Science.gov

Sample records for radioactive source applications

  1. Application of radioactive sources in analytical instruments for planetary exploration.

    PubMed

    Economou, Thanasis E

    2010-01-01

    Radioactive isotopes have been used in analytical instrumentation for planetary exploration since the very beginning of the space age. An Alpha Scattering Instrument (ASI) on board the Surveyor 5, 6 and 7 spacecrafts used the isotope (242)Cm to obtain the chemical composition of the lunar surface material in 1960s. The Alpha Proton X-ray Spectrometers (APXS) used on several mission to Mars (Pathfinder, Mars-96, Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) and on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), the next mission to Mars in 2011 and on the Rosetta mission to a comet) are improved derivatives of the original ASI, complimented with an X-ray mode and using the longer lived (244)Cm isotope. (57)Co, (55)Fe and many other radioisotopes have been used in several missions carrying XRF and Mössbauer instruments. In addition, (238)Pu isotope is exclusively being used in most of the space missions for heating and power generation. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Dynamic radioactive particle source

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Murray E; Gauss, Adam Benjamin; Justus, Alan Lawrence

    2012-06-26

    A method and apparatus for providing a timed, synchronized dynamic alpha or beta particle source for testing the response of continuous air monitors (CAMs) for airborne alpha or beta emitters is provided. The method includes providing a radioactive source; placing the radioactive source inside the detection volume of a CAM; and introducing an alpha or beta-emitting isotope while the CAM is in a normal functioning mode.

  3. Detecting Illicit Radioactive Sources

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, Joseph C.; Coursey, Bert; Carter, Michael

    2004-11-01

    Specialized instruments have been developed to detect the presence of illicit radioactive sources that may be used by terrorists in radiation dispersal devices, so-called ''dirty bombs'' or improvised nuclear devices. This article discusses developments in devices to detect and measure radiation.

  4. PORTABLE SOURCE OF RADIOACTIVITY

    DOEpatents

    Goertz, R.C.; Ferguson, K.R.; Rylander, E.W.; Safranski, L.M.

    1959-06-16

    A portable source for radiogiaphy or radiotherapy is described. It consists of a Tl/sup 170/ or Co/sup 60/ source mounted in a rotatable tungsten alloy plug. The plug rotates within a brass body to positions of safety or exposure. Provision is made for reloading and carrying the device safely. (T.R.H.)

  5. Enhanced Radioactive Material Source Security.

    PubMed

    Klinger, Joseph G

    2016-02-01

    Requirements for additional security measures for sealed radioactive sources have evolved since they were first implemented after the terrorist events of 11 September 2001. This paper will describe the sequence of those measures, commencing with the early orders issued by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to the May 2013 adoption of 10 CFR Part 37, Physical Protections of Category 1 and Category 2 Quantities of Radioactive Material. Part 37 requirements will be discussed in detail, as the 37 NRC Agreement States, which regulate approximately 88% of the radioactive material licensees, will be required to enact by 19 March 2016. In addition to the Part 37 requirements, the paper will also highlight some of the other ongoing efforts of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration's Global Threat Reduction Initiative and the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors.

  6. Automatic Searching Radioactive Sources by Airborne Radioactive Survey Using Multicopter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rim, H.; Eun, S. B.; Kim, K.; Park, S.; Jung, H. K.

    2015-12-01

    In order to prepare emergency situation lost a dangerous radioelement source in advance and to search a radioactive source automatically, we develop airborne radioelement survey system by multicopter. This multicopter radioelement survey system consists of a small portable customized BGO (Bismuth Germanate Oxide) detector, video recording part, wireless connecting part to ground pilot, GPS, and several equipments for automatic flight. This system is possible to search flight by preprogramed lines. This radioactive detecting system are tested to find intentional hidden source, The performance of detecting a source is well proved with very low flight altitude in spite of depending on the magnitude of radioelement sources. The advantage of multicopter system, one of UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle), is to avoid the potential of close access to a dangerous radioactive source by using fully automatic searching capability. In this paper, we introduce our multicopter system for detecting radioactive source and synthetic case history for demonstrating this system.

  7. Preparation and characterization of cesium-137 aluminosilicate pellets for radioactive source applications

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, F.J.; Tompkins, J.A.; Haff, K.W.; Case, F.N.

    1981-07-01

    Twenty-seven fully loaded /sup 137/Cs aluminosilicate pellets were fabricated in a hot cell by the vacuum hot pressing of a cesium carbonate/montmorillonite clay mixture at 1500/sup 0/C and 570 psig. Four pellets were selected for characterization studies which included calorimetric measurements, metallography, scanning electron microscope and electron backscattering (SEM-BSE), electron microprobe, x-ray diffraction, and cesium ion leachability measurements. Each test pellet contained 437 to 450 curies of /sup 137/Cs as determined by calorimetric measurements. Metallographic examinations revealed a two-phase system: a primary, granular, gray matrix phase containing large and small pores and small pore agglomerations, and a secondary fused phase interspersed throughout the gray matrix. SEM-BSE analyses showed that cesium and silicon were uniformly distributed throughout both phases of the pellet. This indicated that the cesium-silicon-clay reaction went to completion. Aluminum homogeneity was unconfirmed due to the high background noise associated with the inherent radioactivity of the test specimens. X-ray diffraction analyses of both radioactive and non-radioactive aluminosilicate pellets confirmed the crystal lattice structure to be pollucite. Cesium ion quasistatic leachability measurements determined the leach rates of fully loaded /sup 137/Cs sectioned pollucite pellets to date to be 4.61 to 34.4 x 10/sup -10/ kg m/sup -2/s/sup -1/, while static leach tests performed on unsectioned fully loaded pellets showed the leach rates of the cesium ion to date to be 2.25 to 3.41 x 10/sup -12/ kg m/sup -2/s/sup -1/. The cesium ion diffusion coefficients through the pollucite pellet were calculated using Fick's first and second laws of diffusion. The diffusion coefficients calculated for three tracer level /sup 137/Cs aluminosilicate pellets were 1.29 x 10/sup -16/m/sup 2/s/sup -1/, 6.88 x 10/sup -17/m/sup 2/s/sup -1/, and 1.35 x 10/sup -17/m/sup 2/s/sup -1/, respectively.

  8. Neutron imaging of radioactive sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hameed, F.; Karimzadeh, S.; Zawisky, M.

    2008-08-01

    Isotopic neutron sources have been available for more than six decades. At the Atomic Institute in Vienna, operating a 250 kW TRIGA reactor, different neutron sources are in use for instrument calibration and fast neutron applications but we have only little information about their construction and densities. The knowledge of source design is essential for a complete MCNP5 modeling of the experiments. Neutron radiography (NR) and neutron tomography (NT) are the best choices for the non-destructive inspection of the source geometry and homogeneity. From the transmission analysis we gain information about the shielding components and the densities of the radio-isotopes in the cores. Three neutron sources, based on (alpha, n) reaction, have been investigated, two 239PuBe sources and one 241AmBe source. In the NR images the internal structure was clearly revealed using high-resolving scintillation and imaging plate detectors. In one source tablet a crack was detected which causes asymmetric neutron emission. The tomography inspection of strong absorbing materials is more challenging due to the low beam intensity of 1.3x105 n/cm2s at our NT instrument, and due to the beam hardening effect which requires an extension of reconstruction software. The tomographic inspection of a PuBe neutron source and appropriate measures for background and beam hardening correction are presented.

  9. RADIOACTIVE CONCENTRATOR AND RADIATION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Hatch, L.P.

    1959-12-29

    A method is presented for forming a permeable ion exchange bed using Montmorillonite clay to absorb and adsorb radioactive ions from liquid radioactive wastes. A paste is formed of clay, water, and a material that fomns with clay a stable aggregate in the presence of water. The mixture is extruded into a volume of water to form clay rods. The rods may then be used to remove radioactive cations from liquid waste solutions. After use, the rods are removed from the solution and heated to a temperature of 750 to 1000 deg C to fix the ratioactive cations in the clay.

  10. DEPO-related to Radioactive Sources.

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, James Christopher

    2016-02-24

    Design and Evaluation Process Outline (DEPO) is discussed as it pertains to protection of radioactive sources. The bulk of the report describes features of various kinds of detection systems, and follows this with systems for entry control and personnel identification.

  11. Radioactive source security: the cultural challenges.

    PubMed

    Englefield, Chris

    2015-04-01

    Radioactive source security is an essential part of radiation protection. Sources can be abandoned, lost or stolen. If they are stolen, they could be used to cause deliberate harm and the risks are varied and significant. There is a need for a global security protection system and enhanced capability to achieve this. The establishment of radioactive source security requires 'cultural exchanges'. These exchanges include collaboration between: radiation protection specialists and security specialists; the nuclear industry and users of radioactive sources; training providers and regulators/users. This collaboration will facilitate knowledge and experience exchange for the various stakeholder groups, beyond those already provided. This will promote best practice in both physical and information security and heighten security awareness generally. Only if all groups involved are prepared to open their minds to listen to and learn from, each other will a suitable global level of control be achieved.

  12. 10 CFR 835.1201 - Sealed radioactive source control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sealed radioactive source control. 835.1201 Section 835.1201 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Sealed Radioactive Source Control § 835.1201 Sealed radioactive source control. Sealed radioactive sources shall be used, handled, and...

  13. 10 CFR 835.1201 - Sealed radioactive source control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sealed radioactive source control. 835.1201 Section 835.1201 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Sealed Radioactive Source Control § 835.1201 Sealed radioactive source control. Sealed radioactive sources shall be used, handled, and...

  14. 10 CFR 835.1202 - Accountable sealed radioactive sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accountable sealed radioactive sources. 835.1202 Section 835.1202 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Sealed Radioactive Source Control § 835.1202 Accountable sealed radioactive sources. (a) Each accountable sealed radioactive source...

  15. 10 CFR 835.1202 - Accountable sealed radioactive sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Accountable sealed radioactive sources. 835.1202 Section 835.1202 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Sealed Radioactive Source Control § 835.1202 Accountable sealed radioactive sources. (a) Each accountable sealed radioactive source...

  16. 10 CFR 835.1201 - Sealed radioactive source control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sealed radioactive source control. 835.1201 Section 835.1201 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Sealed Radioactive Source Control § 835.1201 Sealed radioactive source control. Sealed radioactive sources shall be used, handled, and...

  17. 10 CFR 835.1201 - Sealed radioactive source control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sealed radioactive source control. 835.1201 Section 835.1201 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Sealed Radioactive Source Control § 835.1201 Sealed radioactive source control. Sealed radioactive sources shall be used, handled, and...

  18. 10 CFR 835.1202 - Accountable sealed radioactive sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Accountable sealed radioactive sources. 835.1202 Section 835.1202 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Sealed Radioactive Source Control § 835.1202 Accountable sealed radioactive sources. (a) Each accountable sealed radioactive source...

  19. 10 CFR 835.1201 - Sealed radioactive source control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sealed radioactive source control. 835.1201 Section 835.1201 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Sealed Radioactive Source Control § 835.1201 Sealed radioactive source control. Sealed radioactive sources shall be used, handled,...

  20. Radiation Safety of Sealed Radioactive Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Pryor, Kathryn H.

    2015-01-01

    Sealed radioactive sources are used in a wide variety of occupational settings and under differing regulatory/licensing structures. The definition of a sealed radioactive source varies between US regulatory authorities and standard-setting organizations. Potential problems with sealed sources cover a range of risks and impacts. The loss of control of high activity sealed sources can result in very high or even fatal doses to members of the public who come in contact with them. Sources that are not adequately sealed, and that fail, can cause spread of contamination and potential intake of radioactive material. There is also the possibility that sealed sources may be (or threatened to be) used for terrorist purposes and disruptive opportunities. Until fairly recently, generally-licensed sealed sources and devices received little, if any, regulatory oversight, and were often forgotten, lost or unaccounted for. Nonetheless, generally licensed devices can contain fairly significant quantities of radioactive material and there is some potential for exposure if a device is treated in a way that it was never designed. Industrial radiographers use and handle high activity and/or high-dose rate sealed sources in the field with a high degree of independence and minimal regulatory oversight. Failure to follow operational procedures and properly handle radiography sources can and has resulted in serious injuries and death. Industrial radiographers have experienced a disproportionately large fraction of incidents that result in unintended exposure to radiation. Sources do not have to contain significant quantities of radioactive material to cause problems in the event of their failure. A loss of integrity can cause the spread of contamination and potential exposure to workers and members of the public. The NCRP has previously provided recommendations on select aspects of sealed source programs. Future efforts to provide recommendations for sealed source programs are discussed.

  1. Radiation safety of sealed radioactive sources.

    PubMed

    Pryor, Kathryn H

    2015-02-01

    Sealed radioactive sources are used in a wide variety of occupational settings and under differing regulatory/licensing structures. The definition of a sealed radioactive source varies between U.S. regulatory authorities and standard-setting organizations. Potential problems with sealed sources cover a range of risks and impacts. The loss of control of high activity sealed sources can result in very high or even fatal doses to members of the public who come in contact with them. Sources that are not adequately sealed and that fail can cause spread of contamination and potential intake of radioactive material. There is also the possibility that sealed sources may be (or threaten to be) used for terrorist purposes and disruptive opportunities. Until fairly recently, generally licensed sealed sources and devices received little, if any, regulatory oversight and were often forgotten, lost or unaccounted for. Nonetheless, generally licensed devices can contain fairly significant quantities of radioactive material, and there is some potential for exposure if a device is treated in a way for which it was never designed. Industrial radiographers use and handle high activity and/or high dose-rate sealed sources in the field with a high degree of independence and minimal regulatory oversight. Failure to follow operational procedures and properly handle radiography sources can and has resulted in serious injuries and death. Industrial radiographers have experienced a disproportionately large fraction of incidents that have resulted in unintended exposure to radiation. Sources do not have to contain significant quantities of radioactive material to cause problems in the event of their failure. A loss of integrity can cause the spread of contamination and potential exposure to workers and members of the public. The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements has previously provided recommendations on select aspects of sealed source programs. Future efforts to

  2. A Sensitive Cloud Chamber without Radioactive Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeze, Syoji; Itoh, Akio; Oyama, Ayu; Takahashi, Haruka

    2012-01-01

    We present a sensitive diffusion cloud chamber which does not require any radioactive sources. A major difference from commonly used chambers is the use of a heat sink as its bottom plate. The result of a performance test of the chamber is given. (Contains 8 figures.)

  3. A Sensitive Cloud Chamber without Radioactive Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeze, Syoji; Itoh, Akio; Oyama, Ayu; Takahashi, Haruka

    2012-01-01

    We present a sensitive diffusion cloud chamber which does not require any radioactive sources. A major difference from commonly used chambers is the use of a heat sink as its bottom plate. The result of a performance test of the chamber is given. (Contains 8 figures.)

  4. Environmental Assessment Radioactive Source Recovery Program

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-20

    In a response to potential risks to public health and safety, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is evaluating the recovery of sealed neutron sources under the Radioactive Source Recovery Program (RSRP). This proposed program would enhance the DOE`s and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s) joint capabilities in the safe management of commercially held radioactive source materials. Currently there are no federal or commercial options for the recovery, storage, or disposal of sealed neutron sources. This Environmental Assessment (EA) analyzes the potential environmental impacts that would be expected to occur if the DOE were to implement a program for the receipt and recovery at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, New Mexico, of unwanted and excess plutonium-beryllium ({sup 238}Pu-Be) and americium-beryllium ({sup 241}Am-Be) sealed neutron sources. About 1 kg (2.2 lb) plutonium and 3 kg (6.6 lb) americium would be recovered over a 15-year project. Personnel at LANL would receive neutron sources from companies, universities, source brokers, and government agencies across the country. These neutron sources would be temporarily stored in floor holes at the CMR Hot Cell Facility. Recovery reduces the neutron emissions from the source material and refers to a process by which: (1) the stainless steel cladding is removed from the neutron source material, (2) the mixture of the radioactive material (Pu-238 or Am-241) and beryllium that constitutes the neutron source material is chemically separated (recovered), and (3) the recovered Pu-238 or Am-241 is converted to an oxide form ({sup 238}PuO{sub 2} or {sup 241}AmO{sub 2}). The proposed action would include placing the {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} or {sup 241}AmO{sub 2} in interim storage in a special nuclear material vault at the LANL Plutonium Facility.

  5. Registration for the Hanford Site: Sources of radioactive emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Silvia, M.J.

    1993-04-01

    This Registration Application serves to renew the registration for all Hanford Site sources of radioactive air emissions routinely reported to the State of Washington Department of Health (DOH). The current registration expires on August 15, 1993. The Application is submitted pursuant to the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246--247, and is consistent with guidance provided by DOH for renewal. The Application subdivides the Hanford Site into six major production, processing or research areas. Those six areas are in the 100 Area, 200 East Area, 200 West Area, 300 Area, 400 Area, and 600 Area. Each major group of point sources within the six areas listed above is represented by a Source Registration for Radioactive Air Emissions form. Annual emissions. for the sources are listed in the ``Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for the Hanford Site,`` published annually. It is a requirement that the following Statement of Compliance be provided: ``The radioactive air emissions from the above sources do meet the emissions standards contained in Chapter 173-480-040 WAC, Ambient Air Quality Standards and Emissions Limits for Radionuclides. As the Statement of Compliance pertains to this submittal, the phrase ``above sources`` is to be understood as meaning the combined air emissions from all sources registered by this submittal.

  6. 10 CFR 835.1202 - Accountable sealed radioactive sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Accountable sealed radioactive sources. 835.1202 Section 835.1202 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Sealed Radioactive Source... human entry or otherwise inaccessible. (e) An accountable sealed radioactive source found to be...

  7. 10 CFR 835.1202 - Accountable sealed radioactive sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Accountable sealed radioactive sources. 835.1202 Section 835.1202 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Sealed Radioactive Source... human entry or otherwise inaccessible. (e) An accountable sealed radioactive source found to be...

  8. Radioactive check sources for alpha and beta sensitive radiological instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J.M.; Kane, J.E. II

    1994-06-01

    Since 1991, the Westinghouse Hanford Company has examined the construction and use of alpha and beta radioactive check sources for calibrating instruments and for performing response checks of instruments used for operational and environmental radiation detection. The purpose of using a radioactive check source is to characterize the response of a radiation monitoring instrument in the presence of radioactivity. To accurately calibrate the instrument and check its response, the check source used must emulate as closely as possible the actual physical and isotopic conditions being monitored. The isotope employed and the physical methods used to fabricate the check source (among other factors) determine instrument response. Although information from applicable national and international standards, journal articles, books, and government documents was considered, empirical data collected is most valuable when considering the type of source to use for a particular application. This paper presents source construction methods, use considerations, and standard recommendations. The results of a Hanford Site evaluation of several types of alpha and beta sources are also given.

  9. Particle beam generator using a radioactive source

    DOEpatents

    Underwood, D.G.

    1993-03-30

    The apparatus of the present invention selects from particles emitted by a radioactive source those particles having momentum within a desired range and focuses the selected particles in a beam having at least one narrow cross-dimension, and at the same time attenuates potentially disruptive gamma rays and low energy particles. Two major components of the present invention are an achromatic bending and focusing system, which includes sector magnets and quadrupole, and a quadrupole doublet final focus system. Permanent magnets utilized in the apparatus are constructed of a ceramic (ferrite) material which is inexpensive and easily machined.

  10. Particle beam generator using a radioactive source

    DOEpatents

    Underwood, David G.

    1993-01-01

    The apparatus of the present invention selects from particles emitted by a radioactive source those particles having momentum within a desired range and focuses the selected particles in a beam having at least one narrow cross-dimension, and at the same time attenuates potentially disruptive gamma rays and low energy particles. Two major components of the present invention are an achromatic bending and focusing system, which includes sector magnets and quadrupole, and a quadrupole doublet final focus system. Permanent magnets utilized in the apparatus are constructed of a ceramic (ferrite) material which is inexpensive and easily machined.

  11. Ion sources and targets for radioactive beams

    SciTech Connect

    Schiffer, J.P.; Back, B.B.; Ahmad, I.

    1995-08-01

    A high-intensity ISOL-type radioactive beam facility depends critically on the performance of the target/ion source system. We developed a concept for producing high-intensity secondary beams of fission fragments, such as {sup 132}Sn, using a two-part target and ion source combination. The idea involves stopping a 1000-kW beam of 200-MeV deuterons in a target of Be or U to produce a secondary beam of neutrons. Just behind the neutron production target is a second target, typically a porous form of UC, coupled to an ISOL-type ion source. In December 1994, we tested this concept with 200-MeV deuterons at low intensity in an experiment at the NSCL. The yields of characteristic gamma rays were measured and confirmed our predictions.

  12. Integrated Management Program Radioactive Sealed Sources in Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Hasan, A.; Cochran, J. R.; El-Adham, K.; El-Sorougy, R.

    2003-02-26

    The radioactive materials in ''public'' locations are typically contained in small, stainless steel capsules known as sealed radiation sources (RS). These capsules seal in the radioactive materials, but not the radiation, because it is the radiation that is needed for a wide variety of applications at hospitals, medical clinics, manufacturing plants, universities, construction sites, and other facilities in the public sector. Radiation sources are readily available, and worldwide there are hundreds of thousands of RS. The IMPRSS Project is a cooperative development between the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority (EAEA), Egyptian Ministry of Health (MOH), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), New Mexico Tech University (NMT), and Agriculture Cooperative Development International (ACDI/VOCA). SNL will coordinate the work scope between the participant organizations.

  13. Ion source for radioactive isotopes - IRIS ECR

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, J.T.; Freedman, S.J.; Lyneis, C.M.; Wutte, D.

    2001-01-01

    A compact electron cyclotron resonance ion source for radioactive isotopes (IRIS ECR) has been developed for the {sup 14}O experiment at the 88-Inch Cyclotron. The {sup 14}O experiment is a joint effort between the Nuclear Science Division's Weak Interaction Group and the 88-Inch Cyclotron ECR ion source group. The initial goal of the experimentalists is to measure {sup 14}O half-life and the shape of the beta decay spectrum. The 70 second half-life of {sup 14}O requires producing the isotope on-line at the 88-Inch Cyclotron. The {sup 14}O is generated in the form of {sup 12}C{sup 14}O in a high temperature carbon aerogel target using a 20 MeV {sup 3}He{sup +} beam from the LBNL 88-Inch Cyclotron via the reaction {sup 12}C({sup 3}He,n){sup 14}O. The {sup 14}O atoms are then separated from the other radioactive isotopes produced in the target and then implanted into a thin foil. The implanted target serves to minimize the radiation background and maximize the signal in the beta spectrometer by concentrating the{sup 14}O into a 5mm diameter spot. An 8 meter long stainless steel transfer line connects the target chamber to the IRIS ECR through a turbo molecular pump. The gas coming from the turbo pump is fed into the ion source and ionized, extracted at energies of 20 to 30 keV and mass separated by an analyzing magnet. The ion source started operation in spring 1999 and achieved a beam intensity of 3 x 10{sup 5} {sup 14}O{sup +} ions/second. Extensive developments on the production target were made to increase extraction efficiency of the {sup 14}O. A liquid nitrogen trap was installed between the ECR and the turbo pump to minimize the gas load to the ion source. An improved support gas injection system was installed so that multiple support gases can be introduced. A bias disk is used to stabilize the plasma. A quartz liner in the plasma chamber is used to reduce the hold-up time for oxygen and increase the overall ionization efficiency. The extraction system was

  14. Management of spent sealed radioactive sources in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Osmanlioglu, Ahmet Erdal

    2006-09-01

    Spent radioactive sources (SRS) have been generated from industrial applications, research, and medicine in Turkey. In this study, management of SRS (Co, Cs) at Cekmece Waste Processing and Storage Facility (CWPSF) is described. Eleven Cs sources (total 851 GBq) and four Co sources (total 27.75 GBq) that had been used as levels and density gauges were conditioned. Reinforced metal drums (200 L in volume) and cement matrix were used for conditioning of these sources. In this way, greater confinement was achieved for long-term storage. Maximum dose rates at the surface of the conditioned waste package were determined. In addition to information about conditioning stages of the sources, various calculations that have been done for shielding are presented. Surface dose rates of the waste packages were 1.60 mSv h for Cs and 1.63 mSv h for Co. Measurements of the final waste packages were presented to fulfill the requirements (<2 mSv h) of transportation according to regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material.

  15. A radioactive metal processing industry perspective source.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A

    2006-11-01

    The current U.S. economic environment for the disposition of radioactive waste, including very-low-activity metals, is currently experiencing relatively low radioactive disposal costs and readily available disposal space. Despite the recent market increase in demand for recycled scrap metal commodities, there is still little change in the behavior of the nuclear industry (including radioactive waste processors and radioactive scrap metal recyclers) to pursue the recycling of potentially contaminated scrap metal. The relatively low cost of traditional radioactive waste disposal combined with the perceived risks associated with recycling of previously contaminated metals means that most U.S. radioactive facility managers and stakeholders will elect not to recycle. Current technology exists and precedence has been set for prescreening (by means of bulk radioactive assay techniques) scrap metal that is not contaminated and diverting it to industrial landfills for disposal. Other processes also allow some radiologically contaminated metals to be melted and recast into products with low, but acceptable, activity levels for restricted use in the nuclear industry. A new concept is being considered that would create a centralized licensed facility for the process and disposition of "very-low-activity" metals for "directed first use." The advantages to this type of approach would include a standardized method for licensing the clearance process.

  16. Management of Disused Radioactive Sealed Sources in Egypt - 13512

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed, Y.T.; Hasan, M.A.; Lasheen, Y.F.

    2013-07-01

    The future safe development of nuclear energy and progressive increasing use of sealed sources in medicine, research, industry and other fields in Egypt depends on the safe and secure management of disused radioactive sealed sources. In the past years have determined the necessity to formulate and apply the integrated management program for radioactive sealed sources to assure harmless and ecological rational management of disused sealed sources in Egypt. The waste management system in Egypt comprises operational and regulatory capabilities. Both of these activities are performed under legislations. The Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center HLWMC, is considered as a centralized radioactive waste management facility in Egypt by law 7/2010. (authors)

  17. 10 CFR Appendix E to Part 835 - Values for Establishing Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability and Radioactive Material Posting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Values for Establishing Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability and Radioactive Material Posting and Labeling Requirements E Appendix E to Part 835 Energy... Establishing Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability and Radioactive Material Posting and Labeling...

  18. Threat Identification Parameters for a Stolen Category 1 Radioactive Source

    SciTech Connect

    Ussery, Larry Eugene; Winkler, Ryan; Myers, Steven Charles

    2016-02-18

    Radioactive sources are used very widely for research and practical applications across medicine, industry, government, universities, and agriculture. The risks associated with these sources vary widely depending on the specific radionuclide used to make the source, source activity, and its chemical and physical form. Sources are categorized by a variety of classification schemes according to the specific risk they pose to the public. This report specifically addresses sources that are classified in the highest category for health risk (category 1). Exposure to an unshielded or lightly shielded category 1 source is extremely dangerous to life and health and can be fatal in relatively short exposure times measured in seconds to minutes. A Category 1 source packaged according to the guidelines dictated by the NRC and U.S. Department of Transportation will typically be surrounded by a large amount of dense shielding material, but will still exhibit a significant dose rate in close proximity. Detection ranges for Category 1 gamma ray sources can extend beyond 5000 ft, but will depend mostly on the source isotope and activity, and the level of shielding around the source. Category 1 sources are easy to detect, but difficult to localize. Dose rates in proximity to an unshielded Category 1 source are extraordinarily high. At distances of a few hundred feet, the functionality of many commonly used handheld instruments will be extremely limited for both the localization and identification of the source. Radiation emitted from a Category 1 source will scatter off of both solid material (ground and buildings) and the atmosphere, a phenomenon known as skyshine. This scattering affects the ability to easily localize and find the source.

  19. Obtaining and Investigating Unconventional Sources of Radioactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapp, David R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides examples of naturally radioactive items that are likely to be found in most communities. Additionally, there is information provided on how to acquire many of these items inexpensively. I have found that the presence of these materials in the classroom is not only useful for teaching about nuclear radiation and debunking the…

  20. Obtaining and Investigating Unconventional Sources of Radioactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapp, David R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides examples of naturally radioactive items that are likely to be found in most communities. Additionally, there is information provided on how to acquire many of these items inexpensively. I have found that the presence of these materials in the classroom is not only useful for teaching about nuclear radiation and debunking the…

  1. Radioactive target and source development at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, J.P.; Ahmad, I.; Thomas, G.E.

    1992-10-01

    An increased demand for low-level radioactive targets has created the need for a laboratory dedicated to the production of these foils. A description is given of the radioactive target produced as well as source development work being performed at the Physics Division target facility of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Highlights include equipment used and the techniques employed. In addition, some examples of recent source preparation are given as well as work currently in progress.

  2. Radioactive target and source development at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, J.P.; Ahmad, I.; Thomas, G.E.

    1992-01-01

    An increased demand for low-level radioactive targets has created the need for a laboratory dedicated to the production of these foils. A description is given of the radioactive target produced as well as source development work being performed at the Physics Division target facility of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Highlights include equipment used and the techniques employed. In addition, some examples of recent source preparation are given as well as work currently in progress.

  3. Technology applications for radioactive waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Devgun, J.S.

    1994-07-01

    The nuclear power industry has achieved one of the most successful examples of waste minimization. The annual volume of low-level radioactive waste shipped for disposal per reactor has decreased to approximately one-fifth the volume about a decade ago. In addition, the curie content of the total waste shipped for disposal has decreased. This paper will discuss the regulatory drivers and economic factors for waste minimization and describe the application of technologies for achieving waste minimization for low-level radioactive waste with examples from the nuclear power industry.

  4. Radioactivity as a significant energy source in prebiotic synthesis.

    PubMed

    Garzón, L; Garzón, M L

    2001-01-01

    Radioactivity in the continental crust (due mainly to the isotopes 238U, 235U, 232Th and 40K), as a energy source for chemical evolution in the early Archean (between 3.5 and approximately 4 Ga bp), is reviewed. The most important radioactive source in the continental crust is due to the production and accumulation of radioactive gases within the crust voids (porosity). The study of such mechanism has allowed us to reach a deeper understanding about the nature of the radioactive source and to describe its behavior, particularly with regard to prebiotic chemical evolution. An effective total energy of 3 x 10(18) Ja-1 has been obtained for a depth of 1 km, 4 Ga ago. If a depth of 30 km is taken, the obtained value is almost equal to the UV solar energy radiation (lambda < 150 nm). Within the voids the radioactive source of the continental crust played a relevant role in prebiotic synthesis. In uranium deposits of the same age, the role of radioactivity must have been even more relevant in favoring chemical evolution.

  5. Radioactive heat sources in the lunar interior.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    Published models for the moon's thermal history typically imply present day central temperatures far too high to be consistent with the recently proposed lunar temperature profile of Sonett et al. (1971). Furthermore, chemical data on Apollo samples show that the moon is depleted relative to chondrites in volatile elements, and possibly enriched relative to chondrites in refractory elements. Additional thermal models have therefore been investigated in order to set upper limits on lunar radioactivity consistent with the proposed temperature distribution. For an initially cold, uniform moon, devoid of potassium, a maximum uranium content of 23 parts per billion is inferred.

  6. Automated management of radioactive sources in Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S.; Jamil, M. F.; Basar, M. R.; Tuwaili, W. R.

    2014-09-30

    For usage of radioactive substances, any facility has to register and take license from relevant authority of the country in which such facility is operating. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), the authority for managing radioactive sources and providing licenses to organizations for its usage is the National Center of Radiation Protection (NCRP). This paper describes the system that automates registration and licensing process of the National Center of Radiation Protection. To provide 24×7 accesses to all the customers of NCRP, system is developed as web-based application that provide facility to online register, request license, renew license, check request status, view historical data and reports etc. and other features are provided as Electronic Services that would be accessible to users via internet. The system also was designed to streamline and optimize internal operations of NCRP besides providing ease of access to its customers by implementing a defined workflow through which every registration and license request will be routed. In addition to manual payment option, the system would also be integrated with SADAD (online payment system) that will avoid lengthy and cumbersome procedures associated with manual payment mechanism. Using SADAD payment option license fee could be paid through internet/ATM machine or branch of any designated bank, Payment will be instantly notified to NCRP hence delay in funds transfer and verification of invoice could be avoided, SADAD integration is discussed later in the document.

  7. Automated management of radioactive sources in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S.; Jamil, M. F.; Basar, M. R.; Tuwaili, W. R.

    2014-09-01

    For usage of radioactive substances, any facility has to register and take license from relevant authority of the country in which such facility is operating. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), the authority for managing radioactive sources and providing licenses to organizations for its usage is the National Center of Radiation Protection (NCRP). This paper describes the system that automates registration and licensing process of the National Center of Radiation Protection. To provide 24×7 accesses to all the customers of NCRP, system is developed as web-based application that provide facility to online register, request license, renew license, check request status, view historical data and reports etc. and other features are provided as Electronic Services that would be accessible to users via internet. The system also was designed to streamline and optimize internal operations of NCRP besides providing ease of access to its customers by implementing a defined workflow through which every registration and license request will be routed. In addition to manual payment option, the system would also be integrated with SADAD (online payment system) that will avoid lengthy and cumbersome procedures associated with manual payment mechanism. Using SADAD payment option license fee could be paid through internet/ATM machine or branch of any designated bank, Payment will be instantly notified to NCRP hence delay in funds transfer and verification of invoice could be avoided, SADAD integration is discussed later in the document.

  8. Method for fabricating thin californium-containing radioactive source wires

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Ian G; Pierce, Larry A

    2006-08-22

    A method for reducing the cross-sectional diameter of a radioactive californium-containing cermet wire while simultaneously improving the wire diameter to a more nearly circular cross section. A collet fixture is used to reduce the wire diameter by controlled pressurization pulses while simultaneously improving the wire cross-sectional diameter. The method is especially suitable for use in hot cells for the production of optimized cermet brachytherapy sources that contain large amounts of radioactive californium-252.

  9. Study of two different radioactive sources for prostate brachytherapy treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira Neves, Lucio; Perini, Ana Paula; Souza Santos, William de; Caldas, Linda V.E.

    2015-07-01

    In this study we evaluated two radioactive sources for brachytherapy treatments. Our main goal was to quantify the absorbed doses on organs and tissues of an adult male patient, submitted to a brachytherapy treatment with two radioactive sources. We evaluated a {sup 192}Ir and a {sup 125}I radioactive sources. The {sup 192}Ir radioactive source is a cylinder with 0.09 cm in diameter and 0.415 cm long. The {sup 125}I radioactive source is also a cylinder, with 0.08 cm in diameter and 0.45 cm long. To evaluate the absorbed dose distribution on the prostate, and other organs and tissues of an adult man, a male virtual anthropomorphic phantom MASH, coupled in the radiation transport code MCNPX 2.7.0, was employed.We simulated 75, 90 and 102 radioactive sources of {sup 125}I and one of {sup 192}Ir, inside the prostate, as normally used in these treatments, and each treatment was simulated separately. As this phantom was developed in a supine position, the displacement of the internal organs of the chest, compression of the lungs and reduction of the sagittal diameter were all taken into account. For the {sup 192}Ir, the higher doses values were obtained for the prostate and surrounding organs, as the colon, gonads and bladder. Considering the {sup 125}I sources, with photons with lower energies, the doses to organs that are far from the prostate were lower. All values for the dose rates are in agreement with those recommended for brachytherapy treatments. Besides that, the new seeds evaluated in this work present usefulness as a new tool in prostate brachytherapy treatments, and the methodology employed in this work may be applied for other radiation sources, or treatments. (authors)

  10. Certified Training for Nuclear and Radioactive Source Security Management.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Daniel

    2016-11-24

    Radioactive sources are used by hospitals, research facilities and industry for such purposes as diagnosing and treating illnesses, sterilising equipment and inspecting welds. Unfortunately, many States, regulatory authorities and licensees may not appreciate how people with malevolent intentions could use radioactive sources, and statistics confirm that a number of security incidents happen around the globe. The adversary could be common thieves, activists, insiders, terrorists and organised crime groups. Mitigating this risk requires well trained and competent staff who have developed the knowledge, attributes and skills necessary to successfully discharge their security responsibilities. The International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Institute for Nuclear Security are leading international training efforts. The target audience is a multi-disciplinary group of professionals with management responsibilities for security at facilities with radioactive sources. These efforts to promote training and competence amongst practitioners have been recognised at the 2014 and 2016 Nuclear Security and Nuclear Industry Summits.

  11. Organisation of the disposal of radioactive sources from Scottish hospitals.

    PubMed

    Corrigall, R S; Martin, C J; Watson, I

    2004-09-01

    An amnesty for disposal of sealed radioactive sources from Scottish hospitals has been funded by the Scottish Executive to address problems arising from accumulation of sources. The contract was awarded to a company involved in radioactive source recycling. Coordination of uplifts from several hospitals allowed considerable financial savings to be made, so source amnesties could offer monetary advantages to Health and Education Departments elsewhere in the UK, as well as alleviating the problem from security and storage of sources that are no longer required. The sources originated in 14 hospitals, but were uplifted from five pick-up points. There were a total of 246 sources with 167 of these being caesium-137. The total activity was 16.2 TBq with one large 16.1 TBq blood irradiator source and the activities of all the other sources adding up to 167 GBq. This paper describes organisation of the collection. Options for achieving compliance with the Radioactive Substances Act 1993 are discussed, although in the event, special authorisations were obtained for each hospital. Arrangements for transport of the sources and source security were drawn up including emergency procedures for dealing with foreseeable incidents. The police provided secure overnight storage for the loaded truck and assistance in directing and monitoring progress of the load.

  12. Radioactive source materials in Los Estados Unidos de Venezuela

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wyant, Donald G.; Sharp, William N.; Rodriguez, Carlos Ponte

    1953-01-01

    This report summarizes the data available on radioactive source materials in Los Estados Unidos de Venezuela accumulated by geologists of the Direccions Tecnica de Geolgia and antecedent agencies prior to June 1951, and the writers from June to November 1951. The investigation comprised preliminary study, field examination, office studies, and the preparation of this report, in which the areas and localities examined are described in detail, the uranium potentialities of Venezuela are summarized, and recommendations are made. Preliminary study was made to select areas and rock types that were known or reported to be radioactive or that geologic experience suggests would be favorable host for uranium deposits, In the office, a study of gamma-ray well logs was started as one means of amassing general radiometric data and of rapidly scanning many of ye rocks in northern Venezuela; gamma-ray logs from about 140 representative wells were examined and their peaks of gamma intensity evaluated; in addition samples were analyzed radiometrically, and petrographically. Radiometic reconnaissance was made in the field during about 3 months of 1951, or about 12 areas, including over 100 localities in the State of Miranda, Carabobo, Yaracuy, Falcon, Lara, Trujillo, Zulia, Merida, Tachira, Bolivar, and Territory Delta Amacuro. During the course of the investigation, both in the filed and office, information was given about geology of uranium deposits, and in techniques used in prospecting and analysis. All studies and this report are designed to supplement and to strengthen the Direccion Tecnica de Geologias's program of investigation of radioactive source in Venezuela now in progress. The uranium potentialities of Los Estados de Venezuela are excellent for large, low-grade deposits of uraniferous phospahtic shales containing from 0.002 to 0.027 percent uranium; fair, for small or moderate-sized, low-grade placer deposits of thorium, rare-earth, and uranium minerals; poor, for

  13. METHOD OF PREPARING RADIOACTIVE CESIUM SOURCES

    DOEpatents

    Quinby, T.C.

    1963-12-17

    A method of preparing a cesium-containing radiation source with physical and chemical properties suitable for high-level use is presented. Finely divided silica is suspended in a solution containing cesium, normally the fission-product isotope cesium 137. Sodium tetraphenyl boron is then added to quantitatively precipitate the cesium. The cesium-containing precipitate is converted to borosilicate glass by heating to the melting point and cooling. Up to 60 weight percent cesium, with a resulting source activity of up to 21 curies per gram, is incorporated in the glass. (AEC)

  14. Study on effect of geometrical configuration of radioactive source material to the radiation intensity of betavoltaic nuclear battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badrianto, Muldani Dwi; Riupassa, Robi D.; Basar, Khairul

    2015-09-01

    Nuclear batteries have strategic applications and very high economic potential. One Important problem in application of nuclear betavoltaic battery is its low efficiency. Current efficiency of betavoltaic nuclear battery reaches only arround 2%. One aspect that can influence the efficiency of betavoltaic nuclear battery is the geometrical configuration of radioactive source. In this study we discuss the effect of geometrical configuration of radioactive source material to the radiation intensity in betavoltaic nuclear battery system. received by the detector. By obtaining the optimum configurations, the optimum usage of radioactive materials can be determined. Various geometrical configurations of radioactive source material are simulated. It is obtained that usage of radioactive source will be optimum for circular configuration.

  15. Study on effect of geometrical configuration of radioactive source material to the radiation intensity of betavoltaic nuclear battery

    SciTech Connect

    Badrianto, Muldani Dwi; Riupassa, Robi D.; Basar, Khairul

    2015-09-30

    Nuclear batteries have strategic applications and very high economic potential. One Important problem in application of nuclear betavoltaic battery is its low efficiency. Current efficiency of betavoltaic nuclear battery reaches only arround 2%. One aspect that can influence the efficiency of betavoltaic nuclear battery is the geometrical configuration of radioactive source. In this study we discuss the effect of geometrical configuration of radioactive source material to the radiation intensity in betavoltaic nuclear battery system. received by the detector. By obtaining the optimum configurations, the optimum usage of radioactive materials can be determined. Various geometrical configurations of radioactive source material are simulated. It is obtained that usage of radioactive source will be optimum for circular configuration.

  16. Don't Throw Away Your Radioactive Sources!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracy, Charles; Cunningham, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a plea directed to schools in England that changed status to an "academy" and thus lost their Local Authority Radiation Protection Adviser (RPA) service. These schools have been encouraged to do all that they can to hang on to their sources (radioactive equipment used in classroom experiments to investigate…

  17. Don't Throw Away Your Radioactive Sources!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracy, Charles; Cunningham, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a plea directed to schools in England that changed status to an "academy" and thus lost their Local Authority Radiation Protection Adviser (RPA) service. These schools have been encouraged to do all that they can to hang on to their sources (radioactive equipment used in classroom experiments to investigate…

  18. Safety regulation for the design approval of special form radioactive sources.

    PubMed

    Cho, Woon-Kap

    2009-01-01

    Several kinds of special form radioactive sources for industrial, medical applications are being produced in Korea. Special form radioactive sources should meet strict safety requirements specified in the domestic safety regulations and the design of the sources should be certified by the regulatory authority, the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (MEST). Several safety tests such as impact, percussion, heating, and leak tests are performed on the sources according to the domestic regulations and the international safety standards such as ANSI N542-1977 and ISO 2919-1999(E). As a regulatory expert body, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) assesses various types of application documents, such as safety analysis report, quality assurance program, and other documents evidencing fulfillment of requirements for design approval of the special form radioactive sources, submitted by a legal person who intends to produce special form radioactive sources and then reports the assessment result to MEST. A design approval certificate is issued to the applicant by MEST on the basis of a technical evaluation report presented by KINS.

  19. A Multicusp Ion Source for Radioactive Ion Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wutte, D.; Freedman, S.; Gough, R.; Lee, Y.; Leitner, M.; Leung, K. N.; Lyneis, C.; Picard, D. S.; Sun, L.; Williams, M. D.; Xie, Z. Q.

    1997-05-01

    In order to produce a radioactive ion beam of (14)O+, a 10-cm-diameter, 13.56 MHz radio frequency (rf) driven multicusp ion source is now being developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. In this paper we describe the specific ion source design and the basic ion source characteristics using Ar, Xe and a 90types of measurements have been performed: extractable ion current, ion species distributions, gas efficiency, axial energy spread and ion beam emittance measurements. The source can generate ion current densities of approximately 60 mA/cm2 . In addition the design of the ion beam extraction/transport system for the actual experimental setup for the radioactive beam line will be presented.

  20. Preparation of a deuterated polymer: Simulating to produce a solid tritium radioactive source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Rui; Kan, Wentao; Xiong, Xiaoling; Wei, Hongyuan

    2017-08-01

    The preparation of a deuterated polymer was performed in order to simulate the production of the corresponding tritiated polymer as a solid tritium radioactive source. Substitution and addition reaction were used to introduce deuterium into the polymer. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance and FT-IR spectroscopy were used to investigate the extent and location of deuterium in the polymer, indicating an effectively deuterated polymer was produced. The thermal analysis showed that the final polymer product could tolerate the environmental temperature below 125 °C in its application. This research provides a prosperous method to prepare solid tritium radioactive source.

  1. Management of Ir-192 Disused Sealed Sources with Long-Lived Radioactive Contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Dellamano, Jose Claudio; Ferreira, Robson de Jesus; Potiens, Ademar Jose Jr.; Vicente, Roberto

    2015-07-01

    Iridium-192 sealed sources are the most widely used sealed source in industrial applications in Brazil. They are not recyclable and in the end of the useful life, they are discarded as radioactive waste. The recommended management strategy of this waste is decay in storage and disposal as exempt waste because the half-life is only 73.8 days. Presently, thousands of Ir- 192 sources are under storage waiting release. Surprisingly, sources that were under storage for more than ten years and for which no measurable contact dose rate was expected still present significant remaining radioactivity. The examination of the gamma spectra of these sources showed the presence of Co-60 and the gamma emission lines from the Ir-192m2 isomer, the metastable isotope with half-life of 241 years, which is also formed by the irradiation of natural iridium. The aim of the study reported in this paper is to characterize the Ir-192 disused sources under interim storage at the Radioactive Waste Management Department, considering the presence of minor contaminants in the irradiated iridium and the fraction of the total initial activity of the sources that is attributable to that metastable isotope. The radioactive inventories at the end of the irradiation and after the decay period were predicted using the Scale 6.0 code and the results were compared with activity measurements of the disused sources by gamma spectrometry. (authors)

  2. Fast pulsed operation of a small non-radioactive electron source with continuous emission current control

    SciTech Connect

    Cochems, P.; Kirk, A. T.; Bunert, E.; Runge, M.; Goncalves, P.; Zimmermann, S.

    2015-06-15

    Non-radioactive electron sources are of great interest in any application requiring the emission of electrons at atmospheric pressure, as they offer better control over emission parameters than radioactive electron sources and are not subject to legal restrictions. Recently, we published a simple electron source consisting only of a vacuum housing, a filament, and a single control grid. In this paper, we present improved control electronics that utilize this control grid in order to focus and defocus the electron beam, thus pulsing the electron emission at atmospheric pressure. This allows short emission pulses and excellent stability of the emitted electron current due to continuous control, both during pulsed and continuous operations. As an application example, this electron source is coupled to an ion mobility spectrometer. Here, the pulsed electron source allows experiments on gas phase ion chemistry (e.g., ion generation and recombination kinetics) and can even remove the need for a traditional ion shutter.

  3. Underground Sources of Radioactive Noble Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, James C.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Kirkham, Randy R.; Misner, Alex C.; Olsen, Khris B.; Woods, Vincent T.; Emer, Dudley

    2013-05-01

    It is well known that radon is present in relatively high concentrations below the surface of the Earth due to natural decay of uranium and thorium. However, less information is available on the background levels of other isotopes such as 133Xe and 131mXe produced via spontaneous fission of either manmade or naturally occurring elements. The background concentrations of radioxenon in the subsurface are important to understand because these isotopes potentially can be used to confirm violations of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) during an On-Site Inspection (OSI). Recently, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) measured radioxenon concentrations from the subsurface at the Nevada Nuclear Security Site (NNSS—formerly known as the Nevada Test Site) to determine whether xenon isotope background levels could be detected from spontaneous fission of naturally occurring uranium or legacy 240Pu as a result of historic nuclear testing. In this paper, we discuss the results of those measurements and review the sources of xenon background that must be taken into account during OSI noble gas measurements.

  4. Government/Industry Partnership on the Security of Radioactive Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Cefus, Greg; Colhoun, Stefan C.; Freier, Keith D.; Wright, Kyle A.; Herdes, Gregory A.

    2006-05-01

    In the past, industry radiation protection programs were built almost exclusively around radiation safety and the minimization of radiation dose exposure to employees. Over the last decade, and especially the last few years, the emphasis has shifted to include the physical security and enhanced control of radioactive materials. The threat of nuclear and radiological terrorism is a genuine international security concern. In May 2004, the U.S. Department of Energy/U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration unveiled the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) to respond to a growing international concern for the proper control and security of radioactive and nuclear materials. An integral part of the GTRI, the International Radiological Threat Reduction (IRTR) Program, was established in February 2002, originally as a Task Force. The IRTR Program is foremost a government-to-government cooperative program with the mission to reduce the risk posed by vulnerable radioactive materials that could be used in a Radioactive Dispersal Device (RDD). However, governments alone cannot prevent the misuse and illicit trafficking of radioactive sources. By expanding the role of private industry as a partner, existing government regulatory infrastructures can be enhanced by formulating and adopting industry self-regulation and self-policing measures. There is international concern regarding the security and control of the vast number of well-logging sources used during oil exploration operations. The prevalence of these sources, coupled with their portability, is a legitimate security concern. The energy exploration industry has well established safety and security protocols and the IRTR Program seeks to build on this foundation. However, the IRTR Program does not have sufficient resources to address the issue without industry assistance, so it is looking to the oil and gas industry to help identify alternative means for accomplishing our mutual objectives. This paper describes

  5. Radioactive Rh wire as a source for new nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, S.; Hofferlin, E.

    2007-09-01

    In this paper, we address the experimental details of a radioactive evaporation source that can potentially be used to produce X-rays radioactive devices at a nanometer scale. The source consists of Rh wire that has been irradiated in a 14 MeV cyclotron. A 22 keV X-ray emitter results from the 103Rh(p,n) 103Pd nuclear reaction. 103Pd is currently widely used in brachytherapy. Thanks to physical differences in evaporation and melting temperature but also diffusion coefficients between 103Pd and 103Rh, 103Pd is extracted from the raw material by dry distillation at high temperature (1000-1470 °C) and under vacuum (2×10 -5 mbar). Spectroscopic gamma analysis of the raw material and atoms condensed on the substrates are presented. Diffusion coefficients are also deduced.

  6. Cable attachment for a radioactive brachytherapy source capsule

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Ian G; Pierce, Larry A

    2006-07-18

    In cancer brachytherapy treatment, a small californium-252 neutron source capsule is attached to a guide cable using a modified crimping technique. The guide cable has a solid cylindrical end, and the attachment employs circumferential grooves micromachined in the solid cable end. The attachment was designed and tested, and hardware fabricated for use inside a radioactive hot cell. A welding step typically required in other cable attachments is avoided.

  7. COMPARISON OF RECURSIVE ESTIMATION TECHNIQUES FOR POSITION TRACKING RADIOACTIVE SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    K. MUSKE; J. HOWSE

    2000-09-01

    This paper compares the performance of recursive state estimation techniques for tracking the physical location of a radioactive source within a room based on radiation measurements obtained from a series of detectors at fixed locations. Specifically, the extended Kalman filter, algebraic observer, and nonlinear least squares techniques are investigated. The results of this study indicate that recursive least squares estimation significantly outperforms the other techniques due to the severe model nonlinearity.

  8. Development of Approach for Long-Term Management of Disused Sealed Radioactive Sources - 13630

    SciTech Connect

    Kinker, M.; Reber, E.; Mansoux, H.; Bruno, G.

    2013-07-01

    Radioactive sources are used widely throughout the world in a variety of medical, industrial, research and military applications. When such radioactive sources are no longer used and are not intended to be used for the practice for which an authorization was granted, they are designated as 'disused sources'. Whether appropriate controls are in place during the useful life of a source or not, the end of this useful life is often a turning point after which it is more difficult to ensure the safety and security of the source over time. For various reasons, many disused sources cannot be returned to the manufacturer or the supplier for reuse or recycling. When these attempts fail, disused sources should be declared as radioactive waste and should be managed as such, in compliance with relevant international legal instruments and safety standards. However, disposal remains an unresolved issue in many counties, due to in part to limited public acceptance, insufficient funding, and a lack of practical examples of strategies for determining suitable disposal options. As a result, disused sources are often stored indefinitely at the facilities where they were once used. In order to prevent disused sources from becoming orphan sources, each country must develop and implement a comprehensive waste management strategy that includes disposal of disused sources. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) fosters international cooperation between countries and encourages the development of a harmonized 'cradle to grave' approach to managing sources consistent with international legal instruments, IAEA safety standards, and international good practices. This 'cradle to grave' approach requires the development of a national policy and implementing strategy, an adequate legal and regulatory framework, and adequate resources and infrastructure that cover the entire life cycle, from production and use of radioactive sources to disposal. (authors)

  9. Flowsheets and source terms for radioactive waste projections

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1985-03-01

    Flowsheets and source terms used to generate radioactive waste projections in the Integrated Data Base (IDB) Program are given. Volumes of each waste type generated per unit product throughput have been determined for the following facilities: uranium mining, UF/sub 6/ conversion, uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, boiling-water reactors (BWRs), pressurized-water reactors (PWRs), and fuel reprocessing. Source terms for DOE/defense wastes have been developed. Expected wastes from typical decommissioning operations for each facility type have been determined. All wastes are also characterized by isotopic composition at time of generation and by general chemical composition. 70 references, 21 figures, 53 tables.

  10. Active radiometric calorimeter for absolute calibration of radioactive sources

    SciTech Connect

    Stump, K.E.; DeWerd, L.A.; Rudman, D.A.; Schima, S.A.

    2005-03-01

    This report describes the design and initial noise floor measurements of a radiometric calorimeter designed to measure therapeutic medical radioactive sources. The instrument demonstrates a noise floor of approximately 2 nW. This low noise floor is achieved by using high temperature superconducting (HTS) transition edge sensor (TES) thermometers in a temperature-control feedback loop. This feedback loop will be used to provide absolute source calibrations based upon the electrical substitution method. Other unique features of the calorimeter are (a) its ability to change sources for calibration without disrupting the vacuum of the instrument, and (b) the ability to measure the emitted power of a source in addition to the total contained source power.

  11. End of Life Decisions for Sealed Radioactive Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Pryor, Kathryn H.

    2016-02-29

    Sealed radioactive sources are encountered in a wide variety of settings – from household smoke detectors and instrument check sources, through fixed industrial gauges, industrial radiography and well logging sources, to irradiators and medical teletherapy devices. In general, the higher the level of activity in the sealed source, the stricter the regulatory control that is applied to its use, control and ultimate disposition. Lower levels of attention and oversight can and do lead to sources ending up in the wrong place – as orphan sources in uncontrolled storage, disposed in a sanitary landfill, melted down in metal recycling operations and incorporated into consumer products, or handled by an unsuspecting member of the public. There are a range of issues that contribute to the problem of improper disposal of sealed sources, and, in particular, to disused source disposal. General licensed sources and devices are particularly at risk of being disposed incorrectly. Higher activity general licensed sources, although required to be registered with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or Agreement State, receive limited regulatory oversight and are not tracked on a national scale. Users frequently do not consider the full life-cycle costs when procuring sources or devices and discover that they cannot afford to package, transport and dispose of their sources properly. The NRC requirements for decommissioning funding plans and financial assurance are not adequate to cover sealed source transport and disposal costs fully. While there are regulatory limits for storage of disused sources, enforcement is limited and there is no financial incentive for owners to dispose of the sources. In some cases, the lack of availability of approved Department of Transportation (DOT) Type B shipping casks also presents a barrier to sealed source disposal. The report of the Disused Sources Working Group does an excellent job of framing these issues. This article reviews both the

  12. 2011 Radioactive Materials Usage Survey for Unmonitored Point Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Sturgeon, Richard W.

    2012-06-27

    This report provides the results of the 2011 Radioactive Materials Usage Survey for Unmonitored Point Sources (RMUS), which was updated by the Environmental Protection (ENV) Division's Environmental Stewardship (ES) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). ES classifies LANL emission sources into one of four Tiers, based on the potential effective dose equivalent (PEDE) calculated for each point source. Detailed descriptions of these tiers are provided in Section 3. The usage survey is conducted annually; in odd-numbered years the survey addresses all monitored and unmonitored point sources and in even-numbered years it addresses all Tier III and various selected other sources. This graded approach was designed to ensure that the appropriate emphasis is placed on point sources that have higher potential emissions to the environment. For calendar year (CY) 2011, ES has divided the usage survey into two distinct reports, one covering the monitored point sources (to be completed later this year) and this report covering all unmonitored point sources. This usage survey includes the following release points: (1) all unmonitored sources identified in the 2010 usage survey, (2) any new release points identified through the new project review (NPR) process, and (3) other release points as designated by the Rad-NESHAP Team Leader. Data for all unmonitored point sources at LANL is stored in the survey files at ES. LANL uses this survey data to help demonstrate compliance with Clean Air Act radioactive air emissions regulations (40 CFR 61, Subpart H). The remainder of this introduction provides a brief description of the information contained in each section. Section 2 of this report describes the methods that were employed for gathering usage survey data and for calculating usage, emissions, and dose for these point sources. It also references the appropriate ES procedures for further information. Section 3 describes the RMUS and explains how the survey results are

  13. A concentrated radioactive beam source for atom cooling and trapping

    SciTech Connect

    Maddi, J.; Dinneen, T.; Ghiorso, A.; Gould, H.

    1996-05-01

    The authors describe a novel oven to obtain concentrated beams of radioactive atoms. The Orthotropic oven works by ionizing atoms on its interior walls and electrostatically concentrating them on a neutralizer. Once neutralized the atoms can escape from the oven and form a narrow beam. Atoms that fail to escape become ionized again and repeat the cycle. The authors demonstrate the operation of this oven using {sup 221}Fr and compare both the theoretical and experimental efficiency of this source with standard effusive and channeled ovens.

  14. Recursive Estimation for the Tracking of Radioactive Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Howse, J.W.; Muske, K.R.; Ticknor, L.O.

    1999-02-01

    This paper describes a recursive estimation algorithm used for tracking the physical location of radioactive sources in real-time as they are moved around in a facility. The al- gorithm is a nonlinear least squares estimation that mini- mizes the change in, the source location and the deviation between measurements and model predictions simultane- ously. The measurements used to estimate position consist of four count rates reported by four different gamma ray de tectors. There is an uncertainty in the source location due to the variance of the detected count rate. This work repre- sents part of a suite of tools which will partially automate security and safety assessments, allow some assessments to be done remotely, and provide additional sensor modalities with which to make assessments.

  15. Recursive estimation for the tracking of radioactive sources

    SciTech Connect

    Howse, J.W.; Ticknor, L.O.; Muske, K.R.

    1998-12-31

    This paper describes a recursive estimation algorithm used for tracking the physical location of radioactive sources in real-time as they are moved around in a facility. The algorithm is related to a nonlinear least squares estimation that minimizes the change in the source location and the deviation between measurements and model predictions simultaneously. The measurements used to estimate position consist of four count rates reported by four different gamma ray detectors. There is an uncertainty in the source location due to the large variance of the detected count rate. This work represents part of a suite of tools which will partially automate security and safety assessments, allow some assessments to be done remotely, and provide additional sensor modalities with which to make assessments.

  16. Muon Tomography as a Tool to Detect Radioactive Source Shielding in Scrap Metal Containers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonomi, G.; Cambiaghi, D.; Dassa, L.; Donzella, A.; Subieta, M.; Villa, V.; Zenoni, A.; Furlan, M.; Rigoni, A.; Vanini, S.; Viesti, G.; Zumerle, G.; Benettoni, M.; Checchia, P.; Gonella, F.; Pegoraro, M.; Zanuttigh, P.; Calvagno, G.; Calvini, P.; Squarcia, S.

    2014-02-01

    Muon tomography was recently proposed as a tool to inspect large volumes with the purpose of recognizing high density materials immersed in lower density matrices. The MU-STEEL European project (RFCS-CT-2010-000033) studied the application of such a technique to detect radioactive source shielding in truck containers filled with scrap metals entering steel mill foundries. A description of the muon tomography technique, of the MU-STEEL project and of the obtained results will be presented.

  17. Experiments with radioactive samples at the Advanced Photon Source.

    SciTech Connect

    Veluri, V. R.; Justus, A.; Glagola, B.; Rauchas, A.; Vacca, J.

    2000-11-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory is a national synchrotron-radiation light source research facility. The 7 GeV electron Storage Ring is currently delivering intense high brilliance x-ray beams to a total of 34 beamlines with over 120 experiment stations to members of the international scientific community to carry out forefront basic and applied research in several scientific disciplines. Researchers come to the APS either as members of Collaborative Access Teams (CATs) or as Independent Investigators (IIs). Collaborative Access Teams comprise large number of investigators from universities, industry, and research laboratories with common research objectives. These teams are responsible for the design, construction, finding, and operation of beamlines. They are the owners of their experimental enclosures (''hutches'') designed and built to meet their specific research needs. Fig. 1 gives a plan view of the location of the Collaborative Access Teams by Sector and Discipline. In the past two years, over 2000 individual experiments were conducted at the APS facility. Of these, about 60 experiments involved the use of radioactive samples, which is less than 3% of the total. However, there is an increase in demand for experiment stations to accommodate the use of radioactive samples in different physical forms embedded in various matrices with activity levels ranging from trace amounts of naturally occurring radionuclides to MBq (mCi) quantities including transuranics. This paper discusses in some detail the steps in the safety review process for experiments involving radioactive samples and how ALARA philosophy is invoked at each step and implemented.

  18. End of Life Decisions for Sealed Radioactive Sources.

    PubMed

    Pryor, Kathryn H

    2016-02-01

    Sealed radioactive sources are encountered in a wide variety of settings-from household smoke detectors and instrument check sources through fixed industrial gauges, industrial radiography, and well logging sources, to irradiators and medical teletherapy devices. In general, the higher the level of activity in the sealed source, the stricter the regulatory control that is applied to its use, control, and ultimate disposition. Lower levels of attention and oversight can and do lead to sources ending up in the wrong place--as orphan sources in uncontrolled storage, disposed in a sanitary landfill, melted down in metal recycling operations and incorporated into consumer products, or handled by an unsuspecting member of the public. There is a range of issues that contribute to the problem of improper disposal of sealed sources and, in particular, to disused source disposal. Generally licensed sources and devices are particularly at risk of being disposed incorrectly. Higher activity generally licensed sources, although required to be registered with the (NRC) or an Agreement State, receive limited regulatory oversight and are not tracked on a national scale. Users frequently do not consider the full life-cycle costs when procuring sources or devices and discover that they cannot afford and/or are unwilling to pay the associated costs to package, transport and dispose of their sources properly. The NRC requirements for decommissioning funding plans and financial assurance are not adequate to cover sealed source transport and disposal costs fully. While there are regulatory limits for storage of disused sources, enforcement is limited, and there are only limited financial incentives in a small number of states for owners to dispose of the sources. In some cases, the lack of availability of approved Type B shipping casks presents an additional barrier to sealed source disposal. The report of the Disused Sources Working Group does an excellent job of framing these issues

  19. Study on induced radioactivity of China Spallation Neutron Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qing-Biao; Wang, Qing-Bin; Wu, Jing-Min; Ma, Zhong-Jian

    2011-06-01

    China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) is the first High Energy Intense Proton Accelerator planned to be constructed in China during the State Eleventh Five-Year Plan period, whose induced radioactivity is very important for occupational disease hazard assessment and environmental impact assessment. Adopting the FLUKA code, the authors have constructed a cylinder-tunnel geometric model and a line-source sampling physical model, deduced proper formulas to calculate air activation, and analyzed various issues with regard to the activation of different tunnel parts. The results show that the environmental impact resulting from induced activation is negligible, whereas the residual radiation in the tunnels has a great influence on maintenance personnel, so strict measures should be adopted.

  20. Extraction Simulations and Emittance Measurements of a Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility Electron Beam Plasma Source for Radioactive Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, II, Anthony J; Liu, Yuan

    2010-01-01

    The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has a variety of ion sources used to produce radioactive ion beams (RIBs). Of these, the workhorse is an electron beam plasma (EBP) ion source. The recent addition of a second RIB injector, the Injector for Radioactive Ion Species 2 (IRIS2), for the HRIBF tandem accelerator prompted new studies of the optics of the beam extraction from the EBP source. The source was modeled using SIMION V8.0, and results will be presented, including comparison of the emittances as predicted by simulation and as measured at the HRIBF offline ion source test facilities. Also presented will be the impact on phase space shape resulting from extraction optics modifications implemented at IRIS2.

  1. Selection of targets and ion sources for RIB generation at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Alton, G.D.

    1995-12-31

    In this report, the authors describe the performance characteristics for a selected number of target ion sources that will be employed for initial use at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) as well as prototype ion sources that show promise for future use for RIB applications. A brief review of present efforts to select target materials and to design composite target matrix/heat-sink systems that simultaneously incorporate the short diffusion lengths, high permeabilities, and controllable temperatures required to effect fast and efficient diffusion release of the short-lived species is also given.

  2. Assessment on security system of radioactive sources used in hospitals of Thailand

    SciTech Connect

    Jitbanjong, Petchara Wongsawaeng, Doonyapong

    2016-01-22

    Unsecured radioactive sources have caused deaths and serious injuries in many parts of the world. In Thailand, there are 17 hospitals that use teletherapy with cobalt-60 radioactive sources. They need to be secured in order to prevent unauthorized removal, sabotage and terrorists from using such materials in a radiological weapon. The security system of radioactive sources in Thailand is regulated by the Office of Atoms for Peace in compliance with Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), U.S. DOE, which has started to be implemented since 2010. This study aims to perform an assessment on the security system of radioactive sources used in hospitals in Thailand and the results can be used as a recommended baseline data for development or improvement of hospitals on the security system of a radioactive source at a national regulatory level and policy level. Results from questionnaires reveal that in 11 out of 17 hospitals (64.70%), there were a few differences in conditions of hospitals using radioactive sources with installation of the security system and those without installation of the security system. Also, personals working with radioactive sources did not clearly understand the nuclear security law. Thus, government organizations should be encouraged to arrange trainings on nuclear security to increase the level of understanding. In the future, it is recommended that the responsible government organization issues a minimum requirement of nuclear security for every medical facility using radioactive sources.

  3. Assessment on security system of radioactive sources used in hospitals of Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jitbanjong, Petchara; Wongsawaeng, Doonyapong

    2016-01-01

    Unsecured radioactive sources have caused deaths and serious injuries in many parts of the world. In Thailand, there are 17 hospitals that use teletherapy with cobalt-60 radioactive sources. They need to be secured in order to prevent unauthorized removal, sabotage and terrorists from using such materials in a radiological weapon. The security system of radioactive sources in Thailand is regulated by the Office of Atoms for Peace in compliance with Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), U.S. DOE, which has started to be implemented since 2010. This study aims to perform an assessment on the security system of radioactive sources used in hospitals in Thailand and the results can be used as a recommended baseline data for development or improvement of hospitals on the security system of a radioactive source at a national regulatory level and policy level. Results from questionnaires reveal that in 11 out of 17 hospitals (64.70%), there were a few differences in conditions of hospitals using radioactive sources with installation of the security system and those without installation of the security system. Also, personals working with radioactive sources did not clearly understand the nuclear security law. Thus, government organizations should be encouraged to arrange trainings on nuclear security to increase the level of understanding. In the future, it is recommended that the responsible government organization issues a minimum requirement of nuclear security for every medical facility using radioactive sources.

  4. Residual radioactive material guidelines: Methodology and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, C.; Yuan, Y.C.; Zielen, A.J.; Wallo, A. III

    1989-01-01

    A methodology to calculate residual radioactive material guidelines was developed for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This methodology is coded in a menu-driven computer program, RESRAD, which can be run on IBM or IBM-compatible microcomputers. Seven pathways of exposure are considered: external radiation, inhalation, and ingestion of plant foods, meat, milk, aquatic foods, and water. The RESRAD code has been applied to several DOE sites to calculate soil cleanup guidelines. This experience has shown that the computer code is easy to use and very user-friendly. 3 refs., 8 figs.

  5. Targets for ion sources for RIB generation at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Alton, G.D.

    1995-12-31

    The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF), now under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is based on the use of the well-known on-line isotope separator (ISOL) technique in which radioactive nuclei are produced by fusion type reactions in selectively chosen target materials by high-energy proton, deuteron, or He ion beams from the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC). Among several major challenges posed by generating and accelerating adequate intensities of radioactive ion beams (RIBs), selection of the most appropriate target material for production of the species of interest is, perhaps, the most difficult. In this report, we briefly review present efforts to select target materials and to design composite target matrix/heat-sink systems that simultaneously incorporate the short diffusion lengths, high permeabilities, and controllable temperatures required to effect maximum diffusion release rates of the short-lived species that can be realized at the temperature limits of specific target materials. We also describe the performance characteristics for a selected number of target ion sources that will be employed for initial use at the HRIBF as well as prototype ion sources that show promise for future use for RIB applications.

  6. Demonstration and development of control mechanism for radioactive sources in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Kheliewi, A. S.

    2012-06-01

    Saudi Arabia have no nuclear industry. Nevertheless, many radioactive sources, for different purposes, have been used in the country. There is upswing in the number of companies that recruit nuclear technology in their daily work. The National Center for Radiation Protection (NCRP) takes the full commitment and responsibility for monitoring and regulating the movement of radioactive sources in the country. NCRP issues the licenses for import, export, and use of radioactive sources. It, also, protects the country from any trespassing radiation through a sizable net of early warning and radiation monitoring stations along the borders of Saudi Arabia. This paper talks about the procedures of licensing, importing, exporting of radioactive sources. It, also, sheds light on types of implementing radioactive sources in different practices encompass medicine, industry, research. The NCRP has established an electronic web site to ease the communication with all users in the country. This site is yet in the experimental stage.

  7. Demonstration and development of control mechanism for radioactive sources in Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Kheliewi, A. S.

    2012-06-06

    Saudi Arabia have no nuclear industry. Nevertheless, many radioactive sources, for different purposes, have been used in the country. There is upswing in the number of companies that recruit nuclear technology in their daily work. The National Center for Radiation Protection (NCRP) takes the full commitment and responsibility for monitoring and regulating the movement of radioactive sources in the country. NCRP issues the licenses for import, export, and use of radioactive sources. It, also, protects the country from any trespassing radiation through a sizable net of early warning and radiation monitoring stations along the borders of Saudi Arabia. This paper talks about the procedures of licensing, importing, exporting of radioactive sources. It, also, sheds light on types of implementing radioactive sources in different practices encompass medicine, industry, research. The NCRP has established an electronic web site to ease the communication with all users in the country. This site is yet in the experimental stage.

  8. Development of a portable system for checking radioactive sources using long wave radio frequency identification.

    PubMed

    Mori, K; Deji, S; Ito, S; Saze, T; Nishizawa, K

    2007-03-01

    A portable system for automatically checking radioactive sources stored in lead containers at low temperatures was developed in order to prevent the discharging of orphan sources and contaminated materials from a controlled area to the general public. A radio frequency identification (RFID) system using a long wave in a frequency range of 125 kHz was composed of identification tags, a reader, a notebook computer, and software. ID tags without batteries were devised by using integrated circuits with an electrically erasable programmable read-only memory of 250 bytes and antennas. This software consisted of operating and maintenance functions. The read range of the ID tags was adjusted to around 5 cm in order to avoid accidental contamination and for discriminating the multiple sources. A water layer of 6.9 cm had no influence on communication between the ID tags and the reader. The data of the ID tags stored at +4, -20, and -80 degrees C were precisely read 4 mo later. The influence of lead was completely removed by separating the ID tags more than 1.6 cm from the lead. A reader can exactly identify the data of the ID tags within 6.0 cm at a velocity less than 9.0 cm s(-1). Performance of the software was verified using mock data. Nine lists concerning registered, disposed, and missing sources, etc., were displayed on the computer monitor and printed out. An RFID system using long waves proved to be applicable for routinely checking radioactive sources.

  9. Uranium Glass: A Glowing Alternative to Conventional Sources of Radioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boot, Roeland

    2017-02-01

    There is a relatively simple way of using radioactive material in classroom experiments: uranium glass, which provides teachers with a suitable substance. By using the right computer software and a radiation sensor, it can be demonstrated that uranium glass emits radiation at a greater rate than the background radiation and with the aid of UV light a bright green luster appears. Therefore, with two pieces of uranium glass, students can learn about two different physical phenomena: fluorescence and radioactivity.

  10. Dynamic Radioactive Source for Evaluating and Demonstrating Time-dependent Performance of Continuous Air Monitors.

    PubMed

    McLean, Thomas D; Moore, Murray E; Justus, Alan L; Hudston, Jonathan A; Barbé, Benoît

    2016-11-01

    Evaluation of continuous air monitors in the presence of a plutonium aerosol is time intensive, expensive, and requires a specialized facility. The Radiation Protection Services Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory has designed a Dynamic Radioactive Source, intended to replace plutonium aerosol challenge testing. The Dynamic Radioactive Source is small enough to be inserted into the sampler filter chamber of a typical continuous air monitor. Time-dependent radioactivity is introduced from electroplated sources for real-time testing of a continuous air monitor where a mechanical wristwatch motor rotates a mask above an alpha-emitting electroplated disk source. The mask is attached to the watch's minute hand, and as it rotates, more of the underlying source is revealed. The measured alpha activity increases with time, simulating the arrival of airborne radioactive particulates at the air sampler inlet. The Dynamic Radioactive Source allows the temporal behavior of puff and chronic release conditions to be mimicked without the need for radioactive aerosols. The new system is configurable to different continuous air monitor designs and provides an in-house testing capability (benchtop compatible). It is a repeatable and reusable system and does not contaminate the tested air monitor. Test benefits include direct user control, realistic (plutonium) aerosol spectra, and iterative development of continuous air monitor alarm algorithms. Data obtained using the Dynamic Radioactive Source has been used to elucidate alarm algorithms and to compare the response time of two commercial continuous air monitors.

  11. Dynamic Radioactive Source for Evaluating and Demonstrating Time-dependent Performance of Continuous Air Monitors

    DOE PAGES

    McLean, Thomas D.; Moore, Murray E.; Justus, Alan L.; ...

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of continuous air monitors in the presence of a plutonium aerosol is time intensive, expensive, and requires a specialized facility. The Radiation Protection Services Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory has designed a Dynamic Radioactive Source, intended to replace plutonium aerosol challenge testing. Furthermore, the Dynamic Radioactive Source is small enough to be inserted into the sampler filter chamber of a typical continuous air monitor. Time-dependent radioactivity is introduced from electroplated sources for real-time testing of a continuous air monitor where a mechanical wristwatch motor rotates a mask above an alpha-emitting electroplated disk source. The mask is attached tomore » the watch’s minute hand, and as it rotates, more of the underlying source is revealed. The alpha activity we measured increases with time, simulating the arrival of airborne radioactive particulates at the air sampler inlet. The Dynamic Radioactive Source allows the temporal behavior of puff and chronic release conditions to be mimicked without the need for radioactive aerosols. The new system is configurable to different continuous air monitor designs and provides an in-house testing capability (benchtop compatible). It is a repeatable and reusable system and does not contaminate the tested air monitor. Test benefits include direct user control, realistic (plutonium) aerosol spectra, and iterative development of continuous air monitor alarm algorithms. We also used data obtained using the Dynamic Radioactive Source to elucidate alarm algorithms and to compare the response time of two commercial continuous air monitors.« less

  12. Dynamic Radioactive Source for Evaluating and Demonstrating Time-dependent Performance of Continuous Air Monitors

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, Thomas D.; Moore, Murray E.; Justus, Alan L.; Hudston, Jonathan A.; Barbé, Benoît

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of continuous air monitors in the presence of a plutonium aerosol is time intensive, expensive, and requires a specialized facility. The Radiation Protection Services Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory has designed a Dynamic Radioactive Source, intended to replace plutonium aerosol challenge testing. Furthermore, the Dynamic Radioactive Source is small enough to be inserted into the sampler filter chamber of a typical continuous air monitor. Time-dependent radioactivity is introduced from electroplated sources for real-time testing of a continuous air monitor where a mechanical wristwatch motor rotates a mask above an alpha-emitting electroplated disk source. The mask is attached to the watch’s minute hand, and as it rotates, more of the underlying source is revealed. The alpha activity we measured increases with time, simulating the arrival of airborne radioactive particulates at the air sampler inlet. The Dynamic Radioactive Source allows the temporal behavior of puff and chronic release conditions to be mimicked without the need for radioactive aerosols. The new system is configurable to different continuous air monitor designs and provides an in-house testing capability (benchtop compatible). It is a repeatable and reusable system and does not contaminate the tested air monitor. Test benefits include direct user control, realistic (plutonium) aerosol spectra, and iterative development of continuous air monitor alarm algorithms. We also used data obtained using the Dynamic Radioactive Source to elucidate alarm algorithms and to compare the response time of two commercial continuous air monitors.

  13. Radioactive artifacts: historical sources of modern radium contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Blaufox, M.D.

    1988-01-01

    Radium has been distributed in a wide variety of devices during the early part of this century. Antique objects containing significant amounts of radium turn up at flea markets, antique shows, and antique dealers, in a variety of locations. These objects include radium in devices which were used by legitimate medical practitioners for legitimate medical purposes such as therapy, as well as a wide variety of quack cures. These devices may contain anywhere from a few nanocuries to as much as several hundred microcuries of radium. In addition to medical sources, a large variety of scientific instruments utilize radium in luminous dials. These instruments include compasses, azimuth indicators, and virtually any object which might require some form of calibration. In addition, the consumer market utilized a large amount of radium in the production of wrist watches, pocket watches, and clocks with luminous dials. Some of these watches contained as much as 4.5 microCi of radium, and between 1913 and 1920 about 70 gm was produced for the manufacture of luminous compounds. In addition to the large amount of radium produced for scientific and consumer utilization, there were a number of materials produced which were claimed to contain radium but in fact did not, further adding to the confusion in this area. The wide availability of radium is a result of the public's great fascination with radioactivity during the early part of this century and a belief in its curative properties. A number of objects were produced in order to trap the emanations of radium in water for persons to drink in order to benefit from their healing effects. Since the late 20s and early 30s the public's attitude towards radiation has shifted 180 degrees and it is now considered an extremely dangerous and harmful material.

  14. Evaluation of Trenchless Installation Technology for Radioactive Wastewater Piping Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Sharon M; Jubin, Robert Thomas; Patton, Bradley D; Sullivan, Nicholas M; Bugbee, Kathy P

    2009-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) cleanup mission at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) includes dispositioning facilities, contaminated legacy materials/waste, and contamination sources and remediation of soil under facilities, groundwater, and surface water to support final Records of Decision (RODs). The Integrated Facilities Disposition Project (IFDP) is a roughly $15B project for completion of the EM mission at Oak Ridge, with a project duration of up to 35 years. The IFDP Mission Need Statement - Critical Decision-0 (CD-0) - was approved by DOE in July 2007, and the IFDP Alternative Selection and Cost Range - Critical Decision-1 (CD-1) - was approved in November 2008. The IFDP scope includes reconfiguration of waste collection and treatment systems as needed to complete the IFDP remediation and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) missions in a safe and cost-effective manner while maintaining compliance with all governing regulations and bodies and preserving the support of continuing operations at ORNL. A step in the CD-1 approval process included an external technical review (ETR) of technical approaches proposed in the CD-1 document related to the facility reconfiguration for the ORNL radioactive waste and liquid low-level waste management systems. The ETR team recommended that the IFDP team consider the use of trenchless technologies for installing pipelines underground in and around contaminated sites as part of the alternatives evaluations required in support of the CD-2 process. The team specifically recommended evaluating trenchless technologies for installing new pipes in existing underground pipelines as an alternative to conventional open trench installation methods. Potential benefits could include reduction in project costs, less costly underground piping, fewer disruptions of ongoing and surface activities, and lower risk for workers. While trenchless technologies have been used extensively in the

  15. Radioactive nanoparticles and their main applications: recent advances.

    PubMed

    Kharisov, Boris I; Kharissova, Oxana V; Berdonosov, Sergei S

    2014-01-01

    Selected nanoparticles and nanocomposites on the basis of radioactive elements are reviewed. Isotopes of metallic gold, iodine and technetium salts, CeO2 and other lanthanide and actinide compounds, as well as several p- (P, C, F, Te) and d- (Fe, Co, Cu, Cd, Zn) elements form most common radioactive nanoparticles. Methods for their fabrication, including dopation with radionuclides and neutron/proton/deuteron activation, are discussed. These nanocomposites possess a series of useful applications, in particular in biology and medicine, including cancer therapeutics, drug delivery systems and radiotracers, as well as in the studies of several catalytic processes and materials structure.

  16. Neutron sources and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Price, D.L.; Rush, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    Review of Neutron Sources and Applications was held at Oak Brook, Illinois, during September 8--10, 1992. This review involved some 70 national and international experts in different areas of neutron research, sources, and applications. Separate working groups were asked to (1) review the current status of advanced research reactors and spallation sources; and (2) provide an update on scientific, technological, and medical applications, including neutron scattering research in a number of disciplines, isotope production, materials irradiation, and other important uses of neutron sources such as materials analysis and fundamental neutron physics. This report summarizes the findings and conclusions of the different working groups involved in the review, and contains some of the best current expertise on neutron sources and applications.

  17. Use of radioactive sources in measuring characteristics of snowpacks

    Treesearch

    Henry W. Anderson; Philip M. McDonald; Lloyd W. Gay

    1963-01-01

    Use of radioactive probes inserted in mountain snowpacks may make possible more accurate appraisal and prediction of snowmelt water. Commercially available gamma and neutron probes were tested for their ability to measure snow density, ice lenses, and the thermal quality of individual layers in the snowpack.

  18. Uranium Glass: A Glowing Alternative to Conventional Sources of Radioactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boot, Roeland

    2017-01-01

    There is a relatively simple way of using radioactive material in classroom experiments: uranium glass, which provides teachers with a suitable substance. By using the right computer software and a radiation sensor, it can be demonstrated that uranium glass emits radiation at a greater rate than the background radiation and with the aid of UV…

  19. 77 FR 64435 - Branch Technical Position on the Import of Non-U.S. Origin Radioactive Sources

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... Radioactive Sources AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Request for comment. SUMMARY: In 2010, the... definition of ``radioactive waste''. The phrase was added to the final rule in response to a public comment... Radioactive Sources,'' published January 20, 2012, five comment letters were received for consideration by the...

  20. Solid-State Laser, Resonant Ionization Laser Ion Source (Rilis) and Laser Beam Transport at Radioactive Ion Beam Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lassen, J.; Bricault, P.; Dombsky, M.; Izdebski, F.; Lavoie, J. P.; Gillner, M.; Gottwald, T.; Hellbusch, F.; Teigelhöfer, A.; Voss, A.; Wendt, K. D. A.

    2009-03-01

    The inception of laser resonance ionization spectroscopy and its application as a resonant ionization laser ion source (RILIS) took place merely 20 years ago with pulsed dye lasers [1-5]. By now next generation radioactive ion beam (RIB) facilities are being planned or built. Understanding and considering the unique RILIS requirements in the layout of next generation RIB facilities will allow for cost-effective implementation of this versatile ion source. This discussion touches on laser beam transport and RILIS requirements not necessarily obvious to experts in conventional ion sources.

  1. Predicting induced radioactivity for the accelerator operations at the Taiwan Photon Source.

    PubMed

    Sheu, R J; Jiang, S H

    2010-12-01

    This study investigates the characteristics of induced radioactivity due to the operations of a 3-GeV electron accelerator at the Taiwan Photon Source (TPS). According to the beam loss analysis, the authors set two representative irradiation conditions for the activation analysis. The FLUKA Monte Carlo code has been used to predict the isotope inventories, residual activities, and remanent dose rates as a function of time. The calculation model itself is simple but conservative for the evaluation of induced radioactivity in a light source facility. This study highlights the importance of beam loss scenarios and demonstrates the great advantage of using FLUKA in comparing the predicted radioactivity with corresponding regulatory limits. The calculated results lead to the conclusion that, due to fairly low electron consumption, the radioactivity induced in the accelerator components and surrounding concrete walls of the TPS is rather moderate and manageable, while the possible activation of air and cooling water in the tunnel and their environmental releases are negligible.

  2. A straightforward implantation method of radioactive sources by means of the Leksell frame.

    PubMed

    Koken, P W; de Vos, R J

    1995-01-01

    Stereotactic brachytherapy of cerebral gliomas often involves insertion of catheters through the tumor bed. We adopted the hexagonal tube configuration around a central tube. Such a configuration is applicable to most commonly occurring brain tumors. In order to perform a low-cost, accurate and straightforward implantation, a robust mathematical derivation of all relevant formulas is used to transform CT coordinates to Leksell frame coordinates, including derivations for the two stereotactic angles. The coordinates of the seven tubes (which are essential if no template is available) and the length of the radioactive source are also derived, and an example is presented. The calculations have been implemented on a personal computer (Intel processor 386 or higher). Additional options, such as choosing other stereotactic angles than the calculated ones and rotating the tube configuration around the central tube, are integrated into the program.

  3. The Belgian approach and status on the radiological surveillance of radioactive substances in metal scrap and non-radioactive waste and the financing of orphan sources

    SciTech Connect

    Braeckeveldt, Marnix; Preter, Peter De

    2007-07-01

    Numerous facilities in the non-nuclear sector in Belgium (e.g. in the non-radioactive waste processing and management sector and in the metal recycling sector) have been equipped with measuring ports for detecting radioactive substances. These measuring ports prevent radioactive sources or radioactive contamination from ending up in the material fluxes treated by the sectors concerned. They thus play an important part in the protection of the workers and the people living in the neighbourhood of the facilities, as well as in the protection of the population and the environment in general. In 2006, Belgium's federal nuclear control agency (FANC/AFCN) drew up guidelines for the operators of non-nuclear facilities with a measuring port for detecting radioactive substances. These guidelines describe the steps to be followed by the operators when the port's alarm goes off. Following the publication of the European guideline 2003/122/EURATOM of 22 December 2003 on the control of high-activity sealed radioactive sources and orphan sources, a procedure has been drawn up by FANC/AFCN and ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Belgian National Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials, to identify the responsible to cover the costs relating to the further management of detected sealed sources and if not found to declare the sealed source as an orphan source. In this latter case and from mid-2006 the insolvency fund managed by ONDRAF/NIRAS covers the cost of radioactive waste management. At the request of the Belgian government, a financing proposal for the management of unsealed orphan sources as radioactive waste was also established by FANC/AFCN and ONDRAF/NIRAS. This proposal applies the same approach as for sealed sources and thus the financing of unsealed orphan sources will also be covered by the insolvency fund. (authors)

  4. Enrico Fermi's Discovery of Neutron-Induced Artificial Radioactivity: Neutrons and Neutron Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, Francesco; Leone, Matteo; Robotti, Nadia

    2006-09-01

    We reconstruct and analyze the path leading from James Chadwick’s discovery of the neutron in February 1932 through Frédéric Joliot and Irène Curie’s discovery of artificial radioactivity in January 1934 to Enrico Fermi’s discovery of neutron-induced artificial radioactivity in March 1934. We show, in particular, that Fermi’s innovative construction and use of radon-beryllium neutron sources permitted him to make his discovery.

  5. Safety and security of radioactive sources in industrial radiography in Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Mollah, A. S.; Nazrul, M. Abdullah

    2013-07-01

    Malicious use of radioactive sources can involve dispersal of that material through an explosive device. There has been recognition of the threat posed by the potential malicious misuse of NDT radioactive source by terrorists. The dispersal of radioactive material using conventional explosives, referred to as a 'dirty bomb', could create considerable panic, disruption and area access denial in an urban environment. However, as it is still a relatively new topic among regulators, users, and transport and storage operators worldwide, international assistance and cooperation in developing the necessary regulatory and security infrastructure is required. The most important action in reducing the risk of radiological terrorism is to increase the security of radioactive sources. This paper presents safety and security considerations for the transport and site storage of the industrial radiography sources as per national regulations entitled 'Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control Rules-1997'.The main emphasis was put on the stages of some safety and security actions in order to prevent theft, sabotage or other malicious acts during the transport of the packages. As a conclusion it must be mentioned that both safety and security considerations are very important aspects that must be taking in account for the transport and site storage of radioactive sources used in the practice of industrial radiography. (authors)

  6. Laser Ion Source Operation at the TRIUMF Radioactive Ion Beam Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Lassen, J.; Bricault, P.; Dombsky, M.; Lavoie, J. P.; Gillner, M.; Hellbusch, F.; Teigelhoefer, A.; Voss, A.; Gottwald, T.; Wendt, K. D. A.

    2009-03-17

    The TRIUMF Resonant Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS) for radioactive ion beam production is presented, with target ion source, laser beam transport, laser system and operation. In this context aspects of titanium sapphire (TiSa) laser based RILIS and facility requirements are discussed and results from the first years of TRILIS RIB delivery are given.

  7. An ion source module for the Beijing Radioactive Ion-beam Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, B.; Huang, Q.; Tang, B.; Ma, R.; Chen, L.; Ma, Y.

    2014-02-01

    An ion source module is developed for Beijing Radioactive Ion-beam Facility. The ion source module is designed to meet the requirements of remote handling. The connection and disconnection of the electricity, cooling and vacuum between the module and peripheral units can be executed without on-site manual work. The primary test of the target ion source has been carried out and a Li+ beam has been extracted. Details of the ion source module and its primary test results are described.

  8. Safety and security management of disused sealed radioactive sources in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ya-anant, N.; Nuanjan, P.; Phattanasub, A.; Akharawutchayanon, T.; O-manee, A.; Prasertchiewchan, N.; Benitez-Navarro, J. C.

    2015-05-01

    When sealed radioactive sources are no longer in use, they should be returned back to the country of origin. However, most of them could not be returned to the origin; therefore, disused sealed radioactive sources (DSRS) have to be managed locally to ensure the safety and the security for long term storage before final disposal. The Radioactive Waste Management Center, Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology, is authorized to operate the treatment, conditioning and storage of DSRS in Thailand. This paper will describe the operational procedures on characterization technique, identifation of unknown sources, volume reduction technique, re-packaging, registration and record keeping of DSRS. The successful results included that the record keeping of DSRS has been developed, and the national inventory of stored DSRS has been made up to date. The results confirmed that the quality control at the DSRS storage facility at Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology was established and well implemented to ensure safe and secure management.

  9. Conditioning and Repackaging of Spent Radioactive Cs-137 and Co-60 Sealed Sources in Egypt - 13490

    SciTech Connect

    Hasan, M.A.; Selim, Y.T.; El-Zakla, T.

    2013-07-01

    Radioactive Sealed sources (RSSs) are widely use all over the world in medicine, agriculture, industry, research, etc. The accidental misuse and exposure to RSSs has caused significant environmental contamination, serious injuries and many deaths. The high specific activity of the materials in many RSSs means that the spread of as little as microgram quantities can generate significant risk to human health and inhibit the use of buildings and land. Conditioning of such sources is a must to protect humans and environment from the hazard of ionizing radiation and contamination. Conditioning is also increase the security of these sources by decreasing the probability of stolen and/or use in terrorist attacks. According to the law No.7/2010, Egyptian atomic energy authority represented in the hot laboratories and waste management center (centralized waste facility, HLWMC) has the responsibility of collecting, conditioning, storing and management of all types of radioactive waste from all Egyptian territory including spent radioactive sealed sources (SRSSs). This paper explains the conditioning procedures for two of the most common SRSSs, Cs{sup 137} and Co{sup 60} sources which make up more than 90% of the total spent radioactive sealed sources stored in our centralized waste facility as one of the major activities of hot laboratories and waste management center. Conditioning has to meet three main objectives, be acceptable for storage, enable their safe transport, and comply with disposal requirements. (authors)

  10. Ion beam production and study of radioactive isotopes with the laser ion source at ISOLDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedosseev, Valentin; Chrysalidis, Katerina; Day Goodacre, Thomas; Marsh, Bruce; Rothe, Sebastian; Seiffert, Christoph; Wendt, Klaus

    2017-08-01

    At ISOLDE the majority of radioactive ion beams are produced using the resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS). This ion source is based on resonant excitation of atomic transitions by wavelength tunable laser radiation. Since its installation at the ISOLDE facility in 1994, the RILIS laser setup has been developed into a versatile remotely operated laser system comprising state-of-the-art solid state and dye lasers capable of generating multiple high quality laser beams at any wavelength in the range of 210-950 nm. A continuous programme of atomic ionization scheme development at CERN and at other laboratories has gradually increased the number of RILIS-ionized elements. At present, isotopes of 40 different elements have been selectively laser-ionized by the ISOLDE RILIS. Studies related to the optimization of the laser-atom interaction environment have yielded new laser ion source types: the laser ion source and trap and the versatile arc discharge and laser ion source. Depending on the specific experimental requirements for beam purity or versatility to switch between different ionization mechanisms, these may offer a favourable alternative to the standard hot metal cavity configuration. In addition to its main purpose of ion beam production, the RILIS is used for laser spectroscopy of radioisotopes. In an ongoing experimental campaign the isotope shifts and hyperfine structure of long isotopic chains have been measured by the extremely sensitive in-source laser spectroscopy method. The studies performed in the lead region were focused on nuclear deformation and shape coexistence effects around the closed proton shell Z = 82. The paper describes the functional principles of the RILIS, the current status of the laser system and demonstrated capabilities for the production of different ion beams including the high-resolution studies of short-lived isotopes and other applications of RILIS lasers for ISOLDE experiments. This article belongs to the Focus on

  11. Radiation safety attached to radioactive sources management - additional aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Kositsyn, V.F.

    1993-12-31

    Radiation sources are used in many scientific areas. Safety management requirements are determined for them with guarantee of the international and national dose limits unexceeding. As a rule, such dose limits are being developed concerning the type, energy, and flux of main radiation. Lack of knowledge of these attendant radiations can put personnel in danger. The study of the attendant neutron and gamma-radiations for plutonium 128 alpha sources was made.

  12. The Effect of Gamma-ray Detector Energy Resolution on the Ability to Identify Radioactive Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, K E; Gosnell, T B; Knapp, D A

    2009-03-05

    This report describes the results of an initial study on radiation detector spectral resolution, along with the underlying methodology used. The study was done as part of an ongoing effort in Detection Modeling and Operational Analysis (DMOA) for the DNDO System Architecture Directorate. The study objective was to assess the impact of energy resolution on radionuclide identification capability, measured by the ability to reliably discriminate between spectra associated with 'threats' (defined as fissile materials) and radioactive 'non-threats' that might be present in the normal stream of commerce. Although numerous factors must be considered in deciding which detector technology is appropriate for a specific application, spectral resolution is a critical one for homeland security applications in which a broad range of non-threat sources are present and very low false-alarm rates are required. In this study, we have proposed a metric for quantifying discrimination capability, and have shown how this metric depends on resolution. In future work we will consider other important factors, such as efficiency and volume, and the relative frequency of spectra known to be discrimination challenges in practical applications.

  13. Quantitative radiochemical methods for determination of the sources of natural radioactivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosholt, J.N.

    1957-01-01

    Study of the state of equilibrium of any natural radioactive source requires determination of several key nuclides or groups of nuclides to find their contribution to the total amount of radioactivity. Alpha activity measured by scintillation counting is used for determination of protactinium-231, thorium-232, thorium-230, and radium-226. The chemical procedures for the separations of the specific elements are described, as well as the measurement techniques used to determine the abundances of the individual isotopes. To correct for deviations in the ore standards, an independent means of evaluating the efficiencies of the individual separations and measurements is used. The development of these methods of radiochemical analysis facilitates detailed investigation of the major sources of natural radioactivity.

  14. Internet as a Source of Misconception: "Radiation and Radioactivity"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acar Sesen, Burcin; Ince, Elif

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine students' usage styles of the Internet for seeking information and to investigate whether information obtained from the Internet is a source of misconceptions. For this reason, a two-stage study was conducted. At the first stage, a questionnaire was developed to get information about students' Internet usage…

  15. The adequacy of current import and export controls on sealed radioactive sources.

    SciTech Connect

    Longley, Susan W.; Cochran, John Russell; Price, Laura L.; Lipinski, Kendra J.

    2003-10-01

    Millions of sealed radioactive sources (SRSs) are being used for a wide variety of beneficial purposes throughout the world. Security experts are now concerned that these beneficial SRSs could be used in a radiological dispersion device to terrorize and disrupt society. The greatest safety and security threat is from those highly radioactive Category 1 and 2 SRSs. Without adequate controls, it may be relatively easy to legally purchase a Category 1 or 2 SRS on the international market under false pretenses. Additionally, during transfer, SRSs are particularly susceptible to theft since the sources are in a shielded and mobile configuration, transportation routes are predictable, and shipments may not be adequately guarded. To determine if government controls on SRS are adequate, this study was commissioned to review the current SRS import and export controls of six countries. Canada, the Russian Federation, and South Africa were selected as the exporting countries, and Egypt, the Philippines, and the United States were selected as importing countries. A detailed review of the controls in each country is presented. The authors found that Canada and Russia are major exporters, and are exporting highly radioactive SRSs without first determining if the recipient is authorized by the receiving country to own and use the SRSs. Available evidence was used to estimate that on average there are tens to possibly hundreds of intercountry transfers of highly radioactive SRSs each day. Based on these and other findings, this reports recommends stronger controls on the export and import of highly radioactive SRSs.

  16. Using Radioactive Fallout Cesium (137Cs) to Distinguish Sediment Sources in an Agricultural Watershed

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Radioactive fallout Cesium (Cs-137) has been used for quantifying sources of accumulating sediment in water bodies and to determine the rates and pattern of soil erosion. The objectives of this research are to use Cs-137 as a tracer to determine patterns of soil erosion and deposition of eroding soi...

  17. Electron capture radioactive sources for intravascular brachytherapy: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    von Neumann-Cosel, Peter

    2003-06-21

    The feasibility of electron capture (EC) radionuclides as an alternative to the beta and high-energy gamma emitters presently in use for intravascular brachytherapy is investigated. A potential advantage of the low-energy x-ray radiation from EC isotopes may be an enhanced biological effectiveness with respect to the presently applied beta nuclides, but at the same time avoiding the shielding problems induced by the large penetrability of high-energy gamma rays. A survey considering the most important practical aspects such as dose delivery to the vessel walls in reasonable time spans, absorption properties, possible production of sources with the required specific activities and radiation safety reveals 71Ge as the most promising candidate.

  18. Radioactive source localization inside pipes using a long-range alpha detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xue-Mei; Tuo, Xian-Guo; Li, Zhe; Liu, Ming-Zhe; Zhang, Jin-Zhao; Dong, Xiang-Long; Li, Ping-Chuan

    2013-08-01

    Long-range alpha detectors (LRADs) are attracting much attention in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities because of some problems in obtaining source positions on an interior surface during pipe decommissioning. By utilizing the characteristic that LRAD detects alphas by collecting air-driving ions, this article applies a method to localize the radioactive source by ions' fluid property. By obtaining the ion travel time and the airspeed distribution in the pipe, the source position can be determined. Thus this method overcomes the ion's lack of periodic characteristics. Experimental results indicate that this method can approximately localize the source inside the pipe. The calculation results are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  19. Closed source experimental system for soft x-ray spectroscopy of radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Modin, A.; Butorin, S. M.; Vegelius, J.; Olsson, A.; Englund, C.-J.; Andersson, J.; Werme, L.; Nordgren, J.; Kaeaembre, T.; Skarnemark, G.; Burakov, B. E.

    2008-09-15

    An instrumental and experimental setup for soft x-ray spectroscopy meeting the requirements of a closed source for radioactivity is described. The system consists of a vacuum sealed cell containing the sample, mounted on a tubing system to ensure compatibility with most standard manipulators. The soft x rays penetrate a thin x-ray window separating the interior of the cell from the vacuum in the experimental chamber. Our first results for single crystal PuO{sub 2} confirm the feasibility of experiments using the setup. The results are consistent with results of first principles calculations and previously recorded spectra obtained using a standard open source setup. The results show that the closed source experimental system can be used to collect valuable experimental data from radioactive materials.

  20. German Support Program for Retrieval and Safe Storage of Disused Radioactive Sealed Sources in Ukraine - 13194

    SciTech Connect

    Pretzsch, Gunter; Salewski, Peter; Sogalla, Martin

    2013-07-01

    The German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) on behalf of the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany supports the State Nuclear Regulatory Inspectorate of Ukraine (SNRIU) in enhancement of nuclear safety and radiation protection and strengthening of the physical protection. One of the main objectives of the agreement concluded by these parties in 2008 was the retrieval and safe interim storage of disused orphan high radioactive sealed sources in Ukraine. At present, the Ukrainian National Registry does not account all high active radiation sources but only for about 70 - 80 %. GRS in charge of BMU to execute the program since 2008 concluded subcontracts with the waste management and interim storage facilities RADON at different regions in Ukraine as well with the waste management and interim storage facility IZOTOP at Kiev. Below selected examples of removal of high active Co-60 and Cs-137 sources from irradiation facilities at research institutes are described. By end of 2012 removal and safe interim storage of 12.000 disused radioactive sealed sources with a total activity of more than 5,7.10{sup 14} Bq was achieved within the frame of this program. The German support program will be continued up to the end of 2013 with the aim to remove and safely store almost all disused radioactive sealed sources in Ukraine. (authors)

  1. 10 CFR Appendix E to Part 835 - Values for Establishing Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability and Radioactive Material Posting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Accountability and Radioactive Material Posting and Labeling Requirements E Appendix E to Part 835 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Pt. 835, App. E Appendix E to Part 835—Values for... Requirements The data presented in appendix E are to be used for identifying accountable sealed radioactive...

  2. 10 CFR Appendix E to Part 835 - Values for Establishing Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability and Radioactive Material Posting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Accountability and Radioactive Material Posting and Labeling Requirements E Appendix E to Part 835 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Pt. 835, App. E Appendix E to Part 835—Values for... Requirements The data presented in appendix E are to be used for identifying accountable sealed radioactive...

  3. Low-level radioactive waste source terms for the 1992 integrated data base

    SciTech Connect

    Loghry, S L; Kibbey, A H; Godbee, H W; Icenhour, A S; DePaoli, S M

    1995-01-01

    This technical manual presents updated generic source terms (i.e., unitized amounts and radionuclide compositions) which have been developed for use in the Integrated Data Base (IDB) Program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). These source terms were used in the IDB annual report, Integrated Data Base for 1992: Spent Fuel and Radioactive Waste Inventories, Projections, and Characteristics, DOE/RW-0006, Rev. 8, October 1992. They are useful as a basis for projecting future amounts (volume and radioactivity) of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) shipped for disposal at commercial burial grounds or sent for storage at DOE solid-waste sites. Commercial fuel cycle LLW categories include boiling-water reactor, pressurized-water reactor, fuel fabrication, and uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) conversion. Commercial nonfuel cycle LLW includes institutional/industrial (I/I) waste. The LLW from DOE operations is category as uranium/thorium fission product, induced activity, tritium, alpha, and {open_quotes}other{close_quotes}. Fuel cycle commercial LLW source terms are normalized on the basis of net electrical output [MW(e)-year], except for UF{sub 6} conversion, which is normalized on the basis of heavy metal requirement [metric tons of initial heavy metal ]. The nonfuel cycle commercial LLW source term is normalized on the basis of volume (cubic meters) and radioactivity (curies) for each subclass within the I/I category. The DOE LLW is normalized in a manner similar to that for commercial I/I waste. The revised source terms are based on the best available historical data through 1992.

  4. Management of Disused Radioactive Sealed Sources in the Slovak Republic - 12100

    SciTech Connect

    Salzer, Peter

    2012-07-01

    After splitting-up the Czechoslovak Federation in 1993, the system of management of institutional radioactive waste, where disused sources represent its significant part, had had to build from beginning, since all corresponding activities had remained in the Czech part of the Federation. The paper presents the development of legislative and institutional framework of the disused radioactive sealed source management, development of the national inventory and development of management practices. According the Governmental decision (1994), the management of disused sealed sources and institutional radioactive waste at whole was based on maximal utilization of facilities inside nuclear facilities, particularly in the NPP A1 (shut down in the past, currently under decommissioning). This approach has been recently changing by Governmental decision (2009) to construct 'non-nuclear facility' - central storage for remained disused sealed sources collected from the places of use, where they were stored in some cases for tens of years. The approaches to siting and construction of this storage facility will be presented, as well as the current approaches to solution of the disused radioactive sources final disposal. Environmental impact assessment process in regard to the given facility/activity is slowly drawing to a close. The final statement of the Ministry of Environment can be expected in January or February 2012, probably recommending option 1 as preferred [6]. According to the Slovak legislation, the final statement has a status of recommendation for ongoing processes leading to the siting license. Very recently, in December 2012, Government of the Slovak republic decided to postpone putting the facility into operation by the end of June, 2014. (author)

  5. A compact ultra-clean system for deploying radioactive sources inside the KamLAND detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, T. I.; Freedman, S. J.; Wallig, J.; Ybarrolaza, N.; Gando, A.; Gando, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, K.; Kishimoto, Y.; Koga, M.; Mitsui, T.; Nakamura, K.; Shimizu, I.; Shirai, J.; Suzuki, A.; Takemoto, Y.; Tamae, K.; Ueshima, K.; Watanabe, H.; Xu, B. D.; Yoshida, H.; Yoshida, S.; Kozlov, A.; Grant, C.; Keefer, G.; Piepke, A.; Bloxham, T.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Han, K.; Ichimura, K.; Murayama, H.; O`Donnell, T.; Steiner, H. M.; Winslow, L. A.; Dwyer, D. A.; McKeown, R. D.; Zhang, C.; Berger, B. E.; Lane, C. E.; Maricic, J.; Miletic, T.; Batygov, M.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Sakai, M.; Horton-Smith, G. A.; Downum, K. E.; Gratta, G.; Efremenko, Y.; Perevozchikov, O.; Karwowski, H. J.; Markoff, D. M.; Tornow, W.; Heeger, K. M.; Detwiler, J. A.; Enomoto, S.; Decowski, M. P.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a compact, ultra-clean device used to deploy radioactive sources along the vertical axis of the KamLAND liquid-scintillator neutrino detector for purposes of calibration. The device worked by paying out and reeling in precise lengths of a hanging, small-gauge wire rope (cable); an assortment of interchangeable radioactive sources could be attached to a weight at the end of the cable. All components exposed to the radiopure liquid scintillator were made of chemically compatible UHV-cleaned materials, primarily stainless steel, in order to avoid contaminating or degrading the scintillator. To prevent radon intrusion, the apparatus was enclosed in a hermetically sealed housing inside a glove box, and both volumes were regularly flushed with purified nitrogen gas. An infrared camera attached to the side of the housing permitted real-time visual monitoring of the cable's motion, and the system was controlled via a graphical user interface.

  6. A compact ultra-clean system for deploying radioactive sources inside the KamLAND detector

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, T. I.; Freedman, S. J.; Wallig, J.; Ybarrolaza, N.; Gando, A.; Gando, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, K.; Kishimoto, Y.; Koga, M.; Mitsui, T.; Nakamura, K.; Shimizu, I.; Shirai, J.; Suzuki, A.; Takemoto, Y.; Tamae, K.; Ueshima, K.; Watanabe, H.; Xu, B. D.; Yoshida, H.; Yoshida, S.; Kozlov, A.; Grant, C.; Keefer, G.; Piepke, A.; Bloxham, T.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Han, K.; Ichimura, K.; Murayama, H.; O׳Donnell, T.; Steiner, H. M.; Winslow, L. A.; Dwyer, D. A.; McKeown, R. D.; Zhang, C.; Berger, B. E.; Lane, C. E.; Maricic, J.; Miletic, T.; Batygov, M.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Sakai, M.; Horton-Smith, G. A.; Downum, K. E.; Gratta, G.; Efremenko, Y.; Perevozchikov, O.; Karwowski, H. J.; Markoff, D. M.; Tornow, W.; Heeger, K. M.; Detwiler, J. A.; Enomoto, S.; Decowski, M. P.

    2014-10-14

    We describe a compact, ultra-clean device used to deploy radioactive sources along the vertical axis of the KamLAND liquid-scintillator neutrino detector for purposes of calibration. The device worked by paying out and reeling in precise lengths of a hanging, small-gauge wire rope (cable); an assortment of interchangeable radioactive sources could be attached to a weight at the end of the cable. All components exposed to the radiopure liquid scintillator were made of chemically compatible UHV-cleaned materials, primarily stainless steel, in order to avoid contaminating or degrading the scintillator. To prevent radon intrusion, the apparatus was enclosed in a hermetically sealed housing inside a glove box, and both volumes were regularly flushed with purified nitrogen gas. Finally, an infrared camera attached to the side of the housing permitted real-time visual monitoring of the cable’s motion, and the system was controlled via a graphical user interface.

  7. Quantitative radiochemical method for determination of major sources of natural radioactivity in ores and minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosholt, J.N.

    1954-01-01

    When an ore sample contains radioactivity other than that attributable to the uranium series in equilibrium, a quantitative analysis of the other emitters must be made in order to determine the source of this activity. Thorium-232, radon-222, and lead-210 have been determined by isolation and subsequent activity analysis of some of their short-lived daughter products. The sulfides of bismuth and polonium are precipitated out of solutions of thorium or uranium ores, and the ??-particle activity of polonium-214, polonium-212, and polonium-210 is determined by scintillation-counting techniques. Polonium-214 activity is used to determine radon-222, polonium-212 activity for thorium-232, and polonium-210 for lead-210. The development of these methods of radiochemical analysis will facilitate the rapid determination of some of the major sources of natural radioactivity.

  8. A Low-Tech, Low-Budget Storage Solution for High Level Radioactive Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Brett Carlsen; Ted Reed; Todd Johnson; John Weathersby; Joe Alexander; Dave Griffith; Douglas Hamelin

    2014-07-01

    The need for safe, secure, and economical storage of radioactive material becomes increasingly important as beneficial uses of radioactive material expand (increases inventory), as political instability rises (increases threat), and as final disposal and treatment facilities are delayed (increases inventory and storage duration). Several vendor-produced storage casks are available for this purpose but are often costly — due to the required design, analyses, and licensing costs. Thus the relatively high costs of currently accepted storage solutions may inhibit substantial improvements in safety and security that might otherwise be achieved. This is particularly true in areas of the world where the economic and/or the regulatory infrastructure may not provide the means and/or the justification for such an expense. This paper considers a relatively low-cost, low-technology radioactive material storage solution. The basic concept consists of a simple shielded storage container that can be fabricated locally using a steel pipe and a corrugated steel culvert as forms enclosing a concrete annulus. Benefits of such a system include 1) a low-tech solution that utilizes materials and skills available virtually anywhere in the world, 2) a readily scalable design that easily adapts to specific needs such as the geometry and radioactivity of the source term material), 3) flexible placement allows for free-standing above-ground or in-ground (i.e., below grade or bermed) installation, 4) the ability for future relocation without direct handling of sources, and 5) a long operational lifetime . ‘Le mieux est l’ennemi du bien’ (translated: The best is the enemy of good) applies to the management of radioactive materials – particularly where the economic and/or regulatory justification for additional investment is lacking. Development of a low-cost alternative that considerably enhances safety and security may lead to a greater overall risk reduction than insisting on

  9. Observing Short-wave Infrared Atmospheric Fluorescence Near Radioactive Sources: A Feasibility Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-17

    a desire to measure cosmic ray effects. For example, the pioneering study of cosmic ray detection by fluorescence was by Bunner in 1967 wherein he...wavelengths, the ultra-high energy cosmic ray (UHECR) community has continued to pursue studies of the fluorescence yield from high energy particle impact on...have been a few experiments using radioactive sources rather than cosmic rays to study atmospheric fluorescence [4]. In one experiment, an americium

  10. A singly charged ion source for radioactive 11C ion acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katagiri, K.; Noda, A.; Nagatsu, K.; Nakao, M.; Hojo, S.; Muramatsu, M.; Suzuki, K.; Wakui, T.; Noda, K.

    2016-02-01

    A new singly charged ion source using electron impact ionization has been developed to realize an isotope separation on-line system for simultaneous positron emission tomography imaging and heavy-ion cancer therapy using radioactive 11C ion beams. Low-energy electron beams are used in the electron impact ion source to produce singly charged ions. Ionization efficiency was calculated in order to decide the geometric parameters of the ion source and to determine the required electron emission current for obtaining high ionization efficiency. Based on these considerations, the singly charged ion source was designed and fabricated. In testing, the fabricated ion source was found to have favorable performance as a singly charged ion source.

  11. A singly charged ion source for radioactive {sup 11}C ion acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Katagiri, K.; Noda, A.; Nagatsu, K.; Nakao, M.; Hojo, S.; Muramatsu, M.; Suzuki, K.; Wakui, T.; Noda, K.

    2016-02-15

    A new singly charged ion source using electron impact ionization has been developed to realize an isotope separation on-line system for simultaneous positron emission tomography imaging and heavy-ion cancer therapy using radioactive {sup 11}C ion beams. Low-energy electron beams are used in the electron impact ion source to produce singly charged ions. Ionization efficiency was calculated in order to decide the geometric parameters of the ion source and to determine the required electron emission current for obtaining high ionization efficiency. Based on these considerations, the singly charged ion source was designed and fabricated. In testing, the fabricated ion source was found to have favorable performance as a singly charged ion source.

  12. Radon Adsorbed in Activated Charcoal--A Simple and Safe Radiation Source for Teaching Practical Radioactivity in Schools and Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Azmi, Darwish; Mustapha, Amidu O.; Karunakara, N.

    2012-01-01

    Simple procedures for teaching practical radioactivity are presented in a way that attracts students' attention and does not make them apprehensive about their safety. The radiation source is derived from the natural environment. It is based on the radioactivity of radon, a ubiquitous inert gas, and the adsorptive property of activated charcoal.…

  13. Radon Adsorbed in Activated Charcoal--A Simple and Safe Radiation Source for Teaching Practical Radioactivity in Schools and Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Azmi, Darwish; Mustapha, Amidu O.; Karunakara, N.

    2012-01-01

    Simple procedures for teaching practical radioactivity are presented in a way that attracts students' attention and does not make them apprehensive about their safety. The radiation source is derived from the natural environment. It is based on the radioactivity of radon, a ubiquitous inert gas, and the adsorptive property of activated charcoal.…

  14. Initial Test Results from a Multicusp Source for TRIUMF's Radioactive Beam Facility.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Thomas; Yuan, Dick; Jayamanna, Keerthi; McDonald, Mike; Baartman, Rick; MacKenzie, Georges; Bricault, Pierre; Dombsky, Marik; Schmor, Paul; Leung, Kow; Williams, Don; Gough, Rick

    1997-05-01

    A multicusp source for positive ion beams has been designed and constructed in collaboration with the Ion Beam Technology Department of LBNL for the TRIUMF ISAC project. This type of source has demonstrated a high yield of singly charged ions, a low energy spread and a good emittance and is compact and simple. Several stages of tests and measurements using non-radioactive beams to characterize the source performance are being carried out prior to the final phase of radioactive target-source tests. Source properties such as the ion species population, beam intensity, gas efficiency and the ionization of a substance of diminutive quantity mixed with a carrier gas, were tested at the LBNL site. At present, these tests are being repeated at TRIUMF. A cross check on the source-extraction system gas efficiency in comparison with IGUN calculations is in progress. Emittance and beam energy spread measurements will be made both at LBNL and TRIUMF. Results of these tests will be reported and certain problems encountered during the tests will be discussed.

  15. 78 FR 45578 - Application For a License to Export Radioactive Waste

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Application For a License to Export Radioactive Waste Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70 (b) ``Public... quantity Storage or Canada. June 4, 2013, June 5, 2013, radioactive waste authorized for disposal by the...

  16. 77 FR 73054 - Application for a License To Export Radioactive Waste

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Application for a License To Export Radioactive Waste Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70(b) ``Public Notice.... 2012, October 25, 2012, XW020, radioactive 1178 pounds disposal by the 11006061. waste in the...

  17. 78 FR 33447 - Draft Applications for Sealed Source and Device Evaluation and Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... radioactive materials, protection of sensitive information, and changes in regulatory policies and practices..., ``Consolidated Guidance about Materials Licenses: Applications for Sealed Source and Device Evaluation and... INFORMATION CONTACT: Tomas Herrera, Office of Federal and State Materials and Environmental ]...

  18. Processing of historic high radioactive waste coming from nuclear applications

    SciTech Connect

    Van Velzen, L.P.M.; Vos, R.M. de; Roobol, L.P.; IJpelaan, R.; Van Tongeren, R.

    2007-07-01

    At ECN-NRG irradiations of materials have been performed with the aid of the High Flux Reactor at the site for investigations of their properties under different conditions as well for nuclear isotope productions since 1967 e.g. molybdenum. The high radioactive waste (HRW) coming from these nuclear applications are stored since the start in an interim storage facility located at the site. Due to the site license the HRW has to be transported to COVRA. Therefore a project has been set-up to transport all the HRW to COVRA. However, COVRA accepts a limited number of HLW containers among the CASTOR{sup R} MTR-2 container and thus all temporary stored drums have to be over packed. As the existing infra structure at the site is not suited a new facility has to be build. This also creates the opportunity to minimize, by separation of the HRW in low- and intermediate level waste, the amount of waste that has to be classified as HLW. The applied methodology, design and specifications of the HRW-ILW non-destructive assay characterization and separation system will be described. (authors)

  19. The UK's Surplus Source Disposal Programme: successful management of a national radioactive legacy.

    PubMed

    Williams, Clive; Burns, Philip; Wakerley, Malcolm; Watson, Isabelle; Cook, Marianne; Moloney, Barry

    2010-06-01

    Between 2004 and 2009, the Surplus Source Disposal Programme (SSDP) arranged and subsidised the safe disposal or recycling of more than 11,000 unwanted radioactive items containing in total more than 8.5 x 10(14) Bq of activity, from some 500 sites throughout the United Kingdom. Sources were removed principally from universities, schools and colleges, museums, and hospitals. SSDP was funded by the UK Government and managed by the Environment Agency. The programme was delivered at a total cost of pound sterling 7.14 million, nearly pound sterling 2 million less than its initial budget. This was a big success for health and safety, the environment, business and the public purse. Current legislative requirements under the High Activity Sealed Sources Directive, which came into effect during 2005, will prevent a build-up of high activity surplus sources in future. Continuing vigilance may be needed to avoid a build-up of lower activity disused sources.

  20. Development of Laser Light Sources for Trapping Radioactive Francium Atoms Toward Tests of Fundamental Symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Ken-ichi; Ezure, Saki; Hayamizu, Tomohiro; Kato, Ko; Kawamura, Hirokazu; Inoue, Takeshi; Arikawa, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Taisuke; Aoki, Takahiro; Uchiyama, Aiko; Itoh, Masatoshi; Ando, Shun; Aoki, Takatoshi; Hatakeyama, Atsushi; Hatanaka, Kichiji; Imai, Kenichi; Murakami, Tetsuya; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Sato, Tomoya; Wakasa, Tomotsugu; Yoshida, Hidetomo P.; Sakemi, Yasuhiro

    We have developed laser light sources and a magneto-optical trap system for cooling and trapping radioactive francium (Fr) atoms. Because Fr is the heaviest alkali element, a Fr atom exhibits high sensitivity to symmetry violation effects such as atomic parity nonconservation (APNC) and the electron electric dipole moment (eEDM). A laser cooling and trapping technique reduces the systematic errors due to the Doppler effect and the motion-induced magnetic field effect caused by the velocity of atoms. Thus, optically cooled and trapped Fr atoms are among a few promising candidates considered for APNC and eEDM measurements. Frequency stabilization of laser light is required for any stable measurement involving trapped radioactive atoms, including Fr. Since the hyperfine splitting in iodine molecules (127I2) is close to the resonance frequency of the Fr D2 line, we performed frequency modulation spectroscopy of hyperfine structures of I2.

  1. 78 FR 53020 - Branch Technical Position on the Import of Non-U.S. Origin Radioactive Sources

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ... this Code . . ., unless an alternate safe arrangement can be made.'' This Code of Practice served as a... manufacturer as material, in reality the radioactive sealed source actually became waste following its...

  2. Induced Radioactivity in Lead Shielding at the National Synchrotron Light Source.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Vinita J; Schaefer, Charles; Kahnhauser, Henry

    2017-06-01

    The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory was shut down in September 2014. Lead bricks used as radiological shadow shielding within the accelerator were exposed to stray radiation fields during normal operations. The FLUKA code, a fully integrated Monte Carlo simulation package for the interaction and transport of particles and nuclei in matter, was used to estimate induced radioactivity in this shielding and stainless steel beam pipe from known beam losses. The FLUKA output was processed using MICROSHIELD® to estimate on-contact exposure rates with individually exposed bricks to help design and optimize the radiological survey process. This entire process can be modeled using FLUKA, but use of MICROSHIELD® as a secondary method was chosen because of the project's resource constraints. Due to the compressed schedule and lack of shielding configuration data, simple FLUKA models were developed. FLUKA activity estimates for stainless steel were compared with sampling data to validate results, which show that simple FLUKA models and irradiation geometries can be used to predict radioactivity inventories accurately in exposed materials. During decommissioning 0.1% of the lead bricks were found to have measurable levels of induced radioactivity. Post-processing with MICROSHIELD® provides an acceptable secondary method of estimating residual exposure rates.

  3. Calibration of a time-resolved hard-x-ray detector using radioactive sources

    SciTech Connect

    Stoeckl, C. Theobald, W.; Regan, S. P.; Romanofsky, M. H.

    2016-11-15

    A four-channel, time-resolved, hard x-ray detector (HXRD) has been operating at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics for more than a decade. The slope temperature of the hot-electron population in direct-drive inertial confinement fusion experiments is inferred by recording the hard x-ray radiation generated in the interaction of the electrons with the target. Measuring the energy deposited by hot electrons requires an absolute calibration of the hard x-ray detector. A novel method to obtain an absolute calibration of the HXRD using single photons from radioactive sources was developed, which uses a thermoelectrically cooled, low-noise, charge-sensitive amplifier.

  4. Calibration of a time-resolved hard-x-ray detector using radioactive sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoeckl, C.; Theobald, W.; Regan, S. P.; Romanofsky, M. H.

    2016-11-01

    A four-channel, time-resolved, hard x-ray detector (HXRD) has been operating at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics for more than a decade. The slope temperature of the hot-electron population in direct-drive inertial confinement fusion experiments is inferred by recording the hard x-ray radiation generated in the interaction of the electrons with the target. Measuring the energy deposited by hot electrons requires an absolute calibration of the hard x-ray detector. A novel method to obtain an absolute calibration of the HXRD using single photons from radioactive sources was developed, which uses a thermoelectrically cooled, low-noise, charge-sensitive amplifier.

  5. A Neutron Source Facility for Neutron Cross-Section Measurements on Radioactive Targets at RIA

    SciTech Connect

    Ahle, L E; Bernstein, L; Rusnak, B; Berio, R

    2003-05-20

    The stockpile stewardship program is interested in neutron cross-section measurements on nuclei that are a few nucleons away from stability. Since neutron targets do not exist, radioactive targets are the only way to directly perform these measurements. This requires a facility that can provide high production rates for these short-lived nuclei as well as a source of neutrons. The Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) promises theses high production rates. Thus, adding a co-located neutron source facility to the RIA project baseline would allow these neutron cross-section measurements to be made. A conceptual design for such a neutron source has been developed, which would use two accelerators, a Dynamitron and a linac, to create the neutrons through a variety of reactions (d-d, d-t, deuteron break-up, p-Li). This range of reactions is needed in order to provide the desired energy range from 10's of keV to 20 MeV. The facility would also have hot cells to perform chemistry on the radioactive material both before and after neutron irradiation. The present status of this design and direction of future work will be discussed.

  6. Potassium as a Radioactive Heat Source in the Core? A High Pressure Experimental Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corgne, A.; Keshav, S.; Fei, Y.

    2004-12-01

    The presence of potassium (K) in the core as a significant heat source was suggested over three decades ago. Experimental studies on K partitioning between metal and silicate have provided ambiguous results, because of experimental and analytical artefacts. It has been recognized that polishing of a run product for chemical analysis using water or oil lubricants results in substantial K loss from the metallic phase [Murthy et al., 2003, Nature 423]. Using a dry polishing technique, Murthy et al showed that K enters sulfide-rich metallic liquids with a strong dependence on temperature and silicate melt composition, but without a significant dependence on pressure over the range of their study (1-3 GPa). Extrapolating their data to conditions of pressure, temperature and melt structure, appropriate to core segregation, Murthy et al concluded that K is a substantial radioactive heat source in planetary cores. Their extrapolation technique is debatable, however, notably concerning the effects of composition and pressure on the partitioning. The aim of our study is therefore to reexamine the factors that can affect K partitioning between metallic liquid and silicate melt. We have performed multi-anvil experiments on a relatively wide pressure range, between 3 and 8 GPa, using graphite capsule. In contrast to Murthy et al who used compositions with high S and K contents, we used a CI-chondrite model composition (containing about 4000 ppm K) as starting material in order to obtain partitioning data directly applicable to planetary differentiation processes. Run products were analyzed by electron microprobe. Time-series experiments at 8 GPa reveal that equilibrium conditions are reached rapidly, within 10 s. The effect of temperature was investigated at 8 GPa on the 2000-2200 C temperature range. Results shows that over this temperature range, partition coefficients for K (DK) remain almost identical. The influence of pressure was investigated at 2000 C (3-8 GPa range

  7. Ion source developments for the production of radioactive isotope beams at TRIUMF

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, F. Bricault, P.; Heggen, H.; Kunz, P.; Lassen, J.; Mjøs, A.; Raeder, S.; Teigelhöfer, A.

    2014-02-15

    At the ISAC facility at TRIUMF radioactive ions are produced by bombarding solid targets with up to 100 μA of 500 MeV protons. The reaction products have to diffuse out of the hot target into an ion source. Normally, singly charged ions are extracted. They can be transported either directly to experiments or via an ECR charge state breeder to a post accelerator. Several different types of ion sources have to be used in order to deliver a large variety of rare isotope beams. At ISAC those are surface ion sources, forced electron beam arc discharge (FEBIAD) ion sources and resonant laser ionization sources. Recent development activities concentrated on increasing the selectivity for the ionization to suppress isobaric contamination in the beam. Therefore, a surface ion rejecting resonant laser ionization source (SIRLIS) has been developed to suppress ions from surface ionization. For the FEBIAD ion source a cold transfer line has been introduced to prevent less volatile components from reaching the ion source.

  8. RadTrac : A system for detecting, localizing, and tracking radioactive sources in real time.

    SciTech Connect

    Vilim, R.; Klann, R.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2009-10-01

    Within the homeland security and emergency response communities, there is a need for a low-profile system to detect and locate radioactive sources. RadTrac has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory as an integrated system for the detection, localization, identification, and tracking of radioactive sources in real time. The system is based on a network of radiation detectors and advanced signal-processing algorithms. Features include video surveillance, automated tracking, easy setup, and logging of all data and images. This paper describes the advanced algorithms that were developed and implemented for source detection, localization, and tracking in real time. In the physio-spatial integration approach to source localization, counts from multiple detectors are processed according to the underlying physics linking these counts to obtain the probability that a source is present at any point in space. This information is depicted in a probability density function map. This type of depiction allows the results to be presented in a simple, easy-to-understand manner. It also allows for many different complicated factors to be accounted for in a single image as each factor is computed as a probability density in space. These factors include spatial limitations, variable shielding, directional detectors, moving detectors, and different detector sizes and orientations. The utility and versatility of this approach is described in further detail. Advanced signal-processing algorithms have also been incorporated to improve real-time tracking and to increase signal-to-noise ratios including temporal linking and energy binning. Measurements aimed at demonstrating the sensitivity improvements through the use of advanced signal-processing techniques were performed and are presented. Results of tracking weak sources (<100 {micro}Ci {sup 137}Cs) using four fixed-position detectors are presented.

  9. Concentrating Radioactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Richard A.

    1974-01-01

    By concentrating radioactivity contained on luminous dials, a teacher can make a high reading source for classroom experiments on radiation. The preparation of the source and its uses are described. (DT)

  10. Concentrating Radioactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Richard A.

    1974-01-01

    By concentrating radioactivity contained on luminous dials, a teacher can make a high reading source for classroom experiments on radiation. The preparation of the source and its uses are described. (DT)

  11. A compact ultra-clean system for deploying radioactive sources inside the KamLAND detector

    DOE PAGES

    Banks, T. I.; Freedman, S. J.; Wallig, J.; ...

    2014-10-14

    We describe a compact, ultra-clean device used to deploy radioactive sources along the vertical axis of the KamLAND liquid-scintillator neutrino detector for purposes of calibration. The device worked by paying out and reeling in precise lengths of a hanging, small-gauge wire rope (cable); an assortment of interchangeable radioactive sources could be attached to a weight at the end of the cable. All components exposed to the radiopure liquid scintillator were made of chemically compatible UHV-cleaned materials, primarily stainless steel, in order to avoid contaminating or degrading the scintillator. To prevent radon intrusion, the apparatus was enclosed in a hermetically sealedmore » housing inside a glove box, and both volumes were regularly flushed with purified nitrogen gas. Finally, an infrared camera attached to the side of the housing permitted real-time visual monitoring of the cable’s motion, and the system was controlled via a graphical user interface.« less

  12. SIMPLIFIED PRACTICAL TEST METHOD FOR PORTABLE DOSE METERS USING SEVERAL SEALED RADIOACTIVE SOURCES.

    PubMed

    Mikamoto, Takahiro; Yamada, Takahiro; Kurosawa, Tadahiro

    2016-09-01

    Sealed radioactive sources which have small activity were employed for the determination of response and tests for non-linearity and energy dependence of detector responses. Close source-to-detector geometry (at 0.3 m or less) was employed to practical tests for portable dose meters to accumulate statistically sufficient ionizing currents. Difference between response in the present experimentally studied field and in the reference field complied with ISO 4037 due to non-uniformity of radiation fluence at close geometry was corrected by use of Monte Carlo simulation. As a consequence, corrected results were consistent with the results obtained in the ISO 4037 reference field within their uncertainties. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Radiological Threat Reduction (RTR) program : implementing physical security to protect large radioactive sources worldwide.

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, Daniel L.

    2004-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Radiological Threat Reduction (RTR) Program strives to reduce the threat of a Radiological Dispersion Device (RDD) incident that could affect U.S. interests worldwide. Sandia National Laboratories supports the RTR program on many different levels. Sandia works directly with DOE to develop strategies, including the selection of countries to receive support and the identification of radioactive materials to be protected. Sandia also works with DOE in the development of guidelines and in training DOE project managers in physical protection principles. Other support to DOE includes performing rapid assessments and providing guidance for establishing foreign regulatory and knowledge infrastructure. Sandia works directly with foreign governments to establish cooperative agreements necessary to implement the RTR Program efforts to protect radioactive sources. Once necessary agreements are in place, Sandia works with in-country organizations to implement various security related initiatives, such as installing security systems and searching for (and securing) orphaned radioactive sources. The radioactive materials of interest to the RTR program include Cobalt 60, Cesium 137, Strontium 90, Iridium 192, Radium 226, Plutonium 238, Americium 241, Californium 252, and Others. Security systems are implemented using a standardized approach that provides consistency through out the RTR program efforts at Sandia. The approach incorporates a series of major tasks that overlap in order to provide continuity. The major task sequence is to: Establish in-country contacts - integrators, Obtain material characterizations, Perform site assessments and vulnerability assessments, Develop upgrade plans, Procure and install equipment, Conduct acceptance testing and performance testing, Develop procedures, and Conduct training. Other tasks are incorporated as appropriate and commonly include such as support of reconfiguring infrastructure, and developing security

  14. 10 CFR 37.73 - Applicability of physical protection of category 1 and category 2 quantities of radioactive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... category 2 quantities of radioactive material during transit. 37.73 Section 37.73 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... Protection in Transit § 37.73 Applicability of physical protection of category 1 and category 2 quantities of radioactive material during transit. (a) For shipments of category 1 quantities of radioactive material,...

  15. Metrological tests of a 200 L calibration source for HPGE detector systems for assay of radioactive waste drums.

    PubMed

    Boshkova, T; Mitev, K

    2016-03-01

    In this work we present test procedures, approval criteria and results from two metrological inspections of a certified large volume (152)Eu source (drum about 200L) intended for calibration of HPGe gamma assay systems used for activity measurement of radioactive waste drums. The aim of the inspections was to prove the stability of the calibration source during its working life. The large volume source was designed and produced in 2007. It consists of 448 identical sealed radioactive sources (modules) apportioned in 32 transparent plastic tubes which were placed in a wooden matrix which filled the drum. During the inspections the modules were subjected to tests for verification of their certified characteristics. The results show a perfect compliance with the NIST basic guidelines for the properties of a radioactive certified reference material (CRM) and demonstrate the stability of the large volume CRM-drum after 7 years of operation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Calibration of the CDF tile-fiber endplug calorimeters using moving radioactive sources

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, V.; Laasanen, A.; Pompos, A.; Wilson, M.

    1998-11-01

    The use of moving radioactive gamma sources to assess, calibrate and monitor scintillating tile calorimeters is discussed, and the techniques and equipment are described. The capabilities of the technique are illustrated using Cs{sup 137} sources with the CDF Endplug Upgrade EM and Hadron calorimeters at testbeams and at a cosmic ray test stand. Source measurements of all the tiles in testbeam modules which are exact replicas of the calorimeters, predict the relative responses of EM towers to 50 GeV positrons and muons, and of Hadron towers to 50 GeV pions, with RMS accuracies of 1.3{percent}, 1.8{percent} and 2.0{percent}, respectively. Source measurements will be used in lieu of testbeam measurements for the initial calibration of all towers in the final calorimeters. Source measurements of single tiles are reproducible to 0.4{percent} and will be used to monitor gain changes of the photomultiplier tubes. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Radioactive sealed sources: Reasonable accountability, exemption, and licensing activity thresholds -- A technical basis

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D.W.; Shingleton, K.L.

    1996-07-01

    Perhaps owing to their small size and portability, some radiation accidents/incidents have involved radioactive sealed sources (RSSs). As a result, programs for the control and accountability of RSSs have come to be recommended and emplaced that essentially require RSSs to be controlled in a manner different from bulk, unsealed radioactive material. Crucially determining the total number of RSSs for which manpower-intensive radiation protection surveillance is provided is the individual RSS activity above which such surveillance is required and below which such effort is not considered cost effective. Individual RSS activity thresholds are typically determined through scenarios which impart a chosen internal or external limiting dose to Reference Man under specified exposure conditions. The resultant RSS threshold activity levels have meaning commensurate with the assumed scenario exposure parameters, i.e., if they are realistic and technically based. A review of how the Department of Energy (DOE), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) have determined their respective accountability, exemption, and licensing threshold activity values is provided. Finally, a fully explained method using references readily available to practicing health physicists is developed using realistic, technically-based calculation parameters by which RSS threshold activities may be locally generated.

  18. Applicability of Monte-Carlo Simulation to Equipment Design of Radioactive Noble Gas Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Hirotaka; Hattori, Kanako; Umemura, Norihiro

    In the nuclear facilities, radioactive noble gas is continuously monitored by using the radioactive noble gas monitor with beta-sensitive plastic scintillation radiation detector. The detection efficiency of the monitor is generally calibrated by using a calibration loop and standard radioactive noble gases such as 85Kr. In this study, the applicability of PHITS to the equipment design of the radioactive noble gas monitor was evaluated by comparing the calculated results to the test results obtained by actual calibration loop tests to simplify the radiation monitor design evaluation. It was confirmed that the calculated results were well matched to the test results of the monitor after the modeling. In addition, the key parameters for equipment design, such as thickness of detector window or depth of the sampler, were also specified and evaluated.

  19. Measurement of the leaching rate of radionuclide 134Cs from the solidified radioactive sources in Portland cement mixed with microsilica and barite matrixes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaaban, Ismail; Assi, Nasim

    2011-08-01

    Portland cement was mixed with radionuclide 134Cs to produce low-level radioactive sources. These sources were surrounded with cement mixed with different materials like microsilica and barite. The leaching rate of 134Cs from the solidified radioactive source in Portland cement alone was found to be 4.481 × 10 -4 g/cm 2 per day. Mixing this Portland cement with microsilica and with barite reduced significantly the leaching rate to 1.091 × 10 -4 g/cm 2 per day and 3.153 × 10 -4 g/cm 2 per day for 1 wt.% mixing, and to 1.401 × 10 -5 g/cm 2 per day and 1.703 × 10 -4 g/cm 2 per day for 3 wt.% mixing, respectively. It was also found that the application of a latex paint reduced these leaching rates by about 6.5%, 20.3% and 13.3% for Portland cement, cement mixed with microsilica and with barite, respectively. The leaching data were also analyzed using the polynomial method. The obtained results showed that cement mixed with microsilica and with barite can be effectively used for radioactive sources solidification.

  20. Reverse osmosis applications to low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, L.

    1990-09-01

    The Hanford Site at Richland, Washington, is operated for the US Department of Energy (DOE) by Westinghouse Hanford Company. Since the Hanford Site was established in the 1940's, the operation of the various facilities has resulted in the contamination of liquid effluents and some groundwater with radioactive constituents. Westinghouse Hanford Company has been testing various technologies to determine their effectiveness in decontaminating these two types of liquids. Reverse osmosis (RO) has been applied to two process effluents and two groundwaters. Rejection data have been collected for uranium, technetium, tritium, strontium, cesium, and total alpha and beta. 4 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  1. Analysis of source term modeling for low-level radioactive waste performance assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Icenhour, A.S.

    1995-03-01

    Site-specific radiological performance assessments are required for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) at both commercial and US Department of Energy facilities. This work explores source term modeling of LLW disposal facilities by using two state-of-the-art computer codes, SOURCEI and SOURCE2. An overview of the performance assessment methodology is presented, and the basic processes modeled in the SOURCE1 and SOURCE2 codes are described. Comparisons are made between the two advective models for a variety of radionuclides, transport parameters, and waste-disposal technologies. These comparisons show that, in general, the zero-order model predicts undecayed cumulative fractions leached that are slightly greater than or equal to those of the first-order model. For long-lived radionuclides, results from the two models eventually reach the same value. By contrast, for short-lived radionuclides, the zero-order model predicts a slightly higher undecayed cumulative fraction leached than does the first-order model. A new methodology, based on sensitivity and uncertainty analyses, is developed for predicting intruder scenarios. This method is demonstrated for {sup 137}Cs in a tumulus-type disposal facility. The sensitivity and uncertainty analyses incorporate input-parameter uncertainty into the evaluation of a potential time of intrusion and the remaining radionuclide inventory. Finally, conclusions from this study are presented, and recommendations for continuing work are made.

  2. Californium-252 Neutron Sources for Medical Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Boulogne, A.R.

    2001-08-29

    Californium-252 neutron sources are being prepared to investigate the value of this radionuclide in diagnosing and treating diseases. A source resembling a cell-loaded radium needle was developed for neutron therapy. Since therapy needles are normally implanted in the body, very conservative design criteria were established to prevent leakage of radioactive. Methods are being developed to prepare very intense californium sources that could be used eventually for neutron radiography and for diagnosis by neutron activation analysis. This paper discusses these methods.

  3. Calibration Of An Active Mammosite Using A Low Activity Sr-90 Radioactive Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winston, Jacquelyn

    2006-03-01

    The latest involvement of the Brachytherapy research group of the medical physics program at Hampton University is in the development of a scintillator fiber based detector for the breast cancer specific Mammosite (balloon device) from Cytyc Inc. Recent data were acquired at a local hospital to evaluate the possibility of measuring the dose distribution during breast Brachytherapy cancer treatments with this device. Since sub-millimeter accuracy in position is required, precision of the device relies on the accurate calibration of the scintillating fiber element. As part of a collaboration work, data were acquired for that purpose at Hampton University and subsequently analyzed at Morgan State University. An 8 mm diameter strontium-90 radioactive field source with a low activity of 25 μCi was used along with a dedicated LabView data acquisition system. We will discuss the data collected and address some of the features of this novel system.

  4. Calibration Of An Active Mammosite Using A Low Activity Sr-90 Radioactive Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winston, Jacquelyn

    2007-03-01

    The latest involvement of the Brachytherapy research group of the medical physics program at Hampton University is in the development of a scintillating fiber based detector for the breast cancer specific Mammosite (balloon device) from Cytyc Inc. Recent data were acquired at a local hospital to evaluate the possibility of measuring the dose distribution during breast Brachytherapy cancer treatments with this device. Since sub-millimeter accuracy in position is required, precision of the device relies on the accurate calibration of the scintillating fiber element. As part of a collaboration work, data were acquired for that purpose at Hampton University and subsequently analyzed at Morgan State University. An 8 mm diameter strontium-90 radioactive field source with a low activity of 25 μCi was used along with a dedicated LabView data acquisition system. We will discuss the data collected and address some of the features of this novel system.

  5. Commissioning and field tests of a van-mounted system for the detection of radioactive sources and Special Nuclear Material

    SciTech Connect

    Cester, D.; Lunardon, M.; Stevanato, L.; Viesti, G.; Chandra, R.; Davatz, G.; Friederich, H.; Gendotti, U.; Murer, D.; Swiderski, L.; Moszynski, M.; Resnati, F.; Rubbia, A.; Iovene, A.; Petrucci, S.; Tintori, C.; Caccia, M.; Chmill, V.; Santoro, R.; Martemyianov, A.; Doherty, M.; Christodoulou, G.; Stainer, T.; Touramanis, C.

    2015-07-01

    MODES SNM project aimed to carry out technical research in order to develop a prototype for a mobile, modular detection system for radioactive sources and Special Nuclear Materials (SNM). Its main goal was to deliver a tested prototype of a modular mobile system capable of passively detecting weak or shielded radioactive sources with accuracy higher than that of currently available systems. By the end of the project all the objectives have been successfully achieved. Results from the laboratory commissioning and the field tests will be presented. (authors)

  6. Securing the metal recycling chain for the steel industry by detecting orphan radioactive sources in scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Pesente, S.; Benettoni, M.; Checchia, P.; Conti, E.; Gonella, F.; Nebbia, G.; Vanini, S.; Viesti, G.; Zumerle, G.; Bonomi, G.; Zenoni, A.; Calvini, P.; Squarcia, S.

    2010-08-04

    Experimental tests are reported for the detection of the heavy metal shielding of orphan sources hidden inside scrap metal by using a recently developed muon tomography system. Shielded sources do not trigger alarm in radiation portal commonly employed at the entrance of steel industry using scrap metal. Future systems integrating radiation portals with muon tomography inspection gates will substantially reduce the possibility of accidental melting of radioactive sources securing the use of recycled metal.

  7. Securing the metal recycling chain for the steel industry by detecting orphan radioactive sources in scrap metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesente, S.; Vanini, S.; Benettoni, M.; Bonomi, G.; Calvini, P.; Checchia, P.; Conti, E.; Gonella, F.; Nebbia, G.; Squarcia, S.; Viesti, G.; Zenoni, A.; Zumerle, G.

    2010-08-01

    Experimental tests are reported for the detection of the heavy metal shielding of orphan sources hidden inside scrap metal by using a recently developed muon tomography system. Shielded sources do not trigger alarm in radiation portal commonly employed at the entrance of steel industry using scrap metal. Future systems integrating radiation portals with muon tomography inspection gates will substantially reduce the possibility of accidental melting of radioactive sources securing the use of recycled metal.

  8. A thalium-doped sodium iodide well counter for radioactive tracer applications with naturally-abundant 40K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Andrew J.; Boxall, Colin; Joyce, Malcolm J.; Schotanus, Paul

    2013-09-01

    The use of a thallium-doped sodium-iodide well-type scintillation detector for the assay of the low-activity radioisotope 40K, in open-source potassium chloride aqueous solutions, is described. The hazards, safety concerns and radiowaste generation associated with using open-source radioactive isotopes can present significant difficulties, the use of hot cells and escalated costs in radioanalytical laboratory research. A solution to this is the use of low-hazard alternatives that mimic the migration and dispersion characteristics of notable fission products (in this case 137Cs). The use of NaI(Tl) as a detection medium for naturally-abundant levels of 40K in a range of media is widespread, but the use of 40K as a radioactive tracer has not been reported. The use of such low-activity sources is often complicated by the ability to detect them efficiently. In this paper a scintillator detector designed to detect the naturally-abundant 40K present in potassium chloride in tracer applications is described. Examples of the use of potassium chloride as a tracer are given in the context of ion exchange and electrochemical migration studies, and comparisons in performance are drawn from literature with hyper pure germanium semiconductor detectors, which are more commonly utilised detectors in high-resolution counting applications.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF A ROTARY MICROFILTER FOR RADIOACTIVE WASTE APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M; David Herman, D; Samuel Fink, S

    2008-02-25

    The processing rate of Savannah River Site (SRS) high-level waste decontamination processes are limited by the flow rate of the solid-liquid separation. The baseline process, using a 0.1 micron cross-flow filter, produces {approx}0.02 gpm/sq. ft. of filtrate under expected operating conditions. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) demonstrated significantly higher filter flux for actual waste samples using a small-scale rotary filter. With funding from the U. S. Department of Energy Office of Cleanup Technology, SRNL personnel are evaluating and developing the rotary microfilter for radioactive service at SRS. The authors improved the design for the disks and filter unit to make them suitable for high-level radioactive service. They procured two units using the new design, tested them with simulated SRS wastes, and evaluated the operation of the units. Work to date provides the following conclusions and program status: (1) The authors modified the design of the filter disks to remove epoxy and Ryton{reg_sign}. The new design includes welding both stainless steel and ceramic coated stainless steel filter media to a stainless steel support plate. The welded disks were tested in the full-scale unit. They showed good reliability and met filtrate quality requirements. (2) The authors modified the design of the unit, making installation and removal easier. The new design uses a modular, one-piece filter stack that is removed simply by disassembly of a flange on the upper (inlet) side of the filter housing. All seals and rotary unions are contained within the removable stack. (3) While it is extremely difficult to predict the life of the seal, the vendor representative indicates a minimum of one year in present service conditions is reasonable. Changing the seal face material from silicon-carbide to a graphite-impregnated silicon-carbide is expected to double the life of the seal. Replacement of the current seal with an air seal could increase the lifetime to 5 years

  10. Small-angle Compton Scattering to Determine the Depth of a Radioactive Source in Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Oberer, R. B.; Gunn, C. A.; Chiang, L. G.; Valiga, R. E.; Cantrell, J. A.

    2011-04-01

    A gamma-ray peak in a spectrum is often accompanied by a discontinuity in the Compton continuum at the peak. The Compton continuum results from Compton scattering in the detector. The discontinuity at a peak results from small-angle Compton scattering by the gamma rays in matter situated directly between the gamma-ray source and the detector. The magnitude of this discontinuity with respect to the gamma-ray peak is therefore an indicator of the amount of material or shielding between the gamma-ray source and the detector. This small-angle scattering was used to determine the depth of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) solution standards in a concrete floor mockup. The empirical results of the use of this small-angle scattering discontinuity in a concrete floor experiment will be described. A Monte Carlo calculation of the experiment will also be described. In addition, the depth determined from small-angle scattering was used in conjunction with differential attenuation to more accurately measure the uranium content of the mockup. Following these empirical results, the theory of small-angle scattering will be discussed. The magnitude of the discontinuity compared to the peak count rate is directly related to the depth of the gamma-ray source in matter. This relation can be described by relatively simple mathematical expressions. This is the first instance that we are aware of in which the small-angle Compton scattering has been used to determine the depth of a radioactive source. Furthermore this is the first development of the theoretical expressions for the magnitude of the small-angle scattering discontinuity.

  11. Nuclear microprobe applications to radioactive waste management basic research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trocellier, P.; Badillo, V.; Barré, N.; Bois, L.; Cachoir, C.; Gallien, J. P.; Guilbert, S.; Mercier, F.; Tiffreau, C.

    1999-10-01

    Radioactive waste management is one of the major technical and scientific challenge to be solved by industrialized countries near the beginning of the 21st century. Relevant questions arise about the extrapolation of the long term-behavior of materials from waste package, engineered barriers and near field repository. Whatever the strategical option might be, wet atmosphere or water intrusion through the different barriers constitute the two main remobilization factors for radionuclides in the geosphere and the biosphere. The study of solid alteration processes and elemental sorption phenomena on mineral surfaces is one of the most efficient basic research approaches to assess the long term performance of waste materials. Ion beam analysis and more recently nuclear microprobe techniques have been applied to investigate exchange mechanisms near representative solid/liquid interfaces such as glass/deionized water, uranium dioxide/granitic or clay water or mineral surface/aqueous solution doped with chemical elements analogue to actinide or fission products. This paper intends to describe the different works that have been carried out in Saclay using the nuclear microprobe facility. The coupling of μRBS, μPIXE and μNRA permits to determine the evolution of the surface composition induced by chemical reactions involved. Complementary observation of solid morphology and solution analysis allows to obtain a complete elemental balance on exchange processes.

  12. Neutrino Interactions with Matter by a New Neutrino Source From the Isotope Radioactive Decay Produced by the Proton Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jae Won; Park, Tae-Sun; Kajino, Toshitaka; Cheoun, Myung-Ki

    A new neutrino source for future's neutrino experiments is suggested in this work. Unstable isotope, 27Si, can be produced when 27Al target is bombarded by 15 MeV proton beams. Through the decay of the 27Si, a new electron-neutrino source in the 0-5.0 MeV energy range is obtained. Production of the neutrino source is studied by using GEANT4 code with JENDL-4.0/HE. For radioactive decay processes, we use "G4RadioactiveDecay" model based on the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF). As for the detection system of the new neutrino source, we evaluate reaction or event rates for available radiochemical detectors and LENA type scintillator detector.

  13. Microwave applicator for in-drum processing of radioactive waste slurry

    DOEpatents

    White, Terry L.

    1994-01-01

    A microwave applicator for processing of radioactive waste slurry uses a waveguide network which splits an input microwave of TE.sub.10 rectangular mode to TE.sub.01 circular mode. A cylindrical body has four openings, each receiving 1/4 of the power input. The waveguide network includes a plurality of splitters to effect the 1/4 divisions of power.

  14. [The history of radioactivity and its applications in hygiene and therapy].

    PubMed

    Corrao, Carmela Romana Natalina; Serarcangeli, Carla

    2011-01-01

    Since Antiquity, the observation of matter and its composition has been fascinating for the human mind. It represented the core of philosophical studies since the atomistic theory by Leucippus and Democritus, as well as of the opposed theory of elements by Empedocles, Plato and Aristoteles. Research on the atom, on its spontaneous or artificial disgregation, on the practical application of radioactive substances has strongly influenced daily life and the development of knowledge. Products containing radioactive substances have been used, often without regulation or control, in many scientific fields, as well as in medicine and cosmetics.

  15. The application of Quadtree algorithm to information integration for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Min; Huang, Shutao; Zhong, Xia

    2009-09-01

    The establishment of multi-source database was designed to promote the informatics process of the geological disposal of High-level Radioactive Waste, the integration of multi-dimensional and multi-source information and its application are related to computer software and hardware. Based on the analysis of data resources in Beishan area, Gansu Province, and combined with GIS technologies and methods. This paper discusses the technical ideas of how to manage, fully share and rapidly retrieval the information resources in this area by using open source code GDAL and Quadtree algorithm, especially in terms of the characteristics of existing data resources, spatial data retrieval algorithm theory, programming design and implementation of the ideas.

  16. The application of Quadtree algorithm to information integration for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Min; Huang, Shutao; Zhong, Xia

    2010-11-01

    The establishment of multi-source database was designed to promote the informatics process of the geological disposal of High-level Radioactive Waste, the integration of multi-dimensional and multi-source information and its application are related to computer software and hardware. Based on the analysis of data resources in Beishan area, Gansu Province, and combined with GIS technologies and methods. This paper discusses the technical ideas of how to manage, fully share and rapidly retrieval the information resources in this area by using open source code GDAL and Quadtree algorithm, especially in terms of the characteristics of existing data resources, spatial data retrieval algorithm theory, programming design and implementation of the ideas.

  17. Source term evaluation model for high-level radioactive waste repository with decay chain build-up.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Manish; Sunny, Faby; Oza, R B

    2016-09-18

    A source term model based on two-component leach flux concept is developed for a high-level radioactive waste repository. The long-lived radionuclides associated with high-level waste may give rise to the build-up of activity because of radioactive decay chains. The ingrowths of progeny are incorporated in the model using Bateman decay chain build-up equations. The model is applied to different radionuclides present in the high-level radioactive waste, which form a part of decay chains (4n to 4n + 3 series), and the activity of the parent and daughter radionuclides leaching out of the waste matrix is estimated. Two cases are considered: one when only parent is present initially in the waste and another where daughters are also initially present in the waste matrix. The incorporation of in situ production of daughter radionuclides in the source is important to carry out realistic estimates. It is shown that the inclusion of decay chain build-up is essential to avoid underestimation of the radiological impact assessment of the repository. The model can be a useful tool for evaluating the source term of the radionuclide transport models used for the radiological impact assessment of high-level radioactive waste repositories.

  18. Children's Ideas about Radioactivity and Radiation: sources, modes of travel, uses and dangers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyes, Edward; Stanisstreet, Martin

    1994-01-01

    The understanding concerning radioactivity and radiation of pupils ages 11-16 was studied using a closed-form questionnaire with a large cohort of children and interviews with subsets of this group. A majority of children demonstrated confusion about the environmental impacts of radioactivity and radiation. (LZ)

  19. Children's Ideas about Radioactivity and Radiation: sources, modes of travel, uses and dangers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyes, Edward; Stanisstreet, Martin

    1994-01-01

    The understanding concerning radioactivity and radiation of pupils ages 11-16 was studied using a closed-form questionnaire with a large cohort of children and interviews with subsets of this group. A majority of children demonstrated confusion about the environmental impacts of radioactivity and radiation. (LZ)

  20. RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE USSR: A REVIEW OF UNCLASSIFIED SOURCES, 1963-1990

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, D. J.; Schneider, K. J.

    1990-03-01

    year capacity as the first of several modules, was about 30% completed by July 1989. The completion of this plant was subsequently "indefinitely postponed." The initial reprocessing scheme at the Kyshtym site used sodium uranyl acetate precipitation from fuel dissolved in nitric acid solutions. The basic method~ ology now appears to be based on the conventional PUREX process. Dry reprocessing on a pilot or laboratory scale has been under way in Dimitrovgrad since 1984, and a larger unit is now being built, according to the French CEA. Perhaps significantly, much research is being done on partitioning high-level waste into element fractions. The Soviets appear to have the technology to remove radioactive noble gases released during reprocessing operations; however, there are no indications of its implementation. Millions of curies of liquid low- and intermediate-level wastes have been disposed of by well injection into underground areas where they were supposedly contained by watertight rock strata. Some gaseous wastes were also disposed of by well injection. This practice is not referred to in recent literature and thus may not be widely used today. Rather, it appears that these waste streams are now first treated to reduce volume, and then solidified using bitumen or concrete. These solidified liquid wastes from Soviet nuclear power reactor operations, along with solid wastes, are disposed of in shallow-land burial sites located at most large power reactor stations. In addition, 35 shallow-land burial sites have been alluded to by the Soviets for disposal of industrial, medical, and research low-level wastes as well as ionization sources. Research on tritium-bearing and other gaseous wastes is mentioned, as well as a waste minimization program aimed at reducing the volume of waste streams by 30%. The Soviets have announced that their high-level waste management plan is to 1) store liquid wastes for 3-5 years; 2) incorporate the waste into glass (at a final glass

  1. Handling of Highly Radioactive Radiation Sources in a Hot Cell Using a Mechanically Driven Cell Crane - 13452

    SciTech Connect

    Klute, Stefan; Huber, Wolfgang-Bruno

    2013-07-01

    In 2010, Siempelkamp Nukleartechnik GmbH was awarded the contract for design and erection of a Hot Cell for handling and storage of highly radioactive radiation sources. This Hot Cell is part of a new hot cell laboratory, constructed for the NHZ (Neues Handhabungszentrum = New Handling Center) of the Nuclear Engineering Seibersdorf GmbH (NES). All incurring radioactive materials from Austria are collected in the NHZ, where they are safely conditioned and stored temporarily until their final storage. The main tasks of the NES include, apart from the collection, conditioning and storage of radioactive waste, also the reprocessing and the decontamination of facilities and laboratories originating from 45 years of research and development at the Seibersdorf site as well as the operation of the Hot Cell Laboratory [1]. The new Hot Cell Laboratory inside the NHZ consists of the following room areas: - One hot cell, placed in the center, for remote controlled, radiation protected handling of radioactive materials, including an integrated floor storage for the long-term temporary storage of highly radioactive radiation sources; - An anteroom for the loading and unloading of the hot cell; - One control room for the remote controlling of the hot cell equipment; - One floor storage, placed laterally to the hot cell, for burial, interim storage and removal of fissionable radioactive material in leak-proof packed units in 100 l drums. The specific design activity of the hot cell of 1.85 Pbq relating to 1-Me-Radiator including the integrated floor storage influences realization and design of the components used in the cell significantly. (authors)

  2. Effects of source rocks, soil features and climate on natural gamma radioactivity in the Crati valley (Calabria, Southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Guagliardi, Ilaria; Rovella, Natalia; Apollaro, Carmine; Bloise, Andrea; De Rosa, Rosanna; Scarciglia, Fabio; Buttafuoco, Gabriele

    2016-05-01

    The study, which represents an innovative scientific strategy to approach the study of natural radioactivity in terms of spatial and temporal variability, was aimed to characterize the background levels of natural radionuclides in soil and rock in the urban and peri-urban soil of a southern Italy area; to quantify their variations due to radionuclide bearing minerals and soil properties, taking into account nature and extent of seasonality influence. Its main novelty is taking into account the effect of climate in controlling natural gamma radioactivity as well as analysing soil radioactivity in terms of soil properties and pedogenetic processes. In different bedrocks and soils, activities of natural radionuclides ((238)U, (232)Th (4) K) and total radioactivity were measured at 181 locations by means of scintillation γ-ray spectrometry. In addition, selected rocks samples were collected and analysed, using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) equipped with an Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) and an X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD), to assess the main sources of radionuclides. The natural-gamma background is intimately related to differing petrologic features of crystalline source rocks and to peculiar pedogenetic features and processes. The radioactivity survey was conducted during two different seasons with marked changes in the main climatic characteristics, namely dry summer and moist winter, to evaluate possible effects of seasonal climatic variations and soil properties on radioactivity measurements. Seasonal variations of radionuclides activities show their peak values in summer. The activities of (238)U, (232)Th and (4) K exhibit a positive correlation with the air temperature and are negatively correlated with precipitations.

  3. Global threat reduction initiative efforts to address transportation challenges associated with the recovery of disused radioactive sealed sources - 10460

    SciTech Connect

    Whitworth, Julie; Abeyta, Cristy L; Griffin, Justin M; Matzke, James L; Pearson, Michael W; Cuthbertson, Abigail; Rawl, Richard; Singley, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Proper disposition of disused radioactive sources is essential for their safe and secure management and necessary to preclude their use in malicious activities. Without affordable, timely transportation options, disused sealed sources remain in storage at hundreds of sites throughout the country and around the world. While secure storage is a temporary measure, the longer sources remain disused or unwanted the chances increase that they will become unsecured or abandoned. The Global Threat Reduction Initiative's Off-Site Source Recovery Project (GTRIlOSRP), recovers thousands of disused and unwanted sealed sources annually as part of GTRl's larger mission to reduce and protect high risk nuclear and radiological materials located at civilian sites worldwide. Faced with decreasing availability of certified transportation containers to support movement of disused and unwanted neutron- and beta/gamma-emitting radioactive sealed sources, GTRIlOSRP has initiated actions to ensure the continued success of the project in timely recovery and management of sealed radioactive sources. Efforts described in this paper to enhance transportation capabilities include: {sm_bullet} Addition of authorized content to existing and planned Type B containers to support the movement of non-special form and other Type B-quantity sealed sources; {sm_bullet} Procurement of vendor services for the design, development, testing and certification of a new Type B container to support transportation of irradiators, teletherapy heads or sources removed from these devices using remote handling capabilities such as the IAEA portable hot cell facility; {sm_bullet} Expansion of shielded Type A container inventory for transportation of gamma-emitting sources in activity ranges requiring use of shielding for conformity with transportation requirements; {sm_bullet} Approval of the S300 Type A fissile container for transport of Pu-239 sealed sources internationally; {sm_bullet} Technology transfer of field

  4. A geostatistical approach to data harmonization - Application to radioactivity exposure data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baume, O.; Skøien, J. O.; Heuvelink, G. B. M.; Pebesma, E. J.; Melles, S. J.

    2011-06-01

    Environmental issues such as air, groundwater pollution and climate change are frequently studied at spatial scales that cross boundaries between political and administrative regions. It is common for different administrations to employ different data collection methods. If these differences are not taken into account in spatial interpolation procedures then biases may appear and cause unrealistic results. The resulting maps may show misleading patterns and lead to wrong interpretations. Also, errors will propagate when these maps are used as input to environmental process models. In this paper we present and apply a geostatistical model that generalizes the universal kriging model such that it can handle heterogeneous data sources. The associated best linear unbiased estimation and prediction (BLUE and BLUP) equations are presented and it is shown that these lead to harmonized maps from which estimated biases are removed. The methodology is illustrated with an example of country bias removal in a radioactivity exposure assessment for four European countries. The application also addresses multicollinearity problems in data harmonization, which arise when both artificial bias factors and natural drifts are present and cannot easily be distinguished. Solutions for handling multicollinearity are suggested and directions for further investigations proposed.

  5. Source team evaluation for radioactive low-level waste disposal performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Cowgill, M.G.; Sullivan, T.M.

    1993-01-01

    Information compiled on the low-level radioactive waste disposed at the three currently operating commercial disposal sites during the period 1987--1989 have been reviewed and processed in order to determine the total activity distribution in terms of waste stream, waste classification and waste form. The review identified deficiencies in the information currently being recorded on shipping manifests and the development of a uniform manifest is recommended (the NRC is currently developing a rule to establish a uniform manifest). The data from waste disposed during 1989 at one of the sites (Richland, WA) were more detailed than the data available during other years and at other sites, and thus were amenable to a more in-depth treatment. This included determination of the distribution of activity for each radionuclide by waste form, and thus enabled these data to be evaluated in terms of the specific needs for improved modeling of releases from waste packages. From the results, preliminary lists have been prepared of the isotopes which might be the most significant from the aspect of the development of a source term model.

  6. The source of solar energy, ca. 1840-1910: From meteoric hypothesis to radioactive speculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kragh, Helge

    2016-12-01

    Why does the Sun shine? Today we know the answer to the question and we also know that earlier answers were quite wrong. The problem of the source of solar energy became an important part of physics and astronomy only with the emergence of the law of energy conservation in the 1840s. The first theory of solar heat based on the new law, due to J.R. Mayer, assumed the heat to be the result of meteors or asteroids falling into the Sun. A different and more successful version of gravitation-to-heat energy conversion was proposed by H. Helmholtz in 1854 and further developed by W. Thomson. For more than forty years the once so celebrated Helmholtz-Thomson contraction theory was accepted as the standard theory of solar heat despite its prediction of an age of the Sun of only 20 million years. In between the gradual demise of this theory and the radically different one based on nuclear processes there was a period in which radioactivity was considered a possible alternative to gravitational contraction. The essay discusses various pre-nuclear ideas of solar energy production, including the broader relevance of the question as it was conceived in the Victorian era.

  7. Poster — Thur Eve — 41: Considerations for Patients with Permanently Implant Radioactive Sources Requiring Unrelated Surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Basran, P. S; Beckham, WA; Baxter, P

    2014-08-15

    Permanent implant of sealed radioactive sources is an effective technique for treating cancer. Typically, the radioactive sources are implanted in and near the disease, depositing dose locally over several months. There may be instances where these patients must undergo unrelated surgical procedures when the radioactive material remains active enough to pose risks. This work explores these risks, discusses strategies to mitigate those risks, and describes a case study for a permanent I-125 prostate brachytherapy implant patient who developed colo-rectal cancer and required surgery 6 months after brachytherapy. The first consideration is identifying the risk from unwarranted radiation to the patient and staff before, during, and after the surgical procedure. The second is identifying the risk the surgical procedure may have on the efficacy of the brachytherapy implant. Finally, there are considerations for controlling for radioactive substances from a regulatory perspective. After these risks are defined, strategies to mitigate those risks are considered. These strategies may include applying the concepts of ALARA, the use of protective equipment and developing a best practice strategy with the operating room team. We summarize this experience with some guidelines: If the surgical procedure is near (ex: 5 cm) of the implant; and, the surgical intervention may dislodge radioisotopes enough to compromise treatment or introduces radiation safety risks; and, the radioisotope has not sufficiently decayed to background levels; and, the surgery cannot be postponed, then a detailed analysis of risk is advised.

  8. Real breakthrough in detection of radioactive sources by portal monitors with plastic detectors and New Advanced Source Identification Algorithm (ASIA-New)

    SciTech Connect

    Stavrov, Andrei; Yamamoto, Eugene

    2015-07-01

    Radiation Portal Monitors (RPM) with plastic detectors represent the main instruments used for primary border (customs) radiation control. RPM are widely used because they are simple, reliable, relatively inexpensive and have a high sensitivity. However, experience using the RPM in various countries has revealed the systems have some grave shortcomings. There is a dramatic decrease of the probability of detection of radioactive sources under high suppression of the natural gamma background (radiation control of heavy cargoes, containers and, especially, trains). NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material) existing in objects under control trigger the so-called 'nuisance alarms', requiring a secondary inspection for source verification. At a number of sites, the rate of such alarms is so high it significantly complicates the work of customs and border officers. This paper presents a brief description of new variant of algorithm ASIA-New (New Advanced Source Identification Algorithm), which was developed by the Rapiscan company. It also demonstrates results of different tests and the capability of a new system to overcome the shortcomings stated above. New electronics and ASIA-New enables RPM to detect radioactive sources under a high background suppression (tested at 15-30%) and to verify the detected NORM (KCl) and the artificial isotopes (Co- 57, Ba-133 and other). New variant of ASIA is based on physical principles, a phenomenological approach and analysis of some important parameter changes during the vehicle passage through the monitor control area. Thanks to this capability main advantage of new system is that this system can be easily installed into any RPM with plastic detectors. Taking into account that more than 4000 RPM has been installed worldwide their upgrading by ASIA-New may significantly increase probability of detection and verification of radioactive sources even masked by NORM. This algorithm was tested for 1,395 passages of different

  9. Laser sources for lidar applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilmer, J.; Iadevaia, A.; Yin, Y.

    2012-06-01

    Advanced LIDAR applications such as next gen: Micro Pulse; Time of Flight (e.g., Satellite Laser Ranging); Coherent and Incoherent Doppler (e.g., Wind LIDAR); High Spectral Resolution; Differential Absorption (DIAL); photon counting LIDAR (e.g., 3D LIDAR); are placing more demanding requirements on conventional lasers (e.g., increased rep rates, etc.) and have inspired the development of new types of laser sources. Today, solid state lasers are used for wind sensing, 2D laser Radar, 3D scanning and flash LIDAR. In this paper, we report on the development of compact, highly efficient, high power all-solidstate diode pulsed pumped ns lasers, as well as, high average power/high pulse energy sub nanosecond (<1ns) and picosecond (<100ps) lasers for these next gen LIDAR applications.

  10. Radioactive waste management in the USSR: A review of unclassified sources. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, D.J.

    1991-03-01

    The Soviet Union does not currently have an overall radioactive waste management program or national laws that define objectives, procedures, and standards, although such a law is being developed, according to the Soviets. Occupational health and safety does not appear to receive major attention as it does in Western nations. In addition, construction practices that would be considered marginal in Western facilities show up in Soviet nuclear power and waste management operations. The issues involved with radioactive waste management and environmental restoration are being investigated at several large Soviet institutes; however, there is little apparent interdisciplinary integration between them, or interaction with the USSR Academy of Sciences. It is expected that a consensus on technical solutions will be achieved, but it may be slow in coming, especially for final disposal of high-level radioactive wastes and environmental restoration of contaminated areas. Meanwhile, many treatment, solidification, and disposal options for radioactive waste management are being investigated by the Soviets.

  11. Radioactive waste management in the USSR: A review of unclassified sources

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, D.J.

    1991-03-01

    The Soviet Union does not currently have an overall radioactive waste management program or national laws that define objectives, procedures, and standards, although such a law is being developed, according to the Soviets. Occupational health and safety does not appear to receive major attention as it does in Western nations. In addition, construction practices that would be considered marginal in Western facilities show up in Soviet nuclear power and waste management operations. The issues involved with radioactive waste management and environmental restoration are being investigated at several large Soviet institutes; however, there is little apparent interdisciplinary integration between them, or interaction with the USSR Academy of Sciences. It is expected that a consensus on technical solutions will be achieved, but it may be slow in coming, especially for final disposal of high-level radioactive wastes and environmental restoration of contaminated areas. Meanwhile, many treatment, solidification, and disposal options for radioactive waste management are being investigated by the Soviets.

  12. Radioactive ion beams for biomedical research and nuclear medical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, G. J.

    2000-12-01

    In this article a review is given on the research strategies, on experimental work and application of ISOLDE produced radionuclides used in the field of biomedicine over a period of more than 2 decades. Special attention will be directed to the radio-lanthanides for several reasons: firstly, the radio-lanthanides are three-valent metallic radionuclides which show any radiation properties we wish (single photon emission suitable for SPECT, positron emission suitable for PET, β-- and Auger electron emission suitable for therapy). Even the alpha decay mode (suitable for therapy in selected cases) is available in the lanthanide group. Secondly, the 15 lanthanides can be seen chemically as one single element for labelling of tracer molecules, providing the unique possibility to study systematically relationships between physico-chemical molecule parameter and a biological response without changes in the basic tracer molecule. Very recent developments in bioconjugation chemistry call for three-valent metallic radionuclides for all kinds of nuclear medical application: diagnosis, in vivo dosimetry and radionuclide therapy where the rare-earth elements will play an important role in future.

  13. The application of metal cutting technologies in tasks performed in radioactive environments

    SciTech Connect

    Fogle, R.F.; Younkins, R.M.

    1997-05-01

    The design and use of equipment to perform work in radioactive environments is uniquely challenging. Some tasks require that the equipment be operated by a person wearing a plastic suit or full face respirator and donning several pairs of rubber gloves. Other applications may require that the equipment be remotely controlled. Other important, design considerations include material compatibility, mixed waste issues, tolerance to ionizing radiation, size constraints and weight capacities. As always, there is the ``We need it ASAP`` design criteria. This paper describes four applications where different types of metal cutting technologies were used to successfully perform tasks in radioactive environments. The technologies include a plasma cutting torch, a grinder with an abrasive disk, a hydraulic shear, and a high pressure abrasive water jet cutter.

  14. Mössbauer and Raman spectroscopy characterization of concretes used in the conditioning of spent radioactive sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monroy-Guzman, F.; González-Neri, M.; González-Díaz, R. C.; Ortíz-Arcivar, G.; Corona-Pérez, I. J.; Nava, N.; Cabral-Prieto, A.; Escobar-Alarcón, L.

    2015-06-01

    Spent radioactive sources are considered a type of radioactive waste which must be stored properly. These sources are usually conditioned in concrete that functions as shield and physical barrier to prevent the potential migration of radionuclides, and must have suitable properties: mechanical, thermal or irradiation resistance. Concretes used in the conditioning of spent radioactive source in Mexico were tested, preparing concrete test specimens with Portland cement CPC 30RS EXTRA CEMEX and aggregates, and subjected to compression strength, γ-ray-irradiation and thermal resistance assays and subsequently analyzed by Mössbauer and Raman Spectroscopies as well as by Scanning Electron Microscopy, in order to correlate the radiation and temperature effects on the compressive strengths, the oxidation states of iron and the structural features of the concrete. Iron was found in the concrete in Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ in the tetrahedral (T) and two octahedral positions (O1, O2). Radiolysis of water causes the dehydratation (200-600 kGy) and rehydratation (1000-10000 kGy) of calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H) and ferric hydrate phases in concretes and structural distortion around the iron sites in concretes. The compressive strength of concretes are not significantly affected by γ-radiation or heat.

  15. 76 FR 53980 - Request for a License To Import Radioactive Waste

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... COMMISSION Request for a License To Import Radioactive Waste Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70 (b) ``Public Notice of... application No. docket No. GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy, LLC. Radioactive waste Up to 210 Cobalt- Recycling... sources. or storage and radioactive Combined total disposition. sealed sources. activity level for all...

  16. Microwave applicator for in-drum processing of radioactive waste slurry

    DOEpatents

    White, T.L.

    1994-06-28

    A microwave applicator for processing of radioactive waste slurry uses a waveguide network which splits an input microwave of TE[sub 10] rectangular mode to TE[sub 01] circular mode. A cylindrical body has four openings, each receiving 1/4 of the power input. The waveguide network includes a plurality of splitters to effect the 1/4 divisions of power. 4 figures.

  17. Transport of radioactive droplet moisture from a source in a nuclear power plant spray pond

    SciTech Connect

    Elokhin, A.P.

    1995-11-01

    In addition to a change in the microclimate in the region surrounding a nuclear power plant resulting from the emission of vapor form a cooling tower, evaporation of water from the water surface of a cooling pond or a spray pond, in the latter case direct radioactive contamination of the underlying surface around the nuclear power plant can also occur due to discharge of process water (radioactive) into the pond and its transport in the air over a certain distance in the form of droplet moisture. A typical example may be the situation at the Zaporozhe nuclear power plant in 1986 when accidental discharge of process water into the cooling pond occurred. Below we present a solution for the problem of transport of droplet moisture taking into account its evaporation, which may be used to estimate the scale of radioactive contamination of the locality.

  18. Environmental radioactivity measurements and applications - Difficulties, current status and future trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anagnostakis, Marios J.

    2015-11-01

    For several decades natural and artificial radioactivity in the environment have been extensively studied all around the world. Nuclear accidents - mainly that of Chernobyl - have led to the development of the field of radioecology, while detector systems and techniques - with predominant that of γ-spectrometry - have been continuously developed through the years to meet researchers' needs. The study of natural radionuclides that was originally limited to 226Ra, 232Th and 40K was then extended to include radionuclides such as 234Th, 210Pb, 235U and 7Be, which allowed the study of radioactive equilibrium. Besides their importance from the radiation protection point of view, many radionuclides are also used as tracers of environmental processes, such as aerosol and transportation of air masses studies (7Be, 10Be, 22Na), soil erosion, sedimentation and geochronology (210Pb, 137Cs), marine ecosystems studies and studies related to climate change. All these studies require specialized samplings strategies and sampling preparation techniques as well as high quality measurements, while the improvement of detection limits is often of vital importance. This work is a review of environmental radioactivity measurements and applications, mainly focused in the field of γ-spectrometry, for which difficulties and limitations will be presented, together with future trends, new challenges and applications.

  19. A Small Radioactive Source in a Large Media - Localization by Multi-detector Measurement. The Case of a Lung Counter

    SciTech Connect

    Alfassi, Z. B.; Pelled, O.; German, U.

    2008-08-14

    Considerable errors in the determination of radioactive contamination in lungs can be induced if there is no homogeneous distribution, as assumed for the calibration. Modern lung counter systems use several detectors, and the count rate ratios of the detectors can be used for localization of the radioactive contamination, enabling the use of correction algorithms. This greatly reduces the errors in the determination of the activity. Further reduction of the errors can be obtained by simultaneous analysis of several gamma lines (if several energies are emitted by the radioisotope), and by optimizing the number and location of the detectors. This presentation deals with the case of a point source of natural uranium in human lungs.

  20. Radioactive preparations with high specific activity and gamma-sources on their base

    SciTech Connect

    Chesanov, V.V.; Demchenko, N.F.; Karasev, V.T.

    1993-12-31

    According to expert`s estimations, the following radionuclides and specific activities will be in great demand in the future: cobalt 60 (400-500Ci/g), iridium 192 (500-800 Ci/g), ytterbium 169 (800-1000 Ci/g), thullium 170 (700-800 Ci/g), selenium 75 (500-800 Ci/g), antimony 124 (30-40 Ci/g), and gadolinium 153 (not less than 50 Ci/g). In addition, the Phosphorus 33 radionuclide preparations with specific activity more than 100,000 Ci/g applied in biochemical investigations are in considerable demand. This paper discusses the investigations and developmental results performed with the preparation and sources of the mentioned radionuclides. Applications are also discussed. All medical and industrial sources are safe and reliable and do not contaminate the environment. Due to ISO 2919-80 classification they are assigned to special form substances.

  1. Some biomedical applications of Balanites aegyptiaca grown naturally in radioactive area, Southeastern Desert, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Morsy, A M A; Ahmad, I A; Kamel, A M

    2010-06-15

    Balanites aegyptiaca is a naturally grown desert plant at some radioactive places in Wadi El-Gemal area, Southeastern Desert. The aim of the present study was to highlight on the B. aegyptiaca species grown naturally at radioactive places in Wadi El-Gemal area (fruit part) on the ability of using the fruit in some biomedical application (glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and diabetes). The investigated plant was collected from different location at Wadi El-Gemal area. The uranium content was determined previously and different concentrations from the fruit with highest uranium content were used to examine the effect of B. aegyptiaca (fruit part) on the glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol (HDL and LDL-cholesterol) levels using experimental rats. Different analysis techniques were used in order to determine different parameters. The obtained data suggest the beneficial role of B. aegyptiaca fruit as an anti-diabetic and hypo-lipidimic agent.

  2. Radioactivity in HgCdTe devices: potential source of "snowballs"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCullough, P.

    2009-12-01

    We hypothesize that the "snowballs" observed in HgCdTe infrared detectors are caused by natural radioactivity in the devices themselves. As characterized by Hilbert (2009) in the WFC3 flight IR array (FPA165), "snowballs" are transient events that instantaneously saturate a few pixels and deposit a few hundred thousand electrons over a ~5-pixel (~100-um) diameter region. In 2008, prior to flight of detector FPA165, Hilbert (2009) detected 21 snowballs during thermal vaccum test three (TV3) and inferred a rate of ~1100 ± 200 snowballs per year per cm2 of the HgCdTe detector. Alpha particles emitted from either (or both) naturally radioactive thorium and/or uranium, at ~1 ppm concentrations within the device, can explain the observed characteristics of the "snowballs." If thorium is present, up to four distinctly observable snowballs should appear at the same location on the pixel array over the course of many years. While the indium in the bump bonds is almost entirely the radioactive isotope In-115, and 12% of the cadmium is naturally radioactive Cd-113, both of those emit only betas, which are too penetrating and not energetic enough to match the observed characteristics of "snowballs." Also, the Cd-113 emission rate is much less than that of the observed snowballs.

  3. Streamtube Fate and Transport Modeling of the Source Term for the Old Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, K.

    2000-11-16

    The modeling described in this report is an extension of previous fate and transport modeling for the Old Radioactive Waste Burial Ground Corrective Measures Study/Feasibility Study. The purpose of this and the previous modeling is to provide quantitative input to the screening of remedial alternatives for the CMS/FS for this site.

  4. Specific radioactivity of neutron induced radioisotopes: assessment methods and application for medically useful 177Lu production as a case.

    PubMed

    Le, Van So

    2011-01-19

    The conventional reaction yield evaluation for radioisotope production is not sufficient to set up the optimal conditions for producing radionuclide products of the desired radiochemical quality. Alternatively, the specific radioactivity (SA) assessment, dealing with the relationship between the affecting factors and the inherent properties of the target and impurities, offers a way to optimally perform the irradiation for production of the best quality radioisotopes for various applications, especially for targeting radiopharmaceutical preparation. Neutron-capture characteristics, target impurity, side nuclear reactions, target burn-up and post-irradiation processing/cooling time are the main parameters affecting the SA of the radioisotope product. These parameters have been incorporated into the format of mathematical equations for the reaction yield and SA assessment. As a method demonstration, the SA assessment of 177Lu produced based on two different reactions, 176Lu (n,γ)177Lu and 176Yb (n,γ) 177Yb (β- decay) 177Lu, were performed. The irradiation time required for achieving a maximum yield and maximum SA value was evaluated for production based on the 176Lu (n,γ)177Lu reaction. The effect of several factors (such as elemental Lu and isotopic impurities) on the 177Lu SA degradation was evaluated for production based on the 176Yb (n,γ) 177Yb (β- decay) 177Lu reaction. The method of SA assessment of a mixture of several radioactive sources was developed for the radioisotope produced in a reactor from different targets.

  5. Impact of technology applications to the management of low-level radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Devgun, J.S. )

    1989-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes are generated from reactor sources (nuclear power reactors) as well as from nonreactor sources (academic, medical, governmental, and industrial). In recent years, about 50,000 m{sup 3} per year of such wastes have been generated in the United States and about 10,000 m{sup 3} per year in Canada. Direct disposal of these wastes in shallow ground has been a favored method in both countries in the past. In the United States, three operating commercial sites at Barnwell, South Carolina; Beatty, Nevada; and Richland, Washington, receive most of the commercial low-level waste generated. However, with recent advances in waste management, technologies are being applied to achieve optimum goals in terms of protection of human health and safety and the environment, as well as cost-effectiveness. These technologies must be applied from the generation sources through waste minimization and optimum segregation -- followed by waste processing, conditioning, storage, and disposal. A number of technologies that are available and can be applied as appropriate -- given the physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics of the waste -- include shredding, baling, compaction, supercompaction, decontamination, incineration, chemical treatment/conditioning, immobilization, and packaging. Interim and retrievable storage can be accomplished in a wide variety of storage structures, and several types of engineered disposal facility designs are now available. By applying an integrated approach to radioactive waste management, potential adverse impacts on human health and safety and the environment can be minimized. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  6. The Stimulatory Effects of Topical Application of Radioactive Lantern Mantle Powder on Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, SMJ; Rahmani, MR; Rahnama, A; Saeed-Pour, A; Nouri, E; Hosseini, N; Aghaiee, MM

    2009-01-01

    Some people in different parts of Iran use burned mantles as a wound healing medicine. To perform surface area measurement, twenty rats were divided randomly into two groups of 10 animals each. The 1st group received topical burned radioactive lantern mantle powder at 1st-3rd day after making excision wounds. The 2nd group received non-radioactive lantern mantle powder. For histological study, 36 male rats randomly divided into two groups of 18 animals each. Full thickness excision wound (314±31.4 mm2) was made on the dorsal neck in all animals after inducing general anesthesia. For the first 3 days, cases received topical application of the radioactive lantern mantle powder. Finally, to measure the tensile strength, an incision was made on the dorsal neck of the rats. Surface area measurement of the wounds showed a progressive surface reduction in both groups. Histological study showed a significant statistically difference between cases and controls with respect to fibrinoid necrosis and neutrophilic exudate at the days 3 and 14. Considering the existence of granulation tissue, a significant difference was observed between case and control groups at days 3 and 7. Tensile strength study showed no significant difference between the cases and controls until 30 days after excision. PMID:19543481

  7. APPLICATION FO FLOW FORMING FOR USE IN RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING DESIGNS

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.; Abramczyk, G.

    2012-07-11

    This paper reports on the development and testing performed to demonstrate the use of flow forming as an alternate method of manufacturing containment vessels for use in radioactive material shipping packaging designs. Additionally, ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, Subsection NB compliance along with the benefits compared to typical welding of containment vessels will be discussed. SRNL has completed fabrication development and the testing on flow formed containment vessels to demonstrate the use of flow forming as an alternate method of manufacturing a welded 6-inch diameter containment vessel currently used in the 9975 and 9977 radioactive material shipping packaging. Material testing and nondestructive evaluation of the flow formed parts demonstrate compliance to the minimum material requirements specified in applicable parts of ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section II. Destructive burst testing shows comparable results to that of a welded design. The benefits of flow forming as compared to typical welding of containment vessels are significant: dimensional control is improved due to no weld distortion; less final machining; weld fit-up issues associated with pipes and pipe caps are eliminated; post-weld non-destructive testing (i.e., radiography and die penetrant tests) is not necessary; and less fabrication steps are required. Results presented in this paper indicate some of the benefits in adapting flow forming to design of future radioactive material shipping packages containment vessels.

  8. Fluidic, Inc Minor New Source Permit Application

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Documents related to the Minor New Source Review Permit for Fluidic, Inc, Salt River Pima-Maricopa, near Scottsdale, AZ. This is an application for a Tribal Minor New Source Review (NSR) Permit that is currently under review.

  9. User`s Manual for the SOURCE1 and SOURCE2 Computer Codes: Models for Evaluating Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility Source Terms (Version 2.0)

    SciTech Connect

    Icenhour, A.S.; Tharp, M.L.

    1996-08-01

    The SOURCE1 and SOURCE2 computer codes calculate source terms (i.e. radionuclide release rates) for performance assessments of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. SOURCE1 is used to simulate radionuclide releases from tumulus-type facilities. SOURCE2 is used to simulate releases from silo-, well-, well-in-silo-, and trench-type disposal facilities. The SOURCE codes (a) simulate the degradation of engineered barriers and (b) provide an estimate of the source term for LLW disposal facilities. This manual summarizes the major changes that have been effected since the codes were originally developed.

  10. Source holder collimator for encapsulating radioactive material and collimating the emanations from the material

    DOEpatents

    Laurer, G.R.

    1974-01-22

    This invention provides a transportable device capable of detecting normal levels of a trace element, such as lead in a doughnutshaped blood sample by x-ray fluorescence with a minimum of sample preparation in a relatively short analyzing time. In one embodiment, the blood is molded into a doughnut-shaped sample around an annular array of low-energy radioactive material that is at the center of the doughnut-shaped sample but encapsulated in a collimator, the latter shielding a detector that is close to the sample and facing the same so that the detector receives secondary emissions from the sample while the collimator collimates ths primary emissions from the radioactive material to direct these emissions toward the sample around 360 deg and away from the detector. (Official Gazette)

  11. Methods and Data Used to Investigate Polonium-210 as a Source of Excess Gross-Alpha Radioactivity in Ground Water, Churchill County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seiler, Ralph L.

    2007-01-01

    Ground water is the major source of drinking water in the Carson River Basin, California and Nevada. Previous studies have shown that uranium and gross-alpha radioactivities in ground water can be greater than U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Levels, particularly in the Carson Desert, Churchill County, Nevada. Studies also have shown that the primary source of the gross-alpha radioactivity and alpha-emitting radionuclides in ground water is the dissolution of uranium-rich granitic rocks and basin-fill sediments that have their origins in the Sierra Nevada. However, ground water sampled from some wells in the Carson Desert had gross-alpha radioactivities greater than could be accounted for by the decay of dissolved uranium. The occurrence of polonium-210 (Po-210) was hypothesized to explain the higher than expected gross-alpha radioactivities. This report documents and describes the study design, field and analytical methods, and data used to determine whether Po-210 is the source of excess gross-alpha radioactivity in ground water underlying the Carson Desert in and around Fallon, Nevada. Specifically, this report presents: 1) gross alpha and uranium radioactivities for 100 wells sampled from June to September 2001; and 2) pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, and Po-210 radioactivity for 25 wells sampled in April and June 2007. Results of quality-control samples for the 2007 dataset are also presented.

  12. Process for decontaminating radioactive liquids using a calcium cyanamide-containing composition. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Silver, G.L.

    1980-09-24

    The present invention provides a process for decontaminating a radioactive liquid containing a radioactive element capable of forming a hydroxide. This process includes the steps of contacting the radioactive liquid with a decontaminating composition and separating the resulting radioactive sludge from the resulting liquid. The decontaminating composition contains calcium cyanamide.

  13. Radiological protection, safety and security issues in the industrial and medical applications of radiation sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz, Pedro

    2015-11-01

    The use of radiation sources, namely radioactive sealed or unsealed sources and particle accelerators and beams is ubiquitous in the industrial and medical applications of ionizing radiation. Besides radiological protection of the workers, members of the public and patients in routine situations, the use of radiation sources involves several aspects associated to the mitigation of radiological or nuclear accidents and associated emergency situations. On the other hand, during the last decade security issues became burning issues due to the potential malevolent uses of radioactive sources for the perpetration of terrorist acts using RDD (Radiological Dispersal Devices), RED (Radiation Exposure Devices) or IND (Improvised Nuclear Devices). A stringent set of international legally and non-legally binding instruments, regulations, conventions and treaties regulate nowadays the use of radioactive sources. In this paper, a review of the radiological protection issues associated to the use of radiation sources in the industrial and medical applications of ionizing radiation is performed. The associated radiation safety issues and the prevention and mitigation of incidents and accidents are discussed. A comprehensive discussion of the security issues associated to the global use of radiation sources for the aforementioned applications and the inherent radiation detection requirements will be presented. Scientific, technical, legal, ethical, socio-economic issues are put forward and discussed.

  14. DRINK: a biogeochemical source term model for low level radioactive waste disposal sites.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, P; McGarry, R; Hoffmann, A; Binks, P

    1997-07-01

    Interactions between element chemistry and the ambient geochemistry play a significant role in the control of radionuclide migration in the geosphere. These same interactions influence radionuclide release from near surface, low level radioactive waste, disposal sites once physical containment has degraded. In situations where LLW contains significant amounts of metal and organic materials such as cellulose, microbial degradation in conjunction with corrosion can significantly perturb the ambient geochemistry. These processes typically produce a transition from oxidising to reducing conditions and can influence radionuclide migration through changes in both the dominant radionuclide species and mineral phases. The DRINK (DRIgg Near field Kinetic) code is a biogeochemical transport code designed to simulate the long term evolution of the UK low level radioactive waste disposal site at Drigg. Drigg is the UK's principal solid low level radioactive waste disposal site and has been receiving waste since 1959. The interaction between microbial activity, the ambient geochemistry and radionuclide chemistry is central to the DRINK approach with the development of the ambient pH, redox potential and bulk geochemistry being directly influenced by microbial activity. This paper describes the microbial aspects of the code, site data underpinning the microbial model, the microbiology/chemistry interface and provides an example of the code in action.

  15. Characterization and geographic location of sources of radioactivity lost downhole in the course of oil and gas exploration and production activities in Texas, 1956 to 2001.

    PubMed

    Patlovich, S; Emery, R J; Whitehead, L W

    2005-11-01

    Case reports describing sources of radioactivity lost downhole in Texas from 1956 to 2001 were obtained from the Texas Department of Health Bureau of Radiation Control and entered into a computerized database. The events of the 45-y period of analysis were characterized, examining aspects such as source type, amount of activity, location of loss, depth, and date of occurrence. Results of the study found that 316 downhole source incidents were reported to the agency during this period of time, representing a total of 426 distinct sources of radioactivity lost downhole within the boundaries of the State of Texas. The sources lost were predominantly AmBe, accounting for 74 TBq of radioactivity at the time of loss, and Cs, accounting for 16.3 TBq of radioactivity. A longitudinal analysis of the data showed the average loss per active oil and gas rig in Texas (known as "rig count") at approximately 24 losses per 1,000 rigs. Specific geographic information was largely missing from many of the records, which prevented the geolocation of wells described to contain lost radioactive sources. As a result, most wells could only be located to the county level, and no comprehensive geographical information system (GIS) map could be accurately created from the data. However, when available, source location information was standardized to permit the characterization of the sources reported as lost. This effort produced the first dedicated compendium of lost downhole sources for the State of Texas and provides an important source of information for regulatory agencies. The ability to provide prompt information about the fate and location of sources of radioactivity is important to regulatory officials, given the recent concerns about radiation source inventory control in the post 9/11 world as it relates to the possible creation of radiological dispersal devices.

  16. LATIN AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN WORKSHOP ON THE SUSTAINABILITY OF RADIOACTIVE SOURCE PHYSICAL PROTECTION UPGRADES HOSTED IN GUATEMALA

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, Raymond; Watson, Erica E.; Morris, Frederic A.; de Leal, Patty

    2009-10-07

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) reduces and protects vulnerable nuclear and radiological material located at civilian sites worldwide. The GTRI program has worked successfully to remove and protect nuclear and radioactive materials, including orphaned and disused high-activity sources, and is now working to ensure sustainability. Internationally, over 40 countries are cooperating with GTRI to enhance the security of radiological materials. GTRI is now seeking to develop and enhance sustainability by coordinating its resources with those of the partner country, other donor countries, and international organizations such as the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

  17. In situ gamma spectrometry measurements and Monte Carlo computations for the detection of radioactive sources in scrap metal.

    PubMed

    Clouvas, A; Xanthos, S; Takoudis, G; Potiriadis, C; Silva, J

    2005-02-01

    A very limited number of field experiments have been performed to assess the relative radiation detection sensitivities of commercially available equipment used to detect radioactive sources in recycled metal scrap. Such experiments require the cooperation and commitment of considerable resources on the part of vendors of the radiation detection systems and the cooperation of a steel mill or scrap processing facility. The results will unavoidably be specific to the equipment tested at the time, the characteristics of the scrap metal involved in the tests, and to the specific configurations of the scrap containers. Given these limitations, the use of computer simulation for this purpose would be a desirable alternative. With this in mind, this study sought to determine whether Monte Carlo simulation of photon flux energy distributions resulting from a radiation source in metal scrap would be realistic. In the present work, experimental and simulated photon flux energy distributions in the outer part of a truck due to the presence of embedded radioactive sources in the scrap metal load are compared. The experimental photon fluxes are deduced by in situ gamma spectrometry measurements with portable Ge detector and the calculated ones by Monte Carlo simulations with the MCNP code. The good agreement between simulated and measured photon flux energy distributions indicate that the results obtained by the Monte Carlo simulations are realistic.

  18. RADIO-ACTIVE TRANSDUCER

    DOEpatents

    Wanetick, S.

    1962-03-01

    ABS>ure the change in velocity of a moving object. The transducer includes a radioactive source having a collimated beam of radioactive particles, a shield which can block the passage of the radioactive beam, and a scintillation detector to measure the number of radioactive particles in the beam which are not blocked by the shield. The shield is operatively placed across the radioactive beam so that any motion normal to the beam will cause the shield to move in the opposite direction thereby allowing more radioactive particles to reach the detector. The number of particles detected indicates the acceleration. (AEC)

  19. RADIOACTIVE BATTERY

    DOEpatents

    Birden, J.H.; Jordan, K.C.

    1959-11-17

    A radioactive battery which includes a capsule containing the active material and a thermopile associated therewith is presented. The capsule is both a shield to stop the radiations and thereby make the battery safe to use, and an energy conventer. The intense radioactive decay taking place inside is converted to useful heat at the capsule surface. The heat is conducted to the hot thermojunctions of a thermopile. The cold junctions of the thermopile are thermally insulated from the heat source, so that a temperature difference occurs between the hot and cold junctions, causing an electrical current of a constant magnitude to flow.

  20. Model tracking system for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities: License application interrogatories and responses

    SciTech Connect

    Benbennick, M.E.; Broton, M.S.; Fuoto, J.S.; Novgrod, R.L.

    1994-08-01

    This report describes a model tracking system for a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility license application. In particular, the model tracks interrogatories (questions, requests for information, comments) and responses. A set of requirements and desired features for the model tracking system was developed, including required structure and computer screens. Nine tracking systems were then reviewed against the model system requirements and only two were found to meet all requirements. Using Kepner-Tregoe decision analysis, a model tracking system was selected.

  1. Application of total uncertainty theory in radioactive waste disposal facilities safety assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Lemos, Francisco Luiz de; Ross, Timothy; Sullivan, Terry

    2007-07-01

    Safety assessment requires the interaction of a large number of disciplines to model the environmental phenomena necessary to evaluate the safety of the disposal system. In this complex process, the identification and quantification of both types of uncertainties, random and epistemic, plays a very important role for confidence building. In this work an application of the concept of total uncertainty to radioactive waste disposal facilities safety assessment is proposed. By combining both types of uncertainty, aleatory and epistemic, in the same framework, this approach ultimately aims to assess the confidence one can pose in the safety-assessment decisions. (authors)

  2. Application of a CZT detector to in situ environmental radioactivity measurement in the Fukushima area.

    PubMed

    Kowatari, M; Kubota, T; Shibahara, Y; Fujii, T; Fukutani, S; Takamiya, K; Mizuno, S; Yamana, H

    2015-11-01

    Instead of conventional Ge semiconductor detectors and NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometers, an application of a CdZnTe semiconductor (CZT) whose crystal has the dimension of 1 cm cubic to the in situ environmental radioactivity measurement was attempted in deeply affected areas in Fukushima region. Results of deposition density on soil for (134)Cs/(137)Cs obtained seemed consistent, comparing obtained results with those measured by the Japanese government. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. A portable Si/CdTe Compton camera and its applications to the visualization of radioactive substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Shin`ichiro; Harayama, Atsushi; Ichinohe, Yuto; Odaka, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Shin; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Genba, Kei; Matsuura, Daisuke; Ikebuchi, Hiroshi; Kuroda, Yoshikatsu; Tomonaka, Tetsuya

    2015-07-01

    Gamma-ray imagers with the potential for visualizing the distribution of radioactive materials are required in the fields of astrophysics, medicine, nuclear applications, and homeland security. Based on the technology of the Si/CdTe Compton camera, we have manufactured the first commercial Compton camera for practical use. Through field tests in Fukushima, we demonstrated that the camera is capable of hot spot detection and the evaluation of radioactive decontamination.

  4. Metal complexes containing natural and and artificial radioactive elements and their applications.

    PubMed

    Kharissova, Oxana V; Méndez-Rojas, Miguel A; Kharisov, Boris I; Méndez, Ubaldo Ortiz; Martínez, Perla Elizondo

    2014-07-24

    Recent advances (during the 2007-2014 period) in the coordination and organometallic chemistry of compounds containing natural and artificially prepared radionuclides (actinides and technetium), are reviewed. Radioactive isotopes of naturally stable elements are not included for discussion in this work. Actinide and technetium complexes with O-, N-, N,O, N,S-, P-containing ligands, as well π-organometallics are discussed from the view point of their synthesis, properties, and main applications. On the basis of their properties, several mono-, bi-, tri-, tetra- or polydentate ligands have been designed for specific recognition of some particular radionuclides, and can be used in the processes of nuclear waste remediation, i.e., recycling of nuclear fuel and the separation of actinides and fission products from waste solutions or for analytical determination of actinides in solutions; actinide metal complexes are also usefulas catalysts forcoupling gaseous carbon monoxide,as well as antimicrobial and anti-fungi agents due to their biological activity. Radioactive labeling based on the short-lived metastable nuclide technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) for biomedical use as heart, lung, kidney, bone, brain, liver or cancer imaging agents is also discussed. Finally, the promising applications of technetium labeling of nanomaterials, with potential applications as drug transport and delivery vehicles, radiotherapeutic agents or radiotracers for monitoring metabolic pathways, are also described.

  5. Low-level radioactive waste from commercial nuclear reactors. Volume 3. Bibliographic abstracts of significant source documents. Part 1. Open-literature abstracts for low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, M.K.; Rodgers, B.R.; Jolley, R.L.

    1986-05-01

    The overall task of this program was to provide an assessment of currently available technology for treating commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), to initiate development of a methodology for choosing one technology for a given application, and to identify research needed to improve current treatment techniques and decision methodology. The resulting report is issued in four volumes. Volume 3 of this series is a collection of abstracts of most of the reference documents used for this study. Because of the large volume of literature, the abstracts have been printed in two separate parts. Volume 3, part 1 presents abstracts of the open literature relating to LLRW treatment methodologies. Some of these references pertain to treatment processes for hazardous wastes that may also be applicable to LLRW management. All abstracts have been limited to 21 lines (for brevity), but each abstract contains sufficient information to enable the reader to determine the potential usefulness of the source document and to locate each article. The abstracts are arranged alphabetically by author or organization, and indexed by keyword.

  6. Imaging of primary and secondary radiation-Modelling and experimental results of a radioactive source and a water phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamage, K. A. A.; Taylor, G. C.; Joyce, M. J.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper the contribution of primary and secondary radiation from a water phantom to a pinhole volume, as a result of three neutron sources (Cf, AmBe and 5 MeV mono-energetic) and two gamma sources (Cs and Co), is separately estimated using the PTRAC particle tracking option available in MCNP. Also in this paper imaging of the mixed radiation field produced by a Van de Graaf accelerator (when a water phantom is present) is described. In the model, a spherical tally volume, 2 cm in diameter, was placed equidistantly from a radioactive source and 30×30×15 cm3 water phantom. Monte Carlo simulations have been carried out to investigate the level of primary and secondary radiation contributing to the pinhole volume directly from the source and from interactions in the phantom respectively. The spatial distribution of counts clearly discriminated the source and the phantom. The results have shown that the percentage of neutrons reflected from the phantom with energies above 1 MeV increases with mean energy of the source. This method has significant potential to characterise secondary radiation in proton therapy, where it would help to verify the location and the energy delivered during the treatment.

  7. Detection of free liquid in drums of radioactive waste. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1979-10-16

    A nondestructive thermal imaging method for detecting the presence of a liquid such as water within a sealed container is described. The process includes application of a low amplitude heat pulse to an exterior surface area of the container, terminating the heat input and quickly mapping the resulting surface temperatures. The various mapped temperature values can be compared with those known to be normal for the container material and substances in contact. The mapped temperature values show up in different shades of light or darkness that denote different physical substances. The different substances can be determined by direct observation or by comparison with known standards. The method is particularly applicable to the detection of liquids above solidified radioactive wastes stored in sealed containers.

  8. Compact, energy EFFICIENT neutron source: enabling technology for various applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hershcovitch, A.; Roser, T.

    2009-12-01

    A novel neutron source comprising of a deuterium beam (energy of about 100 KeV) injected into a tube filled with tritium gas and/or tritium plasma that generates D-T fusion reactions, whose products are 14.06 MeV neutrons and 3.52 MeV alpha particles, is described. At the opposite end of the tube, the energy of deuterium ions that did not interact is recovered. Beryllium walls of proper thickness can be utilized to absorb 14 MeV neutrons and release 2-3 low energy neutrons. Each ion source and tube forms a module. Larger systems can be formed from multiple units. Unlike currently proposed methods, where accelerator-based neutron sources are very expensive, large, and require large amounts of power for operation, this neutron source is compact, inexpensive, easy to test and to scale up. Among possible applications for this neutron source concept are sub-critical nuclear breeder reactors and transmutation of radioactive waste.

  9. Nondestructive decontamination of mortar and concrete by electro-kinetic methods: application to the extraction of radioactive heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Castellote, Marta; Andrade, Carmen; Alonso, Cruz

    2002-05-15

    Because the service lives of nuclear power plants are limited to a certain number of years, the need for the management of quite a large volume of radioactive contaminated concrete arises, which, in most cases, was not taken into account when the capacities of the low and medium activity repositories were designed. Therefore, the decontamination of these structures would be of great interest in order to declassify the wastes as radioactive and manage them as conventional ones. This research studies the reliability of the application of electrical fields to decontaminate radioactive contaminated concrete. Three series of decontamination experiments have been carried out, using Cs+, Sr2-, Co2+, and Fe3+ ions added during casting and that have penetrated from the outside, testing carbonated and uncarbonated matrixes, and using laboratory devices as well as the homemade device for in situ application named "honeycomb device". As a result, the application of electrical fields to concrete-contaminated structures has been developed as a new technique to extract radioactive ionic species from concrete. This method of decontamination has been patented by ENRESA (Spanish Company for the Management of Radioactive Wastes) in association with the IETcc.

  10. Review of Cyclotrons for the Production of Radioactive Isotopes for Medical and Industrial Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmor, Paul

    2011-02-01

    Radioactive isotopes are used in a wide range of medical, biological, environmental and industrial applications. Cyclotrons are the primary tool for producing the shorter-lived, proton-rich radioisotopes currently used in a variety of medical applications. Although the primary use of the cyclotron-produced short-lived radioisotopes is in PET/CT (positron emission tomography/computed tomography) and SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) diagnostic medical procedures, cyclotrons are also producing longer-lived isotopes for therapeutic procedures as well as for other industrial and applied science applications. Commercial suppliers of cyclotrons are responding by providing a range of cyclotrons in the energy range of 3-70MeV for the differing needs of the various applications. These cyclotrons generally have multiple beams servicing multiple targets. This review article presents some of the applications of the radioisotopes and provides a comparison of some of the capabilities of the various current cyclotrons. The use of nuclear medicine and the number of cyclotrons supplying the needed isotopes are increasing. It is expected that there will soon be a new generation of small "tabletop" cyclotrons providing patient doses on demand.

  11. FOSTERING MULTI-LATERAL COOPERATION BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENTS OF MEXICO, COLOMBIA, AND THE UNITED STATES TO ENHANCE THE PROTECTION OF HIGH-ACTIVITY RADIOACTIVE SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, Nicholas; Watson, Erica E.; Wright, Kyle A.

    2009-10-07

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) reduces and protects vulnerable nuclear and radiological material located at civilian sites worldwide from sabotage, theft or diversion. The GTRI program has worked successfully with foreign countries to remove and protect nuclear and radioactive materials including high-activity sources used in medical, commercial, and research applications. There are many barriers to successful bilateral cooperation that must be overcome including language, preconceived perceptions, long distances, and different views on the threat and protection requirements. Successful cooperation is often based on relationships and building trusting relationships takes time. In the case of Mexico, GTRI first made contact in 2005. The project then lost momentum and stalled. At the same time, GTRI’s cooperation with the Republic of Colombia was a resounding success resulting in the securing of forty sites; the consolidation of numerous disused/orphan sources at a secure national storage facility; and, the development of a comprehensive approach to security including, inter alia, training and sustainability. The government of Colombia also showcased this comprehensive approach to thirteen Central American and Caribbean countries at a GTRI regional security conference held in Panama in October 2004. Representatives from the Colombian government were aware of GTRI’s interest in initiating cooperation with the Government of Mexico and to facilitate this cooperation, they offered to invite their Mexican counterparts to Colombia to observe its successful cooperation with GTRI. Shortly after that visit, the Government of Mexico agreed to move forward and requested that the cooperative efforts in Mexico be performed in a tripartite manner, leveraging the skills, experience, and resources of the Colombians. As a result, 22 of Mexico’s largest radioactive sites have had security upgrades in place within 18 months of cooperation.

  12. The Case for the Application of Worldwide Marine Radioactivity Studies In the Search for Undeclared Facilities and Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Schanfein

    2013-06-01

    Undeclared nuclear facilities unequivocally remain the most difficult safeguards challenge facing the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Recent cases of undeclared facilities revealed in Iran and Syria, which are NPT signatory States, show both the difficulty and the seriousness of this threat to nonproliferation. In the case of undeclared nuclear facilities, the most effective deterrent against proliferation is the application of Wide-Area Environmental Sampling (WAES); however, WAES is currently cost-prohibitive. As with any threat, the most effective countering strategy is a multifaceted approach. Some of the approaches applied by the IAEA include: open source analysis, satellite imagery, on-site environmental sampling, complementary access under the Additional Protocol (where in force), traditional safeguards inspections, and information provided by member States. These approaches, naturally, are focused on specific States. Are there other opportunities not currently within the IAEA purview to assess States that may provide another opportunity to detect clandestine facilities? In this paper, the author will make the case that the IAEA Department of Safeguards should explore the area of worldwide marine radioactivity studies as one possible opportunity. One such study was released by the IAEA Marine Environment Laboratory in January 2005. This technical document focused on 90Sr, 137Cs, and 239/240Pu. It is clearly a challenging area because of the many sources of anthropogenic radionuclides in the world’s oceans and seas including: nuclear weapons testing, reprocessing, accidents, waste dumping, and industrial and medical radioisotopes, whose distributions change based on oceanographic, geochemical, and biological processes, and their sources. It is additionally challenging where multiple States share oceans, seas, and rivers. But with the application of modern science, historical sampling to establish baselines, and a focus on the most relevant

  13. Production of radioactive Ag ion beams with a chemically selective laser ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jading, Y.; Catherall, R.; Jokinen, A.; Jonsson, O. C.; Kugler, E.; Lettry, J.; Ravn, H. L.; Tengblad, O.; Kautzsch, T.; Klöckl, I.; Kratz, K.-L.; Scheerer, F.; Fedoseyev, V. N.; Mishin, V. I.; van Duppen, P.; Wöhr, A.; Walters, W. B.

    1996-04-01

    We have developed a chemically selective laser ion source at the CERN-ISOLDE facility in order to study neutron-rich Ag nuclides. A pulsed laser system with high repetition rate has been used based on high-power copper-vapour pump lasers and dye lasers. With this source significant reductions of the isobaric background has been achieved.

  14. FOSTERING MULTI-LATERAL COOPERATION BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENTS OF DOMINICAN REPUBLIC, COLOMBIA, AND THE UNITED STATES TO ENHANCE THE PROTECTION OF HIGH-ACTIVITY RADIOACTIVE SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, Nicholas; McCaw, Erica E.; Wright, Kyle A.; Medina, Maximo

    2009-10-06

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) reduces and protects vulnerable nuclear and radiological material located at civilian sites worldwide from sabotage, theft or diversion. The GTRI has worked successfully with foreign countries to remove and protect nuclear and radioactive materials including high-activity sources used in medical, commercial, and research applications. There are many barriers to successful bilateral cooperation that must be overcome including language, preconceived perceptions, long distances, and different views on the threat and protection requirements. Successful cooperation is often based on relationships and building trusting relationships takes time. In the case of Dominican Republic, the GTRI first received contact in 2008 from the Government of Dominican Republic. They requested cooperation that was similar to the tri-partite cooperation between Colombia, Mexico and the United States. Throughout the region it was widely known that the GTRI’s cooperation with the Government of Colombia was a resounding success resulting in the securing of forty sites; the consolidation of numerous disused/orphan sources at a secure national storage facility; and, the development of a comprehensive approach to security including, inter alia, training and sustainability. The Government of Colombia also showcased this comprehensive approach to thirteen Central American and Caribbean countries at a GTRI regional security conference held in Panama in October 2004. In 2007, Colombia was an integral component of GTRI multi-lateral cooperation initiation in Mexico. As a result, twenty two of Mexico’s largest radioactive sites have been upgraded in the past eighteen months. These two endeavors served as catalysts for cooperation opportunities in the Dominican Republic. Representatives from the Colombian government were aware of GTRI’s interest in initiating cooperation with the Government of Dominican Republic and to facilitate this cooperation, they

  15. Medical diagnostic applications and sources.

    PubMed

    Whittingham, T A

    2007-01-01

    The ways in which ultrasound is used in medical diagnosis are reviewed, with particular emphasis on the ultrasound source (probe) and implications for acoustic exposure. A brief discussion of the choice of optimum frequency for various target depths is followed by a description of the general features of diagnostic ultrasound probes, including endo-probes. The different modes of diagnostic scanning are then discussed in turn: A-mode, M-mode, B-mode, three-dimensional (3D) and 4D scanning, continuous wave (CW) Doppler, pulse-wave spectral Doppler and Doppler imaging. Under the general heading of B-mode imaging, there are individual descriptions of the principles of chirps and binary codes, B-flow, tissue harmonic imaging and ultrasound contrast agent-specific techniques. Techniques for improving image quality within the constraints of real-time operation are discussed, including write zoom, parallel beam forming, spatial compounding and multiple zone transmission focusing, along with methods for reducing slice thickness. At the end of each section there is a summarising comment on the basic features of the acoustic output and its consequences for patient safety.

  16. Special Application Thermoelectric Micro Isotope Power Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Heshmatpour, Ben; Lieberman, Al; Khayat, Mo; Leanna, Andrew; Dobry, Ted

    2008-01-21

    Promising design concepts for milliwatt (mW) size micro isotope power sources (MIPS) are being sought for use in various space and terrestrial applications, including a multitude of future NASA scientific missions and a range of military applications. To date, the radioisotope power sources (RPS) used on various space and terrestrial programs have provided power levels ranging from one-half to several hundred watts. In recent years, the increased use of smaller spacecraft and planned new scientific space missions by NASA, special terrestrial and military applications suggest the need for lower power, including mW level, radioisotope power sources. These power sources have the potential to enable such applications as long-lived meteorological or seismological stations distributed across planetary surfaces, surface probes, deep space micro-spacecraft and sub-satellites, terrestrial sensors, transmitters, and micro-electromechanical systems. The power requirements are in the range of 1 mW to several hundred mW. The primary technical requirements for space applications are long life, high reliability, high specific power, and high power density, and those for some special military uses are very high power density, specific power, reliability, low radiological induced degradation, and very low radiation leakage. Thermoelectric conversion is of particular interest because of its technological maturity and proven reliability. This paper summarizes the thermoelectric, thermal, and radioisotope heat source designs and presents the corresponding performance for a number of mW size thermoelectric micro isotope power sources.

  17. Long-Term Safe Storage and Disposal of Spent Sealed Radioactive Sources in Borehole Type Repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Ojovan, M. I.; Dmitriev, S. A.; Sobolev, I. A.

    2003-02-26

    Russian Federation has the leading experience in applying borehole storage/disposal method for SRS. A new immobilization technology for sources being disposed of in underground repositories was mastered by 1986 and since then it is used in the country. This method uses all advantages of borehole type repositories supplementing them with metal encapsulation of sources. Sources being uniformly allocated in the volume of underground vessel are fixed in the metal block hence ensuring long-term safety. The dissipation of radiogenic heat from SRS is considerably improved, radiation fields are reduced, and direct contact of sources to an environment is completely eliminated. The capacity of a typical borehole storage/disposal facility is increased almost 6 times applying metal immobilization. That has made new technology extremely favourable economically. The metal immobilization of SRS is considered as an option in Belarus and Ukraine as well as Bulgaria. Immobilization of sources in metal matrices can be a real solution for retrieval of SRS from inadequate repositories.

  18. Innovative methodology for intercomparison of radionuclide calibrators using short half-life in situ prepared radioactive sources

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, P. A.; Santos, J. A. M.

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: An original radionuclide calibrator method for activity determination is presented. The method could be used for intercomparison surveys for short half-life radioactive sources used in Nuclear Medicine, such as{sup 99m}Tc or most positron emission tomography radiopharmaceuticals. Methods: By evaluation of the resulting net optical density (netOD) using a standardized scanning method of irradiated Gafchromic XRQA2 film, a comparison of the netOD measurement with a previously determined calibration curve can be made and the difference between the tested radionuclide calibrator and a radionuclide calibrator used as reference device can be calculated. To estimate the total expected measurement uncertainties, a careful analysis of the methodology, for the case of{sup 99m}Tc, was performed: reproducibility determination, scanning conditions, and possible fadeout effects. Since every factor of the activity measurement procedure can influence the final result, the method also evaluates correct syringe positioning inside the radionuclide calibrator. Results: As an alternative to using a calibrated source sent to the surveyed site, which requires a relatively long half-life of the nuclide, or sending a portable calibrated radionuclide calibrator, the proposed method uses a source preparedin situ. An indirect activity determination is achieved by the irradiation of a radiochromic film using {sup 99m}Tc under strictly controlled conditions, and cumulated activity calculation from the initial activity and total irradiation time. The irradiated Gafchromic film and the irradiator, without the source, can then be sent to a National Metrology Institute for evaluation of the results. Conclusions: The methodology described in this paper showed to have a good potential for accurate (3%) radionuclide calibrators intercomparison studies for{sup 99m}Tc between Nuclear Medicine centers without source transfer and can easily be adapted to other short half-life radionuclides.

  19. Source term estimation and the isotopic ratio of radioactive material released from the WIPP repository in New Mexico, USA.

    PubMed

    Thakur, P

    2016-01-01

    After almost 15 years of operations, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) had one of its waste drums breach underground as a result of a runaway chemical reaction in the waste it contained. This incident occurred on February 14, 2014. Moderate levels of radioactivity were released into the underground air. A small portion of the contaminated underground air also escaped to the surface through the ventilation system and was detected approximately 1 km away from the facility. According to the source term estimation, the actual amount of radioactivity released from the WIPP site was less than 1.5 mCi. The highest activity detected on the surface was 115.2 μBq/m(3) for (241)Am and 10.2 μBq/m(3) for (239+240)Pu at a sampling station located 91 m away from the underground air exhaust point and 81.4 μBq/m(3) of (241)Am and 5.8 μBq/m(3) of (239+240)Pu at a monitoring station located approximately 1 km northwest of the WIPP facility. The dominant radionuclides released were americium and plutonium, in a ratio that matches the content of the breached drum. Air monitoring across the WIPP site intensified following the first reports of radiation detection underground to determine the extent of impact to WIPP personnel, the public, and the environment. In this paper, the early stage monitoring data collected by an independent monitoring program conducted by the Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring & Research Center (CEMRC) and an oversight monitoring program conducted by the WIPP's management and operating contractor, the Nuclear Waste Partnership (NWP) LLC were utilized to estimate the actual amount of radioactivity released from the WIPP underground. The Am and Pu isotope ratios were measured and used to support the hypothesis that the release came from one drum identified as having breached that represents a specific waste stream with this radionuclide ratio in its inventory. This failed drum underwent a heat and gas producing reaction that overpowered its vent and

  20. Application of banana peels nanosorbent for the removal of radioactive minerals from real mine water.

    PubMed

    Oyewo, Opeyemi A; Onyango, Maurice S; Wolkersdorfer, Christian

    2016-11-01

    Transformation of agricultural waste such as banana peels into a valuable sorbent material has been proven effective and efficient in wastewater treatment. Further, transformation into nanosorbent to enhance the removal capacity of actinides (uranium and thorium) from synthetic and real mine water is extensively investigated in this study. The nanosorbent samples before and after adsorption were characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR), zetasizer nanoseries and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) while the amount of radioactive substances adsorbed was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Results revealed that there was a crystallite size and particle size reduction from 108 to 12 nm and <65,000 nm to <25 nm respectively as a function of milling time. Furthermore, appearance and disappearance of nanofibers via milling was noticed during structural analysis. The functional groups responsible for the banana peels capability to coordinate and remove metal ions were identified at absorption bands of 1730 cm(-1) (carboxylic groups) and 889 cm(-1) (amine groups) via FTIR analysis. Equilibrium isotherm results demonstrated that the adsorption process was endothermic for both uranium and thorium. The Langmuir maximum adsorption capacity was 27.1 mg g(-1), 34.13 mg g(-1) for uranium and 45.5 mg g(-1), 10.10 mg g(-1) for thorium in synthetic and real mine water, respectively. The results obtained indicate that nanostructured banana peels is a potential adsorbent for the removal of radioactive substances from aqueous solution and also from real mine water. However, the choice of this sorbent material for any application depends on the composition of the effluent to be treated.

  1. Material for radioactive protection

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, R.S.; Boyer, N.W.

    A boron containing burn resistant, low-level radiation protection material useful, for example, as a liner for radioactive waste disposal and storage, a component for neutron absorber, and a shield for a neutron source is described. The material is basically composed of borax in the range of 25 to 50%, coal tar in the range of 25 to 37.5%, with the remainder being an epoxy resin mix. A preferred composition is 50% borax, 25% coal tar and 25% epoxy resin. The material is not susceptible to burning and is about 1/5 the cost of existing radiation protection material utilized in similar applications.

  2. Radioactive Decay

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Radioactive decay is the emission of energy in the form of ionizing radiation. Example decay chains illustrate how radioactive atoms can go through many transformations as they become stable and no longer radioactive.

  3. Potential application of microsensor technology in radioactive waste management with emphasis on headspace gas detection.

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Chad Edward; Thomas, Michael Loren; Wright, Jerome L.; Pohl, Phillip Isabio; Hughes, Robert Clark; Wang, Yifeng; McGrath, Lucas K.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Gao, Huizhen

    2004-09-01

    Waste characterization is probably the most costly part of radioactive waste management. An important part of this characterization is the measurements of headspace gas in waste containers in order to demonstrate the compliance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) or transportation requirements. The traditional chemical analysis methods, which include all steps of gas sampling, sample shipment and laboratory analysis, are expensive and time-consuming as well as increasing worker's exposure to hazardous environments. Therefore, an alternative technique that can provide quick, in-situ, and real-time detections of headspace gas compositions is highly desirable. This report summarizes the results obtained from a Laboratory Directed Research & Development (LDRD) project entitled 'Potential Application of Microsensor Technology in Radioactive Waste Management with Emphasis on Headspace Gas Detection'. The objective of this project is to bridge the technical gap between the current status of microsensor development and the intended applications of these sensors in nuclear waste management. The major results are summarized below: {sm_bullet} A literature review was conducted on the regulatory requirements for headspace gas sampling/analysis in waste characterization and monitoring. The most relevant gaseous species and the related physiochemical environments were identified. It was found that preconcentrators might be needed in order for chemiresistor sensors to meet desired detection {sm_bullet} A long-term stability test was conducted for a polymer-based chemresistor sensor array. Significant drifts were observed over the time duration of one month. Such drifts should be taken into account for long-term in-situ monitoring. {sm_bullet} Several techniques were explored to improve the performance of sensor polymers. It has been demonstrated that freeze deposition of black carbon (CB)-polymer composite can effectively eliminate the so-called 'coffee ring

  4. Analytical source term optimization for radioactive releases with approximate knowledge of nuclide ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofman, Radek; Seibert, Petra; Kovalets, Ivan; Andronopoulos, Spyros

    2015-04-01

    We are concerned with source term retrieval in the case of an accident in a nuclear power with off-site consequences. The goal is to optimize atmospheric dispersion model inputs using inverse modeling of gamma dose rate measurements (instantaneous or time-integrated). These are the most abundant type of measurements provided by various radiation monitoring networks across Europe and available continuously in near-real time. Usually, a source term of an accidental release comprises of a mixture of nuclides. Unfortunately, gamma dose rate measurements do not provide a direct information on the source term composition; however, physical properties of respective nuclides (deposition properties, decay half-life) can yield some insight. In the method presented, we assume that nuclide ratios are known at least approximately, e.g. from nuclide specific observations or reactor inventory and assumptions on the accident type. The source term can be in multiple phases, each being characterized by constant nuclide ratios. The method is an extension of a well-established source term inversion approach based on the optimization of an objective function (minimization of a cost function). This function has two quadratic terms: mismatch between model and measurements weighted by an observation error covariance matrix and the deviation of the solution from a first guess weighted by the first-guess error covariance matrix. For simplicity, both error covariance matrices are approximated as diagonal. Analytical minimization of the cost function leads to a liner system of equations. Possible negative parts of the solution are iteratively removed by the means of first guess error variance reduction. Nuclide ratios enter the problem in the form of additional linear equations, where the deviations from prescribed ratios are weighted by factors; the corresponding error variance allows us to control how strongly we want to impose the prescribed ratios. This introduces some freedom into the

  5. Application of Light Sources to Medical Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizojiri, Takafumi; Kimura, Makoto

    The purpose of this paper is to show application of light sources to medical field. It is described the process of light sources development applied to photodynamic therapy; PDT or photodynamic diagnosis; PDD. Actually, as a successful experience, we show the verification results obtained by primary and clinical experiments using metal halide lamp which emitted spectra is optimized to absorbed wavelength of photosensitizer for PDT.

  6. Asymptotic Giant Branch stars as a source of short-lived radioactive nuclei in the solar nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasserburg, G. J.; Busso, M.; Gallino, R.; Raiteri, C. M.

    1994-01-01

    We carried out a theoretical evaluation of the contribution of Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars to some short-lived (10(exp 6) less than or equal to Tau-bar less than or equal to 2 x 10(exp 7) yr) isotopes in the Interstellar Medium (ISM) and in the early solar system using stellar model calculations for thermally pulsing evolutionary phases of low-mass stars. The yields of s-process nuclei in the convective He-shell for different neutron exposures tau(sub 0) were obtained, and AGB stars were shown to produce several radioactive nuclei (especially Pd-107, Pb-205, Fe-60, Zr-93, Tc-99, Cs-135, and Hf-182) in diferent amounts. Assuming either contamination of the solar nebula from a single AGB star or models for continuous injection and mixing from many stars into the ISM, we calculate the ratios of radioactive to stable nuclei at the epoch of the Sun's formation. The dilution factor between the AGB ejecta and the early solar system matter is obtained by matching the observed Pd-107/Pd-108 and depends on the value of tau(sub 0). It is found that small masses M(sub He) of He-shell material (10(exp -4)-10(exp -7) solar mass) enriched in s-process nuclei are sufficient to contaminate 1 solar mass of the ISM to produce the Pd-107 found in the early solar system. Predictions are made for all of the other radioactive isotopes. The optimal model to explain several observed radioactive species at different states of the proto-solar nebula involves a single AGB star with a low neutron exposure (tau(sub 0) = 0.03 mbarn(sup -1)) which contaminated the cloud with a dilution factor of M(sub He)/solar mass approximately 1.5 x 10(exp -4). This will also contribute newly synthesized stable s-process nuclei in the amount of approximately 10(exp -4) of their abundances already present in the proto-solar cloud. Variations in the degree of homogenization (approximately 30%) of the injected material may account for some of the small general isotopic anomalies found in meteorites. It is

  7. Asymptotic Giant Branch stars as a source of short-lived radioactive nuclei in the solar nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasserburg, G. J.; Busso, M.; Gallino, R.; Raiteri, C. M.

    1994-01-01

    We carried out a theoretical evaluation of the contribution of Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars to some short-lived (10(exp 6) less than or equal to Tau-bar less than or equal to 2 x 10(exp 7) yr) isotopes in the Interstellar Medium (ISM) and in the early solar system using stellar model calculations for thermally pulsing evolutionary phases of low-mass stars. The yields of s-process nuclei in the convective He-shell for different neutron exposures tau(sub 0) were obtained, and AGB stars were shown to produce several radioactive nuclei (especially Pd-107, Pb-205, Fe-60, Zr-93, Tc-99, Cs-135, and Hf-182) in diferent amounts. Assuming either contamination of the solar nebula from a single AGB star or models for continuous injection and mixing from many stars into the ISM, we calculate the ratios of radioactive to stable nuclei at the epoch of the Sun's formation. The dilution factor between the AGB ejecta and the early solar system matter is obtained by matching the observed Pd-107/Pd-108 and depends on the value of tau(sub 0). It is found that small masses M(sub He) of He-shell material (10(exp -4)-10(exp -7) solar mass) enriched in s-process nuclei are sufficient to contaminate 1 solar mass of the ISM to produce the Pd-107 found in the early solar system. Predictions are made for all of the other radioactive isotopes. The optimal model to explain several observed radioactive species at different states of the proto-solar nebula involves a single AGB star with a low neutron exposure (tau(sub 0) = 0.03 mbarn(sup -1)) which contaminated the cloud with a dilution factor of M(sub He)/solar mass approximately 1.5 x 10(exp -4). This will also contribute newly synthesized stable s-process nuclei in the amount of approximately 10(exp -4) of their abundances already present in the proto-solar cloud. Variations in the degree of homogenization (approximately 30%) of the injected material may account for some of the small general isotopic anomalies found in meteorites. It is

  8. Asymptotic Giant Branch stars as a source of short-lived radioactive nuclei in the solar nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasserburg, G. J.; Busso, M.; Gallino, R.; Raiteri, C. M.

    1994-03-01

    We carried out a theoretical evaluation of the contribution of Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars to some short-lived (106 less than or equal to Tau-bar less than or equal to 2 x 107 yr) isotopes in the Interstellar Medium (ISM) and in the early solar system using stellar model calculations for thermally pulsing evolutionary phases of low-mass stars. The yields of s-process nuclei in the convective He-shell for different neutron exposures tau0 were obtained, and AGB stars were shown to produce several radioactive nuclei (especially Pd-107, Pb-205, Fe-60, Zr-93, Tc-99, Cs-135, and Hf-182) in diferent amounts. Assuming either contamination of the solar nebula from a single AGB star or models for continuous injection and mixing from many stars into the ISM, we calculate the ratios of radioactive to stable nuclei at the epoch of the Sun's formation. The dilution factor between the AGB ejecta and the early solar system matter is obtained by matching the observed Pd-107/Pd-108 and depends on the value of tau0. It is found that small masses MHe of He-shell material (10-4-10-7 solar mass) enriched in s-process nuclei are sufficient to contaminate 1 solar mass of the ISM to produce the Pd-107 found in the early solar system. Predictions are made for all of the other radioactive isotopes. The optimal model to explain several observed radioactive species at different states of the proto-solar nebula involves a single AGB star with a low neutron exposure (tau0 = 0.03 mbarn-1) which contaminated the cloud with a dilution factor of MHe/solar mass approximately 1.5 x 10-4. This will also contribute newly synthesized stable s-process nuclei in the amount of approximately 10-4 of their abundances already present in the proto-solar cloud. Variations in the degree of homogenization (approximately 30%) of the injected material may account for some of the small general isotopic anomalies found in meteorites. It is also found that Fe-60 is produced in small but significant quantities

  9. Investigation of gigawatt millimeter wave source applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruder, J. A.; Belcher, M. L.

    1991-09-01

    The Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) investigated potential applications of millimeter wave (MMW) sources with peak powers on the order of a gigawatt. This power level is representative of MMW devices such as the free electron laser (FEL) and the cyclotron auto-resonance maser (CARM) that are under development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). In addition to determining the technical requirements for these applications, the investigation considered potential users and how a high power MMW system would expand their current capabilities. Two of the more promising applications were examined in detail to include trade-off evaluations system parameters. The trade-off evaluations included overall system configuration, frequency and coherence, component availability, and performance estimates. Brainstorming sessions were held to try and uncover additional applications for a gigawatt MMW source. In setting up guidelines for the session, the need to attempt to predict applications for the years 2000 to 2030 was stressed. Also, possible non-DoD applications needed to be considered. While some of these applications could not in themselves justify the costs involved in the development of the radar system, they could be considered potential secondary applications of the system. As a result of the sessions, a number of interesting potential applications evolved including: space object identification; low angle tracking; illuminator for space-based radar; radio astronomy; space vehicle navigation; space debris location; atmospheric research; wind shear detection; electronic countermeasures; low observable detection; and long range detection via ducting.

  10. Investigation of gigawatt millimeter wave source applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bruder, J.A.; Belcher, M.L.

    1991-09-01

    The Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) investigated potential applications of millimeter wave (MMW) sources with peak powers on the order of a gigawatt. This power level is representative of MMW devices such as the free electron laser (FEL) and the cyclotron auto-resonance maser (CARM) that are under development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). In addition to determining the technical requirements for these applications, the investigation considered potential users and how a high power MMW system would expand their current capabilities. Two of the more promising applications were examined in detail to include trade-off evaluations system parameters. The trade-off evaluations included overall system configuration, frequency and coherence, component availability, and performance estimates. Brainstorming sessions were held to try and uncover additional applications for a gigawatt MMW source. In setting up guidelines for the session, the need to attempt to predict applications for the years 2000 to 2030 was stressed. Also, possible non-DoD applications needed to be considered. While some of these applications could not in themselves justify the costs involved in the development of the radar system, they could be considered potential secondary applications of the system. As a result of the sessions, a number of interesting potential applications evolved including: space object identification; low angle tracking; illuminator for space-based radar; radio astronomy; space vehicle navigation; space debris location; atmospheric research; wind shear detection; electronic countermeasures; low observable detection; and long range detection via ducting.

  11. Application of ultrafiltration and complexation to the treatment of low-level radioactive effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Chmielewski, A.G.; Harasimowicz, M.

    1995-04-01

    This paper addresses certain aspects of the design and development process aiming at reducing the radioactivity of liquid low-level waste streams (LLLW) to a very low level. Two types of membrane processes are being examined: ultrafiltration (UF) and seeded ultrafiltration (SUF). The UF membrane enables the removal of very fine particles of solid material from liquid radioactive waste. Only the particles with molecular weight above the cut-off of the UF membrane are retained. Much greater radioactivity removal may be achieved if the effluent is treated with high-molecular-molecules. This paper presents results of experiments consisting of decontamination of model radioactive effluents, simulated waste, and original LLLW by using several ligands for binding the radioactive ions of Cr, Co and Cs.

  12. Source characterization refinements for routine modeling applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paine, Robert; Warren, Laura L.; Moore, Gary E.

    2016-03-01

    Steady-state dispersion models recommended by various environmental agencies worldwide have generally been evaluated with traditional stack release databases, including tracer studies. The sources associated with these field data are generally those with isolated stacks or release points under relatively ideal conditions. Many modeling applications, however, involve sources that act to modify the local dispersion environment as well as the conditions associated with plume buoyancy and final plume rise. The source characterizations affecting plume rise that are introduced and discussed in this paper include: 1) sources with large fugitive heat releases that result in a local urbanized effect, 2) stacks on or near individual buildings with large fugitive heat releases that tend to result in buoyant "liftoff" effects counteracting aerodynamic downwash effects, 3) stacks with considerable moisture content, which leads to additional heat of condensation during plume rise - an effect that is not considered by most dispersion models, and 4) stacks in a line that result in at least partial plume merging and buoyancy enhancement under certain conditions. One or more of these effects are appropriate for a given modeling application. We present examples of specific applications for one or more of these procedures in the paper. This paper describes methods to introduce the four source characterization approaches to more accurately simulate plume rise to a variety of dispersion models. The authors have focused upon applying these methods to the AERMOD modeling system, which is the United States Environmental Protection Agency's preferred model in addition to being used internationally, but the techniques are applicable to dispersion models worldwide. While the methods could be installed directly into specific models such as AERMOD, the advantage of implementing them outside the model is to allow them to be applicable to numerous models immediately and also to allow them to

  13. Bayesian analysis of energy and count rate data for detection of low count rate radioactive sources.

    PubMed

    Klumpp, John; Brandl, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    A particle counting and detection system is proposed that searches for elevated count rates in multiple energy regions simultaneously. The system analyzes time-interval data (e.g., time between counts), as this was shown to be a more sensitive technique for detecting low count rate sources compared to analyzing counts per unit interval (Luo et al. 2013). Two distinct versions of the detection system are developed. The first is intended for situations in which the sample is fixed and can be measured for an unlimited amount of time. The second version is intended to detect sources that are physically moving relative to the detector, such as a truck moving past a fixed roadside detector or a waste storage facility under an airplane. In both cases, the detection system is expected to be active indefinitely; i.e., it is an online detection system. Both versions of the multi-energy detection systems are compared to their respective gross count rate detection systems in terms of Type I and Type II error rates and sensitivity.

  14. CENTRAL STORAGE FACILITY PROJECT IN COLOMBIA TO PROVIDE THE SAFE STORAGE AND PROTECTION OF HIGH-ACTIVITY RADIOACTIVE SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, Raymond; Wright, Kyle A.; McCaw, Erica E.; Vallejo, Jorge

    2009-10-07

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) reduces and protects vulnerable nuclear and radiological material located at civilian sites worldwide. Internationally, over 40 countries are cooperating with GTRI to enhance the security of these materials. The GTRI program has worked successfully with foreign countries to remove and protect nuclear and radioactive materials, including orphaned and disused high-activity sources. GTRI began cooperation with the Republic of Colombia in April 2004. This cooperation has been a resounding success by securing forty high-risk sites, consolidating disused/orphan sources at an interim secure national storage facility, and developing a comprehensive approach to security, training, and sustainability. In 2005 the Colombian Ministry of Mines and Energy requested the Department of Energy’s support in the construction of a new Central Storage Facility (CSF). In December 2005, the Ministry selected to construct this facility at the Institute of Geology and Mining (Ingeominas) site in Bogota. This site already served as Colombia’s national repository, where disused sources were housed in various buildings around the complex. The CSF project was placed under contract in May 2006, but environmental issues and public protests, which led to a class action lawsuit against the Colombian Government, forced the Ministry to quickly suspend activities, thereby placing the project in jeopardy. Despite these challenges, however, the Ministry of Mines and Energy worked closely with public and environmental authorities to resolve these issues, and continued to be a strong advocate of the GTRI program. In June 2008, the Ministry of Mines and Energy was granted the construction and environmental licenses. As a result, construction immediately resumed and the CSF was completed by December 2008. A commissioning ceremony was held for the new facility in January 2009, which was attended by representatives from the Department of Energy, U.S. Embassy

  15. 2E1 Ar(17+) decay and conventional radioactive sources to determine efficiency of semiconductor detectors.

    PubMed

    Lamour, Emily; Prigent, Christophe; Eberhardt, Benjamin; Rozet, Jean Pierre; Vernhet, Dominique

    2009-02-01

    Although reliable models may predict the detection efficiency of semiconductor detectors, measurements are needed to check the parameters supplied by the manufacturers, namely, the thicknesses of dead layer, beryllium window, and crystal active area. The efficiency of three silicon detectors has been precisely investigated in their entire photon energy range of detection. In the zero to a few keV range, we developed a new method based on the detection of the 2E1 decay of the metastable Ar(17+) 2s-->1s transition. Very good theoretical knowledge of the energetic distribution of the 2E1 decay mode enables precise characterization of the absorbing layers in front of the detectors. In the high-energy range (>10 keV), the detector crystal thickness plays a major role in the detection efficiency and has been determined using a (241)Am source.

  16. Solar neutrino experiments and a test for neutrino oscillations with radioactive sources

    SciTech Connect

    Cleveland, B.T.; Davis, R. Jr.; Rowley, J.K.

    1980-01-01

    The results of the Brookhaven solar neutrino experiment are given and compared to the most recent standard solar model calculations. The observations are about a factor of 4 below theoretical expectations. In view of the uncertainties involved in the theoretical models of the sun, the discrepancy is not considered to be evidence for neutrino oscillations. The status of the development of a gallium solar neutrino detector is described. Radiochemical neutrino detectors can be used to search for ..nu../sub e/ oscillations by using megacurie sources of monoenergetic neutrinos like /sup 65/Zn. A quantitative evaluation of possible experiments using the Brookhaven chlorine solar neutrino detector and a gallium detector is given. 6 figures, 3 tables.

  17. A Remote Radioactivity Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jona, Kemi; Vondracek, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Imagine a high school with very few experimental resources and limited budgets that prevent the purchase of even basic laboratory equipment. For example, many high schools do not have the means of experimentally studying radioactivity because they lack Geiger counters and/or good radioactive sources. This was the case at the first high school one…

  18. A Remote Radioactivity Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jona, Kemi; Vondracek, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Imagine a high school with very few experimental resources and limited budgets that prevent the purchase of even basic laboratory equipment. For example, many high schools do not have the means of experimentally studying radioactivity because they lack Geiger counters and/or good radioactive sources. This was the case at the first high school one…

  19. Survey of agents and techniques applicable to the solidification of low-level radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Fuhrmann, M.; Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Colombo, P.

    1981-12-01

    A review of the various solidification agents and techniques that are currently available or potentially applicable for the solidification of low-level radioactive wastes is presented. An overview of the types and quantities of low-level wastes produced is presented. Descriptions of waste form matrix materials, the wastes types for which they have been or may be applied and available information concerning relevant waste form properties and characteristics follow. Also included are descriptions of the processing techniques themselves with an emphasis on those operating parameters which impact upon waste form properties. The solidification agents considered in this survey include: hydraulic cements, thermoplastic materials, thermosetting polymers, glasses, synthetic minerals and composite materials. This survey is part of a program supported by the United States Department of Energy's Low-Level Waste Management Program (LLWMP). This work provides input into LLWMP efforts to develop and compile information relevant to the treatment and processing of low-level wastes and their disposal by shallow land burial.

  20. APPLICATION OF POLYURETHANE FOAM FOR IMPACT ABSORPTION AND THERMAL INSULATION FOR RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS PACKAGINGS.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A; Glenn Abramczyk, G; Paul Blanton, P; Steve Bellamy, S; William Daugherty, W; Sharon Williamson, S

    2007-05-15

    Polyurethane foam has been widely used as an impact absorbing and thermal insulating material for large radioactive materials packages, since the 1980's. With the adoption of the regulatory crush test requirement, for smaller packages, polyurethane foam has been adopted as a replacement for cane fiberboard, because of its ability to withstand the crush test. Polyurethane foam is an engineered material whose composition is much more closely controlled than that of cane fiberboard. In addition, the properties of the foam can be controlled by controlling the density of the foam. The conditions under which the foam is formed, whether confined or unconfined have an affect on foam properties. The study reported here reviewed the application of polyurethane foam in RAM packagings and compared property values reported in the literature with published property values and test results for foam specimens taken from a prototype 9977 packaging. The study confirmed that, polyurethane foam behaves in a predictable and consistent manner and fully satisfies the functional requirements for impact absorption and thermal insulation.

  1. Analysis of the application of decontamination technologies to radioactive metal waste minimization using expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bayrakal, S.

    1993-09-30

    Radioactive metal waste makes up a significant portion of the waste currently being sent for disposal. Recovery of this metal as a valuable resource is possible through the use of decontamination technologies. Through the development and use of expert systems a comparison can be made of laser decontamination, a technology currently under development at Ames Laboratory, with currently available decontamination technologies for applicability to the types of metal waste being generated and the effectiveness of these versus simply disposing of the waste. These technologies can be technically and economically evaluated by the use of expert systems techniques to provide a waste management decision making tool that generates, given an identified metal waste, waste management recommendations. The user enters waste characteristic information as input and the system then recommends decontamination technologies, determines residual contamination levels and possible waste management strategies, carries out a cost analysis and then ranks, according to cost, the possibilities for management of the waste. The expert system was developed using information from literature and personnel experienced in the use of decontamination technologies and requires validation by human experts and assignment of confidence factors to the knowledge represented within.

  2. Novel application of nanozeolite for radioactive cesium removal from high-salt wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lee, Keun-Young; Kim, Kwang-Wook; Park, Minsung; Kim, Jimin; Oh, Maengkyo; Lee, Eil-Hee; Chung, Dong-Yong; Moon, Jei-Kwon

    2016-05-15

    Finding a striking peculiarity of nanomaterials and evaluating its feasibility for practical use are interesting topics of research. We investigated the application of nanozeolite's outstanding reactivity for a rapid and effective method for radioactive cesium removal in the wastewater generated from nuclear power plant accident, as a new concept. Extremely fast removal of cesium, even without stirring, was achieved by the nanozeolite at efficiencies never observed with bulk materials. The nanozeolite reached an adsorption equilibrium state within 1 min. Cesium adsorption by nanozeolite was demonstrated at reaction rates of orders of magnitude higher than that of larger zeolite phases. This observation was strongly supported by the positive correlation between the rate constant ratio (k2,bulk/k2,nano) and the initial Cs concentrations with a correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.99. A potential drawback of a nanoadsorbent is the difficulty of particle settling and separation because of its high dispersivity in solution. However, our results also demonstrated that the nanozeolite could be easily precipitated from the high-salt solution with ferric flocculant. The flocculation index reached a steady state within 10 min. A series of our experimental results met the goal of rapid processing in the case of emergency by applying the well-suited nanozeolite adsorption and flocculation.

  3. Design, construction, and use of a shipping case for radioactive sources used in the calibration of portal monitors in the radiation portal monitoring project

    SciTech Connect

    Lepel, Elwood A.; Hensley, Walter K.

    2009-12-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is working with US Customs and Border Protection to assist in the installation of radiation portal monitors. We need to provide radioactive sources – both gamma- and neutron-emitting – to ports of entry where the monitors are being installed. The monitors must be calibrated to verify proper operation and detection sensitivity. We designed a portable source-shipping case using numerical modeling to predict the neutron dose rate at the case’s surface. The shipping case including radioactive sources meets the DOT requirements for “limited quantity.” Over 300 shipments, domestic and international, were made in FY2008 using this type of shipping case.

  4. EPICS application source/release control

    SciTech Connect

    Zieman, B.; Anderson, J.; Kraimer, M

    1995-12-31

    This manual describes a set of Application Source/Release Control tools (appSR) that can be used to develop software for EPICS based control systems. The Application Source/Release Control System (appSR) has been unbundled from base EPICS and is now available as an EPICS extension. Due to this unbundling, two new directories must be added to a user`s path (see section ``Environment`` on page 3 for more information) and a new command getapp must be issued after the getrel command to get a specific version of appSR (see section ``Creating The Initial Application System Area`` on page 7 for more information). It is now required that GNU make version 3.71 or later be used for makes instead of SUN make. Users should now type gmake instead of make.

  5. AGB stars as a source of short-lived radioactive nuclei in the solar nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasserburg, G. J.; Gallino, R.; Busso, M.; Raiteri, C. M.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose is to estimate the possible contribution of some short-lived nuclei to the early solar nebula from asymptotic giant branch (AGB) sources. Low mass (1 to 3 solar mass) AGB stars appear to provide a site for synthesis of the main s process component for solar system material with an exponential distribution of neutron irradiations varies as exp(-tau/tau(sub 0)) (where tau is the time integrated neutron flux with a mean neutron exposure tau(sub 0)) for solar abundances with tau(sub 0) = 0.28 mb(sup -1). Previous workers estimated the synthesis of key short-lived nuclei which might be produced in AGB stars. While these calculations exhibit the basic characteristics of nuclei production by neutron exposure, there is need for a self-consistent calculation that follows AGB evolution and takes into account the net production from a star and dilution with the cloud medium. Many of the general approaches and the conclusions arrived at were presented earlier by Cameron. The production of nuclei for a star of 1.5 solar mass during the thermal pulsing of the AGB phase was evaluated. Calculations were done for a series of thermal pulses with tau(sub 0) = 0.12 and 0.28 mb(sup -1). These pulses involve s nucleosynthesis in the burning shell at the base of the He zone followed by the ignition of the H burning shell at the top of the He zone. After about 10-15 cycles the abundances of the various nuclei in the He zone become constant. Computations of the abundances of all nuclei in the He zone were made following Gallino. The mass of the solar nebula was considered to consist of some initial material of approximately solar composition plus some contributions from AGB stars. The ratios of the masses required from the AGB He burning zone to the ISM necessary to produce the observed value of Pd-107/Pd-108 in the early solar system were calculated and this dilution factor was applied to all other relevant nuclei.

  6. Characterization and Source Term Assessments of Radioactive Particles from Marshall Islands Using Non-Destructive Analytical Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Jernstrom, J; Eriksson, M; Simon, R; Tamborini, G; Bildstein, O; Carlos-Marquez, R; Kehl, S R; Betti, M; Hamilton, T

    2005-06-11

    A considerable fraction of radioactivity entering the environment from different nuclear events is associated with particles. The impact of these events can only be fully assessed where there is some knowledge about the mobility of particle bound radionuclides entering the environment. The behavior of particulate radionuclides is dependent on several factors, including the physical, chemical and redox state of the environment, the characteristics of the particles (e.g., the chemical composition, crystallinity and particle size) and on the oxidative state of radionuclides contained in the particles. Six plutonium-containing particles stemming from Runit Island soil (Marshall Islands) were characterized using non-destructive analytical and microanalytical methods. By determining the activity of {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am isotopes from their gamma peaks structural information related to Pu matrix was obtained, and the source term was revealed. Composition and elemental distribution in the particles were studied with synchrotron radiation based micro X-ray fluorescence (SR-{mu}-XRF) spectrometry. Scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray detector (SEMEDX) and secondary ion mass spectrometer (SIMS) were used to examine particle surfaces. Based on the elemental composition the particles were divided into two groups; particles with plain Pu matrix, and particles where the plutonium is included in Si/O-rich matrix being more heterogeneously distributed. All of the particles were identified as fragments of initial weapons material. As containing plutonium with low {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atomic ratio, {approx}2-6%, which corresponds to weapons grade plutonium, the source term was identified to be among the safety tests conducted in the history of Runit Island.

  7. The standardization methods of radioactive sources (125I, 131I, 99mTc, and 18F) for calibrating nuclear medicine equipment in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurdiyanto, G.; Candra, H.

    2016-03-01

    The standardization of radioactive sources (125I, 131I, 99mTc and 18F) to calibrate the nuclear medicine equipment had been carried out in PTKMR-BATAN. This is necessary because the radioactive sources used in the field of nuclear medicine has a very short half-life in other that to obtain a quality measurement results require special treatment. Besides that, the use of nuclear medicine techniques in Indonesia develop rapidly. All the radioactive sources were prepared by gravimetric methods. Standardization of 125I has been carried out by photon- photon coincidence methods, while the others have been carried out by gamma spectrometry methods. The standar sources are used to calibrate a Capintec CRC-7BT radionuclide calibrator. The results shows that calibration factor for Capintec CRC-7BT dose calibrator is 1,03; 1,02; 1,06; and 1,04 for 125I, 131I, 99mTc and 18F respectively, by about 5 to 6% of the expanded uncertainties.

  8. Documentation generator application for VHDL source codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niton, B.; Pozniak, K. T.; Romaniuk, R. S.

    2011-06-01

    The UML, which is a complex system modeling and description technology, has recently been expanding its uses in the field of formalization and algorithmic approach to such systems like multiprocessor photonic, optoelectronic and advanced electronics carriers; distributed, multichannel measurement systems; optical networks, industrial electronics, novel R&D solutions. The paper describes a realization of an application for documenting VHDL source codes. There are presented own novel solution based on Doxygen program which is available on the free license, with accessible source code. The used supporting tools for parser building were Bison and Flex. There are presented the practical results of the documentation generator. The program was applied for exemplary VHDL codes. The documentation generator application is used for design of large optoelectronic and electronic measurement and control systems. The paper consists of three parts which describe the following components of the documentation generator for photonic and electronic systems: concept, MatLab application and VHDL application. This is part three which describes the VHDL application. VHDL is used for behavioral description of the Optoelectronic system.

  9. New laser setup for the selective isotope production and investigation in a laser ion source at the IRIS (Investigation of Radioactive Isotopes on Synchrocyclotron) facility

    SciTech Connect

    Barzakh, A. E.; Fedorov, D. V.; Ivanov, V. S.; Molkanov, P. L.; Panteleev, V. N.; Volkov, Yu. M.

    2012-02-15

    New laser installation for the resonance ionization spectroscopy in a laser ion source and for rare isotope production has been recently put into operation at the IRIS (Investigation of Radioactive Isotopes on Synchrocyclotron) facility (Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina). This is a significant improvement of a previous target-laser ion source device of the IRIS mass-separator, working on-line with 1 GeV proton beam of PNPI (Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute) synchrocyclotron. It makes possible for us to get the isobarically clean radioactive isotope beams of a great number of chemical elements. New laser setup provides the two- or three-resonance step ionization in the range of wavelength of 265-850 nm. The first results obtained at the laser setup for Tl isotopes are presented.

  10. Sealed source and device design safety testing. Volume 5: Technical report on the findings of Task 4, Investigation of failed radioactive stainless steel troxler gauges

    SciTech Connect

    Benac, D.J.; Schick, W.R.

    1995-10-01

    This report covers the Task 4 activities for the Sealed Source and Device Safety testing program. SwRI was contracted to investigate failed radioactive stainless steel troxler gauges. SwRI`s task was to determine the cause of failure of the rods and the extent of the problem. SwRI concluded that the broken rod failed in a brittle manner due to a hard zone in the heat affected zone.

  11. Development of radioactive ion beam production systems for Tokai Radioactive Ion Acceleration Complex--High temperature ion source for short-lived isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Otokawa, Y.; Osa, A.; Sato, T. K.; Matsuda, M.; Ichikawa, S.; Jeong, S. C.

    2010-02-15

    We have developed a new ion source system in the isotope separator on-line at Japan Atomic Energy Agency, for separation of short-lived isotopes produced by proton-induced fission of {sup 238}U. The ion source system is a forced electron beam induced arc discharge version E type ion source with a target container. We successfully operated this system at 2000 deg. C as a result of reductions in volume of the ion source and the target container, introduction of heating method by electron bombardment, and improvement to the heat shield. This new ion source system was tested using {sup 238}U of 640 mg/cm{sup 2} with a proton primary beam of 30 MeV, 350 nA. Release times were measured for Kr, In, and Xe. The values of release times are 2.6 s for Kr, 1.8 s for In, and 4.6 s for Xe. In this work, the ion source system enabled us to mass-separate short-lived isotopes such as {sup 93}Kr(T{sub 1/2}=1.286 s), {sup 129}In(T{sub 1/2}=0.61 s), and {sup 141}Xe(T{sub 1/2}=1.73 s) with intensity of 10{sup 3} ions/s.

  12. New numerical simulation method to calibrate the regular hexagonal NaI(Tl) detector with radioactive point sources situated non-axial.

    PubMed

    Hamzawy, Ayman; Grozdanov, Dimitar N; Badawi, Mohamed S; Aliyev, Fuad A; Thabet, Abouzeid A; Abbas, Mahmoud I; Ruskov, Ivan N; El-Khatib, Ahmed M; Kopatch, Yuri N; Gouda, Mona M

    2016-11-01

    Scintillation crystals are usually used for detection of energetic photons at room temperature in high energy and nuclear physics research, non-destructive analysis of materials testing, safeguards, nuclear treaty verification, geological exploration, and medical imaging. Therefore, new designs and construction of radioactive beam facilities are coming on-line with these science brunches. A good number of researchers are investigating the efficiency of the γ-ray detectors to improve the models and techniques used in order to deal with the most pressing problems in physics research today. In the present work, a new integrative and uncomplicated numerical simulation method (NSM) is used to compute the full-energy (photo) peak efficiency of a regular hexagonal prism NaI(Tl) gamma-ray detector using radioactive point sources situated non-axial within its front surface boundaries. This simulation method is based on the efficiency transfer method. Most of the mathematical formulas in this work are derived analytically and solved numerically. The main core of the NSM is the calculation of the effective solid angle for radioactive point sources, which are situated non-axially at different distances from the front surface of the detector. The attenuation of the γ-rays through the detector's material and any other materials in-between the source and the detector is taken into account. A remarkable agreement between the experimental and calculated by present formalism results has been observed.

  13. New numerical simulation method to calibrate the regular hexagonal NaI(Tl) detector with radioactive point sources situated non-axial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamzawy, Ayman; Grozdanov, Dimitar N.; Badawi, Mohamed S.; Aliyev, Fuad A.; Thabet, Abouzeid A.; Abbas, Mahmoud I.; Ruskov, Ivan N.; El-Khatib, Ahmed M.; Kopatch, Yuri N.; Gouda, Mona M.

    2016-11-01

    Scintillation crystals are usually used for detection of energetic photons at room temperature in high energy and nuclear physics research, non-destructive analysis of materials testing, safeguards, nuclear treaty verification, geological exploration, and medical imaging. Therefore, new designs and construction of radioactive beam facilities are coming on-line with these science brunches. A good number of researchers are investigating the efficiency of the γ-ray detectors to improve the models and techniques used in order to deal with the most pressing problems in physics research today. In the present work, a new integrative and uncomplicated numerical simulation method (NSM) is used to compute the full-energy (photo) peak efficiency of a regular hexagonal prism NaI(Tl) gamma-ray detector using radioactive point sources situated non-axial within its front surface boundaries. This simulation method is based on the efficiency transfer method. Most of the mathematical formulas in this work are derived analytically and solved numerically. The main core of the NSM is the calculation of the effective solid angle for radioactive point sources, which are situated non-axially at different distances from the front surface of the detector. The attenuation of the γ-rays through the detector's material and any other materials in-between the source and the detector is taken into account. A remarkable agreement between the experimental and calculated by present formalism results has been observed.

  14. A Remote Radioactivity Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jona, Kemi; Vondracek, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Imagine a high school with very few experimental resources and limited budgets that prevent the purchase of even basic laboratory equipment. For example, many high schools do not have the means of experimentally studying radioactivity because they lack Geiger counters and/or good radioactive sources. This was the case at the first high school one of us (MV) worked at, and after talking with numerous colleagues we know this is still the case at many schools. What options are there then for physics teachers to allow their students to experimentally investigate certain characteristics of radioactivity, such as how distance affects the intensity of radiation coming from a radioactive source? There are computer simulations that can be run, or perhaps the teacher has a light sensor and tries to make an analogy between the intensity of light from a light bulb and the intensity of radiation from a radioactive source based on geometric arguments to get an inverse-square law. But for many there is no direct experimental option if one does not possess a Geiger counter and good radioactive sample. It is for that teacher and class of students that an online, remote radioactivity experiment was created.

  15. Quantum Catalytic Extraction Process{trademark}:Applications to low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Nagle, C.

    1994-12-31

    This presentation details the Quantum method for catalytic extraction processing of low-level radioactive wastes. Resource recovery, waste volume reduction, and fundamentals of the processing technology are discussed. The results of two case studies, and a description of two demonstration units are provided.

  16. A gas-jet transport and catcher technique for on-line production of radioactive ion beams using an electron cyclotron resonance ion-source.

    PubMed

    Naik, V; Chakrabarti, A; Bhattacharjee, M; Karmakar, P; Bandyopadhyay, A; Bhattacharjee, S; Dechoudhury, S; Mondal, M; Pandey, H K; Lavanyakumar, D; Mandi, T K; Dutta, D P; Kundu Roy, T; Bhowmick, D; Sanyal, D; Srivastava, S C L; Ray, A; Ali, Md S

    2013-03-01

    Radioactive ion beams (RIB) have been produced on-line, using a gas-jet recoil transport coupled Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion-source at the VECC-RIB facility. Radioactive atoms∕molecules carried through the gas-jet were stopped in a catcher placed inside the ECR plasma chamber. A skimmer has been used to remove bulk of the carrier gas at the ECR entrance. The diffusion of atoms∕molecules through the catcher has been verified off-line using stable isotopes and on-line through transmission of radioactive reaction products. Beams of (14)O (71 s), (42)K (12.4 h), (43)K (22.2 h), and (41)Ar (1.8 h) have been produced by bombarding nitrogen and argon gas targets with proton and alpha particle beams from the K130 cyclotron at VECC. Typical measured intensity of RIB at the separator focal plane is found to be a few times 10(3) particles per second (pps). About 3.2 × 10(3) pps of 1.4 MeV (14)O RIB has been measured after acceleration through a radiofrequency quadrupole linac. The details of the gas-jet coupled ECR ion-source and RIB production experiments are presented along with the plans for the future.

  17. Application of FEPs analysis to identify research priorities relevant to the safety case for an Australian radioactive waste facility

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, T.E.; McGlinn, P.J.

    2007-07-01

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) has established a project to undertake research relevant to the safety case for the proposed Australian radioactive waste facility. This facility will comprise a store for intermediate level radioactive waste, and either a store or a near-surface repository for low-level waste. In order to identify the research priorities for this project, a structured analysis of the features, events and processes (FEPs) relevant to the performance of the facility was undertaken. This analysis was based on the list of 137 FEPs developed by the IAEA project on 'Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal Facilities' (ISAM). A number of key research issues were identified, and some factors which differ in significance for the store, compared to the repository concept, were highlighted. For example, FEPs related to long-term groundwater transport of radionuclides are considered to be of less significance for a store than a repository. On the other hand, structural damage from severe weather, accident or human interference is more likely for a store. The FEPs analysis has enabled the scientific research skills required for the inter-disciplinary project team to be specified. The outcomes of the research will eventually be utilised in developing the design, and assessing the performance, of the future facility. It is anticipated that a more detailed application of the FEPs methodology will be undertaken to develop the safety case for the proposed radioactive waste management facility. (authors)

  18. Compact microwave ion source for industrial applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Yong-Sub; Kim, Dae-Il; Kim, Han-Sung; Seol, Kyung-Tae; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Hong, In-Seok

    2012-02-15

    A 2.45 GHz microwave ion source for ion implanters has many good properties for industrial application, such as easy maintenance and long lifetime, and it should be compact for budget and space. But, it has a dc current supply for the solenoid and a rf generator for plasma generation. Usually, they are located on high voltage platform because they are electrically connected with beam extraction power supply. Using permanent magnet solenoid and multi-layer dc break, high voltage deck and high voltage isolation transformer can be eliminated, and the dose rate on targets can be controlled by pulse duty control with semiconductor high voltage switch. Because the beam optics does not change, beam transfer components, such as focusing elements and beam shutter, can be eliminated. It has shown the good performances in budget and space for industrial applications of ion beams.

  19. Source inventory for Department of Energy solid low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities: What it means and how to get one of your own

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.A.

    1991-12-31

    In conducting a performance assessment for a low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility, one of the important considerations for determining the source term, which is defined as the amount of radioactivity being released from the facility, is the quantity of radioactive material present. This quantity, which will be referred to as the source inventory, is generally estimated through a review of historical records and waste tracking systems at the LLW facility. In theory, estimating the total source inventory for Department of Energy (DOE) LLW disposal facilities should be possible by reviewing the national data base maintained for LLW operations, the Solid Waste Information Management System (SWIMS), or through the annual report that summarizes the SWIMS data, the Integrated Data Base (IDB) report. However, in practice, there are some difficulties in making this estimate. This is not unexpected, since the SWIMS and the IDB were not developed with the goal of developing a performance assessment source term in mind. The practical shortcomings using the existing data to develop a source term for DOE facilities will be discussed in this paper.

  20. RCRA Part B Permit Application for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory - Volume 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Pamela R. Cunningham

    1992-07-01

    This section of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) Part B permit application describes the waste characteristics Of the transuranic (TRU) mixed wastes at the RWMC waste management units to be permitted: the Intermediate-Level Transuranic Storage Facility (ILTSF) and the Waste Storage Facility (WSF). The ILTSF is used to store radioactive remote-handled (RH) wastes. The WSF will be used to store radioactive contact-handled (CH) wastes. The Transuranic Storage Area (TSA) was established at the RWMC to provide interim storage of TRU waste. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A defines TRU waste as waste contaminated with alpha-emitting transuranium radionuclides with half-lives greater than 20 years in concentrations greater than 100 nanocuries per gram (nCi/g) o f waste material. The TSA serves generators both on and off the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The ILTSF is located at the TSA, and the WSF will be located there also. Most of the wastes managed at the TSA are mixed wastes, which are radioactive wastes regulated under the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) that also contain hazardous materials regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Idaho Hazardous Waste Management Regulations. These wastes include TRU mixed wastes and some low-level mixed wastes. Accordingly, the TSA is subject to the permitting requirements of RCRA and the Idaho Administrative Procedures Act (IDAPA). Prior to 1982, DOE orders defined TRU wastes as having transuranium radionuclides in concentrations greater than 10 nCi/g, The low-level mixed wastes managed at the TSA are those wastes with 10 to 100 nCi/g of TRU radionuclides that prior to 1982 were considered TRU waste.

  1. Development and Evaluation of Rhenium-188-labeled Radioactive Stents for Restenosis Therapy and Development of Strategies for Radiolabeling Brachytherapy Sources with Palladium-103 CRADA FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F. F.

    1998-06-01

    This project involved collaboration between InnerDyne, Inc., and radiopharmaceutical research programs at ORNL and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) which explored new strategies for the development and animal testing of radioactive rhenium-188-labeled implantable stent sources for the treatment of coronary restenosis after angioplasty and the development of chemical species radiolabeled with the palladium-103 radioisotope for the treatment of cancer. Rhenium-l 88 was made available for these studies from radioactive decay of tungsten-188 produced in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Stent activation and coating technology was developed and provided by InnerDyne, Inc., and stent radiolabeling technology and animal studies were conducted by InnerDyne staff in conjunction with investigators at BNL. Collaborative studies in animals were supported at sites by InnerDyne, Inc. New chemical methods for attaching the palladium-103 radioisotope to bifunctional chelate technologies were developed by investigators at ORNL.

  2. Environmentally friendly power sources for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapeña-Rey, Nieves; Mosquera, Jonay; Bataller, Elena; Ortí, Fortunato; Dudfield, Christopher; Orsillo, Alessandro

    One of the crucial challenges of the aviation industry in upcoming years is to reduce emissions not only in the vicinity of airfields but also in cruise. Amongst other transport methods, airplanes emissions count for 3% of the CO 2 emissions. Initiatives to reduce this include not only investing in more fuel-efficient aircrafts or adapting existing ones to make them more efficient (e.g. by fitting fuel-saving winglets), but also more actively researching novel propulsion systems that incorporate environmentally friendly technologies. The Boeing Company through its European subsidiary, Boeing Research and Technology Europe (BR&TE) in collaboration with industry partners throughout Europe is working towards this goal by studying the possible application of advanced batteries and fuel-cell systems in aeronautical applications. One example is the development of a small manned two-seater prototype airplane powered only by proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel-cell stacks, which runs on compressed hydrogen gas as fuel and pressurized air as oxidant, and Li-ion batteries. The efficient all composite motorglider is an all electric prototype airplane which does not produce any of the noxious engine exhaust by-products, such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide or NO x, that can contribute to climate change and adversely affect local air quality. Water and heat are the only exhaust products. The main objective is to demonstrate for the first time in aviation history a straight level manned flight with fuel-cells as the only power source. For this purpose, the original engine of a super Dimona HK36TTC glider from Diamond Aircraft Industries (Austria) was replaced by a hybrid power system, which feeds a brushless dc electrical motor that rotates a variable pitch propeller. Amongst the many technical challenges encountered when developing this test platform are maintaining the weight and balance of the aircraft, designing the thermal management system and the power management

  3. Recent status on cobalt-60 gamma ray radiation sources production and its application in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhijian, Cao; Yunjiang, Song; Chunchua, Zhang; Maoling, Li

    1993-07-01

    This paper describes the recent status on Co-60 γ ray radiation sources production and its application in China. At present, the production capacity of Co-60 γ ray radiation sources in China is about 11.1 PBq(0.3 MCi) per year, 5 years later, it can increase to 37 PBq(1 MCi) per year. The standard dimension of Co-60 γ ray radiation sources is φ 15×90 mm, the radioactivity of each sources is 370TBq - 740TBq(1000-2000 Ci). There are over 150 Co-60 γ ray radiation facilities with total design capacity of over 370 PBq(10 MCi) and practical capacity of about 92.5 PBq(2.5 MCi) in operation. The number of Co-60 γ ray radiation facilities with practical capacity of over 3.7 PBq(0.1 MCi) is 14. The main applications of the Co-60 γ ray sources are radiation crosslinking application, radiation sterilization of disposable medical supplies and food irradiation. The prospect of Co-60 γ ray radiation sources production and its application in China is good.

  4. Guidance on the application of quality assurance for characterizing a low-level radioactive waste disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    Pittiglio, C.L. Jr.; Starmer, R.J.; Hedges, D.

    1990-10-01

    This document provides the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's staff guidance to an applicant on meeting the quality control (QC) requirements of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 61, Section 61.12 (10 CFR 61.12), for a low-level waste disposal facility. The QC requirements combined with the requirements for managerial controls and audits are the basis for developing a quality assurance (QA) program and for the guidance provided herein. QA guidance is specified for site characterization activities necessary to meet the performance objectives of 10 CFR Part 61 and to limit exposure to or the release of radioactivity. 1 tab.

  5. Thermal-electric coupled-field finite element modeling and experimental testing of high-temperature ion sources for the production of radioactive ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Manzolaro, M. Andrighetto, A.; Meneghetti, G.; Vivian, G.; D’Agostini, F.

    2016-02-15

    In isotope separation on line facilities the target system and the related ion source are two of the most critical components. In the context of the selective production of exotic species (SPES) project, a 40 MeV 200 μA proton beam directly impinges a uranium carbide target, generating approximately 10{sup 13} fissions per second. The radioactive isotopes produced in this way are then directed to the ion source, where they can be ionized and finally accelerated to the subsequent areas of the facility. In this work both the surface ion source and the plasma ion source adopted for the SPES facility are presented and studied by means of numerical thermal-electric models. Then, numerical results are compared with temperature and electric potential difference measurements, and finally the main advantages of the proposed simulation approach are discussed.

  6. 2μm fiber laser sources and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Jihong; Wang, Qing; Jiang, Shibin

    2011-09-01

    Mid-infrared fiber laser sources have attracted a lot of interest in space and defense applications. We review our latest developments of various fiber laser sources operating near 2μm based on Tm3+ and Ho3+ ions, which include singlefrequency CW laser sources, Q-switched laser sources, mode-locked laser sources. Potential applications of these fiber laser sources are also briefly discussed.

  7. A study of radioactivity in modern stream gravels and its possible application as a prospecting method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chew, Randall T.

    1955-01-01

    Traverses along some streams of the Colorado Plateau in areas known to contain minable uranium deposits show that anomalous radiation in the stream gravels can be detected with a suitable counter downstream from the deposits. The amount of radiation is influenced by the size of the uranium deposit, the size of the drainage area of the stream, the grain size of the sediments, and the lithology of the rocks over which the stream flows. The spacing of the stations where readings are taken is controlled by the size of the stream, and special readings are also taken directly downstream from important tributaries. An anomaly is empirically defined as a 10 percent rise over background. Radioactive material from large uranium deposits has been detected as much as 1 mile downstream. Radioactive material from smaller deposits is detachable over shorter distances. The method is slow but appears to be a useful prospecting tool under restricted conditions.

  8. Development programs in the United States of America for the application of cement-based grouts in radioactive waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Dole, L.R.; Row, T.H.

    1984-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews seven cement-based waste form development programs at six of the US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. These sites have developed a variety of processes that range from producing 25 mm (1 in.) diameter pellets in a glove box to producing 240 m (800 ft.) diameter grout sheets within the bedding planes of a deep shale formation. These successful applications of cement-based waste forms to the many radioactive waste streams from nuclear facilities bear witness to the flexibility and reliability of this class of materials. This paper also discusses the major issues regarding the application of cement-based waste forms to radioactive waste management problems. These issues are (1) leachability, (2) radiation stability, (3) thermal stability, (4) phase complexity of the matrix, and (5) effects of the waste stream composition. A cursory review of current research in each of these areas is given This paper also discusses future trends in cement-based waste form development and applications. 31 references, 11 figures.

  9. International radioactive material recycling challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Greeves, John T.; Lieberman, James

    2007-07-01

    The paper explores current examples of successful International radioactive recycling programs and also explores operational regulatory and political challenges that need to be considered for expanding international recycling world-wide. Most countries regulations are fully consistent with the International Atomic Agency (IAEA) Code of Practice on the International Transboundary Movement of Radioactive Material and the IAEA Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources. IAEA member States reported on the status of their efforts to control transboundary movement of radioactive material recently during the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management meeting in May 2006. (authors)

  10. Energy Recovery Linacs for Light Source Applications

    SciTech Connect

    George Neil

    2011-04-01

    Energy Recovery Linacs are being considered for applications in present and future light sources. ERLs take advantage of the continuous operation of superconducting rf cavities to accelerate high average current beams with low losses. The electrons can be directed through bends, undulators, and wigglers for high brightness x ray production. They are then decelerated to low energy, recovering power so as to minimize the required rf drive and electrical draw. When this approach is coupled with advanced continuous wave injectors, very high power, ultra-short electron pulse trains of very high brightness can be achieved. This paper will review the status of worldwide programs and discuss the technology challenges to provide such beams for photon production.

  11. Practice and assessment of sea dumping of radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Templeton, W.L.; Bewers, J.M.

    1985-08-01

    This paper discusses the practice and assessment of the ocean dumping of low-level radioactive wastes. It describes the international and multilateral regulatory framework, the sources, composition, packaging and rate of dumping and, in particular, the recent radiological assessment of the only operational disposal site in the northeast Atlantic. The paper concludes with a discussion of future ocean disposal practices for radioactive wastes, and the application of the approach to the dumping of non-radioactive contaminants in the ocean. 39 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  12. Arduino based radioactive tracking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd; Rashid, Mohd Fazlie Bin Abdul; Rahman, Anwar Bin Abdul; Ramlan, Atikah

    2017-01-01

    There is a clear need to strengthen security measures to prevent any malevolent use or accidental misuse of radioactive sources. Some of these radioactive sources are regularly transported outside of office or laboratory premises for work and consultation purposes. This paper present the initial development of radioactive source tracking system, which combined Arduino microcontroller, Global Positioning System (GPS) and Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) technologies. The tracking system will help the owner to monitor the movement of the radioactive sources. Currently, the system is capable of tracking the movement of radioactive source through the GPS satellite signals. The GPS co-ordinate could either be transmitted to headquarters at fixed interval via Short Messaging Service (SMS) to enable real time monitoring, or stored in a memory card for offline monitoring and data logging.

  13. Radioactivity: A Natural Phenomenon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronneau, C.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is misinformation people have on the subject of radiation. The importance of comparing artificial source levels of radiation to natural levels is emphasized. Measurements of radioactivity, its consequences, and comparisons between the risks induced by radiation in the environment and from artificial sources are included. (KR)

  14. Radioactivity: A Natural Phenomenon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronneau, C.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is misinformation people have on the subject of radiation. The importance of comparing artificial source levels of radiation to natural levels is emphasized. Measurements of radioactivity, its consequences, and comparisons between the risks induced by radiation in the environment and from artificial sources are included. (KR)

  15. The identification of autoionizing states of atomic chromium for the resonance ionization laser ion source of the ISOLDE radioactive ion beam facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day Goodacre, T.; Chrysalidis, K.; Fedorov, D. V.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Marsh, B. A.; Molkanov, P. L.; Rossel, R. E.; Rothe, S.; Seiffert, C.

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation into autoionizing states of atomic chromium, in the service of the resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS): the principal ion source of the ISOLDE radioactive ion beam facility based at CERN. The multi-step resonance photo-ionization process enables element selective ionization which, in combination with mass separation, allows isotope specific selectivity in the production of radioactive ion beams at ISOLDE. The element selective nature of the process requires a multi-step "ionization scheme" to be developed for each element. Using the method of in-source resonance ionization spectroscopy, an optimal three-step, three-resonance photo-ionization scheme originating from the 3d5(6S)4s a7S3 atomic ground state has been developed for chromium. The scheme uses an ionizing transition to one of the 15 newly observed autoionizing states reported here. Details of the spectroscopic studies are described and the new ionization scheme is summarized.

  16. Terahertz Sources, their Technology and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartnagel, Hans L.

    2011-03-01

    There exists a significant interest to use THz signals for security applications. The required signal sources need to be small in size, easy to operate and not to be too costly. A review is first presented of the approaches used so far. Then the contributions made by the laboratory of this author are to be described. A particularly promising technique is the use of ballistic resonance in heterojunction structures. A more classical approach uses the step-recovery diode equivalence of heterostructures. Another technique is based on pulsed optics from Q-switched lasers and optical mixing at various materials. This can be extended also to the involvement of low-cost femtosecond laser pulsers together with a dc bias voltage. Instead of solid-state ballistics, corresponding laser-pulse initiated field emission of electron bunches in a THz vacuum resonator can be employed, too. The relevant heterojunction technology is to be described. The device structures will be given as to be inserted together with the required antennas in THz waveguides. Experimental results are to be presented. Among the many applications also THz matrix and bar codes are to be discussed for documentation. Here also early experimental efforts are described. An interesting question concerns the use of THz RFID's on flexible substrates, including liquid crystal structures.

  17. Electrical-thermal-structural finite element simulation and experimental study of a plasma ion source for the production of radioactive ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Manzolaro, M.; Andrighetto, A.; Meneghetti, G.; Vivian, G.

    2016-03-15

    The production target and the ion source constitute the core of the selective production of exotic species (SPES) facility. In this complex experimental apparatus for the production of radioactive ion beams, a 40 MeV, 200 μA proton beam directly impinges a uranium carbide target, generating approximately 10{sup 13} fissions per second. The transfer line enables the unstable isotopes generated by the {sup 238}U fissions in the target to reach the ion source, where they can be ionized and finally accelerated to the subsequent areas of the facility. In this work, the plasma ion source currently adopted for the SPES facility is analyzed in detail by means of electrical, thermal, and structural numerical models. Next, theoretical results are compared with the electric potential difference, temperature, and displacement measurements. Experimental tests with stable ion beams are also presented and discussed.

  18. Electrical-thermal-structural finite element simulation and experimental study of a plasma ion source for the production of radioactive ion beams.

    PubMed

    Manzolaro, M; Meneghetti, G; Andrighetto, A; Vivian, G

    2016-03-01

    The production target and the ion source constitute the core of the selective production of exotic species (SPES) facility. In this complex experimental apparatus for the production of radioactive ion beams, a 40 MeV, 200 μA proton beam directly impinges a uranium carbide target, generating approximately 10(13) fissions per second. The transfer line enables the unstable isotopes generated by the (238)U fissions in the target to reach the ion source, where they can be ionized and finally accelerated to the subsequent areas of the facility. In this work, the plasma ion source currently adopted for the SPES facility is analyzed in detail by means of electrical, thermal, and structural numerical models. Next, theoretical results are compared with the electric potential difference, temperature, and displacement measurements. Experimental tests with stable ion beams are also presented and discussed.

  19. Application of PHADEC method for the decontamination of radioactive steam piping components

    SciTech Connect

    Lo Frano, R.; Pilo, F.; Aquaro, D.

    2013-07-01

    The dismantling of nuclear plants is a complex activity that originates often a large quantity of radioactive contaminated residue. In this paper the attention was focused on the PHADEC (Phosphoric Acid Decontamination) plant adopted for the clearance of Caorso NPP (in Italy) metallic systems and components contaminated by Co{sup 60} (produced by the neutron capture in the iron materials), like the main steam lines, moisture separator of the turbine buildings, etc.. The PHADEC plant consists in a chemical off line treatment: the crud, deposited along the steam piping during life plant as an example, is removed by means of acid attacks in ponds coupled to a high pressure water washing. Due to the fact that the removed contaminated layers, essentially, iron oxides of various chemical composition, depend on components geometry, type of contamination and time of treatment in the PHADEC plant, it becomes of meaningful importance to suggest a procedure capable to improve the control of the PHADEC process parameters. This study aimed thus at the prediction and optimization of the mentioned treatment time in order to improve the efficiency of the plant itself and to achieve, in turn, the minimization of produced wastes. To the purpose an experimental campaign was carried out by analysing several samples, i.e. taken along the main steam piping line. Smear tests as well as metallographic analyses were carried out in order to determine respectively the radioactivity distribution and the crud composition on the inner surface of the components. Moreover the radioactivity in the crud thickness was measured. These values allowed finally to correlate the residence time in the acid attack ponds to the level of the achieved decontamination. (authors)

  20. Development and properties of crystalline silicotitanate (CST) ion exchangers for radioactive waste applications

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.E.; Brown, N.E.

    1997-04-01

    Crystalline silicotitanates (CSTs) are a new class of ion exchangers that were jointly invented by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories and Texas A&M University. One particular CST, known as TAM-5, is remarkable for its ability to separate parts-per-million concentrations of cesium from highly alkaline solutions (pH> 14) containing high sodium concentrations (>5M). It is also highly effective for removing cesium from neutral and acidic solutions, and for removing strontium from basic and neutral solutions. Cesium isotopes are fission products that account for a large portion of the radioactivity in waste streams generated during weapons material production. Tests performed at numerous locations with early lab-scale TAM-5 samples established the material as a leading candidate for treating radioactive waste volumes such as those found at the Hanford site in Washington. Thus Sandia developed a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) partnership with UOP, a world leader in developing, commercializing, and supplying adsorbents and associated process technology to commercialize and further develop the material. CSTs are now commercially available from UOP in a powder (UOP IONSIV{reg_sign} IE-910 ion exchanger) and granular form suitable for column ion exchange operations (UOP IONSIV{reg_sign} IE-911 ion exchanger). These materials exhibit a high capacity for cesium in a wide variety of solutions of interest to the Department of Energy, and they are chemically, thermally, and radiation stable. They have performed well in tests at numerous sites with actual radioactive waste solutions, and are being demonstrated in the 100,000 liter Cesium Removal Demonstration taking place at Oak Ridge National Laboratory with Melton Valley Storage Tank waste. It has been estimated that applying CSTs to the Hanford cleanup alone will result in a savings of more than $300 million over baseline technologies.

  1. Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility Status

    SciTech Connect

    Stracener, Daniel W; Beene, James R; Dowling, Darryl T; Juras, Raymond C; Liu, Yuan; Meigs, Martha J; Mendez, II, Anthony J; Mueller, Paul Edward; Sinclair, John William; Tatum, B Alan; Sinclair IV, John W

    2009-01-01

    The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) produces high-quality beams of short-lived radioactive isotopes for nuclear science research, and is currently unique worldwide in the ability to provide neutron-rich fission fragment beams post-accelerated to energies above the Coulomb barrier. HRIBF is undergoing a multi-phase upgrade. Phase I (completed 2005) was construction of the High Power Target Laboratory to provide the on-going Isotope Separator On-Line (ISOL) development program with a venue for testing new targets, ion sources, and radioactive ion beam (RIB) production techniques with high-power beams. Phase II, which is on schedule for completion in September 2009, is the Injector for Radioactive Ion Species 2 (IRIS2), a second RIB production station that will improve facility reliability and accommodate new ion sources, new RIB production targets, and some innovative RIB purification techniques, including laser applications. The Phase III goal is to substantially improve facility performance by replacing or supplementing the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC) production accelerator with either a high-power 25-50 MeV electron accelerator or a high-current multi-beam commercial cyclotron. Either upgrade is applicable to R&D on isotope production for medical or other applications.

  2. Application of autonomous robotics to surveillance of waste storage containers for radioactive surface contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, F.J.; Beckerman, M.; Butler, P.L.; Jones, J.P.; Reister, D.B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a proof-of-principal demonstration performed with the HERMIES-III mobile robot to automate the inspection of waste storage drums for radioactive surface contamination and thereby reduce the human burden of operating a robot and worker exposure to potentially hazardous environments. Software and hardware for the demonstration were developed by a team consisting of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the Universities of Florida, Michigan, Tennessee, and Texas. Robot navigation, machine vision, manipulator control, parallel processing and human-machine interface techniques developed by the team were demonstrated utilizing advanced computer architectures. The demonstration consists of over 100,000 lines of computer code executing on nine computers.

  3. Application of autonomous robotics to surveillance of waste storage containers for radioactive surface contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, F.J.; Beckerman, M.; Butler, P.L.; Jones, J.P.; Reister, D.B.

    1991-12-31

    This paper describes a proof-of-principal demonstration performed with the HERMIES-III mobile robot to automate the inspection of waste storage drums for radioactive surface contamination and thereby reduce the human burden of operating a robot and worker exposure to potentially hazardous environments. Software and hardware for the demonstration were developed by a team consisting of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the Universities of Florida, Michigan, Tennessee, and Texas. Robot navigation, machine vision, manipulator control, parallel processing and human-machine interface techniques developed by the team were demonstrated utilizing advanced computer architectures. The demonstration consists of over 100,000 lines of computer code executing on nine computers.

  4. Radioactive Threat Detection with Scattering Physics: A Model-Based Application

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J V; Chambers, D H; Breitfeller, E F; Guidry, B L; Verbeke, J M; Axelrod, M A; Sale, K E; Meyer, A M

    2010-01-21

    The detection of radioactive contraband is a critical problem in maintaining national security for any country. Emissions from threat materials challenge both detection and measurement technologies especially when concealed by various types of shielding complicating the transport physics significantly. The development of a model-based sequential Bayesian processor that captures both the underlying transport physics including scattering offers a physics-based approach to attack this challenging problem. It is shown that this processor can be used to develop an effective detection technique.

  5. Radiation resistant concrete for applications in nuclear power and radioactive waste industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnham, Steven Robert

    Elemental components of ordinary concrete contain a variety of metals and rare earth elements that are susceptible to neutron activation. This activation occurs by means of radiative capture, a neutron interaction that results in formation of radioisotopes such as Co-60, Eu-152, and Eu-154. Studies have shown that these three radioisotopes are responsible for the residual radioactivity found in nuclear power plant concrete reactor dome and shielding walls. Such concrete is classified as Low Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) and Very Low Level Waste (VLLW) by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) standards and requires disposal at appropriate disposal sites. There are only three such sites in the USA, and every nuclear power plant will produce at the time of decommissioning approximately 1,500 tonnes of activated concrete classified as LLRW and VLLW. NAVA ALIGA (ancient word for a new stone) is a new concrete mixture developed mainly by research as presented in this thesis. The purpose of NAVA ALIGA is to satisfy IAEA clearance levels if used as a material for reactor dome, spent fuel pool, or radioactive waste canisters. NAVA ALIGA will never be activated above the IAEA clearance level after long-term exposure to neutron radiation when used as a material for reactor dome, spent fuel pool, and radioactive waste canisters. Components of NAVA ALIGA were identified using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ISP-MS) to determine trace element composition. In addition, it was tested for compressive strength and permeability, important for nuclear infrastructure. The studied mixture had a high water to cement ratio of 0.56, which likely resulted in the high measured permeability, yet the mixture also showed a compressive strength greater than 6 000 psi after 28 days. In addition to this experimental analysis, which goal was to develop a standard approach to define the concrete mixtures in satisfying the IAEA

  6. A patch source model for treatment planning of ruthenium ophthalmic applicators.

    PubMed

    Astrahan, Melvin A

    2003-06-01

    Beta-ray emitting Ru-106/Rh-106 ophthalmic applicators have been used for close to 4 decades in the treatment of choroidal melanoma. The form factor of these applicators is a spherically concave silver bowl with an inner radius of curvature between 12 and 14 mm, and a total shell thickness of 1 mm. The radioactive nuclide is deposited in a layer 0.1 mm below the concave surface of the applicator. Calculation of dose distributions for clinical treatment planning purposes is complicated by the concave nature of the distributed source, the asymmetric shape of the active region of some applicators, imperfections in the manufacturing process which can result in an inhomogeneous distribution of activity across the active surface, and absorption and scatter in the 0.1 mm layer of silver which seals and protects the radioactive layer. A semi-empirical method of calculating dose distributions for these applicators is described which is fundamentally compatible with treatment planning systems that use the AAPM TG43 brachytherapy formalism. Dose to water is estimated by summing a "patch source" dose function over a discrete number of overlapping patches uniformly distributed over the active surface of the applicator. The patch source dose function differs conceptually from a point source dose function in that it is intended to represent the macroscopic behavior of a small, disk-like region of the applicator. The patch source dose function includes an anisotropy term to account for angular variation in absorption and scatter as particles traverse the 0.1 mm silver window. It geometrically models the nearfield of a patch with properties akin to both a small disk and infinite plane, and models the farfield as if the patch were a point. This allows a manageable number of discrete patches (300 to 1000) to provide accuracy appropriate for clinical treatment planning. This approach has the advantages of using familiar concepts and data structures, it is computationally quick, and it

  7. Remote sensing applications for diagnostics of the radioactive pollution of the ground surface and in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulinets, Sergey; Ouzounov, Dimitar; Boyarchuk, Kirill; Laverov, Nikolay

    2013-04-01

    Radioactive pollution due to its air ionization activity can drastically change the atmospheric boundary layer conductivity (what was experimentally proved during period of nuclear tests in atmosphere) and through the global electric circuit produce anomalous variations in atmosphere. As additional effect the ions created due to air ionization serve as centers of water vapor condensation and nucleation of aerosol-size particles. This process is accompanied by latent heat release. Both anomalies (ionospheric and thermal) can be controlled by remote sensing technique both from satellites (IR sensors and ionospheric probes) and from ground (GPS receivers, ground based ionosondes, VLF propagation sounding, ground measurements of the air temperature and humidity). We monitored the majority of transient events (Three-Mile Island and Chernobyl nuclear power plant emergencies) and stationary sources such as Gabon natural nuclear reactor, sites of underground nuclear tests, etc. and were able to detect thermal anomalies and for majority of cases - the ionospheric anomalies as well. Immediately after the March 11, 2011 earthquake and tsunami in Japan we started to continuously survey the long-wavelength energy flux (10-13 microns) measurable at top of the atmosphere from POES/NOAA/AVHRR polar orbit satellites. Our preliminary results show the presence of hot spots on the top of the atmosphere over the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) and due to their persistence over the same region they are most likely not of meteorological origin. On March 14 and 21 we detected a significant increase in radiation at the top of the atmosphere which also coincides with a reported radioactivity gas leaks from the FDNPP. After March 21 the intensity of energy flux in atmosphere started to decline, which has been confirmed by ground radiometer network. We were able to detect with ground based ionosonde the ionospheric anomaly associated with the largest radioactive release on March

  8. Application of inverse technique to study radioactive pollution and mixing processes in the Arctic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, L. M.; Margolina, T. M.; Danilov, A. I.

    2004-07-01

    Rare noisy observations of the dissolved and suspended Cs 137, and the dissolved Sr 90 collected for years 1985 and 1994, respectively, are utilized through an inverse method to estimate the radionuclide pollution and the mixing time scale, namely the age, of the White and Kara Seas. We demonstrate how uncertainties, such as measurement noise, inhomogeneous station disposition and others depress the identification utility of the radioactive observations in the Arctic Seas to validate regional radioecological models. The special approach estimates the current and mean radionuclide pollution from the rare observations. We found the mean integral amount of cesium (strontium) pollution of the White Sea (in 1985) and Kara Sea (in 1992) did not exceed ˜70 (41) TBq and ˜16 (9) TBq, respectively, and radioactive background of these seas is low in comparing to the Black and Barents Seas. Estimations of the age confirm the fact of the rapid ventilation of the Kara Sea, but not the White Sea. The age ranges from 1-2 years for the Kara Sea till 5-6 years for the White Sea. That factually says about the possibility of the long-term accumulation of radionuclides in the White Sea.

  9. Radioactivity of Consumer Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, David; Jokisch, Derek; Fulmer, Philip

    2006-11-01

    A variety of consumer products and household items contain varying amounts of radioactivity. Examples of these items include: FiestaWare and similar glazed china, salt substitute, bananas, brazil nuts, lantern mantles, smoke detectors and depression glass. Many of these items contain natural sources of radioactivity such as Uranium, Thorium, Radium and Potassium. A few contain man-made sources like Americium. This presentation will detail the sources and relative radioactivity of these items (including demonstrations). Further, measurements of the isotopic ratios of Uranium-235 and Uranium-238 in several pieces of china will be compared to historical uses of natural and depleted Uranium. Finally, the presenters will discuss radiation safety as it pertains to the use of these items.

  10. Applications of UThPb isotope systematics to the problems of radioactive waste disposal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuckless, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    mobility can be obtained through the use of isotopic studies. Such information can be extremely important in the search for favorable hosts for containment of radioactive waste. Rocks such as the Go??temar Granite have undergone considerable rock-water interaction, most of which occurred ??? 400 Myr. ago and little in recent times. Thus a search for zones that have experienced only a little interaction with water may provide a misleading prediction as to the ability of such zones to shield radioactive wastes from the modern biosphere. From an isotopic point of view, an ideal candidate for evaluation as a host rock for radioactive wastes would have the following characteristics: (1) a high ratio (> 2) of radiogenic to common Pb in order to optimize precision of the results; (2) a simple two-stage geologic history so that results could be interpreted without multiple working hypotheses; and (3) an originally high percentage (> 50%) of labile U so that the results would be highly sensitive to even small amount of rock-water interaction. These characteristics should produce rocks with marked radioactive disequilibrium in surface samples. The disequilibrium should grade to radioactive equilibrium with increasing depth until zones in which water has not circulated are found. Extensive regions of such zones must exist because UThPb systematics of most analyzed granitoids demonstrate closed-system behavior for almost all of their history except for their recent history in the near-surface environment. ?? 1986.

  11. 40 CFR 74.16 - Application requirements for combustion sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... thermal energy, a thermal energy plan as provided in § 74.47 for combustion sources; and (11) A statement... combustion sources. 74.16 Section 74.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... for combustion sources. (a) Opt-in permit application. Each complete opt-in permit application for...

  12. 40 CFR 74.16 - Application requirements for combustion sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... thermal energy, a thermal energy plan as provided in § 74.47 for combustion sources; and (11) A statement... combustion sources. 74.16 Section 74.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... for combustion sources. (a) Opt-in permit application. Each complete opt-in permit application for...

  13. 40 CFR 74.16 - Application requirements for combustion sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... thermal energy, a thermal energy plan as provided in § 74.47 for combustion sources; and (11) A statement... combustion sources. 74.16 Section 74.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... for combustion sources. (a) Opt-in permit application. Each complete opt-in permit application for a...

  14. 40 CFR 74.16 - Application requirements for combustion sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... combustion sources. 74.16 Section 74.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... for combustion sources. (a) Opt-in permit application. Each complete opt-in permit application for a combustion source shall contain the following elements in a format prescribed by the Administrator: (1...

  15. 40 CFR 74.16 - Application requirements for combustion sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... combustion sources. 74.16 Section 74.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... for combustion sources. (a) Opt-in permit application. Each complete opt-in permit application for a combustion source shall contain the following elements in a format prescribed by the Administrator: (1...

  16. 36 CFR 223.190 - Sourcing area application procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sourcing area application... Relief Act of 1990 Program § 223.190 Sourcing area application procedures. (a) Subject to the... private lands may apply for a sourcing area in accordance with the procedures of this section. However, an...

  17. Application of Polymers for the Long-Term Storage and Disposal of Low- and Intermediate-Level Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Bonin, Hugues W.; Walker, Michael W.; Bui, Van Tam

    2004-01-15

    Research carried out at the Royal Military College of Canada on the effects of mixed fields of radiation on high polymer adhesives and composite materials has shown that some polymers are quite resistant to radiation and could well serve in the fabrication of radioactive-waste disposal containers. A research program was launched to investigate the possibilities of using advanced polymers and polymer-based composites for high-level radioactive waste management on one hand and for intermediate- and low-level radioactive waste disposal on the other hand. Research was thus conducted in parallel on both fronts, and the findings for the later phase are presented. Thermoplastic polymers were studied for this application because they are superior materials, having the advantage over metals of not corroding and of displaying high resistance to chemical aggression. The experimental methods used in this research focused on determining the effects of radiation on the properties of the materials considered: polypropylene, nylon 66, polycarbonate, and polyurethane, with and without glass fiber reinforcement. The method involved submitting injection-molded tensile test bars to the mixed radiation field generated by the SLOWPOKE-2 nuclear reactor at the Royal Military College of Canada to accumulate doses ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 MGy. The physical, mechanical, and chemical effects of the various radiation doses on the materials were measured from density, tensile, differential scanning calorimetry, and scanning electron microscopy tests.For each polymer, the test results evidenced predominant cross-linking of the polymeric chains severed by radiation. This was evident from observed changes in the mechanical and chemical properties of the polymers, typical of cross-linking. The mechanical changes observed included an overall increase in density, an increase in Young's modulus, a decrease in strain at break, and only minor changes in strength. The chemical changes included

  18. Thulium heat sources for space power applications

    SciTech Connect

    Alderman, C.J.

    1992-05-01

    Reliable power supplies for use in transportation and remote systems will be an important part of space exploration terrestrial activities. A potential power source is available in the rare earth metal, thulium. Fuel sources can be produced by activating Tm-169 targets in the space station reactor. The resulting Tm-170 heat sources can be used in thermoelectric generators to power instrumentation and telecommunications located at remote sites such as weather stations. As the heat source in a dynamic Sterling or Brayton cycle system, the heat source can provide a lightweight power source for rovers or other terrestrial transportation systems.

  19. Nuclear chemistry research and spectroscopy with radioactive sources. Twenty-first annual progress report, February 1, 1985-January 31, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, R.W.

    1985-08-31

    The nuclear chemistry group in the School of Chemistry continues investigating the radioactive decay of nuclei far from stability under this DOE contract. These nuclei are produced with heavy ions from the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility (HHIRF) and studied on-line with the University Isotope Separator at Oak Ridge (UNISOR). Radioactive decay represents a unique method for the population of low-energy, low-spin structures in nuclei, and new phenomena which do not occur near stability can be explored. Our research encompasses three aspects of nuclear structure: (1) nuclear spectroscopy with detailed elelt, e elt, Xelt, etc., multiparameter coincidence spectrometry; (2) on-line laser hyperfine structure (hfs) and isotope shift measurements for the determination of nuclear quadrupole moments, nuclear spins, and changes in mean nuclear charge radii as a means of revealing systematic shape changes in nuclei; and (3) theoretical calculations of predictions of nuclear models for comparison with experimental level structures in nuclei studied at UNISOR. 20 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Low-level radioactive waste from commercial nuclear reactors. Volume 3. Bibliographic abstracts of significant source references. Part 2. Bibliography for treatment, storage, disposal and transportation regulatory constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Jolley, R.L.; Rodgers, B.R.

    1986-05-01

    The overall task of this program was to provide an assessment of currently available technology for treating commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), to initiate development of a methodology for choosing one technology for a given application, and to identify research needed to improve current treatment techniques and decision methodology. The resulting report is issued in four volumes. Volume 3 of this series is a collection of abstracts of most of the reference documents used for this study. Because of the large volume of literature, the abstracts have been printed in two separate parts. Federal, state, and local regulations affect the decision process for selecting technology applications. Regulations may favor a particular technology and may prevent application of others. Volume 3, part 2 presents abstracts of the regulatory constraint documents that relate to all phases of LLRW management (e.g., treatment, packaging, storage, transportation, and disposal).

  1. Production and quality control of radioactive yttrium microspheres for medical applications.

    PubMed

    Ghahramani, M R; Garibov, A A; Agayev, T N

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, a method for production of yttrium silicate microspheres is reported. Yttrium silicate microspheres with approximate sizes of 20-50µm were obtained when an aqueous solution of Y(NO3)3 was added to tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and was pumped into silicone oil under constant stirring. The shapes of the particles produced by the proposed method were regular and nearly spherical. The spherical shapes, composition and element distribution were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), carbon/sulfur analysis and SEM/EDS mapping analysis. Paper chromatography was used to identify radiochemical impurities in the radioactive microspheres. The radionuclide purity was determined using a gamma spectrometry system and an ultra-low-level liquid scintillation spectrometer. The results indicated that the proposed silicone oil spheroidization method is suitable for the production of yttrium silicate microspheres.

  2. Use of Radioactive Antibodies for Characterizing Antigens and Application to the Study of Flagella Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Geoffrey F.; Simon, Melvin

    1968-01-01

    A simple rapid immunochemical procedure has been developed which provides information about the qualitative and quantitative nature of antigens. It involves the use of purified radioactive (125I-labeled) antibodies. The amount of antibody bound to the antigen is determined by filtering the mixture through diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-cellulose paper. All of the antigen, as well as the antibody complexed with it, is trapped on the paper, whereas free antibody is removed by repeated washing. This technique has been applied to the study of three immune systems, bovine serum albumin, Escherichia coli tryptophan synthetase B protein, and Bacillus subtilis flagella. The results obtained by the DEAE-antibody binding technique were comparable, in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy, to data obtained by microcomplement fixation and precipitin methods. The assay was used to measure the kinetics of flagella regeneration in B. subtilis. PMID:4965981

  3. Application of GIS technologies to monitor secondary radioactive contamination in the Delegen mountain massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alipbeki, O.; Kabzhanova, G.; Kurmanova, G.; Alipbekova, Ch.

    2016-06-01

    The territory of the Degelen mountain massif is located within territory of the former Semipalatinsk nuclear test site and it is an area of ecological disaster. Currently there is a process of secondary radioactive contamination that is caused by geodynamic processes activated at the Degelen array, violation of underground hydrological cycles and as a consequence, water seepage into the tunnels. One of the methods of monitoring of geodynamic processes is the modern technology of geographic information systems (GIS), methods of satellite radar interferometry and high accuracy satellite navigation system in conjunction with radioecological methods. This paper discusses on the creation of a GIS-project for the Degelen array, facilitated by quality geospatial analysis of the situation and simulation of the phenomena, in order to maximize an objective assessment of the radiation situation in this protected area.

  4. APPLICATION OF POLYURETHANE FOAM FOR IMPACT ABSORPTION AND THERMAL INSULATION FOR GENERAL PURPOSE RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS PACKAGINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A; Glenn Abramczyk, G; Paul Blanton, P; Steve Bellamy, S; William Daugherty, W; Sharon Williamson, S

    2009-02-18

    Polyurethane foam has been employed in impact limiters for large radioactive materials packagings since the early 1980's. Its consistent crush response, controllable structural properties and excellent thermal insulating characteristics have made it attractive as replacement for the widely used cane fiberboard for smaller, drum size packagings. Accordingly, polyurethane foam was chosen for the overpack material for the 9977 and 9978 packagings. The study reported here was undertaken to provide data to support the analyses performed as part of the development of the 9977 and 9978, and compared property values reported in the literature with published property values and test results for foam specimens taken from a prototype 9977 packaging. The study confirmed that, polyurethane foam behaves in a predictable and consistent manner and fully satisfies the functional requirements for impact absorption and thermal insulation.

  5. Minor New Source Review Permit Application: Fluidic, Inc.

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Federal Minor New Source Review New Construction Application for proposed construction of new equipment at an existing source at Fluidic's facility located at 8425 N. 9th Street, Suite #4, Scottsdale, Arizona 48258.

  6. Therapeutic applications of radioactive 131iodine: Procedures and incidents with capsules

    PubMed Central

    Al Aamri, Marwa; Ravichandran, Ramamoorthy; Binukumar, John Pichy; Al Balushi, Naima

    2016-01-01

    Background: Treatments for thyrotoxicosis and carcinoma thyroid are carried out by oral administration of radioactive iodine (131I) in the form of liquid or capsules. The liquid form of 131I has higher risk factors such as vapourization, spillage and need for management of higher activity wastes. Use of 131I in capsule form simplify procedures of handling compared to liquid form of 131I. The guidelines of safe handling and quality assurance aspects for therapeutic use 131I are well outlined by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reports. Aim: A few unusual incidents with I-131 capsules encountered in the past need to be highlighted from health physics point of view. Materials and Methods: In Royal Hospital, Oman, I-131 is imported in capsules, and the total activity handled/year steadily increased over 10 years. Discrete activities range from 185 MBq (5 mCi) up to 7.4 GBq (200 mCi). In four incidents deviations in standard operational procedures were recorded. Results: Nature of incidents is described as follows: (1) After assay of activity, the capsule was directly put in the lead container with missing of inner cap. (2) Patient poured water in the Perspex tube, when the capsule was handed over to her, making an emergency situation. (3) In 3 high activity capsules (2 nos 2.96 GBq, 1 no. 4.26 GBq), observed sticky behavior in capsule holder on the 2nd day post receipt, which were in order on the 1st day. (4) A capsule could not be swallowed by a patient, which was taken back from the mouth. Monitoring of patient later did not show residual ingested activity. Conclusions: The report documents some of the unusual incidents for information to other centers engaged in such radioactive administrations. PMID:27385885

  7. Therapeutic applications of radioactive (131)iodine: Procedures and incidents with capsules.

    PubMed

    Al Aamri, Marwa; Ravichandran, Ramamoorthy; Binukumar, John Pichy; Al Balushi, Naima

    2016-01-01

    Treatments for thyrotoxicosis and carcinoma thyroid are carried out by oral administration of radioactive iodine ((131)I) in the form of liquid or capsules. The liquid form of (131)I has higher risk factors such as vapourization, spillage and need for management of higher activity wastes. Use of (131)I in capsule form simplify procedures of handling compared to liquid form of (131)I. The guidelines of safe handling and quality assurance aspects for therapeutic use (131)I are well outlined by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reports. A few unusual incidents with I-131 capsules encountered in the past need to be highlighted from health physics point of view. In Royal Hospital, Oman, I-131 is imported in capsules, and the total activity handled/year steadily increased over 10 years. Discrete activities range from 185 MBq (5 mCi) up to 7.4 GBq (200 mCi). In four incidents deviations in standard operational procedures were recorded. Nature of incidents is described as follows: (1) After assay of activity, the capsule was directly put in the lead container with missing of inner cap. (2) Patient poured water in the Perspex tube, when the capsule was handed over to her, making an emergency situation. (3) In 3 high activity capsules (2 nos 2.96 GBq, 1 no. 4.26 GBq), observed sticky behavior in capsule holder on the 2(nd) day post receipt, which were in order on the 1(st) day. (4) A capsule could not be swallowed by a patient, which was taken back from the mouth. Monitoring of patient later did not show residual ingested activity. The report documents some of the unusual incidents for information to other centers engaged in such radioactive administrations.

  8. Radioactive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2016-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste activities around the world in 2015. These include safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation and management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in water, soil and ecosystem alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes.

  9. Radioactive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2015-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste activities around the world in 2014. These include safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation and management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in water, soil and ecosystem alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes.

  10. Radioactive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Choudri, B S; Charabi, Yassine; Baawain, Mahad; Ahmed, Mushtaque

    2017-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste related activities around the world in 2016. The current reveiw include studies related to safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation. Further, the review highlights on management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in ecosystem, water and soil alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes.

  11. Radioactive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2016-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste activities around the world in 2015. These include safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation and management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in water, soil and ecosystem alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes.

  12. Low Power Polysilicon Sources for IR Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, N. C.; Jhabvala, M.; Shu, P.

    1998-01-01

    We have designed and fabricated polysilicon thin film infrared (IR) sources by micromachining technology. These sources are made with a lightly doped middle region for light emission and heavy doping of the supporting legs. The sources are fabricated on a 10 mm thick, low temperature process parameters in the fabrication of these silicon dioxide layer. Different doping levels were used to achieve various source resistances. From the power requirement to reach the required light emission versus source resistance curve it is seen that there exists a resistance value which minimizes the necessary input power.

  13. Thulium heat sources for space power application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alderman, C. J.

    1992-10-01

    Reliable electrical power supplies for use in transportation and remote systems will be an important part of space exploration activities on planet surfaces. A potential power source is available through the use of thulium, a rare earth metal. Heat sources can be produced by neutron activation of naturally occurring thulium (Tm-169) targets in the base station nuclear power reactor. The resulting Tm-170 heat sources can be used in thermoelectric generators to power instrumentation and telecommunications systems located at remote sites. Combined with a dynamic Sterling or Brayton cycle conversion system, the heat source can power a lightweight electrical source for rovers or other surface transportation systems.

  14. Issues in the review of a license application for an above grade low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ringenberg, J.D.

    1993-03-01

    In December 1987, Nebraska was selected by the Central Interstate Compact (CIC) Commission as the host state for the construction of a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. After spending a year in the site screening process, the Compact`s developer, US Ecology, selected three sites for detailed site characterization. These sites were located in Nemaha, Nuckolls and Boyd Counties. One year later the Boyd County site was selected as the preferred site and additional site characterization studies were undertaken. On July 29, 1990, US Ecology submitted a license application to the Nebraska Department of Environmental Control (now Department of Environmental Quality-NDEQ). This paper will present issues that the NDEQ has dealt with since Nebraska`s selection as the host state for the CIC facility.

  15. Assessment of shielding analysis methods, codes, and data for spent fuel transport/storage applications. [Radiation dose rates from shielded spent fuels and high-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, C.V.; Broadhead, B.L.; Hermann, O.W.; Tang, J.S.; Cramer, S.N.; Gauthey, J.C.; Kirk, B.L.; Roussin, R.W.

    1988-07-01

    This report provides a preliminary assessment of the computational tools and existing methods used to obtain radiation dose rates from shielded spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). Particular emphasis is placed on analysis tools and techniques applicable to facilities/equipment designed for the transport or storage of spent nuclear fuel or HLW. Applications to cask transport, storage, and facility handling are considered. The report reviews the analytic techniques for generating appropriate radiation sources, evaluating the radiation transport through the shield, and calculating the dose at a desired point or surface exterior to the shield. Discrete ordinates, Monte Carlo, and point kernel methods for evaluating radiation transport are reviewed, along with existing codes and data that utilize these methods. A literature survey was employed to select a cadre of codes and data libraries to be reviewed. The selection process was based on specific criteria presented in the report. Separate summaries were written for several codes (or family of codes) that provided information on the method of solution, limitations and advantages, availability, data access, ease of use, and known accuracy. For each data library, the summary covers the source of the data, applicability of these data, and known verification efforts. Finally, the report discusses the overall status of spent fuel shielding analysis techniques and attempts to illustrate areas where inaccuracy and/or uncertainty exist. The report notes the advantages and limitations of several analysis procedures and illustrates the importance of using adequate cross-section data sets. Additional work is recommended to enable final selection/validation of analysis tools that will best meet the US Department of Energy's requirements for use in developing a viable HLW management system. 188 refs., 16 figs., 27 tabs.

  16. Simulated Radioactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boettler, James L.

    1972-01-01

    Describes the errors in the sugar-cube experiment related to radioactivity as described in Project Physics course. The discussion considers some of the steps overlooked in the experiment and generalizes the theory beyond the sugar-cube stage. (PS)

  17. Radioactivity Calculations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onega, Ronald J.

    1969-01-01

    Three problems in radioactive buildup and decay are presented and solved. Matrix algebra is used to solve the second problem. The third problem deals with flux depression and is solved by the use of differential equations. (LC)

  18. Radioactivity Calculations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onega, Ronald J.

    1969-01-01

    Three problems in radioactive buildup and decay are presented and solved. Matrix algebra is used to solve the second problem. The third problem deals with flux depression and is solved by the use of differential equations. (LC)

  19. Simulated Radioactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boettler, James L.

    1972-01-01

    Describes the errors in the sugar-cube experiment related to radioactivity as described in Project Physics course. The discussion considers some of the steps overlooked in the experiment and generalizes the theory beyond the sugar-cube stage. (PS)

  20. ASSESSMENT OF RADIOACTIVE AND NON-RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINANTS FOUND IN LOW LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    R.H. Little, P.R. Maul, J.S.S. Penfoldag

    2003-02-27

    This paper describes and presents the findings from two studies undertaken for the European Commission to assess the long-term impact upon the environment and human health of non-radioactive contaminants found in various low level radioactive waste streams. The initial study investigated the application of safety assessment approaches developed for radioactive contaminants to the assessment of nonradioactive contaminants in low level radioactive waste. It demonstrated how disposal limits could be derived for a range of non-radioactive contaminants and generic disposal facilities. The follow-up study used the same approach but undertook more detailed, disposal system specific calculations, assessing the impacts of both the non-radioactive and radioactive contaminants. The calculations undertaken indicated that it is prudent to consider non-radioactive, as well as radioactive contaminants, when assessing the impacts of low level radioactive waste disposal. For some waste streams with relatively low concentrations of radionuclides, the potential post-closure disposal impacts from non-radioactive contaminants can be comparable with the potential radiological impacts. For such waste streams there is therefore an added incentive to explore options for recycling the materials involved wherever possible.

  1. Application of PINS and GNAT to the assay of 55-gal containers of radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Gehrke, R.J.; Aryaeinejad, R.; Watts, K.D.; Staples, D.R.; Akers, D.W.

    1994-03-01

    The Portable Isotropic Neutron Spectroscopy (PINS) and Gamma Neutron Assay Technique (GNAT) assay systems that were developed with funding from the office of Research and Development (NN20), were taken to the Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) facility at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) and applied to the assay of surrogate and Rocky Flats Plant waste contained in 55-gal drums. PINS, a portable prompt {gamma} neutron activation analysis technique, was able to identify key elements in both the surrogate and real waste so that three-main waste categories: metal, combustible material, and cemented chlorinated sludge wastes could be identified. GNAT, a {gamma}, neutron assay technique for the identification and quantification of fissioning isotopes, was able to identify {sup 240}Pu in surrogate waste in which nine 1-g nuclear accident dosimeters were inserted. GNAT was also able to identify {sup 24O}Pu in real 55-gal waste drums containing 15- and 40-g of plutonium even in the presence of high activity concentrations of {sup 241}Am.

  2. Quark-lattice Nuclear Model Applications -- Neutron Absorption, Radioactive Decay, and Asymmetric Fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffery, Rondo N.; Montgomery, Jerry R.

    2010-10-01

    The new quark-lattice model of the nucleus has been extended through heavy nuclei. Three specific issues illustrate the power of the model: (1) large thermal neutron absorption cross sections, (2) radioactive decay of K-40, and (3) asymmetric fission. Large neutron absorption cross sections occur when there are openings in the lattice into which neutrons can naturally fit. Examples are He-3, Li-6, and B-10. B-10 results in neutron-activated fission. The decay of K-40 into either Ar-40 or Ca-40 illustrates the role spin plays in determining nuclear structure. K-40 has net spin 4 whereas Ar-40 and Ca-40 both have spin 0. Zome models are used to show these structures. The fission of heavy nuclei occurs, in the lattice model, as the core of the structure separates from the loosely-packed ends. The ends are repacked into a smaller nucleus, which forms the lighter of the two daughter fragments. This explains why the lighter fragment mass increases with total mass whereas the heavier fragment mass remains relatively constant.

  3. The application of magnetic gradiometry and electromagnetic induction at a former radioactive waste disposal site.

    PubMed

    Rucker, Dale Franklin

    2010-04-01

    A former radioactive waste disposal site is surveyed with two non-intrusive geophysical techniques, including magnetic gradiometry and electromagnetic induction. Data were gathered over the site by towing the geophysical equipment mounted to a non-electrically conductive and non-magnetic fibre-glass cart. Magnetic gradiometry, which detects the location of ferromagnetic material, including iron and steel, was used to map the existence of a previously unknown buried pipeline formerly used in the delivery of liquid waste to a number of surface disposal trenches and concrete vaults. The existence of a possible pipeline is reinforced by historical engineering drawing and photographs. The electromagnetic induction (EMI) technique was used to map areas of high and low electrical conductivity, which coincide with the magnetic gradiometry data. The EMI also provided information on areas of high electrical conductivity unrelated to a pipeline network. Both data sets demonstrate the usefulness of surface geophysical surveillance techniques to minimize the risk of exposure in the event of future remediation efforts.

  4. Assessment of dry and wet atmospheric deposits of radioactive aerosols: application to Fukushima radiocaesium fallout.

    PubMed

    Gonze, Marc-André; Renaud, Philippe; Korsakissok, Irène; Kato, Hiroaki; Hinton, Thomas G; Mourlon, Christophe; Simon-Cornu, Marie

    2014-10-07

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident led to massive atmospheric deposition of radioactive substances onto the land surfaces. The spatial distribution of deposits has been estimated by Japanese authorities for gamma-emitting radionuclides through either airborne monitoring surveys (since April 2011) or in situ gamma-ray spectrometry of bare soil areas (since summer 2011). We demonstrate that significant differences exist between the two surveys for radiocaesium isotopes and that these differences can be related to dry deposits through the use of physically based relationships involving aerosol deposition velocities. The methodology, which has been applied to cesium-134 and cesium-137 deposits within 80-km of the nuclear site, provides reasonable spatial estimations of dry and wet deposits that are discussed and compared to atmospheric numerical simulations from the Japanese Atomic Energy Agency and the French Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety. As a complementary approach to numerical simulations, this field-based analysis has the possibility to contribute information that can be applied to the understanding and assessment of dose impacts to human populations and the environment around Fukushima.

  5. Application of Prussian blue nanoparticles for the radioactive Cs decontamination in Fukushima region.

    PubMed

    Parajuli, Durga; Kitajima, Akiko; Takahashi, Akira; Tanaka, Hisashi; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Hakuta, Yukiya; Yoshino, Kazunori; Funahashi, Takayuki; Yamaguchi, Masaki; Osada, Mitsuo; Kawamoto, Tohru

    2016-01-01

    Cs decontamination efficiencies of the composites of iron hexacyanoferrate nanoparticles were investigated in comparison with commercial Prussian blue and natural zeolite. In pure water solution, the adsorption rate varied with sizes. In ash extract, where Cs adsorbing ability of zeolite was sharply dropped due to its poor selectivity, the impact of coexisting ions was negligible for FeHCF. FeHCF-n11, having the finest primary and secondary particle size, resulted the highest distribution coefficient, which was comparable to the high efficiency analogues, CoHCF or NiHCF. This observation suggested the possibility of preparing the high performance FeHCF by particle size and composition adjustment. FeHCF nanoparticle in bead form was tested for the removal of radioactive Cs in pilot scale. Due to larger secondary particle size, pronounced effect of solution temperature on the Cs adsorption kinetics on FeHCF bead was observed. Adjusting the mass of the adsorbent for the given solution temperature is recommended for achieving high decontamination rate.

  6. An inverse source location algorithm for radiation portal monitor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Karen A; Charlton, William S

    2010-01-01

    Radiation portal monitors are being deployed at border crossings throughout the world to prevent the smuggling of nuclear and radiological materials; however, a tension exists between security and the free-flow of commerce. Delays at ports-of-entry have major economic implications, so it is imperative to minimize portal monitor screening time. We have developed an algorithm to locate a radioactive source using a distributed array of detectors, specifically for use at border crossings. To locate the source, we formulated an optimization problem where the objective function describes the least-squares difference between the actual and predicted detector measurements. The predicted measurements are calculated by solving the 3-D deterministic neutron transport equation given an estimated source position. The source position is updated using the steepest descent method, where the gradient of the objective function with respect to the source position is calculated using adjoint transport calculations. If the objective function is smaller than the convergence criterion, then the source position has been identified. This paper presents the derivation of the underlying equations in the algorithm as well as several computational test cases used to characterize its accuracy.

  7. Nickel ferrule applicators: a source of nickel exposure in children.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Sharon E; Silverberg, Jonathan I; Rizk, Christopher; Silverberg, Nanette

    2015-01-01

    Eye makeup has been investigated for nickel content and found to have no direct association with nickel allergy and cosmetic dermatitis. However, the tools used (e.g., eyelash curlers, hairdressing scissors, hair curlers, and eye shadow and makeup applicators) may be sources. Nickel is ubiquitous and a wide range of sources have been reported, and makeup applicators (ferrules) now join the list.

  8. Development of an ion source and plasma injection system for a non-neutral plasma using radioactive ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Bryan G.; Olson, David K.; Giraud, Kellen M.; Hart, Grant W.

    2007-11-01

    We are building an ion trap to study the decay of ionized beryllium-7, an isotope with a 53-day half life (for neutral atoms). Because of the short half life of this isotope it is necessary to frequently change the source. We have designed a modified MeVVA (metal vapor vacuum arc) source which allows us to replace the source target material in a relatively short time so that fresh targets can always be used. We have also designed a quadrupole mass filter/ion injector to transport the desired beryllium-7 ions from the source in a low B-field region into the high-field trapping region while rejecting undesirable ions such as boron and carbon. The design of the source and ion injection system will be discussed and results from testing will be presented.

  9. Vacuum arc with a distributed cathode spot as a plasma source for plasma separation of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Amirov, R. Kh. Vorona, N. A.; Gavrikov, A. V.; Lizyakin, G. D.; Polishchuk, V. P.; Samoilov, I. S.; Smirnov, V. P.; Usmanov, R. A.; Yartsev, I. M.

    2015-10-15

    Results from experimental studies of a vacuum arc with a distributed cathode spot on the heated cathode are presented. Such an arc can be used as a plasma source for plasma separation of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste. The experiments were performed with a gadolinium cathode, the properties of which are similar to those of an uranium arc cathode. The heat flux from the plasma to the cathode (and its volt equivalent) at discharge voltages of 4-15 V and discharge currents of 44-81 A, the radial distribution of the emission intensity of gadolinium atoms and singly charged ions in the arc channel at a voltage of 4.3 V, and the plasma electron temperature behind the anode were measured. The average charge of plasma ions at arc voltages of 3.5-8 V and a discharge current of 52 A and the average rate of gadolinium evaporation in the discharge were also determined.

  10. Radar applications of gigawatt sources at millimeter wave frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Bruder, J.A.; Belcher, M.L. . Research Inst.)

    1991-06-01

    The high transmit powers provided by free electron laser (FEL) sources in combination with the narrow antenna beamwidths achievable at millimeter wave (MMW) frequencies offer potential for use in a number of radar applications. Potential applications of high power millimeter wave sources include satellite imaging, low angle radar tracking, radar astronomy, and a number of other possible applications such as atmospheric research, space debris detection, and space vehicle tracking. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  11. A novel integrated approach for the hazardous radioactive dust source terms estimation in future nuclear fusion power plants.

    PubMed

    Poggi, L A; Malizia, A; Ciparisse, J F; Gaudio, P

    2016-10-01

    An open issue still under investigation by several international entities working on the safety and security field for the foreseen nuclear fusion reactors is the estimation of source terms that are a hazard for the operators and public, and for the machine itself in terms of efficiency and integrity in case of severe accident scenarios. Source term estimation is a crucial key safety issue to be addressed in the future reactors safety assessments, and the estimates available at the time are not sufficiently satisfactory. The lack of neutronic data along with the insufficiently accurate methodologies used until now, calls for an integrated methodology for source term estimation that can provide predictions with an adequate accuracy. This work proposes a complete methodology to estimate dust source terms starting from a broad information gathering. The wide number of parameters that can influence dust source term production is reduced with statistical tools using a combination of screening, sensitivity analysis, and uncertainty analysis. Finally, a preliminary and simplified methodology for dust source term production prediction for future devices is presented.

  12. Ion source design for industrial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.

    1981-01-01

    The design of broad-beam industrial ion sources is described. The approach used emphasizes refractory metal cathodes and permanent-magnet multipole discharge chambers. Design procedures and sample calculations are given for the discharge chamber, ion optics, cathodes, and magnetic circuit. Hardware designs are included for the isolator, cathode supports, anode supports, pole-piece assembly, and ion-optics supports. There are other ways of designing most ion source components, but the designs presented are representative of current technology and adaptable to a wide range of configurations.

  13. Radioactivity of the Cooling Water

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Wigner, E. P.

    1943-03-01

    The most important source of radioactivity at the exit manifold of the pile will be due to O{sup 19}, formed by neutron absorption of O{sup 18}. A recent measurement of Fermi and Weil permits to estimate that it will be safe to stay about 80 minutes daily close to the exit manifolds without any shield. Estimates are given for the radioactivities from other sources both in the neighborhood and farther away from the pile.

  14. Radioactivity in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Nagel, D.J.; Edson, R.

    1995-12-01

    Natural and man-made radioactivities in the environment have been extensively researched in the second half of this century. Recently, increased attention has been given to (1) radioactive waste willfully placed in the environment by discharges from nuclear reprocessing plants or by dumping at sea, and (2) radioactive materials lost due to accidents in terrestrial (civilian power) or marine (submarine propulsion) reactors. Increasing field measurements, and disclosures of dumping and accidents in the former Soviet Union, are adding greatly to the knowledge of environmental radioactivity. New, more powerful computers are having a double impact. They make possible Geographical Information Systems for geo-referencing and correlating multi-variable datasets. Furthermore, supercomputers enable global atmospheric, oceanographic and terrestrial circulation and transport models, which include physical, chemical and biological processes. We will review exemplary work on the sources, transport, disposition and impact of anthropogenic environmental radioactivity. Such work both provides new knowledge of environmental processes and furnishes the basis for deciding on potential remediation actions.

  15. Viewer Makes Radioactivity "Visible"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yin, L. I.

    1983-01-01

    Battery operated viewer demonstrates feasibility of generating threedimensional visible light simulations of objects that emit X-ray or gamma rays. Ray paths are traced for two pinhold positions to show location of reconstructed image. Images formed by pinholes are converted to intensified visible-light images. Applications range from radioactivity contamination surveys to monitoring radioisotope absorption in tumors.

  16. Extremozymes: A Potential Source for Industrial Applications.

    PubMed

    Dumorné, Kelly; Córdova, David Camacho; Astorga-Eló, Marcia; Renganathan, Prabhaharan

    2017-01-20

    Extremophilic microorganisms have established a diversity of molecular strategies in order to survive in extreme conditions. Biocatalysts isolated by these organisms are termed extremozymes, possess extraordinary properties are salt allowance thermostability and cold adaptivity. Extremozymes are very resistant in extreme conditions due to their great solidity and they propose new opportunities for biocatalysis and biotransformations, also for the development of the economy and new line of research through their application. Thermophilic proteins, piezophilic proteins, acidophilic proteins and halophilic proteins have been studied during the last years. Amylases, proteases lipases pullulanases, cellulases, chitinases, xylanases, pectinases isomerases, esterases, dehydrogenases have great potential application for biotechnology such as agricultural, chemical, biomedical and biotechnological processes. The study of extremozymes and their main applications have emerged during the last years.

  17. Development and application of Marinelli beaker standards for monitoring radioactivity in Dairy-Products by gamma-ray spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lavi, N; Alfassi, Z B

    2004-12-01

    Marinelli (reentrant) beakers are recommended for measurement of low-activity radioactive environmental samples, in both liquid and solid phase. The preparation of Marinelli beaker standards of milk powder containing 232ThO2 at secular equilibrium with its daughter radionuclides was studied. Standards were prepared by mixing of known amounts of solid ThO2 and milk powder. The densities of the standards were 0.5-0.7 kg dm(-3). Measurements of calibrated Marinelli beaker standards with HPGe detector showed that the energy dependence of the efficiency is similar to that of a point source, i.e. an almost linear dependence of log-efficiency vs. log-energy in the 200-2000 keV range, however the parabolic correlation fits better. The validity of these standards was checked by comparison with certified standard reference material IAEA-152-Milk powder containing radiocesium and radiopotassium. The results obtained were found to be in a good agreement with the published certified data. The limit of detection for the determination of radiocesium by gamma ray spectrometry under the prevailing experimental conditions is 0.03 Bq (i.e. 0.8 pCi), for samples of dairy products having lower densities of 0.7 kg dm(-1).

  18. Application of Diffraction Correction to Blackbody Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    Gouffe method). The source was heated with platinum wire wound around the cavity core. The maximum operating temperature was 500 K. A stainless- steel ...of 500 K. 3.2 METHOD OF STEEL , DE, AND BELL Reference 9 presents another treament of radiometric errors caused by circular apertures where both...Method o f Fussell ................................................... 7 3.2 Method o f Steel , De, and Bell

  19. Air Plasma Source for Biomedical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriques, J.; Tatarova, E.; Dias, F. M.; Ferreira, C. M.; Gordiets, B.; IPFN-IST, 1049-001 LX, Portugal Team; Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences Team

    2011-10-01

    Plasma interactions with living matter are presently at the frontiers of plasma research and development. Plasmas contain numerous agents that influence biological activity. They provide essentially two types of biocidal species: reactive species, such as oxygen atoms that lead to lethality of micro-organisms through erosion, and UV radiation that can damage the DNA strands. In this work we investigate a surface wave (2.45 GHz) driven discharge plasma in air, with a small admixture of water vapor, as a source of ground state O(3P) oxygen atoms, NO molecules and UV radiation. A theoretical model describing both the wave driven discharge zone and its flowing afterglow is used to analyze the performance of this plasma source. The predicted plasma-generated NO(X) and O(3P) concentrations and NO(γ) radiation intensity along the source are presented and discussed as a function of the microwave power and water vapor percentage in the gas mixture. To validate the theoretical predictions, the relative concentrations of species have been determined by Mass Spectrometry, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Optical Spectroscopy. Acknowledgment: This work was funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology, under research contract PTDC/FIS/108411/2008.

  20. Radioactive Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaylock, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of radioactive waste disposal, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the studies included are: (1) high-level and long-lived wastes, and (2) release and burial of low-level wastes. A list of 42 references is also presented. (HM)

  1. Radioactive Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaylock, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of radioactive waste disposal, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the studies included are: (1) high-level and long-lived wastes, and (2) release and burial of low-level wastes. A list of 42 references is also presented. (HM)

  2. Current regulatory and licensing status for byproduct sources, facilities and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Tingey, G.L.; Jensen, G.A.; Hazelton, R.F.

    1985-02-01

    Public use of nuclear byproducts, especially radioactive isotopes, will require approval by various regulatory agencies. Use of cesium-137 as an irradiation source for sterilizing medical products will require US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approval. Two applications have been filed with NRC, and approval is expected soon. Widespread use of irradiation for food products depends on a favorable ruling by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). A ruling is pending that would permit irradiation of fruits and vegetables up to 100 krad. NRC also controls the use of isotopes in remote power generators, but little regulatory action has been required in recent years. Recent development of radioluminescent (RL) lighting for runway lights has led to interest by commercial manufacturers. At the present time, a license has been issued to at least one manufacturer for sale of tritium-powered runway lights. 28 refs., 1 fig.

  3. rf-driven ion sources for industrial applications (invited) (abstract)

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2008-02-15

    The Plasma and Ion Source Technology Group at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have been developing rf-driven ion sources for the last two decades. These sources are being used to generate both positive and negative ion beams. Some of these sources are operating in particle accelerators such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge, while others are being employed in various industrial ion beam systems. There are four areas where the rf-driven ion sources are commonly used in industry. (1) In semiconductor manufacturing, rf-driven sources have found important applications in plasma etching, ion beam implantation, and ion beam lithography. (2) In material analysis and surface modification, miniature rf-ion sources can be found in focused ion beam systems. They can provide ion beams of essentially any element in the Periodic Table. The newly developed combined rf ion-electron beam unit improves greatly the performance of the secondary ion mass spectrometry tool. (3) For neutron production, rf ion source is a major component of compact, high flux D-D, D-T, or T-T neutron generators. These neutron sources are now being employed in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) as well as in neutron imaging and material interrogation. (4) Large area rf-driven ion source will be used in an industrial design neutral beam diagnostic system for probing fusion plasmas. Such sources can be easily scaled to provide large ion beam current for future fusion reactor applications.

  4. 49 CFR 175.705 - Radioactive contamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radioactive contamination. 175.705 Section 175.705... Regulations Applicable According to Classification of Material § 175.705 Radioactive contamination. (a) A... (radioactive) materials that may have been released from their packagings. (b) When contamination is present or...

  5. 49 CFR 175.705 - Radioactive contamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radioactive contamination. 175.705 Section 175.705... Regulations Applicable According to Classification of Material § 175.705 Radioactive contamination. (a) A... (radioactive) materials that may have been released from their packagings. (b) When contamination is present or...

  6. 49 CFR 175.705 - Radioactive contamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radioactive contamination. 175.705 Section 175.705... Regulations Applicable According to Classification of Material § 175.705 Radioactive contamination. (a) A... (radioactive) materials that may have been released from their packagings. (b) When contamination is present...

  7. 49 CFR 175.705 - Radioactive contamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radioactive contamination. 175.705 Section 175.705... Regulations Applicable According to Classification of Material § 175.705 Radioactive contamination. (a) A... (radioactive) materials that may have been released from their packagings. (b) When contamination is present...

  8. 49 CFR 175.705 - Radioactive contamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radioactive contamination. 175.705 Section 175.705... Regulations Applicable According to Classification of Material § 175.705 Radioactive contamination. (a) A... (radioactive) materials that may have been released from their packagings. (b) When contamination is present...

  9. Ion source design for industrial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.

    1981-01-01

    The more frequently used design techniques for the components of broad-beam electron bombardment ion sources are discussed. The approach used emphasizes refractory metal cathodes and permanent-magnet multipole discharge chambers. Design procedures and sample calculations are given for the discharge chamber, ion optics, the cathodes, and the magnetic circuit. Hardware designs are included for the isolator, cathode supports, anode supports, pole-piece assembly, and ion-optics supports. A comparison is made between two-grid and three-grid optics. The designs presented are representative of current technology and are adaptable to a wide range of configurations.

  10. Source Applicability Under the Interpretative Ruling

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  11. Applicability of PSD to Debottlenecked Sources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  12. Ion source design for industrial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.

    1981-01-01

    The more frequently used design techniques for the components of broad-beam electron bombardment ion sources are discussed. The approach used emphasizes refractory metal cathodes and permanent-magnet multipole discharge chambers. Design procedures and sample calculations are given for the discharge chamber, ion optics, the cathodes, and the magnetic circuit. Hardware designs are included for the isolator, cathode supports, anode supports, pole-piece assembly, and ion-optics supports. A comparison is made between two-grid and three-grid optics. The designs presented are representative of current technology and are adaptable to a wide range of configurations.

  13. Noise Characterization of Supercontinuum Sources for Low Coherence Interferometry Applications

    PubMed Central

    Brown, William J.; Kim, Sanghoon; Wax, Adam

    2015-01-01

    We examine the noise properties of supercontinuum light sources when used in low coherence interferometry applications. The first application is a multiple-scattering low-coherence interferometry (ms2/LCI) system where high power and long image acquisition times are required to image deep into tissue. For this system we compare the noise characteristics of two supercontinuum sources from different suppliers. Both sources have long term drift that limits the amount of time over which signal averaging is advantageous for reducing noise. The second application is a high resolution optical coherence tomography system where broadband light is needed for high axial resolution. For this system we compare the noise performance of the two supercontinuum sources and a light source based on four superluminescent diodes (SLDs) using imaging contrast as a comparative metric. We find that the NKT SuperK has superior noise performance compared to the Fianium SC-450-4 but neither meets the performance of the SLDs. PMID:25606759

  14. Application of compact electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Muramatsu, M.; Kitagawa, A.; Iwata, Y.; Ogawa, H.; Hojo, S.; Kubo, T.; Kato, Y.; Biri, S.; Fekete, E.; Yoshida, Y.; Drentje, A. G.

    2008-02-15

    The compact electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source with a permanent magnet configuration (Kei2 source) has been developed at National Institute of Radiological Sciences for a new carbon therapy facility. The Kei2 source was designed for production of C{sup 4+} ions; its performance such as beam intensity and stability has already reached the medical requirements. Therefore, the prototype development of the source for medical use is essentially finished. Recently, we have started a few studies on other applications of the source. One is the production of fullerenes in the ECR plasma and modified fullerenes with various atoms for new materials. A second application is the production of multiply charged ions (not only carbon) for ion implantation. In this paper, some basic experiments for these applications are reported.

  15. Sulfhydryl oxidases: sources, properties, production and applications.

    PubMed

    Faccio, Greta; Nivala, Outi; Kruus, Kristiina; Buchert, Johanna; Saloheimo, Markku

    2011-08-01

    The formation of disulfide bonds in proteins and small molecules can greatly affect their functionality. Sulfhydryl oxidases (SOXs) are enzymes capable of oxidising the free sulfhydryl groups in proteins and thiol-containing small molecules by using molecular oxygen as an electron acceptor. SOXs have been isolated from the intracellular compartments of many organisms, but also secreted SOXs are known. These latter enzymes are generally active on small compounds and their physiological role is unknown, whereas the intracellular enzymes prefer proteins as substrates and are involved in protein folding. An increasing number of scientific publications and patent applications on SOXs have been published in recent years. The present mini-review provides an up-to-date summary of SOXs from various families, their production and their actual or suggested applications. The sequence features and domain organisation of the characterised SOXs are reviewed, and special attention is paid to the physicochemical features of the enzymes. A review of patents and patent applications regarding this class of enzymes is also provided.

  16. Estimation of the time-dependent radioactive source-term from the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident using atmospheric transport modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoeppner, M.; Plastino, W.; Budano, A.; De Vincenzi, M.; Ruggieri, F.

    2012-04-01

    Several nuclear reactors at the Fukushima Dai-ichi power plant have been severely damaged from the Tōhoku earthquake and the subsequent tsunami in March 2011. Due to the extremely difficult on-site situation it has been not been possible to directly determine the emissions of radioactive material. However, during the following days and weeks radionuclides of 137-Caesium and 131-Iodine (amongst others) were detected at monitoring stations throughout the world. Atmospheric transport models are able to simulate the worldwide dispersion of particles accordant to location, time and meteorological conditions following the release. The Lagrangian atmospheric transport model Flexpart is used by many authorities and has been proven to make valid predictions in this regard. The Flexpart software has first has been ported to a local cluster computer at the Grid Lab of INFN and Department of Physics of University of Roma Tre (Rome, Italy) and subsequently also to the European Mediterranean Grid (EUMEDGRID). Due to this computing power being available it has been possible to simulate the transport of particles originating from the Fukushima Dai-ichi plant site. Using the time series of the sampled concentration data and the assumption that the Fukushima accident was the only source of these radionuclides, it has been possible to estimate the time-dependent source-term for fourteen days following the accident using the atmospheric transport model. A reasonable agreement has been obtained between the modelling results and the estimated radionuclide release rates from the Fukushima accident.

  17. International Perspective on the Application of Non-Destructive Assay Technology Platforms for Sentencing and Disposal of Radioactive Waste - 12113

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, A.P.; Clapham, M.J.

    2012-07-01

    Over the past decade, major technology improvements have been introduced in the field of Non-Destructive Assay (NDA) for the management and disposal of radioactive waste in compliance with an evolving regulatory structure. For example in the United States, various NDA technologies have been successfully developed to meet the stringent characterization requirements of the Department of Energy. The use of this instrumentation, combined with the compliant operational processes and expertise levels that have emerged in parallel, have enabled over 75,000 m{sup 3} (or in excess of 145,000 containers) of contact and remote handled transuranic (TRU) waste to be sentenced to date to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant from 10 different consignor sites. Many of these techniques have applicability that transcends national borders and can be used for common characterization challenges in waste sentencing and disposal on an international basis. Applicable waste streams could include LLW, ILW, TRU and HLW. There are specific design aspects of assay equipment that must be tailored to meet the applicable regulatory requirements for detection and quantification of a set of nuclides of interest to a prescribed limit of detection and measurement uncertainty. Each host nation will have specific challenges in the form of matrix types and processes, availability of historical information, needs for portable versus fixed instruments and the requirement to measure all containers versus assay of a representative sample. Furthermore, the practice of load management (combining smaller packages into a larger package designed to meet the overall waste acceptance criteria for the bulk container) may not have universal acceptability. An evaluation has been performed on a sample of the most successful technologies that have recently emerged to understand their applicability in other countries. Two types of instrumentation 'suite' are considered for measurements on drums and larger boxes / crates: (i

  18. A non-radioactive DNA diagnostic procedure for the detection of malarial infection: general application to genome with repetitive sequences.

    PubMed

    Ayyanathan, K; Datta, S

    1995-04-01

    A novel non-radioactive DNA diagnostic method has been developed to detect Plasmodium falciparum infection in whole blood. In this method a drop of blood from a finger prick is added to a lysing solution containing a biotinylated oligonucleotide whose sequence design is based on the repeated sequence of the parasite genome. The mixture is heated in a boiling water bath and then added to a microtitre plate where the 'target-bioprobe hybrids' are captured by the immobilized oligonucleotides. The plate is then washed to remove the coloured material and the biotinylated oligonucleotide retained on the plate is assayed by streptavidin-alkaline phosphatase conjugate. This method has also been tested in field trials by double-blind studies to detect P.falciparum infection in blood samples. Results indicate that this method is superior to the classical blood smear examination for its speed and its ease in large epidemiological surveys and is especially useful in identifying clinical malaria in endemic areas where the semi-immune population predominates. The method described can be of general application for the detection of any foreign pathogen in blood, other body fluids and tissue samples, provided the DNA probe employed constitutes a part of the repeated sequence of the genome and is unique.

  19. Source Reduction Assistance Grant Program Guidance for Applicants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The following FAQs were compiled to benefit prospective applicants seeking to apply for grant s or cooperative agreement funding under the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Source Reduction Assistance (SRA) Grant Program.

  20. Flexible microstructured organic light sources for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melpignano, Patrizia; Sinesi, Sabino; Toaldo, A. Baron; Biondo, Viviana; Muccini, Michele; Zamboni, Roberto; Gale, Michael T.; Westenhofer, Susanne

    2004-09-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLED) are rapidly reaching large-scale marketing figures, driven by attractive features like low cost and fast response, being also suitable for application on flexible substrates. All these aspects enable a wide range of applications such as displays, innovative devices in optoelectronics and novel light sources. Furthermore, the benefits expected from OLEDs based devices, if compared to "classical semiconductors" based devices consist of low production costs, lightweight and geometrical flexibility. Novel OLEDs based light sources fulfilling the above-mentioned requirements, call for a considerable effort both in the production processes and in product innovation. Among the variety of possible applicative OLED applications, we focused our research effort on the Automotive sector. Our envisioned approach enabling control of light distribution from an OLED light source include modeling and patterning of the light source, design and fabrication of suitable micro-optics coupled to the flexible transparent Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) substrate.

  1. Minor New Source Review Permit Application: Fort Yuma Quechan Reservation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is providing notice of and requests public comment on EPA’s proposed action relating to the Minor New Source Review (NSR) permit application for the Laguna Reservoir Restoration Project by the Bureau of Reclamation (USBR).

  2. 40 CFR 61.270 - Applicability and designation of sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for Benzene Emissions From Benzene Storage Vessels § 61.270 Applicability and designation of sources. (a) The source to which this subpart applies is each storage vessel that is storing benzene having a... Benzene, ASTM D835-85 for Refined Benzene-485, ASTM D2359-85a or 93 for Refined Benzene-535, and...

  3. 40 CFR 61.270 - Applicability and designation of sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for Benzene Emissions From Benzene Storage Vessels § 61.270 Applicability and designation of sources. (a) The source to which this subpart applies is each storage vessel that is storing benzene having a... Benzene, ASTM D835-85 for Refined Benzene-485, ASTM D2359-85a or 93 for Refined Benzene-535, and...

  4. 40 CFR 61.270 - Applicability and designation of sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for Benzene Emissions From Benzene Storage Vessels § 61.270 Applicability and designation of sources. (a) The source to which this subpart applies is each storage vessel that is storing benzene having a... Benzene, ASTM D835-85 for Refined Benzene-485, ASTM D2359-85a or 93 for Refined Benzene-535, and...

  5. 40 CFR 61.270 - Applicability and designation of sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for Benzene Emissions From Benzene Storage Vessels § 61.270 Applicability and designation of sources. (a) The source to which this subpart applies is each storage vessel that is storing benzene having a... Benzene, ASTM D835-85 for Refined Benzene-485, ASTM D2359-85a or 93 for Refined Benzene-535, and...

  6. 40 CFR 61.270 - Applicability and designation of sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for Benzene Emissions From Benzene Storage Vessels § 61.270 Applicability and designation of sources. (a) The source to which this subpart applies is each storage vessel that is storing benzene having a... Benzene, ASTM D835-85 for Refined Benzene-485, ASTM D2359-85a or 93 for Refined Benzene-535, and...

  7. Determination of radioactive elements and heavy metals in sediments and soil from domestic water sources in northern peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Bashir G; Jaafar, Mohammad Suhaimi; Abdul Rahman, Azhar; Ingawa, Farouk Abdulrasheed

    2012-08-01

    Soil serves as a major reservoir for contaminants as it posseses an ability to bind various chemicals together. To safeguard the members of the public from an unwanted exposure, studies were conducted on the sediments and soil from water bodies that form the major sources of domestic water supply in northern peninsular Malaysia for their trace element concentration levels. Neutron Activation Analysis, using Nigeria Research Reactor-1 (NIRR-1) located at the Centre for Energy Research and Training, Zaria, Nigeria was employed as the analytical tool. The elements identified in major quantities include Na, K, and Fe while As, Br, Cr, U, Th, Eu, Cs, Co, La, Sm, Yb, Sc, Zn, Rb, Ba, Lu, Hf, Ta, and Sb were also identified in trace quantities. Gamma spectroscopy was also employed to analyze some soil samples from the same area. The results indicated safe levels in terms of the radium equivalent activity, external hazard index as well as the mean external exposure dose rates from the soil. The overall screening of the domestic water sources with relatively high heavy metals concentration values in sediments and high activity concentration values in soil is strongly recommended as their accumulation overtime as a consequence of leaching into the water may be of health concern to the members of the public.

  8. Evaluation of the visibility of a new thinner ¹²⁵I radioactive source for permanent prostate brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Gemma; Al-Qaisieh, Bashar; Bownes, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The ¹²⁵I source currently used for prostate brachytherapy at St. James's Institute of Oncology is a standard size seed (≈4.5mm in length and 0.8mm in diameter). A new, thinner seed is under evaluation. This is designed to be implanted using narrower needles, potentially reducing edema and improving the dose distribution. This study investigated the visibility of the thinner source on multimodality images and compared it with that of standard size seeds. Images of dummy seeds of both thinner and standard size models were taken using ultrasound, fluoroscopy, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The ultrasound, fluoroscopy, and CT images were acquired with the seeds inserted into phantoms positioned in a water tank. The MR images were acquired using phantoms containing single seeds. The images were analyzed visually and quantitatively. The resolution of closely spaced seeds on CT images was investigated. The visibility of both seeds was similar on ultrasound, fluoroscopy, and MR images. On CT images, the thinner seeds give reduced artifacts and better resolution. The use of the thinner seed would have minimal effect on ultrasound and fluoroscopy imaging during treatment. However on CT images, the use of the thinner seeds may improve seed identification for post-treatment dosimetry. Further study is required into the suitability of MR images alone for post-treatment dosimetry. Copyright © 2012 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Natural proteins: Sources, isolation, characterization and applications

    PubMed Central

    Nehete, Jitendra Y.; Bhambar, Rajendra S.; Narkhede, Minal R.; Gawali, Sonali R.

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, plant protein contributes substantially as a food resource because it contains essential amino acids for meeting human physiological requirements. However, many versatile plant proteins are used as medicinal agents as they are produced by using molecular tools of biotechnology. Proteins can be obtained from plants, animals and microorganism cells. The abundant economical proteins can be obtained from plant seeds. These natural proteins are obtained by isolation procedures depending on the physicochemical properties of proteins. Isolation and purification of single protein from cells containing mixtures of unrelated proteins is achievable due to the physical and chemical attributes of proteins. The following characteristics are unique to each protein: Amino acid composition, sequence, subunit structures, size, shape, net charge, isoelectric point, solubility, heat stability and hydrophobicity. Based on these properties, various methods of isolation exist, like salting out and isoionic precipitation. Purification of proteins is quiet challenging and, therefore, several approaches like sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis and chromatography are available. Characterization of proteins can be performed by mass spectrometry/liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The amino acid sequence of a protein can be detected by using tandem mass spectrometry. In this article, a review has been made on the sources, isolation, purification and characterization of natural proteins. PMID:24347918

  10. Properties and Applications of Laser Generated X-Ray Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R F; Key, M H

    2002-02-25

    The rapid development of laser technology and related progress in research using lasers is shifting the boundaries where laser based sources are preferred over other light sources particularly in the XUV and x-ray spectral region. Laser based sources have exceptional capability for short pulse and high brightness and with improvements in high repetition rate pulsed operation, such sources are also becoming more interesting for their average power capability. This study presents an evaluation of the current capabilities and near term future potential of laser based light sources and summarizes, for the purpose of comparison, the characteristics and near term prospects of sources based on synchrotron radiation and free electron lasers. Conclusions are drawn on areas where the development of laser based sources is most promising and competitive in terms of applications potential.

  11. Common source cascode amplifiers for integrating IR-FPA applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolaway, James T.; Young, Erick T.

    1989-01-01

    Space based astronomical infrared measurements present stringent performance requirements on the infrared detector arrays and their associated readout circuitry. To evaluate the usefulness of commercial CMOS technology for astronomical readout applications a theoretical and experimental evaluation was performed on source follower and common-source cascode integrating amplifiers. Theoretical analysis indicates that for conditions where the input amplifier integration capacitance is limited by the detectors capacitance the input referred rms noise electrons of each amplifier should be equivalent. For conditions of input gate limited capacitance the source follower should provide lower noise. Measurements of test circuits containing both source follower and common source cascode circuits showed substantially lower input referred noise for the common-source cascode input circuits. Noise measurements yielded 4.8 input referred rms noise electrons for an 8.5 minute integration. The signal and noise gain of the common-source cascode amplifier appears to offer substantial advantages in acheiving predicted noise levels.

  12. 7 CFR 1.419 - Amendment of a sourcing area application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amendment of a sourcing area application. 1.419... Practice Governing Adjudication of Sourcing Area Applications and Formal Review of Sourcing Areas Pursuant... Amendment of a sourcing area application. The sourcing area applicant may move to amend the sourcing...

  13. 40 CFR 61.170 - Applicability and designation of source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicability and designation of source. 61.170 Section 61.170 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Primary Copper Smelters § 61.170 Applicability and designation...

  14. Maximum Likelihood Expectation-Maximization Algorithms Applied to Localization and Identification of Radioactive Sources with Recent Coded Mask Gamma Cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Lemaire, H.; Barat, E.; Carrel, F.; Dautremer, T.; Dubos, S.; Limousin, O.; Montagu, T.; Normand, S.; Schoepff, V.; Amgarou, K.; Menaa, N.; Angelique, J.-C.; Patoz, A.

    2015-07-01

    In this work, we tested Maximum likelihood expectation-maximization (MLEM) algorithms optimized for gamma imaging applications on two recent coded mask gamma cameras. We respectively took advantage of the characteristics of the GAMPIX and Caliste HD-based gamma cameras: noise reduction thanks to mask/anti-mask procedure but limited energy resolution for GAMPIX, high energy resolution for Caliste HD. One of our short-term perspectives is the test of MAPEM algorithms integrating specific prior values for the data to reconstruct adapted to the gamma imaging topic. (authors)

  15. Radioactive materials in recycled metals

    SciTech Connect

    Lubenau, J.O.; Yusko, J.G.

    1995-04-01

    In recent years, the metal recycling industry has become increasingly aware of an unwanted component in metal scrap-radioactive material. Worldwide, there have been 35 instances where radioactive sources were unintentionally smelted in the course of recycling metal scrap. In some cases contaminated metal consumer products were distributed internationally. In at least one case, serious radiation exposures of workers and the public occurred. Radioactive material appearing in metal scrap includes sources subject to licensing under the Atomic Energy Act and also naturally occurring radioactive material. U.S. mills that have smelted a radioactive source face costs resulting from decontamination, waste disposal, and lost profits that range from 7 to 23 million U.S. dollars for each event. To solve the problem, industry and the government have jointly undertaken initiatives to increase awareness of the problem within the metal recycling industry. Radiation monitoring of recycled metal scrap is being performed increasingly by mills and, to a lesser extent, by scrap processors. The monitoring does not, however, provide 100% protection. Improvements in regulatory oversight by the government could stimulate improved accounting and control of licensed sources. However, additional government effort in this area must be reconciled with competing priorities in radiation safety and budgetary constraints. The threat of radioactive material in recycled metal scrap will continue for the foreseeable future and, thus, poses regulatory policy challenges for both developed and developing nations.

  16. Radioactive materials in recycled metals.

    PubMed

    Lubenau, J O; Yusko, J G

    1995-04-01

    In recent years, the metal recycling industry has become increasingly aware of an unwanted component in metal scrap--radioactive material. Worldwide, there have been 35 instances where radioactive sources were unintentionally smelted in the course of recycling metal scrap. In some cases contaminated metal consumer products were distributed internationally. In at least one case, serious radiation exposures of workers and the public occurred. Radioactive material appearing in metal scrap includes sources subject to licensing under the Atomic Energy Act and also naturally occurring radioactive material. U.S. mills that have smelted a radioactive source face costs resulting from decontamination, waste disposal, and lost profits that range from 7 to 23 million U.S. dollars for each event. To solve the problem, industry and the government have jointly undertaken initiatives to increase awareness of the problem within the metal recycling industry. Radiation monitoring of recycled metal scrap is being performed increasingly by mills and, to a lesser extent, by scrap processors. The monitoring does not, however, provide 100% protection. Improvements in regulatory oversight by the government could stimulate improved accounting and control of licensed sources. However, additional government effort in this area must be reconciled with competing priorities in radiation safety and budgetary constraints. The threat of radioactive material in recycled metal scrap will continue for the foreseeable future and, thus, poses regulatory policy challenges for both developed and developing nations.

  17. Tracing the source of sedimentary organic carbon in the Loess Plateau of China: An integrated elemental ratio, stable carbon signatures, and radioactive isotopes approach.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun; Dong, Yuting; Li, Zhongwu; Chang, Xiaofeng; Nie, Xiaodong; Liu, Lin; Xiao, Haibing; Bashir, Hassan

    2017-02-01

    Soil erosion, which will induce the redistribution of soil and associated soil organic carbon (SOC) on the Earth's surface, is of critically importance for biogeochemical cycling of essential elements and terrestrial carbon sequestration. Despite the importance of soil erosion, surprisingly few studies have evaluated the sources of eroded carbon (C). This study used natural abundance levels of the stable isotope signature ((13)C) and radioactive isotopes ((137)Cs and (210)Pbex), along with elements ratio (C/N) based on a two end member mixing model to qualitatively and quantitatively identify the sources of sedimentary OC retained by check dam in the Qiaozigou small watershed in the Loess Plateau, China. Sediment profiles (0-200 cm) captured at natural depositional area of the basin was compared to possible source materials, which included: superficial Loess mineral soils (0-20 cm) from three land use types [i.e., grassland (Medicago sativa), forestland (Robinia pseudoacacia.), shrubland (Prunus sibirica), and gully land (Loess parent material.)]. The results demonstrated that SOC in sediments showed significantly negative correlation with pH (P < 0.01), and positive correlation with soil water content (SWC) (P < 0.05). The sedimentary OC was not derived from grasslands or gullies. Forestland and shrubland were two main sources of eroded organic carbon within the surface sediment (0-60 cm deep), except for that in the 20-40 cm soil layer. Radionuclides analyses also implied that the surface sediments retained by check-dams mainly originated from soils of forestland and shrubland. Results of the two end-member mixing model demonstrated that more than 50% SOC (mean probability estimate (MPE) 50.13% via (13)C and 60.53% via C/N) in surface sediment (0-20 cm deep) derived from forestland, whereas subsurface sedimentary SOC (20-200 cm) mainly resulted from shrubland (MPE > 50%). Although uncertainties on the sources of SOC in deep soils exist, the soil

  18. [Applications of GIS in biomass energy source research].

    PubMed

    Su, Xian-Ming; Wang, Wu-Kui; Li, Yi-Wei; Sun, Wen-Xiang; Shi, Hai; Zhang, Da-Hong

    2010-03-01

    Biomass resources have the characteristics of widespread and dispersed distribution, which have close relations to the environment, climate, soil, and land use, etc. Geographic information system (GIS) has the functions of spatial analysis and the flexibility of integrating with other application models and algorithms, being of predominance to the biomass energy source research. This paper summarized the researches on the GIS applications in biomass energy source research, with the focus in the feasibility study of bioenergy development, assessment of biomass resources amount and distribution, layout of biomass exploitation and utilization, evaluation of gaseous emission from biomass burning, and biomass energy information system. Three perspectives of GIS applications in biomass energy source research were proposed, i. e., to enrich the data source, to improve the capacity on data processing and decision-support, and to generate the online proposal.

  19. Laser wakefield accelerator based light sources: potential applications and requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, F.; Thomas, A. G.; Mangles, S. P.D.; Banerjee, S.; Corde, S.; Flacco, A.; Litos, M.; Neely, D.; Viera, J.; Najmudin, Z.; Bingham, R.; Joshi, C.; Katsouleas, T.

    2015-01-15

    In this article we review the prospects of laser wakefield accelerators as next generation light sources for applications. This work arose as a result of discussions held at the 2013 Laser Plasma Accelerators Workshop. X-ray phase contrast imaging, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and nuclear resonance fluorescence are highlighted as potential applications for laser-plasma based light sources. We discuss ongoing and future efforts to improve the properties of radiation from plasma betatron emission and Compton scattering using laser wakefield accelerators for these specific applications.

  20. Vacuum Arc Ion Sources: Recent Developments and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Ian; Oks, Efim

    2005-05-01

    The vacuum arc ion source has evolved over the past twenty years into a standard laboratory tool for the production of high current beams of metal ions, and is now used in a number of different embodiments at many laboratories around the world. The primary application of this kind of source has evolved to be ion implantation for material surface modification. Another important use is for injection of high current beams of heavy metal ions into the front ends of particle accelerators, and much excellent work has been carried out in recent years in optimizing the source for reliable accelerator application. The source also provides a valuable tool for the investigation of the fundamental plasma physics of vacuum arc plasma discharges. As the use of the source has grown and diversified, at the same time the ion source performance and operational characteristics have been improved in a variety of different ways also. Here we review the growth and status of vacuum arc ion sources around the world, and summarize some of the applications for which the sources have been used.

  1. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Neutron Products Incorporated Sealed Source Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2014-08-31

    The purpose of this special analysis (SA) is to determine if the Neutron Products Incorporated (NPI) Sealed Sources waste stream (DRTK000000056, Revision 0) is suitable for disposal by shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The NPI Sealed Sources waste stream consists of 850 60Co sealed sources (Duratek [DRTK] 2013). The NPI Sealed Sources waste stream requires a special analysis (SA) because the waste stream 60Co activity concentration exceeds the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) Action Levels.

  2. Application of ECR ion source beams in atomic physics

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, F.W.

    1987-01-01

    The availability of intense, high charge state ion beams from ECR ion sources has had significant impact not only on the upgrading of cyclotron and synchrotron facilities, but also on multicharged ion collision research, as evidenced by the increasing number of ECR source facilities used at least on a part time basis for atomic physics research. In this paper one such facility, located at the ORNL ECR source, and dedicated full time to the study of multicharged ion collisions, is described. Examples of applications of ECR ion source beams are given, based on multicharged ion collision physics studies performed at Oak Ridge over the last few years. 21 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Ensemble-based simultaneous emission estimates and improved forecast of radioactive pollution from nuclear power plant accidents: application to ETEX tracer experiment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X L; Li, Q B; Su, G F; Yuan, M Q

    2015-04-01

    The accidental release of radioactive materials from nuclear power plant leads to radioactive pollution. We apply an augmented ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) with a chemical transport model to jointly estimate the emissions of Perfluoromethylcyclohexane (PMCH), a tracer substitute for radionuclides, from a point source during the European Tracer Experiment, and to improve the forecast of its dispersion downwind. We perturb wind fields to account for meteorological uncertainties. We expand the state vector of PMCH concentrations through continuously adding an a priori emission rate for each succeeding assimilation cycle. We adopt a time-correlated red noise to simulate the temporal emission fluctuation. The improved EnKF system rapidly updates (and reduces) the excessively large initial first-guess emissions, thereby significantly improves subsequent forecasts (r = 0.83, p < 0.001). It retrieves 94% of the total PMCH released and substantially reduces transport error (>80% average reduction of the normalized mean square error).

  4. SimER: An advanced three-dimensional environmental risk assessment code for contaminated land and radioactive waste disposal applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kwong, S.; Small, J.; Tahar, B.

    2007-07-01

    SimER (Simulations of Environmental Risks) is a powerful performance assessment code developed to undertake assessments of both contaminated land and radioactive waste disposal. The code can undertake both deterministic and probabilistic calculations, and is fully compatible with all available best practice guidance and regulatory requirements. SimER represents the first time-dependent performance assessment code capable of providing a detailed representation of system evolution that is designed specifically to address issues found across UK nuclear sites. The code adopts flexible input language with build-in unit checking to model the whole system (i.e. near-field, geosphere and biosphere) in a single code thus avoiding the need for any time consuming data transfer and the often laborious interface between the different codes. This greatly speeds up the assessment process and has major quality assurance advantages. SimER thus provides a cost-effective tool for undertaking projects involving risk assessment from contaminated land assessments through to full post-closure safety cases and other work supporting key site endpoint decisions. A Windows version (v1.0) of the code was first released in June 2004. The code has subsequently been subject to further testing and development. In particular, Viewers have been developed to provide users with visual information to assist the development of SimER models, and output can now be produced in a format that can be used by the FieldView software to view the results and produce animation from the SimER calculations. More recently a Linux version of the code has been produced to extend coverage to the commonly used platform bases and offer an improved operating environment for probabilistic assessments. Results from the verification of the SimER code for a sample of test cases for both contaminated land and waste disposal applications are presented. (authors)

  5. Feasibility study of the applicability of the activated sludge process to treatment of radioactive organic liquid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Koyama, Akio; Nishimaki, Kenzo

    1997-12-31

    The authors used an activated sludge process to treat radioactive organic liquid waste. Organic liquid waste is difficult to treat by conventional radioactive liquid treatment processes, but in order to reduce long-term irradiation of the public the removal of radionuclides from such waste is preferable to dilution. Activated sludge processes are widely used for the biological treatment of sewage and are considered appropriate means for treating radioactive organic liquid waste. In this process, the fate of radionuclides eluted by treated water or immobilized by activated sludge, is extremely important for public safety and for the treatment of radioactive organic liquid waste. The authors performed uptake and desorption behavior experiments on the three short half-life radionuclides {sup 134}Cs, {sup 57}Co and {sup 85}Sr, and used three nutritive types of artificial sewage as the feed solution. On the basis of the results, they discuss the uptake-desorption behavior of these radionuclides in an activated sludge process. The authors conclude that treatment of radioactive organic liquid waste by an activated sludge process is possible, but improvements must be made in the process if it is to be more effective.

  6. Progress on EUV-source development, tool integration and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebert, Rainer; Jagle, Bernhard; Wies, Christian; Stamm, Uwe; Kleinschmidt, Juergen; Gaebel, Kai; Schriever, Guido; Pankert, Joseph; Bergmann, Klaus; Neff, Willi; Egbert, Andre

    2005-06-01

    In EUV lithography, extreme ultraviolet radiation of 13.5 nm wavelength is used to print feature with resolutions consis-tent with the requirements of the 45 nm technology node or below. EUV is produced by heating xenon, tin, or other ele-ments to a plasma state, using either magnetic compression or laser irradiation. The key concerns-identified at the third EUV-Symposium-are the ability to supply defect-free masks and to increase source component lifetimes to meet the wafer throughput requirements for high volume manufacturing. Source availability and performance, however, made steady progress within the last years on two lines of actions: High power sources for high volume production and medium and low power sources for allowing in-house metrology and performance studies on EUV-mask-blanks, EUV-Masks, photoresists and optical elements. For "volume production sources" 50 W of collected EUV powers are already available by various suppliers. Compact discharge sources of medium power in the range of 10-100 mW / sr / 2% bandwidth and low power EUV-tubes of low-est cost of ownership and superior stability are ideal for peripheral metrology on components for EUV-Lithography. These low power sources supplement beamlines at storage rings by transferring EUV-applications to individual R&D labs. Proceeding integration of those EUV sources into tools for technology development like open frame and micro-exposers, and in tools for actinic metrology is the best proof of the progress. As of today, the first EUV sources and measurement equipment are available to be used for EUV system, mask, optics and component as well as lithography process development. With the commercial availability of EUV-plasma sources other applications using short wave-length, XUV-radiation will be feasible in a laboratory environment. Some examples of XUV applications are discussed.

  7. Radioactive nondestructive test method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, J. R.; Pullen, K. E.

    1971-01-01

    Various radioisotope techniques were used as diagnostic tools for determining the performance of spacecraft propulsion feed system elements. Applications were studied in four tasks. The first two required experimental testing involving the propellant liquid oxygen difluoride (OF2): the neutron activation analysis of dissolved or suspended metals, and the use of radioactive tracers to evaluate the probability of constrictions in passive components (orifices and filters) becoming clogged by matter dissolved or suspended in the OF2. The other tasks were an appraisal of the applicability of radioisotope techniques to problems arising from the exposure of components to liquid/gas combinations, and an assessment of the applicability of the techniques to other propellants.

  8. Fully guided-wave photon pair source for quantum applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergyris, P.; Kaiser, F.; Gouzien, E.; Sauder, G.; Lunghi, T.; Tanzilli, S.

    2017-06-01

    We report a fully guided-wave source of polarisation entangled photons based on a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide mounted in a Sagnac interferometer. We demonstrate the source’s quality by converting polarisation entanglement to postselection-free energy-time entanglement for which we obtain a near-optimal S-parameter of 2.75 ± 0.02, i.e. a violation of the Bell inequality by more than 35 standard deviations. The exclusive use of guided-wave components makes our source compact and stable which is a prerequisite for increasingly complex quantum applications. Additionally, our source offers a great versatility in terms of photon pair emission spectrum and generated quantum state, making it suitable for a broad range of quantum applications such as cryptography and metrology. In this sense, we show how to use our source for chromatic dispersion measurements in optical fibres which opens new avenues in the field of quantum metrology.

  9. Acoustic and visual remote sensing of barrels of radioactive waste: Application of civilian and military technology to environmental management of the oceans

    SciTech Connect

    Karl, H.A.; Chin, J.L.; Maher, N.M.; Chavez, P.S. Jr.; Ueber, E.; Van Peeters, W.; Curl, H.

    1995-04-01

    As part of an ongoing strategic research project to find barrels of radioactive waste off San Francisco, the U.S. Navy (USN), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary (GFNMS) pooled their expertise, resources, and technology to form a partnership to verify new computer enhancement techniques developed for detecting targets the size of 55 gallon barrels on sidescan sonar images. Between 1946 and 1970, approximately 47,800 large barrels and other containers of radioactive waste were dumped in the ocean west of San Francisco; the containers litter an area of the sea floor of at least 1400 km {sup 2} knows as the Farallon Island Radioactive Waste Dump. The exact location of the containers and the potential hazard the containers pose to the environment is unknown. The USGS developed computer techniques and contracted with private industry to enhance sidescan data, collected in cooperation with the GFNMS, to detect objects as small as 55 gallon steel barrels while conducting regional scale sidescan sonar surveys. Using a subset of the regional sonar survey, images were plotted over a 125 km {sub 2} area. The acoustic interpretations were verified visually using the USN DSV Sea Cliff and the unmanned Advanced Tethered Vehicle (ATV). Barrels and other physical features were found where image enhancement had indicated they would be found. The interagency cooperation among the USN, USGS, and GFNMS has led to develop a cost effective and time efficient method to locate the barrels of radioactive waste. This method has universal application for locating containers of hazardous waste over a regional scale in other ocean areas such as Boston Harbor and the Kara Sea in the Arctic. This successful application of military and civilian expertise and technology has provided scientific information to help formulate policy decisions that affect the environmental management and quality of the ocean.

  10. Investigation of gigawatt millimeter wave source applications. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Bruder, J.A.; Belcher, M.L.

    1991-09-01

    The Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) investigated potential applications of millimeter wave (MMW) sources with peak powers on the order of a gigawatt. This power level is representative of MMW devices such as the free electron laser (FEL) and the cyclotron auto-resonance maser (CARM) that are under development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). In addition to determining the technical requirements for these applications, the investigation considered potential users and how a high power MMW system would expand their current capabilities. Two of the more promising applications were examined in detail to include trade-off evaluations system parameters. The trade-off evaluations included overall system configuration, frequency and coherence, component availability, and performance estimates. Brainstorming sessions were held to try and uncover additional applications for a gigawatt MMW source. In setting up guidelines for the session, the need to attempt to predict applications for the years 2000 to 2030 was stressed. Also, possible non-DoD applications needed to be considered. While some of these applications could not in themselves justify the costs involved in the development of the radar system, they could be considered potential secondary applications of the system. As a result of the sessions, a number of interesting potential applications evolved including: space object identification; low angle tracking; illuminator for space-based radar; radio astronomy; space vehicle navigation; space debris location; atmospheric research; wind shear detection; electronic countermeasures; low observable detection; and long range detection via ducting.

  11. Applications of laser wakefield accelerator-based light sources

    DOE PAGES

    Albert, Felicie; Thomas, Alec G. R.

    2016-10-01

    Laser-wakefield accelerators (LWFAs) were proposed more than three decades ago, and while they promise to deliver compact, high energy particle accelerators, they will also provide the scientific community with novel light sources. In a LWFA, where an intense laser pulse focused onto a plasma forms an electromagnetic wave in its wake, electrons can be trapped and are now routinely accelerated to GeV energies. From terahertz radiation to gamma-rays, this article reviews light sources from relativistic electrons produced by LWFAs, and discusses their potential applications. Betatron motion, Compton scattering and undulators respectively produce x-rays or gamma-rays by oscillating relativistic electrons inmore » the wakefield behind the laser pulse, a counter-propagating laser field, or a magnetic undulator. Other LWFA-based light sources include bremsstrahlung and terahertz radiation. Here, we first evaluate the performance of each of these light sources, and compare them with more conventional approaches, including radio frequency accelerators or other laser-driven sources. We have then identified applications, which we discuss in details, in a broad range of fields: medical and biological applications, military, defense and industrial applications, and condensed matter and high energy density science.« less

  12. Applications of laser wakefield accelerator-based light sources

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, Felicie; Thomas, Alec G. R.

    2016-10-01

    Laser-wakefield accelerators (LWFAs) were proposed more than three decades ago, and while they promise to deliver compact, high energy particle accelerators, they will also provide the scientific community with novel light sources. In a LWFA, where an intense laser pulse focused onto a plasma forms an electromagnetic wave in its wake, electrons can be trapped and are now routinely accelerated to GeV energies. From terahertz radiation to gamma-rays, this article reviews light sources from relativistic electrons produced by LWFAs, and discusses their potential applications. Betatron motion, Compton scattering and undulators respectively produce x-rays or gamma-rays by oscillating relativistic electrons in the wakefield behind the laser pulse, a counter-propagating laser field, or a magnetic undulator. Other LWFA-based light sources include bremsstrahlung and terahertz radiation. Here, we first evaluate the performance of each of these light sources, and compare them with more conventional approaches, including radio frequency accelerators or other laser-driven sources. We have then identified applications, which we discuss in details, in a broad range of fields: medical and biological applications, military, defense and industrial applications, and condensed matter and high energy density science.

  13. Applications of laser wakefield accelerator-based light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Félicie; Thomas, Alec G. R.

    2016-11-01

    Laser-wakefield accelerators (LWFAs) were proposed more than three decades ago, and while they promise to deliver compact, high energy particle accelerators, they will also provide the scientific community with novel light sources. In a LWFA, where an intense laser pulse focused onto a plasma forms an electromagnetic wave in its wake, electrons can be trapped and are now routinely accelerated to GeV energies. From terahertz radiation to gamma-rays, this article reviews light sources from relativistic electrons produced by LWFAs, and discusses their potential applications. Betatron motion, Compton scattering and undulators respectively produce x-rays or gamma-rays by oscillating relativistic electrons in the wakefield behind the laser pulse, a counter-propagating laser field, or a magnetic undulator. Other LWFA-based light sources include bremsstrahlung and terahertz radiation. We first evaluate the performance of each of these light sources, and compare them with more conventional approaches, including radio frequency accelerators or other laser-driven sources. We have then identified applications, which we discuss in details, in a broad range of fields: medical and biological applications, military, defense and industrial applications, and condensed matter and high energy density science.

  14. Applications of laser wakefield accelerator-based light sources

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, Felicie; Thomas, Alec G. R.

    2016-10-01

    Laser-wakefield accelerators (LWFAs) were proposed more than three decades ago, and while they promise to deliver compact, high energy particle accelerators, they will also provide the scientific community with novel light sources. In a LWFA, where an intense laser pulse focused onto a plasma forms an electromagnetic wave in its wake, electrons can be trapped and are now routinely accelerated to GeV energies. From terahertz radiation to gamma-rays, this article reviews light sources from relativistic electrons produced by LWFAs, and discusses their potential applications. Betatron motion, Compton scattering and undulators respectively produce x-rays or gamma-rays by oscillating relativistic electrons in the wakefield behind the laser pulse, a counter-propagating laser field, or a magnetic undulator. Other LWFA-based light sources include bremsstrahlung and terahertz radiation. Here, we first evaluate the performance of each of these light sources, and compare them with more conventional approaches, including radio frequency accelerators or other laser-driven sources. We have then identified applications, which we discuss in details, in a broad range of fields: medical and biological applications, military, defense and industrial applications, and condensed matter and high energy density science.

  15. Potential applications of an electron cyclotron resonance multicusp plasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, C.C.; Berry, L.A.; Gorbatkin, S.M.; Haselton, H.H.; Roberto, J.B.; Stirling, W.L.

    1989-01-01

    An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) multicusp plasmatron has been developed by feeding a multicusp bucket arc chamber with a compact ECR plasma source. This novel source produced large (about 25-cm-diam), uniform (to within {plus minus}10%), dense (>10{sup 11}-cm{sup -3}) plasmas of argon, helium, hydrogen, and oxygen. It has been operated to produce an oxygen plasma for etching 12.7-cm (5-in.) positive photoresist-coated silicon wafers with uniformity within {plus minus}8%. Results and potential applications of this new ECR plasma source for plasma processing of thin films are discussed. 21 refs., 10 figs.

  16. Experiences in the field of radioactive materials seizures in the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Svoboda, Karel; Podlaha, Josef; Sir, David; Mudra, Josef

    2007-07-01

    In recent years, the amount of radioactive materials seizures (captured radioactive materials) has been rising. It was above all due to newly installed detection facilities that were able to check metallic scrap during its collection in scrap yards or on the entrance to iron-mills, checking municipal waste upon entrance to municipal disposal sites, even incineration plants, or through checking vehicles going through the borders of the Czech Republic. Most cases bore a relationship to secondary raw materials or they were connected to the application of machines and installations made from contaminated metallic materials. However, in accordance to our experience, the number of cases of seizures of materials and devices containing radioactive sources used in the public domain was lower, but not negligible, in the municipal storage yards or incineration plants. Atomic Act No. 18/1997 Coll. will apply to everybody who provides activities leading to exposure, mandatory assurance as high radiation safety as risk of the endangering of life, personal health and environment is as low as reasonably achievable in according to social and economic aspects. Hence, attention on the examination of all cases of the radioactive material seizure based on detection facilities alarm or reasonably grounds suspicion arising from the other information is important. Therefore, a service carried out by group of workers who ensure assessment of captured radioactive materials and eventual retrieval of radioactive sources from the municipal waste has come into existence in the Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc. This service has covered also transport, storage, processing and disposal of found radioactive sources. This service has arisen especially for municipal disposal sites, but later on even other companies took advantage of this service like incineration plants, the State Office for Nuclear Safety, etc. Our experience in the field of ensuring assessment of captured radioactive materials

  17. Air-kerma strength determination of a miniature x-ray source for brachytherapy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Stephen D.

    A miniature x-ray source has been developed by Xoft Inc. for high dose-rate brachytherapy treatments. The source is contained in a 5.4 mm diameter water-cooling catheter. The source voltage can be adjusted from 40 kV to 50 kV and the beam current is adjustable up to 300 muA. Electrons are accelerated toward a tungsten-coated anode to produce a lightly-filtered bremsstrahlung photon spectrum. The sources were initially used for early-stage breast cancer treatment using a balloon applicator. More recently, Xoft Inc. has developed vaginal and surface applicators. The miniature x-ray sources have been characterized using a modification of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group No. 43 formalism normally used for radioactive brachytherapy sources. Primary measurements of air kerma were performed using free-air ionization chambers at the University of Wisconsin (UW) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The measurements at UW were used to calibrate a well-type ionization chamber for clinical verification of source strength. Accurate knowledge of the emitted photon spectrum was necessary to calculate the corrections required to determine air-kerma strength, defined in vacuo. Theoretical predictions of the photon spectrum were calculated using three separate Monte Carlo codes: MCNP5, EGSnrc, and PENELOPE. Each code used different implementations of the underlying radiological physics. Benchmark studies were performed to investigate these differences in detail. The most important variation among the codes was found to be the calculation of fluorescence photon production following electron-induced vacancies in the L shell of tungsten atoms. The low-energy tungsten L-shell fluorescence photons have little clinical significance at the treatment distance, but could have a large impact on air-kerma measurements. Calculated photon spectra were compared to spectra measured with high-purity germanium spectroscopy systems at both UW and

  18. Switchable radioactive neutron source device

    DOEpatents

    Stanford, G.S.; Rhodes, E.A.; Devolpi, A.; Boyar, R.E.

    1987-11-06

    This invention is a switchable neutron generating apparatus comprised of a pair of plates, the first plate having an alpha emitter section on it and the second plate having a target material portion on it which generates neutrons when its nuclei absorb an alpha particle. In operation, the alpha portion of the first plate is aligned with the neutron portion of the second plate to produce neutrons and brought out of alignment to cease production of neutrons. 3 figs.

  19. Switchable radioactive neutron source device

    DOEpatents

    Boyar, Robert E.; DeVolpi, Alexander; Stanford, George S.; Rhodes, Edgar A.

    1989-01-01

    This invention is a switchable neutron generating apparatus comprised of a pair of plates, the first plate having an alpha emitter section on it and the second plate having a target material portion on it which generates neutrons when its nuclei absorb an alpha particle. In operation, the alpha portion of the first plate is aligned with the neutron portion of the second plate to produce neutrons and brought out of alignment to cease production of neutrons.

  20. New spallation neutron sources, their performance and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Pulsed spallation sources now operating in the world are at the KEK Laboratory in Japan (the KENS source), at Los Alamos National Laboratory (WNR) and at Argonne National Laboratory (IPNS), both the latter being in the US. The Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) is currently the world's most intense source with a peak neutron flux of 4 x 10/sup 14/ n cm/sup -2/s/sup -1/ at a repetition rate of 30 Hz, and globally producing approx. 1.5 x 10/sup 15/ n/sec. Present pulsed sources are still relatively weak compared to their potential. In 1985 the Rutherford Spallation Neutron Source will come on line, and eventually be approx. 30 more intense than the present IPNS. Later, in 1986 the WNR/PSR option at Los Alamos will make that facility of comparable intensity, while a subcritical fission booster at IPNS will keep IPNS competitive. These new sources will expand the applications of pulsed neutrons but are still based on accelerators built for other scientific purposes, usually nuclear or high-energy physics. Accelerator physicists are now designing machines expressly for spallation neutron research, and the proton currents attainable appear in the milliamps. (IPNS now runs at 0.5 GeV and 14 ..mu..A). Such design teams are at the KFA Laboratory Julich, Argonne National Laboratory and KEK. Characteristics, particularly the different time structure of the pulses, of these new sources will be discussed. S

  1. Production, distribution and applications of californium-252 neutron sources.

    PubMed

    Martin, R C; Knauer, J B; Balo, P A

    2000-01-01

    The radioisotope 252Cf is routinely encapsulated into compact, portable, intense neutron sources with a 2.6-yr half-life. A source the size of a person's little finger can emit up to 10(11) neutrons s(-1). Californium-252 is used commercially as a reliable, cost-effective neutron source for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) of coal, cement and minerals, as well as for detection and identification of explosives, land mines and unexploded military ordinance. Other uses are neutron radiography, nuclear waste assays, reactor start-up sources, calibration standards and cancer therapy. The inherent safety of source encapsulations is demonstrated by 30 yr of experience and by US Bureau of Mines tests of source survivability during explosions. The production and distribution center for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Californium Program is the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). DOE sells 252Cf to commercial reencapsulators domestically and internationally. Sealed 252Cf sources are also available for loan to agencies and subcontractors of the US government and to universities for educational, research and medical applications. The REDC has established the Californium User Facility (CUF) for Neutron Science to make its large inventory of 252Cf sources available to researchers for irradiations inside uncontaminated hot cells. Experiments at the CUF include a land mine detection system, neutron damage testing of solid-state detectors, irradiation of human cancer cells for boron neutron capture therapy experiments and irradiation of rice to induce genetic mutations.

  2. 36 CFR 223.190 - Sourcing area application procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sourcing area application procedures. 223.190 Section 223.190 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST...

  3. 36 CFR 223.190 - Sourcing area application procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sourcing area application procedures. 223.190 Section 223.190 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST...

  4. 36 CFR 223.190 - Sourcing area application procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sourcing area application procedures. 223.190 Section 223.190 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST...

  5. 36 CFR 223.190 - Sourcing area application procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sourcing area application procedures. 223.190 Section 223.190 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL...

  6. Safety Evaluation - Radioactive Components of Materiel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-02

    materials such as radium dials of compasses have been used for many years by the Arrny. Others such as depleted uranium , krypton, proamethium, and tritium...arises when the radioisotope decays and emits a radioactive gas such as radon gas from radiumi. The hazards of radioactive gases accumulating in...contamination tests once each week until a suitable evaluation has been attained. Because of the large variety of radioactive sources stored and used and

  7. Ultracompact/ultralow power electron cyclotron resonance ion source for multipurpose applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sortais, P.; Lamy, T.; Medard, J.; Angot, J.; Latrasse, L.; Thuillier, T.

    2010-02-15

    In order to drastically reduce the power consumption of a microwave ion source, we have studied some specific discharge cavity geometries in order to reduce the operating point below 1 W of microwave power (at 2.45 GHz). We show that it is possible to drive an electron cyclotron resonance ion source with a transmitter technology similar to those used for cellular phones. By the reduction in the size and of the required microwave power, we have developed a new type of ultralow cost ion sources. This microwave discharge system (called COMIC, for COmpact MIcrowave and Coaxial) can be used as a source of light, plasma or ions. We will show geometries of conductive cavities where it is possible, in a 20 mm diameter chamber, to reduce the ignition of the plasma below 100 mW and define typical operating points around 5 W. Inside a simple vacuum chamber it is easy to place the source and its extraction system anywhere and fully under vacuum. In that case, current densities from 0.1 to 10 mA/cm{sup 2} (Ar, extraction 4 mm, 1 mAe, 20 kV) have been observed. Preliminary measurements and calculations show the possibility, with a two electrodes system, to extract beams within a low emittance. The first application for these ion sources is the ion injection for charge breeding, surface analyzing system and surface treatment. For this purpose, a very small extraction hole is used (typically 3/10 mm for a 3 {mu}A extracted current with 2 W of HF power). Mass spectrum and emittance measurements will be presented. In these conditions, values down to 1 {pi} mm mrad at 15 kV (1{sigma}) are observed, thus very close to the ones currently observed for a surface ionization source. A major interest of this approach is the possibility to connect together several COMIC devices. We will introduce some new on-going developments such as sources for high voltage implantation platforms, fully quartz radioactive ion source at ISOLDE or large plasma generators for plasma immersion, broad or ribbon

  8. Radioactive deposits of Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovering, T.G.

    1954-01-01

    Thirty-five occurrences of radioactive rocks had been reported from Nevada prior to 1952. Twenty-five of these had been investigated by personnel of the U. S. Geological Surveyor of the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission. Of those investigated, uranium minerals were identified at 13 sites; two sites contained a thorium mineral (monazite); the source of radioactivity on nine properties was not ascertained, and one showed no abnormal radioactivity. Of the other reported occurrences, one is said to contain uraniferous hydrocarbons and nine are placers containing thorian monazite. Pitchblende occurs at two localities, the East Walker River area, and the Stalin's Present prospect, where it is sparsely disseminated in tabular bodies cutting granitic rocks. Other uranium minerals found in the state include: carnotite, tyuyamunite, autunite, torbernite, gummite, uranophane, kasolite, and an unidentified mineral which may be dumontite. Monazite is the only thorium mineral of possible economic importance that has been reported. From an economic standpoint, only four of the properties examined showed reserves of uranium ore in 1952; these are: the Green Monster mine, which shipped 5 tons of ore to Marysvale, Utah, during 1951; the Majuba Hill mine; the Stalin's Present prospect; and the West Willys claim in the Washington district. No estimate has been made of thorium reserves and no commercial deposits of thorium are known.

  9. Radioactive deposits of Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovering, T.G.

    1953-01-01

    Thirty-five occurrences of radioactive rocks had been reported from Nevada prior to 1952. Twenty-five of these had been investigated by the U. S. Geological Survey and the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission. Of those investigated, uranium minerals were identified in 13; two contained a thorium mineral (monazite); the source of radioactivity on 7 properties was not ascertained; and one showed no abnormal radioactivity. Of the other reported occurrences, one is said to contain uraniferous hydrocarbons and 9 are placers containing thorian monazite. Pitchblende occurs at two localities; the East Walker River area, and the Stalin's Present prospect, where it is sparsely disseminated in tabular bodies cutting granitic rocks. Other uranium minerals found in the state include: carnotite, tyuyamunite, autunite, torbernite, gummite, uranophane, kasolite, and an unidentified mineral which may be dumontit. Monazite is the only thorium mineral of possible economic importance that has been reported. From an economic standpoint 9 only 4 of the properties examined showed reserves of uranium ore in 1952; these are: the Green Monster mine, which shipped 5 tons of ore to Marysvale, Utah, during 1951, the Majuba Hill mine, the Stalin's Present prospect, and the West Willys claim in the Washington district. Reserves of ore grade are small on all of these properties and probably cannot be developed commercially unless an ore-buying station is set up nearby. No estimate has been made of thorium reserves and no commercial deposits of thorium are known.

  10. Production, Distribution, and Applications of Californium-252 Neutron Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Balo, P.A.; Knauer, J.B.; Martin, R.C.

    1999-10-03

    reencapsulators domestically and internationally. Sealed {sup 252}Cf sources are also available for loan to agencies and subcontractors of the U.S. government and to universities for educational, research, and medical applications. The REDC has established the Californium User Facility (CUF) for Neutron Science to make its large inventory of {sup 252}Cf sources available to researchers for irradiations inside uncontaminated hot cells. Experiments at the CUF include a land mine detection system, neutron damage testing of solid-state detectors, irradiation of human cancer cells for boron neutron capture therapy experiments, and irradiation of rice to induce genetic mutations.

  11. The analysis of metal melting application in the management of metallic radioactive materials arising from decommissioning of nuclear installations

    SciTech Connect

    Slimak, Andrej; Necas, Vladimir

    2013-07-01

    Basic characterization of the waste management process during decommissioning of nuclear installations is described in the presented paper. A brief description is given of conditional and unconditional release of materials into the environment. The paper deals also with metal melting as prospective decontamination technique which can significantly reduce metallic radioactive waste. The material and radioactivity flow in the decommissioning process should be followed using the integrated material flow tool that is implemented into the standardized analytical decommissioning parameters calculation code OMEGA. Applying the integrated material flow tool, it is possible to monitor radiological and physical properties of individual material items listed in the nuclear installation input database, from dismantling up to their release into the environment or disposal in repository. Using the OMEGA code and two model databases, several scenarios related to metal melting are evaluated. The impact of applying different input decommissioning parameters on the metal distribution is the main result discussed in the paper. (authors)

  12. MARE: Mars Radioactivity Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Lellis, A. M.; Capria, M. T.; Espinasse, S.; Magni, G.; Orosei, R.; Piccioni, G.; Federico, C.; Minelli, G.; Pauselli, C.; Scarpa, G.

    1999-09-01

    MARE is an experiment for the measurement of the beta and gamma radioactivity in space and in the Martian soil, both at the surface and in the subsurface. This will be accomplished by means of a dosimeter and a spectrometer. The radiation dose rate to which crews will be exposed is one of the hazards that has to be quantified before the human exploration of Mars may begin. Data for evaluating radioactivity levels at Martian surface are of great interest for environmental studies related to life in general. The dosimeter will be able to measure the beta and gamma radiation dose received, with a responsivity which is very close to that of a living organism. The dosimeter is based on thermo-luminescence pills which emit an optical signal proportional to the absorbed dose when heated. Radioactive elements ((40) K, (235) U, (238) U and (232) Th) can be used as a mean of tracing the evolution of a terrestrial planet. These radioactive elements are the source of the internal heat, which drives convection in the mantle. They have been redistributed in this process and they are now concentrated in the crust where they are accessible for study. Their different behavior during the fractionation process can be used as a mean to investigate the geochemical characteristic of Mars. The spectrometer, a scintillation radiation absorber system for single event counting, is capable of detecting gamma photons with energies between 200 KeV and 10 MeV. The detected events will be processed in such a way to allow the recognition of the spectral signature of different decay processes, and thus the identification and the measurement of the concentrations of different radionuclides in the Martian soil.

  13. Feasibility study of production of radioactive carbon black or carbon nanotubes in cyclotron facilities for nanobioscience applications.

    PubMed

    Abbas, K; Simonelli, F; Holzwarth, U; Cydzik, I; Bulgheroni, A; Gibson, N; Kozempel, J

    2013-03-01

    A feasibility study regarding the production of radioactive carbon black and nanotubes has been performed by proton beam irradiation. Experimental and theoretical excitation functions of the nuclear reaction (nat)C(p,x)(7)Be in the proton energy range 24-38 MeV are reported, with an acceptable agreement. We have demonstrated that sufficient activities of (7)Be radioisotope can be produced in carbon black and nanotube that would facilitate studies of their possible impact on human and environment.

  14. Radioactive Nanomaterials for Multimodality Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Daiqin; Dougherty, Casey A.; Yang, Dongzhi; Wu, Hongwei; Hong, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear imaging techniques, including primarily positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), can provide quantitative information for a biological event in vivo with ultra-high sensitivity, however, the comparatively low spatial resolution is their major limitation in clinical application. By convergence of nuclear imaging with other imaging modalities like computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and optical imaging, the hybrid imaging platforms can overcome the limitations from each individual imaging technique. Possessing versatile chemical linking ability and good cargo-loading capacity, radioactive nanomaterials can serve as ideal imaging contrast agents. In this review, we provide a brief overview about current state-of-the-art applications of radioactive nanomaterials in the circumstances of multimodality imaging. We present strategies for incorporation of radioisotope(s) into nanomaterials along with applications of radioactive nanomaterials in multimodal imaging. Advantages and limitations of radioactive nanomaterials for multimodal imaging applications are discussed. Finally, a future perspective of possible radioactive nanomaterial utilization is presented for improving diagnosis and patient management in a variety of diseases. PMID:27227167

  15. Tutorial on fiber-based sources for biophotonic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, James R.

    2016-06-01

    Fiber-based lasers and master oscillator power fiber amplifier configurations are described. These allow spectral versatility coupled with pulse width and pulse repetition rate selection in compact and efficient packages. This is enhanced through the use of nonlinear optical conversion in fibers and fiber-coupled nonlinear crystals, which can be integrated to provide all-fiber pump sources for diverse application. The advantages and disadvantages of sources based upon supercontinuum generation, stimulated Raman conversion, four-wave mixing, parametric generation and difference frequency generation, allowing spectral coverage from the UV to the mid-infrared, are considered.

  16. Radioactive decay.

    PubMed

    Groch, M W

    1998-01-01

    When a parent radionuclide decays to its daughter radionuclide by means of alpha, beta, or isomeric transition, the decay follows an exponential form, which is characterized by the decay constant lambda. The decay constant represents the probability per unit time that a single radioatom will decay. The decay equation can be used to provide a useful expression for radionuclide decay, the half-life, the time when 50% of the radioatoms present will have decayed. Radiotracer half-life has direct implications in nuclear imaging, radiation therapy, and radiation safety because radionuclide half-life affects the ability to evaluate tracer kinetics and create appropriate nuclear images and also affects organ, tumor, and whole-body radiation dose. The number of radioatoms present in a sample is equal to the activity, defined as the number of transitions per unit time, divided by the decay constant; the mass of radioatoms present in a sample can be calculated to determine the specific activity (activity per unit mass). The dynamic relationship between the number of parent and daughter atoms present over time may lead to radioactive equilibrium, which takes two forms--secular and transient--and has direct relevance to generator-produced radionuclides.

  17. Documentation generator application for MatLab source codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niton, B.; Pozniak, K. T.; Romaniuk, R. S.

    2011-06-01

    The UML, which is a complex system modeling and description technology, has recently been expanding its uses in the field of formalization and algorithmic approach to such systems like multiprocessor photonic, optoelectronic and advanced electronics carriers; distributed, multichannel measurement systems; optical networks, industrial electronics, novel R&D solutions. The paper describes a realization of an application for documenting MatLab source codes. There are presented own novel solution based on Doxygen program which is available on the free license, with accessible source code. The used supporting tools for parser building were Bison and Flex. There are presented the practical results of the documentation generator. The program was applied for exemplary MatLab codes. The documentation generator application is used for design of large optoelectronic and electronic measurement and control systems. The paper consists of three parts which describe the following components of the documentation generator for photonic and electronic systems: concept, MatLab application and VHDL application. This is part two which describes the MatLab application. MatLab is used for description of the measured phenomena.

  18. Operation and Applications of the Boron Cathodic Arc Ion Source

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J. M.; Freeman, J. H.; Klepper, C. C.; Chivers, D. J.; Hazelton, R. C.

    2008-11-03

    The boron cathodic arc ion source has been developed with a view to several applications, particularly the problem of shallow junction doping in semiconductors. Research has included not only development and operation of the boron cathode, but other cathode materials as well. Applications have included a large deposition directed toward development of a neutron detector and another deposition for an orthopedic coating, as well as the shallow ion implantation function. Operational experience is described and information pertinent to commercial operation, extracted from these experiments, is presented.

  19. Measurements of radioactive contaminants in semiconductor materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Michael S.; Rodbell, Kenneth P.; Murray, Conal E.; McNally, Brendan D.

    2016-12-01

    The emission of alpha particles from materials used to manufacture semiconductors can contribute substantially to the single-event upset rate. The alpha particles originate from contamination in the materials, or from radioactive isotopes, themselves. In this review paper, we discuss the sources of the radioactivity and the measurement methods to detect the emitted particles.

  20. OVERVIEW OF MONO-ENERGETIC GAMMA-RAY SOURCES & APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Hartemann, F V; Albert, F; Anderson, G G; Anderson, S G; Bayramian, A J; Betts, S M; Chu, T S; Cross, R R; Ebbers, C A; Fisher, S E; Gibson, D J; Ladran, A S; Marsh, R A; Messerly, M J; O'Neill, K L; Semenov, V A; Shverdin, M Y; Siders, C W; McNabb, D P; Barty, C P; Vlieks, A E; Jongewaard, E N; Tantawi, S G; Raubenheimer, T O

    2010-05-18

    Recent progress in accelerator physics and laser technology have enabled the development of a new class of tunable gamma-ray light sources based on Compton scattering between a high-brightness, relativistic electron beam and a high intensity laser pulse produced via chirped-pulse amplification (CPA). A precision, tunable Mono-Energetic Gamma-ray (MEGa-ray) source driven by a compact, high-gradient X-band linac is currently under development and construction at LLNL. High-brightness, relativistic electron bunches produced by an X-band linac designed in collaboration with SLAC NAL will interact with a Joule-class, 10 ps, diode-pumped CPA laser pulse to generate tunable {gamma}-rays in the 0.5-2.5 MeV photon energy range via Compton scattering. This MEGa-ray source will be used to excite nuclear resonance fluorescence in various isotopes. Applications include homeland security, stockpile science and surveillance, nuclear fuel assay, and waste imaging and assay. The source design, key parameters, and current status are presented, along with important applications, including nuclear resonance fluorescence. In conclusion, we have optimized the design of a high brightness Compton scattering gamma-ray source, specifically designed for NRF applications. Two different parameters sets have been considered: one where the number of photons scattered in a single shot reaches approximately 7.5 x 10{sup 8}, with a focal spot size around 8 {micro}m; in the second set, the spectral brightness is optimized by using a 20 {micro}m spot size, with 0.2% relative bandwidth.

  1. Residual radioactivity of treated green diamonds.

    PubMed

    Cassette, Philippe; Notari, Franck; Lépy, Marie-Christine; Caplan, Candice; Pierre, Sylvie; Hainschwang, Thomas; Fritsch, Emmanuel

    2017-08-01

    Treated green diamonds can show residual radioactivity, generally due to immersion in radium salts. We report various activity measurements on two radioactive diamonds. The activity was characterized by alpha and gamma ray spectrometry, and the radon emanation was measured by alpha counting of a frozen source. Even when no residual radium contamination can be identified, measurable alpha and high-energy beta emissions could be detected. The potential health impact of radioactive diamonds and their status with regard to the regulatory policy for radioactive products are discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Simple Penning ion source for laboratory research and development applications

    SciTech Connect

    Rovey, Joshua L.; Ruzic, Brandon P.; Houlahan, Thomas J.

    2007-10-15

    A simple Penning ion generator (PIG) that can be easily fabricated with simple machining skills and standard laboratory accessories is described. The PIG source uses an iron cathode body, samarium cobalt permanent magnet, stainless steel anode, and iron cathode faceplate to generate a plasma discharge that yields a continuous 1 mA beam of positively charged hydrogen ions at 1 mTorr of pressure. This operating condition requires 5.4 kV and 32.4 W of power. Operation with helium is similar to hydrogen. The ion source is being designed and investigated for use in a sealed-tube neutron generator; however, this ion source is thoroughly described so that it can be easily implemented by other researchers for other laboratory research and development applications.

  3. Clean and stable LPP light source for HVM inspection applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollinger, Bob; Gambino, Nadia; Giovannini, Andrea Z.; Bozinova, Luna S.; Alickaj, Flori; Hertig, Konrad; Abhari, Reza S.; Abreau, Fariba

    2014-04-01

    At the Laboratory for Energy Conversion, ETH Zurich a new tin droplet-based laser-produced plasma source with application in EUV lithography is operational since Q3 2013. The EUV source ALPS II is equipped with a large capacity droplet dispenser and a high power (kW), high repetition rate (>6 kHz) Nd:YAG laser. The new source should address the requirements of high volume manufacturing for different inspection and metrology applications found in EUV lithography. The average source brightness is equal to 350 W/mm2sr. Individual droplet tracking in time and space, which is coupled to a droplet positioning and triggering system helps to increase the pulse-to-pulse EUV emission stability of the source. The lateral droplet stability is on the order of 10-15% of the droplet diameter. The individual droplet triggering yields deviations between the laser trigger and the droplet passage time at the irradiation site of less than 1 us, even for large droplet timing fluctuations (>5%). The in-band EUV radiation is measured with an energy monitor, which is coupled to a fast analog hardware-based integrator. The pulse-to-pulse EUV energy stability for high stability data equals 3% (σ). In the case of window-averaged (0.1 s) data, the EUV stability equals 0.86% (σ). Low stability data is also reported. The large brightness of the presented LPP-based light source can be tuned to adjust the EUV light stability that is required by the inspection tool.

  4. On The Application of Flow Forming to the Fabrication of Type B Radioactive Material Package Containment Vessels, Rev. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Mok, G.; DeMicco, M.; Fischer, L.; Hagler, L.; Russell, E.; Wen, J.; Hafner, R.; Anderson, B.

    2010-07-02

    Flow forming is a modernized and improved version of metal spinning, which is one of the oldest methods of chipless forming. The metal spinning method used a pivoted pointer to manually push a metal sheet mounted at one end of a spinning mandrel. As a result, the modernized version of metal spinning, i.e. flow forming evolved. The recent proposal in the radioactive material (RAM) packaging community to use flow forming for mass production of small containment vessels for drum packages is a natural continuation of the trend. We will discuss how the vessel can have the special material properties and stabilities required for a RAM containment vessel.

  5. Application of low-background gamma-ray spectrometry to monitor radioactivity in the environment and food.

    PubMed

    Khan, A J; Semkow, T M; Beach, S E; Haines, D K; Bradt, C J; Bari, A; Syed, U-F; Torres, M; Marrantino, J; Kitto, M E; Menia, T; Fielman, E

    2014-08-01

    The results are described of an upgrade of the low-background gamma-ray spectrometry laboratory at New York State Department of Health by acquiring sensitivity to low-energy gamma rays. Tuning of the spectrometer and its low-energy response characteristics are described. The spectrometer has been applied to monitor the environment by measuring aerosols and water in New York State contaminated by the 2011 Fukushima accident plume. In addition, the spectrometer has been used to monitor radioactivity in food by performing a study of cesium in Florida milk.

  6. Workshop on scientific applications of short wavelength coherent light sources

    SciTech Connect

    Spicer, W.; Arthur, J.; Winick, H.

    1993-02-01

    This report contains paper on the following topics: A 2 to 4nm High Power FEL On the SLAC Linac; Atomic Physics with an X-ray Laser; High Resolution, Three Dimensional Soft X-ray Imaging; The Role of X-ray Induced Damage in Biological Micro-imaging; Prospects for X-ray Microscopy in Biology; Femtosecond Optical Pulses ; Research in Chemical Physics Surface Science, and Materials Science, with a Linear Accelerator Coherent Light Source; Application of 10 GeV Electron Driven X-ray Laser in Gamma-ray Laser Research; Non-Linear Optics, Fluorescence, Spectromicroscopy, Stimulated Desorption: We Need LCLS' Brightness and Time Scale; Application of High Intensity X-rays to Materials Synthesis and Processing; LCLS Optics: Selected Technological Issues and Scientific Opportunities; Possible Applications of an FEL for Materials Studies in the 60 eV to 200 eV Spectral Region.

  7. Workshop on scientific applications of short wavelength coherent light sources

    SciTech Connect

    Spicer, W.; Arthur, J.; Winick, H.

    1993-02-01

    This report contains paper on the following topics: A 2 to 4nm High Power FEL On the SLAC Linac; Atomic Physics with an X-ray Laser; High Resolution, Three Dimensional Soft X-ray Imaging; The Role of X-ray Induced Damage in Biological Micro-imaging; Prospects for X-ray Microscopy in Biology; Femtosecond Optical Pulses?; Research in Chemical Physics Surface Science, and Materials Science, with a Linear Accelerator Coherent Light Source; Application of 10 GeV Electron Driven X-ray Laser in Gamma-ray Laser Research; Non-Linear Optics, Fluorescence, Spectromicroscopy, Stimulated Desorption: We Need LCLS` Brightness and Time Scale; Application of High Intensity X-rays to Materials Synthesis and Processing; LCLS Optics: Selected Technological Issues and Scientific Opportunities; Possible Applications of an FEL for Materials Studies in the 60 eV to 200 eV Spectral Region.

  8. Application of Probabilistic Performance Assessment Modeling for Optimization of Maintenance Studies for Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Sites at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Crowe, B.; Yucel, V.; Rawlinson, S.; Black, P.; Carilli, J.; DiSanza, F.

    2002-02-25

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration of the Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV) operates and maintains two active facilities on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) that dispose defense-generated low-level radioactive waste (LLW), mixed radioactive waste, and ''classified waste'' in shallow trenches and pits. The operation and maintenance of the LLW disposal sites are self-regulated by the DOE under DOE Order 435.1. This Order requires formal review of a performance assessment (PA) and composite analysis (CA; assessment of all interacting radiological sources) for each LLW disposal system followed by an active maintenance program that extends through and beyond the site closure program. The Nevada disposal facilities continue to receive NTS-generated LLW and defense-generated LLW from across the DOE complex. The PA/CAs for the sites have been conditionally approved and the facilities are now under a formal maintenance program that requires testing of conceptual models, quantifying and attempting to reduce uncertainty, and implementing confirmatory and long-term background monitoring, all leading to eventual closure of the disposal sites. To streamline and reduce the cost of the maintenance program, the NNSA/NV is converting the deterministic PA/CAs to probabilistic models using GoldSim, a probabilistic simulation computer code. The output of probabilistic models will provide expanded information supporting long-term decision objectives of the NTS disposal sites.

  9. Radioactive dating of the elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowan, John J.; Thielemann, Friedrich-Karl; Truran, James W.

    1991-01-01

    The extent to which an accurate determination of the age of the Galaxy, and thus a lower bound on the age of the universe, can be obtained from radioactive dating is discussed. Emphasis is given to the use of the long-lived radioactive nuclei Re-187, Th-232, U-238, and U-235. The nature of the production sites of these and other potential Galactic chronometers is examined along with their production ratios. Age determinations from models of nucleocosmochronology are reviewed and compared with age determination from stellar sources and age constraints form cosmological considerations.

  10. Induced radioactivity in LDEF components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, B. A.; Fishman, G. J.; Parnell, T. A.; Laird, C. E.

    1992-01-01

    A systematic study of the induced radioactivity of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) is being carried out in order to gather information about the low earth orbit radiation environment and its effects on materials. The large mass of the LDEF spacecraft, its stabilized configuration, and long mission duration have presented an opportunity to determine space radiation-induced radioactivities with a precision not possible before. Data presented include preliminary activities for steel and aluminum structural samples, and activation subexperiment foils. Effects seen in the data show a clear indication of the trapped proton anisotropy in the South Atlantic Anomaly and suggest contributions from different sources of external radiation fluxes.

  11. Radioactive dating of the elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowan, John J.; Thielemann, Friedrich-Karl; Truran, James W.

    1991-01-01

    The extent to which an accurate determination of the age of the Galaxy, and thus a lower bound on the age of the universe, can be obtained from radioactive dating is discussed. Emphasis is given to the use of the long-lived radioactive nuclei Re-187, Th-232, U-238, and U-235. The nature of the production sites of these and other potential Galactic chronometers is examined along with their production ratios. Age determinations from models of nucleocosmochronology are reviewed and compared with age determination from stellar sources and age constraints form cosmological considerations.

  12. Technical Aspects Regarding the Management of Radioactive Waste from Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Dragolici, F.; Turcanu, C. N.; Rotarescu, G.; Paunica, I.

    2003-02-25

    The proper application of the nuclear techniques and technologies in Romania started in 1957, once with the commissioning of the Research Reactor VVR-S from IFIN-HH-Magurele. During the last 45 years, appear thousands of nuclear application units with extremely diverse profiles (research, biology, medicine, education, agriculture, transport, all types of industry) which used different nuclear facilities containing radioactive sources and generating a great variety of radioactive waste during the decommissioning after the operation lifetime is accomplished. A new aspect appears by the planning of VVR-S Research Reactor decommissioning which will be a new source of radioactive waste generated by decontamination, disassembling and demolition activities. By construction and exploitation of the Radioactive Waste Treatment Plant (STDR)--Magurele and the National Repository for Low and Intermediate Radioactive Waste (DNDR)--Baita, Bihor county, in Romania was solved the management of radioactive wastes arising from operation and decommissioning of small nuclear facilities, being assured the protection of the people and environment. The present paper makes a review of the present technical status of the Romanian waste management facilities, especially raising on treatment capabilities of ''problem'' wastes such as Ra-266, Pu-238, Am-241 Co-60, Co-57, Sr-90, Cs-137 sealed sources from industrial, research and medical applications. Also, contain a preliminary estimation of quantities and types of wastes, which would result during the decommissioning project of the VVR-S Research Reactor from IFIN-HH giving attention to some special category of wastes like aluminum, graphite and equipment, components and structures that became radioactive through neutron activation. After analyzing the technical and scientific potential of STDR and DNDR to handle big amounts of wastes resulting from the decommissioning of VVR-S Research Reactor and small nuclear facilities, the necessity of

  13. A new Bayesian method to estimate upper limits of radioactive release source terms by scrutinizing measurement data from CTBTO experimental radioxenon monitoring systems in late May and early June 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zähringer, Matthias; Nikkinen, Mika; Becker, Andreas

    2010-05-01

    A global experimental monitoring network for traces of radioactive xenon is currently installed by the Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) of the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban-Treaty Organization (CTBTO) within the framework of the "International Noble Gas Experiment" (INGE). After the announced test in the DPRK on 25 May 2009 collected seismic signals detected at various sites were reported by the PTS. However, no significant detections of radioactive effluents were reported publicly. This lack of radioactive signature begs the question on an upper limit of a source term that would be consistent with the non-detection in the INGE network. In this approach we use Bayesian estimators for confidence limits from measurements of 133Xe at different sites and atmospheric transport and dilution simulations in order to infer maximum possible daily releases on 25 May and following days. The method combines all available data and extracts maximum information from all data, regardless of whether 133Xe has been detected or not. The results indicate that releases at the explosion site, if any, must have been less than 10E13 Bq 133Xe on 25 May and even two orders of magnitude lower at some days in the week after.

  14. Reactor radioactive emission monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Jester, W.A.; Mc Master, I.B.; Baratta, A.J.

    1987-05-05

    This patent describes a means for measuring quantities of a selected radioactive component in a stream of radioactive fluid. The means comprise: a first fluid path with a first means for retaining the selected radioactive component mounted in the fluid path for retaining the radioactive component while passing the remainder of the stream of radioactive fluid; a second fluid path with a second means for retaining the selected radioactive component mounted in the second fluid path for retaining the radioactive component while passing the remainder of the stream of the radioactive fluid; first and second detectors for detecting the level of radioactivity emitted by the retained radioactive component in the first and second retaining means; a means for integrating the output of one or more of the detectors as a function of time to measure any increase in the radioactivity emitted by the radioactive component retained by the retaining means, and the increase being representative of the amount of selected radioactive component present in the stream of radioactive fluid.

  15. Application of semiconductor light sources for investigations of photochemical reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landgraf, S.

    2001-09-01

    Semiconductor light sources, like laser diodes or ultrabright light emitting diodes, are widely used in optical spectroscopy. In this presentation an overview of applications in photochemistry is given. Since the beginning of the 1990s an increasing number of publications with the application of semiconductor light sources appeared. Three different techniques were used: single photon counting with short pulses, phase-modulation fluorometry using a conventional modulation spectrometer, or a lock-in amplifier. Using continuous wave laser diodes in the visible region, which are available from 690 to 630 nm (and, recently, down to 400 nm), a new compact fluorescence spectrometer was developed in our laboratory. Using the phase fluorometric method, measurements down to 100 ps are now possible. Values can be measured in steps of 10 ps with good reproducibility using a high-frequency signal generator and a GHz digital storage oscilloscope. Several investigations have been carried out applying this technique including time-resolved detection of crude oil as an example for possible practical applications.

  16. Radioactivity in man: levels, effects and unknowns

    SciTech Connect

    Rundo, J.

    1980-01-01

    The report discusses the potential for significant human exposure to internal radiation. Sources of radiation considered include background radiation, fallout, reactor accidents, radioactive waste, and occupational exposure to various radioisotopes. (ACR)

  17. Design and application of an electromagnetic vibrator seismic source

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haines, S.S.

    2006-01-01

    Vibrational seismic sources frequently provide a higher-frequency seismic wavelet (and therefore better resolution) than other sources, and can provide a superior signal-to-noise ratio in many settings. However, they are often prohibitively expensive for lower-budget shallow surveys. In order to address this problem, I designed and built a simple but effective vibrator source for about one thousand dollars. The "EMvibe" is an inexpensive electromagnetic vibrator that can be built with easy-to-machine parts and off-the-shelf electronics. It can repeatably produce pulse and frequency-sweep signals in the range of 5 to 650 Hz, and provides sufficient energy for recording at offsets up to 20 m. Analysis of frequency spectra show that the EMvibe provides a broader frequency range than the sledgehammer at offsets up to ??? 10 m in data collected at a site with soft sediments in the upper several meters. The EMvibe offers a high-resolution alternative to the sledgehammer for shallow surveys. It is well-suited to teaching applications, and to surveys requiring a precisely-repeatable source signature.

  18. A literature review of methods of analysis of organic analytes in radioactive wastes with an emphasis on sources from the United Kingdom

    SciTech Connect

    Clauss, S.A.; Bean, R.M.

    1993-09-01

    This report, compiled by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), examines literature originating through the United Kingdom (UK) nuclear industry relating to the analyses of organic constituents of radioactive waste. Additionally, secondary references from the UK and other counties, including the United States, have been reviewed. The purpose of this literature review was to find analytical methods that would apply to the mixed-waste matrices found at Hanford.

  19. A novel non-radioactive primase–pyrophosphatase activity assay and its application to the discovery of inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis primase DnaG

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Tapan; Resto-Roldán, Esteban; Sawyer, Sean K.; Artsimovitch, Irina; Tsodikov, Oleg V.

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial DNA primase DnaG synthesizes RNA primers required for chromosomal DNA replication. Biochemical assays measuring primase activity have been limited to monitoring formation of radioactively labelled primers because of the intrinsically low catalytic efficiency of DnaG. Furthermore, DnaG is prone to aggregation and proteolytic degradation. These factors have impeded discovery of DnaG inhibitors by high-throughput screening (HTS). In this study, we expressed and purified the previously uncharacterized primase DnaG from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb DnaG). By coupling the activity of Mtb DnaG to that of another essential enzyme, inorganic pyrophosphatase from M. tuberculosis (Mtb PPiase), we developed the first non-radioactive primase–pyrophosphatase assay. An extensive optimization of the assay enabled its efficient use in HTS (Z′ = 0.7 in the 384-well format). HTS of 2560 small molecules to search for inhibitory compounds yielded several hits, including suramin, doxorubicin and ellagic acid. We demonstrate that these three compounds inhibit Mtb DnaG. Both suramin and doxorubicin are potent (low-µM) DNA- and nucleotide triphosphate-competitive priming inhibitors that interact with more than one site on Mtb DnaG. This novel assay should be applicable to other primases and inefficient DNA/RNA polymerases, facilitating their characterization and inhibitor discovery. PMID:23267008

  20. Application of ICP-MS radionuclide analysis to {open_quotes}real world{close_quotes} samples of Department of Energy Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Meeks, A.M.; Giaquinto, J.M.; Keller, J.M.

    1997-06-01

    Disposal of Department of Energy (DOE) radioactive waste into repositories such as the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and the Nevada Test Site (NTS) requires characterization to ensure regulatory and transportation requirements are met. Characterization is also used to collect information regarding chemistry of the waste for processing concerns. The range of characterization typically includes radio nuclide activity, RCRA metals and organic compounds, process metals, and risk assessment. Recent addition of an inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometer in a radioactive contaminated laboratory at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has provided cost savings, time savings, reduced personnel exposure to radiation, and in some cases, improved accuracy over the traditional techniques for radionuclides, risk assessment and metals analysis. Application of ICP-MS to ORNL waste tank characterization has also provided the opportunity to estimate never-before-measured radionuclides and metals without increased cost. Data from analyses of ORNL waste tank sludges and supernates indicate the benefit of using this technique over counting techniques and Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS) for analysis of fission products and U isotopics as well as the ability to estimate certain radionuclides and metals for the first time in these tanks.

  1. Compact plasma focus devices: Flexible laboratory sources for applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lebert, R.; Engel, A.; Bergmann, K.; Treichel, O.; Gavrilescu, C.; Neff, W.

    1997-05-05

    Small pinch plasma devices are intense sources of pulsed XUV-radiation. Because of their low costs and their compact sizes pinch plasmas seem well suited to supplement research activities based on synchrotrons. With correct optimisation, both continuous radiation and narrowband line radiation can be tailored for specific applications. For the special demand of optimising narrowband emission from these plasmas the scaling of K-shell line emission of intermediate atomic number pinch plasmas with respect to device parameters has been studied. Scaling laws, especially taking into account the transient behaviour of the pinch plasma, give design criteria. Investigations of the transition between column and micropinch mode offer predictable access to shorter wavelengths and smaller source sizes. Results on proximity x-ray lithography, imaging and contact x-ray microscopy, x-ray fluorescence (XFA) microscopy and photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS) were achieved.

  2. GISCube, an Open Source Web-based GIS Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boustani, M.; Mattmann, C. A.; Ramirez, P.

    2014-12-01

    There are many Earth science projects and data systems being developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology (JPL) that require the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Three in particular are: (1) the JPL Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO) that measures the amount of water being generated from snow melt in mountains; (2) the Regional Climate Model Evaluation System (RCMES) that compares climate model outputs with remote sensing datasets in the context of model evaluation and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and for the U.S. National Climate Assessment and; (3) the JPL Snow Server that produces a snow and ice climatology for the Western US and Alaska, for the U.S. National Climate Assessment. Each of these three examples and all other earth science projects are strongly in need of having GIS and geoprocessing capabilities to process, visualize, manage and store GeoSpatial data. Beside some open source GIS libraries and some software like ArcGIS there are comparatively few open source, web-based and easy to use application that are capable of doing GIS processing and visualization. To address this, we present GISCube, an open source web-based GIS application that can store, visualize and process GIS and GeoSpatial data. GISCube is powered by Geothon, an open source python GIS cookbook. Geothon has a variety of Geoprocessing tools such data conversion, processing, spatial analysis and data management tools. GISCube has the capability of supporting a variety of well known GIS data formats in both vector and raster formats, and the system is being expanded to support NASA's and scientific data formats such as netCDF and HDF files. In this talk, we demonstrate how Earth science and other projects can benefit by using GISCube and Geothon, its current goals and our future work in the area.

  3. IGSTK: Framework and example application using an open source toolkit for image-guided surgery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Peng; Zhang, Hui; Kim, Hee-su; Gary, Kevin; Blake, M. Brian; Gobbi, David; Aylward, Stephen; Jomier, Julien; Enquobahrie, Andinet; Avila, Rick; Ibanez, Luis; Cleary, Kevin

    2006-03-01

    Open source software has tremendous potential for improving the productivity of research labs and enabling the development of new medical applications. The Image-Guided Surgery Toolkit (IGSTK) is an open source software toolkit based on ITK, VTK, and FLTK, and uses the cross-platform tools CMAKE and DART to support common operating systems such as Linux, Windows, and MacOS. IGSTK integrates the basic components needed in surgical guidance applications and provides a common platform for fast prototyping and development of robust image-guided applications. This paper gives an overview of the IGSTK framework and current status of development followed by an example needle biopsy application to demonstrate how to develop an image-guided application using this toolkit.

  4. MicMac GIS application: free open source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, L.; Moutinho, O.; Teodoro, A.

    2016-10-01

    The use of Remotely Piloted Aerial System (RPAS) for remote sensing applications is becoming more frequent as the technologies on on-board cameras and the platform itself are becoming a serious contender to satellite and airplane imagery. MicMac is a photogrammetric tool for image matching that can be used in different contexts. It is an open source software and it can be used as a command line or with a graphic interface (for each command). The main objective of this work was the integration of MicMac with QGIS, which is also an open source software, in order to create a new open source tool applied to photogrammetry/remote sensing. Python language was used to develop the application. This tool would be very useful in the manipulation and 3D modelling of a set of images. The main objective was to create a toolbar in QGIS with the basic functionalities with intuitive graphic interfaces. The toolbar is composed by three buttons: produce the points cloud, create the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and produce the orthophoto of the study area. The application was tested considering 35 photos, a subset of images acquired by a RPAS in the Aguda beach area, Porto, Portugal. They were used in order to create a 3D terrain model and from this model obtain an orthophoto and the corresponding DEM. The code is open and can be modified according to the user requirements. This integration would be very useful in photogrammetry and remote sensing community combined with GIS capabilities.

  5. kW-class line sources for direct applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenning, Tobias; Alegria, Kim; Wang, Zuolan; Stapleton, Dean; Patterson, Steve; Koehler, Bernd; Biesenbach, Jens

    2012-03-01

    A new series of high power diode laser line sources is reported. The modules are designed for the industrial materials processing market and include both fiber coupled and direct beam configurations. Typical applications include welding, hardening and semiconductor processing. The biggest challenge in delivering line sources lies in the variety of application specific requirements. This problem is approached with modular concepts that allow for power scaling and custom beam shaping. All modules are available either as an OEM laser head or as a turn-key solution including power supply and chiller. Fiber coupled diode laser modules are available at power levels ranging from 600W to 4kW at various wavelengths. New developments include a 1kW module with a single wavelength and 400um / 0.22NA fiber and a 2kW module based on two wavelengths. Dilas offers up to 5kW from a 1mm / 0.22NA fiber with a single wavelength. At 200 μm fiber diameter, power levels of 850W are available with a single wavelength. While fiber coupled modules allow for easy power scaling, free space systems are capable of even higher overall electrooptical efficiencies and lower cost. Based on modular building blocks, Dilas provides customized solutions that are optimized for individual applications. Two modules will be described in detail. The first module is a 600W line source with line dimensions of 10.5mm x 350 μm at a working distance of 160mm. The second module operates at 3kW output power and creates a homogenized line with dimensions of 9mm x 1.3mm at a working distance of 200mm. Optical design trade-offs will be discussed and concepts for the modules described above are shown. Experimental results are presented.

  6. Application of solvlent change techniques to blended cements used to immobilize low-level radioactive liquid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, A.A.

    1996-07-01

    The microstructures of hardened portland and blended cement pastes, including those being considered for use in immobilizing hazardous wastes, have a complex pore structure that changes with time. In solvent exchange, the pore structure is examined by immersing a saturated sample in a large volume of solvent that is miscible with the pore fluid. This paper reports the results of solvent replacement measurements on several blended cements mixed at a solution:solids ratio of 1.0 with alkaline solutions from the simulation of the off- gas treatment system in a vitrification facility treating low-level radioactive liquid wastes. The results show that these samples have a lower permeability than ordinary portland cement samples mixed at a water:solids ratio of 0.70, despite having a higher volume of porosity. The microstructure is changed by these alkaline solutions, and these changes have important consequences with regard to durability.

  7. Management of Low-Level Radioactive Waste from Research, Hospitals and Nuclear Medical Centers in Egypt - 13469

    SciTech Connect

    Hasan, M.A.; Selim, Y.T.; Lasheen, Y.F.

    2013-07-01

    The application of radioisotopes and radiation sources in medical diagnosis and therapy is an important issue. Physicians can use radioisotopes to diagnose and treat diseases. Methods of treatment, conditioning and management of low level radioactive wastes from the use of radiation sources and radioisotopes in hospitals and nuclear medicine application, are described. Solid Radioactive waste with low-level activity after accumulation, minimization, segregation and measurement, are burned or compressed in a compactor according to the international standards. Conditioned drums are transported to the interim storage site at the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority (EAEA) represented in Hot Labs and Waste Management Center (HLWMC) for storage and monitoring. (authors)

  8. New quantum cascade laser sources for sensing applications (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troccoli, Mariano

    2017-05-01

    In this presentation we will review our most recent results on development of Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCLs) for analytical and industrial applications. QCLs have demonstrated the capability to cover the entire range of Mid-IR, Far-IR, and THz wavelengths by skillful tuning of the material design and composition and by use of intrinsic material properties via a set of techniques collectively called "bandgap engineering". The use of MOCVD, pioneered on industrial scale by AdTech Optics, has enabled the deployment of QCL devices into a diverse range of environments and applications. QCLs can be tailored to the specific application requirements due to their unprecedented flexibility in design and thanks to the leveraging of well-known III-V fabrication technologies inherited from the NIR domain. Nevertheless, several applications and new frontiers in R and D need the constant support of new developments in device features, capabilities, and performances. We have developed a wide range of devices, from high power, high efficiency multi-mode sources, to narrow-band, single mode devices with low-power consumption, and from non-linear, multi-wavelength generating devices to broadband sources and multi-emitter arrays. All our devices are grown and processed using MOCVD technology and allow us to attain competitive performances across the whole mid-IR spectral range. This talk will present an overview of our current achievements. References 1. M. Troccoli, "High power emission and single mode operation of quantum cascade lasers for industrial applications", J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron., 21 (6), 1-7 (2015). Invited Review. 2. Seungyong Jung, Aiting Jiang, Yifan Jiang, Karun Vijayraghavan, Xiaojun Wang, Mariano Troccoli, and Mikhail A. Belkin, "Broadly Tunable Monolithic Terahertz Quantum Cascade Laser Sources", Nature Comm. 5, 4267 (2014).. 3. Mariano Troccoli, Arkadiy Lyakh, Jenyu Fan, Xiaojun Wang, Richard Maulini, Alexei G Tsekoun, Rowel Go, C Kumar N Patel, "Long

  9. Marine Algae: a Source of Biomass for Biotechnological Applications.

    PubMed

    Stengel, Dagmar B; Connan, Solène

    2015-01-01

    Biomass derived from marine microalgae and macroalgae is globally recognized as a source of valuable chemical constituents with applications in the agri-horticultural sector (including animal feeds and health and plant stimulants), as human food and food ingredients as well as in the nutraceutical, cosmeceutical, and pharmaceutical industries. Algal biomass supply of sufficient quality and quantity however remains a concern with increasing environmental pressures conflicting with the growing demand. Recent attempts in supplying consistent, safe and environmentally acceptable biomass through cultivation of (macro- and micro-) algal biomass have concentrated on characterizing natural variability in bioactives, and optimizing cultivated materials through strain selection and hybridization, as well as breeding and, more recently, genetic improvements of biomass. Biotechnological tools including metabolomics, transcriptomics, and genomics have recently been extended to algae but, in comparison to microbial or plant biomass, still remain underdeveloped. Current progress in algal biotechnology is driven by an increased demand for new sources of biomass due to several global challenges, new discoveries and technologies available as well as an increased global awareness of the many applications of algae. Algal diversity and complexity provides significant potential provided that shortages in suitable and safe biomass can be met, and consumer demands are matched by commercial investment in product development.

  10. Radioactive diagnostic agent

    SciTech Connect

    Shigematsu, A.; Aihara, M.; Matsuda, M.; Suzuki, A.; Tsuya, A.

    1984-02-07

    A radioactive diagnostic agent for renal cortex, adrenal cortex, myocardium, brain stem, spinal nerve, etc., which comprises as an essential component monoiodoacetic acid wherein the iodine atom is radioactive.

  11. Standard Review Plan for the review of a license application for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The Standard Review Plan (SRP) (NUREG-1200) provides guidance to staff reviewers in the Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards who perform safety reviews of applications to construct and operate low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The SRP ensures the quality and uniformity of the staff reviews and presents a well-defined base from which to evaluate proposed changes in the scope and requirements of the staff reviews. The SRP makes information about the regulatory licensing process widely available and serves to improve the understanding of the staff`s review process by interested members of the public and the industry. Each individual SRP addresses the responsibilities of persons performing the review, the matters that are reviewed, the Commission`s regulations and acceptance criteria necessary for the review, how the review is accomplished, the conclusions that are appropriate, and the implementation requirements.

  12. A Cascaded Magnetostrictive Vibration Source System for Underground Construction Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hock, S.; Polom, U.; Mikulla, S.; Krüger, K.; Giese, R.; Lüth, S.

    2009-04-01

    For underground construction seismic measurements can contribute knowledge to geology and relevant geotechnical parameters. Within the cooperative project OnSITE - Online Seismic Imaging System for Tunnel Excavation - a new seismic source is in development. The design of the seismic source takes into account the special requirements for such an application: high signal frequency (up to several kHz) to obtain resolution in the order of few meters (1-2 m), generation of repeatable signals at short time intervals to implement a large measuring point density, and a high signal/noise ratio. In the first step, two magnetostrictive actuators in similar fashion - custom-made by ETREMA Products, Inc. (USA) - were used for a cascaded seismic vibration source system. The bandwidth of the pilot signal for this vibration source system covers the range from 300 Hz up to 6 kHz. After principally testing the source system in the research and teaching mine Reiche Zeche in Freiberg (Germany), further field measurements at this test site showed a high-grade signal repeatability for frequencies above 600 Hz for the head signal and good signal repeatability in the near field (Hock et al. 2008). To avoid 1) feedback effects between vibrator and medium - causing resonance at certain frequencies, e.g. around 3000 Hz and around 5500 Hz - and 2) unwanted phase shifts between the two vibrator signals at frequencies above 3000 Hz, an signal excitation with an open loop control for amplitude and phase is necessary in combination with only one real-time processor for controlling both actuators. In a second step, a source system was constructed consisting of 2 nearly identical (90%) actuators - again custom-made by ETREMA Products, Inc. (USA) - which are approximately one third lighter than the actuators in the first prototype. This new prototype was applied for the first time during a seismic survey in the Piora adit (above the Gotthard base tunnel near Faido, CH) in November 2008 with success

  13. Modification of Poisson Distribution in Radioactive Particle Counting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drotter, Michael T.

    This paper focuses on radioactive practicle counting statistics in laboratory and field applications, intended to aid the Health Physics technician's understanding of the effect of indeterminant errors on radioactive particle counting. It indicates that although the statistical analysis of radioactive disintegration is best described by a Poisson…

  14. Modification of Poisson Distribution in Radioactive Particle Counting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drotter, Michael T.

    This paper focuses on radioactive practicle counting statistics in laboratory and field applications, intended to aid the Health Physics technician's understanding of the effect of indeterminant errors on radioactive particle counting. It indicates that although the statistical analysis of radioactive disintegration is best described by a Poisson…

  15. Smart Phone Applications as a Source of Information on Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Amritphale, Amod; Sawhney, Anshudha; Amritphale, Nupur; Dubey, Pradeep; Pandey, Ambarish

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Smartphone applications have been increasingly identified as a novel platform for dissemination of healthcare related information. However, there have been no studies done to evaluate the availability and content of stroke related apps. Purpose: This study aims to identify and analyze stroke-related applications available on the Apple iTunes and Android Google Play Store. Methods The Apple iTunes store and Android Google Play Store were searched for stroke-related applications on July 27, 2013 using keywords: stroke, brain attack, intracranial hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, cerebral infarction. The content of the applications was analyzed by two independent investigators. Results A total of 93 relevant applications (46.2% android and 53.8% iPhone) were identified of which 47.3% were available free of cost. 92% of apps were identified as useful by users and over 60% had scientifically valid information. There is a significant participation of healthcare agencies in dissemination of stroke related information through apps with 47.3% apps being uploaded by them. Over half of all stroke related apps were aimed towards health care workers (51.6%), 75% of which could be utilized as bedside tools for patient care and remainder had information related to recent research advances. The difference in scientific validity between the apps aimed at general population versus healthcare professionals was statistically significant (P<0.01). There was no statistical association between cost of app and scientific validity or usefulness. Conclusions Smartphone apps are a significant source of information related to stroke. An increasing participation of healthcare agencies should be encouraged to promote dissemination of scientifically valid information. PMID:24949314

  16. Smart phone applications as a source of information on stroke.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Divyanshu; Amritphale, Amod; Sawhney, Anshudha; Amritphale, Nupur; Dubey, Pradeep; Pandey, Ambarish

    2014-05-01

    Smartphone applications have been increasingly identified as a novel platform for dissemination of healthcare related information. However, there have been no studies done to evaluate the availability and content of stroke related apps. This study aims to identify and analyze stroke-related applications available on the Apple iTunes and Android Google Play Store. The Apple iTunes store and Android Google Play Store were searched for stroke-related applications on July 27, 2013 using keywords: stroke, brain attack, intracranial hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, cerebral infarction. The content of the applications was analyzed by two independent investigators. A total of 93 relevant applications (46.2% android and 53.8% iPhone) were identified of which 47.3% were available free of cost. 92% of apps were identified as useful by users and over 60% had scientifically valid information. There is a significant participation of healthcare agencies in dissemination of stroke related information through apps with 47.3% apps being uploaded by them. Over half of all stroke related apps were aimed towards health care workers (51.6%), 75% of which could be utilized as bedside tools for patient care and remainder had information related to recent research advances. The difference in scientific validity between the apps aimed at general population versus healthcare professionals was statistically significant (P<0.01). There was no statistical association between cost of app and scientific validity or usefulness. Smartphone apps are a significant source of information related to stroke. An increasing participation of healthcare agencies should be encouraged to promote dissemination of scientifically valid information.

  17. An Open-Source and Java-Technologies Approach to Web Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    currently being replaced by open-source. This thesis explores using open-source and Java technologies to implement Web applications. A prototype of the...currently being replaced by open-source. This thesis explores using open-source and Java technologies to implement Web applications. A prototype of the

  18. Open source software engineering for geoscientific modeling applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilke, L.; Rink, K.; Fischer, T.; Kolditz, O.

    2012-12-01

    OpenGeoSys (OGS) is a scientific open source project for numerical simulation of thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in porous and fractured media. The OGS software development community is distributed all over the world and people with different backgrounds are contributing code to a complex software system. The following points have to be addressed for successful software development: - Platform independent code - A unified build system - A version control system - A collaborative project web site - Continuous builds and testing - Providing binaries and documentation for end users OGS should run on a PC as well as on a computing cluster regardless of the operating system. Therefore the code should not include any platform specific feature or library. Instead open source and platform independent libraries like Qt for the graphical user interface or VTK for visualization algorithms are used. A source code management and version control system is a definite requirement for distributed software development. For this purpose Git is used, which enables developers to work on separate versions (branches) of the software and to merge those versions at some point to the official one. The version control system is integrated into an information and collaboration website based on a wiki system. The wiki is used for collecting information such as tutorials, application examples and case studies. Discussions take place in the OGS mailing list. To improve code stability and to verify code correctness a continuous build and testing system, based on the Jenkins Continuous Integration Server, has been established. This server is connected to the version control system and does the following on every code change: - Compiles (builds) the code on every supported platform (Linux, Windows, MacOS) - Runs a comprehensive test suite of over 120 benchmarks and verifies the results Runs software development related metrics on the code (like compiler warnings, code complexity

  19. 40 CFR 191.21 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... TRANSURANIC RADIOACTIVE WASTES Environmental Standards for Ground-Water Protection § 191.21 Applicability. (a... activities subject to subpart B of this part; and (2) Radioactive contamination of underground sources of drinking water in the accessible environment as a result of such activities. (b) This subpart does...

  20. The changing face of radioactivity in steel

    SciTech Connect

    LaMastra, A.

    1995-07-01

    The question of radioactivity in iron and steel is a matter of definition and limits of detectability. A broad statement could be made that all steel that started with blast furnace iron is radioactive. This statement is not due to the practice of using wear-indication sources in the refractory of blast furnaces. Rather, it is because of the nature of the blast furnace process. Air contains radioactivity. Blowing copious quantities of air through a blast furnace introduces a very low level of radioactivity into the process. Some of the radioactivity will be tied up in the slag or become oxidized, but a small portion will become incorporated in the hot metal. Normally, this trivial level of contamination is not of concern because it carries no consequence and is detectable only by the most sensitive laboratory detection systems. For nearly 40 years, few people paid any attention to the topic of radioactivity in steel. However, that changed in Feb. 1983, when Auburn Steel had the unfortunate occasion to melt a radioactive source in their electric furnace. Since that time, there has been a total of 18 confirmed meltings at metal smelters within the US. The problem of melting radioactive sources in metal smelting plants appears to be increasing. It is not known if a trend is developing or if 1992/1993 are random anomalies. Based on past incidents, the difficulty of finding heavily shielded sources in scrap and the likelihood of more gaging devices being lost, steelmaking management must evaluate the importance of achieving high sensitivity. At the same time, management must also realize that the systems will be detecting more commodities and scrap loads that were heretofore not radioactive. That will have an impact on available manpower, traffic control and the timeliness of scrap deliveries.

  1. Review of laser-driven ion sources and their applications.

    PubMed

    Daido, Hiroyuki; Nishiuchi, Mamiko; Pirozhkov, Alexander S

    2012-05-01

    For many years, laser-driven ion acceleration, mainly proton acceleration, has been proposed and a number of proof-of-principle experiments have been carried out with lasers whose pulse duration was in the nanosecond range. In the 1990s, ion acceleration in a relativistic plasma was demonstrated with ultra-short pulse lasers based on the chirped pulse amplification technique which can provide not only picosecond or femtosecond laser pulse duration, but simultaneously ultra-high peak power of terawatt to petawatt levels. Starting from the year 2000, several groups demonstrated low transverse emittance, tens of MeV proton beams with a conversion efficiency of up to several percent. The laser-accelerated particle beams have a duration of the order of a few picoseconds at the source, an ultra-high peak current and a broad energy spectrum, which make them suitable for many, including several unique, applications. This paper reviews, firstly, the historical background including the early laser-matter interaction studies on energetic ion acceleration relevant to inertial confinement fusion. Secondly, we describe several implemented and proposed mechanisms of proton and/or ion acceleration driven by ultra-short high-intensity lasers. We pay special attention to relatively simple models of several acceleration regimes. The models connect the laser, plasma and proton/ion beam parameters, predicting important features, such as energy spectral shape, optimum conditions and scalings under these conditions for maximum ion energy, conversion efficiency, etc. The models also suggest possible ways to manipulate the proton/ion beams by tailoring the target and irradiation conditions. Thirdly, we review experimental results on proton/ion acceleration, starting with the description of driving lasers. We list experimental results and show general trends of parameter dependences and compare them with the theoretical predictions and simulations. The fourth topic includes a review of

  2. Radioactivity levels in aerosol particles surrounding a large TENORM waste repository after application of preliminary restoration work.

    PubMed

    Borrego, E; Mas, J L; Martín, J E; Bolívar, J P; Vaca, F; Aguado, J L

    2007-05-01

    In this paper, (238)U-series radionuclides have been analysed in particulate matter samples collected at a phosphogypsum stack system located near the city of Huelva (SW Spain) during the course of 1 year. The results have been compared to those collected at a reference (background) site located a few km away, in order to establish if the stack system provokes an increase in radionuclide exposure due to inhalation with particulate matter. The (222)Rn progeny, which is considered a very important contributor to the internal dose rate received by the population, was collected for 6 months. The results indicate that for several types of radionuclides there is a significant increase in the radioactivity adsorbed by the aerosol particles collected at phosphogypsum stacks. The isotope analysis indicates that this increment could be affected by the water vapour emissions from the factory, which contain high concentrations of these radionuclides. However, the majority of these radionuclides could not be detected at the background location. The corresponding dose increment estimated at the sampling point is, however, negligible. This fact is a consequence of the very small radionuclide concentration increment, together with relatively conservative nature of the occupational factor applied. Regarding the Rn progeny, no significant differences between either the collecting sites has been registered due to of the dominant wind regime at the sampling locations.

  3. Laser-Plasma Interaction in Presence of an Obliquely External Magnetic Field: Application to Laser Fusion without Radioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobaraki, M.; Jafari, S.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, the nonlinear interaction of ultra-high power laser beam with fusion plasma at relativistic regime in the presence of obliquely external magnetic Geld has been studied. Imposing an external magnetic Geld on plasma can modify the density profile of the plasma so that the thermal conductivity of electrons reduces which is considered to be the decrease of the threshold energy for ignition. To achieve the fusion of Hydrogen-Boron (HB) fuel, the block acceleration model of plasma is employed. Energy production by HB isotopes can be of interest, since its reaction does not generate radioactive tritium. By using the inhibit factor in the block model acceleration of plasma and Maxwell's as well as the momentum transfer equations, the electron density distribution and dielectric permittivity of the plasma medium are obtained. Numerical results indicate that with increasing the intensity of the external magnetic field, the oscillation of the laser magnetic field decreases, while the dielectric permittivity increases. Moreover, the amplitude of the electron density becomes highly peaked and the plasma electrons are strongly bunched with increasing the intensity of external magnetic field. Therefore, the magnetized plasma can act as a positive focusing lens to enhance the fusion process. Besides, we find that with increasing θ-angle (from oblique external magnetic field) between 0 and 90°, the dielectric permittivity increases, while for θ between 90° and 180°, the dielectric permittivity decreases with increasing θ.

  4. Cyclotron production of radioactive CeO(2) nanoparticles and their application for in vitro uptake studies.

    PubMed

    Simonelli, Federica; Marmorato, P; Abbas, K; Ponti, J; Kozempel, J; Holzwarth, U; Franchini, F; Rossi, F

    2011-03-01

    Nowadays, a wide variety of nanoparticles (NPs) are applied in different fields such as medical science and industry. Due to their large commercial volume, the OECD Working Party on Manufactured Nanomaterials (NMs) has proposed to study a set of 14 nanomaterials, one of which being cerium oxide (CeO(2)). In particular, CeO(2) based NPs are widely used in automotive industry, healthcare, and cosmetics. In this paper, we propose a method for the production of radioactive CeO(2) NPs.We demonstrate that they maintain the same physicochemical characteristics as the “cold” ones in terms of size distribution and Zeta potential; we develop a new protocol to assess their cellular interaction in immortalized mouse fibroblast cell line Balb/3T3, a model for the study of basal cytotoxicity and carcinogenic potential induced by chemicals and in the present case by NPs. Experimental result of this work, which shows a quasi-linear concentration-uptake response of cells, can be useful as a reference dose-uptake curve for explaining effects following biological uptake after exposure to CeO(2) NPs.

  5. Science with radioactive beams: the alchemist's dream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelletly, W.

    2001-05-01

    Nuclear science is being transformed by a new capacity to create beams of radioactive nuclei. Until now all of our knowledge of nuclear physics and the applications which flow from it has been derived from studies of radioactive decay and nuclear reactions induced by beams of the 283 stable or long-lived nuclear species we can find on Earth. Here we describe first how beams of radioactive nuclei can be created. The present status of nuclear physics is then reviewed before potential applications to nuclear physics, nuclear astrophysics, materials science, bio-medical, and environmental studies are described.

  6. Energy sources and their development for application in medical devices.

    PubMed

    Rasouli, Mahdi; Phee, Louis Soo Jay

    2010-09-01

    Electronic medical devices have become an indispensable part of modern healthcare. Currently, a wide variety of electronic medical devices are being used to monitor physiological parameters of the body, perform therapy and supplement or even entirely replace complex biological functions. Cardiac pacemakers, cardioverter-defibrillators and cochlear implants are a few examples of such medical devices. Proper functionality of these devices relies heavily on the continuous supply of a sufficient amount of electricity to them. In this sense, a reliable, safe and convenient method for the provision of energy is very crucial. Various approaches have been developed to fulfil the divergent and challenging energy requirements of medical devices. In this article, we present a brief overview of the energy requirements of medical devices and review the existing and emerging energy sources for application in these devices, particularly wearable and implantable devices.

  7. Practical method for radioactivity distribution analysis in small-animal PET cancer studies

    PubMed Central

    Slavine, Nikolai V.; Antich, Peter P.

    2008-01-01

    We present a practical method for radioactivity distribution analysis in small-animal tumors and organs using positron emission tomography imaging with a calibrated source of known activity and size in the field of view. We reconstruct the imaged mouse together with a source under the same conditions, using an iterative method, Maximum Likelihood Expectation-Maximization with System Modeling, capable of delivering high resolution images. Corrections for the ratios of geometrical efficiencies, radioisotope decay in time and photon attenuation are included in the algorithm. We demonstrate reconstruction results for the amount of radioactivity within the scanned mouse in a sample study of osteolytic and osteoblastic bone metastasis from prostate cancer xenografts. Data acquisition was performed on the small-animal PET system which was tested with different radioactive sources, phantoms and animals to achieve high sensitivity and spatial resolution. Our method uses high resolution images to determine the volume of organ or tumor and the amount of their radioactivity, has the possibility of saving time, effort and the necessity to sacrifice animals. This method has utility for prognosis and quantitative analysis in small-animal cancer studies, and will enhance the assessment of characteristics of tumor growth, identifying metastases, and potentially determining the effectiveness of cancer treatment. The possible application for this technique could be useful for the organ radioactivity dosimetry studies. PMID:18667322

  8. Applications of spectral imaging using a tunable laser source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oertel, David C.; Grothaus, Jeffrey T.; Marcott, Curtis

    2009-05-01

    Hyperspectral reflectance imaging in the visible and NIR spectral ranges has considerable utility for revealing spatial and chemical complexity in both biological systems and manufactured products. Conventional imaging systems are based on broad-band illumination in tandem with a spectrometer or tunable filter placed between the sample and the detector. These systems are typically slow (require seconds of integration per wavelength step), and the CW broad-band source can cause significant heating of the sample. An alternative method is to use a tunable, pulsed, high-peak-power (low average power) source coupled with a broad-band detector. This approach offers a reduction in data acquisition time, the inherent ability to stop motion, and data collection at ambient temperature. An integrated system based on a 5- ns pulsed laser tunable from 430 nm to 2150 nm has been used to obtain hyperspectral images in both the visible and NIR spectral ranges. A number of camera/lens options allow for varied spectral bandwidths and the FOV, ranging from 11 × 15 mm2 to 15 × 20 cm2. An entire hyperspectral image stack can be collected in as little as 20 s. This method, allowing fast, room-temperature data acquisition, has sufficient sensitivity to produce data that can be successfully processed using spectral derivatives and multivariate analysis. We discuss several applications, both in vivo and otherwise, of this alternative approach to visible/NIR hyperspectral imaging.

  9. Photo-ionized lithium source for plasma accelerator applications

    SciTech Connect

    Muggli, P. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA . Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Quantum Electronics); Marsh, K.A.; Wang, S.; Clayton, C.E.; Joshi, C. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Lee, S.; Katsouleas, T.C. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Quantum Electronics)

    1999-06-01

    A photo-ionized lithium source is developed for plasma acceleration applications. A homogeneous column of lithium neutral vapor with a density of 2 [times] 10[sup 15] cm[sup [minus]3] is confined by helium gas in a heat-pipe oven. A UV laser pulse ionizes the vapor. In this device, the length of the neutral vapor and plasma column is 25 cm. The plasma density was measured by laser interferometry in the visible on the lithium neutrals and by CO[sub 2] laser interferometry on the plasma electrons. The maximum measured plasma density was 2.9 [times] 10[sup 14] cm[sup [minus]3], limited by the available UV fluence ([approx]83 mJ/cm[sup 2]), corresponding to a 15% ionization fraction. After ionization, the plasma density decreases by a factor of two in about 12 [micro]s. These results show that such a plasma source is scaleable to lengths of the order of 1 m and should satisfy all the requirements for demonstrating the acceleration of electrons by 1 GeV in a 1-GeV/m amplitude plasma wake.

  10. An Update On Waste Control Specialists' 2004 License Application For Safe Disposal Of Class A, B, and C Low-Level Radioactive Waste In Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Baltzer, R.; Eriksson, L.

    2008-07-01

    On December 10, 2007, Waste Control Specialists LLC (WCS) received notification that the Executive Director of the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) had prepared an interim draft license and made a preliminary decision that it met all statutory and regulatory requirements for safe disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) at the WCS' site in Texas. Pursuant to this interim draft license, WCS will be authorized to dispose Class A, B, and C LLW in two enhanced near-surface landfills at WCS' 5.4-square-kilometer (1,338-acre) treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) site in Andrews County, Texas (Fig. 1). One landfill will be dedicated to LLW generated within the member/party states of the Texas Compact (Texas and Vermont), while the other will be dedicated to LLW generated by the federal government. The calculated annual peak dose to the maximally exposed member of the general public, i.e., an adjacent resident, from any of the proposed LLW-disposal landfills occurs approximately 36,400 years after closure and is 0.034 milli-sievert (mSv) (3.4 milli-rem (mrem)), which is less than 14 percent of the applicable regulatory limit of 25 mSv (25 mrem). The draft license will be published in February 2008, which will be followed by 12 months of public hearings, and three months for preparation of the final license. Based on this schedule, the final license is due in May 2009. When opened, the WCS site will achieve a national milestone; it will be the first new Compact LLW-disposal site in the USA to open under the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980, as amended in 1985. (authors)

  11. Laser Trapping of Radioactive Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zheng-Tian

    2013-04-01

    Stuart Freedman conceived the idea of laser trapping radioactive atoms for the purpose of studying beta correlation effects. ``This is really the theorist's view of a radioactive source,'' as he fondly claimed. It is ideal because the atoms form a point source, compressed in both position and momentum space, with no material walls nearby. The Berkeley group succeeded in trapping ^21Na (half-life = 22 s) atoms [Lu et al., PRL 72, 3791 (1994)], and determined its beta-neutrino correlation coefficient a=0.5502(60) to be in agreement with the Standard Model [Vetter et al., PRC 77, 035502 (2008)]. Other groups have joined this effort with searches for scalar or tensor couplings in the weak interaction. Moreover, the technique has been extended to trap very short lived ^8He (0.1 s) to study its halo structure or the very long lived ^81Kr (230,000 yr) to map the movement of groundwater.

  12. Synthesis, characterization and application of titanium oxide nanocomposites for removal of radioactive cesium, cobalt and europium ions.

    PubMed

    Borai, E H; Breky, M M E; Sayed, M S; Abo-Aly, M M

    2015-07-15

    New nanocomposite material containing TiO2/Poly (acrylamide-styrene sodium sulfonate) [TiO2/(P (AAm-SSS)] was prepared by in-situ intercalative polymerization of poly acrylamide (PAAm) and styrene sodium sulfonate (SSS) in the presence of TiO2 nanoparticles as inorganic filler. N, N-methylene bis acrylamide (MBA) was used as a cross linker. The polymerization process was performed using γ-radiation as reaction initiator. Moreover, new nanocomposite material containing poly styrene-TiO2 (PS-TiO2) was also prepared by ionic polymerization method. Styrene was catalytically polymerized by Ti(4+) via an ionic polymerization route to produce polystyrene (PS). The structure characteristics of the nanocomposites were investigated by XRD, TGA, SEM, surface area, and FTIR. The nanoparticles and nanocomposites were investigated for removal of some metal ions from aqueous solutions. The effective key parameters on the sorption behavior of radioactive cesium (Cs(+)), cobalt (Co(2+)) and europium (Eu(3+)) were investigated using batch equilibrium technique with respect to solution pH and contact time. The obtained results revealed that the equilibrium for Cs(+), Co(2+) and Eu(3)(+) is reached at 2-3 h for all nanocomposites. The data indicated that there is no significant change in the uptake between TiO2 nanoparticles and TiO2-PS. On the contrary, the uptake process is significantly improved using TiO2/(P (AAm-SSS) nanocomposite and the maximum experimental retention capacities for Cs(+), Co(2+) and Eu(3+) were found to be 120, 100.9 and 85.7 mg/g, respectively.

  13. The safe disposal of radioactive wastes

    PubMed Central

    Kenny, A. W.

    1956-01-01

    A comprehensive review is given of the principles and problems involved in the safe disposal of radioactive wastes. The first part is devoted to a study of the basic facts of radioactivity and of nuclear fission, the characteristics of radioisotopes, the effects of ionizing radiations, and the maximum permissible levels of radioactivity for workers and for the general public. In the second part, the author describes the different types of radioactive waste—reactor wastes and wastes arising from the use of radioisotopes in hospitals and in industry—and discusses the application of the maximum permissible levels of radioactivity to their disposal and treatment, illustrating his discussion with an account of the methods practised at the principal atomic energy establishments. PMID:13374534

  14. Removal of radioactive contaminants by polymeric microspheres.

    PubMed

    Osmanlioglu, Ahmet Erdal

    2016-11-01

    Radionuclide removal from radioactive liquid waste by adsorption on polymeric microspheres is the latest application of polymers in waste management. Polymeric microspheres have significant immobilization capacity for ionic substances. A laboratory study was carried out by using poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) for encapsulation of radionuclide in the liquid radioactive waste. There are numbers of advantages to use an encapsulation technology in radioactive waste management. Results show that polymerization step of radionuclide increases integrity of solidified waste form. Test results showed that adding the appropriate polymer into the liquid waste at an appropriate pH and temperature level, radionuclide was encapsulated into polymer. This technology may provide barriers between hazardous radioactive ions and the environment. By this method, solidification techniques became easier and safer in nuclear waste management. By using polymer microspheres as dust form, contamination risks were decreased in the nuclear industry and radioactive waste operations.

  15. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Shott, Gregory J.

    2015-06-01

    This special analysis (SA) evaluates whether the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources waste stream (BCLALADOEOSRP, Revision 0) is suitable for disposal by shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The LLNL Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources waste stream consists of sealed sources that are no longer needed. The LLNL Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources waste stream required a special analysis because cobalt-60 (60Co), strontium-90 (90Sr), cesium-137 (137Cs), and radium-226 (226Ra) exceeded the NNSS Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) Action Levels (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office [NNSA/NFO] 2015). The results indicate that all performance objectives can be met with disposal of the LLNL Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources in a SLB trench. The LLNL Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources waste stream is suitable for disposal by SLB at the Area 5 RWMS. However, the activity concentration of 226Ra listed on the waste profile sheet significantly exceeds the action level. Approval of the waste profile sheet could potentially allow the disposal of high activity 226Ra sources. To ensure that the generator does not include large 226Ra sources in this waste stream without additional evaluation, a control is need on the maximum 226Ra inventory. A limit based on the generator’s estimate of the total 226Ra inventory is recommended. The waste stream is recommended for approval with the control that the total 226Ra inventory disposed shall not exceed 5.5E10 Bq (1.5 Ci).

  16. Field Emitter Arrays for Plasma and Microwave Source Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Kevin L.

    1998-11-01

    Field emitter arrays (FEAs) are attractive cathode candidates for many applications, e.g., electron microguns(C. Constancias, D. Herve, R. Accomo, and E. Molva, J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B13, 611, 1995.), miniaturized TWTs(H. Imura, S. Tsuida, M. Takahasi, A. Okamoto, H. Makishima, and S. Miyano, Tech. Dig. of the IEEE-IEDM (Dec. 7-11, Washington, DC) p721.), radiation sources, instrumentation , sensors, mass spectrometers, and electric propulsion (Hall thrusters (C. M. Marrese and Alec D. Gallimore, Tech. Dig. of Int'l. Conf. on Plasma Science, (Raleigh, NC, June 4-5, 1998), 1D05.)) due to their instant ON/OFF capability, high brightness and current density, large transconductance to capacitance ratio, low voltage operation, and so on. Two applications are significant: in the most widely pursued, FEAs may enable significant reductions in physical dimensions, weight, and power consumption of flat panel displays (FPDs)(A. Ghis, R. Meyer, P. Rambaud, F. Levy, and T. Leroux, IEEE-Trans. Elect. Dev. 36, 2320 (1991)), whereas the most challenging application, advanced RF tubes(M. A. Kodis, K. L. Jensen, E. G. Zaidman, B. Goplen, D. N. Smithe, IEEE-Trans. on Plas. Sci. 24, 970 (1996).), may benefit from the current densities and high pulse repetition frequencies field emitters are capable of. FEAs (a coplanar gate less than one micron from a microfabricated conical emitter for field enhancement), provide high current density for low gate voltages, are relatively temperature insensitive, and are capable of emission modulation at 10 GHz. High currents due to quantum mechanical tunneling are made possible by narrowing the field emission barrier to nanometer widths. Greater performance and robustness may be enabled through rugged low work function coatings. We shall describe the process of field emission by quantum mechanical tunneling, provide an overview of the applications and their demands on field emitters, and present a model of FEAs used to characterize their performance

  17. Process Knowledge Characterization of Radioactive Waste at the Classified Waste Landfill Remediation Project Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    DOTSON,PATRICK WELLS; GALLOWAY,ROBERT B.; JOHNSON JR,CARL EDWARD

    1999-11-03

    This paper discusses the development and application of process knowledge (PK) to the characterization of radioactive wastes generated during the excavation of buried materials at the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) Classified Waste Landfill (CWLF). The CWLF, located in SNL/NM Technical Area II, is a 1.5-acre site that received nuclear weapon components and related materials from about 1950 through 1987. These materials were used in the development and testing of nuclear weapon designs. The CWLF is being remediated by the SNL/NM Environmental Restoration (ER) Project pursuant to regulations of the New Mexico Environment Department. A goal of the CWLF project is to maximize the amount of excavated materials that can be demilitarized and recycled. However, some of these materials are radioactively contaminated and, if they cannot be decontaminated, are destined to require disposal as radioactive waste. Five major radioactive waste streams have been designated on the CWLF project, including: unclassified soft radioactive waste--consists of soft, compatible trash such as paper, plastic, and plywood; unclassified solid radioactive waste--includes scrap metal, other unclassified hardware items, and soil; unclassified mixed waste--contains the same materials as unclassified soft or solid radioactive waste, but also contains one or more Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) constituents; classified radioactive waste--consists of classified artifacts, usually weapons components, that contain only radioactive contaminants; and classified mixed waste--comprises radioactive classified material that also contains RCRA constituents. These waste streams contain a variety of radionuclides that exist both as surface contamination and as sealed sources. To characterize these wastes, the CWLF project's waste management team is relying on data obtained from direct measurement of radionuclide activity content to the maximum extent possible and, in cases where

  18. Radioactivity and food

    SciTech Connect

    Olszyna-Marzys, A.E. )

    1990-03-01

    Two topics relating to radioactivity and food are discussed: food irradiation for preservation purposes, and food contamination from radioactive substances. Food irradiation involves the use of electromagnetic energy (x and gamma rays) emitted by radioactive substances or produced by machine in order to destroy the insects and microorganisms present and prevent germination. The sanitary and economic advantages of treating food in this way are discussed. Numerous studies have confirmed that under strictly controlled conditions no undesirable changes take place in food that has been irradiated nor is radioactivity induced. Reference is made to the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station, which aroused public concern about irradiated food. The events surrounding the accident are reviewed, and its consequences with regard to contamination of different foods with radioactive substances, particularly iodine-131 and cesium-137, are described. Also discussed are the steps that have been taken by different international organizations to set limits on acceptable radioactivity in food.15 references.

  19. ORNL radioactive waste operations

    SciTech Connect

    Sease, J.D.; King, E.M.; Coobs, J.H.; Row, T.H.

    1982-01-01

    Since its beginning in 1943, ORNL has generated large amounts of solid, liquid, and gaseous radioactive waste material as a by-product of the basic research and development work carried out at the laboratory. The waste system at ORNL has been continually modified and updated to keep pace with the changing release requirements for radioactive wastes. Major upgrading projects are currently in progress. The operating record of ORNL waste operation has been excellent over many years. Recent surveillance of radioactivity in the Oak Ridge environs indicates that atmospheric concentrations of radioactivity were not significantly different from other areas in East Tennesseee. Concentrations of radioactivity in the Clinch River and in fish collected from the river were less than 4% of the permissible concentration and intake guides for individuals in the offsite environment. While some radioactivity was released to the environment from plant operations, the concentrations in all of the media sampled were well below established standards.

  20. Cholesterol oxidase: sources, physical properties and analytical applications.

    PubMed

    MacLachlan, J; Wotherspoon, A T; Ansell, R O; Brooks, C J

    2000-04-01

    Since Flegg (H.M. Flegg, An investigation of the determination of serum cholesterol by an enzymatic method, Ann. Clin. Biochem. 10 (1973) 79-84) and Richmond (W. Richmond, The development of an enzymatic technique for the assay of cholesterol in biological fluids, Scand. J. clin. Lab. Invest. 29 (1972) 25; W. Richmond, Preparation and properties of a bacterial cholesterol oxidase from Nocardia sp. and its application to enzyme assay of total cholesterol in serum, Clinical Chemistry 19 (1973) 1350-1356) first illustrated the suitability of cholesterol oxidase (COD) for the analysis of serum cholesterol, COD has risen to become the most widely used enzyme in clinical laboratories with the exception of glucose oxidase (GOD). The use is widespread because assays incorporating the enzyme are extremely simple, specific, and highly sensitive and thus offer distinct advantages over the Liebermann-Burchard analytical methodologies which employ corrosive reagents and can be prone to unreliable results due to interfering substances such as bilirubin. Individuals can now readily determine their own serum cholesterol levels with a simple disposable test kit. This review discusses COD in some detail and includes the topics: (1) The variety of bacterial sources available; (2) The various extraction/purification protocols utilised in order to obtain protein of sufficient clarification (purity) for use in food/clinical analysis; (3) Significant differences in the properties of the individual enzymes; (4) Substrate specificities of the various enzymes; (5) Examples of biological assays which have employed cholesterol oxidase as an integral part of the analysis, and the various assay protocols; (6) New steroidal products of COD. This review is not a comprehensive description of published work, but is intended to provide an account of recent and current research, and should promote further interest in the application of enzymes to analytical selectivity.