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Sample records for radioactive pollution otsenka

  1. Experience with airborne detection of radioactive pollution (ENMOS, IRIS).

    PubMed

    Pavlik, Bohuslav; Engelsmann, Jan

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the advantages of airborne monitoring of radioactive pollution and shows example maps indicating manmade pollution from different sources. The sensitivity of airborne radioactive detection is discussed. Comparisons of airborne and different ground measurements are presented. New instrumentation for airborne or ground moving vehicles is briefly described. Airborne footprinting provides rapid, well-defined spatial images of natural and manmade radioactive contamination. Data acquisition integrated with GPS navigation provides consistent data and guarantees proper data location. Real-time airborne measurements are re-calculated, with the use of special algorithms, into absolute units for individual radioactive nuclei contamination of the ground together with dose calculation. Raw records and calculated data are provided after enhanced post-flight processing. Dose rates and detection of different radioactive elements are presented. (ENMOS is a product of Picodas Group Inc. and IRIS is the product of Pico Envirotec Inc.)

  2. Bioremediation of organic pollutants in a radioactive wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Oboirien, Bilainu; Molokwane, P.E.; Chirwa, Evans

    2007-07-01

    Bioremediation holds the promise as a cost effective treatment technology for a wide variety of hazardous pollutants. In this study, the biodegradation of organic compounds discharged together with radioactive wastes is investigated. Nuclear process wastewater was simulated by a mixture of phenol and strontium, which is a major radionuclide found in radioactive wastewater. Phenol was used in the study as a model compound due to its simplicity of molecular structure. Moreover, the biodegradation pathway of phenol is well known. Biodegradation studies were conducted using pure cultures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas putida. The rate of phenol degradation by both species was found to be higher in the test without strontium. This suggests some degree of inhibition in the degradation of phenol by strontium. There was no phenol degradation in the sterile controls. The results indicate the feasibility of the biodegradation of organic pollutants discharged in radioactive effluents by specialised microbial cultures. (authors)

  3. Birds as objects in bioindication of radioactive pollution.

    PubMed

    Krivolutski, D A; Lebedeva, N V; Shuktomova, I I

    1999-01-01

    This article is a review the recent results of research in the accumulation of natural and artificial radionuclides in birds from Russia (Adigea, Krasnodar, Rostov, Astrahan and Moscow regions, Novaya Zemlya isles), Ukraine, Vietnam, Poland, Ethiophia and Mongolia after global precipitation and local pollution, such as in the East-Urals radioactive region and radioactive zones after the Chernobyl accident. Resident birds reflect local level of radionuclide contamination. The 90Sr concentration in the food of the Pied Flycatcher had a tendency to increase in dependent of age. The Common Jay and the Mallard were the most contaminated with 137Cs in the Bryansk region. The total content of various radio-isotopes of plutonium in bird bones from Southwest Russia were hundred and thousand times more, than in Mongolia. Activity levels in specimens from Ethiopia bear record to Ethiopia can notbe a "pure" control site in radioecological research and radioactive background since it does not significantly differ from Turkmenia and Mongolia.

  4. Analysis of radioactive pollution in the Gulf of Palermo.

    PubMed

    Cardinale, A E; Lagalla, R; Rivas, G; Rizzo, S; Lo Casto, A; La Tona, G; Bencivinni, F; Caronia, A

    2002-03-01

    Sea water represents more than three quarters of the whole world. The radioactive fall out caused by nuclear experiments, radioactive drosses from nuclear power plants and other pollution sources, are able to contaminate the world ecosystems, and especially the sea water. The aim of this work is the evaluation of a possible radioactive pollution in the Gulf of Palermo. The Gulf of Palermo was divided into 5 homogeneous hydrological parts, in which fish and water were collected. The dosage of 131I e del 137Cs was mainly assessed because they have a long half-life and their presence in the water can be due to nuclear accidents but also to a wrong removal of the waste materials of nuclear medicine procedures; the other radioisotopes assessed (144Ce, 106Rh, 140La) are due only to nuclear fall-out. Gamma spectrometry technique was used for the evaluation of the radioisotopes' concentration after an adequate treatment of the samples. The concentration of the examined radionuclides was below the instrumental capability apart from the 137Cs, whose dose was increased, and can be due to nuclear accidents and explosions. The radionuclide levels detected do not determine a higher risk than normal for the population's health even regard the eatablity of ittical species.

  5. Radon Natural Radioactivity Measurements for Evaluation of Primary Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhenyi; Ancora, Maria Pia; Deng, Xiaodong; Zhang, Hua

    2013-01-01

    Radon is naturally released from the soil into the surface layer of the atmosphere, and by monitoring the natural radioactivity data of radon and its shot-live decay products we can get valuable information about the dilution properties of the lower boundary layer. This paper explores the dispersion characteristics of the lower layer of the atmosphere in Lanzhou, China, and the close relationship with the patterns of primary pollutants' concentrations. Measurements were conducted from July 2007 to May 2008 at one station and a fifty-day campaign was carried out at two stations in Lanzhou. The interpretation of radon radioactivity measurement showed that the measured atmospheric stability index (ASI) data at two stations in Lanzhou had statistically significant correlation, and well described the lower atmospheric layer mixing property in the area. The temporal trend of PM10 data was consistent with the temporal trend of ASI, with almost twice as high values in December than it in August. The results show that the ASI allows to highlight the dilution factor playing an important role in determining primary pollution events, and the mixing properties of the lower boundary layer is the key factor determining PM10 concentration in urban areas. PMID:23935426

  6. Radon natural radioactivity measurements for evaluation of primary pollutants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fenjuan; Zhang, Zhenyi; Ancora, Maria Pia; Deng, Xiaodong; Zhang, Hua

    2013-01-01

    Radon is naturally released from the soil into the surface layer of the atmosphere, and by monitoring the natural radioactivity data of radon and its shot-live decay products we can get valuable information about the dilution properties of the lower boundary layer. This paper explores the dispersion characteristics of the lower layer of the atmosphere in Lanzhou, China, and the close relationship with the patterns of primary pollutants' concentrations. Measurements were conducted from July 2007 to May 2008 at one station and a fifty-day campaign was carried out at two stations in Lanzhou. The interpretation of radon radioactivity measurement showed that the measured atmospheric stability index (ASI) data at two stations in Lanzhou had statistically significant correlation, and well described the lower atmospheric layer mixing property in the area. The temporal trend of PM10 data was consistent with the temporal trend of ASI, with almost twice as high values in December than it in August. The results show that the ASI allows to highlight the dilution factor playing an important role in determining primary pollution events, and the mixing properties of the lower boundary layer is the key factor determining PM10 concentration in urban areas.

  7. Estimates of health risk from exposure to radioactive pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, R.E.; Nelson, N.S.; Ellett, W.H.; Dunning, D.E. Jr.; Leggett, R.W.; Yalcintas, M.G.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1981-11-01

    A dosimetric and health effects analysis has been performed for the Office of Radiation Programs of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to assess potential hazards from radioactive pollutants. Contemporary dosimetric methods were used to obtain estimates of dose rates to reference organs from internal exposures due to either inhalation of contaminated air or ingestion of contaminated food, or from external exposures due to either immersion in contaminated air or proximity to contaminated ground surfaces. These dose rates were then used to estimate the number of premature cancer deaths arising from such exposures and the corresponding number of years of life lost in a cohort of 100,000 persons, all simultaneously liveborn and all going through life with the same risks of dying from competing causes. The risk of dying from a competing cause for a given year was taken to be the probability of dying from all causes as given in a recent actuarial life table for the total US population.

  8. [Coccidies genus Eimeria as a bioindicator of radioactive pollution of the biocenose].

    PubMed

    Pel'gunov, A N

    2006-01-01

    The data on coccidies of rodents were collected in Chernobil (1989-1991) and in the regions of radioactive pollution in the Bryansk region of Russia (1992-1999). The surface pollution of experimental plots was different and come from 0.11 to 11.8 MBq/m2. 2185 rodent were examined in all. Thirteen types of coccidies p. Eimeria were found out in 525 small animals. The analysis of changes in morphological characters and oocysts sporulation in dependence of the level of radioactive pollution of biocenose was carried out. It was found out that parametric signs (length, width and form index of oocysts) were independent from radioactive pollution. At the some time the radioactive pollution renders a significant influence on the nonparametric signs (different types of capsule deformation and internal texture of oocysts) and the process of sporulation. With the increase of radioactive pollution the part of nonsporulated oocycts increased and the quantity of oocysts, corresponding to the description of given type (normal), decreased. This dependence is well described by the equation of logarithmic regression, that allows to use this indexes in the bioindication of the radioactive pollution of the biocenose.

  9. [State of the visual function in locomotive team personnel working in zones of radioactive pollution].

    PubMed

    Sosnova, T L; Kudriashova, Zh M; Baranova, E L; Bukhareva, E A

    1995-01-01

    Professionally significant visual functions were examined in members of locomotive teams living and working in zones of radioactive pollution. Exposure to low-dose radiation was found to have an adverse effect on the status of visual analyzer, the degree of impairment being related to the level of radioactivity and age of the patient.

  10. Radioactive pollution: Ocean environments. (Latest citations from Oceanic abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning radioactive pollution of the marine environment. Distrubutions of radionuclides that indicate artificial radioactive contamination are discussed including iodine-131, various uranium isotopes, Cesium-137, Cobalt-60, Strontium-90, Ruthenium-160, and plutonium isotopes. Ecosystems considered include coral reefs and atolls, planktonic zones in the open ocean, salt marshes, estuaries, coastal waters, and the Mediterranean Sea. Sources of radioactive contamination examined include atomic bomb blasts, fossil fuel combustion, radioactive waste disposal, and nuclear accidents. Experimental simulation of radionuclide transport in marine biota is included. (Contains a minimum of 161 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  11. Radioactive pollution: Oean environments. (Latest citations from Oceanic abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning radioactive pollution of the marine environment. Distrubutions of radionuclides that indicate artificial radioactive contamination are discussed including iodine-131, various uranium isotopes, Cesium-137, Cobalt-60, Strontium-90, Ruthenium-160, and plutonium isotopes. Ecosystems considered include coral reefs and atolls, planktonic zones in the open ocean, salt marshes, estuaries, coastal waters, and the Mediterranean Sea. Sources of radioactive contamination examined include atomic bomb blasts, fossil fuel combustion, radioactive waste disposal, and nuclear accidents. Experimental simulation of radionuclide transport in marine biota is included. (Contains a minimum of 168 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. Radioactive pollution: Ocean environments. (Latest citations from Oceanic abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning radioactive pollution of the marine environment. Distrubutions of radionuclides that indicate artificial radioactive contamination are discussed including iodine-131, various uranium isotopes, Cesium-137, Cobalt-60, Strontium-90, Ruthenium-160, and plutonium isotopes. Ecosystems considered include coral reefs and atolls, planktonic zones in the open ocean, salt marshes, estuaries, coastal waters, and the Mediterranean Sea. Sources of radioactive contamination examined include atomic bomb blasts, fossil fuel combustion, radioactive waste disposal, and nuclear accidents. Experimental simulation of radionuclide transport in marine biota is included. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  13. Radioactive pollution: Ocean environments. (Latest citations from Oceanic abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning radioactive pollution of the marine environment. Distrubutions of radionuclides that indicate artificial radioactive contamination are discussed including iodine-131, various uranium isotopes, Cesium-137, Cobalt-60, Strontium-90, Ruthenium-160, and plutonium isotopes. Ecosystems considered include coral reefs and atolls, planktonic zones in the open ocean, salt marshes, estuaries, coastal waters, and the Mediterranean Sea. Sources of radioactive contamination examined include atomic bomb blasts, fossil fuel combustion, radioactive waste disposal, and nuclear accidents. Experimental simulation of radionuclide transport in marine biota is included. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  14. Intrusion of radioactive industrially polluted water from North Sea into central Baltic Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Vakulovskiy, S.M.; Nikitin, A.I.

    1985-02-01

    The problem of penetration of radioactive industrially polluted water into the central Baltic Sea was studied. The content of Cs-134 as determined in water near the bottom of deep water trenches along the path traveled by North Sea water entering the Baltic. Samples were taken at 5 locations, with Cs-134 concentrated from samples of several thousands of liters. It was found that radioactive pollution caused by the entry of water from the North Sea extends through the system of deep water depressions into the Baltic as far as the Gotland trench. The greatest degree of contamination is found in the Arkona depression adjacent to the straits. The concentration of Cs-134 in the Gdansk trench is one-half as great and in the Gotland trench one-third as great as in the Arkona depression. Radioactive contamination in the Baltic is attributed to discharge of radioactive wastes by plants at Windscale.

  15. Health and environmental impacts of a fertilizer plant--Part I: assessment of radioactive pollution.

    PubMed

    Righi, Serena; Lucialli, Patrizia; Bruzzi, Luigi

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the first part of this investigation is to assess the radioactive pollution caused by a production plant of complex fertilizers (that is to say containing nitrogen, phosphorus and, in some cases, potassium). Firstly, the authors determine the concentrations of natural radioactivity present in raw materials, end products and wastes of the industrial plant. Then, they carry out an assessment of radioactive releases into the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere as well as of their significance from the environmental point of view. The second part of the investigation will be aimed at assessing the annual effective doses to plant workers and to members of the population surrounding the industrial site.

  16. Radioactive pollution of the waters of the baltic sea during 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarev, L.N.; Kuznetsov, Yu.V.; Gedeonov, L.I.; Gavrilov, V.M.; Gritchenko, Z.G.; Ivanova, L.M.; Orlova, T.E.; Tishkova, N.A.

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented from an investigation of radioactive pollution of the waters of the Baltic Sea during 1986. Inhomogeneities in the pollution of this area of water, due to varying density of atmospheric radioactive fallout, are detected. It is found that among the radionuclides entering the surface of the Baltic Sea in 1986 as a result of atmospheric transport, the main one in terms of radiation dose is cesium-137. Comparisons are made of the level of cesium-137 content in the waters of the Baltic Sea in 1986 and in preceding years. It is noted that even in the most polluted regions of the sea the cesium-137 content was 500 times less than the maximum allowable concentration (MAC) in the USSR for drinking water. The first results of the determination of plutonium-239 and 240 in the Baltic Sea are presented.

  17. Research on the additives to reduce radioactive pollutants in the building materials containing fly ash.

    PubMed

    He, Deng-liang; Yin, Guang-fu; Dong, Fa-qin; Liu, Lai-bao; Luo, Ya-jun

    2010-05-15

    Several kinds of functional additives such as barite, zeolite, ferric oxide, gypsum, and high alumina cement were introduced to prepare a low-radiation cement-based composite to reduce radioactive pollutants contained in fly ash. The effect of content and granularity of the functional additives on the release of radioactive pollutants were investigated. Composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Scan electron microscopy. The results indicate that the radioactive pollutants contained in the fly ash can be reduced by adding a proper amount of zeolite, ferric oxide, gypsum, and high alumina cement. The release of radon from fly ash decreases with a decrease in the granularity of additives. Compared with traditional cement-based composite containing fly ash, the release of radon can be reduced 64.8% in these composites, and the release of gamma-ray is decreased 45%. Based on the microstructure and phase analysis, we think that by added functional additives, there are favorable to form self-absorption of radioactivity in the interior composites. This cement-based composite will conducive to fly ash are large-scale applied in the field of building materials.

  18. Using phytoplankton`s fluorescence for remote detection of radioactive pollutions in the ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Tsipenyuk, D.Yu.

    1996-08-01

    One of important ecological problems of our world is unfortunately radioactive pollutions in the ocean from sources of different types. For successful solving this problem it is important to locate precisely pollution areas using remote sensing methods. In the experiments performed we investigated the changes in fluorescence spectra of phytoplankton under an action of radiation. For this purpose we compared fluorescence spectra of samples of phytoplankton`s that were grown and maintained under the same conditions (light temperature, etc.) and the only difference between these samples was different radioactive doze obtained. Gamma irradiations of the samples was performed by bremsstrahlung of 30 Mev electrons or gamma-rays from (Ra-Be)- neutron source. To obtain reliable quantitative results the samples were simultaneously irradiated at different distances from the bremsstrahlung target or radioactive source. In such a way we could avoid possible errors due to different state of phytoplankton and temporal changes of gamma-radiation. The fluorescence spectra of phytoplankton were exited with a nitrogen laser emitting at 337 nm. An optical system focused fluorescence onto the entry slit of the polychromator of optical multichannel spectrum analyzer. A diffraction grating with a relatively weak dispersion (150 lines/mm) was used to record simultaneously spectra in a rather wide range of wavelengths (370-720 nm). We found in our experiments that very characteristic changes were relevant in fluorescence spectra of phytoplankton under radioactive influence in registered range of wavelength. Thus it is possible to use active and passive remote sensing methods of registration of phytoplankton`s fluorescence for express remote location areas of radioactive pollutions in the ocean from satellites or aircrafts.

  19. [Effect of the increasing levels of soil radioactive pollution on the biochemical composition of plants].

    PubMed

    Gromova, V S; Pchelenok, O A; Kozlova, N M

    2012-01-01

    The study was undertaken to study a relationship between the changes of some parameters of the biochemical and mineral composition of different plants, such as rape, pods, and lentil, and the levels of soil radiation pollution, by using the conventional methods. Radioactive pollution of dark-grey forest soils was found to cause a change in the biochemical composition of plant seeds even at the level of cesium 137 (137Cs) within the present temporary permissible levels (TPL) (600 Bq/kg): there were elevated concentrations of salts of potassium, phosphorus, ammonia nitrogen, catechols, sucrose, and some amino acids. With the radioactive cesium level exceeding the TPL, biochemical changes in the seeds depended on the species of the plants: in the rape seeds, the additional formation of sucrose and amino acids continued, but less intensively than with its lower radiation; the pod beans were significantly positively correlated with the increasing amounts of catechols.

  20. Analytical microscopy and environment. Current developments using bioindicators of pollution by stable and radioactive elements.

    PubMed

    Chassard-Bouchaud, C

    1996-05-01

    Ecotoxicological investigations were performed on three sets of bioindicators. The first one concerns marine pollution of invertebrates (molluscs: the mussel Mytilus edulis and related species, crustaceans: the crab Liocarcinus puber and related species), contaminated by stable or radioactive elements originating from wastes discharged into sea water. The second one concerns freshwater pollution of vertebrates (fish: the brown trout Salmo trutta fario), contaminated by aluminium dissolved in rivers, as a consequence of an atmospheric pollution by acid rain. The third one concerns the atmospheric pollution of trees by plutonium (Casuarina equisetifolia). Mechanisms involved in the uptake, storage and elimination processes of these toxicants were studied, with a special emphasis on cellular and subcellular aspects of concentration sites. Two microanalytical methods were employed: Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), using the ion microscope and the ion microprobe, and X-ray spectrometry using the electron microprobe (EMP). In marine organisms, the target organs and tissues of bioaccumulation of stable and radioactive elements (238U, 239Pu and 241Am), were shown to be mainly digestive gland, gill and exoskeleton. The target organelles were shown to be spherocrystals and lysosomes. Amoebocytes, enzymatically equipped with lysosomal phosphatase, were involved in the phagocytic clearance of metal pollutants. In trout, insolubilisation of Al phosphate within lysosomes and a high metal concentration within bones were observed. The tree Casuarina equisetifolia exhibits a particular ability to concentrate atmospheric plutonium within its leaves.

  1. [The genetic sequelae for plant populations of radioactive environmental pollution in connection with the Chernobyl accident].

    PubMed

    Shevchenko, V A; Abramov, V I; Kal'chenko, V A; Fedotov, I S; Rubanovich, A V

    1996-01-01

    Populations of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh., and Pinus sylvestris L., growing within 30 km of Chernobyl and Bryansk region have been analyzed for the frequency of embryonic lethal mutations on Arabidopsis and frequency of chlorophyll mutations and chromosome aberrations by pine. On pine also have been analyzed rate of mutations at enzyme loci in endosperms of seeds. Dose dependence of the value genetic damage on level of radioactive pollution was observed.

  2. Radioactive pollution: ocean environments. January 1974-May 1989 (Citations from Oceanic Abstracts). Report for January 1974-May 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning radioactive pollution of the marine environment. Distributions of radionuclides indicative of artificial radioactive contamination are discussed including iodine-131, various uranium isotopes, cesium-137, cobalt-60, strontium-90, ruthenium-160, and plutonium isotopes. Ecosystems considered include coral reefs and atolls, planktonic zones in the open ocean, salt marshes, estuaries, coastal waters, and the Mediterranean Sea. Sources of radioactive contamination examined include atomic bomb blasts, fossil-fuel combustion, radioactive waste disposal, and nuclear accidents. Experimental simulation of radionuclide transport in marine biota is included. (Contains 108 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  3. Radioactive pollution and accumulation of radionuclides in wild plants in Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Mimura, Tetsuro; Mimura, Mari; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Komiyama, Chiyo; Sekimoto, Hitoshi; Miyamoto, Masaaki; Kitamura, Akira

    2014-01-01

    The radionuclide status of wild plants and soil in the Fukushima area was investigated during the period May 2011 to October 2012, using an imaging plate (autoradiograms) or a high purity germanium detector. Analyses of autoradiograms showed that wild plants grown in March 2011 were strongly polluted with fallout released from the Fukushima 1 Nuclear Power Plant. The radioactivity was mostly due to fallout adsorbed on the surface of the plants. On the other hand, a number of herbaceous plants were regularly collected in the Fukushima area and their radionuclide concentrations were measured with a high-purity germanium detector. Plants grown in March 2011 showed very high levels of ¹³⁴Cs and ¹³⁷Cs, but these radioactivity levels decreased rapidly after July 2011 and eventually became lower than that of endogenous ⁴⁰K. During this period, the radioactivity of the soil remained high. We therefore suppose that a significant proportion of the radioactivity detected from plants harvested after July 2011 was most likely derived from soil dust attached on the plant surface. Autoradiograms of rice plants were virtually identical between plants cultivated in Fukushima and Osaka area, reflecting the background radiation due to ⁴⁰K.

  4. Application of inverse technique to study radioactive pollution and mixing processes in the Arctic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, L. M.; Margolina, T. M.; Danilov, A. I.

    2004-07-01

    Rare noisy observations of the dissolved and suspended Cs 137, and the dissolved Sr 90 collected for years 1985 and 1994, respectively, are utilized through an inverse method to estimate the radionuclide pollution and the mixing time scale, namely the age, of the White and Kara Seas. We demonstrate how uncertainties, such as measurement noise, inhomogeneous station disposition and others depress the identification utility of the radioactive observations in the Arctic Seas to validate regional radioecological models. The special approach estimates the current and mean radionuclide pollution from the rare observations. We found the mean integral amount of cesium (strontium) pollution of the White Sea (in 1985) and Kara Sea (in 1992) did not exceed ˜70 (41) TBq and ˜16 (9) TBq, respectively, and radioactive background of these seas is low in comparing to the Black and Barents Seas. Estimations of the age confirm the fact of the rapid ventilation of the Kara Sea, but not the White Sea. The age ranges from 1-2 years for the Kara Sea till 5-6 years for the White Sea. That factually says about the possibility of the long-term accumulation of radionuclides in the White Sea.

  5. Radioactive Aerosols as an Index of Air Pollution in the City of Thessaloniki, Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Ioannidou, A.; Papastefanou, C.

    2010-01-21

    This study summarizes results of an investigation done in order to find out how the radioactive aerosols of {sup 7}Be could serve as indicators of air pollution conditions. Beryllium-7 is a cosmic-ray produced radionuclide with an important fraction of its production to take place in the upper troposphere. Once it is formed is rapidly associated with submicron aerosol particles and participates in the formation and growth of the accumulation mode aerosols, which is a major reservoir of pollutants in the atmosphere. In order to define any influence of AMAD of {sup 7}Be aerosols by air pollution conditions, the aerodynamic size distribution of {sup 7}Be aerosols was determined by collecting samples at different locations in the suburban area of the city of Thessaloniki, including rural areas, industrial areas, high elevations, marine environment and the airport area. The aerodynamic size distribution of {sup 7}Be aerosols in different locations was obtained by using Andersen 1-ACFM cascade impactors and the Activity Median Aerodynamic Diameter (AMAD) was determined. Some dependency of the AMADs on height has been observed, while in near marine environment the {sup 7}Be activity size distribution was dominant in the upper size range of aerosol particles. Low AMADs as low as 0.62 to 0.74 {mu}m of {sup 7}Be aerosols have been observed at locations characterized with relative low pollution, while it is concluded that in the activity size distribution of ambient aerosols, {sup 7}Be changes to larger particle sizes in the presence of pollutants, since low AMADs of {sup 7}Be aerosols have been observed at low polluted locations. Preliminary data of simultaneous measurements of {sup 214}Pb and {sup 212}Pb with gaseous air pollutants CO, NO, NO{sub X}, SO{sub 2} and total suspended particulate matter (TSP) show that radon decay products near the ground could be a useful index of air pollution potential conditions and transport processes in the boundary layer.

  6. Radioactive Pollution Estimate for Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant by a Particle Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Keisuke; Ogawa, Susumu

    2016-06-01

    On Mar 12, 2011, very wide radioactive pollution occurred by a hydrogen explosion in Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant. A large amount of radioisotopes started with four times of explosions. With traditional atmospheric diffusion models could not reconstruct radioactive pollution in Fukushima. Then, with a particle model, this accident was reconstructed from meteorological archive and Radar- AMeDAS. Calculations with the particle model were carried out for Mar 12, 15, 18 and 20 when east southeast winds blew for five hours continuously. Meteorological archive is expressed by wind speeds and directions in five-km grid every hour with eight classes of height till 3000 m. Radar- AMeDAS is precipitation data in one-km grid every thirty minutes. Particles are ten scales of 0.01 to 0.1 mm in diameter with specific weight of 2.65 and vertical speeds given by Stokes equation. But, on Mar 15, it rained from 16:30 and then the particles fell down at a moment as wet deposit in calculation. On the other hand, the altitudes on the ground were given by DEM with 1 km-grid. The spatial dose by emitted radioisotopes was referred to the observation data at monitoring posts of Tokyo Electric Power Company. The falling points of radioisotopes were expressed on the map using the particle model. As a result, the same distributions were obtained as the surface spatial dose of radioisotopes in aero-monitoring by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. Especially, on Mar 15, the simulated pollution fitted to the observation, which extended to the northwest of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant and caused mainly sever pollution. By the particle model, the falling positions on the ground were estimated each particle size. Particles with more than 0.05 mm of size were affected by the topography and blocked by the mountains with the altitudes of more than 700 m. The particle model does not include the atmospheric stability, the source height, and deposit speeds. The

  7. Characteristics of the propagation of radioactive pollutants near a radiation-hazardous object

    SciTech Connect

    Romanov, V.I.

    1995-09-01

    It is well known that the radiation effect of nuclear enterprises on the environment is due mainly to gas-aerosol emissions which emanate from the object in the form of a jet flow. A characteristic feature of the propagation of radioactive impurities near such structures is that they depend on the local thermal and wind conditions at the location of the source of contamination. Transferring directly the results of laboratory investigations of the propagation and diffusion of fluxes to objects in the environment and neglecting the peculiarities of the wind and thermal interference with the underlying surface and other buildings can lead to incorrect conclusions. In this paper, we examine two examples: (1) emissions through the plant stack or other ventilation system openings, and (2) leakage of radioactive pollutants into the reactor building and from there to the atmosphere. A mathematical description on each example is provided, and data on the Archimedes number for a convective jet is given as a function of the deflecting wind velocity.

  8. Efficient Removal of Anionic Radioactive Pollutant from Water Using Ordered Urea-Functionalized Mesoporous Polymeric Nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jian; Chai, Wei; Wang, Kaixuan; Zhang, Fang

    2017-07-12

    A urea-functionalized ordered mesoporous polymeric nanoparticle for removing the perrhenate anion ReO4(-) as the surrogate of the particularly intractable anion radioactive pollutant TcO4(-) was demonstrated in the present study. This nanomaterial (denoted as urea-MPN) was produced for the first time by a surfactant-directed urea-phenol-formaldehyde resol oligomers self-assembly protocol under hydrothermal condition. The obtained urea-MPN possessed the uniform nanosized spherical morphology with a 3D interconnected ordered cubic mesoporous structure. Also, the urea functional groups were succefully embedded in the polymer framework without the alteration of the molecular configuration. Meanwhile, it exhibited excellent β radiation resistance up to 200 kGy dose. We employed the perrhenate anion ReO4(-) to test its potential for the removal of anionic radioactive pollutant TcO4(-) from water. Interestingly, the optimized urea-MPN nanocomposite achieved the high removal efficiency at a low concentration of 0.25 mM within a short contact time of 30 min. The control experimental results revealed that the short nanoscale pore channels and the hydrophobic mesopore surface facilitated the hydrogen-bonding interaction between the charge-diffuse ReO4(-) tetrahedral oxoanion and the urea moieties in the framework of urea-MPN, accounting for the rapid and effective removal performance in pure water. Importantly, it can selectively capture ReO4(-) in the presence of different competitive anions including NO3(-), CO3(2-), SO4(2-), and PO4(3-). This attractive capability of this unique nanosized mesoporous polymeric sorbent will pave the way for the diverse applications in the decontamination of nuclear wastes in a more economical and sustainable manner.

  9. The effects of radioactive pollution on the dynamics of infectious diseases in wildlife.

    PubMed

    Morley, N J

    2012-04-01

    The interactions between infectious diseases and chemical pollution are well known and recognised as important factors in regulating the way wild animals respond to contaminant exposure. However, the impact of ionising radiation and radionuclides has often been overlooked when assessing host-pathogen interactions in polluted habitats, despite often occurring together with chemical contamination. Nevertheless, a comprehensive body of literature exists from laboratory and field studies on host-pathogen relationships under radiation exposure, and with a renewed interest in radioecology developing; an evaluation of infectious disease dynamics under these conditions would be timely. The present study assesses the impact of external ionising radiation and radionuclides on animal hosts and pathogens (viruses, bacteria, protozoans, helminths, arthropods) in laboratory studies and collates the data from field studies, including the large number of investigations undertaken after the Chernobyl accident. It is apparent that radiation exposure has substantial effects on host-pathogen relationships. Although damage to the host immune system is a major factor other variables, such as damage to host tissue barriers and inhibition of pathogen viability are also important in affecting the prevalence and intensity of parasitic diseases. Field studies indicate that the occurrence of host-pathogen associations in radioactively contaminated sites is complex with a variety of biotic and abiotic factors influencing both pathogen and host(s), resulting in changes to the dynamics of infectious diseases.

  10. Radioactive pollution in Athens, Greece due to the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Kritidis, P; Florou, H; Eleftheriadis, K; Evangeliou, N; Gini, M; Sotiropoulou, M; Diapouli, E; Vratolis, S

    2012-12-01

    As a result of the nuclear accident in Fukushima Dai-ichi power plant, which started on March 11, 2011, radioactive pollutants were transferred by air masses to various regions of the Northern hemisphere, including Europe. Very low concentrations of (131)I, (137)Cs and (134)Cs in airborne particulate matter were measured in Athens, Greece during the period of March 24 to April 28, 2011. The maximum air concentration of (131)I was measured on April 6, 2011 and equaled 490 ± 35 μBq m(-3). The maximum values of the two cesium isotopes were measured on the same day and equaled 180 ± 40 μBq m(-3) for (137)Cs and 160 ± 30 μBq m(-3) for (134)Cs. The average activity ratio of (131)I/(137)Cs in air was 3.0 ± 0.5, while the corresponding ratio of (137)Cs/(134)Cs equaled 1.1 ± 0.3. No artificial radionuclides could be detected in air after April 28, 2011. Traces of (131)I as a result of radioactive deposition were measured in grass, soil, sheep milk and meat. The total deposition of (131)I (dry + wet) was 34 ± 4 Bq m(-2), and of (137)Cs was less than 10 Bq m(-2). The maximum concentration of (131)I in grass was 2.1 ± 0.4 Bg kg(-1), while (134)Cs was not detected. The maximum concentrations of (131)I and (137)Cs in sheep milk were 1.7 ± 0.16 Bq kg(-1) and 0.6 ± 0.12 Bq kg(-1) respectively. Concentrations of (131)I up to 1.3 ± 0.2 Bq kg(-1) were measured in sheep meat. Traces of (131)I were found in a number of soil samples. The radiological impact of the Fukushima nuclear accident in Athens region was practically negligible, especially as compared to that of the Chernobyl accident and also to that of natural radioactivity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Combined methodology for estimating dose rates and health effects from exposure to radioactive pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Dunning, D.E. Jr.; Leggett, R.W.; Yalcintas, M.G.

    1980-12-01

    The work described in the report is basically a synthesis of two previously existing computer codes: INREM II, developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); and CAIRD, developed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The INREM II code uses contemporary dosimetric methods to estimate doses to specified reference organs due to inhalation or ingestion of a radionuclide. The CAIRD code employs actuarial life tables to account for competing risks in estimating numbers of health effects resulting from exposure of a cohort to some incremental risk. The combined computer code, referred to as RADRISK, estimates numbers of health effects in a hypothetical cohort of 100,000 persons due to continuous lifetime inhalation or ingestion of a radionuclide. Also briefly discussed in this report is a method of estimating numbers of health effects in a hypothetical cohort due to continuous lifetime exposure to external radiation. This method employs the CAIRD methodology together with dose conversion factors generated by the computer code DOSFACTER, developed at ORNL; these dose conversion factors are used to estimate dose rates to persons due to radionuclides in the air or on the ground surface. The combination of the life table and dosimetric guidelines for the release of radioactive pollutants to the atmosphere, as required by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977.

  12. Risk assessment for human health and terrestrial ecosystem under chronic radioactive pollution near regional radioactive waste storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrentyeva, G. V.; Katkova, M. N.; Shoshina, R. R.; Synzynys, B. I.

    2017-01-01

    An impact of the radioactive waste storage facility at the regional population was assessed under supervision of IAEA. It was made in accordance with the methodology for assessment of doses and risks to human storage using different scenarios of radionuclides releases into the environment. The following scenarios were considered: leakage of fluid, resuspension of dust, fire, flooding. Thy evaluation of radiation doses received and the risks to the human showed that the risk has been acceptable for all scenarios. An approach for an ecological risk assessment for terrestrial ecosystem is presented as five modules: selection of the ecosystem-receptor of radiation effects; determination of reference species of living organisms and their survival indices; the critical load as an absorbed dose rate is calculated from the dependence between the absorbed Sr-90 radiation dose rate and the coefficient of radioactive strontium accumulation in mollusc shells; the critical dose; risk is assessed from a part of the ecosystem territory with increased mollusc loading; uncertainties appeared at each stage of risk assessment are characterized. The risk of exposure to the repository on the ecosystem should be characterized as unacceptable.

  13. Numerical simulation of propagation of radioactive pollution in the ocean from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prants, S. V.; Uleysky, M. Yu.; Budyansky, M. V.

    2011-08-01

    Numerical simulation of the large-scale horizontal mixing and transport of radioactive water from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (NPP) (141°02' E, 37°27' N, east coast of Honshu Island, Japan) and the use of the satellite altimetric velocity field in the northwestern Pacific allowed us to obtain the following results. The patch of radioactive water dumped from the NPP propagated eastwards as jets of an extension of the Kuroshio Current. The discovered phenomenon of trapping the radionuclides by stable and unstable manifolds of local synoptic eddies may be harmful for living organisms. If one assumes that pollution of considerable areas of coastal waters near Honshu Island took place due to fallout of radioactive precipitation with rain, then a part of the radioactive water may be subjected to north-bound advection and is mixing under the impact of stable and unstable manifolds of the triple-eddy system to the north of the NPP. No radionuclide flux from the Tsugaru strait into the Sea of Japan has been found in the surface layer. Nevertheless, there is a small likelihood of their penetration there with a deep counter current and/or due to wind drift.

  14. [Level and pattern of morbidity of children residing in the Ukrainian S.S.R. exposed to radioactive pollution as the result of the Chernobyl AES accident].

    PubMed

    Bugaev, V N; Treskunova, T V; Bomko, E I

    1991-01-01

    It has been shown that there is a significant increase in total morbidity in children residing in the areas exposed to radioactive pollution due to the accident at the Chernobyl Atomic Power Station. This is due largely to higher morbidity of respiratory disease. There is also an increased in the incidence of digestive diseases, iron-deficiency anemias, mental disorders. The recorded growth of childhood morbidity in the areas examined is much higher than that in the children living in other areas unexposed to radioactive pollution.

  15. Remote sensing applications for diagnostics of the radioactive pollution of the ground surface and in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulinets, Sergey; Ouzounov, Dimitar; Boyarchuk, Kirill; Laverov, Nikolay

    2013-04-01

    Radioactive pollution due to its air ionization activity can drastically change the atmospheric boundary layer conductivity (what was experimentally proved during period of nuclear tests in atmosphere) and through the global electric circuit produce anomalous variations in atmosphere. As additional effect the ions created due to air ionization serve as centers of water vapor condensation and nucleation of aerosol-size particles. This process is accompanied by latent heat release. Both anomalies (ionospheric and thermal) can be controlled by remote sensing technique both from satellites (IR sensors and ionospheric probes) and from ground (GPS receivers, ground based ionosondes, VLF propagation sounding, ground measurements of the air temperature and humidity). We monitored the majority of transient events (Three-Mile Island and Chernobyl nuclear power plant emergencies) and stationary sources such as Gabon natural nuclear reactor, sites of underground nuclear tests, etc. and were able to detect thermal anomalies and for majority of cases - the ionospheric anomalies as well. Immediately after the March 11, 2011 earthquake and tsunami in Japan we started to continuously survey the long-wavelength energy flux (10-13 microns) measurable at top of the atmosphere from POES/NOAA/AVHRR polar orbit satellites. Our preliminary results show the presence of hot spots on the top of the atmosphere over the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) and due to their persistence over the same region they are most likely not of meteorological origin. On March 14 and 21 we detected a significant increase in radiation at the top of the atmosphere which also coincides with a reported radioactivity gas leaks from the FDNPP. After March 21 the intensity of energy flux in atmosphere started to decline, which has been confirmed by ground radiometer network. We were able to detect with ground based ionosonde the ionospheric anomaly associated with the largest radioactive release on March

  16. Concentration of Cs in plants and water resulting from radioactive pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizaki, A.; Ishii, K.; Matsuyama, S.; Fujishiro, F.; Arai, H.; Osada, N.; Sugai, H.; Koshio, S.; Yamauchi, S.; Kusano, K.; Nozawa, Y.; Karahashi, M.; Oshikawa, S.; Kikuchi, K.; Watanabe, K.; Itoh, S.; Kasahara, K.; Toyama, S.; Suzuki, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of plants cultivated in soils contaminated by radioactive cesium can lead to internal exposure and health problems in humans. It is therefore very important to clarify the uptake mechanism of radioactive cesium from contaminated soils. In this study, the variation of cesium concentrations in plants was examined using mediums that contained no potassium and different cesium concentrations of 50, 100, 250 and 500 ppm. Raphanus sativus was selected as a typical edible vegetable and hydroponically cultivated. Cesium concentrations in leaves were analyzed with a submilli-PIXE camera. The concentration of cesium in plants was observed to increase as concentrations in the medium increased. As the concentration of cesium in the medium increased, the transfer coefficient decreased. However, there was little difference between the 250 and 500 ppm treatments. In future work, PIXE analysis will be performed on different mediums and the relationship with other materials will be investigated.

  17. Management of ocean disposal of radioactive wastes: a basis for the control of other pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Templeton, W.L.

    1981-09-01

    To manage, on a scientific basis, the quantities of all kinds of waste disposal to coastal waters and open oceans it is necessary to assess the environmental or assimilative capacity for these materials which will not result in an unacceptable biological impact upon the components of the ecosystem nor on man who uses its resources. One approach available is that which has been demonstrated for the management of the disposal of radioactive wastes to the oceans. Methodologies have been developed, both generic and site-specific, which allow the relationship between discharge or release rate and the radiation dose to be established. Guidelines and recommendations which govern acceptable radiation exposed to man have been developed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). These methodologies developed for the control of radioactive wastes can be applied directly for public health protection for non-radioactive wastes such as metals and organochlorine pesticides. ICRP recommendations on justification and optimization can be integrated into an overall management philosophy in order to quantify alternative waste disposal options.

  18. The GIS-based SafeAirView software for the concentration assessment of radioactive pollutants after an accidental release.

    PubMed

    Canepa, Elisa; D'Alberti, Francesco; D'Amati, Francesco; Triacchini, Giuseppe

    2007-02-01

    The European Commission Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Ispra (Italy) has long been running nuclear installations for research purposes. The Nuclear Decommissioning and Facilities Management Unit (NDFM) is responsible for the surveillance of radioactivity levels in nuclear emergency conditions. The NDFM Unit has commissioned the implementation of a specifically developed decision support system, which can be used for quick emergency evaluation in the case of hypothetical accident and for emergency exercises. The requisites were to be a user-friendly software, able to quickly calculate and display values of air and ground radioactive contamination in the complex area around JRC, following an accidental release of radioactive substances from a JRC nuclear research installation. The developed software, named "SafeAirView", is an advanced implementation of GIS technology applied to an existing MS-DOS mode dispersion model, SAFE_AIR (Simulation of Air pollution From Emissions_Above Inhomogeneous Regions). SAFE_AIR is a numerical model which simulates transport, diffusion, and deposition of airborne pollutants emitted in the low atmosphere above complex orography at both local and regional scale, under non-stationary and inhomogeneous emission and meteorological conditions. SafeAirView makes use of user-friendly MS-Windows type interface which drives the dispersion model by a sequential and continuous input-output process, allowing a real time simulation. The GIS environment allows a direct interaction with the territory elements in which the simulation takes place, using data for the JRC Ispra region represented in geo-referenced cartography. Furthermore it offers the possibility to relate concentrations with population distribution and other geo-referenced maps, in a geographic view. Output concentration and deposition patterns can be plotted and/or exported. In spite of the selected specific databases, the SafeAirView software architecture is a general structure

  19. Environmental pollutant isotope measurements and natural radioactivity assessment for north Tushki area, south western desert, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Sroor, A; Afifi, S Y; Abdel-Haleem, A S; Salman, A B; Abdel-Sammad, M

    2002-09-01

    Natural radioactive materials under certain conditions can reach hazardous radiological levels. The natural radionuclide (238U, 232Th, 40K) contents of rock samples at various locations in the North Tushki area were investigated using gamma-spectrometric analysis. Estimates of the measured radionuclide content have been made for the absorbed dose rate of gamma radiation. The equivalent radium (Req) and the external hazard index (Hex) which resulted from the natural radionuclides in soil are also calculated and tabulated. The studied samples have been collected from various rock exposures in the North Tushki area. The distribution of major oxides, U and Th were studied. It is found that the enrichment and depletion of the major oxides are mainly due to the effect of hydrothermal alteration, which caused mobility of some major oxides, which increases some elements and decreases others. It is important to mention that the study area is far from the development region of the Tushki project and is only a local hazard. Therefore, additional regional studies of the Tushki Project area should be under taken to explore any unexpected environmental hazard due to the high concentration of the radioactive elements, which have been observed at its north boundary.

  20. Decrease in fluctuating asymmetry among house mice in territories polluted with chemical and radioactive mutagens

    SciTech Connect

    Gileva, E.A.; Kosareva, N.L.

    1995-01-01

    The authors evaluated fluctuating asymmetry of the width of partial bones, and the lengths of frontal bones, nasal bones, and the incesive foramen in populations of house mouse living at five populated points in the Central Urals with different degrees of technogenic pollution and displaying increased frequency of cells with chromosome disorders. As the stressing action intensified, fluctuating asymmetry of the lengths of frontal and nasal bones decreased, remaining unchanged in the case of the other two traits.

  1. Removal of Radioactive Cations Anions from Polluted Water Using Ligand-Modified Colloid-Enhanced Ultrafiltration (60041-OK)

    SciTech Connect

    Scamehorn,John F.; Taylor, Richard W.; Palmer, Cynthia E.

    2000-06-01

    The objectives of this project are to determine the feasibility of and develop optimum conditions for the use of colloid-enhanced ultrafiltration (CEUF) methods to remove and recover radionuclides and associated toxic non-radioactive contaminants from polluted water. The target metal ions are uranium, plutonium, thorium, strontium, cadmium, and lead along with chromium (as chromate). Anionic or amphiphilic chelating agents, used in conjunction with polyelectrolyte colloids, provide a means to confer selectivity required for removal of the target cations. This project entails a comprehensive study of the effects of solution composition and filtration unit operating parameters on the separation efficiency and selectivity of ligand modified colloid-enhanced ultrafiltration (LM-CEUF) processes. Problem areas identified by the Office of Environmental Management addressed by this project include removal of hazardous ionic materials from ground water, mixed waste, and aqueous waste solutions produced during decontamination and decommissioning operations. Separation and concentration of the target ions will result in a substantial reduction in the volume of material requiring disposal or long-term storage.

  2. Radioactive pollution from Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in the terrestrial environment.

    PubMed

    Tazoe, H; Hosoda, M; Sorimachi, A; Nakata, A; Yoshida, M A; Tokonami, S; Yamada, M

    2012-11-01

    Major contaminants from venting and hydrogen explosions at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear reactors between 12 and 15 March 2011 were transported northwestward and deposited on soil and plants via precipitation. Surface soils and plant leaves were sampled at 64 sites in the Fukushima Prefecture. The highest concentrations of (134)Cs (84.4 kBq kg(-1)) and (137)Cs (82.0 kBq kg(-1)) in surface soils were observed at Nagadoro in Iidate village located 32 km northwest from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Furthermore, (131)I, (129)Te, (129 m)Te, (110 m)Ag and (140)La were detected in the same samples. Outer surface of plant leaves, such as bamboo, cabbage and grasses were highly contaminated at the high-dose rate areas of Tsushima and Minami-Tsushima in Namie town. Mugwort leaves that grew after the pollution event had extremely low concentration of radionuclides; however, the plant/soil radiocaesium ratio was 0.023 ± 0.006. It is anticipated that decomposition of fallen leaves will promote recycling of radionuclides in the environment.

  3. Conversion of simulated radioactive pollutant gas concentrations for a complex building array into radiation dose.

    PubMed

    Gallacher, D J; Robins, A G; Hayden, P

    2016-12-01

    Methods used to convert wind tunnel and ADMS concentration field data for a complex building array into effective radiation dose were developed based on simulations of a site in central London. Pollutant source terms were from positron emitting gases released from a cyclotron and clinical PET radiotracer facility. Five years of meteorological data were analysed to determine the probability distribution of wind direction and speed. A hemispherical plume cloud model (both static and moving) was developed which enabled an expression of gamma-ray dose, taking into account build-up factors in air, in terms of analytic functions in this geometry. The standard building wake model is presented, but this is extended and developed in a new model to cover the concentration field in the vicinity of a roof top structure recirculation zone, which is then related to the concentration in the main building wake zone. For all models presented the effective dose was determined from inhalation, positron cloud immersion and gamma ray plume contributions. Results of applying these models for determination of radiation dose for a particular site are presented elsewhere.

  4. The {open_quotes}Dragon of Kovachitsa{close_quotes}: Local perceptions of radioactive pollution near the Kozlodui Nuclear Power Station (Bulgaria)

    SciTech Connect

    Konstantinov, Y.

    1995-03-01

    There is continuing uncertainty surrounding the safety of nuclear power stations in Eastern Europe, among them the one at Kozlodui, Bulgaria. It is argued in this paper that attempts on the part of the state to assert the safety of nuclear power stations are expressed in terms of an official {open_quotes}nuclear-safe{close_quotes} discourse, while the local inhabitants near the Kozlodui nuclear power station employ a vernacular mode of expression to explain possible radioactive pollution.

  5. [Specific Features of Radioactive Pollution of Soils of Catchment Areas of Lake Shablish (Distant Zone of the East Ural Radioactive Trace)].

    PubMed

    Deryagin, V V; Levina, S G; Sutyagin, A A; Parfilova, N S

    2015-01-01

    Specific features of 90Sr and 137Cs distribution and accumulation in soil cuts of superaqueous and eluvial positions of catchment areas of Lake Shablish located in a distant zone of the East Ural radioactive trace are considered. Some physical and chemical characteristics of the soils were defined. It is established that the signs typical for the lake ecosystems of distant East-Ural radioactive trace zone which underwent impact of technogenic influence are common for soils of catchment areas of Lake Shablish. The distinctions in some characteristic features of the specific activity of long-living radionuclides for the soils of superaqueous and eluvial positions of catchment areas connected with the character of the water regime of soils are shown.

  6. Ensemble-based simultaneous emission estimates and improved forecast of radioactive pollution from nuclear power plant accidents: application to ETEX tracer experiment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X L; Li, Q B; Su, G F; Yuan, M Q

    2015-04-01

    The accidental release of radioactive materials from nuclear power plant leads to radioactive pollution. We apply an augmented ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) with a chemical transport model to jointly estimate the emissions of Perfluoromethylcyclohexane (PMCH), a tracer substitute for radionuclides, from a point source during the European Tracer Experiment, and to improve the forecast of its dispersion downwind. We perturb wind fields to account for meteorological uncertainties. We expand the state vector of PMCH concentrations through continuously adding an a priori emission rate for each succeeding assimilation cycle. We adopt a time-correlated red noise to simulate the temporal emission fluctuation. The improved EnKF system rapidly updates (and reduces) the excessively large initial first-guess emissions, thereby significantly improves subsequent forecasts (r = 0.83, p < 0.001). It retrieves 94% of the total PMCH released and substantially reduces transport error (>80% average reduction of the normalized mean square error).

  7. Removal of Radioactive Cations and Anions from Polluted Water using Ligand-Modified Colloid-Enhanced Ultrafiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Scamehorn, John F; Taylor, Richard W; Palmer, Cynthia E

    2001-12-17

    The purpose of this project was to develop, optimize, and evaluate new separation methods for removal of hazardous (radionuclides and toxic non-radioactive contaminants) metal ions from either ground water or aqueous waste solutions produced during Decontamination and Decommissioning operations at DOE sites. Separation and concentration of the target ions will result in a substantial reduction in the volume of material requiring disposal or long-term storage. The target metal ions studied were uranium, thorium, lead, cadmium, and mercury along with chromium (as chromate). The methods tested use membrane ultrafiltration in conjunction with water-soluble polymers or surfactants with added metal-selective chelating agents. Laboratory scale tests showed removal of 99.0-99.9% of each metal tested in a single separation stage. The methods developed for selective removal of radionuclides (UO22+, Th4+) and toxic heavy metals (Pb2+, Cd2+, Hg2+) are applicable to two DOE focus areas; decontamination of sites and equipment, and in remediation of contaminated groundwater. Colloid-enhanced ultrafiltration methods have potential to be substantially less expensive than alternative methods and can result in less waste. Results of studies with varying solution composition (concentration, acidity) and filtration parameters (pressure, flow rate) have increased our understanding of the fundamental processes that control the metal ion separation and colloid recovery steps of the overall process. Further laboratory studies are needed to improve the ligand/colloid recovery step and field demonstration of the technology is needed to prove the applicability of the integrated process. A number of graduate students, post-doctoral associates, and research associates have received training and research experience in the areas of separation science, colloid chemistry, and metal ion coordination chemistry of radionuclides and

  8. [Effect of radioactive, toxic, and combined radiation and toxic pollution of the environment on the incidence of malignant neoplasms in children of the Briansk region].

    PubMed

    Korsakov, A V; Troshin, V P; Mikhalev, V P

    2012-01-01

    Comparative evaluation of the frequency of incidence of all forms of primary malignant tumors in the child population over the fourteen-year period (1995-2008.) is presented. Evaluation was carried out in ecologically unfavorable territories of the Bryansk region with varying density of radioactive (from 28.1 to 661.9 kBq/m2 for 137Cs), toxic (from 1.47 to 183.6 kg/person/year for gaseous toxic substances) and combined environment pollution. Statistically significant differences of incidence of malignant neoplasms in children in ecologically unfavorable areas have been established.

  9. Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowbotham, N.

    1973-01-01

    Presents the material given in one class period in a course on Environmental Studies at Chesterfield School, England. The topics covered include air pollution, water pollution, fertilizers, and insecticides. (JR)

  10. Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowbotham, N.

    1973-01-01

    Presents the material given in one class period in a course on Environmental Studies at Chesterfield School, England. The topics covered include air pollution, water pollution, fertilizers, and insecticides. (JR)

  11. Spatial gradient of human health risk from exposure to trace elements and radioactive pollutants in soils at the Puchuncaví-Ventanas industrial complex, Chile.

    PubMed

    Salmani-Ghabeshi, S; Palomo-Marín, M R; Bernalte, E; Rueda-Holgado, F; Miró-Rodríguez, C; Cereceda-Balic, F; Fadic, X; Vidal, V; Funes, M; Pinilla-Gil, E

    2016-11-01

    The Punchuncaví Valley in central Chile, heavily affected by a range of anthropogenic emissions from a localized industrial complex, has been studied as a model environment for evaluating the spatial gradient of human health risk, which are mainly caused by trace elemental pollutants in soil. Soil elemental profiles in 121 samples from five selected locations representing different degrees of impact from the industrial source were used for human risk estimation. Distance to source dependent cumulative non-carcinogenic hazard indexes above 1 for children (max 4.4 - min 1.5) were found in the study area, ingestion being the most relevant risk pathway. The significance of health risk differences within the study area was confirmed by statistical analysis (ANOVA and HCA) of individual hazard index values at the five sampling locations. As was the dominant factor causing unacceptable carcinogenic risk levels for children (<10(-4)) at the two sampling locations which are closer to the industrial complex, whereas the risk was just in the tolerable range (10(-6) - 10(-4)) for children and adults in the rest of the sampling locations at the study area. Furthermore, we assessed gamma ray radiation external hazard indexes and annual effective dose rate from the natural radioactivity elements ((226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K) levels in the surface soils of the study area. The highest average values for the specific activity of (232)Th (31 Bq kg(-1)), (40)K (615 Bq kg(- 1)), and (226)Ra (25 Bq kg(-1)) are lower than limit recommended by OECD, so no significant radioactive risk was detected within the study area. In addition, no significant variability of radioactive risk was observed among sampling locations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Characteristic of pollution with groundwater inflow (90)Sr natural waters and terrestrial ecosystems near a radioactive waste storage.

    PubMed

    Lavrentyeva, G V

    2014-09-01

    The studies were conducted in the territory contaminated by (90)Sr with groundwater inflow as a result of leakage from the near-surface trench-type radioactive waste storage. The vertical soil (90)Sr distribution up to the depth of 2-3 m is analyzed. The area of radioactive contamination to be calculated with a value which exceeds the minimum significant activity 1 kBq/kg for the tested soil layers: the contaminated area for the 0-5 cm soil layer amounted to 1800 ± 85 m(2), for the 5-10 cm soil layer amounted to 300 ± 12 m(2), for the 10-15 cm soil layer amounted to 180 ± 10 m(2). It is found that (90)Sr accumulation proceeds in a natural sorption geochemical barrier of the marshy terrace near flood plain. The exposure doses for terrestrial mollusks Bradybaena fruticum are presented. The excess (90)Sr interference level was registered both in the ground and surface water during winter and summer low-water periods and autumn heavy rains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ecotoxicological characteristic of a soil polluted by radioactive elements and heavy metals before and after its bioremediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiev, P.; Groudev, S.; Spasova, I.; Nikolova, M.

    2012-04-01

    Cinnamon soils from southeastern Bulgaria are heavily polluted with radionuclides (uranium, radium) and toxic heavy metals (copper and lead) due to the winds transportation of fine particles from flotation dumps to the soil surface. As a result of this, the polluted soils are characterized by a slightly alkaline pH (7.82) and positive net neutralization potential (+136.8 kg CaCO3/t). A fresh sample of cinnamon soil was subjected to remediation under laboratory conditions in four lysimeters each containing 70 kg of soil. The preliminary study revealed that most of the pollutants were presented as carbonate, reducible and oxidisable mobility fractions, i.e. pollutants ions were specifically adsorbed by carbonate and ferric iron minerals or were capsulated in sulfides. The applied soil treatment was connected with leaching of the pollutants located mainly in the horizon A, their transportation through the soil profile as soluble forms, and their precipitation in the rich-in-clay subhorizon B3. The efficiency of leaching depended on the activity of the indigenous microflora and on the chemical processes connected with solubilization of pollutants and formation of stable complexes with some organic compounds, chloride and hydrocarbonate ions. These processes were considerably enhanced by adding hay to the horizon A and irrigating the soil with water solutions containing the above-mentioned ions and some nutrients. After 18 months of treatment, each of the soil profiles in the different lysimeters was divided into five sections reflecting the different soil layers. The soil in these sections was subjected to a detailed chemical analysis and the data obtained were compared with the relevant data obtained before the start of the experiment. The best leaching of pollutants from horizon A was measured in the variants where soil mulching was applied. For example, the best leaching of lead (54.5 %) was found in the variant combining this technique and irrigation with solutions

  14. Radioactive Decay

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Radioactive decay is the emission of energy in the form of ionizing radiation. Example decay chains illustrate how radioactive atoms can go through many transformations as they become stable and no longer radioactive.

  15. Persistent organic pollutants, heavy metals and radioactivity in the urban soil of Priština City, Kosovo and Metohija.

    PubMed

    Gulan, Ljiljana; Milenkovic, Biljana; Zeremski, Tijana; Milic, Gordana; Vuckovic, Biljana

    2017-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), heavy metals content and radioactivity levels were measured in 27 soil samples collected from Priština, the capital of Kosovo and Metohija. The sixteen PAHs, twelve OCPs and six PCBs congeners were determined by gas chromatography system with mass spectrometry detection. Although the use of PCBs and OCPs was prohibited decades ago residues of those compounds still existed in measurable concentrations in soils of Priština. PAHs were also present in analyzed samples but their mean concentration was significantly lower than mean concentrations of PAHs previously reported in urban areas in the world. The concentrations of heavy metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) were determined by the EDTA extraction protocols, along with their extractable concentrations. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides ((226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K) were determined by gamma spectrometry method. The Shapiro-Wilk normality test found that activity concentrations of natural radionuclides were normally distributed. Radiological risk was estimated through the annual effective dose, gonadal dose equivalent, excess lifetime cancer risk, radium equivalent activity, external and internal hazard indexes. Spearman correlation coefficient was used for analysis of correlations between physicochemical properties, heavy metal contents and radionuclide activity concentrations. Strong positive correlation between (226)Ra and (232)Th was found, as well as among pairs of As-Cd and Co-Mn. Very strong positive correlation (0.838) at the 0.01 significance level was noted for Pb-Zn pair. Strong correlations indicate common occurrence of these elements in the nature, as well as geogenic association.

  16. Removal of radioactive cations and anions from polluted water using ligand-modified colloid-enhanced ultrafiltration. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Scamehorn, J.F.; Palmer, C.E.; Taylor, R.W.

    1998-06-01

    'The objectives of this project are to determine the feasibility of and develop optimum conditions for the use of colloid-enhanced ultrafiltration (CEUF) methods to remove and recover radionuclides and associated toxic non-radioactive contaminants from polluted water. The target metal ions are uranium, plutonium, thorium, strontium and lead along with chromium (as chromate). Anionic chelating agents, used in conjunction with polyelectrolyte colloids, provide a means to confer selectivity required for removal of the target cations. This project entails a comprehensive study of the effects of solution composition and filtration unit operating parameters on the separation efficiency and selectivity of ligand modified colloid-enhanced ultrafiltration (LM-CEUF) processes. Problem areas identified by the Office of Environmental Management addressed by this project include removal of hazardous ionic materials from groundwater, aqueous waste solutions and mixed waste. Separation and concentration of the target ions will result in a substantial reduction in the volume of material requiring long-term storage. This report summarizes work after 8 months of a 3-year project.'

  17. Projection models for health effects assessment in populations exposed to radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants. Volume IV. SPAHR user's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, J.J.; Lundy, R.T.

    1982-09-01

    The Simulation Package for the Analysis of Health Risk (SPAHR) is a computer software package based upon a demographic model for health risk projections. The model extends several health risk projection models by making realistic assumptions about the population at risk, and thus represents a distinct improvement over previous models. Complete documentation for use of SPAHR is contained in this five-volume publication. The demographic model in SPAHR estimates population response to environmental toxic exposures. Latency of response, changing dose level over time, competing risks from other causes of death, and population structure can be incorporated into SPAHR to project health risks. Risks are measured by morbid years, number of deaths, and loss of life expectancy. Comparisons of estimates of excess deaths demonstrate that previous health risk projection models may have underestimated excess deaths by a factor of from 2 to 10, depending on the pollutant and the exposure scenario. The software supporting the use of the demographic model is designed to be user oriented. Complex risk projections are made by responding to a series of prompts generated by the package. The flexibility and ease of use of SPAHR make it an important contribution to existing models and software packages. This volume gives the more advanced user of the SPAHR computer package the information required to create tailor-made programs for addressing specific issues not covered by the three interactive packages. It assumes that the user is familiar with the concepts and terms relating to demography and health risk assessment.

  18. Removal of Radioactive Cations and Anions from Polluted Water Using Ligand-Modified Colloid-Enhanced Ultrafiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Scamehorn, John F.; Palmer, Cynthia E.; Taylor, Richard W.

    1999-06-01

    The objectives of this project are to determine the feasibility of and develop optimum conditions for the use of colloid-enhanced ultrafiltration (CEUF) methods to remove and recover radionuclides and associated toxic nonradioactive contaminants from polluted water. The target metal ions are uranium, plutonium, thorium, strontium and lead along with chromium (as chromate). Anionic or amphiphilic chelating agents, used in conjunction with polyelectrolyte colloids, provide a means to confer selectivity required for removal of the target cations. This project entails a comprehensive study of the effects of solution composition and filtration unit operating parameters on the separation efficiency and selectivity of ligand modified colloid-enhanced ultrafiltration (LM-CEUF) processes. Problem areas identified by the Office of Environmental Management addressed by this project include removal of hazardous ionic materials from ground water, mixed waste, and aqueous waste solutions produced during decontamination and decommissioning operations. Separation and concentration of the target ions will result in a substantial reduction in the volume of material requiring disposal or long-term storage.

  19. Projection models for health-effects assessment in populations exposed to radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants. Volume V. SPAHR programmer's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, J.J.; Lundy, R.T.

    1982-09-01

    The Simulation Package for the Analysis of Health Risk (SPAHR) is a computer software package based upon a demographic model for health risk projections. The model extends several health risk projection models by making realistic assumptions about the population at risk, and thus represents a distinct improvement over previous models. Complete documentation for use of SPAHR is contained in this five-volume publication. The demographic model in SPAHR estimates population response to environmental toxic exposures. Latency of response, changing dose level over time, competing risks from other causes of death, and population structure can be incorporated into SPAHR to project health risks. Risks are measured by morbid years, numbers of deaths, and loss of life expectancy. Comparisons of estimates of excess deaths demonstrate that previous health risk projection models may have underestimated excess deaths by a factor of from 2 to 10, depending on the pollutant and the exposure scenario. The software supporting the use of the demographic model is designed to be user oriented. Complex risk projections are made by responding to a series of prompts generated by the package. The flexibility and ease of use of SPAHR make it an important contribution to existing models and software packages. This volume contains a programmer's guide to SPAHR.

  20. Projection models for health-effects assessment in populations exposed to radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants. Volume II. SPAHR introductory guide

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, J.J.; Lundy, R.T.

    1982-09-01

    The Simulation Package for the Analysis of Health Risk (SPAHR) is a computer software package based upon a demographic model for health risk projections. The model extends several health risk projection models by making realistic assumptions about the population at risk, and thus represents a distinct improvement over previous models. Complete documentation for use of SPAHR is contained in this five-volume publication. The demographic model in SPAHR estimates population response to environmental toxic exposures. Latency of responses, changing dose level over time, competing risks from other causes of death, and population structure can be incorporated into SPAHR to project health risks. Risks are measured by morbid years, number of deaths, and loss of life expectancy. Comparisons of estimates of excess deaths demonstrate that previous health risk projection models may have underestimated excess deaths by a factor of from 2 to 10, depending on the pollutant and the exposure scenario. The software supporting the use of the demographic model is designed to be user oriented. Complex risk projects are made by responding to a series of prompts generated by the package. The flexibility and ease of use of SPAHR make it an important contribution to existing models and software packages. This volume gives the user of the SPAHR program the information required to operate the program when it is up and running on the computer. It assumes that the user is familiar with the concepts and terms relating to demography and health risk assessment. It contains a brief description of all commands and options available in SPAHR, as well as a user-oriented description of the structure and operation of the control system and language processor.

  1. Human placental glutathione S-transferase activity and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon DNA adducts as biomarkers for environmental oxidative stress in placentas from pregnant women living in radioactivity- and chemically-polluted regions

    PubMed Central

    Obolenskaya, Maria Yu.; Teplyuk, Nadiya M.; Divi, Rao L.; Poirier, Miriam C.; Filimonova, Nataliya B.; Zadrozna, Monika; Pasanen, Markku J.

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to analyze the effect of environmental oxidative stress on human placental monooxygenases, glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)–DNA adducts in human term placentas from radioactivity-contaminated and chemically-polluted areas of the Ukraine and Belarus, and to compare these biomarkers to the newborn’s general health status. Placental PAH–DNA adduct formation, GST activity, 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase (ECOD) activity, and thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS), an index of lipid peroxidation, were measured in groups of women exposed to different levels of radioactivity and PAH pollution. The in vitro metabolism data, obtained from 143 human placental samples at term, were compared to indices of maternal and newborn health. The highest ECOD activity was recorded in placentas obtained from chemically-polluted areas and a radioactivity-contaminated area; the ECOD activity was 7-fold and 2-fold higher compared to the region considered to be “clean”. Newborns with the most compromised health status displayed the greatest down-regulation of GST activity (144–162 mU mg protein−1 vs. 258–395 mU mg protein−1), enhanced ECOD activity and the highest level of PAH–DNA adduct formation. The highest level of TBARS was observed in women exposed to the highest levels of radiation. The efficiency of placental detoxification negatively correlated with maternal age and the health status of the newborn. Environmental oxidative stress was related to an increase in anemia, threatened abortions, toxemia, fetal hypoxia, spontaneous abortions and fetal hypotrophy. Our data suggest that chemically- or radioactivity-induced oxidative stress enhance cytochrome P450-mediated enzymatic activities potentially resulting in increased formation of reactive metabolites. The activity of GSH-transferase is not enhanced. This imbalance in detoxification capacity can be measured as increased production of PAH

  2. Water Pollution, Causes and Cures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manufacturing Chemists Association, Washington, DC.

    This commentary on sources of water pollution and water pollution treatment systems is accompanied by graphic illustrations. Sources of pollution such as lake bottom vegetation, synthetic organic pollutants, heat pollution, radioactive substance pollution, and human and industrial waste products are discussed. Several types of water purification…

  3. Global searches for microalgae and aquatic plants that can eliminate radioactive cesium, iodine and strontium from the radio-polluted aquatic environment: a bioremediation strategy.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Shin-Ya; Iwamoto, Koji; Atsumi, Mika; Yokoyama, Akiko; Nakayama, Takeshi; Ishida, Ken-Ichiro; Inouye, Isao; Shiraiwa, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    The Fukushima 1 Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011 released an enormously high level of radionuclides into the environment, a total estimation of 6.3 × 10¹⁷ Bq represented by mainly radioactive Cs, Sr, and I. Because these radionuclides are biophilic, an urgent risk has arisen due to biological intake and subsequent food web contamination in the ecosystem. Thus, urgent elimination of radionuclides from the environment is necessary to prevent substantial radiopollution of organisms. In this study, we selected microalgae and aquatic plants that can efficiently eliminate these radionuclides from the environment. The ability of aquatic plants and algae was assessed by determining the elimination rate of radioactive Cs, Sr and I from culture medium and the accumulation capacity of radionuclides into single cells or whole bodies. Among 188 strains examined from microalgae, aquatic plants and unidentified algal species, we identified six, three and eight strains that can accumulate high levels of radioactive Cs, Sr and I from the medium, respectively. Notably, a novel eustigmatophycean unicellular algal strain, nak 9, showed the highest ability to eliminate radioactive Cs from the medium by cellular accumulation. Our results provide an important strategy for decreasing radiopollution in Fukushima area.

  4. Radioactive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2016-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste activities around the world in 2015. These include safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation and management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in water, soil and ecosystem alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes.

  5. Radioactive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2015-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste activities around the world in 2014. These include safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation and management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in water, soil and ecosystem alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes.

  6. Radioactive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Choudri, B S; Charabi, Yassine; Baawain, Mahad; Ahmed, Mushtaque

    2017-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste related activities around the world in 2016. The current reveiw include studies related to safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation. Further, the review highlights on management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in ecosystem, water and soil alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes.

  7. Radioactive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2016-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste activities around the world in 2015. These include safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation and management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in water, soil and ecosystem alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes.

  8. Concentrating Radioactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Richard A.

    1974-01-01

    By concentrating radioactivity contained on luminous dials, a teacher can make a high reading source for classroom experiments on radiation. The preparation of the source and its uses are described. (DT)

  9. Simulated Radioactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boettler, James L.

    1972-01-01

    Describes the errors in the sugar-cube experiment related to radioactivity as described in Project Physics course. The discussion considers some of the steps overlooked in the experiment and generalizes the theory beyond the sugar-cube stage. (PS)

  10. Radioactivity Calculations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onega, Ronald J.

    1969-01-01

    Three problems in radioactive buildup and decay are presented and solved. Matrix algebra is used to solve the second problem. The third problem deals with flux depression and is solved by the use of differential equations. (LC)

  11. Concentrating Radioactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Richard A.

    1974-01-01

    By concentrating radioactivity contained on luminous dials, a teacher can make a high reading source for classroom experiments on radiation. The preparation of the source and its uses are described. (DT)

  12. Radioactivity Calculations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onega, Ronald J.

    1969-01-01

    Three problems in radioactive buildup and decay are presented and solved. Matrix algebra is used to solve the second problem. The third problem deals with flux depression and is solved by the use of differential equations. (LC)

  13. Simulated Radioactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boettler, James L.

    1972-01-01

    Describes the errors in the sugar-cube experiment related to radioactivity as described in Project Physics course. The discussion considers some of the steps overlooked in the experiment and generalizes the theory beyond the sugar-cube stage. (PS)

  14. [Mental and physical development of children living in the area of monitoring pollution from a plant for processing and long-term storage of radioactive waste].

    PubMed

    Kirillov, V F; Popova, O L; Mikhaĭlov, A I; Bobrishcheva-Pushkina, N D; Kuznetsova, L Iu; Silaev, A A

    2010-01-01

    Environmental conditions in the area hosting a plant for processing and long storage of low- to moderately-active radioactive waste are described as reasonably safe. Residence in the area does not exert negative influence on the physical and mental development of children. Several indicators of physical development give better estimates than at the control territory. The difference can be accounted for by a better social situation in the study area (housing conditions, financial standing, food patterns, general lifestyle).

  15. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nero, Anthony V, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the health risks posed by indoor air pollutants, such as airborne combustion products, toxic chemicals, and radioactivity. Questions as to how indoor air might be regulated. Calls for new approaches to environmental protection. (TW)

  16. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nero, Anthony V, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the health risks posed by indoor air pollutants, such as airborne combustion products, toxic chemicals, and radioactivity. Questions as to how indoor air might be regulated. Calls for new approaches to environmental protection. (TW)

  17. RADIOACTIVE BATTERY

    DOEpatents

    Birden, J.H.; Jordan, K.C.

    1959-11-17

    A radioactive battery which includes a capsule containing the active material and a thermopile associated therewith is presented. The capsule is both a shield to stop the radiations and thereby make the battery safe to use, and an energy conventer. The intense radioactive decay taking place inside is converted to useful heat at the capsule surface. The heat is conducted to the hot thermojunctions of a thermopile. The cold junctions of the thermopile are thermally insulated from the heat source, so that a temperature difference occurs between the hot and cold junctions, causing an electrical current of a constant magnitude to flow.

  18. Radioactive Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaylock, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of radioactive waste disposal, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the studies included are: (1) high-level and long-lived wastes, and (2) release and burial of low-level wastes. A list of 42 references is also presented. (HM)

  19. Radioactive Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaylock, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of radioactive waste disposal, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the studies included are: (1) high-level and long-lived wastes, and (2) release and burial of low-level wastes. A list of 42 references is also presented. (HM)

  20. Projection models for health-effects assessment in populations exposed to radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants. Volume I. Introduction to the SPAHR demographic model for health risk

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, J.J.; Lundy, R.T.; Grahn, D.; Ginevan, M.E.

    1982-09-01

    The Simulation Package for the Analysis of Health Risk (SPAHR) is a computer software package based upon a demographic model for health risk projections. The model extends several health risk projection models by making realistic assumptions about the population at risk, and thus represents a distinct improvement over previous models. Complete documentation for use of SPAHR is contained in this five-volume publication. The demographic model in SPAHR estimates population response to environmental toxic exposures. Latency of response, changing dose level over time, competing risks from other causes of death, and population structure can be incorporated into SPAHR to project health risks. Risks are measured by morbid years, number of deaths, and loss of life expectancy. Comparisons of estimates of excess deaths demonstrate that previous health risk projection models may have underestimated excess deaths by a factor of from 2 to 10, depending on the pollutant and the exposure scenario. The software supporting the use of the demographic model is designed to be user oriented. Complex risk projections are made by responding to a series of prompts generated by the package. The flexibility and ease of use of SPAHR make it an important contribution to existing models and software packages. The first volume presents the theory behind the SPAHR health risk projection model and several applications of the model to actual pollution episodes. The elements required for an effective health risk projection model are specified, and the models that have been used to date in health risk projections are outlined. These are compared with the demographic model, whose formulation is described in detail. Examples of the application of air pollution and radiation dose-response functions are included in order to demonstrate the estimation of future mortality and morbidity levels and the range of variation in excess deaths that occurs when populations structure is changed.

  1. Sediment fingerprinting by using the Ag-110m: Cs-137 ratio along the main rivers draining the Fukushima radioactive pollution plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chartin, Caroline; Evrard, Olivier; Onda, Yuichi; Patin, Jeremy; Lefèvre, Irène; Ayrault, Sophie; Lepage, Hugo; Bonté, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    During the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, large quantities of radionuclides were released into the environment between 12 and 19 March 2011. Even though about 80% of these emissions were transported offshore and out over the Pacific Ocean, 20% were deposited as wet and dry deposits on soils of Fukushima Prefecture on 15-16 March. In particular, 6.4 PBq of Cs-137 were modeled to have deposited on Japanese soils over a distance of 70 km to the northwest of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant. As most radionuclides are strongly sorbed by fine particles, and their mineralogical clay and organic matter fractions, they are likely to be redistributed within the landscape in association with soil and sediment particles transported by erosion processes and runoff. Based on a spatial analysis of the gamma-emitting radionuclides present in the environment respectively eight and thirteen months after the accident, we aim to provide a radioactive tracer to investigate the temporal evolution of the contaminant dispersion across Fukushima Prefecture. For this purpose, sediments were collected along rivers draining the main contamination plume in Fukushima Prefecture (i.e, Rivers Kutchibuto, Mano, Nitta and Ota) in November 2011 and April 2012.These campaigns directly followed the main hydro-sedimentary events that occurred in this region, i.e., the typhoon season (July and September-October) and the snowmelt (March 2012). The river sediment activities in gamma-emitting radionuclides were then compared to the initial activities measured in soils provided by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sport, Science and Technology (MEXT). The initial fallout patterns in 110mAg appeared to differ from those of the main contamination plume defined mainly by radiocaesium fallout (i.e., Cs-134+137). The Ag-110m:Cs-137 ratio was then used to trace the spatial origin of contaminated sediment collected in rivers. Sediments collected within the coastal

  2. [A comparative investigation of adaptation to oxidative stress factors a strain of mycelial fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus from Chernobyl Atomic Energy Station and strains of the same species from territories with basic level of radioactive pollution].

    PubMed

    Aslanidi, K B; Ivanova, A E; Gessler, N N; Egorova, A S; Belozerskaia, T A

    2009-01-01

    An oxidative stress resistance in Paecilomyces lilacinus strain from Chernobyl Atomic Energy Station (ChAES) as well as in P. lilacinus strains from zones with control level of radioactive pollution has been studied. It was shown that radial growth rate of the colony of the ChAES strain in a range of glucose concentrations 0.002%; 0.2%; 0.5%; 1.0% showed maximum on the medium with 0.2% glucose. It was 1.5 times higher than growth rate of the control strains. Adaptation slowdown reaction has been found as a result of the first 10-30 min H2O2 treatment most profound in the ChAES (No 1941) strain. Under 10(-3) mol/l H2O2 growth of No 1941 resumed with 20% loss in growth rate. Cessation of growth of the control strain (No 10) was observed under these conditions. It has been shown that in the strain from ChAES zone adaptation to low glucose content in the medium (0.2%) was coupled with an increased resistance to oxidative stress.

  3. Temporal variability of dry and wet deposition patterns during atmospheric transport from potential radioactive pollution sources in Euro-Arctic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahura, A.; Baklanov, A.; Sørensen, J. H.

    2003-04-01

    The temporal variability of dry and wet deposition patterns due to atmospheric transport from selected risk sites in the Euro-Arctic region is analyzed. The main questions addressed are the following: Which geographical territories of the Euro-Arctic region are at the highest risk from hypothetical releases at the risk sites? What are probabilities for atmospheric transport and deposition on different neighbouring countries in case of accidents at the risk sites? To answer these questions we applied two research tools. The first is an atmospheric long-range dispersion model, the Danish Emergency Response Model of the Atmosphere (DERMA). It was employed to simulate atmospheric transport, dispersion, and deposition of pollution during hypothetical accidental releases at selected risk sites in the Euro-Arctic region. As input data for modelling purposes, the ECMWF and DMI-HIRLAM meteorological gridded fields were used. Several important characteristics were calculated: 1) air concentration in the surface layer, 2) time-integrated air concentration in the surface layer, 3) dry deposition on the underlying surface, and 4) wet deposition on the underlying surface. The second research tool is a set of statistical methods (including exploratory and probability fields analyses) to evaluate dispersion modelling results in the form of various indicators of a risk site’s possible impacts on geographical regions, territories, countries, cities, etc. Among these indicators are the summary and average fields for: integrated air concentration in the surface layer and deposition patterns. To evaluate the temporal variability of these indicators, analyses were performed annually, seasonally, and monthly.

  4. Projection models for health-effects assessment in populations exposed to radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants. Volume III. SPAHR interactive package guide

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, J.J.

    1982-09-01

    The Simulation Package for the Analysis of Health Risk (SPAHR) is a computer software package based upon a demographic model for health risk projectons. The model extends several health risk projection models by making realistic assumptions about the population at risk, adn thus represents a distinct improvement over previous models. Complete documentation for use of SPAHR is contained in this five-volume publication. The demographic model in SPAHR estimates population response to environmental toxic exposures. Latency of response, changing dose level over time, competing risks from other causes of death, and population structure can be incorporated into SPAHR to project health risks. Risks are measured by morbid years, number of deaths, and loss of life expectancy. Comparisons of estimates of excess deaths demonstrate that previous health risk projection models may have underestimated excess deaths by a factor of from 2 to 10, depending on the pollutant and the exposure scenario. The software supporting the use of the demographic model is designed to be user oriented. Complex risk projections are made by responding to a series of prompts generated by the package. The flexibility and ease of use of SPAHR make it an important contribution to existing models and software packages. This manual outlines the use of the interactive capabilities of SPAHR. SPAHR is an integrated system of computer programs designed for simulating numerous health risk scenarios using the techniques of demographic modeling. This system of computer programs has been designed to be very flexible so as to allow the user to simulate a large variety of scenarios. It provides the user with an integrated package for projecting the impacts on human health of exposure to various hazards, particularly those resulting from the effluents related to energy production.

  5. Radioactive decay.

    PubMed

    Groch, M W

    1998-01-01

    When a parent radionuclide decays to its daughter radionuclide by means of alpha, beta, or isomeric transition, the decay follows an exponential form, which is characterized by the decay constant lambda. The decay constant represents the probability per unit time that a single radioatom will decay. The decay equation can be used to provide a useful expression for radionuclide decay, the half-life, the time when 50% of the radioatoms present will have decayed. Radiotracer half-life has direct implications in nuclear imaging, radiation therapy, and radiation safety because radionuclide half-life affects the ability to evaluate tracer kinetics and create appropriate nuclear images and also affects organ, tumor, and whole-body radiation dose. The number of radioatoms present in a sample is equal to the activity, defined as the number of transitions per unit time, divided by the decay constant; the mass of radioatoms present in a sample can be calculated to determine the specific activity (activity per unit mass). The dynamic relationship between the number of parent and daughter atoms present over time may lead to radioactive equilibrium, which takes two forms--secular and transient--and has direct relevance to generator-produced radionuclides.

  6. Oceanic processes in marine pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Champ, M.A. ); Park, P.K. )

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following areas: disposal of low-level radioactive wastes in oceans; disposal of coal wastes in marine environments; the role of pollution conventions and regulation of oil disposal; and monitoring of high-level radioactive waste disposal sites in oceans.

  7. PERSPECTIVE: Fireworks and radioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitenecker, Katharina

    2009-09-01

    both reaction products and unburnt constituents of a pyrotechnic mixture. One major environmental concern in pyrotechnics focuses on the emission of heavy metals. This is the topic discussed in the article by Georg Steinhauser and Andreas Musilek in this issue [4]. A possible interrelationship between respiratory effects and fireworks emissions of barium-rich aerosols was also raised last year [5]. In recent years the potential hazard of naturally occurring radioactive material has become of importance to the scientific community. Naturally occurring radionuclides can be of terrestrial or cosmological origin. Terrestrial radionuclides were present in the presolar cloud that later contracted in order to build our solar system. These radionuclides—mainly heavy metals—and their non-radioactive isotopes are nowadays fixed in the matrix of the Earth's structure. Usually, their percentage is quite small compared to their respective stable isotopes—though there are exceptions like in the case of radium. The problem with environmental pollution due to naturally occurring radioactive material begins when this material is concentrated due to mining and milling, and later further processed [6]. Environmental pollution due to radioactive material goes back as far as the Copper and Iron Ages, when the first mines were erected in order to mine ores (gold, silver, copper, iron, etc), resulting in naturally occurring radioactive material being set free with other dusts into the atmosphere. So where is the link between pyrotechnics and radioactivity? In this article presented by Georg Steinhauser and Andreas Musilek [4], the pyrotechnic ingredients barium nitrate and strontium nitrate are explored with respect to their chemical similarities to radium. The fundamental question, therefore, was whether radium can be processed together with barium and strontium. If so, the production and ignition of these pyrotechnic ingredients could cause atmospheric pollution with radium aerosols

  8. Reactor radioactive emission monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Jester, W.A.; Mc Master, I.B.; Baratta, A.J.

    1987-05-05

    This patent describes a means for measuring quantities of a selected radioactive component in a stream of radioactive fluid. The means comprise: a first fluid path with a first means for retaining the selected radioactive component mounted in the fluid path for retaining the radioactive component while passing the remainder of the stream of radioactive fluid; a second fluid path with a second means for retaining the selected radioactive component mounted in the second fluid path for retaining the radioactive component while passing the remainder of the stream of the radioactive fluid; first and second detectors for detecting the level of radioactivity emitted by the retained radioactive component in the first and second retaining means; a means for integrating the output of one or more of the detectors as a function of time to measure any increase in the radioactivity emitted by the radioactive component retained by the retaining means, and the increase being representative of the amount of selected radioactive component present in the stream of radioactive fluid.

  9. E-Alerts: Environmental pollution and control (water pollution and control). E-mail newsletter

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    Topics of discussion include the following: Pollution by municipal wastes, agricultural wastes, industrial wastes, mine wastes, radioactive contaminants; Chemistry and analysis of pollutants; Thermal pollution; Oil pollution; Control techniques and equipment; Sewage treatment; Industrial waste water pretreatment; Hydrology and limnology; Biological and ecological effects; Waste water reuse; Laws, legislation, and regulations; Public administration; Economics; Land use.

  10. RADIO-ACTIVE TRANSDUCER

    DOEpatents

    Wanetick, S.

    1962-03-01

    ABS>ure the change in velocity of a moving object. The transducer includes a radioactive source having a collimated beam of radioactive particles, a shield which can block the passage of the radioactive beam, and a scintillation detector to measure the number of radioactive particles in the beam which are not blocked by the shield. The shield is operatively placed across the radioactive beam so that any motion normal to the beam will cause the shield to move in the opposite direction thereby allowing more radioactive particles to reach the detector. The number of particles detected indicates the acceleration. (AEC)

  11. Radioactive diagnostic agent

    SciTech Connect

    Shigematsu, A.; Aihara, M.; Matsuda, M.; Suzuki, A.; Tsuya, A.

    1984-02-07

    A radioactive diagnostic agent for renal cortex, adrenal cortex, myocardium, brain stem, spinal nerve, etc., which comprises as an essential component monoiodoacetic acid wherein the iodine atom is radioactive.

  12. Radioactivity in the Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Joshi, S R

    1991-03-01

    Studies of radioactivity in the Laurentian Great Lakes are reviewed to evaluate the impact of radionuclide dissemination on the world's foremost freshwater aquatic ecosystem. The status of radiologically-degraded areas is also reported. Significant amounts of radioactivity are stored in the basin, which has numerous nuclear reactors as well as uranium mine waste areas. The prevailing low levels of artificially-produced radionuclides, arising largely from previous fallout inputs, provide very little radiation dose to the area residents consuming lake water. The interlake transport of radionuclides is adequately described by existing models, though some refinement of the source term is needed. Revised estimates of fallout over each lake are given, but no data are available to estimate drainage basin contributions. Only limited information is available on the dispersal of radioactive pollutants. The influence of chemical parameters on radionuclide cycling has been extensively investigated in Lake Michigan and, to a lesser degree, in Lake Ontario. The need for developing a radiological objective for fish becomes apparent from an assessment of the very few data collected thus far on the biological and dosimetric aspects. Several research and monitoring needs are also identified.

  13. Radioactivity and food

    SciTech Connect

    Olszyna-Marzys, A.E. )

    1990-03-01

    Two topics relating to radioactivity and food are discussed: food irradiation for preservation purposes, and food contamination from radioactive substances. Food irradiation involves the use of electromagnetic energy (x and gamma rays) emitted by radioactive substances or produced by machine in order to destroy the insects and microorganisms present and prevent germination. The sanitary and economic advantages of treating food in this way are discussed. Numerous studies have confirmed that under strictly controlled conditions no undesirable changes take place in food that has been irradiated nor is radioactivity induced. Reference is made to the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station, which aroused public concern about irradiated food. The events surrounding the accident are reviewed, and its consequences with regard to contamination of different foods with radioactive substances, particularly iodine-131 and cesium-137, are described. Also discussed are the steps that have been taken by different international organizations to set limits on acceptable radioactivity in food.15 references.

  14. ORNL radioactive waste operations

    SciTech Connect

    Sease, J.D.; King, E.M.; Coobs, J.H.; Row, T.H.

    1982-01-01

    Since its beginning in 1943, ORNL has generated large amounts of solid, liquid, and gaseous radioactive waste material as a by-product of the basic research and development work carried out at the laboratory. The waste system at ORNL has been continually modified and updated to keep pace with the changing release requirements for radioactive wastes. Major upgrading projects are currently in progress. The operating record of ORNL waste operation has been excellent over many years. Recent surveillance of radioactivity in the Oak Ridge environs indicates that atmospheric concentrations of radioactivity were not significantly different from other areas in East Tennesseee. Concentrations of radioactivity in the Clinch River and in fish collected from the river were less than 4% of the permissible concentration and intake guides for individuals in the offsite environment. While some radioactivity was released to the environment from plant operations, the concentrations in all of the media sampled were well below established standards.

  15. Radioactive Waste Management Basis

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, B K

    2009-06-03

    The purpose of this Radioactive Waste Management Basis is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

  16. Radioactive waste disposal package

    DOEpatents

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-01-01

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  17. A Remote Radioactivity Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jona, Kemi; Vondracek, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Imagine a high school with very few experimental resources and limited budgets that prevent the purchase of even basic laboratory equipment. For example, many high schools do not have the means of experimentally studying radioactivity because they lack Geiger counters and/or good radioactive sources. This was the case at the first high school one…

  18. A Remote Radioactivity Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jona, Kemi; Vondracek, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Imagine a high school with very few experimental resources and limited budgets that prevent the purchase of even basic laboratory equipment. For example, many high schools do not have the means of experimentally studying radioactivity because they lack Geiger counters and/or good radioactive sources. This was the case at the first high school one…

  19. Radioactive waste disposal package

    DOEpatents

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-11-04

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  20. Radioactive Wastes. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Charles H.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. This booklet deals with the handling, processing and disposal of radioactive wastes. Among the topics discussed are: The Nature of Radioactive Wastes; Waste Management; and Research and Development. There are…

  1. Temporary Personal Radioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Fred

    2012-11-01

    As part of a bone scan procedure to look for the spread of prostate cancer, I was injected with radioactive technetium. In an effort to occupy/distract my mind, I used a Geiger counter to determine if the radioactive count obeyed the inverse-square law as a sensor was moved away from my bladder by incremental distances.

  2. Sampling for Airborne Radioactivity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    compared to betas, gammas and neutrons. For an airborne radioactivity detection system, it is most important to be able to detect alpha particles and... Airborne radioactive particles may emit alpha, beta, gamma or neutron radiation, depending on which radioisotope is present. From a health perspective...

  3. Transportation of Radioactive Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1955-07-01

    measurements of radiation must be made with a Landsverk- Wollan Electrometer Model L-100 or equally efficient standardized meter. Acceptable instruments... Wollan Electrometer Model L-100, or equally efficient standardized meter. 40 146.25-25. Exemptions for radioactive materials: (a) Radioactive materials

  4. Environmental radioactivity in the Arctic, Antarctic

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, H.

    1993-12-01

    This conference on radioactivity in the Arctic and Antarctic was held in Kirkenes, Norway and sponsored by the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority and the Department of Radiation Physics, Sweden's University of Lund. Radioactivity in the Arctic is the result of both natural phenomena and human activities. Natural or background radioactivity is a result of the breakdown and erosion of rocks that contain naturally radioactive minerals. But the levels introduced by dumping, weapons testing, and industrial activities far exceed such natural levels. Conference delegates cited such contamination sources as: Chernobyl's nuclear reactor accident; Wastes from fuel reprocessing plants at Sellafield (UK) and La Hague (France); Weapons testing in and around Novaya Zemlya; Ocean dumping of reactors, waste containers, and liquid wastes; Runoff from watersheds containing soil and organic material contaminated by atmospheric fallout; Atmospheric fallout from decades of weapons tests by various nations; and, Accidents involving nuclear submarines. The potential for increased radioactive pollution is of great concern and these questions were addressed by several speakers.

  5. Environmental Radioactivity Study in Surface Sediments of Guacanayabo Gulf (Cuba)

    SciTech Connect

    Reyes, H.; Rizo, O. Diaz; Bernal, J. L.; D'Alessandro, K.; Padilla, F.; Corrales, Y.; Casanova, O. A.; Gelen, A.; Martinez, Y.; Aguilar, J.; Arado, J. O.; Lopez-Pino, N.; Maidana, N. L.

    2009-06-03

    Sediment samples have been collected in the Guacanayabo gulf located in the southeast Cuba, to determinate the radioactivity levels of {sup 210}Pb, {sup 234}Th, {sup 214}Pb, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K using Low-Background Gamma Spectrometry and to evaluate its impact in the habitat of important marine species for fishery industry. The obtained results show the lowest radioactivity levels determined in Cuban marine environments. The species capture declination in the last years is not originated by radioactive pollution of the zone.

  6. A Remote Radioactivity Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jona, Kemi; Vondracek, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Imagine a high school with very few experimental resources and limited budgets that prevent the purchase of even basic laboratory equipment. For example, many high schools do not have the means of experimentally studying radioactivity because they lack Geiger counters and/or good radioactive sources. This was the case at the first high school one of us (MV) worked at, and after talking with numerous colleagues we know this is still the case at many schools. What options are there then for physics teachers to allow their students to experimentally investigate certain characteristics of radioactivity, such as how distance affects the intensity of radiation coming from a radioactive source? There are computer simulations that can be run, or perhaps the teacher has a light sensor and tries to make an analogy between the intensity of light from a light bulb and the intensity of radiation from a radioactive source based on geometric arguments to get an inverse-square law. But for many there is no direct experimental option if one does not possess a Geiger counter and good radioactive sample. It is for that teacher and class of students that an online, remote radioactivity experiment was created.

  7. Tools for modeling radioactive contaminants in chip materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrobel, F.; Kaouache, A.; Saigné, F.; Touboul, A. D.; Schrimpf, R. D.; Warot, G.; Bruguier, O.

    2017-03-01

    Radioactive pollutants are naturally present in microelectronic device materials and can be an issue for the reliability of devices. The main concern is alpha emitters that produce high-energy particles (a few MeV) that ionize the semiconductor and then trigger soft errors. The question is to know what kinds of radionuclides are present in the device, their location in the device and the abundance of each species. In this paper we describe tools that are required to address the issue of radioactive pollutants in electronic devices.

  8. Content of long-lived radionuclides in the moss cover of the eastern-Ural radioactive trace region

    SciTech Connect

    Nifontova, M.G.

    1995-07-01

    This study examines the extent of radioactive pollution of moss cover of forest communities of the Kamenskii district of the Sverdlovsk region. This area contains the periphery section of the Eastern-Ural Radioactive Trace, formed as a result of the Kyshtymskii accident. Mosses do not release radionuclides for a long time, making them a biological indicator of radioactive environmental pollution and making them useful for radioecological monitoring. 14 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Noise Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... attention as other types of pollution, such as air pollution, or water pollution. The air around us is ... Air Act Overview Home Progress Cleaning the Air Air Pollution Challenges Requirements and History Role of Science and ...

  10. Pollutant Types

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Describes the types of air pollutants, including common or criteria pollutants, and hazardous air pollutants and links to additional information. Also links to resources on other air pollution issues.

  11. Understanding radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes). (ATT)

  12. Temporary Personal Radioactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Fred

    2012-01-01

    As part of a bone scan procedure to look for the spread of prostate cancer, I was injected with radioactive technetium. In an effort to occupy/distract my mind, I used a Geiger counter to determine if the radioactive count obeyed the inverse-square law as a sensor was moved away from my bladder by incremental distances. (Contains 1 table and 2…

  13. Dynamic radioactive particle source

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Murray E; Gauss, Adam Benjamin; Justus, Alan Lawrence

    2012-06-26

    A method and apparatus for providing a timed, synchronized dynamic alpha or beta particle source for testing the response of continuous air monitors (CAMs) for airborne alpha or beta emitters is provided. The method includes providing a radioactive source; placing the radioactive source inside the detection volume of a CAM; and introducing an alpha or beta-emitting isotope while the CAM is in a normal functioning mode.

  14. Temporary Personal Radioactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Fred

    2012-01-01

    As part of a bone scan procedure to look for the spread of prostate cancer, I was injected with radioactive technetium. In an effort to occupy/distract my mind, I used a Geiger counter to determine if the radioactive count obeyed the inverse-square law as a sensor was moved away from my bladder by incremental distances. (Contains 1 table and 2…

  15. Container for radioactive materials

    DOEpatents

    Fields, Stanley R.

    1985-01-01

    A container for housing a plurality of canister assemblies containing radioactive material and disposed in a longitudinally spaced relation within a carrier to form a payload package concentrically mounted within the container. The payload package includes a spacer for each canister assembly, said spacer comprising a base member longitudinally spacing adjacent canister assemblies from each other and a sleeve surrounding the associated canister assembly for centering the same and conducting heat from the radioactive material in a desired flow path.

  16. Radioactive gold ring dermatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.A.; Aldrich, J.E. )

    1990-08-01

    A superficial squamous cell carcinoma developed in a woman who wore a radioactive gold ring for more than 30 years. Only part of the ring was radioactive. Radiation dose measurements indicated that the dose to basal skin layer was 2.4 Gy (240 rad) per week. If it is assumed that the woman continually wore her wedding ring for 37 years since purchase, she would have received a maximum dose of approximately 4600 Gy.

  17. Peculiarities of Environment Pollution as a Special Type of Radioactive Waste: Field Means for Comprehensive Characterization of Soil and Bottom Sediments and their Application in the Survey at the Flood plain of Techa River - 13172

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, Oleg; Danilovich, Alexey; Potapov, Victor; Stepanov, Vyacheslav; Smirnov, Sergey; Volkovich, Anatoly

    2013-07-01

    Contamination of natural objects - zone alarm fallout, zones and flood plains near production sites (the result of technological accidents and resource extraction) occupy large areas. Large area and volume of contaminated matter, moderate specific activity (as low - medium-level wastes) make such objects specific types of radioactive waste. These objects exist for a long time, now they are characterized by a bound state of nuclides with the matrix. There is no cost-effective ways to remove these waste, the only solution for the rehabilitation of such areas is their isolation and regular monitoring through direct and indirect measurements. The complex of instruments was developed to field mapping of contamination. It consists of a portable spectrometric collimated detector, collimated spectrometric borehole detector, underwater spectrometer detector, spectrometer for field measurements of the specific activity of Sr-90, connected to a portable MCA 'Colibry (Hummingbird)'. The complex was used in settlements of Bryansk region, rivers Techa and Yenisei. The effectiveness of the developed complex considered by the example of characterization of the reservoir 10 (artificial lake) in Techinsky cascade containing a huge amount of radioactive waste. The developed field means for comprehensive characterization of soil and bottom sediments contamination are very effective for mapping and monitoring of environment contamination after accidents. Especially in case of high non-uniformity of fallout and may be very actual in Fukushima area. (authors)

  18. Accumulation of radioactive cesium released from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in terrestrial cyanobacteria Nostoc commune.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Hideaki; Shirato, Susumu; Tahara, Tomoya; Sato, Kenji; Takenaka, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident released large amounts of radioactive substances into the environment and contaminated the soil of Tohoku and Kanto districts in Japan. Removal of radioactive material from the environment is an urgent problem, and soil purification using plants is being considered. In this study, we investigated the ability of 12 seed plant species and a cyanobacterium to accumulate radioactive material. The plants did not accumulate radioactive material at high levels, but high accumulation was observed in the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune. In Nihonmatsu City, Fukushima Prefecture, N. commune accumulated 415,000 Bq/kg dry weight (134)Cs and 607,000 Bq kg(-1) dry weight (137)Cs. The concentration of cesium in N. commune tended to be high in areas where soil radioactivity was high. A cultivation experiment confirmed that N. commune absorbed radioactive cesium from polluted soil. These data demonstrated that radiological absorption using N. commune might be suitable for decontaminating polluted soil.

  19. Radioactivity in food crops

    SciTech Connect

    Drury, J.S.; Baldauf, M.F.; Daniel, E.W.; Fore, C.S.; Uziel, M.S.

    1983-05-01

    Published levels of radioactivity in food crops from 21 countries and 4 island chains of Oceania are listed. The tabulation includes more than 3000 examples of 100 different crops. Data are arranged alphabetically by food crop and geographical origin. The sampling date, nuclide measured, mean radioactivity, range of radioactivities, sample basis, number of samples analyzed, and bibliographic citation are given for each entry, when available. Analyses were reported most frequently for /sup 137/Cs, /sup 40/K, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 226/Ra, /sup 228/Ra, plutonium, uranium, total alpha, and total beta, but a few authors also reported data for /sup 241/Am, /sup 7/Be, /sup 60/Co, /sup 55/Fe, /sup 3/H, /sup 131/I, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 95/Nb, /sup 210/Pb, /sup 210/Po, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 228/Th, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 95/Zr. Based on the reported data it appears that radioactivity from alpha emitters in food crops is usually low, on the order of 0.1 Bq.g/sup -1/ (wet weight) or less. Reported values of beta radiation in a given crop generally appear to be several orders of magnitude greater than those of alpha emitters. The most striking aspect of the data is the great range of radioactivity reported for a given nuclide in similar food crops with different geographical origins.

  20. Radioactivity in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Nagel, D.J.; Edson, R.

    1995-12-01

    Natural and man-made radioactivities in the environment have been extensively researched in the second half of this century. Recently, increased attention has been given to (1) radioactive waste willfully placed in the environment by discharges from nuclear reprocessing plants or by dumping at sea, and (2) radioactive materials lost due to accidents in terrestrial (civilian power) or marine (submarine propulsion) reactors. Increasing field measurements, and disclosures of dumping and accidents in the former Soviet Union, are adding greatly to the knowledge of environmental radioactivity. New, more powerful computers are having a double impact. They make possible Geographical Information Systems for geo-referencing and correlating multi-variable datasets. Furthermore, supercomputers enable global atmospheric, oceanographic and terrestrial circulation and transport models, which include physical, chemical and biological processes. We will review exemplary work on the sources, transport, disposition and impact of anthropogenic environmental radioactivity. Such work both provides new knowledge of environmental processes and furnishes the basis for deciding on potential remediation actions.

  1. A Course on the Physics and Chemistry of Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Laurent

    1971-01-01

    Describes a course on environmental pollution which stresses physical and chemical principles. Course presents a unified discussion of air and water pollution and solid waste with special treatment of pesticides, thermal pollution, radioactivity, and electric power generation. Uses historical and current statistics extensively to set pollution…

  2. A Course on the Physics and Chemistry of Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Laurent

    1971-01-01

    Describes a course on environmental pollution which stresses physical and chemical principles. Course presents a unified discussion of air and water pollution and solid waste with special treatment of pesticides, thermal pollution, radioactivity, and electric power generation. Uses historical and current statistics extensively to set pollution…

  3. Packaging of radioactive wastes for sea disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by the Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter, known as the London Dumping Convention was adopted by an inter-governmental conference in London in 1972 and came into force in 1975. In 1977, the IAEA Board of Governors agreed that there is a continuing responsibility for the IAEA to contribute to the effectiveness of the London Dumping Conventions by providing guidance relevant to the various aspects of dumping radioactive wastes at sea. In the light of the above responsibilities, the IAEA organized a Technical Committee Meeting from 3 to 7 December 1979 to assess the current situation concerning the requirements and the practices of packaging radioactive wastes for dumping at sea with a view to providing further guidance on this subject. The results of this meeting are summarized.

  4. Marine pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Albaiges, J. )

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Transport of marine pollutants; Transformation of pollutants in the marine environment; Biological effects of marine pollutants; Sources and transport of oil pollutants in the Persian Gulf; Trace metals and hydrocarbons in Syrian coastal waters; and Techniques for analysis of trace pollutants.

  5. Radioactivity of Consumer Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, David; Jokisch, Derek; Fulmer, Philip

    2006-11-01

    A variety of consumer products and household items contain varying amounts of radioactivity. Examples of these items include: FiestaWare and similar glazed china, salt substitute, bananas, brazil nuts, lantern mantles, smoke detectors and depression glass. Many of these items contain natural sources of radioactivity such as Uranium, Thorium, Radium and Potassium. A few contain man-made sources like Americium. This presentation will detail the sources and relative radioactivity of these items (including demonstrations). Further, measurements of the isotopic ratios of Uranium-235 and Uranium-238 in several pieces of china will be compared to historical uses of natural and depleted Uranium. Finally, the presenters will discuss radiation safety as it pertains to the use of these items.

  6. Radioactive Waste Management

    SciTech Connect

    Bales, J.D.; Graham, J.; Boshears, R.

    1996-01-01

    Radioactive Waste Management (RWM) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information available on the critical topics of spent-fuel transport and storage, radioactive effluents from nuclear facilities, techniques of processing radioactive wastes, their storage, and ultimate disposal. Information on remedial actions and other environmental aspects is also included. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the past month. Also included are other US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency`s Energy Technology Data Exchange, the International Atomic Energy Agency`s International Nuclear Information System or government-to-government agreements.

  7. Radioactive mixed waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Jasen, W.G.; Erpenbeck, E.G.

    1993-02-01

    Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) have led to the definition of radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). The radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes have resulted in the initiation of special projects for the management of these wastes. Other solid wastes at the Hanford Site include low-level wastes, transuranic (TRU), and nonradioactive hazardous wastes. This paper describes a system for the treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) of solid radioactive waste.

  8. Container for radioactive materials

    DOEpatents

    Fields, S.R.

    1984-05-30

    A container is claimed for housing a plurality of canister assemblies containing radioactive material. The several canister assemblies are stacked in a longitudinally spaced relation within a carrier to form a payload concentrically mounted within the container. The payload package includes a spacer for each canister assembly, said spacer comprising a base member longitudinally spacing adjacent canister assemblies from each other and sleeve surrounding the associated canister assembly for centering the same and conducting heat from the radioactive material in a desired flow path. 7 figures.

  9. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  10. Water Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, H. J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)

  11. Water Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, H. J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)

  12. [Level of chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes in evacuees from the 30-kilometer zone of the Chernobyl Atomic Energy Station and residents of radioactively-polluted territories in the long term after the Chernobyl accident].

    PubMed

    Maznik, N A; Vinnikov, V A

    2002-01-01

    Eighteen Ukrainian evacuees from the Chernobyl exclusive zone, twenty one inhabitants of radioactively contaminated areas of Belarus and twelve control donors age-matched to the exposed persons were investigated 14-15 years after the Chernobyl accident for chromosomal aberration yields detected in blood lymphocytes by fluorescence in situ hybridisation technique. Unstable aberration yields measured in both Chernobyl cohorts were close to the background frequencies. Positive age-dependence trends in control donors were determined for the all type stable aberration levels. In evacuees the tendency for diminishing the difference between them and controls for stable aberration levels with persons' age increasing was found. The total stable chromosome exchange yields in evacuees 46-55 years old and inhabitants of areas with low contamination level didn't exceed the control values, but for younger evacuees and inhabitants of sufficiently contaminated regions the statistical increase above the age relevant background meanings was detected for this end-point. The advantages of using the FISH-detectable stable aberrations and particularly the total level of stable chromosome exchanges as the end-points for retrospective biological indication of past radiation exposure in Chernobyl cohorts were discussed.

  13. AIR RADIOACTIVITY MONITOR

    DOEpatents

    Bradshaw, R.L.; Thomas, J.W.

    1961-04-11

    The monitor is designed to minimize undesirable background buildup. It consists of an elongated column containing peripheral electrodes in a central portion of the column, and conduits directing an axial flow of radioactively contaminated air through the center of the column and pure air through the annular portion of the column about the electrodes. (AEC)

  14. Radioactivity: A Natural Phenomenon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronneau, C.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is misinformation people have on the subject of radiation. The importance of comparing artificial source levels of radiation to natural levels is emphasized. Measurements of radioactivity, its consequences, and comparisons between the risks induced by radiation in the environment and from artificial sources are included. (KR)

  15. Viewer Makes Radioactivity "Visible"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yin, L. I.

    1983-01-01

    Battery operated viewer demonstrates feasibility of generating threedimensional visible light simulations of objects that emit X-ray or gamma rays. Ray paths are traced for two pinhold positions to show location of reconstructed image. Images formed by pinholes are converted to intensified visible-light images. Applications range from radioactivity contamination surveys to monitoring radioisotope absorption in tumors.

  16. Disposal of radioactive waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Dorp, Frits; Grogan, Helen; McCombie, Charles

    The aim of radioactive and non-radioactive waste management is to protect man and the environment from unacceptable risks. Protection criteria for both should therefore be based on similar considerations. From overall protection criteria, performance criteria for subsystems in waste management can be derived, for example for waste disposal. International developments in this field are summarized. A brief overview of radioactive waste sorts and disposal concepts is given. Currently being implemented are trench disposal and engineered near-surface facilities for low-level wastes. For low-and intermediate-level waste underground facilities are under construction. For high-level waste site selection and investigation is being carried out in several countries. In all countries with nuclear programmes, the predicted performance of waste disposal systems is being assessed in scenario and consequence analyses. The influences of variability and uncertainty of parameter values are increasingly being treated by probabilistic methods. Results of selected performance assessments show that radioactive waste disposal sites can be found and suitable repositories can be designed so that defined radioprotection limits are not exceeded.

  17. Radioactive Decay - An Analog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGeachy, Frank

    1988-01-01

    Presents an analog of radioactive decay that allows the student to grasp the concept of half life and the exponential nature of the decay process. The analog is devised to use small, colored, plastic poker chips or counters. Provides the typical data and a graph which supports the analog. (YP)

  18. Radioactive Decay - An Analog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGeachy, Frank

    1988-01-01

    Presents an analog of radioactive decay that allows the student to grasp the concept of half life and the exponential nature of the decay process. The analog is devised to use small, colored, plastic poker chips or counters. Provides the typical data and a graph which supports the analog. (YP)

  19. Detecting Illicit Radioactive Sources

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, Joseph C.; Coursey, Bert; Carter, Michael

    2004-11-01

    Specialized instruments have been developed to detect the presence of illicit radioactive sources that may be used by terrorists in radiation dispersal devices, so-called ''dirty bombs'' or improvised nuclear devices. This article discusses developments in devices to detect and measure radiation.

  20. TABLE OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS.

    SciTech Connect

    HOLDEN,N.E.

    2001-06-29

    For those chemical elements which have no stable nuclides with a terrestrial isotopic composition, the data on radioactive half-lives and relative atomic masses for the nuclides of interest and importance have been evaluated and the recommended values and uncertainties are listed.

  1. Fallout Radioactivity and Epiphytes.

    Treesearch

    H. T. Odum; George Ann Briscoe; C. B. Briscoe

    1970-01-01

    After relatively high levels of fallout retention were dicovered in the epiphytic mossy forest of the Luquillo Mountains durin 1962, a survey of the distribution of radioactivity in the rain forest system was made with beta counting of 1500 samples supplemented with gamma spectra. High levels, up to 4138 counts per minute per gram, were found mainly in or on green...

  2. Radioactivity and foods

    SciTech Connect

    Olszyna-Marzys, A.E. )

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe and contrast two relationships between radiation and food--on the one hand, beneficial preservation of food by controlled exposure to ionizing radiation; and, on the other, contamination of food by accidental incorporation of radioactive nuclides within the food itself. In food irradiation, electrons or electromagnetic radiation is used to destroy microorganisms and insects or prevent seed germination. The economic advantages and health benefits of sterilizing food in this manner are clear, and numerous studies have confirmed that under strictly controlled conditions no undersirable changes or induced radioactivity is produced in the irradiated food. An altogether different situation is presented by exposure of food animals and farming areas to radioactive materials, as occurred after the major Soviet nuclear reactor accident at Chenobyl. This article furnishes the basic information needed to understand the nature of food contamination associated with that event and describes the work of international organizations seeking to establish appropriate safe limits for levels of radioactivity in foods.

  3. TABLE OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS.

    SciTech Connect

    HOLDEN,N.E.

    2001-06-29

    For those chemical elements which have no stable nuclides with a terrestrial isotopic composition, the data on radioactive half-lives and relative atomic masses for the nuclides of interest and importance have been evaluated and the recommended values and uncertainties are listed.

  4. Radioactivity: A Natural Phenomenon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronneau, C.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is misinformation people have on the subject of radiation. The importance of comparing artificial source levels of radiation to natural levels is emphasized. Measurements of radioactivity, its consequences, and comparisons between the risks induced by radiation in the environment and from artificial sources are included. (KR)

  5. Environmental Radioactivity, Temperature, and Precipitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riland, Carson A.

    1996-01-01

    Reports that environmental radioactivity levels vary with temperature and precipitation and these effects are due to radon. Discusses the measurement of this environmental radioactivity and the theory behind it. (JRH)

  6. Environmental Radioactivity, Temperature, and Precipitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riland, Carson A.

    1996-01-01

    Reports that environmental radioactivity levels vary with temperature and precipitation and these effects are due to radon. Discusses the measurement of this environmental radioactivity and the theory behind it. (JRH)

  7. LANL Waste acceptance criteria, Chapter 3, radioactive liquid waste treatment facility

    SciTech Connect

    McClenahan, Robert L.

    2006-08-01

    The Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) receives and treats aqueous radioactive wastewater generated at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to meet he discharge criteria specified in a National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit. The majority of this wastewater is received at the RLWTF through a network of buried pipelines, known as the Radioactive Liquid Waste Collection System (RLWCS). Other wastewater is transported to the RLWTF by truck. The Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) outlined in this Chapter are applicable to all radioactive wastewaters which are conveyed to the Technical Area 50(T A-50), RL WTF by the RLWCS or by truck.

  8. Method for calcining radioactive wastes

    DOEpatents

    Bjorklund, William J.; McElroy, Jack L.; Mendel, John E.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for the preparation of radioactive wastes in a low leachability form by calcining the radioactive waste on a fluidized bed of glass frit, removing the calcined waste to melter to form a homogeneous melt of the glass and the calcined waste, and then solidifying the melt to encapsulate the radioactive calcine in a glass matrix.

  9. Pollution Probe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chant, Donald A.

    This book is written as a statement of concern about pollution by members of Pollution Probe, a citizens' anti-pollution group in Canada. Its purpose is to create public awareness and pressure for the eventual solution to pollution problems. The need for effective government policies to control the population explosion, conserve natural resources,…

  10. Pollution Probe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chant, Donald A.

    This book is written as a statement of concern about pollution by members of Pollution Probe, a citizens' anti-pollution group in Canada. Its purpose is to create public awareness and pressure for the eventual solution to pollution problems. The need for effective government policies to control the population explosion, conserve natural resources,…

  11. International radioactive material recycling challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Greeves, John T.; Lieberman, James

    2007-07-01

    The paper explores current examples of successful International radioactive recycling programs and also explores operational regulatory and political challenges that need to be considered for expanding international recycling world-wide. Most countries regulations are fully consistent with the International Atomic Agency (IAEA) Code of Practice on the International Transboundary Movement of Radioactive Material and the IAEA Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources. IAEA member States reported on the status of their efforts to control transboundary movement of radioactive material recently during the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management meeting in May 2006. (authors)

  12. Radioactive ion detector

    DOEpatents

    Bower, Kenneth E.; Weeks, Donald R.

    1997-01-01

    Apparatus for detecting the presence, in aqueous media, of substances which emit alpha and/or beta radiation and determining the oxidation state of these radioactive substances, that is, whether they are in cationic or anionic form. In one embodiment, a sensor assembly has two elements, one comprised of an ion-exchange material which binds cations and the other comprised of an ion-exchange material which binds anions. Each ion-exchange element is further comprised of a scintillation plastic and a photocurrent generator. When a radioactive substance to which the sensor is exposed binds to either element and emits alpha or beta particles, photons produced in the scintillation plastic illuminate the photocurrent generator of that element. Sensing apparatus senses generator output and thereby indicates whether cationic species or anionic species or both are present and also provides an indication of species quantity.

  13. Radioactive ion detector

    DOEpatents

    Bower, K.E.; Weeks, D.R.

    1997-08-12

    Apparatus for detecting the presence, in aqueous media, of substances which emit alpha and/or beta radiation and determining the oxidation state of these radioactive substances, that is, whether they are in cationic or anionic form. In one embodiment, a sensor assembly has two elements, one comprised of an ion-exchange material which binds cations and the other comprised of an ion-exchange material which binds anions. Each ion-exchange element is further comprised of a scintillation plastic and a photocurrent generator. When a radioactive substance to which the sensor is exposed binds to either element and emits alpha or beta particles, photons produced in the scintillation plastic illuminate the photocurrent generator of that element. Sensing apparatus senses generator output and thereby indicates whether cationic species or anionic species or both are present and also provides an indication of species quantity. 2 figs.

  14. MARE: Mars Radioactivity Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Lellis, A. M.; Capria, M. T.; Espinasse, S.; Magni, G.; Orosei, R.; Piccioni, G.; Federico, C.; Minelli, G.; Pauselli, C.; Scarpa, G.

    1999-09-01

    MARE is an experiment for the measurement of the beta and gamma radioactivity in space and in the Martian soil, both at the surface and in the subsurface. This will be accomplished by means of a dosimeter and a spectrometer. The radiation dose rate to which crews will be exposed is one of the hazards that has to be quantified before the human exploration of Mars may begin. Data for evaluating radioactivity levels at Martian surface are of great interest for environmental studies related to life in general. The dosimeter will be able to measure the beta and gamma radiation dose received, with a responsivity which is very close to that of a living organism. The dosimeter is based on thermo-luminescence pills which emit an optical signal proportional to the absorbed dose when heated. Radioactive elements ((40) K, (235) U, (238) U and (232) Th) can be used as a mean of tracing the evolution of a terrestrial planet. These radioactive elements are the source of the internal heat, which drives convection in the mantle. They have been redistributed in this process and they are now concentrated in the crust where they are accessible for study. Their different behavior during the fractionation process can be used as a mean to investigate the geochemical characteristic of Mars. The spectrometer, a scintillation radiation absorber system for single event counting, is capable of detecting gamma photons with energies between 200 KeV and 10 MeV. The detected events will be processed in such a way to allow the recognition of the spectral signature of different decay processes, and thus the identification and the measurement of the concentrations of different radionuclides in the Martian soil.

  15. Table of radioactive elements

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N.E.

    1985-01-01

    As has been the custom in the past, the Commission publishes a table of relative atomic masses and halflives of selected radionuclides. The information contained in this table will enable the user to calculate the atomic weight for radioactive materials with a variety of isotopic compositions. The atomic masses have been taken from the 1984 Atomic Mass Table. Some of the halflives have already been documented.

  16. PROCESSING OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, B.M. Jr.; Barton, G.B.

    1961-11-14

    A process for treating radioactive waste solutions prior to disposal is described. A water-soluble phosphate, borate, and/or silicate is added. The solution is sprayed with steam into a space heated from 325 to 400 deg C whereby a powder is formed. The powder is melted and calcined at from 800 to 1000 deg C. Water vapor and gaseous products are separated from the glass formed. (AEC)

  17. Radioactive waste storage issues

    SciTech Connect

    Kunz, Daniel E.

    1994-08-15

    In the United States we generate greater than 500 million tons of toxic waste per year which pose a threat to human health and the environment. Some of the most toxic of these wastes are those that are radioactively contaminated. This thesis explores the need for permanent disposal facilities to isolate radioactive waste materials that are being stored temporarily, and therefore potentially unsafely, at generating facilities. Because of current controversies involving the interstate transfer of toxic waste, more states are restricting the flow of wastes into - their borders with the resultant outcome of requiring the management (storage and disposal) of wastes generated solely within a state`s boundary to remain there. The purpose of this project is to study nuclear waste storage issues and public perceptions of this important matter. Temporary storage at generating facilities is a cause for safety concerns and underscores, the need for the opening of permanent disposal sites. Political controversies and public concern are forcing states to look within their own borders to find solutions to this difficult problem. Permanent disposal or retrievable storage for radioactive waste may become a necessity in the near future in Colorado. Suitable areas that could support - a nuclear storage/disposal site need to be explored to make certain the health, safety and environment of our citizens now, and that of future generations, will be protected.

  18. Radioactive deposits of Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovering, T.G.

    1954-01-01

    Thirty-five occurrences of radioactive rocks had been reported from Nevada prior to 1952. Twenty-five of these had been investigated by personnel of the U. S. Geological Surveyor of the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission. Of those investigated, uranium minerals were identified at 13 sites; two sites contained a thorium mineral (monazite); the source of radioactivity on nine properties was not ascertained, and one showed no abnormal radioactivity. Of the other reported occurrences, one is said to contain uraniferous hydrocarbons and nine are placers containing thorian monazite. Pitchblende occurs at two localities, the East Walker River area, and the Stalin's Present prospect, where it is sparsely disseminated in tabular bodies cutting granitic rocks. Other uranium minerals found in the state include: carnotite, tyuyamunite, autunite, torbernite, gummite, uranophane, kasolite, and an unidentified mineral which may be dumontite. Monazite is the only thorium mineral of possible economic importance that has been reported. From an economic standpoint, only four of the properties examined showed reserves of uranium ore in 1952; these are: the Green Monster mine, which shipped 5 tons of ore to Marysvale, Utah, during 1951; the Majuba Hill mine; the Stalin's Present prospect; and the West Willys claim in the Washington district. No estimate has been made of thorium reserves and no commercial deposits of thorium are known.

  19. Radioactive deposits of Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovering, T.G.

    1953-01-01

    Thirty-five occurrences of radioactive rocks had been reported from Nevada prior to 1952. Twenty-five of these had been investigated by the U. S. Geological Survey and the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission. Of those investigated, uranium minerals were identified in 13; two contained a thorium mineral (monazite); the source of radioactivity on 7 properties was not ascertained; and one showed no abnormal radioactivity. Of the other reported occurrences, one is said to contain uraniferous hydrocarbons and 9 are placers containing thorian monazite. Pitchblende occurs at two localities; the East Walker River area, and the Stalin's Present prospect, where it is sparsely disseminated in tabular bodies cutting granitic rocks. Other uranium minerals found in the state include: carnotite, tyuyamunite, autunite, torbernite, gummite, uranophane, kasolite, and an unidentified mineral which may be dumontit. Monazite is the only thorium mineral of possible economic importance that has been reported. From an economic standpoint 9 only 4 of the properties examined showed reserves of uranium ore in 1952; these are: the Green Monster mine, which shipped 5 tons of ore to Marysvale, Utah, during 1951, the Majuba Hill mine, the Stalin's Present prospect, and the West Willys claim in the Washington district. Reserves of ore grade are small on all of these properties and probably cannot be developed commercially unless an ore-buying station is set up nearby. No estimate has been made of thorium reserves and no commercial deposits of thorium are known.

  20. Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility: Environmental Information Document

    SciTech Connect

    Haagenstad, H.T.; Gonzales, G.; Suazo, I.L.

    1993-11-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the treatment of radioactive liquid waste is an integral function of the LANL mission: to assure U.S. military deterrence capability through nuclear weapons technology. As part of this mission, LANL conducts nuclear materials research and development (R&D) activities. These activities generate radioactive liquid waste that must be handled in a manner to ensure protection of workers, the public, and the environment. Radioactive liquid waste currently generated at LANL is treated at the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF), located at Technical Area (TA)-50. The RLWTF is 30 years old and nearing the end of its useful design life. The facility was designed at a time when environmental requirements, as well as more effective treatment technologies, were not inherent in engineering design criteria. The evolution of engineering design criteria has resulted in the older technology becoming less effective in treating radioactive liquid wastestreams in accordance with current National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and Department of Energy (DOE) regulatory requirements. Therefore, to support ongoing R&D programs pertinent to its mission, LANL is in need of capabilities to efficiently treat radioactive liquid waste onsite or to transport the waste off site for treatment and/or disposal. The purpose of the EID is to provide the technical baseline information for subsequent preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the RLWTF. This EID addresses the proposed action and alternatives for meeting the purpose and need for agency action.

  1. ASSESSMENT OF RADIOACTIVE AND NON-RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINANTS FOUND IN LOW LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    R.H. Little, P.R. Maul, J.S.S. Penfoldag

    2003-02-27

    This paper describes and presents the findings from two studies undertaken for the European Commission to assess the long-term impact upon the environment and human health of non-radioactive contaminants found in various low level radioactive waste streams. The initial study investigated the application of safety assessment approaches developed for radioactive contaminants to the assessment of nonradioactive contaminants in low level radioactive waste. It demonstrated how disposal limits could be derived for a range of non-radioactive contaminants and generic disposal facilities. The follow-up study used the same approach but undertook more detailed, disposal system specific calculations, assessing the impacts of both the non-radioactive and radioactive contaminants. The calculations undertaken indicated that it is prudent to consider non-radioactive, as well as radioactive contaminants, when assessing the impacts of low level radioactive waste disposal. For some waste streams with relatively low concentrations of radionuclides, the potential post-closure disposal impacts from non-radioactive contaminants can be comparable with the potential radiological impacts. For such waste streams there is therefore an added incentive to explore options for recycling the materials involved wherever possible.

  2. E-Alerts: Nuclear science and technology (radioactive wastes and radioactivity). E-mail newsletter

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    The newsletter discusses the following: Separation, processing, handling, storage, disposal, and reuse of radioactive wastes; Radioactive fallout; Fission products; Man-made or natural radioactivity; and Decommissioning.

  3. Environmental Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breitbeil, Fred W., III

    1973-01-01

    Presents a thorough overview of the many factors contributing to air and water pollution, outlines the chemical reactions involved in producing toxic end-products, and describes some of the consequences of pollutants on human health and ecosystems. (JR)

  4. Water Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... adjust the font size, or print this page. Water Pollution Table of Contents What is NIEHS Doing? Further Reading For Educators Introduction Water pollution is any contamination of water with chemicals ...

  5. Study of proton radioactivities

    SciTech Connect

    Davids, C.N.; Back, B.B.; Henderson, D.J.

    1995-08-01

    About a dozen nuclei are currently known to accomplish their radioactive decay by emitting a proton. These nuclei are situated far from the valley of stability, and mark the very limits of existence for proton-rich nuclei: the proton drip line. A new 39-ms proton radioactivity was observed following the bombardment of a {sup 96}Ru target by a beam of 420-MeV {sup 78}Kr. Using the double-sided Si strip detector implantation system at the FMA, a proton group having an energy of 1.05 MeV was observed, correlated with the implantation of ions having mass 167. The subsequent daughter decay was identified as {sup 166}Os by its characteristic alpha decay, and therefore the proton emitter is assigned to the {sup 167}Ir nucleus. Further analysis showed that a second weak proton group from the same nucleus is present, indicating an isomeric state. Two other proton emitters were discovered recently at the FMA: {sup 171}Au and {sup 185}Bi, which is the heaviest known proton radioactivity. The measured decay energies and half-lives will enable the angular momentum of the emitted protons to be determined, thus providing spectroscopic information on nuclei that are beyond the proton drip line. In addition, the decay energy yields the mass of the nucleus, providing a sensitive test of mass models in this extremely proton-rich region of the chart of the nuclides. Additional searches for proton emitters will be conducted in the future, in order to extend our knowledge of the location of the proton drip line.

  6. Radioactive nondestructive test method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, J. R.; Pullen, K. E.

    1971-01-01

    Various radioisotope techniques were used as diagnostic tools for determining the performance of spacecraft propulsion feed system elements. Applications were studied in four tasks. The first two required experimental testing involving the propellant liquid oxygen difluoride (OF2): the neutron activation analysis of dissolved or suspended metals, and the use of radioactive tracers to evaluate the probability of constrictions in passive components (orifices and filters) becoming clogged by matter dissolved or suspended in the OF2. The other tasks were an appraisal of the applicability of radioisotope techniques to problems arising from the exposure of components to liquid/gas combinations, and an assessment of the applicability of the techniques to other propellants.

  7. Material for radioactive protection

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, R.S.; Boyer, N.W.

    A boron containing burn resistant, low-level radiation protection material useful, for example, as a liner for radioactive waste disposal and storage, a component for neutron absorber, and a shield for a neutron source is described. The material is basically composed of borax in the range of 25 to 50%, coal tar in the range of 25 to 37.5%, with the remainder being an epoxy resin mix. A preferred composition is 50% borax, 25% coal tar and 25% epoxy resin. The material is not susceptible to burning and is about 1/5 the cost of existing radiation protection material utilized in similar applications.

  8. Radioactive and magnetic investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heye, D.; Beiersdorf, H.

    1979-01-01

    Age and growth pattern determination of manganese nodules were explored. Two methods are discussed: (1) measurement of the presence of radioactive iodine isotopes; which is effective only up to 3.105 years, and (2) measurements of magnetism. The growth rates of three nodules were determined. The surface of the nodule was recent, and the overall age of the nodule could be determined with accuracy of better than 30%. Measurement of paleomagnetic effect was attempted to determine wider age ranges, however, the measured sign changes could not be interpreted as paleomagnetic reversals.

  9. Radioactive waste material disposal

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.

    1995-10-24

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide. 3 figs.

  10. Radioactive waste material disposal

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, Charles W.; Beahm, Edward C.; Parker, George W.

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide.

  11. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    Materials related to air pollution are reviewed for the period January 1987, to October 1988. The topics are pollution monitoring, air pollution, and environmental chemistry. The organization consists of two major analytical divisions: (1) gaseous methods; and (2) aerosol and particulate methods. (MVL)

  12. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, K.; And Others

    Pollution of the general environment, which exposes an entire population group for an indeterminate period of time, certainly constitutes a problem in public health. Serious aid pollution episodes have resulted in increased mortality and a possible relationship between chronic exposure to a polluted atmosphere and certain diseases has been…

  13. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Alan

    A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

  14. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    Materials related to air pollution are reviewed for the period January 1987, to October 1988. The topics are pollution monitoring, air pollution, and environmental chemistry. The organization consists of two major analytical divisions: (1) gaseous methods; and (2) aerosol and particulate methods. (MVL)

  15. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Alan

    A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

  16. Deposition of concentrated pollution at large distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scorer, R. S.

    The highest concentrations of airborne pollution are usually found close to the source, but occasional large depositions are found, in certain meteorological situations, at great distances but then only within a rather small area, where showery rainout, a stationary front, or a cloud droplet scavenging mechanism is present. Dispersion may be quite slight during a sea crossing. Transport over distances of more than 1000 km in the European area have been identified by satellite or by tracking radioactive pollution.

  17. Radioactive waste processing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Robert E.; Ziegler, Anton A.; Serino, David F.; Basnar, Paul J.

    1987-01-01

    Apparatus for use in processing radioactive waste materials for shipment and storage in solid form in a container is disclosed. The container includes a top, and an opening in the top which is smaller than the outer circumference of the container. The apparatus includes an enclosure into which the container is placed, solution feed apparatus for adding a solution containing radioactive waste materials into the container through the container opening, and at least one rotatable blade for blending the solution with a fixing agent such as cement or the like as the solution is added into the container. The blade is constructed so that it can pass through the opening in the top of the container. The rotational axis of the blade is displaced from the center of the blade so that after the blade passes through the opening, the blade and container can be adjusted so that one edge of the blade is adjacent the cylindrical wall of the container, to insure thorough mixing. When the blade is inside the container, a substantially sealed chamber is formed to contain vapors created by the chemical action of the waste solution and fixant, and vapors emanating through the opening in the container.

  18. Stefan Meyer: Pioneer of Radioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiter, Wolfgang L.

    2001-03-01

    Stefan Meyer was one of the pioneers in radioactivity research and director of the Vienna Radium Institute, the first institution in the world devoted exclusively to radioactivity. I give here a biographical sketch of Meyer and of some of his colleagues and an overview of the research activities at the Radium Institute.

  19. Understanding radioactive waste. Fourth edition

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, R.L.

    1994-12-31

    Understanding Radioactive Waste has proven to be an informative and valuable textbook for high school and college students as well as an excellent reference for concerned citizens. Now in its fourth edition, it explains what radioactivity is and goes on to explore the merits of various methods of disposal and the use of licensing and regulation as forms of protection.

  20. Radioactive elements in stellar atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Gopka, Vira; Yushchenko, Alexander; Goriely, Stephane; Shavrina, Angelina; Kang, Young Woon

    2006-07-12

    The identification of lines of radioactive elements (Tc, Pm and elements with 83radioactive decay of Th and U in the upper levels of stellar atmospheres, contamination of stellar atmosphere by recent SN explosion, and spallation reactions.

  1. Low Radioactivity in CANDLES

    SciTech Connect

    Kishimoto, T.; Ogawa, I.; Hazama, R.; Yoshida, S.; Umehara, S.; Matsuoka, K.; Sakai, H.; Yokoyama, D.; Mukaida, K.; Ichihara, K.; Tatewaki, Y.; Kishimoto, K.; Hirano, Y.; Yanagisawa, A.; Ajimura, S.

    2005-09-08

    CANDLES is the project to search for double beta decay of 48Ca by using CaF2 crystals. Double beta decay of 48Ca has the highest Q value among all nuclei whose double beta decay is energetically allowed. This feature makes the study almost background free and becomes important once the study is limited by the backgrounds. We studied double beta decays of 48Ca by using ELEGANTS VI detector system which features CaF2(Eu) crystals. We gave the best limit on the lifetime of neutrino-less double beta decay of 48Ca although further development is vital to reach the neutrino mass of current interest for which CANDLES is designed. In this article we present how CANDLES can achieve low radioactivity, which is the key for the future double beta decay experiment.

  2. Arduino based radioactive tracking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd; Rashid, Mohd Fazlie Bin Abdul; Rahman, Anwar Bin Abdul; Ramlan, Atikah

    2017-01-01

    There is a clear need to strengthen security measures to prevent any malevolent use or accidental misuse of radioactive sources. Some of these radioactive sources are regularly transported outside of office or laboratory premises for work and consultation purposes. This paper present the initial development of radioactive source tracking system, which combined Arduino microcontroller, Global Positioning System (GPS) and Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) technologies. The tracking system will help the owner to monitor the movement of the radioactive sources. Currently, the system is capable of tracking the movement of radioactive source through the GPS satellite signals. The GPS co-ordinate could either be transmitted to headquarters at fixed interval via Short Messaging Service (SMS) to enable real time monitoring, or stored in a memory card for offline monitoring and data logging.

  3. Miscellaneous radioactive materials detected during uranium mill tailings surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, M.J.

    1993-10-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management directed the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Pollutant Assessments Group in the conduct of radiological surveys on properties in Monticello, Utah, associated with the Mendaciously millsite National Priority List site. During these surveys, various radioactive materials were detected that were unrelated to the Monticello millsite. The existence and descriptions of these materials were recorded in survey reports and are condensed in this report. The radioactive materials detected are either naturally occurring radioactive material, such as rock and mineral collections, uranium ore, and radioactive coal or manmade radioactive material consisting of tailings from other millsites, mining equipment, radium dials, mill building scraps, building materials, such as brick and cinderblock, and other miscellaneous sources. Awareness of the miscellaneous and naturally occurring material is essential to allow DOE to forecast the additional costs and schedule changes associated with remediation activities. Also, material that may pose a health hazard to the public should be revealed to other regulatory agencies for consideration.

  4. Radioactive waste processing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, R.E.; Ziegler, A.A.; Serino, D.F.; Basnar, P.J.

    1985-08-30

    Apparatus for use in processing radioactive waste materials for shipment and storage in solid form in a container is disclosed. The container includes a top, and an opening in the top which is smaller than the outer circumference of the container. The apparatus includes an enclosure into which the container is placed, solution feed apparatus for adding a solution containing radioactive waste materials into the container through the container opening, and at least one rotatable blade for blending the solution with a fixing agent such as cement or the like as the solution is added into the container. The blade is constructed so that it can pass through the opening in the top of the container. The rotational axis of the blade is displaced from the center of the blade so that after the blade passes through the opening, the blade and container can be adjusted so that one edge of the blade is adjacent the cylindrical wall of the container, to insure thorough mixing. When the blade is inside the container, a substantially sealed chamber is formed to contain vapors created by the chemical action of the waste solution and fixant, and vapors emanating through the opening in the container. The chamber may be formed by placing a removable extension over the top of the container. The extension communicates with the apparatus so that such vapors are contained within the container, extension and solution feed apparatus. A portion of the chamber includes coolant which condenses the vapors. The resulting condensate is returned to the container by the force of gravity.

  5. Environmental radioactive intercomparison program and radioactive standards program

    SciTech Connect

    Dilbeck, G.

    1993-12-31

    The Environmental Radioactivity Intercomparison Program described herein provides quality assurance support for laboratories involved in analyzing public drinking water under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Regulations, and to the environmental radiation monitoring activities of various agencies. More than 300 federal and state nuclear facilities and private laboratories participate in some phase of the program. This presentation describes the Intercomparison Program studies and matrices involved, summarizes the precision and accuracy requirements of various radioactive analytes, and describes the traceability determinations involved with radioactive calibration standards distributed to the participants. A summary of program participants, sample and report distributions, and additional responsibilities of this program are discussed.

  6. Hanford site waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness program

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkendall, J.R.

    1996-09-23

    This plan documents the requirements of the Hanford Site Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention (WMin/P2) Program. The plan specifies requirements for Hanford contractors to prevent pollution from entering the environment, to conserve resources and energy, and to reduce the quantity and toxicity of hazardous, radioactive, mixed, and sanitary waste generated at Hanford. The Pollution Prevention Awareness Program required by DOE 5400.1 (DOE 1988A) is included in the Hanford WMin/P2 Program.

  7. Stable Isotope Mixing Models as a Tool for Tracking Sources of Water and Water Pollutants

    EPA Science Inventory

    One goal of monitoring pollutants is to be able to trace the pollutant to its source. Here we review how mixing models using stable isotope information on water and water pollutants can help accomplish this goal. A number of elements exist in multiple stable (non-radioactive) i...

  8. Stable Isotope Mixing Models as a Tool for Tracking Sources of Water and Water Pollutants

    EPA Science Inventory

    One goal of monitoring pollutants is to be able to trace the pollutant to its source. Here we review how mixing models using stable isotope information on water and water pollutants can help accomplish this goal. A number of elements exist in multiple stable (non-radioactive) i...

  9. Radioactive deposits in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, George W.; Lovering, Tom G.

    1954-01-01

    Reconnaissance examination by Government geologists of many areas, mine properties, and prospects in California during the period between 1948 and 1953 has confirmed the presence of radioactive materials in place at more than 40 localities. Abnormal radioactivity at these localities is due to concentrations of primary and secondary uranium minerals, to radon gas, radium (?), and to thorium minerals. Of the known occurrences only three were thought to contain uranium oxide (uranitite or pitchblende), 4 contained uranium-bearing columbate, tantalate, or titanate minerals, 12 contained secondary uranium minerals, such as autunite, carnotite, and torbernite, one contained radon gas, 7 contained thorium minerals, and, at the remaining 16 localities, the source of the anomalous radiation was not positively determined. The occurrences in which uranium oxide has been tentatively identified include the Rathgeb mine (Calaveras County), the Yerih group of claims (San Bernardino County), and the Rainbow claim (Madera County). Occurrences of secondary uranium minerals are largely confined to the arid desert regions of south-eastern California including deposits in San Bernardino, Kern, Inyo, and Imperial Counties. Uranium-bearing columbate, tantalate, or titanate minerals have been reported from pegmatite and granitic rock in southeastern and eastern California. Thorium minerals have been found in vein deposits in eastern San Bernardino County and from pegmatites and granitic rocks in various parts of southeastern California; placer concentrations of thorium minerals are known from nearly all areas in the State that are underlain, in part, by plutonic crystalline rocks. The primary uranium minerals occur principally as minute accessory crystals in pegmatite or granitic rock, or with base-metal sulfide minerals in veins. Thorium minerals also occur as accessory crystals in pegmatite or granitic rock, in placer deposits derived from such rock, and, at Mountain Pass, in veins

  10. Automatic Searching Radioactive Sources by Airborne Radioactive Survey Using Multicopter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rim, H.; Eun, S. B.; Kim, K.; Park, S.; Jung, H. K.

    2015-12-01

    In order to prepare emergency situation lost a dangerous radioelement source in advance and to search a radioactive source automatically, we develop airborne radioelement survey system by multicopter. This multicopter radioelement survey system consists of a small portable customized BGO (Bismuth Germanate Oxide) detector, video recording part, wireless connecting part to ground pilot, GPS, and several equipments for automatic flight. This system is possible to search flight by preprogramed lines. This radioactive detecting system are tested to find intentional hidden source, The performance of detecting a source is well proved with very low flight altitude in spite of depending on the magnitude of radioelement sources. The advantage of multicopter system, one of UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle), is to avoid the potential of close access to a dangerous radioactive source by using fully automatic searching capability. In this paper, we introduce our multicopter system for detecting radioactive source and synthetic case history for demonstrating this system.

  11. Dispersion of radioactive pollutant in a tornadic storm

    SciTech Connect

    Pepper, D.W.

    1981-05-01

    A three-dimensional numerical model is used to calculate ground-level air concentration and deposition (due to precipitation scavenging) after a hypothetical tornado strike at a plutonium fabrication facility in Pennsylvania. Plutonium particles less than 10 ..mu..m in diameter are assumed to be lifted into the tornadic storm cell by the vortex. The rotational characteristics of the tornadic storm are embedded within the larger mesoscale flow of the storm system. The design-basis translational wind values are based on probabilities associated with existing records of tornado strikes in the vicinity of the plant site. Turbulence exchange coefficients are based on empirical values deduced from experimental data in severe storms and from theoretical assumptions obtained from the literature. The quasi-Lagrangian method of moments is used to model the transport of concentration within a grid cell volume. In all case studies, the effects of updrafts and downdrafts, coupled with scavenging of the particulates by precipitation, account for most of the material being deposited within 20 to 45 km downwind of the plant site. Ground-level isopleths in the x-y plane show that most of the material is deposited behind and slightly to the left of the centerline trajectory of the storm. Approximately 5% of the material is dispersed into the stratosphere and anvil section of the storm.

  12. SELF SINTERING OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES

    DOEpatents

    McVay, T.N.; Johnson, J.R.; Struxness, E.G.; Morgan, K.Z.

    1959-12-29

    A method is described for disposal of radioactive liquid waste materials. The wastes are mixed with clays and fluxes to form a ceramic slip and disposed in a thermally insulated container in a layer. The temperature of the layer rises due to conversion of the energy of radioactivity to heat boillng off the liquid to fomn a dry mass. The dry mass is then covered with thermal insulation, and the mass is self-sintered into a leach-resistant ceramic cake by further conversion of the energy of radioactivity to heat.

  13. Star formation and extinct radioactivities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, A. G. W.

    1984-01-01

    An assessment is made of the evidence for the existence of now-extinct radioactivities in primitive solar system material, giving attention to implications for the early stages of sun and solar system formation. The characteristics of possible disturbances in dense molecular clouds which can initiate the formation of cloud cores is discussed, with emphasis on these disturbances able to generate fresh radioactivities. A one-solar mass red giant star on the asymptotic giant branch appears to have been the best candidate to account for the short-lived extinct radioactivities in the early solar system.

  14. RADIOACTIVE CONCENTRATOR AND RADIATION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Hatch, L.P.

    1959-12-29

    A method is presented for forming a permeable ion exchange bed using Montmorillonite clay to absorb and adsorb radioactive ions from liquid radioactive wastes. A paste is formed of clay, water, and a material that fomns with clay a stable aggregate in the presence of water. The mixture is extruded into a volume of water to form clay rods. The rods may then be used to remove radioactive cations from liquid waste solutions. After use, the rods are removed from the solution and heated to a temperature of 750 to 1000 deg C to fix the ratioactive cations in the clay.

  15. Final disposal of radioactive waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freiesleben, H.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste - LLW, intermediate-level waste - ILW, high-level waste - HLW) are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of countries is mentioned. Also, the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency with regard to the development and monitoring of international safety standards for both spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management is described.

  16. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorer, Richard S.

    The purpose of this book is to describe the basic mechanisms whereby pollution is transported and diffused in the atmosphere. It is designed to give practitioners an understanding of basic mechanics and physics so they may have a correct basis on which to formulate their decisions related to practical air pollution control problems. Since many…

  17. Particle Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... EPA Air Quality Index (AQI) tells you when air pollution is likely to reach levels that could be ... high, take steps to limit the amount of air you breathe in while you're outside. ... pollution levels are usually lower. Choose easier outdoor activities ( ...

  18. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorer, Richard S.

    The purpose of this book is to describe the basic mechanisms whereby pollution is transported and diffused in the atmosphere. It is designed to give practitioners an understanding of basic mechanics and physics so they may have a correct basis on which to formulate their decisions related to practical air pollution control problems. Since many…

  19. Air Pollution.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  20. Air Pollution.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  1. Radioactive decay data tables

    SciTech Connect

    Kocher, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    The estimation of radiation dose to man from either external or internal exposure to radionuclides requires a knowledge of the energies and intensities of the atomic and nuclear radiations emitted during the radioactive decay process. The availability of evaluated decay data for the large number of radionuclides of interest is thus of fundamental importance for radiation dosimetry. This handbook contains a compilation of decay data for approximately 500 radionuclides. These data constitute an evaluated data file constructed for use in the radiological assessment activities of the Technology Assessments Section of the Health and Safety Research Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The radionuclides selected for this handbook include those occurring naturally in the environment, those of potential importance in routine or accidental releases from the nuclear fuel cycle, those of current interest in nuclear medicine and fusion reactor technology, and some of those of interest to Committee 2 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the estimation of annual limits on intake via inhalation and ingestion for occupationally exposed individuals.

  2. (Immobilization of radioactive wastes)

    SciTech Connect

    Dole, L.R.

    1986-12-18

    The traveler participated as the co-chairman of the France/US Workshop in Cadarache, France, on the immobilization of radioactive wastes in cement-based materials. These meetings and site visits were conducted under the bilateral exchange agreement between the US-DOE and the Commissariate a l'Energie Atomique (CEA-France). Visits in France included the Cadarache, Valduc, Saclay, and Fontenay-aux-Roses Nuclear Research Centers. As a result of these discussions, an exchange of scientists between Saclay and ORNL was proposed. The traveler continued on to the FRG to visit a hazardous waste site remedial action project in Sprendlingen and the nuclear research and production facilities at the Karlsruhe Kernforschungszentrum (KfK) and the Alkem/Nukem/Transnuklear facilities at Hanau. Visits in the FRG were under the bilateral exchange agreement between the US-DOE and the Bundes Ministerium fur Forschung und Technologie (BMFT). The FRG supplied the traveler data on studies of super-compaction volume reduction efficiencies by KfK and Nukem. Also, Transnuklear is considering contributing two of their larger Konrad-certified packages to the MDU studies at ORNL. 1 tab.

  3. Consumer Products Containing Radioactive Materials

    MedlinePlus

    ... meter. photo courtesy of Oak Ridge Associated Universities Granite Countertops Granite can release the radioactive gas radon into the ... released can vary considerably from one type of granite to another, the radon concen- trations in most ...

  4. Radioactive waste material melter apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Newman, D.F.; Ross, W.A.

    1990-04-24

    An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another. 8 figs.

  5. Radioactive waste material melter apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Newman, Darrell F.; Ross, Wayne A.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another.

  6. Low-Activity Radioactive Wastes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In 2003 EPA published an Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPR) to collect public comment on alternatives for disposal of waste containing low concentrations of radioactive material ('low-activity' waste).

  7. [Sea dumping of radioactive wastes].

    PubMed

    König, L A

    1983-09-01

    This paper is an introduction to the problems of dumping at sea of radioactive wastes. A short survey is given on the dumping actions previously performed, the legal justification by international treaties, and the most important radioecological questions.

  8. Progresses in proton radioactivity studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, L. S.; Maglione, E.

    2016-07-07

    In the present talk, we will discuss recent progresses in the theoretical study of proton radioactivity and their impact on the present understanding of nuclear structure at the extremes of proton stability.

  9. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, P.

    1997-02-01

    This paper discusses the broad problems presented by Naturally Occuring Radioactive Materials (NORM). Technologically Enhanced naturally occuring radioactive material includes any radionuclides whose physical, chemical, radiological properties or radionuclide concentration have been altered from their natural state. With regard to NORM in particular, radioactive contamination is radioactive material in an undesired location. This is a concern in a range of industries: petroleum; uranium mining; phosphorus and phosphates; fertilizers; fossil fuels; forestry products; water treatment; metal mining and processing; geothermal energy. The author discusses in more detail the problem in the petroleum industry, including the isotopes of concern, the hazards they present, the contamination which they cause, ways to dispose of contaminated materials, and regulatory issues. He points out there are three key programs to reduce legal exposure and problems due to these contaminants: waste minimization; NORM assesment (surveys); NORM compliance (training).

  10. Radioactivity of the Cooling Water

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Wigner, E. P.

    1943-03-01

    The most important source of radioactivity at the exit manifold of the pile will be due to O{sup 19}, formed by neutron absorption of O{sup 18}. A recent measurement of Fermi and Weil permits to estimate that it will be safe to stay about 80 minutes daily close to the exit manifolds without any shield. Estimates are given for the radioactivities from other sources both in the neighborhood and farther away from the pile.

  11. Predicted halflives for cluster radioactivities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poenaru, D. N.; Greiner, W.; Ivascu, M.

    1989-10-01

    The main results of the analytical superasymmetric fission model, describing in a unified manner cluster radioactivities, alpha-decay and cold fission processes, are briefly reviewed. Predicted halflives for 14C, 24, 25, 26Ne, 28, 30Mg and 32Si radioactivities in the range 10 11-10 26 s and the corresponding branching ratios relative to α-decay 10 -16 - 10 -9 have been experimentally confirmed within 1.5 orders of magnitude.

  12. Storage depot for radioactive material

    DOEpatents

    Szulinski, Milton J.

    1983-01-01

    Vertical drilling of cylindrical holes in the soil, and the lining of such holes, provides storage vaults called caissons. A guarded depot is provided with a plurality of such caissons covered by shielded closures preventing radiation from penetrating through any linear gap to the atmosphere. The heat generated by the radioactive material is dissipated through the vertical liner of the well into the adjacent soil and thus to the ground surface so that most of the heat from the radioactive material is dissipated into the atmosphere in a manner involving no significant amount of biologically harmful radiation. The passive cooling of the radioactive material without reliance upon pumps, personnel, or other factor which might fail, constitutes one of the most advantageous features of this system. Moreover this system is resistant to damage from tornadoes or earthquakes. Hermetically sealed containers of radioactive material may be positioned in the caissons. Loading vehicles can travel throughout the depot to permit great flexibility of loading and unloading radioactive materials. Radioactive material can be shifted to a more closely spaced caisson after ageing sufficiently to generate much less heat. The quantity of material stored in a caisson is restricted by the average capacity for heat dissipation of the soil adjacent such caisson.

  13. Radioactive materials in recycled metals

    SciTech Connect

    Lubenau, J.O.; Yusko, J.G.

    1995-04-01

    In recent years, the metal recycling industry has become increasingly aware of an unwanted component in metal scrap-radioactive material. Worldwide, there have been 35 instances where radioactive sources were unintentionally smelted in the course of recycling metal scrap. In some cases contaminated metal consumer products were distributed internationally. In at least one case, serious radiation exposures of workers and the public occurred. Radioactive material appearing in metal scrap includes sources subject to licensing under the Atomic Energy Act and also naturally occurring radioactive material. U.S. mills that have smelted a radioactive source face costs resulting from decontamination, waste disposal, and lost profits that range from 7 to 23 million U.S. dollars for each event. To solve the problem, industry and the government have jointly undertaken initiatives to increase awareness of the problem within the metal recycling industry. Radiation monitoring of recycled metal scrap is being performed increasingly by mills and, to a lesser extent, by scrap processors. The monitoring does not, however, provide 100% protection. Improvements in regulatory oversight by the government could stimulate improved accounting and control of licensed sources. However, additional government effort in this area must be reconciled with competing priorities in radiation safety and budgetary constraints. The threat of radioactive material in recycled metal scrap will continue for the foreseeable future and, thus, poses regulatory policy challenges for both developed and developing nations.

  14. Radioactive materials in recycled metals.

    PubMed

    Lubenau, J O; Yusko, J G

    1995-04-01

    In recent years, the metal recycling industry has become increasingly aware of an unwanted component in metal scrap--radioactive material. Worldwide, there have been 35 instances where radioactive sources were unintentionally smelted in the course of recycling metal scrap. In some cases contaminated metal consumer products were distributed internationally. In at least one case, serious radiation exposures of workers and the public occurred. Radioactive material appearing in metal scrap includes sources subject to licensing under the Atomic Energy Act and also naturally occurring radioactive material. U.S. mills that have smelted a radioactive source face costs resulting from decontamination, waste disposal, and lost profits that range from 7 to 23 million U.S. dollars for each event. To solve the problem, industry and the government have jointly undertaken initiatives to increase awareness of the problem within the metal recycling industry. Radiation monitoring of recycled metal scrap is being performed increasingly by mills and, to a lesser extent, by scrap processors. The monitoring does not, however, provide 100% protection. Improvements in regulatory oversight by the government could stimulate improved accounting and control of licensed sources. However, additional government effort in this area must be reconciled with competing priorities in radiation safety and budgetary constraints. The threat of radioactive material in recycled metal scrap will continue for the foreseeable future and, thus, poses regulatory policy challenges for both developed and developing nations.

  15. 49 CFR 172.556 - RADIOACTIVE placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE placard. 172.556 Section 172.556... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.556 RADIOACTIVE placard. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE... on the RADIOACTIVE placard must be white in the lower portion with a yellow triangle in the...

  16. Endangered and Extinct Radioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leising, M. D.

    1993-07-01

    Gamma ray spectroscopy holds great promise for probing nucleosynthesis in individual nucleosynthesis events, via observations of short-lived radioactivity, and for measuring global galactic nucleosynthesis today with detections of longer-lived radioactivity. Many of the astrophysical issues addressed by these observations are precisely those that must be understood in order to interpret observations of extinct radioactivity in meteorites. It was somewhat surprising that the former case was realized first for a Type II supernova, when both 56Co [1] and 57Co [2] were detected in SN 1987A. These provide unprecedented constraints on models of Type II explosions. Live 26Al in the galaxy might come from Type II supernovae and their progenitors, and if this is eventually shown to be the case, can constrain massive star evolution, supernova nucleosynthesis, the galactic Type II supernova rate, and even models of the chemical evolution of the galaxy [3]. Titanium-44 is produced primarily in the alpha-rich freezeout from nuclear statistical equilibrium, possibly in Type Ia [4] and almost certainly in Type II supernovae [5]. The galactic recurrence time of these events is comparable to the 44Ti lifetime, so we expect to be able to see at most a few otherwise unseen 44Ti remnants at any given time. No such remnants have been detected yet [6]. Very simple arguments lead to the expectation that about 4 x 10^-4 M(sub)solar mass of 44Ca are produced per century. The product of the supernova frequency times the 44Ti yield per event must equal this number. Even assuming that only the latest event would be seen, rates in excess of 2 century^-1 are ruled out at >=99% confidence by the gamma ray limits. Only rates less than 0.3 century^-1 are acceptable at >5% confidence, and this means that the yield per event must be >10^-3 M(sub)solar mass to produce the requisite 44Ca. Rates this low are incompatible with current estimates for Type II supernovae and yields this high are also very

  17. Modified microspheres for cleaning liquid wastes from radioactive nuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Danilin, Lev; Drozhzhin, Valery

    2007-07-01

    An effective solution of nuclear industry problems related to deactivation of technological and natural waters polluted with toxic and radioactive elements is the development of inorganic sorbents capable of not only withdrawing radioactive nuclides, but also of providing their subsequent conservation under conditions of long-term storage. A successful technical approach to creation of sorbents can be the use of hollow aluminosilicate microspheres. Such microspheres are formed from mineral additives during coal burning in furnaces of boiler units of electric power stations. Despite some reduction in exchange capacity per a mass unit of sorbents the latter have high kinetic characteristics that makes it possible to carry out the sorption process both in static and dynamic modes. Taking into account large industrial resources of microspheres as by-products of electric power stations, a comparative simplicity of the modification process, as well as good kinetic and capacitor characteristics, this class of sorbents can be considered promising enough for solving the problems of cleaning liquid radioactive wastes of various pollution levels. (authors)

  18. [Investigation of radioactivity measurement of medical radioactive waste].

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Masuda, Kazutaka; Kusakabe, Kiyoko; Kinoshita, Fujimi; Kobayashi, Kazumi; Yamamoto, Tetsuo; Kanaya, Shinichi; Kida, Tetsuo; Yanagisawa, Masamichi; Iwanaga, Tetsuo; Ikebuchi, Hideharu; Kusama, Keiji; Namiki, Nobuo; Okuma, Hiroshi; Fujimura, Yoko; Horikoshi, Akiko; Tanaka, Mamoru

    2004-11-01

    To explore the possibility of which medical radioactive wastes could be disposed as general wastes after keeping them a certain period of time and confirming that their radioactivity reach a background level (BGL), we made a survey of these wastes in several nuclear medicine facilities. The radioactive wastes were collected for one week, packed in a box according to its half-life, and measured its radioactivity by scintillation survey meter with time. Some wastes could reach a BGL within 10 times of half-life, but 19% of the short half-life group (group 1) including 99mTc and 123I, and 8% of the middle half-life group (group 2) including 67Ga, (111)In, and 201Tl did not reach a BGL within 20 times of half-life. A reason for delaying the time of reaching a BGL might be partially attributed to high initial radiation dose rate or heavy package weight. However, mixing with the nuclides of longer half-life was estimated to be the biggest factor affecting this result. When disposing medical radioactive wastes as general wastes, it is necessary to avoid mixing with radionuclide of longer half-life and confirm that it reaches a BGL by actual measurement.

  19. Light Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riegel, Kurt W.

    1973-01-01

    Outdoor lighting is light pollution which handicaps certain astronomical programs. Protective measures must be adopted by the government to aid observational astronomy without sacrificing legitimate outdoor lighting needs. (PS)

  20. Ozone Pollution

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Known as tropospheric or ground-level ozone, this gas is harmful to human heath and the environment. Since it forms from emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), these pollutants are regulated under air quality standards.

  1. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... tobacco smoke. How is air pollution linked to climate change? While climate change is a global process, it ... ozone levels are also a concern. Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A ...

  2. Light Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riegel, Kurt W.

    1973-01-01

    Outdoor lighting is light pollution which handicaps certain astronomical programs. Protective measures must be adopted by the government to aid observational astronomy without sacrificing legitimate outdoor lighting needs. (PS)

  3. Atmospheric pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, E.E.

    1987-01-01

    Atmospheric pollution (AP), its causes, and measures to prevent or reduce it are examined in reviews and reports presented at a workshop held in Damascus, Syria in August 1985. Topics discussed include AP and planning studies, emission sources, pollutant formation and transformation, AP effects on man and vegetation, AP control, atmospheric dispersion mechanisms and modeling, sampling and analysis techniques, air-quality monitoring, and applications. Diagrams, graphs, and tables of numerical data are provided.

  4. Accumulation of Radioactive Cesium Released from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Terrestrial Cyanobacteria Nostoc commune

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Hideaki; Shirato, Susumu; Tahara, Tomoya; Sato, Kenji; Takenaka, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident released large amounts of radioactive substances into the environment and contaminated the soil of Tohoku and Kanto districts in Japan. Removal of radioactive material from the environment is an urgent problem, and soil purification using plants is being considered. In this study, we investigated the ability of 12 seed plant species and a cyanobacterium to accumulate radioactive material. The plants did not accumulate radioactive material at high levels, but high accumulation was observed in the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune. In Nihonmatsu City, Fukushima Prefecture, N. commune accumulated 415,000 Bq/kg dry weight 134Cs and 607,000 Bq kg−1 dry weight 137Cs. The concentration of cesium in N. commune tended to be high in areas where soil radioactivity was high. A cultivation experiment confirmed that N. commune absorbed radioactive cesium from polluted soil. These data demonstrated that radiological absorption using N. commune might be suitable for decontaminating polluted soil. PMID:24256969

  5. Radioactive Nanomaterials for Multimodality Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Daiqin; Dougherty, Casey A.; Yang, Dongzhi; Wu, Hongwei; Hong, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear imaging techniques, including primarily positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), can provide quantitative information for a biological event in vivo with ultra-high sensitivity, however, the comparatively low spatial resolution is their major limitation in clinical application. By convergence of nuclear imaging with other imaging modalities like computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and optical imaging, the hybrid imaging platforms can overcome the limitations from each individual imaging technique. Possessing versatile chemical linking ability and good cargo-loading capacity, radioactive nanomaterials can serve as ideal imaging contrast agents. In this review, we provide a brief overview about current state-of-the-art applications of radioactive nanomaterials in the circumstances of multimodality imaging. We present strategies for incorporation of radioisotope(s) into nanomaterials along with applications of radioactive nanomaterials in multimodal imaging. Advantages and limitations of radioactive nanomaterials for multimodal imaging applications are discussed. Finally, a future perspective of possible radioactive nanomaterial utilization is presented for improving diagnosis and patient management in a variety of diseases. PMID:27227167

  6. The biological impacts of ingested radioactive materials on the pale grass blue butterfly

    PubMed Central

    Nohara, Chiyo; Hiyama, Atsuki; Taira, Wataru; Tanahara, Akira; Otaki, Joji M.

    2014-01-01

    A massive amount of radioactive materials has been released into the environment by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, but its biological impacts have rarely been examined. Here, we have quantitatively evaluated the relationship between the dose of ingested radioactive cesium and mortality and abnormality rates using the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha. When larvae from Okinawa, which is likely the least polluted locality in Japan, were fed leaves collected from polluted localities, mortality and abnormality rates increased sharply at low doses in response to the ingested cesium dose. This dose-response relationship was best fitted by power function models, which indicated that the half lethal and abnormal doses were 1.9 and 0.76 Bq per larva, corresponding to 54,000 and 22,000 Bq per kilogram body weight, respectively. Both the retention of radioactive cesium in a pupa relative to the ingested dose throughout the larval stage and the accumulation of radioactive cesium in a pupa relative to the activity concentration in a diet were highest at the lowest level of cesium ingested. We conclude that the risk of ingesting a polluted diet is realistic, at least for this butterfly, and likely for certain other organisms living in the polluted area. PMID:24844938

  7. The biological impacts of ingested radioactive materials on the pale grass blue butterfly.

    PubMed

    Nohara, Chiyo; Hiyama, Atsuki; Taira, Wataru; Tanahara, Akira; Otaki, Joji M

    2014-05-15

    A massive amount of radioactive materials has been released into the environment by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, but its biological impacts have rarely been examined. Here, we have quantitatively evaluated the relationship between the dose of ingested radioactive cesium and mortality and abnormality rates using the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha. When larvae from Okinawa, which is likely the least polluted locality in Japan, were fed leaves collected from polluted localities, mortality and abnormality rates increased sharply at low doses in response to the ingested cesium dose. This dose-response relationship was best fitted by power function models, which indicated that the half lethal and abnormal doses were 1.9 and 0.76 Bq per larva, corresponding to 54,000 and 22,000 Bq per kilogram body weight, respectively. Both the retention of radioactive cesium in a pupa relative to the ingested dose throughout the larval stage and the accumulation of radioactive cesium in a pupa relative to the activity concentration in a diet were highest at the lowest level of cesium ingested. We conclude that the risk of ingesting a polluted diet is realistic, at least for this butterfly, and likely for certain other organisms living in the polluted area.

  8. The biological impacts of ingested radioactive materials on the pale grass blue butterfly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nohara, Chiyo; Hiyama, Atsuki; Taira, Wataru; Tanahara, Akira; Otaki, Joji M.

    2014-05-01

    A massive amount of radioactive materials has been released into the environment by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, but its biological impacts have rarely been examined. Here, we have quantitatively evaluated the relationship between the dose of ingested radioactive cesium and mortality and abnormality rates using the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha. When larvae from Okinawa, which is likely the least polluted locality in Japan, were fed leaves collected from polluted localities, mortality and abnormality rates increased sharply at low doses in response to the ingested cesium dose. This dose-response relationship was best fitted by power function models, which indicated that the half lethal and abnormal doses were 1.9 and 0.76 Bq per larva, corresponding to 54,000 and 22,000 Bq per kilogram body weight, respectively. Both the retention of radioactive cesium in a pupa relative to the ingested dose throughout the larval stage and the accumulation of radioactive cesium in a pupa relative to the activity concentration in a diet were highest at the lowest level of cesium ingested. We conclude that the risk of ingesting a polluted diet is realistic, at least for this butterfly, and likely for certain other organisms living in the polluted area.

  9. Assessment of environmental radioactivity for Batman, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Damla, Nevzat; Cevik, Ugur; Kobya, Ali Ihsan; Ataksor, Berna; Isik, Umit

    2010-01-01

    The province of Batman, located in southern Anatolia, has a population of approximately 500,000. To our knowledge, there exists no information regarding the environmental radioactivity in this province. Therefore, gamma activity measurements in soil, building materials and water samples and an indoor radon survey have been carried out in the Batman province. The mean activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th and 40K) and a fission product (137Cs) were 35+/-8, 25+/-10, 274+/-167 and 12+/-7 Bq kg(-1), respectively, in the soil samples. The concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in the selected building materials ranged from 18 to 48 Bq kg(-1), 8 to 49 Bq kg(-1) and 68 to 477 Bq kg(-1), respectively. All the calculated radium equivalent (Raeq) activity values of the building material samples are lower than the limit of 370 Bq kg(-1), equivalent to a gamma-dose of 1.5 mSv year(-1). The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in tap waters collected from the study area were determined with mean specific activity concentrations of 42+/-15, 35+/-9 and 524+/-190 mBq L(-1), respectively. Indoor radon measurements were made at 95 dwellings in Batman using a CR-39 detector. The radon concentration levels were found to vary from 23 to 145 Bq m(-3). The arithmetic mean of the measured radon concentration levels was found to be 84 Bq m(-3) with a standard deviation value of 23 Bq m(-3). The measurement results obtained in this study did not significantly differ from those taken in other parts of the country. The data generated in this study can be used to determine whether the Batman province is in a normal or high background radiation area and provides a valuable database for future estimations of the impact of radioactive pollution.

  10. Enhanced Radioactive Material Source Security.

    PubMed

    Klinger, Joseph G

    2016-02-01

    Requirements for additional security measures for sealed radioactive sources have evolved since they were first implemented after the terrorist events of 11 September 2001. This paper will describe the sequence of those measures, commencing with the early orders issued by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to the May 2013 adoption of 10 CFR Part 37, Physical Protections of Category 1 and Category 2 Quantities of Radioactive Material. Part 37 requirements will be discussed in detail, as the 37 NRC Agreement States, which regulate approximately 88% of the radioactive material licensees, will be required to enact by 19 March 2016. In addition to the Part 37 requirements, the paper will also highlight some of the other ongoing efforts of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration's Global Threat Reduction Initiative and the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors.

  11. Urban pollution.

    PubMed

    Sancini, Angela; Tomei, Francesco; Tomei, Gianfranco; Caciari, Tiziana; Di Giorgio, Valeria; André, Jean-Claude; Palermo, Paola; Andreozzi, Giorgia; Nardone, Nadia; Schifano, Maria Pia; Fiaschetti, Maria; Cetica, Carlotta; Ciarrocca, Manuela

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution represents a health risk for people living in urban environment. Urban air consists in a complex mixture of chemicals and carcinogens and its effects on health can be summarized in acute respiratory effects, neoplastic nonneoplastic (e.g. chronic bronchitis) chronic respiratory effects, and effects on other organs and systems. Air pollution may be defined according to origin of the phenomena that determine it: natural causes (natural fumes, decomposition, volcanic ash) or anthropogenic causes which are the result of human activities (industrial and civil emissions). Transport is the sector that more than others contributes to the deterioration of air quality in cities. In this context, in recent years, governments of the territory were asked to advance policies aimed at solving problems related to pollution. In consideration of the many effects on health caused by pollution it becomes necessary to know the risks from exposure to various environmental pollutants and to limit and control their effects. Many are the categories of "outdoor" workers, who daily serve the in urban environment: police, drivers, newsagents, etc.

  12. Dumping of low-level radioactive waste in the deep ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Templeton, W.L.

    1980-01-01

    Two international agreements relate to the dumping of packaged radioactive waste into the oceans - the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping Wastes and Other Matter of 1972 (London Convention) and the Multilateral Consultation and Surveillance Mechanism for Sea Dumping of Radioactive Waste of 1977 under the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The International Atomic Energy Agency was given the responsibility to define high-level radioactive wastes which are unsuitable for dumping in the oceans and to make recommendations for the dumping of other radioactive wastes. A revised Definition and Recommendations was submitted and accepted by the London Convention. This paper reviews the technical basis for the Definition and describes how it has been applied to the radiological assessment of the only operational dumping site in the North East Atlantic.

  13. Computer Simulation of Radioactive Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jesse, Kenneth E.

    2003-12-01

    The straightforward way to determine the half-life of a radioactive substance is to measure its activity in each of a series of time intervals, plot the data as a function of the accumulated time on semilog paper, and then measure the slope of the graph. A computer simulation of this procedure follows based on material presented in Clifford E. Swartz's excellent book, Used Math. He presents a very fine mathematical derivation of the exponential law of decay for radioactive atoms in Chapter 4. A brief summary follows using his notation and equation numbers.

  14. Radioactive dating of the elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowan, John J.; Thielemann, Friedrich-Karl; Truran, James W.

    1991-01-01

    The extent to which an accurate determination of the age of the Galaxy, and thus a lower bound on the age of the universe, can be obtained from radioactive dating is discussed. Emphasis is given to the use of the long-lived radioactive nuclei Re-187, Th-232, U-238, and U-235. The nature of the production sites of these and other potential Galactic chronometers is examined along with their production ratios. Age determinations from models of nucleocosmochronology are reviewed and compared with age determination from stellar sources and age constraints form cosmological considerations.

  15. Induced radioactivity in LDEF components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, B. A.; Fishman, G. J.; Parnell, T. A.; Laird, C. E.

    1992-01-01

    A systematic study of the induced radioactivity of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) is being carried out in order to gather information about the low earth orbit radiation environment and its effects on materials. The large mass of the LDEF spacecraft, its stabilized configuration, and long mission duration have presented an opportunity to determine space radiation-induced radioactivities with a precision not possible before. Data presented include preliminary activities for steel and aluminum structural samples, and activation subexperiment foils. Effects seen in the data show a clear indication of the trapped proton anisotropy in the South Atlantic Anomaly and suggest contributions from different sources of external radiation fluxes.

  16. Storage containers for radioactive material

    DOEpatents

    Groh, E.F.; Cassidy, D.A.; Dates, L.R.

    1980-07-31

    A radioactive material storage system is claimed for use in the laboratory having a flat base plate with a groove in one surface thereof and a hollow pedestal extending perpendicularly away from the other surface thereof, a sealing gasket in the groove, a cover having a filter therein and an outwardly extending flange which fits over the plate, the groove and the gasket, and a clamp for maintaining the cover and the plate sealed together. The plate and the cover and the clamp cooperate to provide a storage area for radioactive material readily accessible for use or inventory. Wall mounts are provided to prevent accidental formation of critical masses during storage.

  17. Storage containers for radioactive material

    DOEpatents

    Groh, Edward F.; Cassidy, Dale A.; Dates, Leon R.

    1981-01-01

    A radioactive material storage system for use in the laboratory having a flat base plate with a groove in one surface thereof and a hollow pedestal extending perpendicularly away from the other surface thereof, a sealing gasket in the groove, a cover having a filter therein and an outwardly extending flange which fits over the plate, the groove and the gasket, and a clamp for maintaining the cover and the plate sealed together, whereby the plate and the cover and the clamp cooperate to provide a storage area for radioactive material readily accessible for use or

  18. Managing potentially radioactive scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    2002-11-19

    The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements published NCRP Report No. 141 on November 19, 2002. Contract DE-FG02-98CH10945 provided the sole support for this report titled ''Managing Potentially Radioactive Scrap Metal.'' Some preliminary work supported by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency that led to an NCRP Letter Report provided some background information for this work. NCRP Report No. 141 provides recommendations on the methodologies and techniques available to the United States for disposing of radioactive, contaminated scrap metals.

  19. Radioactive Ion Beams and Radiopharmaceuticals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laxdal, R. E.; Morton, A. C.; Schaffer, P.

    2014-02-01

    Experiments performed at radioactive ion beam facilities shed new light on nuclear physics and nuclear structure, as well as nuclear astrophysics, materials science and medical science. The many existing facilities, as well as the new generation of facilities being built and those proposed for the future, are a testament to the high interest in this rapidly expanding field. The opportunities inherent in radioactive beam facilities have enabled the search for radioisotopes suitable for medical diagnosis or therapy. In this article, an overview of the production techniques and the current status of RIB facilities and proposals will be presented. In addition, accelerator-generated radiopharmaceuticals will be reviewed.

  20. [Radioactive labeling of Blatella germanica].

    PubMed

    Metzger, R; Hanisch, J; Regenstein, W

    1979-06-01

    For ecological investigations in natural populations of Blatella germanica a new method of dry incorporation of a porcelain tracer is developed. The quality of this method in contrast with other non radioactive and at present radioactive methods depends on the stable position of the tracer and the possibility of taking different marking substances for individually marking a large number of experimental animals. The identification bases on the previously investigated half-life values. The new method in combination with the recaptivate method is a good possibility to analyse a population of cockroaches.

  1. Radioactive dating of the elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowan, John J.; Thielemann, Friedrich-Karl; Truran, James W.

    1991-01-01

    The extent to which an accurate determination of the age of the Galaxy, and thus a lower bound on the age of the universe, can be obtained from radioactive dating is discussed. Emphasis is given to the use of the long-lived radioactive nuclei Re-187, Th-232, U-238, and U-235. The nature of the production sites of these and other potential Galactic chronometers is examined along with their production ratios. Age determinations from models of nucleocosmochronology are reviewed and compared with age determination from stellar sources and age constraints form cosmological considerations.

  2. Is it necessary to raise awareness about technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials?

    PubMed

    Michalik, Bogusław

    2009-10-01

    Since radiation risks are usually considered to be related to nuclear energy, the majority of research on radiation protection has focused on artificial radionuclides in radioactive wastes, spent nuclear fuel or global fallout caused by A-bomb tests and nuclear power plant failures. Far less attention has been paid to the radiation risk caused by exposure to ionizing radiation originating from natural radioactivity enhanced due to human activity, despite the fact that technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials are common in many branches of the non-nuclear industry. They differ significantly from "classical" nuclear materials and usually look like other industrial waste. The derived radiation risk is usually associated with risk caused by other pollutants and can not be controlled by applying rules designed for pure radioactive waste. Existing data have pointed out a strong need to take into account the non-nuclear industry where materials containing enhanced natural radioactivity occur as a special case of radiation risk and enclose them in the frame of the formal control. But up to now there are no reasonable and clear regulations in this matter. As a result, the non-nuclear industries of concern are not aware of problems connected with natural radioactivity or they would expect negative consequences in the case of implementing radiation protection measures. The modification of widely comprehended environmental legislation with requirements taken from radiation protection seems to be the first step to solve this problem and raise awareness about enhanced natural radioactivity for all stakeholders of concern.

  3. [Radioactivity monitoring of steel processing in Croatian steel mills and foundries].

    PubMed

    Sofilić, Tahir; Marjanović, Tihana; Rastovcan-Mioc, Alenka

    2006-03-01

    The last twenty years have seen a number of cases of radioactive pollution in metallurgical industry. Therefore many metal producers have implemented systematic monitoring of radioactivity in their production processes, especially in steel processing, steel being the most applied construction material with the annual world output of over billion tonnes. Learning from the experience of the best known steel producers in Europe and the world Croatian steel mills have introduced radioactivity surveillance and control systems for radioactive elements in steel scrap, semi-finished and finished products. This paper argues in favour of radioactivity surveillance and control systems in steel and steel castings production in Croatia, and describes current systems and solutions available. Since we lack our own standards and regulations to control both domestic and imported steel scrap, semi-finished products (crude steel, hot and cold rolled strip) and finished products, we need to start implementing radioactivity surveillance and control systems in our steel and steel castings production applying the current international recommendations and guidelines, until we build up our own monitoring system and adopt legislation on the national level. This paper gives an overview of the basic types of radioactivity surveillance and control systems, the most frequent requirements to be met, as well as of the measurement and information flow in their application in steel and steel castings production.

  4. Radioactive contamination and radionuclide migration in ground water. January 1970-May 1989 (Citations from the NTIS data base). Report for January 1970-May 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-05-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the contamination of groundwater with radionuclides and their subsequent migration. Monitoring surveys of existing sites with actual or potential radioactive groundwater contamination are included. Transport and migration models for radionuclides in groundwater are discussed. Natural radiation and accidental releases are considered in addition to anthropogenic sources of radioactive pollution such as waste storage and disposal. Contributions to radioactive pollution from uranium mining and processing is discussed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 209 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  5. RadioActive101 Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brites, Maria José; Ravenscroft, Andrew; Dellow, James; Rainey, Colin; Jorge, Ana; Santos, Sílvio Correia; Rees, Angela; Auwärter, Andreas; Catalão, Daniel; Balica, Magda; Camilleri, Anthony F.

    2014-01-01

    In keeping with the overarching RadioActive101 (RA101) spirit and ethos, this report is the product of collaborative and joined-up thinking from within the European consortium spread across five countries. As such, it is not simply a single voice reporting on the experiences and knowledge gained during the project. Rather it is a range of…

  6. Radioactivity and the Biology Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornsey, D. J.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses minimum necessary nuclear fundamentals of radioactive isotopes such as levels of activity, specific activity and the use of carrier materials. Corrections that need to be taken into account in using an isotope to obtain a valid result are also described and statistics for a valid result are included. (BR)

  7. Radioactive waste: Politics and technology

    SciTech Connect

    Berkhout, F.

    1995-08-01

    This book presents an analysis of the divergent strategies used to forge radioactive waste policies in great Britain, Germany, and Sweden. Some basic knowledge of nuclear technology and its public policy development is needed. The book points out that developing institutional frameworks that permit agreement and consent is the principal challenge of radwaste management and places the problem of consent in an institutional framework.

  8. Radioactivity and the Biology Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornsey, D. J.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses minimum necessary nuclear fundamentals of radioactive isotopes such as levels of activity, specific activity and the use of carrier materials. Corrections that need to be taken into account in using an isotope to obtain a valid result are also described and statistics for a valid result are included. (BR)

  9. High-Level Radioactive Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Howard C.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a method to calculate the amount of high-level radioactive waste by taking into consideration the following factors: the fission process that yields the waste, identification of the waste, the energy required to run a 1-GWe plant for one year, and the uranium mass required to produce that energy. Briefly discusses waste disposal and…

  10. High-Level Radioactive Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Howard C.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a method to calculate the amount of high-level radioactive waste by taking into consideration the following factors: the fission process that yields the waste, identification of the waste, the energy required to run a 1-GWe plant for one year, and the uranium mass required to produce that energy. Briefly discusses waste disposal and…

  11. Nuclear structure from radioactive decay

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, J.L.

    1990-09-30

    This report discusses the nuclear structure of the following isotopes as a result of radioactive decays: neutron-deficient iridium isotopes; neutron-deficient platinum isotopes; neutron-deficient gold isotopes; neutron-deficient mercury isotopes; neutron-deficient thallium isotopes; neutron-deficient lead isotopes; neutron-deficient promethium isotopes; and neutron-deficient samarium isotopes.

  12. Control of mercury pollution.

    PubMed

    Noyes, O R; Hamdy, M K; Muse, L A

    1976-01-01

    When a 203Ng(NO3)2 solution was kept at 25 degrees C in glass or polypropylene containers, 50 and 80% of original radioactivity was adsorbed to the containers' walls after 1 and 4 days, respectively. However, no loss in radioactivity was observed if the solution was supplemented with HgCl as carrier (100 mug Hg2+/ml) and stored in either container for 13 days. When 203Hg2+ was dissolved in glucose basal salt broth with added carrier, levels of 203Hg2+ in solution (kept in glass) decreased to 80 and 70% of original after 1 and 5 days and decreased even more if stored in polypropylene (60 and 40% of original activity after 1 and 4 days, respectively). In the absence of carrier, decreases of 203Hg2+ activities in media stored in either container were more pronounced due to chemisorption (but) not diffusion. The following factors affecting the removal of mercurials from aqueous solution stored in glass were examined: type and concentration of adsorbent (fiber glass and rubber powder); pH; pretreatment of the rubber; and the form of mercury used. Rubber was equally effective in the adsorption of organic and inorganic mercury. The pH of the aqueous 203Hg2+ solution was not a critical factor in the rate of adsorption of mercury by the rubber. In addition, the effect of soaking the rubber in water for 18 hr did not show any statistical difference when compared with nontreated rubber. It can be concluded that rubber is a very effective adsorbent of mercury and, thus, can be used as a simple method for control of mercury pollution.

  13. Radioactive Iodine (I-131) Therapy for Hyperthyroidism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Radioactive Iodine (I-131) Therapy Radioiodine therapy is a nuclear ... thyroid cancer. When a small dose of radioactive iodine I-131 (an isotope of iodine that emits ...

  14. MOLD POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mold pollution is the growth of molds in a building resulting in a negative impact on the use of that structure. The negative impacts generally fall into two categories: destruction of the structure itself and adverse health impacts on the building's occupants. It is estimated...

  15. Pollution Solution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannan, Donald A.

    1972-01-01

    Stresses briefly the need for individuals' actions for controlling the environmental pollution. A number of projects are suggested for teachers to involve children in this area. Simulated discussion groups of sellers'' and consumers, use of pictures, onion juice, and a water filtration contest are a few of the sources used. (PS)

  16. Pollution Solution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannan, Donald A.

    1972-01-01

    Stresses briefly the need for individuals' actions for controlling the environmental pollution. A number of projects are suggested for teachers to involve children in this area. Simulated discussion groups of sellers'' and consumers, use of pictures, onion juice, and a water filtration contest are a few of the sources used. (PS)

  17. Water Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    We all need clean water. People need it to grow crops and to operate factories, and for drinking and recreation. Fish and wildlife depend on ... and phosphorus make algae grow and can turn water green. Bacteria, often from sewage spills, can pollute ...

  18. MOLD POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mold pollution is the growth of molds in a building resulting in a negative impact on the use of that structure. The negative impacts generally fall into two categories: destruction of the structure itself and adverse health impacts on the building's occupants. It is estimated...

  19. Air pollution.

    PubMed

    Le, Nhu D; Sun, Li; Zidek, James V

    2010-01-01

    Toxic air pollutants are continuously released into the air supply. Various pollutants come from chemical facilities and small businesses, such as automobile service stations and dry cleaning establishments. Others, such as nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and other volatile organic chemicals, arise primarily from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels (coal and petroleum) and are emitted from sources that include car exhausts, home heating and industrial power plants. Pollutants in the atmosphere also result from photochemical transformations; for example, ozone is formed when molecular oxygen or nitrogen interacts with ultraviolet radiation. An association between air pollution exposure and lung cancer has been observed in several studies. The evidence for other cancers is far less conclusive. Estimates of the population attributable risk of cancer has varied substantially over the last 40 years, reflecting the limitations of studies; these include insufficient information on confounders, difficulties in characterizing associations due to a likely lengthy latency interval, and exposure misclassification. Although earlier estimates were less than one percent, recent cohort studies that have taken into account some confounding factors, such as smoking and education amongst others, suggest that approximately 3.6% of lung cancer in the European Union could be due to air pollution exposure, particularly to sulphate and fine particulates. A separate cohort study estimated 5-7% of lung cancers in European never smokers and ex-smokers could be due to air pollution exposure. Therefore, while cigarette smoking remains the predominant risk factor, the proportion of lung cancers attributable to air pollution may be higher than previously thought. Overall, major weaknesses in all air-pollution-and-cancer studies to date have been inadequate characterization of long-term air pollution exposure and imprecise or no measurements of covariates. It has only been in the last

  20. Radioactive Waste Incineration: Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Diederich, A.R.; Akins, M.J.

    2008-07-01

    Incineration is generally accepted as a method of reducing the volume of radioactive waste. In some cases, the resulting ash may have high concentrations of materials such as Plutonium or Uranium that are valuable materials for recycling. Incineration can also be effective in treating waste that contains hazardous chemicals as well as radioactive contamination. Despite these advantages, the number of operating incinerators currently in the US currently appears to be small and potentially declining. This paper describes technical, regulatory, economic and political factors that affect the selection of incineration as a preferred method of treating radioactive waste. The history of incinerator use at commercial and DOE facilities is summarized, along with the factors that have affected each of the sectors, thus leading to the current set of active incinerator facilities. In summary: Incineration has had a long history of use in radioactive waste processing due to their ability to reduce the volume of the waste while destroying hazardous chemicals and biological material. However, combinations of technical, regulatory, economic and political factors have constrained the overall use of incineration. In both the Government and Private sectors, the trend is to have a limited number of larger incineration facilities that treat wastes from a multiple sites. Each of these sector is now served by only one or two incinerators. Increased use of incineration is not likely unless there is a change in the factors involved, such as a significant increase in the cost of disposal. Medical wastes with low levels of radioactive contamination are being treated effectively at small, local incineration facilities. No trend is expected in this group. (authors)

  1. 10 CFR 39.47 - Radioactive markers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radioactive markers. 39.47 Section 39.47 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.47 Radioactive markers. The licensee may use radioactive markers in wells only if the individual markers contain...

  2. 10 CFR 39.47 - Radioactive markers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Radioactive markers. 39.47 Section 39.47 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.47 Radioactive markers. The licensee may use radioactive markers in wells only if the individual markers contain...

  3. 49 CFR 175.705 - Radioactive contamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radioactive contamination. 175.705 Section 175.705... Regulations Applicable According to Classification of Material § 175.705 Radioactive contamination. (a) A... (radioactive) materials that may have been released from their packagings. (b) When contamination is present or...

  4. 46 CFR 148.300 - Radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radioactive materials. 148.300 Section 148.300 Shipping... MATERIALS THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.300 Radioactive materials. (a) Radioactive materials that may be stowed or transported in bulk are limited to those...

  5. 49 CFR 175.705 - Radioactive contamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radioactive contamination. 175.705 Section 175.705... Regulations Applicable According to Classification of Material § 175.705 Radioactive contamination. (a) A... (radioactive) materials that may have been released from their packagings. (b) When contamination is present or...

  6. 46 CFR 147.100 - Radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radioactive materials. 147.100 Section 147.100 Shipping... Stowage and Other Special Requirements for Particular Materials § 147.100 Radioactive materials. (a) Radioactive materials must not be brought on board, used in any manner, or stored on the vessel, unless the...

  7. 46 CFR 147.100 - Radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radioactive materials. 147.100 Section 147.100 Shipping... Stowage and Other Special Requirements for Particular Materials § 147.100 Radioactive materials. (a) Radioactive materials must not be brought on board, used in any manner, or stored on the vessel, unless...

  8. 46 CFR 147.100 - Radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radioactive materials. 147.100 Section 147.100 Shipping... Stowage and Other Special Requirements for Particular Materials § 147.100 Radioactive materials. (a) Radioactive materials must not be brought on board, used in any manner, or stored on the vessel, unless...

  9. 46 CFR 147.100 - Radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radioactive materials. 147.100 Section 147.100 Shipping... Stowage and Other Special Requirements for Particular Materials § 147.100 Radioactive materials. (a) Radioactive materials must not be brought on board, used in any manner, or stored on the vessel, unless...

  10. 46 CFR 148.300 - Radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radioactive materials. 148.300 Section 148.300 Shipping... MATERIALS THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.300 Radioactive materials. (a) Radioactive materials that may be stowed or transported in bulk are limited to...

  11. 49 CFR 175.705 - Radioactive contamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radioactive contamination. 175.705 Section 175.705... Regulations Applicable According to Classification of Material § 175.705 Radioactive contamination. (a) A... (radioactive) materials that may have been released from their packagings. (b) When contamination is present...

  12. 49 CFR 175.705 - Radioactive contamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radioactive contamination. 175.705 Section 175.705... Regulations Applicable According to Classification of Material § 175.705 Radioactive contamination. (a) A... (radioactive) materials that may have been released from their packagings. (b) When contamination is present...

  13. 49 CFR 175.705 - Radioactive contamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radioactive contamination. 175.705 Section 175.705... Regulations Applicable According to Classification of Material § 175.705 Radioactive contamination. (a) A... (radioactive) materials that may have been released from their packagings. (b) When contamination is present...

  14. 46 CFR 147.100 - Radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radioactive materials. 147.100 Section 147.100 Shipping... Stowage and Other Special Requirements for Particular Materials § 147.100 Radioactive materials. (a) Radioactive materials must not be brought on board, used in any manner, or stored on the vessel, unless...

  15. Radioactive Waste Material From Tapping Natural Resources ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-08-07

    Rocks around oil and gas and mineral deposits may contain natural radioactivity. Drilling through these rocks and bringing them to the surface creates radioactive waste materials. Once desired minerals have been removed from ore, the radionuclides left in the waste are more concentrated. Scientists call this waste Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material or simply TENORM.

  16. Transporting Radioactive Material | Radiation Protection | US ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-08-07

    Radioactive material can be transported by truck, train, plane or ship. The shipment of radioactive material has been regulated since 1939. Shipping routes for radioactive materials are picked very carefully and shipments are tracked. Markings on containers and vehicles explain the contents of each package using standard terms and codes.

  17. Radioactive contamination of the environment and the possible consequences.

    PubMed

    Knizhnikov, V A; Barkhudarov, R M

    1975-06-01

    To find the optimum solution to the problem of how to protect the environment from pollution by industrial waste, it is necessary, first and foremost, to obtain information on the existing levels of various forms of pollution and the damage caused by them. In this review data are given on all the main sources of contamination of the environment by radioactive substances. The pathways by which these substances reach and affect the human body are discussed, the doses incurred are characterized and the possible consequences of existing levels of exposure are assessed in the light of the latest data on the dose-effect relationship. The wisdom of treating the evaluation of radiation hazards arising from the use of atomic energy not in isolation but as part of a whole complex of ecological factors - including the use of conventional fuels for power generation and transport - is duly noted.

  18. Closing Radioactive Waste Tanks in South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, J.L.

    2000-08-29

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and is operated by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). Since the early 1950s, the primary mission of the site has been to produce nuclear materials for national defense. The chemical separations processes used to recover uranium and plutonium from production reactor fuel and target assemblies in the chemical separations area at SRS generated liquid high-level radioactive waste. This waste, which now amounts to approximately 34 million gallons, is stored in underground tanks in the F- and H-Areas near the center of the site. DOE is closing the High Level Waste (HLW) tank systems, which are permitted by SCDHEC under authority of the South Carolina Pollution Control Act (SCPCA) as wastewater treatment facilities, in accordance with South Carolina Regulation R.61-82, ''Proper Closeout of Wastewater Treatment Facilities''. To date, two HLW tank systems have been closed in place. Closure of these tanks is the first of its kind in the US. This paper describes the waste tank closure methodologies, standards and regulatory background.

  19. Accelerator production of tritium pollution prevention design assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, R.; Nowacki, P.; Sheetz, S.O.; Lanik, P.

    1997-09-18

    This Pollution Prevention Design Assessment (PPDA) provides data for cost-benefit analysis of the potential environmental impact of the APT, is an integral part of pollution prevention/waste minimization, and is required by DOE for any activity generating radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes. It will also better position the APT to meet future requirements, since it is anticipated that regulatory and other requirements will continue to become more restrictive and demanding.

  20. Radioactive waste treatment technologies and environment

    SciTech Connect

    HORVATH, Jan; KRASNY, Dusan

    2007-07-01

    The radioactive waste treatment and conditioning are the most important steps in radioactive waste management. At the Slovak Electric, plc, a range of technologies are used for the processing of radioactive waste into a form suitable for disposal in near surface repository. These technologies operated by JAVYS, PLc. Nuclear and Decommissioning Company, PLc. Jaslovske Bohunice are described. Main accent is given to the Bohunice Radwaste Treatment and Conditioning Centre, Bituminization plant, Vitrification plant, and Near surface repository of radioactive waste in Mochovce and their operation. Conclusions to safe and effective management of radioactive waste in the Slovak Republic are presented. (authors)

  1. Radioactivity in the ocean: laws and biological effects

    SciTech Connect

    Hunsaker, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    This paper summarizes the literature on US laws and international agreements, experimental and monitoring data, and ongoing studies to provide background information for environmental assessment and regulatory compliance activities for ocean dumping of low-level radioactive waste. The Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act is the major US legislation governing ocean disposal of radioactive waste. The major international agreement on ocean dumping is the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and other Matter. The United States ended its ocean dumping of radioactive wastes in 1970, but other countries have continued ocean dumping under international supervision in the northeast Atlantic. Monitoring of former US disposal sites has neither revealed significant effects on marine biota nor indicated a hazard to human health. Also, no effects on marine organisms have been found that could be attributed to routine discharges into the Irish Sea from the Windscale reprocessing plant. We must improve our ability to predict the oceanic carrying capacity and the fate and effects of ionizing radiation in the marine environment.

  2. Ocean dumping of low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Hunsaker, C.T.

    1984-11-01

    Ocean dumping of low-level radioactive waste in the US is regulated by EPA, as authorized by the MPRSA. Other US laws and regulations applicable to ocean dumping of radioactive waste include the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act, The National Environmental Policy Act, The Atomic Energy Act, and the Energy Reorganization Act, along with internal orders for executive departments such as the US DOE. The major international agreement on ocean dumping is the Convention of the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter (London Dumping Convention), which prohibits the disposal of high-level wastes and requires a special permit prior to ocean disposal of other wastes. Several international organization focus on radioactive waste management; the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Nuclear Energy Agency are the largest and most active. Because the US is a member of the IAEA and a party to the London Dumping Convention, EPA will have to make US regulations under MPRSA agree with international policy. 6 references, 1 figure.

  3. Radioactive waste shredding: Preliminary evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Soelberg, N.R.; Reimann, G.A.

    1994-07-01

    The critical constraints for sizing solid radioactive and mixed wastes for subsequent thermal treatment were identified via a literature review and a survey of shredding equipment vendors. The types and amounts of DOE radioactive wastes that will require treatment to reduce the waste volume, destroy hazardous organics, or immobilize radionuclides and/or hazardous metals were considered. The preliminary steps of waste receipt, inspection, and separation were included because many potential waste treatment technologies have limits on feedstream chemical content, physical composition, and particle size. Most treatment processes and shredding operations require at least some degree of feed material characterization. Preliminary cost estimates show that pretreatment costs per unit of waste can be high and can vary significantly, depending on the processing rate and desired output particle size.

  4. Public attitudes about radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Bisconti, A.S.

    1992-12-31

    Public attitudes about radioactive waste are changeable. That is my conclusion from eight years of social science research which I have directed on this topic. The fact that public attitudes about radioactive waste are changeable is well-known to the hands-on practitioners who have opportunities to talk with the public and respond to their concerns-practitioners like Ginger King, who is sharing the podium with me today. The public`s changeability and open-mindedness are frequently overlooked in studies that focus narrowly on fear and dread. Such studies give the impression that the outlook for waste disposal solutions is dismal. I believe that impression is misleading, and I`d like to share research findings with you today that give a broader perspective.

  5. Laser Trapping of Radioactive Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zheng-Tian

    2013-04-01

    Stuart Freedman conceived the idea of laser trapping radioactive atoms for the purpose of studying beta correlation effects. ``This is really the theorist's view of a radioactive source,'' as he fondly claimed. It is ideal because the atoms form a point source, compressed in both position and momentum space, with no material walls nearby. The Berkeley group succeeded in trapping ^21Na (half-life = 22 s) atoms [Lu et al., PRL 72, 3791 (1994)], and determined its beta-neutrino correlation coefficient a=0.5502(60) to be in agreement with the Standard Model [Vetter et al., PRC 77, 035502 (2008)]. Other groups have joined this effort with searches for scalar or tensor couplings in the weak interaction. Moreover, the technique has been extended to trap very short lived ^8He (0.1 s) to study its halo structure or the very long lived ^81Kr (230,000 yr) to map the movement of groundwater.

  6. Radioactivity in returned lunar materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The H-3, Ar-37, and Ar-39 radioactivities were measured at several depths in the large documented lunar rocks 14321 and 15555. The comparison of the Ar-37 activities from similar locations in rocks 12002, 14321, and 15555 gives direct measures of the amount of Ar-37 produced by the 2 November 1969 and 24 January 1971 solar flares. The tritium contents in the documented rocks decreased with increasing depths. The solar flare intensity averaged over 30 years obtained from the tritium depth dependence was approximately the same as the flare intensity averaged over 1000 years obtained from the Ar-37 measurements. Radioactivities in two Apollo 15 soil samples, H-3 in several Surveyor 3 samples, and tritium and radon weepage were also measured.

  7. Water Pollution. Project COMPSEP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lantz, H. B., Jr.

    This is an introductory program on water pollution. Examined are the cause and effect relationships of water pollution, sources of water pollution, and possible alternatives to effect solutions from our water pollution problems. Included is background information on water pollution, a glossary of pollution terminology, a script for a slide script…

  8. Radioactive Waste Management BasisApril 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, B K

    2011-08-31

    This Radioactive Waste Management Basis (RWMB) documents radioactive waste management practices adopted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) pursuant to Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. The purpose of this Radioactive Waste Management Basis is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

  9. Radioactive substances in tap water.

    PubMed

    Atsuumi, Ryo; Endo, Yoshihiko; Suzuki, Akihiko; Kannotou, Yasumitu; Nakada, Masahiro; Yabuuchi, Reiko

    2014-01-01

    A 9.0 magnitude (M) earthquake with an epicenter off the Sanriku coast occurred at 14: 46 on March 11, 2011. TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F-1 NPP) was struck by the earthquake and its resulting tsunami. Consequently a critical nuclear disaster developed, as a large quantity of radioactive materials was released due to a hydrogen blast. On March 16(th), 2011, radioiodine and radioactive cesium were detected at levels of 177 Bq/kg and 58 Bq/kg, respectively, in tap water in Fukushima city (about 62km northwest of TEPCO F-1 NPP). On March 20th, radioiodine was detected in tap water at a level of 965 Bq/kg, which is over the value-index of restrictions on food and drink intake (radioiodine 300 Bq/kg (infant intake 100 Bq/kg)) designated by the Nuclear Safety Commission. Therefore, intake restriction measures were taken regarding drinking water. After that, although the all intake restrictions were lifted, in order to confirm the safety of tap water, an inspection system was established to monitor all tap water in the prefecture. This system has confirmed that there has been no detection of radioiodine or radioactive cesium in tap water in the prefecture since May 5(th), 2011. Furthermore, radioactive strontium ((89) Sr, (90)Sr) and plutonium ((238)Pu, (239)Pu+(240)Pu) in tap water and the raw water supply were measured. As a result, (89) Sr, (238)Pu, (239)Pu+(240)Pu were undetectable and although (90)Sr was detected, its committed effective dose of 0.00017 mSv was much lower than the yearly 0.1 mSv of the World Health Organization guidelines for drinking water quality. In addition, the results did not show any deviations from past inspection results.

  10. Environmental Geochemistry of Radioactive Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, M. D.; Bryan, C. R.

    2003-12-01

    Psychometric studies of public perception of risk have shown that dangers associated with radioactive contamination are considered the most dreaded and among the least understood hazards (Slovic, 1987). Fear of the risks associated with nuclear power and associated contamination has had important effects on policy and commercial decisions in the last few decades. In the US, no new nuclear power plants were ordered between 1978 and 2002, even though it has been suggested that the use of nuclear power has led to significantly reduced CO2 emissions and may provide some relief from the potential climatic changes associated with fossil fuel use. The costs of the remediation of sites contaminated by radioactive materials and the projected costs of waste disposal of radioactive waste in the US dwarf many other environmental programs. The cost of disposal of spent nuclear fuel at the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain will likely exceed 10 billion. The estimated total life cycle cost for remediation of US Department of Energy (DOE) weapons production sites ranged from 203-247 billion dollars in constant 1999 dollars, making the cleanup the largest environmental project on the planet (US DOE, 2001). Estimates for the cleanup of the Hanford site alone exceeded $85 billion through 2046 in some of the remediation plans.Policy decisions concerning radioactive contamination should be based on an understanding of the potential migration of radionuclides through the geosphere. In many cases, this potential may have been overestimated, leading to decisions to clean up contaminated sites unnecessarily and exposing workers to unnecessary risk. It is important for both the general public and the scientific community to be familiar with information that is well established, to identify the areas of uncertainty and to understand the significance of that uncertainty to the assessment of risk.

  11. HMPT: Basic Radioactive Material Transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Hypes, Philip A.

    2016-02-29

    Hazardous Materials and Packaging and Transportation (HMPT): Basic Radioactive Material Transportation Live (#30462, suggested one time) and Test (#30463, required initially and every 36 months) address the Department of Transportation’s (DOT’s) function-specific [required for hazardous material (HAZMAT) handlers, packagers, and shippers] training requirements of the HMPT Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Labwide training. This course meets the requirements of 49 CFR 172, Subpart H, Section 172.704(a)(ii), Function-Specific Training.

  12. Nuclear structure from radioactive decay

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, J.L.

    1991-09-30

    This report discusses nuclear structure from radioactive decay of the following: Neutron-Deficient Iridium Isotopes; Neutron-Deficient Platinum Isotopes; Neutron-Deficient Gold Isotopes; Neutron-Deficient Mercury Isotopes; Neutron-Deficient Thallium Isotopes; Neutron-Deficient Lead Isotopes; Neutron-Deficient Samarium Isotopes; Neutron-Deficient Promethium Isotopes; Neutron-Deficient Neodymium Isotopes; and Neutron-Deficient Praseodymium Isotopes. Also discussed are Nuclear Systematics and Models.

  13. Radioactivity of spent TRIGA fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Usang, M. D. Nabil, A. R. A.; Alfred, S. L.; Hamzah, N. S.; Abi, M. J. B.; Rawi, M. Z. M.; Abu, M. P.

    2015-04-29

    Some of the oldest TRIGA fuel in the Malaysian Reaktor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP) is approaching the limit of its end of life with burn-up of around 20%. Hence it is prudent for us to start planning on the replacement of the fuel in the reactor and other derivative activities associated with it. In this regard, we need to understand all of the risk associated with such operation and one of them is to predict the radioactivity of the fuel, so as to estimate the safety of our working conditions. The radioactivity of several fuels are measured and compared with simulation results to confirm the burnup levels of the selected fuels. The radioactivity measurement are conducted inside the water tank to reduce the risk of exposure and in this case the detector wrapped in plastics are lowered under water. In nuclear power plant, the general practice was to continuously burn the fuel. In research reactor, most operations are based on the immediate needs of the reactor and our RTP for example operate periodically. By integrating the burnup contribution for each core configuration, we simplify the simulation of burn up for each core configuration. Our results for two (2) fuel however indicates that the dose from simulation underestimate the actual dose from our measurements. Several postulates are investigated but the underlying reason remain inconclusive.

  14. Disposition of intravenous radioactive acyclovir

    SciTech Connect

    de Miranda, P.; Good, S.S.; Laskin, O.L.; Krasny, H.C.; Connor, J.D.; Lietman, P.S.

    1981-11-01

    The kinetic and metabolic disposition of (8-14C)acyclovir (ACV) was investigated in five subjects with advanced malignancy. The drug was administered by 1-hr intravenous infusion at doses of 0.5 and 2.5 mg/kg. Plasma and blood radioactivity-time, and plasma concentration-time data were defined by a two-compartment open kinetic model. There was nearly equivalent distribution of radioactivity in blood and plasma. The overall mean plasma half-life and total body clearance +/- SD of ACV were 2.1 +/- 0.5 hr and 297 +/- 53 ml/min/1.73 m2. Binding of ACV to plasma proteins was 15.4 +/- 4.4%. Most of the radioactive dose excreted was recovered in the urine (71% to 99%) with less than 2% excretion in the feces and only trace amounts in the expired Co2. Analyses by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography indicated that 9-(carboxymethoxymethyl)guanine was the only significant urinary metabolite of ACV, accounting for 8.5% to 14.1% of the dose. A minor metabolite (less than 0.2% of dose) had the retention time of 8-hydroxy-9-((2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl)guanine. Unchanged urinary ACV ranged from 62% to 91% of the dose. There was no indication of ACV cleavage to guanine. Renal clearance of ACV was approximately three times the corresponding creatinine clearances.

  15. Radioactivity of spent TRIGA fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usang, M. D.; Nabil, A. R. A.; Alfred, S. L.; Hamzah, N. S.; Abi, M. J. B.; Rawi, M. Z. M.; Abu, M. P.

    2015-04-01

    Some of the oldest TRIGA fuel in the Malaysian Reaktor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP) is approaching the limit of its end of life with burn-up of around 20%. Hence it is prudent for us to start planning on the replacement of the fuel in the reactor and other derivative activities associated with it. In this regard, we need to understand all of the risk associated with such operation and one of them is to predict the radioactivity of the fuel, so as to estimate the safety of our working conditions. The radioactivity of several fuels are measured and compared with simulation results to confirm the burnup levels of the selected fuels. The radioactivity measurement are conducted inside the water tank to reduce the risk of exposure and in this case the detector wrapped in plastics are lowered under water. In nuclear power plant, the general practice was to continuously burn the fuel. In research reactor, most operations are based on the immediate needs of the reactor and our RTP for example operate periodically. By integrating the burnup contribution for each core configuration, we simplify the simulation of burn up for each core configuration. Our results for two (2) fuel however indicates that the dose from simulation underestimate the actual dose from our measurements. Several postulates are investigated but the underlying reason remain inconclusive.

  16. Radioactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Baratta, E.J.

    1987-01-01

    This report of the General Referee was presented at the 100th AOAC Annual International Meeting, Sept. 15-18, 1986, at Scottsdale, AZ. The method for determining cesium-137 and iodine-131 in milk and other foods by gamma-ray spectroscopy has been adopted official first action. Results have been received from 5 collaborators. A sixth collaborator was found and is in the process of analyzing the sample. When all results are in, the Associate Referee will perform a statistical analysis of the data. Other topics of interest include; plutonium; radium-228; and strontium-89 and -90. Recommendations are included which were reviewed by the Committee on Residues.

  17. Radioactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Baratta, E.J.

    1996-01-01

    This report of the General Referee was presented at the 109th AOAC International Annual Meeting, September 17-21, 1995 in Nashville, Tennessee. The author reports the standing of the review process for six methods concerned with the analysis of radionuclides in foods or the environment.

  18. Radioactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Baratta, E.J.

    1997-01-01

    Cesium-134 and -137 in Foods, Gamma-Ray Spectrophotometric Methods. The method entitled {open_quotes}Cs-134 and Cs-137 in Foods, Gamma-Ray Spectrophotometric Method{close_quotes} has been adopted official first action, with minor revisions. Iodine 131: The method {open_quotes}Iodine-131 in Milk, Radiochemical Separation Method{close_quotes} has been accepted by the Committee on Residues and Related Topics and has been recommended to the Methods Committee for adoption first action. Search is continuing for a new Associated Referee. Plutonium-239: The Associate Referee is doing a literature search for a method for the determination of plutonium in foods. When one is selected, she will prepared a protocol for a collaborative study and submit it for approval. Radium-228: Search is ongoing for a new Associate Referee. When one is appointed, a method should be selected and tested. Strontium-89 and -90: The Associate Referee is investigating methods using resin discs and/or resin columns for these radionuclides. These methods are now being used in analyses for strontium-89 and -90 in water. She will now attempt to apply it to milk. If successful, she will prepare a protocol for a collaborative study and submit it for approval. Tritium: Search is continuing for a new Associate Referee for this topic.

  19. [Determination of radioactivity by smartphones].

    PubMed

    Hartmann, H; Freudenberg, R; Andreeff, M; Kotzerke, J

    2013-01-01

    The interest in the detection of radioactive materials has strongly increased after the accident in the nuclear power plant Fukushima and has led to a bottleneck of suitable measuring instruments. Smartphones equipped with a commercially available software tool could be used for dose rate measurements following a calibration according to the specific camera module. We examined whether such measurements provide reliable data for typical activities and radionuclides in nuclear medicine. For the nuclides 99mTc (10 - 1000 MBq), 131I (3.7 - 1800 MBq, therapy capsule) and 68Ga (50 - 600 MBq) radioactivity with defined geometry in different distances was measured. The smartphones Milestone Droid 1 (Motorola) and HTC Desire (HTC Corporation) were compared with the standard instruments AD6 (automess) and DoseGUARD (AEA Technology). Measurements with the smartphones and the other devices show a good agreement: linear signal increase with rising activity and dose rate. The long time measurement (131I, 729 MBq, 0.5 m, 60 min) demonstrates a considerably higher variation (by 20%) of the measured smartphone data values compared with the AD6. For low dose rates (< 1 µGy/h), the sensitivity decreases so that measurements of e. g. the natural radiation exposure do not lead to valid results. The calibration of the camera responsivity for the smartphone has a big influence on the results caused by the small detector surface of the camera semiconductor. With commercial software the camera module of a smartphone can be used for the measurement of radioactivity. Dose rates resulting from typical nuclear medicine procedures can be measured reliably (e. g., dismissal dose after radioiodine therapy). The signal shows a high correlation to measured values of conventional dose measurement devices.

  20. Radioactive Iodine Therapy and Glucose Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Samadi, Roghaieh; Shafiei, Babak; Azizi, Fereidoun; Ghasemi, Asghar

    2017-01-01

    Radioactive iodine therapy is commonly used as an adjuvant therapy in follicular and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and in the treatment of Graves’ disease (GD). The basis of this therapy is the accumulation of radioactive iodine by the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) in the thyroid gland. Expression of NIS by extrathyroidal tissues such as islets of pancreas has been reported. Radioactive iodine uptake by pancreatic beta-cells can potentially damage these cells. In this study, we discuss the possible associations between radioactive iodine and glucose intolerance. Overall, radioactive iodine uptake by the pancreas may damage beta-cells and predispose patients to glucose intolerance or type 2 diabetes, particularly in patients exposed to radioactive iodine therapy following total thyroidectomy. Further studies are needed to clarify and confirm this association. PMID:28670511

  1. SHIPPING CONTAINER FOR RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL

    DOEpatents

    Nachbar, H.D.; Biggs, B.B.; Tariello, P.J.; George, K.O.

    1963-01-15

    A shipping container is described for transponting a large number of radioactive nuclear fuel element modules which produce a substantial amount of heat. The container comprises a primary pressure vessel and shield, and a rotatable head having an access port that can be indexed with module holders in the container. In order to remove heat generated in the fuel eleme nts, a heat exchanger is arranged within the container and in contact with a heat exchange fluid therein. The heat exchanger communicates with additional external heat exchangers, which dissipate heat to the atmosphere. (AEC)

  2. Safety Evaluation - Radioactive Components of Materiel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-02

    materials such as radium dials of compasses have been used for many years by the Arrny. Others such as depleted uranium , krypton, proamethium, and tritium...arises when the radioisotope decays and emits a radioactive gas such as radon gas from radiumi. The hazards of radioactive gases accumulating in...contamination tests once each week until a suitable evaluation has been attained. Because of the large variety of radioactive sources stored and used and

  3. Survey of Radioactivities Induced by Lithium Ions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-15

    function is not sinusoidal, but exponentially decaying . The WKB approximation is good if the lithium energy is close to the barrier potential, Eb, and...titanium alloy targets are identified. For each radioactivity, the half-life and decay products are tabulated. Reaction yields are dominated by the Coulomb...survey. In Sec. II, the nuclear reactions on these targets which produce radioactivity are listed, and the decay properties of the radioactive nuclei

  4. Radioactive beams with the HHIRF accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.K.; Alton, G.D.; Baktash, C.; Dowling, D.T.; Garrett, J.D.; Haynes, D.L.; Jones, C.M.; Juras, R.C., Lane, S.N.; Lee, I.Y.; Meigs, M.J.; Mills, G.D.; Mosko, S.W.; Tatum, B.A. Toth, K.S. ); Carter, H.K. )

    1991-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in radioactive ion beams for astrophysics and nuclear physics research and applied programs. This interest has led to an International Conference on Radioactive Nuclear Beams and a Workshop on the Science of Intense Radioactive Ion Beams. In addition, a steering committee has been formed to consider the development of a very large and intense RIB facility in North America to produce both proton- and neutron-rich beams. This report discusses development of these beams.

  5. The Model 9977 Radioactive Material Packaging Primer

    SciTech Connect

    Abramczyk, G.

    2015-10-09

    The Model 9977 Packaging is a single containment drum style radioactive material (RAM) shipping container designed, tested and analyzed to meet the performance requirements of Title 10 the Code of Federal Regulations Part 71. A radioactive material shipping package, in combination with its contents, must perform three functions (please note that the performance criteria specified in the Code of Federal Regulations have alternate limits for normal operations and after accident conditions): Containment, the package must “contain” the radioactive material within it; Shielding, the packaging must limit its users and the public to radiation doses within specified limits; and Subcriticality, the package must maintain its radioactive material as subcritical

  6. Radioactive beam science, past, present and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanihata, Isao

    2008-10-01

    Since high-energy radioactive nuclei were used for collision measurements, many discoveries in physics and many inventions in technique of producing and delivering radioactive beam have been made. In this paper, firstly, I briefly review developments in radioactive beam science and then show a close relation between development in technology and physics. Based on such consideration, I discuss the probable best scheme of radioactive ion beam production for studies of r-process that is considered to be one of the most important and exciting subjects for the future.

  7. Residual radioactivity of treated green diamonds.

    PubMed

    Cassette, Philippe; Notari, Franck; Lépy, Marie-Christine; Caplan, Candice; Pierre, Sylvie; Hainschwang, Thomas; Fritsch, Emmanuel

    2017-08-01

    Treated green diamonds can show residual radioactivity, generally due to immersion in radium salts. We report various activity measurements on two radioactive diamonds. The activity was characterized by alpha and gamma ray spectrometry, and the radon emanation was measured by alpha counting of a frozen source. Even when no residual radium contamination can be identified, measurable alpha and high-energy beta emissions could be detected. The potential health impact of radioactive diamonds and their status with regard to the regulatory policy for radioactive products are discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. [Microbiological Aspects of Radioactive Waste Storage].

    PubMed

    Safonov, A V; Gorbunova, O A; German, K E; Zakharova, E V; Tregubova, V E; Ershov, B G; Nazina, T N

    2015-01-01

    The article gives information about the microorganisms inhabiting in surface storages of solid radioactive waste and deep disposal sites of liquid radioactive waste. It was shown that intensification of microbial processes can lead to significant changes in the chemical composition and physical state of the radioactive waste. It was concluded that the biogeochemical processes can have both a positive effect on the safety of radioactive waste storages (immobilization of RW macrocomponents, a decreased migration ability of radionuclides) and a negative one (biogenic gas production in subterranean formations and destruction of cement matrix).

  9. [Perspective on the nuclear power plant accident caused by the great east Japan earthquake and tsunami: health impairment risks due to pollution by radioactive materials from the damaged plant as recognized by experts and by the general population and role of the experts].

    PubMed

    Sugita, Minoru; Miyakawa, Michiko

    2012-01-01

    Large amounts of radioactive materials were leaked into the environment from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) of the Tokyo Electric Power Company damaged by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and accompanying tsunami. Increased health impairment risks due to the leaked radioactive materials are of concern over a long period of time and over a wide geographical area. From the results of epidemiologic studies conducted after the Chernobyl accident, the health risks are not anticipated to be very marked. The purpose of the present study is to examine (i) the elevated health risks as viewed by the general population, (ii) tolerance to the risks that the general population suffer from their viewpoint, and (iii) the overall picture as seen by researchers and experts in specialized areas of study after the accident. Information was obtained from articles in print and on the Internet and by interviewing a psychologist and tens of employees of several corporations. Epidemiologic studies conducted after the severe accident of the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl revealed an elevated risk of thyroid cancer in children due to (131)I while elevated risks due to radioactive materials other than (131)I were not detected. The amount of radioactive materials leaked into the environment from the FDNPP was less than that in Chernobyl. Therefore, it is possible to estimate that health impairment risks due to the leaked radioactive materials from the FDNPP are low. However, it is impossible to conclude a zero risk. It is likely that the general population does not fully understand the health impairment risks due to the leaked radioactive materials from the FDNPP. Although no increased incidences of diseases other than thyroid cancer of children were scientifically shown en masse from studies in Chernobyl, individual risks and results in the future caused by the severe accident of FDNPP cannot be denied. Much of the general population is apt to demand the security of

  10. Induced radioactivity in LDEF components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, B. A.; Fishman, G. J.; Parnell, T. A.; Laird, C. E.

    1991-01-01

    The systematics of induced radioactivity on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) were studied in a wide range of materials using low level background facilities for detection of gamma rays. Approx. 400 samples of materials processed from structural parts of the spacecraft, as well as materials from onboard experiments, were analyzed at national facilities. These measurements show the variety of radioisotopes that are produced with half-lives greater than 2 wks, most of which are characteristic of proton induced reactions above 20 MeV. For the higher activity, long lived isotopes, it was possible to map the depth and directional dependences of the activity. Due to the stabilized configuration of the LDEF, the induced radioactivity data clearly show contributions from the anisotropic trapped proton flux in the South Atlantic Anomaly. This effect is discussed, along with evidence for activation by galactic protons and thermal neutrons. The discovery of Be-7 was made on leading side parts of the spacecraft, although this was though not to be related to the in situ production of radioisotopes from external particle fluxes.

  11. Radioactivity in the galactic plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walraven, G. D.; Haymes, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    The paper reports the detection of a large concentration of interstellar radioactivity during balloon-altitude measurements of gamma-ray energy spectra in the band between 0.02 and 12.27 MeV from galactic and extragalactic sources. Enhanced counting rates were observed in three directions towards the plane of the Galaxy; a power-law energy spectrum is computed for one of these directions (designated B 10). A large statistical deviation from the power law in a 1.0-FWHM interval centered near 1.16 MeV is discussed, and the existence of a nuclear gamma-ray line at 1.15 MeV in B 10 is postulated. It is suggested that Ca-44, which emits gamma radiation at 1.156 MeV following the decay of radioactive Sc-44, is a likely candidate for this line, noting that Sc-44 arises from Ti-44 according to explosive models of supernova nucleosynthesis. The 1.16-MeV line flux inferred from the present data is shown to equal the predicted flux for a supernova at a distance of approximately 3 kpc and an age not exceeding about 100 years.

  12. Radioactive material package seal tests

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, M.M.; Humphreys, D.L.; Edwards, K.R.

    1990-01-01

    General design or test performance requirements for radioactive materials (RAM) packages are specified in Title 10 of the US Code of Federal Regulations Part 71 (US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 1983). The requirements for Type B packages provide a broad range of environments under which the system must contain the RAM without posing a threat to health or property. Seals that provide the containment system interface between the packaging body and the closure must function in both high- and low-temperature environments under dynamic and static conditions. A seal technology program, jointly funded by the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) and the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), was initiated at Sandia National Laboratories. Experiments were performed in this program to characterize the behavior of several static seal materials at low temperatures. Helium leak tests on face seals were used to compare the materials. Materials tested include butyl, neoprene, ethylene propylene, fluorosilicone, silicone, Eypel, Kalrez, Teflon, fluorocarbon, and Teflon/silicone composites. Because most elastomer O-ring applications are for hydraulic systems, manufacturer low-temperature ratings are based on methods that simulate this use. The seal materials tested in this program with a fixture similar to a RAM cask closure, with the exception of silicone S613-60, are not leak tight (1.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} std cm{sup 3}/s) at manufacturer low-temperature ratings. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Subseabed storage of radioactive waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    The subject of the storage of nuclear wastes products incites emotional responses from the public, and thus the U.S. Subseabed Disposal Program will have to make a good case for waste storage beneath the ocean floor. The facts attendant, however, describe circumstances necessitating cool-headed analysis to achieve a solution to the growing nuclear waste problem. Emotion aside, a good case indeed is being made for safe disposal beneath the ocean floor.The problems of nuclear waste storage are acute. A year ago, U.S. military weapons production had accumulated over seventy-five million gallons of high-level radioactive liquid waste; solid wastes, such as spent nuclear fuel rods from reactors, amounted to more than 12,000 tons. These wastes are corrosive and will release heat for 1000 years or more. The wastes will remain dangerously radioactive for a period of 10,000 years. There are advantages in storing the wastes on land, in special underground repositories, or on the surface. These include the accessibility to monitor the waste and the possibility of taking action should a container rupture occur, and thus the major efforts to determine suitable disposal at this time are focused on land-based storage. New efforts, not to be confused with ocean dumping practices of the past, are demonstrating that waste containers isolated in the clays and sediments of the ocean floor may be superior (Environ. Sci. Tech., 16, 28A-37A 1982).

  14. Developments in radioactive scrap monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Bellian, J.G.

    1997-12-31

    Over the past ten years there have been major developments in radiation monitoring systems used for detecting shielded radioactive sources in scrap metal. The extent of the problem and industry`s awareness of the problem have both grown significantly during that time. The multimillion dollar expenses associated with decontamination after a source passes into the melt and the potential health hazard to employees and the public have added further impetus to the development of monitoring systems. Early attempts at scrap monitoring could detect some radiation, but testing with real life situations showed them to be virtually incapable of detecting shielded sources of radioactivity in incoming vehicles. More sophisticated detector technology and the development of advanced software made useful by more powerful microprocessors led to successive generations of monitoring systems with order-of-magnitude improvement in detection capability. The next generation includes larger detectors and more complex algorithms offering further improvement in truck and rail car monitoring. Complete solutions require monitoring at additional locations within the site, such as the charge bucket and conveyor lines, and at the scrap processor`s site.

  15. Cosmic radioactivity and INTEGRAL results

    SciTech Connect

    Diehl, Roland

    2014-05-02

    Gamma-ray lines from radioactive decay of unstable isotopes co-produced by nucleosynthesis in massive stars and supernova have been measured since more than thirty years. Over the past ten years, INTEGRAL complemented the first sky survey made by COMPTEL. The {sup 26}A1 isotope with 1 My decay time had been first direct proof of currently-ongoing nucleosynthesis in our Galaxy. This has now become a tool to study the ∼My history of specific source regions, such as massive-star groups and associations in nearby regions which can be discriminated from the galactic-plane background, and the inner Galaxy, where Doppler shifted lines add to the astronomical information about bar and spiral structure. Recent findings suggest that superbubbles show a remarkable asymmetry, on average, in the spiral arms of our galaxy. {sup 60}Fe is co-produced by the sources of {sup 26}A1, and the isotopic ratio from their nucleosynthesis encodes stellar-structure information. Annihilation gamma-rays from positrons in interstellar space show a puzzling bright and extended source region central to our Galaxy, but also may be partly related to nucleosynthesis. {sup 56}Ni and {sup 44}Ti isotope gamma-rays have been used to constrain supernova explosion mechanisms. Here we report latest results using the accumulated multi-year database of INTEGRAL observations, and discuss their astrophysical interpretations, connecting to other traces of cosmic radioactivity and to other cosmic messengers.

  16. SEPARATION OF RADIOACTIVE COLUMBIUM TRACER

    DOEpatents

    Glendenin, L.E.; Gest, H.

    1958-08-26

    A process is presented for the recovery of radioactive columbium from solutions containing such columbium together with radioactive tellurium. The columbium and tellurium values are separated from such solutions by means of an inorganic oxide carrier precipitate, such as MnO/sub 2/. This oxide carrier precipitate and its associated columbium and telluriuan values are then dissolved in an aqueous acidic solution and nonradioactive tellurium, in an ionic form, is then introduced into such solution, for example in the form of H/sub 2/TeO/sub 3/. The tellurium present in the solution is then reduced to the elemental state and precipitates, and is then separated from the supernataat solution. A basic acetate precipitate is formed in the supernatant and carries the remaining columblum values therefrom. After separation, this basic ferric acetate precipitate is dissolved, and the ferric ions are removed by means of an organic solvent extraction process utilizing ether. The remaining solution contains carrier-free columbium as its only metal ion.

  17. Sorting method for radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Prisco, A.J.; Johnson, A.N.

    1988-08-09

    This paper describes a method for detecting radioactive components in dry active waste, comprising the steps of: providing a substantially airtight housing, withdrawing air from the housing, reducing the waste to pieces of substantially uniform size, providing a first conveyor in the housing, the first conveyor having a receiving portion and a discharge portion, discharging the pieces of reduced waste onto the first conveyor, flattening the pieces of reduced waste, detecting radiation emanating from the pieces of reduced waste from a position closely overlying the first conveyor, after the pieces are flattened, removing from the first conveyor the pieces of reduced waste from which radioactive radiation above a determined level is detected, providing a second conveyor in the housing, the second conveyor having a receiving portion and a discharge portion, disposing the second conveyor so that its receiving portion is below and spaced from the discharge portion of the first conveyor, discharging the pieces of reduced waste from the discharge portion of the first conveyor so that they fall onto the receiving portion of the second conveyor; the space between the last named discharge portion and the last named receiving portion being sufficiently great so that the pieces of reduced waste are substantially overturned and dispersed as they fall to the last named receiving portion.

  18. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us As ... and protect aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Lead Air Pollution Basics How does lead get ...

  19. Indoor Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

  20. River and Stream Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... Coloring Science Experiments Stories Lessons River and Stream Pollution Kids Homepage Topics Pollution River and Stream Pollution ... stream in the first place by disturbing the land as little as possible. Farmers and construction workers ...

  1. Top Soils Geochemical and Radioactivity Survey of Naples (Italy) Metropolitan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somma, R.; De Vivo, B.; Cicchella, D.

    2001-05-01

    The metropolitan area of Naples due to intense human activities is an emblematic area affected by various environmental pollution of soils and waters in addition to hydrogeological volcanic, seismic and bradyseismic hazards. The geology of the area is prevailing represented by volcanics erupted, from the Upper Pleistocene to Recent by Mt. Somma-Vesuvius on the east and the Campi Flegrei fields on the west. The morphology of the metropolitan area of Naples city can be subdivided in flat areas, constituted by reworked pyroclastic terrains, and by hills originated by the overlapping of different welded pyroclastic flows (i.e.: Campanian Ignimbrite and Neapoletan Yellow Tuff) intercalated with pyroclastic deposits of different origins (i.e.: Campi Flegrei, Mt. Somma-Vesuvius, Ischia) and ages. In order to compile a multi-element baseline geochemical and radioactivity mapping of the metropolitan area of the Napoli we have sampled for this study, in situ top soil and imported filling material (mainly soil, volcanic ash, pumice and scoriae). The sampling and radioactivity survey has been carried out on about 200 sampling sites covering an area of about 150 Km2, with a grid of 0.5 x 0.5 km in the urbanised downtown and 1 km x 1 km in the sub urban areas. In each site has been determined a radioactivity by a Scintrex GRS-500 at different emission spectra as total radioactivity (> 0.08 MeV and > 0.40 MeV), 238U (at 1.76 MeV mostly from 214Bi), 232Th (at 2.6 MeV mostly from 208Tl) and 40K (at 1.46 MeV mostly for 40K). The range of values of in situ soils are as follow for the in situ soils (Total radioactivity: 1327- 360 and 114- 47; 238U: 2.6- 1.3; 40K: 8.1- 3.1; 232U: 0.5- 0.1). Analyses of major, metallic elements and pH of each soil sample are in progress, while Pb isotopes compositions, for a selected number of samples, will be determined to discriminate the natural (geogenic) from the anthropogenic components in the soils by versus the anthropogenetic origin. The data

  2. Measurements of radioactive contaminants in semiconductor materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Michael S.; Rodbell, Kenneth P.; Murray, Conal E.; McNally, Brendan D.

    2016-12-01

    The emission of alpha particles from materials used to manufacture semiconductors can contribute substantially to the single-event upset rate. The alpha particles originate from contamination in the materials, or from radioactive isotopes, themselves. In this review paper, we discuss the sources of the radioactivity and the measurement methods to detect the emitted particles.

  3. An Excel™ model of a radioactive series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, D. G. H.

    2009-01-01

    A computer model of the decay of a radioactive series, written in Visual Basic in Excel™, is presented. The model is based on the random selection of cells in an array. The results compare well with the theoretical equations. The model is a useful tool in teaching this aspect of radioactivity.

  4. Nuclear-transfer spectroscopy using radioactive targets

    SciTech Connect

    Naumann, R.A.; Dewberry, R.; Kouzes, R.T.; Hoff, R.; Boerner, H.; Lanier, R.G.; Mann, L.; Struble, G.L.

    1981-06-01

    The feasibiity and techniques for carrying out transfer spectroscopic experiments with radioactive targets having half lives down to a fraction of a year are reviewed. The use of such radioactive targets is illustrated by recent studies of the spectroscopy of /sup 149/Sm, /sup 174/Lu and /sup 247/Bk using (p,t) transfer spectroscopy.

  5. 46 CFR 148.300 - Radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radioactive materials. 148.300 Section 148.300 Shipping... MATERIALS THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.300 Radioactive... surface, when averaged over an area of 300 cm2, does not exceed the following levels: (1) 4.0 Bq/cm2...

  6. Natural radioactivity in Spanish soils

    SciTech Connect

    Quindos, L.S.; Fernandez, P.L.; Soto, J.

    1994-02-01

    The program of studies and surveys of natural radiation and radioactivity in Spain organized by our research group at the end of the 1980s included a 4-y national survey to determine the concentrations of natural radionuclides in soil. Results obtained from measurements of soil samples collected nationwide at >900 sampling sites are reported and discussed in this paper. Correlations between absorbed dose rates in air calculated from natural radionuclide concentrations in soil and terrestrial gamma dose rates measured experimentally outdoors are shown for the different autonomous regions of Spain. Assessment is also made of the dose to the Spanish population from outdoor exposure to terrestrial gamma rays. 26 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Method for immobilizing radioactive iodine

    DOEpatents

    Babad, Harry; Strachan, Denis M.

    1980-01-01

    Radioactive iodine, present as alkali metal iodides or iodates in an aqueous solution, is incorporated into an inert solid material for long-term storage by adding to the solution a stoichiometric amount with respect to the formation of a sodalite (3M.sub.2 O.3Al.sub.2 O.sub.3. 6SiO.sub.2.2MX, where M=alkali metal; X=I.sup.- or IO.sub.3.sup.-) of an alkali metal, alumina and silica, stirring the solution to form a homogeneous mixture, drying the mixture to form a powder, compacting and sintering the compacted powder at 1073 to 1373 K (800.degree. to 1100.degree. C.) for a time sufficient to form sodalite.

  8. Diverter assembly for radioactive material

    DOEpatents

    Andrews, Katherine M.; Starenchak, Robert W.

    1989-01-01

    A diverter assembly for diverting a pneumatically conveyed holder for a radioactive material between a central conveying tube and one of a plurality of radially offset conveying tubes includes an airtight container. A diverter tube having an offset end is suitably mounted in the container for rotation. A rotary seal seals one end of the diverter tube during and after rotation of the diverter tube while a spring biased seal seals the other end of the diverter tube which mvoes between various offset conveying tubes. An indexing device rotatably indexes the diverter tube and this indexing device is driven by a suitable drive. The indexing mechanism is preferably a geneva-type mechanism to provide a locking of the diverter tube in place.

  9. Diverter assembly for radioactive material

    DOEpatents

    Andrews, K.M.; Starenchak, R.W.

    1988-04-11

    A diverter assembly for diverting a pneumatically conveyed holder for a radioactive material between a central conveying tube and one of a plurality of radially offset conveying tubes includes an airtight container. A diverter tube having an offset end is suitably mounted in the container for rotation. A rotary seal seals one end of the diverter tube during and after rotation of the diverter tube while a spring biased seal seals the other end of the diverter tube which moves between various offset conveying tubes. An indexing device rotatably indexes the diverter tube and this indexing device is driven by a suitable drive. The indexing mechanism is preferably a geneva-type mechanism to provide a locking of the diverter tube in place. 3 figs.

  10. Soil washing and radioactive contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Gombert, D. )

    1994-05-01

    This paper discusses the state of the technology and the unique challenges of treating radioactively contaminated soils, then focuses on how soil washing could be evaluated to provide definitive answers on when and where it should be employed. A logical, methodical approach must be designed to establish minimum acceptable criteria, determine what the controlling phenomena are, and then objectively evaluate whether a technology can potentially be applied to the problem. The Environmental Protection Agency's guidance on soil washing treatability studies suggests a 50 percent reduction of contamination in particles over 2 mm as a reasonable cutoff for choosing soil washing for further development. Once the decision has been made to attempt development, a systems approach is imperative to ensure a practical solution. 29 refs., 1 tab.

  11. Soil washing and radioactive contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Gombert, D.; Bosley, J.B.

    1992-03-20

    Soil washing, a technique combining both physical and chemical processes to produce significant volume reduction of contaminated soils, is widely regarded as a panacea for the huge inventory of contaminated soils in the DOE Complex. While the technology has been demonstrated for organics and to some extent for metals, review of the publications available on the practical applications to radioactive sites, indicates that most volume reduction is a product of unique circumstances such as screening or floating out non-soil materials containing most of the contaminants, or leaching contaminants (uranium or TRU) that exist as anionic complexes (Grant, 1991) which are not held by the soil cation-exchange-capacity. In either case, the potential for success of the technology is extremely site and contaminant specific. The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) guidance on soil washing treatability studies suggests a 50% reduction of contamination in particles over 2mm as a reasonable cutoff for choosing soil washing for further development (EPA, 1991).

  12. [Examination of radioactive contamination in foods].

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Hitoshi; Tsuchiyama, Tomoyuki; Terada, Hisaya

    2013-01-01

    Following the Fukushima nuclear plant accident in Mar. 2011, the examination of radioactive contamination in foods is being carried out in Nagoya. During the period between 30 Mar. 2011 and 31 Oct. 2012, a total of 300 food samples were collected and the concentrations of radioactive nuclides were determined by means of γ-ray spectrometry using a high-purity germanium semiconductor detector. The results of analysis indicate that the concentrations of radioactive iodine (I) and cesium (Cs) were below the regulatory limits. Radioactive I ((131)I) was detected in 7 samples which belonged to the categories of green and yellow vegetables and other vegetables. Radioactive Cs ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) was detected in 60 samples which belonged to the categories of rice and its processed products, potatoes and its processed products, nuts and seeds, green and yellow vegetables, other vegetables, fruits, mushrooms, fishes and shellfishes, processed sea foods, meat, milk and dairy products and other beverages.

  13. Apparatus and method for radioactive waste screening

    DOEpatents

    Akers, Douglas W.; Roybal, Lyle G.; Salomon, Hopi; Williams, Charles Leroy

    2012-09-04

    An apparatus and method relating to screening radioactive waste are disclosed for ensuring that at least one calculated parameter for the measurement data of a sample falls within a range between an upper limit and a lower limit prior to the sample being packaged for disposal. The apparatus includes a radiation detector configured for detecting radioactivity and radionuclide content of the of the sample of radioactive waste and generating measurement data in response thereto, and a collimator including at least one aperture to direct a field of view of the radiation detector. The method includes measuring a radioactive content of a sample, and calculating one or more parameters from the radioactive content of the sample.

  14. The safe disposal of radioactive wastes

    PubMed Central

    Kenny, A. W.

    1956-01-01

    A comprehensive review is given of the principles and problems involved in the safe disposal of radioactive wastes. The first part is devoted to a study of the basic facts of radioactivity and of nuclear fission, the characteristics of radioisotopes, the effects of ionizing radiations, and the maximum permissible levels of radioactivity for workers and for the general public. In the second part, the author describes the different types of radioactive waste—reactor wastes and wastes arising from the use of radioisotopes in hospitals and in industry—and discusses the application of the maximum permissible levels of radioactivity to their disposal and treatment, illustrating his discussion with an account of the methods practised at the principal atomic energy establishments. PMID:13374534

  15. Removal of radioactive contaminants by polymeric microspheres.

    PubMed

    Osmanlioglu, Ahmet Erdal

    2016-11-01

    Radionuclide removal from radioactive liquid waste by adsorption on polymeric microspheres is the latest application of polymers in waste management. Polymeric microspheres have significant immobilization capacity for ionic substances. A laboratory study was carried out by using poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) for encapsulation of radionuclide in the liquid radioactive waste. There are numbers of advantages to use an encapsulation technology in radioactive waste management. Results show that polymerization step of radionuclide increases integrity of solidified waste form. Test results showed that adding the appropriate polymer into the liquid waste at an appropriate pH and temperature level, radionuclide was encapsulated into polymer. This technology may provide barriers between hazardous radioactive ions and the environment. By this method, solidification techniques became easier and safer in nuclear waste management. By using polymer microspheres as dust form, contamination risks were decreased in the nuclear industry and radioactive waste operations.

  16. Thermal treatment of historical radioactive solid and liquid waste into the CILVA incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Deckers, Jan; Mols, Ludo

    2007-07-01

    Since the very beginning of the nuclear activities in Belgium, the incineration of radioactive waste was chosen as a suitable technique for achieving an optimal volume reduction of the produced waste quantities. Based on the 35 years experience gained by the operation of the old incinerator, a new industrial incineration plant started nuclear operation in May 1995, as a part of the Belgian Centralized Treatment/Conditioning Facility named CILVA. Up to the end of 2006, the CILVA incinerator has burnt 1660 tonne of solid waste and 419 tonne of liquid waste. This paper describes the type and allowable radioactivity of the waste, the incineration process, heat recovery and the air pollution control devices. Special attention is given to the treatment of several hundreds of tonne historical waste from former reprocessing activities such as alpha suspected solid waste, aqueous and organic liquid waste and spent ion exchange resins. The capacity, volume reduction, chemical and radiological emissions are also evaluated. BELGOPROCESS, a company set up in 1984 at Dessel (Belgium) where a number of nuclear facilities were already installed is specialized in the processing of radioactive waste. It is a subsidiary of ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Belgian Nuclear Waste Management Agency. According to its mission statement, the activities of BELGOPROCESS focus on three areas: treatment, conditioning and interim storage of radioactive waste; decommissioning of shut-down nuclear facilities and cleaning of contaminated buildings and land; operating of storage sites for conditioned radioactive waste. (authors)

  17. Study on the decontamination of surface of radioactive metal device using plasmatron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jong-Keun; Yang, Ik-Jun; Kim, Seung-Hyeon; Rai, Suresh; Lee, Heon-Ju

    2015-09-01

    Radioactive waste contiguously produced during operation of NPP (nuclear power plant). Therefore, KHNP (korea hydro & nuclear power co., ltd) decided to disband the NPP unit 1 in the Kori area. Since most of the metallic radioactive wastes are not contaminated ones themselves but rather ones containing polluted nuclides on their surface, the amount of wastes can be sharply reduced through decontamination process. In this study DC plasmatron and isotope sheet of radioactive cobalt was used to study the decontamination process. Decontamination can be achieved by etching the contaminated layer from the surface. Due to the restricted usage of radioactive materials, we have studied etching of Cobalt (Co) sheet to imitate the radioactive contamination. Plasma was generated using mixture gas of CF4/O2 in the ratio of 10:0, 9:1, 8:2, 7:3, 6:4 maintaining the plasma sample distance of 20 mm, 30 mm, 40 mm and exposed time of 60 sec, 120 sec, 180 sec using fixed Ar carrier gas flow rate of 1000 sccm. As a result, we obtained maximum etching rate of 9.24 μm/min when the mixture ratio of CF4/O2 gas was 4:1, which was confirmed by SEM and mass-meter. It was confirmed that more close positioning the Co samples to the plasmatron nozzle yields maximum etching rate.

  18. Radioactively Contaminated Sites | RadTown USA | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-01-17

    If radioactive materials are used or disposed of improperly, they can contaminate buildings and the environment. Every site requiring cleanup is different depending on the type of facility, the radioactive elements involved and the concentration of the radioactive elements.

  19. The problem of transfer of radionuclide pollution by sea ice.

    PubMed

    Pavlov, V K; Stanovoy, V V

    2001-04-01

    The problem of the radioactive pollution of the ice cover is discussed in this paper. An estimation of the possible transport of the radionuclides by drifting ice from the Kara Sea into the Arctic Ocean is presented. The conclusion about the importance of the contribution of drifting ice to the contamination of the Greenland coastal water is based on the comparison of estimates of the multiyear export of radioactive drifting ice from the Kara Sea with the observed concentrations of the radionuclides in the Greenland coastal water.

  20. The fate and behaviour of enhanced natural radioactivity with respect to environmental protection

    SciTech Connect

    Michalik, B.; Brown, J.; Krajewski, P.

    2013-01-15

    In contrast to the monitoring and prevention of occupational radiation risk caused by enhanced natural radioactivity, relatively little attention has been paid to the environmental impact associated with residues containing enhanced activity concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides. Such materials are often deposited directly into the environment, a practice which is strictly forbidden in the management of other types of radioactive waste. In view of the new trends in radiation protection, the need to consider the occurrence of anthropogenically enhanced natural radioactivity as a particular unique case of environmental hazard is quite apparent. Residues containing high activity concentrations of some natural radionuclides differ from radioactive materials arising from the nuclear industry. In addition, the radiation risk is usually combined with the risk caused by other pollutants. As such and to date, there are no precise regulations regarding this matter and moreover, the non-nuclear industry is often not aware of potential environmental problems caused by natural radioactivity. This article discusses aspects of environmental radiation risks caused by anthropogenically enhanced natural radioactivity stored at unauthorised sites. Difficulties and inconclusiveness in the application of recommendations and models for radiation risk assessment are explored. General terms such as 'environmental effects' and the basic parameters necessary to carry out consistent and comparable Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) have been developed and defined. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Features of environmental impact caused by residues containing high activity concentration of natural radionuclides Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Definition of an effect of radiation on an ecosystem and novel method for its assessment Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Radiation protection regulation inconclusiveness in the aspects of enhanced natural radioactivity.

  1. Criteria air pollutants and toxic air pollutants.

    PubMed Central

    Suh, H H; Bahadori, T; Vallarino, J; Spengler, J D

    2000-01-01

    This review presents a brief overview of the health effects and exposures of two criteria pollutants--ozone and particulate matter--and two toxic air pollutants--benzene and formaldehyde. These pollutants were selected from the six criteria pollutants and from the 189 toxic air pollutants on the basis of their prevalence in the United States, their physicochemical behavior, and the magnitude of their potential health threat. The health effects data included in this review primarily include results from epidemiologic studies; however, some findings from animal studies are also discussed when no other information is available. Health effects findings for each pollutant are related in this review to corresponding information about outdoor, indoor, and personal exposures and pollutant sources. Images Figure 3 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:10940240

  2. Research Spotlight: Potential pathways of radioactive contaminants to surface waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mohi

    2011-02-01

    From the 1940s to the end of the Cold War, the U.S. Department of Energy maintained production facilities for manufacturing nuclear weapons along the Columbia River north of Richland, Wash. Known as the Hanford Site, the Rhode Island-sized area contains more than 53 million gallons of radioactive waste and is the location of a massive environmental cleanup. Of particular concern is that when the facility was active, fluids containing 33-59 tons of uranium were discharged into the shallow subsurface aquifer underneath Hanford. Studies suggest that this pollution is pervasively moving with the groundwater in the direction of the Columbia River. (Water Resources Research, doi:10.1029/2010WR009110, 2010)

  3. Meso-Scale Radioactive Dispersion Modelling using GPU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunarko; Suud, Zaki

    2017-01-01

    Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Method (LPDM) is applied to model atmospheric dispersion of radioactive material in a meso-scale of a few tens of kilometers for site study purpose. Empirical relationships are used to determine the dispersion coefficient for various atmospheric stabilities. Diagnostic 3-D wind field is created based on data from a meteorological station using mass-conservation principle. Particles imitating radioactive pollutant are dispersed in the wind-field as a point source. Time-integrated air concentration is calculated using kernel density estimator (KDE) in the lowest layer of the atmosphere. Parallel code is developed for GTX-660Ti GPU with a total of 1344 scalar processors using CUDA programming. Significant speedup of about 20 times is achieved compared to the serial version of the code while accuracy is kept at reasonable level. Only small differences in particle positions and grid doses are observed when using the same sets of random number and meteorological data in both CPU and GPU versions of the code.

  4. IGRIS for characterizing low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, C.W.; Swanson, P.J.

    1993-03-01

    A recently developed neutron diagnostic probe system has the potential to noninvasively characterize low-level radioactive waste in bulk soil samples, containers such as 55-gallon barrels, and in pipes, valves, etc. The probe interrogates the target with a low-intensity beam of 14-MeV neutrons produced from the deuterium-tritium reaction in a specially designed sealed-tube neutron-generator (STNG) that incorporates an alpha detector to detect the alpha particle associated with each neutron. These neutrons interact with the nuclei in the target to produce inelastic-, capture-, and decay-gamma rays that are detected by gamma-ray detectors. Time-of-flight methods are used to separate the inelastic-gamma rays from other gamma rays and to determine the origin of each inelastic-gamma ray in three dimensions through Inelastic-Gamma Ray Imaging and Spectroscopy (IGRIS). The capture-gamma ray spectrum is measured simultaneously with the IGRIS measurements. The decay-gamma ray spectrum is measured with the STNG turned off. Laboratory proof-of-concept measurements were used to design prototype systems for Bulk Soil Assay, Barrel Inspection, and Decontamination and Decommissioning and to predict their minimum detectable levels for heavy toxic metals (As, Hg, Cr, Zn, Pb, Ni, and Cd), uranium and transuranics, gamma-ray emitters, and elements such as chlorine, which is found in PCBs and other pollutants. These systems are expected to be complementary and synergistic with other technologies used to characterize low-level radioactive waste.

  5. Application of Ion Exchange Technique to Decontamination of Polluted Water Generated by Fukushima Nuclear Disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeshita, Kenji; Ogata, Takeshi

    By the Fukushima nuclear disaster, large amounts of water and sea water polluted mainly with radioactive Cs were generated and the environment around the nuclear site was contaminated by the fallout from the nuclear site. The coagulation settling process using ferric ferrocyanide and an inorganic coagulant and the adsorption process using ferric ferrocyanide granulated by silica binder were applied to the treatment of polluted water. In the coagulation settling process, Cs was removed completely from polluted water and sea water (DF∼104). In the adsorption process, the recovery of trace Cs (10 ppb) in sea water, which was not suitable for the use of zeolite, was attained successfully. Finally, the recovery of Cs from sewage sludge was tested by a combined process with the hydrothermal process using subcritical water and the coagulation settling process using ferric ferrocyanide. 96% of radioactive Cs was recovered successfully from sewage sludge with the radioactivity of 10,000 Bq/kg.

  6. Determination of Dose from the Disposal of Radioactive Waste Related with TENORM using Residual Radioactivity (RESRAD) Monte Carlo Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    lwin, Maung Tin Moe; Kassim, Hassan Abu; Amin, Yusoff Mohd.

    2008-05-01

    The working procedures in the RESRAD for specific evaluations of environmental pollutants are briefly mentioned. The risk of human health associated with Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) who are working in the Malaysian oil and gas industry are analyzed. The sources of NORM and Technologically Enhanced NORM (TENORM) in the oil and gas industry are described. Some measurements for the external and internal effective dose equivalent on the workers will be described. These data are entered into the RESRAD software program and the output reports are taken. Long-term effects of TENORM to the industrial workers are also discussed with graphical illustrations. These results are compared with previous research work within the same field to validate and verify.

  7. Natural radioactivity in groundwater--a review.

    PubMed

    Dinh Chau, Nguyen; Dulinski, Marek; Jodlowski, Pawel; Nowak, Jakub; Rozanski, Kazimierz; Sleziak, Monika; Wachniew, Przemyslaw

    2011-12-01

    The issue of natural radioactivity in groundwater is reviewed, with emphasis on those radioisotopes which contribute in a significant way to the overall effective dose received by members of the public due to the intake of drinking water originating from groundwater systems. The term 'natural radioactivity' is used in this context to cover all radioactivity present in the environment, including man-made (anthropogenic) radioactivity. Comprehensive discussion of radiological aspects of the presence of natural radionuclides in groundwater, including an overview of current regulations dealing with radioactivity in drinking water, is provided. The presented data indicate that thorough assessments of the committed doses resulting from the presence of natural radioactivity in groundwater are needed, particularly when such water is envisaged for regular intake by infants. They should be based on a precise determination of radioactivity concentration levels of the whole suite of radionuclides, including characterisation of their temporal variability. Equally important is a realistic assessment of water intake values for specific age groups. Only such an evaluation may provide the basis for possible remedial actions.

  8. Influence of radioactivity on surface interaction forces.

    PubMed

    Walker, M E; McFarlane, J; Glasgow, D C; Chung, E; Taboada-Serrano, P; Yiacoumi, S; Tsouris, C

    2010-10-15

    Although some differences have been observed, the transport behavior of radioactive aerosol particles has often been assumed to be analogous to the behavior of nonradioactive aerosols in dispersion models. However, radioactive particles can become electrostatically charged as a result of the decay process. Theories have been proposed to describe this self-charging phenomenon, which may have a significant effect on how these particles interact with one another and with charged surfaces in the environment. In this study, atomic force microscopy (AFM) was employed to quantify surface forces between a particle and a planar surface and to compare measurements with and without the involvement of radioactivity. The main objective of this work is to assess directly the effects of radioactivity on the surface interactions of radioactive aerosols via the measurement of the adhesion force. The adhesion force between a silicon nitride AFM tip and an activated gold substrate was measured so that any possible effects due to radioactivity could be observed. The adhesion force between the tip and the gold surface increased significantly when the gold substrate (25 mm(2) surface area) was activated to a level of approximately 0.6 mCi. The results of this investigation will prompt further work into the effects of radioactivity in particle-surface interactions. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A radioactive metal processing industry perspective source.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A

    2006-11-01

    The current U.S. economic environment for the disposition of radioactive waste, including very-low-activity metals, is currently experiencing relatively low radioactive disposal costs and readily available disposal space. Despite the recent market increase in demand for recycled scrap metal commodities, there is still little change in the behavior of the nuclear industry (including radioactive waste processors and radioactive scrap metal recyclers) to pursue the recycling of potentially contaminated scrap metal. The relatively low cost of traditional radioactive waste disposal combined with the perceived risks associated with recycling of previously contaminated metals means that most U.S. radioactive facility managers and stakeholders will elect not to recycle. Current technology exists and precedence has been set for prescreening (by means of bulk radioactive assay techniques) scrap metal that is not contaminated and diverting it to industrial landfills for disposal. Other processes also allow some radiologically contaminated metals to be melted and recast into products with low, but acceptable, activity levels for restricted use in the nuclear industry. A new concept is being considered that would create a centralized licensed facility for the process and disposition of "very-low-activity" metals for "directed first use." The advantages to this type of approach would include a standardized method for licensing the clearance process.

  10. A laboratory activity for teaching natural radioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilakouta, M.; Savidou, A.; Vasileiadou, S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an educational approach for teaching natural radioactivity using commercial granite samples. A laboratory activity focusing on the topic of natural radioactivity is designed to develop the knowledge and understanding of undergraduate university students on the topic of radioactivity, to appreciate the importance of environmental radioactivity and familiarize them with the basic technology used in radioactivity measurements. The laboratory activity is divided into three parts: (i) measurements of the count rate with a Geiger-Muller counter of some granite samples and the ambient background radiation rate, (ii) measurement of one of the samples using gamma ray spectrometry with a NaI detector and identification of the radioactive elements of the sample, (iii) using already recorded 24 h gamma ray spectra of the samples from the first part (from the Granite Gamma-Ray Spectrum Library (GGRSL) of our laboratory) and analyzing selected peaks in the spectrum, students estimate the contribution of each radioactive element to the total specific activity of each sample. A brief description of the activity as well as some results and their interpretation are presented.

  11. Influence of Radioactivity on Surface Interaction Forces

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Mark E; McFarlane, Joanna; Glasgow, David C; Chung, Eunhyea; Taboada Serrano, Patricia L; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas

    2010-01-01

    Although some differences have been observed, the transport behavior of radioactive aerosol particles has often been assumed to be analogous to the behavior of nonradioactive aerosols in dispersion models. However, radioactive particles can become electrostatically charged as a result of the decay process. Theories have been proposed to describe this self-charging phenomenon, which may have a significant effect on how these particles interact with one another and with charged surfaces in the environment. In this study, atomic force microscopy (AFM) was employed to quantify surface forces between a particle and a planar surface and to compare measurements with and without the involvement of radioactivity. The main objective of this work is to assess directly the effects of radioactivity on the surface interactions of radioactive aerosols via the measurement of the adhesion force. The adhesion force between a silicon nitride AFM tip and an activated gold substrate was measured so that any possible effects due to radioactivity could be observed. The adhesion force between the tip and the gold surface increased significantly when the gold substrate (25 mm{sup 2} surface area) was activated to a level of approximately 0.6 mCi. The results of this investigation will prompt further work into the effects of radioactivity in particle-surface interactions.

  12. The changing face of radioactivity in steel

    SciTech Connect

    LaMastra, A.

    1995-07-01

    The question of radioactivity in iron and steel is a matter of definition and limits of detectability. A broad statement could be made that all steel that started with blast furnace iron is radioactive. This statement is not due to the practice of using wear-indication sources in the refractory of blast furnaces. Rather, it is because of the nature of the blast furnace process. Air contains radioactivity. Blowing copious quantities of air through a blast furnace introduces a very low level of radioactivity into the process. Some of the radioactivity will be tied up in the slag or become oxidized, but a small portion will become incorporated in the hot metal. Normally, this trivial level of contamination is not of concern because it carries no consequence and is detectable only by the most sensitive laboratory detection systems. For nearly 40 years, few people paid any attention to the topic of radioactivity in steel. However, that changed in Feb. 1983, when Auburn Steel had the unfortunate occasion to melt a radioactive source in their electric furnace. Since that time, there has been a total of 18 confirmed meltings at metal smelters within the US. The problem of melting radioactive sources in metal smelting plants appears to be increasing. It is not known if a trend is developing or if 1992/1993 are random anomalies. Based on past incidents, the difficulty of finding heavily shielded sources in scrap and the likelihood of more gaging devices being lost, steelmaking management must evaluate the importance of achieving high sensitivity. At the same time, management must also realize that the systems will be detecting more commodities and scrap loads that were heretofore not radioactive. That will have an impact on available manpower, traffic control and the timeliness of scrap deliveries.

  13. Science with radioactive beams: the alchemist's dream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelletly, W.

    2001-05-01

    Nuclear science is being transformed by a new capacity to create beams of radioactive nuclei. Until now all of our knowledge of nuclear physics and the applications which flow from it has been derived from studies of radioactive decay and nuclear reactions induced by beams of the 283 stable or long-lived nuclear species we can find on Earth. Here we describe first how beams of radioactive nuclei can be created. The present status of nuclear physics is then reviewed before potential applications to nuclear physics, nuclear astrophysics, materials science, bio-medical, and environmental studies are described.

  14. Radioactive anomaly discrimination from spectral ratios

    DOEpatents

    Maniscalco, James; Sjoden, Glenn; Chapman, Mac Clements

    2013-08-20

    A method for discriminating a radioactive anomaly from naturally occurring radioactive materials includes detecting a first number of gamma photons having energies in a first range of energy values within a predetermined period of time and detecting a second number of gamma photons having energies in a second range of energy values within the predetermined period of time. The method further includes determining, in a controller, a ratio of the first number of gamma photons having energies in the first range and the second number of gamma photons having energies in the second range, and determining that a radioactive anomaly is present when the ratio exceeds a threshold value.

  15. [Some radiobiological effects in higher plants growing at the territory of the East Ural radioactive trace].

    PubMed

    Abramov, V I; Stepanova, A A; Famelis, S A

    2010-01-01

    The spontaneous level of cytogenetic damage in three plant species (Achyrophorus maculatus (Scop.) L., Plantago lanceolata L., Plantago media L.) growing at the territory of East Ural radioactive trace was studied. The radiation resistance of plants from radioactive and control nonpolluted sites was determined. The effects of additional fractionated irradiation by different doses and the role of antioxidant systems in the formation of radioprotector effect were examined. It was shown that the level of mutation process in the plant populations growing at the radiation polluted sites is increased compared to the control populations from the pure territory. The additional acute gamma-irradiation of seeds collected from the polluted and pure territories showed the improved radiation resistance of the plants from the polluted territory. In the control population of A. maculatus in the versions with a one-hour interval between fractions, the radiation effect follows the additivity principle; in the same time, at a one-day interval between fractions, a highly significant radioprotective effect manifested most clearly in the experimental population is induced. For higher plants, the enhanced effectiveness of the functioning of antioxidant systems in plants growing at radiation polluted territories was first shown. Thus, the radioprotector mechanisms of low-dose chronic and preliminary irradiation are similar and one of these mechanisms is the activation of antioxidant systems in plants growing under conditions of chronic low-intensity irradiation for long periods of time.

  16. The Discovery of Artificial Radioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, Francesco; Leone, Matteo; Robotti, Nadia

    2012-03-01

    We reconstruct Frédéric Joliot and Irène Curie's discovery of artificial radioactivity in January 1934 based in part on documents preserved in the Joliot-Curie Archives in Paris, France. We argue that their discovery followed from the convergence of two parallel lines of research, on the neutron and on the positron, that were focused on a well-defined experimental problem, the nuclear transmutation of aluminum and other light elements. We suggest that a key role was played by a suggestion that Francis Perrin made at the seventh Solvay Conference at the end of October 1933, that the alpha-particle bombardment of aluminum produces an intermediate unstable isotope of phosphorus, which then decays by positron emission. We also suggest that a further idea that Perrin published in December 1933, and the pioneering theory of beta decay that Enrico Fermi also first published in December 1933, established a new theoretical framework that stimulated Joliot to resume the researches that he and Curie had interrupted after the Solvay Conference, now for the first time using a Geiger-Müller counter to detect the positrons emitted when he bombarded aluminum with polonium alpha particles.

  17. Is radioactive decay really exponential?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aston, P. J.

    2012-03-01

    Radioactive decay of an unstable isotope is widely believed to be exponential. This view is supported by experiments on rapidly decaying isotopes but is more difficult to verify for slowly decaying isotopes. The decay of 14C can be calibrated over a period of 12550 years by comparing radiocarbon dates with dates obtained from dendrochronology. It is well known that this approach shows that radiocarbon dates of over 3000 years are in error, which is generally attributed to past variation in atmospheric levels of 14C. We note that predicted atmospheric variation (assuming exponential decay) does not agree with results from modelling, and that theoretical quantum mechanics does not predict exact exponential decay. We give mathematical arguments that non-exponential decay should be expected for slowly decaying isotopes and explore the consequences of non-exponential decay. We propose an experimental test of this prediction of non-exponential decay for 14C. If confirmed, a foundation stone of current dating methods will have been removed, requiring a radical reappraisal both of radioisotope dating methods and of currently predicted dates obtained using these methods.

  18. Natural radioactivity in Brazilian groundwater.

    PubMed

    Godoy, José Marcus; Godoy, Maria Luiza

    2006-01-01

    More than 220 groundwater samples were analyzed for 228Ra, 226Ra, 222Rn, 210Pb, U(nat), Th(nat), pH, conductivity, fluoride and some additional elements determined by ICP-MS. Since samples from several Brazilian states were taken, involving areas with quite different geologies, no general trend was observed relating the chemical composition and the natural radionuclide content. On the other hand, 210Pb strongly depends on the water content of its progenitor, 222Rn. The values obtained during the present work were compared with those reported by Hainberger et al. [Hainberger, P.L., de Oliveira Paiva, I.R., Salles Andrade, H.A., Zundel, G., Cullen, T.L., 1974. Radioactivity in Brazilian mineral waters. Radiation Data and Reports, 483-488.], when more than 270 groundwater samples were analyzed, mainly, for 226Ra. Based on the results of both works, it was possible to build a database including the results of both works, generating a set with the radium content of circa 350 groundwater sources. It was demonstrated that 228Ra, 226Ra, 222Rn, 210Pb and U(nat) content in Brazilian groundwater follows a lognormal distribution and the obtained geometric mean were 0.045, 0.014, 57.7, 0.040 BqL(-1) and 1.2 microgL(-1), respectively.

  19. Radioactivities related to coal mining.

    PubMed

    Seddeek, Mostafa K; Sharshar, Taher; Ragab, Hossam S; Badran, Hussein M

    2005-08-01

    Natural radioactivity concentrations due to the coal mining in Gabal El-Maghara, North Sinai, Egypt, were determined using gamma-ray spectroscopy. Coal, water and soil samples were investigated in this study. The (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K activity concentrations in coal before extraction were 18.5 +/- 0.5, 29.5 +/- 1.2 and 149.0 +/- 8.4 Bq kg(-1), respectively. These concentrations were reduced to 18-22% after extraction due to the clay removal of the coal ore. The activity contents of the water and soil samples collected from the surrounding area did not show any evidence of enhancement due to the mining activities. Absorbed dose rate and effective dose equivalent in the mine environment were 29.4 nGy h(-1) and 128.0 microSv a(-1), respectively. The measured activity concentrations in the mine environment and the surrounding areas (5 km away from the mine) are similar to that found in other regions in North and South Sinai. Based on the measurements of gamma-ray emitting radionuclides, the mine activity does not lead to any enhancement in the local area nor represents any human risk.

  20. Soil washing and radioactive contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Gombert, D.; Bosley, J.B.

    1992-03-20

    Soil washing, a technique combining both physical and chemical processes to produce significant volume reduction of contaminated soils, is widely regarded as a panacea for the huge inventory of contaminated soils in the DOE Complex. While the technology has been demonstrated for organics and to some extent for metals, review of the publications available on the practical applications to radioactive sites, indicates that most volume reduction is a product of unique circumstances such as screening or floating out non-soil materials containing most of the contaminants, or leaching contaminants (uranium or TRU) that exist as anionic complexes (Grant, 1991) which are not held by the soil cation-exchange-capacity. In either case, the potential for success of the technology is extremely site and contaminant specific. The Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) guidance on soil washing treatability studies suggests a 50% reduction of contamination in particles over 2mm as a reasonable cutoff for choosing soil washing for further development (EPA, 1991).

  1. Radioactivity in man: levels, effects and unknowns

    SciTech Connect

    Rundo, J.

    1980-01-01

    The report discusses the potential for significant human exposure to internal radiation. Sources of radiation considered include background radiation, fallout, reactor accidents, radioactive waste, and occupational exposure to various radioisotopes. (ACR)

  2. DEPO-related to Radioactive Sources.

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, James Christopher

    2016-02-24

    Design and Evaluation Process Outline (DEPO) is discussed as it pertains to protection of radioactive sources. The bulk of the report describes features of various kinds of detection systems, and follows this with systems for entry control and personnel identification.

  3. Studies of induced radioactivity at the AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.A.; Tanaka, M.

    1987-01-01

    With the goals of higher proton intensities, along with the many modes the AGS now runs and those being commissioned to run, we have begun detailed studies of the beam induced radioactivity in the AGS.

  4. Principles for Sampling Airborne Radioactivity from Stacks

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, John A.

    2010-10-18

    This book chapter describes the special processes involved in sampling the airborne effluents from nuclear faciities. The title of the book is Radioactive Air Sampling Methods. The abstract for this chapter was cleared as PNNL-SA-45941.

  5. Radioactive Iodine (I-131) Therapy for Hyperthyroidism

    MedlinePlus

    ... of your treatment team. top of page What equipment is used? There is no equipment used during ... iodine therapy. top of page Who operates the equipment? There is no equipment used during radioactive iodine ...

  6. Radioactive Dating: A Method for Geochronology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, M. W.

    1985-01-01

    Gives historical background on the discovery of natural radiation and discusses various techniques for using knowledge of radiochemistry in geochronological studies. Indicates that of these radioactive techniques, Potassium-40/Argon-40 dating is used most often. (JN)

  7. TENORM (Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials)

    MedlinePlus

    ... The major industrial sectors which generate TENORM are: Mining. Energy production. Water treatment. Consumer products . Learn more ... Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials From Uranium Mining, Volume 1: Mining and Reclamation Background, and Volume ...

  8. Radioactive Dating: A Method for Geochronology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, M. W.

    1985-01-01

    Gives historical background on the discovery of natural radiation and discusses various techniques for using knowledge of radiochemistry in geochronological studies. Indicates that of these radioactive techniques, Potassium-40/Argon-40 dating is used most often. (JN)

  9. Radioactive materials shipping cask anticontamination enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Belmonte, Mark S.; Davis, James H.; Williams, David A.

    1982-01-01

    An anticontamination device for use in storing shipping casks for radioactive materials comprising (1) a seal plate assembly; (2) a double-layer plastic bag; and (3) a water management system or means for water management.

  10. Production of negatively charged radioactive ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Stracener, D. W.; Stora, T.

    2017-08-01

    Beams of short-lived radioactive nuclei are needed for frontier experimental research in nuclear structure, reactions, and astrophysics. Negatively charged radioactive ion beams have unique advantages and allow for the use of a tandem accelerator for post-acceleration, which can provide the highest beam quality and continuously variable energies. Negative ion beams can be obtained with high intensity and some unique beam purification techniques based on differences in electronegativity and chemical reactivity can be used to provide beams with high purity. This article describes the production of negative radioactive ion beams at the former holifield radioactive ion beam facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and at the CERN ISOLDE facility with emphasis on the development of the negative ion sources employed at these two facilities. ).

  11. Overflow of Radioactive Water from K Basins

    SciTech Connect

    RITTMANN, P.D.

    1999-10-06

    This report documents the dose calculations for the postulated K Basin overflow accident using current methods to model the environmental doses for radioactive releases into the Columbia River and the air.

  12. Computed tomography of radioactive objects and materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawicka, B. D.; Murphy, R. V.; Tosello, G.; Reynolds, P. W.; Romaniszyn, T.

    1990-12-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has been performed on a number of radioactive objects and materials. Several unique technical problems are associated with CT of radioactive specimens. These include general safety considerations, techniques to reduce background-radiation effects on CT images and selection criteria for the CT source to permit object penetration and to reveal accurate values of material density. In the present paper, three groups of experiments will be described, for objects with low, medium and high levels of radioactivity. CT studies on radioactive specimens will be presented. They include the following: (1) examination of individual ceramic reactor-fuel (uranium dioxide) pellets, (2) examination of fuel samples from the Three Mile Island reactor, (3) examination of a CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uraniun: registered trademark) nuclear-fuel bundle which underwent a simulated loss-of-coolant accident resulting in high-temperature damage and (4) examination of a PWR nuclear-reactor fuel assembly.

  13. Method for storing radioactive combustible waste

    DOEpatents

    Godbee, H.W.; Lovelace, R.C.

    1973-10-01

    A method is described for preventing pressure buildup in sealed containers which contain radioactively contaminated combustible waste material by adding an oxide getter material to the container so as to chemically bind sorbed water and combustion product gases. (Official Gazette)

  14. Issues of natural radioactivity in phosphates

    SciTech Connect

    Schnug, E.; Haneklaus, S.; Schnier, C.; Scholten, L.C.

    1996-12-31

    The fertilization of phosphorus (P) fertilizers is essential in agricultural production, but phosphates contain in dependence on their origin different amounts of trace elements. The problem of cadmium (Cd) loads and other heavy metals is well known. However, only a limited number of investigations examined the contamination of phosphates with the two heaviest metals, uranium (U) and thorium (Th), which are radioactive. Also potassium (K) is lightly radioactive. Measurements are done n the radioactivity content of phosphates, P fertilizers and soils. The radiation doses to workers and public as well as possible contamination of soils from phosphate rock or fertilizer caused by these elements or their daughter products is of interest with regard to radiation protection. The use of P fertilizers is necessary for a sustainable agriculture, but it involves radioactive contamination of soils. The consequences of the use of P fertilizers is discussed, also with regard to existing and proposed legislation. 11 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. Salivary gland dysfunction following radioactive iodine therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wiesenfeld, D.; Webster, G.; Cameron, F.; Ferguson, M.M.; MacFadyen, E.E.; MacFarlane, T.W.

    1983-02-01

    Radioactive iodine is used extensively for the treatment of thyrotoxicosis and thyroid carcinoma. Iodine is actively taken up by the salivary glands and, following its use, salivary dysfunction may result as a consequence of radiation damage. The literature is reviewed and a case is reported in which a patient presented with a significant increase in caries rate attributed to salivary dysfunction following radioactive iodine therapy for a thyroid carcinoma.

  16. Vitrification of hazardous and radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Bickford, D.F.; Schumacher, R.

    1995-12-31

    Vitrification offers many attractive waste stabilization options. Versatility of waste compositions, as well as the inherent durability of a glass waste form, have made vitrification the treatment of choice for high-level radioactive wastes. Adapting the technology to other hazardous and radioactive waste streams will provide an environmentally acceptable solution to many of the waste challenges that face the public today. This document reviews various types and technologies involved in vitrification.

  17. Low-level radioactive waste, mixed low-level radioactive waste, and biomedical mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This document describes the proceedings of a workshop entitled: Low-Level Radioactive Waste, Mixed Low-Level Radioactive Waste, and Biomedical Mixed Waste presented by the National Low-Level Waste Management Program at the University of Florida, October 17-19, 1994. The topics covered during the workshop include technical data and practical information regarding the generation, handling, storage and disposal of low-level radioactive and mixed wastes. A description of low-level radioactive waste activities in the United States and the regional compacts is presented.

  18. Joint Conference on Sensing of Environmental Pollutants, 4th, New Orleans, La., November 6-11, 1977, Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Papers are presented on such topics as environmental chemistry, the effects of sulfur compounds on air quality, the prediction and monitoring of biological effects caused by environmental pollutants, environmental indicators, the satellite remote sensing of air pollution, weather and climate modification by pollution, and the monitoring and assessment of radioactive pollutants. Consideration is also given to empirical and quantitative modeling of air quality, disposal of hazardous and nontoxic materials, sensing and assessment of water quality, pollution source monitoring, and assessment of some environmental impacts of fossil and nuclear fuels.

  19. B Plant Complex pollution prevention plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Beam, T.G.

    1994-10-13

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has directed Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to develop an effective strategy to minimize the generation of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes at Hanford in compliance with state and federal regulations. WHC has formalized a pollution prevention program composed of management policies, management requirements and procedures. This plan addresses pollution prevention for B Plant Complex. A pollution prevention team is in place and has been assigned responsibility for implementing the plan. This plan includes actions and goals for reducing volume and toxicity of waste generated, as well as a basis for evaluation of progress. Descriptions of waste streams, current specific goals, general pollution prevention methods, and specific accomplishments are in the appendices of this plan.

  20. Reconnaissance of radioactive rocks of Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, John M.; Narten, Perry F.

    1951-01-01

    The state of Maine was traversed with car-mounted Geiger-Mueller equipment in the late summer of 1948 and the radioactivity of approximately 4,600 miles of road was logged. All samples were analyzed, both in the field by comparing the radioactivity of each sample to the radioactivity of a stranded measured with a simple scaling modification of a portable counter, and in the Geological Survey’s Trace Elements Section Washington Laboratory. Differences between both types of analyses were negligible. The maximum equivalent uranium content of the most radioactive rocks thus analyzed was 0.008 percent. A 1,400-square-mile abnormally radioactive province in southwestern Maine was outlined. The outcrop data obtained from car traversing are evaluated statistically. Cumulative frequency distribution curves are drawn to show the distribution of outcrops at various levels of radioactivity, and straight-line extensions are made to show to maximum probable grade for various rock types and areas in Maine. A maximum grade of 0.055 percent equivalent uranium is thus predicted for the entire state. This prediction necessarily is a broad generalization because large areas of Main are inaccessible for car traversing. A concept of evaluation of an area for possible mineral deposits is proposed on the basis of lithology, and observed and indicated ranges in grade.

  1. 10 CFR 76.83 - Transfer of radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transfer of radioactive material. 76.83 Section 76.83... Transfer of radioactive material. (a) The Corporation may not transfer radioactive material except as... paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section, the Corporation may transfer radioactive material: (1) From one...

  2. 10 CFR 835.1201 - Sealed radioactive source control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sealed radioactive source control. 835.1201 Section 835.1201 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Sealed Radioactive Source Control § 835.1201 Sealed radioactive source control. Sealed radioactive sources shall be used, handled, and...

  3. 10 CFR 835.1201 - Sealed radioactive source control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sealed radioactive source control. 835.1201 Section 835.1201 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Sealed Radioactive Source Control § 835.1201 Sealed radioactive source control. Sealed radioactive sources shall be used, handled, and...

  4. 10 CFR 835.1202 - Accountable sealed radioactive sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accountable sealed radioactive sources. 835.1202 Section 835.1202 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Sealed Radioactive Source Control § 835.1202 Accountable sealed radioactive sources. (a) Each accountable sealed radioactive source...

  5. 10 CFR 835.1202 - Accountable sealed radioactive sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Accountable sealed radioactive sources. 835.1202 Section 835.1202 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Sealed Radioactive Source Control § 835.1202 Accountable sealed radioactive sources. (a) Each accountable sealed radioactive source...

  6. 49 CFR 172.436 - RADIOACTIVE WHITE-I label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE WHITE-I label. 172.436 Section 172.436... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.436 RADIOACTIVE WHITE-I label. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE... background on the RADIOACTIVE WHITE-I label must be white. The printing and symbol must be black, except for...

  7. 10 CFR 76.83 - Transfer of radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transfer of radioactive material. 76.83 Section 76.83... Transfer of radioactive material. (a) The Corporation may not transfer radioactive material except as... paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section, the Corporation may transfer radioactive material: (1) From one...

  8. 49 CFR 172.436 - RADIOACTIVE WHITE-I label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE WHITE-I label. 172.436 Section 172.436... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.436 RADIOACTIVE WHITE-I label. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE... background on the RADIOACTIVE WHITE-I label must be white. The printing and symbol must be black, except for...

  9. 10 CFR 835.1201 - Sealed radioactive source control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sealed radioactive source control. 835.1201 Section 835.1201 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Sealed Radioactive Source Control § 835.1201 Sealed radioactive source control. Sealed radioactive sources shall be used, handled, and...

  10. 10 CFR 835.1201 - Sealed radioactive source control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sealed radioactive source control. 835.1201 Section 835.1201 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Sealed Radioactive Source Control § 835.1201 Sealed radioactive source control. Sealed radioactive sources shall be used, handled, and...

  11. 10 CFR 835.1202 - Accountable sealed radioactive sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Accountable sealed radioactive sources. 835.1202 Section 835.1202 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Sealed Radioactive Source Control § 835.1202 Accountable sealed radioactive sources. (a) Each accountable sealed radioactive source...

  12. 49 CFR 172.436 - RADIOACTIVE WHITE-I label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE WHITE-I label. 172.436 Section 172.436... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.436 RADIOACTIVE WHITE-I label. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE... background on the RADIOACTIVE WHITE-I label must be white. The printing and symbol must be black, except...

  13. 49 CFR 172.436 - RADIOACTIVE WHITE-I label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE WHITE-I label. 172.436 Section 172.436... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.436 RADIOACTIVE WHITE-I label. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE... background on the RADIOACTIVE WHITE-I label must be white. The printing and symbol must be black, except...

  14. 49 CFR 172.436 - RADIOACTIVE WHITE-I label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE WHITE-I label. 172.436 Section 172.436... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.436 RADIOACTIVE WHITE-I label. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE... background on the RADIOACTIVE WHITE-I label must be white. The printing and symbol must be black, except...

  15. 10 CFR 835.1201 - Sealed radioactive source control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sealed radioactive source control. 835.1201 Section 835.1201 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Sealed Radioactive Source Control § 835.1201 Sealed radioactive source control. Sealed radioactive sources shall be used, handled,...

  16. Geographical information systems and air pollution simulation for Megalopolis' electric power plant in Peloponnese, Greece.

    PubMed

    Theophanides, Mike; Anastassopoulou, Jane; Theophanides, Theophile

    2014-01-01

    The growth and sophistication of geographic information systems (GIS) have propelled us into a new era of environmental analyses. Air pollution is a growing concern in populated areas as many recent studies have associated high levels of pollution with increased illnesses and mortality. The study will focus on the toxicity levels incurred by radioactive lignite-burning Power Generation facilities located in Megalopolis, Greece. An estimate of pollution emissions followed by dispersion simulations for various atmospheric conditions will be given. The exercise will be integrated with a Geographical Information System (GIS) for defining the emission sources and visualizing the dispersion of pollutants over the geographical terrain. Data samples were collected from vegetation in the surrounding areas and analyzed for radioactivity. High energy levels (up to 4-5 times higher than recommended standards, (UNCEAR, 1982) were found in several samples containing (226)Ra, (232)Th, (234)Th, (40)K and (238)U. The study concludes that air quality and vegetation of the neighbouring areas is adversely affected by industrial waste. Greater pollution controls and air quality monitoring should be applied for the benefit and health of its citizens. Radioactivity in food and water and inhaled air become very dangerous for public health thus, the levels of radioactivity should be kept within UNCEAR 1982 limits.

  17. Automobiles and pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Degobert, P.

    1995-12-31

    This book explores the impact automobile emissions have on air pollution, focusing objectively on the share of pollution that can actually be attributed to the use of vehicles. Automobiles and Pollution begins with a presentation of general information on atmospheric pollution, including its regulatory aspects. The book`s focus then shifts to a more in-depth analysis of how pollutants can be eliminated from car exhaust emissions. Automobiles and Pollution will serve as a thorough and up-to-date reference for the specialist, and an informative primer to the nonspecialist needing an objective opinion on the subject.

  18. Marine disposal of radioactive wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodhead, D. S.

    1980-03-01

    In a general sense, the main attraction of the marine environment as a repository for the wastes generated by human activities lies in the degree of dispersion and dilution which is readily attainable. However, the capacity of the oceans to receive wastes without unacceptable consequences is clearly finite and this is even more true of localized marine environments such as estuaries, coastal waters and semi-enclosed seas. Radionuclides have always been present in the marine environment and marine organisms and humans consuming marine foodstuffs have always been exposed, to some degree, to radiation from this source. The hazard associated with ionizing radiations is dependent upon the absorption of energy from the radiation field within some biological entity. Thus any disposal of radioactive wastes into the marine environment has consequences, the acceptability of which must be assessed in terms of the possible resultant increase in radiation exposure of human and aquatic populations. In the United Kingdom the primary consideration has been and remains the safe-guarding of public health. The control procedures are therefore designed to minimize as far as practicable the degree of human exposure within the overall limits recommended as acceptable by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. There are several approaches through which control could be exercised and the strengths and weaknesses of each are considered. In this review the detailed application of the critical path technique to the control of the discharge into the north-east Irish Sea from the fuel reprocessing plant at Windscale is given as a practical example. It will be further demonstrated that when human exposure is controlled in this way no significant risk attaches to the increased radiation exposure experienced by populations of marine organisms in the area.

  19. Annual report of waste generation and pollution prevention progress 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    This fourth Annual Report presents and analyzes 1995 DOE complex-wide waste generation and pollution prevention activities at 40 reporting sites in 25 States, and trends DOE waste generation from 1991 through 1995. DOE has established a 50% reduction goal (relative to the 1993 baseline) for routine operations radioactive and hazardous waste generation, due by December 31, 1999. Routine operations waste generation decreased 37% from 1994 to 1995, and 43% overall from 1993--1995.

  20. Optimal pollution trading without pollution reductions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many kinds of water pollution occur in pulses, e.g., agricultural and urban runoff. Ecosystems, such as wetlands, can serve to regulate these pulses and smooth pollution distributions over time. This smoothing reduces total environmental damages when “instantaneous” damages are m...

  1. Optimal pollution trading without pollution reductions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many kinds of water pollution occur in pulses, e.g., agricultural and urban runoff. Ecosystems, such as wetlands, can serve to regulate these pulses and smooth pollution distributions over time. This smoothing reduces total environmental damages when “instantaneous” damages are m...

  2. 10 CFR Appendix E to Part 835 - Values for Establishing Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability and Radioactive Material Posting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Values for Establishing Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability and Radioactive Material Posting and Labeling Requirements E Appendix E to Part 835 Energy... Establishing Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability and Radioactive Material Posting and Labeling...

  3. The Pollution Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Lillian

    1981-01-01

    Presented are methods to help teachers continue the environmental awareness programs they have already started by providing up-to-date information and activities dealing with air pollution, water pollution, and solid waste disposal. (Author/KC)

  4. Exploring Oil Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses damages of oil tanker spillage to the marine organisms and scientists' research in oil pollution removal techniques. Included is a list of learning activities concerning the causes and effects of oil pollution and methods of solving the problem. (CC)

  5. Kookaburras and Polluted Streams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Julie; Harrison, Terry

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the role of teachers in environmental education. Presents two simulations on water pollution in order to explore pollution of the environment and investigate the life and ecology of a native bird or investigate predator/prey relationships. (ASK)

  6. Kookaburras and Polluted Streams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Julie; Harrison, Terry

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the role of teachers in environmental education. Presents two simulations on water pollution in order to explore pollution of the environment and investigate the life and ecology of a native bird or investigate predator/prey relationships. (ASK)

  7. Pollution of Florida's rivers.

    PubMed

    Cromartie, R S

    1991-12-01

    Pollution of Florida's waterways is a serious problem. Sources of pollution include sewage, storm water runoff, faulty septic tanks, improperly constructed landfills, and obstruction by causeway bridges. Some of the major causes and solutions are discussed.

  8. Exploring Oil Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses damages of oil tanker spillage to the marine organisms and scientists' research in oil pollution removal techniques. Included is a list of learning activities concerning the causes and effects of oil pollution and methods of solving the problem. (CC)

  9. The Pollution Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Lillian

    1981-01-01

    Presented are methods to help teachers continue the environmental awareness programs they have already started by providing up-to-date information and activities dealing with air pollution, water pollution, and solid waste disposal. (Author/KC)

  10. Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution Contact Us Share Most PM particles form in ... and cause serious health effects. Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution PM Basics What is PM, and how does ...

  11. Public involvement in radioactive waste management decisions

    SciTech Connect

    1994-04-01

    Current repository siting efforts focus on Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where DOE`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is conducting exploratory studies to determine if the site is suitable. The state of Nevada has resisted these efforts: it has denied permits, brought suit against DOE, and publicly denounced the federal government`s decision to study Yucca Mountain. The state`s opposition reflects public opinion in Nevada, and has considerably slowed DOE`s progress in studying the site. The Yucca Mountain controversy demonstrates the importance of understanding public attitudes and their potential influence as DOE develops a program to manage radioactive waste. The strength and nature of Nevada`s opposition -- its ability to thwart if not outright derail DOE`s activities -- indicate a need to develop alternative methods for making decisions that affect the public. This report analyzes public participation as a key component of this openness, one that provides a means of garnering acceptance of, or reducing public opposition to, DOE`s radioactive waste management activities, including facility siting and transportation. The first section, Public Perceptions: Attitudes, Trust, and Theory, reviews the risk-perception literature to identify how the public perceives the risks associated with radioactivity. DOE and the Public discusses DOE`s low level of credibility among the general public as the product, in part, of the department`s past actions. This section looks at the three components of the radioactive waste management program -- disposal, storage, and transportation -- and the different ways DOE has approached the problem of public confidence in each case. Midwestern Radioactive Waste Management Histories focuses on selected Midwestern facility-siting and transportation activities involving radioactive materials.

  12. CHAPTER 5-RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J.

    2010-05-05

    The ore pitchblende was discovered in the 1750's near Joachimstal in what is now the Czech Republic. Used as a colorant in glazes, uranium was identified in 1789 as the active ingredient by chemist Martin Klaproth. In 1896, French physicist Henri Becquerel studied uranium minerals as part of his investigations into the phenomenon of fluorescence. He discovered a strange energy emanating from the material which he dubbed 'rayons uranique.' Unable to explain the origins of this energy, he set the problem aside. About two years later, a young Polish graduate student was looking for a project for her dissertation. Marie Sklodowska Curie, working with her husband Pierre, picked up on Becquerel's work and, in the course of seeking out more information on uranium, discovered two new elements (polonium and radium) which exhibited the same phenomenon, but were even more powerful. The Curies recognized the energy, which they now called 'radioactivity,' as something very new, requiring a new interpretation, new science. This discovery led to what some view as the 'golden age of nuclear science' (1895-1945) when countries throughout Europe devoted large resources to understand the properties and potential of this material. By World War II, the potential to harness this energy for a destructive device had been recognized and by 1939, Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassman showed that fission not only released a lot of energy but that it also released additional neutrons which could cause fission in other uranium nuclei leading to a self-sustaining chain reaction and an enormous release of energy. This suggestion was soon confirmed experimentally by other scientists and the race to develop an atomic bomb was on. The rest of the development history which lead to the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 is well chronicled. After World War II, development of more powerful weapons systems by the United States and the Soviet Union continued to advance nuclear science. It was this defense

  13. Undiagnosed illnesses and radioactive warfare.

    PubMed

    Duraković, Asaf

    2003-10-01

    The internal contamination with depleted uranium (DU) isotopes was detected in British, Canadian, and United States Gulf War veterans as late as nine years after inhalational exposure to radioactive dust in the Persian Gulf War I. DU isotopes were also identified in a Canadian veteran's autopsy samples of lung, liver, kidney, and bone. In soil samples from Kosovo, hundreds of particles, mostly less than 5 microm in size, were found in milligram quantities. Gulf War I in 1991 resulted in 350 metric tons of DU deposited in the environment and 3-6 million grams of DU aerosol released into the atmosphere. Its legacy, Gulf War disease, is a complex, progressive, incapacitating multiorgan system disorder. The symptoms include incapacitating fatigue, musculoskeletel and joint pains, headaches, neuropsychiatric disorders, affect changes, confusion, visual problems, changes of gait, loss of memory, lymphadenopathies, respiratory impairment, impotence, and urinary tract morphological and functional alterations. Current understanding of its etiology seems far from being adequate. After the Afghanistan Operation Anaconda (2002), our team studied the population of Jalalabad, Spin Gar, Tora Bora, and Kabul areas, and identified civilians with the symptoms similar to those of Gulf War syndrome. Twenty-four-hour urine samples from 8 symptomatic subjects were collected by the following criteria: 1) the onset of symptoms relative to the bombing raids; 2) physical presence in the area of the bombing; and 3) clinical manifestations. Control subjects were selected among the sympotom-free residents in non-targeted areas. All samples were analyzed for the concentration and ratio of four uranium isotopes, (234)U, (235)U, (236)U and (238)U, by using a multicollector, inductively coupled plasma ionization mass spectrometry. The first results from the Jalalabad province revealed urinary excretion of total uranium in all subjects significantly exceeding the values in the nonexposed population

  14. Air Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; O'Donnell, Patrick A.

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on air pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of air pollution and involves students in processes of…

  15. Air Pollution Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

  16. Air Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; O'Donnell, Patrick A.

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on air pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of air pollution and involves students in processes of…

  17. Discriminatory Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaull, Julian

    1976-01-01

    Described are the patterns of air pollution in certain large urban areas. Persons in poverty, in occupations below the management or professional level, in low-rent districts, and in black population are most heavily exposed to air pollution. Pollution paradoxically is largely produced by high energy consuming middle-and upper-class households.…

  18. The Other Water Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Kathy

    1978-01-01

    Nonpoint source pollution, water pollution not released at one specific identifiable point, now accounts for 50 percent of the nation's water pollution problem. Runoff is the primary culprit and includes the following sources: agriculture, mining, hydrologic modifications, and urban runoff. Economics, legislation, practices, and management of this…

  19. Water Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; And Others

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on water pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of water pollution and involves students in processes of…

  20. Air pollution and society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brimblecombe, P.

    2010-12-01

    Air pollution is as much a product of our society as it is one of chemistry and meteorology. Social variables such as gender, age, health status and poverty are often linked with our exposure to air pollutants. Pollution can also affect our behaviour, while regulations to improve the environment can often challenge of freedom.

  1. Noise Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Patrick A.; Lavaroni, Charles W.

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on noise pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of noise pollution and involves students in processes of…

  2. The Other Water Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Kathy

    1978-01-01

    Nonpoint source pollution, water pollution not released at one specific identifiable point, now accounts for 50 percent of the nation's water pollution problem. Runoff is the primary culprit and includes the following sources: agriculture, mining, hydrologic modifications, and urban runoff. Economics, legislation, practices, and management of this…

  3. Water Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; And Others

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on water pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of water pollution and involves students in processes of…

  4. Microorganisms and Chemical Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, M.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the importance of microorganisms in chemical pollution and pollution abatement. Selected chemical pollutants are chosen to illustrate that microorganisms synthesize hazardous substances from reasonably innocuous precursors, while others act as excellent environmental decontaminating agents by removing undesirable natural and synthetic…

  5. Discriminatory Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaull, Julian

    1976-01-01

    Described are the patterns of air pollution in certain large urban areas. Persons in poverty, in occupations below the management or professional level, in low-rent districts, and in black population are most heavily exposed to air pollution. Pollution paradoxically is largely produced by high energy consuming middle-and upper-class households.…

  6. Microorganisms and Chemical Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, M.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the importance of microorganisms in chemical pollution and pollution abatement. Selected chemical pollutants are chosen to illustrate that microorganisms synthesize hazardous substances from reasonably innocuous precursors, while others act as excellent environmental decontaminating agents by removing undesirable natural and synthetic…

  7. Volumetric Radioactivity Viewed as Surface Radioactivity for Free Release Assessment Purposes

    SciTech Connect

    Boettinger, W.L.

    1998-07-08

    As a part of the SRS Beneficial Reuse Program, stainless steel radioactive scrap metal is melted, pour into ingots, and roll into sheets. The sheets are then fabricated into boxes and barrels for beneficial reuse. The melting activity is a partial decontamination process. Certain isotopes separate from the melted steel, while others stay in solution. Cobalt-60 is the primary constituent, which remains in solution, and becomes the major contributor to the volumetric radioactivity of the finished products (boxes and barrels). There is currently no ``de minimis`` free release level for volumetrically radioactive material. However, under certain circumstances, pathway analysis can be used (and have been used) to free release volumetrically radioactive material. This paper presents an analysis using empirical data derived from over sixty ``melts``, to demonstrate that the implied surface radioactivity for specific beneficial reuse products is within free release limit. The approach can be applied to other recycled metal products.

  8. PWR-GALE. PWR Effluent Radioactivity Releases

    SciTech Connect

    Willis, C.A.

    1992-01-13

    PWR-GALE calculates the expected annual releases of radioactive materials in gaseous and liquid effluents from pressurized light water reactors (PWRs). The calculations are based on data generated from operating reactors, field and laboratory tests, and plant-specific considerations incorporated to reduce the quantity of radioactive materials that may be released to the environment during normal operation including anticipated operational occurrences. PWR-GALE consists of two program, PGALEGS and PGALELQ. PGALEGS calculates the releases of radioactive materials (noble gases, radioactive particulates, carbon-14, tritium, argon-41, and iodine) in gaseous effluents from the waste gas processing system, steam generator blowdown system, condenser air ejector exhaust, containment purge exhaust, ventilation exhaust air from the auxiliary and turbine buildings and the spent fuel area, and steam leakage from the secondary system. PGALELQ calculates the releases of radioactive materials in liquid effluents from processed water generated from the boron recovery system to maintain plant water balance or for tritium control; processed liquid waste discharged from the waste systems, steam generator blowdown treatment system, and that discharged from the chemical waste and condensate demineralizer regeneration system; liquid waste discharged from the turbine building floor drain sumps; and detergent waste.

  9. Radioactive Waste Management in A Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Shoukat; Syed, AT; Ahmad, Reyaz; Rather, Tanveer A.; Ajaz, M; Jan, FA

    2010-01-01

    Most of the tertiary care hospitals use radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Safe disposal of the radioactive waste is a vital component of the overall management of the hospital waste. An important objective in radioactive waste management is to ensure that the radiation exposure to an individual (Public, Radiation worker, Patient) and the environment does not exceed the prescribed safe limits. Disposal of Radioactive waste in public domain is undertaken in accordance with the Atomic Energy (Safe disposal of radioactive waste) rules of 1987 promulgated by the Indian Central Government Atomic Energy Act 1962. Any prospective plan of a hospital that intends using radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures needs to have sufficient infrastructural and manpower resources to keep its ambient radiation levels within specified safe limits. Regular monitoring of hospital area and radiation workers is mandatory to assess the quality of radiation safety. Records should be maintained to identify the quality and quantity of radioactive waste generated and the mode of its disposal. Radiation Safety officer plays a key role in the waste disposal operations. PMID:21475524

  10. Laser decontamination of the radioactive lightning rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potiens, A. J.; Dellamano, J. C.; Vicente, R.; Raele, M. P.; Wetter, N. U.; Landulfo, E.

    2014-02-01

    Between 1970 and 1980 Brazil experienced a significant market for radioactive lightning rods (RLR). The device consists of an air terminal with one or more sources of americium-241 attached to it. The sources were used to ionize the air around them and to increase the attraction of atmospheric discharges. Because of their ineffectiveness, the nuclear regulatory authority in Brazil suspended the license for manufacturing, commerce and installation of RLR in 1989, and determined that the replaced RLR were to be collected to a centralized radioactive waste management facility for treatment. The first step for RLR treatment is to remove the radioactive sources. Though they can be easily removed, some contaminations are found all over the remaining metal scrap that must decontaminated for release, otherwise it must be treated as radioactive waste. Decontamination using various chemicals has proven to be inefficient and generates large amounts of secondary wastes. This work shows the preliminary results of the decontamination of 241Am-contaminated metal scrap generated in the treatment of radioactive lightning rods applying laser ablation. A Nd:YAG nanoseconds laser was used with 300 mJ energy leaving only a small amount of secondary waste to be treated.

  11. Radioactive waste management in a hospital.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shoukat; Syed, At; Ahmad, Reyaz; Rather, Tanveer A; Ajaz, M; Jan, Fa

    2010-01-01

    Most of the tertiary care hospitals use radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Safe disposal of the radioactive waste is a vital component of the overall management of the hospital waste. An important objective in radioactive waste management is to ensure that the radiation exposure to an individual (Public, Radiation worker, Patient) and the environment does not exceed the prescribed safe limits. Disposal of Radioactive waste in public domain is undertaken in accordance with the Atomic Energy (Safe disposal of radioactive waste) rules of 1987 promulgated by the Indian Central Government Atomic Energy Act 1962. Any prospective plan of a hospital that intends using radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures needs to have sufficient infrastructural and manpower resources to keep its ambient radiation levels within specified safe limits. Regular monitoring of hospital area and radiation workers is mandatory to assess the quality of radiation safety. Records should be maintained to identify the quality and quantity of radioactive waste generated and the mode of its disposal. Radiation Safety officer plays a key role in the waste disposal operations.

  12. [Assessment of cyto- and genotoxicity of natural waters in the vicinity of radioactive waste storage facility using Allium-test].

    PubMed

    Udalova, A A; Geras'kin, S A; Dikarev, V G; Dikareva, N S

    2014-01-01

    Efficacy of bioassays of "aberrant cells frequency" and "proliferative activity" in root meristem of Allium cepa L. is studied in the present work for a cyto- and genotoxicity assessment of natural waters contaminated with 90Sr and heavy metals in the vicinity of the radioactive waste storage facility in Obninsk, Kaluga region. The Allium-test is shown to be applicable for the diagnostics of environmental media at their combined pollution with chemical and radioactive substances. The analysis of aberration spectrum shows an important role of chemical toxicants in the mutagenic potential of waters collected in the vicinity of the radioactive waste storage facility. Biological effects are not always possible to explain from the knowledge on water contamination levels, which shows limitations of physical-chemical monitoring in providing the adequate risk assessment for human and biota from multicomponent environmental impacts.

  13. Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention Crosscut Plan, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-28

    This plan establishes a Department-wide goal to reduce total releases of toxic chemicals to the environment and off-site transfers of such toxic chemicals by 50 percent by December 31, 1999, in compliance with Executive Order 12856. Each site that meets the threshold quantities of toxic chemicals established in the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) will participate in this goal. In addition, each DOE site will establish site-specific goals to reduce generation of hazardous, radioactive, radioactive mixed, and sanitary wastes and pollutants, as applicable. Implementation of this plan will represent a major step toward the environmental risks and costs associated with DOE operations and increasing the Department`s use of preventive environmental management practices. Investing in Waste Minimization Pollution Prevention (WMin/PP) steadily reduce hazardous and radioactive waste generation and will reduce the need for waste management and unnecessary expenditures for waste treatment, storage, and disposal. A preventive approach to waste management will help solve current environmental and regulatory issues and reduce the need for costly future corrective actions. The purpose of this plan is to establish the strategic framework for integrating WMin/PP into all DOE internal activities. This program includes setting DOE policy and goals for reducing the generation of wastes and pollutants, increasing recycling activities, and establishing an infrastructure to achieve and measure the goals throughout the DOE complex. Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Plans, submitted to Headquarters by DOE field sites, will incorporate the WMin/PP activities and goals outlined in this plan. Success of the DOE WMin/PP program is dependent upon each field operation becoming accountable for resources used, wastes and pollutants generated, and wastes recycled.

  14. Natural decrease of the intensity level of artificial radioactive isotopes in the Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matishov, G. G.; Matishov, D. G.; Solatie, D.; Kasatkina, N. E.; Leppanen, A.

    2009-08-01

    The results of radioecological investigations carried out within the framework of the Russian-Finnish high-latitude expedition in 2007 are presented. The characteristics of the present-day accumulation level of the significant radioecological isotopes 137Cs, 90Sr and 239,240Pu in the Barents Sea are described. The comparative analysis is performed for the radiation pollution of the environment in the 1980s and 1990s and in the first decade of the 21st century. Natural purification processes in the marine environment are the main factors of the decrease in the intensity level of artificial radioactive isotopes. These processes include repeated dilution, nuclear decay, occlusion by sediments and suspended solid material, and accumulation by aquatic inhabitants. A stable decreasing trend is observed for the intensity level of artificial radioactive isotopes in the Barents Sea.

  15. Remote measurement of pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A summary of the major conclusions and recommendations developed by the panels on gaseous air pollution, water pollution, and particulate air pollution is presented. It becomes evident that many of the trace gases are amenable to remote sensing; that certain water pollutants can be measured by remote techniques, but their number is limited; and that a similar approach to the remote measurement of specific particulate pollutants will follow only after understanding of their physical, chemical, and radiative properties is improved. It is also clear that remote sensing can provide essential information in all three categories that can not be obtained by any other means.

  16. Natural radionuclides tracing in marine surface waters along the northern coast of Oman Sea by combining the radioactivity analysis, oceanic currents and the SWAN model results.

    PubMed

    Zare, Mohammad Reza; Mostajaboddavati, Mojtaba; Kamali, Mahdi; Tari, Marziyeh; Mosayebi, Sanaz; Mortazavi, Mohammad Seddigh

    2015-03-15

    This study aims to establish a managed sampling plan for rapid estimate of natural radio-nuclides diffusion in the northern coast of the Oman Sea. First, the natural radioactivity analysis in 36 high volume surface water samples was carried out using a portable high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Second, the oceanic currents in the northern coast were investigated. Then, the third generation spectral SWAN model was utilized to simulate wave parameters. Direction of natural radioactivity propagation was coupled with the preferable wave vectors and oceanic currents direction that face to any marine pollution, these last two factors will contribute to increase or decrease of pollution in each grid. The results were indicated that the natural radioactivity concentration between the grids 8600 and 8604 is gathered in the grid 8600 and between the grids 8605 and 8608 is propagated toward middle part of Oman Sea. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sensing land pollution.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowden, L. W.

    1971-01-01

    Land pollution is described in numerous ways by various societies. Pollutants of land are material by-products of human activity and range from environmentally ineffective to positively toxic. The pollution of land by man is centuries old and correlates directly with economy, technology and population. In order to remotely sense land pollution, standards or thresholds must be established. Examples of the potential for sensing land pollution and quality are presented. The technological capabilities for remotely sensed land quality is far advanced over the judgment on how to use the sensed data. Until authoritative and directive decisions on land pollution policy are made, sensing of pollutants will be a random, local and academic affair.

  18. Sensing land pollution.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowden, L. W.

    1971-01-01

    Land pollution is described in numerous ways by various societies. Pollutants of land are material by-products of human activity and range from environmentally ineffective to positively toxic. The pollution of land by man is centuries old and correlates directly with economy, technology and population. In order to remotely sense land pollution, standards or thresholds must be established. Examples of the potential for sensing land pollution and quality are presented. The technological capabilities for remotely sensed land quality is far advanced over the judgment on how to use the sensed data. Until authoritative and directive decisions on land pollution policy are made, sensing of pollutants will be a random, local and academic affair.

  19. Type A radioactive liquid sample packaging family

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, W.S.

    1995-11-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has developed two packagings that can be used to ship Type A quantities of radioactive liquids. WHC designed these packagings to take advantage of commercially available items where feasible to reduce the overall packaging cost. The Hedgehog packaging can ship up to one liter of Type A radioactive liquid with no shielding and 15 cm of distance between the liquid and the package exterior, or 30 ml of liquid with 3.8 cm of stainless steel shielding and 19 cm of distance between the liquid and the package exterior. The One Liter Shipper can ship up to one liter of Type A radioactive liquid that does not require shielding.

  20. Low radioactivity spectral gamma calibration facility

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, M.A.; Bowman, H.R.; Huang, L., H.; Lavelle, M.J.; Smith, A.R.; Hearst, J.R.; Wollenberg, H.A.; Flexser, S.

    1986-01-01

    A low radioactivity calibration facility has been constructed at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This facility has four calibration models of natural stone that are 3 ft in diameter and 6 ft long, with a 12 in. cored borehole in the center of each model and a lead-shielded run pipe below each model. These models have been analyzed by laboratory natural gamma ray spectroscopy (NGRS) and neutron activation analysis (NAA) for their K, U, and Th content. Also, 42 other elements were analyzed in the NAA. The /sup 222/Rn emanation data were collected. Calibrating the spectral gamma tool in this low radioactivity calibration facility allows the spectral gamma log to accurately aid in the recognition and mapping of subsurface stratigraphic units and alteration features associated with unusual concentrations of these radioactive elements, such as clay-rich zones.

  1. Tilted foil polarization of radioactive beam nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldring, Gvirol

    1992-11-01

    Tilted foil polarization has up to now been mostly applied to nuclear reaction products recoiling out of a target traversed by a primary particle beam. Being a universal phenomenon it can be applied equally well to beams of particles, primary or secondary, radioactive or other. There are however some technical considerations arising from the nature of the beam particles. Radioactive beams are associated with ground state nuclei. They usually have low nuclear spin and as a consequence-as will be shown later-low polarization. Secondary beams are usually low in intensity and do not impose any constraints on the foils they traverse; unlike intense primary heavy ion beams which, if they traverse the foils, essentially limit the foil material to carbon. We review here briefly the tilted foil polarization process and then discuss an experiment with an isomer beam. Finally we review experiments with radioactive beams, past, present and planned for the future.

  2. Landscape of two-proton radioactivity.

    PubMed

    Olsen, E; Pfützner, M; Birge, N; Brown, M; Nazarewicz, W; Perhac, A

    2013-05-31

    Ground-state two-proton (2p) radioactivity is a decay mode found in isotopes of elements with even atomic numbers located beyond the two-proton drip line. So far, this exotic process has been experimentally observed in a few light- and medium-mass nuclides with Z≤30. In this study, using state-of-the-art nuclear density functional theory, we globally analyze 2p radioactivity and for the first time identify 2p-decay candidates in elements heavier than strontium. We predict a few cases where the competition between 2p emission and α decay may be observed. In nuclei above lead, the α-decay mode is found to be dominating and no measurable candidates for the 2p radioactivity are expected.

  3. Wide range radioactive gas concentration detector

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, David F.

    1984-01-01

    A wide range radioactive gas concentration detector and monitor which is capable of measuring radioactive gas concentrations over a range of eight orders of magnitude. The device of the present invention is designed to have an ionization chamber which is sufficiently small to give a fast response time for measuring radioactive gases but sufficiently large to provide accurate readings at low concentration levels. Closely spaced parallel plate grids provide a uniform electric field in the active region to improve the accuracy of measurements and reduce ion migration time so as to virtually eliminate errors due to ion recombination. The parallel plate grids are fabricated with a minimal surface area to reduce the effects of contamination resulting from absorption of contaminating materials on the surface of the grids. Additionally, the ionization chamber wall is spaced a sufficient distance from the active region of the ionization chamber to minimize contamination effects.

  4. Radioactivity in the scrap metal industry

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, J.

    1997-12-31

    This paper discusses problems from the presence of radiation in scrap metal. The source of the radiation is typically radiography cameras, radiation therapy machines, radioactive gauge devices, transportation containers, or NORM scale on equipment from the minerals industry. Since 1983 there have been 46 reported cases of radioactive contamination of metal production facilities. The resulting decontamination, disposal, and downtime has cost some companies over 20 million dollars. The activity normally enters mills with the scrap feed metal. In the process of melting it can then contaminate the metal products, melt shop equipment, baghouse, employees, and environment. The paper discusses the sources of this contamination, the typical detection methods, the problems in detection, the issues of responsibility after detection, the health risks, and practical and regulatory differences between radioactivity from sources vs NORM.

  5. Natural radioactivity and human mitochondrial DNA mutations

    PubMed Central

    Forster, Lucy; Forster, Peter; Lutz-Bonengel, Sabine; Willkomm, Horst; Brinkmann, Bernd

    2002-01-01

    Radioactivity is known to induce tumors, chromosome lesions, and minisatellite length mutations, but its effects on the DNA sequence have not previously been studied. A coastal peninsula in Kerala (India) contains the world's highest level of natural radioactivity in a densely populated area, offering an opportunity to characterize radiation-associated DNA mutations. We sampled 248 pedigrees (988 individuals) in the high-radiation peninsula and in nearby low-radiation islands as a control population. We sequenced their mtDNA, and found that the pedigrees living in the high-radiation area have significantly (P < 0.01) increased germ-line point mutations between mothers and their offspring. In each mutation case, we confirmed maternity by autosomal profiling. Strikingly, the radioactive conditions accelerate mutations at nucleotide positions that have been evolutionary hot spots for at least 60,000 years. PMID:12370437

  6. Radioactive tank waste remediation focus area

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    EM`s Office of Science and Technology has established the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to manage and carry out an integrated national program of technology development for tank waste remediation. The TFA is responsible for the development, testing, evaluation, and deployment of remediation technologies within a system architecture to characterize, retrieve, treat, concentrate, and dispose of radioactive waste stored in the underground stabilize and close the tanks. The goal is to provide safe and cost-effective solutions that are acceptable to both the public and regulators. Within the DOE complex, 335 underground storage tanks have been used to process and store radioactive and chemical mixed waste generated from weapon materials production and manufacturing. Collectively, thes tanks hold over 90 million gallons of high-level and low-level radioactive liquid waste in sludge, saltcake, and as supernate and vapor. Very little has been treated and/or disposed or in final form.

  7. Membrane technologies for liquid radioactive waste treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, A. G.; Harasimowicz, M.; Zakrzewska-Trznadel, G.

    1999-01-01

    The paper deals with some problems concerning reduction of radioactivity of liquid low-level nuclear waste streams (LLLW). The membrane processes as ultrafiltration (UF), seeded ultrafiltration (SUF), reverse osmosis (RO) and membrane distillation (MD) were examined. Ultrafiltration enables the removal of particles with molecular weight above cut-off of UF membranes and can be only used as a pre-treatment stage. The improvement of removal is achieved by SUF, employing macromolecular ligands binding radioactive ions. The reduction of radioactivity in LLLW to very low level were achieved with RO membranes. The results of experiments led the authors to the design and construction of UF+2RO pilot plant. The development of membrane distillation improve the selectivity of membrane process in some cases. The possibility of utilisation of waste heat from cooling system of nuclear reactors as a preferable energy source can significantly reduce the cost of operation.

  8. Radioactive source security: the cultural challenges.

    PubMed

    Englefield, Chris

    2015-04-01

    Radioactive source security is an essential part of radiation protection. Sources can be abandoned, lost or stolen. If they are stolen, they could be used to cause deliberate harm and the risks are varied and significant. There is a need for a global security protection system and enhanced capability to achieve this. The establishment of radioactive source security requires 'cultural exchanges'. These exchanges include collaboration between: radiation protection specialists and security specialists; the nuclear industry and users of radioactive sources; training providers and regulators/users. This collaboration will facilitate knowledge and experience exchange for the various stakeholder groups, beyond those already provided. This will promote best practice in both physical and information security and heighten security awareness generally. Only if all groups involved are prepared to open their minds to listen to and learn from, each other will a suitable global level of control be achieved.

  9. Membrane technologies for liquid radioactive waste treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, A. G.; Harasimowicz, M.; Zakrzewska-Trznadel, G.

    1999-01-01

    The paper deals with some problems concerning reduction of radioactivity of liquid low-level nuclear waste streams (LLLW). The membrane processes as ultrafiltration (UF), seeded ultrafiltration (SUF), reverse osmosis (RO) and membrane distillation (MD) were examined. Ultrafiltration enables the removal of particles with molecular weight above cut-off of UF membranes and can be only used as a pre-treatment stage. The improvement of removal is achieved by SUF, employing macromolecular ligands binding radioactive ions. The reduction of radioactivity in LLLW to very low level were achieved with RO membranes. The results of experiments led the authors to the design and construction of UF+2RO pilot plant. The development of membrane distillation improve the selectivity of membrane process in some cases. The possibility of utilisation of waste heat from cooling system of nuclear reactors as a preferable energy source can significantly reduce the cost of operation.

  10. Excellence in radioactive waste volume reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, J.

    1987-01-01

    The Brunswick plant is a two-unit boiling water reactor located at the mouth of the Cape Fear River near Wilmington, North Carolina. The plant has a once-through cooling system with highly brackish water. The operations subunit is responsible for liquid radwaste processing. The radiation control subunit is responsible for dry active waste processing and the transportation of all radioactive wast off-site. For the Brunswick plant, the development of an effective radioactive waste volume reduction program was a process involving a tremendous amount of grass-roots worker participation. With radioactive waste responsibilities divided between two separate groups, this process took place on a somewhat different schedule for liquid process waste and dry active waste. However, this development process did not begin until dedicated personnel were assigned to manage radwaste independently of other plant duties.

  11. Security in the Transport of Radioactive Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, Ron; Rawl, Richard R

    2010-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration's (DOE/NNSA)Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and active IAEA Donor States are working together to strengthen the security of nuclear and radioactive materials during transport to mitigate the risks of theft, diversion, or sabotage. International activities have included preparing and publishing the new IAEA guidance document Security in the Transport of Radioactive Material while ensuring that security recommendations do not conflict with requirements for safety during transport, and developing and providing training programs to assist other countries in implementing radioactive material transport security programs. This paper provides a brief update on the status of these transportation security efforts.

  12. Anthropogenic radioactivity in the nordic seas and the arctic ocean — results of a joint project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nies, H.; Harms, I. H.; Karcher, M. J.; Dethleff, D.; Bahe, C.; Kuhlmann, G.; Oberhuber, J. M.; Backhaus, J. O.; Kleine, E.; Loewe, P.; Matishov, D.; Stepanov, A.; Vasiliev, O. F.

    1998-12-01

    The paper presents the results of a joint project combining numerical model studies and field work in order to investigate the dispersion of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Arctic Ocean. The results obtained underline the essential difference between the dispersion of dissolved contaminants in water and the transport of particulate material in sea ice. Coupled ice-ocean models on different spatial scales are applied to study the transit times and major pathways for radioactive contaminant transport in the water column. One of the main sources for radioactive pollution in the Arctic, the discharge of the Sellafield reprocessing plant, was simulated from 1965 until now. The results are compared with measurements and hypothetical release scenarios computed for the the dump sites of radioactive waste in the Kara Sea. Our comparison reveals that the Sellafield signal is by one or two orders of magnitude higher than any potential contamination from Kara Sea dump sites, even if a ’worst case’ scenario is assumed. In order to assess the role of sea ice in contaminant transport, sedimentological data from the Kara Sea and the Arctic Ocean were analysed. The results show that fine-grained Kara Sea sediments from dump site areas are predestined for entrainment into newly forming ice. Observed buoy drifts and simulated trajectories confirm that the Arctic Transpolar Ice Drift is a rather short pathway for pollutant dispersion from the Arctic Ocean to the adjacent Nordic Seas. However, compared to the large volume and contaminant flux in the ocean, the contaminant dispersion by sea ice plays a minor role.

  13. Pollution tolerant protozoa in polluted wetland.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi-Di; Chen, Ying; Wang, Li; Yao, Lin; Pan, Xu-Ming; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2017-02-16

    This study for the first time confirmed that eight dominating protozoan species, Cryptomonas erosa, Euglena axyuris, Euglena caudate, Euglena gasterosteus, Euglena acus, Vorticella campanula, Vorticella convallaria and Epistylis lacustris, were the pollution tolerant species at chemical oxygen demand 54-104mg/L. These species cannot be used as indicator for clean water quality as commonly believed. The protozoa can be actively participating in the energy transfer chain between nano-planktonic and higher plants in polluted wetlands.

  14. 2011 Radioactive Materials Usage Survey for Unmonitored Point Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Sturgeon, Richard W.

    2012-06-27

    organized. The RMUS Interview Form with the attached RMUS Process Form(s) provides the radioactive materials survey data by technical area (TA) and building number. The survey data for each release point includes information such as: exhaust stack identification number, room number, radioactive material source type (i.e., potential source or future potential source of air emissions), radionuclide, usage (in curies) and usage basis, physical state (gas, liquid, particulate, solid, or custom), release fraction (from Appendix D to 40 CFR 61, Subpart H), and process descriptions. In addition, the interview form also calculates emissions (in curies), lists mrem/Ci factors, calculates PEDEs, and states the location of the critical receptor for that release point. [The critical receptor is the maximum exposed off-site member of the public, specific to each individual facility.] Each of these data fields is described in this section. The Tier classification of release points, which was first introduced with the 1999 usage survey, is also described in detail in this section. Section 4 includes a brief discussion of the dose estimate methodology, and includes a discussion of several release points of particular interest in the CY 2011 usage survey report. It also includes a table of the calculated PEDEs for each release point at its critical receptor. Section 5 describes ES's approach to Quality Assurance (QA) for the usage survey. Satisfactory completion of the survey requires that team members responsible for Rad-NESHAP (National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants) compliance accurately collect and process several types of information, including radioactive materials usage data, process information, and supporting information. They must also perform and document the QA reviews outlined in Section 5.2.6 (Process Verification and Peer Review) of ES-RN, 'Quality Assurance Project Plan for the Rad-NESHAP Compliance Project' to verify that all information is complete and

  15. [Surveillance of radioactive cesium in foods].

    PubMed

    Nabeshi, Hiromi; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Ikarashi, Atsuko; Hachisuka, Akiko; Matsuda, Rieko

    2013-01-01

    We surveyed foods on the market from areas that had been exposed to radioactive materials contamination following the Fukushima accident. We used a NaI (Tl) scintillation spectrometer for the screening tests and a germanium semiconductor detector for the final tests. Test results from 1,427 samples showed that 6 samples (0.4%) exceeded the regulatory limit of 500 Bq/kg. Considering the detection rate of radioactive cesium in each food category, we suggest that it is necessary to continue monitoring fruits such as chestnuts and ginkgo nuts, mushrooms (especially raw wood-shiitake), mountain vegetables, and sea fish.

  16. Perspectives of Radioactive Contamination in Nuclear War

    PubMed Central

    Waters, W. R.

    1967-01-01

    The degrees of risk associated with the medical, industrial and military employment of nuclear energy are compared. The nature of radioactive contamination of areas and of persons resulting from the explosion of nuclear weapons, particularly the relationship between the radiation exposure and the amount of physical debris, is examined. Some theoretical examples are compared quantitatively. It is concluded that the amount of radio-activity that may be carried on the contaminated person involves a minor health hazard from gamma radiation, compared to the irradiation arising from contaminated areas. PMID:6015741

  17. Pump station for radioactive waste water

    SciTech Connect

    Whitton, John P.; Klos, Dean M.; Carrara, Danny T.; Minno, John J.

    2003-11-18

    A pump station for transferring radioactive particle containing waste water, includes: (a.) an enclosed sump having a vertically elongated right frusto conical wall surface and a bottom surface and (b.) a submersible volute centrifugal pump having a horizontally rotating impeller and a volute exterior surface. The sump interior surface, the bottom surface and the volute exterior surface are made of stainless steel having a 30 Ra or finer surface finish. A 15 Ra finish has been found to be most cost effective. The pump station is used for transferring waste water, without accumulation of radioactive fines.

  18. Nondestructive measurement of environmental radioactive strontium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiba, Shuntaro; Okamiya, Tomohiro; Tanaka, Saki; Tanuma, Ryosuke; Totsuka, Yumi; Murata, Jiro

    2014-03-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident was triggered by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake. The main radioactivity concerns after the accident are I-131 (half-life: 8.0 days), Cs-134 (2.1 years), Cs-137 (30 years), Sr-89 (51 days), and Sr-90 (29 years). We are aiming to establish a new nondestructive measurement and detection technique that will enable us to realize a quantitative evaluation of strontium radioactivity without chemical separation processing. This technique is needed to detect radiation contained in foods, environmental water, and soil, to prevent us from undesired internal exposure to radiation.

  19. Radioactive waste disposal in the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, D. R.

    In order to find the optimal solution to waste disposal problems, it is necessary to make comparisons between disposal media. It has become obvious to many within the scientific community that the single medium approach leads to over protection of one medium at the expense of the others. Cross media comparisons are being conducted in the Department of Energy ocean disposal programs for several radioactive wastes. Investigations in three areas address model development, comparisons of laboratory tests with field results and predictions, and research needs in marine disposal of radioactive waste. Tabulated data are included on composition of liquid high level waste and concentration of some natural radionuclides in the sea.

  20. Low level radioactive waste transportation safety history

    SciTech Connect

    McClure, J.D.

    1997-09-01

    Historical information for 26 years of documented US transport experience with radioactive material (RAM) packages indicates that no significant releases of low level waste have taken place, although accidents involving transportation, handling or reported incident have been documented. This article uses information from the Radioactive Materials Incident Report (RMIR) data base, developed in 1981, to provide information on nuclear materials transportation accident/incident events that have occurred in the US 1971-96. Topic areas include the summary of RAM transportation accident/incident experience in the US and characteristics of LLW accidents where release of contents has occurred. 2 tabs.

  1. Technology applications for radioactive waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Devgun, J.S.

    1994-07-01

    The nuclear power industry has achieved one of the most successful examples of waste minimization. The annual volume of low-level radioactive waste shipped for disposal per reactor has decreased to approximately one-fifth the volume about a decade ago. In addition, the curie content of the total waste shipped for disposal has decreased. This paper will discuss the regulatory drivers and economic factors for waste minimization and describe the application of technologies for achieving waste minimization for low-level radioactive waste with examples from the nuclear power industry.

  2. Decontamination of protective clothing against radioactive contamination.

    PubMed

    Vošahlíková, I; Otáhal, P

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the experimental results of external surface mechanical decontamination of the studied materials forming selected suits. Seven types of personal protective suits declaring protection against radioactive aerosol contamination in different price ranges were selected for decontamination experiments. The outcome of this study is to compare the efficiency of a double-step decontamination process on various personal protective suits against radioactive contamination. A comparison of the decontamination effectiveness for the same type of suit, but for the different chemical mixtures ((140)La in a water-soluble or in a water-insoluble compound), was performed.

  3. Pollution Prevention Wipe Application Study

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, E.P.; Modderman, W.E.; Montoya, M.G.

    1999-02-10

    As part of a pollution prevention program, a study was conducted at Sandia National Laboratories and at the Amarillo, ''Pantex Plant'' to identify a suitable replacement solvent(s) for cleaning hardware during routine maintenance operations. Current cleaning is performed using solvents (e.g. acetone, toluene, MEK, alcohols) that are classified as Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCW) materials. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has assigned four characteristics as the criteria for determining whether a material is identified as hazardous under RCRA: Ignitability, Corrosivity, Reactivity and Toxicity. Within the DOE and DoD sector, these solvents are used with hand wipes to clean surfaces prior to O-ring replacement, to remove decals for new labeling, to clean painted surfaces prior to reconditioning, and for other general maintenance purposes. In some cases, low level radioactive contamination during cleaning necessitates that the RCIL4 solvent-containing wipes be classified as mixed waste. To avoid using RCRA materials, cleaning candidates were sought that had a flashpoint greater than 140 F, a pH between 2.5 and 12.5, and did not fail the reactivity and toxicity criteria. Three brominated cleaners, two hydrofluoroether azeotropes and two aliphatic hydrocarbon cleaner formulations were studied as potential replacements. Cleaning efficacy, materials compatibility, corrosion and accelerated aging studies were conducted and used to screen potential candidates. Hypersolve NPB (an n-propyl bromide based formulation) consistently ranked high in removing typical contaminants for weapons applications.

  4. [Factors of individual radiation sensitivity in caries prevalence in population of radiation polluted regions].

    PubMed

    Sevbitov, A V; Skatova, E A

    2005-01-01

    Analysing dental diseases prevalence in population of radiation polluted regions after the Chernobyl accident, one should take into account not only the level of the soil contamination with radionuclides but also factors of individual sensitivity to radioactivity, main of which is the age of the exposed person.

  5. Radioactive Ion Beam Production Capabilities at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Beene, James R; Dowling, Darryl T; Gross, Carl J; Juras, Raymond C; Liu, Yuan; Meigs, Martha J; Mendez, II, Anthony J; Nazarewicz, Witold; Sinclair, John William; Stracener, Daniel W; Tatum, B Alan

    2011-01-01

    The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) is a national user facility for research with radioactive ion beams (RIBs) that has been in routine operation since 1996. It is located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and operated by the ORNL Physics Division. The principal mission of HRIBF is the production of high-quality beams of short-lived radioactive isotopes to support research in nuclear structure physics and nuclear astrophysics. HRIBF is currently unique worldwide in its ability to provide neutron-rich fission fragment beams post-accelerated to energies above the Coulomb barrier for nuclear reactions.

  6. Spatial Variation and Assessment of Heavy Metal and Radioactive Risk in Farmland around a Retired Uranium Mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jie; Shi, Chen-hao; Zeng, Guang-ming; Zhong, Min-zhou; Yuan, Yu-jie

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, heavy metal contamination in the environment has been attracted worldwide attention due to their toxicity, persistence,extensive sources and non-biodegradable properties. We herein investigate variation trend and risk of heavy metal and radiation distribution in the former mine stope, former mineral ore stockyard, and mine road with surface soils of a retired uranium mine in the mid-south of China. The mean concentrations (mg/kg) of Pb,Cd,Cu,Zn,As,Hg,Cr,Mn,Ni,U, and 232Th were analyzed according to the corresponding background values in Hunan, China. The Geo-accumulation index (Igeo ) were used for the assessment of pollution level of heavy metals and the radioactive elements of U and 232Th. Then, Pollution load index (PLI) and GIS techniquewere integrated to assess spatial distribution of heavy metal contamination and radioactive contamination. Results confirmed that three areas in the retired uranium mine was a primary source of pollution, which showed anthropogenic origin mainly from agricultural runoff, hydrometallurgy from chemical industries, radioactive tailings, and electroplating industriesfinally drained into Zishui River and Xiangjiang River. Based on the actual situation, some suggestions were put forward for the treatment of the retired uranium mine in conclusion.

  7. The existence state in the soil of radioactive cesium from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident by imaging plate photograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satou, Yukihiko; Sueki, Keisuke

    2013-04-01

    In the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, the wide area in east Japan was polluted seriously with radioactive cesium. But, unlike Chernobyl, reactor core explosion did not occur in Fukushima. Therefore, it is thought that many radioactive nuclides emitted into the atmosphere were in the gas state and aerosol. However, when the imaging plate photographs of the surface soils in Fukushima was observed, many granular radionuclides existed. Then, in order to confirm a radioactive cesium of particle state, the treatment for the soils contaminated with radioactive cesium by using chemical operation was tried. Three type soils, that is, paddy soil, river sediment, and sea sand, were made applicable to research. The contaminated soil samples were collected in Fukushima and Ibaraki prefecture. Radioactivity concentrations of 137Cs and 134Cs were measured by using gamma-ray spectrometry with a high pure germanium (HPGe) detector. After the radioactively measurement, soils had been burned in oven for five hours in 500 degree Celsius. Concentrated hydrochloric acid was added to soil samples, and they were heated for three hours. These samples were divided into residue and elution by centrifugal separation, and then radioactivity of cesium contained in residue was measured. After chemical operations, 70% and 85% of radioactive cesium from river sediment and sea sand were extracted approximately into elution, respectively. In contrast, in the soil of the paddy field, only 30% of radioactive cesium was approximately eluted. When radiation image photograph of the residues of all three types of soils were taken and observed, the granular radioactive nuclides remained clearly in paddy soil and river sediment. In contrast, all the granular radioactive nuclides in sea sand disappeared after treatment. The results of above things that desorption of radioactive cesium depend on the kind of soil. Furthermore, it was suggested that there was radioactive cesium of

  8. Predicting gaseous pollutant dispersion around a workplace.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Davide; Ricciardi, Laurent; Laborde, Jean-Claude; Domenech, Serge

    2007-08-01

    Predicting the space-time evolution of a gaseous or particulate pollutant concentration in a ventilated room where a process operation is performed is imperative in hazardous activities, such as chemical or nuclear ones. This study presents a prediction of the space-time evolution of airborne pollutant dispersion following the accidental rupture of a containment enclosure (fume cupboard, glove box, pressurized gas duct, etc.). The final model is written as correlations inspired by the free turbulent jet theory, giving the space-time evolution of a pollutant concentration c (x,y,z,t) that has been formulated as a correlated function of various parameters: leak geometry (slot or round opening), emission type (continuous or transient), emission duration and initial emission velocity. These correlations are based on gas tracing experiments and on multidimensional simulations using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools. An instrumented experimental facility was used to simulate pressurized gas industrial failure, and the measurements performed gave the real-time evolution of a tracer gas concentration. Transient leak simulations were run in parallel with a CFD code. Comparisons between experimental and numerical results largely agree. A semiempirical model was built using a methodical parametric study of all the simulation results. This model is easy to use in safety evaluations of radioactive material containment and radiological protection inside nuclear facilities and for evaluating toxic gaseous compounds in the chemical industry.

  9. Pollution control system

    SciTech Connect

    Voliva, B.H.; Bernstein, I.B.

    1984-09-25

    A pollution control system is disclosed wherein condensable pollutants are removed from a high-temperature gas stream by counterflow contact in a vertical tower with downwardly flowing, relatively cool absorbent oil. The absorbent is at a sufficiently low temperature so as to rapidly condense a portion of the pollutants in order to form a fog of fine droplets of pollutant entrained by the gas stream, which fog is incapable of being absorbed by the absorbent. The remainder of the condensable pollutants is removed by downwardly flowing absorbent oil, and the gas and entrained fog are directed from the tower to gas/droplet separation means, such as an electrostatic precipitator. The fog is thereby separated from the gas and substantially pollutant-free gas is discharged to the atmosphere.

  10. Hazardous chemical and radioactive wastes at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, J.F.; Stewart, T.L.

    1991-07-01

    The Hanford Site was established in 1944 to produce plutonium for defense. During the past four decades, a number of reactors, processing facilities, and waste management facilities have been built at Hanford for plutonium production. Generally, Hanford's 100 Area was dedicated to reactor operation; the 200 Area to fuel reprocessing, plutonium recovery, and waste management; and the 300 Area to fuel fabrication and research and development. Wastes generated from these operations included highly radioactive liquid wastes, which were discharged to single- and double-shell tanks; solid wastes, including both transuranic (TRU) and low-level wastes, which were buried or discharged to caissons; and waste water containing low- to intermediate-level radioactivity, which was discharged to the soil column via near-surface liquid disposal units such as cribs, ponds, and retention basins. Virtually all of the wastes contained hazardous chemical as well as radioactive constituents. This paper will focus on the hazardous chemical components of the radioactive mixed waste generated by plutonium production at Hanford. The processes, chemicals used, methods of disposition, fate in the environment, and actions being taken to clean up this legacy are described by location.

  11. Hazardous chemical and radioactive wastes at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, J.F.; Stewart, T.L.

    1991-07-01

    The Hanford Site was established in 1944 to produce plutonium for defense. During the past four decades, a number of reactors, processing facilities, and waste management facilities have been built at Hanford for plutonium production. Generally, Hanford`s 100 Area was dedicated to reactor operation; the 200 Area to fuel reprocessing, plutonium recovery, and waste management; and the 300 Area to fuel fabrication and research and development. Wastes generated from these operations included highly radioactive liquid wastes, which were discharged to single- and double-shell tanks; solid wastes, including both transuranic (TRU) and low-level wastes, which were buried or discharged to caissons; and waste water containing low- to intermediate-level radioactivity, which was discharged to the soil column via near-surface liquid disposal units such as cribs, ponds, and retention basins. Virtually all of the wastes contained hazardous chemical as well as radioactive constituents. This paper will focus on the hazardous chemical components of the radioactive mixed waste generated by plutonium production at Hanford. The processes, chemicals used, methods of disposition, fate in the environment, and actions being taken to clean up this legacy are described by location.

  12. 10 CFR 39.47 - Radioactive markers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Radioactive markers. 39.47 Section 39.47 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.47... markers is subject only to the requirements of § 39.37....

  13. 10 CFR 39.47 - Radioactive markers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Radioactive markers. 39.47 Section 39.47 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.47... markers is subject only to the requirements of § 39.37....

  14. 10 CFR 39.47 - Radioactive markers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Radioactive markers. 39.47 Section 39.47 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.47... markers is subject only to the requirements of § 39.37....

  15. High-level radioactive wastes. Supplement 1

    SciTech Connect

    McLaren, L.H.

    1984-09-01

    This bibliography contains information on high-level radioactive wastes included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from August 1982 through December 1983. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. 1452 citations.

  16. Recycling and Reuse of Radioactive Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dou, Thomas Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The Radiochemistry Program at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) has a Radiation Protection Program that was designed to provide students with the ability to safely work with radioactive materials in quantities that are not available in other academic environments. Requirements for continuous training and supervision make this unique…

  17. Simplifying the Mathematical Treatment of Radioactive Decay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auty, Geoff

    2011-01-01

    Derivation of the law of radioactive decay is considered without prior knowledge of calculus or the exponential series. Calculus notation and exponential functions are used because ultimately they cannot be avoided, but they are introduced in a simple way and explained as needed. (Contains 10 figures, 1 box, and 1 table.)

  18. Annual radioactive waste tank inspection program: 1995

    SciTech Connect

    McNatt, F.G. Sr.

    1996-04-01

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1995 to evaluate these vessels and evaluations based on data accrued by inspections performed since the tanks were constructed are the subject of this report

  19. Annual Radioactive Waste Tank Inspection Program - 2000

    SciTech Connect

    West, W.R.

    2001-04-17

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations and vitrification processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 2000 to evaluate these vessels and other waste handling facilities along with evaluations based on data from previous inspections are the subject of this report.

  20. Annual Radioactive Waste Tank Inspection Program - 1997

    SciTech Connect

    McNatt, F.G.

    1998-05-01

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1997 to evaluate these vessels, and evaluations based on data accrued by inspections performed since the tanks were constructed are the subject of this report.

  1. ANNUAL RADIOACTIVE WASTE TANK INSPECTION PROGRAM 2008

    SciTech Connect

    West, B.; Waltz, R.

    2009-06-11

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations and vitrification processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 2008 to evaluate these vessels and other waste handling facilities along with evaluations based on data from previous inspections are the subject of this report.

  2. Annual radioactive waste tank inspection program - 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, C.J.

    2000-04-14

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1999 to evaluate these vessels and auxiliary appurtenances along with evaluations based on data accrued by inspections performed since the tanks were constructed are the subject of this report.

  3. Annual Radioactive Waste Tank Inspection Program - 1998

    SciTech Connect

    McNatt, F.G.

    1999-10-27

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1998 to evaluate these vessels and auxiliary appurtenances, along with evaluations based on data accrued by inspections performed since the tanks were constructed, are the subject of this report.

  4. Annual radioactive waste tank inspection program - 1996

    SciTech Connect

    McNatt, F.G.

    1997-04-01

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1996 to evaluate these vessels, and evaluations based on data accrued by inspections performed since the tanks were constructed, are the subject of this report.

  5. Obtaining and Investigating Unconventional Sources of Radioactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapp, David R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides examples of naturally radioactive items that are likely to be found in most communities. Additionally, there is information provided on how to acquire many of these items inexpensively. I have found that the presence of these materials in the classroom is not only useful for teaching about nuclear radiation and debunking the…

  6. Obtaining and Investigating Unconventional Sources of Radioactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapp, David R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides examples of naturally radioactive items that are likely to be found in most communities. Additionally, there is information provided on how to acquire many of these items inexpensively. I have found that the presence of these materials in the classroom is not only useful for teaching about nuclear radiation and debunking the…

  7. 49 CFR 172.556 - RADIOACTIVE placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... on the RADIOACTIVE placard must be white in the lower portion with a yellow triangle in the upper portion. The base of the yellow triangle must be 29 mm ±5 mm (1.1 inches ±0.2 inches) above the...

  8. 49 CFR 172.556 - RADIOACTIVE placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... on the RADIOACTIVE placard must be white in the lower portion with a yellow triangle in the upper portion. The base of the yellow triangle must be 29 mm ±5 mm (1.1 inches ±0.2 inches) above the...

  9. Cigarette smoke radioactivity and lung cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Karagueuzian, Hrayr S; White, Celia; Sayre, James; Norman, Amos

    2012-01-01

    To determine the tobacco industry's policy and action with respect to radioactive polonium 210 ((210)Po) in cigarette smoke and to assess the long-term risk of lung cancer caused by alpha particle deposits in the lungs of regular smokers. Analysis of major tobacco industries' internal secret documents on cigarette radioactivity made available online by the Master Settlement Agreement in 1998. The documents show that the industry was well aware of the presence of a radioactive substance in tobacco as early as 1959. Furthermore, the industry was not only cognizant of the potential "cancerous growth" in the lungs of regular smokers but also did quantitative radiobiological calculations to estimate the long-term (25 years) lung radiation absorption dose (rad) of ionizing alpha particles emitted from the cigarette smoke. Our own calculations of lung rad of alpha particles match closely the rad estimated by the industry. According to the Environmental Protection Agency, the industry's and our estimate of long-term lung rad of alpha particles causes 120-138 lung cancer deaths per year per 1,000 regular smokers. Acid wash was discovered in 1980 to be highly effectively in removing (210)Po from the tobacco leaves; however, the industry avoided its use for concerns that acid media would ionize nicotine converting it into a poorly absorbable form into the brain of smokers thus depriving them of the much sought after instant "nicotine kick" sensation. The evidence of lung cancer risk caused by cigarette smoke radioactivity is compelling enough to warrant its removal.

  10. Radioactive Fallout From Nuclear Weapons Testing ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-08-07

    Detonating nuclear weapons above ground sends radioactive materials into the atmosphere from the ground level up to very high elevations. Overtime, these materials settle out of the atmosphere and fall to the ground. Fallout typically contains hundreds of different radionuclides. Since the end of aboveground nuclear weapons testing, radionuclides have largely decayed away.

  11. RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS IN BIOSOLIDS: DOSE MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Interagency Steering Committee on Radiation Standards (ISCORS) has recently completed a study of the occurrence within the United States of radioactive materials in sewage sludge and sewage incineration ash. One component of that effort was an examination of the possible tra...

  12. Method for solidifying liquid radioactive wastes

    DOEpatents

    Berreth, Julius R.

    1976-01-01

    The quantity of nitrous oxides produced during the solidification of liquid radioactive wastes containing nitrates and nitrites can be substantially reduced by the addition to the wastes of a stoichiometric amount of urea which, upon heating, destroys the nitrates and nitrites, liberating nontoxic N.sub.2, CO.sub.2 and NH.sub.3.

  13. Simplifying the Mathematical Treatment of Radioactive Decay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auty, Geoff

    2011-01-01

    Derivation of the law of radioactive decay is considered without prior knowledge of calculus or the exponential series. Calculus notation and exponential functions are used because ultimately they cannot be avoided, but they are introduced in a simple way and explained as needed. (Contains 10 figures, 1 box, and 1 table.)

  14. Environmental radioactivity in Greenland in 1974.

    PubMed

    Aarkrog, A; Lippert, J

    1975-07-01

    Measurements of fall-out radioactivity in Greenland in 1974 are reported. Strontium-90 (and Caesium-137 in most cases) was determined in samples of precipitation, sea water, vegetation, animals, and drinking water. Estimates are given of the mean contents of 90Sr and 137Cs in the human diet in Greenland in 1974. Three Greenlanders were measured by wholebody counting.

  15. Environmental radioactivity in Greenland in 1976.

    PubMed

    Aarkrog, A; Lippert, J

    1977-07-01

    Measurements of fall-out radioactivity in Greenland in 1976 are reported. Strontium-90 (and Caesium-137 in most cases) was determined in samples of precipitation, sea water, vegetation, animals, and drinking water. Estimates are given of the mean contents of 90Sr and 137Cs in the human diet in Greenland in 1976.

  16. METHOD OF REMOVING RADIOACTIVE IODINE FROM GASES

    DOEpatents

    Silverman, L.

    1962-01-23

    A method of removing radioactive iodine from a gaseous medium is given in which the gaseous medium is adjusted to a temperature not exceeding 400 deg C and then passed over a copper fibrous pad having a coating of cupric sulfide deposited thereon. An ionic exchange on the pad results in the formation of cupric iodide and the release of sulfur. (AEC)

  17. The continuing problem of radioactive metal scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Yusko, J.G.; Lubenau, J.O.

    1995-12-31

    Metal scrap found to contain radioactive materials continues to challenge regulatory agencies as discoveries of this unwanted constituent increase. And while efforts are made to prevent the exposure of personnel at metal manufacturing mills and scrap yards when radioactivity is discovered in a shipment of metal scrap, this has not stemmed the number of discoveries. Sources and devices continue to be found, leading to difficulties in the disposal of the radioactive materials, especially with the closure of licensed LLRW facilities to non-compact state members. Naturally-occurring radioactive materials continue to be found, principally as surface contaminants of metals for recycling. And although NORM contamination does not generally pose a threat to the health and safety of personnel at metal mills and scrap yards, there is no consensus about the disposition of NORM-contaminated metal. The changing of trade barriers (such as the North American Free Trade Agreement) also factors into the problem, as materials cross international boundaries and enter the recycling stream. The efforts of entities such as Conference committees, federal regulatory agencies (e.g., NRC, EPA, DOT), state radiation control agencies and the affected industries will be presented and discussed.

  18. Annual radioactive waste tank inspection program - 1992

    SciTech Connect

    McNatt, F.G.

    1992-12-31

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1992 to evaluate these vessels and evaluations based on data accrued by inspections made since the tanks were constructed are the subject of this report.

  19. A Sensitive Cloud Chamber without Radioactive Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeze, Syoji; Itoh, Akio; Oyama, Ayu; Takahashi, Haruka

    2012-01-01

    We present a sensitive diffusion cloud chamber which does not require any radioactive sources. A major difference from commonly used chambers is the use of a heat sink as its bottom plate. The result of a performance test of the chamber is given. (Contains 8 figures.)

  20. Laser photodetachment of radioactive 128I‑

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothe, Sebastian; Sundberg, Julia; Welander, Jakob; Chrysalidis, Katerina; Day Goodacre, Thomas; Fedosseev, Valentin; Fiotakis, Spyridon; Forstner, Oliver; Heinke, Reinhard; Johnston, Karl; Kron, Tobias; Köster, Ulli; Liu, Yuan; Marsh, Bruce; Ringvall-Moberg, Annie; Rossel, Ralf Erik; Seiffert, Christoph; Studer, Dominik; Wendt, Klaus; Hanstorp, Dag

    2017-10-01

    The first experimental investigation of the electron affinity (EA) of a radioactive isotope has been conducted at the CERN-ISOLDE radioactive ion beam facility. The EA of the radioactive iodine isotope 128I (t 1/2 = 25 min) was determined to be 3.059 052(38) eV. The experiment was conducted using the newly developed Gothenburg ANion Detector for Affinity measurements by Laser PHotodetachment (GANDALPH) apparatus, connected to a CERN-ISOLDE experimental beamline. 128I was produced in fission induced by 1.4 GeV protons striking a thorium/tantalum foil target and then extracted as singly charged negative ions at a beam energy of 20 keV. Laser photodetachment of the fast ion beam was performed in a collinear geometry inside the GANDALPH chamber. Neutral atoms produced in the photodetachment process were detected by allowing them to impinge on a glass surface, creating secondary electrons which were then detected using a channel electron multiplier. The photon energy of the laser was tuned across the threshold of the photodetachment process and the detachment threshold data were fitted to a Wigner law function in order to extract the EA. This first successful demonstration of photodetachment at an isotope separator on line facility opens up the opportunity for future studies of the fundamental properties of negatively charged radioactive isotopes such as the EA of astatine and polonium.