Science.gov

Sample records for radioactive material handling

  1. Development and implementation of automated radioactive materials handling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jacoboski, D.L.

    1992-12-01

    Material handling of radioactive and hazardous materials has forced the need to pursue remotely operated and robotic systems in light of operational safety concerns. Manual maneuvering, repackaging, overpacking and inspecting of containers which store radioactive and hazardous materials is the present mode of operation at the Department of Energy (DOE) Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) in Fernald Ohio. The manual methods are unacceptable in the eyes of concerned site workers and influential community oversight committees. As an example to respond to the FEMP material handling needs, design efforts have been initiated to provide a remotely operated system to repackage thousands of degradated drums containing radioactive Thorium: Later, the repackaged Thorium will be shipped offsite to a predesignated repository again requiring remote operation.

  2. Remote automated material handling of radioactive waste containers

    SciTech Connect

    Greager, T.M.

    1994-09-01

    To enhance personnel safety, improve productivity, and reduce costs, the design team incorporated a remote, automated stacker/retriever, automatic inspection, and automated guidance vehicle for material handling at the Enhanced Radioactive and Mixed Waste Storage Facility - Phase V (Phase V Storage Facility) on the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The Phase V Storage Facility, scheduled to begin operation in mid-1997, is the first low-cost facility of its kind to use this technology for handling drums. Since 1970, the Hanford Site`s suspect transuranic (TRU) wastes and, more recently, mixed wastes (both low-level and TRU) have been accumulating in storage awaiting treatment and disposal. Currently, the Hanford Site is only capable of onsite disposal of radioactive low-level waste (LLW). Nonradioactive hazardous wastes must be shipped off site for treatment. The Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facilities will provide the primary treatment capability for solid-waste storage at the Hanford Site. The Phase V Storage Facility, which accommodates 27,000 drum equivalents of contact-handled waste, will provide the following critical functions for the efficient operation of the WRAP facilities: (1) Shipping/Receiving; (2) Head Space Gas Sampling; (3) Inventory Control; (4) Storage; (5) Automated/Manual Material Handling.

  3. Safe Handling of Radioactive Materials. Recommendations of the National Committee on Radiation Protection. Handbook 92.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Bureau of Standards (DOC), Washington, DC.

    This handbook is designed to help users of radioactive materials to handle the radioactive material without exposing themselves or others to radiation doses in excess of maximum permissible limits. The discussion of radiation levels is in terms of readings from dosimeters and survey instruments. Safety in the handling of radioactive materials in…

  4. Spoken commands control robot that handles radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Phelan, P.F.; Keddy, C.; Beugelsdojk. T.J.

    1989-01-01

    Several robotic systems have been developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory to handle radioactive material. Because of safety considerations, the robotic system must be under direct human supervision and interactive control continuously. In this paper, we describe the implementation of a voice-recognition system that permits this control, yet allows the robot to perform complex preprogrammed manipulations without the operator's intervention. To provide better interactive control, we connected to the robot's control computer, a speech synthesis unit, which provides audible feedback to the operator. Thus upon completion of a task or if an emergency arises, an appropriate spoken message can be reported by the control computer. The training programming and operation of this commercially available system are discussed, as are the practical problems encountered during operations.

  5. 49 CFR 174.700 - Special handling requirements for Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (radioactive) materials. 174.700 Section 174.700 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY RAIL Detailed Requirements for Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 174.700 Special handling requirements for Class 7 (radioactive) materials. (a) Each rail shipment of low specific...

  6. 49 CFR 174.700 - Special handling requirements for Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (radioactive) materials. 174.700 Section 174.700 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY RAIL Detailed Requirements for Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 174.700 Special handling requirements for Class 7 (radioactive) materials. (a) Each rail shipment of low specific...

  7. 49 CFR 174.700 - Special handling requirements for Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (radioactive) materials. 174.700 Section 174.700 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY RAIL Detailed Requirements for Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 174.700 Special handling requirements for Class 7 (radioactive) materials. (a) Each rail shipment of low specific...

  8. 49 CFR 174.700 - Special handling requirements for Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (radioactive) materials. 174.700 Section 174.700 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY RAIL Detailed Requirements for Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 174.700 Special handling requirements for Class 7 (radioactive) materials. (a) Each rail shipment of low specific...

  9. 49 CFR 174.700 - Special handling requirements for Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (radioactive) materials. 174.700 Section 174.700 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY RAIL Detailed Requirements for Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 174.700 Special handling requirements for Class 7 (radioactive) materials. (a) Each rail shipment of low specific...

  10. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 25: Radioactive Material Handling Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  11. [Efficiencies of contamination source for flooring and some materials used in unencapsulated radioactivity handling facilities].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, M; Yoshizawa, M; Minami, K

    1990-09-01

    The efficiencies of contamination source, defined in ISO Report 7506-1, were experimentally determined for such materials as flooring, polyethylene, smear-tested filter paper and stainless steel plate. 5 nuclides of 147Pm, 60Co, 137Cs, 204Tl and 90Sr-Y were used to study beta-ray energy dependence of the efficiency, and 241Am as alpha-ray emitter. The charge-up effect in the measurement by a window-less 2 pi-proportional counter was evaluated to obtain reliable surface emission rate. The measured efficiencies for non-permeable materials, except for two cases, are more than 0.5 even for 147Pm. The ISO recommendations were shown to be conservative enough on the basis of present results.

  12. Safety Analysis of 'Older/Aged' Handling and Transportation Equipment for Heavy Loads, Radioactive Waste and Materials in Accordance with German Nuclear Standards KTA 3902, 3903 and 3905

    SciTech Connect

    Macias, P.; Prucker, E.; Stang, W.

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a general safety analysis of important handling and transportation processes and their related equipment ('load chains' consisting of cranes, load-bearing equipment and load-attaching points). This project was arranged by the responsible Bavarian ministry for environment, health and consumer protection (StMUGV) in agreement with the power plant operators of all Bavarian nuclear power plants to work out potential safety improvements. The range of the equipment (e.g. reactor building, crane, refuelling machine, load-bearing equipment and load-attaching points) covers the handling and transportation of fuel elements (e. g. with fuel flasks), heavy loads (e.g. reactor pressure vessel closure head, shielding slabs) and radioactive materials and waste (e.g. waste flasks, control elements, fuel channels, structure elements). The handling equipment was subjected to a general safety analysis taking into account the ageing of the equipment and the progress of standards. Compliance with the current valid requirements of the state of science and technology as required by German Atomic Act and particularly of the nuclear safety KTA-standards (3902, 3903 and 3905) was examined. The higher protection aims 'safe handling and transportation of heavy loads and safe handling of radioactive materials and waste' of the whole analysis are to avoid a criticality accident, the release of radioactivity and inadmissible effects on important technical equipment and buildings. The scope of the analysis was to check whether these protection aims were fulfilled for all important technical handling and transportation processes. In particularly the design and manufacturing of the components and the regulations of the handling itself were examined. (authors)

  13. Issues related to estimating potential radiological doses from treatment, storage, and disposal facilities handling waste containing trace amounts of radioactive material

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, L.E.; Nimmagadda, M.; LePoire, D.; Chen, S.Y.; Ma, C.W.; Wheeler, T.; Owens, K.W.

    1995-08-01

    A simplified calculational model has been developed to permit a rapid, yet realistic, estimate of potential radiological doses to on-site workers and the off-site public from waste-handling operations at a treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facility. The waste-handling operations include transport, handling, storage, incineration, and landfilling of waste containing trace amounts of radioactive materials. The main objective of the model is to provide a radiological assessment methodology that can be used in a waste clearance strategy that addresses US Department of Energy mixed-waste moratorium issues. The model was developed on the basis of previous detailed studies of eight TSD facilities and incorporates the essential features of such a facility. The model provides a simplified physical concept of the potential human exposure associated with the radioactive contents of the chemical wastes. Issues pertaining to the development of the model, as well as application and future use, are discussed. Specifically, these issues include physical model approximations, isotope selection, waste-handling operations, and selection of input parameters. Also, pathway and isotope selection criteria are discussed relative to the previous TSD sites studied. This model is being considered for additional development as a waste clearance strategy tool.

  14. Bulk material handling system

    DOEpatents

    Kleysteuber, William K.; Mayercheck, William D.

    1979-01-01

    This disclosure relates to a bulk material handling system particularly adapted for underground mining and includes a monorail supported overhead and carrying a plurality of conveyors each having input and output end portions with the output end portion of a first of the conveyors positioned above an input end portion of a second of the conveyors, a device for imparting motion to the conveyors to move the material from the input end portions toward the output end portions thereof, a device for supporting at least one of the input and output end portions of the first and second conveyors from the monorail, and the supporting device including a plurality of trolleys rollingly supported by the monorail whereby the conveyors can be readily moved therealong.

  15. 46 CFR 148.300 - Radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... radioactive materials defined in 49 CFR 173.403 as Low Specific Activity Material, LSA-1, or Surface... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radioactive materials. 148.300 Section 148.300 Shipping... MATERIALS THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.300...

  16. 46 CFR 148.300 - Radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... radioactive materials defined in 49 CFR 173.403 as Low Specific Activity Material, LSA-1, or Surface... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radioactive materials. 148.300 Section 148.300 Shipping... MATERIALS THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.300...

  17. System for handling and storing radioactive waste

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, J.K.; Lindemann, P.E.

    1982-07-19

    A system and method are claimed for handling and storing spent reactor fuel and other solid radioactive waste, including canisters to contain the elements of solid waste, storage racks to hold a plurality of such canisters, storage bays to store these racks in isolation by means of shielded doors in the bays. This system also includes means for remotely positioning the racks in the bays and an access tunnel within which the remotely operated means is located to position a rack in a selected bay. The modular type of these bays will facilitate the construction of additional bays and access tunnel extension.

  18. System for handling and storing radioactive waste

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, John K.; Lindemann, Paul E.

    1984-01-01

    A system and method for handling and storing spent reactor fuel and other solid radioactive waste, including canisters to contain the elements of solid waste, storage racks to hold a plurality of such canisters, storage bays to store these racks in isolation by means of shielded doors in the bays. This system also includes means for remotely positioning the racks in the bays and an access tunnel within which the remotely operated means is located to position a rack in a selected bay. The modular type of these bays will facilitate the construction of additional bays and access tunnel extension.

  19. Method of handling radioactive alkali metal waste

    DOEpatents

    Wolson, R.D.; McPheeters, C.C.

    Radioactive alkali metal is mixed with particulate silica in a rotary drum reactor in which the alkali metal is converted to the monoxide during rotation of the reactor to produce particulate silica coated with the alkali metal monoxide suitable as a feed material to make a glass for storing radioactive material. Silica particles, the majority of which pass through a 95 mesh screen or preferably through a 200 mesh screen, are employed in this process, and the preferred weight ratio of silica to alkali metal is 7 to 1 in order to produce a feed material for the final glass product having a silica to alkali metal monoxide ratio of about 5 to 1.

  20. Method of handling radioactive alkali metal waste

    DOEpatents

    Wolson, Raymond D.; McPheeters, Charles C.

    1980-01-01

    Radioactive alkali metal is mixed with particulate silica in a rotary drum reactor in which the alkali metal is converted to the monoxide during rotation of the reactor to produce particulate silica coated with the alkali metal monoxide suitable as a feed material to make a glass for storing radioactive material. Silica particles, the majority of which pass through a 95 mesh screen or preferably through a 200 mesh screen, are employed in this process, and the preferred weight ratio of silica to alkali metal is 7 to 1 in order to produce a feed material for the final glass product having a silica to alkali metal monoxide ratio of about 5 to 1.

  1. Handling difficult materials: Textiles

    SciTech Connect

    Polk, T.

    1994-07-01

    As recyclable materials, textiles are a potentially valuable addition to community collection programs. They make up a fairly substantial fraction--about 4%--of the residential solid waste stream, a higher figure than corrugated cardboard or magazines. Textiles have well-established processing and marketing infrastructures, with annual sales of over $1 billion in the US And buyers are out there, willing to pay $40 to $100 per ton. There doesn't seem to be any cumbersome government regulations standing in the way, either. So why are so few municipalities and waste haulers currently attempting to recover textiles The answers can be found in the properties of the material itself and a lack of knowledge about the existing textile recycling industry. There are three main end markets that come from waste textiles. In descending order of market share, they are: used clothing, fiber for paper and re-processing, and industrial wiping and polishing cloths.

  2. Container for radioactive materials

    DOEpatents

    Fields, Stanley R.

    1985-01-01

    A container for housing a plurality of canister assemblies containing radioactive material and disposed in a longitudinally spaced relation within a carrier to form a payload package concentrically mounted within the container. The payload package includes a spacer for each canister assembly, said spacer comprising a base member longitudinally spacing adjacent canister assemblies from each other and a sleeve surrounding the associated canister assembly for centering the same and conducting heat from the radioactive material in a desired flow path.

  3. Ergonomic material-handling device

    DOEpatents

    Barsnick, Lance E.; Zalk, David M.; Perry, Catherine M.; Biggs, Terry; Tageson, Robert E.

    2004-08-24

    A hand-held ergonomic material-handling device capable of moving heavy objects, such as large waste containers and other large objects requiring mechanical assistance. The ergonomic material-handling device can be used with neutral postures of the back, shoulders, wrists and knees, thereby reducing potential injury to the user. The device involves two key features: 1) gives the user the ability to adjust the height of the handles of the device to ergonomically fit the needs of the user's back, wrists and shoulders; and 2) has a rounded handlebar shape, as well as the size and configuration of the handles which keep the user's wrists in a neutral posture during manipulation of the device.

  4. Container for radioactive materials

    DOEpatents

    Fields, S.R.

    1984-05-30

    A container is claimed for housing a plurality of canister assemblies containing radioactive material. The several canister assemblies are stacked in a longitudinally spaced relation within a carrier to form a payload concentrically mounted within the container. The payload package includes a spacer for each canister assembly, said spacer comprising a base member longitudinally spacing adjacent canister assemblies from each other and sleeve surrounding the associated canister assembly for centering the same and conducting heat from the radioactive material in a desired flow path. 7 figures.

  5. Material for radioactive protection

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, R.S.; Boyer, N.W.

    A boron containing burn resistant, low-level radiation protection material useful, for example, as a liner for radioactive waste disposal and storage, a component for neutron absorber, and a shield for a neutron source is described. The material is basically composed of borax in the range of 25 to 50%, coal tar in the range of 25 to 37.5%, with the remainder being an epoxy resin mix. A preferred composition is 50% borax, 25% coal tar and 25% epoxy resin. The material is not susceptible to burning and is about 1/5 the cost of existing radiation protection material utilized in similar applications.

  6. METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR HANDLING RADIOACTIVE PRODUCTS

    DOEpatents

    Nicoll, D.

    1959-02-24

    A device is described for handling fuel elements being discharged from a nuclear reactor. The device is adapted to be disposed beneath a reactor within the storage canal for spent fuel elements. The device is comprised essentially of a cylinder pivotally mounted to a base for rotational motion between a vertical position. where the mouth of the cylinder is in the top portion of the container for receiving a fuel element discharged from a reactor into the cylinder, and a horizontal position where the mouth of the cylinder is remote from the top portion of the container and the fuel element is discharged from the cylinder into the storage canal. The device is operated by hydraulic pressure means and is provided with a means to prevent contaminated primary liquid coolant in the reactor system from entering the storage canal with the spent fuel element.

  7. Handling difficult materials: Household appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, R.

    1994-05-01

    At last count in 1990, the US EPA reported that 2.8 million tons of household appliances (often called ''white goods'') were discarded -- about 2% of the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream. These figures may not seem particularly epic, but, considering the potentially harmful coolants, lubricants, and insulating materials left behind in these machines, the amount may be cause for concern. Management of these items is, of course, not impossible, just difficult. As more and more landfills turn white goods away, recycling is becoming the hot'' option. According to a study by the Steel Recycling Institute, about 4 million of the 8 million units discarded in the US were recycled in 1992. Recycling figures like these are impressive for any secondary material, demonstrating the strides appliance recycling has made in recent years. Implemented in May 1993, EPA's final rule on household appliance handling mandates that 80%--90% of all CFC or HCFC coolants must be recovered with certified equipment by a certified technician, who must record how the refrigerant is removed and where it is sent for recovery.

  8. 29 CFR 1926.953 - Material handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Material handling. 1926.953 Section 1926.953 Labor... Material handling. (a) Unloading. Prior to unloading steel, poles, cross arms and similar material, the... shall be attached to the trailing end of the longest pole. (c) Storage. (1) No materials or...

  9. 29 CFR 1926.953 - Material handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Material handling. 1926.953 Section 1926.953 Labor... Material handling. (a) Unloading. Prior to unloading steel, poles, cross arms and similar material, the... shall be attached to the trailing end of the longest pole. (c) Storage. (1) No materials or...

  10. 29 CFR 1926.953 - Material handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Material handling. 1926.953 Section 1926.953 Labor... Material handling. (a) Unloading. Prior to unloading steel, poles, cross arms and similar material, the... shall be attached to the trailing end of the longest pole. (c) Storage. (1) No materials or...

  11. 29 CFR 1926.953 - Material handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Material handling. 1926.953 Section 1926.953 Labor... Material handling. (a) Unloading. Prior to unloading steel, poles, cross arms and similar material, the... shall be attached to the trailing end of the longest pole. (c) Storage. (1) No materials or...

  12. 29 CFR 1926.953 - Material handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Material handling. 1926.953 Section 1926.953 Labor... Material handling. (a) Unloading. Prior to unloading steel, poles, cross arms and similar material, the... shall be attached to the trailing end of the longest pole. (c) Storage. (1) No materials or...

  13. Radioactive waste material melter apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Newman, D.F.; Ross, W.A.

    1990-04-24

    An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another. 8 figs.

  14. Radioactive waste material melter apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Newman, Darrell F.; Ross, Wayne A.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another.

  15. Storage depot for radioactive material

    DOEpatents

    Szulinski, Milton J.

    1983-01-01

    Vertical drilling of cylindrical holes in the soil, and the lining of such holes, provides storage vaults called caissons. A guarded depot is provided with a plurality of such caissons covered by shielded closures preventing radiation from penetrating through any linear gap to the atmosphere. The heat generated by the radioactive material is dissipated through the vertical liner of the well into the adjacent soil and thus to the ground surface so that most of the heat from the radioactive material is dissipated into the atmosphere in a manner involving no significant amount of biologically harmful radiation. The passive cooling of the radioactive material without reliance upon pumps, personnel, or other factor which might fail, constitutes one of the most advantageous features of this system. Moreover this system is resistant to damage from tornadoes or earthquakes. Hermetically sealed containers of radioactive material may be positioned in the caissons. Loading vehicles can travel throughout the depot to permit great flexibility of loading and unloading radioactive materials. Radioactive material can be shifted to a more closely spaced caisson after ageing sufficiently to generate much less heat. The quantity of material stored in a caisson is restricted by the average capacity for heat dissipation of the soil adjacent such caisson.

  16. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, P.

    1997-02-01

    This paper discusses the broad problems presented by Naturally Occuring Radioactive Materials (NORM). Technologically Enhanced naturally occuring radioactive material includes any radionuclides whose physical, chemical, radiological properties or radionuclide concentration have been altered from their natural state. With regard to NORM in particular, radioactive contamination is radioactive material in an undesired location. This is a concern in a range of industries: petroleum; uranium mining; phosphorus and phosphates; fertilizers; fossil fuels; forestry products; water treatment; metal mining and processing; geothermal energy. The author discusses in more detail the problem in the petroleum industry, including the isotopes of concern, the hazards they present, the contamination which they cause, ways to dispose of contaminated materials, and regulatory issues. He points out there are three key programs to reduce legal exposure and problems due to these contaminants: waste minimization; NORM assesment (surveys); NORM compliance (training).

  17. Intelligent packaging and material handling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Ernest L.; Shell, Richard; Slutzky, Gale D.

    1991-02-01

    The problem of palletizing (stacking on a pallet) randomly arriving mixed size and content parcels is an important task in most distribution warehouses. Today this task requires human interaction for a solution however recently several attempts have been made to automate the solution. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the problem an expert system approach and an estimate of the key subproblems which have been identified which are necessary for a solution. The concepts of space filling and emptying as encountered in warehousing are briefly described. Also brief descriptions of two generations of a robotic system for mixed parcel palletizing are presented. The results with these test systems indicate that automatic parcel handling at speeds comparable to humans is feasible however further work is required to obtain a robust solution.

  18. Radioactive waste material disposal

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, Charles W.; Beahm, Edward C.; Parker, George W.

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide.

  19. Radioactive waste material disposal

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.

    1995-10-24

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide. 3 figs.

  20. Handling Special Materials in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Frances E., Ed.

    Libraries of all kinds need and collect special materials for use by their patrons--government publications, technical reports, maps, proprietary publications, company and trade literature, patents and trademarks, standards, symposia and conference records, and related miscellaneous publications. This collection of papers serves as a guide to the…

  1. A Code System for Assessing the Impact from Transporting Radioactive Material.

    1986-07-23

    Version 00 INTERTRAN-I calculates the radiological impact from incident-free transports and vehicular accidents involving radioactive materials. The code also handles accidents which may occur during handling operations.

  2. Intelligent material handling: use of vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickerson, Stephen L.; Lee, Kok-Meng; Lee, Eun-Ho; Single, Thomas; Li, Da-ren

    1991-02-01

    Vision systems will play an increasing role in inteffigent material handling systems. This paper discusses two hardware principles which make possible a host of cost-effective applications--integrated vision systems and the use of retroreflective materials. Described are (1) the design cost and performance characteristics of integrated systems those with the microcomputer array detector and illumination as part of a single circuit (2) the impact of using retroreflective materials those with apparent brightness of more than 1000 times that of diffuse white surfaces and (3) some specific applications: AGV guidance part handling and AS/RS control.

  3. Storage containers for radioactive material

    DOEpatents

    Groh, E.F.; Cassidy, D.A.; Dates, L.R.

    1980-07-31

    A radioactive material storage system is claimed for use in the laboratory having a flat base plate with a groove in one surface thereof and a hollow pedestal extending perpendicularly away from the other surface thereof, a sealing gasket in the groove, a cover having a filter therein and an outwardly extending flange which fits over the plate, the groove and the gasket, and a clamp for maintaining the cover and the plate sealed together. The plate and the cover and the clamp cooperate to provide a storage area for radioactive material readily accessible for use or inventory. Wall mounts are provided to prevent accidental formation of critical masses during storage.

  4. Storage containers for radioactive material

    DOEpatents

    Groh, Edward F.; Cassidy, Dale A.; Dates, Leon R.

    1981-01-01

    A radioactive material storage system for use in the laboratory having a flat base plate with a groove in one surface thereof and a hollow pedestal extending perpendicularly away from the other surface thereof, a sealing gasket in the groove, a cover having a filter therein and an outwardly extending flange which fits over the plate, the groove and the gasket, and a clamp for maintaining the cover and the plate sealed together, whereby the plate and the cover and the clamp cooperate to provide a storage area for radioactive material readily accessible for use or

  5. APPARATUS FOR HANDLING MIXTURES OF SOLID MATERIALS

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, J.P.

    1959-08-25

    An apparatus is described for handling either a mixture of finely subdivided materials or a single material requiring a compacting action thereon preparatory to a chemical reducing process carried out in a crucible container. The apparatus is designed to deposit a mixture of dust-forming solid materials in a container while confining the materials against escape into the surrounding atmosphere. A movable filling tube, having a compacting member, is connected to the container and to a covered hopper receiving the mixture of materials. The filling tube is capable of reciprocating in the container and their relative positions are dependent upon the pressure established upon the material by the compacting member.

  6. 46 CFR 147.100 - Radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (NRC) under 10 CFR parts 30 and 34. (b) Stowage of radioactive materials must conform to the... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radioactive materials. 147.100 Section 147.100 Shipping... Stowage and Other Special Requirements for Particular Materials § 147.100 Radioactive materials....

  7. 46 CFR 147.100 - Radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (NRC) under 10 CFR parts 30 and 34. (b) Stowage of radioactive materials must conform to the... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radioactive materials. 147.100 Section 147.100 Shipping... Stowage and Other Special Requirements for Particular Materials § 147.100 Radioactive materials....

  8. 46 CFR 147.100 - Radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (NRC) under 10 CFR parts 30 and 34. (b) Stowage of radioactive materials must conform to the... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radioactive materials. 147.100 Section 147.100 Shipping... Stowage and Other Special Requirements for Particular Materials § 147.100 Radioactive materials....

  9. 46 CFR 147.100 - Radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (NRC) under 10 CFR parts 30 and 34. (b) Stowage of radioactive materials must conform to the... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radioactive materials. 147.100 Section 147.100 Shipping... Stowage and Other Special Requirements for Particular Materials § 147.100 Radioactive materials....

  10. 46 CFR 147.100 - Radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (NRC) under 10 CFR parts 30 and 34. (b) Stowage of radioactive materials must conform to the... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radioactive materials. 147.100 Section 147.100 Shipping... Stowage and Other Special Requirements for Particular Materials § 147.100 Radioactive materials....

  11. 77 FR 58416 - Comparative Environmental Evaluation of Alternatives for Handling Low-Level Radioactive Waste...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... Spent Ion Exchange Resins From Commercial Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... Environmental Evaluation of Alternatives for Handling Low-Level Radioactive Waste Spent Ion Exchange Resins from... Comparative Environmental Evaluation of Alternatives for Handling Low-Level Radioactive Waste Spent...

  12. Radioactive material package seal tests

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, M.M.; Humphreys, D.L.; Edwards, K.R.

    1990-01-01

    General design or test performance requirements for radioactive materials (RAM) packages are specified in Title 10 of the US Code of Federal Regulations Part 71 (US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 1983). The requirements for Type B packages provide a broad range of environments under which the system must contain the RAM without posing a threat to health or property. Seals that provide the containment system interface between the packaging body and the closure must function in both high- and low-temperature environments under dynamic and static conditions. A seal technology program, jointly funded by the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) and the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), was initiated at Sandia National Laboratories. Experiments were performed in this program to characterize the behavior of several static seal materials at low temperatures. Helium leak tests on face seals were used to compare the materials. Materials tested include butyl, neoprene, ethylene propylene, fluorosilicone, silicone, Eypel, Kalrez, Teflon, fluorocarbon, and Teflon/silicone composites. Because most elastomer O-ring applications are for hydraulic systems, manufacturer low-temperature ratings are based on methods that simulate this use. The seal materials tested in this program with a fixture similar to a RAM cask closure, with the exception of silicone S613-60, are not leak tight (1.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} std cm{sup 3}/s) at manufacturer low-temperature ratings. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. 46 CFR 148.300 - Radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES CARRIAGE OF BULK SOLID... materials. (a) Radioactive materials that may be stowed or transported in bulk are limited to those radioactive materials defined in 49 CFR 173.403 as Low Specific Activity Material, LSA-1, or...

  14. 46 CFR 148.300 - Radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES CARRIAGE OF BULK SOLID... materials. (a) Radioactive materials that may be stowed or transported in bulk are limited to those radioactive materials defined in 49 CFR 173.403 as Low Specific Activity Material, LSA-1, or...

  15. Bag-out material handling system

    DOEpatents

    Brak, Stephen B.; Milek, Henry F.

    1984-01-01

    A bagging device for transferring material from a first chamber through an pening in a wall to a second chamber includes an outer housing communicating with the opening and having proximal and distal ends relative to the wall. An inner housing having proximal and distal ends corresponding to those of the outer housing is mounted in a concentrically spaced, sealed manner with respect to the distal end of the outer housing. The inner and outer housings and mounting means therebetween define an annular chamber, closed at its distal end and open at its proximal end, in which a pliable tube is slidably positioned in sealed engagement with the housings. The pliable tube includes a sealed end positioned adjacent the proximal end of the inner housing so as to maintain isolation between the first and second chambers. Displacement of the material to be bagged from the first chamber along the inner housing so as to contact the sealed portion of the pliable bag allows the material to be positioned within the pliable bag in the second chamber. The bag is then sealed and severed between where the material is positioned therein and the wall in providing a sealed container for handling the material. The pliable tube when substantially depleted slides onto a narrow portion of the inner housing to allow a new pliable tube to be positioned over the old pliable tube. Remnants of the old pliable tube are then discharged into the new pliable tube with the bagging and removal of additional material.

  16. Bag-out material handling system

    DOEpatents

    Brak, Stephen B.

    1985-01-01

    A bagging device for transferring material from a first chamber through an opening in a wall to a second chamber includes an outer housing communicating with the opening and having proximal and distal ends relative to the wall. An inner housing having proximal and distal ends corresponding to those of the outer housing is mounted in a concentrically spaced, sealed manner with respect to the distal end of the outer housing. The inner and outer housings and mounting means therebetween define an annular chamber, closed at its distal end and open at its proximal end, in which a pliable tube is slidably positioned in sealed engagement with the housings. The pliable tube includes a sealed end positioned adjacent the proximal end of the inner housing so as to maintain isolation between the first and second chambers. Displacement of the material to be bagged from the first chamber along the inner housing so as to contact the sealed portion of the pliable bag allows the material to be positioned within the pliable bag in the second chamber. The bag is then sealed and severed between where the material is positioned therein and the wall in providing a sealed container for handling the material. The pliable tube when substantially depleted slides onto a narrow portion of the inner housing to allow a new pliable tube to be positioned over the old pliable tube. Remnants of the old pliable tube are then discharged into the new pliable tube with the bagging and removal of additional material.

  17. Diverter assembly for radioactive material

    DOEpatents

    Andrews, Katherine M.; Starenchak, Robert W.

    1989-01-01

    A diverter assembly for diverting a pneumatically conveyed holder for a radioactive material between a central conveying tube and one of a plurality of radially offset conveying tubes includes an airtight container. A diverter tube having an offset end is suitably mounted in the container for rotation. A rotary seal seals one end of the diverter tube during and after rotation of the diverter tube while a spring biased seal seals the other end of the diverter tube which mvoes between various offset conveying tubes. An indexing device rotatably indexes the diverter tube and this indexing device is driven by a suitable drive. The indexing mechanism is preferably a geneva-type mechanism to provide a locking of the diverter tube in place.

  18. Diverter assembly for radioactive material

    DOEpatents

    Andrews, K.M.; Starenchak, R.W.

    1988-04-11

    A diverter assembly for diverting a pneumatically conveyed holder for a radioactive material between a central conveying tube and one of a plurality of radially offset conveying tubes includes an airtight container. A diverter tube having an offset end is suitably mounted in the container for rotation. A rotary seal seals one end of the diverter tube during and after rotation of the diverter tube while a spring biased seal seals the other end of the diverter tube which moves between various offset conveying tubes. An indexing device rotatably indexes the diverter tube and this indexing device is driven by a suitable drive. The indexing mechanism is preferably a geneva-type mechanism to provide a locking of the diverter tube in place. 3 figs.

  19. The Model 9977 Radioactive Material Packaging Primer

    SciTech Connect

    Abramczyk, G.

    2015-10-09

    The Model 9977 Packaging is a single containment drum style radioactive material (RAM) shipping container designed, tested and analyzed to meet the performance requirements of Title 10 the Code of Federal Regulations Part 71. A radioactive material shipping package, in combination with its contents, must perform three functions (please note that the performance criteria specified in the Code of Federal Regulations have alternate limits for normal operations and after accident conditions): Containment, the package must “contain” the radioactive material within it; Shielding, the packaging must limit its users and the public to radiation doses within specified limits; and Subcriticality, the package must maintain its radioactive material as subcritical

  20. Storage systems and containers for radioactive materials. February 1971-November 1989 (a Bibliography from the US Patent data base). Report for February 1971-November 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    This bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning container designs for storage, shipping, and handling of radioactive materials. Storage equipment and devices such as sheilding, racks, covers, seals, packing materials, and filling systems for containerized radioactive materials are considered. Radioactive materials considered include nuclear fuels, spent fuels, radioactive wastes, and radioactive research materials. High- and low-level radioactive materials are included. (Contains 139 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  1. System design for safe robotic handling of nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Drotning, W.; Wapman, W.; Fahrenholtz, J.; Kimberly, H.; Kuhlmann, J.

    1996-03-01

    Robotic systems are being developed by the Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center at Sandia National Laboratories to perform automated handling tasks with radioactive nuclear materials. These systems will reduce the occupational radiation exposure to workers by automating operations which are currently performed manually. Because the robotic systems will handle material that is both hazardous and valuable, the safety of the operations is of utmost importance; assurance must be given that personnel will not be harmed and that the materials and environment will be protected. These safety requirements are met by designing safety features into the system using a layered approach. Several levels of mechanical, electrical and software safety prevent unsafe conditions from generating a hazard, and bring the system to a safe state should an unexpected situation arise. The system safety features include the use of industrial robot standards, commercial robot systems, commercial and custom tooling, mechanical safety interlocks, advanced sensor systems, control and configuration checks, and redundant control schemes. The effectiveness of the safety features in satisfying the safety requirements is verified using a Failure Modes and Effects Analysis. This technique can point out areas of weakness in the safety design as well as areas where unnecessary redundancy may reduce the system reliability.

  2. Materials Handling. Module SH-01. Safety and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This student module on materials handling is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. It presents the procedures for safe materials handling. Discussed are manual handling methods (lifting and carrying by hand) and mechanical lifting (lifting by powered trucks, cranes or conveyors). Following the introduction, 15 objectives (each…

  3. 29 CFR 1910.176 - Handling materials-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Handling materials-general. 1910.176 Section 1910.176 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Materials Handling and Storage § 1910.176 Handling materials—general. (a) Use of...

  4. A sensor-based automation system for handling nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Drotning, W.; Kimberly, H.; Wapman, W.; Darras, D.

    1997-03-01

    An automated system is being developed for handling large payloads of radioactive nuclear materials in an analytical laboratory. The automation system performs unpacking and repacking of payloads from shipping and storage containers, and delivery of the payloads to the stations in the laboratory. The system uses machine vision and force/torque sensing to provide sensor-based control of the automation system in order to enhance system safety, flexibility, and robustness, and achieve easy remote operation. The automation system also controls the operation of the laboratory measurement systems and the coordination of them with the robotic system. Particular attention has been given to system design features and analytical methods that provide an enhanced level of operational safety. Independent mechanical gripper interlock and tool release mechanisms were designed to prevent payload mishandling. An extensive Failure Modes and Effects Analysis of the automation system was developed as a safety design analysis tool.

  5. Training Materials for Handling Claims of Sexual Harassment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roe, Betty

    1982-01-01

    Reviews resource materials for handling claims of sexual harassment. Includes guidelines for administrators in handling complaints of sexual harassment and discusses the responsibilities of management. Explores the definition of sexual harassment. (RC)

  6. Handling of Highly Radioactive Radiation Sources in a Hot Cell Using a Mechanically Driven Cell Crane - 13452

    SciTech Connect

    Klute, Stefan; Huber, Wolfgang-Bruno

    2013-07-01

    In 2010, Siempelkamp Nukleartechnik GmbH was awarded the contract for design and erection of a Hot Cell for handling and storage of highly radioactive radiation sources. This Hot Cell is part of a new hot cell laboratory, constructed for the NHZ (Neues Handhabungszentrum = New Handling Center) of the Nuclear Engineering Seibersdorf GmbH (NES). All incurring radioactive materials from Austria are collected in the NHZ, where they are safely conditioned and stored temporarily until their final storage. The main tasks of the NES include, apart from the collection, conditioning and storage of radioactive waste, also the reprocessing and the decontamination of facilities and laboratories originating from 45 years of research and development at the Seibersdorf site as well as the operation of the Hot Cell Laboratory [1]. The new Hot Cell Laboratory inside the NHZ consists of the following room areas: - One hot cell, placed in the center, for remote controlled, radiation protected handling of radioactive materials, including an integrated floor storage for the long-term temporary storage of highly radioactive radiation sources; - An anteroom for the loading and unloading of the hot cell; - One control room for the remote controlling of the hot cell equipment; - One floor storage, placed laterally to the hot cell, for burial, interim storage and removal of fissionable radioactive material in leak-proof packed units in 100 l drums. The specific design activity of the hot cell of 1.85 Pbq relating to 1-Me-Radiator including the integrated floor storage influences realization and design of the components used in the cell significantly. (authors)

  7. 41 CFR 50-204.3 - Material handling and storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CONTRACTS General Safety and Health Standards § 50-204.3 Material handling and storage. (a) Where mechanical... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Material handling and... aisles and passageways shall be appropriately marked. (b) Storage of material shall not create a...

  8. Proposed low-level radioactive waste handling building at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), evaluating the impacts associated with the proposed Low-Level Radioactive Waste Building at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Batavia, Illinois. As a result of the high energy physics program at Fermilab, small quantities of low-level radioactive wastes are generated. These wastes are collected, sorted and packaged for shipment to an off-site disposal facility in Hanford, Washington. The proposed project includes the construction of a new building to house, all low-level radioactive waste handling operations. The building would provide workspace for five full-time workers. The proposed project would improve the efficiency and safety of the low-level radioactive waste handling at Fermilab by upgrading equipment and consolidating operations into one facility.

  9. Radioactive materials shipping cask anticontamination enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Belmonte, Mark S.; Davis, James H.; Williams, David A.

    1982-01-01

    An anticontamination device for use in storing shipping casks for radioactive materials comprising (1) a seal plate assembly; (2) a double-layer plastic bag; and (3) a water management system or means for water management.

  10. Computer Model Buildings Contaminated with Radioactive Material

    1998-05-19

    The RESRAD-BUILD computer code is a pathway analysis model designed to evaluate the potential radiological dose incurred by an individual who works or lives in a building contaminated with radioactive material.

  11. Cellular Manufacturing System with Dynamic Lot Size Material Handling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khannan, M. S. A.; Maruf, A.; Wangsaputra, R.; Sutrisno, S.; Wibawa, T.

    2016-02-01

    Material Handling take as important role in Cellular Manufacturing System (CMS) design. In several study at CMS design material handling was assumed per pieces or with constant lot size. In real industrial practice, lot size may change during rolling period to cope with demand changes. This study develops CMS Model with Dynamic Lot Size Material Handling. Integer Linear Programming is used to solve the problem. Objective function of this model is minimizing total expected cost consisting machinery depreciation cost, operating costs, inter-cell material handling cost, intra-cell material handling cost, machine relocation costs, setup costs, and production planning cost. This model determines optimum cell formation and optimum lot size. Numerical examples are elaborated in the paper to ilustrate the characterictic of the model.

  12. SHIPPING CONTAINER FOR RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL

    DOEpatents

    Nachbar, H.D.; Biggs, B.B.; Tariello, P.J.; George, K.O.

    1963-01-15

    A shipping container is described for transponting a large number of radioactive nuclear fuel element modules which produce a substantial amount of heat. The container comprises a primary pressure vessel and shield, and a rotatable head having an access port that can be indexed with module holders in the container. In order to remove heat generated in the fuel eleme nts, a heat exchanger is arranged within the container and in contact with a heat exchange fluid therein. The heat exchanger communicates with additional external heat exchangers, which dissipate heat to the atmosphere. (AEC)

  13. Haz-Safe material handling in hazmat buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Romig, F.W.

    1994-12-31

    Material handling techniques have begun to be utilized in hazmat buildings for maneuvering and stacking of hazardous material containers. Therefore, the efficiencies involved in increased safety and productivity are being realized. In addition, there are savings in HazMat building costs and floor space or real estate inside or outside manufacturing plants. Stacking of containers is being used as structures are beefed up to install crane/hoists or air power mast type stacking machines. The purpose of this paper is to encourage potential HazMat building users and the material handling industry to look for opportunities to project material handling technology into hazmat buildings.

  14. Computed tomography of radioactive objects and materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawicka, B. D.; Murphy, R. V.; Tosello, G.; Reynolds, P. W.; Romaniszyn, T.

    1990-12-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has been performed on a number of radioactive objects and materials. Several unique technical problems are associated with CT of radioactive specimens. These include general safety considerations, techniques to reduce background-radiation effects on CT images and selection criteria for the CT source to permit object penetration and to reveal accurate values of material density. In the present paper, three groups of experiments will be described, for objects with low, medium and high levels of radioactivity. CT studies on radioactive specimens will be presented. They include the following: (1) examination of individual ceramic reactor-fuel (uranium dioxide) pellets, (2) examination of fuel samples from the Three Mile Island reactor, (3) examination of a CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uraniun: registered trademark) nuclear-fuel bundle which underwent a simulated loss-of-coolant accident resulting in high-temperature damage and (4) examination of a PWR nuclear-reactor fuel assembly.

  15. 29 CFR 1910.176 - Handling materials-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Materials Handling and Storage § 1910.176 Handling materials—general... control will be exercised when necessary. (d) (e) Clearance limits. Clearance signs to warn of...

  16. 29 CFR 1910.176 - Handling materials-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Materials Handling and Storage § 1910.176 Handling materials—general... control will be exercised when necessary. (d) (e) Clearance limits. Clearance signs to warn of...

  17. Consumer Products Containing Radioactive Materials

    MedlinePlus

    ... for source and byproduct materials. Washington, DC: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission; NUREG-1717; ... April 2010. The Health Physics Society is a nonprofit scientific professional organization whose ...

  18. Microwave processing of radioactive materials-I

    SciTech Connect

    White, T.L.; Berry, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    This paper is the first of two papers that reviews the major past and present applications of microwave energy for processing radioactive materials, with particular emphasis on processing radioactive wastes. Microwave heating occurs through the internal friction produced inside a dielectric material when its molecules vibrate in response to an oscillating microwave field. For this presentation, we shall focus on the two FCC-approved microwave frequencies for industrial, scientific, and medical use, 915 and 2450 MHz. Also, because of space limitations, we shall postpone addressing plasma processing of hazardous wastes using microwave energy until a later date. 13 refs., 4 figs.

  19. ALTERNATE MATERIALS IN DESIGN OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2010-07-09

    This paper presents a summary of design and testing of material and composites for use in radioactive material packages. These materials provide thermal protection and provide structural integrity and energy absorption to the package during normal and hypothetical accident condition events as required by Title 10 Part 71 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Testing of packages comprising these materials is summarized.

  20. Apparatus for handling micron size range particulate material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friichtenicht, J. F.; Roy, N. L. (Inventor)

    1968-01-01

    An apparatus for handling, transporting, or size classifying comminuted material was described in detail. Electrostatic acceleration techniques for classifying particles as to size in the particle range from 0.1 to about 100 microns diameter were employed.

  1. Life cycle management of radioactive materials packaging.

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.; Bellamy, S.; Shuler, J.; Decision and Information Sciences; SRL; DOE

    2007-01-01

    The objective of life cycle management of radioactive materials packaging is to ensure the safety functions (i.e. containment of radioactivity, protection against radiation, and criticality safety for fissile contents) during the entire life cycle of the packaging in storage, transportation and disposal. A framework has been developed for life cycle management regarding type B radioactive and fissile materials packaging, drawing upon current US Department of Energy (DOE) storage standards and examples from interim storage of Pu bearing materials in model 9975 transportation packagings. Key issues highlighted during long term storage of Pu bearing materials included gas generation and stability of PuO{sub 2+x}; other operation safety issues highlighted for interim storage of model 9975 transportation packagings included the need to consider a facility design basis fire event and the long term behaviour of packaging components such as Celotex and elastomeric O-ring seals. The principles of aging management are described, and the key attributes and examples of effective aging management programmes are provided based on the guidance documents for license renewal of nuclear power plants. The Packaging Certification Program of DOE Environmental Management, Office of Safety Management and Operations, plans to expand its mission into packaging certification for storage and aging management, as well as application of advanced technology, such as radiofrequency identification, for life cycle management of radioactive materials packagings.

  2. Recycling and Reuse of Radioactive Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dou, Thomas Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The Radiochemistry Program at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) has a Radiation Protection Program that was designed to provide students with the ability to safely work with radioactive materials in quantities that are not available in other academic environments. Requirements for continuous training and supervision make this unique…

  3. RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS IN BIOSOLIDS: DOSE MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Interagency Steering Committee on Radiation Standards (ISCORS) has recently completed a study of the occurrence within the United States of radioactive materials in sewage sludge and sewage incineration ash. One component of that effort was an examination of the possible tra...

  4. Radioactivities in returned lunar materials.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fireman, E. L.; D'Amico, J.; Defelice, J.; Spannagel, G.

    1972-01-01

    The difference between the Ar-37 activities from similar locations in the rocks 12002 and 15555 provides direct measures of the Ar-37 activities produced by the 2 November 1969 flare. Differences between the Ar-37 activities in 14321 and 15555 give Ar-37 activities produced by the 24 January 1971 flare. The intensities of the two flares were determined by making use of measured Ar-37 cross sections in simulated lunar material. The depth dependence of tritium in samples and its temperature-release pattern provides information about the sources of the tritium and about the intensity of solar flares integrated over the past 30 years.

  5. DISCHARGE DEVICE FOR RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL

    DOEpatents

    Ohlinger, L.A.

    1958-09-23

    A device is described fur unloading bodies of fissionable material from a neutronic reactor. It is comprised essentially of a wheeled flat car having a receptacle therein containing a liquid coolant fur receiving and cooling the fuel elements as they are discharged from the reactor, and a reciprocating plunger fur supporting the fuel element during discharge thereof prior to its being dropped into the coolant. The flat car is adapted to travel along the face of the reactor adjacent the discharge ends of the coolant tubes.

  6. Recognizing the importance of hazardous material storage and handling

    SciTech Connect

    Strycula, J.

    1994-12-31

    Hazardous material storage and handling, of both waste and raw material, is fast becoming the greatest concern of industry, government and the general public. These concerns are compounded in fixed manufacturing facilities due to the already tremendous pressure and scrutiny of government agencies and public watchdogs. Meeting hazardous material management regulations and guidelines head-on minimizes risk and practically eliminates penalties and fines. The Safety or Environmental Director at the facility must not only be concerned with the safe methods of storage and handling of these materials, but also aware of the methods that must be implemented to most effectively minimize and control accidents involving fluid spills, fires, explosions, or air contamination.

  7. Radioactivities in returned lunar materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Ar37, Ar39, and H3 were measured at four depths (from 0 to 19.5 cm) of the deep core from Apollo 16 and in four other Apollo 16 samples. The Ar37 increased steadily from 40 dpm/kg at the top of the core to 68 dpm/kg at 19-cm depth. The comparison of the Ar37 in the core with that in rock 15555 shows that the solar flare at the time of the Apollo 16 mission was approximately an order of magnitude less intense than solar flares of 24 January 1971 and 2 November 1969, which occurred before the Apollo 14 and 12 missions. The Ar39 activities in the top 19 cm of the deep core varied little with depth. Because the Apollo 16 samples have a much higher Ca content and much lower Fe and Ti contents than do the documented rocks from previous missions, the Ar39 in the Fe, Ca, and K can be determined from Ar39 measurements on lunar material if a Ti cross section is assumed.

  8. 41 CFR 50-204.3 - Material handling and storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... storage. 50-204.3 Section 50-204.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... CONTRACTS General Safety and Health Standards § 50-204.3 Material handling and storage. (a) Where mechanical... aisles and passageways shall be appropriately marked. (b) Storage of material shall not create a...

  9. 41 CFR 50-204.3 - Material handling and storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... storage. 50-204.3 Section 50-204.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... CONTRACTS General Safety and Health Standards § 50-204.3 Material handling and storage. (a) Where mechanical... aisles and passageways shall be appropriately marked. (b) Storage of material shall not create a...

  10. Method of preparing and handling chopped plant materials

    DOEpatents

    Bransby, David I.

    2002-11-26

    The method improves efficiency of harvesting, storage, transport, and feeding of dry plant material to animals, and is a more efficient method for harvesting, handling and transporting dry plant material for industrial purposes, such as for production of bioenergy, and composite panels.

  11. Analysis of coal slag for naturally occurring radioactive material.

    PubMed

    Spitz, H B; Rajaretnam, G

    1998-07-01

    Samples of aerosolized coal slag were collected during an abrasive blasting operation to determine the concentration of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in the respirable and nonrespirable fractions. Each slag fraction was analyzed using alpha and gamma spectrometry. Since the slag is insoluble, it was necessary to dissolve samples completely by fusion with potassium fluoride and, after additional transposing and separation, mount the precipitate containing radium (Ra), the main radioactive component in NORM, on a membrane filter for alpha counting. The concentration of 226Ra in coal slag was independent of the particle size fraction and equal to 2.28 picocuries/gram (pCi/g) +/- 0.43 pCi/g, which is approximately twice the typical concentration of NORM in uncontaminated soil. Analysis of NORM by gamma spectrometry identified low concentrations of uranium, thorium, and potassium, all primordial radioactive materials that are commonly encountered in normal background soil. Integral exposure to workers from inhalation of NORM during abrasive blasting with coal slag is extremely low and could be essentially eliminated by use of appropriate respiratory protection. External radiation exposure to workers handling large quantities of NORM-contaminated coal slag during shipping or storage is also low, but would vary depending on the concentration of NORM in the slag.

  12. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J. )

    1989-10-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1987 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1987 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized. 16 tabs.

  13. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J. )

    1991-05-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1988 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1988 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized. 16 tabs.

  14. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Benkovitz, C.

    1981-11-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1979 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1979 release data are compared with previous year's releases in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  15. Integration of Radioactive Material with Microcalorimeter Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croce, M. P.; Bond, E. M.; Hoover, A. S.; Kunde, G. J.; Moody, W. A.; Rabin, M. W.; Bennett, D. A.; Hayes-Wehle, J.; Kotsubo, V.; Schmidt, D. R.; Ullom, J. N.

    2014-09-01

    Microcalorimeter detectors with embedded radioactive material offer many possibilities for new types of measurements and applications. We will discuss the designs and methods that we are developing for precise deposition of radioactive material and its encapsulation in the absorber of transition-edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeter detectors for two specific applications. The first application is total nuclear reaction energy (Q) spectroscopy for nuclear forensics measurements of trace actinide samples, where the goal is determination of ratios of isotopes with Q values in the range of 5-7 MeV. Simplified, rapid sample preparation and detector assembly is necessary for practical measurements, while maintaining good energy resolution. The second application is electron capture spectroscopy of isotopes with low Q values, such as Ho, for measurement of neutrino mass. Detectors for electron capture spectroscopy are designed for measuring energies up to approximately 6 keV. Their smaller heat capacity and physical size present unique challenges. Both applications require precise deposition of radioactive material and encapsulation in an absorber with optimized thermal properties and coupling to the TES. We have made detectors for both applications with a variety of designs and assembly methods, and will present their development.

  16. 10 CFR 76.83 - Transfer of radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transfer of radioactive material. 76.83 Section 76.83 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.83 Transfer of radioactive material. (a) The Corporation may not transfer radioactive material except...

  17. 10 CFR 76.83 - Transfer of radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transfer of radioactive material. 76.83 Section 76.83 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.83 Transfer of radioactive material. (a) The Corporation may not transfer radioactive material except...

  18. 10 CFR 76.83 - Transfer of radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transfer of radioactive material. 76.83 Section 76.83 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.83 Transfer of radioactive material. (a) The Corporation may not transfer radioactive material except...

  19. 10 CFR 76.83 - Transfer of radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transfer of radioactive material. 76.83 Section 76.83 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.83 Transfer of radioactive material. (a) The Corporation may not transfer radioactive material except...

  20. 10 CFR 76.83 - Transfer of radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transfer of radioactive material. 76.83 Section 76.83 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.83 Transfer of radioactive material. (a) The Corporation may not transfer radioactive material except...

  1. 48 CFR 245.7310-6 - Radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radioactive material. 245... Radioactive material. The following shall be used whenever the property offered for sale is capable of emitting ionized radiation: Radioactive Material Purchasers are warned that the property may be capable...

  2. 41 CFR 50-204.28 - Storage of radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Storage of radioactive materials. 50-204.28 Section 50-204.28 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.28 Storage of radioactive materials. Radioactive materials stored...

  3. 41 CFR 50-204.28 - Storage of radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Storage of radioactive materials. 50-204.28 Section 50-204.28 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.28 Storage of radioactive materials. Radioactive materials stored...

  4. 49 CFR 177.842 - Class 7 (radioactive) material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class 7 (radioactive) material. 177.842 Section... HIGHWAY Loading and Unloading § 177.842 Class 7 (radioactive) material. (a) The number of packages of Class 7 (radioactive) materials in any transport vehicle or in any single group in any storage...

  5. 49 CFR 177.842 - Class 7 (radioactive) material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Class 7 (radioactive) material. 177.842 Section... HIGHWAY Loading and Unloading § 177.842 Class 7 (radioactive) material. (a) The number of packages of Class 7 (radioactive) materials in any transport vehicle or in any single group in any storage...

  6. 41 CFR 50-204.28 - Storage of radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Storage of radioactive materials. 50-204.28 Section 50-204.28 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.28 Storage of radioactive materials. Radioactive materials stored...

  7. 49 CFR 177.842 - Class 7 (radioactive) material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Class 7 (radioactive) material. 177.842 Section... HIGHWAY Loading and Unloading § 177.842 Class 7 (radioactive) material. (a) The number of packages of Class 7 (radioactive) materials in any transport vehicle or in any single group in any storage...

  8. 49 CFR 177.842 - Class 7 (radioactive) material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Class 7 (radioactive) material. 177.842 Section... HIGHWAY Loading and Unloading § 177.842 Class 7 (radioactive) material. (a) The number of packages of Class 7 (radioactive) materials in any transport vehicle or in any single group in any storage...

  9. 49 CFR 177.842 - Class 7 (radioactive) material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Class 7 (radioactive) material. 177.842 Section... HIGHWAY Loading and Unloading § 177.842 Class 7 (radioactive) material. (a) The number of packages of Class 7 (radioactive) materials in any transport vehicle or in any single group in any storage...

  10. 41 CFR 50-204.28 - Storage of radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Storage of radioactive materials. 50-204.28 Section 50-204.28 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.28 Storage of radioactive materials. Radioactive materials stored...

  11. 41 CFR 50-204.28 - Storage of radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Storage of radioactive materials. 50-204.28 Section 50-204.28 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.28 Storage of radioactive materials. Radioactive materials stored...

  12. Radioactive waste handling and disposal at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre.

    PubMed

    Al-Haj, Abdalla N; Lobriguito, Aida M; Al Anazi, Ibrahim

    2012-08-01

    King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre (KFSHRC) is the largest specialized medical center in Saudi Arabia. It performs highly specialized diagnostic imaging procedures with the use of various radionuclides required by sophisticated dual imaging systems. As a leading institution in cancer research, KFSHRC uses both long-lived and short-lived radionuclides. KFSHRC established the first cyclotron facility in the Middle East, which solved the in-house high demand for radionuclides and the difficulty in importing them. As both user and producer of high standard radiopharmaceuticals, KFSHRC generates large volumes of low and high level radioactive wastes. An old and small radioactive facility that was used for storage of radioactive waste was replaced with a bigger warehouse provided with facilities that will reduce radiation exposure of the staff, members of the public, and of the environment in the framework of "as low as reasonably achievable." The experiences and the effectiveness of the radiation protection program on handling and storage of radioactive wastes are presented.

  13. Radioactive waste handling and disposal at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre.

    PubMed

    Al-Haj, Abdalla N; Lobriguito, Aida M; Al Anazi, Ibrahim

    2012-08-01

    King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre (KFSHRC) is the largest specialized medical center in Saudi Arabia. It performs highly specialized diagnostic imaging procedures with the use of various radionuclides required by sophisticated dual imaging systems. As a leading institution in cancer research, KFSHRC uses both long-lived and short-lived radionuclides. KFSHRC established the first cyclotron facility in the Middle East, which solved the in-house high demand for radionuclides and the difficulty in importing them. As both user and producer of high standard radiopharmaceuticals, KFSHRC generates large volumes of low and high level radioactive wastes. An old and small radioactive facility that was used for storage of radioactive waste was replaced with a bigger warehouse provided with facilities that will reduce radiation exposure of the staff, members of the public, and of the environment in the framework of "as low as reasonably achievable." The experiences and the effectiveness of the radiation protection program on handling and storage of radioactive wastes are presented. PMID:22739968

  14. Corrosion resistant storage container for radioactive material

    DOEpatents

    Schweitzer, Donald G.; Davis, Mary S.

    1990-01-01

    A corrosion resistant long-term storage container for isolating radioactive waste material in a repository. The container is formed of a plurality of sealed corrosion resistant canisters of different relative sizes, with the smaller canisters housed within the larger canisters, and with spacer means disposed between judxtaposed pairs of canisters to maintain a predetermined spacing between each of the canisters. The combination of the plural surfaces of the canisters and the associated spacer means is effective to make the container capable of resisting corrosion, and thereby of preventing waste material from leaking from the innermost canister into the ambient atmosphere.

  15. Recycling and reuse of radioactive materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dou, Thomas Joseph

    The Radiochemistry Program at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) has a Radiation Protection Program that was designed to provide students with the ability to safely work with radioactive materials in quantities that are not available in other academic environments. Requirements for continuous training and supervision make this unique program capable of turning out graduates that have an understanding of contamination and dose control techniques that complement their knowledge of the elements that they work with. The Program has also adopted a radionuclide recovery and reuse program that has provided materials from other universities, government agencies, and private companies for use in experiments.

  16. Corrosion resistant storage container for radioactive material

    DOEpatents

    Schweitzer, D.G.; Davis, M.S.

    1984-08-30

    A corrosion resistant long-term storage container for isolating high-level radioactive waste material in a repository is claimed. The container is formed of a plurality of sealed corrosion resistant canisters of different relative sizes, with the smaller canisters housed within the larger canisters, and with spacer means disposed between juxtaposed pairs of canisters to maintain a predetermined spacing between each of the canisters. The combination of the plural surfaces of the canisters and the associated spacer means is effective to make the container capable of resisting corrosion, and thereby of preventing waste material from leaking from the innermost canister into the ambient atmosphere.

  17. Solar Energy: Materials, Materials Handling, and Fabrication Processes: Student Material. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolin, William Everet; Orsak, Charles G., Jr.

    Designed for student use in "Materials, Materials Handling, and Fabrication Processes," one of 11 courses in a 2-year associate degree program in solar technology, this manual provides readings, exercises, worksheets, bibliographies, and illustrations for 13 course modules. The manual, which corresponds to an instructor guide for the same course,…

  18. 76 FR 37118 - Manual Materials Handling (MMH) Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Manual Materials Handling (MMH) Workshop AGENCY: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) of the Centers for Disease Control.... SUMMARY: The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) of the Centers for...

  19. 48 CFR 908.7112 - Materials handling equipment replacement standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Materials handling equipment replacement standards. 908.7112 Section 908.7112 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT... shall be purchased for replacement purposes in accordance with the standards in FPMR 41 CFR...

  20. An Analysis of the Terminal Materials Handling Occupation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascio, Joseph W.; O'Connor, Patrick J.

    The general purpose of the occupational analysis is to provide workable, basic information dealing with the many and varied duties performed in the terminal materials handling occupation. The document opens with a brief introduction followed by a job description. The bulk of the document is presented in table form. Five duties are broken down into…

  1. 48 CFR 908.7112 - Materials handling equipment replacement standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Materials handling equipment replacement standards. 908.7112 Section 908.7112 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT... shall be purchased for replacement purposes in accordance with the standards in FPMR 41 CFR...

  2. Methods and apparatus for handling or treating particulate material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An improved draft tube spout fluid bed (DTSFB) mixing, handling, conveying, and treating apparatus and systems, and methods for operating are provided. The apparatus and systems can accept particulate material and pneumatically or hydraulically conveying the material to mix and/or treat the material. In addition to conveying apparatus, a collection and separation apparatus adapted to receive the conveyed particulate material is also provided. The collection apparatus may include an impaction plate against which the conveyed material is directed to improve mixing and/or treatment. The improved apparatus are characterized by means of controlling the operation of the pneumatic or hydraulic transfer to enhance the mixing and/or reacting by controlling the flow of fluids, for example, air, into and out of the apparatus. The disclosed apparatus may be used to mix particulate material, for example, mortar; react fluids with particulate material; coat particulate material, or simply convey particulate material.

  3. 48 CFR 52.223-7 - Notice of radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Notice of radioactive....223-7 Notice of radioactive materials. As prescribed in 23.602, insert the following clause: Notice of Radioactive Materials (JAN 1997) (a) The Contractor shall notify the Contracting Officer or designee,...

  4. 48 CFR 52.223-7 - Notice of radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Notice of radioactive....223-7 Notice of radioactive materials. As prescribed in 23.602, insert the following clause: Notice of Radioactive Materials (JAN 1997) (a) The Contractor shall notify the Contracting Officer or designee,...

  5. 48 CFR 52.223-7 - Notice of radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notice of radioactive....223-7 Notice of radioactive materials. As prescribed in 23.602, insert the following clause: Notice of Radioactive Materials (JAN 1997) (a) The Contractor shall notify the Contracting Officer or designee,...

  6. 48 CFR 52.223-7 - Notice of radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Notice of radioactive....223-7 Notice of radioactive materials. As prescribed in 23.602, insert the following clause: Notice of Radioactive Materials (JAN 1997) (a) The Contractor shall notify the Contracting Officer or designee,...

  7. 48 CFR 52.223-7 - Notice of radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Notice of radioactive....223-7 Notice of radioactive materials. As prescribed in 23.602, insert the following clause: Notice of Radioactive Materials (JAN 1997) (a) The Contractor shall notify the Contracting Officer or designee,...

  8. Residual radioactive material guidelines: Methodology and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, C.; Yuan, Y.C.; Zielen, A.J.; Wallo, A. III

    1989-01-01

    A methodology to calculate residual radioactive material guidelines was developed for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This methodology is coded in a menu-driven computer program, RESRAD, which can be run on IBM or IBM-compatible microcomputers. Seven pathways of exposure are considered: external radiation, inhalation, and ingestion of plant foods, meat, milk, aquatic foods, and water. The RESRAD code has been applied to several DOE sites to calculate soil cleanup guidelines. This experience has shown that the computer code is easy to use and very user-friendly. 3 refs., 8 figs.

  9. RECLAMATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING COMPONENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Abramczyk, G.; Nathan, S.; Loftin, B.; Bellamy, S.

    2011-06-06

    Radioactive material packages are withdrawn from use for various reasons; loss of mission, decertification, damage, replacement, etc. While the packages themselves may be decertified, various components may still be able to perform to their required standards and find useful service. The Packaging Technology and Pressurized Systems group of the Savannah River National Laboratory has been reducing the cost of producing new Type B Packagings by reclaiming, refurbishing, and returning to service the containment vessels from older decertified packagings. The program and its benefits are presented.

  10. Is anyone regulating naturally occurring radioactive material? A state survey

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, E.M.; Barisas, S.G.

    1993-08-01

    As far as we know, naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) has surrounded humankind since the beginning of time. However, recent data demonstrating that certain activities concentrate NORM have increased concern regarding its proper handling and disposal and precipitated the development of new NORM-related regulations. The regulation of NORM affects the management of government facilities as well as a broad range of industrial processes. Recognizing that NORM regulation at the federal level is extremely limited, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a 50-state survey to determine the extent to which states have assumed the responsibility for regulating NORM as well as the NORM standards that are currently being applied at the state level. Though the survey indicates that NORM regulation comprises a broad spectrum of controls from full licensing requirements to virtually no regulation at afl, a trend is emerging toward recognition of the need for increased regulation of potential NORM hazards, particularly in the absence of federal standards.

  11. 49 CFR 176.192 - Cargo handling equipment for freight containers carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo handling equipment for freight containers...) Materials Handling Class 1 (explosive) Materials in Port § 176.192 Cargo handling equipment for freight containers carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials. (a) Except in an emergency, only cargo handling...

  12. Robotic control architecture development for automated nuclear material handling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, R.D.; Hurd, R.; Couture, S.; Wilhelmsen, K.

    1995-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is engaged in developing automated systems for handling materials for mixed waste treatment, nuclear pyrochemical processing, and weapon components disassembly. In support of these application areas there is an extensive robotic development program. This paper will describe the portion of this effort at LLNL devoted to control system architecture development, and review two applications currently being implemented which incorporate these technologies.

  13. Design guide for Type B radioactive material transportation packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Arbital, J.G.; Stumpfl, E.; Moses, S.D.

    1995-11-01

    In a joint effort between Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. of Oak Ridge, Tennessee and the US Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque Operations (ALO), a guide to transportation package design for defense program materials has been developed (DOE, 1994). The Design Guide, as it is referred to, is a comprehensive document that uses a systems engineering approach to the design of Type B fissile packages for radioactive material handling and shipping. The specific design aspects addressed in the guide are geared toward special nuclear materials, however the guide can be used to design any transportation package for Type B unirradiated material (fissile or nonfissile). The Design Guide covers all elements of a successful design effort including structural integrity issues, thermal performance, containment systems, shielding requirements, criticality concerns, operational considerations, acceptance criteria, maintenance program, materials compatibility, and quality assurance. The Design Guide was issued in DRAFT form for comments by the DOE complex. Comments have since been incorporated. The Design Guide will be further updated as new technologies are developed, however it can be successfully applied at this time.

  14. Radioactive materials in biosolids : dose modeling.

    SciTech Connect

    Wolbarst, A. B.; Chiu, W. A; Yu, C.; Aiello, K.; Bachmaier, J. T.; Bastian, R. K.; Cheng, J. -J.; Goodman, J.; Hogan, R.; Jones, A. R.; Kamboj, S.; Lenhartt, T.; Ott, W. R.; Rubin, A.; Salomon, S. N.; Schmidt, D. W.; Setlow, L. W.; Environmental Science Division; U.S. EPA; Middlesex County Utilities Authority; U.S. DOE; U.S. NRC; NE Ohio Regional Sewer District

    2006-01-01

    The Interagency Steering Committee on Radiation Standards (ISCORS) has recently completed a study of the occurrence within the United States of radioactive materials in sewage sludge and sewage incineration ash. One component of that effort was an examination of the possible transport of radioactivity from sludge into the local environment and the subsequent exposure of humans. A stochastic environmental pathway model was applied separately to seven hypothetical, generic sludge-release scenarios, leading to the creation of seven tables of Dose-to-Source Ratios (DSR), which can be used in translating from specific activity in sludge into dose to an individual. These DSR values were then combined with the results of an ISCORS survey of sludge and ash at more than 300 publicly owned treatment works, to explore the potential for radiation exposure of sludge workers and members of the public. This paper provides a brief overview of the pathway modeling methodology employed in the exposure and dose assessments and discusses technical aspects of the results obtained.

  15. Gamma emitting radioactive materials in household dinnerware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, Fawzia Ahmad

    A variety of commonly available household and tableware items and some specialty glass materials commonly found in everyday life were examined for their radioactivity content with two different detection and measurement methods. Dinnerware is produced mainly from clay and sand at high temperatures. Therefore, it should be expected to have some degree of radioactivity. It is also stored in confined places, which permits radon accumulation. The natural radioactivity due to the presence of 238U, 232Th and 40K in dinnerware used in houses was measured. Many dinnerware items from various origins that are sold on the open market were studied. Measurements of specific activities of 238U, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs radionuclide for the samples were carried out. The measurements were made by gamma-ray spectrometry having a high-purity germanium (HpGe) detector connected to a multichannel analyzer and a computer system. The average values of specific activities were (6.03 ± 0.54 to 223.67 ± 22.37 for 238U; 2.87 ± 0.14 to 513.85 ± 15.42 for 232Th; 28.67 ± 2.01 to 2726.70 ± 54.53 for 40K; and 0.592 ± 0.037 to 3.549 ± 0.248 for 137Cs) Bq kg-1, respectively. The glazed samples seemed to contribute most of the activity, although also unglazed samples showed some activity. The absorbed dose rates, radium equivalent and external hazard index were also calculated and tabulated. CR-39 solid-state nuclear track detectors were used to measure the radon track density, exhalation rate and effective radium content for the investigated samples. The exhalation rate was found to vary from 4.376 to 8.144 Bq m-2 d-1. It appears that foreign ceramic products, especially Chinese ones with high uranium content, eventually enter the country. The results from the two methods are compared and their combined uncertainties were estimated from the relation of relative combined variance. In Egypt, no special regulations exist concerning radioactivity in glazed earthenware. On the basis of the previous

  16. Introduction to naturally occurring radioactive material

    SciTech Connect

    Egidi, P.

    1997-08-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is everywhere; we are exposed to it every day. It is found in our bodies, the food we eat, the places where we live and work, and in products we use. We are also bathed in a sea of natural radiation coming from the sun and deep space. Living systems have adapted to these levels of radiation and radioactivity. But some industrial practices involving natural resources concentrate these radionuclides to a degree that they may pose risk to humans and the environment if they are not controlled. Other activities, such as flying at high altitudes, expose us to elevated levels of NORM. This session will concentrate on diffuse sources of technologically-enhanced (TE) NORM, which are generally large-volume, low-activity waste streams produced by industries such as mineral mining, ore benefication, production of phosphate Fertilizers, water treatment and purification, and oil and gas production. The majority of radionuclides in TENORM are found in the uranium and thorium decay chains. Radium and its subsequent decay products (radon) are the principal radionuclides used in characterizing the redistribution of TENORM in the environment by human activity. We will briefly review other radionuclides occurring in nature (potassium and rubidium) that contribute primarily to background doses. TENORM is found in many waste streams; for example, scrap metal, sludges, slags, fluids, and is being discovered in industries traditionally not thought of as affected by radionuclide contamination. Not only the forms and volumes, but the levels of radioactivity in TENORM vary. Current discussions about the validity of the linear no dose threshold theory are central to the TENORM issue. TENORM is not regulated by the Atomic Energy Act or other Federal regulations. Control and regulation of TENORM is not consistent from industry to industry nor from state to state. Proposed regulations are moving from concentration-based standards to dose

  17. Handling Radioactive Waste from the Proton Accelerator Facility at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) - Always Surprising? - 13320

    SciTech Connect

    Mueth, Joachim

    2013-07-01

    waste management process of PSI, especially of the Section Dismantling and Waste Management. Strictly proven and accepted methods needed to be developed and enhanced for safe treatment, transport, conditioning and storage. But in the field of waste from research activities, individual and new solutions have to be found in an increasingly growing administrative environment. Furthermore, a wide variety of components, with a really large inventory of radioactive nuclides, has to be handled. And there are always surprising challenges concerning the unusual materials or the nuclide inventory. In case of the operational and dismantling radioactive accelerator waste, the existing conditioning methods are in the process of a continuous enhancement - technically and administratively. The existing authorized specifications of conditioning processes have to be extended to optimize and fully describe the treatment of the inevitably occurring radioactive waste from the accelerator facility. Additional challenges are the changes with time concerning the legal and regulatory requirements - or do we have to consider it as business as usual? This paper gives an overview of the current practices in radioactive waste management and decommissioning of the existing operational accelerator waste. (authors)

  18. Issues in recycling and disposal of radioactively contaminated materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kluk, A.F.; Hocking, E.K.; Roberts, R.; Phillips, J.W.

    1993-10-01

    The Department of Energy`s present stock of potentially re-usable and minimally radioactively contaminated materials will increase significantly as the Department`s remediation activities expand. As part of its effort to minimize wastes, the Department is pursuing several approaches to recover valuable materials such as nickel, copper, and steel, and reduce the high disposal costs associated with contaminated materials. Key approaches are recycling radioactively contaminated materials or disposing of them as non-radioactive waste. These approaches are impeded by a combination of potentially conflicting Federal regulations, State actions, and Departmental policies. Actions to promote or implement these approaches at the Federal, State, or Departmental level involve issues which must be addressed and resolved. The paramount issue is the legal status of radioactively contaminated materials and the roles of the Federal and State governments in regulating those materials. Public involvement is crucial in the debate surrounding the fate of radioactively contaminated materials.

  19. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR CARRIER PREPARATION BUILDING MATERIALS HANDLING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    2001-02-08

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) carrier preparation building materials handling system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Preclosure Safety and Systems Engineering Section. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 2000). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P7 ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 2000).

  20. Material handling for the Los Alamos National Laboratory Nuclear Material Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Pittman, P.; Roybal, J.; Durrer, R.; Gordon, D.

    1999-04-01

    This paper will present the design and application of material handling and automation systems currently being developed for the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Nuclear Material Storage Facility (NMSF) renovation project. The NMSF is a long-term storage facility for nuclear material in various forms. The material is stored within tubes in a rack called a basket. The material handling equipment range from simple lift assist devices to more sophisticated fully automated robots, and are split into three basic systems: a Vault Automation System, an NDA automation System, and a Drum handling System. The Vault Automation system provides a mechanism to handle a basket of material cans and to load/unload storage tubes within the material vault. In addition, another robot is provided to load/unload material cans within the baskets. The NDA Automation System provides a mechanism to move material within the small canister NDA laboratory and to load/unload the NDA instruments. The Drum Handling System consists of a series of off the shelf components used to assist in lifting heavy objects such as pallets of material or drums and barrels.

  1. 10 CFR 76.81 - Authorized use of radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authorized use of radioactive material. 76.81 Section 76.81 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.81 Authorized use of radioactive material. Unless otherwise authorized by law, the...

  2. 10 CFR 76.81 - Authorized use of radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Authorized use of radioactive material. 76.81 Section 76.81 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.81 Authorized use of radioactive material. Unless otherwise authorized by law, the...

  3. 10 CFR 76.81 - Authorized use of radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Authorized use of radioactive material. 76.81 Section 76.81 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.81 Authorized use of radioactive material. Unless otherwise authorized by law, the...

  4. 10 CFR 76.81 - Authorized use of radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Authorized use of radioactive material. 76.81 Section 76.81 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.81 Authorized use of radioactive material. Unless otherwise authorized by law, the...

  5. 10 CFR 76.81 - Authorized use of radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Authorized use of radioactive material. 76.81 Section 76.81 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.81 Authorized use of radioactive material. Unless otherwise authorized by law, the...

  6. 46 CFR 109.559 - Explosives and radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Explosives and radioactive materials. 109.559 Section 109.559 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.559 Explosives and radioactive materials. Except as authorized...

  7. 46 CFR 109.559 - Explosives and radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Explosives and radioactive materials. 109.559 Section 109.559 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.559 Explosives and radioactive materials. Except as authorized...

  8. 46 CFR 109.559 - Explosives and radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Explosives and radioactive materials. 109.559 Section 109.559 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.559 Explosives and radioactive materials. Except as authorized...

  9. 46 CFR 109.559 - Explosives and radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Explosives and radioactive materials. 109.559 Section 109.559 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.559 Explosives and radioactive materials. Except as authorized...

  10. 46 CFR 109.559 - Explosives and radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Explosives and radioactive materials. 109.559 Section 109.559 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.559 Explosives and radioactive materials. Except as authorized...

  11. Radial Internal Material Handling System (RIMS) for Circular Habitat Volumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, A. Scott; Haselschwardt, Sally

    2012-01-01

    A Radial Internal Material Handling System (RIMS) has been developed to service a circular floor area in variable gravity. On planetary surfaces, pressurized human habitable volumes will require a means to carry heavy equipment between various locations within the volume of the habitat, regardless of the partial gravity (Earth, moon, Mars, etc). On the NASA Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU), a vertical cylindrical volume, it was determined that a variety of heavy items would need to be carried back and forth from deployed locations to the General Maintenance Work Station (GMWS) when in need of repair, and other equipment may need to be carried inside for repairs, such as rover parts and other external equipment. The vertical cylindrical volume of the HDU lent itself to a circular overhead track and hoist system that allows lifting of heavy objects from anywhere in the habitat to any other point in the habitat interior. In addition, the system is able to hand off lifted items to other material handling systems through the side hatches, such as through an airlock. This paper describes the RIMS system which is scalable for application in a variety of circular habitat volumes.

  12. Low radioactivity material for use in mounting radiation detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Marshall; Metzger, Albert E.; Fox, Richard L.

    1988-01-01

    Two materials, sapphire and synthetic quartz, have been found for use in Ge detector mounting assemblies. These materials combine desirable mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties with the radioactive cleanliness required to detect minimal amounts of K, Th, and U.

  13. CARRIER PREPARATION BUILDING MATERIALS HANDLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    E.F. Loros

    2000-06-28

    The Carrier Preparation Building Materials Handling System receives rail and truck shipping casks from the Carrier/Cask Transport System, and inspects and prepares the shipping casks for return to the Carrier/Cask Transport System. Carrier preparation operations for carriers/casks received at the surface repository include performing a radiation survey of the carrier and cask, removing/retracting the personnel barrier, measuring the cask temperature, removing/retracting the impact limiters, removing the cask tie-downs (if any), and installing the cask trunnions (if any). The shipping operations for carriers/casks leaving the surface repository include removing the cask trunnions (if any), installing the cask tie-downs (if any), installing the impact limiters, performing a radiation survey of the cask, and installing the personnel barrier. There are four parallel carrier/cask preparation lines installed in the Carrier Preparation Building with two preparation bays in each line, each of which can accommodate carrier/cask shipping and receiving. The lines are operated concurrently to handle the waste shipping throughputs and to allow system maintenance operations. One remotely operated overhead bridge crane and one remotely operated manipulator is provided for each pair of carrier/cask preparation lines servicing four preparation bays. Remotely operated support equipment includes a manipulator and tooling and fixtures for removing and installing personnel barriers, impact limiters, cask trunnions, and cask tie-downs. Remote handling equipment is designed to facilitate maintenance, dose reduction, and replacement of interchangeable components where appropriate. Semi-automatic, manual, and backup control methods support normal, abnormal, and recovery operations. Laydown areas and equipment are included as required for transportation system components (e.g., personnel barriers and impact limiters), fixtures, and tooling to support abnormal and recovery operations. The

  14. 29 CFR 1926.1000 - Rollover protective structures (ROPS) for material handling equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rollover protective structures (ROPS) for material handling... (ROPS) for material handling equipment. (a) Coverage. (1) This section applies to the following types of material handling equipment: To all rubber-tired, self-propelled scrapers, rubber-tired front-end...

  15. 29 CFR 1926.1000 - Rollover protective structures (ROPS) for material handling equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rollover protective structures (ROPS) for material handling... (ROPS) for material handling equipment. (a) Coverage. (1) This section applies to the following types of material handling equipment: To all rubber-tired, self-propelled scrapers, rubber-tired front-end...

  16. 29 CFR 1926.1000 - Rollover protective structures (ROPS) for material handling equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rollover protective structures (ROPS) for material handling... (ROPS) for material handling equipment. (a) Coverage. (1) This section applies to the following types of material handling equipment: To all rubber-tired, self-propelled scrapers, rubber-tired front-end...

  17. 29 CFR 1926.1000 - Rollover protective structures (ROPS) for material handling equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rollover protective structures (ROPS) for material handling... (ROPS) for material handling equipment. (a) Coverage. (1) This section applies to the following types of material handling equipment: To all rubber-tired, self-propelled scrapers, rubber-tired front-end...

  18. Handling and Treatment of Uranium Contaminated Combustible Radioactive Low Level Waste (LLW)

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenzen, J,; Lindberg, M.; Luvstrand, J.

    2002-02-26

    Studsvik RadWaste in Sweden has many years of experience in handling of low-level radioactive waste, such as burnable waste for incineration and scrap metal for melting. In Erwin, TN, in the USA, Studsvik Inc also operates a THOR (pyrolysis) facility for treatment of various kinds of ion-exchange resins. The advantage of incineration of combustible waste as well as of ion-exchange resins by pyrolysis, is the vast volume reduction which minimizes the cost for final storage and results in an inert end-product which is feasible for safe final disposal. The amount of uranium in the incinerable waste has impact on the quality of the resulting ash. The quality improves with lower U-content. One way of reducing the Ucontent is leaching using a chemical process before and if necessary also after the incineration. Ranstad Mineral AB has been established in the 1960s to support the Swedish national program for uranium mining in southern Sweden. Ranstad Mineral works among others wit h chemical processes to reduce uranium content by leaching. During 1998-2000 about 150 tons/year have been processed. The goal was to reach uranium residues of less than 0.02% for disposal on the municipal waste disposal.

  19. Transporting radioactive materials: Q & A to your questions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    Over 2 million packages of radioactive materials are shipped each year in the United States. These shipments are carried by trucks, trains, ships, and airplanes every day just like other commodities. Compliance with Federal regulations ensures that radioactive materials are transported safely. Proper packaging is the key to safe shipment. Package designs for radioactive materials must protect the public and the environment even in case of an accident. As the level of radioactivity increases, packaging design requirements become more stringent. Radioactive materials have been shipped in this country for more than 40 years. As with other commodities, vehicles carrying these materials have been involved in accidents. However, no deaths or serious injuries have resulted from exposure to the radioactive contents of these shipments. People are concerned about how radioactive shipments might affect them and the environment. This booklet briefly answers some of the commonly asked questions about the transport of radioactive materials. More detailed information is available from the sources listed at the end of this booklet.

  20. Transportation accidents/incidents involving radioactive materials (1971--1991)

    SciTech Connect

    Cashwell, C. E.; McClure, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    The Radioactive Materials Incident Report (RMIR) database contains information on transportation-related accidents and incidents involving radioactive materials that have occurred in the United States. The RMIR was developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to support its research and development program efforts for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This paper will address the following topics: background information on the regulations and process for reporting a hazardous materials transportation incident, overview data of radioactive materials transportation accidents and incidents, and additional information and summary data on how packagings have performed in accident conditions.

  1. Transport of Radioactive Material by Alpha Recoil

    SciTech Connect

    Icenhour, A.S.

    2005-05-19

    The movement of high-specific-activity radioactive particles (i.e., alpha recoil) has been observed and studied since the early 1900s. These studies have been motivated by concerns about containment of radioactivity and the protection of human health. Additionally, studies have investigated the potential advantage of alpha recoil to effect separations of various isotopes. This report provides a review of the observations and results of a number of the studies.

  2. 10 CFR Appendix E to Part 835 - Values for Establishing Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability and Radioactive Material Posting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Values for Establishing Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability and Radioactive Material Posting and Labeling Requirements E Appendix E to Part 835 Energy... Establishing Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability and Radioactive Material Posting and...

  3. 10 CFR Appendix E to Part 835 - Values for Establishing Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability and Radioactive Material Posting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Values for Establishing Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability and Radioactive Material Posting and Labeling Requirements E Appendix E to Part 835 Energy... Establishing Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability and Radioactive Material Posting and...

  4. 10 CFR Appendix E to Part 835 - Values for Establishing Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability and Radioactive Material Posting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Values for Establishing Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability and Radioactive Material Posting and Labeling Requirements E Appendix E to Part 835 Energy... Establishing Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability and Radioactive Material Posting and...

  5. RELEASE OF DRIED RADIOACTIVE WASTE MATERIALS TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    KOZLOWSKI, S.D.

    2007-05-30

    This technical basis document was developed to support RPP-23429, Preliminary Documented Safety Analysis for the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (PDSA) and RPP-23479, Preliminary Documented Safety Analysis for the Contact-Handled Transuranic Mixed (CH-TRUM) Waste Facility. The main document describes the risk binning process and the technical basis for assigning risk bins to the representative accidents involving the release of dried radioactive waste materials from the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) and to the associated represented hazardous conditions. Appendices D through F provide the technical basis for assigning risk bins to the representative dried waste release accident and associated represented hazardous conditions for the Contact-Handled Transuranic Mixed (CH-TRUM) Waste Packaging Unit (WPU). The risk binning process uses an evaluation of the frequency and consequence of a given representative accident or represented hazardous condition to determine the need for safety structures, systems, and components (SSC) and technical safety requirement (TSR)-level controls. A representative accident or a represented hazardous condition is assigned to a risk bin based on the potential radiological and toxicological consequences to the public and the collocated worker. Note that the risk binning process is not applied to facility workers because credible hazardous conditions with the potential for significant facility worker consequences are considered for safety-significant SSCs and/or TSR-level controls regardless of their estimated frequency. The controls for protection of the facility workers are described in RPP-23429 and RPP-23479. Determination of the need for safety-class SSCs was performed in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses, as described below.

  6. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in Cargo at US Borders

    SciTech Connect

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Evans, John C.; Hensley, Walter K.; Lepel, Elwood A.; McDonald, Joseph C.; Schweppe, John E.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Strom, Daniel J.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

    2006-01-01

    In the U.S. and other countries, large numbers of vehicles pass through border crossings each day. The illicit movement of radioactive sources is a concern that has resulted in the installation of radiation detection and identification instruments at border crossing points. This activity is judged to be necessary because of the possibility of an act of terrorism involving a radioactive source that may include any number of dangerous radionuclides. The problem of detecting, identifying, and interdicting illicit radioactive sources is complicated by the fact that many materials present in cargo are somewhat radioactive. Some cargo contains naturally occurring radioactive material or technologically-enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material that may trigger radiation portal monitor alarms. Man-made radioactive sources, especially medical isotopes, are also frequently observed and produce alarms. Such nuisance alarms can be an operational limiting factor for screening of cargo at border crossings. Information about the nature of the radioactive materials in cargo that can interfere with the detection of radionuclides of concern is necessary. This paper provides such information for North American cargo, but the information may also be of use to border control officials in other countries. (PIET-43741-TM-361)

  7. 49 CFR 176.72 - Handling of break-bulk hazardous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Handling of break-bulk hazardous materials. 176.72 Section 176.72 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... VESSEL General Handling and Stowage § 176.72 Handling of break-bulk hazardous materials. (a) A metal...

  8. 49 CFR 176.72 - Handling of break-bulk hazardous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Handling of break-bulk hazardous materials. 176.72 Section 176.72 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... VESSEL General Handling and Stowage § 176.72 Handling of break-bulk hazardous materials. (a) A metal...

  9. 77 FR 45612 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Notice of Radioactive Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Notice of Radioactive Materials AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD... approved information collection requirement concerning Notice of Radioactive Materials. Public comments are... comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0107, Notice of Radioactive Materials, by any of...

  10. 49 CFR 175.701 - Separation distance requirements for packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in passenger-carrying aircraft. 175.701 Section 175.701... packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in passenger-carrying aircraft. (a) The following table... Class 7 (radioactive) materials labeled RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II or RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III and...

  11. 49 CFR 175.701 - Separation distance requirements for packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in passenger-carrying aircraft. 175.701 Section 175.701... packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in passenger-carrying aircraft. (a) The following table... Class 7 (radioactive) materials labeled RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II or RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III and...

  12. 49 CFR 175.701 - Separation distance requirements for packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in passenger-carrying aircraft. 175.701 Section 175.701... packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in passenger-carrying aircraft. (a) The following table... Class 7 (radioactive) materials labeled RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II or RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III and...

  13. PROCESS OF DECONTAMINATING MATERIAL CONTAMINATED WITH RADIOACTIVITY

    DOEpatents

    Overholt, D.C.; Peterson, M.D.; Acken, M.F.

    1958-09-16

    A process is described for decontaminating metallic objects, such as stainless steel equipment, which consists in contacting such objects with nltric acid in a concentration of 35 to 60% to remove the major portion of the contamination; and thereafter contacting the partially decontaminated object with a second solution containing up to 20% of alkali metal hydroxide and up to 20% sodium tartrate to remove the remaining radioactive contaminats.

  14. Miscellaneous radioactive materials detected during uranium mill tailings surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, M.J.

    1993-10-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management directed the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Pollutant Assessments Group in the conduct of radiological surveys on properties in Monticello, Utah, associated with the Mendaciously millsite National Priority List site. During these surveys, various radioactive materials were detected that were unrelated to the Monticello millsite. The existence and descriptions of these materials were recorded in survey reports and are condensed in this report. The radioactive materials detected are either naturally occurring radioactive material, such as rock and mineral collections, uranium ore, and radioactive coal or manmade radioactive material consisting of tailings from other millsites, mining equipment, radium dials, mill building scraps, building materials, such as brick and cinderblock, and other miscellaneous sources. Awareness of the miscellaneous and naturally occurring material is essential to allow DOE to forecast the additional costs and schedule changes associated with remediation activities. Also, material that may pose a health hazard to the public should be revealed to other regulatory agencies for consideration.

  15. Conversion of radioactive waste materials into solid form

    SciTech Connect

    Bustard, T.S.; Pohl, C.S.

    1980-10-28

    Radioactive waste materials are converted into solid form by mixing the radioactive waste with a novel polymeric formulation which, when solidified, forms a solid, substantially rigid matrix that contains and entraps the radioactive waste. The polymeric formulation comprises, in certain significant proportions by weight, urea-formaldehyde; methylated urea-formaldehyde; urea and a plasticizer. A defoaming agent may also be incorporated into the polymeric composition. In the practice of the invention, radioactive waste, in the form of a liquid or slurry, is mixed with the polymeric formulation, with this mixture then being treated with an acidic catalyzing agent, such as sulfuric acid. This mixture is then preferably passed to a disposable container so that, upon solidification, the radioactive waste, entrapped within the matrix formed by the polymeric formulation, may be safely and effectively stored or disposed of.

  16. Potential of pottery materials in manufacturing radioactive waste containers.

    PubMed

    Helal, A A; Alian, A M; Aly, H M; Khalifa, S M

    2003-07-01

    Various pottery materials were evaluated for possible use in manufacturing containers for radioactive waste. Their potential was examined from the viewpoints of the effectiveness of disposal and the changes induced in them by gamma rays. Samples of these materials were irradiated with high-energy neutrons and gamma rays in a reactor near its core. the physical and mechanical properties of the materials before and after gamma irradiation (in a 60Co gamma cell) were compared. The study showed that pottery materials are resistant to radiation. Therefore, they were proposed for manufacturing drums for disposal of radioactive waste of high gamma activity.

  17. 9 CFR 318.18 - Handling of certain material for mechanical processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Handling of certain material for mechanical processing. 318.18 Section 318.18 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS General § 318.18 Handling of certain material for mechanical processing. Material...

  18. 9 CFR 318.18 - Handling of certain material for mechanical processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Handling of certain material for mechanical processing. 318.18 Section 318.18 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS General § 318.18 Handling of certain material for mechanical processing. Material...

  19. 9 CFR 318.18 - Handling of certain material for mechanical processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Handling of certain material for mechanical processing. 318.18 Section 318.18 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS General § 318.18 Handling of certain material for mechanical processing. Material...

  20. 9 CFR 318.18 - Handling of certain material for mechanical processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Handling of certain material for mechanical processing. 318.18 Section 318.18 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS General § 318.18 Handling of certain material for mechanical processing. Material...

  1. 9 CFR 318.18 - Handling of certain material for mechanical processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling of certain material for mechanical processing. 318.18 Section 318.18 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS General § 318.18 Handling of certain material for mechanical processing. Material...

  2. 77 FR 23117 - Rigging Equipment for Material Handling Construction Standard; Correction and Technical Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... sling standard for construction titled ``Rigging Equipment for Material Handling'' by removing the rated... AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Subpart H--Materials Handling, Storage, Use, and Disposal 0 1... Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Part 1926 Rigging Equipment for Material...

  3. Radial Internal Material Handling System (RIMS) for Circular Habitat Volumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Alan S.; Haselschwardt, Sally; Bogatko, Alex; Humphrey, Brian; Patel, Amit

    2013-01-01

    On planetary surfaces, pressurized human habitable volumes will require a means to carry equipment around within the volume of the habitat, regardless of the partial gravity (Earth, Moon, Mars, etc.). On the NASA Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU), a vertical cylindrical volume, it was determined that a variety of heavy items would need to be carried back and forth from deployed locations to the General Maintenance Work Station (GMWS) when in need of repair, and other equipment may need to be carried inside for repairs, such as rover parts and other external equipment. The vertical cylindrical volume of the HDU lent itself to a circular overhead track and hoist system that allows lifting of heavy objects from anywhere in the habitat to any other point in the habitat interior. In addition, the system is able to hand-off lifted items to other material handling systems through the side hatches, such as through an airlock. The overhead system consists of two concentric circle tracks that have a movable beam between them. The beam has a hoist carriage that can move back and forth on the beam. Therefore, the entire system acts like a bridge crane curved around to meet itself in a circle. The novelty of the system is in its configuration, and how it interfaces with the volume of the HDU habitat. Similar to how a bridge crane allows coverage for an entire rectangular volume, the RIMS system covers a circular volume. The RIMS system is the first generation of what may be applied to future planetary surface vertical cylinder habitats on the Moon or on Mars.

  4. Waste minimization for commercial radioactive materials users generating low-level radioactive waste. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, D.K.; Gitt, M.; Williams, G.A.; Branch, S.; Otis, M.D.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Schurman, D.L.

    1991-07-01

    The objective of this document is to provide a resource for all states and compact regions interested in promoting the minimization of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). This project was initiated by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and Massachusetts waste streams have been used as examples; however, the methods of analysis presented here are applicable to similar waste streams generated elsewhere. This document is a guide for states/compact regions to use in developing a system to evaluate and prioritize various waste minimization techniques in order to encourage individual radioactive materials users (LLW generators) to consider these techniques in their own independent evaluations. This review discusses the application of specific waste minimization techniques to waste streams characteristic of three categories of radioactive materials users: (1) industrial operations using radioactive materials in the manufacture of commercial products, (2) health care institutions, including hospitals and clinics, and (3) educational and research institutions. Massachusetts waste stream characterization data from key radioactive materials users in each category are used to illustrate the applicability of various minimization techniques. The utility group is not included because extensive information specific to this category of LLW generators is available in the literature.

  5. Waste minimization for commercial radioactive materials users generating low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, D.K.; Gitt, M.; Williams, G.A.; Branch, S. ); Otis, M.D.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Schurman, D.L. )

    1991-07-01

    The objective of this document is to provide a resource for all states and compact regions interested in promoting the minimization of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). This project was initiated by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and Massachusetts waste streams have been used as examples; however, the methods of analysis presented here are applicable to similar waste streams generated elsewhere. This document is a guide for states/compact regions to use in developing a system to evaluate and prioritize various waste minimization techniques in order to encourage individual radioactive materials users (LLW generators) to consider these techniques in their own independent evaluations. This review discusses the application of specific waste minimization techniques to waste streams characteristic of three categories of radioactive materials users: (1) industrial operations using radioactive materials in the manufacture of commercial products, (2) health care institutions, including hospitals and clinics, and (3) educational and research institutions. Massachusetts waste stream characterization data from key radioactive materials users in each category are used to illustrate the applicability of various minimization techniques. The utility group is not included because extensive information specific to this category of LLW generators is available in the literature.

  6. Radioactive material in the West Lake Landfill: Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    1988-06-01

    The West Lake Landfill is located near the city of St. Louis in Bridgeton, St. Louis County, Missouri. The site has been used since 1962 for disposing of municipal refuse, industrial solid and liquid wastes, and construction demolition debris. This report summarizes the circumstances of the radioactive material in the West Lake Landfill. The radioactive material resulted from the processing of uranium ores and the subsequent by the AEC of processing residues. Primary emphasis is on the radiological environmental aspects as they relate to potential disposition of the material. It is concluded that remedial action is called for. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Activity concentration of natural radioactive nuclides in nonmetallic industrial raw materials in Japan.

    PubMed

    Iwaoka, Kazuki; Tabe, Hiroyuki; Yonehara, Hidenori

    2014-11-01

    Natural materials such as rock, ore, and clay, containing natural radioactive nuclides are widely used as industrial raw materials in Japan. If these are high concentrations, the workers who handle the material can be unknowingly exposed to radiation at a high level. In this study, about 80 nonmetallic natural materials frequently used as industrial raw materials in Japan were comprehensively collected from several industrial companies, and the activity concentrations of (238)U series, (232)Th series and (40)K in the materials was determined by ICP-MS (inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometer) and gamma ray spectrum analyses. Effective doses to workers handling them were estimated by using methods for dose estimation given in the RP 122. We found the activity concentrations to be lower than the critical values defined by regulatory requirements as described in the IAEA Safety Guide. The maximum estimated effective dose to workers handling these materials was 0.16 mSv y(-1), which was lower than the reference level (1-20 mSv y(-1)) for existing situation given in the ICRP Publ.103.

  8. 49 CFR 173.422 - Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.422 Section 173.422 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... (Radioactive) Materials § 173.422 Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. An excepted package of Class 7 (radioactive) material that is prepared for shipment under...

  9. 49 CFR 173.422 - Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.422 Section 173.422 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... (Radioactive) Materials § 173.422 Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. An excepted package of Class 7 (radioactive) material that is prepared for shipment under...

  10. 49 CFR 173.422 - Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.422 Section 173.422 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... (Radioactive) Materials § 173.422 Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. An excepted package of Class 7 (radioactive) material that is prepared for shipment under...

  11. 49 CFR 173.422 - Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.422 Section 173.422 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... (Radioactive) Materials § 173.422 Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. An excepted package of Class 7 (radioactive) material that is prepared for shipment under...

  12. 49 CFR 173.422 - Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.422 Section 173.422 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... (Radioactive) Materials § 173.422 Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. An excepted package of Class 7 (radioactive) material that is prepared for shipment under...

  13. 78 FR 59729 - Final Comparative Environmental Evaluation of Alternatives for Handling Low-Level Radioactive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    .... On September 20, 2012 (77 FR 58416), the NRC staff published a notice in the Federal Register..., depending on the concentrations and radioactivity levels of radionuclides present. Currently, there are...

  14. Natural radioactivity levels in building materials used in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Fawzia

    All building materials contain various amounts of radioactive nuclides. The levels of natural radioactivity in 43 selected typical building materials used in the construction of walls, windows and doors were determined. For the first time, the radioactivity of iron was measured, revealing the existence of 60Co. A shielded high-purity germanium detector was used to measure the abundance of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K. The materials examined in this work showed radioactivity levels below the limit estimated from radium equivalent activity for acceptable radiation doses attributable to building materials, except for the fact that one gypsum sample showed higher levels of activity than average world levels. The studied building materials were classified according to the radium equivalent activities, which varied from highest to lowest levels as follows: clay, cement, brick, gypsum except from Abu-Zaabal, sand, wood, iron, glass and hydrated lime The existence of the 137Cs isotope in some building materials was confirmed and its concentration levels were determined (ranging from 0.04 to 21.156 Bq kg-1). The alpha-activity of radon was measured in a number of building materials using CR-39 detectors.

  15. Semi-remote handling of radioactive devices in the Fermilab target stations

    SciTech Connect

    Eartly, D.; Currier, R.; Lindberg, J.; Sobczynski, S.; Stredde, H.; Strickland, W.

    1984-01-01

    Six additional, isolated, and self-contained target stations are being built as part of the upgrade of the three Fermilab fixed target Experimental Areas. One new system of shielding and semi-remote component handling via a crane is being developed for all of these. The first of these stations is under test. The system is simple and flexible. It successfully provides semi-remote handling of components from within the shielding of the stations.

  16. Natural radioactivity of granites used as building materials.

    PubMed

    Pavlidou, S; Koroneos, A; Papastefanou, C; Christofides, G; Stoulos, S; Vavelides, M

    2006-01-01

    Sixteen kinds of different granites, used as building materials, imported to Greece mainly from Spain and Brazil, were sampled and their natural radioactivity was measured by gamma-ray spectrometry. The activity concentrations of (238)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K of granites are presented and compared to those of other building materials as well as other granite types used all over the world. In order to assess the radiological impact from the granites investigated, the absorbed and the effective doses were determined. Although the annual effective dose is higher than the limit of 1mSvy(-1) for some studied granites, they could be used safely as building materials, considering that their contribution in most of the house constructions is very low. An attempt to correlate the relatively high level of natural radioactivity, shown by some of the granites, with their constituent radioactive minerals and their chemical composition, was also made.

  17. Learning to Design and Analyze Materials Handling Systems: Developing Multimedia Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heragu, Sunderesh; Jennings, Sybillyn

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we describe aspects related to learning and learning assessment including pedagogy, cognition, pilot study and results from the study. This study is conducted for an educational module on "10 Principles of Materials Handling". This module along with another on "Analysis and Design of Integrated Materials Handling Systems" constitute…

  18. 49 CFR 176.72 - Handling of break-bulk hazardous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... hook may not be used for handling any package of hazardous materials. (b) The use of equipment designed to lift or move cargo by means of pressure exerted on the packages may not be used for handling any package of hazardous materials if the device can damage the package or the package is not designed to...

  19. 49 CFR 176.72 - Handling of break-bulk hazardous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... hook may not be used for handling any package of hazardous materials. (b) The use of equipment designed to lift or move cargo by means of pressure exerted on the packages may not be used for handling any package of hazardous materials if the device can damage the package or the package is not designed to...

  20. Natural radioactivity measurements in building materials used in Samsun, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Tufan, M Çagatay; Disci, Tugba

    2013-01-01

    In this study, radioactivity levels of 35 different samples of 11 commonly used building materials in Samsun were measured by using a gamma spectrometry system. The analysis carried out with the high purity Germanium gamma spectrometry system. Radioactivity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K range from 6 to 54 Bq kg(-1), 5 to 88 Bq kg(-1) and 6 to 1070 Bq kg(-1), respectively. From these results, radium equivalent activities, gamma indexes, absorbed dose rates and annual effective doses were calculated for all samples. Obtained results were compared with the available data, and it was concluded that all the investigated materials did not have radiological risk.

  1. Emergency department management of patients internally contaminated with radioactive material

    DOE PAGES

    Kazzi, Ziad; Buzzell, Jennifer; Bertelli, Luiz; Christensen, Doran

    2014-11-15

    After a radiation emergency that involves the dispersal of radioactive material, patients can become externally and internally contaminated with one or more radionuclides. Internal contamination can lead to the delivery of harmful ionizing radiation doses to various organs and tissues or the whole body. The clinical consequences can range from acute radiation syndrome (ARS) to the long term development of cancer. Estimating the amount of radioactive material absorbed into the body can guide the management of patients. Treatment includes, in addition to supportive care and long term monitoring, certain medical countermeasures like Prussian blue, Calcium DTPA and Zinc DTPA.

  2. Removal of radioactive and other hazardous material from fluid waste

    DOEpatents

    Tranter, Troy J.; Knecht, Dieter A.; Todd, Terry A.; Burchfield, Larry A.; Anshits, Alexander G.; Vereshchagina, Tatiana; Tretyakov, Alexander A.; Aloy, Albert S.; Sapozhnikova, Natalia V.

    2006-10-03

    Hollow glass microspheres obtained from fly ash (cenospheres) are impregnated with extractants/ion-exchangers and used to remove hazardous material from fluid waste. In a preferred embodiment the microsphere material is loaded with ammonium molybdophosphonate (AMP) and used to remove radioactive ions, such as cesium-137, from acidic liquid wastes. In another preferred embodiment, the microsphere material is loaded with octyl(phenyl)-N-N-diisobutyl-carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and used to remove americium and plutonium from acidic liquid wastes.

  3. Shipment of radioactive materials by the US Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This brochure provides notification of, and information on, the general types of radioactive material shipments being transported for or on behalf of DOE in commerce across state and other jurisdictional boundaries. This brochure addresses: packaging and material types, shipment identification, modes of transport/materials shipped, DOE policy for routing and oversize/overweight shipments, DOE policy for notification and cargo security, training, emergency assistance, compensation for nuclear accidents, safety record, and principal DOE contact.

  4. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 37 - Category 1 and Category 2 Radioactive Materials

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Category 1 and Category 2 Radioactive Materials A Appendix... QUANTITIES OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Pt. 37, App. A Appendix A to Part 37—Category 1 and Category 2 Radioactive... are provided for practical usefulness only. Radioactive material Category 1(TBq) Category...

  5. Management of sewage sludge and ash containing radioactive materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Bachmaier, J. T.; Aiello, K.; Bastian, R. K.; Cheng, J.-J.; Chiu, W. A.; Goodman, J.; Hogan, R.; Jones, A. R.; Kamboj, S.; Lenhart, T.; Ott, W. R.; Rubin, A. B.; Salomon, S. N.; Schmidt, D. W.; Setlow, L. W.; Yu, C.; Wolbarst, A. B.; Environmental Science Division; Middlesex County Utilities Authority; U.S. EPA; N.J. Dept of Environmental Protection; NRC

    2007-01-01

    Approximately 50% of the seven to eight million metric tonnes of municipal sewage sludge produced annually in the US is reused. Beneficial uses of sewage sludge include agricultural land application, land reclamation, forestry, and various commercial applications. Excessive levels of contaminants, however, can limit the potential usefulness of land-applied sewage sludge. A recently completed study by a federal inter-agency committee has identified radioactive contaminants that could interfere with the safe reuse of sewage sludge. The study found that typical levels of radioactive materials in most municipal sewage sludge and incinerator ash do not present a health hazard to sewage treatment plant workers or to the general public. The inter-agency committee has developed recommendations for operators of sewage treatment plants for evaluating measured or estimated levels of radioactive material in sewage sludge and for determining whether actions to reduce potential exposures are appropriate.

  6. Symmetric and asymmetric manual materials handling. Part 1: Physiology and psychophysics.

    PubMed

    Drury, C G; Deeb, J M; Hartman, B; Woolley, S; Drury, C E; Gallagher, S

    1989-05-01

    To study the physiological and psychophysical costs of symmetric and asymmetric manual materials handling, two tasks were performed by 30 industrial subjects. In both tasks, box weight and handle position were varied. The symmetric task, lifting and lowering between floor and conveyor, showed handles to be beneficial. The asymmetric task was palletizing and depalletizing 36 boxes between a pallet and a conveyor. Both palletizing and depalletizing proved strenuous for females with heart rates exceeding 140b/min. All handle positions were better than No Handles, but the best handle position changed from asymmetric for 9 kg boxes to symmetric for 13 kg boxes. The effect of handles was equivalent to a weight change of 1-2 kg for Heart Rate and Rated Perceived Exertion, but much higher (2-14 kg) for Body Part Discomfort measures. PMID:2767042

  7. Ross Hazardous and Toxic Materials Handling Facility: Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    URS Consultants, Inc.

    1992-06-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) owns a 200-acre facility in Washington State known as the Ross Complex. Activities at the Ross Complex routinely involve handling toxic substances such as oil-filled electrical equipment containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organic and inorganic compounds for preserving wood transmission poles, and paints, solvents, waste oils, and pesticides and herbicides. Hazardous waste management is a common activity on-site, and hazardous and toxic substances are often generated from these and off-site activities. The subject of this environmental assessment (EA) concerns the consolidation of hazardous and toxic substances handling at the Complex. This environmental assessment has been developed to identify the potential environmental impacts of the construction and operation of the proposal. It has been prepared to meet the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) to determine if the proposed action is likely to have a significant impact on the environment. In addition to the design elements included within the project, mitigation measures have been identified within various sections that are now incorporated within the project. This facility would be designed to improve the current waste handling practices and to assist BPA in meeting Federal and state regulations.

  8. Oak Ridge National Laboratory shipping containers for radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Schaich, R.W.

    1980-05-01

    The types of containers used at ORNL for the transport of radioactive materials are described. Both returnable and non-returnable types are included. Containers for solids, liquids and gases are discussed. Casks for the shipment of uranium, irradiated fuel elements, and non-irradiated fuel elements are also described. Specifications are provided. (DC)

  9. Experiences managing radioactive material at the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Thacker, Rick L

    2013-06-01

    The National Ignition Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is the world's largest and most energetic laser system for inertial confinement fusion and experiments studying high energy density science. Many experiments performed at the National Ignition Facility involve radioactive materials; these may take the form of tritium and small quantities of depleted uranium used in targets, activation products created by neutron-producing fusion experiments, and fission products produced by the fast fissioning of the depleted uranium. While planning for the introduction of radioactive material, it was recognized that some of the standard institutional processes would need to be customized to accommodate aspects of NIF operations, such as surface contamination limits, radiological postings, airborne tritium monitoring protocols, and personnel protective equipment. These customizations were overlaid onto existing work practices to accommodate the new hazard of radioactive materials. This paper will discuss preparations that were made prior to the introduction of radioactive material, the types of radiological work activities performed, and the hazards and controls encountered. Updates to processes based on actual monitoring results are also discussed. PMID:23629067

  10. Self-closing shielded container for use with radioactive materials

    DOEpatents

    Smith, J.E.

    1984-10-16

    A container is described for storage of radioactive material comprising a container body and a closure member. The closure member being coupled to the container body to enable the closure body to move automatically from a first position (e.g., closed) to a second position (open). 1 fig.

  11. Self-closing shielded container for use with radioactive materials

    DOEpatents

    Smith, J.E.

    A container for storage of radioactive material comprises a container body and a closure member. The closure member is coupled to the container body to enable the closure body to move automatically from a first position (e.g., closed) to a second position (open).

  12. Self-closing shielded container for use with radioactive materials

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jay E.

    1984-01-01

    A container for storage of radioactive material comprising a container body nd a closure member. The closure member being coupled to the container body to enable the closure body to move automatically from a first position (e.g., closed) to a second position (open).

  13. A pill to treat people exposed to radioactive materials

    ScienceCinema

    Abergel, Rebecca

    2016-07-12

    Berkeley Lab's Rebecca Abergel discusses "A pill to treat people exposed to radioactive materials" in this Oct. 28, 2013 talk, which is part of a Science at the Theater event entitled Eight Big Ideas. Go here to watch the entire event with all 8 speakers:

  14. A pill to treat people exposed to radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Abergel, Rebecca

    2013-10-31

    Berkeley Lab's Rebecca Abergel discusses "A pill to treat people exposed to radioactive materials" in this Oct. 28, 2013 talk, which is part of a Science at the Theater event entitled Eight Big Ideas. Go here to watch the entire event with all 8 speakers:

  15. RELATIVE DISSOLUTION RATES OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS USED AT AWE.

    PubMed

    Miller, T J; Bingham, D; Cockerill, R; Waldren, S; Moth, N

    2016-09-01

    A simple in vitro dissolution test was used to provide a semi-quantitative comparison of the relative dissolution rates of samples of radioactive materials used at Atomic Weapons Establishment in a lung fluid surrogate (Ringer's solution). A wide range of dissolution rates were observed for aged legacy actinides, freshly produced actinide alloys and actinides from waste management operations.

  16. The radioactive materials packaging handbook: Design, operations, and maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Shappert, L.B.; Bowman, S.M.; Arnold, E.D.

    1998-08-01

    As part of its required activities in 1994, the US Department of Energy (DOE) made over 500,000 shipments. Of these shipments, approximately 4% were hazardous, and of these, slightly over 1% (over 6,400 shipments) were radioactive. Because of DOE`s cleanup activities, the total quantities and percentages of radioactive material (RAM) that must be moved from one site to another is expected to increase in the coming years, and these materials are likely to be different than those shipped in the past. Irradiated fuel will certainly be part of the mix as will RAM samples and waste. However, in many cases these materials will be of different shape and size and require a transport packaging having different shielding, thermal, and criticality avoidance characteristics than are currently available. This Handbook provides guidance on the design, testing, certification, and operation of packages for these materials.

  17. Advance assessment for movement of Haz Cat 3 radioactive materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Vosburg, Susan K.

    2010-04-01

    The current packaging of most HC-3 radioactive materials at SNL/NM do not meet DOT requirements for offsite shipment. SNL/NM is transporting HC-3 quantities of radioactive materials from their storage locations in the Manzano Nuclear Facilities bunkers to facilities in TA-5 to be repackaged for offsite shipment. All transportation of HC-3 rad material by SNL/NM is onsite (performed within the confines of KAFB). Transport is performed only by the Regulated Waste/Nuclear Material Disposition Department. Part of the HC3T process is to provide the CAT with the following information at least three days prior to the move: (1) RFt-Request for transfer; (2) HC3T movement report; (3) Radiological survey; and (4) Transportation Route Map.

  18. Detection of radioactive materials at Astrakhan

    SciTech Connect

    Cantut, L; Dougan, A; Hemberger, P; Kravenchenko, Gromov, A; Martin, D; Pohl, B; Richardson, J H; Williams, H; York, R; Zaitsev, E

    1999-07-01

    Astrakhan is the major Russian port on the Caspian Sea. Consequently, it is the node for significant river traffic up the Volga, as well as shipments to and from other seaports on the Caspian Sea. The majority of this latter trade across the Caspian Sea is with Iran. The Second Line of Defense and RF SCC identified Astrakhan as one of the top priorities for upgrading with modern radiation detection equipment. The purpose of the cooperative effort between RF SCC and DOE at Astrakhan is to provide the capability through equipment and training to monitor and detect illegal shipments of nuclear materials through Astrakhan. The first facility was equipped with vehicle and rail portal monitoring systems. The second facility was equipped with pedestrian, vehicle and rail portal monitoring systems. A second phase of this project will complete the equipping of Astrakhan by providing additional rail and handheld systems, along with completion of video systems. Associated with both phases is the necessary equipment and procedural training to ensure successful operation of the equipment in order to detect and deter illegal trafficking in nuclear materials. The presentation will described this project and its overall relationship to the Second Line of Defense Program.

  19. A manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, T.L.; Yu, C.; Yuan, Y.C.; Zielen, A.J.; Jusko, M.J.; Wallo, A. III

    1989-06-01

    This manual presents information for implementing US Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines for residual radioactive material at sites identified by the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) and the Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). It describes the analysis and models used to derive site-specific guidelines for allowable residual concentrations of radionuclides in soil and the design and use of the RESRAD computer code for calculating guideline values. It also describes procedures for implementing DOE policy for reducing residual radioactivity to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable. 36 refs., 16 figs, 22 tabs.

  20. Radioactive material in the West Lake Landfill: Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-04-01

    The West Lake Landfill is located near the city of St. Louis in Bridgeton, St. Louis County, Missouri. The site has been used since 1962 for disposing of municipal refuse, industrial solid and liquid wastes, and construction demolition debris. This report summarizes the circumstances of the radioactive material found in the West Lake Landfill. Primary emphasis is on the radiological environmental aspects as they relate to potential disposition of the material. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Stochastic Modeling of Radioactive Material Releases

    SciTech Connect

    Andrus, Jason; Pope, Chad

    2015-09-01

    Nonreactor nuclear facilities operated under the approval authority of the U.S. Department of Energy use unmitigated hazard evaluations to determine if potential radiological doses associated with design basis events challenge or exceed dose evaluation guidelines. Unmitigated design basis events that sufficiently challenge dose evaluation guidelines or exceed the guidelines for members of the public or workers, merit selection of safety structures, systems, or components or other controls to prevent or mitigate the hazard. Idaho State University, in collaboration with Idaho National Laboratory, has developed a portable and simple to use software application called SODA (Stochastic Objective Decision-Aide) that stochastically calculates the radiation dose associated with hypothetical radiological material release scenarios. Rather than producing a point estimate of the dose, SODA produces a dose distribution result to allow a deeper understanding of the dose potential. SODA allows users to select the distribution type and parameter values for all of the input variables used to perform the dose calculation. SODA then randomly samples each distribution input variable and calculates the overall resulting dose distribution. In cases where an input variable distribution is unknown, a traditional single point value can be used. SODA was developed using the MATLAB coding framework. The software application has a graphical user input. SODA can be installed on both Windows and Mac computers and does not require MATLAB to function. SODA provides improved risk understanding leading to better informed decision making associated with establishing nuclear facility material-at-risk limits and safety structure, system, or component selection. It is important to note that SODA does not replace or compete with codes such as MACCS or RSAC, rather it is viewed as an easy to use supplemental tool to help improve risk understanding and support better informed decisions. The work was

  2. Tracking and Monitoring of Radioactive Materials in the Commercial Hazardous Materials Supply Chain

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Randy M; Kopsick, Deborah A; Warren, Tracy A; Abercrombie, Robert K; Sheldon, Frederick T; Hill, David E; Gross, Ian G; Smith, Cyrus M

    2007-01-01

    One of the main components of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Clean Materials Program is to prevent the loss of radioactive materials through the use of tracking technologies. If a source is inadvertently lost or purposely abandoned or stolen, it is critical that the source be recovered before harm to the public or the environment occurs. Radio frequency identification (RFID) tagging on radioactive sources is a technology that can be operated in the active or passive mode, has a variety of frequencies available allowing for flexibility in use, is able to transmit detailed data and is discreet. The purpose of the joint DOE and EPA Radiological Source Tracking and Monitoring (RadSTraM) project is to evaluate the viability, effectiveness and scalability of RFID technology under a variety of transportation scenarios. The goal of the Phase II was to continue testing integrated RFID tag systems from various vendors for feasibility in tracking radioactive sealed sources which included the following performance objectives: 1. Validate the performance of RFID intelligent systems to monitor express air shipments of medical radioisotopes in the nationwide supply chain, 2. Quantify the reliability of these tracking systems with regards to probability of tag detection and operational reliability, 3. Determine if the implementation of these systems improves manpower effectiveness, and 4. Demonstrate that RFID tracking and monitoring of radioactive materials is ready for large scale deployment at the National level. For purposes of analysis, the test scenario employed in this study utilized the real world commerce supply chain process for radioactive medical isotopes to validate the performance of intelligent RFID tags. Three different RFID systems were assessed from a shipping and packaging perspective, included varied environmental conditions, varied commodities on board vehicles, temporary staging in shipping terminals using various commodities and normal

  3. 49 CFR 173.469 - Tests for special form Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tests for special form Class 7 (radioactive... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.469 Tests for special form Class 7 (radioactive) materials. (a) Special form Class 7 (radioactive)...

  4. Methods of capturing and immobilizing radioactive nuclei with metal fluorite-based inorganic materials

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Yifeng; Miller, Andy; Bryan, Charles R.; Kruichak, Jessica Nicole

    2015-11-17

    Methods of capturing and immobilizing radioactive nuclei with metal fluorite-based inorganic materials are described. For example, a method of capturing and immobilizing radioactive nuclei includes flowing a gas stream through an exhaust apparatus. The exhaust apparatus includes a metal fluorite-based inorganic material. The gas stream includes a radioactive species. The radioactive species is removed from the gas stream by adsorbing the radioactive species to the metal fluorite-based inorganic material of the exhaust apparatus.

  5. Methods of capturing and immobilizing radioactive nuclei with metal fluorite-based inorganic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yifeng; Miller, Andy; Bryan, Charles R; Kruichar, Jessica Nicole

    2015-04-07

    Methods of capturing and immobilizing radioactive nuclei with metal fluorite-based inorganic materials are described. For example, a method of capturing and immobilizing radioactive nuclei includes flowing a gas stream through an exhaust apparatus. The exhaust apparatus includes a metal fluorite-based inorganic material. The gas stream includes a radioactive species. The radioactive species is removed from the gas stream by adsorbing the radioactive species to the metal fluorite-based inorganic material of the exhaust apparatus.

  6. Radiological protection in North American naturally occurring radioactive material industries.

    PubMed

    Chambers, D B

    2015-06-01

    All soils and rocks contain naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Many ores and raw materials contain relatively high levels of natural radionuclides, and processing such materials can further increase the concentrations of natural radionuclides, sometimes referred to as 'technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material' (TENORM). Examples of NORM minerals include uranium ores, monazite (a source of rare earth minerals), and phosphate rock used to produce phosphate fertiliser. Such activities have the potential to result in above background radiation exposure to workers and the public. The objective of this paper is to review the sources and exposure from NORM in North American industries, and provide a perspective on the potential radiological hazards to workers and the environment. Proper consideration of NORM issues is important and needs to be integrated in the assessment of these projects. Concerns over radioactivity and radiation amongst non-governmental organisations and the local public have resulted in the cancellation of NORM mining and mineral extraction projects, as well as inhibition of the safe use of by-product materials from various NORM industries. This paper also briefly comments on the current regulatory framework for NORM (TENORM) in Canada and the USA, as well as the potential implications of the recent activities of the International Commission on Radiological Protection for NORM industries. PMID:25816274

  7. 49 CFR 173.421 - Excepted packages for limited quantities of Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.421 Section 173.421 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.421 Excepted packages for limited quantities of Class 7 (radioactive) materials. A Class...

  8. 49 CFR 173.423 - Requirements for multiple hazard limited quantity Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.423 Section 173.423 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.423 Requirements for multiple hazard limited quantity Class 7 (radioactive) materials....

  9. 49 CFR 173.423 - Requirements for multiple hazard limited quantity Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.423 Section 173.423 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.423 Requirements for multiple hazard limited quantity Class 7 (radioactive) materials....

  10. 49 CFR 173.423 - Requirements for multiple hazard limited quantity Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.423 Section 173.423 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.423 Requirements for multiple hazard limited quantity Class 7 (radioactive) materials....

  11. 49 CFR 173.423 - Requirements for multiple hazard limited quantity Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.423 Section 173.423 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.423 Requirements for multiple hazard limited quantity Class 7 (radioactive) materials....

  12. 49 CFR 173.423 - Requirements for multiple hazard limited quantity Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.423 Section 173.423 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.423 Requirements for multiple hazard limited quantity Class 7 (radioactive) materials....

  13. Method for making a low density polyethylene waste form for safe disposal of low level radioactive material

    DOEpatents

    Colombo, P.; Kalb, P.D.

    1984-06-05

    In the method of the invention low density polyethylene pellets are mixed in a predetermined ratio with radioactive particulate material, then the mixture is fed through a screw-type extruder that melts the low density polyethylene under a predetermined pressure and temperature to form a homogeneous matrix that is extruded and separated into solid monolithic waste forms. The solid waste forms are adapted to be safely handled, stored for a short time, and safely disposed of in approved depositories.

  14. ARRA Material Handling Equipment Composite Data Products: Data through Quarter 2 of 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, J.; Sprik, S.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.; Saur, G.

    2012-10-01

    This presentation from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory includes American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) fuel cell material handling equipment composite data products for data through the second quarter of 2012.

  15. ARRA Material Handling Equipment Composite Data Products: Data Through Quarter 4 of 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, J.; Sprik, S.; Ainscough, C.; Saur, G.; Post, M.; Peters, M.; Ramsden, T.

    2013-05-01

    This presentation from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory includes American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) fuel cell material handling equipment composite data products for data through the fourth quarter of 2012.

  16. Methods and apparatus for safely handling radioactive sources in measuring-while-drilling tools

    SciTech Connect

    Wraight, P.D.

    1989-07-04

    This patent describes a method for removing a chemical radioactive source from a MWD tool which is coupled in a drill string supported by a drilling rig while a borehole is drilled and includes logging means for measuring formation characteristics in response to irradiation of the adjacent formations by the radioactive source during the drilling operation. The steps of the method are: halting the drilling operation and then removing the drill string from the borehole for moving the MWD tool to a work station at the surface where the source is at a safe working distance from the drilling rig and will be accessible by way of one end of the MWD tool; positioning a radiation shield at a location adjacent to the one end of the MWD tool where the shield is ready for receiving the source as it is moved away from the other end of the MWD tool and then moving the source away from the other end of the MWD tool for enclosing the source within the shield; and once the source is enclosed within the shield; removing the shield together with the enclosed source from the MWD tool for transferring the enclosed source to another work station.

  17. Reconnaissance for radioactive materials in northeastern United States during 1952

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKeown, Francis A.; Klemic, Harry

    1953-01-01

    Reconnaissance for radioactive materials was made in parts of Maine, New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. The primary objective was to examine the iron ore deposits and associated rocks in the Adirondack Mountains of New York and the Highlands of New Jersey. In addition, several deposits known or reported to contain radioactive minerals were examined to delimit their extent. Most of the deposits examined are not significant as possible sources of radioactive elements and the data pertaining to them are summarized in table form. Deposits that do warrant more description than can be given in table form are: Benson Mines, St. Lawrence County, N. Y.; Rutgers mine, Clinton County, N. Y.; Mineville Mines, Essex County, N. Y.l Canfield phosphate mine, Morris County, N. J.; Mullgan quarry, Hunterdon County, N. J.; and the Chestnut Hill-Marble Mountain area, Pennsylvania and New Jersey. The Old Bed in the Mineville district is the only deposit that may be economically significant. Apatite from Old Bed ore contains as much as 4.9 percent total rare earth. 0.04 percent thorium, and 0.018 percent uranium. Magnetite ore at the Rutgers mine contains radioactive zircon and apatite. Radioactivity measurements of outcrops and dump material show that the ore contains from 0.005 to 0.010 percent equivalent uranium. One sample of lean magnetite ore contains 0.006 percent equivalent uranium. Garnet-rich zones in the Benson Mines magnetite deposit contain as much as 0.017 equivalent uranium. Most of the rock and ore, however, contains about 0.005 percent equivalent uranium. Available data indicate that the garnet-rich zones are enriched in radioactive allanite. A shear zone in the Kittatinny limestone of Cambrian age at the Mulligan quarry contains uraniferous material. Radioactivity anomalies elsewhere in the quarry and in adjacent fields indicate that there may be other uraniferous shear zones. Assays of samples and measurements of outcrop radioactivity indicate that the uranium

  18. Integrating CAD/CAM in Automation and Materials Handling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Walter F.; Jones, Catherine E.

    2012-01-01

    Humans by their very nature are users of tools, materials, and processes as a part of their survival and existence. As humans have progressed over time, their civilizations and societies have changed beyond imagination and have moved from hunters and gatherers of food and materials for survival to sophisticated societies with complex social and…

  19. RECERTIFICATION OF THE MODEL 9977 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING

    SciTech Connect

    Abramczyk, G.; Bellamy, S.; Loftin, B.; Nathan, S.

    2013-06-05

    The Model 9977 Packaging was initially issued a Certificate of Compliance (CoC) by the Department of Energy’s Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) for the transportation of radioactive material (RAM) in the Fall of 2007. This first CoC was for a single radioactive material and two packing configurations. In the five years since that time, seven Addendums have been written to the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) and five Letter Amendments have been written that have authorized either new RAM contents or packing configurations, or both. This paper will discuss the process of updating the 9977 SARP to include all the contents and configurations, including the addition of a new content, and its submittal for recertification.

  20. Human factors programs for high-level radioactive waste handling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pond, D.J.

    1992-04-01

    Human Factors is the discipline concerned with the acquisition of knowledge about human capabilities and limitations, and the application of such knowledge to the design of systems. This paper discusses the range of human factors issues relevant to high-level radioactive waste (HLRW) management systems and, based on examples from other organizations, presents mechanisms through which to assure application of such expertise in the safe, efficient, and effective management and disposal of high-level waste. Additionally, specific attention is directed toward consideration of who might be classified as a human factors specialist, why human factors expertise is critical to the success of the HLRW management system, and determining when human factors specialists should become involved in the design and development process.

  1. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Annual report 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Benkovitz, C.

    1981-03-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commerical light water reactors during 1978 have been compiled and reported. Data on soild waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1978 release data are compared with previous years releases in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  2. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Annual report, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Benkovitz, C.

    1983-01-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1980 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1980 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  3. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants: Annual report, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J.

    1988-01-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1985 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1985 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  4. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants: Annual report, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J.

    1987-08-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1984 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1984 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  5. Method of encapsulating solid radioactive waste material for storage

    DOEpatents

    Bunnell, Lee Roy; Bates, J. Lambert

    1976-01-01

    High-level radioactive wastes are encapsulated in vitreous carbon for long-term storage by mixing the wastes as finely divided solids with a suitable resin, formed into an appropriate shape and cured. The cured resin is carbonized by heating under a vacuum to form vitreous carbon. The vitreous carbon shapes may be further protected for storage by encasement in a canister containing a low melting temperature matrix material such as aluminum to increase impact resistance and improve heat dissipation.

  6. 30 CFR 77.1915 - Storage and handling of combustible materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1915 Storage and handling of combustible materials. (a... of any slope or shaft opening. (b) Other combustible material and supplies shall not be stored within 25 feet of any slope or shaft opening. (c) Pyritic slates, bony coal, culm or other material...

  7. 30 CFR 77.1915 - Storage and handling of combustible materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1915 Storage and handling of combustible materials. (a... of any slope or shaft opening. (b) Other combustible material and supplies shall not be stored within 25 feet of any slope or shaft opening. (c) Pyritic slates, bony coal, culm or other material...

  8. Material handling systems for the fluidized-bed combustion boiler at Rivesville, West Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branam, J. G.; Rosborough, W. W.

    1977-01-01

    The 300,000 lbs/hr steam capacity multicell fluidized-bed boiler (MFB) utilizes complex material handling systems. The material handling systems can be divided into the following areas: (1) coal preparation; transfer and delivery, (2) limestone handling system, (3) fly-ash removal and (4) bed material handling system. Each of the above systems are described in detail and some of the potential problem areas are discussed. A major potential problem that exists is the coal drying system. The coal dryer is designed to use 600 F preheated combustion air as drying medium and the dryer effluent is designed to enter a hot electrostatic precipitator (730 F) after passage through a cyclone. Other problem areas to be discussed include the steam generator coal and limestone feed system which may have operating difficulties with wet coal and/or coal fines.

  9. Space Station Freedom Toxic and Reactive Materials Handling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baugher, Charles R. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Viable research in materials processing in space requires the utilization of a wide variety of chemicals and materials, many of which are considered toxic and/or highly reactive with other substances. A realistic view of the experiments which are most likely to be accomplished in the early Space Station phases are examined and design issues addressed which are related to their safe implementation. Included are discussions of materials research on Skylab, Spacelab, and the Shuttle mid-deck; overviews of early concepts for specialized Space Station systems designed to help contain potential problems; descriptions of industrial experience with ground-based research; and an overview of the state-of-the-art in contamination detection systems.

  10. Processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials

    DOEpatents

    Gotovchikov, Vitaly T.; Ivanov, Alexander V.; Filippov, Eugene A.

    1998-05-12

    Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination of a plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter.

  11. Processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials

    DOEpatents

    Gotovchikov, V.T.; Ivanov, A.V.; Filippov, E.A.

    1998-05-12

    Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination of a plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter. 6 figs.

  12. 78 FR 51213 - In the Matter of Certain Licensees Requesting Unescorted Access to Radioactive Material; Order...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Licensees Requesting Unescorted Access to Radioactive Material; Order Imposing Trustworthiness and Reliability Requirements for Unescorted Access to Certain Radioactive Material... radioactive material for customers licensed by the NRC or an Agreement State to possess and use...

  13. 41 CFR 50-204.26 - Exemptions for radioactive materials packaged for shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... radioactive materials packaged for shipment. 50-204.26 Section 50-204.26 Public Contracts and Property... HEALTH STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SUPPLY CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.26 Exemptions for radioactive materials packaged for shipment. Radioactive materials packaged and labeled in accordance with...

  14. 49 CFR 173.418 - Authorized packages-pyrophoric Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (radioactive) materials. 173.418 Section 173.418 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.418 Authorized packages—pyrophoric Class 7 (radioactive) materials. Pyrophoric Class 7...

  15. 49 CFR 173.428 - Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.428 Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging. A packaging which previously contained Class 7...

  16. 49 CFR 173.428 - Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.428 Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging. A packaging which previously contained Class 7...

  17. 10 CFR 835.209 - Concentrations of radioactive material in air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Concentrations of radioactive material in air. 835.209... External Exposure § 835.209 Concentrations of radioactive material in air. (a) The derived air... exposures to airborne radioactive material. (b) The estimation of internal dose shall be based on...

  18. 49 CFR 173.428 - Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.428 Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging. A packaging which previously contained Class 7...

  19. 49 CFR 173.418 - Authorized packages-pyrophoric Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (radioactive) materials. 173.418 Section 173.418 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.418 Authorized packages—pyrophoric Class 7 (radioactive) materials. Pyrophoric Class 7...

  20. 10 CFR 37.77 - Advance notification of shipment of category 1 quantities of radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of radioactive material. 37.77 Section 37.77 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF CATEGORY 1 AND CATEGORY 2 QUANTITIES OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Physical Protection in Transit § 37.77 Advance notification of shipment of category 1 quantities of radioactive material. As specified...

  1. 49 CFR 173.428 - Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.428 Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging. A packaging which previously contained Class 7...

  2. 49 CFR 173.428 - Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.428 Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging. A packaging which previously contained Class 7...

  3. 49 CFR 173.418 - Authorized packages-pyrophoric Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (radioactive) materials. 173.418 Section 173.418 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.418 Authorized packages—pyrophoric Class 7 (radioactive) materials. Pyrophoric Class 7...

  4. 41 CFR 50-204.26 - Exemptions for radioactive materials packaged for shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... radioactive materials packaged for shipment. 50-204.26 Section 50-204.26 Public Contracts and Property... HEALTH STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SUPPLY CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.26 Exemptions for radioactive materials packaged for shipment. Radioactive materials packaged and labeled in accordance with...

  5. 41 CFR 50-204.26 - Exemptions for radioactive materials packaged for shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... radioactive materials packaged for shipment. 50-204.26 Section 50-204.26 Public Contracts and Property... HEALTH STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SUPPLY CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.26 Exemptions for radioactive materials packaged for shipment. Radioactive materials packaged and labeled in accordance with...

  6. 41 CFR 50-204.26 - Exemptions for radioactive materials packaged for shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... radioactive materials packaged for shipment. 50-204.26 Section 50-204.26 Public Contracts and Property... HEALTH STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SUPPLY CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.26 Exemptions for radioactive materials packaged for shipment. Radioactive materials packaged and labeled in accordance with...

  7. 49 CFR 173.418 - Authorized packages-pyrophoric Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (radioactive) materials. 173.418 Section 173.418 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.418 Authorized packages—pyrophoric Class 7 (radioactive) materials. Pyrophoric Class 7...

  8. 49 CFR 173.418 - Authorized packages-pyrophoric Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (radioactive) materials. 173.418 Section 173.418 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.418 Authorized packages—pyrophoric Class 7 (radioactive) materials. Pyrophoric Class 7...

  9. 41 CFR 50-204.26 - Exemptions for radioactive materials packaged for shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... radioactive materials packaged for shipment. 50-204.26 Section 50-204.26 Public Contracts and Property... HEALTH STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SUPPLY CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.26 Exemptions for radioactive materials packaged for shipment. Radioactive materials packaged and labeled in accordance with...

  10. 78 FR 29016 - Establishing Quality Assurance Programs for Packaging Used in Transport of Radioactive Material

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... regulations for the packaging and transportation of radioactive material. The NRC is issuing for public...), that would amend its regulations for the packaging and transportation of radioactive material in Part... requirements for the packaging and transportation of radioactive material. III. Draft Regulatory Guide The...

  11. Hazardous and toxic materials: Safe handling and disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Fawcett, H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses safety and accident prevention in chemical operations. It presents a chapter on dioxin, and material on personal and respiratory protective equipment, PBCs and PBBs, disposal of lab chemicals, acid rain, chemical wastes, RCRA, and the Superfund. Some of the topics considered include toxicity, fires and explosions, personal protective equipment, and respiratory protective equipment.

  12. Extending the utility of a radioactive material package

    SciTech Connect

    Abramczyk, G.; Nathan, S.; Loftin, B.; Bellamy, S.

    2015-06-04

    Once a package has been certified for the transportation of DOT Hazard Class 7 – Radioactive Material in compliance with the requirements of 10 CFR 71, it is often most economical to extend its utility through the addition of content-specific configuration control features or the addition of shielding materials. The SRNL Model 9977 Package’s authorization was expanded from its original single to twenty contents in this manner; and most recently, the 9977 was evaluated for a high-gamma source content. This paper discusses the need for and the proposed shielding modifications to the package for extending the utility of the package for this purpose.

  13. System for chemically digesting low level radioactive, solid waste material

    DOEpatents

    Cowan, Richard G.; Blasewitz, Albert G.

    1982-01-01

    An improved method and system for chemically digesting low level radioactive, solid waste material having a high through-put. The solid waste material is added to an annular vessel (10) substantially filled with concentrated sulfuric acid. Concentrated nitric acid or nitrogen dioxide is added to the sulfuric acid within the annular vessel while the sulfuric acid is reacting with the solid waste. The solid waste is mixed within the sulfuric acid so that the solid waste is substantilly fully immersed during the reaction. The off gas from the reaction and the products slurry residue is removed from the vessel during the reaction.

  14. Robotics for Nuclear Material Handling at LANL:Capabilities and Needs

    SciTech Connect

    Harden, Troy A; Lloyd, Jane A; Turner, Cameron J

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear material processing operations present numerous challenges for effective automation. Confined spaces, hazardous materials and processes, particulate contamination, radiation sources, and corrosive chemical operations are but a few of the significant hazards. However, automated systems represent a significant safety advance when deployed in place of manual tasks performed by human workers. The replacement of manual operations with automated systems has been desirable for nearly 40 years, yet only recently are automated systems becoming increasingly common for nuclear materials handling applications. This paper reviews several automation systems which are deployed or about to be deployed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for nuclear material handling operations. Highlighted are the current social and technological challenges faced in deploying automated systems into hazardous material handling environments and the opportunities for future innovations.

  15. Safety assessment of a robotic system handling nuclear material

    SciTech Connect

    Atcitty, C.B.; Robinson, D.G.

    1996-02-01

    This paper outlines the use of a Failure Modes and Effects Analysis for the safety assessment of a robotic system being developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The robotic system, The Weigh and Leak Check System, is to replace a manual process at the Department of Energy facility at Pantex by which nuclear material is inspected for weight and leakage. Failure Modes and Effects Analyses were completed for the robotics process to ensure that safety goals for the system had been meet. These analyses showed that the risks to people and the internal and external environment were acceptable.

  16. Handling of liquid radioactive wastes produced during the decommissioning of nuclear-powered submarines

    SciTech Connect

    Martynov, B.V.

    1995-10-01

    Liquid radioactive wastes are produced during the standard decontamination of the reactor loop and liquidation of the consequences of accidents. In performing the disassembly work on decommissioned nuclear-powered submarines, the equipment must first be decontaminated. All this leads to the formation of a large quantity of liquid wastes with a total salt content of more then 3l-5 g/liter and total {beta}-activity of up to 1 {center_dot}10{sup {minus}4} Ci/liter. One of the most effective methods for reprocessing these wastes - evaporation - has limitations: The operating expenses are high and the apparatus requires expensive alloyed steel. The methods of selective sorption of radionuclides on inorganic sorbents are used for reprocessing liquid wastes form the nuclear-powered fleet. A significant limitation of the method is the large decrease in sorption efficiency with increasing total salt-content of the wastes. In some works, in which electrodialysis is used for purification of the salt wastes, the total salt content can be decreased by a factor of 10-100 and the same quantity of radionuclides can be removed. We have developed an electrodialysis-sorption scheme for purifying salt wastes that makes it possible to remove radionuclides to the radiation safety standard and chemically harmful substances to the health standards. The scheme includes electrodialysis desalinization (by 90% per pass on the EDMS apparatus), followed by additional purification of the diluent on synthetic zeolites and electro-osmotic concentration (to 200-250 g/liter on the EDK apparatus). The secondard wastes---salt concentrates and spent sorbents---are solidified. (This is the entire text of the article.)

  17. Radioactivity of natural and artificial building materials - a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Zs; Völgyesi, P; Nagy, H É; Szabó, Cs; Kis, Z; Csorba, O

    2013-04-01

    Building materials and their additives contain radioactive isotopes, which can increase both external and internal radioactive exposures of humans. In this study Hungarian natural (adobe) and artificial (brick, concrete, coal slag, coal slag concrete and gas silicate) building materials were examined. We qualified 40 samples based on their radium equivalent, activity concentration, external hazard and internal hazard indices and the determined threshold values of these parameters. Absorbed dose rate and annual effective dose for inhabitants living in buildings made of these building materials were also evaluated. The calculations are based on (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K activity concentrations determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. Measured radionuclide concentrations and hence, calculated indices and doses of artificial building materials show a rather disparate distribution compared to adobes. The studied coal slag samples among the artificial building materials have elevated (226)Ra content. Natural, i.e. adobe and also brick samples contain higher amount of (40)K compared to other artificial building materials. Correlation coefficients among radionuclide concentrations are consistent with the values in the literature and connected to the natural geochemical behavior of U, Th and K elements. Seven samples (coal slag and coal slag concrete) exceed any of the threshold values of the calculated hazard indices, however only three of them are considered to be risky to use according to the fact that the building material was used in bulk amount or in restricted usage. It is shown, that using different indices can lead to different conclusions; hence we recommend considering more of the indices at the same time when building materials are studied. Additionally, adding two times their statistical uncertainties to their values before comparing to thresholds should be considered for providing a more conservative qualification. We have defined radon hazard portion to point

  18. Natural radioactivity in building materials used in Changzhi, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang; Lu, Xinwei; Zhao, Caifeng; Li, Nan

    2013-08-01

    The natural radioactivity levels of the commonly used building materials collected from Changzhi, China was analysed using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in the investigated building materials range from 14.6 to 131.2, from 9.9 to 138.8 and from 96.1 to 819.0 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The results were compared with the reported data of other countries and with the worldwide mean activity of soil. The external and internal hazard indices and gamma index were calculated to assess the radiation hazard to residents. The external hazard index of all building materials are less than unity, while the internal hazard and gamma indexes of hollow brick and gravel aggregate exceed unity. The study shows that the investigated hollow brick and gravel aggregate are not suitable for use as building materials in dwellings.

  19. Storage, Handling and Preservation of Audiovisual Materials. AV in Action 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Anthony Hugh

    Designed to provide the librarian with suggestions and guidelines for storing and preserving audiovisual materials, this pamphlet is divided into four major chapters: (1) Normal Use Storage Conditions; (2) Natural Lifetime, Working Lifetime and Long-Term Storage; (3) Handling; and (4) Shelving of Normal Use Materials. Topics addressed include:…

  20. Safe Handling and Use of Flammable and Combustible Materials. Module SH-30. Safety and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This student module on safe handling and use of flammable and combustible materials is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module introduces the student to the hazards of flammable and combustible materials and the measures necessary to control those hazards. Following the introduction, 14 objectives (each keyed to a page…

  1. 49 CFR 175.706 - Separation distances for undeveloped film from packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 175.706 Section 175.706 Transportation Other... (radioactive) materials. No person may carry in an aircraft any package of Class 7 (radioactive) materials required by § 172.403 of this subchapter to be labeled Radioactive Yellow-II or Radioactive...

  2. 49 CFR 175.706 - Separation distances for undeveloped film from packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 175.706 Section 175.706 Transportation Other... (radioactive) materials. No person may carry in an aircraft any package of Class 7 (radioactive) materials required by § 172.403 of this subchapter to be labeled Radioactive Yellow-II or Radioactive...

  3. 49 CFR 175.706 - Separation distances for undeveloped film from packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 175.706 Section 175.706 Transportation Other... (radioactive) materials. No person may carry in an aircraft any package of Class 7 (radioactive) materials required by § 172.403 of this subchapter to be labeled Radioactive Yellow-II or Radioactive...

  4. 49 CFR 175.706 - Separation distances for undeveloped film from packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 175.706 Section 175.706 Transportation Other... (radioactive) materials. No person may carry in an aircraft any package of Class 7 (radioactive) materials required by § 172.403 of this subchapter to be labeled Radioactive Yellow-II or Radioactive...

  5. Method of solidifying waste materials, such as radioactive or toxic materials, contained in aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Knieper, J.; May, K.; Printz, H.

    1984-07-24

    A method is disclosed of solidifying waste materials, such as radioactive or toxic materials, which are contained in aqueous solutions. To accomplish this solidification, an inorganic, non-metallic binding agent such as gypsum is intermixed with the aqueous solution and a substance such as pumice or ceramic tile which promotes the intermixing of the binding agent and the aqueous solution.

  6. 49 CFR 173.419 - Authorized packages-oxidizing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Authorized packages-oxidizing Class 7 (radioactive... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.419 Authorized packages—oxidizing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. (a) An oxidizing Class 7...

  7. 10 CFR 20.1203 - Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive... RADIATION Occupational Dose Limits § 20.1203 Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material. Licensees shall, when determining the dose from airborne radioactive material, include...

  8. 10 CFR 20.1203 - Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive... RADIATION Occupational Dose Limits § 20.1203 Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material. Licensees shall, when determining the dose from airborne radioactive material, include...

  9. 49 CFR 173.419 - Authorized packages-oxidizing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Authorized packages-oxidizing Class 7 (radioactive... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.419 Authorized packages—oxidizing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. (a) An oxidizing Class 7...

  10. 49 CFR 173.419 - Authorized packages-oxidizing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Authorized packages-oxidizing Class 7 (radioactive... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.419 Authorized packages—oxidizing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. (a) An oxidizing Class 7...

  11. 49 CFR 173.419 - Authorized packages-oxidizing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Authorized packages-oxidizing Class 7 (radioactive... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.419 Authorized packages—oxidizing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. (a) An oxidizing Class 7...

  12. 10 CFR 20.1203 - Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive... RADIATION Occupational Dose Limits § 20.1203 Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material. Licensees shall, when determining the dose from airborne radioactive material, include...

  13. 49 CFR 173.476 - Approval of special form Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Approval of special form Class 7 (radioactive... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.476 Approval of special form Class 7 (radioactive) materials. (a) Each offeror of special form Class...

  14. 49 CFR 173.476 - Approval of special form Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Approval of special form Class 7 (radioactive... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.476 Approval of special form Class 7 (radioactive) materials. (a) Each offeror of special form Class...

  15. 10 CFR 20.1203 - Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive... RADIATION Occupational Dose Limits § 20.1203 Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material. Licensees shall, when determining the dose from airborne radioactive material, include...

  16. 10 CFR 20.1203 - Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive... RADIATION Occupational Dose Limits § 20.1203 Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material. Licensees shall, when determining the dose from airborne radioactive material, include...

  17. 49 CFR 173.476 - Approval of special form Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Approval of special form Class 7 (radioactive... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.476 Approval of special form Class 7 (radioactive) materials. (a) Each offeror of special form Class...

  18. 49 CFR 173.419 - Authorized packages-oxidizing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authorized packages-oxidizing Class 7 (radioactive... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.419 Authorized packages—oxidizing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. (a) An oxidizing Class 7...

  19. Investigation of Shielding Material in Radioactive Waste Management - 13009

    SciTech Connect

    OSMANLIOGLU, Ahmet Erdal

    2013-07-01

    In this study, various waste packages have been prepared by using different materials. Experimental work has been performed on radiation shielding for gamma and neutron radiation. Various materials were evaluated (e.g. concrete, boron, etc.) related to different application areas in radioactive waste management. Effects of addition boric compound mixtures on shielding properties of concrete have been investigated for neutron radiation. The effect of the mixture addition on the shielding properties of concrete was investigated. The results show that negative effects of boric compounds on the strength of concrete decreasing by increasing boric amounts. Shielding efficiency of prepared mixture added concrete up to 80% better than ordinary concretes for neutron radiation. The attenuation was determined theoretically by calculation and practically by using neutron dose rate measurements. In addition of dose rate measurements, strength tests were applied on test shielding materials. (authors)

  20. Recycling of radioactively contaminated materials: Public policy issues

    SciTech Connect

    Hocking, E.K.

    1994-07-01

    Recycling radioactively contaminated materials requires varying degrees of interaction among Federal regulatory agencies such as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), State governments and regulators, the public, and the Department of Energy. The actions of any of these parties can elicit reactions from the other parties and will raise issues that must be addressed in order to achieve a coherent policy on recycling. The paper discusses potential actions and reactions of Federal regulatory agencies (defined as NRC and EPA), the States, and the Department and the policy issues they raise.

  1. TYPE B RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGE FAILURE MODES AND CONTENTS COMPLIANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, R; Steve Hensel, S; Allen Smith, A

    2007-02-21

    Type B radioactive material package failures can occur due to any one of the following: inadequate design, manufacture, and maintenance of packages, load conditions beyond those anticipated in the regulations, and improper package loading and operation. The rigorous package design evaluations performed in the certification process, robust package manufacture quality assurance programs, and demanding load conditions prescribed in the regulations are all well established. This paper focuses on the operational aspects of Type B package loading with respect to an overbatch which may cause a package failure.

  2. Best Practices for the Security of Radioactive Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Coulter, D.T.; Musolino, S.

    2009-05-01

    This work is funded under a grant provided by the US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control. The Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) awarded a contract to Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to develop best practices guidance for Office of Radiological Health (ORH) licensees to increase on-site security to deter and prevent theft of radioactive materials (RAM). The purpose of this document is to describe best practices available to manage the security of radioactive materials in medical centers, hospitals, and research facilities. There are thousands of such facilities in the United States, and recent studies suggest that these materials may be vulnerable to theft or sabotage. Their malevolent use in a radiological-dispersion device (RDD), viz., a dirty bomb, can have severe environmental- and economic- impacts, the associated area denial, and potentially large cleanup costs, as well as other effects on the licensees and the public. These issues are important to all Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Agreement State licensees, and to the general public. This document outlines approaches for the licensees possessing these materials to undertake security audits to identify vulnerabilities in how these materials are stored or used, and to describe best practices to upgrade or enhance their security. Best practices can be described as the most efficient (least amount of effort/cost) and effective (best results) way of accomplishing a task and meeting an objective, based on repeatable procedures that have proven themselves over time for many people and circumstances. Best practices within the security industry include information security, personnel security, administrative security, and physical security. Each discipline within the security industry has its own 'best practices' that have evolved over time into common ones. With respect to radiological devices and radioactive-materials security, industry best practices encompass

  3. Analysis of Material Handling Safety in Construction Sites and Countermeasures for Effective Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Anil Kumar, C. N.; Sakthivel, M.; Elangovan, R. K.; Arularasu, M.

    2015-01-01

    One of many hazardous workplaces includes the construction sites as they involve several dangerous tasks. Many studies have revealed that material handling equipment is a major cause of accidents at these sites. Though safety measures are being followed and monitored continuously, accident rates are still high as either workers are unaware of hazards or the safety regulations are not being strictly followed. This paper analyses the safety management systems at construction sites through means of questionnaire surveys with employees, specifically referring to safety of material handling equipment. Based on results of the questionnaire surveys, two construction sites were selected for a safety education program targeting worker safety related to material handling equipment. Knowledge levels of the workers were gathered before and after the program and results obtained were subjected to a t-test analysis to mark significance level of the conducted safety education program. PMID:26446572

  4. Design and operation of a remotely operated plutonium waste size reduction and material handling process

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, III, J A; Charlesworth, D L

    1986-01-01

    Noncombustible /sup 238/Pu and /sup 239/Pu waste is generated as a result of normal operation and decommissioning activity at the Savannah River Plant, and is being retrievably stored there. As part of the long-term plant to process the stored waste and current waste for permanent disposal, a remote size reduction and material handling process is being cold-tested at Savannah River Laboratory. The process consists of a large, low-speed shredder and material handling system, a remote worktable, a bagless transfer system, and a robotically controlled manipulator. Initial testing of the shredder and material handling system and a cycle test of the bagless transfer system has been completed. Fabrication and acceptance testing of the Telerobat, a robotically controlled manipulator has been completed. Testing is scheduled to begin in 3/86. Design features maximizing the ability to remotely maintain the equipment were incorporated. Complete cold-testing of the equipment is scheduled to be completed in 1987.

  5. Demonstration of remotely operated TRU waste size reduction and material handling equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Looper, M G; Charlesworth, D L

    1988-01-01

    The Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) is developing remote size reduction and material handling equipment to prepare /sup 238/Pu contaminated waste for permanent disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. The waste is generated at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) from normal operation and decommissioning activity and is retrievably stored onsite. A Transuranic Waste Facility for preparing, size-reducing, and packaging this waste for disposal is scheduled for completion in 1995. A cold test facility for demonstrating the size reduction and material handling equipment was built, and testing began in January 1987. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Toxic and reactive material handling on Spacelab J and USML-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dashner, Jack

    1990-01-01

    Spacelab J and USML-1 provide prime examples of materials which are toxic at ambient conditions or toxic during the processing stages. The experimentation requirements are outlined in relation to toxicity and reactive materials handling. Triple containment is the preferred method for prevention of toxic material release in habitable areas for catastrophic hazards. The containments must be adequate for the intended use and environment. When operations preclude triple containment, innovative methods should be explored.

  7. Radioactive material package testing capabilities at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Uncapher, W.L.; Hohnstreiter, G.F.

    1995-12-31

    Evaluation and certification of radioactive and hazardous material transport packages can be accomplished by subjecting these packages to normal transport and hypothetical accident test conditions. The regulations allow package designers to certify packages using analysis, testing, or a combination of analysis and testing. Testing can be used to substantiate assumptions used in analytical models and to demonstrate package structural and thermal response. Regulatory test conditions include impact, puncture, crush, penetration, water spray, immersion, and thermal environments. Testing facilities are used to simulate the required test conditions and provide measurement response data. Over the past four decades, comprehensive testing facilities have been developed at Sandia National Laboratories to perform a broad range of verification and certification tests on hazardous and radioactive material packages or component sections. Sandia`s facilities provide an experience base that has been established during the development and certification of many package designs. These unique facilities, along with innovative instrumentation data collection capabilities and techniques, simulate a broad range of testing environments. In certain package designs, package testing can be an economical alternative to complex analysis to resolve regulatory questions or concerns.

  8. THERMAL UPGRADING OF 9977 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL (RAM) TYPE B PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, N.; Abramczyk, G.

    2012-03-26

    The 9977 package is a radioactive material package that was originally certified to ship Heat Sources and RTG contents up to 19 watts and it is now being reviewed to significantly expand its contents in support of additional DOE missions. Thermal upgrading will be accomplished by employing stacked 3013 containers, a 3013 aluminum spacer and an external aluminum sleeve for enhanced heat transfer. The 7th Addendum to the original 9977 package Safety Basis Report describing these modifications is under review for the DOE certification. The analyses described in this paper show that this well-designed and conservatively analyzed package can be upgraded to carry contents with decay heat up to 38 watts with some simple design modifications. The Model 9977 package has been designed as a replacement for the Department of Transportation (DOT) Fissile Specification 6M package. The 9977 package is a very versatile Type B package which is certified to transport and store a wide spectrum of radioactive materials. The package was analyzed quite conservatively to increase its usefulness and store different payload configurations. Its versatility is evident from several daughter packages such as the 9978 and H1700, and several addendums where the payloads have been modified to suit the Shipper's needs without additional testing.

  9. 2011 Radioactive Materials Usage Survey for Unmonitored Point Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Sturgeon, Richard W.

    2012-06-27

    This report provides the results of the 2011 Radioactive Materials Usage Survey for Unmonitored Point Sources (RMUS), which was updated by the Environmental Protection (ENV) Division's Environmental Stewardship (ES) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). ES classifies LANL emission sources into one of four Tiers, based on the potential effective dose equivalent (PEDE) calculated for each point source. Detailed descriptions of these tiers are provided in Section 3. The usage survey is conducted annually; in odd-numbered years the survey addresses all monitored and unmonitored point sources and in even-numbered years it addresses all Tier III and various selected other sources. This graded approach was designed to ensure that the appropriate emphasis is placed on point sources that have higher potential emissions to the environment. For calendar year (CY) 2011, ES has divided the usage survey into two distinct reports, one covering the monitored point sources (to be completed later this year) and this report covering all unmonitored point sources. This usage survey includes the following release points: (1) all unmonitored sources identified in the 2010 usage survey, (2) any new release points identified through the new project review (NPR) process, and (3) other release points as designated by the Rad-NESHAP Team Leader. Data for all unmonitored point sources at LANL is stored in the survey files at ES. LANL uses this survey data to help demonstrate compliance with Clean Air Act radioactive air emissions regulations (40 CFR 61, Subpart H). The remainder of this introduction provides a brief description of the information contained in each section. Section 2 of this report describes the methods that were employed for gathering usage survey data and for calculating usage, emissions, and dose for these point sources. It also references the appropriate ES procedures for further information. Section 3 describes the RMUS and explains how the survey results are

  10. NEW APPROACH TO ADDRESSING GAS GENERATION IN RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, R; Leduc, D; Askew, N

    2009-06-25

    Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging (SARP) document why the transportation of radioactive material is safe in Type A(F) and Type B shipping containers. The content evaluation of certain actinide materials require that the gas generation characteristics be addressed. Most packages used to transport actinides impose extremely restrictive limits on moisture content and oxide stabilization to control or prevent flammable gas generation. These requirements prevent some users from using a shipping container even though the material to be shipped is fully compliant with the remaining content envelope including isotopic distribution. To avoid these restrictions, gas generation issues have to be addressed on a case by case basis rather than a one size fits all approach. In addition, SARP applicants and review groups may not have the knowledge and experience with actinide chemistry and other factors affecting gas generation, which facility experts in actinide material processing have obtained in the last sixty years. This paper will address a proposal to create a Gas Generation Evaluation Committee to evaluate gas generation issues associated with Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging material contents. The committee charter could include reviews of both SARP approved contents and new contents not previously evaluated in a SARP.

  11. 25 CFR 170.905 - How can tribes obtain training in handling hazardous material?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How can tribes obtain training in handling hazardous material? 170.905 Section 170.905 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Miscellaneous Provisions Hazardous and Nuclear...

  12. 25 CFR 170.905 - How can tribes obtain training in handling hazardous material?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How can tribes obtain training in handling hazardous material? 170.905 Section 170.905 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Miscellaneous Provisions Hazardous and Nuclear...

  13. 25 CFR 170.905 - How can tribes obtain training in handling hazardous material?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How can tribes obtain training in handling hazardous material? 170.905 Section 170.905 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Miscellaneous Provisions Hazardous and Nuclear...

  14. 25 CFR 170.905 - How can tribes obtain training in handling hazardous material?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How can tribes obtain training in handling hazardous material? 170.905 Section 170.905 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Miscellaneous Provisions Hazardous and Nuclear...

  15. 25 CFR 170.905 - How can tribes obtain training in handling hazardous material?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true How can tribes obtain training in handling hazardous material? 170.905 Section 170.905 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Miscellaneous Provisions Hazardous and Nuclear...

  16. 9 CFR 94.15 - Animal products and materials; movement and handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animal products and materials; movement and handling. 94.15 Section 94.15 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND...

  17. 9 CFR 94.15 - Animal products and materials; movement and handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animal products and materials; movement and handling. 94.15 Section 94.15 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND...

  18. 9 CFR 94.15 - Animal products and materials; movement and handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animal products and materials; movement and handling. 94.15 Section 94.15 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND...

  19. 9 CFR 94.15 - Animal products and materials; movement and handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Animal products and materials; movement and handling. 94.15 Section 94.15 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND...

  20. Materials Handling and Structures 01.0302 for Agribusiness, Natural Resources, and Environmental Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finstad, Dennis; And Others

    The document presents unit plans which offer lists of experiences and competencies to be learned in the area of materials handling and structuring for agribusiness, natural resources, and environmental occupations. The units include: (1) farmstead planning and reorganization; (2) site preparation (contour, terraces, waterways; land measurements…

  1. Container and closure means for storage of radioactive material

    SciTech Connect

    Bienek, H.; Finkbeiner, R.; Wick, W.

    1984-03-20

    In the final storage of radioactive substances in containers, these containers must be sealed so as to be gas-tight by means of a cover, before they are taken to the final storage place. In order to avoid thermal stress, which has up till now been customary, of the radioactive substances on the one hand and of the container and cover on the other hand, it is proposed that the container and the sealing cover should be suitably ground on their seating areas which cooperate with each other, and when the container is closed the cover is held by prestressing on the seating area of the container. In a preferred method, after grinding, a thin equalizing layer of a highly corrosion-resistant, deformable material is applied to at least one of the seating surfaces of the container and cover, in order to achieve a compensation for any roughness which may be present, which will improve the sealing, depending on the technically and/or economically possible extent of the grinding. It is also possible, however, to form the prestressing by means of a lapped contact.

  2. Health Physics Code System for Evaluating Accidents Involving Radioactive Materials.

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-01

    Version 03 The HOTSPOT Health Physics codes were created to provide Health Physics personnel with a fast, field-portable calculational tool for evaluating accidents involving radioactive materials. HOTSPOT codes provide a first-order approximation of the radiation effects associated with the atmospheric release of radioactive materials. The developer's website is: http://www.llnl.gov/nhi/hotspot/. Four general programs, PLUME, EXPLOSION, FIRE, and RESUSPENSION, calculate a downwind assessment following the release of radioactive material resulting from a continuous or puff release, explosive release, fuel fire, or an area contamination event. Additional programs deal specifically with the release of plutonium, uranium, and tritium to expedite an initial assessment of accidents involving nuclear weapons. The FIDLER program can calibrate radiation survey instruments for ground survey measurements and initial screening of personnel for possible plutonium uptake in the lung. The HOTSPOT codes are fast, portable, easy to use, and fully documented in electronic help files. HOTSPOT supports color high resolution monitors and printers for concentration plots and contours. The codes have been extensively used by the DOS community since 1985. Tables and graphical output can be directed to the computer screen, printer, or a disk file. The graphical output consists of dose and ground contamination as a function of plume centerline downwind distance, and radiation dose and ground contamination contours. Users have the option of displaying scenario text on the plots. HOTSPOT 3.0.1 fixes three significant Windows 7 issues: � Executable installed properly under "Program Files/HotSpot 3.0". Installation package now smaller: removed dependency on older Windows DLL files which previously needed to \\ � Forms now properly scale based on DPI instead of font for users who change their screen resolution to something other than 100%. This is a more common feature in Windows 7.

  3. Health Physics Code System for Evaluating Accidents Involving Radioactive Materials.

    2014-10-01

    Version 03 The HOTSPOT Health Physics codes were created to provide Health Physics personnel with a fast, field-portable calculational tool for evaluating accidents involving radioactive materials. HOTSPOT codes provide a first-order approximation of the radiation effects associated with the atmospheric release of radioactive materials. The developer's website is: http://www.llnl.gov/nhi/hotspot/. Four general programs, PLUME, EXPLOSION, FIRE, and RESUSPENSION, calculate a downwind assessment following the release of radioactive material resulting from a continuous or puff release, explosivemore » release, fuel fire, or an area contamination event. Additional programs deal specifically with the release of plutonium, uranium, and tritium to expedite an initial assessment of accidents involving nuclear weapons. The FIDLER program can calibrate radiation survey instruments for ground survey measurements and initial screening of personnel for possible plutonium uptake in the lung. The HOTSPOT codes are fast, portable, easy to use, and fully documented in electronic help files. HOTSPOT supports color high resolution monitors and printers for concentration plots and contours. The codes have been extensively used by the DOS community since 1985. Tables and graphical output can be directed to the computer screen, printer, or a disk file. The graphical output consists of dose and ground contamination as a function of plume centerline downwind distance, and radiation dose and ground contamination contours. Users have the option of displaying scenario text on the plots. HOTSPOT 3.0.1 fixes three significant Windows 7 issues: � Executable installed properly under "Program Files/HotSpot 3.0". Installation package now smaller: removed dependency on older Windows DLL files which previously needed to \\ � Forms now properly scale based on DPI instead of font for users who change their screen resolution to something other than 100%. This is a more common feature in Windows 7

  4. 75 FR 38168 - Hazardous Materials: International Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (TS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477) or you may... International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) ``Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material'' (TS-R... (NRC) will jointly be submitting comments on the draft document to the IAEA. We are requesting...

  5. Priorities for technology development and policy to reduce the risk from radioactive materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Duggan, Ruth Ann

    2010-06-01

    The Standing Committee on International Security of Radioactive and Nuclear Materials in the Nonproliferation and Arms Control Division conducted its fourth annual workshop in February 2010 on Reducing the Risk from Radioactive and Nuclear Materials. This workshop examined new technologies in real-time tracking of radioactive materials, new risks and policy issues in transportation security, the best practices and challenges found in addressing illicit radioactive materials trafficking, industry leadership in reducing proliferation risk, and verification of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, Article VI. Technology gaps, policy gaps, and prioritization for addressing the identified gaps were discussed. Participants included academia, policy makers, radioactive materials users, physical security and safeguards specialists, and vendors of radioactive sources and transportation services. This paper summarizes the results of this workshop with the recommendations and calls to action for the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management (INMM) membership community.

  6. Fast Neutron Radioactivity and Damage Studies on Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, S.; Spencer, J.; Wolf, Z.; Gallagher, G.; Pellett, D.; Boussoufi, M.; Volk, J.; /Fermilab

    2007-07-23

    Many materials and electronics need to be tested for the radiation environment expected at linear colliders (LC) to improve reliability and longevity since both accelerator and detectors will be subjected to large fluences of hadrons, leptons and gammas. Examples include NdFeB magnets, considered for the damping rings, injection and extraction lines and final focus, electronic and electro-optic devices to be utilized in detector readout, accelerator controls and the CCDs required for the vertex detector, as well as high and low temperature superconducting materials (LTSMs) because some magnets will be superconducting. Our first measurements of fast neutron, stepped doses at the UC Davis McClellan Nuclear Reactor Center (UCD MNRC) were presented for NdFeB materials at EPAC04 where the damage appeared proportional to the distances between the effective operating point and Hc. We have extended those doses, included other manufacturer's samples and measured induced radioactivities. We have also added L and HTSMs as well as a variety of relevant semiconductor and electro-optic materials including PBG fiber that we studied previously only with gamma rays.

  7. IAEA regulatory initiatives for the air transport of large quantities of radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Luna, Robert E.; Wangler, Michael W.; Selling, Hendrik A.

    1992-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been laboring since 1988 over a far reaching change to its model regulations (IAEA, 1990) for the transport of radioactive materials (RAM). This change could impact the manner in which certain classes of radioactive materials are shipped by air and change some of the basic tenets of radioactive material transport regulations around the world. This report discusses issues associated with air transport regulations.

  8. THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGES IN TRANSPORT CONFIGURATION

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, N.

    2010-03-04

    Drum type packages are routinely used to transport radioactive material (RAM) in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. These packages are designed to meet the federal regulations described in 10 CFR Part 71. The packages are transported in specially designed vehicles like Safe Secure Transport (SST) for safety and security. In the transport vehicles, the packages are placed close to each other to maximize the number of units in the vehicle. Since the RAM contents in the packagings produce decay heat, it is important that they are spaced sufficiently apart to prevent overheating of the containment vessel (CV) seals and the impact limiter to ensure the structural integrity of the package. This paper presents a simple methodology to assess thermal performance of a typical 9975 packaging in a transport configuration.

  9. Distribution of Radioactive Materials in the Absheron Peninsula, Azerbaijan - 13567

    SciTech Connect

    Vandergraaf, Tjalle T.; Mamedov, Gudrat G.; Ramazanov, Mahammadali A.; Badalov, Vatan H.; Naghiyev, Jalal A.; Mehdiyeva, Afat A.

    2013-07-01

    The Absheron Peninsula forms the extreme Eastern part of Azerbaijan and juts into the Caspian Sea. The region has a long history of oil and gas exploration, transport, and processing and includes a number of abandoned chemical plants that were used in the separation of iodine from formation waters. As a result of lax environmental standards during the Soviet era, the industrial activity has led to serious contamination from oils residues, heavy metals and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). Radiometric surveys performed over a wide range of the Absheron Peninsula showed generally low NORM concentrations. However, radiation levels two to three orders of magnitude above background levels were detected at two abandoned iodine separation plants near the capital city, Baku. These elevated radiation levels are mainly due to Ra-226 and U-238 with lower contributions from Ra-228 and U-235. (authors)

  10. Issues related to regulatory control of naturally occurring radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.Y.

    1997-04-01

    Nearly 80% of human radiation exposure is from naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). While exposure from man-made sources of radiation has been well regulated, no consistent regulatory controls exist for NORM. Because elevated radiation levels have resulted from NORM enhancement activities such as occur in the petroleum, fertilizer, mining, and processing industries, some form of regulatory control is in order. In the US, regulation of NORM by federal agencies such as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission or the Environmental Protection Agency is not anticipated in the near future because there are no authorizing federal statutes. Important issues for addressing the control of NORM include source characterization and generation, radiation protection concerns, waste management and disposition, and the regulatory framework.

  11. 75 FR 160 - In the Matter of: Certain Licensees Requesting Unescorted Access to Radioactive Material; Order...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of: Certain Licensees Requesting Unescorted Access to Radioactive Material; Order... certain quantities of the radioactive materials listed in Attachment 2 to this Order. Commission... control and maintain constant surveillance of licensed material that is in a controlled or...

  12. Construction of a naturally occurring radioactive material project in the BeAAT hazardous waste facilities.

    PubMed

    Abuahmad, H

    2015-06-01

    This paper does not necessarily reflect the views of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is produced during exploration and production operations of subsidiaries of the Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC) in the United Arab Emirates, and accumulates in drilling tubulars, plant equipment, and components. These NORM hazardous wastes need to be managed in such a way that they do not damage human health and the environment. The primary radionuclides of concern in the oil and gas industries are radium-226 and radium-228. These radioisotopes are the decay products of uranium and thorium isotopes that are present in subsurface formations from which hydrocarbons are produced. While uranium and thorium are largely immobile, radium is slightly more soluble and may become mobilised in the fluid phases of the formation (International Association of Oil & Gas Producers, 2008). In order to treat and dispose of NORM waste products safely, ADNOC's subsidiary 'TAKREER' is developing a new facility, on behalf of all ADNOC subsidiaries, within the existing Central Environmental Protection Facilities (BeAAT) in Ruwais city. The NORM plant is envisaged to treat, handle, and dispose of NORM waste in the forms of scale, sludge, and contaminated equipment. The NORM treatment facility will cover activities such as decontamination, volume reduction, NORM handling, and concrete immobilisation of NORM waste into packages for designated landfilling.

  13. Construction of a naturally occurring radioactive material project in the BeAAT hazardous waste facilities.

    PubMed

    Abuahmad, H

    2015-06-01

    This paper does not necessarily reflect the views of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is produced during exploration and production operations of subsidiaries of the Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC) in the United Arab Emirates, and accumulates in drilling tubulars, plant equipment, and components. These NORM hazardous wastes need to be managed in such a way that they do not damage human health and the environment. The primary radionuclides of concern in the oil and gas industries are radium-226 and radium-228. These radioisotopes are the decay products of uranium and thorium isotopes that are present in subsurface formations from which hydrocarbons are produced. While uranium and thorium are largely immobile, radium is slightly more soluble and may become mobilised in the fluid phases of the formation (International Association of Oil & Gas Producers, 2008). In order to treat and dispose of NORM waste products safely, ADNOC's subsidiary 'TAKREER' is developing a new facility, on behalf of all ADNOC subsidiaries, within the existing Central Environmental Protection Facilities (BeAAT) in Ruwais city. The NORM plant is envisaged to treat, handle, and dispose of NORM waste in the forms of scale, sludge, and contaminated equipment. The NORM treatment facility will cover activities such as decontamination, volume reduction, NORM handling, and concrete immobilisation of NORM waste into packages for designated landfilling. PMID:25816275

  14. Apparatus for remote handling of materials. [mixing or analyzing dangerous chemicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimball, R. B.; Hodder, D. T.; Wrinkle, W. W. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    Apparatus for remote handling of materials are described. A closed housing is provided with first and second containers and first and second reservoirs for holding materials to be mixed. The materials are transferable from the reservoirs to the first container where they are mixed. The mixed materials are then conveyed from the first container to the second container preferably by dumping the mixed materials into a funnel positioned over the second container. The second container is then moved to a second position for analysis of the mixed materials. For example, the materials may be ignited and the flame analyzed. Access, such as a sight port, is provided in the housing at the analysis position. The device provides a simple and inexpensive apparatus for safely mixing a pyrophoric material and an oxidizer which together form a thermite type mixture that burns to produce a large quantity of heat and light.

  15. Radioactive source materials in Los Estados Unidos de Venezuela

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wyant, Donald G.; Sharp, William N.; Rodriguez, Carlos Ponte

    1953-01-01

    This report summarizes the data available on radioactive source materials in Los Estados Unidos de Venezuela accumulated by geologists of the Direccions Tecnica de Geolgia and antecedent agencies prior to June 1951, and the writers from June to November 1951. The investigation comprised preliminary study, field examination, office studies, and the preparation of this report, in which the areas and localities examined are described in detail, the uranium potentialities of Venezuela are summarized, and recommendations are made. Preliminary study was made to select areas and rock types that were known or reported to be radioactive or that geologic experience suggests would be favorable host for uranium deposits, In the office, a study of gamma-ray well logs was started as one means of amassing general radiometric data and of rapidly scanning many of ye rocks in northern Venezuela; gamma-ray logs from about 140 representative wells were examined and their peaks of gamma intensity evaluated; in addition samples were analyzed radiometrically, and petrographically. Radiometic reconnaissance was made in the field during about 3 months of 1951, or about 12 areas, including over 100 localities in the State of Miranda, Carabobo, Yaracuy, Falcon, Lara, Trujillo, Zulia, Merida, Tachira, Bolivar, and Territory Delta Amacuro. During the course of the investigation, both in the filed and office, information was given about geology of uranium deposits, and in techniques used in prospecting and analysis. All studies and this report are designed to supplement and to strengthen the Direccion Tecnica de Geologias's program of investigation of radioactive source in Venezuela now in progress. The uranium potentialities of Los Estados de Venezuela are excellent for large, low-grade deposits of uraniferous phospahtic shales containing from 0.002 to 0.027 percent uranium; fair, for small or moderate-sized, low-grade placer deposits of thorium, rare-earth, and uranium minerals; poor, for

  16. The effect of configuration on strength, durability, and handle of Kevlar fabric-based materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuter, L. L.; Munson, J. B.

    1977-01-01

    Five Kevlar based laminates and three Kevlar based coated materials were designed, hand made, and tested against comparative conventional Dacron based materials for strength, peel, tear, puncture, creases, and handle. Emphasis was placed on evaluating geometric orientation of constituents, use of elastomeric film in place of high modulus films, and the use of flying thread loom bias reinforcement of Kevlar yarns. Whereas, the performance of the Kevlar laminates was severely degraded by crease effects, significant gains in overall performance factors were shown for the coated Kevlar materials.

  17. Raman system for radioactive waste materials in a hot cell

    SciTech Connect

    Reich, F.R.; Douglas, J.G.; Lopez, T.

    1994-12-31

    A remote, fiber-optic Raman system is being developed for the chemical characterization of Hanford Site high-level radioactive wastes. These wastes resulted from the chemical processing of nuclear weapons material during the years 1943 through 1987; the wastes are stored in underground storage tanks. Hanford Site cleanup and restoration are the major drivers for the development of the Raman work described in this paper. The Raman system uses a remote, fiber-optic probe with radiation resistant optical fibers. A {open_quotes}mash{close_quote} probe, with two optical fibers and a sensing tip finished in a chisel shape, was used to obtain Raman data from real tank material and simulants. Selection of the Raman system components and design of the fiber optic probe were based upon comparison data from various probe designs and the results of radiation-damage tests on optical fibers. The chemical and physical characteristics of Hanford Site tank wastes were also factors in designing the remote Raman system. Reference spectra have been obtained from a number of pure materials that are suspected to be in the tank wastes. Detection limits for ferrocyanide species in simulated tank waste will be presented. Additional spectra obtained from archived samples of actual tank waste will be presented; these spectra demonstrate the feasibility of using fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy to remotely characterize tank waste materials both in the hot cell and in the waste tank itself. The U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Technology Development, Underground Storage Tank, Integrated Demonstration and Tank Waste Remediation Systems programs funded this work.

  18. 29 CFR 1917.50 - Certification of marine terminal material handling devices (See also mandatory appendix I, of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... exceeded. (5) Special gear. (i) Special stevedoring gear provided by the employer, the strength of which... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Certification of marine terminal material handling devices... TERMINALS Cargo Handling Gear and Equipment § 1917.50 Certification of marine terminal material...

  19. Importing and Exporting radioactive materials and waste for treatment, processing and recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Greeves, J.T.; Lieberman, J.

    2007-07-01

    The paper will address an overview of the licensing process, requirements and experience for importing radioactive waste and metals from international sources and processing and return or recycling. Items to be discussed would center on obtaining regulatory approval for importing radioactive materials for example metals into the U.S. for recycling. The paper will discus the differentiation between 'recycling' options versus 'waste' processing options. International standards and agreements that address such transfer of radioactive materials and waste will be described. (authors)

  20. The new IAEA reference material: IAEA-434 technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM) in phosphogypsum.

    PubMed

    Shakhashiro, A; Sansone, U; Wershofen, H; Bollhöfer, A; Kim, C K; Kim, C S; Kis-Benedek, G; Korun, M; Moune, M; Lee, S H; Tarjan, S; Al-Masri, M S

    2011-01-01

    A reliable determination of Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in phosphogypsum is necessary to comply with radiation protection and environmental regulations. In this respect, a new phosphogypsum reference material was produced and certified to assist in the validation of analytical methods and the quality assurance of produced analytical results. This paper presents the sample preparation methodology, material homogeneity assessment, characterization campaign results and assignment of property values, and associated uncertainties. The reference values and associated uncertainties for Pb-210, Ra-226, Th-230, U-234 and U-238 were established based on consensus values calculated from analytical results reported by three National Metrology Institutes and five expert laboratories.

  1. Evaluation of the Total Cost of Ownership of Fuel Cell-Powered Material Handling Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsden, T.

    2013-04-01

    This report discusses an analysis of the total cost of ownership of fuel cell-powered and traditional battery-powered material handling equipment (MHE, or more typically 'forklifts'). A number of fuel cell MHE deployments have received funding support from the federal government. Using data from these government co-funded deployments, DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been evaluating the performance of fuel cells in material handling applications. NREL has assessed the total cost of ownership of fuel cell MHE and compared it to the cost of ownership of traditional battery-powered MHE. As part of its cost of ownership assessment, NREL looked at a range of costs associated with MHE operation, including the capital costs of battery and fuel cell systems, the cost of supporting infrastructure, maintenance costs, warehouse space costs, and labor costs. Considering all these costs, NREL found that fuel cell MHE can have a lower overall cost of ownership than comparable battery-powered MHE.

  2. TITLE III EVALUATION REPORT FOR THE MATERIAL AND PERSONNEL HANDLING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    T. A. Misiak

    1998-05-21

    This Title III Evaluation Report (TER) provides the results of an evaluation that was conducted on the Material and Personnel Handling System. This TER has been written in accordance with the ''Technical Document Preparation Plan for the Mined Geologic Disposal System Title III Evaluation Reports'' (BA0000000-01717-4600-00005 REV 03). The objective of this evaluation is to provide recommendations to ensure consistency between the technical baseline requirements, baseline design, and the as-constructed Material and Personnel Handling System. Recommendations for resolving discrepancies between the as-constructed system, the technical baseline requirements, and the baseline design are included in this report. Cost and Schedule estimates are provided for all recommended modifications.

  3. Source holder collimator for encapsulating radioactive material and collimating the emanations from the material

    DOEpatents

    Laurer, G.R.

    1974-01-22

    This invention provides a transportable device capable of detecting normal levels of a trace element, such as lead in a doughnutshaped blood sample by x-ray fluorescence with a minimum of sample preparation in a relatively short analyzing time. In one embodiment, the blood is molded into a doughnut-shaped sample around an annular array of low-energy radioactive material that is at the center of the doughnut-shaped sample but encapsulated in a collimator, the latter shielding a detector that is close to the sample and facing the same so that the detector receives secondary emissions from the sample while the collimator collimates ths primary emissions from the radioactive material to direct these emissions toward the sample around 360 deg and away from the detector. (Official Gazette)

  4. 10 CFR 835.405 - Receipt of packages containing radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... containing quantities of radioactive material in excess of a Type A quantity (as defined at 10 CFR 71.4) are... paragraph (b) of this section shall include: (1) Measurements of removable contamination levels, unless the package contains only special form (as defined at 10 CFR 71.4) or gaseous radioactive material; and...

  5. 10 CFR 835.405 - Receipt of packages containing radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... containing quantities of radioactive material in excess of a Type A quantity (as defined at 10 CFR 71.4) are... paragraph (b) of this section shall include: (1) Measurements of removable contamination levels, unless the package contains only special form (as defined at 10 CFR 71.4) or gaseous radioactive material; and...

  6. 10 CFR 835.405 - Receipt of packages containing radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... containing quantities of radioactive material in excess of a Type A quantity (as defined at 10 CFR 71.4) are... paragraph (b) of this section shall include: (1) Measurements of removable contamination levels, unless the package contains only special form (as defined at 10 CFR 71.4) or gaseous radioactive material; and...

  7. 49 CFR 173.421 - Excepted packages for limited quantities of Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... exceed 0.005 mSv/hour (0.5 mrem/ hour); (3) The nonfixed (removable) radioactive surface contamination on... 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.421 Section 173.421 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7...

  8. 10 CFR 835.405 - Receipt of packages containing radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... containing quantities of radioactive material in excess of a Type A quantity (as defined at 10 CFR 71.4) are... paragraph (b) of this section shall include: (1) Measurements of removable contamination levels, unless the package contains only special form (as defined at 10 CFR 71.4) or gaseous radioactive material; and...

  9. 10 CFR 835.405 - Receipt of packages containing radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... containing quantities of radioactive material in excess of a Type A quantity (as defined at 10 CFR 71.4) are... paragraph (b) of this section shall include: (1) Measurements of removable contamination levels, unless the package contains only special form (as defined at 10 CFR 71.4) or gaseous radioactive material; and...

  10. 49 CFR 173.421 - Excepted packages for limited quantities of Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... exceed 0.005 mSv/hour (0.5 mrem/ hour); (3) The nonfixed (removable) radioactive surface contamination on... 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.421 Section 173.421 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7...

  11. 49 CFR 173.421 - Excepted packages for limited quantities of Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... exceed 0.005 mSv/hour (0.5 mrem/ hour); (3) The nonfixed (removable) radioactive surface contamination on... 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.421 Section 173.421 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7...

  12. 49 CFR 173.421 - Excepted packages for limited quantities of Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... exceed 0.005 mSv/hour (0.5 mrem/ hour); (3) The nonfixed (removable) radioactive surface contamination on... 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.421 Section 173.421 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7...

  13. 10 CFR 71.75 - Qualification of special form radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Qualification of special form radioactive material. 71.75 Section 71.75 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Package, Special Form, and LSA-III Tests 2 § 71.75 Qualification of special form...

  14. 10 CFR 71.75 - Qualification of special form radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Qualification of special form radioactive material. 71.75 Section 71.75 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Package, Special Form, and LSA-III Tests 2 § 71.75 Qualification of special form...

  15. 10 CFR 71.75 - Qualification of special form radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Qualification of special form radioactive material. 71.75 Section 71.75 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Package, Special Form, and LSA-III Tests 2 § 71.75 Qualification of special form...

  16. A flexible microrobotic platform for handling microscale specimens of fibrous materials for microscopic studies.

    PubMed

    Saketi, P; Von Essen, M; Mikczinski, M; Heinemann, S; Fatikow, S; Kallio, P

    2012-11-01

    One of the most challenging issues faced in handling specimens for microscopy, is avoiding artefacts and structural changes in the samples caused by human errors. In addition, specimen handling is a laborious and time-consuming task and requires skilful and experienced personnel. This paper introduces a flexible microrobotic platform for the handling of microscale specimens of fibrous materials for various microscopic studies such as scanning electron microscopy and nanotomography. The platform is capable of handling various fibres with diameters ranging from 10 to 1000 μm and lengths of 100 μm-15 mm, and mounting them on different types of specimen holders without damaging them. This tele-operated microrobotic platform minimizes human interaction with the samples, which is one of the main sources contributory to introducing artefacts into the specimens. The platform also grants a higher throughput and an improved success rate of specimen handling, when compared to the manual processes. The operator does not need extensive experience of microscale manipulation and only a short training period is sufficient to operate the platform. The requirement of easy configurability for various samples and sample holders is typical in the research and development of materials in this field. Therefore, one of the main criteria for the design of the microrobotic platform was the ability to adapt the platform to different specimen handling methods required for microscopic studies. To demonstrate this, three experiments are carried out using the microrobotic platform. In the first experiment, individual paper fibres are mounted successfully on scanning electron microscopy specimen holders for the in situ scanning electron microscopy diagonal compression test of paper fibres. The performance of the microrobotic platform is compared with a skilled laboratory worker performing the same experiment. In the second experiment, a strand of human hair and an individual paper fibre bond

  17. The low-level radioactivity ocean sediment standard reference material

    SciTech Connect

    Inn, K.G.W.; Lin, Z.; Liggett, W.S.; Krey, P.W.

    1995-12-31

    Over the past decades, on the order of 10{sup 15} Becquerel nuclear waste have been stored in the oceans. Potential contamination of the oceans from leaking nuclear waste has caused world wide concern. Currently, early warning of ocean contamination near the waste dumping sites rely on monitoring systems being set up by different countries and agencies. Because the determination of low-level radioactivity in ocean sediment is a difficult technical task, a basis for measurement quality assurance, methods verification, and data comparability is needed. The recently certified NIST ocean sediment Standard Reference Material (SRM-4355) is a composite of 1% contaminated Irish Sea sediment and 99% of Chesapeake Bay sediment by weight. The sediments were blended, pulverized to a median particle size of 8 {mu}m, and reblended to achieve acceptable sample homogeneity. A statistical assessment of the intercomparison results from 19 laboratories has shown the material to be homogeneous down to 10 grams. The certified radionuclide concentration range from 0.4 to 230 mBq/g. A variety of radiochemical procedures and detection techniques have been used in the measurements to minimize possible systematic bias. Twelve radionuclides including {sup 40}K, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Th, {sup 230}Th, {sup 232}Th, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 238}Pu, and {sup (239+240)}Pu were certified. The mean values were reported for an additional 10 uncertified radionuclides: {sup 129}I, {sup 155}Eu, {sup 210}Po, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 212}Pb, {sup 214}Pb, {sup 214}Bi, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 237}Np, and {sup 241}Am. The standard reference material in unit quantities of about 100 gram each will be available by the end of 1995.

  18. 49 CFR 175.702 - Separation distance requirements for packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in cargo...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in cargo aircraft. 175.702 Section 175.702 Transportation Other... (radioactive) materials in cargo aircraft. (a) No person may carry in a cargo aircraft any package required by § 172.403 of this subchapter to be labeled Radioactive Yellow-II or Radioactive Yellow-III unless:...

  19. Doses to railroad workers from shipments of radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, D.E.; Cottrell, W.D.

    1988-01-01

    Fissile and high-level radioactive wastes are currently transported over long distances by truck and by rail transportation systems. The primary form of fissile material is spent reactor fuel. Transportation operations within DOE are controlled through the Transportation Operations and Management System. DOE projected increases in the rate of shipments have generated concern by railroad companies that railroad workers may be exposed to levels of radiation sufficiently high that a radiation protection program may need to be implemented. To address railroad company concerns, the Health and Safety Research Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has estimated doses to railroad workers for two exposure scenarios that were constructed using worker activity data obtained from CSX Transportation for crew and maintenance workers. This characterization of railroad worker activity patterns includes a quantitative evaluation of the duration and rate of exposure. These duration and exposure rate values were evaluated using each of three exposure rate vs. distance models to generate exposure estimates. 14 refs., 1 tab.

  20. Leaching of technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials.

    PubMed

    Chau, Nguyen Dinh; Chruściel, Edward

    2007-08-01

    A form of waste associated with mining activities is related to the type of deposit being mined and to the procedure of exploitation and enrichment adopted. The wastes usually contain relatively large amounts of technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM). The TENORM are often stored on the surface. Consequently, they can be leached as a result of interaction with aqueous solutions of different chemical composition. This further leads to pollution of water and soil in the vicinity of the stored wastes. The paper presents the results of laboratory investigation aimed at quantifying the leaching process of samples originating from uranium dumps and storage reservoirs associated with brine pumped from coal mines. The leaching process was investigated with respect to selected elements: uranium isotopes, radium isotopes, iron, barium and sodium. The samples were exposed to aqueous solutions of different chemical composition. The experiments revealed that TENORM in form of sulphate compounds are the most resistant against leaching. The leaching coefficient for radium isotopes varies from a few thousandth percent to a few hundredth percent. On the other hand, for TENORM occurring in sand or sludge, the leaching coefficient for uranium and radium isotopes ranged from a few hundredth percent to a few percent. PMID:17482828

  1. 10 CFR Appendix E to Part 835 - Values for Establishing Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability and Radioactive Material Posting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Accountability and Radioactive Material Posting and Labeling Requirements E Appendix E to Part 835 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Pt. 835, App. E Appendix E to Part 835—Values for... Requirements The data presented in appendix E are to be used for identifying accountable sealed...

  2. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    SciTech Connect

    Bullen, D.B.; Gdowski, G.E. ); Weiss, H. )

    1988-06-01

    Three copper-based alloys, CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni), are being considered along with three austenitic candidates as possible materials for fabrication of containers for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level reprocessing wastes in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The containers must maintain mechanical integrity for 50 yr after emplacement to allow for retrieval of waste during the preclosure phase of repository operation. Containment is required to be substantially complete for up to 300 to 1000 yr. During the early period, the containers will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of high-level waste. The final closure joint will be critical to the integrity of the containers. This volume surveys the available data on the metallurgy of the copper-based candidate alloys and the welding techniques employed to join these materials. The focus of this volume is on the methods applicable to remote-handling procedures in a hot-cell environment with limited possibility of postweld heat treatment. The three copper-based candidates are ranked on the basis of the various closure techniques. On the basis of considerations regarding welding, the following ranking is proposed for the copper-based alloys: CDA 715 (best) > CDA 102 > CDA 613 (worst). 49 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Rheological properties of polyvinylsiloxane impression materials before mixing and during setting related to handling characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyang-Ok; Lee, In-Bog

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine and compare the handling and rheological properties of polyvinylsiloxane impression pastes before mixing and during setting, and to investigate the effect of its constituents on the properties of the materials. Five polyvinylsiloxane impression materials (Examixfine, Extrude, Honigum, Imprint II, and Express) were used. A flow test and a drip test were performed to determine the handling characteristics. The rheological properties of each impression material prior to mixing (shear stress, viscosity) and during setting (storage modulus G'), loss modulus G″), loss tangent tanδ) were measured with a stress-controlled rheometer at 25°C and 32°C, respectively. Inorganic filler content of each impression material was measured and observed with a SEM. The molecular weight distribution of polymer matrix was determined with a gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Express and Honigum display lower flow compared to the other materials, due to their high yield-stress values. Examixfine exhibits the greatest flow. All materials display pseudoplastic behavior, excluding the Examixfine catalyst. The viscosities at low shear rate are greatest for Express and Honigum; however, under high shear conditions, the viscosities of Extrude and Honigum are the lowest. Following mixing, each material show an increase in G', finally reaching a plateau, and the tanδ rapidly decreases with time. Imprint II shows the highest final G' as well as the most rapid decrease in tanδ. Express and Imprint II present the highest filler content and rough filler surface, while Honigum shows the lowest filler content and small filler particles. Most products are composed of polymers over 30 kDa and oligomers less than 1 kDa. Each impression material possesses different rheological properties, which significantly affect the handling characteristics. The yield stress of the impression material minimizes unnecessary flow prior to and after seating. Viscoelastic

  4. Over the border--the problems of uncontrolled radioactive materials crossing national borders.

    PubMed

    Duftschmid, K E

    2002-03-01

    Cross-border movement of radioactive materials and contaminated items, in particular metallurgical scrap, has become a problem of increasing importance. Radioactive sources out of regulatory control, now often called 'orphan sources', have frequently caused serious, even deadly, radiation exposures and widespread contamination. The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission reported over 2,300 incidents of radioactive materials found in recycled metal scrap and more than 50 accidental smeltings of radioactive sources. A further potentially serious problem is illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials. In 1995 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) started a programme to combat illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials, which includes an international database on incidents of illicit trafficking, receiving reports from some 80 member states. For the period 1993-2000 the IAEA database includes 345 confirmed incidents. While from 1994-1996 the frequency declined significantly, this trend has been reversed since 1997, largely due to radioactive sources rather than nuclear material. This paper compares monitoring techniques for radioactive materials in scrap applied at steel plants and scrap yards with monitoring at borders, a completely different situation. It discusses the results of the 'Illicit Trafficking Radiation Detection Assessment Program', a large international pilot study, conducted in cooperation between the IAEA, the Austrian Government and the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf. The aim of this exercise was to derive realistic and internationally agreed requirements for border monitoring instrumentation. Finally the present extent of border monitoring installations is discussed. PMID:11929111

  5. Ceramics for Molten Materials Containment, Transfer and Handling on the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Standish, Evan; Stefanescu, Doru M.; Curreri, Peter A.

    2009-01-01

    As part of a project on Molten Materials Transfer and Handling on the Lunar Surface, molten materials containment samples of various ceramics were tested to determine their performance in contact with a melt of lunar regolith simulant. The test temperature was 1600 C with contact times ranging from 0 to 12 hours. Regolith simulant was pressed into cylinders with the approximate dimensions of 1.25 dia x 1.25cm height and then melted on ceramic substrates. The regolith-ceramic interface was examined after processing to determine the melt/ceramic interaction. It was found that the molten regolith wetted all oxide ceramics tested extremely well which resulted in chemical reaction between the materials in each case. Alumina substrates were identified which withstood contact at the operating temperature of a molten regolith electrolysis cell (1600 C) for eight hours with little interaction or deformation. This represents an improvement over alumina grades currently in use and will provide a lifetime adequate for electrolysis experiments lasting 24 hours or more. Two types of non-oxide ceramics were also tested. It was found that they interacted to a limited degree with the melt resulting in little corrosion. These ceramics, Sic and BN, were not wetted as well as the oxides by the melt, and so remain possible materials for molten regolith handling. Tests wing longer holding periods and larger volumes of regolith are necessary to determine the ultimate performance of the tested ceramics.

  6. Identification of recently handled materials by analysis of latenthuman fingerprints using infrared spectromicroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, Ashleigh; Wilkinson, T.J.; Holman, Thomas; Martin, MichaelC.

    2005-06-08

    Analysis of fingerprints has predominantly focused on matching the pattern of ridges to a specific person as a form of identification. The present work focuses on identifying extrinsic materials that are left within a person's fingerprint after recent handling of such materials. Specifically, we employed infrared spectromicroscopy to locate and positively identify microscopic particles from a mixture of common materials in the latent human fingerprints of volunteer subjects. We were able to find and correctly identify all test substances based on their unique infrared spectral signatures. Spectral imaging is demonstrated as a method for automating recognition of specific substances in a fingerprint. We also demonstrate the use of Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) and synchrotron-based infrared spectromicroscopy for obtaining high-quality spectra from particles that were too thick or too small, respectively, for reflection/absorption measurements. We believe the application of this rapid, non-destructive analytical technique to the forensic study of latent human finger prints has the potential to add a new layer of information available to investigators. Using fingerprints to not only identify who was present at a crime scene, but also to link who was handling key materials will be a powerful investigative tool.

  7. 29 CFR 1919.50 - Eligibility for accreditation to certificate shore-based material handling devices covered by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... material handling devices covered by § 1917.50 of this chapter, safety and health regulations for marine terminals. 1919.50 Section 1919.50 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND... handling devices covered by § 1917.50 of this chapter, safety and health regulations for marine...

  8. 29 CFR 1917.50 - Certification of marine terminal material handling devices (See also mandatory appendix I, of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Certification of marine terminal material handling devices (See also mandatory appendix I, of this part). 1917.50 Section 1917.50 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Cargo Handling Gear and Equipment...

  9. Natural radioactivity measurements in building materials in Southern Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Kobeissi, M A; El Samad, O; Zahraman, K; Milky, S; Bahsoun, F; Abumurad, K M

    2008-08-01

    Using gamma-spectroscopy and CR-39 detector, concentration C of naturally occurring radioactive nuclides (226)Ra, (222)Rn, (214)Bi, (228)Ac, (212)Pb, (212)Bi and (40)K, has been measured in sand, cement, gravel, gypsum, and paint, which are used as building materials in Lebanon. Sand samples were collected from 10 different sandbank locations in the southern part of the country. Gravel samples of different types and forms were collected from several quarries. White and gray cement fabricated by Shaka Co. were obtained. gamma-spectroscopy measurements in sand gave Ra concentration ranging from 4.2+/-0.4 to 60.8+/-2.2 Bq kg(-1) and Ra concentration equivalents from 8.8+/-1.0 to 74.3+/-9.2 Bq kg(-1). The highest Ra concentration was in gray and white cement having the values 73.2+/-3.0 and 76.3+/-3.0 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Gravel results showed Ra concentration between 20.2+/-1.0 and 31.7+/-1.4 Bq kg(-1) with an average of 27.5+/-1.3 Bq kg(-1). Radon concentration in paint was determined by CR-39 detector. In sand, the average (222)Rn concentration ranged between 291+/-69 and 1774+/-339 Bq m(-3) among the sandbanks with a total average value of 704+/-139 Bq m(-3). For gravel, the range was found to be from 52+/-9 to 3077+/-370 Bq m(-3) with an average value of 608+/-85 Bq m(-3). Aerial and mass exhalation rates of (222)Rn were also calculated and found to be between 44+/-7 and 2226+/-267 mBq m(-2)h(-1), and between 0.40+/-0.07 and 20.0+/-0.3 mBq kg(-1)h(-1), respectively.

  10. Transport and storage of radioactive materials -- 1996. PVP-Volume 334

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, R.W.; Hafner, R.S.; Lake, W.H.

    1996-12-01

    The design of packagings for the transport of radioactive materials is a constantly evolving activity due primarily to new materials, new design approaches, and a better understanding of the regulations. The papers included here were prepared to address engineering or regulatory issues associated with the transport or storage of radioactive materials. However, the subject matter can also have applications to solutions for problems in other areas. Separate abstracts were prepared 6 papers.

  11. Radioactive materials in biosolids : national survey, dose modeling, and publicly owned treatment works (POTW) guidance.

    SciTech Connect

    Bastian, R. K.; Bachmaier, J. T.; Schmidt, D. W.; Salomon, S. N.; Jones, A.; Chiu, W. A.; Setlow, L. W.; Wolbarst, A. B.; Yu, C.; Goodman, J.; Lenhart, T.; Environmental Assessment; U.S. EPA; U.S. DOE; U.S. NRC; NJ Dept of Environmental Radiation; NE Ohio Regional Sewer District

    2005-01-01

    Received for publication March 1, 2004. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) announced the availability of three new documents concerning radioactive materials in sewage sludge and ash from publicly owned treatment works (POTW). One of the documents is a report presenting the results of a volunteer survey of sewage sludge and ash samples provided by 313 POTWs. The second document is a dose modeling document, using multiple exposure pathway modeling focused on a series of generic scenarios, to track possible exposure of POTW workers and members of the general public to radioactivity from the sewage sludge or ash. The third document is a guidance report providing recommendations on the management of radioactivity in sewage sludge and ash for POTW owners and operators. This paper explains how radioactive materials enter POTWs, provides criteria for evaluating levels of radioactive material in sludge and ash, and gives a summary of the results of the survey and dose modeling efforts.

  12. Materials and Security Consolidation Complex Facilities Radioactive Waste Management Basis and DOE Manual 435.1-1 Compliance Tables

    SciTech Connect

    Not Listed

    2011-09-01

    Department of Energy Order 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management,' along with its associated manual and guidance, requires development and maintenance of a radioactive waste management basis for each radioactive waste management facility, operation, and activity. This document presents a radioactive waste management basis for Idaho National Laboratory's Materials and Security Consolidation Center facilities that manage radioactive waste. The radioactive waste management basis for a facility comprises existing laboratory-wide and facility-specific documents. Department of Energy Manual 435.1-1, 'Radioactive Waste Management Manual,' facility compliance tables also are presented for the facilities. The tables serve as a tool for developing the radioactive waste management basis.

  13. Materials and Fuels Complex Facilities Radioactive Waste Management Basis and DOE Manual 435.1-1 Compliance Tables

    SciTech Connect

    Lisa Harvego; Brion Bennett

    2011-09-01

    Department of Energy Order 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management,' along with its associated manual and guidance, requires development and maintenance of a radioactive waste management basis for each radioactive waste management facility, operation, and activity. This document presents a radioactive waste management basis for Idaho National Laboratory's Materials and Fuels Complex facilities that manage radioactive waste. The radioactive waste management basis for a facility comprises existing laboratory-wide and facility-specific documents. Department of Energy Manual 435.1-1, 'Radioactive Waste Management Manual,' facility compliance tables also are presented for the facilities. The tables serve as a tool for developing the radioactive waste management basis.

  14. 49 CFR 176.710 - Care following leakage or sifting of radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Care following leakage or sifting of radioactive... CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Radioactive Materials § 176.710 Care following leakage or... segregated from unnecessary contact with personnel. In case of obvious leakage, or if the inside...

  15. 49 CFR 176.710 - Care following leakage or sifting of radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Care following leakage or sifting of radioactive... CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Radioactive Materials § 176.710 Care following leakage or... segregated from unnecessary contact with personnel. In case of obvious leakage, or if the inside...

  16. 49 CFR 176.710 - Care following leakage or sifting of radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Care following leakage or sifting of radioactive... CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Radioactive Materials § 176.710 Care following leakage or... segregated from unnecessary contact with personnel. In case of obvious leakage, or if the inside...

  17. 49 CFR 176.710 - Care following leakage or sifting of radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Care following leakage or sifting of radioactive... CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Radioactive Materials § 176.710 Care following leakage or... segregated from unnecessary contact with personnel. In case of obvious leakage, or if the inside...

  18. 49 CFR 176.710 - Care following leakage or sifting of radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Care following leakage or sifting of radioactive... CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Radioactive Materials § 176.710 Care following leakage or... segregated from unnecessary contact with personnel. In case of obvious leakage, or if the inside...

  19. [Manual material handling risk assessment and ergonomic improvement in foodstuff retailing company].

    PubMed

    Maso, S; Maccà, I; Simonetti, A; Scopa, P; Paruzzolo, P; Bonacci, A; Murgolo, I; Bartolucci, G B

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess and reduce the risk due to manual material handling in a company involved in the foodstuff retailing. The risk assessment was performed by NIOSH Variable Lifing Index in 13 different occupational conditions. As result the risk was present in any case, with VLI values ranging from 2.12 to 2.81. A good risk reduction has been accomplished correcting properly the most important multiplier involved in the computation of the revised NIOSH Lifting equation (lifting frequency and weight of heavier products). Even if the performed risk reduction has been significant, the residual risk is still higher than the level of acceptability. PMID:23393845

  20. The cleanup of releases of radioactive materials from commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites: Whose jurisdiction?

    SciTech Connect

    Hartnett, C.

    1994-12-31

    There exists an overlap between the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Recovery Act ({open_quotes}CERCLA{close_quotes}) and the Atomic Energy Act ({open_quotes}AEA{close_quotes}) regarding the cleanup of releases of radioactive materials from commercial low-level radioactive waste sites. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission ({open_quotes}NRC{close_quotes}) and Agreement States have jurisdiction under the AEA, and the Environmental Protection Agency ({open_quotes}EPA{close_quotes}) has jurisdiction pursuant to CERCLA. This overlapping jurisdiction has the effect of imposing CERCLA liability on parties who have complied with AEA regulations. However, CERCLA was not intended to preempt existing legislation. This is evidenced by the federally permitted release exemption, which explicitly exempts releases from CERCLA liability pursuant to an AEA license. With little guidance as to the applicability of this exemption, it is uncertain whether CERCLA`s liability is broad enough to supersede the Atomic Energy Act. It is the purpose of this paper to discuss the overlapping jurisdiction for the cleanup of releases of radioactive materials from commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites with particular emphasis on the cleanup at the Maxey Flats, West Valley and Sheffield sites.

  1. Experiences in the field of radioactive materials seizures in the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Svoboda, Karel; Podlaha, Josef; Sir, David; Mudra, Josef

    2007-07-01

    In recent years, the amount of radioactive materials seizures (captured radioactive materials) has been rising. It was above all due to newly installed detection facilities that were able to check metallic scrap during its collection in scrap yards or on the entrance to iron-mills, checking municipal waste upon entrance to municipal disposal sites, even incineration plants, or through checking vehicles going through the borders of the Czech Republic. Most cases bore a relationship to secondary raw materials or they were connected to the application of machines and installations made from contaminated metallic materials. However, in accordance to our experience, the number of cases of seizures of materials and devices containing radioactive sources used in the public domain was lower, but not negligible, in the municipal storage yards or incineration plants. Atomic Act No. 18/1997 Coll. will apply to everybody who provides activities leading to exposure, mandatory assurance as high radiation safety as risk of the endangering of life, personal health and environment is as low as reasonably achievable in according to social and economic aspects. Hence, attention on the examination of all cases of the radioactive material seizure based on detection facilities alarm or reasonably grounds suspicion arising from the other information is important. Therefore, a service carried out by group of workers who ensure assessment of captured radioactive materials and eventual retrieval of radioactive sources from the municipal waste has come into existence in the Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc. This service has covered also transport, storage, processing and disposal of found radioactive sources. This service has arisen especially for municipal disposal sites, but later on even other companies took advantage of this service like incineration plants, the State Office for Nuclear Safety, etc. Our experience in the field of ensuring assessment of captured radioactive materials

  2. Transport and storage of radioactive materials 1995. PVP-Volume 307

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, R.W.; Hafner, R.S.; Lake, W.H.

    1995-11-01

    The design of packaging for the transport of radioactive materials is a constantly evolving activity due primarily to new materials, new design approaches, and a better understanding of the regulations. As a consequence, the Operations, Applications and Components Committee organizes several sessions at the annual ASME PVP Division Conference to provide a forum for the discussion of the most recent trends in the transport and storage of radioactive materials. This publication is composed of technical papers that have been prepared for presentation at the 1995 Joint ASME/JSME Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference (July 23--27, Honolulu, Hawaii) during the sessions addressing the transport and storage of radioactive materials. The papers included were prepared to address engineering or regulatory issues associated with the transport or storage of radioactive materials. However, the subject matter can also have applications to solutions for problems in other areas. Individual paper have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  3. 10 CFR 50.34a - Design objectives for equipment to control releases of radioactive material in effluents-nuclear...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... radioactive material in effluents-nuclear power reactors. 50.34a Section 50.34a Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... objectives for equipment to control releases of radioactive material in effluents—nuclear power reactors. (a... nuclear power reactors to meet the requirements that radioactive material in effluents released...

  4. 10 CFR 50.34a - Design objectives for equipment to control releases of radioactive material in effluents-nuclear...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... radioactive material in effluents-nuclear power reactors. 50.34a Section 50.34a Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... objectives for equipment to control releases of radioactive material in effluents—nuclear power reactors. (a... nuclear power reactors to meet the requirements that radioactive material in effluents released...

  5. 10 CFR 50.34a - Design objectives for equipment to control releases of radioactive material in effluents-nuclear...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... radioactive material in effluents-nuclear power reactors. 50.34a Section 50.34a Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... objectives for equipment to control releases of radioactive material in effluents—nuclear power reactors. (a... nuclear power reactors to meet the requirements that radioactive material in effluents released...

  6. 10 CFR 50.34a - Design objectives for equipment to control releases of radioactive material in effluents-nuclear...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... radioactive material in effluents-nuclear power reactors. 50.34a Section 50.34a Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... objectives for equipment to control releases of radioactive material in effluents—nuclear power reactors. (a... nuclear power reactors to meet the requirements that radioactive material in effluents released...

  7. 10 CFR 50.34a - Design objectives for equipment to control releases of radioactive material in effluents-nuclear...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... radioactive material in effluents-nuclear power reactors. 50.34a Section 50.34a Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... objectives for equipment to control releases of radioactive material in effluents—nuclear power reactors. (a... nuclear power reactors to meet the requirements that radioactive material in effluents released...

  8. 77 FR 36017 - Regulatory Guide 7.3, Procedures for Picking Up and Receiving Packages of Radioactive Material

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... contamination and radiation exposures from improperly packaged radioactive material. Since these requirements... COMMISSION Regulatory Guide 7.3, Procedures for Picking Up and Receiving Packages of Radioactive Material... Receiving Packages of Radioactive Material.'' The guide is being withdrawn because it is obsolete and...

  9. 10 CFR 30.72 - Schedule C-Quantities of radioactive materials requiring consideration of the need for an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Schedule C-Quantities of radioactive materials requiring... § 30.72 Schedule C—Quantities of radioactive materials requiring consideration of the need for an emergency plan for responding to a release. Radioactive material 1 Release fraction Quantity...

  10. 10 CFR 30.72 - Schedule C-Quantities of radioactive materials requiring consideration of the need for an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Schedule C-Quantities of radioactive materials requiring... § 30.72 Schedule C—Quantities of radioactive materials requiring consideration of the need for an emergency plan for responding to a release. Radioactive material 1 Release fraction Quantity...

  11. 10 CFR 40.27 - General license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive material disposal sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... radioactive material disposal sites. 40.27 Section 40.27 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC... residual radioactive material disposal sites. (a) A general license is issued for the custody of and long... lease any subsurface mineral rights associated with land on which residual radioactive materials...

  12. 10 CFR 40.27 - General license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive material disposal sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... radioactive material disposal sites. 40.27 Section 40.27 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC... residual radioactive material disposal sites. (a) A general license is issued for the custody of and long... lease any subsurface mineral rights associated with land on which residual radioactive materials...

  13. 10 CFR 40.27 - General license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive material disposal sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... radioactive material disposal sites. 40.27 Section 40.27 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC... residual radioactive material disposal sites. (a) A general license is issued for the custody of and long... lease any subsurface mineral rights associated with land on which residual radioactive materials...

  14. 10 CFR 40.27 - General license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive material disposal sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... radioactive material disposal sites. 40.27 Section 40.27 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC... residual radioactive material disposal sites. (a) A general license is issued for the custody of and long... lease any subsurface mineral rights associated with land on which residual radioactive materials...

  15. Risk assessment for chemical pickling of metals contaminated by radioactive materials.

    PubMed

    Donzella, A; Formisano, P; Giroletti, E; Zenoni, A

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, many cases of contamination of metal scraps by unwanted radioactive materials have occurred. Moreover, international organisations are evaluating the possibility to re-use or to recycle metals coming from nuclear power plants. The metal recycling industry has started to worry about radiation exposure of workers that could be in contact with contaminated metals during each manufacturing phase. Risks are strongly dependent on the radiation source features. The aim of this study is to perform risk assessment for workers involved in chemical pickling of steel coils. Monte Carlo simulations have been performed, using the MCNP package and considering coils contaminated with (60)Co, (137)Cs, (241)Am and (226)Ra. Under the most conservative conditions (coil contaminated with 1.0 kBq g(-1) of (60)Co), the dose assessment results lower than the European dose limit for the population (1 mSv y(-1)), considering a maximum number of 10 contaminated coils handled per year. The only exception concerns the case of (241)Am, for which internal contamination could be non- negligible and should be verified in the specific cases. In every case, radiation exposure risk for people standing at 50 m from the coil is widely <1 mSv y(-1).

  16. Risk assessment for chemical pickling of metals contaminated by radioactive materials.

    PubMed

    Donzella, A; Formisano, P; Giroletti, E; Zenoni, A

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, many cases of contamination of metal scraps by unwanted radioactive materials have occurred. Moreover, international organisations are evaluating the possibility to re-use or to recycle metals coming from nuclear power plants. The metal recycling industry has started to worry about radiation exposure of workers that could be in contact with contaminated metals during each manufacturing phase. Risks are strongly dependent on the radiation source features. The aim of this study is to perform risk assessment for workers involved in chemical pickling of steel coils. Monte Carlo simulations have been performed, using the MCNP package and considering coils contaminated with (60)Co, (137)Cs, (241)Am and (226)Ra. Under the most conservative conditions (coil contaminated with 1.0 kBq g(-1) of (60)Co), the dose assessment results lower than the European dose limit for the population (1 mSv y(-1)), considering a maximum number of 10 contaminated coils handled per year. The only exception concerns the case of (241)Am, for which internal contamination could be non- negligible and should be verified in the specific cases. In every case, radiation exposure risk for people standing at 50 m from the coil is widely <1 mSv y(-1). PMID:16849378

  17. Muscular mechanical energy expenditure as a process for detecting potential risks in manual materials handling.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, M; Smyth, G

    1991-01-01

    The problem of injuries in manual materials handling remains a big concern in industrialized countries. It has become imperative in occupational biomechanics to extend the analyses to all pertinent factors involved in working tasks and to adopt an experimental approach leading to the understanding of the relative demands imposed simultaneously on all body joints. The evaluation of joint muscular work and the processes of energy generation, absorption and transfer appears promising as a tool in the detection of risk factors in working tasks. The present study consisted of evaluating two tasks (lifting and lowering) performed at five different heights (from 15 to 185 cm) with five different loads (from 3.3 to 22.0 kg). The subjects were eight experienced workers from a food product warehouse. Cinematography techniques and two AMTI force platforms were used to collect the data. Dynamic and planar segmental analyses were performed to calculate the net muscular moments at the joints, and work was calculated from the integration of muscular power. Factorial analyses of variance with repeated measures were performed on the dependent variables to evaluate the main effects of tasks, loads, and heights (for lifting and for lowering) and the interactions. The results revealed the adoption of different movement strategies in the handling of heavier loads. In the first, a larger emphasis of energy transfer and movement economy; in the second, a reduction in the relative contribution of the shoulders to the detriment of an increased participation of the lower back and hips was found. The comparison between lifting and lowering tasks indicated that lifting was only slightly more demanding than lowering for maximum muscular moments (about 15%) but much more so for mechanical work (about 40%); however, the nature of the efforts in eccentric contractions suggests that the lowering of heavy loads may be risky. Finally, the results revealed the deviation of height of handling from the

  18. Material handling systems for use in glovebox lines: A survey of Department of Energy facility experience

    SciTech Connect

    Teese, G.D.; Randall, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    The Nuclear Weapons Complex Reconfiguration Study has recommended that a new manufacturing facility be constructed to replace the Rocky Flats Plant. In the new facility, use of an automated material handling system for movement of components would reduce both the cost and radiation exposure associated with production and maintenance operations. Contamination control would be improved between process steps through the use of airlocks and portals. Part damage associated with improper transport would be reduced, and accountability would be increased. In-process workpieces could be stored in a secure vault, awaiting a request for parts at a production station. However, all of these desirable features rely on the proper implementation of an automated material handling system. The Department of Energy Weapons Production Complex has experience with a variety of methods for transporting discrete parts in glovebox lines. The authors visited several sites to evaluate the existing technologies for their suitability for the application of plutonium manufacturing. Technologies reviewed were Linear motors, belt conveyors, roller conveyors, accumulating roller conveyors, pneumatic transport, and cart systems. The sites visited were The Idaho National Engineering laboratory, the Hanford Site, and the Rocky Flats Plant. Linear motors appear to be the most promising technology observed for the movement of discrete parts, and further investigation is recommended.

  19. Material handling systems for use in glovebox lines: A survey of Department of Energy facility experience

    SciTech Connect

    Teese, G.D.; Randall, W.J.

    1992-12-31

    The Nuclear Weapons Complex Reconfiguration Study has recommended that a new manufacturing facility be constructed to replace the Rocky Flats Plant. In the new facility, use of an automated material handling system for movement of components would reduce both the cost and radiation exposure associated with production and maintenance operations. Contamination control would be improved between process steps through the use of airlocks and portals. Part damage associated with improper transport would be reduced, and accountability would be increased. In-process workpieces could be stored in a secure vault, awaiting a request for parts at a production station. However, all of these desirable features rely on the proper implementation of an automated material handling system. The Department of Energy Weapons Production Complex has experience with a variety of methods for transporting discrete parts in glovebox lines. The authors visited several sites to evaluate the existing technologies for their suitability for the application of plutonium manufacturing. Technologies reviewed were Linear motors, belt conveyors, roller conveyors, accumulating roller conveyors, pneumatic transport, and cart systems. The sites visited were The Idaho National Engineering laboratory, the Hanford Site, and the Rocky Flats Plant. Linear motors appear to be the most promising technology observed for the movement of discrete parts, and further investigation is recommended.

  20. The Preemptive Stocker Dispatching Rule of Automatic Material Handling System in 300 mm Semiconductor Manufacturing Factories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C. N.; Lin, H. S.; Hsu, H. P.; Wang, Yen-Hui; Chang, Y. P.

    2016-04-01

    The integrated circuit (IC) manufacturing industry is one of the biggest output industries in this century. The 300mm wafer fabs is the major fab size of this industry. The automatic material handling system (AMHS) has become one of the most concerned issues among semiconductor manufacturers. The major lot delivery of 300mm fabs is used overhead hoist transport (OHT). The traffic jams are happened frequently due to the wide variety of products and big amount of OHTs moving in the fabs. The purpose of this study is to enhance the delivery performance of automatic material handling and reduce the delay and waiting time of product transportation for both hot lots and normal lots. Therefore, this study proposes an effective OHT dispatching rule: preemptive stocker dispatching (PSD). Simulation experiments are conducted and one of the best differentiated preemptive rule, differentiated preemptive dispatching (DPD), is used for comparison. Compared with DPD, The results indicated that PSD rule can reduce average variable delivery time of normal lots by 13.15%, decreasing average variable delivery time of hot lots by 17.67%. Thus, the PSD rule can effectively reduce the delivery time and enhance productivity in 300 mm wafer fabs.

  1. Savannah River Site Experiences in In Situ Field Measurements of Radioactive Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, F.S.

    1999-10-07

    This paper discusses some of the field gamma-ray measurements made at the Savannah River Site, the equipment used for the measurements, and lessons learned during in situ identification and characterization of radioactive materials.

  2. Code System for Calculating Internal and External Doses Resulting from an Atmospheric Release of Radioactive Material.

    1982-06-15

    WRAITH calculates the atmospheric transport of radioactive material to each of a number of downwind receptor points and the external and internal doses to a reference man at each of the receptor points.

  3. 77 FR 66466 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Notice of Radioactive Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-05

    ... published in the Federal Register at 77 FR 45612, on August 1, 2012. No comments were received. Public...., Washington, DC 20417. ATTN: Hada Flowers/IC 9000-0107, Notice of Radioactive Materials. Instructions:...

  4. ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS AT A RCRA HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Romano, Stephen; Welling, Steven; Bell, Simon

    2003-02-27

    The use of hazardous waste disposal facilities permitted under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (''RCRA'') to dispose of low concentration and exempt radioactive materials is a cost-effective option for government and industry waste generators. The hazardous and PCB waste disposal facility operated by US Ecology Idaho, Inc. near Grand View, Idaho provides environmentally sound disposal services to both government and private industry waste generators. The Idaho facility is a major recipient of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers FUSRAP program waste and received permit approval to receive an expanded range of radioactive materials in 2001. The site has disposed of more than 300,000 tons of radioactive materials from the federal government during the past five years. This paper presents the capabilities of the Grand View, Idaho hazardous waste facility to accept radioactive materials, site-specific acceptance criteria and performance assessment, radiological safety and environmental monitoring program information.

  5. 15. BUILDING 227B. RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL STORAGE. ARCHITECTURAL LAYOUT. November 20, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. BUILDING 227B. RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL STORAGE. ARCHITECTURAL LAYOUT. November 20, 1970 - Frankford Arsenal, Building No. 227, South side of Hagner Road between Ripley & Mellon Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  6. Search for and analysis of radioactive halos in lunar material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, R. V.

    1976-01-01

    The lunar halo search was conducted because halos in terrestrial minerals serve as pointers to localized radioactivity, and make possible analytical studies on the problems of isotopic dating and mode of crystallization of the host mineral. Ancillary studies were conducted on terrestrial halos and on certain samples of special origin such as tektites and meteorites.

  7. Ion-exchange material and method of storing radioactive wastes

    DOEpatents

    Komarneni, S.; Roy, D.M.

    1983-10-31

    A new cation exchanger is a modified tobermorite containing aluminum isomorphously substituted for silicon and containing sodium or potassium. The exchanger is selective for lead, rubidium, cobalt, and cadmium and is selective for cesium over calcium or sodium. The tobermorites are compatible with cement and are useful for the long-term fixation and storage of radioactive nuclear wastes.

  8. Scanning electron microscope facility for examination of radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, J.R.; Braski, D.N.

    1985-02-01

    An AMRAY model 1200B scanning electron microscope was modified to permit remote examination of radioactive specimens. Features of the modification include pneumatic vibration isolation of the column, motorized stage controls, improvements for monitoring vacuum, and a system for changing filaments without entering the hot cell.

  9. Induced Radioactivity in Recovered Skylab Materials. [gamma ray spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, G. J.; Meegan, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    Four radioactive isotopes found in aluminum and stainless steel samples from Skylab debris were recovered in Australia. The low-level activity was induced by high-energy protons and neutrons in the space environment. Measurements of the specific activities are given.

  10. 41 CFR 101-42.209 - Cost of care and handling of hazardous materials and certain categories of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of hazardous materials and certain categories of property. 101-42.209 Section 101-42.209 Public... OF PROPERTY 42.2-Utilization of Hazardous Materials and Certain Categories of Property § 101-42.209 Cost of care and handling of hazardous materials and certain categories of property. The...

  11. 10 CFR 71.127 - Handling, storage, and shipping control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Handling, storage, and shipping control. 71.127 Section 71.127 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Quality Assurance § 71.127 Handling, storage, and shipping control. The licensee,...

  12. 10 CFR 71.127 - Handling, storage, and shipping control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Handling, storage, and shipping control. 71.127 Section 71.127 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Quality Assurance § 71.127 Handling, storage, and shipping control. The licensee,...

  13. 10 CFR 71.127 - Handling, storage, and shipping control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Handling, storage, and shipping control. 71.127 Section 71.127 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Quality Assurance § 71.127 Handling, storage, and shipping control. The licensee,...

  14. 10 CFR 71.127 - Handling, storage, and shipping control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling, storage, and shipping control. 71.127 Section 71.127 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Quality Assurance § 71.127 Handling, storage, and shipping control. The licensee,...

  15. 10 CFR 71.127 - Handling, storage, and shipping control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Handling, storage, and shipping control. 71.127 Section 71.127 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Quality Assurance § 71.127 Handling, storage, and shipping control. The licensee, certificate holder, and applicant for a CoC shall...

  16. Compilation of current literature on seals, closures, and leakage for radioactive material packagings

    SciTech Connect

    Warrant, M.M.; Ottinger, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents an overview of the features that affect the sealing capability of radioactive material packagings currently certified by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The report is based on a review of current literature on seals, closures, and leakage for radioactive material packagings. Federal regulations that relate to the sealing capability of radioactive material packagings, as well as basic equations for leakage calculations and some of the available leakage test procedures are presented. The factors which affect the sealing capability of a closure, including the properties of the sealing surfaces, the gasket material, the closure method and the contents are discussed in qualitative terms. Information on the general properties of both elastomer and metal gasket materials and some specific designs are presented. A summary of the seal material, closure method, and leakage tests for currently certified packagings with large diameter seals is provided. 18 figs., 9 tabs.

  17. Prediction of Radioactive Material Proliferation in Abukuma Basin using USLE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    Due to the nuclear-power plant accident after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami, the residents who had resided within 20 km from the Daiichi Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant had forced to leave their hometown. The impacts by the radioactive contamination extended to numerous social elements, such as food, economy, civil engineering, community rebuilding, etc. Japanese government agencies have measured the level of radioactive contamination in urban, agricultural area, forest, riverine and ocean. The research found that the concentration level of cesium-137 (137Cs) is higher in the forest than an open area such as paddy field or rural town. Litter layers and surface layers, especially, are found to be significantly contaminated. The study calculated the estimation of contaminated soil erosion using the USLE which the idea is based on scenario that addresses a question, what if 137Cs would carry out from the forest after intensive rainfall. Predicting radioactively contaminated areas after intense rainfall is a critical matter for the future watershed risk management.

  18. Reconnaissance for radioactive materials in the southern part of Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierson, Charles T.; Haynes, Donald D.; Filho, Evaristo Ribeiro

    1957-01-01

    During 1954-1956 a reconnaissance for radioactive minerals was made with carborne, airborne and handborne scintillation equipment in the southern Brazilian states of Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Parana, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. During the traverse covering more than 5,000 kilometers the authors checked the radioactivity of Precambrian igneous and metamorphic rocks, Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks, and Mesozoic alkalic intrusive and basaltic extrusive rocks. The 22 samples collected contained from 0.003 to 0.029 percent equivalent uranium oxide and from 0.10 to 0.91 percent equivalent thorimn; two samples were taken from radioactive pegmati tes for mineralogic studies. None of the localities is at present a commercial source of uranium or thorium; however, additional work should be done near the alkalic stock at Lages in the State of Santa Catarina and at the Passo das Tropas fossil plant locality near Santa Maria in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Near Lages highly altered alkalic rock from a dike contained 0.026 percent uranium oxide. At Passo das Tropas highly altered, limonite-impregnated sandstone from the Rio do Rasto group of sedimentary rocks contained 0.029 percent uranium oxide.

  19. Is it necessary to raise awareness about technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials?

    PubMed

    Michalik, Bogusław

    2009-10-01

    Since radiation risks are usually considered to be related to nuclear energy, the majority of research on radiation protection has focused on artificial radionuclides in radioactive wastes, spent nuclear fuel or global fallout caused by A-bomb tests and nuclear power plant failures. Far less attention has been paid to the radiation risk caused by exposure to ionizing radiation originating from natural radioactivity enhanced due to human activity, despite the fact that technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials are common in many branches of the non-nuclear industry. They differ significantly from "classical" nuclear materials and usually look like other industrial waste. The derived radiation risk is usually associated with risk caused by other pollutants and can not be controlled by applying rules designed for pure radioactive waste. Existing data have pointed out a strong need to take into account the non-nuclear industry where materials containing enhanced natural radioactivity occur as a special case of radiation risk and enclose them in the frame of the formal control. But up to now there are no reasonable and clear regulations in this matter. As a result, the non-nuclear industries of concern are not aware of problems connected with natural radioactivity or they would expect negative consequences in the case of implementing radiation protection measures. The modification of widely comprehended environmental legislation with requirements taken from radiation protection seems to be the first step to solve this problem and raise awareness about enhanced natural radioactivity for all stakeholders of concern.

  20. Natural radioactivity of Australian building materials, industrial wastes and by-products.

    PubMed

    Beretka, J; Matthew, P J

    1985-01-01

    The natural radioactivity due to the presence of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in conventional raw materials and some solid industrial wastes and by-products which are being used or have a potential for use in the building and ceramic industries in Australia has been measured by gamma-ray spectrometry. The majority of materials examined in this work showed fairly low levels of radioactivity. Some samples of red mud, phosphogypsum, zircon products and fly ash did show higher levels of radioactivity than would be acceptable on the basis of a criterion formula for gamma-ray activity suggested for use in some OECD countries. But this higher level of radioactivity should not pose an environmental health problem when these materials constitute a relatively small portion of the materials used in a normal building. The present work has also shown that the radioactivity levels of some of the materials can be reduced through the removal of fines by sieving, as the fines seem to contain a higher concentration of radioactive nuclides.

  1. Description of a Multipurpose Processing and Storage Complex for the Hanford Site`s radioactive material

    SciTech Connect

    Nyman, D.H.; Wolfe, B.A.; Hoertkorn, T.R.

    1993-05-01

    The mission of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site has changed from defense nuclear materials production to that of waste management/disposal and environmental restoration. ne Multipurpose Processing and Storage Complex (MPSC) is being designed to process discarded waste tank internal hardware contaminated with mixed wastes, failed melters from the vitrification plant, and other Hanford Site high-level solid waste. The MPSC also will provide interim storage of other radioactive materials (irradiated fuel, canisters of vitrified high-level waste [HLW], special nuclear material [SNM], and other designated radioactive materials).

  2. Process Knowledge Summary Report for Materials and Fuels Complex Contact-Handled Transuranic Debris Waste

    SciTech Connect

    R. P. Grant; P. J. Crane; S. Butler; M. A. Henry

    2010-02-01

    This Process Knowledge Summary Report summarizes the information collected to satisfy the transportation and waste acceptance requirements for the transfer of transuranic (TRU) waste between the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) and the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP). The information collected includes documentation that addresses the requirements for AMWTP and the applicable portion of their Resource Conservation and Recovery Act permits for receipt and treatment of TRU debris waste in AMWTP. This report has been prepared for contact-handled TRU debris waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory at MFC. The TRU debris waste will be shipped to AMWTP for purposes of supercompaction. This Process Knowledge Summary Report includes information regarding, but not limited to, the generation process, the physical form, radiological characteristics, and chemical contaminants of the TRU debris waste, prohibited items, and packaging configuration. This report, along with the referenced supporting documents, will create a defensible and auditable record for waste originating from MFC.

  3. Minimizing soil remediation volume through specification of excavation and materials handling procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Oresik, W.L.S.; Otten, M.T.; Nelson, M.D.

    1994-12-31

    The technologies currently available for treating soils contaminated with the explosives 2,4,6-trinitroluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazene (RDX) are both limited and expensive. Therefore, an important consideration in soils remediation is the preparation of construction specifications and contract drawings which limit the volume of soil that will be required to undergo treatment. Construction specifications and contract drawings were developed for the Contaminated Soil Remediation of the Explosives Washout Lagoons at Umatilla Depot Activity (UMDA) with the following primary objectives: (1) limit the volume of soil excavated from the Explosives Washout Lagoons and Explosives Washout Plant Areas, (2) minimize materials handling, and (3) reduce the excavated volume of soil which will undergo treatment.

  4. A comparative life cycle assessment of material handling systems for sustainable mining.

    PubMed

    Erkayaoğlu, M; Demirel, N

    2016-06-01

    In this comprehensive LCA comparison study, main objectives are to investigate life cycle environmental impacts of off-highway mining trucks and belt conveyors in surface mining. The research methodology essentially entails determination of the functional unit as 20,000 tons/day coal production transported for 5 km distance. After the system boundary was selected as the entire life cycle of material handling systems including pre-manufacturing of steel parts and plastic components, manufacturing, transportation, and utilization data was compiled from equipment manufacturers and the Eco-invent database. Life cycle impact categories for both material-handling systems were identified and the developed model was implemented using SIMAPRO 7.3. Climate change and acidification were selected as major impact categories as they were considered to be major concerns in mining industry. Although manufacturing stage had a significant impact on all of the environmental parameters, utilization stage was the hotspot for the selected impact categories. The results of this study revealed that belt conveyors have a greater environmental burden in climate change impact category when compared to the trucks. On the other hand, trucks have a greater environmental burden in acidification impact category when compared to the belt conveyors. This study implied that technological improvement in fuel combustion and electricity generation is crucial for the improvement of environmental profiles of off-highway trucks and belt conveyors in the mining industry. The main novelty of this study is that it is the first initiative in applying LCA in the Turkish mining industry. PMID:26986638

  5. Functional requirements document for measuring emissions of airborne radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Criddle, J.D. Jr.

    1994-09-01

    This document states the functional requirements and procedures for systems making measurements of radioactive airborne emissions from facilities at the Hanford Site. The following issues are addressed in this document: Definition of the program objectives; Selection of the overall approach to collecting the samples; Sampling equipment design; Sampling equipment maintenance, and quality assurance issues. The intent of this document is to assist WHC in demonstrating a high quality of air emission measurements with verified system performance based on documented system design, testing, inspection, and maintenance.

  6. Real-Time Identification and Characterization of Asbestos and Concrete Materials with Radioactive Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, George; Zhang, Xi-Cheng

    1999-06-01

    Concrete and asbestos-containing materials were widely used in U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) building construction in the 1940s and 1950s. Over the years, many of these porous building materials have been contaminated with radioactive sources, on and below the surface. This intractable radioactive-and-hazardous- asbestos mixed-waste-stream has created a tremendous challenge to DOE decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) project managers. The current practice to identify asbestos and to characterize radioactive contamination depth profiles involve bore sampling, and is inefficient, costly, and unsafe. A three-year research project was started on 10/1/98 at Rensselaer with the following ultimate goals: (1) development of novel non-destructive methods for identifying the hazardous asbestos in real-time and in-situ, and (2) development of new algorithms and apparatus for characterizing the radioactive contamination depth profile in real-time and in-situ.

  7. Real-Time Identification and Characterization of Asbestos and Concrete Materials with Radioactive Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, George; Zhang, Xi-Cheng

    2000-06-01

    Concrete and asbestos-containing materials were widely used in U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) building construction in the 1940s and 1950s. Over the years, many of these porous building materials have been contaminated with radioactive sources, on and below the surface. This intractable radioactive-and-hazardous-asbestos mixed-waste stream has created a tremendous challenge to DOE decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) project managers. The current practice to identify asbestos and to characterize radioactive contamination depth profiles in based solely on bore sampling, which is inefficient, costly, and unsafe. A three-year research project was started 1998 at Rensselaer with the following ultimate goals: (1) development of novel non-destructive methods for identifying the hazardous asbestos in real-time and in-situ, and (2) development of new algorithms and apparatus for characterizing the radioactive contamination depth profile in real-time and in-situ.

  8. Solidification of radioactive waste resins using cement mixed with organic material

    SciTech Connect

    Laili, Zalina; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Wahab, Mohd Abdul

    2015-04-29

    Solidification of radioactive waste resins using cement mixed with organic material i.e. biochar is described in this paper. Different percentage of biochar (0%, 5%, 8%, 11%, 14% and 18%) was investigated in this study. The characteristics such as compressive strength and leaching behavior were examined in order to evaluate the performance of solidified radioactive waste resins. The results showed that the amount of biochar affect the compressive strength of the solidified resins. Based on the data obtained for the leaching experiments performed, only one formulation showed the leached of Cs-134 from the solidified radioactive waste resins.

  9. All the things I have - handling one's material room in old age.

    PubMed

    Larsson Ranada, Asa; Hagberg, Jan-Erik

    2014-12-01

    The article explores how old people who live in their ordinary home, reason and act regarding their 'material room' (technical objects, such as household appliances, communication tools and things, such as furniture, personal belongings, gadgets, books, paintings, and memorabilia). The interest is in how they, as a consequence of their aging, look at acquiring new objects and phasing out older objects from the home. This is a broader approach than in most other studies of how old people relate to materiality in which attention is mostly paid either to adjustments to the physical environment or to the importance of personal possessions. In the latter cases, the focus is on downsizing processes (e.g. household disbandment or casser maison) in connection with a move to smaller accommodation or to a nursing home. The article is based on a study in which thirteen older people (median age 87), living in a Swedish town of medium size were interviewed (2012) for a third time. The questions concerned the need and desire for new objects, replacement of broken objects, sorting out the home or elsewhere, most cherished possessions, and the role of family members such as children and grandchildren. The results reveal the complexity of how one handles the material room. Most evident is the participants' reluctance to acquire new objects or even to replace broken things. Nearly all of them had considered, but few had started, a process of sorting out objects. These standpoints in combination resulted in a relatively intact material room, which was motivated by an ambition to simplify daily life or to facilitate the approaching dissolution of the home. Some objects of special value and other cherished objects materialized the connections between generations within a family. Some participants wanted to spare their children the burden of having to decide on what to do with their possessions. Others (mostly men), on the contrary, relied on their children to do the sorting out after

  10. Radioactivity measurements of ITER materials using the TFTR D-T neutron field

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, A.; Abdou, M.A.; Barnes, C.W.; Kugel, H.W.; Loughlin, M.J.

    1994-08-01

    The availability of high D-T fusion neutron yields at TFTR has provided a useful opportunity to directly measure D-T neutron-induced radioactivity in a realistic tokamak fusion reactor environment for materials of vital interest to ITER. These measurements are valuable for characterizing radioactivity in various ITER candidate materials. for validating complex neutron transport calculations, and for meeting fusion reactor licensing requirements. The radioactivity measurements at TFTR involve potential ITER materials including stainless steel 316, vanadium, titanium, chromium, silicon, iron, cobalt, nickel, molybdenum, aluminum, copper, zinc. zirconium, niobium, and tungsten. Small samples of these materials were irradiated close to the plasma and just outside the vacuum vessel wall of TFTR, locations of different neutron energy spectra. Saturation activities for both threshold and capture reactions were measured. Data from dosimetric reactions have been used to obtain preliminary neutron energy spectra. Spectra from the first wall were compared to calculations from ITER and to measurements from accelerator-based tests.

  11. Shipment of Small Quantities of Unspecified Radioactive Material in Chalfant Packagings

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Allen; Abramczyk, Glenn; Nathan, Steven; Bellamy, Steve

    2009-06-12

    In the post 6M era, radioactive materials package users are faced with the disciplined operations associated with use of Certified Type B packagings. Many DOE, commercial and academic programs have a requirement to ship and/or store small masses of poorly characterized or unspecified radioactive material. For quantities which are small enough to be fissile exempt and have low radiation levels, the materials could be transported in a package which provides the required containment level. Because their Chalfant type containment vessels meet the highest standard of containment (helium leak-tight), the 9975, 9977, and 9978 are capable of transporting any of these contents. The issues associated with certification of a high-integrity, general purpose package for shipping small quantities of unspecified radioactive material are discussed and certification of the packages for this mission is recommended.

  12. Waste management facilities cost information for transportation of radioactive and hazardous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Feizollahi, F.; Shropshire, D.; Burton, D.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains cost information on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Complex waste streams that will be addressed by DOE in the programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) project. It describes the results of the task commissioned by DOE to develop cost information for transportation of radioactive and hazardous waste. It contains transportation costs for most types of DOE waste streams: low-level waste (LLW), mixed low-level waste (MLLW), alpha LLW and alpha MLLW, Greater-Than-Class C (GTCC) LLW and DOE equivalent waste, transuranic (TRU) waste, spent nuclear fuel (SNF), and hazardous waste. Unit rates for transportation of contact-handled (<200 mrem/hr contact dose) and remote-handled (>200 mrem/hr contact dose) radioactive waste are estimated. Land transportation of radioactive and hazardous waste is subject to regulations promulgated by DOE, the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and state and local agencies. The cost estimates in this report assume compliance with applicable regulations.

  13. Sub-Kelvin Thermal Conductivity and Radioactivity of Some Useful Materials in Low Background Cryogenic Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellaris, N.; Daal, M.; Epland, M.; Pepin, M.; Kamaev, O.; Cushman, P.; Kramer, E.; Sadoulet, B.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Golwala, S.; Runyan, M.

    2014-08-01

    We present measurements of the thermal conductivity between 0.05 and 1 K, and radioactive contamination levels, for some thermally isolating materials. TIMET Ti 15-3-3-3, Mersen grade 2020 graphite, Vespel SP-1, Vespel SP-22, Vespel SCP-5000, Vespel SCP-5050, Graphlite CFRP, and a Kapton/epoxy composite are all investigated. Thermal conductivities were measured using a single-heater longitudinal heat flow method. Material radioactivity was determined for the materials at a low background counting facility using a high-purity gamma detector and GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulations.

  14. Comparison of the sensitivity of three psychophysical techniques to three manual materials handling task variables.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S; Narayan, Y; Bjornsdottir, S

    1999-01-01

    The primary objective of the study was to determine the absolute and relative sensitivity of three psychophysical techniques of physical stress determination (Borg's Scale, the Visual Analogue Scale, and the Body Part Discomfort Rating) in varied manual materials handling tasks. Ten young male and ten young female university students lifted a 22 kg box onto a shelf 132 cm high. The industrial-size box (40 x 20 x 20 cm) had two cut-out handles on the top middle of the two side panels. The shelf had restricted access allowing 5 and 10 mm clearance for access. The palletizing was performed in sagittal and 45 degrees asymmetrical postures under unlimited, 90% and 80% of stature headroom. The subjects lifted the box six times per minute for 5 min. After every lift the load was automatically delivered to the starting position. The 12 experimental conditions were randomized. Following each 5-min palletizing task the subjects were required to assess the immediately foregoing task on Borg's scale, the Visual Analogue scale, and a Body Part Discomfort Rating scale. All data were subjected to statistical analysis including multivariate analysis of variance and Scheffé post-hoc multiple range test. Borg's scale was able to discriminate between two clearances, two symmetries and the three headrooms (p < 0.001). The Visual Analogue scale was able to differentiate between two symmetries and three headrooms (p < 0.01), but the Body Part Discomfort Rating could not differentiate between any task conditions. Based on the study it is suggested that an appropriate match between the task demands and the basis of a psychophysical tool is essential for valid and reliable information. PMID:9973872

  15. Material Not Categorized As Waste (MNCAW) data report. Radioactive Waste Technical Support Program

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, C.; Heath, B.A.

    1992-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Headquarters, requested all DOE sites storing valuable materials to complete a questionnaire about each material that, if discarded, could be liable to regulation. The Radioactive Waste Technical Support Program entered completed questionnaires into a database and analyzed them for quantities and type of materials stored. This report discusses the data that TSP gathered. The report also discusses problems revealed by the questionnaires and future uses of the data. Appendices contain selected data about material reported.

  16. Secondary wind transport of radioactive materials after the Fukushima accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, M.

    2012-01-01

    Data from the radiation monitoring network surrounding the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) revealed that the radiation levels generally decayed faster at a highly-contaminated area than at neighboring moderately-contaminated areas during the first month after the Fukushima nuclear accident in March, 2011. Two possible mechanisms are considered: secondary transport of radioactive dust by wind or rain, and nonuniform radionuclide ratio of contamination between radioiodine (131I) and radiocesium (134Cs and 137Cs). The composition data from soil does not favor the latter scenario, except for the local coastal region south of the FNPP, while inter-regional transport from the highly-contaminated area to the moderately-contaminated areas explains both the general difference in the decay rate in the entire area and the relatively slow decay at a high-dose rate anomaly 40 km northwest of the FNPP.

  17. Subthreshold neutron interrogator for detection of radioactive materials

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Michael L.; Menlove, Howard O.; Baker, Michael P.

    1980-01-01

    A device for detecting fissionable material such as uranium in low concentrations by interrogating with photoneutrons at energy levels below 500 keV, and typically about 26 keV. Induced fast neutrons having energies above 500 keV by the interrogated fissionable material are detected by a liquid scintillator or recoil proportional counter which is sensitive to the induced fast neutrons. Since the induced fast neutrons are proportional to the concentration of fissionable material, detection of induced fast neutrons indicate concentration of the fissionable material.

  18. State perspective on how clean is clean enough when radioactive materials are involved

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, E.D. )

    1992-01-01

    The question of how much radioactive material can be left behind by a user of radioactive materials or how much radioactive material can be taken to a local sanitary landfill is not so much a scientific or technical question as it is a societal, philosophical, and, therefore, political issue. The issues are mired in the debates about nuclear power, nuclear weapons, big business, and distrust of government. Scientific and regulatory bodies add to the general public's true fears, concerns, uncertainties, and mistrust of radiation and things radioactive when they fail to act in a concise, logical, and at least coordinated manner. The bifurcation of standard setting responsibility at the federal level between the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the agreement state system of regulating radioactive materials all add to the public's confusion and anxiety. The purpose of this paper is to point out from the viewpoint of a state regulatory agency problems that are seen as stumbling blocks to the implementation and acceptance of a below-regulatory-concern (BRC) policy.

  19. Derivation of uranium residual radioactive material guidelines for the Ventron site

    SciTech Connect

    Loureiro, C.; Yu, C.; Jones, L.

    1992-03-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium were derived for the Ventron site in Beverly, Massachusetts. This site has been identified for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The derivations for the single radionuclides and the total uranium guidelines were based on the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of the Ventron site should not exceed a dose of 100 mrem/yr following remedial action. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, which implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines, was used in this evaluation.

  20. Derivation of uranium residual radioactive material guidelines for the former Alba Craft Laboratory site, Oxford, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Nimmagadda, M.; Faillace, E.; Yu, C.

    1994-01-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium were derived for the former Alba Craft Laboratory site in Oxford, Ohio. This site has been identified for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). Single nuclide and total uranium guidelines were derived on the basis of the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of the former Alba Craft Laboratory site should not exceed a dose of 30 mrem/yr following remedial action for the current use and likely future use scenarios or a dose of 100 mrem/yr for less likely future use scenarios (Yu et al. 1993). The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, which implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines, was used in this evaluation.

  1. Derivation of uranium residual radioactive material guidelines for the 4400 Piehl Road Site, Ottawa Lake, Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Faillace, E.; Nimmagadda, M.; Yu, C.

    1994-12-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium were derived for the 4400 Piehl Road site in Ottawa Lake, Michigan. This site has been designated for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). Single nuclide and total uranium guidelines were derived on the basis of the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of the 4400 Piehl Road site should not exceed 30 mrem/yr following remedial action for the current use and plausible future use scenarios. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, which applies the methodology described in the DOE manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines, was used in this evaluation.

  2. Determination of Fire Enviroment in Stacked Cargo Containers with Radioactive Materials Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Arviso, M.; Bobbe, J.G.; Dukart, R.D.; Koski, J.A.

    1999-05-01

    Results from a Fire Test with a three-by-three stack of standard 6 m long International Standards Organization shipping containers containing combustible fuels and empty radioactive materials packages are reported and discussed. The stack is intended to simulate fire conditions that could occur during on-deck stowage on container cargo ships. The fire is initated by locating the container stack adjacent to a 9.8 x 6 m pool fire. Temperatures of both cargoes (empty and simulated radioactive materials packages) and containers are recorded and reported. Observations on the duration, intensity and spread of the fire are discussed. Based on the results, models for simulation of fire exposure of radioactive materials packages in such fires are suggested.

  3. Method for acid oxidation of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed organic waste materials

    DOEpatents

    Pierce, Robert A.; Smith, James R.; Ramsey, William G.; Cicero-Herman, Connie A.; Bickford, Dennis F.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a process for reducing the volume of low level radioactive and mixed waste to enable the waste to be more economically stored in a suitable repository, and for placing the waste into a form suitable for permanent disposal. The invention involves a process for preparing radioactive, hazardous, or mixed waste for storage by contacting the waste starting material containing at least one organic carbon-containing compound and at least one radioactive or hazardous waste component with nitric acid and phosphoric acid simultaneously at a contacting temperature in the range of about 140.degree. C. to about 210 .degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to oxidize at least a portion of the organic carbon-containing compound to gaseous products, thereby producing a residual concentrated waste product containing substantially all of said radioactive or inorganic hazardous waste component; and immobilizing the residual concentrated waste product in a solid phosphate-based ceramic or glass form.

  4. A United States perspective on long-term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials.

    PubMed

    Jones, C Rick

    2004-01-01

    The US has far-reaching and extensive experience in the long-term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials. This experience base includes the Department of Energy's continued follow-up with Hiroshima and Nagasaki from the 1940s at the Radiological Effects Research Foundation in Hiroshima, Japan, the long-term management of the Marshall Islands Programme, the clean-up of the US nuclear weapons complex and the ongoing management of accident sites such as in Palomares, Spain. This paper discusses the lessons learnt and best practices gained from this far-reaching and extensive experience in the long-term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials.

  5. Application of the ASME code in designing containment vessels for packages used to transport radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Raske, D.T.; Wang, Z.

    1992-07-01

    The primary concern governing the design of shipping packages containing radioactive materials is public safety during transport. When these shipments are within the regulatory jurisdiction of the US Department of Energy, the recommended design criterion for the primary containment vessel is either Section III or Section VIII, Division 1, of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, depending on the activity of the contents. The objective of this paper is to discuss the design of a prototypic containment vessel representative of a packaging for the transport of high-level radioactive material.

  6. Structural analysis in support of the waterborne transport of radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ammerman, D.J.

    1996-08-01

    The safety of the transportation of radioactive materials by road and rail has been well studied and documented. However, the safety of waterborne transportation has received much less attention. Recent highly visible waterborne transportation campaigns have led to DOE and IAEA to focus attention on the safety of this transportation mode. In response, Sandia National Laboratories is conducting a program to establish a method to determine the safety of these shipments. As part of that program the mechanics involved in ship-to-ship collisions are being evaluated to determine the loadings imparted to radioactive material transportation packages during these collisions. This paper will report on the results of these evaluations.

  7. 49 CFR 172.310 - Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TABLE, SPECIAL PROVISIONS, HAZARDOUS MATERIALS COMMUNICATIONS, EMERGENCY RESPONSE INFORMATION, TRAINING... States company or agency is the symbol “USA.” (d) Each package which conforms to a Type B(U) or Type...

  8. Methodology on Investigating the Influences of Automated Material Handling System in Automotive Assembly Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saffar, Seha; Azni Jafar, Fairul; Jamaludin, Zamberi

    2016-02-01

    A case study was selected as a method to collect data in actual industry situation. The study aimed to assess the influences of automated material handling system in automotive industry by proposing a new design of integration system through simulation, and analyze the significant effect and influence of the system. The method approach tool will be CAD Software (Delmia & Quest). The process of preliminary data gathering in phase 1 will collect all data related from actual industry situation. It is expected to produce a guideline and limitation in designing a new integration system later. In phase 2, an idea or concept of design will be done by using 10 principles of design consideration for manufacturing. A full factorial design will be used as design of experiment in order to analyze the performance measured of the integration system with the current system in case study. From the result of the experiment, an ANOVA analysis will be done to study the performance measured. Thus, it is expected that influences can be seen from the improvement made in the system.

  9. Evaluation and redesign of manual material handling in a vaccine production centre's warehouse.

    PubMed

    Torres, Yaniel; Viña, Silvio

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted in a warehouse at a vaccine production centre where improvement to existing storage and working conditions were sought through the construction of a new refrigerated store section (2-8C°). Warehousing tasks were videotaped and ergonomics analysis tools were used to assess the risk of developing MSDs. Specifically, these tools were the Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA) and the NIOSH equation. The current plant layout was sketched and analyzed to find possible targets for improvement trough the application of general work space design and ergonomics principles. Seven of the eight postures evaluated with REBA had a total score between 8 and 10, meaning a high risk, and only one was at a medium risk level. Nine of the eleven manual material handling tasks analyzed with the NIOSH equation had a Lifting Index between 1.14 and 1.80 and two had a recommended weight limit of 0 kg, indicating a need for job redesign. Solutions included the redesign of shelves, the design of a two-step stair and a trolley with adjustable height; also, changes in work methods were proposed by introducing a two-workers lifting strategy and job rotation, and, finally, a restructuring of plant layout was completed.

  10. Monitor of the concentration of particles of dense radioactive materials in a stream of air

    DOEpatents

    Yule, Thomas J.

    1979-01-01

    A monitor of the concentration of particles of radioactive materials such as plutonium oxide in diameters as small as 1/2 micron includes in combination a first stage comprising a plurality of virtual impactors, a second stage comprising a further plurality of virtual impactors, a collector for concentrating particulate material, a radiation detector disposed near the collector to respond to radiation from collected material and means for moving a stream of air, possibly containing particulate contaminants, through the apparatus.

  11. Implementation of Control Measures for Radioactive Waste Packages with Respect to the Materials Composition - 12365

    SciTech Connect

    Steyer, S.; Kugel, K.; Brennecke, P.; Boetsch, W.; Gruendler, D.; Haider, C.

    2012-07-01

    In addition to the radiological characterization and control measures the materials composition has to be described and respective control measures need to be implemented. The approach to verify the materials composition depends on the status of the waste: - During conditioning of raw waste the control of the materials composition has to be taken into account. - For already conditioned waste a retrospective qualification of the process might be possible. - If retrospective process qualification is not possible, legacy waste can be qualified by spot checking according to the materials composition requirements The integration of the control of the material composition in the quality control system for radioactive waste is discussed and examples of control measures are given. With the materials-list and the packaging-list the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) provides an appropriate tool to describe the materials composition of radioactive waste packages. The control measures with respect to the materials composition integrate well in the established quality control framework for radioactive waste. The system is flexible enough to deal with waste products of different qualities: raw waste, qualified conditioned waste or legacy waste. Control measures to verify the materials composition can be accomplished with minimal radiation exposure and without undue burden on the waste producers and conditioners. (authors)

  12. Remediation of a Former USAF Radioactive Material Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D. E.; Cushman, M; Tupyi, B.; Lambert, J.

    2003-02-25

    This paper describes the remediation of a low-level radiological waste burial site located at the former James Connally Air Force Base in Waco, Texas. Burial activities at the site occurred during the 1950's when the property was under the ownership of the United States Air Force. Included is a discussion of methods and strategies that were used to successfully exhume and characterize the wastes for proper disposal at offsite disposal facilities. Worker and environmental protection measures are also described. Information gained from this project may be used at other similar project sites. A total of nine burial tubes had been identified for excavation, characterization, and removal from the site. The disposal tubes were constructed of 4-ft lengths of concrete pipe buried upright with the upper ends flush with ground surface. Initial ground level observations of the burial tubes indicated that some weathering had occurred; however, the condition of the subsurface portions of the tubes was unknown. Soil excavation occurred in 1-foot lifts in order that the tubes could be inspected and to allow for characterization of the soils at each stage of the excavation. Due to the weight of the concrete pipe and the condition of the piping joints it was determined that special measures would be required to maintain the tubes intact during their removal. Special tube anchoring and handling methods were required to relocate the tubes from their initial positions to a staging area where they could be further characterized. Characterization of the disposal tubes was accomplished using a combination of gamma spectroscopy and activity mapping methods. Important aspects of the project included the use of specialized excavation and disposal tube reinforcement measures to maintain the disposal tubes intact during excavation, removal and subsequent characterization. The non-intrusive gamma spectroscopy and data logging methods allowed for effective characterization of the wastes while

  13. The Education of Staff and Users for the Proper Handling and Care of Archival Materials: A RAMP Study with Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Helen

    The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Records and Archives Management Programme (RAMP) works primarily to help developing countries meet archive and record management needs. This study is intended to inform archivists, curators, and users in the proper handling and care of archival materials. The publication…

  14. Nuclear Technology. Course 31: Quality Assurance Practices. Module 31-4, Identification, Storage and Handling of Components, Parts and Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasil, Ed; Espy, John

    This fourth in a series of eight modules for a course titled Quality Assurance Practices describes the activities of identification, storage, and handling of components, parts, and materials. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module prerequisites, (3) objectives, (4) notes to…

  15. U.S. Department of Energy-Funded Performance Validation of Fuel Cell Material Handling Equipment (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, J.; Sprik, S.; Ramsden, T.; Saur, G.; Ainscough, C.; Post, M.; Peters, M.

    2013-11-01

    This webinar presentation to the UK Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Association summarizes how the U.S. Department of Energy is enabling early fuel cell markets; describes objectives of the National Fuel Cell Technology Evaluation Center; and presents performance status of fuel cell material handling equipment.

  16. 30 CFR 250.108 - What requirements must I follow for cranes and other material-handling equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What requirements must I follow for cranes and... CONTINENTAL SHELF General Performance Standards § 250.108 What requirements must I follow for cranes and other material-handling equipment? (a) All cranes installed on fixed platforms must be operated in...

  17. 30 CFR 250.108 - What requirements must I follow for cranes and other material-handling equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What requirements must I follow for cranes and... CONTINENTAL SHELF General Performance Standards § 250.108 What requirements must I follow for cranes and other material-handling equipment? (a) All cranes installed on fixed platforms must be operated in...

  18. 30 CFR 250.108 - What requirements must I follow for cranes and other material-handling equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What requirements must I follow for cranes and... CONTINENTAL SHELF General Performance Standards § 250.108 What requirements must I follow for cranes and other material-handling equipment? (a) All cranes installed on fixed platforms must be operated in...

  19. 30 CFR 250.108 - What requirements must I follow for cranes and other material-handling equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... other material-handling equipment? 250.108 Section 250.108 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY... Maintenance of Offshore Cranes (API RP 2D), incorporated by reference as specified in 30 CFR 250.198. (b) All...), incorporated by reference as specified in 30 CFR 250.198. (d) All cranes manufactured after March 17, 2003,...

  20. REAL-TIME IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ASBESTOS AND CONCRETE MATERIALS WITH RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION

    SciTech Connect

    XU, X. George; Zhang, X.C.

    2002-05-10

    Concrete and asbestos-containing materials were widely used in DOE building construction in the 1940s and 1950s. Over the years, many of these porous materials have been contaminated with radioactive sources, on and below the surface. To improve current practice in identifying hazardous materials and in characterizing radioactive contamination, an interdisciplinary team from Rensselaer has conducted research in two aspects: (1) to develop terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging system that can be used to analyze environmental samples such as asbestos in the field, and (2) to develop algorithms for characterizing the radioactive contamination depth profiles in real-time in the field using gamma spectroscopy. The basic research focused on the following: (1) mechanism of generating of broadband pulsed radiation in terahertz region, (2) optimal free-space electro-optic sampling for asbestos, (3) absorption and transmission mechanisms of asbestos in THz region, (4) the role of asbestos sample conditions on the temporal and spectral distributions, (5) real-time identification and mapping of asbestos using THz imaging, (7) Monte Carlo modeling of distributed contamination from diffusion of radioactive materials into porous concrete and asbestos materials, (8) development of unfolding algorithms for gamma spectroscopy, and (9) portable and integrated spectroscopy systems for field testing in DOE. Final results of the project show that the combination of these innovative approaches has the potential to bring significant improvement in future risk reduction and cost/time saving in DOE's D and D activities.

  1. Container materials for isolation of radioactive waste in salt

    SciTech Connect

    Streicher, M.A.; Andrews, A.

    1987-10-01

    The workshop reviewed the extensive data on the corrosion resistance of low-carbon steel in simulated salt repository environments, determined whether these data were sufficient to recommend low-carbon steel for fabrication of the container, and assessed the suitability of other materials under consideration in the SRP. The panelists determined the need for testing and research programs, recommended experimental approaches, and recommended materials based on existing technology. On the first day of the workshop, presentations were made on waste package requirements; the expected corrosion environment; degradation processes, including a review of data from corrosion tests on carbon steel; and rationales for container design and materials, modeling studies, and planned future work. The second day was devoted to a panel caucus, presentation of workshop findings, and open discussion. 76 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Radioactive Air Emission Notice of Construction for (NOC) Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Project W-460 Plutonium Stabilization and Handling

    SciTech Connect

    JANSKY, M.T.

    2000-03-01

    exhaust stack will be built and operated at the 2736-ZB Building to handle the effluents associated with the operation of the stabilization and repackaging process. Figures provided are based on preliminary design.

  3. Radioactive Air Emission Notice of Construction (NOC) for Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Project W-460 Plutonium Stabilization and Handling

    SciTech Connect

    JANSKY, M.T.

    2000-05-01

    The following description and any attachments and references are provided to the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH), Division of Radiation Protection, Air Emissions & Defense Waste Section as a notice of construction (NOC) in accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247, Radiation Protection-Air Emissions. The WAC 246-247-060, ''Applications, registration, and licensing'', states ''This section describes the information requirements for approval to construct, modify, and operate an emission unit. Any NOC requires the submittal of information listed in Appendix A.'' Additionally, the following description, attachments, and references are provided to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as an NOC, in accordance with Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants''. The information required for submittal to the EPA is specified in 40 CFR 61.07. The potential emissions from this activity are estimated to provide greater than 0.1 millirem year total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to the hypothetical offsite maximally exposed individual (MEI) and commencement is needed within a short time. Therefore, this application also is intended to provide notification of the anticipated date of initial startup in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(1), and it is requested that approval of this application also constitutes EPA acceptance of this initial startup notification. Written notification of the actual date of initial startup, in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(2), will be provided later. This NOC covers the activities associated with the construction and operation activities involving stabilization and/or repackaging of plutonium in the 2736-ZB Building. A new exhaust stack will be built and operated at the 2736-ZB Building to handle the effluents associated with the operation of the stabilization and repackaging process

  4. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 21: Radioactive Materials Disposal and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  5. Onsite transportation of radioactive materials at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, R.

    2015-03-03

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Transportation Safety Document (TSD) defines the onsite packaging and transportation safety program at SRS and demonstrates its compliance with Department of Energy (DOE) transportation safety requirements, to include DOE Order 460.1C, DOE Order 461.2, Onsite Packaging and Transfer of Materials of National Security Interest, and 10 CFR 830, Nuclear Safety Management (Subpart B).

  6. Multifunctional Metallic and Refractory Materials for Energy Efficient Handling of Molten Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Xingbo Liu; Ever Barbero; Bruce Kang; Bhaskaran Gopalakrishnan; James Headrick; Carl Irwin

    2009-02-06

    The goal of the project was to extend the lifetime of hardware submerged in molten metal by an order of magnitude and to improve energy efficiency of molten metal handling process. Assuming broad implementation of project results, energy savings in 2020 were projected to be 10 trillion BTU/year, with cost savings of approximately $100 million/year. The project team was comprised of materials research groups from West Virginia University and the Missouri University of Science and Technology formerly University of Missouri – Rolla, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, International Lead and Zinc Research Organization, Secat and Energy Industries of Ohio. Industry partners included six suppliers to the hot dip galvanizing industry, four end-user steel companies with hot-dip Galvanize and/or Galvalume lines, eight refractory suppliers, and seven refractory end-user companies. The results of the project included the development of: (1) New families of materials more resistant to degradation in hot-dip galvanizing bath conditions were developed; (2) Alloy 2020 weld overlay material and process were developed and applied to GI rolls; (3) New Alloys and dross-cleaning procedures were developed for Galvalume processes; (4) Two new refractory compositions, including new anti-wetting agents, were identified for use with liquid aluminum alloys; (5) A new thermal conductivity measurement technique was developed and validated at ORNL; (6) The Galvanizing Energy Profiler Decision Support System (GEPDSS)at WVU; Newly Developed CCW Laser Cladding Shows Better Resistance to Dross Buildup than 316L Stainless Steel; and (7) A novel method of measuring the corrosion behavior of bath hardware materials. Project in-line trials were conducted at Southwire Kentucky Rod and Cable Mill, Nucor-Crawfordsville, Nucor-Arkansas, Nucor-South Carolina, Wheeling Nisshin, California Steel, Energy Industries of Ohio, and Pennex Aluminum. Cost, energy, and environmental benefits resulting from the project

  7. Remote monostatic detection of radioactive material by laser-induced breakdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaacs, Joshua; Miao, Chenlong; Sprangle, Phillip

    2016-03-01

    This paper analyzes and evaluates a concept for remotely detecting the presence of radioactivity using electromagnetic signatures. The detection concept is based on the use of laser beams and the resulting electromagnetic signatures near the radioactive material. Free electrons, generated from ionizing radiation associated with the radioactive material, cascade down to low energies and attach to molecular oxygen. The resulting ion density depends on the level of radioactivity and can be readily photo-ionized by a low-intensity laser beam. This process provides a controllable source of seed electrons for the further collisional ionization (breakdown) of the air using a high-power, focused, CO2 laser pulse. When the air breakdown process saturates, the ionizing CO2 radiation reflects off the plasma region and can be detected. The time required for this to occur is a function of the level of radioactivity. This monostatic detection arrangement has the advantage that both the photo-ionizing and avalanche laser beams and the detector can be co-located.

  8. Fluorescent Functionalized Mesoporous Silica for Radioactive Material Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Juan; Zhu, Kake; Shang, Jianying; Wang, Donghai; Nie, Zimin; Guo, Ruisong; Liu, Chongxuan; Wang, Zheming; Li, Xiaolin; Liu, Jun

    2012-08-01

    Mesoporous silica with covalently bound salicylic acid molecules incorporated in the structure was synthesized with a one-pot, co-condensation reaction at room temperature. The as-synthesized material has a large surface area, uniform particle size, and an ordered pore structure as determined by characterization with transmission electron microscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, and infrared spectra, etc. Using the strong fluorescence and metal coordination capability of salicylic acid, functionalized mesoporous silica (FMS) was developed to track and extract radionuclide contaminants, such as uranyl [U(VI)] ions encountered in subsurface environments. Adsorption measurements showed a strong affinity of the FMS toward U(VI) with a Kd value of 105 mL/g, which is four orders of magnitude higher than the adsorption of U(VI) onto most of the sediments in natural environments. The new materials have a potential for synergistic environmental monitoring and remediation of the radionuclide U(VI) from contaminated subsurface environments.

  9. Alternative routes for highway shipments of radioactive materials and lessons learned from state designations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under docket numbers HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select altemative routes. First, the state must establish a ``state routing agency``, defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with DOTs Guidelines for Selecting Preferred Highway Routes for Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice to DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective. The purpose of this report is to discuss the ``lessons learned`` by the five states within the southern region that have designated alternative or preferred routes under the regulations of the Department of Transportation (DOT) established for the transportation of radioactive materials. The document was prepared by reviewing applicable federal laws and regulations, examining state reports and documents and contacting state officials and routing agencies involved in making routing decisions. In undertaking this project, the Southern States Energy Board hopes to reveal the process used by states that have designated alternative routes and thereby share their experiences (i.e., lessons learned) with other southern states that have yet to make designations.

  10. Alternative routes for highway shipments of radioactive materials and lessons learned from state designations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under docket numbers HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select altemative routes. First, the state must establish a state routing agency'', defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with DOTs Guidelines for Selecting Preferred Highway Routes for Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice to DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective. The purpose of this report is to discuss the lessons learned'' by the five states within the southern region that have designated alternative or preferred routes under the regulations of the Department of Transportation (DOT) established for the transportation of radioactive materials. The document was prepared by reviewing applicable federal laws and regulations, examining state reports and documents and contacting state officials and routing agencies involved in making routing decisions. In undertaking this project, the Southern States Energy Board hopes to reveal the process used by states that have designated alternative routes and thereby share their experiences (i.e., lessons learned) with other southern states that have yet to make designations.

  11. Gamma motes for detection of radioactive materials in shipping containers

    SciTech Connect

    Harold McHugh; William Quam; Stephan Weeks; Brendan Sever

    2007-04-13

    Shipping containers can be effectively monitored for radiological materials using gamma (and neutron) motes in distributed mesh networks. The mote platform is ideal for collecting data for integration into operational management systems required for efficiently and transparently monitoring international trade. Significant reductions in size and power requirements have been achieved for room-temperature cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) gamma detectors. Miniaturization of radio modules and microcontroller units are paving the way for low-power, deeply-embedded, wireless sensor distributed mesh networks.

  12. 10 CFR 835.209 - Concentrations of radioactive material in air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... concentration (DAC) values given in appendices A and C of this part shall be used in the control of occupational... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Concentrations of radioactive material in air. 835.209 Section 835.209 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Standards for Internal...

  13. 10 CFR 835.209 - Concentrations of radioactive material in air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... concentration (DAC) values given in appendices A and C of this part shall be used in the control of occupational... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Concentrations of radioactive material in air. 835.209 Section 835.209 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Standards for Internal...

  14. 10 CFR 835.209 - Concentrations of radioactive material in air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... concentration (DAC) values given in appendices A and C of this part shall be used in the control of occupational... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Concentrations of radioactive material in air. 835.209 Section 835.209 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Standards for Internal...

  15. 10 CFR 835.209 - Concentrations of radioactive material in air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... concentration (DAC) values given in appendices A and C of this part shall be used in the control of occupational... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Concentrations of radioactive material in air. 835.209 Section 835.209 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Standards for Internal...

  16. 25 CFR 170.906 - Who cleans up radioactive and hazardous material spills?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who cleans up radioactive and hazardous material spills? 170.906 Section 170.906 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Miscellaneous Provisions Hazardous and Nuclear Waste...

  17. 46 CFR 148.04-1 - Radioactive material, Low Specific Activity (LSA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the estimated radioactivity concentration dose not exceed 0.001 millicurie per gram and the contribution from Group I material (See title 49 CFR parts 170 to 189, inclusive) does not exceed 1 percent of... surface contamination according to 49 CFR 173.443. (c) Each hold or barge used for transportation of...

  18. 25 CFR 170.906 - Who cleans up radioactive and hazardous material spills?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Who cleans up radioactive and hazardous material spills? 170.906 Section 170.906 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Miscellaneous Provisions Hazardous and Nuclear Waste...

  19. 25 CFR 170.906 - Who cleans up radioactive and hazardous material spills?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Who cleans up radioactive and hazardous material spills? 170.906 Section 170.906 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Miscellaneous Provisions Hazardous and Nuclear Waste...

  20. 25 CFR 170.906 - Who cleans up radioactive and hazardous material spills?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Who cleans up radioactive and hazardous material spills? 170.906 Section 170.906 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Miscellaneous Provisions Hazardous and Nuclear Waste...

  1. 25 CFR 170.906 - Who cleans up radioactive and hazardous material spills?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Who cleans up radioactive and hazardous material spills? 170.906 Section 170.906 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Miscellaneous Provisions Hazardous and Nuclear Waste...

  2. 77 FR 14445 - Leakage Tests on Packages for Shipment of Radioactive Material

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... in the Federal Register on March 1, 2011 (76 FR 11288) for a 60 days public comment period. The... COMMISSION Leakage Tests on Packages for Shipment of Radioactive Material AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Commission) is issuing a revision to Regulatory Guide 7.4, ``Leakage Tests on Packages for...

  3. A Computer Code to Estimate Environmental Concentration and Dose Due to Airborne Release of Radioactive Material.

    1991-03-15

    Version 00 ORION-II was developed to estimate environmental concentration and dose due to airborne release of radioactive material from multiple sources of the nuclear fuel cycle facilities. ORION-II is an updated version of ORION and is applicable to the sensitivity study of dose assessment at nuclear fuel cycle facilities.

  4. Radioactivity induced in apollo 11 lunar surface material by solar flare protons.

    PubMed

    Heydegger, H R; Turkevich, A

    1970-05-01

    Comparison of values of the specific radioactivities reported for lunar surface material from the Apollo 11 mission with analogous data for stone meteorites suggests that energetic particles from the solar flare of 12 April 1969 may have produced most of the cobalt-56 observed.

  5. 41 CFR 50-204.22 - Exposure to airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... excess of the limits specified in Table I of Appendix B to 10 CFR Part 20. The limits given in Table I... average concentration in excess of the limits specified in Table II of Appendix B to 10 CFR Part 20. For... radioactive material. 50-204.22 Section 50-204.22 Public Contracts and Property Management Other...

  6. 41 CFR 50-204.22 - Exposure to airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... excess of the limits specified in Table I of appendix B to 10 CFR part 20. The limits given in Table I... average concentration in excess of the limits specified in Table II of Appendix B to 10 CFR part 20. For... radioactive material. 50-204.22 Section 50-204.22 Public Contracts and Property Management Other...

  7. 41 CFR 50-204.22 - Exposure to airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... excess of the limits specified in Table I of Appendix B to 10 CFR Part 20. The limits given in Table I... average concentration in excess of the limits specified in Table II of Appendix B to 10 CFR Part 20. For... radioactive material. 50-204.22 Section 50-204.22 Public Contracts and Property Management Other...

  8. 41 CFR 50-204.22 - Exposure to airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... excess of the limits specified in Table I of appendix B to 10 CFR part 20. The limits given in Table I... average concentration in excess of the limits specified in Table II of appendix B to 10 CFR part 20. For... radioactive material. 50-204.22 Section 50-204.22 Public Contracts and Property Management Other...

  9. 41 CFR 50-204.22 - Exposure to airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... excess of the limits specified in Table I of Appendix B to 10 CFR Part 20. The limits given in Table I... average concentration in excess of the limits specified in Table II of Appendix B to 10 CFR Part 20. For... radioactive material. 50-204.22 Section 50-204.22 Public Contracts and Property Management Other...

  10. Understanding radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes). (ATT)

  11. Comparison of Customer Preference for Bulk Material Handling Equipment through Fuzzy-AHP Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Kingshuk; Ghosh, Surojit; Sarkar, Bijan

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, customer's perception has played one of the important roles for selection of the exact equipment out of available alternatives. The present study is dealt with the method of optimization of selection criteria of a material handling equipment, based on the technical specifications considered to be available at the user end. In this work, the needs of customers have been identified and prioritized, that lead to the selection of number of criteria, which have direct effect upon the performance of the equipment. To check the consistency of selection criteria, first of all an AHP based methodology is adopted with the identified criteria and available product categories, based upon which, the judgments of the users are defined to derive the priority scales. Such judgments expressed the relative strength or intensity of the impact of the elements of the hierarchy. Subsequently, all the alternatives have ranked for each identified criteria with subsequent constitution of weighted matrices. The same has been compared with the normalized values of approximate selling prices of the equipments to determine individual cost-benefit ratio. Based on the cost-benefit ratio, the equipment is ranked. With same conditions, the study is obtained again with a Fuzzy AHP concept, where a fuzzy linguistic approach has reduced the amount of uncertainty in decision making, caused by conventional AHP due to lack of deterministic approach. The priority vectors of category and criteria are determined separately and multiplied to obtain composite score. Subsequently, the average of fuzzy weights was determined and the preferences of equipment are ranked.

  12. Proposal for Construction/Demonstration/Implementation of A Material Handling System

    SciTech Connect

    Jim Jnatt

    2001-08-24

    Vortec Corporation, the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) and DOE/Paducah propose to complete the technology demonstration and the implementation of the Material Handling System developed under Contract Number DE-AC21-92MC29120. The demonstration testing and operational implementation will be done at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The scope of work, schedule and cost for the activities are included in this proposal. A description of the facility to be constructed and tested is provided in Exhibit 1, attached. The USEC proposal for implementation at Paducah is presented in Exhibit 2, and the commitment letters from the site are included in Exhibit 3. Under our agreements with USEC, Bechtel Jacobs Corporation and DOE/Paducah, Vortec will be responsible for the construction of the demonstration facility as documented in the engineering design package submitted under Phase 4 of this contract on August 9, 2001. USEC will have responsibility for the demonstration testing and commercial implementation of the plant. The demonstration testing and initial commercial implementation of the technology will be achieved by means of a USEC work authorization task with the Bechtel Jacobs Corporation. The initial processing activities will include the processing of approximately 4,250 drums of LLW. Subsequent processing of LLW and TSCA/LLW will be done under a separate contract or work authorization task. To meet the schedule for commercial implementation, it is important that the execution of the Phase 4 project option for construction of the demonstration system be executed as soon as possible. The schedule we have presented herein assumes initiation of the construction phase by the end of September 2001. Vortec proposes to complete construction of the demonstration test system for an estimated cost of $3,254,422. This price is based on the design submitted to DOE/NETL under the Phase 4 engineering design deliverable (9 august 2001). The cost is subject to the

  13. Understanding the Radioactive Ingrowth and Decay of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in the Environment: An Analysis of Produced Fluids from the Marcellus Shale

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Andrew W.; Eitrheim, Eric S.; Knight, Andrew W.; May, Dustin; Mehrhoff, Marinea A.; Shannon, Robert; Litman, Robert; Burnett, William C.; Forbes, Tori Z.

    2015-01-01

    Background The economic value of unconventional natural gas resources has stimulated rapid globalization of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing. However, natural radioactivity found in the large volumes of “produced fluids” generated by these technologies is emerging as an international environmental health concern. Current assessments of the radioactivity concentration in liquid wastes focus on a single element—radium. However, the use of radium alone to predict radioactivity concentrations can greatly underestimate total levels. Objective We investigated the contribution to radioactivity concentrations from naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), including uranium, thorium, actinium, radium, lead, bismuth, and polonium isotopes, to the total radioactivity of hydraulic fracturing wastes. Methods For this study we used established methods and developed new methods designed to quantitate NORM of public health concern that may be enriched in complex brines from hydraulic fracturing wastes. Specifically, we examined the use of high-purity germanium gamma spectrometry and isotope dilution alpha spectrometry to quantitate NORM. Results We observed that radium decay products were initially absent from produced fluids due to differences in solubility. However, in systems closed to the release of gaseous radon, our model predicted that decay products will begin to ingrow immediately and (under these closed-system conditions) can contribute to an increase in the total radioactivity for more than 100 years. Conclusions Accurate predictions of radioactivity concentrations are critical for estimating doses to potentially exposed individuals and the surrounding environment. These predictions must include an understanding of the geochemistry, decay properties, and ingrowth kinetics of radium and its decay product radionuclides. Citation Nelson AW, Eitrheim ES, Knight AW, May D, Mehrhoff MA, Shannon R, Litman R, Burnett WC, Forbes TZ, Schultz MK. 2015

  14. Natural radioactivity in and radon exhalation from Finnish building materials.

    PubMed

    Mustonen, R

    1984-06-01

    A total of 369 samples of Finnish building materials were tested for their 226Ra, 232Th and 40K concentrations. The rate of radon exhalation was measured from 19 samples of material and 34 dwellings were tested for their room air ventilation rate and radon concentration. The mean values of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K concentrations in ballast materials for concrete production were 34.2 Bq X kg-1, 39.0 Bq X kg-1 and 964 Bq X kg-1, with standard deviations of 18.7 Bq X kg-1, 19.5 Bq X kg-1 and 265 Bq X kg-1, respectively. The activity concentrations were higher in clay bricks than in concrete, the mean values being 79.8 Bq X kg-1, 61.6 Bq X kg-1 and 986 Bq X kg-1 for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively. The normalized radon exhalation rates from 15-cm-thick concrete, slag-aggregate concrete and by-product gypsum were 0.38 (Bq X m-2 X h-1)/(Bq X kg-1), 0.15 (Bq X m-2 X h-1)/(Bq X kg-1), and 0.06 (Bq X m-2 X h-1)/(Bq X kg-1), respectively. The ventilation rates in dwellings varied between 0.27 and 1.99 air changes per h, the mean value being 0.60 h-1, and the corresponding steady state radon concentrations in room air varied from 17.0 to 149 Bq X m-3 in blocks of flats made of concrete and from 11.2 to 61.9 Bq X m-3 in blocks of flats made of brick.

  15. Remote Detection of Concealed Radioactive Materials by Using Focused Powerful Terahertz Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nusinovich, Gregory S.

    2016-06-01

    This review paper summarizes the results of studies of a novel concept of the remote detection of concealed radioactive materials by using focused high-power terahertz (THz) radiation. The concept is based on the known fact that the ambient electron density in air is low (one to three free electrons per cubic centimeter). These electrons can serve as seed electrons from which an avalanche breakdown in strong electromagnetic fields starts. When a powerful THz radiation is focused in a small spot, the breakdown-prone volume can be much smaller than a cubic centimeter. So, the probability of having some free electrons in this volume and, hence, the probability of breakdown are low in the absence of additional sources of air ionization. However, in the vicinity of radioactive materials (10-20 m), the electron density can be higher, and, hence, there are always some seed free electrons from which the avalanche ionization will start. Thus, the breakdown rate in this case can be close to 100 %. Realization of this concept requires studies of various physical and technical issues. First, it is necessary to develop a high-power source of (sub-) THz radiation whose power, frequency, and pulse duration are sufficient for realizing this goal. Second, it is necessary to analyze numerous issues important for realizing this concept. Among these issues are (a) enhancement of the ionization level of air molecules in the presence of hidden radioactive materials, (b) estimating the minimum detectable mass of radioactive material, (c) formation of breakdown-prone volumes in focused THz wave beams, and (d) effect of atmospheric conditions on the propagation and focusing of THz wave beams and on the optimal location of the breakdown-prone volume between a container with hidden radioactive material and a THz antenna. The results of these studies are described below.

  16. Data collection handbook to support modeling the impacts of radioactive material in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, C.; Cheng, J.J.; Jones, L.G.; Wang, Y.Y.; Faillace, E.; Loureiro, C.; Chia, Y.P.

    1993-04-01

    A pathway analysis computer code called RESRAD has been developed for implementing US Department of Energy Residual Radioactive Material Guidelines. Hydrogeological, meteorological, geochemical, geometrical (size, area, depth), and material-related (soil, concrete) parameters are used in the RESRAD code. This handbook discusses parameter definitions, typical ranges, variations, measurement methodologies, and input screen locations. Although this handbook was developed primarily to support the application of RESRAD, the discussions and values are valid for other model applications.

  17. 10 CFR 840.4 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite. 840.4 Section 840.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.4 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material...

  18. 10 CFR 840.4 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite. 840.4 Section 840.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.4 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material...

  19. 10 CFR 840.4 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite. 840.4 Section 840.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.4 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material...

  20. 10 CFR 840.4 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite. 840.4 Section 840.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.4 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material...