuclide control and immobilization problems. In this paper, we focus on the control requirements and methodologies for85Kr and129I. Numerous candidate technologies have been studied and developed at laboratory and pilot-plant scales in an effort to meet the need for high iodine control efficiency and to advance alternatives to cryogenic separations for krypton control. Several of these show promising results. Iodine decontamination factors as high as 105, iodine loading capacities, and other adsorption parameters including adsorption rates have been demonstrated under some conditions for both silver zeolite (AgZ) and Ag-functionalized aerogel. Sorbents, including an engineered form of AgZ and selected metal organic framework materials (MOFs), have been successfully demonstrated to capture Kr and Xe without the need for separations at cryogenic temperatures.

  6. A Study on Removal of Iodine, Iodide Ion, and Iodate Ion from Radioactive Wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Yim, S.P.; Kim, K.R.; Lee, M.S.; Chung, H.; Shim, M.H.; Lee, C.K.

    2006-07-01

    For the two methods to remove iodine, the iodide ion and the iodate ion from radioactive waste water, we proposed previously, the main reactions were experimentally investigated to examine the feasibility of them. One is the reaction of the iodide ion and the iodate ion. In this reaction, it was confirmed that the reaction rate is faster with a pH of less than 2 and, to undergo the reaction faster under the condition of pH 2, an addition of excess iodide ions and iodate ions is necessary. Another is the reduction of the iodate ion and the iodine by pyrite. In the experiment, it was found that when the iodate ion in the solution is in contact with pyrite, it is reduced to iodine on the surface of the pyrite and the produced iodine is consecutively reduced to the iodide ion. The reaction occurred at room temperature under a wide range of pHs. Based on the results of this preliminary study, it is expected that a more substantial method could be prepared for the effective removal of an iodine mixture from radioactive wastewater. (authors)

  7. Ion microscopy of the thyroid gland: a method for imaging stable and radioactive iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, J.P.; Escaig, F.; Lange, F.; Galle, P.

    1986-07-01

    Analytical ion microscopy has been applied to the study of distribution of stable and radioactive iodine in the thyroid gland. Analytical images, each of them representing the distribution of one isotope of iodine, can easily be obtained in a few seconds from an Epon section with a resolution of 0.5 micron. In thyroids of normal rats, intrafollicular and intracytoplasmic stable 127I can be clearly distinguished. After thyreostimulin injection, a rapid and important redistribution of 127I is observed which reflects an intense cytoplasmic reabsorption of intrafollicular iodine. After injection of a long-lived isotope of iodine, 129I, the progressive incorporation of this isotope has been observed and the images of the natural iodine 129I have been compared to the images of 127I. An unusual iodine distribution has been observed in proliferating cells of an autonomous nodule. The very high sensitivity of this method makes possible the study of intracellular and extracellular stable iodine in the thyroid gland in a number of physiological and pathological conditions; its ability for isotopic analysis in microscopic volumes offers new possibilities for kinetic studies of iodine metabolism. However, in the present state of the art the specimen cannot be studied at the ultrastructural level as it is with other methods, and some difficulties remain in qualitative analysis such as the contamination of spectra with organic mass fragments which makes difficult the study of some elements such as sulfur. In addition, the matrix effect on ionization efficiency or on sputtering rate makes quantitative analysis difficult. In the future, image processing systems will be needed for a better quantitative interpretation.

  8. Effect of radioactive iodine therapy on carotid intima media thickness in patients with hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Şanal, Bekir; Işık, İlknur; Korkmaz, Mehmet; Kucur, Cüneyt; Can, Fatma; Kilit, Türkan Paşalı; Kahraman, Cüneyt; Kaçar, Emre; Koçak, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the carotid intima media thickness (IMT) in patients with thyrotoxicosis who received radioactive iodine (RAI) treatment. This study was planned to be conducted with two different groups of people. There were 87 patients in the patient group and 98 controls. Participants were evaluated for atherosclerosis risk factors. Mean carotid IMT was measured from three consecutive traces at the common carotid artery bifurcation. The mean carotid IMT was 0.81 ± 0.20 in patient group and this was higher than the controls (0.68 ± 0.19) (p < 0.01). IM thickening was positively correlated with the applied RAI dose levels in the treatment group (p = 0.029). In patients with only HT, the data of the two groups showed a significant difference, with the average IMT being higher in the patient group than that of the control group (p: 0.011). RAI used in the treatment of thyrotoxicosis increases the IMT of carotid artery independent of age and sex. This treatment yields better results with higher doses, and this effect is more marked in patients with HT. Hence, we believe that it is necessary to calculate the dose properly for hyperthyroid cases in which treatment with RAI is planned. In particular, the patients with HT need to be treated with the minimum possible dose. Further, carotid arteries should be evaluated with US following RAI treatment.

  9. Sorafenib in radioactive iodine-refractory well-differentiated metastatic thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    McFarland, Daniel C; Misiukiewicz, Krzysztof J

    2014-01-01

    Recent Phase III data presented at the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) 2013 annual conference by Brose et al led to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of sorafenib for the treatment of well-differentiated radioactive iodine-resistant metastatic thyroid cancer. This is the second drug in 40 years to be FDA approved for this indication. Recent reviews and a meta-analysis reveal a modest ability to induce a partial remission but substantial ability to halt disease progression. Given the significant activating mutations present in thyroid cancer, many of which are inhibited by sorafenib, the next logical approach may be to combine targeted rational therapies if permitted by collective toxicity profiles. This systematic review aims to summarize the recent Phase II/III data leading to the FDA approval of sorafenib for radioactive iodine therapy differentiated thyroid cancer and highlights recent novel combination therapy trials. PMID:25053887

  10. Regional approaches to the management of patients with advanced, radioactive iodine-refractory differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Brose, Marcia S; Smit, Johannes; Capdevila, Jaume; Elisei, Rossella; Nutting, Christopher; Pitoia, Fabian; Robinson, Bruce; Schlumberger, Martin; Shong, Young Kee; Takami, Hiroshi

    2012-09-01

    For patients with advanced, radioactive iodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer, current treatment guidelines recommend clinical trial enrollment or small-molecule kinase inhibitor therapy. However, details of patient management vary between countries depending on trial availability and national regulatory policies. Insufficient clinical trial data and variable disease characteristics challenge the creation of universal guidelines, and treatment plans often reflect regional influences. A multidisciplinary, multiregional panel of experts met to discuss regional approaches to managing patients with advanced, radioactive iodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer and the potential impact of emerging therapies on current treatment strategies. Despite process-oriented regional differences, the decision-making strategies were similar. Multidisciplinary teams used to manage high-risk patients varied in composition across regions, particularly regarding the responsible physician's specialty. Cytotoxic chemotherapy was viewed as limited in clinical benefit, and targeted agents as attractive, based on promising data. Panel members support clinical trial enrollment as the preferred treatment strategy for managing these patients.

  11. A Peculiar Case of the Abscopal Effect: Radioactive Iodine Therapy Incidentally Palliating Marginal Zone Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Kornas, Robert C.; Shields, Sarah-Kim; Goldman, Lyle S.

    2015-01-01

    The abscopal effect is an extremely rare phenomenon occurring when irradiation or treatment of a primary tumor burden not only results in debulking of the targeted site but also reduces tumor size at distant sites from the intended treatment area. We present the abscopal effect occurring in a patient with low-grade marginal zone lymphoma who subsequently received radioactive iodine therapy for papillary thyroid carcinoma. She was 67 years old when a routine complete blood count at her primary care physician's office yielded a persistent leukocytosis of 14,500/μL with lymphocytosis of 9,870/μL. Immunophenotyping and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis confirmed low-grade marginal zone lymphoma. Over eight years, her peak leukocyte and lymphocyte counts were 24,100/μL and 18,100/μL, respectively. Subsequently, she was diagnosed with papillary thyroid carcinoma after presenting with a new complaint of dysphagia. A total thyroidectomy was performed, followed by 172.1 millicuries of oral I-131 sodium iodine radioactive ablation therapy. Following treatment, her leukocyte and lymphocyte counts were 3,100/μL and 1,100/μL, respectively. Over the next four years, her leukocyte and lymphocyte counts remained within normal limits and she remained symptom free. To our knowledge, there has never been a published report describing the use of radioactive iodine causing abscopal effect benefits for patients with underlying lymphoproliferative diseases. PMID:25709847

  12. Health state utility valuation in radioactive iodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Fordham, Beth A; Kerr, Cicely; de Freitas, Hayley M; Lloyd, Andrew J; Johnston, Karissa; Pelletier, Corey L; Tremblay, Gabriel; Forsythe, Anna; McIver, Bryan; Cohen, Ezra Ew

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elicit utilities for radioactive iodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer (RR-DTC) and evaluate the impact of treatment response and toxicities on quality of life. RR-DTC health states were developed based on data from a previous qualitative study and iterative review by clinical experts. Following piloting, health states underwent valuation by 100 members of the UK public during time trade-off interviews. Mean utilities and descriptive distribution statistics were calculated, and a logistic regression analysis was conducted. The demographic characteristics of the study sample were generally reflective of the UK population. Clear differentiation in valuation between health states was observed. No response/stable disease had an adjusted utility value of 0.87, with a corresponding gain of +0.04 following a treatment response and a decline of -0.35 for disease progression. Adverse events were associated with utility decrements between -0.47 (grade III diarrhea) and -0.05 (grade I/II alopecia). The trade-off interviews derived utility weights show clear differentiation between RR-DTC health states in response to treatment. The values reported in this study are suitable for cost-effectiveness evaluations for new treatments in RR-DTC.

  13. Serum thyroxine concentrations after radioactive iodine therapy in cats with hyperthyroidism

    SciTech Connect

    Meric, S.M.; Hawkins, E.C.; Washabau, R.J.; Turrel, J.M.; Feldman, E.C.

    1986-05-01

    Thirty-one cats with hyperthyroidism were given one dose of radioactive iodine (131I) IV. Serum thyroxine (T4) concentrations were measured before treatment in all cats, at 12-hour intervals after treatment in 10 cats, and at 48-hour intervals after treatment in 21 cats. Serum T4 concentrations also were measured one month after /sup 131/I therapy in 29 cats. Activity of 131I administered was 1.5 to 6.13 mCi, resulting in a dose of 20,000 rads to the thyroid. Serum T4 concentrations before /sup 131/I administration were 5.3 to 51.0 micrograms/dl, with a median T4 concentration of 11.0 micrograms/dl. Serum T4 decreased most rapidly during the first 3 to 6 days after treatment. Sixteen cats (55%) had normal serum thyroxine concentrations by day 4 after 131I administration, and 23 cats (74%) were euthyroxinemic by day 8 after treatment. One month after administration of 131I, the 29 cats evaluated were clinically improved, and 24 (83%) of the 29 cats evaluated had normal serum T4 concentrations, 3 cats (10%) remained hyperthyroxinemic, and 2 cats (7%) were hypothyroxinemic. Therefore, administration of 131I was a safe and effective method to quickly decrease serum T4 concentrations in hyperthyroid cats.

  14. Hyperparathyroidism after treatment with radioactive iodine: Not only a coincidence

    SciTech Connect

    Bondeson, A.G.; Bondeson, L.; Thompson, N.W. )

    1989-12-01

    Review of medical records in 600 consecutive cases of primary hyperparathyroidism revealed 10 patients with a documented history of iodine 131 ({sup 131}I) treatment. In seven cases {sup 131}I had been given because of Graves' disease and in three cases for ablation of thyroid remnants after tumor operations. All but one of the patients were women. Their age at the time of 131I treatment ranged from 21 to 72 years, and the interval to detection of hypercalcemia was between 3 and 27 years. It is noteworthy that all patients treated for Graves' disease had absorbed radiation doses large enough to cause permanent hypothyroidism, and half of them showed complete absence of the thyroid gland at subsequent operation for hyperparathyroidism. Furthermore, parathyroid adenomas had developed at the sites of thyroid remnants in cases with {sup 131}I ablation after tumor operations. Our findings support other observations indicating that not only external radiation but also radiation from {sup 131}I is a risk factor for development of hyperparathyroidism, and it is emphasized that age at the time of radiation treatment may be of decisive importance in this context.

  15. Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: Focus on Emerging Treatments for Radioactive Iodine-Refractory Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, Joshua J.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer refractory to radioactive iodine (RAI) had been hampered by few effective therapies. Recently, tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have shown activity in this disease. Clinical guidance on the use of these agents in RAI-refractory thyroid cancer is warranted. Materials and Methods. Molecular mutations found in RAI-refractory thyroid cancer are summarized. Recent phase II and III clinical trial data for TKIs axitinib, lenvatinib, motesanib, pazopanib, sorafenib, sunitinib, and vandetinib are reviewed including efficacy and side effect profiles. Molecular targets and potencies of these agents are compared. Inhibitors of BRAF, mammalian target of rapamycin, and MEK are considered. Results. Routine testing for molecular alterations prior to therapy is not yet recommended. TKIs produce progression-free survival of approximately 1 year (range: 7.7–19.6 months) and partial response rates of up to 50% by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. Pazopanib and lenvatinib are the most active agents. The majority of patients experienced tumor shrinkage with TKIs. Common adverse toxicities affect dermatologic, gastrointestinal, and cardiovascular systems. Conclusion. Multiple TKIs have activity in RAI-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer. Selection of a targeted agent should depend on disease trajectory, side effect profile, and goals of therapy. PMID:25616432

  16. Efficient bioremediation of radioactive iodine using biogenic gold nanomaterial-containing radiation-resistant bacterium, Deinococcus radiodurans R1.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mi Hee; Jeong, Sun-Wook; Shim, Ha Eun; Yun, Seong-Jae; Mushtaq, Sajid; Choi, Dae Seong; Jang, Beom-Su; Yang, Jung Eun; Choi, Yong Jun; Jeon, Jongho

    2017-04-04

    We herein report a new bioremediation method using a radiation-resistant bacterium. Biogenic gold nanomaterial-containing Deinococcus radiodurans R1 showed excellent capability for the removal of radioactive iodine (>99%) in several aqueous solutions. These observations demonstrated that our remediation system would be efficiently applied to the treatment of radioactive wastes.

  17. Radioactive iodine waste treatment using electrodialysis with an anion exchange paper membrane.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Hiroyoshi; Kagoshima, Mayumi; Yamasaki, Mariko; Honda, Yoko

    2004-12-01

    In order to simply and safely treat radioactive iodine waste, a study of the removal of iodide ion from radioactive waste using electrodialysis with an anion exchange paper membrane, in which trimethylhydroxylpropylammonium groups were homogeneously dispersed with high density. In Na125I and Na36Cl concentration-cell system, electric ion and water conductances, phenomenological coefficients, have been experimentally determined on basis of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. Prepared paper membrane had higher permselectivity of 125I ion than 36Cl ions by approximately 21%. On the other hand, water flux that was accompanied by an ionic transference in prepared paper membrane was greatly larger than that in typical synthesized membrane. It is suggested that a depression of water mobility is important to practice an ideal radioactive iodide waste electrodialysis system with a novel anion exchange paper membrane.

  18. Radioactive Iodine and Krypton Control for Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Soelberg, Nicolas R.; Garn, Troy; Greenhalgh, Mitchell; Law, Jack; Jubin, Robert T.; Strachan, Denis M.; Thallapally, Praveen K.

    2013-07-22

    Nuclear fission results in the production of fission products and activation products, some of which tend to be volatile during used fuel reprocessing. These can evolve in volatile species in the reprocessing facility off-gas streams, depending on the separations and reprocessing technologies that are used. Radionuclides that have been identified as “volatile radionuclides” are noble gases (most notably isotopes of Kr and Xe); 3H; 14C; and 129I. Radionuclides that tend to form volatile species that evolve into reprocessing facility off-gas systems are more challenging to efficiently control compared to radionuclides that tend to stay in solid or liquid phases. Future used fuel reprocessing facilities in the United States can require efficient capture of some volatile radionuclides in their off-gas streams to meet regulatory emission requirements. In aqueous reprocessing, these radionuclides are most commonly expected to evolve into off-gas streams in tritiated water [3H2O (T2O) and 3HHO (THO)], radioactive CO2, noble gases, and gaseous HI, I2, or volatile organic iodides. The fate and speciation of these radionuclides from a non-aqueous fuel reprocessing facility is less well known at this time, but active investigations are in progress. An Off-Gas Sigma Team was formed in late FY 2009 to integrate and coordinate the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) activities directed towards the capture and sequestration of the these volatile radionuclides (Jubin 2012a). The Sigma Team concept was envisioned to bring together multidisciplinary teams from across the DOE complex that would work collaboratively to solve the technical challenges and to develop the scientific basis for the capture and immobilization technologies such that the sum of the efforts was greater than the individual parts. The Laboratories currently participating in this effort are Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Pacific

  19. Postpartum thyrotoxicosis in a patient with Graves' disease. Association with low radioactive iodine uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Eckel, R.H.; Green, W.L.

    1980-04-11

    A patient with previously diagnosed Graves' hyperthyroidism had a transient episode of thyrotoxicosis three months postpartum. This was associated with a diffusely enlarged thyroid gland, a rise in antithyroid microsomal antibody titer, a 24-hour radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) of 1%, and an aspiration biopsy specimen suggestive of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis. An alternative cause for the depressed RAIU was not discovered. This case would suggest that patients with previously diagnosed Graves' disease can have thyrotoxicosis without an enhanced RAIU and that the postpartum thyrotoxin syndrome may involve an immunologic injury causing a release of performed thyroid hormone.

  20. Gonadal damage due to radioactive iodine (I131) treatment for thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, S. R.; Shalet, S. M.

    1985-01-01

    Papillary carcinoma of the thyroid is the most common type of thyroid cancer and is associated with a good prognosis. Complications of treatment with surgery and radioiodine are uncommon. We report the case of a 13 year old boy who developed testicular damage following treatment with radioactive iodine 350 mCi for a papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Four years after radioiodine treatment there has been no suggestion of recovery of spermatogenesis. Detailed follow-up studies of similarly treated young patients are required to define the incidence of this complication and to determine its reversibility. PMID:4022871

  1. Temporary ovarian failure in thyroid cancer patients after thyroid remnant ablation with radioactive iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, J.P.; Izembart, M.; Marliac, V.; Dagousset, F.; Merceron, R.E.; Vulpillat, M.; Vallee, G.

    1989-07-01

    We studied ovarian function retrospectively in 66 women who had regular menstrual cycles before undergoing complete thyroidectomy for differentiated thyroid cancer and subsequent thyroid remnant ablation with /sup 131/I. Eighteen women developed temporary amenorrhea accompanied by increased serum gonadotropin concentrations during the first year after /sup 131/I therapy. No correlation was found between the radioactive iodine dose absorbed, thyroid uptake before treatment, oral contraceptive use, or thyroid autoimmunity. Only age was a determining factor, with the older women being the most affected. We conclude that radioiodine ablation therapy is followed by transient ovarian failure, especially in older women.

  2. Histologic Findings and Cytological Alterations in Thyroid Nodules After Radioactive Iodine Treatment for Graves' Disease: A Diagnostic Dilemma.

    PubMed

    El Hussein, Siba; Omarzai, Yumna

    2017-06-01

    Unlike the well-documented relation between radiation to the neck and development of papillary thyroid carcinoma, a causal association between radioactive iodine treatment for Graves' disease and development of thyroid malignancy is less defined. However, patients with a background of thyroid dysfunction presenting with clinically palpable thyroid nodules are followed more closely than the average population, and fine needle aspiration is recommended in such circumstances. Cytological examination of aspirates, and histologic examination of tissue provided from patients with a known history of Graves' disease, managed by radioactive iodine therapy can create a diagnostic dilemma, as the distinction between radiation effect and a malignant primary thyroid neoplasm can be very challenging. Thus, pathologists should be aware of the existence of these changes in the setting of radiation therapy for Graves' disease. Providing pathologists with appropriate clinical history of Graves' disease treated with radioactive iodine is of paramount importance in order to prevent an overdiagnosis of malignancy.

  3. Serum thyroxine concentrations following fixed-dose radioactive iodine treatment in hyperthyroid cats: 62 cases (1986-1989)

    SciTech Connect

    Meric, S.M.; Rubin, S.I. )

    1990-09-01

    The medical records of 62 hyperthyroid cats treated with a fixed dose of 4 mCi of radioactive iodine (131I) were reviewed. In 60 cats, serum thyroxine concentrations were determined after treatment, allowing evaluation of treatment success. Eighty-four percent of the cats had normal serum thyroxine concentrations after treatment. Five of the 60 cats (8%) remained hyperthyroxinemic after treatment. Five cats (8%) were hypothyroxinemic when evaluated within 60 days of treatment. Three of these cats had normal serum thyroxine concentrations 6 months after treatment, and none had clinical signs of hypothyroidism. The administration of a fixed dose of 4 mCi of 131I was determined to be an effective treatment for feline hyperthyroidism.

  4. Detailed analysis of isotopic ratio of radioactive iodine in surface soil around Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, Yasuto; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Saito, Takumi; Yamagata, Takeyasu; Honda, Maki

    2013-04-01

    In March 2011, there was an accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) and a lot of radionuclides were discharged into the environment, resulting from a powerful earthquake and tsunami. Considering the impact on human health, the radiation dosimetry is the most important for Iodine-131 among radionuclides in the initial stage immediately following the release of radionuclides. However, Iodine-131 cannot be detected after several months owing to its short half-life (8 days). Cesium-137 was also leaked out from the FDNPP and this can be detected now. But this did not identically act with Iodine-131 and be suitable for the reconstruction of Iodine-131 distribution at the initial stage. Since Iodine-129 (half-life: 1.57E7 yrs) can be detected in the future and it act chemically identically with Iodine-131, the reconstruction by Iodine-129 analysis is important. For this reconstruction, it is necessary to know the isotopic ratio of radioactive iodine (129I/131I) released from the FDNPP. In this study, the Iodine-129 concentration was measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) in several surface soil samples collected around the FDNPP for which the Iodine-131level had already been determined. Soil samples were put into a U8 standard vessel after being roughly homogenized and dried. Then, samples were homogenized again more completely and several grams were taken for Iodine-129 measurement. Each sample was combusted in a quartz tube and outgas was trapped in alkali solution. An aliquot was taken from the trap solution for the determination of the Iodine-127 concentration by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The iodine carrier was added to the trap solution, from which the iodine fraction was purified by solvent extraction and back extraction. Finally, silver iodide precipitation was obtained by adding silver nitrate solution. After dried, the precipitation was mixed with niobium powder and pressed into a cathode for the target

  5. Iodine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krukowski, S.T.

    2006-01-01

    In descending order, Chile, Japan and the United States have the largest iodine reserves. Chile produces iodine from iodate minerals while Japan and the United States produce it from sodium iodide solutions found in underground iodide solutions. Iodine is also produced from subterranean brines in Azerbaijan, Russia, Turkmenista, Indonesia and Uzbekistan. In 2005, iodine prices increased sharply to US$19 to US$23 then leveled off at US$23 to US$25.

  6. Sequestration of radioactive iodine in silver-palladium phases in commercial spent nuclear fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, Edgar C.; Mausolf, Edward J.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2016-12-01

    Radioactive iodine is the Achilles' heel in the design for the safe geological disposal of spent uranium oxide (UO2) nuclear fuel. Furthermore, iodine's high volatility and aqueous solubility were mainly responsible for the high early doses released during the accident at Fukushima Daiichi in 2011. Studies Kienzler et al., however, have indicated that the instant release fraction (IRF) of radioiodine (131/129I) does not correlate directly with increasing fuel burn-up. In fact, there is a peak in the release of iodine at around 50-60 MW d/kgU, and with increasing burn-up, the IRF of 131/129I decreases. The reasons for this decrease have not fully been understood. We have performed microscopic analysis of chemically processed high burn-up UO2 fuel (80 MW d/kgU) and have found recalcitrant nano-particles containing, Pd, Ag, I, and Br, possibly consistent with a high pressure phase of silver iodide in the undissolved residue. It is likely that increased levels of Ag and Pd from 239Pu fission in high burnup fuels leads to the formation of these metal halides. The occurrence of these phases in UO2 nuclear fuels may reduce the impact of long-lived 129I on the repository performance assessment calculations.

  7. Radioactive Iodine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Releases , Featured , News Releases , Potassium Iodide (KI) , Public Health Statements | No Comments This document serves to summarize the issues and the American Thyroid Association (ATA) position regarding ...

  8. Radioactive iodine therapy and breast cancer. A follow-up study of hyperthyroid women

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, M.B.; Maloof, F.; Monson, R.R.; Aschengrau, A.; Cooper, D.S.; Ridgway, E.C.

    1988-05-01

    A follow-up study of 1762 hyperthyroid women who were treated at the Massachusetts General Hospital Thyroid Unit between 1946 and 1964 was conducted. The average length of follow-up was 17.2 years. A 1978 mailing address or a death certificate was located for 92% of the women, and 88% of 1058 living patients responded to a mail questionnaire. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for all causes of death was 1.3 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-1.4). The standardized mortality ratios for all malignant neoplasms and for breast cancer were 0.9 (95% CI 0.7-1.1) and 1.3 (95% CI 0.8-1.9), respectively. More deaths than expected were observed from endocrine and metabolic diseases (SMR = 1.8, 95% CI 1.2-2.7), circulatory system diseases (SMR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.3-1.6), and respiratory system diseases (SMR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.3-2.6). The standardized incidence ratios (SIR) for all malignant neoplasms and for breast cancer were 0.9 (95% CI 0.8-1.1) and 1.2 (95% CI 0.9-1.5), respectively. A nonsignificant excess breast cancer risk was observed 10 years after the onset of thyroid symptoms and was present at the end of 30 years of observation. A statistically significant excess number of pancreatic cancer cases (SIR = 2.0, 95% CI 1.0-3.7) and a nonsignificant excess of brain cancer cases (SIR = 2.3, 95% CI 0.7-5.3) were observed. Eighty per cent of the women were treated with radioactive iodine. When age at treatment and year of treatment were controlled, women who were ever treated with radioactive iodine had a standardized rate ratio for breast cancer of 1.9 (95% CI 0.9-4.1), compared with those who were never treated with radioactive iodine. Women who developed hypothyroidism as a result of their treatment for hyperthyroidism did not have an increased risk of developing breast cancer (SIR = 1.1, 95% CI 0.8-1.6).

  9. Observation of radioactive iodine ((131)I, (129)I) in cropland soil after the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Hideshi

    2016-10-01

    During the early stages of the Fukushima nuclear accident, the temporal variations of (131)I deposited on the ground and of (131)I accumulated in cropland soil were monitored at a fixed location in Japan. Moreover, concentrations of long-lived radioactive iodine ((129)I) in atmospheric deposits and soil were measured to examine the feasibility of retrospectively reconstructing (131)I levels from the levels of accident-derived (129)I. The exceptionally high levels of (131)I in deposits and soil were attributed to rainfall-related deposition of radionuclides. In the crop field studied, the losses of deposited (131)I and (129)I due to volatilization were small. The atomic ratio (129)I/(131)I in the topsoil corresponded to the same ratio in deposits. The (131)I concentrations measured in the topsoil were very consistent with the (131)I concentrations reconstructed from the (129)I concentrations in the soil.

  10. Therapeutic Plasmapheresis Enabling Radioactive Iodine Treatment in a Patient with Thyrotoxicosis.

    PubMed

    Min, Se Hee; Phung, Anita; Oh, Tae Jung; Han, Kyou-Sup; Kim, Man Jin; Kim, Jee Min; Lee, Ji Hyun; Park, Young Joo

    2015-10-01

    Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is one possible treatment for patients resistant to conventional antithyroid drugs or requiring urgent attention for thyrotoxicosis. We report a 35-yr-old man with thyrotoxicosis, ultimately attributed to Graves' disease in whom antithyroid drug used initially was soon discontinued, due to abnormal liver function, and replaced by Lugol's solution. Three weeks later, an escape phenomenon (to Lugol's solution) was apparent, so we performed TPE to control the thyrotoxicosis. Two courses of TPE by a centrifugal type machine resulted in diminished levels of thyroid hormone levels, which then rebounded after another two courses of membrane filtration type TPE. However, the patient could be treated with radioactive iodine therapy without any complications at present.

  11. Iatrogenic myxoedema madness following radioactive iodine ablation for Graves' disease, with a concurrent diagnosis of primary hyperaldosteronism.

    PubMed

    Larouche, V; Snell, L; Morris, D V

    2015-01-01

    Myxoedema madness was first described as a consequence of severe hypothyroidism in 1949. Most cases were secondary to long-standing untreated primary hypothyroidism. We present the first reported case of iatrogenic myxoedema madness following radioactive iodine ablation for Graves' disease, with a second concurrent diagnosis of primary hyperaldosteronism. A 29-year-old woman presented with severe hypothyroidism, a 1-week history of psychotic behaviour and paranoid delusions 3 months after treatment with radioactive iodine ablation for Graves' disease. Her psychiatric symptoms abated with levothyroxine replacement. She was concurrently found to be hypertensive and hypokalemic. Primary hyperaldosteronism from bilateral adrenal hyperplasia was diagnosed. This case report serves as a reminder that myxoedema madness can be a complication of acute hypothyroidism following radioactive iodine ablation of Graves' disease and that primary hyperaldosteronism may be associated with autoimmune hyperthyroidism. Psychosis (myxoedema madness) can present as a neuropsychiatric manifestation of acute hypothyroidism following radioactive iodine ablation of Graves' disease.Primary hyperaldosteronism may be caused by idiopathic bilateral adrenal hyperplasia even in the presence of an adrenal adenoma seen on imaging.Adrenal vein sampling is a useful tool for differentiating between a unilateral aldosterone-producing adenoma, which is managed surgically, and an idiopathic bilateral adrenal hyperplasia, which is managed medically.The management of autoimmune hyperthyroidism, iatrogenic hypothyroidism and primary hyperaldosteronism from bilateral idiopathic adrenal hyperplasia in patients planning pregnancy includes delaying pregnancy 6 months following radioactive iodine treatment and until patient is euthyroid for 3 months, using amiloride as opposed to spironolactone, controlling blood pressure with agents safe in pregnancy such as nifedipine and avoiding β blockers

  12. Iatrogenic myxoedema madness following radioactive iodine ablation for Graves' disease, with a concurrent diagnosis of primary hyperaldosteronism

    PubMed Central

    Snell, L; Morris, D V

    2015-01-01

    Summary Myxoedema madness was first described as a consequence of severe hypothyroidism in 1949. Most cases were secondary to long-standing untreated primary hypothyroidism. We present the first reported case of iatrogenic myxoedema madness following radioactive iodine ablation for Graves' disease, with a second concurrent diagnosis of primary hyperaldosteronism. A 29-year-old woman presented with severe hypothyroidism, a 1-week history of psychotic behaviour and paranoid delusions 3 months after treatment with radioactive iodine ablation for Graves' disease. Her psychiatric symptoms abated with levothyroxine replacement. She was concurrently found to be hypertensive and hypokalemic. Primary hyperaldosteronism from bilateral adrenal hyperplasia was diagnosed. This case report serves as a reminder that myxoedema madness can be a complication of acute hypothyroidism following radioactive iodine ablation of Graves' disease and that primary hyperaldosteronism may be associated with autoimmune hyperthyroidism. Learning points Psychosis (myxoedema madness) can present as a neuropsychiatric manifestation of acute hypothyroidism following radioactive iodine ablation of Graves' disease.Primary hyperaldosteronism may be caused by idiopathic bilateral adrenal hyperplasia even in the presence of an adrenal adenoma seen on imaging.Adrenal vein sampling is a useful tool for differentiating between a unilateral aldosterone-producing adenoma, which is managed surgically, and an idiopathic bilateral adrenal hyperplasia, which is managed medically.The management of autoimmune hyperthyroidism, iatrogenic hypothyroidism and primary hyperaldosteronism from bilateral idiopathic adrenal hyperplasia in patients planning pregnancy includes delaying pregnancy 6 months following radioactive iodine treatment and until patient is euthyroid for 3 months, using amiloride as opposed to spironolactone, controlling blood pressure with agents safe in pregnancy such as nifedipine and avoiding

  13. Does (131)I Radioactivity Interfere with Thyroglobulin Measurement in Patients Undergoing Radioactive Iodine Therapy with Recombinant Human TSH?

    PubMed

    Park, Sohyun; Bang, Ji-In; Lee, Ho-Young; Kim, Sang-Eun

    2015-06-01

    Recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) is widely used in radioactive iodine therapy (RIT) to avoid side effects caused by hypothyroidism during the therapy. Owing to RIT with rhTSH, serum thyroglobulin (Tg) is measured with high (131)I concentrations. It is of concern that the relatively high energy of (131)I could interfere with Tg measurement using the immunoradiometric assay (IRMA). We investigated the effect of (131)I administration on Tg measurement with IRMA after RIT. A total of 67 patients with thyroid cancer were analysed retrospectively. All patients had undergone rhTSH stimulation for RIT. The patients' sera were sampled 2 days after (131)I administration and divided into two portions: for Tg measurements on days 2 and 32 after (131)I administration. The count per minute (CPM) of whole serum (200 μl) was also measured at each time point. Student's paired t-test and Pearson's correlation analyses were performed for statistical analysis. Serum Tg levels were significantly concordant between days 2 and 32, irrespective of the serum CPM. Subgroup analysis was performed by classification based on the (131)I dose. No difference was noted between the results of the two groups. IRMA using (125)I did not show interference from (131)I in the serum of patients stimulated by rhTSH.

  14. Radioactive iodine treatment of a functional thyroid carcinoma producing hyperthyroidism in a dog

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, M.E.; Kintzer, P.P.; Hurley, J.R.; Becker, D.V.

    1989-01-01

    Radioactive iodine (/sup 131/I) was used in the treatment of a 12-year-old female dog with hyperthyroidism resulting from a large, unresectable (and metastatic) thyroid carcinoma associated with signs of severe inspiratory stridor and dyspnea. Hyperthyroidism was diagnosed on the basis of clinical signs (polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, weight loss, nervousness) and high basal serum thyroxine (T4) concentrations, as well as thyroid radioiodine kinetic studies that showed a high radioiodine uptake into the thyroid (% thyroid uptake) and markedly increased serum concentrations of protein-bound iodine-131 (PB/sup 131/I) after /sup 131/I tracer injection. Thyroid imaging revealed diffuse radionuclide accumulation by the tumor, which involved both thyroid lobes. The dog was treated with three large doses of radioiodine (/sup 131/I), ranging from 60 to 75 mCi, given at intervals of 5 to 7 months. The dog became euthyroid, and the size of the tumor decreased by approximately 25% after each /sup 131/I treatment, improving the severe inspiratory stridor and dyspnea, but both the hyperthyroid state and breathing difficulty recurred within a few months of each treatment. The dog was euthanatized 5 months after the last treatment because of progressive tracheal compression and pulmonary metastasis.

  15. Immunologic studies in two patients with persistent lymphocytic thyroiditis, thyrotoxicosis, and low radioactive iodine uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot, I.; Gupta, M.; Hostetter, A.; Sheeler, L.; Skillern, P.; Tubbs, R.

    1984-08-01

    Two patients with persistent lymphocytic thyroiditis and thyrotoxicosis were studied. Both patients presented with severe hyperthyroidism of nine months' duration and had nontender, small thyroid glands. Uptake of radioactive iodine (131I) was consistently low. Serum thyroxine and triiodothyronine levels remained elevated without remission until thyroidectomy. The serum thyroglobulin level was normal, but testing for microsomal antibody gave weakly positive results in one case. Thyroglobulin and thyroid stimulatory antibodies were not found. The ratio of helper to suppressor T cells was elevated in one case. Neither patient showed response to propranolol, prednisone, or iodine. Light microscopic and immunohistologic studies showed severe lymphocytic thyroiditis with formation of secondary lymphoid follicles. Lymphocytes were predominately T cells (OKT11-positive), primarily helper/inducer T cells (OKT4-positive). Hyperplastic nodules contained high immunoreactive thyroglobulin and thyroxine levels. Aberrant thymus was seen within the thyroid. These studies suggest the possibility of intrathyroidal stimulation and hydrolysis of thyroglobulin within thyroid cells and also support the hypothesis that T and B cell immunoregulatory defects are important in the pathogenesis of this disease.

  16. Safety Evaluation - Radioactive Components of Materiel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-02

    materials such as radium dials of compasses have been used for many years by the Arrny. Others such as depleted uranium , krypton, proamethium, and tritium...arises when the radioisotope decays and emits a radioactive gas such as radon gas from radiumi. The hazards of radioactive gases accumulating in...contamination tests once each week until a suitable evaluation has been attained. Because of the large variety of radioactive sources stored and used and

  17. Radioactive iodine ablation therapy: a viable option in the management of Graves' disease in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adedapo, K S; Fadiji, I O; Orunmuyi, A T; Onimode, Y; Osifo, B O A

    2012-12-01

    Graves' disease is an autoimmune disorder characterized by hyperthyroidism and associated features. Management of this disease condition for many decades has been largely by surgical and medical intervention. Usage of anti thyroid medication ameliorates the symptoms and effects of excessive production of thyroid hormones. Recently in Nigeria, Nuclear medicine facility became available with the option radioiodine ablative therapy for the management of Graves disease. This study highlights the benefits of radioiodine therapy against the background of equally viable medical and surgical practice. PATIENTS MATERIAL AND METHOD: All the 36 patients seen from the inception of Nuclear Medicine facility at the University College Hospital from June 2006 to May 2010 were included in this study. Sources of referral were compiled. All the patients were on anti thyroid medication at presentation. Thyroid scan was performed by Siemens E- cam gamma camera 20 minutes after intravenous injection of 3-5 mCi of Tc-99m-Pertechnetate. The patients with "diffuse toxic goiter" on thyroid scan were given 10 mCi of Iodine-131 orally and discharged home with radiosafety precautions. Most of the patients were treated 5 days post discontinuation of antithyroid medication. The patients were followed-up monthly with thyroid function tests to determine commencement of replacement therapy. Peak incidence of Graves' disease was at 6th decade (38.9%) of all patients studied. This disease was commoner in women with a ratio of 8 to 1. Ten (27.8%) patients became hypothyroid at the 3rd month post radioactive iodine-131 treatment, while the remaining 20 (55.6%) patients became hypothyroid at the 5th month. Six patients were lost to follow up. There was no recurrence of hyperthyroidism in all patients treated. Twenty eight (93.3%) patients were maintained on 100 mcg of levo-thyroxine daily, while 2 (6.7%) patients had more than 100 mcg of levo- thyroxine daily as maintenance dose. Radioactive iodine

  18. Silver oxide nanocrystals anchored on titanate nanotubes and nanofibers: promising candidates for entrapment of radioactive iodine anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dongjiang; Liu, Hongwei; Liu, Long; Sarina, Sarina; Zheng, Zhanfeng; Zhu, Huaiyong

    2013-10-01

    Iodine radioisotopes are released into the environment by the nuclear industry and medical research institutions using radioactive materials. The 129I- anion is one of the more mobile radioactive species due to a long half-life, and it is a great challenge to design long-term management solutions for such radioactive waste. In this study, a new adsorbent structure with the potential to efficiently remove radioactive iodine anions (I-) from water is devised: silver oxide (Ag2O) nanocrystals firmly anchored on the surface of titanate nanotubes and nanofibers via coherent interfaces between Ag2O and titanate phases. I- anions in fluids can easily access the Ag2O nanocrystals and be efficiently trapped by forming AgI precipitate that firmly attaches to the adsorbent. Due to their one-dimensional morphology, the new adsorbents can be readily dispersed in liquids and easily separated after purification; and the adsorption beds loaded with the adsorbents can permit high flux. This significantly enhances the adsorption efficiency and reduces the separation costs. The proposed structure reveals a new direction in developing efficient adsorbents for the removal of radioactive anions from wastewater.Iodine radioisotopes are released into the environment by the nuclear industry and medical research institutions using radioactive materials. The 129I- anion is one of the more mobile radioactive species due to a long half-life, and it is a great challenge to design long-term management solutions for such radioactive waste. In this study, a new adsorbent structure with the potential to efficiently remove radioactive iodine anions (I-) from water is devised: silver oxide (Ag2O) nanocrystals firmly anchored on the surface of titanate nanotubes and nanofibers via coherent interfaces between Ag2O and titanate phases. I- anions in fluids can easily access the Ag2O nanocrystals and be efficiently trapped by forming AgI precipitate that firmly attaches to the adsorbent. Due to their one

  19. [Study on consequences of radioactive iodine pollution and iodine prophylaxis after the Czernobyl accident in the Krakow region].

    PubMed

    Szybiński, Z; Rybakowa, M; Stanuch, H; Wiśniowski, Z; Korzeniowska, D

    1991-01-01

    Program of investigations of effects of radiation and iodine prophylaxis undertaken after Czarnobyl accident in Kraków region had to be modified due to goiter endemy in this region. These modifications included: 1) Division of the region into 3 areas (voivodship Nowy Sacz, urban voivodship Kraków and area of Kielce and Swietokrzyskie mountains). 2) Study on iodine uptake in food and urinary secretion. 3) Examination of iodine level in drinking water, add an attempt of calculation of radiation dose absorbed by thyroid. Characterization of selected areas, principles of selection of study groups are presented as well as organizational details and methods of data collection.

  20. Risk Factors for Developing Hyponatremia in Thyroid Cancer Patients Undergoing Radioactive Iodine Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Eun; Kim, Seung Kyu; Han, Kyung Hwa; Cho, Mi Ok; Yun, Gi Young; Kim, Ki Hyun; Choi, Hoon Young; Ryu, Young Hoon; Ha, Sung Kyu; Park, Hyeong Cheon

    2014-01-01

    Background Due to the alarming increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer worldwide, more patients are receiving postoperative radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy and these patients are given a low-iodine diet along with levothyroxine withdrawal to induce a hypothyroid state to maximize the uptake of RAI by thyroid tissues. Recently, the reported cases of patients suffering from life-threatening severe hyponatremia following postoperative RAI therapy have increased. This study aimed to systematically assess risk factors for developing hyponatremia following RAI therapy in post-thyroidectomy patients. Methods We reviewed the medical records of all thyroid cancer patients who underwent thyroidectomy and postoperative RAI therapy from July 2009 to February 2012. Demographic and biochemical parameters including serum sodium and thyroid function tests were assessed along with medication history. Results A total of 2229 patients (47.0±11.0 years, female 76.3%) were enrolled in the analysis. Three hundred seven patients (13.8%) of all patients developed hyponatremia; 44 patients (2.0%) developed moderate to severe hyponatremia (serum Na+≤130 mEq/L) and another 263 (11.8%) patients showed mild hyponatremia (130 mEq/L

  1. Association of Xerostomia and Ultrasonographic Features of the Major Salivary Glands After Radioactive Iodine Ablation for Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Soo Roh, Sang; Wook Kim, Dong; Jin Baek, Hye

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the association between xerostomia and sonographic features of the major salivary glands after patients undergo radioactive iodine ablation (RIA) for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). The study included 256 consecutive patients who underwent total thyroidectomy, RIA, and neck ultrasound examinations. Changes in the ultrasound features of the parotid and submandibular glands after RIA were evaluated retrospectively by a single radiologist, on the basis of direct comparison of sonograms obtained before and after RIA. Clinical data, including the presence of xerostomia, were investigated retrospectively by the same radiologist via a review of the electronic medical records. For 111 of the 256 patients (43.4%), ultrasound examination revealed changes in the major salivary glands after RIA. The presence of xerostomia was undetermined in 85 of the 256 patients. Among the remaining 171 patients, the frequency of xerostomia was 36.8% (63/171). When patients with xerostomia were compared with those without xerostomia, no statistically significant differences in patient sex and age, the dose of RIA received, or the number of RIA sessions were noted (p > 0.05). Considering the changes in the ultrasound features of the major salivary glands after RIA, no statistically significant association was found between xerostomia and the number of involved major salivary glands or the presence of an involved submandibular gland (p > 0.05). In this study, ultrasound was unhelpful for evaluating xerostomia after RIA in patients with PTC.

  2. Preparation for radioactive iodine therapy is not a risk factor for the development of hyponatremia in thyroid cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jahae; Cho, Sang-Geon; Kang, Sae-Ryung; Kwon, Seong Young; Cho, Dong-Hyeok; Cho, Jin-Seong; Song, Ho-Chun

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the preparation for radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy by thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW) or a low-iodine diet (LID) can be risk factors for the development of hyponatremia in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer after thyroidectomy.We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and laboratory findings of 326 patients who underwent preparation for RAI therapy after thyroidectomy from 2012 to 2014. Demographic and clinical variables including the method of thyrotropin stimulation and duration of LID were assessed. Serum sodium was measured twice, before operation and before RAI therapy.Hyponatremia was detected in only 3 patients (0.9%) before operation, but in 15 patients (4.6%) before RAI therapy. None of the patients had severe hyponatremia after preparation for RAI therapy. Pre-RAI therapy serum sodium was correlated with the method of thyrotropin stimulation (TWH vs recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone, P = 0.014) and duration of LID (r = -0.131, P = 0.018); however, the preparation of RAI therapy, THW and LID, did not affect the development of hyponatremia in logistic regression analysis. Preoperative serum sodium was a significant risk factor for hyponatremia during preparation for RAI therapy.Preparation for RAI therapy by THW or LID is not a risk factor for the development of hyponatremia in patients with thyroid cancer. The development of hyponatremia was neither frequent nor severe during preparation for RAI therapy. Physicians should not be greatly concerned about rare life-threatening hyponatremia during preparation for RAI therapy.

  3. Preparation for radioactive iodine therapy is not a risk factor for the development of hyponatremia in thyroid cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jahae; Cho, Sang-Geon; Kang, Sae-Ryung; Kwon, Seong Young; Cho, Dong-Hyeok; Cho, Jin-Seong; Song, Ho-Chun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the preparation for radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy by thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW) or a low-iodine diet (LID) can be risk factors for the development of hyponatremia in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer after thyroidectomy. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and laboratory findings of 326 patients who underwent preparation for RAI therapy after thyroidectomy from 2012 to 2014. Demographic and clinical variables including the method of thyrotropin stimulation and duration of LID were assessed. Serum sodium was measured twice, before operation and before RAI therapy. Hyponatremia was detected in only 3 patients (0.9%) before operation, but in 15 patients (4.6%) before RAI therapy. None of the patients had severe hyponatremia after preparation for RAI therapy. Pre-RAI therapy serum sodium was correlated with the method of thyrotropin stimulation (TWH vs recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone, P = 0.014) and duration of LID (r = −0.131, P = 0.018); however, the preparation of RAI therapy, THW and LID, did not affect the development of hyponatremia in logistic regression analysis. Preoperative serum sodium was a significant risk factor for hyponatremia during preparation for RAI therapy. Preparation for RAI therapy by THW or LID is not a risk factor for the development of hyponatremia in patients with thyroid cancer. The development of hyponatremia was neither frequent nor severe during preparation for RAI therapy. Physicians should not be greatly concerned about rare life-threatening hyponatremia during preparation for RAI therapy. PMID:28151897

  4. Silver oxide nanocrystals anchored on titanate nanotubes and nanofibers: promising candidates for entrapment of radioactive iodine anions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dongjiang; Liu, Hongwei; Liu, Long; Sarina, Sarina; Zheng, Zhanfeng; Zhu, Huaiyong

    2013-11-21

    Iodine radioisotopes are released into the environment by the nuclear industry and medical research institutions using radioactive materials. The (129)I(-) anion is one of the more mobile radioactive species due to a long half-life, and it is a great challenge to design long-term management solutions for such radioactive waste. In this study, a new adsorbent structure with the potential to efficiently remove radioactive iodine anions (I(-)) from water is devised: silver oxide (Ag2O) nanocrystals firmly anchored on the surface of titanate nanotubes and nanofibers via coherent interfaces between Ag2O and titanate phases. I(-) anions in fluids can easily access the Ag2O nanocrystals and be efficiently trapped by forming AgI precipitate that firmly attaches to the adsorbent. Due to their one-dimensional morphology, the new adsorbents can be readily dispersed in liquids and easily separated after purification; and the adsorption beds loaded with the adsorbents can permit high flux. This significantly enhances the adsorption efficiency and reduces the separation costs. The proposed structure reveals a new direction in developing efficient adsorbents for the removal of radioactive anions from wastewater.

  5. FREQUENCY OF FLAME SENSOR ACTIVATION IN PUBLIC PLACES AFTER ADMINISTRATION OF RADIOACTIVE IODINE TO TREAT GRAVES DISEASE: A RECENT SURVEY.

    PubMed

    Tajiri, Junichi; Hamada, Katsuhiko; Maruta, Tetsushi; Mizokami, Tetsuya; Higashi, Kiichiro

    2016-08-01

    Ultraviolet (UV)-perception-type flame sensors detect gamma rays emitted from iodine 131 ((131)I). Explaining the possibility of flame sensor activation to patients when they receive (131)I to treat Graves disease or other ablative purposes is important. We investigate the current situation of flame sensor activation after radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy. A total of 318 patients (65 males and 253 females) with Graves disease who received RAI therapy at our clinic between November 2007 and June 2014 participated in this study. Patients were given both written and oral explanations regarding the possibility of flame sensor activation. Participants were surveyed with a questionnaire. The following question was asked: "Did the fire alarm (flame sensor) go off when you used a restroom in places like shopping centers within a few days after your isotope therapy?" To those who answered "yes," we asked where the fire alarm had gone off. Of the 318 patients, 19 (6.0%) answered "yes," 2 of whom were male while 17 were female. Of the 299 (94.0%) patients who answered "no," 63 were male and 236 were female. As to the place of restroom sensor activation, shopping centers were reported by 9 patients; supermarkets by 5; airports by 2; and a bookstore, the Kyushu Shinkansen (bullet train), and a hospital by 1 each. Explaining to patients the possibility of flame sensor activation after RAI therapy is important to avoid some complications, especially in security-sensitive areas. (131)I = iodine 131 RAI = radioactive iodine UV = ultra-violet.

  6. Radioactive waste shredding: Preliminary evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Soelberg, N.R.; Reimann, G.A.

    1994-07-01

    The critical constraints for sizing solid radioactive and mixed wastes for subsequent thermal treatment were identified via a literature review and a survey of shredding equipment vendors. The types and amounts of DOE radioactive wastes that will require treatment to reduce the waste volume, destroy hazardous organics, or immobilize radionuclides and/or hazardous metals were considered. The preliminary steps of waste receipt, inspection, and separation were included because many potential waste treatment technologies have limits on feedstream chemical content, physical composition, and particle size. Most treatment processes and shredding operations require at least some degree of feed material characterization. Preliminary cost estimates show that pretreatment costs per unit of waste can be high and can vary significantly, depending on the processing rate and desired output particle size.

  7. Therapeutic applications of radioactive 131iodine: Procedures and incidents with capsules

    PubMed Central

    Al Aamri, Marwa; Ravichandran, Ramamoorthy; Binukumar, John Pichy; Al Balushi, Naima

    2016-01-01

    Background: Treatments for thyrotoxicosis and carcinoma thyroid are carried out by oral administration of radioactive iodine (131I) in the form of liquid or capsules. The liquid form of 131I has higher risk factors such as vapourization, spillage and need for management of higher activity wastes. Use of 131I in capsule form simplify procedures of handling compared to liquid form of 131I. The guidelines of safe handling and quality assurance aspects for therapeutic use 131I are well outlined by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reports. Aim: A few unusual incidents with I-131 capsules encountered in the past need to be highlighted from health physics point of view. Materials and Methods: In Royal Hospital, Oman, I-131 is imported in capsules, and the total activity handled/year steadily increased over 10 years. Discrete activities range from 185 MBq (5 mCi) up to 7.4 GBq (200 mCi). In four incidents deviations in standard operational procedures were recorded. Results: Nature of incidents is described as follows: (1) After assay of activity, the capsule was directly put in the lead container with missing of inner cap. (2) Patient poured water in the Perspex tube, when the capsule was handed over to her, making an emergency situation. (3) In 3 high activity capsules (2 nos 2.96 GBq, 1 no. 4.26 GBq), observed sticky behavior in capsule holder on the 2nd day post receipt, which were in order on the 1st day. (4) A capsule could not be swallowed by a patient, which was taken back from the mouth. Monitoring of patient later did not show residual ingested activity. Conclusions: The report documents some of the unusual incidents for information to other centers engaged in such radioactive administrations. PMID:27385885

  8. Therapeutic applications of radioactive (131)iodine: Procedures and incidents with capsules.

    PubMed

    Al Aamri, Marwa; Ravichandran, Ramamoorthy; Binukumar, John Pichy; Al Balushi, Naima

    2016-01-01

    Treatments for thyrotoxicosis and carcinoma thyroid are carried out by oral administration of radioactive iodine ((131)I) in the form of liquid or capsules. The liquid form of (131)I has higher risk factors such as vapourization, spillage and need for management of higher activity wastes. Use of (131)I in capsule form simplify procedures of handling compared to liquid form of (131)I. The guidelines of safe handling and quality assurance aspects for therapeutic use (131)I are well outlined by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reports. A few unusual incidents with I-131 capsules encountered in the past need to be highlighted from health physics point of view. In Royal Hospital, Oman, I-131 is imported in capsules, and the total activity handled/year steadily increased over 10 years. Discrete activities range from 185 MBq (5 mCi) up to 7.4 GBq (200 mCi). In four incidents deviations in standard operational procedures were recorded. Nature of incidents is described as follows: (1) After assay of activity, the capsule was directly put in the lead container with missing of inner cap. (2) Patient poured water in the Perspex tube, when the capsule was handed over to her, making an emergency situation. (3) In 3 high activity capsules (2 nos 2.96 GBq, 1 no. 4.26 GBq), observed sticky behavior in capsule holder on the 2(nd) day post receipt, which were in order on the 1(st) day. (4) A capsule could not be swallowed by a patient, which was taken back from the mouth. Monitoring of patient later did not show residual ingested activity. The report documents some of the unusual incidents for information to other centers engaged in such radioactive administrations.

  9. Prospective study of the changes in thyrotropin binding inhibitory immunoglobulins in Graves' disease treated by subtotal thyroidectomy or radioactive iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, C.S.; Yeung, R.T.T.; Khoo, R.K.K.; Alagaratnam, T.T.

    1980-06-01

    The effects of subtotal thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine on thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins, as measured by a receptor assay, more appropriately termed TSH binding inhibitory immunoglobulins (TBII), were studied in 74 patients with Graves' disease. Fourty-four patients received radioactive iodine therapy, while 30 were subjected to subtotal thyroidectomy. After radioactive iodine, more patients were TBII-positive (90.5% vs 81.8%) than before treatment, and the mean TBII index decreased dramatically, the maximum decrease being 3 months. The mean TBI index subsequently returned gradually to the pretreatment level. Subtotal thyroidectomy had a different effect on TBII activity. TBII indices were positive in 89.3% of these patients before any treatment but were positive in only 40% (12 patients) after antithyroid drugs had been given before surgery. After surgery, TBII indices remained positive in 7 patients, while the remaining 5 patients became TBII negative. Seventeen patients (56.7%) were TBII negative before operation and remained so after surgery. One patient who was TBII negative before operation became TBII positive 2 months after operation. Interestingly, postoperative relapse of hyperthyroidism occurred in 3 patients who were TIBII positive, while hypothyroidism occurred in patients who were TBII negative. Thus, the TBII activity after subtotal thyroidectomy might be an important factor in determining the outcome of surgery.

  10. The Treatment of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer in Children: Emphasis on Surgical Approach and Radioactive Iodine Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Mazzaferri, Ernest L.; Verburg, Frederik A.; Reiners, Christoph; Luster, Markus; Breuer, Christopher K.; Dinauer, Catherine A.; Udelsman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Pediatric thyroid cancer is a rare disease with an excellent prognosis. Compared with adults, epithelial-derived differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), which includes papillary and follicular thyroid cancer, presents at more advanced stages in children and is associated with higher rates of recurrence. Because of its uncommon occurrence, randomized trials have not been applied to test best-care options in children. Even in adults that have a 10-fold or higher incidence of thyroid cancer than children, few prospective trials have been executed to compare treatment approaches. We recognize that treatment recommendations have changed over the past few decades and will continue to do so. Respecting the aggressiveness of pediatric thyroid cancer, high recurrence rates, and the problems associated with decades of long-term follow-up, a premium should be placed on treatments that minimize risk of recurrence and the adverse effects of treatments and facilitate follow-up. We recommend that total thyroidectomy and central compartment lymph node dissection is the surgical procedure of choice for children with DTC if it can be performed by a high-volume thyroid surgeon. We recommend radioactive iodine therapy for remnant ablation or residual disease for most children with DTC. We recommend long-term follow-up because disease can recur decades after initial diagnosis and therapy. Considering the complexity of DTC management and the potential complications associated with therapy, it is essential that pediatric DTC be managed by physicians with expertise in this area. PMID:21880704

  11. Thyroid storm following radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy for pediatric graves disease

    PubMed Central

    Rohrs, Henry J.; Silverstein, Janet H.; Weinstein, David A.; Amdur, Robert J.; Haller, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Female, 11 Final Diagnosis: Thyroid storm Symptoms: Diarrhea • tachycardia • tachypnea • tremor • wheezing Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: — Objective: Rare disease Background: A growing number of pediatric endocrinologists treat Graves disease with radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy due to the typically definitive nature of I-131 therapy. Given the published benefits and perceived low risks of RAI when compared to surgery or long-term anti-thyroid medication, the trend towards therapy with RAI is likely to continue. Nevertheless, RAI is not without significant risk. Case Report: An 11-year-old girl with newly diagnosed Graves disease received RAI for definitive treatment of her hyperthyroidism. Within 24 hours of receiving I-131, she developed increasing sleepiness and eventually became unresponsive. Upon arrival at the emergency department she had a tonic-clonic seizure and was diagnosed with thyroid storm. Despite best efforts to manage her hyperthyroidism, she suffered a stroke of the left cerebral hemisphere that left her with persistent neurological deficits. Conclusions: Although thyroid storm after thyroid ablation is rare, the significant morbidity and potential mortality of pediatric thyroid storm warrant further studies to determine if children with markedly elevated thyroid hormone concentrations at diagnosis should receive prolonged pretreatment with anti-thyroid drugs. While such an approach may reduce the efficacy of I-131 ablation, it can also reduce and hopefully eliminate the risk of post-ablative thyroid storm. PMID:24847412

  12. Thyroid storm following radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy for pediatric graves disease.

    PubMed

    Rohrs, Henry J; Silverstein, Janet H; Weinstein, David A; Amdur, Robert J; Haller, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Female, 11 FINAL DIAGNOSIS: Thyroid storm Symptoms: Diarrhea • tachycardia • tachypnea • tremor • wheezing - Clinical Procedure: - Specialty: - Rare disease. A growing number of pediatric endocrinologists treat Graves disease with radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy due to the typically definitive nature of I-131 therapy. Given the published benefits and perceived low risks of RAI when compared to surgery or long-term anti-thyroid medication, the trend towards therapy with RAI is likely to continue. Nevertheless, RAI is not without significant risk. An 11-year-old girl with newly diagnosed Graves disease received RAI for definitive treatment of her hyperthyroidism. Within 24 hours of receiving I-131, she developed increasing sleepiness and eventually became unresponsive. Upon arrival at the emergency department she had a tonic-clonic seizure and was diagnosed with thyroid storm. Despite best efforts to manage her hyperthyroidism, she suffered a stroke of the left cerebral hemisphere that left her with persistent neurological deficits. Although thyroid storm after thyroid ablation is rare, the significant morbidity and potential mortality of pediatric thyroid storm warrant further studies to determine if children with markedly elevated thyroid hormone concentrations at diagnosis should receive prolonged pretreatment with anti-thyroid drugs. While such an approach may reduce the efficacy of I-131 ablation, it can also reduce and hopefully eliminate the risk of post-ablative thyroid storm.

  13. Chalcogen-based aerogels as a multifunctional platform for remediation of radioactive iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Brian J.; Chun, Jaehun; Ryan, Joseph V.; Matyas, Josef; Li, Xiaohong S.; Matson, Dean W.; Sundaram, S. K.; Strachan, Denis M.; Vienna, John D.

    2011-12-22

    Aerogels employing chalcogen-based (i.e., S, Se, and/or Te) structural units and interlinking metals are termed chalcogels and have many emerging applications. Here, chalcogels are discussed in the context of nuclear fuel reprocessing and radioactive waste remediation. Motivated by previous work on removal of heavy metals in aqueous solution, we explored the application of germanium sulfide chalcogels as a sorbent for gas-phase I2 based on Pearson's Hard/Soft Acid-Base (HSAB) principle. This work was driven by a significant need for high-efficiency sorbents for I-129, a long-lived isotope evolved during irradiated UO2 nuclear fuel reprocessing. These chalcogel compositions are shown to possess an affinity for iodine gas, I2(g), at various concentrations in air and the affinity is attributed to a strong chemical attraction between the chalcogen and I2(g), according to the HSAB principle. The high sorption efficiency is facilitated by the high porosity as well as the exceptionally large surface area of the chalcogels.

  14. Iodine absorption cells quality evaluation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrabina, Jan; Zucco, Massimo; Holá, Miroslava; Šarbort, Martin; Acef, Ouali; Du-Burck, Frédéric; Lazar, Josef; Číp, Ondřej

    2016-12-01

    The absorption cells represent an unique tool for the laser frequency stabilization. They serve as irreplaceable optical frequency references in realization of high-stable laser standards and laser sources for different brands of optical measurements, including the most precise frequency and dimensional measurement systems. One of the most often used absorption media covering visible and near IR spectral range is molecular iodine. It offers rich atlas of very strong and narrow spectral transitions which allow realization of laser systems with ultimate frequency stabilities in or below 10-14 order level. One of the most often disccussed disadvantage of the iodine cells is iodine's corrosivity and sensitivity to presence of foreign substances. The impurities react with absorption media and cause spectral shifts of absorption spectra, spectral broadening of the transitions and decrease achievable signal-to-noise ratio of the detected spectra. All of these unwanted effects directly influence frequency stability of the realized laser standard and due to this fact, the quality of iodine cells must be precisely controlled. We present a comparison of traditionally used method of laser induced fluorescence (LIF) with novel technique based on hyperfine transitions linewidths measurement. The results summarize advantages and drawbacks of these techniques and give a recommendation for their practical usage.

  15. Activation of water soluble amines by halogens for trapping methyl radioactive iodine from air streams

    DOEpatents

    Deitz, Victor R.; Blachly, Charles H.

    1977-01-01

    Gas adsorbent charcoals impregnated with an aqueous solution of the reaction product of a tertiary amine and elemental iodine or bromine are better than 99 per cent efficient in trapping methyl iodine.sup.131. The chemical addition of iodine or bromine to the tertiary amine molecule increases the efficiency of the impregnated charcoal as a trapping agent, and in conjunction with the high flash point of the tertiary amine raises the ignition temperature of the impregnated charcoal.

  16. OPTIMIZING LENVATINIB THERAPY IN PATIENTS WITH METASTATIC RADIOACTIVE IODINE-RESISTANT DIFFERENTIATED THYROID CANCERS.

    PubMed

    Jasim, Sina; Iniguez-Ariza, Nicole M; Hilger, Crystal R; Chintakuntlawar, Ashish V; Ryder, Mabel M; Morris, John C; Bible, Keith C

    2017-08-17

    Lenvatinib is approved for use in advanced radioactive iodine resistant differentiated thyroid cancers (RAIR-DTCs); its efficacy is indisputable, but toxicities are great, creating daunting challenges for patients and providers. Few data regarding early adverse events and impact on quality of life (QOL) exist; we sought to add clarity to these issues by analyzing our initial post-approval lenvatinib experience. Standardized patient education was implemented, providing detailed instructions and expert provider contacts to facilitate timely reporting of toxicities and guide responsive actions. Early adverse events, QOL outcomes and response data from 25 consecutively-treated DTC patients (02/2015 and 05/2016) were analyzed retrospectively. Median age was 55 years (range 27-81); 52% were female. Fourteen (56%) were on antihypertensive medication(s) at baseline. Most patients (21/25, 84%) developed adverse events during the first month of therapy. Hypertension arose in 16/25 (64%), requiring antihypertensive dose adjustment/addition in 6 (24%)/12 (48%) patients respectively during the first month of therapy. Dose reduction was required in 11 (44%) due to multiple adverse events; median time to first dose reduction=33 days (range 11-84); 8 (32%) required >1 dose reduction. Therapy interruption >3 weeks occurred in 4 (16%). Median change in patient-reported fatigue score +2 (worsening, range -2 to +10, P<0.007; 0-10 scales), but median QOL change was 0 (range +4 to -9, P=0.57). Mean duration of lenvatinib therapy was 6.5 months (range 1-12); median overall and progression free survival have not yet been reached. Lenvatinib was discontinued in 7 patients (28%); among 20 patients with available RECIST measurements, 10 (50%) achieved RECIST PR. Lenvatinib has promising efficacy in RAIR DTC, but toxicities require frequent early interventions; QOL can be maintained on lenvatinib therapy.

  17. Bismuth-embedded SBA-15 mesoporous silica for radioactive iodine capture and stable storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jae Hwan; Cho, Yong-Jun; Shin, Jin Myeong; Yim, Man-Sung

    2015-10-01

    Efficient capture and stable storage of the long-lived iodine-129 (129I), released as off-gas from nuclear fuel reprocessing, have been of significant concern in the waste management field. In this study, bismuth-embedded SBA-15 mesoporous silica was firstly applied for iodine capture and storage. SBA-15 was functionalized with thiol (-SH) groups, followed by bismuth adsorption with Bi-S bonding, which was thermally treated to form Bi2S3 within SBA-15. The bismuth-embedded SBA-15s demonstrated high iodine loading capacities (up to 540 mg-I/g-sorbent), which benefitted from high surface area and porosity of SBA-15 as well as the formation of thermodynamically stable BiI3 compound. Iodine physisorption was effectively suppressed due to the large pores present in SBA-15, resulting in chemisorption as a main mechanism for iodine confinement. Furthermore, a chemically durable iodine-bearing material was made with a facile post-sorption process, during which the iodine-incorporated phase was changed from BiI3 to chemically durable Bi5O7I. Thus, our results showed that both efficient capture and stabilization of 129I would be possible with the bismuth-embedded SBA-15, in contrast to other sorbents mainly focused on iodine capture.

  18. Long-term follow-up in toxic solitary autonomous thyroid nodules treated with radioactive iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Huysmans, D.A.; Corstens, F.H.; Kloppenborg, P.W. )

    1991-01-01

    The long-term effects of radioiodine treatment on thyroid function in patients with a toxic solitary autonomous thyroid nodule were evaluated. Fifty-two patients received a therapeutic dose of 20 mCi of iodine-131 ({sup 131}I). Duration of follow-up was 10 +/- 4 yr. Follow-up data included a biochemical evaluation of thyroid function. The failure rate (recurrent hyperthyroidism) was 2%. The incidence of hypothyroidism was 6% and was not related to the dose per gram of nodular tissue. Oral administration of 20 mCi of radioiodine is a simple and highly effective method for the treatment of patients with a toxic autonomous thyroid nodule. The risk of development of hypothyroidism is low if extranodular uptake of {sup 131}I is prevented. This can be achieved by not treating euthyroid patients, by no longer using injections of exogenous thyroid stimulating hormone in the diagnostic work-up of the patients and by always performing radioiodine imaging shortly before treatment.

  19. Effects of thyroid hormone withdrawal on metabolic and cardiovascular parameters during radioactive iodine therapy in differentiated thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    An, Jee Hyun; Song, Kee-Ho; Kim, Dong-Lim; Kim, Suk Kyeong

    2017-02-01

    Objective To investigate the cardiometabolic effects of a severe hypothyroid state induced by withdrawal of thyroid hormone replacement before radioactive iodine therapy. Methods Patients with thyroid cancer who were scheduled to receive radioactive iodine ablation were enrolled. Cardiometabolic parameters were measured using blood samples taken immediately before levothyroxine withdrawal, 4 weeks following withdrawal (on radiotherapy day), and 4 weeks following reinstitution of levothyroxine. Results Out of 48 patients (age 49.4 ± 10.5 years; 77.1% [37/48] female), the severe hypothyroid state induced by levothyroxine withdrawal significantly aggravated the majority of lipid parameters, particularly in patients with a greater number of metabolic syndrome components. Fasting plasma glucose levels and homeostatic model assessment values for insulin resistance and β-cell function significantly decreased following levothyroxine withdrawal. Serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, fibrinogen and cystatin C levels significantly decreased, and homocysteine levels increased during the severe hypothyroid state. All of these changes were reversed by levothyroxine reinstitution. Conclusions Severe hypothyroid state induced pronounced changes in cardiometabolic parameters. Further studies should identify the long-term effects of changes in these parameters on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in relation to thyroid disease.

  20. Sorafenib in radioactive iodine-refractory, locally advanced or metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer: a randomised, double-blind, phase 3 trial.

    PubMed

    Brose, Marcia S; Nutting, Christopher M; Jarzab, Barbara; Elisei, Rossella; Siena, Salvatore; Bastholt, Lars; de la Fouchardiere, Christelle; Pacini, Furio; Paschke, Ralf; Shong, Young Kee; Sherman, Steven I; Smit, Johannes W A; Chung, John; Kappeler, Christian; Peña, Carol; Molnár, István; Schlumberger, Martin J

    2014-07-26

    Patients with radioactive iodine ((131)I)-refractory locally advanced or metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer have a poor prognosis because of the absence of effective treatment options. In this study, we assessed the efficacy and safety of orally administered sorafenib in the treatment of patients with this type of cancer. In this multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial (DECISION), we investigated sorafenib (400 mg orally twice daily) in patients with radioactive iodine-refractory locally advanced or metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer that had progressed within the past 14 months. Adult patients (≥18 years of age) with this type of cancer were enrolled from 77 centres in 18 countries. To be eligible for inclusion, participants had to have at least one measurable lesion by CT or MRI according to Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST); Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0-2; adequate bone marrow, liver, and renal function; and serum thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration lower than 0·5 mIU/L. An interactive voice response system was used to randomly allocate participants in a 1:1 ratio to either sorafenib or matching placebo. Patients, investigators, and the study sponsor were masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival, assessed every 8 weeks by central independent review. Analysis was by intention to treat. Patients in the placebo group could cross over to open-label sorafenib upon disease progression. Archival tumour tissue was examined for BRAF and RAS mutations, and serum thyroglobulin was measured at baseline and at each visit. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00984282, and with the EU Clinical Trials Register, number EudraCT 2009-012007-25. Patients were randomly allocated on a 1:1 basis to sorafenib or placebo. The intention-to-treat population comprised 417 patients (207 in the sorafenib group and 210 in the

  1. Thyroid cancer patient perceptions of radioactive iodine treatment choice: Follow‐up from a decision‐aid randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Straus, Sharon; Rodin, Gary; Heus, Lineke; Brierley, James D.; Tsang, Richard W.; Rotstein, Lorne; Ezzat, Shereen; Segal, Phillip; Gafni, Amiram; Thorpe, Kevin E.; Goldstein, David P.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Patient decision aids (P‐DAs) inform medical decision making, but longer term effects are unknown. This article describes extended follow‐up from a thyroid cancer treatment P‐DA trial. METHODS In this single‐center, parallel‐design randomized controlled trial conducted at a Canadian tertiary/quaternary care center, early‐stage thyroid cancer patients from a P‐DA trial were contacted 15 to 23 months after randomization/radioactive iodine (RAI) decision making to evaluate longer term outcomes. It was previously reported that the use of the computerized P‐DA in thyroid cancer patients considering postsurgical RAI treatment significantly improved medical knowledge in comparison with usual care alone. The P‐DA and control groups were compared for the following outcomes: feeling informed about the RAI treatment choice, decision satisfaction, decision regret, cancer‐related worry, and physician trust. In a subgroup of 20 participants, in‐depth interviews were conducted for a qualitative analysis. RESULTS Ninety‐five percent (70 of 74) of the original population enrolled in follow‐up at a mean of 17.1 months after randomization. P‐DA users perceived themselves to be significantly more 1) informed about the treatment choice (P = .008), 2) aware of options (P = .009), 3) knowledgeable about treatment benefits (P = .020), and 4) knowledgeable about treatment risks/side effects (P = .001) in comparison with controls. There were no significant group differences in decision satisfaction (P = .142), decision regret (P = .199), cancer‐related worry (P = .645), mood (P = .211), or physician trust (P = .764). In the qualitative analysis, the P‐DA was perceived to have increased patient knowledge and confidence in decision making. CONCLUSIONS The P‐DA improved cancer survivors’ actual and long‐term perceived medical knowledge with no adverse effects. More research on the long‐term outcomes of P

  2. Influence of the first radioactive iodine ablation on peripheral complete blood count in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Tianpeng; Meng, Zhaowei; Zhang, Guizhi; Jia, Qiang; Tan, Jian; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Renfei; Li, Xue; Liu, Na; Zhou, Pingping; Upadhyaya, Arun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Radioactive iodine (RAI) is considered to be related with hematologic changes. This study aimed to evaluate influence of the first RAI ablation on peripheral complete blood count (CBC) in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Data of CBC at baseline and 6 months after RAI were obtained in 385 patients with DTC with approximately 3700 MBq 131I (ranging 2220–7585 MBq). Further comparison was done in 196 patients with 1-month postablation data available. Routine blood examinations were performed to determine impact of RAI on white blood cell (WBC), red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin, platelet, neutrophil, lymphocyte, and monocyte in both sexes. Continuous variables were compared by paired t tests and independent samples t test, and categorical variables were compared by chi-square analysis. Data with repeated measurements were analyzed by analysis of variance. The first RAI after thyroidectomy was associated with mild, yet significant declines in WBC, platelet, and lymphocyte, which persisted for 6 months. One month after RAI, significant declines were found in all CBC, including RBC and hemoglobin (all P < 0.05). While CBC partly recovered 6 months after RAI, this follow-up CBC still demonstrated significant declines in WBC, platelet, and lymphocyte (all P < 0.05) without gender differences. Significant rises in RBC and hemoglobin in males and females were found. The decline of platelet in females was more obvious than in males at 3700 to 4440 MBq of RAI. On the contrary, the rises of RBC and hemoglobin in males were higher than in females. There were no significant complications during the follow-up. WBC and platelet decreased obviously 1 month after RAI. While they partly recovered 6 months after RAI, they were still lower than the baseline. However, RBC and hemoglobin transiently decreased at 1 month and then increased to levels even higher than baseline 6 months later. At 3700 to 4440 MBq of RAI, the decline of platelet in females

  3. Patient release criteria following radioactive iodine-131 treatment in the light of international practice: where does South Africa fit in?

    PubMed

    Mongane, Modisenyane S; Rae, William I D

    2017-10-01

    The release from hospital of patients treated with radioactive iodine-131 (I) remains a controversial issue as a result of the range of guidelines implemented by national regulatory bodies responsible for radiation protection in various countries worldwide. The aim of this study was to review and analyse the literature on patient release criteria (PRC) applied internationally in an attempt to achieve a justifiable approach to setting equivalent criteria in South Africa. In 2016, the South African Department of Health, Directorate: Radiation Control added conditions (numbers 50 and 90), to licences to use radioactive nuclides. These conditions state that patients must be hospitalized when the dose rate at 1 m is above 25 μSv/h, or more than 555 MBq of iodine-131 was administered to the patient. However, these criteria do not consider patients' socioeconomic conditions. A literature survey was carried out of articles detailing PRC from high-income countries as well as those in the middle-income and lower-income groups. Socioeconomic conditions within countries were determined using the International Monetary Fund lists of gross domestic product. The results from the literature have shown that in setting PRC, several countries have considered the socioeconomic conditions prevailing in their countries to achieve harmony between public protection and cost associated with hospitalization. The South African authority conditions must be seen in the context of the approach followed by other countries. Considering the international context, a justifiable, and potentially implementable, guideline or policy for improving individualized and more caring patient management is advocated.

  4. Treatment patterns, health state, and health care resource utilization of patients with radioactive iodine refractory differentiated thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gianoukakis, Andrew G; Flores, Natalia M; Pelletier, Corey L; Forsythe, Anna; Wolfe, Gregory R; Taylor, Matthew H

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) often respond well to treatment but some become refractory to radioactive iodine (RAI) treatment, and treatment options are limited. Despite the humanistic and economic burden RAI refractory disease imposes on patients, published research concerning treatment patterns and health care resource utilization is sparse. Methods Data were collected from an online retrospective chart review study in the US and five European Union (EU) countries (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and UK) with physicians recruited from an online panel. Physicians (N=211) provided demographics, disease history, treatment information, and health care resource utilization for one to four of their patients with radioactive iodine refractory differentiated thyroid cancer (RR-DTC). Results The majority of the patients with RR-DTC (N=623) were female (56%), and their mean age was 58.2 years. In this sample, 63.2% had papillary thyroid cancer and 57.0% were in Stage IV when deemed RAI refractory. Patients with RR-DTC experienced regional recurrence in the thyroid bed/central neck area (25.3%) and had distant metastatic disease (53.6%). At the time data were collected, 50.7% were receiving systemic treatment. Of those, 78.5% were on first-line treatment and 62.7% were receiving multikinase inhibitors. Regional differences for prescribed treatments were observed; the US was more likely to have patients receiving multikinase inhibitors (79.2%) compared with UK (41.2%) and Italy (17.1%). Additional details regarding treatment patterns and resource utilization are discussed. Conclusion The current study aimed to obtain a greater understanding of RR-DTC treatment globally. These results can assist in the development and implementation of treatment guidelines and ultimately enhance the care of patients with RR-DTC. PMID:27313476

  5. Radioactive iodine (131I) therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer in Japan: current issues with historical review and future perspective.

    PubMed

    Higashi, Tatsuya; Kudo, Takashi; Kinuya, Seigo

    2012-02-01

    Radioactive iodine (RAI, (131)I) has been used as a therapeutic agent for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) with over 50 years of history. Recently, it is now attracting attention in medical fields as one of the molecular targeting therapies, which is known as targeted radionuclide therapy. Radioactive iodine therapy (RIT) for DTC, however, is now at stake in Japan, because Japan is confronting several problems, including the recent occurrence of the Great East Japan Disaster (GEJD) in March 2011. RIT for DTC is strictly limited in Japan and requires hospitalization. Because of strict regulations, severe lack of medical facilities for RIT has become one of the most important medical problems, which results in prolonged waiting time for Japanese patients with DTC, including those with distant metastasis, who wish to receive RIT immediately. This situation is also due to various other factors, such as prolonged economic recession, super-aging society, and subsequent rapidly changing medical environment. In addition, due to the experience of atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japanese people have strong feeling of "radiophobia". There is fear that GEJD and related radiation contamination may worsen this feeling, which might be reflected in more severe regulation of RIT. To overcome these difficulties, it is essential to collect and disclose all information about the circumstances around this therapy in Japan. In this review, we would like to look at this therapy through several lenses, including historical, cultural, medical, and socio-economic points of view. We believe that clarifying the problems is sure to lead to the resolution of this complicated situation. We have also included several recommendations for future improvements.

  6. Evaluation of radioactive scrap metal recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Chen, S.Y.; Kohout, E.J.; Nabelssi, B.; Tilbrook, R.W.; Wilson, S.E.

    1995-12-01

    This report evaluates the human health risks and environmental and socio-political impacts of options for recycling radioactive scrap metal (RSM) or disposing of and replacing it. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is assisting the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Oak Ridge Programs Division, in assessing the implications of RSM management alternatives. This study is intended to support the DOE contribution to a study of metal recycling being conducted by the Task Group on Recycling and Reuse of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The focus is on evaluating the justification for the practice of recycling RSM, and the case of iron and steel scrap is used as an example in assessing the impacts. To conduct the evaluation, a considerable set of data was compiled and developed. Much of this information is included in this document to provide a source book of information.

  7. Immobilization and bonding scheme of radioactive iodine-129 in silver tellurite glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Cheong Won; Pyo, Jae-Young; Park, Hwan-Seo; Yang, Jae Hwan; Heo, Jong

    2017-08-01

    Silver tellurite glasses with melting temperatures < 700 °C were prepared to immobilize the 129I that normally volatilizes during high-temperature melting. Glasses have densities of 6.31 ± 0.1 g/cm3 and glass transition temperatures of 165 ± 3 °C that provide thermal stability at the disposal site. Iodine waste loading in glasses was as high as 12.64 wt% of all metallic elements and 11.21 wt% including oxygen. Normalized elemental releases obtained from the product consistency test were well below US regulation of 2 g/m2. Iodines are surrounded by four Ag+ ions forming [Ag4I]3+ units that are further connected to tellurite network through bonds with non-bridging oxygens.

  8. Critical evaluation of cadexomer-iodine ointment and povidone-iodine sugar ointment.

    PubMed

    Noda, Yasuhiro; Fujii, Kiori; Fujii, Satoshi

    2009-05-08

    Topical iodine forms are used for infected and necrotic pressure ulcers. Despite antimicrobial advantages several potential disadvantages were observed with controversial results. To clarify the controversy, the reactivity of povidone-iodine (PI) sugar ointment and cadexomer-iodine (CI) ointment toward biological components was investigated. L-Tyrosine as a component of proteins and egg lecithin as a component of lipid membranes were reacted with forms of iodine. Furthermore, water absorption abilities of ointments were investigated. The reactions of PI sugar ointment and CI ointment with L-tyrosine were reversely dependent on iodine concentrations. CI ointment reacted with lecithin in an iodine concentration dependent manner, while PI sugar ointment reacted with lecithin in an iodine concentration independent steady manner. However, at the clinically relevant iodine concentration (0.1, w/v%) PI sugar ointment reacted efficiently with L-tyrosine and less efficiently with lecithin, while CI ointment reacted efficiently with lecithin and less efficiently with L-tyrosine. Water absorption rate constant was 29.9 mg/cm(2)/min(0.5) for PI sugar ointment and 15.3 for CI ointment. Water absorption capacity per weight over 24 h was 26% forPI sugar ointment and 76% for CI ointment [corrected]. These results suggest that PI sugar ointment and CI ointment have different characteristics for iodine reactivity and water absorption.

  9. A tiered approach to evaluate an iodine recycling inhibition ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The enzyme iodotyrosine deiodinase (dehalogenase, IYD) catalyzes iodide recycling and promotes iodide retention in thyroid follicular cells. Loss of function or chemical inhibition of IYD reduces thyroid hormone synthesis, which leads to insufficiency in tissues and subsequent negative developmental consequences. Iodide recycling by IYD is especially critical for low iodine diets and low iodine environments, including most freshwater ecosystems. We developed a putative adverse outcome pathway for IYD inhibition in amphibians and evaluated IYD inhibition with a tiered approach: 1) development of an in vitro IYD enzyme inhibition assay for chemical screening of compounds of interest to the US EPA, 2) ex vivo thyroid culture to establish thyroglobulin iodination as a biomarker of IYD inhibition, and 3) in vivo bioassays to characterize an organismal adverse outcome and test essentiality of IYD activity. An in vitro colorimetric assay was developed to measure activity of recombinant human IYD enzyme in a 96-well format, establishing the feasibility of medium to high throughput screening of chemicals for IYD inhibition. In ex vivo thyroid culture studies, thyroxine (T4), monoiodotyrosine (MIT), and diiodotyrosine (DIT) were quantified in individual thyroid glands and the media using a ultrahigh performance LC-MS/MS. In vivo exposure of developing Xenopus laevis to a suspected IYD inhibitor (3-L-nitro-tyrosine) resulted in markedly delayed metamorphosis and glandular

  10. A tiered approach to evaluate an iodine recycling inhibition ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The enzyme iodotyrosine deiodinase (dehalogenase, IYD) catalyzes iodide recycling and promotes iodide retention in thyroid follicular cells. Loss of function or chemical inhibition of IYD reduces thyroid hormone synthesis, which leads to insufficiency in tissues and subsequent negative developmental consequences. Iodide recycling by IYD is especially critical for low iodine diets and low iodine environments, including most freshwater ecosystems. We developed a putative adverse outcome pathway for IYD inhibition in amphibians and evaluated IYD inhibition with a tiered approach: 1) development of an in vitro IYD enzyme inhibition assay for chemical screening of compounds of interest to the US EPA, 2) ex vivo thyroid culture to establish thyroglobulin iodination as a biomarker of IYD inhibition, and 3) in vivo bioassays to characterize an organismal adverse outcome and test essentiality of IYD activity. An in vitro colorimetric assay was developed to measure activity of recombinant human IYD enzyme in a 96-well format, establishing the feasibility of medium to high throughput screening of chemicals for IYD inhibition. In ex vivo thyroid culture studies, thyroxine (T4), monoiodotyrosine (MIT), and diiodotyrosine (DIT) were quantified in individual thyroid glands and the media using a ultrahigh performance LC-MS/MS. In vivo exposure of developing Xenopus laevis to a suspected IYD inhibitor (3-L-nitro-tyrosine) resulted in markedly delayed metamorphosis and glandular

  11. Estimation of effective half life of clearance of radioactive Iodine (131I) in patients treated for hyperthyroidism and carcinoma thyroid

    PubMed Central

    Ravichandran, R; Binukumar, JP; Saadi, Amal Al

    2010-01-01

    Background In medical applications of radioisotopes, for calculations of whole body doses and radiation safety applications, there is a need to estimate radioactive body burden. Local recommendations in Oman stipulate the need for hospitalization of patients treated for radioactive-iodine (131 I) with activities above 400 MBq. Materials & Methods: A study of body burden estimation from sequentially measured exposure rates from patients treated for carcinoma thyroid and hyperthyroidism was undertaken. A digital auto-ranging beta gamma survey instrument calibrated for measurement of exposure rates is used in this study. Results: The mean measured exposure rates at 1 m in μSv/h immediately after administration and at 24 h intervals are used for estimation of effective half time of clearance of administered activity. For patients with post-operative thyroid carcinoma, the variation of body burden with time post-administration indicated tri-exponential clearance pattern, with T½eff values 14.4 h, 22 h, and 41.3 h. For patients treated for thyrotoxicosis, the body burden showed slow delayed clearance with a T½eff – 111.4 h, and exposure rates did not show appreciable fall off after 48 h. PMID:21188063

  12. Comparison of specific radioactivities of human alpha-lactalbumin iodinated by three different methods

    SciTech Connect

    Thean, E.T. )

    1990-08-01

    Radioiodination provides an extremely sensitive method for the detection of low levels of proteins. In the development of a sensitive radioimmunoassay for human alpha-lactalbumin (alpha-LA), the protein was labeled to high specific activity (approaching 2000 Ci/mmol) with lactoperoxidase, chloramine-T, and Iodogen. Despite high specific activities of the labeled protein by each method, there was a considerable difference in their binding affinity with monoclonal anti-human alpha-LA antibodies due to varying degrees of protein damage. Iodination of human alpha-LA with Iodogen resulted in labels of the highest specific activity and immunoreactivity with the monoclonal antibodies used.

  13. In vivo imaging of insulin receptors by PET: preclinical evaluation of iodine-125 and iodine-124 labelled human insulin.

    PubMed

    Iozzo, P; Osman, S; Glaser, M; Knickmeier, M; Ferrannini, E; Pike, V W; Camici, P G; Law, M P

    2002-01-01

    [A(14)-*I]iodoinsulin was prepared for studies to assess the suitability of labeled iodoinsulin for positron emission tomography (PET). Iodine-125 was used to establish the methods and for preliminary studies in rats. Further studies and PET scanning in rats were carried out using iodine-124. Tissue and plasma radioactivity was measured as the uptake index (UI = [cpm x (g tissue)(-1)]/[cpm injected x (g body weight)(-1)]) at 1 to 40 min after intravenous injection of either [A(14)-(125)I]iodoinsulin or [A(14)-(124)I]iodoinsulin. For both radiotracers, initial clearance of radioactivity from plasma was rapid (T(1/2) approximately 1 min), reaching a plateau (UI = 2.8) at approximately 5 min which was maintained for 35 min. Tissue biodistributions of the two radiotracers were comparable; at 10 min after injection, UI for myocardium was 2.4, liver, 4.0, pancreas, 5.4, brain, 0.17, kidney, 22, lung, 2.3, muscle, 0.54 and fat, 0.28. Predosing rats with unlabelled insulin reduced the UI for myocardium (0.95), liver (1.8), pancreas (1.2) and brain (0.08), increased that for kidney (61) but had no effect on that for lung (2.5), muscle (0.50) or fat (0.34). Analysis of radioactivity in plasma demonstrated a decrease of [(125)I]iodoinsulin associated with the appearance of labeled metabolites; the percentage of plasma radioactivity due to [(125)I]iodoinsulin was 40% at 5 min and 10% at 10 min. The heart, liver and kidneys were visualized using [(124)I]iodoinsulin with PET.

  14. Evaluation of iodine content and stability in recipes prepared with biofortified potatoes.

    PubMed

    Cerretani, Lorenzo; Comandini, Patrizia; Fumanelli, Davide; Scazzina, Francesca; Chiavaro, Emma

    2014-11-01

    Iodine is an essential micronutrient of the human diet. Deficiency of iodine is diffused in many areas of the world and mild deficiency is present also in developed countries around Europe. Biofortification of vegetables could represent a better strategy with respect to iodized salt in order to increase iodine intake. The aim of this study was evaluating the stability of iodine, derived from biofortified potatoes, in the preparation process of three Italian typical dishes: dumplings, vegetable pie, and focaccia bread. The obtained results showed a good stability of iodine in cooking processes, in particular, during baking of focaccia bread. Significant losses of iodine were detected during boiling of dumplings and baking of vegetable pie. Although the different stability during the cooking processes, the three dishes maintained a good final content of iodine, ranging from the 33.3% to 52.7% of daily recommended intake in adults for individual serving size.

  15. Method and apparatus for removing iodine from a nuclear reactor coolant

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, Martin H.

    1980-01-01

    A method and apparatus for removing iodine-131 and iodine-125 from a liquid sodium reactor coolant. Non-radioactive iodine is dissolved in hot liquid sodium to increase the total iodine concentration. Subsequent precipitation of the iodine in a cold trap removes both the radioactive iodine isotopes as well as the non-radioactive iodine.

  16. Reevaluation of the thyroidal radioactive iodine uptake test, with special reference to reversible primary hypothyroidism with elevated thyroid radioiodine uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura, K.; Sato, K.; Ikenoue, H.; Yoshinari, M.; Nakagawa, M.; Kuroda, T.; Fujishima, M.

    1988-10-01

    The clinical significance of the thyroidal radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) test was reevaluated in patients with various thyroid disorders. Compared with 262 normal subjects or 194 patients with euthyroid diffuse goiter with normal serum TSH levels, RAIU values were significantly higher in 100 patients with latent primary hypothyroidism (serum TSH, 5-40 mU/L). In 126 patients with overt primary hypothyroidism (serum TSH, greater than 40 mU/L), RAIU values were either extremely high (49 patients with reversible hypothyroidism and 10 patients with postpartum hypothyroidism) or low (67 patients with irreversible hypothyroidism). The increase in RAIU values in latent, or reversible overt hypothyroidism was TSH dependent, and there was a good correlation between RAIU values and serum TSH levels (r = 0.6203; P less than 0.001). In overt primary hypothyroidism, spontaneous recovery of thyroid function during iodide restriction alone occurred in 52 of 53 patients with RAIU values above 35%, in only 7 of 23 patients with RAIU values between 10-35%, and in none of 50 patients with RAIU below 10%. Thus, recovery was predicted by high RAIU values (P less than 0.001; prediction rate, 91.4%). Goiter was found in about 80% of the patients with reversible hypothyroidism, compared with only 34% of the patients with irreversible hypothyroidism. Recovery of thyroid function during iodide restriction also occurred in 71% of the patients with latent hypothyroidism. However, RAIU measurements did not predict the prognosis of patients with latent hypothyroidism. We conclude that iodine-induced reversible hypothyroidism is common in our patient population, and RAIU measurements may be helpful in determining the prognosis of patients with overt primary hypothyroidism.

  17. Prediction of late (24-hour) radioactive iodine uptake using early (3-hour) uptake values in Japanese patients with Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Osaki, Yoshinori; Sakurai, Kanako; Arihara, Zenei; Hata, Masahiro; Fukazawa, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Measurement of 24-hour radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU), which is commonly used to calculate the dose of radioiodine (RI) therapy, cannot be accomplished in a single day. The purpose of this study was to predict 24-hour RAIU from 3-hour RAIU in Japanese patients with Graves' disease, and to investigate other factors that could be used to predict 24-hour RAIU. A total of 66 Japanese patients (14 men and 52 women; age, 17-83 years) with Graves' disease who had undergone both 3-hour and 24-hour ¹²³I RAIU measurements between January 2006 and September 2011 were included in this study. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed in order to identify factors that could be used to predict 24-hour RAIU. The investigated factors were gender, age, thyroid volume, TSH, free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), serum creatinine, second generation assay TSH receptor antibody (TRAb2), antithyroid drugs discontinuation period (ADP), iodine restriction period and 3-hour RAIU. The ADP was converted to an ordinal scale ADP score (ADPS) for multiple regression analyses. Multiple regression analyses showed that 3-hour RAIU (P < 0.001), FT3 (P < 0.001) and ADPS (P < 0.001) were statistically significant predictive factors of 24-hour RAIU. The relationship between 24-hour RAIU (LU) and 3-hour RAIU (EU), FT3 and ADPS was: LU = 11.5 + 29.1 × log₁₀ EU + 23.0 × log₁₀ FT3 - 2.7 × ADPS (r = 0.82, P < 0.001). The present results indicate that prediction of LU from EU, FT3 and ADPS is feasible in Japanese patients with Graves' disease.

  18. Radioactive 131Iodine Body Burden and Blood Dose Estimates in Treatment for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer by External Probe Counting

    PubMed Central

    Ravichandran, Ramamoorthy; Al Balushi, Naima

    2016-01-01

    Radioactive131 iodine (RAI) body burden is estimated in thyroid cancer patients by a) exposure rate meter and b) external probe counting. A calibration factor of 301 cpm/MBq (d = 16 cm) is used for the probe for estimates of whole body activity. Patients sit in a rotating stool with their center corresponding to the field of view for estimation of whole body RAI. Radioactive counts are obtained for anterio posterior (AP) and postero anterior (PA) geometries. Whole body retention factor is expressed as a ratio against assayed activity administered to the patient on day 1. With exposure rate measurement, for off-thyroxin (hypothyriod) patients, the retention factors were 0.148 ± 0.12 (n = 211) and 0.07 ± 0.08 (n = 68) at 48 h and 72 h, respectively. For recombinant TSH (rhTSH) (euthyroid) group, the retention factors were 0.089 ± 0.06 (n = 24) and 0.05 ± 0.05 (n = 19) at 48 h and 72 h, respectively. By probe counting method, the obtained retention factors were 0.081 ± 0.013 (range: 0.071–0.096) (off-thyroxine group) and 0.039 ± 0.03 (range: 0.008–0.089) for the rhTSH group at 48 h. The 72 h retentions in the off thyroxine (hypothyriod) group and the rhTSH (euthyroid) group were 0.048 ± 0.024 (range: 0.016–0.076) and 0.005, respectively. The radioactive body burdens at 48 h were in the range of 290-315 MBq (7.8–8.5 mCi) for the off-thyroxine group and 44–286 MBq (1.2–7.7 mCi) for the rhTSH group. The calculated residence times in whole body were 21.97 ± 3.8 h (range: 17.1–27.1) for off-thyroxine group and 14.28 ± 2.75 h (range: 9.97-19.46) showing high statistical significance (P < 0.001). The specific blood doses were 0.118 ± 0.025 mGy/MBq (range: 0.083–0.172) for the off-thyroxine group (females n = 23); 0.87 ± 0.028 mGy/MBq (range: 0.057–0.130) (females n = 13), 0.080 ± 0.013 mGy/MBq (range: 0.069–0.098) (males n = 5) and 0.080 ± 0.028 (range: 0.059–0.118 for rhTSH patients (males n = 4). The mean mGy/MBq for blood was higher in

  19. FISH analysis of 1cen-1q12 breakage, chromosome 1 numerical abnormalities and centromeric content of micronuclei in buccal cells from thyroid cancer and hyperthyroidism patients treated with radioactive iodine.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, M J; Surrallés, J; Galofré, P; Creus, A; Marcos, R

    1999-01-01

    One of the health consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident was a radioactive iodine-related increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer in exposed children. This radioisotope is used in the treatment of thyroid cancer and hyperthyroidism patients providing a convenient opportunity to study cytogenetic damage induced by known doses of radioactive iodine in treated patients. We used pancentromeric FISH on micronuclei and chromosome 1 tandem labelling FISH to monitor overall chromosome breakage and loss, 1q12 breakage and decondensation and chromosome 1 numerical abnormalities in buccal cells from 31 radioactive iodine-exposed hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer patients. The overall outcome of the study, with 250,000 buccal cells analysed, is that there was no radioactive iodine-related increase in the frequency of micronuclei, 1q12 breakage, 1q12 decondensation or chromosome 1 numerical abnormalities. In addition, neither age nor gender, health status nor radioactive iodine dose modulated the frequency of the above cytogenetic end points. Although several uncertainties of these emerging molecular cytogenetic methodologies will require further experimentation, we conclude that, at the reported exposure levels, radioactive iodine did not induce detectable chromosome damage in buccal cells from treated patients.

  20. Derivation of the critical effect size/benchmark response for the dose-response analysis of the uptake of radioactive iodine in the human thyroid.

    PubMed

    Weterings, Peter J J M; Loftus, Christine; Lewandowski, Thomas A

    2016-08-22

    Potential adverse effects of chemical substances on thyroid function are usually examined by measuring serum levels of thyroid-related hormones. Instead, recent risk assessments for thyroid-active chemicals have focussed on iodine uptake inhibition, an upstream event that by itself is not necessarily adverse. Establishing the extent of uptake inhibition that can be considered de minimis, the chosen benchmark response (BMR), is therefore critical. The BMR values selected by two international advisory bodies were 5% and 50%, a difference that had correspondingly large impacts on the estimated risks and health-based guidance values that were established. Potential treatment-related inhibition of thyroidal iodine uptake is usually determined by comparing thyroidal uptake of radioactive iodine (RAIU) during treatment with a single pre-treatment RAIU value. In the present study it is demonstrated that the physiological intra-individual variation in iodine uptake is much larger than 5%. Consequently, in-treatment RAIU values, expressed as a percentage of the pre-treatment value, have an inherent variation, that needs to be considered when conducting dose-response analyses. Based on statistical and biological considerations, a BMR of 20% is proposed for benchmark dose analysis of human thyroidal iodine uptake data, to take the inherent variation in relative RAIU data into account. Implications for the tolerated daily intakes for perchlorate and chlorate, recently established by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), are discussed. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of decicurie doses of radioactive iodine 131 on parathyroid function

    SciTech Connect

    Glazebrook, G.A.

    1987-10-01

    Although parathyroid deficiency has been reported after administration of relatively small doses of iodine 131, reports of such deficiency after the much larger doses given in the management of thyroid cancer are notable by their absence in the literature. We observed one such patient, then instituted a prospective study. We observed a 58 percent incidence of apparently diminished parathyroid reserve among 53 patients given high doses of I 131. Susceptibility does not appear to be related to age, sex, extent of thyroid operation, operative technique, the amount of thyroidal I 131 uptake, the use of external radiation to the neck, or to the presence of parathyroid glands or of Hashimoto's disease in the operative specimen; however, susceptibility may be related to the anatomic location of the parathyroid glands in relation to the thyroid gland. The administered dose of I 131 almost reached significant levels (p = 0.1) in the present study. The initial pretreatment serum calcium levels were consistently lower among affected patients (p = 0.01), suggesting the presence of a preexisting latent impairment of parathyroid reserve which was subsequently unmasked after the administration of I 131. Thyroid cancer is compatible with very long-term survival, and therefore, there is a considerable risk of delayed chronic hypocalcemia among patients who have received large doses of I 131, particularly female patients in the premenopausal age group. These patients deserve special management surveillance.

  2. Evaluation on determination of iodine in coal by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, B.; Jackson, J.C.; Palmer, C.; Zheng, B.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2005-01-01

    A quick and inexpensive method of relative high iodine determination from coal samples was evaluated. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) provided a detection limit of about 14 ppm (3 times of standard deviations of the blank sample), without any complex sample preparation. An analytical relative standard deviation of 16% was readily attainable for coal samples. Under optimum conditions, coal samples with iodine concentrations higher than 5 ppm can be determined using this EDXRF method. For the time being, due to the general iodine concentrations of coal samples lower than 5 ppm, except for some high iodine content coal, this method can not effectively been used for iodine determination. More work needed to meet the requirement of determination of iodine from coal samples for this method. Copyright ?? 2005 by The Geochemical Society of Japan.

  3. Comparative analysis of radioactive iodine versus thyroidectomy for definitive treatment of Graves disease.

    PubMed

    Wu, Vincent T; Lorenzen, Allison W; Beck, Anna C; Reid, Vincent J; Sugg, Sonia L; Howe, James R; Pollard, Janet H; Lal, Geeta; Weigel, Ronald J

    2017-01-01

    Management of Graves disease includes antithyroid drugs, (131)I therapy, or thyroidectomy. Our aim was to review our institutional experience with definitive treatments for Graves disease. This was a retrospective review of patients undergoing (131)I therapy (n = 295) or thyroidectomy (n = 103) for Graves disease (2003-2015). Demographic, clinical, pathology, and outcome data were collected from institutional databases. (131)I therapy patients were older (39.1 years vs 33.4 years, P = .001). There was no difference in the presence of ophthalmopathy between groups. A larger proportion of children received thyroidectomy than (131)I therapy (17.1% vs 9.2%, P = .026). The success rate of the first (131)I therapy dose was 81.4%. Overall success rate, including additional doses, was 90.1%. Rapid turnover of iodine correlated with (131)I therapy failure (58.3% rapid turnover failure vs 14.9% non-rapid turnover failure, P < .05). All surgical patients underwent total or near-total thyroidectomy. (131)I therapy complications included worsening thyrotoxicosis (1%) and deteriorating orbitopathy (0.7%). Operative complications were higher than (131)I therapy complications (P < .05) but were transient. There was no worsening orbitopathy or recurrent Graves disease among surgical patients. A higher proportion of pediatric Graves disease patients underwent thyroidectomy than (131)I therapy. Rapid turnover suggested more effective initial management with operation than (131)I therapy. Although transient operative complications were high, (131)I therapy complications included worsening of Graves orbitopathy among those with pre-existing orbitopathy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of acupuncture for radioactive-iodine-induced anorexia in thyroid cancer patients: a randomized, double-blinded, sham-controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Ju-Hyun; Yoon, Jeungwon; Cho, Chong-Kwan; Jung, In-Chul; Kim, Sungchul; Lee, Suk-Hoon; Yoo, Hwa-Seung

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for radioactive iodine (RAI)-induced anorexia in thyroid cancer patients. Fourteen thyroid cancer patients with RAI-induced anorexia were randomized to a true acupuncture or sham acupuncture group. Both groups were given 6 true or sham acupuncture treatments in 2 weeks. Outcome measures included the change of the Functional Assessment of Anorexia and Cachexia Treatment (FAACT; Anorexia/Cachexia Subscale [ACS], Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General [FACT-G]), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), weight, body mass index (BMI), ACTH, and cortisol levels. The mean FAACT ACS scores of the true and sham acupuncture groups increased from baseline to exit in intention-to-treat (ITT) and per protocol (PP) analyses; the true acupuncture group showed higher increase but with no statistical significance. Between groups, from baseline to the last treatment, statistically significant differences were found in ITT analysis of the Table of Index (TOI) score (P = .034) and in PP analysis of the TOI (P = .016), FACT-G (P = .045), FAACT (P = .037) scores. There was no significant difference in VAS, weight, BMI, ACTH, and cortisol level changes between groups. Although the current study is based on a small sample of participants, our findings support the safety and potential use of acupuncture for RAI-induced anorexia and quality of life in thyroid cancer patients. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Evaluation of Iodine Bioavailability in Seaweed Using in Vitro Methods.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-González, M Raquel; Chiocchetti, Gabriela M; Herbello-Hermelo, Paloma; Vélez, Dinoraz; Devesa, Vicenta; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar

    2017-09-27

    Due to the high levels of iodine present in seaweed, the ingestion of a large amount of this type of food can produce excessive intake of iodine. However, the food after ingestion undergoes different chemistry and physical processes that can modify the amount of iodine that reaches the systemic circulation (bioavailability). Studies on the bioavailability of iodine from food are scarce and indicate that the bioavailable amount is generally lower than ingested. Iodine in vitro bioavailability estimation from different commercialized seaweed has been studied using different in vitro approaches (solubility, dialyzability, and transport and uptake by intestinal cells). Results indicate that iodine is available after gastrointestinal digestion for absorption (bioaccessibility: 49-82%), kombu being the seaweed with the highest bioaccessibility. The incorporation of dialysis cell cultures to elucidate bioavailability modifies the estimation of the amount of iodine that may reach the systemic circulation (dialysis, 5-28%; cell culture, ≤3%). The paper discusses advantages and drawbacks of these methodologies for iodine bioavailability in seaweed.

  6. Removal efficiency of radioactive cesium and iodine ions by a flow-type apparatus designed for electrochemically reduced water production.

    PubMed

    Hamasaki, Takeki; Nakamichi, Noboru; Teruya, Kiichiro; Shirahata, Sanetaka

    2014-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on March 11, 2011 attracted people's attention, with anxiety over possible radiation hazards. Immediate and long-term concerns are around protection from external and internal exposure by the liberated radionuclides. In particular, residents living in the affected regions are most concerned about ingesting contaminated foodstuffs, including drinking water. Efficient removal of radionuclides from rainwater and drinking water has been reported using several pot-type filtration devices. A currently used flow-type test apparatus is expected to simultaneously provide radionuclide elimination prior to ingestion and protection from internal exposure by accidental ingestion of radionuclides through the use of a micro-carbon carboxymethyl cartridge unit and an electrochemically reduced water production unit, respectively. However, the removability of radionuclides from contaminated tap water has not been tested to date. Thus, the current research was undertaken to assess the capability of the apparatus to remove radionuclides from artificially contaminated tap water. The results presented here demonstrate that the apparatus can reduce radioactivity levels to below the detection limit in applied tap water containing either 300 Bq/kg of 137Cs or 150 Bq/kg of 125I. The apparatus had a removal efficiency of over 90% for all concentration ranges of radio-cesium and -iodine tested. The results showing efficient radionuclide removability, together with previous studies on molecular hydrogen and platinum nanoparticles as reactive oxygen species scavengers, strongly suggest that the test apparatus has the potential to offer maximum safety against radionuclide-contaminated foodstuffs, including drinking water.

  7. Cost-utility analysis comparing radioactive iodine, anti-thyroid drugs and total thyroidectomy for primary treatment of Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Peter J; McLeod, Donald S A; Little, Richard; Gordon, Louisa

    2016-12-01

    Little data is in existence about the most cost-effective primary treatment for Graves' disease. We performed a cost-utility analysis comparing radioactive iodine (RAI), anti-thyroid drugs (ATD) and total thyroidectomy (TT) as first-line therapy for Graves' disease in England and Australia. We used a Markov model to compare lifetime costs and benefits (quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs)). The model included efficacy, rates of relapse and major complications associated with each treatment, and alternative second-line therapies. Model parameters were obtained from published literature. One-way sensitivity analyses were conducted. Costs were presented in 2015£ or Australian Dollars (AUD). RAI was the least expensive therapy in both England (£5425; QALYs 34.73) and Australia (AUD5601; 30.97 QALYs). In base case results, in both countries, ATD was a cost-effective alternative to RAI (£16 866; 35.17 QALYs; incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) £26 279 per QALY gained England; AUD8924; 31.37 QALYs; ICER AUD9687 per QALY gained Australia), while RAI dominated TT (£7115; QALYs 33.93 England; AUD15 668; 30.25 QALYs Australia). In sensitivity analysis, base case results were stable to changes in most cost, transition probabilities and health-relative quality-of-life (HRQoL) weights; however, in England, the results were sensitive to changes in the HRQoL weights of hypothyroidism and euthyroidism on ATD. In this analysis, RAI is the least expensive choice for first-line treatment strategy for Graves' disease. In England and Australia, ATD is likely to be a cost-effective alternative, while TT is unlikely to be cost-effective. Further research into HRQoL in Graves' disease could improve the quality of future studies. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.

  8. Risk factors associated with high thyroglobulin level following radioactive iodine ablation, measured 12 months after treatment for papillary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Young; Hyun, Kee Hoon; Park, Yong Lai; Park, Chan Heun

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The measurement of serum thyroglobulin (Tg) of papillary thyroid carcinoma patients, 12 months after total thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine (RAI) ablation following thyroxine hormone withdrawal (T4-off Tg) or recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone stimulation (rhTSH-Tg), is standard method for monitoring disease status. The aim of this study was to find predictive factors for detectable T4-off Tg during follow-up. Methods A retrospective review was conducted of 329 patients who underwent total thyroidectomy and RAI ablation between October 2008 and August 2012. Subjects were assigned to high (>1 ng/mL, n = 53) and low (≤1 ng/mL, n = 276) groups, based on T4-off Tg measured 12 months postoperatively. Demographic and clinicopathological characteristics at diagnosis and follow-up were compared between the 2 groups. Results The low and high T4-off Tg groups differed with respect to tumor size, preoperative Tg, ablative Tg, cervical lymph node metastasis, thyroglobulinemia out of proportion to results of diagnostic whole body scan, and American Thyroid Association 3-level stratification and restratification. Multivariate analysis confirmed that ablative Tg > 1.0 ng/mL (odds ratio [OR], 10.801; P = 0.001), more than 5 cervical lymph node metastasis (OR, 6.491; P = 0.003), and thyroglobulinemia out of proportion (OR, 9.221; P = 0.000) were risk factors. Conclusion Ablative Tg >1.0 ng/mL, more than 5 cervical lymph node metastasis, and thyroglobulinemia out of proportion were independent factors for T4-off Tg >1 ng/mL 12 months postoperative. In low-risk patients without these risk factors, the possible omission of Tg measurements could be considered during follow-up. PMID:28090499

  9. Removal Efficiency of Radioactive Cesium and Iodine Ions by a Flow-Type Apparatus Designed for Electrochemically Reduced Water Production

    PubMed Central

    Hamasaki, Takeki; Nakamichi, Noboru; Teruya, Kiichiro; Shirahata, Sanetaka

    2014-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on March 11, 2011 attracted people’s attention, with anxiety over possible radiation hazards. Immediate and long-term concerns are around protection from external and internal exposure by the liberated radionuclides. In particular, residents living in the affected regions are most concerned about ingesting contaminated foodstuffs, including drinking water. Efficient removal of radionuclides from rainwater and drinking water has been reported using several pot-type filtration devices. A currently used flow-type test apparatus is expected to simultaneously provide radionuclide elimination prior to ingestion and protection from internal exposure by accidental ingestion of radionuclides through the use of a micro-carbon carboxymethyl cartridge unit and an electrochemically reduced water production unit, respectively. However, the removability of radionuclides from contaminated tap water has not been tested to date. Thus, the current research was undertaken to assess the capability of the apparatus to remove radionuclides from artificially contaminated tap water. The results presented here demonstrate that the apparatus can reduce radioactivity levels to below the detection limit in applied tap water containing either 300 Bq/kg of 137Cs or 150 Bq/kg of 125I. The apparatus had a removal efficiency of over 90% for all concentration ranges of radio–cesium and –iodine tested. The results showing efficient radionuclide removability, together with previous studies on molecular hydrogen and platinum nanoparticles as reactive oxygen species scavengers, strongly suggest that the test apparatus has the potential to offer maximum safety against radionuclide-contaminated foodstuffs, including drinking water. PMID:25029447

  10. Iodine deficiency a persisting problem: assessment of iodine nutrition and evaluation of thyroid nodular pathology in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Santos, J E C; Freitas, M; Fonseca, C P; Castilho, P; Carreira, I M; Rombeau, J L; Branco, M C

    2017-02-01

    The goal of eliminating iodine deficiency (ID) by the year 2000 has still not been achieved in several countries. More than 2 billion people worldwide (over 260 million school age children) remain ID. In Europe, there are still countries, such as Portugal, without national general population data on iodine nutrition (IN). This study aims at evaluating combined complementary data of the IN of the general population through urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and the thyroid histology profile from the inland region of Beira Interior (BI), in Portugal. UIC from a population sample of 214 volunteers (131 females and 83 males), with ages ranging from 8 to 97 years (mean 51.5 years ± SD 20.74 years), from BI was determined; the thyroid histology pattern in BI (6-year period) was evaluated; and the iodine content of the largest surface water reservoir of BI, never previously reported, was measured. Median UIC of 62.6 μg/L was measured. Over 92 % of the population had UIC less than 100 μg/L. From 279 histology reports evaluated, the incidence of the different types of thyroid nodular pathology in BI was established. There were 60 histologic diagnoses of malignancy. The observed ratio of papillary to follicular carcinoma relatively close to 1 and the fairly high percentage of anaplastic carcinomas are characteristic of ID areas. The findings of this first general population study on IN from the inland region of BI, Portugal, document significant ID. This problem, with its serious public health implications, could be corrected by having affordable iodised salt widely and generally available and by promoting a proactive population attitude generated by ample public information and educational programs as to the negative consequences of ID.

  11. Iodine-131 Releases from Radioactive Lanthanum Processing at the X-10 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (1944-1956)- An Assessment of Quantities released, Off-Site Radiation Doses, and Potential Excess Risks of Thyroid Cancer, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Apostoaei, A.I.; Burns, R.E.; Hoffman, F.O.; Ijaz, T.; Lewis, C.J.; Nair, S.K.; Widner, T.E.

    1999-07-01

    In the early 1990s, concern about the Oak Ridge Reservation's past releases of contaminants to the environment prompted Tennessee's public health officials to pursue an in-depth study of potential off-site health effects at Oak Ridge. This study, the Oak Ridge dose reconstruction, was supported by an agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the State of Tennessee, and was overseen by a 12-member panel appointed by Tennessee's Commissioner of Health. One of the major contaminants studied in the dose reconstruction was radioactive iodine, which was released to the air by X-10 (now called Oak Ridge National Laboratory) as it processed spent nuclear reactor fuel from 1944 through 1956. The process recovered radioactive lanthanum for use in weapons development. Iodine concentrates in the thyroid gland so health concerns include various diseases of the thyroid, such as thyroid cancer. The large report, ''Iodine-131 Releases from Radioactive Lanthanum Processing at the X-10 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (1944-1956) - An Assessment of Quantities Released, Off-site Radiation Doses, and Potential Excess Risks of Thyroid Cancer,'' is in two volumes. Volume 1 is the main body of the report, and Volume 1A, which has the same title, consists of 22 supporting appendices. Together, these reports serve the following purposes: (1) describe the methodologies used to estimate the amount of iodine-131 (I-131) released; (2) evaluate I-131's pathway from air to vegetation to food to humans; (3) estimate doses received by human thyroids; (4) estimate excess risk of acquiring a thyroid cancer during ones lifetime; and (5) provide equations, examples of historical documents used, and tables of calculated values. Results indicate that females born in 1952 who consumed milk from a goat pastured a few miles east of X-10 received the highest doses from I-131 and would have had the highest risks of contracting thyroid cancer. Doses from cow's milk are considerably less . Detailed

  12. In Vivo Evaluation of Transdermal Iodide Microemulsion for Treating Iodine Deficiency Using Sprague Dawley Rats.

    PubMed

    Alayoubi, Alaadin; Sullivan, Ryan D; Lou, Hao; Patel, Hemlata; Mandrell, Timothy; Helms, Richard; Almoazen, Hassan

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the transdermal efficiency of iodide microemulsion in treating iodine deficiency using rats as an animal model. Animals were fed either iodine-deficient diet (20 μg/kg iodide) or control diet (200 μg/kg iodide) over a 17-month period. At month 14, iodide microemulsion was applied topically in iodine-deficient group and physiological evaluations of thyroid gland functions were characterized by monitoring the thyroid hormones (T3, T4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), iodide ion excretion in urine, and the overall rat body weights in both groups. Moreover, morphological evaluations of thyroid gland before and after treatment were performed by ultrasound imaging and through histological assessment. Prior to microemulsion treatment, the levels of T3, T4, and TSH in iodine-deficient group were statistically significant as compared to that in the control group. The levels of T3 and T4 increased while TSH level decreased significantly in iodine-deficient group within the first 4 weeks of treatment. After treatment, iodide concentration in urine increased significantly. There was no statistical difference in weight between the two groups. Ultrasound imaging and histological evaluations showed evidence of hyperplasia in iodine-deficient group. Topical iodide microemulsion has shown a promising potential as a novel delivery system to treat iodine deficiency.

  13. Genetic profiling of advanced radioactive iodine-resistant differentiated thyroid cancer and correlation with axitinib efficacy.

    PubMed

    Schechter, Rebecca B; Nagilla, Madhavi; Joseph, Loren; Reddy, Poluru; Khattri, Arun; Watson, Sydeaka; Locati, Laura D; Licitra, Lisa; Greco, Angela; Pelosi, Giuseppe; Carcangiu, Maria Luisa; Lingen, Mark W; Seiwert, Tanguy Y; Cohen, Ezra E W

    2015-04-10

    Biomarkers predicting which patients with advanced radioiodine-resistant differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) may benefit from multi-kinase inhibitors are unavailable. We aimed to describe molecular markers in DTC that correlate with clinical outcome to axitinib. Pretreatment thyroid cancer blocks from 18 patients treated with axitinib were collected and genomic DNA was isolated. The OncoCarta™ Mutation Panel was used to test for 238 oncogenic mutations. Copy number of VEGFR1-3 and PIK3CA was determined using qPCR on enriched tumor samples. Genomic DNA was analyzed for all coding regions of VEGFR1-3 with custom primers. Protein expressions of VEGFR1-3, c-Met, and PIK3CA were evaluated with immunohistochemistry. Clinical response to axitinib, including best response (BR) and progression free survival (PFS), was ascertained from corresponding patients. Fisher's exact test and logistic regression models were used to correlate BR with molecular findings. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to correlate PFS with molecular defects. A total of 22 pathology samples (10 primary, 12 metastatic) were identified. In patients with 2 samples (n = 4), genetic results were concordant and only included once for analysis. Tumors from 4 patients (22%) harbored BRAF V600E mutations, 2 (11%) had KRAS mutations (G12A, G13D) and 2 (11%) had HRAS mutations (Q61R, Q61K). One metastatic sample with mutated KRAS also harbored a PIK3CA (H1047R) mutation. qPCR showed increased copy numbers of PIK3CA in 6 (33%) tumors, VEGFR1 in 0 (0%) tumors, VEGFR2 in 4 (22%) tumors, and VEGFR3 in 6 (33%) tumors. VEGFR sequencing was significant for a possibly damaging non-synonymous SNP in VEGFR2 (G539R) in 2 samples (11%), a possibly damaging SNP in VEGFR3 (E350V) in 1 sample (6%), and a potentially novel mutation in VEGFR2 (T439I) in 2 samples (11%). Immunohistochemistry (VEGFR1, -2, -3; c-MET; PIK3CA) revealed positive staining in the majority of samples. No significant relationship was seen

  14. Leptin and ghrelin concentration in hyperthyroid cats before and after radioactive iodine therapy compared to euthyroid control cats.

    PubMed

    Marsilio, Sina; Glanemann, Barbara; Martin, Lucile; Szladovits, Balazs; Neiger, Reto

    2017-04-19

    Leptin and ghrelin, two peptide hormones with antagonistic effects on satiety and energy balance, could be involved in the pathogenesis of weight loss and polyphagia in cats with hyperthyroidism. Leptin generally decreases appetite and increases energy expenditure, while ghrelin exerts the opposite effects. Leptin and ghrelin were measured in 42 client owned hyperthyroid cats with a body condition score (BCS) ≤ 5/9 before (T0) and 4 weeks after radioactive iodine treatment (RAIT) (T1). Dependent on the serum total thyroxine concentration concentration at T1, cats were sub-classified as still hyperthyroid (ht-ht) (n = 4), euthyroid (ht-eu) (n = 10) or hypothyroid (ht-hypo) (n = 28). Results were compared to those of 22 healthy, euthyroid control cats with a comparable BCS (≤ 5/9) and age (≥ 8 years) to hyperthyroid cats. At T0, there were no significant differences between hyperthyroid and control cats for leptin (p = 0.06) or ghrelin concentrations (p = 0.27). At T1, leptin significantly decreased in ht-hypo cats compared to T0 (p = 0.0008) despite a significantly increased body weight in this group (p = 0.0001). Serum ghrelin concentrations did not differ between hyperthyroid cats with a history of polyphagia compared to non-polyphagic cats (p = 0.42). After RAIT, ghrelin concentration significantly increased in all hyperthyroid cats (p < 0.0001), as well as in the subgroups ht-eu (p = 0.014) and ht-hypo (p < 0.0001) compared to their respective T0 baseline concentrations. Leptin and ghrelin fluctuations may be indicative of changes in metabolic functions in cats with thyroid dysfunction. Leptin fluctuations occurred independently of body weight in different states of thyroid dysfunction; increasing ghrelin concentrations after RAIT suggest a ghrelin-independent mechanism for polyphagia in hyperthyroid cats.

  15. Use of evidence-based guidelines reduces radioactive iodine treatment in patients with low-risk differentiated thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Sacks, Wendy; Wong, Ronnie Meiyi; Bresee, Catherine; Braunstein, Glenn D

    2015-04-01

    The goal was to determine if there was a relation between the introduction of evidence-based radioactive iodine (RAI) treatment guidelines for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center (CSMC) and subsequent RAI use. In addition, we compared RAI treatment rates for DTC at CSMC to data from the National Cancer Database (NCDB) to see if the trends in RAI use at CSMC differed from the national trends. RAI data from the CSMC Thyroid Cancer Center were reviewed to determine if RAI treatment was given appropriately. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to estimate disease-free survival for patients who received or did not receive treatment. RAI data from the NCDB were also used to compare how CSMC treatment rates compare nationally. There were 444 CSMC patients identified with DTC between 2009 and 2012. Approximately 95% of the patients had papillary thyroid cancer (n=423) with 65% in the stage I risk group (n=290). Kaplan-Meier curves for stages I-III show that those who did not receive RAI treatment had 100% disease-free survival, which was better than those who had received RAI. However, given that the total population in both stages II and III is quite small, having received RAI ablation was not found to be statistically significant. Stage I patients who received RAI had a significantly increased incidence of recurrent disease. The NCDB RAI rates for all DTC stages in each year have consistently been over 50% with an overall treatment rate of 57%. There were significant differences in the treatment rates between CSMC and NCDB, with a decrease in the use of RAI in low-risk patients with stage I tumors at CSMC following institution of the guidelines. Prudent use of RAI treatment should be considered for low-risk patients. Ablation rates have been decreasing steadily at CSMC, particularly among low-risk patients, with the adoption of more stringent RAI treatment guidelines. It is apparent from our data that physician practices can change with the

  16. Radioactive Background Evaluation by Atom Counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orzel, Chad; McKinsey, Daniel

    2005-09-01

    We propose a new method of measuring 85Kr background levels by direct counting of impurity atoms. The beta-decay of 85Kr is a significant radioactive background for experiments that use liquified noble gases to search for dark matter and measure the low-energy solar neutrino flux. While there are several proposed methods for reducing Kr levels in these experiments, an independent technique is needed for measuring very low Kr levels. By selectively exciting Kr atoms to a metastable state, capturing them in a magneto-optical trap (MOT), and detecting fluorescence from the trapped atoms, individual Kr atoms can be counted with a high signal-to-noise ratio. This approach offers both higher sensitivity and shorter measurement times than more conventional techniques, with an estimated sensitivity of 3 × 10-14 in only 3 hours of integration.

  17. Radioactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Baratta, E.J.

    1987-01-01

    This report of the General Referee was presented at the 100th AOAC Annual International Meeting, Sept. 15-18, 1986, at Scottsdale, AZ. The method for determining cesium-137 and iodine-131 in milk and other foods by gamma-ray spectroscopy has been adopted official first action. Results have been received from 5 collaborators. A sixth collaborator was found and is in the process of analyzing the sample. When all results are in, the Associate Referee will perform a statistical analysis of the data. Other topics of interest include; plutonium; radium-228; and strontium-89 and -90. Recommendations are included which were reviewed by the Committee on Residues.

  18. Radioactive Iodine (Radioiodine) Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Thyroid Cancer Chemotherapy for Thyroid Cancer Targeted Therapy for Thyroid Cancer Treatment of Thyroid Cancer, by Type and Stage ... Cancer Information Cancer Prevention & Detection Cancer Basics ...

  19. Technical evaluation of proposed Ukrainian Central Radioactive Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, R.; Glukhov, A.; Markowski, F.

    1996-06-01

    This technical report is a comprehensive evaluation of the proposal by the Ukrainian State Committee on Nuclear Power Utilization to create a central facility for radioactive waste (not spent fuel) processing. The central facility is intended to process liquid and solid radioactive wastes generated from all of the Ukrainian nuclear power plants and the waste generated as a result of Chernobyl 1, 2 and 3 decommissioning efforts. In addition, this report provides general information on the quantity and total activity of radioactive waste in the 30-km Zone and the Sarcophagus from the Chernobyl accident. Processing options are described that may ultimately be used in the long-term disposal of selected 30-km Zone and Sarcophagus wastes. A detailed report on the issues concerning the construction of a Ukrainian Central Radioactive Waste Processing Facility (CRWPF) from the Ukrainian Scientific Research and Design institute for Industrial Technology was obtained and incorporated into this report. This report outlines various processing options, their associated costs and construction schedules, which can be applied to solving the operating and decommissioning radioactive waste management problems in Ukraine. The costs and schedules are best estimates based upon the most current US industry practice and vendor information. This report focuses primarily on the handling and processing of what is defined in the US as low-level radioactive wastes.

  20. Iodine revisited.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Rose A

    2007-06-01

    Iodine is an antiseptic that has been used in wound care for more than 150 years. Traditional formulations of iodine had serious limitations that were reduced in later products. Much has been written about iodine and opinions on its clinical efficacy are divided. There have been reviews of the chemical properties of iodine, its antimicrobial activity, human physiology, cytotoxicity and its clinical effectiveness, but few have addressed all these aspects. With the recent development of iodine-containing wound care products and the continued publication of laboratory and clinical studies, it seems timely to reassess the evidence relating to the effectiveness of iodine for treating wounds. This literature review attempts to provide an appropriate chemical and physiological background of the characteristics of iodine in order to provide a sound basis for understanding the available microbiological and clinical data. It will show that understanding the factors that contribute to the activity and potential cytotoxicity of iodine are important in evaluating the clinical evidence. Although definitive studies are needed, the sustained delivery of low doses of free iodine offers the potential to inhibit a broad range of microbial species without selecting for resistant strains or inducing cytotoxic effects.

  1. Radioactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Baratta, E.J.

    1997-01-01

    Cesium-134 and -137 in Foods, Gamma-Ray Spectrophotometric Methods. The method entitled {open_quotes}Cs-134 and Cs-137 in Foods, Gamma-Ray Spectrophotometric Method{close_quotes} has been adopted official first action, with minor revisions. Iodine 131: The method {open_quotes}Iodine-131 in Milk, Radiochemical Separation Method{close_quotes} has been accepted by the Committee on Residues and Related Topics and has been recommended to the Methods Committee for adoption first action. Search is continuing for a new Associated Referee. Plutonium-239: The Associate Referee is doing a literature search for a method for the determination of plutonium in foods. When one is selected, she will prepared a protocol for a collaborative study and submit it for approval. Radium-228: Search is ongoing for a new Associate Referee. When one is appointed, a method should be selected and tested. Strontium-89 and -90: The Associate Referee is investigating methods using resin discs and/or resin columns for these radionuclides. These methods are now being used in analyses for strontium-89 and -90 in water. She will now attempt to apply it to milk. If successful, she will prepare a protocol for a collaborative study and submit it for approval. Tritium: Search is continuing for a new Associate Referee for this topic.

  2. Preparation and Characterization of Hyaluronic Acid-Polycaprolactone Copolymer Micelles for the Drug Delivery of Radioactive Iodine-131 Labeled Lipiodol

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shih-Cheng; Yang, Ming-Hui; Chung, Tze-Wen; Jhuang, Ting-Syuan; Yang, Jean-Dean; Chen, Ko-Chin; Chen, Wan-Jou; Huang, Ying-Fong; Jong, Shiang-Bin; Tsai, Wan-Chi; Lin, Po-Chiao

    2017-01-01

    Micelles, with the structure of amphiphilic molecules including a hydrophilic head and a hydrophobic tail, are recently developed as nanocarriers for the delivery of drugs with poor solubility. In addition, micelles have shown many advantages, such as enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effects, prolonged circulation times, and increased endocytosis through surface modification. In this study, we measured the critical micelle concentrations, diameters, stability, and cytotoxicity and the cell uptake of micelles against hepatic cells with two kinds of hydrophilic materials: PEG-PCL and HA-g-PCL. We used 131I as a radioactive tracer to evaluate the stability, drug delivery, and cell uptake activity of the micelles. The results showed that HA-g-PCL micelles exhibited higher drug encapsulation efficiency and stability in aqueous solutions. In addition, the 131I-lipiodol loaded HA-g-PCL micelles had better affinity and higher cytotoxicity compared to HepG2 cells. PMID:28127555

  3. ICPP radioactive liquid and calcine waste technologies evaluation. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J.A.; Pincock, L.F.; Christiansen, I.N.

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has received spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim storage since 1951 and reprocessing since 1953. Until recently, the major activity of the ICPP has been the reprocessing of SNF to recover fissile uranium; however, changing world events have raised questions concerning the need to recover and recycle this material. In April 1992, DOE chose to discontinue reprocessing SNF for uranium recovery and shifted its focus toward the management and disposition of radioactive wastes accumulated through reprocessing activities. Currently, 1.8 million gallons of radioactive liquid wastes (1.5 million gallons of radioactive sodium-bearing liquid wastes and 0.3 million gallons of high-level liquid waste) and 3,800 cubic meters (m{sup 3}) of calcine waste are in inventory at the ICPP. Legal drivers and agreements exist obligating the INEL to develop, demonstrate, and implement technologies for safe and environmentally sound treatment and interim storage of radioactive liquid and calcine waste. Candidate treatment processes and waste forms are being evaluated using the Technology Evaluation and Analysis Methodology (TEAM) Model. This process allows decision makers to (1) identify optimum radioactive waste treatment and disposal form alternatives; (2) assess tradeoffs between various optimization criteria; (3) identify uncertainties in performance parameters; and (4) focus development efforts on options that best satisfy stakeholder concerns. The Systems Analysis technology evaluation presented in this document supports the DOE in selecting the most effective radioactive liquid and calcine waste management plan to implement in compliance with established regulations, court orders, and agreements.

  4. Evaluating iodine deficiency in pregnant women and young infants-complex physiology with a risk of misinterpretation.

    PubMed

    Laurberg, P; Andersen, S; Bjarnadóttir, R I; Carlé, A; Hreidarsson, Ab; Knudsen, N; Ovesen, L; Pedersen, Ib; Rasmussen, Lb

    2007-12-01

    To review methods for evaluating iodine deficiency in pregnant women and young infants and to discuss factors to be considered in the interpretation of their results. Review of the literature regarding the various methods available for assessing iodine status. Population surveys and research studies. Pregnant women and young infants. Several factors to consider when assessing iodine status in pregnant women and young infants include: 1) the urinary iodine (UI) concentration (microg l-1) is not interchangeable with 24 h UI excretion (microg per 24 h); 2) the concentration of iodine in a spot or casual urine sample cannot be used to diagnose iodine deficiency in an individual; 3) a moderate fall in the concentration of serum free T4 during pregnancy is not a sign of maternal iodine deficiency; 4) an increase in the concentration of serum thyroglobulin (Tg) during pregnancy is not a sign of maternal iodine deficiency; 5) a higher concentration of TSH and Tg in cord blood than in maternal blood is not a sign of iodine deficiency in the mother or neonate; and 6) thyroid function in a full-term foetus, a neonate or a small child is not more sensitive to a mild iodine deficiency than in the mother. If the iodine status of pregnant women and small children is not to be misjudged, the above six factors need to be taken into account.

  5. Radioactive diagnostic agent

    SciTech Connect

    Shigematsu, A.; Aihara, M.; Matsuda, M.; Suzuki, A.; Tsuya, A.

    1984-02-07

    A radioactive diagnostic agent for renal cortex, adrenal cortex, myocardium, brain stem, spinal nerve, etc., which comprises as an essential component monoiodoacetic acid wherein the iodine atom is radioactive.

  6. Evaluation of nuclear-reactor-produced iodine-123

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blue, J. W.; Sodd, V. J.

    1976-01-01

    Iodine-123 has such great potential for nuclear medicine that all possible production methods should be considered. In this report, an experimental study related to I-123 production at a high-intensity fast-flux reactor using the reaction Xe-124(n,2n)Xe-123 is considered. The conclusion is that I-123 could be made in small quantities and the cost would be higher than the cyclotron methods presently used.

  7. Evaluation of nuclear-reactor-produced iodine-123

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blue, J. W.; Sodd, V. J.

    1976-01-01

    Iodine-123 has such great potential for nuclear medicine that all possible production methods should be considered. In this report, an experimental study related to I-123 production at a high-intensity fast-flux reactor using the reaction Xe-124(n,2n)Xe-123 is considered. The conclusion is that I-123 could be made in small quantities and the cost would be higher than the cyclotron methods presently used.

  8. An evaluation of the effectiveness of water iodinator system to supply iodine to selected schools in Terengganu, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lim, K K; Siti Rohana, D; Zawiah, A; Wan Nazaimoon, W M

    2006-12-01

    This is a cross-sectional study conducted from January to September 2004 in a group of school children aged 8 -10 years old. The schools and study subjects were selected using stratified systematic sampling technique. A total of 44 schools and 1100 subjects were selected from schools with iodinator and schools without iodinator. Samples collected were spot urine and drinking water. Dietary and iodised water consumption data were obtained from interviews. A total of 931 subjects (84.6%) responded; 558 (50.7%) from schools with iodinator and 373 (33.9%) from schools without iodinator. Results showed that in more than half (53.8%) of the schools with iodinators, mean water iodine level was below 25 microg/L. The study population in Terengganu was found to be mildly iodine deficient with an overall median urine iodine concentration (uIC) of 74 microg/L. Based on WHO criteria, 4.1% with uIC <20 microg/L (severe), 19.5% with uIC between 20-49 microg/L (moderate), 49.2% with uIC between 50-99 microg/L (mild) and 27.2% was iodine sufficient with uIC >100 microg/L. Majority of the study subjects were found to have high seafood intake (> 90%) and low in goitrogen food intake. This study suggests water iodinator system may not be a suitable method of supplying iodine and an alternative is needed in order to eradicate the iodine deficiency problem seen in some parts of Malaysia.

  9. Ki-ras mutational analysis in rat follicular-cell proliferative lesions of the thyroid gland induced by radioactive iodine and potassium perchlorate.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Santos, J M; De-Miguel, M; González-Cámpora, R; Salguero-Villadiego, M; Cabrera, J J; Galera-Davidson, H

    2004-01-01

    Although in both human and experimental pathology ras mutations have been related to the origin and progression of follicular-cell tumours, reports differ considerably with respect to the frequency of such mutations. The present paper reports, using direct sequencing, the incidence of Ki-ras mutations (codons 12 and 13) in follicular-cell carcinomas of the thyroid gland in Wistar rats induced by administration of radioactive iodine and potassium perchlorate. Direct sequencing revealed no mutations in the amplified gene segment of any of the 72 carcinoma samples studied. This absence of mutations agrees with some and is in sharp contrast with other previous reports in the literature, both for experimental animals and in studies of human thyroid follicular-cell carcinoma. Our results suggest that Ki-ras activation via mutations at codons 12 and 13 is neither a constant event nor an early event in the development of rat thyroid follicular-cell carcinoma.

  10. Age and gender patterns of thyroid cancer incidence in Ukraine depending on thyroid radiation doses from radioactive iodine exposure after the Chornobyl NPP accident.

    PubMed

    Fuzik, M M; Prysyazhnyuk, A Y; Shibata, Y; Romanenko, A Y; Fedorenko, Z P; Gudzenko, N A; Gulak, L O; Trotsyuk, N K; Goroh, Y L; Khukhrianska, O M; Sumkina, O V; Saenko, V A; Yamashita, S

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the thyroid cancer incidence in a whole territory of Ukraine and to clear up its age and gender patterns depending on average regional (oblast) thyroid doses from radioactive iodine due to the Chornobyl accident. MATERIALS AND METHODS. On the basis of average accumulated thyroid doses from radioactive iodine the geographical regions of Ukraine with low and high average thyroid doses were identified for a comparative analysis performance. Methods of descriptive epidemiology were used. The level and dynamics of thyroid cancer incidence were analyzed in different gender and age groups (both for attained age and age at the moment of the Chornobyl accident). Results of this study confirmed the radiation excess of thyroid cancer in individuals who were children and adolescents in 1986. Some excess was observed in elder age groups too. Especial situation was observed in female age group 40-49 at the moment of the Chornobyl accident i.e. the age-specific thyroid cancer incidence rates were significantly higher in "high exposure" regions comparing with "low exposure" ones during all years of observation within 1989-2009. A probable radiation excess of thyroid cancer was suggested not only in children and adolescents but also in adult age groups. In elder age groups this excess was less expressed and manifested after a longer period of time. The origin of the phenomenon in female age group of 40-49 is unclear now. Hypothesis of combined effect of radiation and natural changing of hormonal status in this age should be checked in the future studies. Fuzik M. M, Prysyazhnyuk A. Ye, Shibata Y., Romanenko A. Yu., Fedorenko Z. P., Gudzenko N. A., Gulak L. O., Trotsyuk N. K., Goroh Ye. L., Khukhrianska O. M., Sumkina O. V., Saenko V. A., Yamashita Sh., 2013.

  11. Estimation of thyroid doses and health risks resulting from the intake of radioactive iodine in foods and drinking water by the citizens of Tokyo after the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Michio; Oki, Taikan

    2012-06-01

    The release of radioactive materials from the Fukushima nuclear power plant after the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011 poses health risks. In this study, the intake of iodine 131 (I-131) in drinking water and foods (milk, dairy products, and vegetables) by citizens of Tokyo was estimated. The effects of countermeasures (restrictions on the distribution of foods and the distribution of bottled water for infants) on reducing intake were also evaluated. The average thyroid equivalent doses without countermeasures from 21 March 2011 were 0.42 mSv in adults, 1.49 mSv in children, and 2.08 mSv in infants. Those with countermeasures were 0.28, 0.97, and 1.14 mSv respectively, reductions of 33%, 35%, and 45%. Drinking water contributed more to intake by adults and children than foods. The intake of I-131 within the first 2 weeks was more than 80% of the estimated intake, owing to its short half-life, indicating that rapid countermeasures are important in reducing intake. The average risks of cancer incidence and mortality due to I-131 for infants were estimated to be 3×10(-5) and 0.2×10(-5), respectively, lower than the annual risks of traffic accidents, naturally occurring radioactive material (potassium 40), and environmental pollutants such as diesel exhaust particles.

  12. Radioactive body burden measurements in (131)iodine therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer: effect of recombinant thyroid stimulating hormone in whole body (131)iodine clearance.

    PubMed

    Ravichandran, Ramamoorthy; Al Saadi, Amal; Al Balushi, Naima

    2014-01-01

    Protocols in the management of differentiated thyroid cancer, recommend adequate thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) stimulation for radioactive (131)I administrations, both for imaging and subsequent ablations. Commonly followed method is to achieve this by endogenous TSH stimulation by withdrawal of thyroxine. Numerous studies worldwide have reported comparable results with recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone (rhTSH) intervention as conventional thyroxine hormone withdrawal. Radiation safety applications call for the need to understand radioactive (131)I (RA(131)I) clearance pattern to estimate whole body doses when this new methodology is used in our institution. A study of radiation body burden estimation was undertaken in two groups of patients treated with RA(131)I; (a) one group of patients having thyroxine medication suspended for 5 weeks prior to therapy and (b) in the other group retaining thyroxine support with two rhTSH injections prior to therapy with RA(131)I. Sequential exposure rates at 1 m in the air were measured in these patients using a digital auto-ranging beta gamma survey instrument calibrated for measurement of exposure rates. The mean measured exposure rates at 1 m in μSv/h immediately after administration and at 24 h intervals until 3 days are used for calculating of effective ½ time of clearance of administered activity in both groups of patients, 81 patients in conventionally treated group (stop thyroxine) and 22 patients with rhTSH administration. The (131)I activities ranged from 2.6 to 7.9 GBq. The mean administered (131)I activities were 4.24 ± 0.95 GBq (n = 81) in "stop hormone" group and 5.11 ± 1.40 GBq (n = 22) in rhTSH group. The fall of radioactive body burden showed two clearance patterns within observed 72 h. Calculated T½eff values were 16.45 h (stop hormone group) 12.35 h (rhTSH group) for elapsed period of 48 h. Beyond 48 h post administration, clearance of RA(131)I takes place with T½eff> 20 h in both groups

  13. Volatilization of iodine from vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiro, B. D.; Johnston, F. L.

    Gaseous emissions of iodine were measured from bean plant foliage. A gamma-emitting iodine tracer, Na 125I, was taken up by the plants from a hydroponic growth medium and released to a cuvette atmosphere. The dynamics of the flux were studied using a flow-through gamma detector. The relationship between leaf radioactive tracer activity and growth-medium activity was linear, as was the relationship between the iodine flux and both leaf and growth-medium activity. Iodine flux and leaf conductance to water responded similarly to changes in light levels, suggesting that the stomata may partially control the flux. The flux was inhibited by aeration of the hydroponic growth medium, and we postulate that methylation causes the iodine flux. Iodine emissions from living vegetation probably contribute <0.1 % to the stable iodine concentration in the atmosphere above terrestrial areas. However, this pathway may be a direct route for radioactive iodine transport from contaminated soils to the atmosphere.

  14. 77 FR 58416 - Comparative Environmental Evaluation of Alternatives for Handling Low-Level Radioactive Waste...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... COMMISSION Comparative Environmental Evaluation of Alternatives for Handling Low-Level Radioactive Waste... Environmental Evaluation of Alternatives for Handling Low-Level Radioactive Waste Spent Ion Exchange Resins from... Comparative Environmental Evaluation of Alternatives for Handling Low-Level Radioactive Waste Spent Ion...

  15. Evaluate cement with radioactive tracers, directional gamma ray logs

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    Use of radioactive tracers to evaluate hydraulic fractures has recently been extended through the use of directional gamma ray measurements. The directional gamma ray logging tool determines the azimuthal direction of gamma rays from radioactive isotope-tagged fracture proppants to estimate the fracture direction in well-controlled circumstances. The technology also provides new ways of evaluating primary and squeeze cement jobs by enhancing information from directional gamma ray data with advanced image processing techniques. By tagging the cement with a uniform quantity per unit volume of radioactivity, different levels of gamma ray log response must be attributed to variances in cement quality. Cement evaluation with tracers can help detect: thin cement sheaths; light-weight or low compressive strength cements where the acoustic impedance is near that of water; gas cut cement where the acoustic signal is attenuated; wells with microannulus that cannot be pressured to obtain valid log data; poor casing centralization; and multiple cement stage placement. The paper describes the logging tool, operational procedures, and a log example.

  16. Diagnostics techniques and dosimetric evaluations for environmental radioactivity investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caridi, F.; D'Agostino, M.; Belvedere, A.; Marguccio, S.; Belmusto, G.; Gatto, M. F.

    2016-10-01

    A comprehensive study was conducted about the investigation of the natural/anthropo-genic radioactivity of various environmental matrices. Different diagnostics techniques were employed: high resolution HpGe gamma spectrometry, to quantify the activity concentration of radionuclides that emit gamma photons; alpha spectrometry, for the determination of the specific activity of α -emitters radioisotopes; liquid scintillation, to measure the activity concentration of tritium, radon and total alpha/beta in liquid samples; alpha spectrometry through the Rad7 setup, to estimate the gas radon activity concentration in air, water and soil; total alpha/beta counter, for the activity concentration quantification of radionuclides, in solid samples, emitting alpha/beta particles. From the dosimetric point of view, knowledge of the radioactivity level in the environmental matrices allows to evaluate any possible radiological hazard for the population, through the calculation of the appropriate parameters of radioprotection and their comparison with the safety limits reported by the literature.

  17. Measurement of Iodine-129 concentration in environmental water samples around Fukushima area - Role of river system in the global iodine cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Tokuyama, Hironori; Miyake, Yasuto; Honda, Maki; Yamagata, Takeyasu; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki

    2013-04-01

    According to Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, vast amount of radioactive nuclides including radioactive iodine were spilled out into the environment. There is no question about that detailed observation of distribution of radioactive nuclides and evaluation of the radiation exposure of residents is extremely important. On the other hand, from the view of an elemental dynamics in the environment, this event can be considered as a spike of the radioactive isotope. It is also the case for the iodine. A rare isotope Iodine-129 was widely distributed in a very short time by the FDNPP accident. Iodine-129 directly landing on the soil surface had been trapped in the upper layer of the soil and the depth profile should indicate the migration in and the interaction with the soil. If Iodine-129 was trapped in the woods, it seems to take rather longer time to landing on the ground. Either way, a certain portion of the Iodine-129 should be moving downward and finally washed out by the groundwater or river with a certain rate and transported into the sea. The concentration of Iodine-129 in environmental water samples taken from rivers and ponds are considered to reflect the iodine transportation process by the fluvial system. For the detailed discussion of the role of the fluvial system in the global iodine cycle, Iodine-129 concentration of various water samples collected from Fukushima area was measured by means of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. The results ranged from 3E06 atoms/L to 3E09 atoms/L. Samples from Abukuma area (South West of FDNPP) showed lower concentration. On the other hand, samples collected from North West part (Iitate village and Minami Soma region) showed higher concentration (more than 1E8 atoms/L). Delayed enhancement of Iodine-129 concentration over a year in river systems surrounded by woods was also observed which is considered to correspond to the delayed release from the woods.

  18. Use of Dual-Energy CT and Iodine Maps in Evaluation of Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Fulwadhva, Urvi P; Wortman, Jeremy R; Sodickson, Aaron D

    2016-01-01

    Dual-energy computed tomography (CT) relies on material-dependent x-ray absorption behavior from concurrently acquired high- and low-kilovolt peak data and has a range of imaging applications. This article focuses on use of dual-energy CT in assessment of bowel disease. After a summary of relevant dual-energy CT image acquisition and postprocessing principles, the authors describe dual-energy techniques of greatest utility in evaluation of benign and malignant pathologic conditions in the bowel, including neoplastic, vascular, infectious, and inflammatory disorders, as well as in assessment of abdominopelvic trauma. The dual-energy postprocessing techniques of iodine-selective imaging and virtual monochromatic imaging have the broadest applicability in bowel imaging. They may be used for improved visualization of subtle differences in bowel wall enhancement or for quantitative assessment of altered enhancement for evaluation of a neoplasm or bowel ischemia. Iodine images and virtual monochromatic low-kiloelectron volt images are particularly helpful for assessment of a neoplasm, ischemia, infection, or inflammation, while iodine maps paired with virtual nonenhanced images are most helpful to differentiate iodine from other dense materials, as in gastrointestinal bleeding or trauma. In most applications, radiation doses at dual-energy CT are comparable to those at traditional CT. However, dual-energy CT may allow reduction in radiation dose by using virtual nonenhanced images that obviate an additional nonenhanced CT acquisition. Limitations of dual-energy CT are discussed, including potential challenges in acquisition, postprocessing, and interpretation. (©)RSNA, 2016.

  19. Consensus evaluation of radioactivity-in-soil reference materials in the context of an NPL Environmental Radioactivity Proficiency Test Exercise.

    PubMed

    Dean, Julian; Collins, Sean; Garcia Miranda, Maria; Ivanov, Peter; Larijani, Cyrus; Woods, Selina

    2017-01-25

    The development of two radioactivity-in-soil reference materials is described - one for peat and one for soil with high sand content. Each bulk material was processed, subdivided and measured before being sent to participants in an NPL Environmental Radioactivity Proficiency Test Exercise. Activity concentrations of radionuclides in each material were determined by 'consensus' evaluations of participants' results using two weighted mean methods. The project demonstrated the use of such exercises in delivering reference materials to the user community.

  20. Identifying removable radioactivity on the surface of cats during the first week after treatment with iodine 131.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, H J; Scrivani, Peter V; Dykes, Nathan L; Erb, Hollis N; Hobbs, J M; Hubble, Lorna J

    2006-01-01

    Because radioiodine (1-131) is excreted in urine and saliva, treated cats can accumulate I-131 on their coats from contacting soiled litter and grooming. This could result in removable radioactivity, which is a potential source of human exposure to radiation and specifically to internal contamination. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is removable radioactivity on cats treated with I-131. Daily wipe tests were performed for 7 days at two sites (both flanks, one site; and all four paws, one site) on six hyperthyroid cats treated with I-131. A y counter was used to determine the counts per minute (cpm) of the samples, which were converted to disintegrations per minute (dpm) to estimate activity. The results were compared to the New York State limits of removable activity for a non-controlled area (<1000dpm/100 cm2) to determine if the amount of removable activity was acceptable for a member of the public. The median value of removable activity was 241 dpm (range from 34 to 4184 dpm) for the flanks, and 308 dpm (range from 60 to 1890 dpm) for the paws. The amount of removable radioactivity on the surface of hospitalized cats treated with I-131 during the first week after treatment, occasionally and without obvious pattern, exceeded the New York State limit. Sporadic activity as high as 4148 dpm was found. It is prudent to advise owners to observe routine hygiene when handling cats after discharge to minimize the risk of internal contamination.

  1. Alternative Dose for Choroidal Melanoma Treated With an Iodine-125 Radioactive Plaque: A Single-Institution Retrospective Study

    SciTech Connect

    Saconn, Paul A.; Gee, Christopher J.; Greven, Craig M.; McCoy, Thomas P.; Ekstrand, Kenneth E.; Greven, Kathryn M.

    2010-11-01

    Purpose: The Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) established iodine-125 plaque brachytherapy as an accepted standard treatment for medium-size choroidal melanoma. In the COMS, the prescription dose was 85 Gy. This is a retrospective review of our outcomes in patients treated with lower doses than those used in the COMS. Methods and Materials: From 1990 to 2004, 62 patients were treated with iodine-125 plaque brachytherapy for choroidal melanoma. COMS eye plaques were used with dose prescribed to the apex of the tumor. The median and average dose rates at the tumor apex were 63.5 cGy/h and 62.7 cGy/h, respectively. The median and average total doses were 63.0 Gy and 62.5 Gy (range, 56-69 Gy), respectively. The median and mean durations of implant were 100.0 hours and 101.1 hours (range, 71-165 hours). Results: Median follow-up time was 58.2 months. The 5-year outcomes including overall survival, disease-free survival, cause-specific survival, local failure, secondary enucleation rate, and visual acuity (VA) <20/200 were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Overall, there were 7 local failures, 4 distant failures, and 10 secondary enucleations (6 due to local failure and 4 due to treatment complications). Univariate analysis was performed to identify significant prognostic factors associated with disease-free survival (baseline VA in tumor eye, tumor shape), cause-specific survival (diabetic retinopathy), local failure (none found), secondary enucleation rate (diabetic retinopathy, basal tumor dimension) and VA <20/200 (diabetic retinopathy, tumor shape, age, retinal detachment, treatment depth, and history of vision-limiting condition). Conclusions: Our survival and local control outcomes are comparable to those of the COMS. However, VA at 5 years seems to be better. Lower doses of radiation could potentially lead to better visual outcomes.

  2. Sequential extraction evaluation of soil washing for radioactive contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Gombert, D.

    1992-10-01

    This paper describes an experimental plan for evaluating soil washing technology for potential application to radioactively contaminated soils at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The sequential extraction methodology is based on micronutrient bioavailability studies wherein the soil matrix is chemically dissected to selectively remove particular fixation mechanisms independently. A mechanism-specific extractant has the potential for greater removal efficiency than a broad-spectrum extractant, such as acid, while using a less aggressive chemistry and reducing resultant water treatment and dissolved solids handling problems.

  3. Sequential extraction evaluation of soil washing for radioactive contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Gombert, D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental plan for evaluating soil washing technology for potential application to radioactively contaminated soils at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The sequential extraction methodology is based on micronutrient bioavailability studies wherein the soil matrix is chemically dissected to selectively remove particular fixation mechanisms independently. A mechanism-specific extractant has the potential for greater removal efficiency than a broad-spectrum extractant, such as acid, while using a less aggressive chemistry and reducing resultant water treatment and dissolved solids handling problems.

  4. Glomerular filtration rate in evaluation of the effect of iodinated contrast media on renal function.

    PubMed

    Becker, Joshua; Babb, James; Serrano, Manuel

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to use measured glomerular filtration rate (GFR), the reference standard of renal function, to assess the deleterious effect of iodinated contrast media on renal function. Such an effect has been traditionally defined as a greater than 0.5-mg/dL increase in serum creatinine concentration or a 25% or greater increase 24-72 hours after the injection of iodinated contrast medium. This pilot investigation was focused on the consequences of clinically indicated IV injection of iodinated contrast media; intraarterial injection was excluded. One hundred thirteen patients with normal serum creatinine concentrations were enrolled in an approved protocol. At random, as chosen by one of the investigators, patients underwent imaging with one of three monomeric agents (iopamidol 300, iopromide 300, iohexol 300) and one dimeric agent (iodixanol 320). Measured GFR was determined immediately before CT and approximately 3 and 72 hours after the contrast injection for the CT examination. Iodinated contrast medium, a glomerular filtrate with no tubular excretion or reabsorption, was the GFR marker. Measured GFR was determined by x-ray fluorescence analysis with nonisotopic iodinated contrast media. Monomeric and dimeric contrast agents in diagnostic CT volumes (based on bodyweight and imaging protocol) did not induce a significant change in measured GFR (95% confidence by Wilcoxon test), suggesting that use of the evaluated contrast media will not lead to more than a 12% variation. The three monomeric agents studied and the one dimeric agent were equivalent in terms of lack of a significant effect on measured GFR when administered to patients with a normal GFR.

  5. Psychological and behavioral intervention improves the quality of life and mental health of patients suffering from differentiated thyroid cancer treated with postoperative radioactive iodine-131

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hong-Xia; Zhong, Hua; Xu, Yue-Dong; Xu, Cui-Ping; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Background We examined the effects of psychological and behavioral intervention on health-related quality of life and mental health among patients suffering from differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) treated with postoperative radioactive iodine-131 (RAI). Methods Sixty patients with DTC, undergoing RAI, were randomly assigned to receive either conventional nursing (n=30) or a 1-year psychological and behavioral intervention based on conventional nursing (n=30). Health-related quality of life and mental health issues, depression, and anxiety were measured using the Quality of Life Core Questionnaire, Self-rating Depression Scale, and Self-rating Anxiety Score, respectively. Results After RAI treatment, patients in both groups showed improved functional capacities (ie, physical, role, cognitive, emotional, and social) and global quality of life, along with reduced depression and anxiety (P<0.05). At 1-year follow-up, compared with patients in the routine nursing group, those in the psychological and behavioral intervention group demonstrated greater improvements in functional capacities, global quality of life, and depression and anxiety symptoms (P<0.05). Conclusion Psychological and behavioral interventions for patients with DTC undergoing RAI facilitated positive outcomes, suggesting that nursing care models that include psychological and behavioral interventions may be a complementary strategy for this patient population. PMID:27194911

  6. The use of a new radioactive-iodine labeled lipid marker to follow in vivo disposition of liposomes: comparison with an encapsulated aqueous space marker

    SciTech Connect

    Abra, R.M.; Schreier, H.; Szoka, F.C.

    1982-08-01

    The in vivo disposition of multilamellar liposomes extruded at 0.6 micrometers (PC/DPPA/CH/ alpha-T . 4:1:5:0.1 molar ratio) when injected i.v. into mice has been examined utilizing a novel iodinatable phospholipid derivative as a lipid phase marker (p-hydroxybenzamidine phosphatidylethanolamine: /sup 125/I-BPE) and compared to that using /sup 14/C-inulin as an aqueous phase marker. At times up to 5 h post-dose the disposition of both markers was essentially identical with the exception of blood and intestine, where /sup 125/I-BPE levels were consistently higher than /sup 14/C-inulin levels. At time intervals from 5-72 h post-dose /sup 125/I-BPE levels in all the organs examined were lower than those of /sup 14/C-inulin. These differences in the behaviour of the two labels may be explained in terms of exchange of the iodinated lipids, excretion of released inulin and long term metabolism of the lipid marker. We conclude tha /sup 125/I-BPE is a useful marker for following liposome disposition in short-term studies particularly in view of the easily quantifiable nature of gamma-radioactivity which obviates the need for sample preparation.

  7. Psychological and behavioral intervention improves the quality of life and mental health of patients suffering from differentiated thyroid cancer treated with postoperative radioactive iodine-131.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hong-Xia; Zhong, Hua; Xu, Yue-Dong; Xu, Cui-Ping; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of psychological and behavioral intervention on health-related quality of life and mental health among patients suffering from differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) treated with postoperative radioactive iodine-131 (RAI). Sixty patients with DTC, undergoing RAI, were randomly assigned to receive either conventional nursing (n=30) or a 1-year psychological and behavioral intervention based on conventional nursing (n=30). Health-related quality of life and mental health issues, depression, and anxiety were measured using the Quality of Life Core Questionnaire, Self-rating Depression Scale, and Self-rating Anxiety Score, respectively. After RAI treatment, patients in both groups showed improved functional capacities (ie, physical, role, cognitive, emotional, and social) and global quality of life, along with reduced depression and anxiety (P<0.05). At 1-year follow-up, compared with patients in the routine nursing group, those in the psychological and behavioral intervention group demonstrated greater improvements in functional capacities, global quality of life, and depression and anxiety symptoms (P<0.05). Psychological and behavioral interventions for patients with DTC undergoing RAI facilitated positive outcomes, suggesting that nursing care models that include psychological and behavioral interventions may be a complementary strategy for this patient population.

  8. A Randomized Controlled Trial for the Effectiveness of Aromatherapy in Decreasing Salivary Gland Damage following Radioactive Iodine Therapy for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Michihiro; Okizaki, Atsutaka; Takahashi, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of aromatherapy in decreasing salivary gland damage for patients undergoing radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Materials and Methods. The subjects were 71 patients with DTC. They were divided into aromatherapy group (group A, n = 35) and a control group (group B, n = 36). We blended 1.0 mL of lemon and 0.5 mL of ginger essential oils. The patients in the inhalation aromatherapy group inhaled this blend oil and those in the control group inhaled distilled water as placebo for 10 min during admission. We statistically compared salivary gland function before and after treatment between groups A and B. Results. In comparison with group B, the rate of change of the accumulation rate was significantly higher in the parotid glands and submandibular glands of group A (P < 0.05). In comparison with group B, a significant increase in rate of secretion change before and after treatment was noted in the bilateral parotid glands in group A (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Because an amelioration of salivary gland function was observed in the present study, our results suggest the efficacy of aromatherapy in the prevention of treatment-related salivary gland disorder. This trial is registered with UMIN Clinical Trial Registry: UMIN000013968.

  9. A Randomized Controlled Trial for the Effectiveness of Aromatherapy in Decreasing Salivary Gland Damage following Radioactive Iodine Therapy for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Okizaki, Atsutaka; Takahashi, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of aromatherapy in decreasing salivary gland damage for patients undergoing radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Materials and Methods. The subjects were 71 patients with DTC. They were divided into aromatherapy group (group A, n = 35) and a control group (group B, n = 36). We blended 1.0 mL of lemon and 0.5 mL of ginger essential oils. The patients in the inhalation aromatherapy group inhaled this blend oil and those in the control group inhaled distilled water as placebo for 10 min during admission. We statistically compared salivary gland function before and after treatment between groups A and B. Results. In comparison with group B, the rate of change of the accumulation rate was significantly higher in the parotid glands and submandibular glands of group A (P < 0.05). In comparison with group B, a significant increase in rate of secretion change before and after treatment was noted in the bilateral parotid glands in group A (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Because an amelioration of salivary gland function was observed in the present study, our results suggest the efficacy of aromatherapy in the prevention of treatment-related salivary gland disorder. This trial is registered with UMIN Clinical Trial Registry: UMIN000013968. PMID:28042578

  10. High resolution microendoscopy with structured illumination and Lugol's iodine staining for evaluation of breast cancer architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbs, Jessica; Kyrish, Matthew; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Grant, Benjamin; Kuerer, Henry; Yang, Wei; Tkaczyk, Tomasz; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2016-03-01

    Intraoperative margin assessment to evaluate resected tissue margins for neoplastic tissue is performed to prevent reoperations following breast-conserving surgery. High resolution microendoscopy (HRME) can rapidly acquire images of fresh tissue specimens, but is limited by low image contrast in tissues with high optical scattering. In this study we evaluated two techniques to reduce out-of-focus light: HRME image acquisition with structured illumination (SI-HRME) and topical application of Lugol's Iodine. Fresh breast tissue specimens from 19 patients were stained with proflavine alone or Lugol's Iodine and proflavine. Images of tissue specimens were acquired using a confocal microscope and an HRME system with and without structured illumination. Images were evaluated based on visual and quantitative assessment of image contrast. The highest mean contrast was measured in confocal images stained with proflavine. Contrast was significantly lower in HRME images stained with proflavine; however, incorporation of structured illumination significantly increased contrast in HRME images to levels comparable to that in confocal images. The addition of Lugol's Iodine did not increase mean contrast significantly for HRME or SI-HRME images. These findings suggest that structured illumination could potentially be used to increase contrast in HRME images of breast tissue for rapid image acquisition.

  11. Effect of a Limited Iodine Diet on Iodine Uptake by Thyroid Glands in Hyperthyroid Cats.

    PubMed

    Scott-Moncrieff, J C; Heng, H G; Weng, H Y; Dimeo, D; Jones, M D

    2015-01-01

    The effect of feeding a limited iodine diet on radioactive iodine uptake in the thyroid glands of hyperthyroid cats is unknown. To determine how feeding limited dietary iodine affects radioactive iodine uptake by the thyroid glands of hyperthyroid cats. Eight geriatric cats with spontaneous hyperthyroidism. Prospective study of eight client owned hyperthyroid cats fed a commercially available iodine limited diet for 6 months. Clinical signs were evaluated and TT4 and fT4 were measured during consumption of the diet. Uptake of (123)I was determined before and 8-16 weeks after exclusive consumption of the diet. Clinical signs of hyperthyroidism resolved in all cats, but there was no significant increase in body weight. TT4 and fT4 decreased into the reference range by 8-16 weeks in all cats. Mean TT4 before consumption of the diet was 9.7 μg/dL (SD 5.2) and after consumption of the diet was 3.1 μg/dL (SD 0.9). Scintigraphy revealed unilateral uptake of isotope in 5 cats and bilateral uptake in 3 cats. Mean percentage uptake of (123)I by the thyroid gland at 8 hours after isotope administration was 16.2 (SD 11.8) before diet consumption and 34.6 (SD 11.7) 8-16 weeks after exclusive consumption of the diet. The percentage increase was variable between cats (38-639%). Limited iodine diets increase iodine uptake in the autonomous thyroid glands of hyperthyroid cats. Further studies are necessary to determine if consumption of a limited iodine diet changes sensitivity of the thyroid gland to (131)I treatment. Copyright © 2015 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  12. A method to evaluate the dose increase in CT with iodinated contrast medium

    SciTech Connect

    Amato, Ernesto; Lizio, Domenico; Settineri, Nicola; Di Pasquale, Andrea; Salamone, Ignazio; Pandolfo, Ignazio

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: The objective of this study is to develop a method to calculate the relative dose increase when a computerized tomography scan (CT) is carried out after administration of iodinated contrast medium, with respect to the same CT scan in absence of contrast medium. Methods: A Monte Carlo simulation in GEANT4 of anthropomorphic neck and abdomen phantoms exposed to a simplified model of CT scanner was set up in order to calculate the increase of dose to thyroid, liver, spleen, kidneys, and pancreas as a function of the quantity of iodine accumulated; a series of experimental measurements of Hounsfield unit (HU) increment for known concentrations of iodinated contrast medium was carried out on a Siemens Sensation 16 CT scanner in order to obtain a relationship between the increment in HU and the relative dose increase in the organs studied. The authors applied such a method to calculate the average dose increase in three patients who underwent standard CT protocols consisting of one native scan in absence of contrast, followed by a contrast-enhanced scan in venous phase. Results: The authors validated their GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation by comparing the resulting dose increases for iodine solutions in water with the ones presented in literature and with their experimental data obtained through a Roentgen therapy unit. The relative dose increases as a function of the iodine mass fraction accumulated and as a function of the Hounsfield unit increment between the contrast-enhanced scan and the native scan are presented. The data shown for the three patients exhibit an average relative dose increase between 22% for liver and 74% for kidneys; also, spleen (34%), pancreas (28%), and thyroid (48%) show a remarkable average increase. Conclusions: The method developed allows a simple evaluation of the dose increase when iodinated contrast medium is used in CT scans, basing on the increment in Hounsfield units observed on the patients' organs. Since many clinical protocols

  13. Evaluation of endemic goiter prevalence in Bulgarian schoolchildren: results from national strategies for prevention and control of iodine-deficiency disorders.

    PubMed

    Gatseva, Penka; Vladeva, Stefka; Argirova, Mariana

    2007-06-01

    Iodine deficiency is a major health problem worldwide. The environment of the Balkan countries, including Bulgaria, is distinguished for its low iodine content. In 1994, the strategies for the prevention and control of iodinedeficiency disorders were actualized in Bulgaria and universal salt iodization and supplementation for the risk population groups (schoolchildren, pregnant women) were introduced. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the iodine prophylaxis in schoolchildren, living in an endemic for goiter area after the introduction of salt iodization in Bulgaria. For this purpose, the goiter prevalence and iodine status in 483 schoolchildren (274 boys and 209 girls) aged between 8 and 15 yr, living in an endemic for goiter area in Bulgaria were evaluated. Despite the normalization of iodine supply, mild iodine deficiency on the basis of goiter prevalence (16.15%) and urinary iodine excretion was found. These data indicate the need for reevaluation of the national strategy for prevention of iodine deficiency.

  14. Evaluation of Incident Risks in a Repository for Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Grundler, D.; Mariae, D.; Muller, W.; Boetsch, W.; Thiel, J.

    2008-07-01

    A probabilistic safety assessment of the operation phase of a repository for radioactive waste requires the knowledge of incident risks. These are evaluated from generic observations. The present method accounts for the uncertainty (1) of whether an incident occurs, (2) of the incident rate, (3) of the duration of generic observation, and (4) of the duration of operation phase of the repository. It yields a mean risk and its standard deviation from a minimum of generic data, comprising only the number of observed incidents and the duration of the observation, as more comprehensive generic data are seldom available. It was shown that incidents sharing a common generic observation must be either merged together to a total incident or the generic observation must be split up in sub-observations, one for each such incident. The method was tested on the example of the German Konrad repository for low-level waste in a deep geological formation. (authors)

  15. Establishment of radioactive astatine and iodine uptake in cancer cell lines expressing the human sodium/iodide symporter.

    PubMed

    Petrich, T; Helmeke, H-J; Meyer, G J; Knapp, W H; Pötter, E

    2002-07-01

    The sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) has been recognized as an attractive target for radioiodine-mediated cancer gene therapy. In this study we investigated the role of human NIS for cellular uptake of the high LET alpha-emitter astatine-211 ((211)At) in comparison with radioiodine as a potential radionuclide for future applications. A mammalian NIS expression vector was constructed and used to generate six stable NIS-expressing cancer cell lines (three derived from thyroid carcinoma, two from colon carcinoma, one from glioblastoma). Compared with the respective control cell lines, steady state radionuclide uptake of NIS-expressing cell lines increased up to 350-fold for iodine-123 ((123)I), 340-fold for technetium-99m pertechnetate ((99m)TcO(4)(-)) and 60-fold for (211)At. Cellular (211)At accumulation was found to be dependent on extracellular Na(+) ions and displayed a similar sensitivity towards sodium perchlorate inhibition as radioiodide and (99m)TcO(4)(-) uptake. Heterologous competition with unlabelled NaI decreased NIS-mediated (211)At uptake to levels of NIS-negative control cells. Following uptake both radioiodide and (211)At were rapidly (apparent t(1/2) 3-15 min) released by the cells as determined by wash-out experiments. Data of scintigraphic tumour imaging in a xenograft nude mice model of transplanted NIS-modified thyroid cells indicated that radionuclide uptake in NIS-expressing tumours was up to 70 times ((123)I), 25 times ((99m)TcO(4)(-)) and 10 times ((211)At) higher than in control tumours or normal tissues except stomach (3-5 times) and thyroid gland (5-10 times). Thirty-four percent and 14% of the administered activity of (123)I and (211)At, respectively, was found in NIS tumours by region of interest analysis ( n=2). Compared with cell culture experiments, the effective half-life in vivo was greatly prolonged (6.5 h for (123)I, 5.2 h for (211)At) and preliminary dosimetric calculations indicate high tumour absorbed doses (3.5 Gy

  16. Evaluation of Trenchless Installation Technology for Radioactive Wastewater Piping Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Sharon M; Jubin, Robert Thomas; Patton, Bradley D; Sullivan, Nicholas M; Bugbee, Kathy P

    2009-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) cleanup mission at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) includes dispositioning facilities, contaminated legacy materials/waste, and contamination sources and remediation of soil under facilities, groundwater, and surface water to support final Records of Decision (RODs). The Integrated Facilities Disposition Project (IFDP) is a roughly $15B project for completion of the EM mission at Oak Ridge, with a project duration of up to 35 years. The IFDP Mission Need Statement - Critical Decision-0 (CD-0) - was approved by DOE in July 2007, and the IFDP Alternative Selection and Cost Range - Critical Decision-1 (CD-1) - was approved in November 2008. The IFDP scope includes reconfiguration of waste collection and treatment systems as needed to complete the IFDP remediation and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) missions in a safe and cost-effective manner while maintaining compliance with all governing regulations and bodies and preserving the support of continuing operations at ORNL. A step in the CD-1 approval process included an external technical review (ETR) of technical approaches proposed in the CD-1 document related to the facility reconfiguration for the ORNL radioactive waste and liquid low-level waste management systems. The ETR team recommended that the IFDP team consider the use of trenchless technologies for installing pipelines underground in and around contaminated sites as part of the alternatives evaluations required in support of the CD-2 process. The team specifically recommended evaluating trenchless technologies for installing new pipes in existing underground pipelines as an alternative to conventional open trench installation methods. Potential benefits could include reduction in project costs, less costly underground piping, fewer disruptions of ongoing and surface activities, and lower risk for workers. While trenchless technologies have been used extensively in the

  17. Iodine speciation: a potential indicator to evaluate new production versus regenerated production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, R. C.; Marty, J. C.; Nicolas, E.; Chiavérini, J.; Ruiz-Ping, D.; Pizay, M. D.

    1996-05-01

    Vertical profiles of iodide, iodate and total free iodine were determined monthly for one year (from July 1993 to June 1994) at the DYFAMED permanent station located in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Dissolved iodate and iodide were directly determined by differential pulse polarography and cathodic stripping square wave voltammetry, respectively. Iodate is the predominant species, ranging from 390 nM in surface waters to 485 nM in deep waters. Iodide is present in significant concentrations up to 80 nM in surface waters and from undetectable levels to several nanomolar (< 10 nM) in deep waters. Concentrations of total free iodine are slightly lower in surface waters (467-478 nM with an average of 472 nM) than in deep waters (475-486 nM with an average of 481 nM). Considerable variations in iodine speciation were observed. Iodide concentrations in surface waters were relatively low and stable from February to April (about 20 nM), increased up to 80 nM from May until November, and then decreased from December to February. Comparison between iodide abundance and primary production demonstrates that the transformation from iodate to iodide in surface waters is linked to the regenerated production. The stability of regenerated iodide in surface seawater makes iodide a potential indicator to evaluate new production vs regenerated production.

  18. Health Physics Code System for Evaluating Accidents Involving Radioactive Materials.

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-01

    Version 03 The HOTSPOT Health Physics codes were created to provide Health Physics personnel with a fast, field-portable calculational tool for evaluating accidents involving radioactive materials. HOTSPOT codes provide a first-order approximation of the radiation effects associated with the atmospheric release of radioactive materials. The developer's website is: http://www.llnl.gov/nhi/hotspot/. Four general programs, PLUME, EXPLOSION, FIRE, and RESUSPENSION, calculate a downwind assessment following the release of radioactive material resulting from a continuous or puff release, explosive release, fuel fire, or an area contamination event. Additional programs deal specifically with the release of plutonium, uranium, and tritium to expedite an initial assessment of accidents involving nuclear weapons. The FIDLER program can calibrate radiation survey instruments for ground survey measurements and initial screening of personnel for possible plutonium uptake in the lung. The HOTSPOT codes are fast, portable, easy to use, and fully documented in electronic help files. HOTSPOT supports color high resolution monitors and printers for concentration plots and contours. The codes have been extensively used by the DOS community since 1985. Tables and graphical output can be directed to the computer screen, printer, or a disk file. The graphical output consists of dose and ground contamination as a function of plume centerline downwind distance, and radiation dose and ground contamination contours. Users have the option of displaying scenario text on the plots. HOTSPOT 3.0.1 fixes three significant Windows 7 issues: Executable installed properly under "Program Files/HotSpot 3.0". Installation package now smaller: removed dependency on older Windows DLL files which previously needed to; Forms now properly scale based on DPI instead of font for users who change their screen resolution to something other than 100%. This is a more common feature in Windows 7; Windows installer

  19. Volatility of ruthenium-106, technetium-99, and iodine-129, and the evolution of nitrogen oxide compounds during the calcination of high-level, radioactive nitric acid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Rimshaw, S.J.; Case, F.N.; Tompkins, J.A.

    1980-02-01

    The nitrate anion is the predominant constituent in all high-level nuclear wastes. Formic acid reacts with the nitrate anion to yield noncondensable, inert gases (N/sub 2/ or N/sub 2/O), which can be scrubbed free of /sup 106/Ru, /sup 129/I, and /sup 99/Tc radioactivities prior to elimination from the plant by passing through HEPA filters. Treatment of a high-level authentic radioactive waste with two moles of formic acid per mole of nitrate anion leads to a low RuO/sub 4/ volatility of about 0.1%, which can be reduced to an even lower level of 0.007% on adding a 15% excess of formic acid. Without pretreatment of the nitrate waste with formic acid, a high RuO/sub 4/ volatility of approx. 35% is observed on calcining a 4.0 N HNO/sub 3/ solution in quartz equipment at 350/sup 0/C. The RuO/sub 4/ volatility falls to approx. 1.0% on decreasing the initial HNO/sub 3/ concentration to 1.0 N or lower. It is postulated that thermal denitration of a highly nitrated ruthenium complex leads to the formation of volatile RuO/sub 4/, while decarboxylation of a ruthenium-formate complex leads to the formation of nonvolatile RuO/sub 2/. Wet scrubbing with water is used to remove RuO/sub 4/ from the off-gas stream. In all glass equipment, small amounts of particulate RuO/sub 2/ are formed in the gas phase by decomposition of RuO/sub 4/. The /sup 99/Tc volatility was found to vary from 0.2 to 1.4% on calcining HNO/sub 3/ and HCOOH (formic acid) solutions over the temperature range of 250 to 600/sup 0/C. These unexpectedly low volatilities of /sup 99/Tc are correlated to the high thermal stability limits of various metal pertechnetates and technetates. Iodine volatilities were high, varying from a low of 30% at 350/sup 0/C to a high of 97% at 650/sup 0/C. It is concluded that with a proper selection of pretreatment and operating conditions the /sup 106/Ru and /sup 99/Tc activities can be retained in the calcined solid with recycle of the wet scrubbing solution.

  20. Removal of radioactive iodine and cesium in water purification processes after an explosion at a nuclear power plant due to the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Kosaka, Koji; Asami, Mari; Kobashigawa, Naoya; Ohkubo, Keiko; Terada, Hiroshi; Kishida, Naohiro; Akiba, Michihiro

    2012-09-15

    The presence of radionuclides at five water purification plants was investigated after an explosion at a nuclear power plant hit by the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011. Radioactive iodine (¹³¹I) and cesium (¹³⁴Cs and ¹³⁷Cs) were detected in raw water in Fukushima and neighboring prefectures. ¹³¹I was not removed by coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation. ¹³¹I was removed by granular activated carbon (GAC) and powdered activated carbon (PAC) at a level of about 30%-40%, although ¹³¹I was not removed in some cases. This was also confirmed by laboratory-scale experiments using PAC. The removal percentages of ¹³¹I in river and pond waters by 25 mg dry/L of PAC increased from 36% to 59% and from 41% to 48%, respectively, with chlorine dosing before PAC. ¹³⁴Cs and ¹³⁷Cs were effectively removed by coagulation at both a water purification plant and in laboratory-scale experiments when turbidity was relatively high. In contrast, ¹³⁴Cs and ¹³⁷Cs in pond water with low turbidity were not removed by coagulation. This was because ¹³⁴Cs and ¹³⁷Cs in river water were present mainly in particulate form, while in pond water they were present mainly as cesium ions (¹³⁴Cs+ and ¹³⁷Cs+). However, the removal of ¹³⁴Cs and ¹³⁷Cs in pond water by coagulation increased markedly when ¹³⁴Cs and ¹³⁷Cs were mixed with sediment 24 h before coagulation.

  1. Does thyroidectomy, radioactive iodine therapy, or antithyroid drug treatment alter reactivity of patients` T cells to epitopes of thyrotropin receptor in autoimmune thyroid diseases?

    SciTech Connect

    Soliman, M.; Kaplan, E.; Abdel-Latif, A.

    1995-08-01

    The effect of treatment on thyroid antibody production and T cell reactivity to thyroid antigens was studied in 15 patients with Graves` disease (GD) before and after thyroidectomy, 19 patients with GD before and after radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy, and 9 patients maintained euthyroid on antithyroid drugs (ATD). In GD patients, the responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and TSH receptor (TSHR)-specific T cell lines to recombinant human TSHR extracellular domain, thyroglobulin, and TSHR peptides were examined on the day of surgery or RAI therapy (day 0) and also 6-8 weeks and 3-6 months thereafter. Reactivity to TSHR peptides before surgery was heterogeneous and spanned the entire extracellular domain. Six to 8 weeks after subtotal thyroidectomy, the number of patients` PBMC responding to any peptide and the average number of recognized peptides decreased. A further decrease in the T cell reactivity to TSHR peptides was observed 3-6 months after surgery. The responses of PBMC from Graves` patients before RAI therapy were less than those in the presurgical group. Six to 8 weeks after RAI therapy, the number of patients responding to any peptide and the average number of recognized peptides increased. Three to 6 months after RAI, T cell responses to TSHR peptides were less than those 6-8 weeks after RAI therapy, but still higher than the values on day 0. Responses of PBMC from patients with GD, maintained euthyroid on ATD, were lower than those before surgery or RAI therapy. The reactivity of T cell lines in different groups reflected a pattern similar to PBMC after treatment. TSHR antibody and microsomal antibody levels decreased after surgery, but increased after RAI therapy. The difference in the number of recognized peptides by patients` PBMC before RAI and surgery may reflect the effect of long term therapy with ATD in the patients before RAI vs. the shorter period in patients before surgery. 38 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Evaluation and ranking of restoration strategies for radioactively contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Zeevaert, T; Bousher, A; Brendler, V; Jensen, P H; Nordlinder, S

    2001-01-01

    An international project, whose aim was the development of a transparent and robust method for evaluating and ranking restoration strategies for radioactively contaminated sites (RESTRAT), was carried out under the Fourth Framework of the Nuclear Fission Safety Programme of the EU. The evaluation and ranking procedure used was based on the principles of justification and optimisation for radiation protection. A multi-attribute utility analysis was applied to allow for the inclusion of radiological health effects, economic costs and social factors. Values of these attributes were converted into utility values by applying linear utility functions and weighting factors, derived from scaling constants and expert judgement. The uncertainties and variabilities associated with these utility functions and weighting factors were dealt with by a probabilistic approach which utilised a Latin Hypercube Sampling technique. Potentially relevant restoration techniques were identified and their characteristics determined through a literature review. The methodology developed by this project has been illustrated by application to representative examples of different categories of contaminated sites; a waste disposal site, a uranium tailing site and a contaminated freshwater river.

  3. Iodine-131 Releases from Radioactive Lanthanum Processing at the X-10 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (1944-1956)- An Assessment of Quantities released, Off-Site Radiation Doses, and Potential Excess Risks of Thyroid Cancer- APPENDICES Appendices-Volume 1A

    SciTech Connect

    Apostoaei, A.I.; Burns, R.E.; Hoffman, F.O.; Ijaz, T.; Lewis, C.J.; Nair, S.K.; Widner, T.E.

    1999-07-01

    This report consists of all the appendices for the report described below: In the early 1990s, concern about the Oak Ridge Reservation's past releases of contaminants to the environment prompted Tennessee's public health officials to pursue an in-depth study of potential off-site health effects at Oak Ridge. This study, the Oak Ridge dose reconstruction, was supported by an agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the State of Tennessee, and was overseen by a 12-member panel appointed by Tennessee's Commissioner of Health. One of the major contaminants studied in the dose reconstruction was radioactive iodine, which was released to the air by X-10 (now called Oak Ridge National Laboratory) as it processed spent nuclear reactor fuel from 1944 through 1956. The process recovered radioactive lanthanum for use in weapons development. Iodine concentrates in the thyroid gland so health concerns include various diseases of the thyroid, such as thyroid cancer. The large report, ''Iodine-131 Releases from Radioactive Lanthanum Processing at the X-10 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (1944-1956) - An Assessment of Quantities Released, Off-site Radiation Doses, and Potential Excess Risks of Thyroid Cancer,'' is in two volumes. Volume 1 is the main body of the report, and Volume 1A, which has the same title, consists of 22 supporting appendices. Together, these reports serve the following purposes: (1) describe the methodologies used to estimate the amount of iodine-131 (I-131) released; (2) evaluate I-131's pathway from air to vegetation to food to humans; (3) estimate doses received by human thyroids; (4) estimate excess risk of acquiring a thyroid cancer during ones lifetime; and (5) provide equations, examples of historical documents used, and tables of calculated values as appendices. Results indicate that females born in 1952 who consumed milk from a goat pastured a few miles east of X-10 received the highest doses from I-131 and would have had the highest

  4. Immobilization of iodine in concrete

    DOEpatents

    Clark, Walter E.; Thompson, Clarence T.

    1977-04-12

    A method for immobilizing fission product radioactive iodine recovered from irradiated nuclear fuel comprises combining material comprising water, Portland cement and about 3-20 wt. % iodine as Ba(IO.sub.3).sub.2 to provide a fluid mixture and allowing the fluid mixture to harden, said Ba(IO.sub.3).sub.2 comprising said radioactive iodine. An article for solid waste disposal comprises concrete prepared by this method. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention was made in the course of, or under a contract with the Energy Research and Development Administration. It relates in general to reactor waste solidification and more specifically to the immobilization of fission product radioactive iodine recovered from irradiated nuclear fuel for underground storage.

  5. Post-operative stimulated thyroglobulin and neck ultrasound as personalized criteria for risk stratification and radioactive iodine selection in low- and intermediate-risk papillary thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Orlov, Steven; Salari, Farnaz; Kashat, Lawrence; Freeman, Jeremy L; Vescan, Allan; Witterick, Ian J; Walfish, Paul G

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the utility of a personalized risk stratification and radioactive iodine (RAI) selection protocol (PRSP) using post-operative stimulated thyroglobulin (Stim-Tg) and neck ultrasound in low- and intermediate-risk papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) patients. Patients with PTC tumors ≥1 cm were prospectively followed after total thyroidectomy and selective therapeutic central compartment neck dissection. Low/intermediate risk was defined as PTC confined to the thyroid or central (level VI) lymph nodes. Stim-Tg and neck ultrasound were performed approximately 3 months after surgery and used to guide RAI selection. Patients with Stim-Tg < 1 µg/L did not receive RAI, while those with Stim-Tg >5 µg/L routinely did. Those with Stim-Tg 1-5 µg/L received RAI on the basis of several clinical risk factors. Patients were followed for >6 years with serial neck ultrasound and basal/stimulated thyroglobulin. Among the 129 patients, 84 (65 %) had undetectable Stim-Tg after initial surgery, 40 (31 %) had Stim-Tg of 1-5 µg/L, and 5 (4 %) had Stim-Tg >5 µg/L. RAI was administered to 8 (20 %) patients with Stim-Tg 1-5 µg/L and 5 (100 %) with Stim-Tg >5 µg/L. Using this approach, RAI therapy was avoided in 17/20 (85 %) patients with tumors >4 cm, in 72/81 (89 %) patients older than 45 years, and in 6/9 (67 %) patients with central lymph node involvement. To date, 116 (90 %) patients in this cohort have not received RAI therapy with no evidence of residual/recurrent disease, whereas among the 13 patients who received RAI, 1 (8 %) had pathologic residual/recurrence disease. Using the proposed PRSP, RAI can be avoided in the majority of low/intermediate-risk PTC patients. Moreover, traditional risk factors considered to favor RAI treatment were not always concordant with the PRSP and may lead to overtreatment.

  6. Value of continuous leakage monitoring with radioactive iodine-131-labeled human serum albumin during hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion with tumor necrosis factor-alpha and melphalan.

    PubMed

    van Ginkel, Robert J; Limburg, Pieter C; Piers, D Albertus; Koops, Heimen Schraffordt; Hoekstra, Harald J

    2002-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the value of continuous leakage monitoring with radioactive iodine-131-labeled human serum albumin (RISA) in patients treated with hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) and melphalan. Forty-eight patients with melanoma (n = 14) or soft tissue sarcoma (n = 34) of an extremity underwent 51 perfusions. Perfusion was performed at the iliac level in 22 cases, at the popliteal level in 16 cases, at the femoral level in 7 cases, and at the axillary level in 6 cases. Leakage rates and perfusion circuit and systemic levels of TNF alpha, interleukin-6, and C-reactive protein were determined, as were systemic hematological and metabolic profiles and tumor response. The mean isotopically measured leakage was 2.9%. Systemic leakage was < or = 2% in 28 perfusions and >2% in 23 perfusions. The correlation between the maximal monitored leakage and maximal systemic TNF alpha levels was.7114. The area under the curve for TNF alpha in the perfusion circuit, indicating the exposure of the perfused limb to TNF alpha, was 18.7% lower in the >2% leakage group. No significant differences in tumor response were found between groups. The area under the curve for systemic TNF alpha, indicating the exposure of the patient to TNF alpha, was 18.1 times higher in the >2% leakage group, resulting in a significant decrease in leukocyte and platelet count, hyperbilirubinemia, hypocholesterolemia, and proteinemia. No beneficial effect of the systemically leaked TNF and melphalan was seen on the occurrence of distant metastasis during follow-up. There was a significant difference between perfusions performed at the iliac and femoral levels compared with leakage values at the popliteal level. A good correlation between RISA leakage measurement and TNF alpha exposure during and after hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion with TNF alpha and melphalan was demonstrated. RISA leakage measurement serves as a good guide for the

  7. The effectiveness of radioactive iodine for treatment of low-risk thyroid cancer: a systematic analysis of the peer-reviewed literature from 1966 to April 2008.

    PubMed

    Sacks, Wendy; Fung, Constance H; Chang, John T; Waxman, Alan; Braunstein, Glenn D

    2010-11-01

    Radioactive iodine (RAI) remnant ablation has been used to eliminate normal thyroid tissue and may also facilitate monitoring for persistent or recurrent thyroid carcinoma. The use of RAI for low-risk patients who we define as those under age 45 with stage I disease or over age 45 with stage I or II disease based on American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) 6th edition, or low risk under the metastases, age, completeness of resection, invasion, size (MACIS) staging system (value <6) is controversial. In this extensive literature review, we sought to analyze the evidence for use of RAI treatment to improve mortality and survival and to reduce recurrence in patients of various stages and disease risk, particularly for those patients who are at low risk for recurrence and death from thyroid cancer. A MEDLINE search was conducted for studies published between January 1966 and April 2008 that compared the effectiveness of administering versus not administering RAI for treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Studies were grouped A through D based on their methodological rigor (best to worst). An analysis, focused on group A studies, was performed to determine whether treatment with RAI for DTC results in decreased recurrences and improved survival rates. The majority of studies did not find a statistically significant improvement in mortality or disease-specific survival in those low-risk patients treated with RAI, whereas improved survival was confirmed for high-risk (AJCC stages III and IV) patients. Evidence for RAI decreasing recurrence was mixed with half of the studies showing a significant relationship and half showing no relationship. We propose a management guideline based on a patient's risk-very low, low, moderate, and high-for clinicians to use when delineating those patients who should undergo RAI treatment for initial postoperative management of DTC. A majority of very low-risk and low-risk patients, as well as select cases of patients with

  8. Higher body weight and distant metastasis are associated with higher radiation exposure to the household environment from patients with thyroid cancer after radioactive iodine therapy.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Sheng-Fong; Ho, Tsung-Ying; Liou, Miaw-Jene; Lin, Kun-Ju; Cheng, Ru-Chin; Chan, Sheng-Chieh; Huang, Bie-Yui; Ng, Soh-Ching; Liu, Feng-Hsuan; Chang, Hung-Yu; Hsieh, Sheng-Hwu; Chiang, Kun-Chun; Chen, Huang-Yang; Lo, Ta-You; Lin, Chih-Lang; Lin, Jen-Der

    2017-09-01

    There were insufficient data regarding radiation exposure to the household environment from patients with thyroid cancer who received radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy in Asia; we therefore performed the present study at the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital in Keelung, Taiwan.Patients with papillary or follicular thyroid cancer who received 3.7 GBq (100 mCi) RAI were enrolled in this prospective hospital-based study. The enrolled patients were asked to place a thermoluminescent dosimeter in the living room, bedroom, and bathroom of their houses for 4 weeks to measure radiation exposure to the household environment.A total of 43 patients (18 men and 25 women; mean age 51 ± 13 years) who received 3.7 GBq (100 mCi) RAI completed the study. The mean value of total radiation exposure over 4 weeks from the patients to the bedroom, bathroom, and living room (eliminating the background radiation factor) was 0.446 ± 0.304 (0.088-1.382) mSv. We divided the patients into 2 groups: those with more than and less than the mean value of total radiation exposure to the bedroom, bathroom, and living room. Factors associated with the higher amount of radiation exposure from the patients to the household environment were patient body weight (P = .025, univariate analysis; P = .037, multivariate analysis, odds ratio [95% confidence interval] 1.067 [1.004-1.134]) and distant metastases based on I post-therapy scanning (P = .041, univariate analysis; P = .058, multivariate analysis, odds ratio [95% confidence interval] 6.453 [0.938-44.369]); age, sex, body mass index, renal function, serum stimulated thyroglobulin level, and recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone use were not associated with the amount of radiation exposure from the patients to the household environment.Higher body weight and distant metastases may be the best predictors for higher radiation exposure to the household environment from patients with thyroid cancer after RAI therapy.

  9. Higher body weight and distant metastasis are associated with higher radiation exposure to the household environment from patients with thyroid cancer after radioactive iodine therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Sheng-Fong; Ho, Tsung-Ying; Liou, Miaw-Jene; Lin, Kun-Ju; Cheng, Ru-Chin; Chan, Sheng-Chieh; Huang, Bie-Yui; Ng, Soh-Ching; Liu, Feng-Hsuan; Chang, Hung-Yu; Hsieh, Sheng-Hwu; Chiang, Kun-Chun; Chen, Huang-Yang; Lo, Ta-You; Lin, Chih-Lang; Lin, Jen-Der

    2017-01-01

    Abstract There were insufficient data regarding radiation exposure to the household environment from patients with thyroid cancer who received radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy in Asia; we therefore performed the present study at the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital in Keelung, Taiwan. Patients with papillary or follicular thyroid cancer who received 3.7 GBq (100 mCi) RAI were enrolled in this prospective hospital-based study. The enrolled patients were asked to place a thermoluminescent dosimeter in the living room, bedroom, and bathroom of their houses for 4 weeks to measure radiation exposure to the household environment. A total of 43 patients (18 men and 25 women; mean age 51 ± 13 years) who received 3.7 GBq (100 mCi) RAI completed the study. The mean value of total radiation exposure over 4 weeks from the patients to the bedroom, bathroom, and living room (eliminating the background radiation factor) was 0.446 ± 0.304 (0.088–1.382) mSv. We divided the patients into 2 groups: those with more than and less than the mean value of total radiation exposure to the bedroom, bathroom, and living room. Factors associated with the higher amount of radiation exposure from the patients to the household environment were patient body weight (P = .025, univariate analysis; P = .037, multivariate analysis, odds ratio [95% confidence interval] 1.067 [1.004–1.134]) and distant metastases based on 131I post-therapy scanning (P = .041, univariate analysis; P = .058, multivariate analysis, odds ratio [95% confidence interval] 6.453 [0.938–44.369]); age, sex, body mass index, renal function, serum stimulated thyroglobulin level, and recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone use were not associated with the amount of radiation exposure from the patients to the household environment. Higher body weight and distant metastases may be the best predictors for higher radiation exposure to the household environment from patients with thyroid cancer

  10. Low-Dose Radioactive Iodine Ablation Is Sufficient in Patients With Small Papillary Thyroid Cancer Having Minor Extrathyroidal Extension and Central Lymph Node Metastasis (T3 N1a).

    PubMed

    Seo, Minjung; Kim, Yon Seon; Lee, Jong Cheol; Han, Myung Woul; Kim, Eun Sook; Kim, Kyung Bin; Park, Seol Hoon

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of low-dose radioactive iodine (RAI) ablation in patients with small papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) exhibiting microscopic extrathyroidal extension (mETE) and central lymph node (CLN) metastasis. Among patients who underwent RAI ablation between March 2007 and February 2014, those who had small PTCs (≤2 cm), as well as mETE and CLN metastasis (T3 N1a M0), were enrolled. Response to ablation and long-term outcomes were assessed and compared according to the administered RAI dose. Factors associated with unsuccessful ablation were also determined. A total of 180 patients were included in the study. Eighty-eight patients had been treated with 1110 MBq (low-dose group) and 92 with 2960 MBq (high-dose group) of RAI. There were no significant differences in the responses to ablation (P = 0.810) and long-term outcomes (P = 0.663) between both groups. Among all patients enrolled, 13 did not achieve successful ablation at long-term follow-up. Logistic regression found that a high ratio of metastatic nodes was a significant factor for predicting unsuccessful ablation. Low-dose RAI ablation did not produce significantly different responses or long-term outcomes in patients with small PTCs exhibiting mETE and CLN metastasis. These findings suggest that low-dose ablation may be sufficient in this specific group of intermediate-risk patients, although careful selection is required for patients with a high ratio of metastatic nodes.

  11. Chernobyl three years later: radiobiologic evaluation of a radioactive contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Behar, A.; Cohen-Boulakia, F.; Othmani, S. )

    1990-11-01

    On April 26, 1986, after partial fusion and confining loss by explosion of a nuclear reactor, 5 x 10(7) Ci of radionuclides escaped from Chernobyl. Three years later, maps show contamination by radioactive isotopes (formed during that period) of 21,000 km2 of Soviet soil, mainly in Byelorussia and part of the Ukraine. Decontamination measures have not been effective to date and 135,000 persons are being followed medically, taking into account the radioactive doses they received. An initial excess of morbidity from solid tumors has been noted much sooner than in the case of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, but its significance is in dispute. Three years later, only the extent of the ecologic disaster caused by the radioactive contamination can be confirmed. It is too early to draw conclusions about radiation-induced carcinogenesis for the contaminated population.

  12. Radioactive Iodine Treatment for Hyperthyroidism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Center Pacientes y Cuidadores Hormones and Health The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Steroid and Hormone ... Learn About Clinical Trials Hormones and Health The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Steroid and Hormone ...

  13. Consensus on the management of advanced radioactive iodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer on behalf of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology Thyroid Cancer Working Group (GTSEEN) and Spanish Rare Cancer Working Group (GETHI).

    PubMed

    Capdevila, J; Galofré, J C; Grande, E; Zafón Llopis, C; Ramón Y Cajal Asensio, T; Navarro González, E; Jiménez-Fonseca, P; Santamaría Sandi, J; Gómez Sáez, J M; Riesco Eizaguirre, G

    2017-03-01

    Thyroid cancer is the single most prevalent endocrine malignancy; differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) accounts for more than 90 % of all malignancies and its incidence has been rising steadily. For more patients, surgical treatment, radioactive iodine (RAI) ablation, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) suppressive therapy achieve an overall survival (OS) rate of 97.7 % at 5 years. Nevertheless, locoregional recurrence occurs in up to 20 % and distant metastases in approximately 10 % at 10 years. Two-thirds of these patients will never be cured with radioactive iodine therapy and will become RAI-refractory, with a 3-year OS rate of less than 50 %. Over the last decade, substantial progress has been made in the management of RAI-refractory DTC. Given the controversy in some areas, the Spanish Task Force for Thyroid Cancer on behalf of Spanish Society of Endocrinology Thyroid Cancer Working Group (GTSEEN) and the Spanish Rare Cancer Working Group (GETHI) have created a national joint task force to reach a consensus addressing the most challenging aspects of management in these patients. In this way, multidisciplinary management should be mandatory and nuclear medicine targeted therapy, novel molecular targeted agents, and combinations are currently changing the natural history of RAI-refractory DTC.

  14. Quantitative evaluation of the relaxivity effects of iodine on GD-DTPA enhanced MR arthrography.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Arundhuti; Gold, Garry E; Butts Pauly, Kim; Mayer, Dirk; Moseley, Michael M; Pelc, Norbert J; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2007-06-01

    To quantify the effect of iodine on the gadolinium (Gd) contrast-enhanced signal in MR arthrography. Saline solutions of Gd contrast agent (0-1 mmol/liter) were mixed with iodinated contrast agent (0-185 mmol/liter). The T1 and T2 relaxation constants of these solutions were measured at 1.5T. Different types of commonly used iodinated contrast agents as well as sodium iodide (NaI) solutions were also analyzed. Iodine caused significant T2 shortening and some T1 shortening in Gd contrast solutions. Both contrast agents independently obeyed the standard relaxation relation, and their mixture obeyed a modified version of this relation. The side chains in various iodine molecules and their viscosities affected the relaxation properties differently. For various spin-echo (SE) sequences, the signal from synovial fluid containing different concentrations of the two contrast agents was calculated. The T2-weighted signal appeared to be most affected by the increase in iodine concentrations. In the absence of Gd contrast, all SE sequences showed an initial increase in signal from iodine contrast. A generalized relation for the relaxivities of Gd contrast in the presence of iodine was established. The side chains of iodine contrast were found to alter the relaxivities of Gd contrast. Imaging with proton density (PD)-weighted SE with only iodine contrast agent was found to be feasible. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Effects of time of administration and dietary iodine levels on potassium iodide (KI) blockade of thyroid irradiation by 131I from radioactive fallout.

    PubMed

    Zanzonico, P B; Becker, D V

    2000-06-01

    Radioiodines, particularly 131I, may be released into the environment in breach-of-containment nuclear reactor accidents and localize in and irradiate the thyroid with an attendant risk of neoplastic growth and other adverse health effects. Pharmacologic thyroid blockade by oral potassium iodide (KI) (50-100 mg in adults) can substantially reduce thyroid uptake of and irradiation by internalized radioiodine. In the current analysis, computer modeling of iodine metabolism has been used to systematically elucidate the effects of two practically important but highly variable factors on the radioprotective effect of KI: the time of administration relative to exposure to radioiodine and the dietary level of iodine. In euthyroid adults receiving iodine-sufficient diets (250 microg d(-1) in the current analysis), KI administered up to 48 h before 131I exposure can almost completely block thyroid uptake and therefore greatly reduce the thyroid absorbed dose. However, KI administration 96 h or more before 131I exposure has no significant protective effect. In contrast, KI administration after exposure to radioiodine induces a smaller and rapidly decreasing blockade effect. KI administration 16 h or later after 131I exposure will have little effect on thyroid uptake and absorbed dose and therefore little or no protective effect. The 131I thyroid absorbed dose is two-fold greater with insufficient levels of dietary iodine, 2,900 cGy/37 MBq, than with sufficient levels of dietary iodine, 1,500 cGy/37 MBq. When KI is administered 48 h or less before 131I intake, the thyroid absorbed doses (in cGy/37 MBq) are comparably low with both sufficient and insufficient dietary iodine levels. When KI is administered after 131I intake, however, the protective effect of KI is less and decreases more rapidly with insufficient than with sufficient dietary iodine. For example, KI administration 2 and 8 h after 131I intake yields protective effects of 80 and 40%, respectively, with iodine

  16. Scoping calculation for components of the cow-milk dose pathway for evaluating the dose contribution from iodine-131

    SciTech Connect

    Ikenberry, T.A.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-12-01

    A series of scoping calculations have been undertaken to evaluate The absolute and relative contribution of different exposure pathways to doses that may have been received by individuals living in the vicinity of the Hanford site. This scoping calculation (Calculation 001) examined the contributions of the various exposure pathways associated with environmental transport and accumulation of iodine-131 in the pasture-cow-milk pathway. Addressed in this calculation were the contributions to thyroid dose of infants and adult from (1) the ingestion by dairy cattle of various feedstuffs (pasturage, silage, alfalfa hay, and grass hay) in four different feeding regimes; (2) ingestion of soil by dairy cattle; (3) ingestion of stared feed on which airborne iodine-131 had been deposited; and (4) inhalation of airborne iodine-131 by dairy cows.

  17. Tables for evaluating Bateman equation coefficients for radioactivity calculations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flanagan, F.J.; Senftle, F.E.

    1954-01-01

    Tables of decay constants and functions thereof are presented to simplify the problem of calculating the constants involved in the Bateman equation. These tables make it possible to calculate any constant involved in any of the four radioactive series by a maximum of three mathematical operations, either by three divisions or by two multiplications and a division. They are useful and time-saving where a large number of such calculations are involved.

  18. Serial post-surgical stimulated and unstimulated highly sensitive thyroglobulin measurements in low- and intermediate-risk papillary thyroid carcinoma patients not receiving radioactive iodine.

    PubMed

    Kashat, Lawrence; Orlov, Steven; Orlov, David; Assi, Jasmeet; Salari, Farnaz; Walfish, Paul G

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the natural temporal trends of serial thyroglobulin (Tg) among low/intermediate-risk PTC patients not receiving radioactive iodine (RAI) using TSH-stimulated Tg (Stim-Tg) and unstimulated highly sensitive Tg (u-hsTg). We prospectively analyzed serial Stim-Tg measurements after total thyroidectomy ± therapeutic central neck dissection among 121 consecutive low/intermediate-risk PTC patients who did not receive RAI, of whom 104 also had serial u-hsTg measurements available. Median follow-up was 6.5 years with Stim-Tg measurements commencing 3 months after surgery and u-hsTg commencing 1.8 years after surgery (when the assay became available). TSH stimulation was performed with 9-day T3 withdrawal, 22-day T4 withdrawal, or using recombinant human TSH (rhTSH). To account for within-patient correlations of repeated Tg measurements, temporal trends in Stim-Tg and u-hsTg were assessed using Generalized Estimating Equations. Stim-Tg models were adjusted for the method of TSH stimulation, whereas the u-hsTg models were adjusted for concurrent TSH level. Linear regression modeling was used to assess the trend in serial Stim-Tg and u-hsTg measurements as a function time from time of surgery throughout the duration of follow-up. The main outcome measured was the change in u-hsTg and Stim-Tg measurements over time. A total of 337 Stim-Tg (2.8/patient) and 602 u-hsTg (5.8/patient) measurements were analyzed. Among the 337 Stim-Tg measurements, Stim-Tg was assessed using rhTSH in 202 (60 %), T4 withdrawal in 41 (12 %), and T3 withdrawal in 94 (28 %) measurements. The overall mean ± 1SD for Stim-Tg and u-hsTg measured was 1.0 ± 1.2 and 0.2 ± 0.1 μg/L, respectively. When adjusted for method of TSH stimulation, serial Stim-Tg measurements did not significantly change over time (all p = NS). The estimated changes in Stim-Tg per year for rhTSH, T4 withdrawal, and T3 withdrawal were 0.01, -0.08, and 0.04

  19. Thyroid Lobe Ablation with Radioactive Iodine as an Alternative to Completion Thyroidectomy After Hemithyroidectomy in Patients with Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma: Long-Term Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Goldfarb, Melanie; Parangi, Sareh; Yang, Jingyun; Ross, Douglas S.; Daniels, Gilbert H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Radioactive iodine lobe ablation (RAI-L-ABL) is a possible alternative to completion thyroidectomy (C-Tx) for follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC), but no long-term outcome data are available after lobe ablation. We analyzed the long-term outcome of lobe ablation in a series of patients with FTC. Methods This was a retrospective study of patients who were treated with lobe ablation between 1983 and 2008. Of 134 patients with FTC, 37 (27.6%) had lobe ablation with 131I (30–32 mCi) (RAI-L-ABL), 68 (50.7%) had C-Tx, and 29 (21.6%) had initial total thyroidectomy (T-Tx). The main outcomes analyzed were 131I uptake after lobe ablation, C-Tx or T-Tx, serum thyroglobulin (Tg), serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), long-term disease-specific mortality, and disease-free survival. Results After lobe ablation, radioiodine uptake was significantly lower for the RAI-L-ABL group (0.6%) than for the C-Tx group (2.0%, p<0.005) or T-Tx group (1.3%, p=0.054). Subsequent remnant ablation was performed in 12 of 37 (32%) patients in the RAI-L-ABL group, in 58 of 68 (85.3%) patients in the C-Tx group, and in 25 of 29 (86.2%) patients in the T-Tx group (p<0.01). With median follow-up of 95 months for the RAI-L-ABL group, 47 months for the C-Tx group, and 53 months for the T-Tx group, there was one death in the RAI-L-ABL group and one death in the T-Tx group. No other RAI-L-ABL patients had detectable disease, whereas patients in the C-Tx group and two patients in the T-Tx group had detectable disease (p=0.18). Long-term stimulated or suppressed Tg of <1 ng/mL were found in 87.5% of the RAI-L-ABL group (n=28), 86.3% of the C-Tx group (n=57), and 77.8% of the T-Tx group (n=21). Tg was detectable in 40.6% of the RAI-L-ABL group compared to 13.8% of C-Tx and 28.6% of T-Tx groups (p<0.05, between groups). Conclusions RAI-L-ABL, C-Tx, and T-Tx are equally effective in achieving serum TSH concentrations of >25 mIU/L and preparing patients for conventional 131I treatment and

  20. Iodine deficiency disorders in the iodine-replete environment.

    PubMed

    Nyenwe, Ebenezer A; Dagogo-Jack, Samuel

    2009-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) constitute significant public health problems in parts of the world with poor iodine nutrition, but have been eradicated in North America and other regions. We herein report 3 cases of IDD, which occurred in women living in iodine-replete environments. The clinical presentation, biochemical findings, and radiological features of the patients were analyzed and presented in 3 case reports. The radiological features are illustrated in sonographic and scintigraphic images. A literature review and discussion, which highlight the risk factors, pathogenesis, ancillary investigations, and rational treatment of iodine deficiency goiter and hypothyroidism are provided. All 3 patients were young women, aged 24 to 38 years, who had goiter. Two of them presented with goitrous hypothyroidism. Radioactive iodine scintigraphy showed a characteristic finding of diffusely increased uptake (in the absence of clinical and biochemical evidence of hyperthyroidism). This scintigraphic pattern was found to be pathognomonic. Dietary iodine supplementation alone resulted in complete remission of IDD in the subjects, including the 2 patients with hypothyroidism. IDD can occur in iodine-replete environments. A high index of suspicion is needed to recognize these cases. It is pertinent that the correct diagnosis be made to avoid unwarranted life-long thyroxine therapy in patients presenting with goiter and hypothyroidism, which is easily treatable with iodized salt. These cases underscore the need for considering iodine deficiency in the etiologic diagnosis of goiter and hypothyroidism, even in iodine-sufficient regions.

  1. Dynamic Radioactive Source for Evaluating and Demonstrating Time-dependent Performance of Continuous Air Monitors.

    PubMed

    McLean, Thomas D; Moore, Murray E; Justus, Alan L; Hudston, Jonathan A; Barbé, Benoît

    2016-11-01

    Evaluation of continuous air monitors in the presence of a plutonium aerosol is time intensive, expensive, and requires a specialized facility. The Radiation Protection Services Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory has designed a Dynamic Radioactive Source, intended to replace plutonium aerosol challenge testing. The Dynamic Radioactive Source is small enough to be inserted into the sampler filter chamber of a typical continuous air monitor. Time-dependent radioactivity is introduced from electroplated sources for real-time testing of a continuous air monitor where a mechanical wristwatch motor rotates a mask above an alpha-emitting electroplated disk source. The mask is attached to the watch's minute hand, and as it rotates, more of the underlying source is revealed. The measured alpha activity increases with time, simulating the arrival of airborne radioactive particulates at the air sampler inlet. The Dynamic Radioactive Source allows the temporal behavior of puff and chronic release conditions to be mimicked without the need for radioactive aerosols. The new system is configurable to different continuous air monitor designs and provides an in-house testing capability (benchtop compatible). It is a repeatable and reusable system and does not contaminate the tested air monitor. Test benefits include direct user control, realistic (plutonium) aerosol spectra, and iterative development of continuous air monitor alarm algorithms. Data obtained using the Dynamic Radioactive Source has been used to elucidate alarm algorithms and to compare the response time of two commercial continuous air monitors.

  2. Dynamic Radioactive Source for Evaluating and Demonstrating Time-dependent Performance of Continuous Air Monitors

    DOE PAGES

    McLean, Thomas D.; Moore, Murray E.; Justus, Alan L.; ...

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of continuous air monitors in the presence of a plutonium aerosol is time intensive, expensive, and requires a specialized facility. The Radiation Protection Services Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory has designed a Dynamic Radioactive Source, intended to replace plutonium aerosol challenge testing. Furthermore, the Dynamic Radioactive Source is small enough to be inserted into the sampler filter chamber of a typical continuous air monitor. Time-dependent radioactivity is introduced from electroplated sources for real-time testing of a continuous air monitor where a mechanical wristwatch motor rotates a mask above an alpha-emitting electroplated disk source. The mask is attached tomore » the watch’s minute hand, and as it rotates, more of the underlying source is revealed. The alpha activity we measured increases with time, simulating the arrival of airborne radioactive particulates at the air sampler inlet. The Dynamic Radioactive Source allows the temporal behavior of puff and chronic release conditions to be mimicked without the need for radioactive aerosols. The new system is configurable to different continuous air monitor designs and provides an in-house testing capability (benchtop compatible). It is a repeatable and reusable system and does not contaminate the tested air monitor. Test benefits include direct user control, realistic (plutonium) aerosol spectra, and iterative development of continuous air monitor alarm algorithms. We also used data obtained using the Dynamic Radioactive Source to elucidate alarm algorithms and to compare the response time of two commercial continuous air monitors.« less

  3. Dynamic Radioactive Source for Evaluating and Demonstrating Time-dependent Performance of Continuous Air Monitors

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, Thomas D.; Moore, Murray E.; Justus, Alan L.; Hudston, Jonathan A.; Barbé, Benoît

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of continuous air monitors in the presence of a plutonium aerosol is time intensive, expensive, and requires a specialized facility. The Radiation Protection Services Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory has designed a Dynamic Radioactive Source, intended to replace plutonium aerosol challenge testing. Furthermore, the Dynamic Radioactive Source is small enough to be inserted into the sampler filter chamber of a typical continuous air monitor. Time-dependent radioactivity is introduced from electroplated sources for real-time testing of a continuous air monitor where a mechanical wristwatch motor rotates a mask above an alpha-emitting electroplated disk source. The mask is attached to the watch’s minute hand, and as it rotates, more of the underlying source is revealed. The alpha activity we measured increases with time, simulating the arrival of airborne radioactive particulates at the air sampler inlet. The Dynamic Radioactive Source allows the temporal behavior of puff and chronic release conditions to be mimicked without the need for radioactive aerosols. The new system is configurable to different continuous air monitor designs and provides an in-house testing capability (benchtop compatible). It is a repeatable and reusable system and does not contaminate the tested air monitor. Test benefits include direct user control, realistic (plutonium) aerosol spectra, and iterative development of continuous air monitor alarm algorithms. We also used data obtained using the Dynamic Radioactive Source to elucidate alarm algorithms and to compare the response time of two commercial continuous air monitors.

  4. Radon Natural Radioactivity Measurements for Evaluation of Primary Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhenyi; Ancora, Maria Pia; Deng, Xiaodong; Zhang, Hua

    2013-01-01

    Radon is naturally released from the soil into the surface layer of the atmosphere, and by monitoring the natural radioactivity data of radon and its shot-live decay products we can get valuable information about the dilution properties of the lower boundary layer. This paper explores the dispersion characteristics of the lower layer of the atmosphere in Lanzhou, China, and the close relationship with the patterns of primary pollutants' concentrations. Measurements were conducted from July 2007 to May 2008 at one station and a fifty-day campaign was carried out at two stations in Lanzhou. The interpretation of radon radioactivity measurement showed that the measured atmospheric stability index (ASI) data at two stations in Lanzhou had statistically significant correlation, and well described the lower atmospheric layer mixing property in the area. The temporal trend of PM10 data was consistent with the temporal trend of ASI, with almost twice as high values in December than it in August. The results show that the ASI allows to highlight the dilution factor playing an important role in determining primary pollution events, and the mixing properties of the lower boundary layer is the key factor determining PM10 concentration in urban areas. PMID:23935426

  5. Radon natural radioactivity measurements for evaluation of primary pollutants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fenjuan; Zhang, Zhenyi; Ancora, Maria Pia; Deng, Xiaodong; Zhang, Hua

    2013-01-01

    Radon is naturally released from the soil into the surface layer of the atmosphere, and by monitoring the natural radioactivity data of radon and its shot-live decay products we can get valuable information about the dilution properties of the lower boundary layer. This paper explores the dispersion characteristics of the lower layer of the atmosphere in Lanzhou, China, and the close relationship with the patterns of primary pollutants' concentrations. Measurements were conducted from July 2007 to May 2008 at one station and a fifty-day campaign was carried out at two stations in Lanzhou. The interpretation of radon radioactivity measurement showed that the measured atmospheric stability index (ASI) data at two stations in Lanzhou had statistically significant correlation, and well described the lower atmospheric layer mixing property in the area. The temporal trend of PM10 data was consistent with the temporal trend of ASI, with almost twice as high values in December than it in August. The results show that the ASI allows to highlight the dilution factor playing an important role in determining primary pollution events, and the mixing properties of the lower boundary layer is the key factor determining PM10 concentration in urban areas.

  6. Development of standard evaluation plan for survey and investigation of residual radioactivity on site.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sang Won; Whang, Joo Ho; Lee, Su Hong; Lee, Jea Min

    2011-07-01

    The development of decommissioning technologies, including those for evaluation of the radioactivity inventory and the radiation dose, and a site investigation plan are needed to ensure safe decommissioning. The residual radioactivity should be measured and analysed to release a site for unrestricted use. The methods used for measurement of residual radioactivity have an effect on the workers' manpower and the decommissioning cost. So the development of the measurement methods of residual radioactivity with guidelines for a radiation survey and site investigation is needed to prepare for the future decommissioning of commercial Nuclear Power plants. The major considerations and characteristics of the parameters related to the decision of measurements points have been reviewed. The methods for controlling uncertainty and techniques to determine whether the measurement results achieve the survey objectives have been established.

  7. Nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage management: evaluation with reduced iodine volume at CT angiography.

    PubMed

    Millon, Domitille; Derelle, Anne Laure; Omoumi, Patrick; Tisserand, Marie; Schmitt, Emmanuelle; Foscolo, Sylvain; Anxionnat, René; Bracard, Serge

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the technical quality and the diagnostic performance of a protocol with use of low volumes of contrast medium (25 mL) at 64-detector spiral computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis and management of adult, nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This study was performed outside the United States and was approved by the institutional review board. Intracranial CT angiography was performed in 73 consecutive patients with nontraumatic SAH diagnosed at nonenhanced CT. Image quality was evaluated by two observers using two criteria: degree of arterial enhancement and venous contamination. The two independent readers evaluated diagnostic performance (lesion detection and correct therapeutic decision-making process) by using rotational angiographic findings as the standard of reference. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated for patients who underwent CT angiography and three-dimensional rotational angiography. The intraclass correlation coefficient was calculated to assess interobserver concordance concerning aneurysm measurements and therapeutic management. All aneurysms were detected, either ruptured or unruptured. Arterial opacification was excellent in 62 cases (85%), and venous contamination was absent or minor in 61 cases (84%). In 95% of cases, CT angiographic findings allowed optimal therapeutic management. The intraclass correlation coefficient ranged between 0.93 and 0.95, indicating excellent interobserver agreement. With only 25 mL of iodinated contrast medium focused on the arterial phase, 64-detector CT angiography allowed satisfactory diagnostic and therapeutic management of nontraumatic SAH. © RSNA, 2012.

  8. Evaluation of soil radioactivity data from the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    Since 1951, 933 nuclear tests have been conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and test areas on the adjacent Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR). Until the early 1960s. the majority of tests were atmospheric, involving detonation of nuclear explosive devices on the ground or on a tower, suspended from a balloon or dropped from an airplane. Since the signing of the Limited Test Ban Treaty in 1963, most tests have been conducted underground, although several shallow subsurface tests took place between 1962 and 1968. As a result of the aboveground and near-surface nuclear explosions, as well as ventings of underground tests, destruction of nuclear devices with conventional explosives, and nuclear-rocket engine tests, the surface soil on portions of the NTS has been contaminated with radionuclides. Relatively little consideration was given to the environmental effects of nuclear testing during the first two decades of operations at the NTS. Since the early 1970s, however, increasingly strict environmental regulations have forced greater attention to be given to contamination problems at the site and how to remediate them. One key element in the current environmental restoration program at the NTS is determining the amount and extent of radioactivity in the surface soil. The general distribution of soil radioactivity on the NTS is already well known as a result of several programs carried out in the 1970s and 1980s. However, questions have been raised as to whether the data from those earlier studies are suitable for use in the current environmental assessments and risk analyses. The primary purpose of this preliminary data review is to determine to what extent the historical data collected at the NTS can be used in the characterization/remediation process.

  9. Synthesis and preliminary in vivo toxicity evaluation of an iodinated sulfidoborate

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, M.; Micca, P.L.; Heinrichs, J.C.; Slatkin, D.N.

    1992-12-31

    An iodine-labeled {sup 10}B-carrier would enable the biodistribution of {sup 10}B to be imaged noninvasively in patients so as to optimize the timing of neutron exposure for BNCT. While Na{sub 2}B{sub l2}H{sub 11}SH [BSH] is in clinical use for BNCT in Japan, its disulfido dimer Na{sub 4}B{sub 24}H{sub 22}S{sub 2} [BSSB] is also under consideration. We describe the synthesis of an iodinated product of the dimer for possible use in BNCT and compare its toxicity in normal mice to that of BSSB. Periodination of BSSB can be carried out under reaction conditions similar to those used for B{sub 12}H{sup 12}{sup {minus}2}. We surmise from this preliminary in vivo experiment that IBSSB may be slightly hepatotoxic to mice. Since the putative weight ratio of iodine to boron-10 in IBSSB is 11.5, the presence of a therapeutically adequate concentration of {sup 10}B in tumor, for example 30 {mu}g {sup 10}B per gram tumor, would be associated with 345 {mu}g I per gram tumor. This would be suitable for imaging a tumor in the brain and for quantifying the iodine using computed tomography [CT] without using conventional contrast enhancement. {sup 10}B concentrations useful for BNCT of malignant gliomas should be readily quantified by conventional CT using {sup 10}B-IBSSB as a combined radiographic contrast agent and {sup 10}B-carrier. Alternatively, iodine-radiolabeled IBSSB would allow visualization and quantification of iodine in the tumor by single photon emission computed tomography [SPECT]. Because boron and iodine are linked covalently in IBSSB, quantification of iodine in the tumor would thereby also quantify boron in the tumor noninvasively using either radiolabeled or nonradiolabeled IBSSB in SPECT or CT, respectively, provided that in vivo deiodination of IBSSB is sufficiently slow.

  10. Synthesis and preliminary in vivo toxicity evaluation of an iodinated sulfidoborate

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, M.; Micca, P.L.; Heinrichs, J.C.; Slatkin, D.N.

    1992-01-01

    An iodine-labeled [sup 10]B-carrier would enable the biodistribution of [sup 10]B to be imaged noninvasively in patients so as to optimize the timing of neutron exposure for BNCT. While Na[sub 2]B[sub l2]H[sub 11]SH [BSH] is in clinical use for BNCT in Japan, its disulfido dimer Na[sub 4]B[sub 24]H[sub 22]S[sub 2] [BSSB] is also under consideration. We describe the synthesis of an iodinated product of the dimer for possible use in BNCT and compare its toxicity in normal mice to that of BSSB. Periodination of BSSB can be carried out under reaction conditions similar to those used for B[sub 12]H[sup 12][sup [minus]2]. We surmise from this preliminary in vivo experiment that IBSSB may be slightly hepatotoxic to mice. Since the putative weight ratio of iodine to boron-10 in IBSSB is 11.5, the presence of a therapeutically adequate concentration of [sup 10]B in tumor, for example 30 [mu]g [sup 10]B per gram tumor, would be associated with 345 [mu]g I per gram tumor. This would be suitable for imaging a tumor in the brain and for quantifying the iodine using computed tomography [CT] without using conventional contrast enhancement. [sup 10]B concentrations useful for BNCT of malignant gliomas should be readily quantified by conventional CT using [sup 10]B-IBSSB as a combined radiographic contrast agent and [sup 10]B-carrier. Alternatively, iodine-radiolabeled IBSSB would allow visualization and quantification of iodine in the tumor by single photon emission computed tomography [SPECT]. Because boron and iodine are linked covalently in IBSSB, quantification of iodine in the tumor would thereby also quantify boron in the tumor noninvasively using either radiolabeled or nonradiolabeled IBSSB in SPECT or CT, respectively, provided that in vivo deiodination of IBSSB is sufficiently slow.

  11. Method for gettering organic, inorganic and elemental iodine in aqueous solutions

    DOEpatents

    Beahm, Edward C.; Shockley, William E.

    1990-07-03

    A process for the removal of iodine from aqueous solutions, particularly the trapping of radioactive iodine to mitigate damage resulting from accidents or spills associated with nuclear reactors, by exposing the solution to well dispersed silver carbonate which reacts with the iodine and iodides, thereby gettering iodine and iodine compounds from solution. The iodine is not only removed from solution but also from the contiguous vapor.

  12. Method for gettering organic, inorganic and elemental iodine in aqueous solutions

    DOEpatents

    Beahm, Edward C.; Shockley, William E.

    1990-01-01

    A process for the removal of iodine from aqueous solutions, particularly the trapping of radioactive iodine to mitigate damage resulting from accidents or spills associated with nuclear reactors, by exposing the solution to well dispersed silver carbonate which reacts with the iodine and iodides, thereby gettering iodine and iodine compounds from solution. The iodine is not only removed from solution but also from the contiguous vapor.

  13. Dry method for recycling iodine-loaded silver zeolite

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Thomas R.; Staples, Bruce A.; Murphy, Llewellyn P.

    1978-05-09

    Fission product iodine is removed from a waste gas stream and stored by passing the gas stream through a bed of silver-exchanged zeolite until the zeolite is loaded with iodine, passing dry hydrogen gas through the bed to remove the iodine and regenerate the bed, and passing the hydrogen stream containing the hydrogen iodide thus formed through a lead-exchanged zeolite which adsorbs the radioactive iodine from the gas stream and permanently storing the lead-exchanged zeolite loaded with radioactive iodine.

  14. Evaluating detonation possibilities in a Hanford radioactive waste tank

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, J.R.; Fujita, R.K.; Ross, M.C.; Edwards, J.N.; Shepherd, J.E.

    1994-07-01

    Since the early 1940s, radioactive wastes generated from the defense operations at the Hanford Site have been stored in underground waste storage tanks. During the intervening years, the waste products in some of these tanks have transformed into a potentially hazardous mixture of gases and solids as a result of radiolytic and thermal chemical reactions. One tank in particular, Tank 101-SY, has been periodically releasing high concentrations of a hydrogen/nitrous oxide/nitrogen/ ammonia gas mixture into the tank dome vapor space. There are concerns that under certain conditions a detonation of the flammable gas mixture may occur. There are two ways that a detonation can occur during a release of waste gases into the dome vapor splice: (1) direct initiation of detonation by a powerful ignition source, and (2) deflagration to detonation transition (DDT). The first case involves a strong ignition source of high energy, high power, or of large size (roughly 1 g of high explosive (4.6 kj) for a stoichiometric hydrogen-air mixture{sup 1}) to directly initiate a detonation by ``shock`` initiation. This strong ignition is thought to be incredible for in-tank ignition sources. The second process involves igniting the released waste gases, which results in a subsonic flame (deflagration) propagating into the unburned combustible gas. The flame accelerates to velocities that cause compression waves to form in front of the deflagration combustion wave. Shock waves may form, and the combustion process may transition to a detonation wave.

  15. Zebrafish Embryo Disinfection with Povidone-Iodine: Evaluating an Alternative to Chlorine Bleach.

    PubMed

    Chang, Carolyn T; Amack, Jeffrey D; Whipps, Christopher M

    2016-07-01

    Mycobacteriosis is a common bacterial infection in laboratory zebrafish caused by several different species and strains of Mycobacterium, including both rapid and slow growers. One control measure used to prevent mycobacterial spread within and between facilities is surface disinfection of eggs. Recent studies have highlighted the effectiveness of povidone-iodine (PVPI) on preventing propagation of Mycobacterium spp. found in zebrafish colonies. We evaluated the effect of disinfection using 12.5-50 ppm PVPI (unbuffered and buffered) on zebrafish exposed at 6 or 24 h postfertilization (hpf) to determine if this treatment is suitable for use in research zebrafish. Our results show that 6 hpf embryos are less sensitive to treatment as fewer effects on mortality, developmental delay, and deformity were observed. We also found that buffered PVPI treatment results in a greater knockdown of Mycobacterium chelonae and Mycobacterium marinum, as well as results in decreased harmful effects on embryos. Treatments of shorter (2 min vs. 5 min) duration were also more effective at killing mycobacteria in addition to resulting in fewer effects on embryo health. In addition, we compared the efficacy of a rinsing regimen to rinsing and disinfecting. Based on the findings of this study, we recommend disinfecting embryos for 2 min with buffered PVPI at 12.5-25 ppm.

  16. Feasibility of Single Scan for Simultaneous Evaluation of Regional Krypton and Iodine Concentrations with Dual-Energy CT: An Experimental Study.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sae Rom; Chang, Suyon; Im, Dong Jin; Suh, Young Joo; Hong, Yoo Jin; Hur, Jin; Kim, Young Jin; Choi, Byoung Wook; Lee, Hye-Jeong

    2016-11-01

    Purpose To evaluate the feasibility of a simultaneous single scan of regional krypton and iodine concentrations by using dual-energy computed tomography (CT). Materials and Methods The study was approved by the institutional animal experimental committee. An airway obstruction model was first made in 10 beagle dogs, and a pulmonary arterial occlusion was induced in each animal after 1 week. For each model, three sessions of dual-energy CT (80% krypton ventilation [krypton CT], 80% krypton ventilation with iodine enhancement [mixed-contrast agent CT], and iodine enhancement [iodine CT]) were performed. Krypton maps were made from krypton and mixed-contrast agent CT, and iodine maps were made from iodine and mixed-contrast agent CT. Observers measured overlay Hounsfield units of the diseased and contralateral segments on each map. Values were compared by using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results In krypton maps of airway obstruction, overlay Hounsfield units of diseased segments were significantly decreased compared with those of contralateral segments in both krypton and mixed-contrast agent CT (P = .005 for both). However, the values of mixed-contrast agent CT were significantly higher than those of krypton CT for both segments (P = .005 and .007, respectively). In iodine maps of pulmonary arterial occlusion, values were significantly lower in diseased segments than in contralateral segments for both iodine and mixed-contrast agent CT (P = .005 for both), without significant difference between iodine and mixed-contrast agent CT for both segments (P = .126 and .307, respectively). Conclusion Although some limitations may exist, it might be feasible to analyze regional krypton and iodine concentrations simultaneously by using dual-energy CT. (©) RSNA, 2016.

  17. Breast Milk Iodine Concentration Is a More Accurate Biomarker of Iodine Status Than Urinary Iodine Concentration in Exclusively Breastfeeding Women.

    PubMed

    Dold, Susanne; Zimmermann, Michael B; Aboussad, Abdelmounaim; Cherkaoui, Mohamed; Jia, Qingzhen; Jukic, Tomislav; Kusic, Zvonko; Quirino, Antonio; Sang, Zhongna; San Luis, Teofilo Ol; Vandea, Elena; Andersson, Maria

    2017-04-01

    Background: Iodine status in populations is usually assessed by the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC). However, iodine is also excreted in breast milk during lactation; thus, breast milk iodine concentration (BMIC) may be a promising biomarker of iodine nutrition in lactating women. Whether the mammary gland can vary fractional uptake of circulating iodine in response to changes in dietary intake is unclear.Objective: We evaluated UIC and BMIC as biomarkers for iodine status in lactating women with a wide range of iodine intakes.Methods: We recruited 866 pairs of lactating mothers and exclusively breastfed infants from 3 iodine-sufficient study sites: Linfen, China (n = 386); Tuguegarao, Philippines (n = 371); and Zagreb, Croatia (n = 109). We also recruited iodine-deficient lactating women from Amizmiz, Morocco (n = 117). We collected urine and breast milk samples and measured UIC and BMIC.Results: In the 3 iodine-sufficient sites, a pooled regression analysis of the estimated iodine excretion revealed higher fractional iodine excretion in breast milk than in urine at borderline low iodine intakes. In contrast, in the iodine-deficient site in Morocco, a constant proportion (∼33%) of total iodine was excreted into breast milk.Conclusions: In iodine-sufficient populations, when iodine intake in lactating women is low, there is increased partitioning of iodine into breast milk. For this reason, maternal UIC alone may not reflect iodine status, and BMIC should also be measured to assess iodine status in lactating women. Our data suggest a BMIC reference range (2.5th and 97.5th percentiles) of 60-465 μg/kg in exclusively breastfeeding women. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02196337. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Evaluation of the safety of mobile units for the conditioning of radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Filss, Martin; Wallner, Christian

    2013-07-01

    In Germany mobile units are used to treat and condition radioactive waste. On behalf of the relevant authorities TUV SUD Industrie Service GmbH evaluates their safety. In this paper we outline the general procedure we apply and point out typical results. Generally, a generic safety case evaluates the effects of incidents and accidents and its consequences for the workers and the public. Special care is necessary to define the radioactive inventory, the nuclide composition and the mobility of the radioactive substances. A systems analysis is carried out. Typical aspects to be considered are the handling procedures, the measurement devices and automatic actions. From the various possible malfunctions the critical ones have to be identified. Generally one or only a few scenarios have to be considered in detail. (authors)

  19. Radioactive Iodine-131 as a Definitive Treatment in Rare Association of Down Syndrome With Hyperthyroidism: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Shoukat H.; Mahajan, Aditya; Rather, Tanveer A.

    2017-01-01

    Down syndrome characterized by trisomy of chromosome 21 is frequently associated with thyroid dysfunctions due to underlying autoimmune disorders. Hypothyroidism is the commonest thyroid dysfunction and hyperthyroidism, usually Graves’ disease, is far less common. On literature review, we came across approximately 112 cases reported so far with the first such case report in 1946. The published data from India on hyperthyroidism in Down syndrome is of three case reports. We report one such patient, an adult male of 28 years who was administered Iodine-131 as a definitive treatment after 9-10 years of initial diagnosis. PMID:28242979

  20. Evaluation of the performance of a micromethod for measuring urinary iodine by using six sigma quality metrics.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Husniza; Khalid, Norhayati Mustafa; Selamat, Rusidah; Wan Nazaimoon, Wan Mohamud

    2013-09-01

    The urinary iodine micromethod (UIMM) is a modification of the conventional method and its performance needs evaluation. UIMM performance was evaluated using the method validation and 2008 Iodine Deficiency Disorders survey data obtained from four urinary iodine (UI) laboratories. Method acceptability tests and Sigma quality metrics were determined using total allowable errors (TEas) set by two external quality assurance (EQA) providers. UIMM obeyed various method acceptability test criteria with some discrepancies at low concentrations. Method validation data calculated against the UI Quality Program (TUIQP) TEas showed that the Sigma metrics were at 2.75, 1.80, and 3.80 for 51±15.50 µg/L, 108±32.40 µg/L, and 149±38.60 µg/L UI, respectively. External quality control (EQC) data showed that the performance of the laboratories was within Sigma metrics of 0.85-1.12, 1.57-4.36, and 1.46-4.98 at 46.91±7.05 µg/L, 135.14±13.53 µg/L, and 238.58±17.90 µg/L, respectively. No laboratory showed a calculated total error (TEcalc)iodine deficiency levels and variable performance at other concentrations according to different TEas.

  1. Global searches for microalgae and aquatic plants that can eliminate radioactive cesium, iodine and strontium from the radio-polluted aquatic environment: a bioremediation strategy.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Shin-Ya; Iwamoto, Koji; Atsumi, Mika; Yokoyama, Akiko; Nakayama, Takeshi; Ishida, Ken-Ichiro; Inouye, Isao; Shiraiwa, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    The Fukushima 1 Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011 released an enormously high level of radionuclides into the environment, a total estimation of 6.3 × 10¹⁷ Bq represented by mainly radioactive Cs, Sr, and I. Because these radionuclides are biophilic, an urgent risk has arisen due to biological intake and subsequent food web contamination in the ecosystem. Thus, urgent elimination of radionuclides from the environment is necessary to prevent substantial radiopollution of organisms. In this study, we selected microalgae and aquatic plants that can efficiently eliminate these radionuclides from the environment. The ability of aquatic plants and algae was assessed by determining the elimination rate of radioactive Cs, Sr and I from culture medium and the accumulation capacity of radionuclides into single cells or whole bodies. Among 188 strains examined from microalgae, aquatic plants and unidentified algal species, we identified six, three and eight strains that can accumulate high levels of radioactive Cs, Sr and I from the medium, respectively. Notably, a novel eustigmatophycean unicellular algal strain, nak 9, showed the highest ability to eliminate radioactive Cs from the medium by cellular accumulation. Our results provide an important strategy for decreasing radiopollution in Fukushima area.

  2. ICPP radioactive liquid and calcine waste technologies evaluation final report and recommendation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    Using a formalized Systems Engineering approach, the Latched Idaho Technologies Company developed and evaluated numerous alternatives for treating, immobilizing, and disposing of radioactive liquid and calcine wastes at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. Based on technical analysis data as of March, 1995, it is recommended that the Department of Energy consider a phased processing approach -- utilizing Radionuclide Partitioning for radioactive liquid and calcine waste treatment, FUETAP Grout for low-activity waste immobilization, and Glass (Vitrification) for high-activity waste immobilization -- as the preferred treatment and immobilization alternative.

  3. Evaluation of induced radioactivity in structural material of Toshiba Training Reactor 'TTR1'.

    PubMed

    Uematsu, Mikio; Kurosawa, Masahiko; Haruguchi, Yoshiko

    2005-01-01

    A decommissioning programme for the Toshiba Training Reactor (TTR1), a swimming pool type reactor used for reactor physics experiments and material irradiation, was started in August 2001. As a part of the programme, induced radioactivity in structural material was evaluated using neutron flux data obtained with the three-dimensional Sn code TORT. Induced activity was calculated with the isotope generation code ORIGEN-79 using activation cross section data created from multi-group library based on JENDL-3. The obtained results for radioactivities such as 60Co, 65Zn, 54Mn and 152Eu were compared with measured ones, and the present calculational method was confirmed to have enough accuracy.

  4. Analytical evaluation of kinetics in oxygen-iodine laser nozzle flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Victor

    1997-05-01

    The reaction processes in chemical oxygen-iodine laser nozzle flows are investigated analytically. In the transport equations for the reacting species, order-of-magnitude arguments are applied to retain the dominant terms. The effects of local flow properties on the chemical kinetics are found in terms of a transformed coordinate which is a function of the nozzle shape and inlet flow conditions. Approximate closed-form solutions for the iodine dissociation, oxygen yield, and the dissociation cost are derived. The results indicate that the chemical processes occur predominantly in the subsonic section of the nozzle where the pressure is high and velocity is low.

  5. Evaluation of iodine-benzoflavone and ruthenium tetroxide spray reagents for the detection of latent fingermarks at the crime scene.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Katherine; Maynard, Philip; du Pasquier, Eric; Lennard, Chris; Stoilovic, Milutin; Roux, Claude

    2004-07-01

    The performance of two spray reagents, iodine-benzoflavone and ruthenium tetroxide (RTX), was evaluated and compared with the conventional technique currently used at the crime scene, that is, powdering. Neither the spray techniques nor powdering were shown to be suitable for all surfaces and ages of marks tested. On some surfaces such as glass and treated wood, powdering was still the superior technique, whereas the spray techniques produced better development on wallpaper, vinyl, and brick. Sequencing work showed that RTX was incompatible with powdering and cyanoacrylate (with a rhodamine 6G stain). Iodine-benzoflavone can be used successfully either before or after powdering in a sequence; however, it was incompatible with cyanoacrylate. Two non-CFC formulations of iodine-benzoflavone using HFC4310mee and HFE7100 solvents were tested and shown not to be as effective as the original Arklone (CFC-113) formulation; however, the HFC4310mee solvent is recommended as the most suitable replacement solvent. Due to the expense of the commercial RTX spray, attempts at formulating a more cost-effective version were also carried out. A formulation was developed that gave comparable development to the commercial version but at a much cheaper cost, and with a shelf life of up to two months. Recommendations are presented for which techniques are suitable for different surfaces and ages of marks. Powdering was shown to be the best technique on all ages of marks tested on treated wood, glass, and also on marks aged three days and older on paint. Iodine-benzoflavone was the best technique on wallpaper, vinyl, brick, and raw wood. RTX was the best detection technique for fresh marks and marks aged up to one day on wallpaper and paint.

  6. Radioactivity and food

    SciTech Connect

    Olszyna-Marzys, A.E. )

    1990-03-01

    Two topics relating to radioactivity and food are discussed: food irradiation for preservation purposes, and food contamination from radioactive substances. Food irradiation involves the use of electromagnetic energy (x and gamma rays) emitted by radioactive substances or produced by machine in order to destroy the insects and microorganisms present and prevent germination. The sanitary and economic advantages of treating food in this way are discussed. Numerous studies have confirmed that under strictly controlled conditions no undesirable changes take place in food that has been irradiated nor is radioactivity induced. Reference is made to the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station, which aroused public concern about irradiated food. The events surrounding the accident are reviewed, and its consequences with regard to contamination of different foods with radioactive substances, particularly iodine-131 and cesium-137, are described. Also discussed are the steps that have been taken by different international organizations to set limits on acceptable radioactivity in food.15 references.

  7. Long-term corrosion evaluation of stainless steels in Space Shuttle iodinated resin and water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krohn, Douglas D.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of stainless steel exposure to iodinated water is a concern in developing the Integrated Water System (IWS) for Space Station Freedom. The IWS has a life requirement of 30 years, but the effects of general and localized corrosion over such a long period have not been determined for the candidate materials. In 1978, Umpqua Research Center immersed stainless steel 316L, 321, and 347 specimens in a solution of deionized water and the Space Shuttle microbial check valve resin. In April 1990, the solution was chemically analyzed to determine the level of corrosion formed, and the surface of each specimen was examined with scanning electron microscopy and metallography to determine the extent of general and pitting corrosion. This examination showed that the attack on the stainless steels was negligible and never penetrated past the first grain boundary layer. Of the three alloys, 316L performed the best; however, all three materials proved to be compatible with an aqueous iodine environment. In addition to the specimens exposed to aqueous iodine, a stainless steel specimen (unspecified alloy) was exposed to moist microbial check valve resin and air for a comparable period. This environment allowed contact of the metal to the resin as well as to the iodine vapor. Since the particular stainless steel alloy was not known, energy dispersive spectroscopy was used to determine that this alloy was stainless steel 301. The intergranular corrosion found on the specimen was limited to the first grain boundary layer.

  8. Impact of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on hemodialysis facilities: an evaluation of radioactive contaminants in water used for hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Daigo; Kuno, Tsutomu; Sato, Sumihiko; Nitta, Kosaku; Akiba, Takashi

    2012-02-01

    Following the crisis at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant caused by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami, radioactive substances ((131) I, (134) Cs, (137) Cs) were detected in tap water throughout eastern Japan. There is now concern that internal exposure to radioactive substances in the dialysate could pose a danger to hemodialysis patients. Radioactive substances were measured in three hemodialysis facilities before and after purification of tap water for use in hemodialysis. Radioactive iodine was detected at levels between 13 and 15 Bq/kg in tap water from the three facilities, but was not detected by reverse osmosis membrane at any of the facilities. We confirmed that the amount of radioactive substances in dialysate fell below the limit of detection (7-8 Bq/kg) by reverse osmosis membrane. It is now necessary to clarify the maximum safe level of radiation in dialysate for chronic hemodialysis patients.

  9. Economic evaluation of iodine deficiency disorder control program in Sikkim: a cost-benefit analysis.

    PubMed

    Pandav, Chandrakant S

    2012-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs) are the most common cause of preventable brain damage globally. The strategy of prevention and control of iodine deficiency is based on iodine supplementation. Edible salt iodization and iodized oil injections are the two most commonly used vehicles for iodine supplementation. The objective of the study was to conduct a cost-benefit analysis of the two programs of iodine supplementation, i.e., iodized salt program (ISP) and iodized oil program (IOP) against no preventive program (NPP) option. The study was conducted in 1990 in the state of Sikkim in India. The costs were calculated on the assumption of universal coverage of ISP and coverage of IOP among all children aged 0-14 years and women in the age group of 15-44 years. Direct and indirect cost of ISP and direct cost of IOP was computed based on the costs of year 1991. The discount rate taken was 10% and all the costs were converted to the year 2010 using wholesale price index (WPI) data. Consequences in terms of health effects, Social/emotional effects, and resource use were included. The discounted cost of ISP and IOP was Rs. 59,225,964 and Rs. 46,145,491, respectively. In ISP, 64.1% of the total cost was required for salt iodization, 17.6% for monitoring, and 18.3% for communication. In IOP, 50.9% of the costs were required for iodized oil; rest was for syringes and needles, manpower expenses, travel, and communication. Total resource saving was Rs. 95,566,220 for ISP and Rs. 92,177,548 for IOP. Incremental benefit for ISP was Rs. 36,340,256 and Rs. 46,032,057 for IOP. The cost-benefit ratio for ISP was 1.61 and 2.00 for IOP. IOP has a higher cost-benefit ratio for prevention of IDDs than ISP in the state of Sikkim, India.

  10. Evaluation of Iodine Deficiency in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Kanık Yüksek, Saliha; Aycan, Zehra; Öner, Özgür

    2016-03-05

    To investigate the incidence of iodine deficiency (ID) and its effects on mental function in children referred to the Dr. Sami Ulus Maternity and Children's Training and Research Hospital with a prospective diagnosis of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The study was conducted on 89 children referred in the period from September 2009 to June 2010 with a diagnosis of ADHD. A questionnaire was given to all parents. Conners' rating scales were applied to the parents (CPRS) and teachers (CTRS), and revised Wechsler intelligence scale for children (WISC-R) to the children. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, free triiodothyronine and free thyroxine, thyroglobulin, anti-thyroid peroxidase, anti-thyroglobulin, and urinary iodine levels were measured in all children. Median age was 9.41±1.95 years, and 83.1% of subjects were male. The mean urinary iodine level of the children was 92.56±22.25 μg/L. ID was detected in 71.9% of subjects and all were mild ID. There was no significant relationship between urinary iodine levels with WISC-R subtest scores and CPRS. However, a significant association was found between urinary iodine levels and hyperactivity section of CTRS (p<0.05). Likewise, a significant relationship was found between learning disorder/mental retardation diagnosis and freedom subtest of WISC-R (p<0.05). This study highlights the effects of ID on comprehension, perception, attention, and learning. However, the results need to be supported by new randomized controlled trials.

  11. Radioactive tracers facilitate stimulation job evaluation. Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, K.; Walker, R.; Dunleavy, R.; Woodroof, B.; Crabb, H.

    1995-02-01

    Logging tools can now quantify multiple isotopes, including the volume of individual isotopes present and their radial position away from the well bore. In conjunction with those improvements, tracers have been developed that eliminate wash off effects of conventional tracers. By precisely locating the presence and concentration of traced proppant at the well bore, better evaluations can be made of vertical and radial proppant distribution near the well bore and fracture aperture width. A comprehensive study of 98 wells with 136 fracture stages in four different basins has been completed. Each stage was traced and logged. Spectral gamma ray logs were compared with conventional openhole logs, sonic stress logs where available, and cased hole logs such as cement bond and production logs. This data was then compared on a well-by-well basis with the fracture design program, post treatment stimulation reports and production history. Several trends were identified while building this massive stimulation evaluation database. Problems that potentially could be solved using tracer technology are: fracture height greater than design; unstimulated perforation sets within a stage; understimulated pay intervals.

  12. Technical Evaluation of Biogeochemical Transformation of Iodine at 200-UP-1, Hanford, WA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M. H.; Cordova, E.; Brooks, S.; Moser, E.; Wells, J.; Lee, B.

    2015-12-01

    From the 1940s through the early 1990s, liquid wastes from materials used and produced at the Hanford Site were disposed to the ground through cribs, ditches, ponds, and trenches. Primary groundwater and vadose zone contaminants include carbon tetrachloride, uranium, nitrate, chromium, 129I, 99Tc, and tritium. Iodine-129 is of environmental concern due to its long half-life, mobility, and hazardous potential to humans through bioaccumulation, and is one of the primary risk drivers for the Hanford site. The 200 West area of the Hanford Site contains two separate plumes covering 1,500 acres where 129I concentrations are ~3.5 pCi/L in Hanford groundwater. Speciation analysis shows that iodate comprises 70.6% of the iodine present, and organo-iodide and iodide comprise 25.8% and 3.6% respectively. While hydraulic containment is the currently selected remedy for 129I in the groundwater, there is currently no remedy selected for controlling migration of 129I from the vadose zone to the groundwater. Research is currently underway to develop a site conceptual model for understanding the biogeochemical drivers for iodine speciation and determine the processes that drive the fate and transport of 129I through the vadose zone and into groundwater. These data will provide the information to decrease the uncertainty related to the inventory, distribution, and transport properties which will lead to appropriate treatment strategies for the 129I plume(s). Understanding the mechanisms and contributors to iodine speciation is important in order to develop bioremediation strategies for contaminated areas. The effect that microbial communities and humic acid have on iodine speciation and sorption was explored using Ringold sediment from the 200 West Area exposed to varying levels of 129I contamination in conjunction with varying growth media constituents. Several isolates obtained from these batch studies have been shown to reduce over 80% of iodate present in growth media when

  13. Quantitative evaluation of the cell penetrating properties of an iodinated Tyr-L-maurocalcine analog.

    PubMed

    Tisseyre, Céline; Ahmadi, Mitra; Bacot, Sandrine; Dardevet, Lucie; Perret, Pascale; Ronjat, Michel; Fagret, Daniel; Usson, Yves; Ghezzi, Catherine; De Waard, Michel

    2014-10-01

    L-Maurocalcine (L-MCa) is the first reported animal cell-penetrating toxin. Characterizing its cell penetration properties is crucial considering its potential as a vector for the intracellular delivery of drugs. Radiolabeling is a sensitive and quantitative method to follow the cell accumulation of a molecule of interest. An L-MCa analog containing an additional N-terminal tyrosine residue (Tyr-L-MCa) was synthesized, shown to fold and oxidize properly, and successfully radioiodinated to (125)I-Tyr-L-MCa. Using various microscopy techniques, the average volume of the rat line F98 glioma cells was evaluated at 8.9 to 18.9×10(-7)μl. (125)I-Tyr-L-MCa accumulates within cells with a dose-dependency similar to the one previously published using 5,6-carboxyfluorescein-L-MCa. According to subcellular fractionation of F98 cells, plasma membranes keep less than 3% of the peptide, regardless of the extracellular concentration, while the nucleus accumulates over 75% and the cytosol around 20% of the radioactive material. Taking into account both nuclear and cytosolic fractions, cells accumulate intracellular concentrations of the peptide that are equal to the extracellular concentrations. Estimation of (125)I-Tyr-L-MCa cell entry kinetics indicate a first rapid phase with a 5min time constant for the plasma membrane followed by slower processes for the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Once inside cells, the labeled material no longer escapes from the intracellular environment since 90% of the radioactivity remains 24h after washout. Dead cells were found to have a lower uptake than live ones. The quantitative information gained herein will be useful for better framing the use of L-MCa in biotechnological applications. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Calcium Signaling in Health and Disease. Guest Editors: Geert Bultynck, Jacques Haiech, Claus W. Heizmann, Joachim Krebs, and Marc Moreau. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. An evaluation of air effluent and workplace radioactivity monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, W.T. Environmental Evaluation Group, Albuquerque, NM )

    1993-02-01

    Improvements are needed in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) air effluent and workplace radioactivity monitoring prior to receipt of radioactive wastes. This report provides a detailed review Zf radioactivity air monitoring regulatory requirements and related facility design requirements. Air monitoring data, supplied by the Westinghouse Isolation Division, are analyzed. The WIPP Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) requires that the WIPP radiological facilities always have multiple confinement barriers to prevent the accidental release of radioactive material to the environment. The Waste Handling Building has standard confinement barriers that satisfy the regulatory requirements, but the underground confinement barriers.include a more complex system for filtering air in the event of-an accidental release. A continuous air monitor (CAM) is an integral part of the underground confinement barrier strategy. For the last four years'' the reliability and sensitivity of the CAMs have been the subject of numerous reports and meetings which are summarized in this report. Data supplied to the Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) show that the Station A CAM, which monitors the underground.exhaust, does not satisfy the requirements of the FSAR. The CAM system is not fail-safe, and operations appear to be affected by high levels of salt aerosol and poor detector performance. Additional test information is needed to establish the limits of CAM performance. Findings and recommendations are also provided on alternative monitoring methods, procedures and calculations.

  15. An evaluation of air effluent and workplace radioactivity monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, W.T. |

    1993-02-01

    Improvements are needed in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) air effluent and workplace radioactivity monitoring prior to receipt of radioactive wastes. This report provides a detailed review Zf radioactivity air monitoring regulatory requirements and related facility design requirements. Air monitoring data, supplied by the Westinghouse Isolation Division, are analyzed. The WIPP Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) requires that the WIPP radiological facilities always have multiple confinement barriers to prevent the accidental release of radioactive material to the environment. The Waste Handling Building has standard confinement barriers that satisfy the regulatory requirements, but the underground confinement barriers.include a more complex system for filtering air in the event of-an accidental release. A continuous air monitor (CAM) is an integral part of the underground confinement barrier strategy. For the last four years`` the reliability and sensitivity of the CAMs have been the subject of numerous reports and meetings which are summarized in this report. Data supplied to the Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) show that the Station A CAM, which monitors the underground.exhaust, does not satisfy the requirements of the FSAR. The CAM system is not fail-safe, and operations appear to be affected by high levels of salt aerosol and poor detector performance. Additional test information is needed to establish the limits of CAM performance. Findings and recommendations are also provided on alternative monitoring methods, procedures and calculations.

  16. Evaluation of iodine intake and status using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in urban and rural areas in Benin, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Mizéhoun-Adissoda, Carmelle; Desport, Jean-Claude; Houinato, Dismand; Bigot, André; Dalmay, François; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Bovet, Pascal; Moesch, Christian

    2016-05-01

    Iodine deficiency has severe pathological repercussions. The aim of this study was to evaluate iodine intake and status in adults in Benin, West Africa. We randomly selected 420 participants ages 25 to 64 y and free of visible goiter from urban and rural settings of South Benin. The participants had a diet based on carbohydrates and fish. Urine was collected over a 24-h period and samples were assayed for iodine analysis using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. We studied 401 urinary iodine samples. The overall median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in 24-h urine was 62.9 μg/L (interquartile range: 40-96.2 μg/L). UIC was significantly lower in women than men (56.5 versus 78.6 μg/L; P < 0.001) and in rural versus urban areas (54.7 versus 77.8 μg/L; P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, low UIC (<100 μg/L) was positively associated with women (odds ratio, 2.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.44-4.26; P = 0.001) and body mass index <25 kg/m(2) (odds ratio, 2.06; 95% confidence interval, 1.20-3.54; P = 0.008). Iodine intake appeared to be fairly low in the Beninese population, according to World Health Organization criteria, and factors associated with low iodine intake were identified. Public health interventions to increase iodine intake, such as iodization of commercial salt and/or fortification of selected nutrients, should be strengthened at the national level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. T cell-mediated reactions to iodinated contrast media: evaluation by skin and lymphocyte activation tests.

    PubMed

    Kanny, Gisèle; Pichler, Werner; Morisset, Martine; Franck, Patricia; Marie, Béatrice; Kohler, Chantal; Renaudin, Jean-Marie; Beaudouin, Etienne; Laudy, Jean Sainte; Moneret-Vautrin, D Anne

    2005-01-01

    In addition to immediate reactions, late adverse reactions to iodinated contrast media (ICM) were reported in 2% to 5% of patients exposed to ICM and, as a consequence, have recently gained more attention. A few well-documented case reports postulate a hypersensitivity mechanism. The aim of this study is to demonstrate a T cell-mediated mechanism to the ICM by using in vitro and ex vivo tests. We analyzed 12 patients with 13 adverse ICM reactions, 9 of whom were women. Clinical history suggested an immune reaction to ICM. Skin tests (skin prick, intradermal, and patch tests) were performed with various ICM and read after 15 minutes and 24 and 48 hours. Skin biopsy specimens of positive test sites of 11 patients were evaluated by means of immunohistology. T-cell reactivity to ICM in vitro was analyzed with lymphocyte activation tests. Seven patients showed generalized maculopapular eruptions, one of them with fever; 4 had a so-called drug hypersensitivity syndrome with exanthema, eosinophilia, and fever; 1 had maculopapular eruptions and fever; 1 had late-onset urticaria with loss of consciousness; and 1 had facial edema and respiratory distress. An immune reaction to ICM was inferred from positive skin prick test (2 patients), positive patch test (10 patients), and positive intradermal test (9 patients) at 24 and 48 hours. Skin biopsy specimens revealed a T-cell infiltrate in the dermis with predominantly CD4 + T cells in 8 patients, CD8 + T cells in 1 patient, and equal numbers in 1 patient. Cross-sensitivities to several ICM were observed (9/12). Other drug allergies were noted in 6 of the 12 patients. Delayed reactions to ICM are most likely caused by immune reactions to these drugs and can elicit different clinical features. The involvement of T cells is suggested by positive skin test, as well as positive proliferative responses, to the drugs in vitro . A high degree of cross-reactivity with other than the eliciting ICM was observed. Moreover, 50% of these

  18. Iodine Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... enlargement of the thyroid (goiter – see Goiter brochure ), hypothyroidism (see Hypothyroidism brochure ) and to mental retardation in infants and ... when lying down, and difficulty swallowing and breathing. HYPOTHYROIDISM – As the body’s iodine levels fall, hypothyroidism may ...

  19. Tracing iodine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metrangolo, Pierangelo; Resnati, Giuseppe

    2011-03-01

    Pierangelo Metrangolo and Giuseppe Resnati celebrate the bicentenary of the discovery of iodine - a good time to also bring to its conclusion an international project that aims to define and categorize halogen bonding.

  20. RADIOACTIVE IODINE THERAPY WITHOUT RECENT ANTITHYROID DRUG PRETREATMENT FOR HYPERTHYROIDISM COMPLICATED BY SEVERE HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA DUE TO HEPATIC DYSFUNCTION: EXPERIENCE OF A CHINESE MEDICAL CENTER.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yong; Xing, Jialiu; Qiu, Zewu; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Youren; Fang, Yi; Peng, Xiaobo; Long, Yahong; Deng, Pei

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this work is to report our experience with (131)I therapy without recent antithyroid drug (ATD) pretreatment for refractory severe hyperthyroidism complicated by hyperbilirubinemia due to hepatic dysfunction. Five patients with refractory severe hyperthyroidism were treated with (131)I at 90 to 120 μCi/g-thyroid (total activity, 6.2 to 10.1 mCi). The patients previously had received ATD treatment from 2 months to 12 years and discontinued ATDs from 2 months to 4 years before (131)I treatment due to treatment failure or severe jaundice. Prior to (131)I therapy, the patients were asked to take a low-iodine diet and were treated with bisoprolol fumarate, digoxin, furosemide, S-adenosylmethionine, polyene phosphatidylcholine, and plasma exchange as supportive treatment for related clinical conditions. Four of the patients also received lithium carbonate in conjunction with their (131)I treatment. The patients were followed for 4 to 9 years after (131)I therapy. After (131)I treatment, jaundice disappeared completely within 3 to 4 months in all patients, and liver function tests returned to normal. Concurrent atrial fibrillation and heart failure, leukopenia and thrombocytopenia, or thrombocytopenia and left cardiac enlargement improved remarkably in 3 patients during the follow-up period. Three to 45 months after (131)I treatment, hypothyroidism was noted in the patients and they were treated with L-thyroxine replacement therapy. (131)I therapy without recent ATD pretreatment for refractory severe hyperthyroidism complicated by serious jaundice appears to be safe and effective, with good long-term results. It may be the preferred therapy for such patients and should be used as early as possible.

  1. Evaluation of a radiation transport modeling method for radioactive bone cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, T. S.; Sehgal, V.; Skinner, H. B.; Al-Ghazi, M. S. A. L.; Ramisinghani, N. S.; Keyak, J. H.

    2010-05-01

    Spinal metastases are a common and serious manifestation of cancer, and are often treated with vertebroplasty/kyphoplasty followed by external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). As an alternative, we have introduced radioactive bone cement, i.e. bone cement incorporated with a radionuclide. In this study, we present a Monte Carlo radiation transport modeling method to calculate dose distributions within vertebrae containing radioactive cement. Model accuracy was evaluated by comparing model-predicted depth-dose curves to those measured experimentally in eight cadaveric vertebrae using radiochromic film. The high-gradient regions of the depth-dose curves differed by radial distances of 0.3-0.9 mm, an improvement over EBRT dosimetry accuracy. The low-gradient regions differed by 0.033-0.055 Gy/h/mCi, which may be important in situations involving prior spinal cord irradiation. Using a more rigorous evaluation of model accuracy, four models predicted the measured dose distribution within the experimental uncertainty, as represented by the 95% confidence interval of the measured log-linear depth-dose curve. The remaining four models required modification to account for marrow lost from the vertebrae during specimen preparation. However, the accuracy of the modified model results indicated that, when this source of uncertainty is accounted for, this modeling method can be used to predict dose distributions in vertebrae containing radioactive cement.

  2. An experimental method for quantitatively evaluating the elemental processes of indoor radioactive aerosol behavior.

    PubMed

    Yamazawa, H; Yamada, S; Xu, Y; Hirao, S; Moriizumi, J

    2015-11-01

    An experimental method for quantitatively evaluating the elemental processes governing the indoor behaviour of naturally occurring radioactive aerosols was proposed. This method utilises transient response of aerosol concentrations to an artificial change in aerosol removal rate by turning on and off an air purifier. It was shown that the indoor-outdoor exchange rate and the indoor deposition rate could be estimated by a continuous measurement of outdoor and indoor aerosol number concentration measurements and by the method proposed in this study. Although the scatter of the estimated parameters is relatively large, both the methods gave consistent results. It was also found that the size distribution of radioactive aerosol particles and hence activity median aerodynamic diameter remained not largely affected by the operation of the air purifier, implying the predominance of the exchange and deposition processes over other processes causing change in the size distribution such as the size growth by coagulation and the size dependence of deposition.

  3. THE USE OF DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHY IN THE EVALUATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS PACKAGING PERFORMANCE TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    May, C; Lawrence Gelder, L; Boyd Howard, B

    2007-03-22

    New designs of radioactive material shipping packages are required to be evaluated in accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, ''Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material''. This paper will discuss the use of digital radiography to evaluate the effects of the tests required by 10 CFR 71.71, Normal Conditions of Transport (NCT), and 10 CFR 71.73, Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC). One acceptable means of evaluating packaging performance is to subject packagings to the series of NCT and HAC tests. The evaluation includes a determination of the effect on the packaging by the conditions and tests. That determination has required that packagings be cut and sectioned to learn the actual effects on internal components. Digital radiography permits the examination of internal packaging components without sectioning a package. This allows a single package to be subjected to a series of tests. After each test, the package is digitally radiographed and the effects of particular tests evaluated. Radiography reduces the number of packages required for testing and also reduces labor and materials required to section and evaluate numerous packages. This paper will include a description of the digital radiography equipment used in the testing and evaluation of the 9977 and 9978 packages at SRNL. The equipment is capable of making a single radiograph of a full-sized package in one exposure. Radiographs will be compared to sectioned packages that show actual conditions compared to radiographic images.

  4. Iodine Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dankanich, John; Kamhawi, Hani; Szabo, James

    2015-01-01

    This project is a collaborative effort to mature an iodine propulsion system while reducing risk and increasing fidelity of a technology demonstration mission concept. 1 The FY 2014 tasks include investments leveraged throughout NASA, from multiple mission directorates, as a partnership with NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), a NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Technology Investment Project, and an Air Force partnership. Propulsion technology is often a critical enabling technology for space missions. NASA is investing in technologies to enable high value missions with very small and low-cost spacecraft, even CubeSats. However, these small spacecraft currently lack any appreciable propulsion capability. CubeSats are typically deployed and drift without any ability to transfer to higher value orbits, perform orbit maintenance, or deorbit. However, the iodine Hall system can allow the spacecraft to transfer into a higher value science orbit. The iodine satellite (iSAT) will be able to achieve a (Delta)V of >500 m/s with <1 kg of solid iodine propellant, which can be stored in an unpressurized benign state prior to launch. The iSAT propulsion system consists of the 200 W Hall thruster, solid iodine propellant tank, a power processing unit, and the necessary valves and tubing to route the iodine vapor. The propulsion system is led by GRC, with critical hardware provided by the Busek Co. The propellant tank begins with solid iodine unpressurized on the ground and in-flight before operations, which is then heated via tank heaters to a temperature at which solid iodine sublimates to iodine vapor. The vapor is then routed through tubing and custom valves to control mass flow to the thruster and cathode assembly. 2 The thruster then ionizes the vapor and accelerates it via magnetic and electrostatic fields, resulting in thrust with a specific impulse >1,300 s. The iSAT spacecraft, illustrated in figure 1, is currently a 12U CubeSat. The spacecraft chassis will be

  5. Iodine in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... products also contain iodine. Other good sources are plants grown in iodine-rich soil. ... goiter or hypothyroidism . Without enough iodine, the thyroid ... intake of iodine can reduce the function of the thyroid gland.

  6. Evaluation of the Performance of Iodine-Treated Biocide Filters Challenged with Bacterial Spores and Viruses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    incubated for 16 hrs at 36.5 + 2 °C. A 1.5-mL portion of the 16-hr culture was transferred into 30 mL of tryptone broth in a 125-mL flask and incubated...enteric viruses. Iodine inactivation is accomplished through interruption of the viral protein coat. Since both enterovirus and MS2 lack lipid...77.0 g; Na2CO3, 0.2 g; distilled water, 200.0 mL) suggested by The American Type Culture Collection [52] was chosen for sporulation. The nutrient

  7. Radionuclide Basics: Iodine

    MedlinePlus

    ... body; as they pass through, they can cause damage to tissue and DNA. Iodine-131: 8.02 days Iodine-129: 15.7 million years On this page: Iodine in the environment Iodine sources Iodine and health Iodine in the ...

  8. Technical Methods of Evaluation of Near-surface Disposal of Very Low Level Radioactive Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, R.; Teng, Y.; Wang, J.

    2010-12-01

    Radioactive waste disposal is one of the most difficult world's environmental problems for control and solving, it is as a hotspot in the field of pollution control and remediation. For the economical and efficient disposal, very low level radioactive waste (VLLW) is separated from low and intermediate level waste, and bulky VLLW could be disposed in the disposal site without the special engineering barrier. The approach is not only significant savings in disposal costs, but meeting the public on the environment. Therefore, it is very important for disposal and management of radioactive waste. In this paper, as the studied object of the VLLW disposal site in the southwestern China, a systemic analysis in the relational technology was developed, and as the key technology, the barrier and technical methods of evaluation was researched with emphasis. The disposal site was on a hilltop of debris flow, and the repository with barrier was selected, 90Sr were selected as the typical nuclides, and the releasing concentration was calculated by the given model. The fine particle (d<1mm) was used as barrier material of the repository with the thickness of 0.5m. The sorption and migration characteristics were measured by batch and column tests, and the results reflected the material has a good sorption capacity on 90Sr. From the results of simulation, the nuclide of 90Sr was almost basically retarded in the unsaturated zone.

  9. Natural radioactivity measurements and dosimetric evaluations in soil samples with a high content of NORM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caridi, F.; Marguccio, S.; Durante, G.; Trozzo, R.; Fullone, F.; Belvedere, A.; D'Agostino, M.; Belmusto, G.

    2017-01-01

    In this article natural radioactivity measurements and dosimetric evaluations in soil samples contaminated by Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) are made, in order to assess any possible radiological hazard for the population and for workers professionally exposed to ionizing radiations. Investigated samples came from the district of Crotone, Calabria region, South of Italy. The natural radioactivity investigation was performed by high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. From the measured gamma spectra, activity concentrations were determined for 226Ra , 234-mPa , 224Ra , 228Ac and 40K and compared with their clearance levels for NORM. The total effective dose was calculated for each sample as due to the committed effective dose for inhalation and to the effective dose from external irradiation. The sum of the total effective doses estimated for all investigated samples was compared to the action levels provided by the Italian legislation (D.Lgs.230/95 and subsequent modifications) for the population members (0.3mSv/y) and for professionally exposed workers (1mSv/y). It was found to be less than the limit of no radiological significance (10μSv/y).

  10. Evaluation of HPGe spectrometric devices in monitoring the level of radioactive contamination in metallurgical industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrucci, A.; Arnold, D.; Burda, O.; De Felice, P.; Garcia-Toraño, E.; Mejuto, M.; Peyres, V.; Šolc, J.; Vodenik, B.

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the results of the tests of High Purity Germanium (HPGe) based gamma spectrometers employed for radioactivity control carried out on a daily basis in steel factories. This new application of this type of detector is part of the Joint Research Project (JRP) MetroMETAL supported by the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP). The final purpose of the project was the improvement and standardisation of the measurement methods and systems for the control of radioactivity of recycled metal scraps at the beginning of the working process and for the certification of the absence of any radioactive contamination above the clearance levels (IAEA-TECDOC-8S5) in final steel products, Clearance levels for radionuclides in solid materials: application of exemption principles). Two prototypes based on HPGe detectors were designed and assembled to suit the needs of steel mills which had been examined previously. The evaluation of the two prototypes, carried out at three steel factories with standard sources of 60Co, 137Cs, 192Ir, 226Ra and 241Am in three different matrices (slag, fume dust and cast steel) and with samples provided on-site by the factories, was successful. The measurements proved the superiority of the prototypes over the scintillation detectors now commonly used regarding energy resolution and multi-nuclide identification capability. The detection limits were assessed and are presented as well.

  11. Evaluation of IAEA Clearance Concept for Low-level Radioactive Waste from a Radioisotope Research Institute.

    PubMed

    Yumoto, Yasuhiro; Okada, Shigeru; Kinno, Ikuo; Nagamatsu, Tomohiro; Nouso, Kazuhiro; Nakayama, Eiichi

    2016-05-01

    The clearance of solid low-level radioactive laboratory waste (LLRW) after decay-in-storage (DIS) obtained from a research institute and thoroughly separated using the separation and classification protocols presented in this study was evaluated. The radioisotope (RI) content of incinerated LLRW from the specified RI research group (group A); the RI content of LLRW obtained in fiscal year 2000, which contained radionuclides with half-lives of less than 164 d (LLRW2); and the RI content of the LLRW reported in group A's disposal records were compared. The LLRW2 and LLRW of group A were incinerated after 2 y of decay-in-storage and immediately after storage, respectively. The highest ratio of the RI of incinerated LLRW to the value in the disposal records was 2.52 for ⁵¹Cr. The radioactivities of radionuclides in both the LLRW2 and LLRW for ³⁵S, ⁴⁵Ca, ⁵¹Cr, ¹²⁵I, ³²P, ³³P, and ⁹⁹mTc and the incinerated ash after 1 y later of decay-in-storage were below the clearance level defined by the RS-G-1.7 of the International Basic Safety Standard without contamination by ³H and ¹⁴C. These remains contained very small amounts of some long-half-life radionuclides of natural origin after 7 y of decay-in-storage. This LLRW separation protocol was effective for the separation of ³H and ¹⁴C. LLRW2 after 2 years of DIS and its incinerated ash after one year later of DIS were below the clearance level for radioactivity and radioactivity concentration.

  12. Iodine Storage and Metabolism of Mild to Moderate Iodine-Deficient Pregnant Rats.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xin; Lu, Li; Shan, Ling; Shan, Zhongyan; Teng, Weiping

    2017-06-01

    Severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy results in neurodevelopmental disorders in children, while the consequences of mild to moderate iodine deficiency (MMID) are uncertain. The concentration of iodine in the thyroid is the most accurate indicator of iodine nutrition. This study aimed to evaluate whether the iodine stores in the thyroid cover the needs of the mother and the fetus in iodine-sufficient and MMID conditions by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. One hundred four-week-old female Wistar rats were randomly divided into MMID (low iodine intake [L]) and normal (normal iodine intake [N]) groups. The rats were fed for the next three months, and after pregnancy they were further divided into two subgroups, respectively: low iodine pregnancy (LP) and low iodine pregnancy with iodine supplement (LP+), and normal iodine intake pregnancy (NP) and normal iodine intake pregnancy with iodine supplement (NP+). The iodine intake of pregnant rats in the NP+ and LP+ groups was twice as much as in the NP and LP groups. The rats were sacrificed on gestational day 15 and postnatal day 7. The iodine concentration in the thyroid of the maternal and newborn rats, maternal serum, placenta, and amniotic fluid were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The concentration of iodine in the thyroid of the N group was significantly higher than that in the L group before pregnancy. The concentration of iodine in the maternal thyroids of the LP group decreased during pregnancy, whereas that of the NP group did not change significantly. There was no significant difference in the iodine concentration in the thyroid of mothers and offspring between the NP and NP+ groups, but it was significant between LP and LP+ groups. The concentration of iodine in amniotic fluid was significantly different between the four groups. There is sufficient iodine storage in the thyroid of maternal rats with normal iodine intake during pregnancy, and there is no need for

  13. Geochemical evaluation of different groundwater-host rock systems for radioactive waste disposal.

    PubMed

    Metz, V; Kienzler, B; Schüssler, W

    2003-03-01

    The geochemical suitability of a deep bedrock repository for radioactive waste disposal is determined by the composition of geomatrix and groundwater. Both influence radionuclide solubility, chemical buffer capacity and radionuclide retention. They also determine the chemical compatibility of waste forms, containers and backfill materials. Evaluation of different groundwater-host rock systems is performed by modeling the geochemical environments and the resulting radionuclide concentrations. In order to demonstrate the evaluation method, model calculations are applied to data sets available for various geological formations such as granite, clay and rocksalt. The saturation state of the groundwater-geomatrix system is found to be fundamental for the evaluation process. Hence, calculations are performed to determine if groundwater is in equilibrium with mineral phases of the geological formation. In addition, corrosion of waste forms in different groundwater is examined by means of reaction path modeling. The corrosion reactions change the solution compositions and pH, resulting in significant changes of radionuclide solubilities. The results demonstrate that geochemical modeling of saturation state and compatibility of the host formation environment with the radioactive waste proves to be a feasible tool for evaluation of various sites considered as deep underground repositories. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  14. Aging of Iodine-Loaded Silver Mordenite in NO2

    SciTech Connect

    Bruffey, Stephanie H.; Jubin, Robert Thomas; Patton, Kaara K.; Walker Jr, Joseph Franklin

    2014-04-01

    Used nuclear fuel facilities need to control and minimize radioactive emissions. Off-gas systems are designed to remove radioactive contaminants, such as 85Kr, 14C, 3H, and 129I. In an off-gas system, any capture material will be exposed to a gas stream for months at a time. This gas stream may be at elevated temperature and could contain water, NOx gas, or a variety of other constituents comprising the dissolver off-gas stream in a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. For this reason, it is important to evaluate the effects of long-term exposure, or aging, on proposed capture materials. One material under consideration is reduced silver mordenite (Ag0Z), which is recognized for its efficient iodine capture properties. Iodine is immobilized on Ag0Z as AgI, a solid with low volatility (m.p. ≥ 500°C). The aim of this study was to determine whether extended aging at elevated temperature in a nominally 2% NO2 environment would result in a loss of immobilized iodine from this material due to either physical or chemical changes that might occur during aging. Charges of iodine-loaded reduced silver mordenite (I2-Ag0Z) were exposed to a 2% NO2 environment for 1, 2, 3, and 4 months at 150°C, then analyzed for iodine losses The aging study was completed successfully. The material did not visibly change color or form. The results demonstrate that no significant iodine loss was observed over the course of 4 months of 2% NO2 aging of I2-Ag0Z at elevated temperature within the margin of error and the variability (~10%) in the loading along the beds. This provides assurance that iodine will remain immobilized on Ag0Z during extended online use in an off-gas capture treatment system. Future tests should expose I2-Ag0Z to progressively more complex feed gases in an effort to accurately replicate the conditions expected in a reprocessing facility.

  15. Scoping calculation for components of the cow-milk dose pathway for evaluating the dose contribution from iodine-131. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project: Dose code recovery activities

    SciTech Connect

    Ikenberry, T.A.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-12-01

    A series of scoping calculations have been undertaken to evaluate The absolute and relative contribution of different exposure pathways to doses that may have been received by individuals living in the vicinity of the Hanford site. This scoping calculation (Calculation 001) examined the contributions of the various exposure pathways associated with environmental transport and accumulation of iodine-131 in the pasture-cow-milk pathway. Addressed in this calculation were the contributions to thyroid dose of infants and adult from (1) the ingestion by dairy cattle of various feedstuffs (pasturage, silage, alfalfa hay, and grass hay) in four different feeding regimes; (2) ingestion of soil by dairy cattle; (3) ingestion of stared feed on which airborne iodine-131 had been deposited; and (4) inhalation of airborne iodine-131 by dairy cows.

  16. [Analytical aspects of the semiquantitative determination of urinary iodine using ferroin: value of rapid screening for iodine deficiency or excess].

    PubMed

    Plantin-Carrenard, E; Cattan, F; Aurengo, A; Dumérat, B; Foglietti, M-J; Beaudeux, J-L

    2004-01-01

    Iodine is an essential element for thyroid hormone synthesis. Iodine disorders induced biological and/to clinical expression of thyroid dysfunction. Inappropriate iodine intake (by default or by excess) is worrying in terms of public health in France regarding the iodine deficiency and the frequency of iatrogen iodine overloads. Urinary iodine determination which generally implicates the use of a cerimetric method, is an useful tool to evaluate iodine intakes. In this study, we described the analytical aspects of a semiquantitative method of urinary iodine using a redox indicator, ferroin. This method allows the screening of iodine excess or deficiency in a short time (< 3 hours) with a good specificity and sensitivity. Since this assay does not require specific apparatus, it could be easily developed in clinical chemistry laboratories for the detection of inappropriate iodine intakes, and could be useful for prevention programs of iodine deficiency. Copyright John Libbey Eurotext 2003.

  17. Volatilization of iodine from nitric acid using peroxide

    DOEpatents

    Cathers, G.I.; Shipman, C.J.

    1975-10-21

    A method for removing radioactive iodine from nitric acid solution by adding hydrogen peroxide to the solution while concurrently holding the solution at the boiling point and distilling hydrogen iodide from the solution is reported.

  18. Ion exchange determines iodine-131 concentration in aqueous samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairman, W. D.; Sedlet, J.

    1967-01-01

    Inorganic radioiodide in aqueous media is analyzed by separating the radioactive iodine-131 as the iodide ion on a silver chloride column. The activity in the final precipitate may be determined by beta or gamma counting.

  19. Economic evaluation of iodine deficiency disorder control program in Sikkim: a cost effectiveness study.

    PubMed

    Pandav, Chandrakant S

    2012-01-01

    Edible salt iodization and iodized oil injections are the two most commonly used vehicles for iodine supplementation. In year 1989, the state government of Sikkim was planning to implement Iodine Deficiency Disorder control program in state and had following two options to choose from, based on existing knowledge; a) a salt iodization program, b) an iodized oil injection program. No information was available at that point of time on comparative advantages of the above stated two approaches. To identify the most cost-effective alternative for IDD elimination in Sikkim, amongst the following 3 alternatives: a) Iodized salt program (ISP), b) Iodized oil injection program (IOP) to high risk group, c) no preventive program. Study population was the general population of state of Sikkim, India in year 1990. Cost- effective analysis was undertaken comparing 3 alternative programs, targeted towards IDD elimination in state of Sikkim. Identification, measurement and valuation of the costs of ISP and IOP and identification and measurement of the consequences of IDD were done to carry out the cost-effective analysis. Visible goiter person years (VGPY), endemic cretinism, IDD attributable death were used to assess the health consequences/disease burden of IDD. The cost per VGPY, endemic cretinism and IDD attributable death were Rs 76.67, Rs 24,469 and Rs 9,720, respectively for ISP. The cost per VGPY, endemic cretinism and IDD attributable death were Rs 75.82, Rs 19,106 and Rs 7,709, respectively for IOP. The results of the analysis showed that iodized oil program is more cost-effective for prevention of irreversible IDDs than the iodated salt program in state of Sikkim, India.

  20. Deep Bed Iodine Sorbent Testing FY 2011 Report

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Soelberg; Tony Watson

    2011-08-01

    Nuclear fission results in the production of fission products (FPs) and activation products that increasingly interfere with the fission process as their concentrations increase. Some of these fission and activation products tend to evolve in gaseous species during used nuclear fuel reprocessing. Analyses have shown that I129, due to its radioactivity, high potential mobility in the environment, and high longevity (half life of 15.7 million years), can require control efficiencies of up to 1,000x or higher to meet regulatory emission limits. Deep-bed iodine sorption testing has been done to evaluate the performance of solid sorbents for capturing iodine in off-gas streams from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. The objectives of the FY 2011 deep bed iodine sorbent testing are: (1) Evaluate sorbents for iodine capture under various conditions of gas compositions and operating temperature (determine sorption efficiencies, capacities, and mass transfer zone depths); and (2) Generate data for dynamic iodine sorption modeling. Three tests performed this fiscal year on silver zeolite light phase (AgZ-LP) sorbent are reported here. Additional tests are still in progress and can be reported in a revision of this report or a future report. Testing was somewhat delayed and limited this year due to initial activities to address some questions of prior testing, and due to a period of maintenance for the on-line GC. Each test consisted of (a) flowing a synthetic blend of gases designed to be similar to an aqueous dissolver off-gas stream over the sorbent contained in three separate bed segments in series, (b) measuring each bed inlet and outlet gas concentrations of iodine and methyl iodide (the two surrogates of iodine gas species considered most representative of iodine species expected in dissolver off-gas), (c) operating for a long enough time to achieve breakthrough of the iodine species from at least one (preferably the first two) bed segments, and (d) post-test purging

  1. Evaluation of povidone-iodine as a disinfectant solution for contact lenses: antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity for corneal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yanai, Ryoji; Yamada, Naoyuki; Ueda, Kiichi; Tajiri, Motoharu; Matsumoto, Toru; Kido, Keiji; Nakamura, Shigeru; Saito, Fumio; Nishida, Teruo

    2006-05-01

    Povidone-iodine (PVP-I) possesses broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and is used clinically as a disinfectant. We evaluated the disinfectant properties and safety of PVP-I for use as a contact lens solution. The concentrations of PVP-I required to reduce the number of Staphylococcus aureus or Candida albicans by 3 log units were lower than were those of hydrogen peroxide, polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB), and benzalkonium chloride (BAK). The cytotoxicity of PVP-I for cultured human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells was less than that of the other three agents. The safety margin for PVP-I was thus greatest among the tested compounds. PVP-I appears suited for use as a contact lens disinfectant.

  2. Meta-analysis of interstitial pneumonia in studies evaluating iodine-131-labeled lipiodol for hepatocellular carcinoma using exact likelihood approach.

    PubMed

    Oger, Emmanuel; Lavenu, Audrey; Bellissant, Eric; Garin, Etienne; Polard, Elisabeth

    2011-09-01

    Iodine-131-labeled lipiodol is currently licensed for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma with portal thrombosis. It is thought to be well tolerated. Cases of interstitial pneumonia have been reported, but their frequency (≈2%) has not been well estimated. Quantifying adverse drug event frequency requires an appropriate statistical approach because standard methods are biased. To estimate the frequency of interstitial pneumonia in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma receiving iodine-131-labeled lipiodol, we conducted a systematic review of English articles using MEDLINE and EMBASE. All types of articles were considered except case reports. Primary outcome measure was symptomatic interstitial pneumonia based on investigators' judgment. All pooled analyses were based on a random effects meta-analysis model using an exact likelihood approach based on the binomial within-study distribution. Ten studies, including 142 patients, used low activity per dose, ranging from 0.3 to 1.1 GBq. No respiratory adverse event was noticed in these studies. Eighteen studies, including 542 patients, evaluated higher activity per dose, around 2.2 GBq; 24 cases of interstitial pneumonia were reported in these studies. Estimated frequency of interstitial pneumonia was 1.6% (95%CI, 0.4-6.4%) after one high dose and 4.1% (95%CI, 1.0-16.0%) after two or more high doses. The frequency of interstitial pneumonia appears higher and more precise than previously estimated. The risk appears to be related to the number of injections and the dose level per injection. Generalized linear mixed models using the exact binomial within-study distribution initially described to summarize data on diagnostic evaluation could be relevant for drug-related adverse reaction frequency assessment. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Iodine Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Dankanich, John; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Iodine Satellite (iSat) spacecraft will be the first CubeSat to demonstrate high change in velocity from a primary propulsion system by using Hall thruster technology and iodine as a propellant. The mission will demonstrate CubeSat maneuverability, including plane change, altitude change and change in its closest approach to Earth to ensure atmospheric reentry in less than 90 days. The mission is planned for launch in fall 2017. Hall thruster technology is a type of electric propulsion. Electric propulsion uses electricity, typically from solar panels, to accelerate the propellant. Electric propulsion can accelerate propellant to 10 times higher velocities than traditional chemical propulsion systems, which significantly increases fuel efficiency. To enable the success of the propulsion subsystem, iSat will also demonstrate power management and thermal control capabilities well beyond the current state-of-the-art for spacecraft of its size. This technology is a viable primary propulsion system that can be used on small satellites ranging from about 22 pounds (10 kilograms) to more than 1,000 pounds (450 kilograms). iSat's fuel efficiency is ten times greater and its propulsion per volume is 100 times greater than current cold-gas systems and three times better than the same system operating on xenon. iSat's iodine propulsion system consists of a 200 watt (W) Hall thruster, a cathode, a tank to store solid iodine, a power processing unit (PPU) and the feed system to supply the iodine. This propulsion system is based on a 200 W Hall thruster developed by Busek Co. Inc., which was previously flown using xenon as the propellant. Several improvements have been made to the original system to include a compact PPU, targeting greater than 80 percent reduction in mass and volume of conventional PPU designs. The cathode technology is planned to enable heaterless cathode conditioning, significantly increasing total system efficiency. The feed system has been designed to

  4. SU-E-T-407: Evaluation of the Stopping Power and Imaging Visibility for Iodine Based Contrast in Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, H; Zhao, L; Rana, S; Chacko, M; Zheng, Y

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference between calculated and measured relative linear stopping power (RLSP) for contrast medium in proton therapy. Furthermore, the visibility for different concentrations in prostate phantom on orthogonal X-ray system was evaluated Methods and Materials: In prostate cancer patient, rectal balloon along with the contrast media was used to visualize the balloon position, thus facilitating the patient setup during each fraction of the uniform scanning proton treatment. There were no fiducial markers implanted in the prostate for this patient. A blue wax phantom with outer dimensions 10cm(H) x 14.5cm(L) x 10cm(W) was made in house. To hold iodine based contrast solution, a rectangular shaped hole with dimensions 7cm(H) x 8cm(L) x 4cm(W) was made inside the phantom. Organically bound 8.5% iodine based Cystografin Dilute contrast agent with molecular formula C11H9I3N2O4.C7H17NO5 was used in this study. Six solutions were prepared; each mixture of water and iodine based contrast agent at different concentrations as 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 50%. During computed tomographic(CT) simulation, solutions were placed together at the isocenter of CT and scanned at 120kVp using the same protocol as for prostate cancer patients. The treatment planning was done in CMS-XiO system. Multi-layer-ion-chamber (MLIC) was used to measure residual proton range. Results: The 50% concentration contrast solution was used during treatment for better visualization on orthogonal X-ray image. The measured RLSP for 5%, 10%, 20%, 30% & 50% solutions were 1.005, 1.010, 1.018, 1.023 & 1.033; and similarly calculated RLSP from XiO were 1.090, 1.135, 1.222, 1.299 & 1.448 respectively. Conclusion: The treatment planning system could overestimates the relative stopping power of contrast solution with high concentrations. It is recommended to override the contrast with measured RLSP for high atomic number based contrast solution in treatment

  5. SU-E-I-14: Comparison of Iodine-Labeled and Indium-Labeled Antibody Biodistributions

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, L

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: It is often assumed that animal biodistributions of novel proteins are not dependent upon the radiolabel used in their determination. In units of percent injected dose per gram of tissue (%ID/g), organ uptake results (u) may be obtained using either iodine or metal as radioactive labels. Iodination is preferred as it is a one-step process whereas metal labeling requires two chemical procedures and therefore more protein material. It is important to test whether the radioactive tag leads to variation in the uptake value. Methods: Uptakes of 3antibodies to Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) were evaluated in a nude mouse model bearing 150 to 300 mg LS174T human colon cancer xenografts. Antibodies included diabody (56 kDa), minibody (80kDa) and intact M5A (150 kDa) anti-CEA cognates. Both radioiodine and indium-111 labels were used with uptakes evaluated at 7 time(t) points out to 96 h. Ratios (R) of u(iodine-label)/u(indium-label) were determined for liver, spleen, kidneys, lung and tumor. Results: Hepatic loss was rapid for diabody and minibody; by 24 h their R values were only 2%; i.e., uptake of iodine was 2% of that of indium for these 2 antibodies. By contrast, R for the intact cognate was 50% at that time point. Splenic results were similar. Tumor uptake ratios did not depend upon the antibody type and were 50% at 24 h. Conclusions: Relatively rapid loss of iodine relative to indium in liver and spleen was observed in lower mass antibodies. Tumor ratios were larger and independent of antibody type. Aside from tumor, the R ratio of uptakes depended on the antibody type. R values decreased monotonically with time in all tissues and for all cognates. Using this ratio, one can possibly correct iodine-based u (t) results so that they resemble radiometal-derived biodistributions.

  6. Immobilization of iodine in soil-water systems and its relation to iodine species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimamoto, Y.; Takahashi, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Iodine tends to accumulate in thyroid, and radioactive 131I and 129I are threatening to human health both short-term and long-term, respectively. It is thus important to understand iodine behavior in surface environments. Possible iodine species are I-, IO3-, I2, and organo-iodine species. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) connected to ICP-MS were used to determine iodine species in soil and pore water, respectively. Soil and pore water samples were collected at depths of 0 to 12 cm near a tube well in Yoro, Chiba, Japan, where surface soil is flooded with brine containing iodine of 5.8 mg/L. Soil samples were also collected at depths of 0 to 90 cm in Yakushima Island, Kagoshima, Japan. The soil samples were frozen, and iodine K-edge XANES were measured at BL01B1, SPring-8 (Hyogo, Japan). Soil samples were buried into resin and prepared as thin sections, and mapping of iodine in soil grain was obtained using μ-XRF analysis at BL37XU, SPring-8. HPLC-ICP-MS, equipped with anion exchange or size exclusion column, was used to determine iodine species in pore water. Yoro: The depth profile of iodine concentration in soil correlates quite well with that of organic carbon content. XANES spectra are almost identical to that of humic substances at any depth (Fig. 1). Iodine mapping shows that iodine exists in organic matter more than clay minerals and iron rich mineral. Iodine in pore water exists as I- and organic iodine bound to dissolved humic substances at 0-6 cm, and mainly as I- at 9-12 cm, respectively. Thus, iodine tends to be bound to organic materials in soil as organic iodine, where as iodine in pore water exists mainly as I-. Yakushima: Iodine concentration is higher in volcanic ash soil layer (25-55 cm) than surface organic rich soil layer (0-25 cm). XANES spectrum of volcanic ash soil was different from those of reference materials (Fig. 1). Volcanic ash soil in Yakushima contains imogolite and

  7. Evaluation on the environmental radioactivity in Shanghai city during the normal operational condition of Qinshan nuclear power station.

    PubMed

    Lu, Heqing; Wang, Qiang

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of environmental radioactivity in Shanghai from the operation of Qinshan Nuclear Power Station (QNPS). The levels of terrestrial gamma radiation and radioactivities in the drinking water, main food and soils in the Jinshan area where is only 38 km far away from the QNPS were continuously measured in the past 19 y. Both the levels of terrestrial gamma radiation and the radioactivities in the samples were on the normal background levels. No significant changes were found before and after the running of QNPS. The annual public exposure to the terrestrial gamma radiation was estimated to be ∼0.1 mSv, and the annual exposure from intakes of (90)Sr and (137)Cs in food was ∼0.5 μSv. In the past 19 y, no significant impact on the environmental radioactivity in Shanghai was observed due to the operation of QNPS.

  8. Radiochemical synthesis and preliminary in vivo evaluation of new radioactive platinum complexes with carnosine.

    PubMed

    Maurin, Michał; Garnuszek, Piotr

    2010-02-01

    Application of cross-linking agents such as SATA and 2-iminothiolane (2-IT) for radiochemical synthesis of new radioactive Pt(II) and Pt(IV) complexes with carnosine was investigated. The mixed-ligand Pt(II)([(125)I]Hist)(Carnosine) complex has been synthesized in a multi-step reaction. First, carnosine was modified by the attachment of SATA. After chromatographic purification, the conjugate was unprotected to form a reactive sulfhydryl functional group, and then the modified carnosine was substituted to PtCl(2)[(125)I]Hist complex. The Pt(II)(IT-[(125)I]Carnosine) and Pt(IV)(IT-[(131)I]Carnosine) complexes were synthesized in a three-step reaction. First, carnosine was labeled with iodine radionuclide ((125)I or (131)I), followed by conjugation with 2-IT. The modified IT-[*I]Carnosine was complexed with tetrachloroplatinate or hexachloroplatinate. Comparative biodistribution studies were performed in normal Wistar rats and in Lewis rats with implanted (s.c.) rat pancreatic tumor cells (AR42J). The HPLC analysis showed a relatively fast formation of the new mixed-ligand Pt([(125)I]Hist)(Carnosine) complex (yield ca. 50% after 20h). Reaction of K(2)PtCl(4) with [(125)I]Carnosine modified by 2-IT proceeded rapidly and with a high yield (>95% after 2h). The synthesis of the Pt(IV)IT-[*I]Carnosine complex was the slower reaction in comparison to the analogous synthesis of the Pt(II) complex (yield ca. 70% after 12h), thus a purification step was necessary. The biodistribution study proved the in vivo stability of the newly synthesized complexes (a low accumulation in thyroid gland and in GIT) and showed that the conjugation of the modified carnosine changes significantly biodistribution scheme of the Pt complexes comparing to the reference Pt(II)[*I]Hist and Pt(IV)([*I]Hist)(2) complexes. The mixed-ligand complex was rapidly excreted in urine and revealed the highest accumulation in kidneys (>5%ID/g). A very high concentration in blood and in liver was observed for the

  9. Highly efficient method for production of radioactive silver seed cores for brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Roberta Mansini; de Souza, Carla Daruich; Rostelato, Maria Elisa Chuery Martins; Araki, Koiti

    2017-02-01

    A simple and highly efficient (shorter reaction time and almost no rework) method for production of iodine based radioactive silver seed cores for brachytherapy is described. The method allows almost quantitative deposition of iodine-131 on dozens of silver substrates at once, with even distribution of activity per core and insignificant amounts of liquid and solid radioactive wastes, allowing the fabrication of cheaper radioactive iodine seeds for brachytherapy.

  10. Protection of the infant thyroid from radioactive contamination by the administration of stable iodide. An experimental evaluation in chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Noteboom, J L; Hummel, W A; Broerse, J J; de Vijlder, J J; Vulsma, T; van Bekkum, D W

    1997-06-01

    Protection of the thyroid from radioactive contamination by the administration of stable iodide was investigated in chimpanzees aged 2 to 98 weeks. The uptake of iodide in the thyroid was measured with 123I-. The animals were subjected to a control measurement first, and subsequently the thyroid uptake of 123I- was determined twice; once at the start and once at the end of 11 days of ingestion of 0.5, 1.5 or 5.0 mg of stable iodide per kg body weight per day. The three doses of iodide reduced the control thyroid iodide uptake of 10 to 30% to lower than 1% when ingested 1 h before exposure to the tracer and to 2-4% when ingested 20 h before exposure. In the latter experiments 0.5 mg iodide/kg was less effective than doses of 1.5 mg/kg or higher. The physiological state of the thyroid of control infant chimpanzees does not differ from that of human infants. Incidentally, an increased level of TSH was found during the ingestion of iodide, but with unaltered thyroxine levels. Therefore, it is concluded that a daily dose of 1.5 mg stable iodide/kg body weight and higher offers optimal protection of the thyroid against exposure to radioactive iodine in infants and that, when used during 10 days, it leaves the thyroid unaffected.

  11. Iodine neutron capture therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Kazi Fariduddin

    A new technique, Iodine Neutron Capture Therapy (INCT) is proposed to treat hyperthyroidism in people. Present thyroid therapies, surgical removal and 131I treatment, result in hypothyroidism and, for 131I, involve protracted treatment times and excessive whole-body radiation doses. The new technique involves using a low energy neutron beam to convert a fraction of the natural iodine stored in the thyroid to radioactive 128I, which has a 24-minute half-life and decays by emitting 2.12-MeV beta particles. The beta particles are absorbed in and damage some thyroid tissue cells and consequently reduce the production and release of thyroid hormones to the blood stream. Treatment times and whole-body radiation doses are thus reduced substantially. This dissertation addresses the first of the several steps needed to obtain medical profession acceptance and regulatory approval to implement this therapy. As with other such programs, initial feasibility is established by performing experiments on suitable small mammals. Laboratory rats were used and their thyroids were exposed to the beta particles coming from small encapsulated amounts of 128I. Masses of 89.0 mg reagent-grade elemental iodine crystals have been activated in the ISU AGN-201 reactor to provide 0.033 mBq of 128I. This activity delivers 0.2 Gy to the thyroid gland of 300-g male rats having fresh thyroid tissue masses of ˜20 mg. Larger iodine masses are used to provide greater doses. The activated iodine is encapsulated to form a thin (0.16 cm 2/mg) patch that is then applied directly to the surgically exposed thyroid of an anesthetized rat. Direct neutron irradiation of a rat's thyroid was not possible due to its small size. Direct in-vivo exposure of the thyroid of the rat to the emitted radiation from 128I is allowed to continue for 2.5 hours (6 half-lives). Pre- and post-exposure blood samples are taken to quantify thyroid hormone levels. The serum T4 concentration is measured by radioimmunoassay at

  12. Framework for evaluating the utility of incentive systems for radioactive waste repository siting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnes, S. A.; Soderstrom, J.; Sorensen, J.; Peelle, E.; Reed, J. H.; Bjornstad, D. J.; Copenhaver, E. D.

    The importance of social and institutional issues in siting radioactive waste repositories has been recognized in recent years. Within this set of issues, the siting of repositories over the objections of members of potential host communities is viewed as especially problematic. Incentives to potential host communities have been suggested as a means of increasing local support for and offsetting local opposition to such facilities. Incentives are classified according to their function as mitigation, compensation or reward. Analysis of results of a 1980 survey (conducted by John Kelly, Complex Systems Group, University of New Hampshire) of 420 rural Wisconsin residents indicates that incentives may achieve the purpose of increasing support for and decreasing opposition to accepting a repository. Criteria for evaluating the utility of incentives are identified. It is suggested that meaningful evaluations of incentives can only be performed by members of potential host communities.

  13. Physicochemical characterisation and biological evaluation of polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine engineered polyurethane (Tecoflex(®)).

    PubMed

    Khandwekar, Anand P; Doble, Mukesh

    2011-05-01

    Bacterial adhesion and encrustation are the known causes for obstruction or blockage of urethral catheters and ureteral stents, which often hinders their effective use within the urinary tract. In this in vitro study, polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine (PVP-I) complex modified polyurethane (Tecoflex(®)) systems were created by physically entrapping the modifying species during the reversible swelling of the polymer surface region. The presence of the PVP-I molecules on this surfaces were verified by ATR-FTIR, AFM and SEM-EDAX analysis, while wettability of the films was investigated by water contact angle measurements. The modified surfaces were investigated for its suitability as a urinary tract biomaterial by comparing its lubricity and ability to resist bacterial adherence and encrustation with that of base polyurethane. The PVP-I modified polyurethane showed a nanopatterned surface topography and was highly hydrophilic and more lubricious than control polyurethane. Adherence of both the gram positive Staphylococcus aureus (by 86%; **P < 0.01) and gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa (by 80%; *P < 0.05) was significantly reduced on the modified surfaces. The deposition of struvite and hydroxyapatite the major components of urinary tract encrustations were significantly less on PVP-I modified polyurethane as compared to base polyurethane, especially reduction in hydroxyapatite encrustation was particularly marked. These results demonstrated that the PVP-I entrapment process can be applied on polyurethane in order to reduce/lower complications associated with bacterial adhesion and deposition of encrustation on polyurethanes.

  14. MDCT of the liver in obese patients: evaluation of a different method to optimize iodine dose.

    PubMed

    Rengo, Marco; Bellini, Davide; Businaro, Rita; Caruso, Damiano; Azzara, Gabriella; De Santis, Domenico; Picchia, Simona; Biondi, Tommaso; Eid, Marwen; Boschiero, Dario; Laghi, Andrea

    2017-04-27

    To prospectively compare two different approaches for estimating the amount of intravenous contrast media (CM) needed for multiphasic MDCT of the liver in obese patients. This single-center, HIPAA-compliant prospective study was approved by our Institutional Review Board. Ninety-six patients (55 men, 41 women), with a total of 42 hypovascular liver lesions, underwent MDCT of the liver. The amount of contrast medium injected was computed according to the patient's lean body weight which was estimated using either a bioimpedance device (Group A) or the James formula (Group B). The following variables were compared between the two groups: the amount of contrast medium injected (in grams of Iodine, gI), the contrast enhancement index (CEI) and the lesion-to-liver contrast-to-noise ratio. Protocols A and B yielded significant differences in the amount of CM injected (mean values 41.9 ± 4.41 gI in Group A vs. 35.9 ± 5.75 gI in Group B; P = 0.021). The mean CEI value and lesion-to-liver contrast-to-noise ratio measured on the portal phase were significantly higher with protocol A than with protocol B (P < 0.05). Our study shows that the adoption of a bioimpedance device in obese patients improves liver parenchymal enhancement and lesion conspicuity.

  15. Evaluating and planning the radioactive waste options for dismantling the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Rule, K.; Scott, J.; Larson, S.

    1995-12-31

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) is a one-of-a kind tritium fusion research reactor, and is planned to be decommissioned within the next several years. This is the largest fusion reactor in the world and as a result of deuterium-tritum reactions is tritium contaminated and activated from 14 Mev neutrons. This presents many unusual challenges when dismantling, packaging and disposing its components and ancillary systems. Special containers are being designed to accommodate the vacuum vessel, neutral beams, and tritium delivery and processing systems. A team of experienced professionals performed a detailed field study to evaluate the requirements and appropriate methods for packaging the radioactive materials. This team focused on several current and innovative methods for waste minimization that provides the oppurtunmost cost effective manner to package and dispose of the waste. This study also produces a functional time-phased schedule which conjoins the waste volume, weight, costs and container requirements with the detailed project activity schedule for the entire project scope. This study and project will be the first demonstration of the decommissioning of a tritium fusion test reactor. The radioactive waste disposal aspects of this project are instrumental in demonstrating the viability of a fusion power reactor with regard to its environmental impact and ultimate success.

  16. Evaluation of exposure pathways to man from disposal of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Parkhurst, M.A.; Aaberg, R.L.; Rhoads, K.C.; Hill, R.L.; Martin, J.B.

    1992-05-01

    In accordance with 10 CFR 20, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulates licensees` discharges of small quantities of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems. This generic study was initiated to examine the potential radiological hazard to the public resulting from exposure to radionuclides in sewage sludge during its treatment and disposal. Eleven scenarios were developed to characterize potential exposures to radioactive materials during sewer system operations and sewage sludge treatment and disposal activities and during the extended time frame following sewage sludge disposal. Two sets of deterministic dose calculations were performed; one to evaluate potential doses based on the radionuclides and quantities associated with documented case histories of sewer system contamination and a second, somewhat more conservative set, based on theoretical discharges at the maximum allowable levels for a more comprehensive list of 63 radionuclides. The results of the stochastic uncertainty and sensitivity analysis were also used to develop a collective dose estimate. The collective doses for the various radionuclides and scenarios range from 0.4 person-rem for {sup 137}Cs in Scenario No. 5 (sludge incinerator effluent) to 420 person-rem for {sup 137}Cs in Scenario No. 3 (sewage treatment plant liquid effluent). None of the 22 scenario/radionuclide combinations considered have collective doses greater than 1000 person-rem/yr. However, the total collective dose from these 22 combinations was found to be about 2100 person-rem.

  17. Evaluation of Activity Concentration Values and Doses due to the Transport of Low Level Radioactive Material

    SciTech Connect

    Rawl, Richard R; Scofield, Patricia A; Leggett, Richard Wayne; Eckerman, Keith F

    2010-04-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiated an international Coordinated Research Project (CRP) to evaluate the safety of transport of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). This report presents the United States contribution to that IAEA research program. The focus of this report is on the analysis of the potential doses resulting from the transport of low level radioactive material. Specific areas of research included: (1) an examination of the technical approach used in the derivation of exempt activity concentration values and a comparison of the doses associated with the transport of materials included or not included in the provisions of Paragraph 107(e) of the IAEA Safety Standards, Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, Safety Requirements No. TS-R-1; (2) determination of the doses resulting from different treatment of progeny for exempt values versus the A{sub 1}/A{sub 2} values; and (3) evaluation of the dose justifications for the provisions applicable to exempt materials and low specific activity materials (LSA-I). It was found that the 'previous or intended use' (PIU) provision in Paragraph 107(e) is not risk informed since doses to the most highly exposed persons (e.g., truck drivers) are comparable regardless of intended use of the transported material. The PIU clause can also have important economic implications for co-mined ores and products that are not intended for the fuel cycle but that have uranium extracted as part of their industrial processing. In examination of the footnotes in Table 2 of TS-R-1, which identifies the progeny included in the exempt or A1/A2 values, there is no explanation of how the progeny were selected. It is recommended that the progeny for both the exemption and A{sub 1}/A{sub 2} values should be similar regardless of application, and that the same physical information should be used in deriving the limits. Based on the evaluation of doses due to the transport of low-level NORM

  18. Iodine nutritional status in Brazil: a meta-analysis of all studies performed in the country pinpoints to an insufficient evaluation and heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Campos, Renata de Oliveira; Barreto, Iasmin dos Santos; Maia, Lorena Rejane de Jesus; Rebouças, Sara Cristina Lima; Cerqueira, Taíse Lima de Oliveira; Oliveira, Clotilde Assis; Santos, Carlos Antônio de Souza Teles; Mendes, Carlos Maurício Cardeal; Teixeira, Leonardo Sena Gomes; Ramos, Helton Estrela

    2015-02-01

    Iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) is the result of an inadequate dietary intake of iodine, which physiological consequences are endemic goiter and thyroid dysfunction. The objective of this study was to a analyze studies that assessed the status of Brazil's population iodine nutrition and IDD prevalence. Systematic review using PRISMA statement. Electronic database: PubMed, Medline, SciELO and Lilacs. Quality of studies: Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Meta-analysis was carried out with R Core Team Statistical Software, version 3.1.0 (2014). The summary measure (WMD) and its confidence interval (CI) of 95% were calculated. The "Funnel plot" graph assessed publication bias and heterogeneity. Seventeen papers were eligible: pregnant women (2), school children (9), adults/elderly (4) and preschool children/infants (2). Geographic distribution: North (1), Northeast (1), Midwest (2), Southeast (13), South (3). Twenty-three thousand two hundred seventy-two subjects were evaluated between 1997 and 2013 and all have use urinary iodine (UI) measurement. However, only 7 studies could be included in meta-analysis, all from Southeast region. The overall prevalence of IDD in school children in southeast region was 15.3% (95% CI, 13-35%), however this data had an important heterogeneity, expressed by the I2 Statistic of 99.5%. Only few studies have been performed and enrolled populations from south/southeast region of Brazil. The actual IDD prevalence analysis is complex because it was detected bias due influence of individual studies and very high heterogeneity. IDD might still be high in some areas but this remained unknown even after this meta-analysis evaluation. The generation of a national program for analysis of iodine status in all regions is urgently required.

  19. Prospective evaluation of adverse reactions to iodine-containing contrast media after ERCP.

    PubMed

    Draganov, Peter V; Forsmark, Chris E

    2008-12-01

    The incidence of contrast media reactions administered at the time of ERCP is unknown. Despite the lack of formal recommendations, numerous types of prophylactic regimens are routinely used in patients with a history of prior reactions to intravascular contrast media. Our purpose was to document the incidence of contrast media reactions at the time of ERCP and to determine whether various perceived risk factors are predictive of adverse reactions. Prospective study. Tertiary academic center. A total of 601 patients undergoing ERCP as clinically indicated. ERCP done with full-strength high osmolality contrast media. No prophylactic medications were given to any patient. Adverse reactions to contrast media. Six hundred one patients were enrolled. Eighty patients had prior documented reactions to intravascular contrast media (39 mild, 21 moderate, 20 severe). Of the 80 patients, 15 additionally reported shellfish allergy, and 46 reported allergic diathesis. Of the 521 patients with no prior reaction to intravascular contrast, 215 reported other history of allergic reaction. Forty-nine were allergic to shellfish, and 166 had underlying allergic diathesis. At ERCP, 277 patients had cholangiograms, 48 pancreatograms, and 276 both. The average volume of contrast per ERCP was 22 mL. No adverse reactions associated with the administration of contrast media at the time of ERCP were observed in any of the patients. The incidence of adverse reaction to iodine-containing contrast media administered at the time of ERCP even in patients considered to be at high risk is exceedingly low. The use of prophylactic regimens before ERCP appears to be unnecessary.

  20. Stimulated thyroglobulin values above 5.6 ng/ml before radioactive iodine ablation treatment following levothyroxine withdrawal is associated with a 2.38-fold risk of relapse in Tg-ab negative subjects with differentiated thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Mousa, U; Yikilmaz, A S; Nar, A

    2017-08-01

    Serum thyroglobulin (Tg) is the key parameter used in the follow-up of subjects with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Current guidelines advise its measurement to take place when Thyrotropin (TSH) levels are >30 µU/ml (stimulated Tg) and when TSH < 0.1 µU/ml (suppressed Tg). Although stimulated Tg levels <1 ng/ml have been shown to display excellent prognosis, relapses may occur despite low Tg levels. Recently, very low cut-off levels of stimulated Tg have been proposed for determining the recurrence risk in these subjects. In this study, we aimed to assess the association between ablative stimulated Tg obtained before radioactive iodine ablation therapy (RAI) (ASTg) and late stimulated Tg obtained 6-12 months after primary therapy (LSTg) in a group of subjects with DTC. We also aimed to establish a cut-off level of Tg for recurrence. We retrospectively analyzed 393 subjects with low or intermediate risk DTC diagnosed at our institution between January 2000 and December 2010 with a mean follow-up period of 64.4 months (range 14-192 months). All stimulated Tg levels were performed following levothyroxine withdrawal in this study. Histopathological analysis indicated papillary carcinoma in 362 (92.1%) subjects and follicular carcinoma in 31 (7.9%) subjects. Three hundred and twenty-four (82.4%) of our cases were females, and 69 (17.6%) were males. Recurrence occurred in 82 (20.9%) of the subjects. Relapse was significantly more frequently observed in subjects with ASTg ≥ 2 ng/ml; and LSTg ≥ 2 ng/ml. (p = 0.004 and p < 0.001, respectively). In subjects negative for thyroglobulin antibodies (Tg-ab), an ASTg value ≥5.6 ng/ml was established to increase the risk of recurrence by 2.38-fold (p = 0.002), whereas an LSTg ≥ 0.285 ng/ml increased the risk of relapse by 3.087-fold (p < 0.001). As a result of this study, we determined that the optimum cut-off level for both ASTg and LSTg may be lower than those previously reported. Using

  1. Iodine retention during evaporative volume reduction

    DOEpatents

    Godbee, H.W.; Cathers, G.I.; Blanco, R.E.

    1975-11-18

    An improved method for retaining radioactive iodine in aqueous waste solutions during volume reduction is disclosed. The method applies to evaporative volume reduction processes whereby the decontaminated (evaporated) water can be returned safely to the environment. The method generally comprises isotopically diluting the waste solution with a nonradioactive iodide and maintaining the solution at a high pH during evaporation.

  2. Hair Iodine for Human Iodine Status Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Prejac, Juraj; Višnjević, Vjeran; Skalnaya, Margarita G.; Mimica, Ninoslav; Drmić, Stipe; Skalny, Anatoly V.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Today, human iodine deficiency is, after iron, the most common nutritional deficiency in developed European and underdeveloped third world countries. A current biological indicator of iodine status is urinary iodine, which reflects very recent iodine exposure; a long-term indicator of iodine status remains to be identified. Methods: We analyzed hair iodine in a prospective, observational, cross-sectional, and exploratory study involving 870 apparently healthy Croatians (270 men and 600 women). Hair iodine was analyzed with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results: The hair iodine median was 0.499 μg/g, and was 0.482 and 0.508 μg/g for men and women respectively, suggesting no sex-related difference. We studied hair iodine uptake by analyzing the logistic sigmoid saturation curve of the median derivatives to assess iodine deficiency, adequacy, and excess. We estimated overt iodine deficiency to occur when hair iodine concentration was below 0.1–0.15 μg/g. Then there was a saturation range interval of about 0.1–2.0 μg/g where the deposition of iodine in the hair was linearly increasing (R2=0.994). Eventually, the sigmoid curve became saturated at about 2.0 μg/g and upward, suggesting excessive iodine exposure. Conclusion: Hair appears to be a valuable and robust biological indicator tissue for assessing long-term iodine status. We propose that an adequate iodine status corresponds with hair iodine uptake saturation of 0.565–0.739 μg/g (55–65%). PMID:24446669

  3. Determining median urinary iodine concentration that indicates adequate iodine intake at population level.

    PubMed Central

    Delange, François; de Benoist, Bruno; Burgi, Hans

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Urinary iodine concentration is the prime indicator of nutritional iodine status and is used to evaluate population-based iodine supplementation. In 1994, WHO, UNICEF and ICCIDD recommended median urinary iodine concentrations for populations of 100- 200 micro g/l, assuming the 100 micro g/l threshold would limit concentrations <50 micro g/l to iodine in iodine-replete populations (schoolchildren and adults) and the proportion of concentrations <50 micro g/l. METHOD: A questionnaire on frequency distribution of urinary iodine in iodine-replete populations was circulated to 29 scientific groups. FINDINGS: Nineteen groups reported data from 48 populations with median urinary iodine concentrations >100 micro g/l. The total population was 55 892, including 35 661 (64%) schoolchildren. Median urinary iodine concentrations were 111-540 (median 201) micro g/l for all populations, 100-199 micro g/l in 23 (48%) populations and >/=200 micro g/l in 25 (52%). The frequencies of values <50 micro g/l were 0-20.8 (mean 4.8%) overall and 7.2% and 2.5% in populations with medians of 100-199 micro g/l and >200 micro g/l, respectively. The frequency reached 20% only in two places where iodine had been supplemented for <2 years. CONCLUSION: The frequency of urinary iodine concentrations <50 micro g/l in populations with median urinary iodine concentrations >/=100 micro g/l has been overestimated. The threshold of 100 micro g/l does not need to be increased. In populations, median urinary iodine concentrations of 100-200 micro g/l indicate adequate iodine intake and optimal iodine nutrition. PMID:12219154

  4. Social and institutional evaluation report for Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, T.L.; Lewis, B.E.; Turner, K.H.; Rozelle, M.A.

    1993-10-01

    This report identifies and characterizes social and institutional issues that would be relevant to the siting, licensing, construction, closure, and postclosure of a Greater-Than-Class-C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) disposal facility. A historical perspective of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and LLW disposal programs is provided as an overview of radioactive waste disposal and to support the recommendations and conclusions in the report. A characterization of each issue is provided to establish the basis for further evaluations. Where applicable, the regulatory requirements of 10 CFR 60 and 61 are incorporated in the issue characterizations. The issues are used to compare surface, intermediate depth, and deep geologic disposal alternatives. The evaluation establishes that social and institutional issues do not significantly discriminate among the disposal alternatives. Recommendations are provided for methods by which the issues could be considered throughout the lifecycle of a GTCC LLW disposal program.

  5. Influence of dietary iodine on the iodine content of pork and the distribution of the trace element in the body.

    PubMed

    Franke, Katrin; Schöne, Friedrich; Berk, Andreas; Leiterer, Matthias; Flachowsky, Gerhard

    2008-02-01

    Millions of people worldwide still suffer from iodine deficiency disorders. Besides salt iodination, iodine is added to animal feed to concentrate it in food of animal origin (milk, eggs, meat). Otherwise possible adverse effects of high supplementation should be avoided. The objective of the study was to evaluate the iodine content of pork at various feed iodine concentrations to estimate its contribution to human iodine supply. Furthermore the handling of low and high iodine dosages by the organism should be investigated using the pig as a model for the human. Seventy pigs (live weight period 27-115 kg), divided into five groups, were fed diets supplemented with 0 (group 1), 0.5 (group 2), 1 (group 3), 2 (group 4) and 5 (group 5) mg iodine per kg diet. Iodine was determined in the thyroid and in the fractions innards/blood, bones and muscle/fat of four pigs of each group by ICP-MS. Rising iodine supplementation of feed significantly increased (P < 0.05) the iodine content of the muscle/fat fraction [3.9 (group 1), 6.0 (group 2), 8.5 (group 3), 10.8 (group 4) and 17.1 (group 5) microg I/kg]. Carry over (of supplemented iodine) into muscle/fat varied between 0.10 and 0.24%. The highest tested iodine dosage (5 mg I/kg diet) caused a 3.6-fold iodine concentration of the total body (calculated from the contents of the fractions), and a significantly increased thyroid weight compared to the group without supplementary iodine. Iodine supplementation increased iodine content in thyroid and bones significantly (P < 0.05) but not in innards/blood. On an average of the groups, the thyroid contained 80% of the body's iodine, innards/blood 14%, muscle/fat 5% and bones 1%. The iodine content of pork, and consequently its contribution to human iodine supply ( approximately 1%), is very low, even at high supplementation of feed. The total body iodine content (empty body) is determined by the iodine intake. Irrespective of the iodine dosage, the thyroid contains about 4/5 of the

  6. Research needs for assessing iodine intake, iodine status, and the effects of maternal iodine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Ershow, Abby G; Goodman, Gay; Coates, Paul M; Swanson, Christine A

    2016-09-01

    The Office of Dietary Supplements of the NIH convened 3 workshops on iodine nutrition in Rockville, Maryland, in 2014. The purpose of the current article is to summarize and briefly discuss a list of research and resource needs developed with the input of workshop participants. This list is composed of the basic, clinical, translational, and population studies required for characterizing the benefits and risks of iodine supplementation, along with related data, analyses, evaluations, methods development, and supporting activities. Ancillary studies designed to use the participant, biological sample, and data resources of ongoing and completed studies (including those not originally concerned with iodine) may provide an efficient, cost-effective means to address some of these research and resource needs. In the United States, the foremost question is whether neurobehavioral development in the offspring of mildly to moderately iodine-deficient women is improved by maternal iodine supplementation during pregnancy. It is important to identify the benefits and risks of iodine supplementation in all population subgroups so that supplementation can be targeted, if necessary, to avoid increasing the risk of thyroid dysfunction and related adverse health effects in those with high iodine intakes. Ultimately, there will be a need for well-designed trials and other studies to assess the impact of maternal supplementation on neurodevelopmental outcomes in the offspring. However, 2 basic information gaps loom ahead of such a study: the development of robust, valid, and convenient biomarkers of individual iodine status and the identification of infant and toddler neurobehavioral development endpoints that are sensitive to mild maternal iodine deficiency during pregnancy and its reversal by supplementation. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Induction of hyperparathyroidism by radioactive iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, I.B.; Palmer, J.A.; Rowen, J.; Luk, S.C.

    1984-10-01

    External irradiation to the head and neck has been associated with the emergence of hyperparathyroidism, due both to adenoma and hyperplasia since a single case report was published in 1975. A recent report indicates that there may be some association between hyperparathyroidism and radioiodine administered for thyroid disease. Eight patients are presented herein, all female and in middle age, who presented with hyperparathyroidism due to adenoma (six patients) or hyperplasia (one patient who had undergone radioiodine treatment). In three patients, the dose of radioiodine exceeded 30 mCi. The duration of latency ranged from 4 to 20 years. Associated thyroid disease included cancer, colloid nodules, and thyroiditis. All patients became eucalcemic and have remained so. Experimental results that have supported the influence of radioiodine on parathyroid hyperactivity do not appear completely applicable to the human model. It is believed that the low mitotic rate equivalent to low radiosensitivity may have protected the parathyroid gland somewhat from neoplastic change, although the association of thyroid carcinoma and parathyroid adenoma appears to be a significant expression of radiation exposure. It may be the lack of a pituitary-stimulating hormone and the absence of an abscopal mechanism, as illustrated by irradiation to the thyroid, that explains the relative immunity of parathyroid behavior in the face of radioiodine exposure. Regardless of the frequency and validity of the association, it is important to recognize the possibility of the association illustrated by our case reports and scrutinize appropriate patients by intermittent serum calcium sampling, both for confirmation and possible detection of occult hyperparathyroidism.

  8. Radioactive Iodine in the Therapy of Thyrotoxicoses.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    As early as the beginning of the twentieth century a attempt at treating exophthalmic goiter with radium was made by Abbe, after which a noticeable...decrease of the volume of the goiter was observed. The cited observation served as the basis for the application to the thyroid gland or irradiation by

  9. Evaluation of bromine and iodine content of milk whey proteins combining digestion by microwave-induced combustion and ICP-MS determination.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Sabrina Vieira; Picoloto, Rochele Sogari; Flores, Erico Marlon Moraes; Wagner, Roger; dos Santos Richards, Neila Silvia Pereira; Barin, Juliano Smanioto

    2016-01-01

    The bromine and iodine content of whey protein concentrate (WPC), hydrolysate (WPH), and isolate (WPI) was evaluated combining microwave-induced combustion (MIC) digestion with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) determination. MIC digestion allowed the decomposition of up to 500 mg of samples using diluted NH4OH solution (25 mmol L(-1)) for absorption of analytes, assuring the compatibility with ICP-MS determination. Accuracy was evaluated using milk powder certified reference material (NIST 8435) with good agreements for Br and I (102% and 105%, respectively). For Br and I, the limit of quantification obtained by ICP-MS was 7 and 281 times lower in comparison with ion chromatography determination, respectively. Iodine could be enriched in whey protein production and up to 70% of the tolerable upper intake level was found, thus revealing the need to monitor it in whey proteins. On the other hand, the concentration of Br was below its acceptable daily intake.

  10. Evaluation of Chlorella as a Decorporation Agent to Enhance the Elimination of Radioactive Strontium from Body

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Kazuma; Fukuda, Tadahisa; Han, Jaegab; Kitamura, Yoji; Shiba, Kazuhiro; Odani, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Background Release of radionuclides, such as 137Cs and 90Sr, into the atmosphere and the ocean presents an important problem because internal exposure to 137Cs and 90Sr could be very harmful to humans. Chlorella has been reported to be effective in enhancing the excretion of heavy metals; thus, we hypothesized that Chlorella could also enhance the elimination of 137Cs or 90Sr from the body. We evaluated the potential of Chlorella as a decorporation agent in vitro and in vivo, using 85Sr instead of 90Sr. Methods In vitro experiments of adsorption of 137Cs and 85Sr to Chlorella were performed under wide pH conditions. The maximum sorption capacity of Chlorella to strontium was estimated using the Langmuir model. A 85Sr solution was orally administrated to mice pretreated with Chlorella. At 48 h after 85Sr administration, the biodistribution of radioactivity was determined. Results In the in vitro experiments, although 85Sr barely adsorbed to Chlorella at low pH, the 85Sr adsorption ratio to Chlorella increased with increasing pH. The maximum sorption capacity of Chlorella to strontium was 9.06 mg / g. 137Cs barely adsorbed to Chlorella under any pH conditions. In the biodistribution experiments, bone accumulation of radioactivity after 85Sr administration was significantly decreased in the Chlorella pretreatment group compared with the non-treatment control group. Conclusions In conclusion, these results indicated that Chlorella could inhibit the absorption of 90Sr into the blood and enhance the elimination of 90Sr from the body through adsorption in intestine. Further studies are required to elucidate the mechanism and the components of Chlorella needed for adsorption to strontium and could promote the development of more effective decorporation agents. PMID:26828430

  11. Melton Valley liquid low-level radioactive waste storage tanks evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The Melton Valley Liquid Low-Level Radioactive Waste Storage Tanks (MVSTs) store the evaporator concentrates from the Liquid Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLLW) System at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The eight stainless steel tanks contain approximately 375,000 gallons of liquid and sludge waste. These are some of the newer, better-designed tanks in the LLLW System. They have been evaluated and found by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation to comply with all Federal Facility Agreement requirements for double containment. The operations and maintenance aspects of the tanks were also reviewed by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) in September 1994. This document also contains an assessment of the risk to the public and ORNL workers from a leak in one of the MVSTs. Two primary scenarios were investigated: (1) exposure of the public to radiation from drinking Clinch River water contaminated by leaked LLLW, and (2) exposure of on-site workers to radiation by inhaling air contaminated by leaked LLLW. The estimated frequency of a leak from one of the MVSTs is about 8 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} events per year, or about once in 1200 years (with a 95% confidence level). If a leak were to occur, the dose to a worker from inhalation would be about 2.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}1} mrem (with a 95% confidence level). The dose to a member of the public through the drinking water pathway is estimated to be about 7 {times} 10{sup {minus}1} mrem (with a 95% confidence level). By comparison with EPA Safe Drinking Water regulations, the allowable lifetime radiation dose is about 300 mrem. Thus, a postulated LLLW leak from the MVSTs would not add appreciably to an individual`s lifetime radiation dose.

  12. Analytical evaluation of natural radionuclides and their radioactive equilibrium in raw materials and by-products.

    PubMed

    Ji, Young-Yong; Chung, Kun Ho; Lim, Jong-Myoung; Kim, Chang-Jong; Jang, Mee; Kang, Mun Ja; Park, Sang Tae

    2015-03-01

    An investigation into the distribution of natural radionuclides and radioactive secular equilibrium in raw materials and by-products in a domestic distribution was conducted to deduce the optimum conditions for the analytical evaluation of natural radionuclides for (238)U, (226)Ra, and (232)Th using a gamma-ray spectrometer and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). The range of the specific activities of natural radionuclides was first evaluated by analyzing (228)Ac and (214)Bi, which are (232)Th and (226)Ra indicators, respectively, in about 100 samples of raw materials and by-products through a gamma-ray spectrometer. From further experiments using several samples selected based on the results of the distribution of natural radionuclides, the validation of their analytical evaluations for the indirect measurements using a gamma-ray spectrometer and direct measurements using ICP-MS was assured by comparing their results. Chemically processed products from the raw materials, such as Zr sand and ceramic balls, were generally shown for the type of bead and particularly analyzed showing a definite disequilibrium with above a 50% difference between (238)U and (226)Ra in the uranium series and (232)Th and (228)Ra in the thorium series.

  13. Synthesis and evaluation of radioactive and fluorescent residualizing labels for monitoring protein degradation in vivo and in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Residualizing labels for proteins, such as dilactitol-{sup 125}I-tyramine, are tracers which have been used to identify the tissue and cellular sites of catabolism of long-lived plasma proteins, such as albumin. The radioactive degradation products formed from labeled proteins are relatively large and hydrophilic. These tracers accumulate in lysosomes following uptake and catabolism of the carrier protein. However, the gradual loss of the catabolites from cells has limited the usefulness of these radioactive labels in studies on longer-lived proteins. The objective of this dissertation was to design a radioactive residualizing label, Inulin-{sup 125}I-tyramine ({sup 125}I-InTn), that would be retained more efficiently in cells than existing labels and to develop and evaluate the first fluorescent residualizing label, N,N-dilactitol-N{prime}-fluoresceinyl-ethylenediamine (DLF).

  14. Epidemiology of iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Vanderpump, Mark P

    2017-04-01

    Iodine is an essential component of the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) produced by the thyroid gland. Iodine deficiency impairs thyroid hormone production and has adverse effects throughout life, particularly early in life as it impairs cognition and growth. Iodine deficiency remains a significant problem despite major national and international efforts to increase iodine intake, primarily through the voluntary or mandatory iodization of salt. Recent epidemiological data suggest that iodine deficiency is an emerging issue in industrialized countries, previously thought of as iodine-sufficient. International efforts to control iodine deficiency are slowing, and reaching the third of the worldwide population that remains deficient poses major challenges.

  15. Iodine volatility. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Beahm, E.C.; Shockley, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    The ultimate aim of this program is to couple experimental aqueous iodine volatilities to a fission product release model. Iodine partition coefficients, for inorganic iodine, have been measured during hydrolysis and radiolysis. The hydrolysis experiments have illustrated the importance of reaction time on iodine volatility. However, radiolysis effects can override hydrolysis in determining iodine volatility. In addition, silver metal in radiolysis samples can react to form silver iodide accompanied by a decrease in iodine volatility. Experimental data are now being coupled to an iodine transport and release model that was developed in the Federal Republic of Germany.

  16. Iodine deficiency: Clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Niwattisaiwong, Soamsiri; Burman, Kenneth D; Li-Ng, Melissa

    2017-03-01

    Iodine is crucial for thyroid hormone synthesis and fetal neurodevelopment. Major dietary sources of iodine in the United States are dairy products and iodized salt. Potential consequences of iodine deficiency are goiter, hypothyroidism, cretinism, and impaired cognitive development. Although iodine status in the United States is considered sufficient at the population level, intake varies widely across the population, and the percentage of women of childbearing age with iodine deficiency is increasing. Physicians should be aware of the risks of iodine deficiency and the indications for iodine supplementation, especially in women who are pregnant or lactating.

  17. Radioactive Decay

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Radioactive decay is the emission of energy in the form of ionizing radiation. Example decay chains illustrate how radioactive atoms can go through many transformations as they become stable and no longer radioactive.

  18. Experimental investigation of the iodine partition coefficient

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, J.L.; Babad, C.J.; Mulder, R.U.

    1985-11-01

    Short-term values of the iodine partition coefficient (IPC) were evaluated experimentally by an air/water system over the following ranges of conditions: temperature = 25 to 70/sup 0/C, pH = 5 to 9, and iodine concentration = 10/sup -9/ to 10/sup -2/ kg iodine/m/sup 3/ H/sub 2/O. The experimental IPC values are relatively independent of temperature over the indicated range, but show a significant dependence on pH and iodine concentration. In basic solutions the short-term values are several orders of magnitude less than the true equilibrium values; in acid solutions, the differences are much less. These results are useful for predicting the disposition of iodine shortly (i.e., 1 to 10 h) after iodine has been released into an air/water environment.

  19. Environmental evaluation of natural radioactivity in soil near a lignite-burning power plant in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Gören, E; Turhan, Ş; Kurnaz, A; Garad, A M K; Duran, C; Uğur, F A; Yeğingil, Z

    2017-08-01

    Natural radionuclides are released into the environment together with fly ash from the coal-burning power plant and cause an increase in the natural radioactivity in environmental samples. The study concerns to the evaluation the influence of Kangal lignite-burning power plant (LBPP) with a power of 457 MWe, which has been in operation since 1989, on natural radionuclide a concentration in surface soil samples around it. Activity concentrations of natural radionuclides ((226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K and (222)Rn) in the soil samples, and emanation coefficient (EC) and mass (ERM) and surface (ERS) exhalation rate of radon were determined by using a gamma-ray spectrometer with an HPGe detector. The average values of (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K and (222)Rn, EC, ERM and ERS were found as 37±5, 17±3, 222±30Bqkg(-1) and 9±1kBqm(-3), 12%, 12.1 µBq kg(-1) s(-1) and 7.1mBqm(-2) s(-1), respectively. Absorbed gamma dose rate in outdoor air and the corresponding effective dose rate from external exposure and excess lifetime cancer risk were estimated to evaluate radiological hazards for human population. The results revealed that the Kangal LBPP has caused a small increment in (226)Ra concentration in the studied area. No influence was observed for (232)Th and (40)K. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Suspected radioactive contamination: evaluation of 45 Israeli citizens potentially exposed to polonium-210 in London.

    PubMed

    Brosh-Nissimov, Tal; Havkin, Ofra; Davidovitch, Nadav; Poles, Lion; Shapira, Chen

    2008-02-01

    The lethal poisoning of Alexander Litvinenco with the radioactive element polonium-210, and the risk that many civilians (including Israeli citizens) who were in the same location in London at the same time were exposed to radiation, was an unprecedented event in the western world. This was only the second known death due to 210Po, a natural alpha radiation-emitting element. A task team was created to handle the event. The team comprised representatives from the Ministry of Health's advisory committee for radiological events (which includes the Israel Defense Force, the Israeli Atomic Energy Commission and the Ministry of Environmental Protection), the Public Health Services Central District, and a public relations expert. Forty-seven people were located and underwent an epidemiological inquiry, and urine samples for detection of 210Po were sent abroad to a specialized laboratory. The radiotoxicological results were analyzed and evaluated by the expert team and follow-up recommendations were made. This unfamiliar and potentially stressful scenario was handled successfully by a multi-organizational multidisciplinary task team. The joint work of the task team was a real-life "exercise" simulating a radiological event in Israel. This team has recommended further evaluation of various vital missions in the event of any possible future radiological event, with special emphasis on a proactive communication approach to the media and the public.

  1. Evaluation and measurements of radioactive air emission and off-site doses at SLAC.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ivy; Liu, James; Tran, Henry

    2013-08-01

    SLAC, a high-energy (GeV) electron accelerator facility, performs experimental and theoretical research using high-energy electron and/or positron beams that can produce secondary neutron and gamma radiation when beam losses occur. Radioactive gas production (mainly C, N, O, Ar) and release is one of the environmental protection program issues. U.S. DOE Order 458.1 requires that 40 CFR 61 Subpart H's NESHAP requirements be followed. These regulations prescribe a total dose limit of 0.1 mSv y to the Maximally Exposed Individual (MEI) of the general public, a requirement for a continuous air monitoring system if a release point within a facility can cause > 1 × 10 mSv y to the MEI, and a requirement for periodic confirmatory measurements for minor sources which give releases that contribute ≤ 1 × 10 mSv y to the MEI. At SLAC, all air release points for current operations are evaluated to be minor sources. This paper describes SLAC's evaluation following NESHAP requirements; measurements using the Air Monitoring Station (AMS) as periodic confirmatory measurements are also discussed.

  2. Estimation of iodine intake from various urinary iodine measurements in population studies.

    PubMed

    Vejbjerg, Pernille; Knudsen, Nils; Perrild, Hans; Laurberg, Peter; Andersen, Stig; Rasmussen, Lone B; Ovesen, Lars; Jørgensen, Torben

    2009-11-01

    Iodine intake is often measured by a surrogate measure, namely urine iodine excretion as almost all ingested iodine is excreted in the urine. However, the methods for urine collection and the reporting of the results vary. These methods, and their advantages and disadvantages, are considered in this article. There are two main ways in which urine can be collected for iodine measurement. The first is the collection of urine over a period, usually 24 hours. The second is the collection of a spot urinary sample. Urinary iodine values can be expressed as the content or concentration and reported without modification or as a function of creatinine in the same sample. The 24-hour urine for iodine measurement is often considered as the "reference standard" for giving a precise estimate of the individual iodine excretion and thereby iodine intake. As 24-hour collections are difficult to perform for large number of persons, single spot urinary samples are preferable to the 24-hour urinary collections in population studies. The iodine concentration in urine depends on the intake of both iodine and fluid. This, and the fact that there is a considerable variability in the daily iodine intake, makes the iodine measurement in spot urine samples unreliable for evaluating individuals for iodine deficiency, though they can be used to screen for exposure to large amounts of iodine from sources such as amiodarone and certain radiographic contrast agents. In populations of at least 500 subjects, the median value of spot urinary iodine concentration is a reliable measure of the iodine intake in the population as there is a leveling out of the day-to-day variation in iodine intake and urinary volume. Expressing the urinary iodide concentration as a function of urinary creatinine is useful in correcting for the influence of fluid intake. When doing so, it is recommended to adjust for the age- and sex-specific creatinine excretion in the given population. In studies of iodine intake, the

  3. Long-term migration of iodine in sedimentary rocks based on iodine speciation and 129I/127I ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togo, Y.; Takahashi, Y.; Amano, Y.; Matsuzaki, H.; Suzuki, Y.; Muramatsu, Y.; Iwatsuki, T.

    2012-12-01

    [Introduction] 129I is one of the available indexes of long-term migration of groundwater solutes, because of its long half-life (15.7 million years) and low sorption characteristics. The Horonobe underground research center (Japan Atomic Energy Agency), at which are conducted research and development of fundamental techniques on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, is an appropriate site for natural analogue studies, because iodine concentration in groundwater is high in this area. To predict iodine behavior in natural systems, speciation of iodine is essential because of different mobility among each species. In this study, we determined iodine speciation and129I/127I isotope ratios of rock and groundwater samples to investigate long term migration of iodine. [Methods] All rock and groundwater samples were collected at Horonobe underground research center. The region is underlain mainly by Neogene to Quaternary marine sedimentary rocks, the Wakkanai Formation (Wk Fm, siliceous mudstones), and the overlying Koetoi Formation (Kt Fm, diatomaceous mudstones). Iodine species in rock samples were determined by iodine K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (SPring-8 BL01B1). Thin sections of rock samples were prepared, and iodine mapping were obtained by micro-XRF analysis (SPring-8 BL37XU). Iodine species (IO3-, I-, and organic I) in groundwater were separately detected by high performance liquid chromatography connected to ICP-MS. The 129I/127I ratios in groundwater and rock samples were measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (MALT, Univ. of Tokyo). Iodine in rock samples were separated by pyrohydrolysis and water extraction. [Results and discussion] Concentration of iodine in groundwater varied widely and was much higher than that of seawater showing a high correlation with that of chlorine (R2 = 0.90). Species of iodine in groundwater was mainly I-. Iodine in rock samples decreased near the boundary between Wk and Kt Fms. Iodine K-edge XANES

  4. [Iodine intake in Portuguese school children].

    PubMed

    Limbert, Edward; Prazeres, Susana; São Pedro, Márcia; Madureira, Deolinda; Miranda, Ana; Ribeiro, Manuel; Carrilho, Francisco; Jácome de Castro, J; Lopes, Maria Santana; Cardoso, João; Carvalho, Andre; Oliveira, Maria João; Reguengo, Henrique; Borges, Fátima

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate iodine intake in portuguese school children in order to inform health authorities of eventual measures to be implemented. Iodine is the key element for thyroid hormone synthesis and its deficiency even mild, as found in other European countries, may have deleterious effects in pregnancy resulting in cognitive problems of offsprings. In Portugal there are no recent data on iodine intake in schoolchildren. 3680 children aged 6-12 years of both sexes, from 78 different schools were studied. Iodine intake was evaluated trough urine iodine (UI) determinations using a colorimetic method. The global median UI value was 105.5 µg/L; the percentage of children with UI <100 µg/L was 47.1%, corresponding to 41% of the studied schools. The percentage of values <50 µg/L was 11.8%. The male gender, the south region of the country and the distribution of milk in school were significantly linked with a higher iodine elimination. Our global results point to a borderline/ mildly insufficient iodine intake in the portuguese school population. However 47% of the children had UI under 100 µg /L. The comparison of our results with the available data from 30 years ago, point to a considerable improvement, due to silent prophylaxis. Male gender, geographical area and milk distribution influenced positively iodine intake.The importance of milk has been referred in numerous papers. The study of UI in the Portuguese school population points to a borderline iodine intake. However, in 47% of children iodine intake was inadequate. Compared with data from the eighties, a considerable increase in iodine elimination was found. Taking into account the potencial deleterious effects of inadequate iodine intake, a global prophylaxis with salt iodization has to be considered.

  5. Source team evaluation for radioactive low-level waste disposal performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Cowgill, M.G.; Sullivan, T.M.

    1993-01-01

    Information compiled on the low-level radioactive waste disposed at the three currently operating commercial disposal sites during the period 1987--1989 have been reviewed and processed in order to determine the total activity distribution in terms of waste stream, waste classification and waste form. The review identified deficiencies in the information currently being recorded on shipping manifests and the development of a uniform manifest is recommended (the NRC is currently developing a rule to establish a uniform manifest). The data from waste disposed during 1989 at one of the sites (Richland, WA) were more detailed than the data available during other years and at other sites, and thus were amenable to a more in-depth treatment. This included determination of the distribution of activity for each radionuclide by waste form, and thus enabled these data to be evaluated in terms of the specific needs for improved modeling of releases from waste packages. From the results, preliminary lists have been prepared of the isotopes which might be the most significant from the aspect of the development of a source term model.

  6. Evaluation of the radiological risks associated with the routine transport of radioactive material within Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinman, Rebecca Lee

    Radioactive materials play an important role in modern society. In addition to providing electrical power and supporting national defense, radioisotopes play significant roles in the fields of medicine, research, manufacturing, and industry. Since most of these materials are not manufactured or disposed of at the site where they are used, they must be transported between various processing, use, storage, and disposal facilities. This dissertation examines the mathematical model used to predict the collective dose to the population that resides along a potential transport route, commonly called the off-link dose. The currently accepted RADTRAN and RISKIND transient dose models are reviewed. Then three new individual transient dose models are derived by assuming that a point, line, or surface cylinder can approximate the actual transport package. Groundscatter effects were investigated using a Monte Carlo simulation of the surface cylinder model and found to contribute no more than 12% to the total individual dose from a passing shipment of radioactive material, thus not warranting explicit inclusion in the newly derived transient dose models. All five of the individual transient dose models were evaluated for representative shipments of spent nuclear fuel and low-level waste within the State of Michigan and compared to experimentally measured doses. The individual dose for the Michigan shipment scenarios was found to be on the order of 1 murem. Comparison to the experimental measurements revealed that RISKIND consistently predicts the best estimate of the measured dose, followed closely by the surface cylinder model. RADTRAN consistently over predicted the measured dose by at least a factor of two. Finally, the line dose model is integrated over strips of uniform population along the transport route to arrive at the collective off-link population dose. This off-link dose model was incorporated into an ArcView application using the Avenue scripting language. Then

  7. Iodine concentration of organic and conventional milk: implications for iodine intake.

    PubMed

    Bath, Sarah C; Button, Suzanne; Rayman, Margaret P

    2012-04-01

    Iodine is required for adequate thyroid hormone production, which is essential for brain development, particularly in the first trimester of pregnancy. Milk is the principal source of iodine in UK diets, and while small studies in Europe have shown organic milk to have a lower iodine concentration than conventional milk, no such study has been conducted in Britain. In view of the increasing popularity of organic milk in the UK, we aimed to compare the iodine concentration of retail organic and conventional milk and to evaluate regional influences in iodine levels. Samples of organic milk (n 92) and conventional milk (n 80), purchased from retail outlets in sixteen areas of the UK (southern England, Wales and Northern Ireland), were analysed for iodine using inductively coupled plasma MS. The region of origin of the milk was determined from information on the label. Organic milk was 42·1 % lower in iodine content than conventional milk (median iodine concentration 144·5 v. 249·5 ng/g; P < 0·001). There was no difference in the iodine concentration of either conventional or organic milk by area of purchase. However, a difference was seen in iodine concentration of organic milk by region of origin (P < 0·001). The lower iodine concentration of organic milk has public-health implications, particularly in view of emerging evidence of iodine deficiency in UK population sub-groups, including pregnant women. Individuals who choose organic milk should be aware that their iodine intake may be compromised and should ensure adequate iodine intake from alternative sources.

  8. 24-Hour Urine Samples Are More Reproducible Than Spot Urine Samples for Evaluation of Iodine Status in School-Age Children.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen; Wu, Yalan; Lin, Laixiang; Tan, Long; Shen, Jun; Pearce, Elizabeth N; Guo, Xiaohui; Wang, Wei; Bian, Jianchao; Jiang, Wen; Zhang, Wanqi

    2016-01-01

    Variation in different urinary measurements for evaluation of iodine status is of concern to clinicians and researchers. This study evaluated variations between urine iodine concentration (UIC), spot and 24-h urine sample creatinine concentrations, and 24-h urine iodine excretion (24-h UIE) in repeated samples from school-age children. Urine samples (24 h and morning spot) were collected on 2 occasions from 981 children in Ningjin and Lingxian counties, China. Samples from Ningjin were collected in October and November 2013, and samples from Lingxian were collected in April and May 2014. Morning spot urine iodine concentration (MUIC), morning spot urine creatinine, 24-h UIC, and 24-h urine creatinine were measured in all samples. The 24-h UIE was calculated by multiplying the 24-h UIC by the 24-h urine volume. In Ningjin County, the 24-h UIC and 24-h UIE did not differ between repeated collections [192 and 172 μg/L, respectively, for 24-h UIC (P = 0.08); 123 and 120 μg/L, respectively, for 24-h UIE (P = 0.56)], whereas the MUIC was lower in November 2013 than in October 2013 (170 and 190 μg/L, respectively; P = 0.034). In Lingxian County, no significant differences were observed in 24-h UIC between the repeated collections (230 and 218 μg/L, respectively; P = 0.79), whereas the 24-h UIE and MUIC were higher in the samples collected in May 2014 than in April 2014 [161 and 155 μg/L, respectively, for 24-h UIE (P = 0.002); 244 and 203 μg/L, respectively, for MUIC (P < 0.001)]. When data from both counties were combined, no difference was observed between repeated 24-h UIC (214 compared with 196 μg/L; P = 0.17) and 24-h UIE (143 compared with 143 μg/d; P = 0.06), but MUICs were lower in the first collection than in the second collection (199 and 207 μg/L, respectively; P = 0.002). The κ values were >0.4 for 24-h UIC and mean UIE, whereas relatively low κ values were observed for MUIC and mean UIE. The 24-h UIC was more accurate and reproducible than the MUIC

  9. Evaluation of monoenergetic late iodine enhancement dual-energy computed tomography for imaging of chronic myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Wichmann, Julian L; Arbaciauskaite, Ruta; Kerl, J Matthias; Frellesen, Claudia; Bodelle, Boris; Lehnert, Thomas; Monsefi, Nadejda; Vogl, Thomas J; Bauer, Ralf W

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate image quality and diagnostic accuracy of selective monoenergetic reconstructions of late iodine enhancement (LIE) dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) for imaging of chronic myocardial infarction (CMI). Twenty patients with a history of coronary bypass surgery underwent cardiac LIE-DECT and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). LIE-DECT images were reconstructed as selective monoenergetic spectral images with photon energies of 40, 60, 80, and 100 keV and the standard linear blending setting (M_0.6). Images were assessed for late enhancement, transmural extent, signal characteristics and subjective image quality. Seventy-nine myocardial segments (23 %) showed LGE. LIE-DECT detected 76 lesions. Images obtained at 80 keV and M_0.6 showed a high signal-to-noise ratio (15.9; 15.1), contrast-to-noise ratio (4.2; 4.0) and sensitivity (94.9 %; 92.4 %) while specificity was identical (99.6 %). Differences between these series were not statistically significant. Transmural extent of LIE was overestimated in both series (80 keV: 40 %; M_0.6: 35 %) in comparison to MRI. However, observers preferred 80 keV in 13/20 cases (65 %, κ = 0.634) over M_0.6 (4/20 cases) regarding subjective image quality. Post-processing of LIE-DECT data with selective monoenergetic reconstructions at 80 keV significantly improves subjective image quality while objective image quality shows no significant difference compared to standard linear blending. Late enhancement dual-energy CT allows for detection of chronic myocardial infarction. Monoenergetic reconstructions at 80 keV significantly improve subjective image quality. 80 keV and standard linear blending reconstructions show no significant differences. Extent of CMI detected with LIE-DECT is overestimated compared with MRI.

  10. Protection of the maternal and fetal thyroid from radioactive contamination by the administration of stable iodide during pregnancy. An experimental evaluation in chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Noteboom, J L; Hummel, W A; Broerse, J J; de Vijlder, J J; Vulsma, T; Jansen, J T; van Bekkum, D W

    1997-06-01

    The safety and efficacy of the administration of stable iodide to protect the fetal thyroid from exposure to radioactive iodide were investigated in chimpanzees in weeks 19 to 21 of pregnancy. The mean 24-h uptake of iodide in the fetal thyroid, determined with 123I-, was 1.8%. Administration of stable potassium iodide (KI), 0.65, 1.95 or 6.5 mg per kg body weight, 1 h before tracer injection reduced the fetal uptake satisfactorily. Only the higher doses were effective after 20 h. Excess iodide may impair a child's thyroid status. However, adverse effects were not found during the 11 days the animals ingested these doses. Tracer concentrations in the amniotic fluid were 30- to 130-fold lower than in the urine. The dose to the fetus from radioactivity in the maternal bladder was estimated by computer simulation. The potential increment of the risk from this dose during the ingestion of stable iodide is smaller than the reduction of risk achieved by inhibiting the uptake of radioactive iodide by the fetal thyroid. The conclusion of the experiments is that stable iodide can be used safely and effectively to protect the fetal thyroid against contamination with radioactive iodine.

  11. Radioactive and magnetic investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heye, D.; Beiersdorf, H.

    1979-01-01

    Age and growth pattern determination of manganese nodules were explored. Two methods are discussed: (1) measurement of the presence of radioactive iodine isotopes; which is effective only up to 3.105 years, and (2) measurements of magnetism. The growth rates of three nodules were determined. The surface of the nodule was recent, and the overall age of the nodule could be determined with accuracy of better than 30%. Measurement of paleomagnetic effect was attempted to determine wider age ranges, however, the measured sign changes could not be interpreted as paleomagnetic reversals.

  12. EVALUATION OF THE FAILURE OF A RADIOACTIVE WASTE TRANSFER LINE JACKET

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, B; Alan03 Plummer, A; Karthik Subramanian, K; Charles Jenkins, C; William Hinz, W; A Fellinger, A

    2007-04-06

    Radioactive wastes are confined in 49 underground storage tanks at the Savannah River Site. The waste is transported between tanks primarily via an underground transfer piping system. Due to the hazardous nature of the waste, the inner core stainless steel pipe is typically surrounded by a carbon steel pipe jacket, which provides secondary containment. Recently several through-wall penetrations were discovered on a segment of one of the jackets. An evaluation was performed to verify the failure mechanism and to estimate the degree of damage that occurred to the pipe segment. Failure analysis of a section of the jacket confirmed that pitting corrosion on the exterior of the pipe led to the through-wall penetration. Ultrasonic measurements on sections of the pipe were utilized to determine the remaining wall thickness in adjacent areas of the pipe. Based on these measurements, the degree of pitting and general corrosion was determined. Pit growth rate models were then developed to estimate the life expectancy of sections of the pipe that had not been excavated. The calculations estimated that the occurrence of through-wall failures in this jacket will begin to increase substantially in 12 years. Given that this pipe segment will be utilized beyond this time, short-term and long-term solutions to this failure were proposed. The short-term solutions focused on the repair or replace decisions that must be made to return the jacket to service as soon as practical. The long-term solutions focused on a broader strategy to address jacket integrity issues in the entire tank farm facility. These solutions included the evaluation of innovative remote inspection and repair techniques.

  13. Preliminary safety evaluation of an aircraft impact on a near-surface radioactive waste repository

    SciTech Connect

    Lo Frano, R.; Forasassi, G.; Pugliese, G.

    2013-07-01

    The aircraft impact accident has become very significant in the design of a nuclear facilities, particularly, after the tragic September 2001 event, that raised the public concern about the potential damaging effects that the impact of a large civilian airplane could bring in safety relevant structures. The aim of this study is therefore to preliminarily evaluate the global response and the structural effects induced by the impact of a military or commercial airplane (actually considered as a 'beyond design basis' event) into a near surface radioactive waste (RWs) disposal facility. The safety evaluation was carried out according to the International safety and design guidelines and in agreement with the stress tests requirements for the security track. To achieve the purpose, a lay out and a scheme of a possible near surface repository, like for example those of the El Cabril one, were taken into account. In order to preliminarily perform a reliable analysis of such a large-scale structure and to determine the structural effects induced by such a types of impulsive loads, a realistic, but still operable, numerical model with suitable materials characteristics was implemented by means of FEM codes. In the carried out structural analyses, the RWs repository was considered a 'robust' target, due to its thicker walls and main constitutive materials (steel and reinforced concrete). In addition to adequately represent the dynamic response of repository under crashing, relevant physical phenomena (i.e. penetration, spalling, etc.) were simulated and analysed. The preliminary assessment of the effects induced by the dynamic/impulsive loads allowed generally to verify the residual strength capability of the repository considered. The obtained preliminary results highlighted a remarkable potential to withstand the impact of military/large commercial aircraft, even in presence of ongoing concrete progressive failure (some penetration and spalling of the concrete wall) of the

  14. Source term evaluation model for high-level radioactive waste repository with decay chain build-up.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Manish; Sunny, Faby; Oza, R B

    2016-09-18

    A source term model based on two-component leach flux concept is developed for a high-level radioactive waste repository. The long-lived radionuclides associated with high-level waste may give rise to the build-up of activity because of radioactive decay chains. The ingrowths of progeny are incorporated in the model using Bateman decay chain build-up equations. The model is applied to different radionuclides present in the high-level radioactive waste, which form a part of decay chains (4n to 4n + 3 series), and the activity of the parent and daughter radionuclides leaching out of the waste matrix is estimated. Two cases are considered: one when only parent is present initially in the waste and another where daughters are also initially present in the waste matrix. The incorporation of in situ production of daughter radionuclides in the source is important to carry out realistic estimates. It is shown that the inclusion of decay chain build-up is essential to avoid underestimation of the radiological impact assessment of the repository. The model can be a useful tool for evaluating the source term of the radionuclide transport models used for the radiological impact assessment of high-level radioactive waste repositories.

  15. [Evaluation of iodine levels in daily dietary intake and urine of persons participating in epidemiological studies in the Krakow macro-region after the disaster in Czernobyl and level of iodine in drinking water of that region].

    PubMed

    Dłuzniewska, K; Tylek, D; Baranowska, K; Drozdz, R; Hennig, J; Hołyńska, B; Ostachowicz, B; Zysiak, M; Potocki, A; Pułka, J

    1991-01-01

    Following the Czernobyl accident, an epidemiologic study was undertaken in which the daily iodine intake was estimated in 15% of the population studied. Iodine excretion was measured in single morning urine specimens. The iodine content was also assessed in the water form wells and in cow-milk at farms in randomly chosen villages in the region of Krynica and Nowy Sacz. On the basis of a 24-hour diet recall, the mass of each food product consumed daily was estimated for 483 persons in the Kraków voivodship (14.4% of the total population) and for 397 persons in the Nowy Sacz voivodship (15.8% of the total population). Using this data, the nutrient content of the daily diet was calculated for each studied individual. Measurements of iodine content in water and cow-milk show relatively lower iodine levels in the Nowy Sacz voivodship. The estimated value of the iodine content in milk (5.5 micrograms/100 g of milk) was considered in the estimates of the chemical composition of the daily diet of the inhabitants of this region. The mean values of the daily energy as well as the protein and calcium consumption in all subpopulations grouped with respect to domicile, age and sex, fell within the recommended daily allowances for these groups. The iodine content, while widely scattered, concentrated around low values. The median values of the iodine content in children of age 3-10 years, age 10-16 years and in adults, were 66%, 48% and 25-40% of the recommended daily allowances, respectively. No particular differences in the food intakes were observed between inhabitants of Kraków and Nowy Sacz voivodships. Nor were significant differences found in the urine iodine excretion in groups of these regions. The low iodine content in the daily food intake may be an essential factor in the ethiology of the increasing number of thyroid goiter.

  16. Current iodine nutrition status and awareness of iodine deficiency in tuguegarao, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bu Kyung; Jeong, Jee-Yeong; Seok, Kwang-Hyuk; Lee, Andrew S; Oak, Chul Ho; Kim, Ghi Chan; Jeong, Chae-Kyeong; Choi, Sung In; Afidchao, Pablo M; Choi, Young Sik

    2014-01-01

    The Philippines is one of the countries where adequate iodine status has been achieved. However, iodine deficiency still remains an important public health problem in this country. In this study, we evaluated iodine nutrition status and investigated an awareness status of iodine deficiency targeting high school students of Tuguegarao, Philippines. A total of 260 students provided samples for urinary iodine analysis, among which 146 students completed thyroid volume measurement by ultrasonography and answering the questionnaires. The median urinary iodine level was 355.3 µg/L and only 3.8% of the students were in the range of iodine deficiency status according to the ICCIDD criteria. Although 62.3% of students answered that they can list problems resulting from iodine deficiency, a majority of students (70.5%) were unable to identify problems other than goiter. They did not appreciate that adequate iodine levels are important during pregnancy and for development of children. 33.6% of students answered that they did not use iodized salt and the biggest reason was that they did not find it necessary. Based on these results, we suggest that a future strategy should be focused on vulnerable groups to completely eliminate iodine deficiency, including women at their reproductive ages and during pregnancy.

  17. Current Iodine Nutrition Status and Awareness of Iodine Deficiency in Tuguegarao, Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bu Kyung; Seok, Kwang-Hyuk; Lee, Andrew S.; Oak, Chul Ho; Kim, Ghi Chan; Jeong, Chae-Kyeong; Choi, Sung In; Afidchao, Pablo M.; Choi, Young Sik

    2014-01-01

    The Philippines is one of the countries where adequate iodine status has been achieved. However, iodine deficiency still remains an important public health problem in this country. In this study, we evaluated iodine nutrition status and investigated an awareness status of iodine deficiency targeting high school students of Tuguegarao, Philippines. A total of 260 students provided samples for urinary iodine analysis, among which 146 students completed thyroid volume measurement by ultrasonography and answering the questionnaires. The median urinary iodine level was 355.3 µg/L and only 3.8% of the students were in the range of iodine deficiency status according to the ICCIDD criteria. Although 62.3% of students answered that they can list problems resulting from iodine deficiency, a majority of students (70.5%) were unable to identify problems other than goiter. They did not appreciate that adequate iodine levels are important during pregnancy and for development of children. 33.6% of students answered that they did not use iodized salt and the biggest reason was that they did not find it necessary. Based on these results, we suggest that a future strategy should be focused on vulnerable groups to completely eliminate iodine deficiency, including women at their reproductive ages and during pregnancy. PMID:25374598

  18. Risk of Suboptimal Iodine Intake in Pregnant Norwegian Women

    PubMed Central

    Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Abel, Marianne Hope; Haugen, Margaretha; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

    2013-01-01

    Pregnant women and infants are exceptionally vulnerable to iodine deficiency. The aims of the present study were to estimate iodine intake, to investigate sources of iodine, to identify predictors of low or suboptimal iodine intake (defined as intakes below 100 μg/day and 150 μg/day) in a large population of pregnant Norwegian women and to evaluate iodine status in a sub-population. Iodine intake was calculated based on a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort. The median iodine intake was 141 μg/day from food and 166 μg/day from food and supplements. Use of iodine-containing supplements was reported by 31.6%. The main source of iodine from food was dairy products, contributing 67% and 43% in non-supplement and iodine-supplement users, respectively. Of 61,904 women, 16.1% had iodine intake below 100 μg/day, 42.0% had iodine intake below 150 μg/day and only 21.7% reached the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD recommendation of 250 μg/day. Dietary behaviors associated with increased risk of low and suboptimal iodine intake were: no use of iodine-containing supplements and low intake of milk/yogurt, seafood and eggs. The median urinary iodine concentration measured in 119 participants (69 μg/L) confirmed insufficient iodine intake. Public health strategies are needed to improve and secure the iodine status of pregnant women in Norway. PMID:23389302

  19. Separation of iodine from mercury containing scrubbing solutions

    DOEpatents

    Burger, Leland L.; Scheele, Randall D.

    1979-01-01

    Radioactive iodines can be recovered from a nitric acid scrub solution containing mercuric nitrate by passing a current through the scrub solution to react the iodine with the mercuric nitrate to form mercuric iodate which precipitates out. The mercuric iodate can then be reacted to recover the radioiodine for further processing into a form suitable for long-term storage and to recover the mercury for recycling.

  20. Risk perception, risk evaluation and human values: Cognitive bases acceptability of a radioactive waste repository

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earle, T. C.; Lindell, M. K.; Rankin, W. L.; Nealey, S. M.

    1981-07-01

    Public acceptance of radioactive waste management alternatives depends in part on public perception of the associated risks. Three aspects of those perceived risks were explored: (1) synthetic measures of risk perception based on judgments of probability and consequences; (2) acceptability of hypothetical radioactive waste policies; and (3) effects of human values on risk perception. Both the work on synthetic measures of risk perception and on the acceptability of hypothetical policies included investigations of three categories of risk: short term public risk (affecting persons living when the wastes are created), long term public risk (affecting persons living after the time the wastes were created), and occupational risk (affecting persons working with the radioactive wastes). The human values work related to public risk perception in general, across categories of persons affected. Respondents were selected according to a purposive sampling strategy.

  1. Risk perception, risk evaluation and human values: cognitive bases of acceptability of a radioactive waste repository

    SciTech Connect

    Earle, T.C.; Lindell, M.K.; Rankin, W.L.

    1981-07-01

    Public acceptance of radioactive waste management alternatives depends in part on public perception of the associated risks. Three aspects of those perceived risks were explored in this study: (1) synthetic measures of risk perception based on judgments of probability and consequences; (2) acceptability of hypothetical radioactive waste policies, and (3) effects of human values on risk perception. Both the work on synthetic measures of risk perception and on the acceptability of hypothetical policies included investigations of three categories of risk: (1) Short-term public risk (affecting persons living when the wastes are created), (2) Long-term public risk (affecting persons living after the time the wastes were created), and (3) Occupational risk (affecting persons working with the radioactive wastes). The human values work related to public risk perception in general, across categories of persons affected. Respondents were selected according to a purposive sampling strategy.

  2. Consequences of excess iodine

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Angela M.; Braverman, Lewis E.

    2014-01-01

    Iodine is a micronutrient that is essential for the production of thyroid hormones. The primary source of iodine is the diet via consumption of foods that have been fortified with iodine, including salt, dairy products and bread, or that are naturally abundant in the micronutrient, such as seafood. Recommended daily iodine intake is 150 μg in adults who are not pregnant or lactating. Ingestion of iodine or exposure above this threshold is generally well-tolerated. However, in certain susceptible individuals, including those with pre-existing thyroid disease, the elderly, fetuses and neonates, or patients with other risk factors, the risk of developing iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction might be increased. Hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism as a result of supraphysiologic iodine exposure might be either subclinical or overt, and the source of the excess iodine might not be readily apparent. PMID:24342882

  3. [Iodine nutritional status and risk factors for iodine deficiency in infants and children of the french North department].

    PubMed

    Pouessel, G; Bouarfa, K; Soudan, B; Sauvage, J; Gottrand, F; Turck, D

    2003-02-01

    Iodine deficiency is responsible for a higher mortality and morbidity in neonates and infants. It has not yet disappeared in European countries, especially in Southern and Eastern Europe. The present study aimed at evaluating the status of iodine nutrition of infants living in the North department (France) and at studying risk factors for iodine deficiency. The study was conducted in primary health care centres in 160 healthy infants aged ten days to six years (mean +/- SD: 17.7 +/- 2.5 months). Data included: familial thyroid disease history, type of feeding at inclusion, timing of introduction of complementary foods, nutritional status (weight, height, head and arm circumference), as well as maternal education level and family socio-economical status. Iodine status was assessed by urinary iodine excretion. Urinary iodine concentration ranged from 4 to 1042 microg/l (median +/- SD: 195,5 +/- 21,6 microg/l). Thirty-eight (24%) of 160 children were iodine deficient (urinary iodine < 100 microg/l): mild iodine deficiency (50-99 microg/l: 17%), moderate iodine deficiency (20-49 microg/l: 5%), severe iodine deficiency (<20 microg/l: 2%). No relationship was found between iodine status and age, sex, geographic origin of the children, as well as social and occupational group of the parents. Breast-feeding did not prevent from iodine deficiency. Iodine status did not differ between the cow's milk fed group and the group that was not fed cow's milk. Formula feeding was associated with iodine deficiency (p = 0,02). Prevalence of severe iodine deficiency was very low in this population. However, iodine status was not optimal.

  4. Micro-PIXE evaluation of radioactive cesium transfer in contaminated soil samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujishiro, F.; Ishii, K.; Matsuyama, S.; Arai, H.; Ishizaki, A.; Osada, N.; Sugai, H.; Kusano, K.; Nozawa, Y.; Yamauchi, S.; Karahashi, M.; Oshikawa, S.; Kikuchi, K.; Koshio, S.; Watanabe, K.; Suzuki, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Micro-PIXE analysis has been performed on two soil samples with high cesium activity concentrations. These soil samples were contaminated by fallout from the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. One exhibits a radioactive cesium transfer of ˜0.01, and the other shows a radioactive cesium transfer of less than 0.001, even though both samples have high cesium activity concentrations exceeding 10,000 Bq/kg. X-ray spectra and elemental images of the soil samples revealed the presence of chlorine, which can react with cesium to produce an inorganic soluble compound, and phosphorus-containing cesium-capturable organic compounds.

  5. Battelle review cuts iodine release estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Lobsenz, G.

    1994-04-22

    A new study has concluded that radioactive iodine released from the Energy Department's Hanford complex in the 1940s and 1950s was more widely dispersed than previously believed, prompting researchers to lower their estimates of likely radiation doses to those living near the nuclear weapons facility. However, despite the lowered doses, the study found those living closest to Hanford still suffered radiation doses to the thyroid gland more than 1,000 times higher than those resulting from natural radiation in the environment. Researchers said the highest doses probably were received by infants and children who drank milk from cows that grazed in local pastures heavily contaminated by the Hanford releases. Milk from cows was found to be the biggest pathway for contamination by iodine-131, the contaminate estimated to account for 98 percent of the radioactivity released into the air at Hanford during its plutonium production period from 1944-1951.

  6. Iodine Absorption Cells Purity Testing.

    PubMed

    Hrabina, Jan; Zucco, Massimo; Philippe, Charles; Pham, Tuan Minh; Holá, Miroslava; Acef, Ouali; Lazar, Josef; Číp, Ondřej

    2017-01-06

    This article deals with the evaluation of the chemical purity of iodine-filled absorption cells and the optical frequency references used for the frequency locking of laser standards. We summarize the recent trends and progress in absorption cell technology and we focus on methods for iodine cell purity testing. We compare two independent experimental systems based on the laser-induced fluorescence method, showing an improvement of measurement uncertainty by introducing a compensation system reducing unwanted influences. We show the advantages of this technique, which is relatively simple and does not require extensive hardware equipment. As an alternative to the traditionally used methods we propose an approach of hyperfine transitions' spectral linewidth measurement. The key characteristic of this method is demonstrated on a set of testing iodine cells. The relationship between laser-induced fluorescence and transition linewidth methods will be presented as well as a summary of the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed technique (in comparison with traditional measurement approaches).

  7. Iodinated humic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, Jesper V.; Carlsen, Lars

    Humic acids are iodinated by elemental iodine and, if the iodine is present as iodide, by peroxidase-mediated reactions. It is demonstrated that iodination of humic acids leads to a product with a uniform distribution of iodine. It could not be unambiguously verified whether the enzymatically mediated iodination is a direct reaction between a peroxidase-iodine complex and the humic acid molecule or a two-step reaction in which the enzyme creates elemental iodine, which consecutively reacts with the humic acid. Based on a simple model of a reaction between sites in the humic acids available for iodination and the electrophilic iodinating species, it was concluded that the reaction should be described as an equilibrium with a logarithmic equilibrium constant of approximately 4. The number of sites available for iodination was, in the humic acids studied, determined to be approximately 4×10-4 per gram humic acid. The different parameters influencing the enzymatically controlled iodination of humic acids are discussed.

  8. Radioactive Waste Management Basis

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, B K

    2009-06-03

    The purpose of this Radioactive Waste Management Basis is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

  9. Analysis and evaluation of a radioactive waste package retrieved from the Farallon Islands 900-meter disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    Colombo, P.; Kendig, M.W.

    1990-09-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was given a Congressional mandate to develop criteria and regulations governing the ocean disposal of all forms of waste. The EPA taken an active role both nationally and within the international nuclear regulatory community to develop the effective controls necessary to protect the health and safety of man and the marine environment. The EPA Office of Radiation Programs (ORP) first initiated feasibility studies to determine whether current technologies could be applied toward determining the fate of radioactive waste disposed of in the past. After successfully locating actual radioactive waste packages in formerly used disposal sites, in the United States, the Office of Radiation Programs developed an intensive program of site characterization studies to examine biological, chemical and physical characteristics including evaluations of the concentration and distribution of radionuclides within these sites, and has conducted a performance evaluation of past packaging techniques and materials. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has performed container corrosion and matrix analysis studies on the recovered radioactive waste packages. This report presents the final results of laboratory analyses performed. 17 refs., 40 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. Iodine nutritional status in the adult population of Shandong Province (China) prior to salt reduction program.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chunxiao; Guo, Xiaolei; Tang, Junli; Guo, Xiaowei; Lu, Zilong; Zhang, Jiyu; Bi, Zhenqiang

    2016-08-01

    Tremendous differences in iodine status and daily iodine intake persist across provinces of China. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the iodine status and dietary iodine intake of Shandong adults before the implementation of the salt reduction program and a new salt iodization standard. Data from a baseline survey of the Shandong and Ministry of Health Action on Salt Reduction and Hypertension project (2011) were analyzed. The iodine contents of 1949 24-h urine samples and 136 drinking water samples were assayed. Daily urinary iodine excretion and daily iodine intake were calculated, analyzed, stratified by different analytical variables and compared with Chinese Dietary Reference Values. The median urinary iodine concentration and median daily iodine intake of Shandong adults were 248.5 μg/L and 368.2 μg/day, respectively. The median iodine intake of different groups was between the estimated average requirements and the upper limit, except group in water iodine >300 μg/L with median iodine intake of 1200.7 μg/L. Salt intake and iodine levels in drinking water related to iodine intake significantly. Shandong adults had more than adequate iodine nutrition, and the dietary iodine intake of the population was generally appropriate and safe except residents in high water iodine areas. In the context of the implementation of a salt reduction program and a new salt iodization standard, the iodine status of high water iodine areas may remain in the recommended level, but in low water iodine areas, the risk of inadequate iodine intake may increase, needing monitoring of urine iodine excretion, dietary iodine intake and iodized salt consumption regularly.

  11. New method of iodine labelling of peptide hormones

    SciTech Connect

    Escher, E.

    1984-01-01

    Usually peptide hormones and related compounds are radioactively labelled with iodine on tyrosine residues of the peptide. However many peptide hormones do not contain tyrosine or the iodinated tyrosine interferes with the biological properties. In order to circumvent these and other problems, a general method is proposed which allows the introduction of iodine into the para-position of phenylalanine with a modified Sandmeyer procedure. This last-step modification together with HPLC purification permits the obtention of carrier-free and metabolically stable labelled products with maximal specific activity possible. The model has been carried out on several peptide-models like angiotensin II, endorphine and head activator peptide.

  12. INEL historical dose evaluation: Reconstruction of operational airborne releases of radioactivity to the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Wenzel, D.R.; Peterson, H.K.; Dickson, R.L.

    1993-06-01

    Airborne releases of radioactivity from the operation of reactors and processes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) since the early 1950s have been reconstructed. Operational releases discussed are those which are continuous and somewhat uniform over a period of time. The primary source of information on operational releases was the measurement of stack effluents as reported in the Radioactive Waste Management Information System (RWMIS) data base and technical reports. The data in the RWMIS data base is generally complete and reliable for releases that occurred since the early 1970s. Data for the 1960s was found to be less detailed and reflected less sophisticated monitoring instrumentation and record keeping systems. Data for the 1950s in general did not identify the specific mixture of radionuclides released. Operational releases of airborne radioactivity from the INEL, particularly in the early years of operation, have been reconstructed using current computer programs with reactor operating and fuel processing knowledge. Techniques used to reconstruct releases of airborne radioactivity to the environment from INEL operational releases and problems encountered are discussed.

  13. Iodine transport analysis in the ESBWR.

    SciTech Connect

    Kalinich, Donald A.; Gauntt, Randall O.; Young, Michael Francis; Longmire, Pamela

    2009-03-01

    A simplified ESBWR MELCOR model was developed to track the transport of iodine released from damaged reactor fuel in a hypothesized core damage accident. To account for the effects of iodine pool chemistry, radiolysis of air and cable insulation, and surface coatings (i.e., paint) the iodine pool model in MELCOR was activated. Modifications were made to MELCOR to add sodium pentaborate as a buffer in the iodine pool chemistry model. An issue of specific interest was whether iodine vapor removed from the drywell vapor space by the PCCS heat exchangers would be sequestered in water pools or if it would be rereleased as vapor back into the drywell. As iodine vapor is not included in the deposition models for diffusiophoresis or thermophoresis in current version of MELCOR, a parametric study was conducted to evaluate the impact of a range of iodine removal coefficients in the PCCS heat exchangers. The study found that higher removal coefficients resulted in a lower mass of iodine vapor in the drywell vapor space.

  14. Evaluation of Postoperative Povidone-Iodine in Adjustable Suture Strabismus Surgery to Reduce Suture Colonization: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Rossetto, Julia D; Suwannaraj, Sirinya; Cavuoto, Kara M; Spierer, Oriel; Miller, Darlene; McKeown, Craig A; Capo, Hilda

    2016-10-01

    Although the association between suture colonization and postoperative infections remains hypothetical, measures to reduce perioperative suture colonization may minimize postoperative infections. The suture colonization rate in adjustable suture strabismus surgery is not well defined, and the effect of povidone-iodine use on suture colonization is unknown. To assess whether povidone-iodine application at the end of adjustable suture strabismus surgery decreases the suture colonization rate. In this randomized clinical trial designed in 2015 and performed from June 1 through October 31, 2015, a total of 65 adjustable and 43 control suture specimens from 65 demographically similar adults undergoing adjustable suture strabismus surgery were studied. A random sampling assigned participants into group 1 (with povidone-iodine) or group 2 (without povidone-iodine) at the end of surgery. A control suture specimen was obtained if ipsilateral nonadjustable surgery was performed. Both groups received antibiotic ointment at the end of the procedure. No patients refused participation or withdrew. Data analysis was performed from October 1 to December 31, 2015. Observers were unaware of patient grouping. One drop of 5% povidone-iodine directly over the sliding noose of the adjustable suture at the end of surgery. The suture colonization rate after adjustment in group 1, group 2, and the control group. Of 65 adults undergoing surgery, there were 17 men (49%) and 18 women (51%) in group 1 and 10 men (33%) and 20 women (67%) in group 2, as well as 20 men (47%) and 23 women (53%) in the control group. The mean (SD) age of the patients was 48.5 (16.8) years in group 1, 46.6 (18.1) years in group 2, and 47.7 (17.0) years in the control group. There was no difference in the colonization rate between group 1 (57%) and group 2 (47%) (relative risk [RR], 1.1; 95% CI, 0.6-1.7; P = .80), group 1 and the control group (44%) (RR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.5-1.8; P > .99), or group 2 and

  15. Evaluating factors affecting the permeability of emulsions used to stabilize radioactive contamination from a radiological dispersal device.

    PubMed

    Fox, Garey A; Medina, Victor F

    2005-05-15

    Present strategies for alleviating radioactive contamination from a radiological dispersal device (RDD) or dirty bomb involve either demolishing and removing radioactive surfaces or abandoning portions of the area near the release point. In both cases, it is imperative to eliminate or reduce migration of the radioisotopes until the cleanup is complete or until the radiation has decayed back to acceptable levels. This research investigated an alternative strategy of using emulsions to stabilize radioactive particulate contamination. Emergency response personnel would coat surfaces with emulsions consisting of asphalt or tall oil pitch to prevent migration of contamination. The site can then be evaluated and cleaned up as needed. In order for this approach to be effective, the treatment must eliminate migration of the radioactive agents in the terror device. Water application is an environmental condition that could promote migration into the external environment. This research investigated the potential for water, and correspondingly contaminant, migration through two emulsions consisting of Topein, a resinous byproduct during paper manufacture. Topein C is an asphaltic-based emulsion and Topein S is a tall oil pitch, nonionic emulsion. Experiments included water adsorption/ mobilization studies, filtration tests, and image analysis of photomicrographs from an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) and a stereomicroscope. Both emulsions were effective at reducing water migration. Conductivity estimates were on the order of 10(-80) cm s(-1) for Topein C and 10(-7) cm s(-1) for Topein S. Water mobility depended on emulsion flocculation and coalescence time. Photomicrographs indicate that Topein S consisted of greater and more interconnected porosity. Dilute foams of isolated spherical gas cells formed when emulsions were applied to basic surfaces. Gas cells rose to the surface and ruptured, leaving void spaces that penetrated throughout the emulsion. These

  16. Whole-Body Counter Evaluation of Internal Radioactive Cesium in Dogs and Cats Exposed to the Fukushima Nuclear Disaster

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Seiichi; Ito, Nobuhiko; Watanabe, Masamichi; Kakizaki, Takehiko; Natsuhori, Masahiro; Kawamata, Jun; Urayama, Yoshio

    2017-01-01

    As a result of the 2011 nuclear incident that occurred at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant, a large number of abandoned dogs and cats were left within the disaster zone. A small number of these animals were rescued and cared for at shelters. Prior to the dispersal of these animals to their owners or fosterers, we evaluated the degree of internal radiocesium contamination using a specially designed whole-body counter. We conducted 863 non-invasive measurements of gamma rays due to internal radioactive cesium for 68 dogs and 120 cats at one shelter. After plotting graphs of 137Cs density we generated exponential functions of decay from seven dogs and six cats. From the regression formulae, we were able to determine the biological half-lives as 38.2 days for dogs and 30.8 days for cats. We found that in dogs there was a correlation between the biological half-life of radioactive cesium and age. Using our data, we estimated whole-body densities for each cat and dog at the time when they were rescued. We found that there were deviations in the data distributions among the different species, likely due to the timing of rescue, or living habits prior to rescue. A significant correlation was found when extracted feline reproductive organs were analyzed; the coefficients for the estimation of whole-body densities were approximately 7-fold higher than those based on the extracted feline reproductive organs. This may be due to the fact that majority of the radioactive cesium accumulates within muscular tissue with less distribution in other organs. It is possible to plan the appropriate management period in an animal shelter based on the use of the biological half-life of radioactive cesium calculated in this study. We believe that the correlations we uncovered in this work would be of great use for the management of companion animals in the event of a future nuclear accident. PMID:28099476

  17. Whole-Body Counter Evaluation of Internal Radioactive Cesium in Dogs and Cats Exposed to the Fukushima Nuclear Disaster.

    PubMed

    Wada, Seiichi; Ito, Nobuhiko; Watanabe, Masamichi; Kakizaki, Takehiko; Natsuhori, Masahiro; Kawamata, Jun; Urayama, Yoshio

    2017-01-01

    As a result of the 2011 nuclear incident that occurred at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant, a large number of abandoned dogs and cats were left within the disaster zone. A small number of these animals were rescued and cared for at shelters. Prior to the dispersal of these animals to their owners or fosterers, we evaluated the degree of internal radiocesium contamination using a specially designed whole-body counter. We conducted 863 non-invasive measurements of gamma rays due to internal radioactive cesium for 68 dogs and 120 cats at one shelter. After plotting graphs of 137Cs density we generated exponential functions of decay from seven dogs and six cats. From the regression formulae, we were able to determine the biological half-lives as 38.2 days for dogs and 30.8 days for cats. We found that in dogs there was a correlation between the biological half-life of radioactive cesium and age. Using our data, we estimated whole-body densities for each cat and dog at the time when they were rescued. We found that there were deviations in the data distributions among the different species, likely due to the timing of rescue, or living habits prior to rescue. A significant correlation was found when extracted feline reproductive organs were analyzed; the coefficients for the estimation of whole-body densities were approximately 7-fold higher than those based on the extracted feline reproductive organs. This may be due to the fact that majority of the radioactive cesium accumulates within muscular tissue with less distribution in other organs. It is possible to plan the appropriate management period in an animal shelter based on the use of the biological half-life of radioactive cesium calculated in this study. We believe that the correlations we uncovered in this work would be of great use for the management of companion animals in the event of a future nuclear accident.

  18. Evaluation and analysis of the residual radioactivity for the 15UD Pelletron accelerator facility

    SciTech Connect

    Sonkawade, R. G.

    2007-07-01

    For the assessment of radiological impact of the accelerators, it will be better to have the documented information on activation of metal parts of the accelerator components. It is very much essential to get reliable data on these subjects. During acceleration of light ion, the residual radioactivity in the accelerator facility was found near the Analyzing Magnet, single slit, Beam Profile Monitors (BPM), Faraday Cups (FC), bellows, beginning of switching magnet bellows, at the target and the ladder. Study with HPGE detector gives an insight of the formation of the short or long lived radionuclides. The different targets used in the light ion experiment were also monitored and proper decommissioning and decontamination steps were followed. This paper presents the data of residual radioactivity in the 15UD Pelletron accelerator infrastructure. (author)

  19. Use of a size-resolved 1-D resuspension scheme to evaluate resuspended radioactive material associated with mineral dust particles from the ground surface.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Masahide; Mikami, Masao; Tanaka, Taichu Y; Igarashi, Yasuhito; Kita, Kazuyuki; Yamada, Yutaka; Yoshida, Naohiro; Toyoda, Sakae; Satou, Yukihiko; Kinase, Takeshi; Ninomiya, Kazuhiko; Shinohara, Atsushi

    2017-01-01

    A size-resolved, one-dimensional resuspension scheme for soil particles from the ground surface is proposed to evaluate the concentration of radioactivity in the atmosphere due to the secondary emission of radioactive material. The particle size distributions of radioactive particles at a sampling point were measured and compared with the results evaluated by the scheme using four different soil textures: sand, loamy sand, sandy loam, and silty loam. For sandy loam and silty loam, the results were in good agreement with the size-resolved atmospheric radioactivity concentrations observed at a school ground in Tsushima District, Namie Town, Fukushima, which was heavily contaminated after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011. Though various assumptions were incorporated into both the scheme and evaluation conditions, this study shows that the proposed scheme can be applied to evaluate secondary emissions caused by aeolian resuspension of radioactive materials associated with mineral dust particles from the ground surface. The results underscore the importance of taking soil texture into account when evaluating the concentrations of resuspended, size-resolved atmospheric radioactivity.

  20. Synthesis and evaluation of radioactive and fluorescent residualizing labels for identifying sites of plasma protein catabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, J.L.; Baynes, J.W.; Thorpe, S.R.

    1986-05-01

    Inulin and lactose were each coupled to tyramine by reductive amination with NaBH/sub 3/CN and the tyramine then labeled with /sup 125/I. Dilactitol-/sup 125/I-tyramine (DLT) and inulin-/sup 125/I-tyramine (InTn) were coupled by reductive amination and cyanuric chloride, respectively, to asialofetuin (ASF), fetuin and rat serum albumin (RSA). Attachment of either label had no effect on the circulating half-lives of the proteins. Radioactivity from labeled ASF was recovered in rat liver (> 90%) by 1 h post-injection and remained in liver with half-lives of 2 and 6 days, respectively, for the DLT and InTn labels. Whole body recoveries of radioactivity from DLT- and InTn labels. Whole body recoveries of radioactivity from DLT- and InTn-labeled RSA were 5 and 6.5 days, respectively, again indicating that the larger glycoconjugate label residualized more efficiently in cells following protein degradation. (Lactitol)/sub 2/-N-CH/sub 2/-CH/sub 2/-NH-fluroescein (DLF) was also coupled to ASF by reductive amination and recovered quantitatively in liver at 1 h post-injection. Native ASF was an effective competitor for clearance of DLF-ASF from the circulation. Fluorescent degradation products were retained in liver with a half-life of 1.2 days. Residualizing fluorescent labels should be useful for identification and sorting of cells active in the degradation of plasma proteins.

  1. Effect of Dietary Intake of Stable Iodine on Dose-per-unit-intake Factors for 99Tc

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, Daniel J.

    2003-09-30

    It is well-known that the human thyroid concentrates iodine more than 100 times the concentration in plasma. Also well-known is the fact that large amounts of stable iodine in the diet can limit thyroid uptake of total iodine; this is the basis for administering potassium iodide following a release of radioiodine from a nuclear reactor accident or nuclear weapon detonation. Many researchers have shown enhanced concentrations of both organic and inorganic iodine in saliva and breast milk. Technetium-99 is a long-lived (231,000 year half-life) radionuclide of concern in the management of high-level radioactive waste. There is no doubt that 99Tc, if it is in groundwater, will be found in the chemical form of pertechnetate, 99TcO4?. Pertechnetate is a large anion, almost identical in size to iodide, I?. The nuclear medicine literature shows that pertechnetate concentrates in the thyroid, salivary glands, and lactating breast in addition to the stomach, liver, and alimentary tract as currently recognized by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The fact that large intakes of stable iodine (127I) in the diet limit uptake of iodine by the thyroid leads one to generalize that stable iodine in the diet may also limit thyroid uptake of pertechnetate. While there is at least one report that iodine in the diet blocks uptake of 99mTcO4? by the thyroid and salivary glands (which have the same Na/I symporter, the biochemical concentration mechanism), the level of protective effect seen for blocking radioactive iodine is not expected for 99TcO4? because pertechnetate does not become organically bound in the thyroid and thus is not retained for months the way iodide is. While it does account for Tc concentration in the thyroid, the existing ICRP biokinetic model for technetium does not take enhanced concentrations in salivary gland and breast tissue into account. From the survey of the nuclear medicine literature, it is not possible to compute the effect

  2. Thermodynamic properties of organic iodine compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Laurent; Gaona, Xavier

    2011-11-01

    A critical evaluation has been made of the thermodynamic properties reported in the literature for 43 organic iodine compounds in the solid, liquid, or ideal gas state. These compounds include aliphatic, cyclic and aromatic iodides, iodophenols, iodocarboxylic acids, and acetyl and benzoyl iodides. The evaluation has been made on the basis of carbon number systematics and group additivity relations, which also allowed to provide estimates of the thermodynamic properties of those compounds for which no experimental data were available. Standard molal thermodynamic properties at 25 °C and 1 bar and heat capacity coefficients are reported for 13 crystalline, 29 liquid, and 39 ideal gas organic iodine compounds, which can be used to calculate the corresponding properties as a function of temperature and pressure. Values derived for the standard molal Gibbs energy of formation at 25 °C and 1 bar of these crystalline, liquid, and ideal gas organic iodine compounds have subsequently been combined with either solubility measurements or gas/water partition coefficients to obtain values for the standard partial molal Gibbs energies of formation at 25 °C and 1 bar of 32 aqueous organic iodine compounds. The thermodynamic properties of organic iodine compounds calculated in the present study can be used together with those for aqueous inorganic iodine species to predict the organic/inorganic speciation of iodine in marine sediments and petroleum systems, or in the near- and far-field of nuclear waste repositories.

  3. Evaluation of vegetables in Tsukuba for contamination with radioactive materials from the accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Tomonori; Mori, Yutaro; Takada, Kenta; Sato, Eisuke; Takahashi, Hideki; Sekiguchi, Takao; Yoshimura, Yousuke; Sakurai, Hideyuki; Sakae, Takeji

    2013-10-01

    A large amount of radioactive material was released into the atmosphere after the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant following the Tohoku earthquake on 11 March 2011, and traces of these materials were detected in Tsukuba. Because radioactive materials can adhere to vegetables, the authors made a qualitative evaluation of vegetables in Tsukuba, estimated internal exposure dose based on quantitative measurement results, and investigated several decontamination methods. Qualitative analysis of vegetable contamination was done by autoradiography. Quantitative analysis was done using a high-purity germanium detector. To assess decontamination, two methods were tested: one with running water and the other with boiling water. In addition, boiled soup stock was measured. In the qualitative evaluation by autoradiography, radioactive materials were not uniformly distributed but adhered to vegetables in clumps and hot spots. In the quantitative evaluation to measure contamination of outer and inner leaves of sanchu lettuce, it was observed that the concentration of I was 8,031.35 ± 764.79 Bq kg in the outer leaves and 115.28 ± 20.63 Bq kg in the inner leaves. In addition, the concentration of Cs was 1,371.93 ± 366.45 Bq kg in the outer leaves and 9.68 ± 15.03 Bq kg in the inner leaves. This suggests that one can greatly reduce internal exposure dose by removing the outer leaves if one has to eat vegetables just after a nuclear accident. In the decontamination assessment, a decontamination efficiency of up to 70% was achieved by boiling vegetables for 20 min.

  4. Iodine Incorporation in Calcite: Insights from Computational and Experimental Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, X.; Redfern, S. A. T.

    2016-12-01

    The incorporation of iodine into calcite is important both in the context of radioactive waste disposal (carbonates seem to be the principal host for iodine at the Hnaford site) as well as in paleoproxy methods applied in paleo-oceanography, where iodine content has been proposed as a proxy for fO2. Here, we report on studies of iodine incorporation into calcite carried out by a combination of earlier X-Ray absorption spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-Ray diffraction and new ab initio DFT calculations (using VASP). Our results show that iodine is principally incorporated into the calcite lattice as IO3, replacing carbon in the carbonate group. The much larger size of iodine, and different outer shell electronic configuration, leads to a distortion of the calcite structure locally. Our DFT results show that the adjacent layers of CO3 groups are significantly distorted, over a length scale of around 0.5 nm, and that this distortion leads to a slight increase in enthalpy associated with the iodine point defect. The relationship to the distorted structure of calcite II is considered, and the role of iodine as an agent of "internal pressure" will be discussed.

  5. Tomato fruits: a good target for iodine biofortification

    PubMed Central

    Kiferle, Claudia; Gonzali, Silvia; Holwerda, Harmen T.; Ibaceta, Rodrigo Real; Perata, Pierdomenico

    2013-01-01

    Iodine is a trace element that is fundamental for human health: its deficiency affects about two billion people worldwide. Fruits and vegetables are usually poor sources of iodine; however, plants can accumulate iodine if it is either present or exogenously administered to the soil. The biofortification of crops with iodine has therefore been proposed as a strategy for improving human nutrition. A greenhouse pot experiment was carried out to evaluate the possibility of biofortifying tomato fruits with iodine. Increasing concentrations of iodine supplied as KI or KIO3 were administered to plants as root treatments and the iodine accumulation in fruits was measured. The influences of the soil organic matter content or the nitrate level in the nutritive solution were analyzed. Finally, yield and qualitative properties of the biofortified tomatoes were considered, as well as the possible influence of fruit storage and processing on the iodine content. Results showed that the use of both the iodized salts induced a significant increase in the fruit’s iodine content in doses that did not affect plant growth and development. The final levels ranged from a few mg up to 10 mg iodine kg - 1 fruit fresh weight and are more than adequate for a biofortification program, since 150 μg iodine per day is the recommended dietary allowance for adults. In general, the iodine treatments scarcely affected fruit appearance and quality, even with the highest concentrations applied. In contrast, the use of KI in plants fertilized with low doses of nitrate induced moderate phytotoxicity symptoms. Organic matter-rich soils improved the plant’s health and production, with only mild reductions in iodine stored in the fruits. Finally, a short period of storage at room temperature or a 30-min boiling treatment did not reduce the iodine content in the fruits, if the peel was maintained. All these results suggest that tomato is a particularly suitable crop for iodine biofortification programs

  6. Evaluate the radioactivity along the central thimble hole of a decommissioned heavy water research reactor using TLD approach.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lun-Hui; Sher, Hai-Feng; Lu, I-Hsin; Pan, Lung-Kwang

    2012-04-01

    The radioactivity along the central thimble hole of a decommissioned heavy water research reactor, TRR, was evaluated using TLD approach. The decay radionuclide was verified to be Co-60. The dose along the TRR central thimble hole was detected and revised by performing an unfolding analysis. The revised data reduced to 70-90% of the original data (for example, the maximum dose rate was reduced from 6447 to 4831 mSv/h,) and were more reliable. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of the radon interference on the performance of the portable monitoring air pump for radioactive aerosols (MARE).

    PubMed

    Glavič-Cindro, Denis; Brodnik, Drago; Cardellini, Francesco; De Felice, Pierino; Ponikvar, Dušan; Vencelj, Matjaž; Petrovič, Toni

    2017-07-27

    A compact portable aerosol sampling and measurement device was developed at Jožef Stefan Institute (JSI). A CeBr3 scintillation detector is positioned centrally within a concertinaed filter assembly. It provides continuous and via network communications on-line monitoring of low levels of airborne radioactive particulates. The evaluation of the response of the device to the natural background at controlled conditions with elevated radon concentrations, performed at the National Institute of Ionizing Radiation Metrology of ENEA, is presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Iodine Sorbent Performance in FY 2012 Deep Bed Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Soelberg; Tony Watson

    2012-08-01

    Nuclear fission results in the production of fission products and activation products, some of which tend to be volatile during used fuel reprocessing and evolve in gaseous species into the reprocessing facility off-gas systems. Analyses have shown that I-129, due to its radioactivity, high potential mobility in the environment, and high longevity (half life of 15.7 million years), can require control efficiencies of up to 1,000x or higher to meet regulatory emission limits. Iodine capture is an important aspect of the Separations and Waste Forms Campaign Off-gas Sigma Team (Jubin 2011, Pantano 2011). Deep-bed iodine sorption tests for both silver-functionalized Aerogel and silver zeolite sorbents were performed during Fiscal Year 2012. These tests showed that: • Decontamination factors were achieved that exceed reasonably conservative estimates for DFs needed for used fuel reprocessing facilities in the U.S. to meet regulatory requirements for I-129 capture. • Silver utilizations approached or exceeded 100% for high inlet gas iodine concentrations, but test durations were not long enough to approach 100% silver utilization for lower iodine concentrations. • The depth of the mass transfer zone was determined for both low iodine concentrations (under 10 ppmv) and for higher iodine concentrations (between 10-50 ppmv); the depth increases over time as iodine is sorbed. • These sorbents capture iodine by chemisorption, where the sorbed iodine reacts with the silver to form very non-volatile AgI. Any sorbed iodine that is physisorbed but not chemically reacted with silver to form AgI might not be tightly held by the sorbent. The portion of sorbed iodine that tends to desorb because it is not chemisorbed (reacted to form AgI) is small, under 1%, for the AgZ tests, and even smaller, under 0.01%, for the silver-functionalized Aerogel.

  9. The Iodine Content in Urine, Faeces and Selected Organs of Rats Fed Lettuce Biofortified with Iodine Through Foliar Application.

    PubMed

    Rakoczy, Roksana; Kopeć, Aneta; Piątkowska, Ewa; Smoleń, Sylwester; Skoczylas, Łukasz; Leszczyńska, Teresa; Sady, Włodzimierz

    2016-12-01

    Iodine is an essential trace element for humans. Foliar application of micronutrients is successfully used in order to increase the concentration of essential elements in vegetables. The aim of this study was to evaluate the iodine absorption in the rat organism fed foliar biofortified lettuce. The presented study was consisted of the vegetative and animal experiment. In the vegetative experiment with lettuce, two combinations of foliar application were used: (1) control-without iodine application and (2) iodine application in the potassium iodide (KI) form. In the animal experiment, Wistar rats were divided to four groups, which received one of four diets: (1) C-control diet containing iodine in the KI form, (2) D-diet deficient in iodine, (3) D + BL-diet containing biofortified lettuce, and (4) D + CL-diet containing control lettuce (as the only source of iodine in diet, respectively). The diets contained 0.260, 0.060, 0.254 and 0.075 mg I/kg, respectively. In order to determine the iodine absorption in the rat organisms, the content of this trace element was measured in urine, faeces and in selected organs with the use of the ICP-OES technique. Foliar application of the KI increased the content of iodine in lettuce. The rats from the D + BL group excreted significantly less iodine in their urine and faeces and also accumulated more iodine in the organs than the rats from the C group. Iodine with biofortified lettuce was much bioavailable for rodents than iodine from control diet. Biofortified lettuce can be a source of iodine in a diet of human and can improve iodine nutrition.

  10. Computation of iodine species concentrations in water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, John R.; Mudgett, Paul D.; Flanagan, David T.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1994-01-01

    During an evaluation of the use of iodine as a water disinfectant and the development of methods for measuring various iodine species in water onboard Space Freedom, it became necessary to compute the concentration of the various species based on equilibrium principles alone. Of particular concern was the case when various amounts of iodine, iodide, strong acid, and strong base are added to water. Such solutions can be used to evaluate the performance of various monitoring methods being considered. The authors of this paper present an overview of aqueous iodine chemistry, a set of nonlinear equations which can be used to model the above case, and a computer program for solving this system of equations using the Newton-Raphson method. The program was validated by comparing results over a range of concentrations and pH values with those previously presented by Gottardi for a given pH. Use of this program indicated that there are multiple roots to many cases and selecting an appropriate initial guess is important. Comparison of program results with laboratory results for the case when only iodine is added to water indicates the program gives high pH values for the iodine concentrations normally used for water disinfection. Extending the model to include the effects of iodate formation results in the computer pH values being closer to those observed, but the model with iodate does not agree well for the case in which base is added in addition to iodine to raise the pH. Potential explanations include failure to obtain equilibrium conditions in the lab, inaccuracies in published values for the equilibrium constants, and inadequate model of iodine chemistry and/or the lack of adequate analytical methods for measuring the various iodine species in water.

  11. Computation of iodine species concentrations in water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, John R.; Mudgett, Paul D.; Flanagan, David T.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1994-01-01

    During an evaluation of the use of iodine as a water disinfectant and the development of methods for measuring various iodine species in water onboard Space Freedom, it became necessary to compute the concentration of the various species based on equilibrium principles alone. Of particular concern was the case when various amounts of iodine, iodide, strong acid, and strong base are added to water. Such solutions can be used to evaluate the performance of various monitoring methods being considered. The authors of this paper present an overview of aqueous iodine chemistry, a set of nonlinear equations which can be used to model the above case, and a computer program for solving this system of equations using the Newton-Raphson method. The program was validated by comparing results over a range of concentrations and pH values with those previously presented by Gottardi for a given pH. Use of this program indicated that there are multiple roots to many cases and selecting an appropriate initial guess is important. Comparison of program results with laboratory results for the case when only iodine is added to water indicates the program gives high pH values for the iodine concentrations normally used for water disinfection. Extending the model to include the effects of iodate formation results in the computer pH values being closer to those observed, but the model with iodate does not agree well for the case in which base is added in addition to iodine to raise the pH. Potential explanations include failure to obtain equilibrium conditions in the lab, inaccuracies in published values for the equilibrium constants, and inadequate model of iodine chemistry and/or the lack of adequate analytical methods for measuring the various iodine species in water.

  12. Evaluating Awareness and Practices Pertaining to Radioactive Waste Management among Scrap Dealers in Delhi, India

    PubMed Central

    Makkar, Nayani; Chandra, Tany; Agrawal, Prachi; Bansal, Harshit; Singh, Simranjeet; Anand, Tanu; Gupta, Mannan Kumar; Kumar, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Objectives With nuclear technology rapidly taking the spotlight in the last 50 years, radiation accidents seem to be a harsh reality of the modern world. The Mayapuri Radiation accident of 2010 was the worst radiation accident India has yet dealt with. Two years thereafter, we designed a study to assess the awareness and practices regarding radioactive waste among scrap dealers aiming to assess deficiencies in radiation disaster preparedness. Methodology A community based cross-sectional study. The study population consisted of 209 volunteers (from 108 scrap dealerships) including 108 shop-owners and 101 workers segregated as Group A consisting of 54 dealerships in Mayapuri and Group B of 54 dealerships from the rest of the city. Subjects were then interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Results Awareness about radioactive waste varied significantly with level of education (p = 0.024), Kuppuswamy's socio-economic scale (p = 0.005), age of the scrap dealer (p = 0.049) and his work experience (p = 0.045). The larger dealerships in Mayapuri were more aware about radioactive waste (p = 0.0004), the accident in 2010 (p = 0.0002), the symbol for radiation hazard (p = 0.016), as well as the emergency guidelines and the agencies to contact in the event of a radiation accident. Conclusions Our findings seem to signify that while governmental and non-governmental agencies were successful in implementing prompt disaster response and awareness programs, the community continues to be inadequately prepared. These go on to suggest that though concerted awareness and training programs do benefit the affected community, economic and social development is the key to disaster prevention and mitigation. PMID:24622341

  13. Evaluating awareness and practices pertaining to radioactive waste management among scrap dealers in Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Makkar, Nayani; Chandra, Tany; Agrawal, Prachi; Bansal, Harshit; Singh, Simranjeet; Anand, Tanu; Gupta, Mannan Kumar; Kumar, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    With nuclear technology rapidly taking the spotlight in the last 50 years, radiation accidents seem to be a harsh reality of the modern world. The Mayapuri Radiation accident of 2010 was the worst radiation accident India has yet dealt with. Two years thereafter, we designed a study to assess the awareness and practices regarding radioactive waste among scrap dealers aiming to assess deficiencies in radiation disaster preparedness. A community based cross-sectional study. The study population consisted of 209 volunteers (from 108 scrap dealerships) including 108 shop-owners and 101 workers segregated as Group A consisting of 54 dealerships in Mayapuri and Group B of 54 dealerships from the rest of the city. Subjects were then interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Awareness about radioactive waste varied significantly with level of education (p = 0.024), Kuppuswamy's socio-economic scale (p = 0.005), age of the scrap dealer (p = 0.049) and his work experience (p = 0.045). The larger dealerships in Mayapuri were more aware about radioactive waste (p = 0.0004), the accident in 2010 (p = 0.0002), the symbol for radiation hazard (p = 0.016), as well as the emergency guidelines and the agencies to contact in the event of a radiation accident. Our findings seem to signify that while governmental and non-governmental agencies were successful in implementing prompt disaster response and awareness programs, the community continues to be inadequately prepared. These go on to suggest that though concerted awareness and training programs do benefit the affected community, economic and social development is the key to disaster prevention and mitigation.

  14. Evaluation of occupational exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials in the Iranian ceramics industry.

    PubMed

    Fathabadi, N; Farahani, M V; Amani, S; Moradi, M; Haddadi, B

    2011-06-01

    Zircon contains small amounts of uranium, thorium and radium in its crystalline structure. The ceramic industry is one of the major consumers of zirconium compounds that are used as an ingredient at ∼10-20 % by weight in glaze. In this study, seven different ceramic factories have been investigated regarding the presence of radioactive elements with focus on natural radioactivity. The overall objective of this investigation is to provide information regarding the radiation exposure to workers in the ceramic industry due to naturally occurring radioactive materials. This objective is met by collecting existing radiological data specific to glaze production and generating new data from sampling activities. The sampling effort involves the whole process of glaze production. External exposures are monitored using a portable gamma-ray spectrometer and environmental thermoluminescence dosimeters, by placing them for 6 months in some workplaces. Internal routes of exposure (mainly inhalation) are studied using air sampling, and gross alpha and beta counting. Measurement of radon gas and its progeny is performed by continuous radon gas monitors that use pulse ionisation chambers. Natural radioactivity due to the presence of ²³⁸U, ²³²Th and ⁴⁰K in zirconium compounds, glazes and other samples is measured by a gamma-ray spectrometry system with a high-purity germanium detector. The average concentrations of ²³⁸U and ²³²Th observed in the zirconium compounds are >3300 and >550 Bq kg⁻¹, respectively. The specific activities of other samples are much lower than in zirconium compounds. The annual effective dose from external radiation had a mean value of ∼0.13 mSv y⁻¹. Dust sampling revealed the greatest values in the process at the powdering site and hand weighing places. In these plants, the annual average effective dose from inhalation of long-lived airborne radionuclides was 0.226 mSv. ²²²Rn gas concentrations in the glaze production plant and

  15. Evaluation of the electrorefining technique for the processing of radioactive scrap metals

    SciTech Connect

    Kessinger, G.F.

    1993-10-01

    This report presents the results of a literature study performed to identify applications of the electrorefining technique to the decontamination of radioactively-contaminated scrap metal (RSM). Upon the completion of the literature search and the review of numerous references, it was concluded that there were applications of this technique that were appropriate for the decontamination of some types of RSM, especially when the desired product is a pure elemental metal of high purity. It was also concluded that this technique was not well-suited for the decontamination of RSM stainless steels and other alloys, when it was desired that the metallurgical characteristics of the alloy be present in the decontaminated product.

  16. A review on the metabolic disorders of iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Mansourian, Azad Reza

    2011-04-01

    Iodine is in the crucial parts of two hormones of T4 and T3 produced by the thyroid glands which are essential for all the aspects of human metabolisms. It is demonstrated that iodine deficiency can be considered as sole cause of many thyroid abnormalities including mental disorders. Iodine deficiency of sufficient degree to cause hypothyroidism during fetus life and early infancy will be accompanied with brain abnormality possibly to the stage of mental retardation. The iodine deficiency among subjects in their early stage of childhood is not as severe as those in their fetus or infancy. In adult subjects the sever iodine deficiency can be also associated with mental disorders due to the direct side effects of hypothyroidism occurred by lack of iodine. The clinical manifestation of iodine deficiency show itself with psychological disorders in adult subjects. The status of iodine within blood can be evaluated through measurement of urinary iodine level and the low urinary concentration is an indicative of hypothyroidism. Mental retardation and brain damage due to iodine deficiency can be prevented if iodine supplementation prescribed duly on time.

  17. Evaluation of low-level radioactive waste characterization and classification programs of the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Taie, Karren R.

    1994-01-01

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) is preparing to upgrade their low-level radioactive waste (LLW) characterization and classification program. This thesis describes a survey study of three other DOE sites conducted in support of this effort. The LLW characterization/classification programs of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory were critically evaluated. The evaluation was accomplished through tours of each site facility and personnel interviews. Comparative evaluation of the individual characterization/classification programs suggests the WVDP should purchase a real-time radiography unit and a passive/active neutron detection system, make additional mechanical modifications to the segmented gamma spectroscopy assay system, provide a separate building to house characterization equipment and perform assays away from waste storage, develop and document a new LLW characterization/classification methodology, and make use of the supercompactor owned by WVDP.

  18. Application of Silver Impregnated Iodine Adsorbent to Nuclear Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukasawa, Tetsuo; Nakamura, Tomotaka; Kondo, Yoshikazu; Funabashi, Kiyomi

    Radioactive iodine is one of the most important nuclides to be prevented for release from nuclear facilities and many facilities have off-gas treatment systems to minimize the volatile nuclides dispersion to the environment. Silver impregnated inorganic adsorbents were known as inflammable and stable fixing materials for iodine and the authors started to develop 25 years ago a kind of inorganic adsorbent that has better capability compared with conventional ones. Aluminum oxide (Alumina) was selected as a carrier material and silver nitrate as an impregnated one. Pore diameters were optimized to avoid the influence of impurities such as humidity in the off-gas stream at lower temperatures. Experiments and improvements were alternately conducted for the new adsorbent. The tests were carried out in various conditions to confirm the performance of the developed adsorbent, which clarified its good ability to remove iodine. Silver nitrate impregnated alumina adsorbent (AgA) has about twice the capacity for iodine adsorption and higher iodine removal efficiency at relatively high humidity than conventional ones. The AgA chemically and stably fixes radioactive iodine and fits the storage and disposal of used adsorbent. AgA is now and will be applied to nuclear power plants, reprocessing plants, and research facilities.

  19. Iodine deficiency in children.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Elizabeth N

    2014-01-01

    Iodine is an essential trace mineral, required for the production of thyroid hormone. Iodine deficiency may result in goiter, hypothyroidism, miscarriage, stillbirth, congenital anomalies, infant and neonatal mortality, and impaired growth. Adequate thyroid hormone is critically important for normal growth and neurodevelopment in fetal life, infancy and childhood. The population iodine status is most commonly assessed using median urinary iodine concentration values, but goiter prevalence (determined by palpation or by ultrasound), serum thyroglobulin levels, and neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone values can also be used. Universal salt iodization programs have been the mainstay of public health efforts to eliminate iodine deficiency worldwide. However, in some regions targeted fortification of foods such as bread has been used to combat iodine deficiency. Iodine supplementation may be required in areas where dietary fortification is not feasible or where it is not sufficient for vulnerable groups such as pregnant women. Although international public health efforts over the past several decades have been highly effective, nearly one third of children worldwide remain at risk for iodine deficiency, and iodine deficiency is considered the leading preventable cause of preventable intellectual deficits.

  20. Evaluation of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in the South Western oil wells of Iran.

    PubMed

    Khodashenas, Alireza; Roayaei, Emad; Abtahi, Seyed Mojtaba; Ardalani, Elham

    2012-07-01

    An investigation was carried out to find out the concentration of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs) in an oil production unit, an evaporation pond, and a drilling site in the Khuzestan province, in south west Iran the 4th largest oil producing country in the world. The nuclides (232)Th and (40)K were determined in soil samples and (226)Ra was analyzed in both soil and water. The (232)Th ranged between 8.7 and 403 Bq kg(-1), while the minimum concentration for (40)K was much larger, i.e. 82 Bq kg(-1) and its maximum concentration was 815 Bq kg(-1). Soil samples indicated very low concentrations of (226)Ra, typically between 10.6 and 42.1 Bq kg(-1) with some exceptions of 282, 602, and even 1480 Bq kg(-1). Also, the range for (226)Ra in water was less from 0.1 to a maximum 30.3 Bq L(-1). Results show that on average, NORM concentrations in these areas are lower in comparison with the usual concentration levels in typical oil and gas fields, but despite this fact, necessary measures have to be taken in order to minimize the environmental impact of radioactive materials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Novel use of geochemical models in evaluating treatment trains for aqueous radioactive waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Abitz, R.J.

    1996-12-31

    Thermodynamic geochemical models have been applied to assess the relative effectiveness of a variety of reagents added to aqueous waste streams for the removal of radioactive elements. Two aqueous waste streams were examined: effluent derived from the processing of uranium ore and irradiated uranium fuel rods. Simulations of the treatment train were performed to estimate the mass of reagents needed per kilogram of solution, identify pH regions corresponding to solubility minimums, and predict the identity and quantity of precipitated solids. Results generated by the simulations include figures that chart the chemical evolution of the waste stream as reagents are added and summary tables that list mass balances for all reagents and radioactive elements of concern. Model results were used to set initial reagent levels for the treatment trains, minimizing the number of bench-scale tests required to bring the treatment train up to full-scale operation. Additionally, presentation of modeling results at public meetings helps to establish good faith between the federal government, industry, concerned citizens, and media groups. 18 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Greater-Than-Class C low-level radioactive waste treatment technology evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, T W; Fischer, D K

    1993-01-01

    This report was developed to provide the Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program with criteria and a methodology to select candidate treatment technologies for Greater-Than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) destined for dedicated storage and ultimately disposal. The technology selection criteria are provided in a Lotus spreadsheet format to allow the methodology to evolve as the GTCC LLW Program evolves. It is recognized that the final disposal facility is not yet defined; thus, the waste acceptance criteria and other facility-specific features are subject to change. The spreadsheet format will allow for these changes a they occur. As additional treatment information becomes available, it can be factored into the analysis. The technology selection criteria were established from program goals, draft waste acceptance criteria for dedicated storage (including applicable regulations), and accepted remedial investigation methods utilized under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. Kepner-Tregoe decisionmaking techniques are used to compare and rank technologies against the criteria.

  3. Evaluation of potential induced radioactivity in medical products as a function of electron energy in electron beam sterilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Commercial sterilization of medical devices may be performed using electron beam irradiators at various electron energies. The potential for activating components of the devices has been discussed, with current standards stating that electron energy greater than 10 MeV requires assessment of potential induced radioactivity. This paper evaluates the potential for induced activity in medical products sterilized in electron beam as a function of the electron maximum energy. Monte Carlo simulation of a surrogate medical device was used to calculate photon and neutron fields resulting from electron irradiation, which were used to calculate concentrations for several radionuclides. The experiments confirmed that 10 MeV is a conservative assumption for limiting induced radioactivity. However, under the conditions as evaluated, which is a limited total quantity of metal in the material being irradiated and absent a limited number of elements; the amount of induced activity at 12 MeV could also be considered insignificant. The comparison of the sum-of-fractions to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission exempt concentration limits is less than unity for all energies below 12.1 MeV, which suggests that there is minimal probability of significant induced activity at energies above the 10 MeV upper energy limit.

  4. Safety Evaluation Report for the Tennessee Valley Authority's Plan to Decommission its Low-Level Radioactive Waste Burial Site at Muscle Shoals, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Gant, K.S.; Kettelle, R.H.

    1998-11-01

    From 1966 to 1981, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) operated a burial site, licensed under the former 10 CFR 20.304, for low-level radioactive waste on its Muscle Shoals, Alabama, reservation. TVA submitted a decommissioning plan for the burial site and requested approval for unrestricted use of the site. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission requested Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to evaluate this plan to determine if the site meets the radiological requirements for unrestricted use as specified in 10 CFR 20.1402; that is, an average member of the critical group would not receive more than 25 mrem/y from residual radioactivity at the TVA Low-Level Radioactive Waste Burial Site and the radioactivity has been reduced to levels as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA).

  5. Evaluation of the Cell Voltage of Electrolytic HI Concentration for Thermochemical Water-Splitting Iodine-Sulfur Process

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Yoshida, Mitsunori; Okuda, Hiroyuki; Sato, Hiroyuki; Kubo, Shinji; Onuki, Kaoru

    2007-07-01

    Breakdown of the cell voltage in the electro-dialysis process for concentrating HIx solution (HI-H{sub 2}O-I{sub 2} mixture) was preliminarily examined in an effort to clarify the optimal operation condition as well as to optimize the cell design for the application to the thermochemical water-splitting IS process for large-scale hydrogen production. Basic data such as electric resistance of HIx solution, overvoltage of the iodine-iodide ion redox reaction at graphite electrode, and the membrane voltage drop, were measured using HIx solution with composition of interest. Also, a methodology for estimating the cell voltage was discussed. The calculated cell voltage agreed well with the experimental one indicating the validity of the procedure adopted. (authors)

  6. DISSOLVED CONCENTRATION LIMITS OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    2004-11-22

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of elements with radioactive isotopes under probable repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, field measurements, and laboratory experiments. The scope of this modeling activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for 14 elements with radioactive isotopes (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium) important to calculated dose. Model outputs for uranium, plutonium, neptunium, thorium, americium, and protactinium are in the form of tabulated functions with pH and log (line integral) CO{sub 2} as independent variables, plus one or more uncertainty terms. The solubility limits for the remaining elements are either in the form of distributions or single values. The output data from this report are fundamental inputs for Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) to determine the estimated release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Consistent modeling approaches and environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models for all of the actinides. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so that they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, and activity coefficients have been quantified or otherwise addressed.

  7. Evaluation of visual inspection with acetic acid and Lugol's iodine as cervical cancer screening tools in a low-resource setting.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Sabuhi; Das, Vinta; Zahra, Fatima

    2010-01-01

    In view of the failure of cytology screening programmes for cervical cancer in developing countries, the World Health Organization suggested unaided visual inspection of the cervix after an application of acetic acid (VIA) and Lugol's iodine (VILI) as alternative screening methods. Our study evaluates the effectiveness of VIA and VILI compared to Pap smear as screening methods for carcinoma of the cervix in a low-resource setting. Three hundred and twenty-eight women were subjected to a Pap smear test, VIA, VILI and colposcopy. The results were as follows: Pap smear test (20.83%, specificity 98.38%), VIA (55.5%, 71.39%) and VILI (86.84%, 48.93%). Although VIA and VILI are less specific in comparison to the Pap smear test, they are more sensitive in detecting pre-invasive lesions. Hence VIA and VILI can be used as cervical cancer screening tools in low-resource settings.

  8. Evaluation of alternatives for high-level and transuranic radioactive- waste disposal standards

    SciTech Connect

    Klett, R.D.; Gruebel, M.M.

    1992-12-01

    The remand of the US Environmental Protection Agency`s long-term performance standards for radioactive-waste disposal provides an opportunity to suggest modifications that would make the regulation more defensible and remove inconsistencies yet retain the basic structure of the original rule. Proposed modifications are in three specific areas: release and dose limits, probabilistic containment requirements, and transuranic-waste disposal criteria. Examination of the modifications includes discussion of the alternatives, demonstration of methods of development and implementation, comparison of the characteristics, attributes, and deficiencies of possible options within each area, and analysis of the implications for performance assessments. An additional consideration is the impact on the entire regulation when developing or modifying the individual components of the radiological standards.

  9. Evaluation of solid-based separation materials for the pretreatment of radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, G.J.; Wagner, M.J.; Wester, D.W.; Morrey, J.R.

    1993-05-01

    Separation science will play an important role in pretreating nuclear wastes stored at various US Department of Energy Sites. The application of separation processes offers potential economic and environmental benefits with regards to remediating these sites. For example, at the Hanford Site, the sizeable volume of radioactive wastes stored in underground tanks could be partitioned into a small volume of high-level waste (HLW) and a relatively large volume of low-level waste (LLW). After waste separation, only the smaller volume of HLW would require costly vitrification and geologic disposal. Furthermore, the quality of the remaining LLW form (e.g., grout) would be improved due to the lower inventory of radionuclides present in the LLW stream. This report investigates extraction chromatography as a possible separation process for Hanford wastes.

  10. THERMAL EVALUATION OF DRUM TYPE RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING ARRAYS IN STORAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, N

    2009-04-27

    Drum type packages are routinely used to transport radioactive material (RAM) in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. These packages are designed to meet the federal regulations described in 10 CFR 71.[1] In recent years, there has been a greater need to use these packagings to store the excess fissile material, especially plutonium for long term storage. While the design requirements for safe transportation of these packagings are well defined, the requirements for safe long term storage are not well established. Since the RAM contents in the packagings produce decay heat, it is important that they are stored carefully to prevent overheating of the containment vessel (CV) seals to prevent any leakage and the impact limiter to maintain the package structural integrity. This paper analyzes different storage arrays for a typical 9977 packaging for thermal considerations and makes recommendations for their safe storage under normal operating conditions.

  11. Evaluation of the Transport of Natural Radioactive Materials in Large Lysimeters Using Hydrus-1D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pontedeiro, E.; Cipriani, M.; van Genuchten, M.; Simunek, J.

    2007-12-01

    The mining industry in Brazil often uses raw materials that contain relatively high concentrations of naturally occurring radioactive materials (referred to as NORM). Ores of relatively low grade typically are used to produce refined metals of high purity (e.g., Nb, Ta, Sn, and Au) using pyrometallurgic processes. The final waste is a slag rich in natural radioactive contaminants (the U and Th decay series), which are then usually deposited in industrial landfills. To study the long-term fate and transport of radionuclides leached from the NORM wastes, several large (3 m deep) lysimeters were constructed at the Pocos de Caldas Laboratory of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commision (CNEN). The lysimeters were packed with surface soils and slags from one of the mining sites in South East Brazil. Main purpose of our lysimeter experiments was to follow the dissolution and transport of radionuclides from the slags under natural climatic conditions. Leaching rates and radionuclide concentrations of the effluent were observed during a three-year time period. A variety of physical and chemical properties of the soils and slags (including laboratory batch equilibrium sorption values) were also determined. The data were analyzed using several computer software packages, including the STANMOD code for analytical modeling of decay chain transport during steady flow, the HYDRUS-1D code for variably-saturated flow and the transport of multiple solutes, and the HP1 code for a more comprehensive analysis of the geochemistry involved. In this presentation we describe the experimental setup and provide preliminary results of the theoretical analyses, especially those using HYDRUS-1D.

  12. Effect of iodine source and dose on growth and iodine content in tissue and plasma thyroid hormones in fattening pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, Qimeng; Mair, Christiane; Schedle, Karl; Hammerl, Sabine; Schodl, Katharina; Windisch, Wilhelm

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the present feeding trial with iodine was to assess pigs' growth performance and carcass characteristics, the iodine accumulation in tissues, and their influences on the thyroid hormones in plasma. Eighty pigs (33-115 kg body weight) were allotted to 5 dietary treatments: a control group (150 μg I/kg), two potassium iodide [KI] groups (4,000 and 10,000 μg I/kg), and two potassium iodate [KIO₃] groups (4,000 and 10,000 μg I/kg). Iodine concentration was determined in thyroid gland, liver, kidney, muscle, fat, and skin by ICP-MS. Furthermore, thyroxine (T₄) and triiodothyronine (T₃) in plasma were evaluated. High dietary iodine tended to have a negative effect on younger animals' growth (average daily gain, ADG). However, during the entire growth period, the growth performance and carcass characteristics were not influenced by iodine dosages or sources. Irrespective of iodine source, higher iodine doses of diets affected higher iodine stores in all tested tissues except for abdominal fat. Thus, iodine supplementation with 10,000 μg I/kg feed significantly increased iodine content in thyroid gland (+122%), liver (+260%), kidney (+522%), muscle (+131%), and skin (+321%) compared to the control group. However, there was no significance of thyroid hormones in plasma. As a result, pork and fat of pigs showed only low iodine accumulation even in the high-iodine groups. Thus, there should be no risk of an iodine excess in human nutrition and animal health, and the EU-upper level for iodine in pig feed can be maintained.

  13. [Examination of radioactive contamination in foods].

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Hitoshi; Tsuchiyama, Tomoyuki; Terada, Hisaya

    2013-01-01

    Following the Fukushima nuclear plant accident in Mar. 2011, the examination of radioactive contamination in foods is being carried out in Nagoya. During the period between 30 Mar. 2011 and 31 Oct. 2012, a total of 300 food samples were collected and the concentrations of radioactive nuclides were determined by means of γ-ray spectrometry using a high-purity germanium semiconductor detector. The results of analysis indicate that the concentrations of radioactive iodine (I) and cesium (Cs) were below the regulatory limits. Radioactive I ((131)I) was detected in 7 samples which belonged to the categories of green and yellow vegetables and other vegetables. Radioactive Cs ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) was detected in 60 samples which belonged to the categories of rice and its processed products, potatoes and its processed products, nuts and seeds, green and yellow vegetables, other vegetables, fruits, mushrooms, fishes and shellfishes, processed sea foods, meat, milk and dairy products and other beverages.

  14. Systemic iodine absorption after preoperative antisepsis using povidone-iodine in cataract surgery-- an open controlled study.

    PubMed

    Below, H; Behrens-Baumann, W; Bernhardt, C; Völzke, H; Kramer, A; Rudolph, P

    2006-01-01

    After preoperative conjunctival and periorbital antisepsis with povidone-iodine (PVP-I), the systemic absorption of iodine after cataract surgery was measured to evaluate the risk of thyroid side effects. Five different combinations of PVP-I alone or in combination with PVP-I-free antiseptics were applied to the conjunctiva and periorbital skin. An iodine-free product served as control. Iodide and creatinine in urine were analyzed before intervention and 24 and 48 h postoperatively. Depending on the concentration and application site, 0.3-4.5% of the total applied iodine or 3.6-45.4% of the free iodine were absorbed. The range of urine iodine excretion was between 11.7 and 71.0 mug iodine/g creatinine, depending on the PVP-I concentration and the site of application. The increase in iodine excretion was significant at 24 h postoperatively in trials receiving PVP-I both periorbitally and conjunctivally, depending of the concentration used. Because the iodine absorption is only slight and of doubtful clinical relevance, presurgical conjunctival antisepsis can be achieved with 1.25% PVP-I; so far clinically manifest anamnestic thyroid disorders are excluded. Presently, periorbital skin antisepsis with PVP-I cannot be recommended until data on thyroid metabolism in the population have been collected and evaluated, especially in a region currently or previously deficient in iodine.

  15. Iodine status in the Nordic countries – past and present

    PubMed Central

    Nyström, Helena Filipsson; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Erlund, Iris; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjörg; Hulthén, Lena; Laurberg, Peter; Mattisson, Irene; Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Virtanen, Suvi; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

    2016-01-01

    Background Adequate iodine nutrition is dependent on ground water content, seafood, and, as many countries use iodized cow fodder, dairy products. In most countries, salt fortification programs are needed to assure adequate iodine intake. Objectives The objectives are threefold: 1) to describe the past and present iodine situation in the Nordic countries, 2) to identify important gaps of knowledge, and 3) to highlight differences among the Nordic countries’ iodine biomonitoring and fortification policies. Design Historical data are compared with the current situation. The Nordic countries’ strategies to achieve recommended intake and urine iodine levels and their respective success rates are evaluated. Results In the past, the iodine situation ranged from excellent in Iceland to widespread goiter and cretinism in large areas of Sweden. The situation was less severe in Norway and Finland. According to a 1960 World Health Organization (WHO) report, there were then no observations of iodine deficiency in Denmark. In Sweden and Finland, the fortification of table salt was introduced 50–75 years ago, and in Norway and Finland, the fortification of cow fodder starting in the 1950s helped improve the population's iodine status due to the high intake of milk. In Denmark, iodine has been added to household salt and salt in bread for the past 15 years. The Nordic countries differ with regard to regulations and degree of governmental involvement. There are indications that pregnant and lactating women, the two most vulnerable groups, are mildly deficient in iodine in several of the Nordic countries. Conclusion The Nordic countries employ different strategies to attain adequate iodine nutrition. The situation is not optimal and is in need of re-evaluation. Iodine researchers, Nordic national food administrations, and Nordic governmental institutions would benefit from collaboration to attain a broader approach and guarantee good iodine health for all. PMID:27283870

  16. Iodine generator for reclaimed water purification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wynveen, R. A.; Powell, J. D.; Schubert, F. H. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    The system disclosed is for controlling the iodine level in a water supply in a spacecraft. It includes an iodine accumulator which stores crystalline iodine, an electrochemical valve to control the input of iodine to the drinking water and an iodine dispenser. A pump dispenses fluid through the iodine dispenser and an iodine sensor to a potable water tank storage. The iodine sensor electronically detects the iodine level in the water, and through electronic means, produces a correction current control. The correction current control operates the electro-chemical iodine valve to release iodine from the iodine accumulator into the iodine dispenser.

  17. Theoretical evaluation of induced radioactivity in food products by electron — or X-ray beam sterilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leboutet, H.; Aucouturier, J.

    We evaluate first the energy density for electrons or X-ray beams necessary to produce a reference level of 1 kilogray at the maximum of dose, as a function of energy, for electrons and bremsstrahlung photons ( BX rays), based on experimental data obtained on radio-therapy beams, from 4 to 32 MeV, and irradiation beams from production plant CARIC. Then from the production of neutrons on the tungsten target and from (γ n) reactions on the deuterium content of the irradiated food, the slowing down and capture of these neutrons is estimated. Radioisotopes can be produced by (γ n) reactions on iodine, and to a lesser extent on tin, lead, barium, etc., but the major contribution is neutron activation, where the more critical elements are sodium, chlorine, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, calcium. Induced activity is compared to natural activity coming from potassium 40, carbon 14 and radium, contained in all foods. We conclude that for electrons up to 1 Mrad the induced activity remains of the order of a few percent of natural activity, for energies below 10-11 MeV. Bremsstrahlung X-ray irradiations can give comparable levels as soon as the energy of the generating electron beam is above 3 MeV. The induced activity decays within a few days. There is only a small increase of induced activity as the energy changes from 5 to 10 MeV, for the same total applied dose.

  18. Accelerator mass spectrometry of iodine-129 and its applications in natural water systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buraglio, Nadia

    During recent decades, huge amount of radioactive waste has been dumped into the earth's surface environments. 129I (T1/2 = 15.6 My) is one of the radioactive products that has been produced through a variety of processes, including atomic weapon testing, reprocessing of nuclear fact and nuclear accidents. This thesis describes development of the Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) ultra-sensitive atom counting technique at Uppsala Tandem Laboratory to measure 129I and discusses investigations of its distribution in the hydrosphere (marine and fresh water) and precipitation. The AMS technique provides a method for measuring long-lived radioactive isotopes in small samples, relative to other conventional techniques, and thus opens a now line of research. The optimization of the AMS system at Uppsala included testing a time of flight detector, evaluation of the most appropriate charge-state, reduction of molecular interference and improvement of the detection limit. Furthermore, development of a chemical procedure for separation of iodine from natural water samples has been accomplished. The second part of the thesis reports investigations of 129I in natural waters and indicates that high concentrations of 129I (3-4 orders of magnitude higher than in the prenuclear era) are found in most of the considered natural waters. Inventory calculations and results of measurements suggest that the major sources of radioactive iodine are the two main European nuclear reprocessing facilities at Sellafield (U.K.) and La Hague (France). This information provides estimates of the transit time and vertical mixing of water masses in the central Arctic Ocean. Results from precipitation, lakes and runoff are used to elucidate mechanisms of transport of 129I from the point sources and its pathways in the hydrological environment. This study also shows the need for continuous monitoring of the 129I level in the hydrosphere and of its future variability.

  19. Iodine toxicity and its amelioration.

    PubMed

    Baker, David H

    2004-06-01

    Iodine (I) toxicity is rare in animals and humans, but nuclear explosions that give off radioactive I and excessive stable I ingestion in parts of the world where seaweed is consumed represent specialized I toxicity concerns. Chronic overconsumption of I reduces organic binding of I by the thyroid gland, which results in hypothyroidism and goiter. Bromine can replace I on position 5 of both T(3) and T(4) with no loss of thyroid hormone activity. Avian work has also demonstrated that oral bromide salts can reverse the malaise and growth depressions caused by high doses of I (as KI) added as supplements to the diet. Newborn infants by virtue of having immature thyroid glands are most susceptible to I toxicity, whether of stable or radioactive origin. For the latter, the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident in Belarus has provided evidence that KI blockage therapy for exposed individuals 18 years of age and younger is effective in minimizing the development of thyroid cancer. Whether bromide therapy has a place in I toxicity situations remains to be determined.

  20. Iodine deficiency in pregnant women residing in an area with adequate iodine intake.

    PubMed

    Marchioni, Enrico; Fumarola, Angela; Calvanese, Anna; Piccirilli, Francesca; Tommasi, Valentina; Cugini, Pietro; Ulisse, Salvatore; Rossi Fanelli, Filippo; D'Armiento, Massimino

    2008-05-01

    To prevent iodine deficiency disorders, the World Health Organization, United Nations Children's Fund, and International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders established that for a given population median urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) must be 100-199 microg/L in clinically healthy subjects and 150-249 microg/L in clinically healthy pregnant women. We evaluated whether in the urban area of Rome, Italy, where a salt iodination program (30 mg/kg) was introduced since 2005, an increased demand of iodine during pregnancy is guaranteed. During 2006, 51 pregnant women at first trimester of a physiologic gestation were consecutively enrolled on presentation to evaluate UIC in morning spot urine samples. As controls, 100 age-matched clinically healthy non-pregnant women were evaluated. The median UICs were 182 microg/L (range 85-340 microg/L) and 74 microg/L (range 17-243 microg/L), respectively, in the control and pregnant groups. This difference was highly significant (P < 0.001). In particular, the UIC was found to be lower than adequate in 4% of control women compared with 92% of pregnant women. This difference of occurrences was highly significant (P < 0.001). This observational study demonstrated that, despite the adequate supplementation of iodine intake, most pregnant women appear not to be protected against iodine deficiency. If confirmed in larger case studies, this finding claims the attention of relevant professionals to monitor iodine nutrition during gestation, assuming that ordinary supplementation of iodine intake seems to be sufficient only in non-gestational conditions.

  1. Health risk and impact evaluation for recycling of radioactive scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Chen, S.Y.; Murphie, W.E.; Lilly, M.J. III

    1994-03-01

    The DoE, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, is participating with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development in providing analytical support for developing international standards for recycling of radioactive scrap metals. For this purpose, Argonne National Laboratory is assessing health, environmental and societal implications of recycling and/or disposal process alternatives. This effort includes development of international inventory estimates for contaminated metals; investigation of international scrap metal markets; assessment of radiological and non-radiological human health risks; impacts on environmental quality and resources; and investigation of social and political factors. The RSM disposal option is being assessed with regard to the environmental and health impacts of replacing the metals if they are withdrawn from use. Impact estimates are developed for steel as an illustrative example because steel comprises a major portion of the scrap metal inventory. Current and potential sources of RSM include nuclear power plants, fuel cycle and weapons production facilities, industrial and medical facilities and equipment, and petroleum and phosphate rock extraction equipment. Millions of metric tons (t) of scrap iron and steel, stainless steel, and copper, as well as lesser quantities of aluminum, nickel, lead, and zirconium, are likely to become available in the future as these facilities are withdrawn from service.

  2. Evaluation of Natural Radioactivity in Subsurface Air, Water and Soil in Western Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Fukui, Masami

    2008-08-07

    Surveys of radon concentrations in western Japan were carried out to estimate the contents not only of waters in the environment but also in soil gas. The maximum concentration measured for drinking water as public supply exceeded the 1991 United States Environmental Protection Agency-recommended limit for drinking water (11 Bq L{sup -1}) but did not exceed that of several European countries (100 Bq L{sup -1}). Overall, the concentrations of radon in subsurface water ranged from 1 to 100 Bq L{sup -1} and those in surface water were below 1 Bq L{sup -1} in a residential area. Fifty nine samples in soil gas at 4 Prefectures of the Kinki district were analyzed together with 19 samples of interest due to karst and uranium mining sites from another two Prefectures to compare with the above samples. The cumulative frequency of the {sup 222}Rn-concentrations both in environmental water and soil gas showed a log-normal distribution. Surveys of natural radioactivity in soils were also carried out with a Ge(Li) detector to determine the concentrations.

  3. Mathematical model for evaluating the suitability of a low-level radioactive waste site

    SciTech Connect

    Gureghian, A.B.; Sedlet, J.

    1982-02-01

    A mathematical model intended to study the one-dimensional transport of radionuclides in a non-homogeneous soil system under saturated-unsaturated and isothermal conditions is presented. The model is composed of two modules: the first to calculate the pressure distribution enabling one to compute velocities and soil moisture; the second to calculate the migration of species by considering the major processes associated with the transport phenomena of a dissolved substance in porous media, i.e., advection, mechanical dispersion, molecular diffusion, radioactive decay, and sorption, assuming a linear equilibrium isotherm. The numerical method of solving both flow and solute equations used here is the finite-element method based on the weighted residual technique. The flow equation is solved by the Bubnov-Galerkin method. The solute equation is solved by a Petrov-Galerkin type method. The model allows for a variety of boundary conditions; e.g., infiltration, drainage and/or evaporation. A test case involving the movement of a non-reacting ionic species is used to validate the model. Use of the model is illustrated by the analysis of the movement Sr-90 and Cs-137 and H-3 (as water) from a low-level solid-waste disposal trench subject to a steady rate of rainfall.

  4. [Iodine deficiency in the world and in the Czech Republic--current status and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Zamrazil, V; Bílek, R; Cerovská, J; Dvoráková, M; Nemecek, J

    2010-12-01

    Iodopenia is importance world-wide problem--the cause of spectrum of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). The "simple" way for its compensation is iodine supplementation--preferably by iodinization of salt: in the Czech Republic prevalence of IDD was very high in the past. The complex program for compensation of iodine deficiency realized in the CR includes improvement of salt iodization, supplementation of pregnant and lactating women, fortification of products for babies' nutrition and increasing use of iodinized salt in general population incl. food industry. Thus CR is country with compensated iodine deficiency according to criteria WHO, UNICEF, ICCIDD. In future, however, systematic interest should be focused on optimalization of iodine saturation, esp. in pregnant women and evaluation of possible risk of supranormal iodine intake (impairment of thyroid function, activation of thyroid autoimmunity). Taking in account, the changes of nutrition and life style systematic monitoring of quality of iodine supplementation seems to be essential.

  5. Value and pitfalls in iodine fortification and supplementation in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Speeckaert, Marijn M; Speeckaert, Reinhart; Wierckx, Katrien; Delanghe, Joris R; Kaufman, Jean-Marc

    2011-10-01

    Although the number of iodine-deficient countries has been reduced by almost 50 % over the last decade, it still remains a frequently misunderstood health problem. The most devastating effects of iodine deficiency occur during fetal development and childhood, periods in which sufficient iodine delivery remains critical. Besides the determination of thyroid size, the concentration of urinary iodine, serum thyroid-stimulating hormone and serum thyroglobulin are useful biomarkers to assess iodine status. Severe iodine deficiency is associated with neurological complications, cretinism, endemic goitre development, hypothyroidism, decreased fertility and increased infant mortality. The recommended iodine supplementation strategies are based on correction of iodine deficiency, close monitoring and evaluation of iodine administration, cooperation of the salt industry, training of local health care professionals and education of the population. Besides the multiple beneficial effects of supplementation, we present in this review a critical look at the possible side effects.

  6. Clinical evaluation of Lugol's iodine staining in the treatment of stage I-II squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue.

    PubMed

    Umeda, M; Shigeta, T; Takahashi, H; Minamikawa, T; Komatsubara, H; Oguni, A; Shibuya, Y; Komori, T

    2011-06-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is often surrounded by epithelial dysplasia; leaving it unresected can result in local recurrence. Staining with Lugol's iodine solution detects epithelial dysplasia in oral mucosa, but whether it decreases local recurrence after OSCC surgery is unknown. This study investigated local recurrence rates in patients with early tongue cancer who underwent surgery using Lugol's staining. 93 patients with T1-2N0 tongue SCC underwent partial glossectomy using Lugol's staining during surgery. Resection was performed at least 5mm from the margin of the unstained area. Patients were investigated retrospectively for local recurrence status. Postoperative histology revealed negative surgical margins for SCC or epithelial dysplasia in 81 patients, close margins for SCC in 5, positive margins for mild epithelial dysplasia in 6, and a positive margin for SCC in one. Those with a positive or a close margin for SCC underwent additional resection 2-4 weeks after surgery; one was proved histologically to have residual SCC. No patients developed local recurrence, but 2 died of neck metastasis and 2 of distant metastasis. The 5-year disease specific survival rate was 93.8%. Lugol's staining during surgery can reduce local recurrence and improve survival in patients with early tongue SCC.

  7. Evaluation of radioactive environmental hazards in Area-3, Northern Palmyrides, Central Syria using airborne spectrometric gamma technique.

    PubMed

    Asfahani, J; Aissa, M; Al-Hent, R

    2016-01-01

    Airborne spectrometric gamma data are used in this paper to estimate the degree of radioactive hazard on humanity in Area-3, Northern Palmyrides, Central Syria. Exposure Rate (ER), Absorbed Dose Rate (ADR), Annual Effective Dose Rate (AEDR), and Heat Production (HP) of the eleven radiometric units included in the established lithological scored map in the study area have been computed to evaluate the radiation background influence in humans. The results obtained indicate that a human body in Area-3 is subjected to radiation hazards in the acceptable limits for long duration exposure. The highest radiogenetic heat production values in Area-3 correspond to the phosphatic locations characterized by relatively high values of uranium and thorium.

  8. Radioactive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2016-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste activities around the world in 2015. These include safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation and management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in water, soil and ecosystem alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes.

  9. Radioactive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2015-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste activities around the world in 2014. These include safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation and management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in water, soil and ecosystem alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes.

  10. Radioactive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Choudri, B S; Charabi, Yassine; Baawain, Mahad; Ahmed, Mushtaque

    2017-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste related activities around the world in 2016. The current reveiw include studies related to safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation. Further, the review highlights on management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in ecosystem, water and soil alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes.

  11. Radioactive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2016-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste activities around the world in 2015. These include safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation and management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in water, soil and ecosystem alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes.

  12. In vitro evaluation of skin sensitivity of povidone-iodine and other antiseptics using a three-dimensional human skin model.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Mieko; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Nakayoshi, Takemi

    2002-01-01

    Povidone-iodine (PVP-I) is an antiseptic which has been widely used in various fields. It was reported to have a weaker skin irritancy than other antiseptics in the Draize skin irritation test using rabbits. Recent increased concern for animal welfare requires us to use skin models in the tests as an alternative to animal testing. Actually, there are some skin models already commercialized, which are available to evaluate skin irritancy caused by e.g. chemical reagents, cosmetics or medicines. In this study, we evaluated the potential of a PVP-I solution and other antiseptics to cause irritation using a cultured human skin model (three-dimensional skin model) under conditions similar to clinical use. This skin model has two layers like a real skin, such as the dermis and epidermis which includes the cornified layer. For the evaluation of skin irritancy in this model, cell viability was evaluated by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay as an endpoint. Antiseptic formulations such as benzalkonium chloride (BAC), benzethonium chloride (BEC), chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) and alkyldiaminoethylglycine hydrochloride (AEG) were used in this study. As a result, PVP-I showed a significantly weaker skin irritancy compared to the other antiseptics. The present in vitro study results revealed a correlation with the results of previously conducted in vivo skin irritancy tests using rabbits. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  13. IODINE CONTENT OF ENTERAL AND PARENTERAL NUTRITION SOLUTIONS.

    PubMed

    Willard, Devina L; Young, Lorraine S; He, Xuemei; Braverman, Lewis E; Pearce, Elizabeth N

    2017-07-01

    Iodine is essential for thyroid hormone synthesis, and iodine deficiency may result in thyroid disorders including goiter and hypothyroidism. Patients on long-term enteral nutrition (EN) or parenteral nutrition (PN) may be at risk for micronutrient deficiencies. The recommended daily allowance for iodine intake is 150 μg for nonpregnant adults. However, there is no current consensus among scientific societies regarding the quantity of iodine to be added in adult EN and PN formulations. The objective of this study was to determine the iodine content of U.S. adult enteral and parenteral nutrition solutions. This study also aimed to determine whether adult patients in the United States who are receiving long-term artificial nutrition may be at risk for iodine deficiency. Ten enteral nutrition solutions and 4 parenteral nutrition solutions were evaluated. The iodine contents of these solutions were measured spectrophotometrically and compared to the labeled contents. Measured and labeled EN iodine contents were similar (range 131-176 μg/L and 106-160 μg/L, respectively). In contrast, PN formulas were found to contain small, unlabeled amounts of iodine, averaging 27 μg/L. Typical fluid requirements are 30 to 40 mL/kg/day for adults receiving either total EN (TEN) or total PN (TPN). Adults on long-term TEN likely consume enough servings to meet their daily iodine requirements. However, patients on long-term TPN would require on average 5.6 L PN/day to meet the recommended daily allowance of iodine. This volume of PN is far in excess of typical consumption. Thus, U.S. patients requiring long-term TPN may be at risk for iodine deficiency. EN = enteral nutrition; PN = parenteral nutrition; TEN = total enteral nutrition; TPN = total parenteral nutrition; UIC = urinary iodine concentration.

  14. Iodination of (Tyr8)-bradykinin-comparison of chloramine-T and lactoperoxidase techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Redman, L.W.; Tustanoff, E.R.

    1984-01-01

    Antigen-antibody kinetics were studied using a hapten which was iodinated by two unique procedures. Using bradykinin, a vasopressor hormone as a model peptide, radioactive iodination (/sup 125/I) of its 8-tyrosyl analogue was carried out both enzymatically and chemically using modified procedures. Two distinct chemical species were obtained which were characterized on a chromatographic, chemical as well as charge basis as a mono-iodinated form of (Tyr8)-bradykinin using the lactoperoxidase procedure and a di-iodinated entity using chloramine-T technique. The addition of a second iodine atom to the antigen lowers its immunoreactivity for its antibody and thus alters the kinetics of this reaction. Further experiments on the stability (temperature, time of storage, and chemical environment) of these iodinated peptides are described.

  15. Assessing iodine intake, iodine status, and the effects of maternal iodine supplementation: introduction to articles arising from 3 workshops held by the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements.

    PubMed

    Ershow, Abby G; Goodman, Gay; Coates, Paul M; Swanson, Christine A

    2016-09-01

    The NIH Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) convened 3 workshops on iodine nutrition in 2014, each held in Rockville, Maryland. These workshops were part of the ongoing ODS Iodine Initiative, begun in 2011 in response to concerns that US pregnant women may be at risk of iodine deficiency and that a high fraction of prenatal dietary supplements do not contain the recommended amounts of iodine. The primary purpose of the workshops was to consider the data and resources necessary to evaluate the clinical and public health benefits and risks of maternal iodine supplementation in the United States. The first workshop focused on the assessment of iodine intake, the second focused on the assessment of iodine status, and the third focused on the design and interpretation of clinical trials of maternal iodine supplementation. Here we provide the background of the ODS Iodine Initiative, summarize the 3 workshops held in 2014, and introduce the articles that arose from the workshops and are published in this supplement issue. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Assessing iodine intake, iodine status, and the effects of maternal iodine supplementation: introduction to articles arising from 3 workshops held by the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements12

    PubMed Central

    Ershow, Abby G; Coates, Paul M; Swanson, Christine A

    2016-01-01

    The NIH Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) convened 3 workshops on iodine nutrition in 2014, each held in Rockville, Maryland. These workshops were part of the ongoing ODS Iodine Initiative, begun in 2011 in response to concerns that US pregnant women may be at risk of iodine deficiency and that a high fraction of prenatal dietary supplements do not contain the recommended amounts of iodine. The primary purpose of the workshops was to consider the data and resources necessary to evaluate the clinical and public health benefits and risks of maternal iodine supplementation in the United States. The first workshop focused on the assessment of iodine intake, the second focused on the assessment of iodine status, and the third focused on the design and interpretation of clinical trials of maternal iodine supplementation. Here we provide the background of the ODS Iodine Initiative, summarize the 3 workshops held in 2014, and introduce the articles that arose from the workshops and are published in this supplement issue. PMID:27534646

  17. TPS-guided interstitial Iodine-125 implantation in patients with oral cavity and maxillofacial carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Meng, J; Zhang, J; Zhuang, Q-W; Wang, X; Li, Z-P; Gu, Q-P

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the efficacy as well as the complications involved in the use of interstitial Iodine-125 implantation for the treatment of oral cavity and maxillofacial carcinomas. Fifteen patients with oral cavity and maxillofacial carcinomas received treatment planning system (TPS)-guided interstitial Iodine-125 implantation. The apparent activity per particle ranged from 0.6 mCi (2.22MBq) to 0.7 mCi (2.59MBq). The matched peripheral dose delivered by radioactive seeds ranged from 90 to 120 Gy. The efficacy of the treatment and the postoperative complications were evaluated during follow-up. The seeds were implanted successfully in all 15 patients and median number of seeds implanted was 36.53. CT scans were performed in all patients at 1-6 months postoperatively. During follow-up at 6-27 months, seed migration occurred and a good local tumor control was achieved with an overall response of 86.7%. No severe side effects were observed. TPS-guided interstitial Iodine-125 implantation is an effective and safe procedure with minimal invasiveness for the treatment of oral cavity and maxillofacial carcinomas, and it effectively prevents the recurrence of cancer and short-term lymphatic metastasis.

  18. The Decay Data Evaluation Project (DDEP) and the JEFF-3.3 radioactive decay data library: Combining international collaborative efforts on evaluated decay data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellett, Mark A.; Bersillon, Olivier

    2017-09-01

    The Decay Data Evaluation Project (DDEP), is an international collaboration of decay data evaluators formed with groups from France, Germany, USA, China, Romania, Russia, Spain and the UK, mainly from the metrology community. DDEP members have evaluated over 220 radionuclides, following an agreed upon methodology, including a peer review. Evaluations include all relevant parameters relating to the nuclear decay and the associated atomic processes. An important output of these evaluations are recommendations for new measurements, which can serve as a basis for future measurement programmes. Recently evaluated radionuclides include: 18F, 59Fe, 82Rb, 82Sr, 88Y, 90Y, 89Zr, 94mTc, 109Cd, 133Ba, 140Ba, 140La, 151Sm and 169Er. The DDEP recommended data have recently been incorporated into the JEFF-3.3 Radioactive Decay Data Library. Other sources of nuclear data include 900 or so radionuclides converted from the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF), 500 from two UK libraries (UKPADD6.12 and UKHEDD2.6), the IAEA Actinide Decay Data Library, with the remainder converted from the NUBASE evaluation of nuclear properties. Mean decay energies for a number of radionuclides determined from total absorption gamma-ray spectroscopy (TAGS) have also been included, as well as more recent European results from TAGS measurements performed at the University of Jyväskylä by groups from the University of Valencia, Spain and SUBATECH, the University of Nantes, France. The current status of the DDEP collaboration and the JEFF Radioactive Decay Data Library will be presented. Note to the reader: the pdf file has been changed on September 22, 2017.

  19. Radioactive decay.

    PubMed

    Groch, M W

    1998-01-01

    When a parent radionuclide decays to its daughter radionuclide by means of alpha, beta, or isomeric transition, the decay follows an exponential form, which is characterized by the decay constant lambda. The decay constant represents the probability per unit time that a single radioatom will decay. The decay equation can be used to provide a useful expression for radionuclide decay, the half-life, the time when 50% of the radioatoms present will have decayed. Radiotracer half-life has direct implications in nuclear imaging, radiation therapy, and radiation safety because radionuclide half-life affects the ability to evaluate tracer kinetics and create appropriate nuclear images and also affects organ, tumor, and whole-body radiation dose. The number of radioatoms present in a sample is equal to the activity, defined as the number of transitions per unit time, divided by the decay constant; the mass of radioatoms present in a sample can be calculated to determine the specific activity (activity per unit mass). The dynamic relationship between the number of parent and daughter atoms present over time may lead to radioactive equilibrium, which takes two forms--secular and transient--and has direct relevance to generator-produced radionuclides.

  20. Concentrating Radioactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Richard A.

    1974-01-01

    By concentrating radioactivity contained on luminous dials, a teacher can make a high reading source for classroom experiments on radiation. The preparation of the source and its uses are described. (DT)

  1. Simulated Radioactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boettler, James L.

    1972-01-01

    Describes the errors in the sugar-cube experiment related to radioactivity as described in Project Physics course. The discussion considers some of the steps overlooked in the experiment and generalizes the theory beyond the sugar-cube stage. (PS)

  2. Radioactivity Calculations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onega, Ronald J.

    1969-01-01

    Three problems in radioactive buildup and decay are presented and solved. Matrix algebra is used to solve the second problem. The third problem deals with flux depression and is solved by the use of differential equations. (LC)

  3. Concentrating Radioactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Richard A.

    1974-01-01

    By concentrating radioactivity contained on luminous dials, a teacher can make a high reading source for classroom experiments on radiation. The preparation of the source and its uses are described. (DT)

  4. Radioactivity Calculations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onega, Ronald J.

    1969-01-01

    Three problems in radioactive buildup and decay are presented and solved. Matrix algebra is used to solve the second problem. The third problem deals with flux depression and is solved by the use of differential equations. (LC)

  5. Simulated Radioactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boettler, James L.

    1972-01-01

    Describes the errors in the sugar-cube experiment related to radioactivity as described in Project Physics course. The discussion considers some of the steps overlooked in the experiment and generalizes the theory beyond the sugar-cube stage. (PS)

  6. [Status of iodine nutrition of children until 1 year: consequences on the thyroid function].

    PubMed

    Pouessel, G; Damie, R; Soudan, B; Weill, J; Gottrand, F; Turck, D

    2008-08-01

    Iodine deficiency remains a major public health problem mainly in least-developed countries but also in many industrialized countries. The present study aimed at: (1) evaluating the status of iodine nutrition of children until 1 year in the North region of France; (2) studying risk factors for iodine deficiency; (3) evaluating relationship between iodine deficiency and thyroid disorders. This prospective study was conducted between 1st january and 31st May 2005 in the children's hospital of Lille (North of France) and all hospitalized children until the age of 1 year were enrolled. Urinary iodine assessment was obtained for 95 (83%) of the 114 infants hospitalized during the study period and TSH value was also determined in 57 (60%) of these 114 infants. Median urinary iodine concentration was 328 microg/L (range: 12-1580). Twenty-four (25%) of 95 infants had a high urinary iodine excretion (urinary iodine greater than 400 microg/L). Nineteen (20%) of the 95 infants were iodine deficient (urinary iodine less than 100 microg/L): severe iodine deficiency (less than 20 microg/L; n=5; 5%), moderate iodine deficiency (20-49 microg/L; n=6; 6%), mild iodine deficiency (50-99 microg/L; n=8; 8%). No relationship was found between iodine status and the following data: age, sex, familial thyroid disease history, term and type of delivery, nutritional status, type of feeding at inclusion, chronic disease, familial socioeconomic status. TSH value was high (greater than 5 microU/mL) in 7 (12%) of the 57 infants. Only 1 of these 7 infants was iodine deficient. Only 1 of the 19 infants with iodine deficiency had a high TSH value. Iodine status is not optimal in our population of hospitalized children until the age of 1 year. There is no clear relationship between iodine status and thyroid function.

  7. "Maternal/Neonatal" iodine status in patients with prolonged physiological jaundice.

    PubMed

    Siklar, Z; Oçal, G; Bilir, P; Ergur, A; Berberoğlu, M

    2009-07-01

    The increasing knowledge indicated that borderline hypothyroidism may cause neurodevelopmental disorders. Borderline compensated congenital hypothyroidism could caused by iodine deficiency or iodine overload. One of the most important etiological factors causing prolonged jaundice in the neonatal period is congenital hypothyroidism. Aimed of this study is to investigate the frequency of borderline or overt hypothyroidism in a group of newborn with prolonged physiological jaundice, and to evaluate iodine status of these babies and their mothers. Fifty-five apparently healthy newborn were evaluated. Twenty-five of them showed borderline thyroid dysfunctions. Remained 30 babies had normal thyroid function, considered as euthyroid group. Iodine status was evaluated by measuring urinary iodine excretion. According to UIE, maternal iodine deficiency (55%) associated with neonatal iodine overload (65%) had came to attention. Although mean urinary iodine levels in both mother groups were similar, the mean urinary levels of borderline hypothyroidic and euthyroid groups were 432+/-129 microg/l and 271.5+/-137 microg/l, respectively. Iodine overload was also presence in newborn with normal thyroid function tests. We considered that individual sensitivity to iodine overload could make the differentiation on thyroid function. Iodine overload in important degree seen in borderline hypothyroidic babies emphasize the harmful effect of topical antiseptic iodine application that given to mothers during labor. This application could also mask possible prenatal iodine deficiency.

  8. Iodine Propulsion Advantages for Low Cost Mission Applications and the Iodine Satellite (ISAT) Technology Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dankanich, John W.; Schumacher, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Science and Technology Office is continuously exploring technology options to increase performance or reduce cost and risk to future NASA missions including science and exploration. Electric propulsion is a prevalent technology known to reduce mission costs by reduction in launch costs and spacecraft mass through increased post launch propulsion performance. The exploration of alternative propellants for electric propulsion continues to be of interest to the community. Iodine testing has demonstrated comparable performance to xenon. However, iodine has a higher storage density resulting in higher ?V capability for volume constrained systems. Iodine's unique properties also allow for unpressurized storage yet sublimation with minimal power requirements to produce required gas flow rates. These characteristics make iodine an ideal propellant for secondary spacecraft. A range of mission have been evaluated with a focus on low-cost applications. Results highlight the potential for significant cost reduction over state of the art. Based on the potential, NASA has been developing the iodine Satellite for a near-term iodine Hall propulsion technology demonstration. Mission applications and progress of the iodine Satellite project are presented.

  9. [The radioiodine test for the evaluation of iodine deficiency in the district of Karl-Marx-Stadt and in East Germany].

    PubMed

    Bauch, K; Weiss, O; Möckel, G; Gerlach, J; Seitz, W; Ulrich, F E; Dempe, A

    1981-10-01

    The values of the per cent 24 h radioiodine uptake in the GDR are above 60--70% and speak for a low alimentary intake of iodine or renal excretion of iodine below 40 micrograms J/d. Like the struma prevalences they show a tendency increasing from north to south and characterize the whole European situation of iodine deficiency including its decrease from west to east. The mean values of radioiodine uptake of 71.7 +/- 13.2% (n = 110) in euthyroids of the district of Karl-Marx-Stadt correspond to the iodine deficiency as it occurs approximately in the districts of Erfurt, Dresden, Munich or Freiburg/B. The alimentary iodine intake of 38.4 +/- 17.2 micrograms J/d and the renal iodine excretion of 29.9 +/- 16.1 micrograms J/d, calculated from the 24 h radioiodine accumulation values of 40 euthyroid persons by means of a mathematical model developed by Oddie and co-workers were low. The latter only slightly differed (P less than 0.05) from its chemically estimated excretion of iodine in the urine: 23.1 +/- 16.9 micrograms J/g creatinine (n = 73). Between the calculated and chemically estimated excretion of iodine there was a relatively strict correlation of r = 0.68 (n = 26; P less than 0.001). The introduction of an iodine prophylaxis is regarded as an urgent necessity. Later on a new estimation of the regional "normal values" is necessary for the per cent radioiodine uptake.

  10. State-of-the-art for evaluating the potential impact of flooding on a radioactive waste repository

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-16

    This report is a review of the state-of-the-art for evaluating the potential impact of flooding on a deep radioactive-waste repository, namely, for predicting the future occurrence of catastrophic flooding and for estimating the effect of such flooding on waste containment characteristics. Several detrimental effects are identified: flooding can increase groundwater seepage velocities through a repository within the framework of the existing hydrologic system and thus increase the rate of radioactive-waste leakage to the biosphere; flooding may alter repository hydrology by reversing flow gradients, relocating sources of groundwater recharge and discharge, or shortening seepage paths, thereby producing unpredictable leakage; saturation of a vadose-zone repository during flooding can increase groundwater seepage velocities by several orders of magnitude; and flooding can damage repository-media containment properties by inducing seismic or chemical instability or increasing fracture permeability in relatively shallow repository rock as a result of redistributing in-situ stresses. Short-term flooding frequency and magnitude can be predicted statistically by analyzing historical records of flooding. However, long-term flooding events that could damage a permanent repository cannot be predicted with confidence because the geologic record is neither unique nor sufficienly complete for statistical analysis. It is more important to identify parameters characterizing containment properties (such as permeability, groundwater gradient, and shortest seepage path length to the biosphere) that could be affected by future flooding, estimate the maximum magnitude of flooding that could occur within the life of the repository by examining the geologic record, and determine the impact such flooding could have on the parameter values.

  11. Evaluation of the adsorptive behavior of cesium and strontium on hydroxyapatite and zeolite for decontamination of radioactive substances.

    PubMed

    Ozeki, K; Aoki, H

    2016-08-12

    Removal of radioactive substances, such as cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr), has become an emerging issue after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Disaster. To assess the possibility that hydroxyapatite (HA) and zeolites can be used for removal of radioactive substances, the adsorption capacities of Cs and Sr on the HA and a zeolite were investigated. The influence of Fe ions on Cs and Sr adsorption on the HA and the zeolite was also evaluated, because Fe ions are the most effective inhibitor of Cs adsorption on the zeolite.In the Cs adsorption process on the HA and the zeolite, the zeolite showed a higher adsorption ratio than the HA, and the maximum sorption capacity of the zeolite was calculated as 196 mg/g, whereas the HA showed a higher Sr adsorption ratio than the zeolite. The maximum sorption capacity of Sr on the HA was 123 mg/g. Under coexistence with Fe, Cs adsorption on the zeolite decreased with increasing Fe concentration, reaching 2.0 ± 0.8% at 0.1 M Fe concentration. In contrast, Cs adsorption on the zeolite was improved by adding the HA. In the case of coexistence of the HA, the Cs adsorption on the mixture of the HA and the zeolite was 52.4% ± 3.6 % at 0.1 M Fe concentration, although Cs adsorption on the HA alone was quite low. In the Fe adsorption processes of the HA and the zeolite, the HA exhibited a maximum sorption capacity of 256 mg/g, which was much higher than that of the zeolite (111 mg/g). The high affinity of Fe on the HA contributes to the improvement of the deteriorated Cs adsorption on the zeolite due to Fe ions.

  12. Iodine distribution in natural waters of different chemical composition in relation to water-bearing soils and rocks and water fractions in areas subjected to radioiodine contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolmykova, Liudmila; Korobova, Elena

    2017-04-01

    Iodine is an essential microelement required for normal functioning of thyroid gland. Natural deficiency of stable iodine is compensated by its active intake by thyroid and provokes its higher irradiation in case of radiation accidents and contamination of the environment by radioiodine isotopes. The bioavailability of both stable and radioactive iodine and the specificity of its uptake by living organisms largely depends on geochemical parameters of the environment related to natural conditions of water migration. The goal of the study was to investigate spatial distribution of iodine in natural water of different chemical composition in relation to typical water-bearing soils and rocks and water fractions in Bryansk areas subjected to radioiodine contamination after the Chernobyl accident and to evaluate contribution of this factor to the occurrence of endemic thyroid diseases among local population inhabiting geochemically different areas of fluvioglacial and loess-like sedimentary rocks. The highest content of iodine (Me=13.3 µg/l) was observed in surface water of landscapes with H-Ca, Ca and H-Ca-Fe classes of water migration. The lowest microelement level (Me=5.25 µg/l) was noted in groundwater of landscapes with H, H-Fe classes of water migration in areas of Paleogene water bearing rocks. Regardless of the type of source and class of water migration up to 90% of the total content of iodide is present in the fraction <0.45 µm (as determined by membrane filtration). Up to 50% of iodine pass to solution containing particles < 0.1 µm and increases up to 80% in absence of roughly dispersed sorbents in this fraction. The surface water in areas of loess-like sedimentary rocks hosts the highest levels of iodine where its associated with calcium mineral aquatic complexes and the suspended particles. The obtained data is believed to be useful in explanation of mobility and intake of iodine and its radioactive analogues by rural population living in different

  13. Iodine Absorption Cells Purity Testing

    PubMed Central

    Hrabina, Jan; Zucco, Massimo; Philippe, Charles; Pham, Tuan Minh; Holá, Miroslava; Acef, Ouali; Lazar, Josef; Číp, Ondřej

    2017-01-01

    This article deals with the evaluation of the chemical purity of iodine-filled absorption cells and the optical frequency references used for the frequency locking of laser standards. We summarize the recent trends and progress in absorption cell technology and we focus on methods for iodine cell purity testing. We compare two independent experimental systems based on the laser-induced fluorescence method, showing an improvement of measurement uncertainty by introducing a compensation system reducing unwanted influences. We show the advantages of this technique, which is relatively simple and does not require extensive hardware equipment. As an alternative to the traditionally used methods we propose an approach of hyperfine transitions’ spectral linewidth measurement. The key characteristic of this method is demonstrated on a set of testing iodine cells. The relationship between laser-induced fluorescence and transition linewidth methods will be presented as well as a summary of the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed technique (in comparison with traditional measurement approaches). PMID:28067834

  14. Bayesian evaluation of groundwater age distribution using radioactive tracers and anthropogenic chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massoudieh, Arash; Sharifi, Soroosh; Solomon, D. Kip

    2012-09-01

    The development of a Bayesian modeling approach for estimation of the age distribution of groundwater using radioactive isotopes and anthropogenic chemicals is described. The model considers the uncertainties associated with the measured tracer concentrations as well as the parameters affecting the concentration of tracers in the groundwater, and it provides the posterior probability densities of the parameters defining the groundwater age distribution using a Markov chain Monte Carlo method. The model also incorporates the effect of dissolution of aquifer minerals on diluting the 14C signature and the uncertainties associated with this process on the inferred age distribution parameters. Two demonstration modeling cases have been performed. First, the method was applied to simulated tracer concentrations at a discharge point of a hypothetical 2-D vertical aquifer with two recharge zones, leading to a mixed groundwater age distribution under different presumed uncertainties. When the error variance of the observed tracer concentrations is considered unknown, the method can estimate the parameters of the fitted exponential-lognormal distribution with a relatively narrow credible interval when five hypothetical samples are assumed to be collected at the discharge point. However, when a single sample is assumed, the credible intervals become wider, and credible estimations of the parameters are not obtained. Second, the method was applied to the data collected at La Selva Biological Station in Costa Rica. In this demonstration application, nine different forms of presumed groundwater age distributions have been considered, including four single forms and five mixed forms, assuming the groundwater consists of distinct young and old fractions. For the medium geometrical standard deviationδc,i = 1.41, the model estimates a young groundwater age of between 0 and 350 years, with the largest odds being given to a mean age of approximately 100 years, and a fraction of young

  15. Evaluation and Quantification of Uncertainty in the Modeling of Contaminant Transport and Exposure Assessment at a Radioactive Waste Disposal Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tauxe, J.; Black, P.; Carilli, J.; Catlett, K.; Crowe, B.; Hooten, M.; Rawlinson, S.; Schuh, A.; Stockton, T.; Yucel, V.

    2002-12-01

    The disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in the United States (U.S.) is a highly regulated undertaking. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), itself a large generator of such wastes, requires a substantial amount of analysis and assessment before permitting disposal of LLW at its facilities. One of the requirements that must be met in assessing the performance of a disposal site and technology is that a Performance Assessment (PA) demonstrate "reasonable expectation" that certain performance objectives, such as dose to a hypothetical future receptor, not be exceeded. The phrase "reasonable expectation" implies recognition of uncertainty in the assessment process. In order for this uncertainty to be quantified and communicated to decision makers, the PA computer model must accept probabilistic (uncertain) input (parameter values) and produce results which reflect that uncertainty as it is propagated through the model calculations. The GoldSim modeling software was selected for the task due to its unique facility with both probabilistic analysis and radioactive contaminant transport. Probabilistic model parameters range from water content and other physical properties of alluvium to the activity of radionuclides disposed to the amount of time a future resident might be expected to spend tending a garden. Although these parameters govern processes which are defined in isolation as rather simple differential equations, the complex interaction of couple processes makes for a highly nonlinear system with often unanticipated results. The decision maker has the difficult job of evaluating the uncertainty of modeling results in the context of granting permission for LLW disposal. This job also involves the evaluation of alternatives, such as the selection of disposal technologies. Various scenarios can be evaluated in the model, so that the effects of, for example, using a thicker soil cap over the waste cell can be assessed. This ability to evaluate mitigation

  16. Hydrologic evaluation methodology for estimating water movement through the unsaturated zone at commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, P.D.; Rockhold, M.L.; Nichols, W.E.; Gee, G.W.

    1996-01-01

    This report identifies key technical issues related to hydrologic assessment of water flow in the unsaturated zone at low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. In addition, a methodology for incorporating these issues in the performance assessment of proposed LLW disposal facilities is identified and evaluated. The issues discussed fall into four areas: estimating the water balance at a site (i.e., infiltration, runoff, water storage, evapotranspiration, and recharge); analyzing the hydrologic performance of engineered components of a facility; evaluating the application of models to the prediction of facility performance; and estimating the uncertainty in predicted facility performance. To illustrate the application of the methodology, two examples are presented. The first example is of a below ground vault located in a humid environment. The second example looks at a shallow land burial facility located in an arid environment. The examples utilize actual site-specific data and realistic facility designs. The two examples illustrate the issues unique to humid and arid sites as well as the issues common to all LLW sites. Strategies for addressing the analytical difficulties arising in any complex hydrologic evaluation of the unsaturated zone are demonstrated.

  17. Patient Positioning Based on a Radioactive Tracer Implanted in Patients With Localized Prostate Cancer: A Performance and Safety Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Kruijf, Willy J.M. de; Verstraete, Jan; Neustadter, David; Corn, Benjamin W.; Hol, Sandra; Venselaar, Jack L.M.; Davits, Rob J.; Wijsman, Bart P.; Van den Bergh, Laura; Budiharto, Tom; Oyen, Raymond; Haustermans, Karin; Poortmans, Philip M.P.

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance and safety of a radiation therapy positioning system (RealEye) based on tracking a radioactive marker (Tracer) implanted in patients with localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: We performed a single-arm multi-institutional trial in 20 patients. The iridium-192 ({sup 192}Ir)-containing Tracer was implanted in the patient together with 4 standard gold seed fiducials. Patient prostate-related symptoms were evaluated with the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire. Computed tomography (CT) was performed for treatment planning, during treatment, and after treatment to evaluate the migration stability of the Tracer. At 5 treatment sessions, cone beam CT was performed to test the positioning accuracy of the RealEye. Results: The Tracer was successfully implanted in all patients. No device or procedure-related adverse events occurred. Changes in IPSS scores were limited. The difference between the mean change in Tracer-fiducial distance and the mean change in fiducial-fiducial distance was -0.39 mm (95% confidence interval [CI] upper boundary, -0.22 mm). The adjusted mean difference between Tracer position according to RealEye and the Tracer position on the CBCT for all patients was 1.34 mm (95% CI upper boundary, 1.41 mm). Conclusions: Implantation of the Tracer is feasible and safe. Migration stability of the Tracer is good. Prostate patients can be positioned and monitored accurately by using RealEye.

  18. Values of iodine metabolism biomarkers in assessing the iodine nutrition status in surgically treated patients with thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Han, Jian-hua; Wu, Lian; Yu, Song-lin; Fang, Hui-ling; Kamg, Wei-ming; Cheng, Xin-qi; Lu, Jie; Yu, Jian-chun; Qiu, Ling

    2015-04-01

    To assess the clinical application value of iodine metabolism biomarkers in assessing iodine nutrition status in surgically treated patients with thyroid disease. Blood,morning urine and 24-hour urine samples were collected in 31 healthy volunteers and in 30 surgically treated patients with thyroid disease before and after surgery. Iodine concentration was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The iodine metabolism biomarkers including serum iodine (SI), morning urine iodine(UI), morning urine iodine/urine creatinine ratio (UI/UCr), 24-hour urine iodine (24 h UI), and 24-hour urine iodine excretion (24 h UIE) were evaluated in these two groups. In addition, the validation coincidence rate of iodine metabolism biomarkers in healthy volunteers to different reference ranges including World Health Organization, Mayo Clinic, and Quest Diagnostics were calculated. The UI/UCr ratio of pre-operative thyroid disease patients was significantly lower than that of healthy volunteers (P<0.05), while the other biomarkers showed no significant differences (all P>0.05) between these two groups. The SI, UI ,and 24 h UI in postoperative thyroid disease patients were significantly higher than those of the pre-operative patients (all P<0.05). Though the medians of all biomarkers in healthy volunteers were within the reference ranges,only the validation coincidence rates of SI, UI, and UI/UCr in the 41-70-year populations were over than 90% according to Mayo Clinic; furthermore, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve about UI/UCr ratio (0.737) was the biggest within the iodine metabolism biomarkers. The UI/UCr ratio may be used for iodine nutrition evaluation in surgically treated patients with thyroid disease.

  19. Iodine Clock Reaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Richard S.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a combination of solutions that can be used in the study of kinetics using the iodine clock reaction. The combination slows down degradation of the prepared solutions and can be used successfully for several weeks. (JRH)

  20. Iodine Clock Reaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Richard S.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a combination of solutions that can be used in the study of kinetics using the iodine clock reaction. The combination slows down degradation of the prepared solutions and can be used successfully for several weeks. (JRH)

  1. Iodine Hall Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szabo, James

    2015-01-01

    Iodine enables dramatic mass and cost savings for lunar and Mars cargo missions, including Earth escape and near-Earth space maneuvers. The demonstrated throttling ability of iodine is important for a singular thruster that might be called upon to propel a spacecraft from Earth to Mars or Venus. The ability to throttle efficiently is even more important for missions beyond Mars. In the Phase I project, Busek Company, Inc., tested an existing Hall thruster, the BHT-8000, on iodine propellant. The thruster was fed by a high-flow iodine feed system and supported by an existing Busek hollow cathode flowing xenon gas. The Phase I propellant feed system was evolved from a previously demonstrated laboratory feed system. Throttling of the thruster between 2 and 11 kW at 200 to 600 V was demonstrated. Testing showed that the efficiency of iodine fueled BHT-8000 is the same as with xenon, with iodine delivering a slightly higher thrust-to-power (T/P) ratio. In Phase II, a complete iodine-fueled system was developed, including the thruster, hollow cathode, and iodine propellant feed system. The nominal power of the Phase II system is 8 kW; however, it can be deeply throttled as well as clustered to much higher power levels. The technology also can be scaled to greater than 100 kW per thruster to support megawatt-class missions. The target thruster efficiency for the full-scale system is 65 percent at high specific impulse (Isp) (approximately 3,000 s) and 60 percent at high thrust (Isp approximately 2,000 s).

  2. Experimental verification of the Einstein A-coefficient used for evaluation of O2(1Δg) concentration in the chemical oxygen-iodine laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spalek, O.; Kodymová, J.; Stopka, P.; Micek, I.

    1999-04-01

    This paper is a contribution to the current discussion on the Einstein coefficient for spontaneous emission (A-coefficient) of singlet delta oxygen, O2(1Δg), that is often used for an evaluation of O2(1Δg) concentration in a chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL). The published values of the A-coefficient vary in a wide range, corresponding to a radiative lifetime of O2(1Δg), τ_Δ^rad, from ~53 to ~151 min. This could make an evaluation of COIL operation questionable. In this paper, the Einstein A-coefficient is estimated, based on the comparison of O2(1Δg) concentrations determined by two independent methods: electron paramagnetic resonance and emission spectroscopy. Within the accuracy of the experimental techniques used, the value of the A-coefficient resulting from our investigation is (2.24±0.40) × 10-4 s-1, corresponding to τ_Δ^rad of ~74 min. This result is more consistent with the value of 2.58 × 10-4 s-1 of Badger et al [1] than with the value of 1.47 × 10-4 s-1 reported recently by Mlynczak and Nesbitt [2], who raised doubt about the Badger et al value.

  3. [Iodine deficiency in pregnancy--a continuing public health problem].

    PubMed

    Szybiński, Zbigniew

    2005-01-01

    Iodine prophylaxis in Poland started in 1997 and is based on mandatory iodzation of household salt with 20-40 mg KI/ 1 kg, supplementation of bottle fed infants with iodized formulas with 10,0 microg KI/100 ml, and a voluntary supplementation of pregnant and breast feeding women with additional 100-150 microg of iodine/ day. Last evaluation of efficacy of the iodine prophylaxis performed in 2003 by WHO and International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders allocated Poland within the group of the European countries with sufficient iodine supplementation on the population level. However according to data of the Institute of Mather and Chield in Poland, around 50 % of pregnant women only is additionally supplemented with iodine. Iodine deficiency during pregnancy even as a moderate iodine deficiency, creates a risk of mental retardation, perinatal complication like low and very low births weigt of neonates with increased perinatal mortality rate and late consequences in adult life: metabolic syndrom and type 2 diabetes. Another limitation of the actual model of iodine prophylaxis in Poland, it is too high consumption of natrum chloride (over 5,0 g of household salt/day/ capita). It is around 50% over WHO recommendation. Intensive preventive program against hypertension, type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, osteoporosis and some neoplasmatic diseases includes limitation of natrum chloride consumption- as one of the risk factors. Therefore new scope of the National Programme for Elimination of Iodine Deficiency will include: a special prorgramme for the iodization of animal food according to european standard, increased rate of pregnant women additionally supplemented with iodine, strengthening public awarness on necessary increase of milk consumption especially in pregnancy and in children and continouse monitoring system of biologic effects and technologic quality of the model of iodine prophylaxis.

  4. Iodine deficiency and thyroid disorders.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Michael B; Boelaert, Kristien

    2015-04-01

    Iodine deficiency early in life impairs cognition and growth, but iodine status is also a key determinant of thyroid disorders in adults. Severe iodine deficiency causes goitre and hypothyroidism because, despite an increase in thyroid activity to maximise iodine uptake and recycling in this setting, iodine concentrations are still too low to enable production of thyroid hormone. In mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency, increased thyroid activity can compensate for low iodine intake and maintain euthyroidism in most individuals, but at a price: chronic thyroid stimulation results in an increase in the prevalence of toxic nodular goitre and hyperthyroidism in populations. This high prevalence of nodular autonomy usually results in a further increase in the prevalence of hyperthyroidism if iodine intake is subsequently increased by salt iodisation. However, this increase is transient because iodine sufficiency normalises thyroid activity which, in the long term, reduces nodular autonomy. Increased iodine intake in an iodine-deficient population is associated with a small increase in the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmunity; whether these increases are also transient is unclear. Variations in population iodine intake do not affect risk for Graves' disease or thyroid cancer, but correction of iodine deficiency might shift thyroid cancer subtypes toward less malignant forms. Thus, optimisation of population iodine intake is an important component of preventive health care to reduce the prevalence of thyroid disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Iodine status among pregnant women in rural Sabah, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kuang Kuay; Chan, Ying Ying; Teh, Chien Huey; Ismail, Hasimah; Yusof, Rafidah; Muhi, Jamail; Lim, Kuang Hock; Foo, Leng Huat

    2017-01-01

    In 2000, legislation on mandatory universal salt iodisation was enacted in Sabah, Malaysia, to reduce the incidence of iodine deficiency disorders among its population. To evaluate the iodine levels among pregnant women from selected rural divisions in Sabah 13 years after the enactment of the universal salt iodisation programme. This cross-sectional study was conducted from 1 May to 30 June, 2013, in three rural divisions of Sabah (the Interior, the West Coast, and Kudat). Data regarding domestic iodised salt use and iodine-containing supplement consumption were obtained from respondents through face-to-face interviews; goitre enlargement was examined through palpation and graded according to the World Health Organization classification. Spot urine samples were also obtained to assess urinary iodine levels by using an in-house modified micromethod. In total, 534 pregnant women participated. The prevalence of goitre was 1.0% (n=5), noted only in the West Coast and Kudat divisions. Although all pregnant women consumed iodised salt, overall median urinary iodine concentration was only 106 μg/L, indicating insufficient iodine intake, with nearly two-thirds of the women (60%) having a median urinary iodine concentrations of <150 μg/L. Pregnant women from the rural divisions in Sabah still exhibit iodine deficiency disorder despite the mandatory universal salt iodisation programme. Iodine supplementation programmes targeting pregnant women are warranted.

  6. Mission and System Advantages of Iodine Hall Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dankanich, John W.; Szabo, James; Pote, Bruce; Oleson, Steve; Kamhawi, Hani

    2014-01-01

    The exploration of alternative propellants for Hall thrusters continues to be of interest to the community. Investments have been made and continue for the maturation of iodine based Hall thrusters. Iodine testing has shown comparable performance to xenon. However, iodine has a higher storage density and resulting higher ?V capability for volume constrained systems. Iodine's vapor pressure is low enough to permit low-pressure storage, but high enough to minimize potential adverse spacecraft-thruster interactions. The low vapor pressure also means that iodine does not condense inside the thruster at ordinary operating temperatures. Iodine is safe, it stores at sub-atmospheric pressure, and can be stored unregulated for years on end; whether on the ground or on orbit. Iodine fills a niche for both low power (<1kW) and high power (>10kW) electric propulsion regimes. A range of missions have been evaluated for direct comparison of Iodine and Xenon options. The results show advantages of iodine Hall systems for both small and microsatellite application and for very large exploration class missions.

  7. [Hygienic assessment of iodine deficiency in the Khabarovsk Territory].

    PubMed

    Driutskaia, S M; Riabkova, V A

    2004-01-01

    Iodine deficiency is one of the most common non-communicable human diseases. The Khabarovsk Territory is among the regions affected by this condition. A complex evaluation was made of the content of iodine in the environment (water, soil), foodstuffs, and the population in the Khabarovsk Territory. By keeping in mind its great extent from north to south, Khabarovsk Territory has been divided into three areas: northern, central, and southern, by taking into account their climatic, soil, and environmental conditions. The population of the northern area of the Territory was found to be at the highest risk of iodine deficiency since the content of iodine in the foodstuffs, water, and soil was the least. The native population of the Amyr Region is more resistant to iodine deficiency than non-indigenous groups. The children of the Territory are at higher risk for iodine deficiency-associated conditions. A comprehensive study of the levels of iodine in the foodstuffs, environmental objects, and population has revealed that the Khabarovsk Territory is endemic in iodine deficiency, and its population has mild to moderate iodine deficiency.

  8. Iodine sorption by highly weathered soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruns, W. A.; Bruns, M. R.; Kaplan, D. I.; Murphy, T.; Roberts, K.; Thompson, A.; Seaman, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    Radioactive iodine (I) isotopes such as I-129 are widely distributed throughout Department of Energy (DOE) and other nuclear sites as a result of past enrichment activities. While natural-abundance I serves an important role in thyroid function in human beings, anthropogenic I can cause thyroid cancer. Predominant I species are anionic and generally assumed to move conservatively through typical negatively-charged subsurface material with the mobile water phase. However, many of the 129I contaminated soils and subsurface materials on the DOE Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, SC, contain significant positive charge, which could retain I-129. A series of batch and column experiments were performed in order to determine sorption of three different I species (iodide, iodate, and an organic I compound, 4-iodaniline) over a range of aqueous concentrations (10^-4 to 10^-8 M) onto surface and subsurface soils from SRS. Total aqueous I in solution after equilibration was measured using ICP-MS and used to calculate the partitioning coefficient (Kd). Kd values for all three species were much higher at lower dissolved I concentrations (i.e., non-linear partitioning), and correlated with CDB-extractable Fe and Al and well as soil organic matter content. For the species and concentrations that exhibited high Kd values (>5), we conducted column experiments to evaluate partitioning under dynamic advective systems, using tritium for comparison as a conservative hydrologic tracer. We tracked pH, EC, and hydraulic head in real-time, and the effluent was collected for I analysis as described above. The results indicate a complex pattern of I movement in the natural environment affected by isotope concentration, speciation, and soil characteristics.

  9. State-of-the-art for evaluating the potential impact of tectonism and volcanism on a radioactive waste repository

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-16

    Most estimates of the time required for safe isolation of radioactive wastes from the biosphere range from 100,000 to 1,000,000 years. For such long time spans, it is necessary to assess the potential effects of geologic processes such as volcanism and tectonic activity on the integrity of geologic repositories. Predictions of geologic phenomena can be based on probabilistic models, which assume a random distribution of events. The necessary historic and geologic records are rarely available to provide an adequate data base for such predictions. The observed distribution of volcanic and tectonic activity is not random, and appears to be controlled by extremely complex deterministic processes. The advent of global plate tectonic theory in the past two decades has been a giant step toward understanding these processes. At each potential repository site, volcanic and tectonic processes should be evaluated to provide the most thorough possible understanding of those deterministic processes. Based on this knowledge, judgements will have to be made as to whether or not the volcanic and tectonic processes pose unacceptable risk to the integrity of the repository. This report describes the potential hazards associated with volcanism and tectonism, and the means for evaluating these processes.

  10. An evaluation of the level of naturally occurring radioactive material in soil samples along the Chao Phraya river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santawamaitre, T.; Regan, P. H.; Bradley, D. A.; Matthews, M.; Malain, D.; Al-Sulaiti, H. A.

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of natural radioactivity in river sediments and riverbank surface soils collected along the Chao Phraya River and its tributaries in Thailand. The activity concentrations of radionuclides in 238U and 232Th decay chains as well as 40K in all samples have been determined by means of a gamma-ray spectrometry system using a hyper-pure germanium detector in a low background configuration. The ranges of specific activity for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were found to be 15.2-67.0, 16.8-73.3 and 204.6-656.5 Bq kg -1, respectively. Additionally, evaluations have been made of the absorbed gamma dose rate in air and the annual effective dose equivalent from outdoor terrestrial gamma radiation in order to assess any excess radiological risk from agricultural usage of fertilizers. In this study, the absorbed dose rate was observed to vary from 30.5 to 102.6 nGy h -1 and the outdoor annual effective dose equivalent to range from 37.4 to 125.8 μSv yr -1.

  11. Iodine Supplementation in the Newborn

    PubMed Central

    Ghirri, Paolo; Lunardi, Sara; Boldrini, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Iodine deficiency can be defined as the world’s greatest single cause of preventable brain damage. Fetal and neonatal hypothyroidism, caused by iodine deficiency can be prevented prior to conception and then during pregnancy and lactation when an adequate iodine supplementation is ensured. Extremely low birth weight preterm babies risk having a negative iodine balance status in the first weeks of life, exacerbating the hypothyroxinaemia of the prematurity. It is important to ensure that these babies are provided with an adequate iodine intake from the first days of life. Mothers and newborns should avoid environmental iodine excess during pregnancy or lactation. PMID:24448111

  12. Intraluminal Radioactive Stent Compared with Covered Stent Alone for the Treatment of Malignant Esophageal Stricture

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Zhongmin; Huang Xunbo; Cao Jun; Huang Gang; Chen Kemin LIu Yu; Liu Fenju

    2012-04-15

    Objective: This study was designed to compare the clinical effectiveness of intraluminal radioactive stent loaded with iodine-125 seeds implantation versus covered stent alone insertion in patients with malignant esophageal stricture. Methods: We studied two groups of patients with malignant esophageal stricture. Group A comprised 28 patients (19 men and 9 women) who underwent intraluminal radioactive stent loaded with iodine-125 seeds implantation and were followed prospectively. Group B comprised 30 patients (18 men and 12 women) who had previously received covered stent alone insertion; these patients were evaluated retrospectively. There was no crossover between the two groups during follow-up. Informed consent was obtained from each patient, and our institutional review board approved the study. The dysphagia score, overall survival rates, complication rates, and reintervention rates were compared in the two groups. Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of baseline characteristics. Stent placement was technically successful and well tolerated in all patients. The dysphagia score was improved in both groups after stent placement. The median survival was significantly longer in group A than in group B: 11 versus 4.9 months, respectively (P < 0.001). The complications of chest pain, esophageal reflux, and stent migration was more frequent in group B, but this difference did not reach statistical significance. There was no statistical difference in reintervention between two groups. Conclusions: Intraluminal radioactive stent loaded with iodine-125 seeds implantation was a feasible and practical management in treating malignant esophageal stricture and was superior to covered stent alone insertion, as measured by survival.

  13. Thyroid iodide compartments and their implication in the rat thyroid iodine organification

    SciTech Connect

    Bastiani, P.; Simon, C.

    1982-05-01

    To estimate the relative participation of transported and intrathyroidally generated iodide (internal iodide) in the iodination of newly synthesized and preexisting thyroglobulin (Tg) in the rat thyroid, the specific radioactivities (SRAs) of thyroid iodide, Tg, lysosomal iodine, and plasma hormones were followed for 92 h after radioactive iodide injection in intact or hypophysectomized rats. In control rats, the SRA of Tg and lysosomal iodine reached a maximum at 12 h. However, the SRA of lysosomal iodide was always smaller than that of Tg. In contrast, the SRA of hormonal iodide attained a maximum at 48 h. Thus, newly labeled iodine is endocytosed and mixed inside the lysosomes with older previously iodinated molecules; hormone secretion is mainly due to old labeled iodine (i.e. iodine with a high SRA from 48-96 h). These results are consistent with the presence of least two Tg compartments, with different turnover rates and hormone contents. On the other hand, in hypophysectomized rats, the SRA of Tg, lysosomes, and hormones showed only one maximum, at 24 h. Furthermore, the SRAs of Tg and lysosomes were similar at each time interval. It is inferred that in such rats, the old labeled iodine compartment is strongly reduced, and that inside the lysosomes, newly labeled iodine is predominant. Since in hypophysectomized rats, the recycling of iodide is abolished, it is concluded that in normal rats: 1) transported iodide is organified mainly by direct iodination of newly synthesized Tg, independently of TSH, and 2) internal iodide is organified mainly by delayed iodination of preexisting Tg, this process being TSH dependent.

  14. RADIOACTIVE BATTERY

    DOEpatents

    Birden, J.H.; Jordan, K.C.

    1959-11-17

    A radioactive battery which includes a capsule containing the active material and a thermopile associated therewith is presented. The capsule is both a shield to stop the radiations and thereby make the battery safe to use, and an energy conventer. The intense radioactive decay taking place inside is converted to useful heat at the capsule surface. The heat is conducted to the hot thermojunctions of a thermopile. The cold junctions of the thermopile are thermally insulated from the heat source, so that a temperature difference occurs between the hot and cold junctions, causing an electrical current of a constant magnitude to flow.

  15. Evaluation of thyroid radioactivity measurement data from Hanford workers, 1944--1946

    SciTech Connect

    Ikenberry, T.A.

    1991-05-01

    This report describes the preliminary results of an evaluation conducted in support of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The primary objective of the HEDR Project is to estimate the radiation doses that populations could have received from nuclear operations at the Hanford Site since 1944. A secondary objective is to make information that HEDR staff members used in estimate radiation doses available to the public. The objectives of this report to make available thyroid measurement data from Hanford workers for the year 1944 through 1946, and to investigate the suitability of those data for use in the HEDR dose estimation process. An important part of this investigation was to provide a description of the uncertainty associated with the data. Lack of documentation on thyroid measurements from this period required that assumptions be made to perform data evaluations. These assumptions introduce uncertainty into the evaluations that could be significant. It is important to recognize the nature of these assumptions, the inherent uncertainty, and the propagation of this uncertainty, and the propagation of this uncertainty through data evaluations to any conclusions that can be made by using the data. 15 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  16. Iodine nutrition in pregnancy and lactation.

    PubMed

    Leung, Angela M; Pearce, Elizabeth N; Braverman, Lewis E

    2011-12-01

    Adequate iodine intake is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones that are important for normal fetal and infant neurodevelopment. In this review, we discuss iodine physiology during pregnancy and lactation, methods to assess iodine sufficiency, the importance of adequate iodine nutrition, studies of iodine supplementation during pregnancy and lactation, the consequences of hypothyroidism during pregnancy, the current status of iodine nutrition in the United States, the global efforts toward achieving universal iodine sufficiency, and substances that may interfere with iodine use.

  17. p-Tertbutylcalix[4]arene nanoemulsion: preparation, characterization and comparative evaluation of its decontamination efficacy against Technetium-99m, Iodine-131 and Thallium-201.

    PubMed

    Rana, Sudha; Sharma, Navneet; Ojha, Himanshu; Shivkumar, Hosakote Gurumalappa; Sultana, Sarwat; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to develop p-tertbutylcalix[4]arene o/w nanoemulsion for decontamination of radioisotopes from skin. Formulation was characterized using dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), multi-photon confocal microscopy techniques and in vitro dissolution studies. In vivo evaluation of nano-emulsion was done using nuclear medicine technique. Stability studies and dermal toxicity studies were also carried out. Comparative decontamination efficacy (DE) studies were performed on synthetic human tissue equivalent material and Sprague Dawley rat against three commonly used medical radioisotopes, i.e., Technetium-99m ((99m)Tc), Iodine-131 ((131)I) and Thallium-201 ((201)Tl). Decontamination was performed using cotton swabs soaked in nanoemulsion at different time intervals of contaminants exposure. Whole body imaging and static counts were recorded using gamma camera before and after each decontamination attempt data was analyzed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and found to be statistically significant (p<0.05). DE of the nanoemulsion loaded with p-tertbutylcalix[4]arene was observed to be 88±5%, 90±3% and 89±3% for (99m)Tc, (131)I and (201)Tl respectively. Dermal toxicity studies revealed no significant differences between treated and control animals. Skin histopathology slides with and without API (Active pharmaceutical ingredients) also found to be comparable. p-Tertbutylcalix[4]arene loaded nanoemulsion shows great promise for skin decontamination against broad ranges of radiological contaminants besides being stable and safe.

  18. Iodine deficiency in Europe.

    PubMed

    Delange, F

    1995-01-18

    Iodine is a trace element present in the human body in minute amounts (15-20 mg in adults, i.e. 0.0285 x 10(-3)% of body weight). The only confirmed function of iodine is to constitute an essential substrate for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, tetraiodothyronine, thyroxine or T4 and triiodothyronine, T3 (1). In thyroxine, iodine is 60% by weight. Thyroid hormones, in turn, play a decisive role in the metabolism of all cells of the organism (2) and in the process of early growth and development of most organs, especially of the brain (3). Brain development in humans occurs from fetal life up to the third postnatal year (4). Consequently, a deficit in iodine and/or in thyroid hormones occurring during this critical period of life will result not only in the slowing down of the metabolic activities of all the cells of the organism but also in irreversible alterations in the development of the brain. The clinical consequence will be mental retardation (5). When the physiological requirements of iodine are not met in a given population, a series of functional and developmental abnormalities occur (Table 1), including thyroid function abnormalities and, when iodine deficiency is severe, endemic goiter and cretinism, endemic mental retardation, decreased fertility rate, increased perinatal death, and infant mortality. These complications, which constitute an hindrance to the development of the affected population, are grouped under the general heading of Iodine Deficiency Disorders, IDD (6). Broad geographic areas exist in which the population is affected by IDD.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Serum and tissue iodine concentrations in rats fed diets supplemented with kombu powder or potassium iodide.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Munehiro; Mukama, Ayumi; Hosomi, Ryota; Fukunaga, Kenji; Nishiyama, Toshimasa

    2014-01-01

    Serum and tissue iodine concentration was measured in rats fed a diet supplemented with powdered kombu (Saccharina sculpera) or potassium iodide to evaluate the absorption of iodine from kombu. Eighteen male 5-wk-old Wistar rats were divided into three groups and fed a basal AIN93G diet (iodine content, 0.2 mg/kg) or the basal diet supplemented with iodine (183 mg/kg) either in the form of kombu powder or potassium iodine (KI) for 4 wk. There were no differences in weight gain or serum biochemistry tests (alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activity, and total serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentration) after iodine supplementation. In addition, serum levels of the thyroid hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine, as well as thyroid-stimulating hormone, were not affected. On the other hand, serum and tissue (thyroid, liver and kidney) iodine concentrations were markedly elevated after iodine supplementation. There was no difference in thyroid iodine concentration between KI and kombu supplementation. However, there was a significant difference observed in the iodine concentrations of serum, liver and kidney between the two iodine sources; rats fed KI had iodine concentrations in these tissues 1.8 to 1.9 times higher than those in rats fed kombu powder. These results suggest that the absorption of iodine from kombu is reduced compared to that from potassium iodide.

  20. Natural radioactivity and evaluation of effective dose equivalent of granites in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Osmanlioglu, Ahmet Erdal

    2006-01-01

    Annual effective dose equivalent due to natural gamma radiation from (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K have been evaluated from granites in Turkey. Forty samples were taken for spectrometric analysis. Specific concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K in granite samples were determined. Spectroscopy system was used with 1.8 keV (FWHM) coaxial high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. Average values of concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K were detected at 15.85, 33.76 and 359 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The average value of radon varies from 0.073 to 0.185 Bq m(-2) h(-1) exhalation depends on the specific concentration of uranium. The dose rate due to this highest activity which have been evaluated by a Monte Carlo transport calculations does not exceed 0.4 mSv a(-1).

  1. Evaluation of geologic materials to limit biological intrusion into low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    SciTech Connect

    Hakonson, T.E.

    1986-02-01

    This report describes the results of a three-year research program to evaluate the performance of selected soil and rock trench cap designs in limiting biological intrusion into simulated waste. The report is divided into three sections including a discussion of background material on biological interactions with waste site trench caps, a presentation of experimental data from field studies conducted at several scales, and a final section on the interpretation and limitations of the data including implications for the user.

  2. Assessment and evaluation of engineering options at a low-level radioactive waste storage site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanehiro, B. Y.; Guvanasen, V.

    1982-09-01

    Solutions to hydrologic and geotechnical problems associated with existing disposal sites were sought and the efficiency of engineering options that were proposed to improve the integrity of such sites were evaluated. The Weldon Spring site is generally like other low-level nuclear waste sites, except that the wastes are primarily in the form of residues and contaminated rubble from the processing of uranium and thorium ores rather than industrial isotopes or mill tailings.

  3. Dissolved Concentration Limits of Radioactive Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Y. Chen; E.R. Thomas; F.J. Pearson; P.L. Cloke; T.L. Steinborn; P.V. Brady

    2003-06-20

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of radioactive elements under possible repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, and measurements made in laboratory experiments and field work. The scope of this modeling activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for 14 radioactive elements (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium), which are important to calculated dose. Model outputs are mainly in the form of look-up tables plus one or more uncertainty terms. The rest are either in the form of distributions or single values. The results of this analysis are fundamental inputs for total system performance assessment to constrain the release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Solubilities of plutonium, neptunium, uranium, americium, actinium, thorium, protactinium, lead, and radium have been re-evaluated using the newly updated thermodynamic database (Data0.ymp.R2). For all of the actinides, identical modeling approaches and consistent environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models in this revision. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so that they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, activity coefficients, and selection of solubility controlling phase have been quantified or otherwise addressed. Moreover, a new blended plutonium solubility model has been developed in this revision, which gives a mean solubility that is three orders of magnitude lower than the plutonium solubility model used for the Total System Performance Assessment for the Site Recommendation. Two alternative neptunium solubility models have also been

  4. Automated carbon dioxide digital angiography for lower-limb arterial disease evaluation: safety assessment and comparison with standard iodinated contrast media angiography.

    PubMed

    Scalise, Filippo; Novelli, Eugenio; Auguadro, Carla; Casali, Valentina; Manfredi, Mariella; Zannoli, Romano

    2015-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) has been validated as a contrast agent in a large series of studies. A particular advantages of CO2 over iodinated contrast medium (ICM) is the absence of nephrotoxicity and allergic reactions. One of the limitations of CO2 angiography is the difficulty of CO2 manual injection due to its compressibility. The manual gas injection does not permit optimal control of the gas output. Development of an automated CO2 injector has overcome these problems. This study compares the feasibility, safety, and diagnostic accuracy of automated CO2 digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in comparison with ICM-DSA in the evaluation of critical limb ischemic (CLI) patients. We performed DSA with both CO2 and ICM on 40 consecutive CLI patients and directly compared the two techniques. Sixteen females and 24 males participated in the study (mean age, 71.7 years). We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of CO2 in identifying arterial stenosis in the lower limb, with ICM-DSA used as the gold standard. The overall diagnostic accuracy of CO2-DSA was 96.9% (sensitivity, 99.0%; specificity, 96.1%; positive predictive value, 91.1%; negative predictive value, 99.6%). Tolerable minor symptoms occurred in 3 patients. No allergic reactions or significant decline in renal function were observed in patients receiving the CO2 injection. Carbon dioxide DSA is a valuable and safe alternative to traditional ICM-DSA for evaluating CLI patients. This modality should be considered as the standard choice for CLI patients undergoing angiographic evaluation who are known to have renal insufficiency or contrast allergy.

  5. Radioactive Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaylock, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of radioactive waste disposal, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the studies included are: (1) high-level and long-lived wastes, and (2) release and burial of low-level wastes. A list of 42 references is also presented. (HM)

  6. Radioactive Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaylock, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of radioactive waste disposal, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the studies included are: (1) high-level and long-lived wastes, and (2) release and burial of low-level wastes. A list of 42 references is also presented. (HM)

  7. Evaluation of Radioactivity Concentration in Tilapia Nilotica and Radiation Dose to Egyptian Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amer, Hannan H.; El-Khawas, Enas H.

    2013-03-01

    One of the three goals of the United Nations for sustainable food security is to ensure that all people have access to sufficient, nutritionally adequate, and safe food. The study was carried out to evaluate the Uranium (238U) and thorium (232Th) concentration in the Bolti (Tilapia nilotica) fish collected from Nasser Lake by using two different types of detectors CR-39 SSNTDs and gamma spectroscopy. The annual intake of Bolti fish was estimated on the basis of their average annual consumption. Calculations were also made to determine the effective dose to an individual consuming such diet.

  8. [Iodinated contrast media and iodine allergy: myth or reality?].

    PubMed

    Meunier, B; Joskin, J; Damas, F; Meunier, P

    2013-09-01

    The term "iodine allergy" is an old phrase that refers to a reaction to iodinated contrast media. After a brief review of definitions, pathophysiological mechanisms and risk factors of this clinical entity, management is urged immediate and delayed according to the most recent recommendations from the literature. We underline that iodine allergy, as such, does not really exist.

  9. Baseline evaluation for natural radioactivity level and radiological hazardous parameters associated with processing of high grade monazite.

    PubMed

    El Afifi, E M; Shahr El-Din, A M; Aglan, R F; Borai, E H; Abo-Aly, M M

    2017-10-01

    Egyptian monazite is a promising resource and investment attractive for production of valuable metals of industrial or nuclear interest such as rare earth elements (REEs), thorium (Th) and uranium (U). The study was focused to establish a baseline framework in viewpoint of radiation protection for the workers in production of REEs from high-grade monazite treated by sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions. Radiological hazard indices (cancer, gonadal and other risks) were evaluated, due to emissions (α-, β- and γ-radiations) of radium-isotopes ((228)Ra, (226)Ra, (223)Ra) and lead ((210)Pb). The values of the estimated radiological hazard indices were higher than the permissible safe limits, worldwide average and varied with those reported in other countries. It was found that more than 70% of radioactivity and radiological hazardous indices resulted from emissions of (228)Ra, while the rest was attributed to (226)Ra, (223)Ra and (210)Pb. Therefore, processing of the Egyptian monazite can cause a significant radiological impact on workers through external exposure from γ-radiations and/or internal exposure through inhalation or ingestion airborne contaminated by the radionuclides. Thus, the results recommended that protection rules could be considered to prevent the radiation hazards associated with the production of the REEs from the high grade monazite attacked by caustic method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of naturally occurring radioactivity across the State of Kuwait using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajoga, A. D.; Alazemi, N.; Shams, H.; Regan, P. H.; Bradley, D. A.

    2017-08-01

    A study of natural radioactivity from 90 different soil samples from the state of Kuwait has been carried out to ascertain the NORM concentration values across the country. The calculated activity concentrations were determined from: (i) the decays of the 226Ra, 214Pb and 214Bi members of the 4n+2 decay chain headed by 238U and; (ii) the 228Ac, 212Pb and 208Tl members of the 4n chain headed by 232Th. The study also included evaluations for the 235U decay chain with the 186 keV doublet transition used together with the measured 4n+2 activity concentration values to determine the 235U/238U isotopic ratios for each sample. The values for the arithmetic mean activity concentrations for 90 separate locations across Kuwait as determined in the current work were 17.2, 14.1, and 368 Bq/kg, with standard deviations of 5.2, 3.7 and 90 Bq/kg for the 238U, 232Th and 40K activity concentrations respectively. Measured isotope ratios for 235U/238U give an arithmetic mean value for all of the samples of 0.045±0.003, consistent with that expected for natural uranium. These results indicate no evidence for a radiologically significant dispersion of additional depleted uranium across the entire State of Kuwait from the 1991 Gulf War.

  11. [Is iodine deficiency still relevant?].

    PubMed

    Gärtner, R

    2007-02-22

    In Germany, iodine deficiency and its consequences is still a problem, although it is of less importance than it was twenty years ago. In accordance with the WHO definition, Germany still belongs among those countries with mild iodine deficiency and too low an intake of iodine. As a result groups at particular risk, such as pregnant and nursing women, must still receive iodine supplementation, since, in the absence of supplemental iodine,the amount of iodine in the mother's milk continues to be below average throughout Germany. Both in private households and in the food industry, the aim is to increase the use of iodized salt to more than go%. This entails no risk of an iodine overdose. The current average daily uptake of iodine of approximately 120 micrograms is responsible neither for the development or progression of an autoimmune disease nor a functional disorder of the thyroid gland.

  12. Iodine deficiency disorders in Europe.

    PubMed Central

    Delange, F.; Bürgi, H.

    1989-01-01

    Recent data on iodine excretion in the urine of adults, adolescents and newborns and on the iodine content of breast milk indicate a high prevalence of iodine deficiency (moderate in many cases and severe in a few) in many European countries. These cases may manifest as subclinical hypothyroidism in neonates and as goitre in adolescents and adults. Lack of iodine causes not only goitre, but also mental deficiency, hearing loss and other neurological impairments, and short stature due to thyroid insufficiency during fetal development and childhood. Although iodinated salt is available theoretically in most countries where it is needed, its quality and share of the market are often unsatisfactory. In many countries where only household salt is iodinated the iodine content has been set too low owing to an overestimation of household salt consumption. Governments are therefore urged to pass legislation and provide means for efficient iodination of salt wherever this is necessary. PMID:2670299

  13. IODINE NUTRITION DURING PREGNANCY IN TORONTO, CANADA

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Pamela M.; Leung, Angela M.; Braverman, Lewis E.; Pearce, Elizabeth N.; Tomlinson, George; He, Xuemei; Vertes, Jaclyn; Okun, Nan; Walfish, Paul G.; Feig, Denice S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the status of iodine nutrition among pregnant women presenting for routine antenatal care in Toronto, Canada, as determined by the median urine iodine concentration (UIC) of this population. Methods A cross-sectional, observational study was conducted involving 142 pregnant women recruited from four low-risk antenatal outpatient clinics in Toronto, Canada. Subjects completed a questionnaire and provided a spot urine sample for the measurement of iodine concentration. Results Mean maternal age was 33.8 ± 4.3 years. Mean gestational age was 29.3 ± 7.8 weeks. The median UIC was 221 μg/L (interquartile range, 142 to 397 μg/L). Six women (4.2%) had urine iodine levels <50 μg/L, and 36 women (25.4%) had levels between 50 and 150 μg/L. Conclusion This cohort of primarily Caucasian, well-educated, and relatively affluent pregnant women in Toronto, Canada, are iodine sufficient, perhaps due to universal salt iodization and/or other dietary and lifestyle factors. PMID:23186967

  14. Iodine nutrition during pregnancy in Toronto, Canada.

    PubMed

    Katz, Pamela M; Leung, Angela M; Braverman, Lewis E; Pearce, Elizabeth N; Tomlinson, George; He, Xuemei; Vertes, Jaclyn; Okun, Nan; Walfish, Paul G; Feig, Denice S

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the status of iodine nutrition among pregnant women presenting for routine antenatal care in Toronto, Canada, as determined by the median urine iodine concentration (UIC) of this population. A cross-sectional, observational study was conducted involving 142 pregnant women recruited from four low-risk antenatal outpatient clinics in Toronto, Canada. Subjects completed a questionnaire and provided a spot urine sample for the measurement of iodine concentration. Mean maternal age was 33.8 ± 4.3 years. Mean gestational age was 29.3 ± 7.8 weeks. The median UIC was 221 μg/L (interquartile range, 142 to 397 μg/L). Six women (4.2%) had urine iodine levels <50 μg/L, and 36 women (25.4%) had levels between 50 and 150 μg/L. This cohort of primarily Caucasian, well-educated, and relatively affluent pregnant women in Toronto, Canada, are iodine sufficient, perhaps due to universal salt iodization and/or other dietary and lifestyle factors.

  15. Geologic and hydrologic characterization and evaluation of the Basin and Range Province relative to the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Part III. Geologic and hydrologic evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Bedinger, M.S.; Sargent, K.A.; Brady, B.T.

    1985-12-31

    This report describes the first phase in evaluating the geology and hydrology of the Basin and Range Province for potential suitability of geohydrologic environments for isolation of high-level radioactive waste. The geologic and hydrologic factors considered in the Province evaluation include distribution of potential host rocks, tectonic conditions and data on ground-water hydrology. Potential host media considered include argillaceous rocks, tuff, basaltic rocks, granitic rocks, evaporites, and the unsaturated zone. The tectonic factors considered are Quaternary faults, late Cenozoic volcanics, seismic activity, heat flow, and late Cenozoic rates of vertical uplift. Hydrologic conditions considered include length of flow path from potential host rocks to discharge areas, interbasin and geothermal flow systems and thick unsaturated sections as potential host media. The Basin and Range Province was divided into 12 subprovinces; each subprovince is evaluated separately and prospective areas for further study are identified. About one-half of the Province appears to have combinations of potential host rocks, tectonic conditions, and ground-water hydrology that merit consideration for further study. The prospective areas for further study in each subprovince are summarized in a brief list of the potentially favorable factors and the issues of concern. Data compiled for the entire Province do not permit a complete evaluation of the favorability for high-level waste isolation. The evaluations here are intended to identify broad regions that contain potential geohydrologic environments containing multiple natural barriers to radionuclide migration. 13 refs., 14 figs.

  16. Hydrogen peroxide-dependent uptake of iodine by marine Flavobacteriaceae bacterium strain C-21.

    PubMed

    Amachi, Seigo; Kimura, Koh; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Shinoyama, Hirofumi; Fujii, Takaaki

    2007-12-01

    The cells of the marine bacterium strain C-21, which is phylogenetically closely related to Arenibacter troitsensis, accumulate iodine in the presence of glucose and iodide (I-). In this study, the detailed mechanism of iodine uptake by C-21 was determined using a radioactive iodide tracer, 125I-. In addition to glucose, oxygen and calcium ions were also required for the uptake of iodine. The uptake was not inhibited or was only partially inhibited by various metabolic inhibitors, whereas reducing agents and catalase strongly inhibited the uptake. When exogenous glucose oxidase was added to the cell suspension, enhanced uptake of iodine was observed. The uptake occurred even in the absence of glucose and oxygen if hydrogen peroxide was added to the cell suspension. Significant activity of glucose oxidase was found in the crude extracts of C-21, and it was located mainly in the membrane fraction. These findings indicate that hydrogen peroxide produced by glucose oxidase plays a key role in the uptake of iodine. Furthermore, enzymatic oxidation of iodide strongly stimulated iodine uptake in the absence of glucose. Based on these results, the mechanism was considered to consist of oxidation of iodide to hypoiodous acid by hydrogen peroxide, followed by passive translocation of this uncharged iodine species across the cell membrane. Interestingly, such a mechanism of iodine uptake is similar to that observed in iodine-accumulating marine algae.

  17. Hydrogen Peroxide-Dependent Uptake of Iodine by Marine Flavobacteriaceae Bacterium Strain C-21▿

    PubMed Central

    Amachi, Seigo; Kimura, Koh; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Shinoyama, Hirofumi; Fujii, Takaaki

    2007-01-01

    The cells of the marine bacterium strain C-21, which is phylogenetically closely related to Arenibacter troitsensis, accumulate iodine in the presence of glucose and iodide (I−). In this study, the detailed mechanism of iodine uptake by C-21 was determined using a radioactive iodide tracer, 125I−. In addition to glucose, oxygen and calcium ions were also required for the uptake of iodine. The uptake was not inhibited or was only partially inhibited by various metabolic inhibitors, whereas reducing agents and catalase strongly inhibited the uptake. When exogenous glucose oxidase was added to the cell suspension, enhanced uptake of iodine was observed. The uptake occurred even in the absence of glucose and oxygen if hydrogen peroxide was added to the cell suspension. Significant activity of glucose oxidase was found in the crude extracts of C-21, and it was located mainly in the membrane fraction. These findings indicate that hydrogen peroxide produced by glucose oxidase plays a key role in the uptake of iodine. Furthermore, enzymatic oxidation of iodide strongly stimulated iodine uptake in the absence of glucose. Based on these results, the mechanism was considered to consist of oxidation of iodide to hypoiodous acid by hydrogen peroxide, followed by passive translocation of this uncharged iodine species across the cell membrane. Interestingly, such a mechanism of iodine uptake is similar to that observed in iodine-accumulating marine algae. PMID:17933915

  18. Evaluation of the radioactive Cs concentration in brown rice based on the K nutritional status of shoots.

    PubMed

    Sekimoto, Hitoshi; Yamada, Takashi; Hotsuki, Tomoe; Fujiwara, Toru; Mimura, Tetsuro; Matsuzaki, Akio

    2014-01-01

    The radioactive cesium ((134,137)Cs) concentration in brown rice is correlated with that in the straw/husk. The distribution of (134,137)Cs, resembles that of potassium (K), a homologous element of Cs, in the rice plant body. The relative isotopic abundance of (40)K is 0.0117 %; thus, 1 g K contains 30.4 Bq ⁴⁰K, and the mass of 4,000 Bq (40)K is 0.0154 g, indicating that the K concentration can be calculated from (40)K concentration. We examined if the radioactive Cs concentration in brown rice can be estimated from (40)K concentrations in straw, and especially might be predicted from the (40)K:(134,137)Cs ratio in straw. We determined the concentrations of (40)K and radioactive Cs in straw and brown rice, and found a strong correlated-equation (y = 72.922 x(-0.759); r = 0.907) between the radioactive Cs concentration in brown rice and the ⁴⁰K:(134,137)Cs ratio in straw. The estimated-radioactive Cs concentration in brown rice can be as much as double, depending on the K nutritional status changing the ⁴⁰K:(134,137)Cs ratio in straw. We herein propose a nutritional diagnosis that radioactive Cs concentrations in brown rice can be predicted from the ⁴⁰K:(134,137)Cs ratio in shoots.

  19. TABLE OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS.

    SciTech Connect

    HOLDEN,N.E.

    2001-06-29

    For those chemical elements which have no stable nuclides with a terrestrial isotopic composition, the data on radioactive half-lives and relative atomic masses for the nuclides of interest and importance have been evaluated and the recommended values and uncertainties are listed.

  20. TABLE OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS.

    SciTech Connect

    HOLDEN,N.E.

    2001-06-29

    For those chemical elements which have no stable nuclides with a terrestrial isotopic composition, the data on radioactive half-lives and relative atomic masses for the nuclides of interest and importance have been evaluated and the recommended values and uncertainties are listed.

  1. Aqueous chemistry of iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Toth, L.M.; Pannell, K.D.; Kirkland, O.L.

    1984-01-01

    The chemistry of iodine has been examined in aqueous solutions of pH 6 to 10 containing 2500 ppM boron as H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/ at temperatures up to 150/sup 0/C using absorption spectrophotometry to identify and monitor the iodine species present. Kinetic rate constants for the disproportionation of the HOI intermediate, 3HOI= IO/sub 3//sup -/ + 2I/sup -/ + 3H/sup +/, have been measured as a function of pH even though no direct spectral evidence for HOI itself has been observed. An HOI partition coefficient >10/sup 4/ has been estimated; results of ionic strength tests are consistent with HOI being present as an uncharged triatomic species in solution. Redox and radiation effects on the aqueous iodine chemistry have also been described. 11 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Kwang S.; Kim, K. H.; Stock, L. V.

    1987-02-01

    The improvement on the collection system of the Tarmarack Solar Simulator beam was attemped. The basic study of evaluating the solid state laser materials for the solar pumping and also the work to construct a kinetic model algorithm for the flashlamp pumped iodine lasers were carried out. It was observed that the collector cone worked better than the lens assembly in order to collect the solar simulator beam and to focus it down to a strong power density. The study on the various laser materials and their lasing characteristics shows that the neodymium and chromium co-doped gadolinium scandium gallium garnet (Nr:Cr:GSGG) may be a strong candidate for the high power solar pumped solid state laser crystal. On the other hand the improved kinetic modeling for the flashlamp pumped iodine laser provides a good agreement between the theoretical model and the experimental data on the laser power output, and predicts the output parameters of a solar pumped iodine laser.

  3. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Kwang S.; Kim, K. H.; Stock, L. V.

    1987-01-01

    The improvement on the collection system of the Tarmarack Solar Simulator beam was attemped. The basic study of evaluating the solid state laser materials for the solar pumping and also the work to construct a kinetic model algorithm for the flashlamp pumped iodine lasers were carried out. It was observed that the collector cone worked better than the lens assembly in order to collect the solar simulator beam and to focus it down to a strong power density. The study on the various laser materials and their lasing characteristics shows that the neodymium and chromium co-doped gadolinium scandium gallium garnet (Nr:Cr:GSGG) may be a strong candidate for the high power solar pumped solid state laser crystal. On the other hand the improved kinetic modeling for the flashlamp pumped iodine laser provides a good agreement between the theoretical model and the experimental data on the laser power output, and predicts the output parameters of a solar pumped iodine laser.

  4. Selection and evaluation of inner material candidates for Spanish high level radioactive waste canisters

    SciTech Connect

    Puig, Francesc; Dies, Javier; Sevilla, Manuel; Pablo, Joan de; Pueyo, Juan Jose; Miralles, Lourdes; Martinez-Esparza, Aurora

    2007-07-01

    This paper summarizes the work carried out to analyse different alternatives related to the inner material selection of the Spanish high level waste canister for long term storage. The preliminary repository design considers granitic or clay formations, compacted bentonite sealing, corrosion allowing steel canisters and glass bead filling between the fuel assemblies and canister walls. This filling material will have the primary role of avoiding the possibility of a criticality event, which becomes an issue of major importance once the container is finally breached by corrosion and flooded by groundwater. In the first place, a complete set of requirements have been devised as evaluation criteria for candidate materials examination and selection; resulting in a compilation of demands significantly deeper and more exhaustive than any other similar work found in literature, including over 20 requirements and some other general aspects that could involve improvements in repository performance. Secondly, eight materials or material families (cast iron or steel, borosilicate glass, spinel, depleted uranium, dehydrated zeolites, hematite, phosphates and olivine) have been chosen and examined in detail, extracting some relevant conclusions. Either cast iron, borosilicate glass, spinel or depleted uranium are considered to look quite promising for the mentioned purpose. (authors)

  5. [Thyroid cancer after Chernobyl: is iodine 131 the only culprit ? Impact on clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Guiraud-Vitaux, Françoise; Elbast, Mouhamad; Colas-Linhart, Nicole; Hindie, Elif

    2008-02-01

    The large increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer among children who were mainly less than five years old at the time of the Chernobyl accident is still a major preoccupation for endocrinologists and nuclear physicians. Epidemiological studies have focused solely on iodine 131. However, past knowledge on thyroid irradiation (medical use of iodine 131, radioactive fallout on Marshall islands and the Nevada, and Hanford site releases) as well as number of recent works (about low-dose irradiation), raise question on the role of other factors. It is here shown that post-Chernobyl thyroid irradiation is complex and that all factors (iodine 131, but also short lived isotopes of iodine and external irradiation) should be considered. Finally, one need to think about some of the present medical uses of iodine 131, and especially to the treatment of hyperthyroidism in young subjects.

  6. Iodine Affects Differentiation and Migration Process in Trophoblastic Cells.

    PubMed

    Olivo-Vidal, Zendy Evelyn; Rodríguez, Roció Coutiño; Arroyo-Helguera, Omar

    2016-02-01

    Iodine deficiency is associated with oxidative stress increase and preeclampsia during gestation, suggesting that iodine concentration plays an important role in the normal placenta physiology. The question raised is to analyze the effect of iodine deficiency on oxidative stress, viability, differentiation, and migration process and changes in the expression of differentiation and migration markers. Iodine deprivation was done using potassium perchlorate (KCLO4) to block sodium iodide symporter (NIS) transporter and 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid DIDS to inhibit pendrine (PEN) transport for 3-48 h. Then trophoblast cells were treated with low iodine doses of 5-500 μM and high iodine doses of 100-5000 μM. Oxidative stress, viability, and human chorionic gonadotropin (hGC) were measured by colorimetric methods. Migration throphoblast cells were evaluated by both wound healing and Boyden chamber assays. Changes in mRNA expression were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. Iodine deprivation induces a significant increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS), viability, and migration process vs control cells. We found a significant overregulation in the mRNA's peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-gamma), Snail, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) mRNA's in cells deprived of iodine, as well as a down glial cell missing-1 (GCM-1) regulation, hGC, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), and E-cadherin mRNA expression. The expression of hypoxic induction factor alpha (HIFα) mRNA does not change with iodine deprivation. In cells deprived of iodine, supplementing low iodine doses (5-500 μM) does not induce any significant changes in viability. However, ROS and migration process were decreased, although we found an increased human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) secretion as a differentiation marker. In addition, we found that PPAR-gamma, Snail, and MPP-9 mRNAs expression are downregulated with low iodine doses, in contrast with GCM-1, PAPP

  7. Effect of dietary iodine on production of iodine enriched eggs

    PubMed Central

    Sumaiya, Shaikh; Nayak, Sunil; Baghel, R. P. S.; Nayak, Anju; Malapure, C. D.; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different levels of iodine supplementation on iodine content of eggs in laying hens. Materials and Methods: In the experiment, 135 laying hens (White Leghorn) of 55 weeks age were randomly distributed to 5 dietary treatments; each group contained 27 laying hens distributed in three replicates of 9 birds each. Diet T1 was control basal layer diet without iodine enrichment in which iodine content (I2) was as per NRC recommendation. Basal diets were supplemented with calcium iodate (Ca (IO3)2) at 5, 10, 15 and 20 mg/kg in T2, T3, T4 and T5 groups, respectively. The iodine content in the calcium iodate is 65.21%, therefore, the diets T2, T3, T4 and T5 contained 3.25, 6.50, 9.75 and 13.0 ppm iodine, respectively. The laying hens were fed the respective experimental diets ad libitum during the experimental period of 10-week. The iodine content of egg yolk and albumen was analyzed at the end of 5th and 10th week of the experiment. Economics of feeding for the production of iodine enriched egg was calculated at the end of the experiment. Results: Increasing iodine levels in diet of hens from 0.45 to 13.0 ppm significantly increased egg iodine concentration, the highest concentration of egg iodine was observed in the group fed diet supplemented with 13.0 ppm iodine followed by those fed 9.75, 6.50, 3.25 and 0.45 ppm iodine in diet. There was no significant difference in the iodine levels of unboiled versus boiled eggs. Therefore, the consumers are ensured to receive the optimal levels of iodine from boiled iodine-enriched eggs. Among different diets, minimum and significantly lower feeding cost (Rs. per dozen or per kg eggs) was noticed in hens allotted T3 diet (6.50 ppm I2). However, feeding cost of hens receiving 3.25 and 9.25 ppm I2 was statistically (p<0.05) similar to control group (T1). Further, it was noticed that feeding cost (Rs. per dozen or per kg eggs) was significantly increased due to the inclusion

  8. Comparison of two techniques for measured iodine release as an indicator of acoustic cavitation

    SciTech Connect

    Ciaravino, V.; Miller, M.W.

    1983-12-01

    A spectrophotometric and a radioactive-label technique were used to assess for acoustically induced iodine release from sodium iodide. Both techniques demonstrated a dose-dependent relationship between the percentage of iodine released and the ultrasound intensity (1 MHz, I/sub sp/ to 30 W/cm/sup 2/, continuous wave for 1 min). Iodine release decreased with increased atmospheric pressure or increased concentrations of the radical scavenger cysteamine, thus confirming that the release was related to cavitational processes. 14 references, 5 figures.

  9. Strong association of relatively low and extremely excessive iodine intakes with thyroid cancer in an iodine-replete area.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Jeong; Kim, Na Kyung; Park, Hyeong Kyu; Byun, Dong Won; Suh, Kyoil; Yoo, Myung Hi; Min, Yong-Ki; Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, Jae Hoon

    2017-04-01

    The relationship between iodine intake and development of thyroid diseases shows a U-shaped curve with an increase of risk in both deficient and excessive iodine intakes. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between iodine intake and thyroid cancer in patients with thyroid nodules in an iodine-replete area. Retrospective analysis of 1170 patients with thyroid nodules was performed. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was measured by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Predictive factors for thyroid cancer were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression models. The median UIC in all patients with thyroid nodules was 360 μg/L (range from 4 to 9631 μg/L). More than half of the patients (650/1170, 56 %) belonged to the category of excessive iodine intake (UIC ≥ 300 μg/L) according to WHO iodine recommendations. Patients with thyroid cancer were more likely to be distributed in UIC < 300 μg/L and in UIC ≥ 2500 μg/L than those with benign thyroid nodules. Male gender (OR 1.528, p = 0.028) and UIC were independent predictors for thyroid cancer. The multivariate-adjusted OR (95 % CI) in the relatively low (UIC < 300 μg/L) and extremely excessive (UIC ≥ 2500 μg/L) iodine intake groups for thyroid cancer were 1.519 (1.099-2.098) and 1.874 (1.094-3.208), respectively, compared to the other iodine intake group (300-2499 μg/L). Male gender and UIC were independent predictors of thyroid cancer in patients with thyroid nodules. This study suggests that relatively low and extremely excessive iodine intakes are associated with thyroid cancer in an iodine-replete area.

  10. Use of Lugol's iodine in oral cancer diagnosis: an overview.

    PubMed

    Petruzzi, Massimo; Lucchese, Alberta; Baldoni, Edoardo; Grassi, Felice Roberto; Serpico, Rosario

    2010-11-01

    Early diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) still represents an important challenge for clinicians and patients. Vital staining such as toluidine blue and Lugol's iodine solution, are routinely used in the OSCC detection but few data exist about the last one. A literature review is made to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Lugol's iodine solution in OSCC detection and in its margins demarcation. A review was made of the studies published between 1990 and 2010 in relation to the application of Lugol's iodine for OSCC detection and a better definition of its margins. Data obtained point to the utility and the safety of Lugol's iodine when employed for detection and margins delineation of OSCC and dysplasia. All the studies consulted found the Lugol's iodine to be effective, cheap and easy to use and they emphasized its importance in clinical practice. There is need for larger controlled, randomized studies with carefully selected and standardized outcome measures and patients.

  11. Some quantitative aspects of the labelling of proteins with 125I by the iodine monochloride method

    PubMed Central

    Ceska, M.; Sjödin, A. V.; Grossmüller, F.

    1971-01-01

    The labelling of proteins by the iodine monochloride method was studied by using a mathematical model. The equations used were primarily derived from the mass law equation of the isotopic exchange reaction between [125I]iodide and iodine monochloride. For convenient application, all equations were programmed into a computing desk-top calculator. To support the validity of the theoretical model, a series of iodinations of insulin were performed under various labelling conditions. The results of these experiments compare well with the theoretically derived values. Deviations from the theoretical values occurring at molar ratios of [125I]iodide to iodine monochloride < 0.1 and > 4.0 are explained and suggestions made about how to prevent them. The mathematical model was used to simulate the isotopic exchange, and the iodination reaction under various conditions, to study (a) the influence of the amount of [125I]iodide on the amount of [125I]iodine monochloride formed, (b) the influence of the specific radioactivity of [125I]iodide on the amount of [125I]iodine monochloride formed, and (c) the influence of the specific radioactivity of [125I]iodide on the number of millicuries needed for labelling to a desired extent. PMID:5116527

  12. DISSOLVED CONCENTRATION LIMITS OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    P. Bernot

    2005-07-13

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of elements with radioactive isotopes under probable repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, field measurements, and laboratory experiments. The scope of this activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for elements with radioactive isotopes (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium) relevant to calculated dose. Model outputs for uranium, plutonium, neptunium, thorium, americium, and protactinium are provided in the form of tabulated functions with pH and log fCO{sub 2} as independent variables, plus one or more uncertainty terms. The solubility limits for the remaining elements are either in the form of distributions or single values. Even though selection of an appropriate set of radionuclides documented in Radionuclide Screening (BSC 2002 [DIRS 160059]) includes actinium, transport of Ac is not modeled in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) model because of its extremely short half-life. Actinium dose is calculated in the TSPA-LA by assuming secular equilibrium with {sup 231}Pa (Section 6.10); therefore, Ac is not analyzed in this report. The output data from this report are fundamental inputs for TSPA-LA used to determine the estimated release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Consistent modeling approaches and environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models for the actinides discussed in this report. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, and activity coefficients have been quantified or

  13. Determination of iodine to compliment mass spectrometric measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Hohorst, F.A.

    1994-11-01

    The dose of iodine-129 to facility personnel and the general public as a result of past, present, and future activities at DOE sites is of continuing interest, WINCO received about 160 samples annually in a variety of natural matrices, including snow, milk, thyroid tissue, and sagebrush, in which iodine-129 is determined in order to evaluate this dose, Currently, total iodine and the isotopic ratio of iodine-127 to iodine-129 are determined by mass spectrometry. These two measurements determine the concentration of iodine-129 in each sample, These measurements require at least 16 h of mass spectrometer operator time for each sample. A variety of methods are available which concentrate and determine small quantities of iodine. Although useful, these approaches would increase both time and cost. The objective of this effort was to determine total iodine by an alternative method in order to decrease the load on mass spectrometry by 25 to 50%. The preparation of each sample for mass spectrometric analysis involves a common step--collection of iodide on an ion exchange bed. This was the focal point of the effort since the results would be applicable to all samples.

  14. The standard, intervention measures and health risk for high water iodine areas.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Liu, Lixiang; Shen, Hongmei; Jia, Qingzhen; Wang, Jinbiao; Zheng, Heming; Ma, Jing; Zhou, Dan; Liu, Shoujun; Su, Xiaohui

    2014-01-01

    Our study aims to clarify the population nutrient status in locations with different levels of iodine in the water in China; to choose effective measurements of water improvement(finding other drinking water source of iodine not excess) or non-iodised salt supply or combinations thereof; to classify the areas of elevated water iodine levels and the areas with endemic goiter; and to evaluate the risk factors of water iodine excess on pregnant women, lactating women and the overall population of women. From Henan, Hebei, Shandong and Shanxi province of China, for each of 50 ∼ 99 µg/L, 100 ∼ 149 µg/L, 150 ∼ 299 µg/L, and ≥ 300 µg/L water iodine level, three villages were selected respectively. Students of 6-12 years old and pregnant were sampled from villages of each water-iodine level of each province, excluded iodized salt consumer. Then the children's goiter volume, the children and pregnant's urinary iodine and water iodine were tested. In addition, blood samples were collected from pregnant women, lactating women and other women of reproductive age for each water iodine level in the Shanxi Province for thyroid function tests. These indicators should be matched for each person. When the water iodine exceeds 100 µg/L; the iodine nutrient of children are iodine excessive, and are adequate or more than adequate for the pregnant women. It is reasonable to define elevated water iodine areas as locations where the water iodine levels exceed 100 µg/L. The supply of non-iodised salt alone cannot ensure adequate iodine nutrition of the residents, and water improvement must be adopted, as well. Iodine excess increases the risk of certain thyroid diseases in women from one- to eightfold.

  15. The Standard, Intervention Measures and Health Risk for High Water Iodine Areas

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Peng; Liu, Lixiang; Shen, Hongmei; Jia, Qingzhen; Wang, Jinbiao; Zheng, Heming; Ma, Jing; Zhou, Dan; Liu, Shoujun; Su, Xiaohui

    2014-01-01

    Our study aims to clarify the population nutrient status in locations with different levels of iodine in the water in China; to choose effective measurements of water improvement(finding other drinking water source of iodine not excess) or non-iodised salt supply or combinations thereof; to classify the areas of elevated water iodine levels and the areas with endemic goiter; and to evaluate the risk factors of water iodine excess on pregnant women, lactating women and the overall population of women. From Henan, Hebei, Shandong and Shanxi province of China, for each of 50∼99 µg/L, 100∼149 µg/L, 150∼299 µg/L, and ≥300 µg/L water iodine level, three villages were selected respectively. Students of 6–12 years old and pregnant were sampled from villages of each water-iodine level of each province, excluded iodized salt consumer. Then the children's goiter volume, the children and pregnant's urinary iodine and water iodine were tested. In addition, blood samples were collected from pregnant women, lactating women and other women of reproductive age for each water iodine level in the Shanxi Province for thyroid function tests. These indicators should be matched for each person. When the water iodine exceeds 100 µg/L; the iodine nutrient of children are iodine excessive, and are adequate or more than adequate for the pregnant women. It is reasonable to define elevated water iodine areas as locations where the water iodine levels exceed 100 µg/L. The supply of non-iodised salt alone cannot ensure adequate iodine nutrition of the residents, and water improvement must be adopted, as well. Iodine excess increases the risk of certain thyroid diseases in women from one- to eightfold. PMID:24586909

  16. Post-production Losses in Iodine Concentration of Salt Hamper the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders: A Case Study in Northern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Shawel, Dawit; Hagos, Seifu; Lachat, Carl K.; Kimanya, Martin E.

    2010-01-01

    Iodine is essential for good function of the thyroid, and its deficiency is of public-health importance in Ethiopia. Iodization of salt is an effective and sustainable strategy to prevent and control iodine deficiency in large populations. The effectiveness of salt-iodization programmes depends on the conservation of iodine concentration in salt at various stages of the supply-chain. The overall objective of the study was to assess the loss of iodine in salt from production to consumption and to estimate the proportion of adults, especially pregnant women, at risk of dietary iodine insufficiency. A cross-sectional study was conducted during February-April 2007 in northern Ethiopia. Iodine concentrations of salt samples from producers (n=41), retailers (n=7), and consumers (n=32) were determined using iodiometric titration. A risk assessment was conducted for dietary iodine insufficiency among adults, including pregnant women, using a semi-probabilistic approach. The concentration of iodine in the sampled salts decreased by 57% from the production site to the consumers. The assessment of exposure showed that adults in 63% (n=20) of the households, including 90% (n=29) with pregnant women, were at risk of insufficient iodine intake. A monitoring and evaluation system needs to be established to ensure adequate supply of iodine along the distribution chain. Special attention is needed for the retailers and consumers. At these levels, dissemination of information regarding proper storage and handling of iodized salt is necessary to address the reported loss of iodine from salt. PMID:20635634