Science.gov

Sample records for radioactive waste disposal

  1. Radioactive waste disposal package

    DOEpatents

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-01-01

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  2. Radioactive waste disposal package

    DOEpatents

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-11-04

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  3. Disposal of radioactive waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Dorp, Frits; Grogan, Helen; McCombie, Charles

    The aim of radioactive and non-radioactive waste management is to protect man and the environment from unacceptable risks. Protection criteria for both should therefore be based on similar considerations. From overall protection criteria, performance criteria for subsystems in waste management can be derived, for example for waste disposal. International developments in this field are summarized. A brief overview of radioactive waste sorts and disposal concepts is given. Currently being implemented are trench disposal and engineered near-surface facilities for low-level wastes. For low-and intermediate-level waste underground facilities are under construction. For high-level waste site selection and investigation is being carried out in several countries. In all countries with nuclear programmes, the predicted performance of waste disposal systems is being assessed in scenario and consequence analyses. The influences of variability and uncertainty of parameter values are increasingly being treated by probabilistic methods. Results of selected performance assessments show that radioactive waste disposal sites can be found and suitable repositories can be designed so that defined radioprotection limits are not exceeded.

  4. Radioactive mixed waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Jasen, W.G.; Erpenbeck, E.G.

    1993-02-01

    Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) have led to the definition of radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). The radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes have resulted in the initiation of special projects for the management of these wastes. Other solid wastes at the Hanford Site include low-level wastes, transuranic (TRU), and nonradioactive hazardous wastes. This paper describes a system for the treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) of solid radioactive waste.

  5. Radioactive waste material disposal

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.

    1995-10-24

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide. 3 figs.

  6. Radioactive waste material disposal

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, Charles W.; Beahm, Edward C.; Parker, George W.

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide.

  7. Final disposal of radioactive waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freiesleben, H.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste - LLW, intermediate-level waste - ILW, high-level waste - HLW) are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of countries is mentioned. Also, the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency with regard to the development and monitoring of international safety standards for both spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management is described.

  8. Radioactive waste disposal in the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, D. R.

    In order to find the optimal solution to waste disposal problems, it is necessary to make comparisons between disposal media. It has become obvious to many within the scientific community that the single medium approach leads to over protection of one medium at the expense of the others. Cross media comparisons are being conducted in the Department of Energy ocean disposal programs for several radioactive wastes. Investigations in three areas address model development, comparisons of laboratory tests with field results and predictions, and research needs in marine disposal of radioactive waste. Tabulated data are included on composition of liquid high level waste and concentration of some natural radionuclides in the sea.

  9. Marine disposal of radioactive wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodhead, D. S.

    1980-03-01

    In a general sense, the main attraction of the marine environment as a repository for the wastes generated by human activities lies in the degree of dispersion and dilution which is readily attainable. However, the capacity of the oceans to receive wastes without unacceptable consequences is clearly finite and this is even more true of localized marine environments such as estuaries, coastal waters and semi-enclosed seas. Radionuclides have always been present in the marine environment and marine organisms and humans consuming marine foodstuffs have always been exposed, to some degree, to radiation from this source. The hazard associated with ionizing radiations is dependent upon the absorption of energy from the radiation field within some biological entity. Thus any disposal of radioactive wastes into the marine environment has consequences, the acceptability of which must be assessed in terms of the possible resultant increase in radiation exposure of human and aquatic populations. In the United Kingdom the primary consideration has been and remains the safe-guarding of public health. The control procedures are therefore designed to minimize as far as practicable the degree of human exposure within the overall limits recommended as acceptable by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. There are several approaches through which control could be exercised and the strengths and weaknesses of each are considered. In this review the detailed application of the critical path technique to the control of the discharge into the north-east Irish Sea from the fuel reprocessing plant at Windscale is given as a practical example. It will be further demonstrated that when human exposure is controlled in this way no significant risk attaches to the increased radiation exposure experienced by populations of marine organisms in the area.

  10. Qualifying radioactive waste forms for geologic disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L.J.; Laidler, J.J.; McPheeters, C.C.

    1994-09-01

    We have developed a phased strategy that defines specific program-management activities and critical documentation for producing radioactive waste forms, from pyrochemical processing of spent nuclear fuel, that will be acceptable for geologic disposal by the US Department of Energy. The documentation of these waste forms begins with the decision to develop the pyroprocessing technology for spent fuel conditioning and ends with production of the last waste form for disposal. The need for this strategy is underscored by the fact that existing written guidance for establishing the acceptability for disposal of radioactive waste is largely limited to borosilicate glass forms generated from the treatment of aqueous reprocessing wastes. The existing guidance documents do not provide specific requirements and criteria for nonstandard waste forms such as those generated from pyrochemical processing operations.

  11. The safe disposal of radioactive wastes

    PubMed Central

    Kenny, A. W.

    1956-01-01

    A comprehensive review is given of the principles and problems involved in the safe disposal of radioactive wastes. The first part is devoted to a study of the basic facts of radioactivity and of nuclear fission, the characteristics of radioisotopes, the effects of ionizing radiations, and the maximum permissible levels of radioactivity for workers and for the general public. In the second part, the author describes the different types of radioactive waste—reactor wastes and wastes arising from the use of radioisotopes in hospitals and in industry—and discusses the application of the maximum permissible levels of radioactivity to their disposal and treatment, illustrating his discussion with an account of the methods practised at the principal atomic energy establishments. PMID:13374534

  12. Radioactive waste disposal in thick unsaturated zones.

    PubMed

    Winogard, I J

    1981-06-26

    Portions of the Great Basin are undergoing crustal extension and have unsaturated zones as much as 600 meters thick. These areas contain multiple natural barriers capable of isolating solidified toxic wastes from the biosphere for tens of thousands to perhaps hundreds of thousands of years. An example of the potential utilization of such arid zone environments for toxic waste isolatic is the burial of transuranic radioactive wastes at relatively shallow depths (15 to 100 meters) in Sedan Crater, Yucca Flat, Nevada. The volume of this man-made crater is several times that of the projected volume of such wastes to the year 2000. Disposal in Sedan Crater could be accomplished at a savings on the order of $0.5 billion, in comparison with current schemes for burial of such wastes in mined repositories at depths of 600 to 900 meters, and with an apparently equal likelihood of waste isolation from the biosphere.

  13. Radioactive Waste Streams: Waste Classification for Disposal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-13

    are different. CRS-5 Figure 1. Comparison of Radioactive Wastes CRS-6 8 69 pressurized water reactors ( PWR ) and 35 boiling water reactors (BWR): U.S...designed 1,000-megawatt pressurized-water reactor ( PWR ) operates with 100 metric tons of nuclear fuel. During refueling, approximately one- third of the...in the range of hundreds-of-thousand of years. The short-lived radionuclide table includes tritium (hydrogen-3), cobalt-60, nickel-63, CRS-18 39 U.S

  14. High-Level Radioactive Waste: Safe Storage and Ultimate Disposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dukert, Joseph M.

    Described are problems and techniques for safe disposal of radioactive waste. Degrees of radioactivity, temporary storage, and long-term permanent storage are discussed. Included are diagrams of estimated waste volumes to the year 2000 and of an artist's conception of a permanent underground disposal facility. (SL)

  15. The political science of radioactive waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobi, L.R. Jr.

    1996-06-01

    This paper was first presented at the annual meeting of the HPS in New Orleans in 1984. Twelve years later, the basic lessons learned are still found to be valid. In 1984, the following things were found to be true: A government agency is preferred by the public over a private company to manage radioactive waste. Semantics are important--How you say it is important, but how it is heard is more important. Public information and public relations are very important, but they are the last thing of concern to a scientist. Political constituency is important. Don`t overlook the need for someone to be on your side. Don`t forget that the media is part of the political process-they can make you or break you. Peer technical review is important, but so is citizen review. Sociology is an important issue that scientists and technical people often overlook. In summary, despite the political nature of radioactive waste disposal, it is as true today as it was in 1984 that technical facts must be used to reach sound technical conclusions. Only then, separately and openly, should political factors be considered. So, what can be said today that wasn`t said in 1984? Nothing. {open_quotes}It`s deja vu all over again.{close_quotes}

  16. Radioactive waste disposal fees-Methodology for calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemš, Július; Králík, Tomáš; Kubančák, Ján; Vašíček, Jiří; Starý, Oldřich

    2014-11-01

    This paper summarizes the methodological approach used for calculation of fee for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal and for spent fuel disposal. The methodology itself is based on simulation of cash flows related to the operation of system for waste disposal. The paper includes demonstration of methodology application on the conditions of the Czech Republic.

  17. Waste-acceptance criteria for radioactive waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, T.L.; Meshkov, N.K.

    1987-02-01

    A method has been developed for establishing waste-acceptance criteria based on quantitative performance factors that characterize the confinement capabilities of a disposal facility for radioactive waste. The method starts from the objective of protecting public health and safety by assuring that disposal of the waste will not result in a radiation dose of any member of the general public, in either the short or long term, in excess of an established basic dose limit. A key aspect of the method is the introduction of a confinement factor that characterizes the overall confinement capability of a particular disposal facility and can be used for quantitative performance assessments as well as for establishing facility-specific waste-acceptance criteria. Confinement factors enable direct and simple conversion of a basic dose limit into waste-acceptance criteria, specified as concentration limits on rationuclides in the waste streams. Waste-acceptance criteria can be represented visually as activity/time plots for various waste streams. These plots show the concentrations of radionuclides in a waste stream as a function of time and permit a visual, quantitative assessment of long-term performance, relative risks from different radionuclides in the waste stream, and contributions from ingrowth. Application of the method to generic facility designs provides a radional basis for a waste classification system. 14 refs.

  18. Commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal in the US

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.

    1995-10-01

    Why are 11 states attempting to develop new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities? Why is only on disposal facility accepting waste nationally? What is the future of waste disposal? These questions are representative of those being asked throughout the country. This paper attempts to answer these questions in terms of where we are, how we got there, and where we might be going.

  19. Packaging of radioactive wastes for sea disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by the Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter, known as the London Dumping Convention was adopted by an inter-governmental conference in London in 1972 and came into force in 1975. In 1977, the IAEA Board of Governors agreed that there is a continuing responsibility for the IAEA to contribute to the effectiveness of the London Dumping Conventions by providing guidance relevant to the various aspects of dumping radioactive wastes at sea. In the light of the above responsibilities, the IAEA organized a Technical Committee Meeting from 3 to 7 December 1979 to assess the current situation concerning the requirements and the practices of packaging radioactive wastes for dumping at sea with a view to providing further guidance on this subject. The results of this meeting are summarized.

  20. Managing the uncertainties of low-level radioactive waste disposal.

    PubMed

    Bullard, C W; Weger, H T; Wagner, J

    1998-08-01

    The disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) entails financial and safety risks not common to most market commodities. This manifests debilitating uncertainty regarding future waste volume and disposal technology performance in the market for waste disposal services. Dealing with the publicly perceived risks of LLRW disposal increases the total cost of the technology by an order of magnitude, relative to traditional shallow land burial. Therefore, this analysis first examines five proposed disposal facility designs and quantifies the costs associated with these two important sources of uncertainty. Based upon this analysis, a marketable disposal permit mechanism is proposed and analyzed for the purpose of reducing market uncertainty and thereby facilitating a market solution to the waste disposal problem. In addition to quantifying the costs, the results illustrate the ways in which the design of a technology is influenced by its institutional environment, and vice versa.

  1. Directions in low-level radioactive waste management: A brief history of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This report presents a history of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal in the United States, with emphasis on the history of six commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The report includes a brief description of important steps that have been taken during the last decade to ensure the safe disposal of low-level radioactive waste in the 1990s and beyond. These steps include the issuance of comprehensive State and Federal regulations governing the disposal of low-level radioactive waste, and the enactment of Federal laws making States responsible for the disposal of such waste generated within their borders.

  2. Radioactive waste disposal in simulated peat bog repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, W.R.; Massey, C.D.

    1987-01-01

    The Low Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 have required state governments to be responsible for providing low-level waste (LLW) disposal facilities in their respective areas. Questions are (a) is the technology sufficiently advanced to ensure that radioactive wastes can be stored for 300 to 1000 yr without entering into any uncontrolled area. (b) since actual experience does not exist for nuclear waste disposal over this time period, can the mathematical models developed be tested and verified using unequivocal data. (c) how can the public perception of the problem be addressed and the potential risk assessment of the hazards be communicated. To address the technical problems of nuclear waste disposal in the acid precipitation regions of the Northern Hemisphere, a project was initiated in 1984 to evaluate an alternative method of nuclear waste disposal that may not rely completely on engineered barriers to protect the public. Certain natural biogeochemical systems have been retaining deposited materials since the last Ice Age (12,000 to 15,000 yr). It is the authors belief that the biogeochemical system of wetlands and peat bogs may provide an example of an analogue for a nuclear waste repository system that can be tested and verified over a sufficient time period, at least for the LLW disposal problem.

  3. ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS AT A RCRA HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Romano, Stephen; Welling, Steven; Bell, Simon

    2003-02-27

    The use of hazardous waste disposal facilities permitted under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (''RCRA'') to dispose of low concentration and exempt radioactive materials is a cost-effective option for government and industry waste generators. The hazardous and PCB waste disposal facility operated by US Ecology Idaho, Inc. near Grand View, Idaho provides environmentally sound disposal services to both government and private industry waste generators. The Idaho facility is a major recipient of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers FUSRAP program waste and received permit approval to receive an expanded range of radioactive materials in 2001. The site has disposed of more than 300,000 tons of radioactive materials from the federal government during the past five years. This paper presents the capabilities of the Grand View, Idaho hazardous waste facility to accept radioactive materials, site-specific acceptance criteria and performance assessment, radiological safety and environmental monitoring program information.

  4. Lessons Learned from Radioactive Waste Storage and Disposal Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Esh, David W.; Bradford, Anna H.

    2008-01-15

    The safety of radioactive waste disposal facilities and the decommissioning of complex sites may be predicated on the performance of engineered and natural barriers. For assessing the safety of a waste disposal facility or a decommissioned site, a performance assessment or similar analysis is often completed. The analysis is typically based on a site conceptual model that is developed from site characterization information, observations, and, in many cases, expert judgment. Because waste disposal facilities are sited, constructed, monitored, and maintained, a fair amount of data has been generated at a variety of sites in a variety of natural systems. This paper provides select examples of lessons learned from the observations developed from the monitoring of various radioactive waste facilities (storage and disposal), and discusses the implications for modeling of future waste disposal facilities that are yet to be constructed or for the development of dose assessments for the release of decommissioning sites. Monitoring has been and continues to be performed at a variety of different facilities for the disposal of radioactive waste. These include facilities for the disposal of commercial low-level waste (LLW), reprocessing wastes, and uranium mill tailings. Many of the lessons learned and problems encountered provide a unique opportunity to improve future designs of waste disposal facilities, to improve dose modeling for decommissioning sites, and to be proactive in identifying future problems. Typically, an initial conceptual model was developed and the siting and design of the disposal facility was based on the conceptual model. After facility construction and operation, monitoring data was collected and evaluated. In many cases the monitoring data did not comport with the original site conceptual model, leading to additional investigation and changes to the site conceptual model and modifications to the design of the facility. The following cases are discussed

  5. Radioactive waste disposal via electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    It is shown that space transportation is a feasible method of removal of radioactive wastes from the biosphere. The high decay heat of the isotopes powers a thermionic generator which provides electrical power for ion thrust engines. The massive shields (used to protect ground and flight personnel) are removed in orbit for subsequent reuse; the metallic fuel provides a shield for the avionics that guides the orbital stage to solar system escape. Performance calculations indicate that 4000 kg. of actinides may be removed per Shuttle flight. Subsidiary problems - such as cooling during ascent - are discussed.

  6. Radioactive waste disposal via electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    It is shown that space transportation is a feasible method of removal of radioactive wastes from the biosphere. The high decay heat of the isotopes powers a thermionic generator which provides electrical power for ion thrust engines. The massive shields (used to protect ground and flight personnel) are removed in orbit for subsequent reuse; the metallic fuel provides a shield for the avionics that guides the orbital stage to solar system escape. Performance calculations indicate that 4000 kg. of actinides may be removed per Shuttle flight. Subsidiary problems - such as cooling during ascent - are discussed.

  7. Disposal of slightly contaminated radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Minns, J.L.

    1995-02-01

    With regard to the disposal of solid wastes, nuclear power plants basically have two options, disposal in a Part 61 licensed low-level waste site, or receive approval pursuant to 20.2002 for disposal in a manner not otherwise authorized by the NRC. Since 1981, the staff has reviewed and approved 30 requests for disposal of slightly contaminated radioactive materials pursuant to Section 20.2002 (formerly 20.302) for nuclear power plants located in non-Agreement States. NRC Agreement States have been delegated the authority for reviewing and approving such disposals (whether onsite or offsite) for nuclear power plants within their borders. This paper describes the characteristics of the waste disposed of, the review process, and the staff`s guidelines.

  8. Low-level radioactive waste disposal facility closure

    SciTech Connect

    White, G.J.; Ferns, T.W.; Otis, M.D.; Marts, S.T.; DeHaan, M.S.; Schwaller, R.G.; White, G.J. )

    1990-11-01

    Part I of this report describes and evaluates potential impacts associated with changes in environmental conditions on a low-level radioactive waste disposal site over a long period of time. Ecological processes are discussed and baselines are established consistent with their potential for causing a significant impact to low-level radioactive waste facility. A variety of factors that might disrupt or act on long-term predictions are evaluated including biological, chemical, and physical phenomena of both natural and anthropogenic origin. These factors are then applied to six existing, yet very different, low-level radioactive waste sites. A summary and recommendations for future site characterization and monitoring activities is given for application to potential and existing sites. Part II of this report contains guidance on the design and implementation of a performance monitoring program for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. A monitoring programs is described that will assess whether engineered barriers surrounding the waste are effectively isolating the waste and will continue to isolate the waste by remaining structurally stable. Monitoring techniques and instruments are discussed relative to their ability to measure (a) parameters directly related to water movement though engineered barriers, (b) parameters directly related to the structural stability of engineered barriers, and (c) parameters that characterize external or internal conditions that may cause physical changes leading to enhanced water movement or compromises in stability. Data interpretation leading to decisions concerning facility closure is discussed. 120 refs., 12 figs., 17 tabs.

  9. Disposal of liquid radioactive wastes through wells or shafts

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, B.L.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes disposal of liquids and, in some cases, suitable solids and/or entrapped gases, through: (1) well injection into deep permeable strata, bounded by impermeable layers; (2) grout injection into an impermeable host rock, forming fractures in which the waste solidifies; and (3) slurrying into excavated subsurface cavities. Radioactive materials are presently being disposed of worldwide using all three techniques. However, it would appear that if the techniques were verified as posing minimum hazards to the environment and suitable site-specific host rock were identified, these disposal techniques could be more widely used.

  10. Directions in low-level radioactive waste management: A brief history of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    This report presents a history of commercial low-level radioactive waste management in the United States, with emphasis on the history of six commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The report includes a brief description of important steps that have been taken during the 1980s to ensure the safe disposal of low-level waste in the 1990s and beyond. These steps include the issuance of Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 61, Licensing Requirements for the Land Disposal of Radioactive Waste, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, and steps taken by states and regional compacts to establish additional disposal sites. 42 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Radioactive Waste Disposal in Hydrologically-Challenged Environments: Opportunities for Waste Disposal Resource Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tauxe, J. D.; Black, P. K.

    2006-12-01

    The hydrologic behavior of arid environments poses unique benefits for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal in the shallow subsurface, and unique challenges for modeling as well. Stochastic models of a pair of LLW disposal sites in southern Nevada are presented as examples of how to address a range of closely- coupled environmental contaminant transport phenomena, including unsaturated zone hydrologic processes, in the context of regulatory compliance and site operations optimization. Certain significant insights into system behavior and optimization are achievable only through probabilistic modeling techniques, followed by global sensitivity analysis. Such information is simply not available using traditional modeling techniques involving a chain of deterministic process models. Examples of specific instances of coupled phenomena are presented. The unique perspective provided by a fully-coupled probabilistic model, including contaminant transport through natural and engineered systems and assessment of risk to potential future receptors, allows site operators to evaluate the cost effectiveness of different disposal techniques, and the optimization of disposal of candidate waste streams. This approach simultaneously optimizes superior disposal sites for waste inventories at minimal cost and future risk. In light of the demands on current LLW disposal capacity around the world, this fully-integrated approach to the modeling of contaminant transport, risk to future generations, and site operations is critical to making the best use of this resource.

  12. Process for disposing of radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Grantham, L.F.; Gray, R.L.; McCoy, L.R.

    1988-05-03

    A process for removing water from the pores of spent, contaminated radioactive ion exchange resins and encasing radionuclides entrapped within the pores of the resins, the process is described consisting essentially of the sequential steps of: (a) heating the spent ion exchange resins at a temperature of from about 100/sup 0/C to about 150/sup 0/C to remove water from within and fill the pores of the ion exchange resins by heating the ion exchange resins for from about 46 to about 610 hours at a temperature at which the pores of the resins are sealed while avoiding any fusing or melting of the ion exchange resins to encase radionuclides contained within the resins; and (b) cooling the resins to obtain dry, flowable ion exchange resins having radionuclides encased within sealed polymeric spheres.

  13. Monitoring technologies for ocean disposal of radioactive waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triplett, M. B.; Solomon, K. A.; Bishop, C. B.; Tyce, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of using carefully selected subseabed locations to permanently isolate high level radioactive wastes at ocean depths greater than 4000 meters is discussed. Disposal at several candidate subseabed areas is being studied because of the long term geologic stability of the sediments, remoteness from human activity, and lack of useful natural resources. While the deep sea environment is remote, it also poses some significant challenges for the technology required to survey and monitor these sites, to identify and pinpoint container leakage should it occur, and to provide the environmental information and data base essential to determining the probable impacts of any such occurrence. Objectives and technical approaches to aid in the selective development of advanced technologies for the future monitoring of nuclear low level and high level waste disposal in the deep seabed are presented. Detailed recommendations for measurement and sampling technology development needed for deep seabed nuclear waste monitoring are also presented.

  14. Site characterization for LIL radioactive waste disposal in Romania

    SciTech Connect

    Diaconu, D. R.; Birdsell, K. H.; Witkowski, M. S.

    2001-01-01

    Recent studies in radioactive waste management in Romania have focussed mainly on the disposal of low and intermediate level waste from the operation of the new nuclear power plant at Cernavoda. Following extensive geological, hydrological, seismological, physical and chemical investigations, a disposal site at Saligny has been selected. This paper presents description of the site at Saligny as well as the most important results of the site characterisation. These are reflected in the three-dimensional, stratigraphical representation of the loess and clay layers and in representative parameter values for the main layers. Based on these data, the simulation of the background, unsaturated-zone water flow at the Saligny site, calculated by the FEHM code, is in a good agreement with the measured moisture profile.

  15. Deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, Joshua S.; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Brady, Patrick Vane; Swift, Peter N.; Rechard, Robert Paul; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2009-07-01

    Preliminary evaluation of deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel indicates the potential for excellent long-term safety performance at costs competitive with mined repositories. Significant fluid flow through basement rock is prevented, in part, by low permeabilities, poorly connected transport pathways, and overburden self-sealing. Deep fluids also resist vertical movement because they are density stratified. Thermal hydrologic calculations estimate the thermal pulse from emplaced waste to be small (less than 20 C at 10 meters from the borehole, for less than a few hundred years), and to result in maximum total vertical fluid movement of {approx}100 m. Reducing conditions will sharply limit solubilities of most dose-critical radionuclides at depth, and high ionic strengths of deep fluids will prevent colloidal transport. For the bounding analysis of this report, waste is envisioned to be emplaced as fuel assemblies stacked inside drill casing that are lowered, and emplaced using off-the-shelf oilfield and geothermal drilling techniques, into the lower 1-2 km portion of a vertical borehole {approx}45 cm in diameter and 3-5 km deep, followed by borehole sealing. Deep borehole disposal of radioactive waste in the United States would require modifications to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act and to applicable regulatory standards for long-term performance set by the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR part 191) and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (10 CFR part 60). The performance analysis described here is based on the assumption that long-term standards for deep borehole disposal would be identical in the key regards to those prescribed for existing repositories (40 CFR part 197 and 10 CFR part 63).

  16. Performance assessment for low-level radioactive waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, J.R.; Hsu, R.H.; Wilhite, E.L.; Yu, A.D.

    1996-09-01

    In October 1994 the Savannah River Site became the first US DOE complex to use concrete vaults to dispose of low-level radioactive solid waste and better prevent soil and groundwater contamination. This article describes the design and gives a performance assessment of the vaults. Topics include the following: Performance objectives; scope; the performance assessment process-assemble a multidisciplinary working group; collect available data; define credible pathways/scenarios; develop conceptual models; conduct screening and detailed model calculations; assess sensitivity/uncertainty; integrate and interpret results; report. 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Greater-confinement disposal of low-level radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Merry-Libby, P.A.; Meshkov, N.K.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes include a broad spectrum of wastes that have different radionuclide concentrations, half-lives, and physical and chemical properties. Standard shallow-land burial practice can provide adequate protection of public health and safety for most low-level wastes, but a small volume fraction (about 1%) containing most of the activity inventory (approx.90%) requires specific measures known as ''greater-confinement disposal'' (GCD). Different site characteristics and different waste characteristics - such as high radionuclide concentrations, long radionuclide half-lives, high radionuclide mobility, and physical or chemical characteristics that present exceptional hazards - lead to different GCD facility design requirements. Facility design alternatives considered for GCD include the augered shaft, deep trench, engineered structure, hydrofracture, improved waste form, and high-integrity container. Selection of an appropriate design must also consider the interplay between basic risk limits for protection of public health and safety, performance characteristics and objectives, costs, waste-acceptance criteria, waste characteristics, and site characteristics. This paper presents an overview of the factors that must be considered in planning the application of methods proposed for providing greater confinement of low-level wastes. 27 refs.

  18. Life-Cycle Cost Study for a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility in Texas

    SciTech Connect

    B. C. Rogers; P. L. Walter; R. D. Baird

    1999-08-01

    This report documents the life-cycle cost estimates for a proposed low-level radioactive waste disposal facility near Sierra Blanca, Texas. The work was requested by the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority and performed by the National Low-Level Waste Management Program with the assistance of Rogers and Associates Engineering Corporation.

  19. Risk methodology for geologic disposal of radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Cranwell, R.M.; Campbell, J.E.; Ortiz, N.R. ); Guzowski, R.V. )

    1990-04-01

    This report contains the description of a procedure for selecting scenarios that are potentially important to the isolation of high- level radioactive wastes in deep geologic formations. In this report, the term scenario is used to represent a set of naturally occurring and/or human-induced conditions that represent realistic future states of the repository, geologic systems, and ground-water flow systems that might affect the release and transport of radionuclides from the repository to humans. The scenario selection procedure discussed in this report is demonstrated by applying it to the analysis of a hypothetical waste disposal site containing a bedded-salt formation as the host medium for the repository. A final set of 12 scenarios is selected for this site. 52 refs., 48 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Radioactive waste disposal characteristics of candidate tokamak demonstration reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, E.A.; Stacey, W.M.; Hertel, N.E.

    1998-08-01

    Results from the current physics, materials and blanket R and D programs are combined with physics and engineering design constraints to characterize candidate tokamak demonstration plant (DEMO) designs. Blanket designs based on the principal structural materials, breeding materials and coolants being developed for the DEMO were adapted from the literature. Neutron flux and activation calculations were performed, and several radioactive waste disposal indices were evaluated, for each design. Of the primary low-activation structural materials under development in the US, it appears that vanadium and ferritic steel alloys, and possibly silicon carbide, could lead to DEMO designs which could satisfy realistic low-level waste (LLW) criteria, provided that impurities can be controlled within plausible limits. Allowable LLW concentrations are established for the limiting alloying and impurity elements. All breeding materials and neutron multipliers considered meet the LLW criterion.

  1. Spanish methodological approach for biosphere assessment of radioactive waste disposal.

    PubMed

    Agüero, A; Pinedo, P; Cancio, D; Simón, I; Moraleda, M; Pérez-Sánchez, D; Trueba, C

    2007-10-01

    The development of radioactive waste disposal facilities requires implementation of measures that will afford protection of human health and the environment over a specific temporal frame that depends on the characteristics of the wastes. The repository design is based on a multi-barrier system: (i) the near-field or engineered barrier, (ii) far-field or geological barrier and (iii) the biosphere system. Here, the focus is on the analysis of this last system, the biosphere. A description is provided of conceptual developments, methodological aspects and software tools used to develop the Biosphere Assessment Methodology in the context of high-level waste (HLW) disposal facilities in Spain. This methodology is based on the BIOMASS "Reference Biospheres Methodology" and provides a logical and systematic approach with supplementary documentation that helps to support the decisions necessary for model development. It follows a five-stage approach, such that a coherent biosphere system description and the corresponding conceptual, mathematical and numerical models can be built. A discussion on the improvements implemented through application of the methodology to case studies in international and national projects is included. Some facets of this methodological approach still require further consideration, principally an enhanced integration of climatology, geography and ecology into models considering evolution of the environment, some aspects of the interface between the geosphere and biosphere, and an accurate quantification of environmental change processes and rates.

  2. Analyses of soils at commercial radioactive waste disposal sites

    SciTech Connect

    Piciulo, P.L.; Shea, C.E.; Barletta, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory, in order to provide technical assistance to the NRC, has measured a number of physical and chemical characteristics of soils from three commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. Samples were collected from an area adjacent to the disposal site at Sheffield, IL, and from two operating sites: one at Barnwell, SC, and the other near Richland, WA. The soil samples, which were analyzed from each site, were believed to include soil which was representative of that in contact with buried waste forms. Results of field measurements of earth resistivity and of soil pH will be presented. Additionally, the results of laboratory measurements of resistivity, moisture content, pH, exchange acidity and the soluble ion content of the soils will be discussed. The soluble ion content of the soils was determined by analysis of aqueous extracts of saturated soil pastes. The concentrations of the following ions were determined: Ca/sup 2 +/, Mg/sup 2 +/, K/sup +/, Na/sup +/, HCO/sub 3//sup -/, CO/sub 3//sup 2 -/, SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, Cl/sup -/, S/sup 2 -/.

  3. Potential areas for the near surface disposal of radioactive waste in Pahang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harun, Nazran; Yaacob, Wan Zuhairi Wan; Simon, Norbert

    2016-11-01

    Radioactive material has been used in Malaysia since the 1960's. The low level radioactive wastes are generated every year and stored in Nuclear Malaysia. The storage capacities are expected to reach its maximum capacity by the year 2025. Disposal of the radioactive waste is considered as one of the best options for future radioactive and nuclear material generated in Malaysia, hence the necessary site selection. The selection process used the IAEA document as the main reference, supported by site selection procedure applied by various countries. ArcGIS software was used to simulate the selection of the near surface radioactive waste disposal. This paper suggested the best four potential areas for the near surface radioactive waste disposal in Pahang state, Malaysia, the Sg. Lembing, Gambang, Felda Lepar Utara and Cheneh areas. These areas are located within 100 km from the potential radioactive waste producer (Lynas).

  4. Department of Energy low-level radioactive waste disposal concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Ozaki, C.; Page, L.; Morreale, B.; Owens, C.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) manages its low-level waste (LLW), regulated by DOE Order 5820.2A by using an overall systems approach. This systems approach provides an improved and consistent management system for all DOE LLW waste, from generation to disposal. This paper outlines six basic disposal concepts used in the systems approach, discusses issues associated with each of the concepts, and outlines both present and future disposal concepts used at six DOE sites. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  5. Low-level radioactive waste disposal at a humid site

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D.W.

    1987-03-01

    Waste management in humid environments poses a continuing challenge because of the potential contamination of groundwater in the long term. Short-term needs for waste disposal, regulatory uncertainty, and unique site and waste characteristics have led to the development of a site-specific waste classification and management system proposed for the Oak Ridge Reservation. The overlying principle of protection of public health and safety is used to define waste classes compatible with generated waste types, disposal sites and technologies, and treatment technologies. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  6. Operational Strategies for Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Site in Egypt - 13513

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed, Yasser T.

    2013-07-01

    The ultimate aims of treatment and conditioning is to prepare waste for disposal by ensuring that the waste will meet the waste acceptance criteria of a disposal facility. Hence the purpose of low-level waste disposal is to isolate the waste from both people and the environment. The radioactive particles in low-level waste emit the same types of radiation that everyone receives from nature. Most low-level waste fades away to natural background levels of radioactivity in months or years. Virtually all of it diminishes to natural levels in less than 300 years. In Egypt, The Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center has been established since 1983, as a waste management facility for LLW and ILW and the disposal site licensed for preoperational in 2005. The site accepts the low level waste generated on site and off site and unwanted radioactive sealed sources with half-life less than 30 years for disposal and all types of sources for interim storage prior to the final disposal. Operational requirements at the low-level (LLRW) disposal site are listed in the National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control NCNSRC guidelines. Additional procedures are listed in the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility Standards Manual. The following describes the current operations at the LLRW disposal site. (authors)

  7. US Geological Survey research in radioactive waste disposal, fiscal year 1979

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, R.; Roseboom, E. H., Jr.; Robertson, J. B.; Stevens, P. R.

    Geologic and hydrologic research related to the disposal of radioactive wastes is reported. The categories are described as they relate most directly to: (1) high level and transuranic wastes; (2) low level wastes; or (3) uranium mill tailings. The identification and geohydrologic characterization of waste disposal sites, investigations of specific sites where wastes have been stored, and regions or environments where waste disposal sites might be located are studied. Techniques and methods for characterizing disposal sites and studies of geologic and hydrologic processes related to the transport and (or) retention of waste radionuclides are presented.

  8. 10 CFR 51.62 - Environmental report-land disposal of radioactive waste licensed under 10 CFR part 61.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental report-land disposal of radioactive waste....62 Environmental report—land disposal of radioactive waste licensed under 10 CFR part 61. (a) Each applicant for issuance of a license for land disposal of radioactive waste pursuant to part 61 of this...

  9. 10 CFR 51.62 - Environmental report-land disposal of radioactive waste licensed under 10 CFR part 61.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental report-land disposal of radioactive waste....62 Environmental report—land disposal of radioactive waste licensed under 10 CFR part 61. (a) Each applicant for issuance of a license for land disposal of radioactive waste pursuant to part 61 of this...

  10. 10 CFR 51.62 - Environmental report-land disposal of radioactive waste licensed under 10 CFR part 61.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Environmental report-land disposal of radioactive waste....62 Environmental report—land disposal of radioactive waste licensed under 10 CFR part 61. (a) Each applicant for issuance of a license for land disposal of radioactive waste pursuant to part 61 of...

  11. 10 CFR 51.62 - Environmental report-land disposal of radioactive waste licensed under 10 CFR part 61.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Environmental report-land disposal of radioactive waste....62 Environmental report—land disposal of radioactive waste licensed under 10 CFR part 61. (a) Each applicant for issuance of a license for land disposal of radioactive waste pursuant to part 61 of...

  12. 10 CFR 51.62 - Environmental report-land disposal of radioactive waste licensed under 10 CFR part 61.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Environmental report-land disposal of radioactive waste....62 Environmental report—land disposal of radioactive waste licensed under 10 CFR part 61. (a) Each applicant for issuance of a license for land disposal of radioactive waste pursuant to part 61 of...

  13. Engineering for transportation and disposal of low-level radioactive wastes in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Yutaka; Ohno, Hiroo; Akagawa, Yoshihiro

    1994-10-01

    This article describes the engineer procedures Japanese nuclear power stations use for low-level radioactive waste transport and disposal. After volume reduction of low-level liquid waste, the wastes are solidified with cement and asphalt and stored on site until the end of the FY. Regulations cover disposal facilities transportation of waste packages, and the waste packages themselves. Disposal safety is ensured by phased control, a combination of artificial and natural barriers. Safety evaluation before disposal is designed to provide assurance that the effects of radiation on the environment will be prevented by controls in each phases. Before beginning disposal operations, research is being done by power companies on transport. Topics covered include the following: waste package shipment inspection techniques (evaluation of waste package radioactivity, evaluation of waste package characteristics) and Waste Package Transport (transport method, transport dose evaluation systems, national transport regulation complience).

  14. Radioactive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2016-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste activities around the world in 2015. These include safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation and management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in water, soil and ecosystem alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes.

  15. Radioactive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2015-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste activities around the world in 2014. These include safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation and management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in water, soil and ecosystem alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes.

  16. Radioactive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Choudri, B S; Charabi, Yassine; Baawain, Mahad; Ahmed, Mushtaque

    2017-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste related activities around the world in 2016. The current reveiw include studies related to safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation. Further, the review highlights on management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in ecosystem, water and soil alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes.

  17. Radioactive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2016-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste activities around the world in 2015. These include safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation and management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in water, soil and ecosystem alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes.

  18. The Morsleben repository -- Waste acceptance requirements and radioactive wastes to be disposed of

    SciTech Connect

    Noack, W.; Kugel, K.; Brennecke, P.

    1995-12-31

    In the Federal Republic of Germany it is intended to dispose of all kinds of radioactive waste in deep geological formations. The Morsleben repository is used for the disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste mainly containing radionuclides with short half lives. This facility constructed and operated in the days of the former GDR is operated by the Federal Office for Radiation Protection. New safety assessments have been performed with regard to further operation since 1990. The safety assessment concerning normal operation and assumed incidents, radiological long-term safety and nuclear critically safety, was based on a broader data base and more realistic scenarios and models compared to previous safety assessments. Consequently, the existing waste acceptance requirements being a part of the operation license were specified in detail. On the basis of the effective waste acceptance requirements about 15,800 m{sup 3} radioactive wastes have been emplaced in the Morsleben repository corresponding to a total activity of 6.5 {times} 10{sup 14}Bq. During the validity of the existing license for continuous operation up to June 2000 it is planned to dispose of 40,000 m{sup 3} radioactive waste.

  19. Description of Site Operations at the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed, Y.T.; Hasan, M.A.; Lasheen, Y.F.

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of low-level waste disposal is to isolate the waste from both people and the environment. The radioactive particles in low-level waste emit the same types of radiation that everyone receives from nature. Most low-level waste fades away to natural background levels of radioactivity in months or years. Virtually all of it diminishes to natural levels in less than 300 years. In Egypt, The Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center has been established since 1983, as a waste management facility for LLW and ILW and the disposal site licensed for preoperational in 2005. This site accepts the low level waste generated on site and off site and unwanted radioactive sealed sources with half life less than 30 years for interim storage prior to the final disposal. Operational requirements at the low-level (LLRW) disposal site are listed in the National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control NCNSRC guidelines. Additional procedures are listed in the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility Standards Manual. This paper describes the current operations at the LLRW disposal site: - Waste Inspections: Point of-Origin Inspections, Onsite Inspections; - Waste Handling and Disposal: Packaging, Waste Forms, Vault Design; - Waste Emplacement and Backfilling; - Manifest Tracking and Record Keeping; - Interim Closure; - Rain or Flooding Management; - Institutional Controls; - Environmental Monitoring; - Personnel Training; - Emergency Response. (authors)

  20. Development of low-level radioactive waste disposal capacity in the United States - progress or stalemate?

    SciTech Connect

    Devgun, J.S.; Larson, G.S.

    1995-12-31

    It has been fifteen years since responsibility for the disposal of commercially generated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) was shifted to the states by the United States Congress through the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 (LLRWPA). In December 1985, Congress revisited the issue and enacted the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA). No new disposal sites have opened yet, however, and it is now evident that disposal facility development is more complex, time-consuming, and controversial than originally anticipated. For a nation with a large nuclear power industry, the lack of availability of LLW disposal capacity coupled with a similar lack of high-level radioactive waste disposal capacity could adversely affect the future viability of the nuclear energy option. The U.S. nuclear power industry, with 109 operating reactors, generates about half of the LLW shipped to commercial disposal sites and faces dwindling access to waste disposal sites and escalating waste management costs. The other producers of LLW - industries, government (except the defense related research and production waste), academic institutions, and medical institutions that account for the remaining half of the commercial LLW - face the same storage and cost uncertainties. This paper will summarize the current status of U.S. low-level radioactive waste generation and the status of new disposal facility development efforts by the states. The paper will also examine the factors that have contributed to delays, the most frequently suggested alternatives, and the likelihood of change.

  1. Radionuclide export and elimination by coyotes at two radioactive waste disposal areas in southeastern Idaho.

    PubMed

    Arthur, W J; Markham, O D

    1982-10-01

    Coyote fecal samples were collected near a radioactive waste leaching pond and a solid radioactive waste disposal facility and analyzed for radioactivity. Elevated concentrations of 137Cs, 90Sr and 238Pu in the samples from the liquid radioactive waste leaching area were attributed to coyotes ingesting contaminated pond water and/or small mammals. Elevated 241Am concentrations in coyote fecal samples collected around the solid radioactive waste disposal facility were due to ingestion of contaminated small mammals. Assumptions relative to the coyote use of these areas permitted an estimate of the maximum quantity of radioactivity exported and eliminated around the facilities. An annual total of 7.2, 31.4 and 1.8 microCi (90Sr, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239,240Pu, 241Am, 242Cm and 244Cm) was eliminated by coyotes within a 6.3 km radius of the solid radioactive waste disposal facility, liquid waste leaching pond, and control area, respectively. These quantities of radioactivity eliminated by coyotes were similar or less than quantities transported by other mechanisms such as waterfowl and vegetative uptake of radioactivity. Coyotes are a mode of radionuclide transport from the two radioactive waste disposal areas; however, due to the low radionuclide concentrations and low yearly radionuclide inventories in coyote fecal samples, it is doubtful that any significant environmental consequences occur as a result of this transport mechanism.

  2. Expediting the commercial disposal option: Low-level radioactive waste shipments from the Mound Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, S.; Rothman, R.

    1995-12-31

    In April, Envirocare of Utah, Inc., successfully commenced operation of its mixed waste treatment operation. A mixed waste which was (a) radioactive, (b) listed as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and (c) prohibited from land disposal was treated using Envirocare`s full-scale Mixed Waste Treatment Facility. The treatment system involved application of chemical fixation/stabilization technologies to reduce the leachability of the waste to meet applicable concentration-based RCRA treatment standards. In 1988, Envirocare became the first licensed facility for the disposal of naturally occurring radioactive material. In 1990, Envirocare received a RCRA Part B permit for commercial mixed waste storage and disposal. In 1994, Envirocare was awarded a contract for the disposal of DOE mixed wastes. Envirocare`s RCRA Part B permit allows for the receipt, storage, treatment, and disposal of mixed wastes that do not meet the land-disposal treatment standards of 40 CFR (Code of Federal Regulations) 268. Envirocare has successfully received, managed, and disposed of naturally occurring radioactive material, low-activity radioactive waste, and mixed waste from government and private generators.

  3. Leveraging Radioactive Waste Disposal at WIPP for Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rempe, N. T.

    2008-12-01

    Salt mines are radiologically much quieter than other underground environments because of ultra-low concentrations of natural radionuclides (U, Th, and K) in the host rock; therefore, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a government-owned, 655m deep geologic repository that disposes of radioactive waste in thick salt near Carlsbad, New Mexico, has for the last 15 years hosted highly radiation-sensitive experiments. Incidentally, Nature started her own low background experiment 250ma ago, preserving viable bacteria, cellulose, and DNA in WIPP salt. The Department of Energy continues to make areas of the WIPP underground available for experiments, freely offering its infrastructure and access to this unique environment. Even before WIPP started disposing of waste in 1999, the Room-Q alcove (25m x 10m x 4m) housed a succession of small experiments. They included development and calibration of neutral-current detectors by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, a proof-of-concept by Ohio State University of a flavor-sensitive neutrino detector for supernovae, and research by LANL on small solid- state dark matter detectors. Two currently active experiments support the search for neutrino-less double beta decay as a tool to better define the nature and mass of the neutrino. That these delicate experiments are conducted in close vicinity to, but not at all affected by, megacuries of radioactive waste reinforces the safety argument for the repository. Since 2003, the Majorana collaboration is developing and testing various detector designs inside a custom- built clean room in the Room-Q alcove. Already low natural background readings are reduced further by segmenting the germanium detectors, which spatially and temporally discriminates background radiation. The collaboration also demonstrated safe copper electro-forming underground, which minimizes cosmogenic background in detector assemblies. The largest currently used experimental

  4. A history of ocean disposal of packaged low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, W.F.

    1982-03-01

    Two methods are practiced throughout the world for the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes-ground burial and ocean dumping. Ocean dumping was used by the United States from 1946 to 1970; European nations have been ocean dumping since 1951, with the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development supervising the international ocean dumping operations since 1967. The European nations have dumped wastes containing over 700 000 Ci of radioactivity, whereas the United States has dumped wastes containing over 94 000 Ci. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has surveyed some of the U. S. ocean dump sites and retrieved three drums of waste to assess the condition of the radioactive waste packaging. The NEA has published guidelines for packaging requirements for ocean disposal, and the EPA has a program to prepare regulations to complement the existing international and domestic broad-based regulations for packaging of radioactive wastes for ocean disposal.

  5. Radioactive Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaylock, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of radioactive waste disposal, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the studies included are: (1) high-level and long-lived wastes, and (2) release and burial of low-level wastes. A list of 42 references is also presented. (HM)

  6. Radioactive Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaylock, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of radioactive waste disposal, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the studies included are: (1) high-level and long-lived wastes, and (2) release and burial of low-level wastes. A list of 42 references is also presented. (HM)

  7. Low-level radioactive waste disposal technologies used outside the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Templeton, K.J.; Mitchell, S.J.; Molton, P.M.; Leigh, I.W.

    1994-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal technologies are an integral part of the waste management process. In the United States, commercial LLW disposal is the responsibility of the State or groups of States (compact regions). The United States defines LLW as all radioactive waste that is not classified as spent nuclear fuel, high- level radioactive waste, transuranic waste, or by-product material as defined in Section II(e)(2) of the Atomic Energy Act. LLW may contain some long-lived components in very low concentrations. Countries outside the United States, however, may define LLW differently and may use different disposal technologies. This paper outlines the LLW disposal technologies that are planned or being used in Canada, China, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Sweden, Taiwan, and the United Kingdom (UK).

  8. Environmental monitoring of low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    SciTech Connect

    Shum, E.Y.; Starmer, R.J.; Young, M.H.

    1989-12-01

    This branch technical position (BTP) paper on the environmental monitoring program for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility provides general guidance on what is required by Section 61.53 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) of applicants submitting a license application for such a facility. In general, the environmental monitoring program consists of three phases: preoperational, operational, and postoperational. Each phase of the monitoring program should be designed to fulfill the specific objectives defined in the BTP paper. During the preoperational phase, the objectives of the program are to provide site characterization information, to demonstrate site suitability and acceptability, to obtain background or baseline information, and to provide a record for public information. During the operational phase, the emphasis on measurement shifts. Monitoring data are obtained to provide early warning of releases and to document compliance with regulations, the dose limits of 10 CFR Part 61, or applicable standards of the US Environmental Protection Agency. Data are also used to update important pathway parameters to improve predictions of site performance and to provide a record of performance for public information. The postoperational environmental monitoring program emphasizes measurements to demonstrate compliance with the site-closure requirements and continued compliance with the performance objective in regard to the release of radionuclides to the environment. The data are used to support evaluation of long-term effects on the general public and for public information. Guidance is also provided in the BTP paper on the choice of which constituents to measure, setting action levels, relating measurements to appropriate actions in a corrective action plan, and quality assurance.

  9. Quality assurance for radioactive wastes disposed of in the Morsleben Site -- Planning, procedures and experiences

    SciTech Connect

    Martens, B.R.; Giller, H.; Brennecke, P.

    1995-12-31

    In Germany between 1978 and 1991, a repository for the disposal of radioactive waste was only accessible for waste producers in the former German Democratic Republic, GDR, namely, the former Morsleben salt mine. Since 1978 short-lived low and intermediate level radioactive wastes have been disposed of in this mine. The emplacement operations were stopped after the reunification of Germany by court order early in 1991. After reversal of this order in June 1992 extensive safety assessments were performed resulting in the formulation of new waste acceptance requirements and quality assurance procedures to be followed in order to demonstrate the fulfillment of these requirements. The emplacement operations were resumed in January 1994, and the repository is now accessible for all German waste producers. In the following quality assurance measures performed for radioactive waste packages prior to disposal are explained and experiences gained in the course of the performance of these measures discussed.

  10. Disposal of Radioactive Waste at Hanford Creates Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Radioactive storage tanks at the Hanford facility have developed leaks. The situation is presently considered safe, but serious. A report from the National Academy of Science has recommended that the wastes be converted to stable solids and stored at another site on the Hanford Reservation. (Author/MA)

  11. Disposal of Radioactive Waste at Hanford Creates Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Radioactive storage tanks at the Hanford facility have developed leaks. The situation is presently considered safe, but serious. A report from the National Academy of Science has recommended that the wastes be converted to stable solids and stored at another site on the Hanford Reservation. (Author/MA)

  12. An industry perspective on commercial radioactive waste disposal conditions and trends.

    PubMed

    Romano, Stephen A

    2006-11-01

    The United States is presently served by Class-A, -B and -C low-level radioactive waste and naturally-occurring and accelerator-produced radioactive material disposal sites in Washington and South Carolina; a Class-A and mixed waste disposal site in Utah that also accepts naturally-occurring radioactive material; and hazardous and solid waste facilities and uranium mill tailings sites that accept certain radioactive materials on a site-specific basis. The Washington site only accepts low-level radioactive waste from 11 western states due to interstate Compact restrictions on waste importation. The South Carolina site will be subject to geographic service area restrictions beginning 1 July 2008, after which only three states will have continued access. The Utah site dominates the commercial Class-A and mixed waste disposal market due to generally lower state fees than apply in South Carolina. To expand existing commercial services, an existing hazardous waste site in western Texas is seeking a Class-A, -B and -C and mixed waste disposal license. With that exception, no new Compact facilities are proposed. This fluid, uncertain situation has inspired national level rulemaking initiatives and policy studies, as well as alternative disposal practices for certain low-activity materials.

  13. Overview of Nevada Test Site Radioactive and Mixed Waste Disposal Operations

    SciTech Connect

    J.T. Carilli; S.K. Krenzien; R.G. Geisinger; S.J. Gordon; B. Quinn

    2009-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Environmental Management Program is responsible for carrying out the disposal of on-site and off-site generated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and low-level radioactive mixed waste (MW) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Core elements of this mission are ensuring safe and cost-effective disposal while protecting workers, the public, and the environment. This paper focuses on the impacts of new policies, processes, and opportunities at the NTS related to LLW and MW. Covered topics include: the first year of direct funding for NTS waste disposal operations; zero tolerance policy for non-compliant packages; the suspension of mixed waste disposal; waste acceptance changes; DOE Consolidated Audit Program (DOECAP) auditing; the 92-Acre Area closure plan; new eligibility requirements for generators; and operational successes with unusual waste streams.

  14. Radioactive waste disposal in Germany: no site decision - Keeping competence

    SciTech Connect

    Kienzler, Bernhard; Geckeis, Horst; Gompper, Klaus; Klenze, Reinhardt

    2007-07-01

    The research programme of the Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgung (INE) at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe is dedicated to elaborate the fundamental understanding of radionuclide/actinide interactions with various components of the groundwater and with the relevant host rock materials at disposal relevant trace concentrations. INE's research programme was not biased after enactment of the Gorleben moratorium in 2001. This paper presents current R and D with respect to application in performance assessment/safety case of nuclear waste disposal. Focus is given to the leading role of the institute in various projects within EU framework programmes. (authors)

  15. Radioactive waste disposal implications of extending Part IIA of the Environmental Protection Act to cover radioactively contaminated land.

    PubMed

    Nancarrow, D J; White, M M

    2004-03-01

    A short study has been carried out of the potential radioactive waste disposal issues associated with the proposed extension of Part IIA of the Environmental Protection Act 1990 to include radioactively contaminated land, where there is no other suitable existing legislation. It was found that there is likely to be an availability problem with respect to disposal at landfills of the radioactive wastes arising from remediation. This is expected to be principally wastes of high volume and low activity (categorised as low level waste (LLW) and very low level waste (VLLW)). The availability problem results from a lack of applications by landfill operators for authorisation to accept LLW wastes for disposal. This is apparently due to perceived adverse publicity associated with the consultation process for authorisation coupled with uncertainty over future liabilities. Disposal of waste as VLLW is limited both by questions over volumes that may be acceptable and, more fundamentally, by the likely alpha activity of wastes (originating from radium and thorium operations). Authorised on-site disposal has had little attention in policy and guidance in recent years, but may have a part to play, especially if considered commercially attractive. Disposal at BNFL's near surface disposal facility for LLW at Drigg is limited to wastes for which there are no practical alternative disposal options (and preference has been given to operational type wastes). Therefore, wastes from the radioactively contaminated land (RCL) regime are not obviously attractive for disposal to Drigg. Illustrative calculations have been performed based on possible volumes and activities of RCL arisings (and assuming Drigg's future volumetric disposal capacity is 950,000 m3). These suggest that wastes arising from implementing the RCL regime, if all disposed to Drigg, would not represent a significant fraction of the volumetric capacity of Drigg, but could have a significant impact on the radiological

  16. Waste Handling and Emplacement Options for Disposal of Radioactive Waste in Deep Boreholes.

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, John R.; Hardin, Ernest

    2015-11-01

    Traditional methods cannot be used to handle and emplace radioactive wastes in boreholes up to 16,400 feet (5 km) deep for disposal. This paper describes three systems that can be used for handling and emplacing waste packages in deep borehole: (1) a 2011 reference design that is based on a previous study by Woodward–Clyde in 1983 in which waste packages are assembled into “strings” and lowered using drill pipe; (2) an updated version of the 2011 reference design; and (3) a new concept in which individual waste packages would be lowered to depth using a wireline. Emplacement on coiled tubing was also considered, but not developed in detail. The systems described here are currently designed for U.S. Department of Energy-owned high-level waste (HLW) including the Cesium- 137/Strontium-90 capsules from the Hanford Facility and bulk granular HLW from fuel processing in Idaho.

  17. Study of extraterrestrial disposal of radioactive wastes. Part 1: Space transportation and destination considerations for extraterrestrial disposal of radioactive wastes. [feasibility of using space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, R. L.; Ramler, J. R.; Stevenson, S. M.

    1974-01-01

    A feasibility study of extraterrestrial disposal of radioactive waste is reported. This report covers the initial work done on only one part of the NASA study, that evaluates and compares possible space destinations and space transportation systems. The currently planned space shuttle was found to be more cost effective than current expendable launch vehicles by about a factor of 2. The space shuttle requires a third stage to perform the waste disposal missions. Depending on the particular mission, this third stage could be either a reusable space tug or an expendable stage such as a Centaur.

  18. U.S. Geological Survey research in radioactive waste disposal; fiscal year 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, Robert; Roseboom, E.H.; Robertson, J.B.; Stevens, P.R.

    1982-01-01

    The report summarizes progress on geologic and hydrologic research related to the disposal of radioactive wastes. The research is described according to whether it is related most directly to: (1) high-level and transuranic wastes; (2) low-level wastes, or (3) uranium mill tailings. Included is research applicable to the identification and geohydrologic characterization of waste-disposal sites, investigations of specific sites where wastes have been stored, and studies of regions or environments where waste-disposal sites might be located. A significant part of the activity is concerned with techniques and methods for characterizing disposal sites and studies of geologic and hydrologic processes related to the transport and(or) retention of waste radionuclides. (USGS)

  19. U.S. Geological Survey research in radioactive waste disposal; fiscal year 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, Robert; Trask, N.J.

    1982-01-01

    The report summarizes progress on geologic and hydrologic research related to the disposal of radioactive wastes. The research is described according to whether it is related most directly to: (1) High-level and transuranic wastes; (2) Low-level wastes, or (3) Uranium mill tailings. Included is research applicable to the identification and geohydrologic characterization of waste-disposal sites, to investigations of specific sites where wastes have been stored, and to studies of regions or environments where waste-disposal sites might be located. A significant part of the activity is concerned with techniques and methods for characterizing disposal sites and studies of geologic and hydrologic processes related to the transport and (or) retention of waste radionuclides.

  20. Commercial disposal options for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, C.L.; Widmayer, D.A.

    1995-09-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is a Department of Energy (DOE)-owned, contractor-operated site. Significant quantities of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) have been generated and disposed of onsite at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The INEL expects to continue generating LLW while performing its mission and as aging facilities are decommissioned. An on-going Performance Assessment process for the RWMC underscores the potential for reduced or limited LLW disposal capacity at the existing onsite facility. In order to properly manage the anticipated amount of LLW, the INEL is investigating various disposal options. These options include building a new facility, disposing the LLW at other DOE sites, using commercial disposal facilities, or seeking a combination of options. This evaluation reports on the feasibility of using commercial disposal facilities.

  1. Natural cements: How can they help us safely dispose of radioactive waste?

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, W.R.; McCombie, C.; McKinley, I.

    1995-09-01

    This article discusses both the positive aspects of the use of natural cements to sorb and immobalize radionuclides in radioactive waste and the questions which must be addressed in considering this option for radioactive waste disposal. Areas of interest/concern include high pH plume, microbiology, corrosion, colloids, {sup 14}C retardation, and radionuclide speciation. Specific examples of site investigations are presented, and the implications for respository safety are discussed. 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Technical Methods of Evaluation of Near-surface Disposal of Very Low Level Radioactive Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, R.; Teng, Y.; Wang, J.

    2010-12-01

    Radioactive waste disposal is one of the most difficult world's environmental problems for control and solving, it is as a hotspot in the field of pollution control and remediation. For the economical and efficient disposal, very low level radioactive waste (VLLW) is separated from low and intermediate level waste, and bulky VLLW could be disposed in the disposal site without the special engineering barrier. The approach is not only significant savings in disposal costs, but meeting the public on the environment. Therefore, it is very important for disposal and management of radioactive waste. In this paper, as the studied object of the VLLW disposal site in the southwestern China, a systemic analysis in the relational technology was developed, and as the key technology, the barrier and technical methods of evaluation was researched with emphasis. The disposal site was on a hilltop of debris flow, and the repository with barrier was selected, 90Sr were selected as the typical nuclides, and the releasing concentration was calculated by the given model. The fine particle (d<1mm) was used as barrier material of the repository with the thickness of 0.5m. The sorption and migration characteristics were measured by batch and column tests, and the results reflected the material has a good sorption capacity on 90Sr. From the results of simulation, the nuclide of 90Sr was almost basically retarded in the unsaturated zone.

  3. Heat transfer analyses for grout disposal of radioactive double-shell slurry and customer wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, S.M.; Gilliam, T.M.; McDaniel, E.W.

    1987-04-01

    Grout immobilization is being considered by Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell Hanford) as a permanent disposal method for several radioactive waste streams. These include disposal of customer and double-shell slurry wastes in earthen trenches and in single-shell underground waste storage tanks. Heat transfer studies have previously been made to determine the maximum heat loading for grout disposal of various wastes under similar conditions, but a sensitivity analysis of temperature profiles to input parameters was needed. This document presents the results of heat transfer calculations for trenches containing grouted customer and double-shell slurry wastes and for in situ disposal of double-shell wastes in single-shell, domed concrete storage tanks. It discusses the conditions that lead to maximum grout temperatures of 250/sup 0/F during the curing stage and 350/sup 0/F thereafter and shows the dependence of these temperatures on input parameters such as soil and grout thermal conductivity, grout specific heat, waste loading, and disposal geometries. Transient heat transfer calculations were made using the HEATING6 computer code to predict temperature profiles in solidified low-level radioactive waste disposal scenarios at the Rockwell Hanford site. The calculations provide guidance for the development of safe, environmentally acceptable grout formulas for the Transportable Grout Facility. 11 refs.

  4. Potential for Subsidence at the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area

    SciTech Connect

    Keck, K.A.; Seitz, R.R.

    2002-09-26

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management requires that DOE low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities receive a Disposal Authorization Statement (DAS) from DOE-Headquarters. The DAS for the LLW disposal facility at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) was granted in April 2000 and included a number of conditions that must be addressed. A maintenance plan (Schuman 2000) was prepared that identifies the tasks to be completed to address the conditions in the DAS as well as a schedule for their completion. The need for a subsidence analysis was one of the conditions identified for the DAS, and thus, a task to prepare a subsidence analysis was included in the maintenance plan. This document provides the information necessary to satisfy that requirement.

  5. [Investigation of actual condition of management and disposal of medical radioactive waste in Korea].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Nagaoka, Hiroaki; Yamaguchi, Ichiro; Horiuchi, Shoji; Imoto, Atsushi

    2009-07-20

    In order to realize the rational management and disposal of radioactive waste like DIS or its clearance as performed in Europe, North America, and Japan, we investigated the situation of medical radioactive waste in Korea and its enforcement. We visited three major Korean facilities in May 2008 and confirmed details of the procedure being used by administering a questionnaire after our visit. From the results, we were able to verify that the governmental agency had established regulations for the clearance of radioactive waste as self-disposal based on the clearance level of IAEA in Korea and that the medical facilities performed suitable management and disposal of radioactive waste based on the regulations and superintendence of a radiation safety officer. The type of nuclear medicine was almost the same as that in Japan, and the half-life of all radiopharmaceuticals was 60 days or less. While performing regulatory adjustment concerning the rational management and disposal of radioactive waste in Korea for reference also in this country, it is important to provide an enforcement procedure with quality assurance in the regulations.

  6. Modeling Coupled Processes in Clay Formations for Radioactive Waste Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Hui-Hai; Rutqvist, Jonny; Zheng, Liange; Sonnenthal, Eric; Houseworth, Jim; Birkholzer, Jens

    2010-08-31

    As a result of the termination of the Yucca Mountain Project, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has started to explore various alternative avenues for the disposition of used nuclear fuel and nuclear waste. The overall scope of the investigation includes temporary storage, transportation issues, permanent disposal, various nuclear fuel types, processing alternatives, and resulting waste streams. Although geologic disposal is not the only alternative, it is still the leading candidate for permanent disposal. The realm of geologic disposal also offers a range of geologic environments that may be considered, among those clay shale formations. Figure 1-1 presents the distribution of clay/shale formations within the USA. Clay rock/shale has been considered as potential host rock for geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste throughout the world, because of its low permeability, low diffusion coefficient, high retention capacity for radionuclides, and capability to self-seal fractures induced by tunnel excavation. For example, Callovo-Oxfordian argillites at the Bure site, France (Fouche et al., 2004), Toarcian argillites at the Tournemire site, France (Patriarche et al., 2004), Opalinus clay at the Mont Terri site, Switzerland (Meier et al., 2000), and Boom clay at Mol site, Belgium (Barnichon et al., 2005) have all been under intensive scientific investigations (at both field and laboratory scales) for understanding a variety of rock properties and their relations with flow and transport processes associated with geological disposal of nuclear waste. Clay/shale formations may be generally classified as indurated and plastic clays (Tsang et al., 2005). The latter (including Boom clay) is a softer material without high cohesion; its deformation is dominantly plastic. For both clay rocks, coupled thermal, hydrological, mechanical and chemical (THMC) processes are expected to have a significant impact on the long-term safety of a clay repository. For

  7. The Current Status of Radioactive Waste Management and Planning for Near Surface Disposal in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Purnomo, A. S.

    2003-02-24

    Near surface disposal has been practiced for some decades, with a wide variation in sites, types and amounts of wastes, and facility designs employed. Experience has shown that the effective and safe isolation of waste depends on the performance of the overall disposal system, which is formed by three major components or barriers: the site, the disposal facility and the waste form. Near surface disposal also rely on active institutional controls, such as monitoring and maintenance. The objective of radioactive waste disposal is to isolate waste so that it does not result in undue radiation exposure to humans and the environment. The required degree of isolation can be obtained by implementing various disposal methods, of which near surface disposal represents an option commonly used and demonstrated in several countries. In near surface disposal, the disposal facility is located on or below the ground surface, where the protective covering is generally a few meters thick. The se facilities are intended to contain low and intermediate level waste without appreciable quantities of long-lived radionuclides.

  8. Treatment and disposal of high-level radioactive waste at the Hanford Site: The technical challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Wodrich, D.D.; Honeyman, J.O.; Wojtasek, R.D.

    1994-07-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, has the most diverse and largest amount of radioactive tank waste in the US. A Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program was established in 1991 to safely store, treat, and dispose of those wastes. This paper describes the technical challenge in conducting the TWRS Program that will take more than 30 years and cost tens of billions of dollars to complete.

  9. Technical and design update in the AUBE French low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    SciTech Connect

    Marque, Y.

    1989-01-01

    Long-term industrial management of radioactive waste in France is carried out by the Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs (ANDRA). ANDRA is in charge of design, siting, construction, and operation of disposal centers. The solution selected in France for the disposal of low- and medium-level, short-lived radioactive waste is near-surface disposal in the earth using the principle of multiple barriers, in accordance with national safety rules and regulations, and based on operating experience from the Centre de Stockage de la Manche. Since the center's start-up in 1969, 400,000 m{sup 3} of waste have been disposed of. The French national program for waste management is proceeding with the construction of a second near-surface disposal, which is expected to be operational in 1991. It is located in the department of AUBE (from which its name derives), 100 miles southeast of Paris. The paper describes the criteria for siting and design of the AUBE disposal facility, design of the AUBE facility disposal module, and comparison with North Carolina and Pennsylvania disposal facility designs.

  10. Gamma-ray spectrometry method used for radioactive waste drums characterization for final disposal at National Repository for Low and Intermediate Radioactive Waste--Baita, Romania.

    PubMed

    Done, L; Tugulan, L C; Dragolici, F; Alexandru, C

    2014-05-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Department from IFIN-HH, Bucharest, performs the conditioning of the institutional radioactive waste in concrete matrix, in 200 l drums with concrete shield, for final disposal at DNDR - Baita, Bihor county, in an old exhausted uranium mine. This paper presents a gamma-ray spectrometry method for the characterization of the radioactive waste drums' radionuclides content, for final disposal. In order to study the accuracy of the method, a similar concrete matrix with Portland cement in a 200 l drum was used. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

  11. Developing operating procedures for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, A.A.; Miner, G.L.; Grahn, K.F.; Pollard, C.G.

    1993-10-01

    This document is intended to assist persons who are developing operating and emergency procedures for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. It provides 25 procedures that are considered to be relatively independent of the characteristics of a disposal facility site, the facility design, and operations at the facility. These generic procedures should form a good starting point for final procedures on their subjects for the disposal facility. In addition, this document provides 55 annotated outlines of other procedures that are common to disposal facilities. The annotated outlines are meant as checklists to assist the developer of new procedures.

  12. Review of private sector treatment, storage, and disposal capacity for radioactive waste. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.; Harris, J.G.; Moore-Mayne, S.; Mayes, R.; Naretto, C.

    1995-04-14

    This report is an update of a report that summarized the current and near-term commercial and disposal of radioactive and mixed waste. This report was capacity for the treatment, storage, dating and written for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) with the objective of updating and expanding the report entitled ``Review of Private Sector Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Capacity for Radioactive Waste``, (INEL-95/0020, January 1995). The capacity to process radioactively-contaminated protective clothing and/or respirators was added to the list of private sector capabilities to be assessed. Of the 20 companies surveyed in the previous report, 14 responded to the request for additional information, five did not respond, and one asked to be deleted from the survey. One additional company was identified as being capable of performing LLMW treatability studies and six were identified as providers of laundering services for radioactively-contaminated protective clothing and/or respirators.

  13. History of disposal of radioactive wastes into the ground at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Coobs, J.H.; Gissel, J.R.

    1986-10-01

    Since the beginning of operations at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in 1943, shallow land burial has been used for the disposal of solid low-level radioactive waste. These wastes have originated from nearly every operating facility, and from 1955 to 1963, ORNL's solid waste storage areas were designated by the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) as the Southern Regional Burial Ground. During this period, about one million cubic feet of solid waste from various off-site installations were buried in solid waste storage areas (SWSAs) 4 and 5. Six SWSAs have been used since land burial operations began at ORNL in early 1944. ORNL has generated liquid radioactive waste since the separation of plutonium began in 1944. The majority of these wastes are classified as process (low-level) waste and are derived from evaporator condensate and cooling water from process vessels, and from building drains and surface drainage from contaminated areas. Process wastes are monitored at sampling stations located strategicially throughout the plant, and for nearly 15 years (1944 to 1957) they were discharged directly into White Oak Creek without being treated chemically to remove radionuclides. A smaller quantity of intermediate-level wastes (ILW) originate from the radiochemical separation process and from test reactors. The collection, treatment, and methods of disposal of ILW from the years 1943 to 1981 are described. Over this period of time there was a great deal of variation in the amounts and types of radioactive liquid wastes generated.

  14. PROBABILISTIC RISK ANALYSIS OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSALS - a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinchero, P.; Delos, A.; Tartakovsky, D. M.; Fernandez-Garcia, D.; Bolster, D.; Dentz, M.; Sanchez-Vila, X.; Molinero, J.

    2009-12-01

    The storage of contaminant material in superficial or sub-superficial repositories, such as tailing piles for mine waste or disposal sites for low and intermediate nuclear waste, poses a potential threat for the surrounding biosphere. The minimization of these risks can be achieved by supporting decision-makers with quantitative tools capable to incorporate all source of uncertainty within a rigorous probabilistic framework. A case study is presented where we assess the risks associated to the superficial storage of hazardous waste close to a populated area. The intrinsic complexity of the problem, involving many events with different spatial and time scales and many uncertainty parameters is overcome by using a formal PRA (probabilistic risk assessment) procedure that allows decomposing the system into a number of key events. Hence, the failure of the system is directly linked to the potential contamination of one of the three main receptors: the underlying karst aquifer, a superficial stream that flows near the storage piles and a protection area surrounding a number of wells used for water supply. The minimal cut sets leading to the failure of the system are obtained by defining a fault-tree that incorporates different events including the failure of the engineered system (e.g. cover of the piles) and the failure of the geological barrier (e.g. clay layer that separates the bottom of the pile from the karst formation). Finally the probability of failure is quantitatively assessed combining individual independent or conditional probabilities that are computed numerically or borrowed from reliability database.

  15. Vendor assessments of radioactive/mixed waste processing/disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Bourassa, J.; Piscitello, T.

    1996-10-01

    This paper was developed based on Yankee Atomic Electric Company experiences gained through the performance of vendor assessments of radioactive and mixed waste processing and disposal facilities. This paper will provide insights to companies or organizations who have radioactive and/or mixed waste which requires disposal. The paper will discuss the technical, legal and programmatic issues which should be considered when evaluating waste processing and/or disposal options. The discussion focuses on the methods utilized for the preparation, performance and reporting of assessments of waste disposal vendors. The paper includes a discussion of the scope and purpose of the assessment process, and the methodologies and approach taken to evaluate the technical and programmatic areas. This paper provides guidance and direction to those individuals involved in evaluating the capabilities of the waste processing and or disposal vendors. The paper is also a resource which identifies regulatory and industry guidance available for consideration in the planning for a waste disposal/processing vendor assessment. The company needs to determine what is the most practical disposal method. This disposal method may be a combination of waste processing and direct disposal, which is consistent with the methodologies utilized by the Yankee Atomic Electric Company at the Yankee Nuclear Power Station and by other Yankee plants. Due to the anticipated/active need for utilizing a number of vendors for performing these activities, the determination has been made that assessments of the vendors supplying the services are required to ensure that activities are being effectively performed in order to minimize potential liabilities. The assessments need to consider not only the technical aspects of the operations, but also require an evaluation of the quality system(s) being utilized to ensure the consistent and effective implementation of applicable process controls.

  16. Feasibility of space disposal of radioactive nuclear waste. 2: Technical summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The feasibility of transporting radioactive waste produced in the process of generating electricity in nuclear powerplants into space for ultimate disposal was investigated at the request of the AEC as a NASA in-house effort. The investigation is part of a broad AEC study of methods for long-term storage or disposal of radioactive waste. The results of the study indicate that transporting specific radioactive wastes, particularly the actinides with very long half-lives, into space using the space shuttle/tug as the launch system, appears feasible from the engineering and safety viewpoints. The space transportation costs for ejecting the actinides out of the solar system would represent less than a 5-percent increase in the average consumer's electric bill.

  17. Implications of recent ICRP recommendations for risk assessments for radioactive waste disposal and cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Devgun, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) adopted a new set of recommendations in November 1990 which were issued at ICRP Publication No. 60 in March 1991. These recommendations incorporate new radiobiological information and outline a comprehensive system of radiological protection. This paper evaluates the implications of these new recommendations vis a vis risk assessments for radioactive waste disposal and remediation of radioactively contaminated sites.

  18. Implications of recent ICRP recommendations for risk assessments for radioactive waste disposal and cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Devgun, J.S.

    1992-04-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) adopted a new set of recommendations in November 1990 which were issued at ICRP Publication No. 60 in March 1991. These recommendations incorporate new radiobiological information and outline a comprehensive system of radiological protection. This paper evaluates the implications of these new recommendations vis a vis risk assessments for radioactive waste disposal and remediation of radioactively contaminated sites.

  19. Managing commercial low-level radioactive waste beyond 1992: Transportation planning for a LLW disposal facility

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, G.J.

    1992-01-01

    This technical bulletin presents information on the many activities and issues related to transportation of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) to allow interested States to investigate further those subjects for which proactive preparation will facilitate the development and operation of a LLW disposal facility. The activities related to transportation for a LLW disposal facility are discussed under the following headings: safety; legislation, regulations, and implementation guidance; operations-related transport (LLW and non-LLW traffic); construction traffic; economics; and public involvement.

  20. Inter-generational Decision Making for Radioactive Waste Disposal, Policy and Science: Regulatory Protection Forever?

    SciTech Connect

    Regnier, E.P.; Wallo, A.

    2006-07-01

    Assumptions about this generation's duty to future generations underlie decisions on regulatory requirements for disposal of radioactive waste. Regulatory provisions related to time of compliance, dose criteria, and institutional controls, for example, continue to be topics of discussion as regulations are revised or compared. Subjective and difficult ethical issues are either explicit or implicit in these discussions. The information and criteria used must be relevant and help make good decisions that, ideally, increase the overall welfare of future generations. To what extent can or should science usefully inform such decision-making? Both the National Academies of Science and the National Academy of Public Administration (NAPA) have reported on this topic, albeit from different viewpoints. This paper explains and expands upon the rationale used for setting compliance time periods such as the Department of Energy's requirement for a 1,000 year time of compliance with dose limits for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. It evaluates radioactive waste disposal against principles of equity recommended by NAPA. Radioactive waste disposal standards require evaluation of impacts much farther into the future than has been common for other endeavors with very long term effects. While performance assessment analyses provide much useful information, their inherent uncertainties over long time periods preclude the projection of reality. Thus, the usefulness of extremely long projections in supporting good decisions that promote the welfare of future generations is limited. Such decisions are fundamentally a question of resource allocation, equity, and fairness. (authors)

  1. Issues and Experiences on Radioactive Waste Quality Control / Quality Assurance with Regard to Future Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Beckmerhagen, I.; Brennecke, P.; Steyer, S.; Bandt, G.

    2006-07-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany all types of radioactive waste (short-lived, long-lived) are to be disposed of in deep geological formations. Thus, the safe management of radioactive waste presupposes an appropriate conditioning of primary waste-to-waste packages suitable for emplacement in a repository as well as the documentation of pre-treatment, processing and packaging steps and the waste package characteristics being relevant for disposal. Due to the operation, decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear facilities as well as the application of radioisotopes in industry, medicine and research and development radioactive waste continuously arises in Germany. In order to manage this waste different measures and procedures regarding its conditioning and quality control/quality assurance were introduced and since many years successfully applied. Waste conditioning is especially characterized by a flexible application of the Konrad waste acceptance requirements. The rationale for this approach is due to the present non-availability of a repository in Germany. Several examples of a 'tailor-made' application of the waste acceptance requirements in treatment, conditioning and documentation processes as well as the quality assurance/quality control processes illustrate the current German approach. (authors)

  2. Cement-based grouts in geological disposal of radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Onofrei, M.

    1996-04-01

    The behavior and performance of a specially developed high-performance cement-based grout has been studied through a combined laboratory and in situ research program conducted under the auspices of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program (CNFWMP). A new class of cement-based grouts - high-performance grouts-with the ability to penetrate and seal fine fractures was developed and investigated. These high-performance grouts, which were injected into fractures in the granitic rock at the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in Canada, are shown to successfully reduce the hydraulic conductivity of the rock mass from <10{sup -7} m s{sup -1} to 10{sup -9} m s{sup -1} and to penetrate fissures in the rock with apertures as small as 10 {mu}m. Furthermore, the laboratory studies have shown that this high - performance grout has very low hydraulic conductivity and is highly leach resistant under repository conditions. Microcracks generated in this materials from shrinkage, overstressing or thermal loads are likely to self-seal. The results of these studies suggest that the high-performance grouts can be considered as viable materials in disposal-vault sealing applications. Further work is needed to fully justify extrapolation of the results of the laboratory studies to time scales relevant to performance assessment.

  3. Geohydrologic aspects for siting and design of low-level radioactive-waste disposal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bedinger, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    The objective for siting and design of low-level radioactive-waste repository sites is to isolate the waste from the biosphere until the waste no longer poses an unacceptable hazard as a result of radioactive decay. Low-level radioactive waste commonly is isolated at shallow depths with various engineered features to stabilize the waste and to reduce its dissolution and transport by ground water. The unsaturated zone generally is preferred for isolating the waste. Low-level radioactive waste may need to be isolated for 300 to 500 years. Maintenance and monitoring of the repository site are required by Federal regulations for only the first 100 years. Therefore, geohydrology of the repository site needs to provide natural isolation of the waste for the hazardous period following maintenance of the site. Engineering design of the repository needs to be compatible with the natural geohydrologic conditions at the site. Studies at existing commercial and Federal waste-disposal sites provide information on the problems encountered and the basis for establishing siting guidelines for improved isolation of radioactive waste, engineering design of repository structures, and surveillance needs to assess the effectiveness of the repositories and to provide early warning of problems that may require remedial action. Climate directly affects the hydrology of a site and probably is the most important single factor that affects the suitability of a site for shallow-land burial of low-level radioactive waste. Humid and subhumid regions are not well suited for shallow isolation of low-level radioactive waste in the unsaturated zone; arid regions with zero to small infiltration from precipitation, great depths to the water table, and long flow paths to natural discharge areas are naturally well suited to isolation of the waste. The unsaturated zone is preferred for isolation of low-level radioactive waste. The guiding rationale is to minimize contact of water with the waste and to

  4. Preliminary Comparison of Radioactive Waste Disposal Cost for Fusion and Fission Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seki, Yasushi; Aoki, Isao; Yamano, Naoki; Tabara, Takashi

    1997-09-01

    The environmental and economic impact of radioactive waste (radwaste) generated from fusion power reactors using five types of structural materials and a fission reactor has been evaluated and compared. Possible radwaste disposal scenario of fusion radwaste in Japan is considered. The exposure doses were evaluated for the skyshine of gamma-ray during the disposal operation, groundwater migration scenario during the institutional control period of 300 years and future site use scenario after the institutional period. The radwaste generated from a typical light water fission reactor was evaluated using the same methodology as for the fusion reactors. It is found that radwaste from the fusion reactors using F82H and SiC/SiC composites without impurities could be disposed by the shallow land disposal presently applied to the low level waste in Japan. The disposal cost of radwaste from five fusion power reactors and a typical light water reactor were roughly evaluated and compared.

  5. Overview of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.

    1994-12-31

    Disposal of commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLW) is a critical part of the national infrastructure needed to maintain the health of American businesses, universities, and hospitals. Currently only 19 States (located in the Northwest and Southeast) have access to operating disposal facilities; all other States are storing their LLW until they open new disposal facilities on their own or in concert with other States through regional compact agreements. In response to recommendations from the National Governors Association, Congress assigned the burden for LLW disposal to all States, first in 1980 through Public Law 96-573, the {open_quotes}Low-level Radioactive Waste Policy Act{close_quotes}, and again in 1986 through Public Law 99-240, the {open_quotes}Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985{close_quotes}. As directed by Congress, the Department of Energy provides technical assistance to States and compact regions with this task. After almost 14 years, nine compact regions have been ratified by Congress; California, Texas, North Carolina, and Nebraska have submitted license applications; California has issued an operating license; and the number of operating disposal facilities has decreased from three to two.

  6. Disposal of low-level and mixed low-level radioactive waste during 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    Isotopic inventories and other data are presented for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed LLW disposed (and occasionally stored) during calendar year 1990 at commercial disposal facilities and Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Detailed isotopic information is presented for the three commercial disposal facilities located near Barnwell, SC, Richland, WA, and Beatty, NV. Less information is presented for the Envirocare disposal facility located near Clive, UT, and for LLW stored during 1990 at the West Valley site. DOE disposal information is included for the Savannah River Site (including the saltstone facility), Nevada Test Site, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Hanford Site, Y-12 Site, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Summary information is presented about stored DOE LLW. Suggestions are made about improving LLW disposal data.

  7. Management of ocean disposal of radioactive wastes: a basis for the control of other pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Templeton, W.L.

    1981-09-01

    To manage, on a scientific basis, the quantities of all kinds of waste disposal to coastal waters and open oceans it is necessary to assess the environmental or assimilative capacity for these materials which will not result in an unacceptable biological impact upon the components of the ecosystem nor on man who uses its resources. One approach available is that which has been demonstrated for the management of the disposal of radioactive wastes to the oceans. Methodologies have been developed, both generic and site-specific, which allow the relationship between discharge or release rate and the radiation dose to be established. Guidelines and recommendations which govern acceptable radiation exposed to man have been developed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). These methodologies developed for the control of radioactive wastes can be applied directly for public health protection for non-radioactive wastes such as metals and organochlorine pesticides. ICRP recommendations on justification and optimization can be integrated into an overall management philosophy in order to quantify alternative waste disposal options.

  8. Unrestricted disposal of minimal activity levels of radioactive wastes: exposure and risk calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, D.E.; Emerson, C.J.

    1984-08-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is currently considering revision of rule 10 CFR Part 20, which covers disposal of solid wastes containing minimal radioactivity. In support of these revised rules, we have evaluated the consequences of disposing of four waste streams at four types of disposal areas located in three different geographic regions. Consequences are expressed in terms of human exposures and associated health effects. Each geographic region has its own climate and geology. Example waste streams, waste disposal methods, and geographic regions chosen for this study are clearly specified. Monetary consequences of minimal activity waste disposal are briefly discussed. The PRESTO methodology was used to evaluate radionuclide transport and health effects. This methodology was developed to assess radiological impacts to a static local population for a 1000-year period following disposal. Pathways and processes of transit from the trench to exposed populations included the following considerations: groundwater transport, overland flow, erosion, surface water dilution, resuspension, atmospheric transport, deposition, inhalation, and ingestion of contaminated beef, milk, crops, and water. 12 references, 2 figures, 8 tables.

  9. Safety Assessment for VLLW Disposal at the National Radioactive Waste Repository Mochovce in Slovakia - 13508

    SciTech Connect

    Biurrun, E.; Haverkamp, B.; Lazaro, A.; Miralles, A.

    2013-07-01

    Recent developments in the Slovak Republic have prompted the need to introduce the new category of very low level waste (VLLW) in the operation of the country's repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW). By doing this, significant savings are expected to be achieved while disposing the waste resulting from early decommissioning of older, Soviet type reactors. To study the feasibility and the likely impact of such introduction, a project was launched and assigned in international competition to a German-Spanish consortium. The study confirmed by means of a safety assessment the feasibility of this waste category in the specific context of the Slovakian repository. Moreover, the advantages that such new waste category would render were stressed and the best option for enlargement of the repository, the construction of a module for LILW disposal within the limits of the existing repository, was identified. (authors)

  10. 1997 State-by-State Assessment of Low-Level Radioactive Wastes Received at Commercial Disposal Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, R. L.

    1998-08-01

    Each year the National Low-Level Waste Management Program publishes a state-by-state assessment report. This report provides both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive waste commercially disposed in the United States. Data in this report are categorized according to disposal site, generator category, waste class, volumes, and radionuclide activity. Included in this report are tables showing the distribution of waste by state for 1997 and a comparison of waste volumes and radioactivity by state for 1993 through 1997; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in the United States as of December 31, 1997.

  11. Radioactive waste management: the relation between geological disposal and advanced nuclear technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Schroder, Jantine

    2013-07-01

    Throughout this paper we aim to scope the most pregnant themes, issues and research questions concerning the relation between geological disposal and advanced nuclear technologies in the broad context of radioactive waste management. Especially from a socio-technical point of view the mutual impacts, divergences and complementarities between both strategies seem to have received limited dedicated examination up until today. Specific attention is paid to the main arguments that seem to underpin both research streams, related to how the issue of radioactive waste is contextualized and which problems and solutions are consequently identified and proposed. Ultimately we aim to encourage scientifically integer communication and constructive dialogue between both fields, to investigate the common possibilities of enhancing radioactive waste management as a whole. (authors)

  12. The plasma aspects of new method of the radioactive waste disposal in cosmic space

    SciTech Connect

    Kirichenko, V.G.; Tkachenko, V.I.

    1994-12-31

    In this report the solar wind plasma aspects of the new conception of irrevocable radioactive waste disposal in the cosmic space is considered. This conception is based on the theoretical analysis of interaction of the specially prepared dispersed radioactive waste (astrosol type particles) with magnetic field of Earth and solar wind plasma. This conception may be modified by application of the external electromagnetic forces. The proposed method involves the preliminary treatment of the fine-dispersed radioactive waste with high-temperature compounds for the creation of locally compact particles. After launching in cosmic space, astrozole type particles are removed to the borders of the Solar System due to effective interaction of particles with solar wind.

  13. Selection of low-level radioactive waste disposal sites using screening models versus more complex methodologies

    SciTech Connect

    Uslu, I.; Fields, D.E. )

    1993-10-01

    The task of choosing a waste-disposal site from a set of candidate sites requires an approach capable of objectively handling many environmental variables for each site. Several computer methodologies have been developed to assist in the process of choosing a site for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste; however, most of these models are costly to apply, in terms of computer resources and the time and effort required by professional modelers, geologists, and waste-disposal experts. The authors describe how the relatively simple DRASTIC methodology (a standardized system for evaluating groundwater pollution potential using hydrogeologic settings) may be used for [open quotes]pre-screening[close quotes] of sites to determine which subset of candidate sites is worthy of more detailed screening. Results of site comparisons made with DRASTIC are compared with results obtained using PRESTO-II methodology, which is representative of the more complex release-transport-human exposure methodologies. 6 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  14. 1996 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes received at commercial disposal sites

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, R.L.

    1997-09-01

    Each year the National Low-Level Waste Management Program publishes a state-by-state assessment report. This report provides both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive waste commercially disposed in the US. Data in this report are categorized according to disposal site, generator category, waste class, volumes, and radionuclide activity. Included in this report are tables showing the distribution of waste by state for 1996 and a comparison of waste volumes and radioactivity by state for 1992 through 1996; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in the US as of December 31, 1996. This report distinguishes between low-level radioactive waste shipped directly for disposal by generators and waste that was handled by an intermediary, a reporting change introduced in the 1988 state-by-state report.

  15. 1995 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes received at commercial disposal sites

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, R.L.

    1996-09-01

    Each year the National Low-Level Waste Management Program publishes a state-by-state assessment report. This report provides both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive waste commercially disposed in US. Data in this report are categorized according to disposal site, generator category, waste class, volumes, and radionuclide activity. Included are tables showing the distribution of waste by state for 1995 and a comparison of waste volumes and radioactivity by state for 1991 through 1995; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in US as of Dec. 31, 1994. This report distinguishes low-level radioactive waste shipped directly for disposal by generators and waste handled by an intermediary.

  16. Radiocarbon signal of a low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal facility in nearby trees.

    PubMed

    Janovics, R; Kelemen, D I; Kern, Z; Kapitány, S; Veres, M; Jull, A J T; Molnár, M

    2016-03-01

    Tree ring series were collected from the vicinity of a Hungarian radioactive waste treatment and disposal facility and from a distant control background site, which is not influenced by the radiocarbon discharge of the disposal facility but it represents the natural regional (14)C level. The (14)C concentration of the cellulose content of tree rings was measured by AMS. Data of the tree ring series from the disposal facility was compared to the control site for each year. The results were also compared to the (14)C data of the atmospheric (14)C monitoring stations at the disposal facility and to international background measurements. On the basis of the results, the excess radiocarbon of the disposal facility can unambiguously be detected in the tree from the repository site. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Low-level radioactive waste disposal in the United States: An overview of current commercial regulations and concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.

    1993-08-01

    Commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal in the United States is regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) under 10 CFR 61 (1991). This regulation was issued in 1981 after a lengthy and thorough development process that considered the radionuclide concentrations and characteristics associated with commercial low-level radioactive waste streams; alternatives for waste classification; alternative technologies for low-level radioactive waste disposal; and data, modeling, and scenario analyses. The development process also included the publication of both draft and final environmental impact statements. The final regulation describes the general provisions; licenses; performance objectives; technical requirements for land disposal; financial assurances; participation by state governments and Indian tribes; and records, reports, tests, and inspections. This paper provides an overview of, and tutorial on, current commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal regulations in the United States.

  18. Biodegradation of the alkaline cellulose degradation products generated during radioactive waste disposal.

    PubMed

    Rout, Simon P; Radford, Jessica; Laws, Andrew P; Sweeney, Francis; Elmekawy, Ahmed; Gillie, Lisa J; Humphreys, Paul N

    2014-01-01

    The anoxic, alkaline hydrolysis of cellulosic materials generates a range of cellulose degradation products (CDP) including α and β forms of isosaccharinic acid (ISA) and is expected to occur in radioactive waste disposal sites receiving intermediate level radioactive wastes. The generation of ISA's is of particular relevance to the disposal of these wastes since they are able to form complexes with radioelements such as Pu enhancing their migration. This study demonstrates that microbial communities present in near-surface anoxic sediments are able to degrade CDP including both forms of ISA via iron reduction, sulphate reduction and methanogenesis, without any prior exposure to these substrates. No significant difference (n = 6, p = 0.118) in α and β ISA degradation rates were seen under either iron reducing, sulphate reducing or methanogenic conditions, giving an overall mean degradation rate of 4.7 × 10(-2) hr(-1) (SE ± 2.9 × 10(-3)). These results suggest that a radioactive waste disposal site is likely to be colonised by organisms able to degrade CDP and associated ISA's during the construction and operational phase of the facility.

  19. Biodegradation of the Alkaline Cellulose Degradation Products Generated during Radioactive Waste Disposal

    PubMed Central

    Rout, Simon P.; Radford, Jessica; Laws, Andrew P.; Sweeney, Francis; Elmekawy, Ahmed; Gillie, Lisa J.; Humphreys, Paul N.

    2014-01-01

    The anoxic, alkaline hydrolysis of cellulosic materials generates a range of cellulose degradation products (CDP) including α and β forms of isosaccharinic acid (ISA) and is expected to occur in radioactive waste disposal sites receiving intermediate level radioactive wastes. The generation of ISA's is of particular relevance to the disposal of these wastes since they are able to form complexes with radioelements such as Pu enhancing their migration. This study demonstrates that microbial communities present in near-surface anoxic sediments are able to degrade CDP including both forms of ISA via iron reduction, sulphate reduction and methanogenesis, without any prior exposure to these substrates. No significant difference (n = 6, p = 0.118) in α and β ISA degradation rates were seen under either iron reducing, sulphate reducing or methanogenic conditions, giving an overall mean degradation rate of 4.7×10−2 hr−1 (SE±2.9×10−3). These results suggest that a radioactive waste disposal site is likely to be colonised by organisms able to degrade CDP and associated ISA's during the construction and operational phase of the facility. PMID:25268118

  20. DRINK: a biogeochemical source term model for low level radioactive waste disposal sites.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, P; McGarry, R; Hoffmann, A; Binks, P

    1997-07-01

    Interactions between element chemistry and the ambient geochemistry play a significant role in the control of radionuclide migration in the geosphere. These same interactions influence radionuclide release from near surface, low level radioactive waste, disposal sites once physical containment has degraded. In situations where LLW contains significant amounts of metal and organic materials such as cellulose, microbial degradation in conjunction with corrosion can significantly perturb the ambient geochemistry. These processes typically produce a transition from oxidising to reducing conditions and can influence radionuclide migration through changes in both the dominant radionuclide species and mineral phases. The DRINK (DRIgg Near field Kinetic) code is a biogeochemical transport code designed to simulate the long term evolution of the UK low level radioactive waste disposal site at Drigg. Drigg is the UK's principal solid low level radioactive waste disposal site and has been receiving waste since 1959. The interaction between microbial activity, the ambient geochemistry and radionuclide chemistry is central to the DRINK approach with the development of the ambient pH, redox potential and bulk geochemistry being directly influenced by microbial activity. This paper describes the microbial aspects of the code, site data underpinning the microbial model, the microbiology/chemistry interface and provides an example of the code in action.

  1. Investigations of the unsaturated zone at two radioactive waste disposal sites in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Skuratovič, Žana; Mažeika, Jonas; Petrošius, Rimantas; Martma, Tõnu

    2016-01-01

    The unsaturated zone is an important part of the water cycle, governed by many hydrological and hydrogeological factors and processes and provide water and nutrients to the terrestrial ecosystem. Besides, the soils of the unsaturated zone are regarded as the first natural barrier to a large extent and are able to limit the spread of contaminants depending on their properties. The unsaturated zone provides a linkage between atmospheric moisture, groundwater, and seepage of groundwater to streams, lakes, or other surface water bodies. The major difference between water flow in saturated and unsaturated soils is that the hydraulic conductivity, which is conventionally assumed to be a constant in saturated soils, is a function of the degree of saturation or matrix suction in the unsaturated soils. In Lithuania, low and intermediate level radioactive wastes generated from medicine, industry and research were accumulated at the Maisiagala radioactive waste repository. Short-lived low and intermediate levels radioactive waste, generated during the operation of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) and arising after the INPP decommissioning will be disposed of in the near surface repository close to the INPP (Stabatiske site). Extensive data sets of the hydraulic properties and water content attributed to unsaturated zone soil profiles of the two radioactive waste disposal sites have been collected and summarized. Globally widespread radionuclide tritium ((3)H) and stable isotope ratio ((18)O/(16)O and (2)H/(1)H) distribution features were determined in precipitation, unsaturated zone soil moisture profiles and groundwater.

  2. Radioactive waste disposal sites: Two successful closures at Tinker Air Force Base

    SciTech Connect

    McKenzie, G.; Mohatt, J.V.; Kowall, S.J.; Jarvis, M.F.

    1993-06-01

    This article describes remediation and closure of two radioactive waste disposal sites at Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma, making them exemption regulatory control. The approach consisted of careful exhumation and assessment of soils in sites expected to be contaminated based on historical documentation, word of mouth, and geophysical surveys; removal of buried objects that had gamma radiation exposure levels above background; and confirmation that the soil containing residual radium-226 was below an activity level equal to no more than a 10 mrem/yr annual dose equivalent. In addition, 4464 kg of chemically contaminated excavated soils were removed for disposal. After remediation, the sites met standards for unrestricted use. These sites were two of the first three Air Force radioactive disposal sites to be closed and were the first to be closed under Draft NUREG/CR-5512.

  3. Reference design and operations for deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Herrick, Courtney Grant; Brady, Patrick Vane; Pye, Steven; Arnold, Bill Walter; Finger, John Travis; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2011-10-01

    A reference design and operational procedures for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in deep boreholes have been developed and documented. The design and operations are feasible with currently available technology and meet existing safety and anticipated regulatory requirements. Objectives of the reference design include providing a baseline for more detailed technical analyses of system performance and serving as a basis for comparing design alternatives. Numerous factors suggest that deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste is inherently safe. Several lines of evidence indicate that groundwater at depths of several kilometers in continental crystalline basement rocks has long residence times and low velocity. High salinity fluids have limited potential for vertical flow because of density stratification and prevent colloidal transport of radionuclides. Geochemically reducing conditions in the deep subsurface limit the solubility and enhance the retardation of key radionuclides. A non-technical advantage that the deep borehole concept may offer over a repository concept is that of facilitating incremental construction and loading at multiple perhaps regional locations. The disposal borehole would be drilled to a depth of 5,000 m using a telescoping design and would be logged and tested prior to waste emplacement. Waste canisters would be constructed of carbon steel, sealed by welds, and connected into canister strings with high-strength connections. Waste canister strings of about 200 m length would be emplaced in the lower 2,000 m of the fully cased borehole and be separated by bridge and cement plugs. Sealing of the upper part of the borehole would be done with a series of compacted bentonite seals, cement plugs, cement seals, cement plus crushed rock backfill, and bridge plugs. Elements of the reference design meet technical requirements defined in the study. Testing and operational safety assurance requirements are also defined. Overall

  4. A brief analysis and description of transuranic wastes in the Subsurface Disposal Area of the radioactive waste management complex at INEL

    SciTech Connect

    Arrenholz, D.A.; Knight, J.L.

    1991-08-01

    This document presents a brief summary of the wastes and waste types disposed of in the transuranic contaminated portions of the Subsurface Disposal Area of the radioactive waste management complex at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory from 1954 through 1970. Wastes included in this summary are organics, inorganics, metals, radionuclides, and atypical wastes. In addition to summarizing amounts of wastes disposed and describing the wastes, the document also provides information on disposal pit and trench dimensions and contaminated soil volumes. The report also points out discrepancies that exist in available documentation regarding waste and soil volumes and make recommendations for future efforts at waste characterization. 19 refs., 3 figs., 17 tabs.

  5. An overview of radioactive waste disposal procedures of a nuclear medicine department.

    PubMed

    Ravichandran, R; Binukumar, J P; Sreeram, Rajan; Arunkumar, L S

    2011-04-01

    Radioactive wastes from hospitals form one of the various types of urban wastes, which are managed in developed countries in a safe and organized way. In countries where growth of nuclear medicine services are envisaged, implementations of existing regulatory policies and guidelines in hospitals in terms of handling of radioactive materials used in the treatment of patients need a good model. To address this issue, a brief description of the methods is presented. A designed prototype waste storage trolley is found to be of great help in decaying the I-131 solid wastes from wards before releasing to waste treatment plant of the city. Two delay tanks with collection time of about 2 months and delay time of 2 months alternately result in 6 releases of urine toilet effluents to the sewage treatment plant (STP) of the hospital annually. Samples of effluents collected at releasing time documented radioactive releases of I-131 much below recommended levels of bi-monthly release. External counting of samples showed good statistical correlation with calculated values. An overview of safe procedures for radioactive waste disposal is presented.

  6. An overview of radioactive waste disposal procedures of a nuclear medicine department

    PubMed Central

    Ravichandran, R.; Binukumar, J. P.; Sreeram, Rajan; Arunkumar, L. S.

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive wastes from hospitals form one of the various types of urban wastes, which are managed in developed countries in a safe and organized way. In countries where growth of nuclear medicine services are envisaged, implementations of existing regulatory policies and guidelines in hospitals in terms of handling of radioactive materials used in the treatment of patients need a good model. To address this issue, a brief description of the methods is presented. A designed prototype waste storage trolley is found to be of great help in decaying the I-131 solid wastes from wards before releasing to waste treatment plant of the city. Two delay tanks with collection time of about 2 months and delay time of 2 months alternately result in 6 releases of urine toilet effluents to the sewage treatment plant (STP) of the hospital annually. Samples of effluents collected at releasing time documented radioactive releases of I-131 much below recommended levels of bi-monthly release. External counting of samples showed good statistical correlation with calculated values. An overview of safe procedures for radioactive waste disposal is presented. PMID:21731225

  7. Development of a low-level radioactive waste disposal system in Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, D.J. )

    1992-01-01

    AECL, the Canadian national nuclear development agency, has operated a research and development centre at Chalk River Laboratories (CRL), Ontario since the 1940s. Wastes from AECL's research and development activities are managed at CRL, as well as low-level wastes from hospitals, universities research institutes and industries from across Canada, which are accepted on a commercial basis. Each of the nuclear electric utilities in Canada operates its own low-level radioactive waste storage facility. AECL's activities at CRL are considered as waste management, without formal distinction between storage (a situation for the wastes which is intended to be temporary) and disposal (a situation intended to be permanent). Currently, wastes with only low levels of activity are placed in a large unlined trench, while wastes with higher levels of activity are put into concrete bunkers and steel-lined concrete pipes, embedded in the ground, known as tile holes. It is anticipated that, with some additional upgrading of the cover, the trench facility will eventually be classified as disposal, whereas the wastes going into bunkers and tile holes will have to be recovered for disposal in some other type of facility.

  8. Aboveground roofed design for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste in Maine

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, J.A.

    1993-03-01

    The conceptual designs proposed in this report resulted from a study for the Maine Low-level Radioactive Waste Authority to develop conceptual designs for a safe and reliable disposal facility for Maine`s low-level radioactive waste (LLW). Freezing temperatures, heavy rainfall, high groundwater tables, and very complex and shallow glaciated soils found in Maine place severe constraints on the design. The fundamental idea behind the study was to consider Maine`s climatic and geological conditions at the beginning of conceptual design rather than starting with a design for another location and adapting it for Maine`s conditions. The conceptual designs recommended are entirely above ground and consist of an inner vault designed to provide shielding and protection against inadvertent intrusion and an outer building to protect the inner vault from water. The air dry conditions within the outer building should lead to almost indefinite service life for the concrete inner vault and the waste containers. This concept differs sharply from the usual aboveground vault in its reliance on at least two independent, but more or less conventional, roofing systems for primary and secondary protection against leakage of radioisotopes from the facility. Features include disposal of waste in air dry environment, waste loading and visual inspection by remote-controlled overhead cranes, and reliance on engineered soils for tertiary protection against release of radioactive materials.

  9. Disposal of low-level radioactive waste at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Sauls, V.W.

    1993-03-01

    An important objective of the Savannah River Site`s low-level radioactive waste management program is to isolate the waste from the environment both now and well into the future. A key element in achieving this is the disposal of low-level radioactive waste in sealed concrete vaults. Historically the Site has disposed of low-level radioactive waste via shallow land burial. In 1987, it was decided that better isolation from the environment was required. At that time several options for achieving this isolation were studied and below grade concrete vaults were chosen as the best method. This paper discusses the performance objectives for the vaults, the current design of the vaults and plans for the design of future vaults, the cost to construct the vaults, and the performance assessment on the vaults. Construction of the first set of vaults is essentially complete and readiness reviews before the start of waste receipt are being performed. Startup is to begin late in calendar year 1992 and continue through early CY 1993. The performance assessment is under way and the first draft is to be completed in early 1993.

  10. Formation of stable uranium(VI) colloidal nanoparticles in conditions relevant to radioactive waste disposal.

    PubMed

    Bots, Pieter; Morris, Katherine; Hibberd, Rosemary; Law, Gareth T W; Mosselmans, J Frederick W; Brown, Andy P; Doutch, James; Smith, Andrew J; Shaw, Samuel

    2014-12-09

    The favored pathway for disposal of higher activity radioactive wastes is via deep geological disposal. Many geological disposal facility designs include cement in their engineering design. Over the long term, interaction of groundwater with the cement and waste will form a plume of a hyperalkaline leachate (pH 10-13), and the behavior of radionuclides needs to be constrained under these extreme conditions to minimize the environmental hazard from the wastes. For uranium, a key component of many radioactive wastes, thermodynamic modeling predicts that, at high pH, U(VI) solubility will be very low (nM or lower) and controlled by equilibrium with solid phase alkali and alkaline-earth uranates. However, the formation of U(VI) colloids could potentially enhance the mobility of U(VI) under these conditions, and characterizing the potential for formation and medium-term stability of U(VI) colloids is important in underpinning our understanding of U behavior in waste disposal. Reflecting this, we applied conventional geochemical and microscopy techniques combined with synchrotron based in situ and ex situ X-ray techniques (small-angle X-ray scattering and X-ray adsorption spectroscopy (XAS)) to characterize colloidal U(VI) nanoparticles in a synthetic cement leachate (pH > 13) containing 4.2-252 μM U(VI). The results show that in cement leachates with 42 μM U(VI), colloids formed within hours and remained stable for several years. The colloids consisted of 1.5-1.8 nm nanoparticles with a proportion forming 20-60 nm aggregates. Using XAS and electron microscopy, we were able to determine that the colloidal nanoparticles had a clarkeite (sodium-uranate)-type crystallographic structure. The presented results have clear and hitherto unrecognized implications for the mobility of U(VI) in cementitious environments, in particular those associated with the geological disposal of nuclear waste.

  11. Bacterial Diversity in Bentonites, Engineered Barrier for Deep Geological Disposal of Radioactive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Fernandez, Margarita; Cherkouk, Andrea; Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro; Jauregui, Ruy; Pieper, Dietmar; Boon, Nico; Sanchez-Castro, Ivan; Merroun, Mohamed L

    2015-11-01

    The long-term disposal of radioactive wastes in a deep geological repository is the accepted international solution for the treatment and management of these special residues. The microbial community of the selected host rocks and engineered barriers for the deep geological repository may affect the performance and the safety of the radioactive waste disposal. In this work, the bacterial population of bentonite formations of Almeria (Spain), selected as a reference material for bentonite-engineered barriers in the disposal of radioactive wastes, was studied. 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene-based approaches were used to study the bacterial community of the bentonite samples by traditional clone libraries and Illumina sequencing. Using both techniques, the bacterial diversity analysis revealed similar results, with phylotypes belonging to 14 different bacterial phyla: Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Armatimonadetes, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, Deinococcus-Thermus, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadetes, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria, Nitrospirae, Verrucomicrobia and an unknown phylum. The dominant groups of the community were represented by Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. A high diversity was found in three of the studied samples. However, two samples were less diverse and dominated by Betaproteobacteria.

  12. Application of total uncertainty theory in radioactive waste disposal facilities safety assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Lemos, Francisco Luiz de; Ross, Timothy; Sullivan, Terry

    2007-07-01

    Safety assessment requires the interaction of a large number of disciplines to model the environmental phenomena necessary to evaluate the safety of the disposal system. In this complex process, the identification and quantification of both types of uncertainties, random and epistemic, plays a very important role for confidence building. In this work an application of the concept of total uncertainty to radioactive waste disposal facilities safety assessment is proposed. By combining both types of uncertainty, aleatory and epistemic, in the same framework, this approach ultimately aims to assess the confidence one can pose in the safety-assessment decisions. (authors)

  13. Performance assessment overview for subseabed disposal of high level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Klett, R.D.

    1997-06-01

    The Subseabed Disposal Project (SDP) was part of an international program that investigated the feasibility of high-level radioactive waste disposal in the deep ocean sediments. This report briefly describes the seven-step iterative performance assessment procedures used in this study and presents representative results of the last iteration. The results of the performance are compared to interim standards developed for the SDP, to other conceptual repositories, and to related metrics. The attributes, limitations, uncertainties, and remaining tasks in the SDP feasibility phase are discussed.

  14. Social and institutional evaluation report for Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, T.L.; Lewis, B.E.; Turner, K.H.; Rozelle, M.A.

    1993-10-01

    This report identifies and characterizes social and institutional issues that would be relevant to the siting, licensing, construction, closure, and postclosure of a Greater-Than-Class-C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) disposal facility. A historical perspective of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and LLW disposal programs is provided as an overview of radioactive waste disposal and to support the recommendations and conclusions in the report. A characterization of each issue is provided to establish the basis for further evaluations. Where applicable, the regulatory requirements of 10 CFR 60 and 61 are incorporated in the issue characterizations. The issues are used to compare surface, intermediate depth, and deep geologic disposal alternatives. The evaluation establishes that social and institutional issues do not significantly discriminate among the disposal alternatives. Recommendations are provided for methods by which the issues could be considered throughout the lifecycle of a GTCC LLW disposal program.

  15. The Assessment of Future Human Actions at Radioactive Waste Disposal Sites: An international perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.R.; Galson, D.A.; Patera, E.S.

    1994-04-01

    For some deep geological disposal systems, the level of confinement provided by the natural and engineered barriers is considered to be so high that the greatest long-term risks associated with waste disposal may arise from the possibility of future human actions breaching the natural and/or engineered barrier systems. Following a Workshop in 1989, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency established a Working Group on Assessment of Future Human Actions (FHA) a Radioactive Waste Disposal Sites. This Group met four times in the period 1991--1993, and has extensively reviewed approaches to and experience of incorporating the effects of FHA into long-term performance assessments (PAs). The Working Group`s report reviews the main issues concerning the treatment of FHA, presents a general framework for the quantitative, consideration of FHA in radioactive waste disposal programmes, and discusses means in reduce the risks associated with FHA. The Working Group concluded that FHA must be considered in PAs, although FHA where the actors were cognizant of the risks could be ignored. Credit can be taken for no more than several hundred years of active site control; additional efforts should therefore be taken to reduce the risks associated with FHA. International agreement on principles for the construction of FHA scenarios would build confidence, as would further discussion concerning regulatory policies for judging risks associated with FHA.

  16. Taiwan industrial cooperation program technology transfer for low-level radioactive waste final disposal - phase I.

    SciTech Connect

    Knowlton, Robert G.; Cochran, John Russell; Arnold, Bill Walter; Jow, Hong-Nian; Mattie, Patrick D.; Schelling, Frank Joseph Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan have collaborated in a technology transfer program related to low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal in Taiwan. Phase I of this program included regulatory analysis of LLW final disposal, development of LLW disposal performance assessment capabilities, and preliminary performance assessments of two potential disposal sites. Performance objectives were based on regulations in Taiwan and comparisons to those in the United States. Probabilistic performance assessment models were constructed based on limited site data using software including GoldSim, BLT-MS, FEHM, and HELP. These software codes provided the probabilistic framework, container degradation, waste-form leaching, groundwater flow, radionuclide transport, and cover infiltration simulation capabilities in the performance assessment. Preliminary performance assessment analyses were conducted for a near-surface disposal system and a mined cavern disposal system at two representative sites in Taiwan. Results of example calculations indicate peak simulated concentrations to a receptor within a few hundred years of LLW disposal, primarily from highly soluble, non-sorbing radionuclides.

  17. Impact of microbial activity on the radioactive waste disposal: long term prediction of biocorrosion processes.

    PubMed

    Libert, Marie; Schütz, Marta Kerber; Esnault, Loïc; Féron, Damien; Bildstein, Olivier

    2014-06-01

    This study emphasizes different experimental approaches and provides perspectives to apprehend biocorrosion phenomena in the specific disposal environment by investigating microbial activity with regard to the modification of corrosion rate, which in turn can have an impact on the safety of radioactive waste geological disposal. It is found that iron-reducing bacteria are able to use corrosion products such as iron oxides and "dihydrogen" as new energy sources, especially in the disposal environment which contains low amounts of organic matter. Moreover, in the case of sulphate-reducing bacteria, the results show that mixed aerobic and anaerobic conditions are the most hazardous for stainless steel materials, a situation which is likely to occur in the early stage of a geological disposal. Finally, an integrated methodological approach is applied to validate the understanding of the complex processes and to design experiments aiming at the acquisition of kinetic data used in long term predictive modelling of biocorrosion processes.

  18. MANAGING UNCERTAINTIES ASSOCIATED WITH RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL: TASK GROUP 4 OF THE IAEA PRISM PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, R.

    2011-03-02

    It is widely recognized that the results of safety assessment calculations provide an important contribution to the safety arguments for a disposal facility, but cannot in themselves adequately demonstrate the safety of the disposal system. The safety assessment and a broader range of arguments and activities need to be considered holistically to justify radioactive waste disposal at any particular site. Many programs are therefore moving towards the production of what has become known as a Safety Case, which includes all of the different activities that are conducted to demonstrate the safety of a disposal concept. Recognizing the growing interest in the concept of a Safety Case, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is undertaking an intercomparison and harmonization project called PRISM (Practical Illustration and use of the Safety Case Concept in the Management of Near-surface Disposal). The PRISM project is organized into four Task Groups that address key aspects of the Safety Case concept: Task Group 1 - Understanding the Safety Case; Task Group 2 - Disposal facility design; Task Group 3 - Managing waste acceptance; and Task Group 4 - Managing uncertainty. This paper addresses the work of Task Group 4, which is investigating approaches for managing the uncertainties associated with near-surface disposal of radioactive waste and their consideration in the context of the Safety Case. Emphasis is placed on identifying a wide variety of approaches that can and have been used to manage different types of uncertainties, especially non-quantitative approaches that have not received as much attention in previous IAEA projects. This paper includes discussions of the current results of work on the task on managing uncertainty, including: the different circumstances being considered, the sources/types of uncertainties being addressed and some initial proposals for approaches that can be used to manage different types of uncertainties.

  19. Source team evaluation for radioactive low-level waste disposal performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Cowgill, M.G.; Sullivan, T.M.

    1993-01-01

    Information compiled on the low-level radioactive waste disposed at the three currently operating commercial disposal sites during the period 1987--1989 have been reviewed and processed in order to determine the total activity distribution in terms of waste stream, waste classification and waste form. The review identified deficiencies in the information currently being recorded on shipping manifests and the development of a uniform manifest is recommended (the NRC is currently developing a rule to establish a uniform manifest). The data from waste disposed during 1989 at one of the sites (Richland, WA) were more detailed than the data available during other years and at other sites, and thus were amenable to a more in-depth treatment. This included determination of the distribution of activity for each radionuclide by waste form, and thus enabled these data to be evaluated in terms of the specific needs for improved modeling of releases from waste packages. From the results, preliminary lists have been prepared of the isotopes which might be the most significant from the aspect of the development of a source term model.

  20. Estimating costs of low-level radioactive waste disposal alternatives for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This report was prepared for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, National Low-Level Waste Management Program. It presents planning life-cycle cost (PLCC) estimates for four sizes of in-state low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facilities. These PLCC estimates include preoperational and operational expenditures, all support facilities, materials, labor, closure costs, and long-term institutional care and monitoring costs. It is intended that this report bc used as a broad decision making tool for evaluating one of the several complex factors that must be examined when deciding between various LLRW management options -- relative costs. Because the underlying assumptions of these analyses will change as the Board decides how it will manage Massachusett`s waste and the specific characteristics any disposal facility will have, the results of this study are not absolute and should only be used to compare the relative costs of the options presented. The disposal technology selected for this analysis is aboveground earth-mounded vaults. These vaults are reinforced concrete structures where low-level waste is emplaced and later covered with a multi-layered earthen cap. The ``base case`` PLCC estimate was derived from a preliminary feasibility design developed for the Illinois Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility. This PLCC report describes facility operations and details the procedure used to develop the base case PLCC estimate for each facility component and size. Sensitivity analyses were performed on the base case PLCC estimate by varying several factors to determine their influences upon the unit disposal costs. The report presents the results of the sensitivity analyses for the five most significant cost factors.

  1. 10 CFR Appendix G to Part 20 - Requirements for Transfers of Low-Level Radioactive Waste Intended for Disposal at Licensed Land...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Requirements for Transfers of Low-Level Radioactive Waste... 20—Requirements for Transfers of Low-Level Radioactive Waste Intended for Disposal at Licensed Land... offers for transportation, low-level radioactive waste intended for ultimate disposal at a licensed low...

  2. 10 CFR Appendix G to Part 20 - Requirements for Transfers of Low-Level Radioactive Waste Intended for Disposal at Licensed Land...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for Transfers of Low-Level Radioactive Waste... 20—Requirements for Transfers of Low-Level Radioactive Waste Intended for Disposal at Licensed Land... offers for transportation, low-level radioactive waste intended for ultimate disposal at a licensed low...

  3. 10 CFR Appendix G to Part 20 - Requirements for Transfers of Low-Level Radioactive Waste Intended for Disposal at Licensed Land...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requirements for Transfers of Low-Level Radioactive Waste... 20—Requirements for Transfers of Low-Level Radioactive Waste Intended for Disposal at Licensed Land... offers for transportation, low-level radioactive waste intended for ultimate disposal at a licensed...

  4. 10 CFR Appendix G to Part 20 - Requirements for Transfers of Low-Level Radioactive Waste Intended for Disposal at Licensed Land...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Requirements for Transfers of Low-Level Radioactive Waste... 20—Requirements for Transfers of Low-Level Radioactive Waste Intended for Disposal at Licensed Land... offers for transportation, low-level radioactive waste intended for ultimate disposal at a licensed...

  5. 10 CFR Appendix G to Part 20 - Requirements for Transfers of Low-Level Radioactive Waste Intended for Disposal at Licensed Land...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Requirements for Transfers of Low-Level Radioactive Waste... 20—Requirements for Transfers of Low-Level Radioactive Waste Intended for Disposal at Licensed Land... offers for transportation, low-level radioactive waste intended for ultimate disposal at a licensed...

  6. Assessment of a radioactive waste disposal site at Enewetak Atoll.

    PubMed

    Noshkin, V E; Robison, W L

    1997-07-01

    The 43 nuclear tests conducted at Enewetak Atoll by the United States between 1948 and 1958 produced close-in fallout that contaminated the islands and lagoon of the atoll with radioactive fission and activation products, and unfissioned nuclear fuel. In 1972, the U.S. government announced that it would conduct a cleanup and restoration operation to return the atoll to the Enewetak people. The radiological cleanup began in 1977 and lasted to 1980 and focused on reducing the concentration of the transuranium elements (238,239,240Pu and 241Am = TRU) in soils on some of the islands that might eventually be used for residence or for subsistence agricultural. The cleanup plan called for relocating soil and some other contaminated debris to Runit Island on the eastern perimeter of the Atoll. Some of the contaminated soil was mixed with cement and the mixture placed below the water level in the Cactus Crater that was formed by a nuclear explosion in 1958. The remainder of the contaminated material was mixed with concrete and placed above ground over the crater in the shape of a dome. A concrete cap was constructed over the dome of soil. Concern has been expressed by the people of Enewetak and by others over the possible aquatic impacts from the radionuclides entombed in the crater. A National Academy of Sciences committee examined the dome and concluded that the containment structure and its contents present no credible health hazard to the people of Enewetak, either now or in the future. The committee suggested that "at least part of the radioactivity contained in the structure is available for transport to the groundwater and subsequently to the lagoon and it is important to determine whether this pathway may be a significant one." Therefore, a surveillance program was started in 1980, in conjunction with other research efforts, to study the radionuclides in samples of fish, groundwater, and lagoon seawater. Our data and conclusions support the findings suggested by the

  7. International program to study subseabed disposal of high-level radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Carlin, E.M.; Hinga, K.R.; Knauss, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the international program to study seabed disposal of nuclear wastes. Its purpose is to inform legislators, other policy makers, and the general public as to the history of the program, technological requirements necessary for feasibility assessment, legal questions involved, international coordination of research, national policies, and research and development activities. Each of these major aspects of the program is presented in a separate section. The objective of seabed burial, similar to its continental counterparts, is to contain and to isolate the wastes. The subseabed option should not be confuesed with past practices of ocean dumping which have introduced wastes into ocean waters. Seabed disposal refers to the emplacement of solidified high-level radioactive waste (with or without reprocessing) in certain geologically stable sediments of the deep ocean floor. Specially designed surface ships would transport waste canisters from a port facility to the disposal site. Canisters would be buried from a few tens to a few hundreds of meters below the surface of ocean bottom sediments, and hence would not be in contact with the overlying ocean water. The concept is a multi-barrier approach for disposal. Barriers, including waste form, canister, ad deep ocean sediments, will separate wastes from the ocean environment. High-level wastes (HLW) would be stabilized by conversion into a leach-resistant solid form such as glass. This solid would be placed inside a metallic canister or other type of package which represents a second barrier. The deep ocean sediments, a third barrier, are discussed in the Feasibility Assessment section. The waste form and canister would provide a barrier for several hundred years, and the sediments would be relied upon as a barrier for thousands of years. 62 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  8. Assessment of a radioactive waste disposal site at Enewetak Atoll

    SciTech Connect

    Noshkin, V.E.; Robison, W.L.

    1997-07-01

    The 43 nuclear tests conducted at Enewetak Atoll by the United States between 1948 and 1958 produced close-in fallout that contaminated the islands and lagoon of the atoll with radioactive fission and activation products, and unfissioned nuclear fuel. In 1972, the U.S. government announced that it would conduct a cleanup and restoration operation to return the atoll to the Enewetak people. The radiological cleanup began in 1977 and lasted to 1980 and focused on reducing the concentration of the transuranium elements ({sup 238,239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am = TRU) in soils on some of the islands that might eventually be used for residence or for subsistence agricultural. The cleanup plan called for relocating soil and some other contaminated debris to Runit Island on the eastern perimeter of the Atoll. Some of the contaminated soil was mixed with cement and the mixture placed below the water level in the Cactus Crater that was formed by a nuclear explosion in 1958. The remainder of the contaminated material was mixed with concrete and placed above ground over the crater in the shape of a dome. A concrete cap was constructed over the dome of soil. Concern has been expressed by the people of Enewetak and by others over the possible aquatic impacts from the radionuclides entombed in the crater. Therefore, a surveillance program was started in 1980, in conjunction with other research efforts, to study the radionuclides in samples of fish, groundwater, and lagoon seawater. Our data and conclusions support the findings suggested by the National Academy committee over a decade ago in that any assumption of rapid remobilization of all or any of the dome`s transuranics or other radionuclides is an extreme one. 22 refs., 4 figs., 10 tabs.

  9. Hydrogeologic setting east of a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, J.B.; Garklavs, George; Mackey, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    Core samples from 45 test wells and 4 borings were used to describe the glacial geology of the area east of the low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Bureau County, Illinois. Previous work has shown that shallow ground water beneath the disposal site flows east through a pebbly-sand unit of the Toulon Member of the Glasford Formation. The pebbly sand was found in core samples from wells in an area extending northeast from the waste-disposal site to a strip-mine lake and east along the south side of the lake. Other stratigraphic units identified in the study area are correlated with units found on the disposal site. The pebbly-sand unit of the Toulon Member grades from a pebbly sand on site into a coarse gravel with sand and pebbles towards the lake. The Hulick Till Member, a key bed, underlies the Toulon Member throughout most of the study area. A narrow channel-like depression in the Hulick Till is filled with coarse gravelly sand of the Toulon Member. The filled depression extends eastward from near the northeast corner of the waste-disposal site to the strip-mine lake. (USGS)

  10. NEA Research and Environmental Surveillance Programme related to sea disposal of low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Ruegger, B.; Templeton, W.L.; Gurbutt, P.

    1983-05-01

    Sea dumping operations of certain types of packaged low and medium-level radioactive wastes have been carried out since 1967 in the North-East Atlantic under the auspices of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. On the occasion of the 1980 review of the continued suitability of the North-East Atlantic site used for the disposal of radioactive waste, it was recommended that an effort should be made to increase the scientific data base relating to the oceanographic and biological characteristics of the dumping area. In particular, it was suggested that a site specific model of the transfer of radionuclides in the marine environment be developed, which would permit a better assessment of the potential radiation doses to man from the dumping of radioactive waste. To fulfill these objectives a research and environmental surveillance programme related to sea disposal of radioactive waste was set up in 1981 with the participation of thirteen Member countries and the International Laboratory for Marine Radioactivity of the IAEA in Monaco. The research program is focused on five research areas which are directly relevant to the preparation of more site-specific assessments in the future. They are: model development; physical oceanography; geochemistry; biology; and radiological surveillance. Promising results have already been obtained and more are anticipated in the not too distant future. An interim description of the NEA dumping site has been prepared which provides an excellent data base for this area (NEA 1983).It includes data in bathymetry, isopycnal topography, local and larger scale currents, sediment distribution and sedimentary processes, hydrochemistry, deep ocean biology and results of radiochemical analyses of sea water, sediments and biological materials. The modelling work is also well advanced allowing comparison of results obtained from different codes. After integration of the models, sensitivity analyses will provide indications for future research needs.

  11. A data base for low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    SciTech Connect

    Daum, M.L.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1989-07-01

    A computerized database was developed to assist the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in evaluating methods and data for characterizing health hazards associated with land and ocean disposal options for low-level radioactive wastes. The data cover 1984 to 1987. The types of sites considered include Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensed commercial disposal sites, EPA National Priority List (NPL) sites, US Department of Energy (DOE) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Project (FUSRAP) and DOE Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP) sites, inactive US ocean disposal sites, and DOE/Department of Defense facilities. Sources of information include reports from EPA, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), as well as direct communication with individuals associated with specific programs. The data include site descriptions, waste volumes and activity levels, and physical and radiological characterization of low-level wastes. Additional information on mixed waste, packaging forms, and disposal methods were compiled, but are not yet included in the database. 55 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Quality assurance guidance for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    SciTech Connect

    Pittiglio, C.L. Jr.; Hedges, D.

    1991-04-01

    This document provides guidance to an applicant on meeting the quality control (QC) requirements of 10 CFR 61.12(j) for a low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facility. The QC requirements, plus audits and managerial controls requirements, establish the need for developing a quality assurance (QA) program and the guidance provided herein. The criteria developed for this document are similar to the criteria developed for Appendix B to Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) Part 50. Although Appendix B is not a regulatory requirement for an LLRW disposal facility, the criteria that were developed for 10 CFR Part 50 are basic to any QA program. This document establishes QA guidance for the design, construction, and operation of those structures, engineered or natural systems, and components whose function is required to meet the performance objectives of Subpart C of 10 CFR Part 61 and to limit exposure to or release of radioactivity. 7 refs.

  13. Code System For Risk Assessment From Underground Radioactive Waste Disposal In the United Kingdom.

    SciTech Connect

    THOMPSON,

    2000-04-18

    Version 00 The SYVAC D/2 program simulates the ground water mediated movement of radionuclides from underground facilities for the disposal of low and intermediate level wastes to the accessible environment, and provides an estimate of the subsequent radiological risk to man. The simulated timescales are usually within the range 1.0E+03 to 1.0E+07 years. SYVAC is capable of modelling both shallow disposal facilities (located in argillaceous media and overlaying an aquifer) and deep disposal facilities (in a saturated environment). The software was developed for use within the UK Department of the Environment (DOE) Radioactive Waste Management Programme, as one tool in the DOE Assessment Methodology. The acronym SYVAC (System Variability Analysis Code for deep and shallow burial of radioactive waste) comes from the name of an assessment code originally obtained from the Atomic Energy of Canada (AECL) in 1982, which was found to be inappropriate for geological conditions in the UK. The development of the previous version, SYVAC A/C, was undertaken by the following private installations under UK Department of the Environment (DOE) contracts: Atkins Research & Development, Epsom, Surrey, England; Associated Nuclear Services, Epsom, Surrey, England; CAP Scientific, London, England; Electrowatt Engineering Services, Horsham, West Sussex, England; and Scicon Limited, Wavendon, Milton Kenes, England.

  14. Assessment of microbial processes on gas production at radioactive low-level waste disposal sites

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, A.J.; Tate, R.L. III; Colombo, P.

    1982-05-01

    Factors controlling gaseous emanations from low level radioactive waste disposal sites are assessed. Importance of gaseous fluxes of methane, carbon dioxide, and possible hydrogen from the site, stems from the inclusion of tritium and/or carbon-14 into the elemental composition of these compounds. In that the primary source of these gases is the biodegradation of organic components of the waste material, primary emphasis of the study involved an examination of the biochemical pathways producing methane, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen, and the environmental parameters controlling the activity of the microbial community involved. Initial examination of the data indicates that the ecosystem is anaerobic. As the result of the complexity of the pathway leading to methane production, factors such as substrate availability, which limit the initial reaction in the sequence, greatly affect the overall rate of methane evolution. Biochemical transformations of methane, hydrogen and carbon dioxide as they pass through the soil profile above the trench are discussed. Results of gas studies performed at three commercial low level radioactive waste disposal sites are reviewed. Methods used to obtain trench and soil gas samples are discussed. Estimates of rates of gas production and amounts released into the atmosphere (by the GASFLOW model) are evaluated. Tritium and carbon-14 gaseous compounds have been measured in these studies; tritiated methane is the major radionuclide species in all disposal trenches studied. The concentration of methane in a typical trench increases with the age of the trench, whereas the concentration of carbon dioxide is similar in all trenches.

  15. Ecological characteristics of small mammals on a radioactive waste disposal area in southeastern Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Groves, C.R.; Keller, B.L.

    1983-01-01

    Species composition, diversity, biomass and densities of small mammal populations were examined in crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum) and Russian thistle (Salsola kali) habitats on a solid radioactive waste disposal area and in native sagebrush (Artemisia tridentala) habitat surrounding the disposal area. The 15-month live-trapping study resulted in the marketing of 2384 individuals representing 10 species of small mammals. The deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) was the most common rodent in both disposal area habitats and the adjacent sagebrush habitat; Ord's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ordii) was also an abundant rodent in all vegetation types. The montane vole (Microtus montanus) was common only in crested wheatgrass stands on the disposal area. Although the adjacent native sagebrush habitat had the highest species diversity and the Russian thistle habitat on the disposal area had the lowest, the total rodent density was not significantly different among the three vegetation types. Crested wheatgrass within the disposal area contained the largest rodent biomass throughout the study, in part due to an increasing M. montanus population. The peak small mammal biomass of 5000 g/ha in creasted wheatgrass and sagebrush habitats was considerably higher than previously reported for similar habitats. Differences in diversity and biomass between the disposal area and surrounding native habitat are most likely related to differences in soil compaction and vegetation between these two areas.

  16. Hydraulic containment of low-level radioactive waste disposal sites: (Final technical report)

    SciTech Connect

    Ostendorf, D.W.; Noss, R.R.; Miller, A.B.; Phillips, H.S.

    1987-01-01

    This document describes the use of impermeable barriers for the containment of liquid radioactive wastes at low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. Included are a review of existing barrier systems, assessments of laboratory and field data, and simulations of system performance under humid and arid conditions. Alternatives are identified as the most promising of the existing systems based on retention of irradiated water, field installation feasibility, and response to aggressive permeation. In decreasing order of preference, the favored systems are asphalt slurry, high density polyethylene synthetic liner, polyvinyl chloride synthetic liner, lean portland cement concrete, and compacted bentonite liner. It should be stressed that all five of these alternatives effectively retain irradiated water in the humid and arid simulations. Recommendations on the design and operation of the hydraulic containment system and suggestions on avenues for future research are included. 102 refs., 27 figs., 23 tabs.

  17. PIC-container for containment and disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araki, K.; Shinji, Y.; Maki, Y.; Ishizaki, K.; Minegishi, K.; Sudoh, G.

    1981-03-01

    Steel fiber reinforced polymer impregnated concrete (SFPIC) was investigated for low and intermediate level radioactive waste containers. The 60 L and 200 L containers were designed as pressure container (without equalizer) for 500 kg/square cm and 700 kg/square cm. Polymerization of impregnated methylmethacrylate monomer was performed by 60 Co-gamma ray radiation and thermal catalytic polymerization respectively. Under the loading of 500 kg/square cm and 700 kg/square cm-outside hydraulic pressure, these containers were kept in their good condition. The observed maximum strains were about .001380 and .003950 at the outside central position of container body for circumferential direction of the 60 L and 200 L container, respectively. The containers were immersed in deionized water for 400 days, nuclides were not leached from the container. The SFPIC container was suitable for containment and disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes.

  18. Evaluation of alternatives for high-level and transuranic radioactive- waste disposal standards

    SciTech Connect

    Klett, R.D.; Gruebel, M.M.

    1992-12-01

    The remand of the US Environmental Protection Agency`s long-term performance standards for radioactive-waste disposal provides an opportunity to suggest modifications that would make the regulation more defensible and remove inconsistencies yet retain the basic structure of the original rule. Proposed modifications are in three specific areas: release and dose limits, probabilistic containment requirements, and transuranic-waste disposal criteria. Examination of the modifications includes discussion of the alternatives, demonstration of methods of development and implementation, comparison of the characteristics, attributes, and deficiencies of possible options within each area, and analysis of the implications for performance assessments. An additional consideration is the impact on the entire regulation when developing or modifying the individual components of the radiological standards.

  19. Space transportation and destination considerations for extraterrestrial disposal of radioactive waste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, A. V.; Thompson, R. L.; Lubick, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    A feasibility study is summarized of extraterrestrial (space) disposal of radioactive waste. The initial work on the evaluation and comparison of possible space destinations and launch vehicles is reported. Only current or planned space transportation systems were considered. The currently planned space shuttle was found to be more cost effective than current expendable launch vehicles, by about a factor of two. The space shuttle will require a third stage to perform the disposal missions. Depending on the particular mission this could be either a reusable space tug or an expendable stage such as a Centaur. Of the destinations considered, high earth orbits (between geostationary and lunar orbit altitudes), solar orbits (such as a 0.90 AU circular solar orbit) or a direct injection to solar system escape appear to be the best candidates. Both earth orbits and solar orbits have uncertainties regarding orbit stability and waste package integrity for times on the order of a million years.

  20. ICRP PUBLICATION 122: radiological protection in geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste.

    PubMed

    Weiss, W; Larsson, C-M; McKenney, C; Minon, J-P; Mobbs, S; Schneider, T; Umeki, H; Hilden, W; Pescatore, C; Vesterlind, M

    2013-06-01

    This report updates and consolidates previous recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) related to solid waste disposal (ICRP, 1985, 1997b, 1998). The recommendations given apply specifically to geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste. The report explains how the ICRP system of radiological protection described in Publication 103 (ICRP, 2007) can be applied in the context of the geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste. Although the report is written as a standalone document, previous ICRP recommendations not dealt with in depth in the report are still valid. The 2007 ICRP system of radiological protection evolves from the previous process-based protection approach relying on the distinction between practices and interventions by moving to an approach based on the distinction between three types of exposure situation: planned, emergency and existing. The Recommendations maintains the Commission's three fundamental principles of radiological protection namely: justification, optimisation of protection and the application of dose limits. They also maintain the current individual dose limits for effective dose and equivalent dose from all regulated sources in planned exposure situations. They re-enforce the principle of optimisation of radiological protection, which applies in a similar way to all exposure situations, subject to restrictions on individual doses: constraints for planned exposure situations, and reference levels for emergency and existing exposure situations. The Recommendations also include an approach for developing a framework to demonstrate radiological protection of the environment. This report describes the different stages in the life time of a geological disposal facility, and addresses the application of relevant radiological protection principles for each stage depending on the various exposure situations that can be encountered. In particular, the crucial factor that

  1. Economics of a small-volume low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This report was prepared by the US Department of Energy National Low-Level Waste Management Program to present the results of a life-cycle cost analysis of a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility, including all support facilities, beginning in the preoperational phase and continuing through post-closure care. The disposal technology selected for this report is earth-covered concrete vaults, which use reinforced concrete vaults constructed above grade and an earth cover constructed at the end of the operational period for permanent closure. The report develops a design, cost estimate, and schedule for the base case and eight alternative scenarios involving changes in total disposal capacity, operating life, annual disposal rate, source of financing and long-term interest rates. The purpose of this analysis of alternatives is to determine the sensitivity of cost to changes in key analytical or technical parameters, thereby evaluating the influence of a broad range of conditions. The total estimated cost of each alternative is estimated and a unit disposal charge is developed.

  2. Radioactive Wastes. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Charles H.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. This booklet deals with the handling, processing and disposal of radioactive wastes. Among the topics discussed are: The Nature of Radioactive Wastes; Waste Management; and Research and Development. There are…

  3. The cleanup of releases of radioactive materials from commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites: Whose jurisdiction?

    SciTech Connect

    Hartnett, C.

    1994-12-31

    There exists an overlap between the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Recovery Act ({open_quotes}CERCLA{close_quotes}) and the Atomic Energy Act ({open_quotes}AEA{close_quotes}) regarding the cleanup of releases of radioactive materials from commercial low-level radioactive waste sites. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission ({open_quotes}NRC{close_quotes}) and Agreement States have jurisdiction under the AEA, and the Environmental Protection Agency ({open_quotes}EPA{close_quotes}) has jurisdiction pursuant to CERCLA. This overlapping jurisdiction has the effect of imposing CERCLA liability on parties who have complied with AEA regulations. However, CERCLA was not intended to preempt existing legislation. This is evidenced by the federally permitted release exemption, which explicitly exempts releases from CERCLA liability pursuant to an AEA license. With little guidance as to the applicability of this exemption, it is uncertain whether CERCLA`s liability is broad enough to supersede the Atomic Energy Act. It is the purpose of this paper to discuss the overlapping jurisdiction for the cleanup of releases of radioactive materials from commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites with particular emphasis on the cleanup at the Maxey Flats, West Valley and Sheffield sites.

  4. Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste: A Long-Term Socio-Technical Experiment.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Jantine

    2016-06-01

    In this article we investigate whether long-term radioactive waste management by means of geological disposal can be understood as a social experiment. Geological disposal is a rather particular technology in the way it deals with the analytical and ethical complexities implied by the idea of technological innovation as social experimentation, because it is presented as a technology that ultimately functions without human involvement. We argue that, even when the long term function of the 'social' is foreseen to be restricted to safeguarding the functioning of the 'technical', geological disposal is still a social experiment. In order to better understand this argument and explore how it could be addressed, we elaborate the idea of social experimentation with the notion of co-production and the analytical tools of delegation, prescription and network as developed by actor-network theory. In doing so we emphasize that geological disposal inherently involves relations between surface and subsurface, between humans and nonhumans, between the social, material and natural realm, and that these relations require recognition and further elaboration. In other words, we argue that geological disposal concurrently is a social and a technical experiment, or better, a long-term socio-technical experiment. We end with proposing the idea of 'actor-networking' as a sensitizing concept for future research into what geological disposal as a socio-technical experiment could look like.

  5. The performance assessment impacts of disposal of high-moisture, low-level radioactive waste at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Crowe, B.M.; Hansen, W.; Hechnova, A.; Jacobson, R.; Voss, C.; Waters, R.; Sully, M.; Levitt, D.

    1999-03-01

    A panel of independent scientists was convened by the Department of Energy to assess the performance impacts of disposal of low-level radioactive waste from the Fernald Environmental Management Project. This waste stream was involved in a transportation incident in December 1997. A resulting outgrowth of investigations of the transportation incident was the recognition that the waste was transported and disposed in stress-fractured metal boxes and some of the waste contained excess moisture (high volumetric water contents). The panel was charged with determining whether disposal of this waste in the Area 5 radioactive waste management site on the Nevada Test Site has impacted the conclusions of the completed performance assessment. Three questions were developed by the panel to assess performance impacts: (1) the performance impacts of reduced container integrity, (2) the impact of reduced container integrity on subsidence of waste in the disposal pits and (3) the performance impacts of excess moisture. No performance or subsidence impacts were noted from disposal of the Fernald waste. The impacts of excess moisture were assessed through simulation modeling of the movement of moisture in the vadose zone assuming high water contents (wet waste) for different percentages of the waste inventory. No performance impacts were noted for either the base-case scenario (ambient conditions) or a scenario involving subsidence and flooding of the waste cells. The absence of performance impacts results form the extreme conservatism used in the Area 5-performance assessment and the robust nature of the disposal site.

  6. Readiness assessment plan for the Radioactive Mixed Waste Land Disposal Facility (Trench 31)

    SciTech Connect

    Irons, L.G.

    1994-11-22

    This document provides the Readiness Assessment Plan (RAP) for the Project W-025 (Radioactive Mixed Waste Land Disposal Facility) Readiness Assessment (RA). The RAP documents prerequisites to be met by the operating organization prior to the RA. The RAP is to be implemented by the RA Team identified in the RAP. The RA Team is to verify the facility`s compliance with criteria identified in the RAP. The criteria are based upon the {open_quotes}Core Requirements{close_quotes} listed in DOE Order 5480.31, {open_quotes}Startup and Restart of Nuclear Facilities{close_quotes}.

  7. Model tracking system for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities: License application interrogatories and responses

    SciTech Connect

    Benbennick, M.E.; Broton, M.S.; Fuoto, J.S.; Novgrod, R.L.

    1994-08-01

    This report describes a model tracking system for a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility license application. In particular, the model tracks interrogatories (questions, requests for information, comments) and responses. A set of requirements and desired features for the model tracking system was developed, including required structure and computer screens. Nine tracking systems were then reviewed against the model system requirements and only two were found to meet all requirements. Using Kepner-Tregoe decision analysis, a model tracking system was selected.

  8. Models for estimation of service life of concrete barriers in low-level radioactive waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, J.C.; Plansky, L.E.; Smith, R.W. )

    1990-09-01

    Concrete barriers will be used as intimate parts of systems for isolation of low level radioactive wastes subsequent to disposal. This work reviews mathematical models for estimating the degradation rate of concrete in typical service environments. The models considered cover sulfate attack, reinforcement corrosion, calcium hydroxide leaching, carbonation, freeze/thaw, and cracking. Additionally, fluid flow, mass transport, and geochemical properties of concrete are briefly reviewed. Example calculations included illustrate the types of predictions expected of the models. 79 refs., 24 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Life cycle costs for disposal and assured isolation of low-level radioactive waste in Connecticut

    SciTech Connect

    Chau, B.; Sutherland, A.A.; Baird, R.D.

    1998-03-01

    This document presents life cycle costs for a low-level radioactive disposal facility and a comparable assured isolation facility. Cost projections were based on general plans and assumptions, including volume projections and operating life, provided by the Connecticut Hazardous Waste Management Service, for a facility designed to meet the State`s needs. Life cycle costs include the costs of pre-construction activities, construction, operations, closure, and post-closure institutional control. In order to provide a better basis for understanding the relative magnitude of near-term costs and future costs, the results of present value analysis of ut-year costs are provided.

  10. Nuclear criticality safety assessment of the low level radioactive waste disposal facility trenches

    SciTech Connect

    Kahook, S.D.

    1994-04-01

    Results of the analyses performed to evaluate the possibility of nuclear criticality in the Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility (LLRWDF) trenches are documented in this report. The studies presented in this document are limited to assessment of the possibility of criticality due to existing conditions in the LLRWDF. This document does not propose nor set limits for enriched uranium (EU) burial in the LLRWDF and is not a nuclear criticality safety evaluation nor analysis. The calculations presented in the report are Level 2 calculations as defined by the E7 Procedure 2.31, Engineering Calculations.

  11. An innovative hydrogeologic setting for disposal of low-level radioactive wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legrand, Harry E.

    1989-05-01

    A natural unique hydrogeological setting favorable for safe and economical disposal of low-level radioactive wastes occurs in the flat hinterland of southeastern North Carolina. The uniqueness results partly from the absence of vertical and horizontal groundwater gradients, representing a nonflow, or null, zone. The null setting is localized to key horizons 30 to 75 feet below land surface and to areas where glauconitic sandy clays of the Peedee Formation lie under less than 25 feet of surficial sandy clays; the Peedee contains nearly stagnant brackish groundwater slightly below the proposed disposal zone. Issues to overcome include: (1) demonstrating better combined safety and economical features over conventional and prescribed settings, (2) dewatering the low-permeability disposal zone for the 20-year operational period, and (3) changing rules to allow disposal slightly below the zone in which the normal water table occurs. Favorable site characteristics of the key setting are: (1) no major aquifer to contaminate, (2) no surface streams or lakes to contaminate, (3) optimal ion exchange and sorptive capacity (clay and glauconite pellets), (4) no appreciable or distinctive vertical and horizontal gradients, (5) no elongated contaminated plume to develop, (6) no surface erosion, (7) a capable setting for injection of potential contaminated water into deep brackish water wells, if needed and allowed, (8) minimum problems of the “overfilled bathtub effect,” (9) no apparent long-term harmful environmental impact (normal water table would be restored after the 20-year period), (10) relatively inexpensive disposal (engineered barriers not needed and desired), (11) simple and relatively inexpensive monitoring, (12) large tracts of land likely available, and (13) sparse population. In spite of legal and political obstacles to shallow land burial, the null setting described is a capable hydrogeological host to contain low-level radioactive wastes. The setting may have

  12. Radiological risk assessment and biosphere modelling for radioactive waste disposal in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Brennwald, M S; van Dorp, F

    2009-12-01

    Long-term safety assessments for geological disposal of radioactive waste in Switzerland involve the demonstration that the annual radiation dose to humans due to the potential release of radionuclides from the waste repository into the biosphere will not exceed the regulatory limit of 0.1 mSv. Here, we describe the simple but robust approach used by Nagra (Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste) to quantify the dose to humans as a result to time-dependent release of radionuclides from the geosphere into the biosphere. The model calculates the concentrations of radionuclides in different terrestrial and aquatic compartments of the surface environment. The fluxes of water and solids within the environment are the drivers for the exchange of radionuclides between these compartments. The calculated radionuclide concentrations in the biosphere are then used to estimate the radiation doses to humans due to various exposure paths (e.g. ingestion of radionuclides via drinking water and food, inhalation of radionuclides, external irradiation from radionuclides in soils). In this paper we also discuss recent new achievements and planned future work.

  13. 1990 State-by-State assessment of low-level radioactive wastes received at commercial disposal sites

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, R.L.; Culbertson-Arendts, K.

    1991-09-01

    Each year the National Low-Level Waste Management Program publishes a state-by-state assessment report. This annual report provides both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive wastes. Data in this report are categorized according to disposal site, generator category, waste class, volume, and activity. Included in this report are tables showing a distribution of wastes by state for 1990 and a comparison of waste volumes by state for 1986 through 1990; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in the United States as of December 31, 1990. In this year's report, a distinction has been made between low-level radioactive waste shipped directly by generators for disposal and that which was handled by an intermediary. 5 refs., 4 tabs.

  14. Marine disposal of radioactive wastes. 1978-1981 (citations from the information retrieval, LTD. Data Base). Report for Jan 78-Dec 81

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the disposal of high and low level liquid and solid radioactive wastes in the sea and ground water. Emphasis is on the disposal of the wastes at sea. Disposal under and on the sea bed is examined, and the migration and concentration of radioactive wastes in sea water and acquatic life are included. Methodology for measuring radioactivity is considered. (Contains 130 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  15. Granite disposal of U.S. high-level radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Mariner, Paul E.; Lee, Joon H.; Hardin, Ernest L.; Goldstein, Barry; Hansen, Francis D.; Price, Ronald H.; Lord, Anna Snider

    2011-08-01

    This report evaluates the feasibility of disposing U.S. high-level radioactive waste in granite several hundred meters below the surface of the earth. The U.S. has many granite formations with positive attributes for permanent disposal. Similar crystalline formations have been extensively studied by international programs, two of which, in Sweden and Finland, are the host rocks of submitted or imminent repository license applications. This report is enabled by the advanced work of the international community to establish functional and operational requirements for disposal of a range of waste forms in granite media. In this report we develop scoping performance analyses, based on the applicable features, events, and processes (FEPs) identified by international investigators, to support generic conclusions regarding post-closure safety. Unlike the safety analyses for disposal in salt, shale/clay, or deep boreholes, the safety analysis for a mined granite repository depends largely on waste package preservation. In crystalline rock, waste packages are preserved by the high mechanical stability of the excavations, the diffusive barrier of the buffer, and favorable chemical conditions. The buffer is preserved by low groundwater fluxes, favorable chemical conditions, backfill, and the rigid confines of the host rock. An added advantage of a mined granite repository is that waste packages would be fairly easy to retrieve, should retrievability be an important objective. The results of the safety analyses performed in this study are consistent with the results of comprehensive safety assessments performed for sites in Sweden, Finland, and Canada. They indicate that a granite repository would satisfy established safety criteria and suggest that a small number of FEPs would largely control the release and transport of radionuclides. In the event the U.S. decides to pursue a potential repository in granite, a detailed evaluation of these FEPs would be needed to inform site

  16. Shale disposal of U.S. high-level radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Sassani, David Carl; Stone, Charles Michael; Hansen, Francis D.; Hardin, Ernest L.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Martinez, Mario J.; Rechard, Robert Paul; Sobolik, Steven Ronald; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Cygan, Randall Timothy; Gaither, Katherine N.; Holland, John Francis; Brady, Patrick Vane

    2010-05-01

    This report evaluates the feasibility of high-level radioactive waste disposal in shale within the United States. The U.S. has many possible clay/shale/argillite basins with positive attributes for permanent disposal. Similar geologic formations have been extensively studied by international programs with largely positive results, over significant ranges of the most important material characteristics including permeability, rheology, and sorptive potential. This report is enabled by the advanced work of the international community to establish functional and operational requirements for disposal of a range of waste forms in shale media. We develop scoping performance analyses, based on the applicable features, events, and processes identified by international investigators, to support a generic conclusion regarding post-closure safety. Requisite assumptions for these analyses include waste characteristics, disposal concepts, and important properties of the geologic formation. We then apply lessons learned from Sandia experience on the Waste Isolation Pilot Project and the Yucca Mountain Project to develop a disposal strategy should a shale repository be considered as an alternative disposal pathway in the U.S. Disposal of high-level radioactive waste in suitable shale formations is attractive because the material is essentially impermeable and self-sealing, conditions are chemically reducing, and sorption tends to prevent radionuclide transport. Vertically and laterally extensive shale and clay formations exist in multiple locations in the contiguous 48 states. Thermal-hydrologic-mechanical calculations indicate that temperatures near emplaced waste packages can be maintained below boiling and will decay to within a few degrees of the ambient temperature within a few decades (or longer depending on the waste form). Construction effects, ventilation, and the thermal pulse will lead to clay dehydration and deformation, confined to an excavation disturbed zone within

  17. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    SciTech Connect

    Bullen, D.B.; Gdowski, G.E. ); Weiss, H. )

    1988-06-01

    Three copper-based alloys, CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni), are being considered along with three austenitic candidates as possible materials for fabrication of containers for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level reprocessing wastes in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The containers must maintain mechanical integrity for 50 yr after emplacement to allow for retrieval of waste during the preclosure phase of repository operation. Containment is required to be substantially complete for up to 300 to 1000 yr. During the early period, the containers will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of high-level waste. The final closure joint will be critical to the integrity of the containers. This volume surveys the available data on the metallurgy of the copper-based candidate alloys and the welding techniques employed to join these materials. The focus of this volume is on the methods applicable to remote-handling procedures in a hot-cell environment with limited possibility of postweld heat treatment. The three copper-based candidates are ranked on the basis of the various closure techniques. On the basis of considerations regarding welding, the following ranking is proposed for the copper-based alloys: CDA 715 (best) > CDA 102 > CDA 613 (worst). 49 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Tritium migration from a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Chicago, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nicholas, J.R.; Healy, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a study to determine the geologic and hydrologic factors that control migration of tritium from a closed, low-level radioactive-waste disposal site. The disposal site, which operated from 1943 to mid1949, contains waste generated by research activities at the world's first nuclear reactors. Tritium has migrated horizontally at least 1,300 feet northward in glacial drift and more than 650 feet in the underlying dolomite. Thin, gently sloping sand layers in an otherwise clayey glacial drift are major conduits for ground-water flow and tritium migration in a perched zone beneath the disposal site. Tritium concentrations in the drift beneath the disposal site exceed 100,000 nanocuries per liter. Regional horizontal joints in the dolomite are enlarged by solution and are the major conduits for ground-water flow and tritium migration in the dolomite. A weathered zone at the top of the dolomite also is a pathway for tritium migration. The maximum measured tritium concentration in the dolomite is 29.4 nanocuries per liter. Fluctuations of tritium concentration in the dolomite are the result of dilution by seasonal recharge from the drift.

  19. Low-level radioactive waste management: transitioning to off-site disposal at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Dorries, Alison M

    2010-11-09

    Facing the closure of nearly all on-site management and disposal capability for low-level radioactive waste (LLW), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is making ready to ship the majority of LLW off-site. In order to ship off-site, waste must meet the Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facility's (TSDF) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). In preparation, LANL's waste management organization must ensure LANL waste generators characterize and package waste compliantly and waste characterization documentation is complete and accurate. Key challenges that must be addressed to successfully make the shift to off-site disposal of LLW include improving the detail, accuracy, and quality of process knowledge (PK) and acceptable knowledge (AK) documentation, training waste generators and waste management staff on the higher standard of data quality and expectations, improved WAC compliance for off-site facilities, and enhanced quality assurance throughout the process. Certification of LANL generators will allow direct off-site shipping of LLW from their facilities.

  20. WASTE CONTAINER AND WASTE PACKAGE PERFORMANCE MODELING TO SUPPORT SAFETY ASSESSMENT OF LOW AND INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL.

    SciTech Connect

    SULLIVAN, T.

    2004-06-30

    Prior to subsurface burial of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes, a demonstration that disposal of the wastes can be accomplished while protecting the health and safety of the general population is required. The long-time frames over which public safety must be insured necessitates that this demonstration relies, in part, on computer simulations of events and processes that will occur in the future. This demonstration, known as a Safety Assessment, requires understanding the performance of the disposal facility, waste containers, waste forms, and contaminant transport to locations accessible to humans. The objective of the coordinated research program is to examine the state-of-the-art in testing and evaluation short-lived low- and intermediate-level waste packages (container and waste form) in near surface repository conditions. The link between data collection and long-term predictions is modeling. The objective of this study is to review state-of-the-art modeling approaches for waste package performance. This is accomplished by reviewing the fundamental concepts behind safety assessment and demonstrating how waste package models can be used to support safety assessment. Safety assessment for low- and intermediate-level wastes is a complicated process involving assumptions about the appropriate conceptual model to use and the data required to support these models. Typically due to the lack of long-term data and the uncertainties from lack of understanding and natural variability, the models used in safety assessment are simplistic. However, even though the models are simplistic, waste container and waste form performance are often central to the case for making a safety assessment. An overview of waste container and waste form performance and typical models used in a safety assessment is supplied. As illustrative examples of the role of waste container and waste package performance, three sample test cases are provided. An example of the impacts of

  1. Superfund Policy Statements and Guidance Regarding Disposition of Radioactive Waste in Non-NRC Licensed Disposal Facilities - 13407

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Stuart

    2013-07-01

    This talk will discuss EPA congressional testimony and follow-up letters, as well as letters to other stakeholders on EPA's perspectives on the disposition of radioactive waste outside of the NRC licensed disposal facility system. This will also look at Superfund's historical practices, and emerging trends in the NRC and agreement states on waste disposition. (author)

  2. Use of engineered soils and other site modifications for low-level radioactive waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission requires that low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities be designed to minimize contact between waste and infiltrating water through the use of site design features. The purpose of this investigation is to identify engineered barriers and evaluate their ability to enhance the long-term performance of an LLW disposal facility. Previously used barriers such as concrete overpacks, vaults, backfill, and engineered soil covers, are evaluated as well as state-of-the-art barriers, including an engineered sorptive soil layer underlying a facility and an advanced design soil cover incorporating a double-capillary layer. The purpose of this investigation is also to provide information in incorporating or excluding specific engineered barriers as part of new disposal facility designs. Evaluations are performed using performance assessment modeling techniques. A generic reference disposal facility design is used as a baseline for comparing the improvements in long-term performance offered by designs incorporating engineered barriers in generic and humid environments. These evaluations simulate water infiltration through the facility, waste leaching, radionuclide transport through the facility, and decay and ingrowth. They also calculate a maximum (peak annual) dose for each disposal system design. A relative dose reduction factor is calculated for each design evaluated. The results of this investigation are presented for concrete overpacks, concrete vaults, sorptive backfill, sorptive engineered soil underlying the facility, and sloped engineered soil covers using a single-capillary barrier and a double-capillary barrier. Designs using combinations of barriers are also evaluated. These designs include a vault plus overpacks, sorptive backfill plus overpacks, and overpack with vault plus sorptive backfill, underlying sorptive soil, and engineered soil cover.

  3. Subseabed Radioactive Waste Disposal Feasibility Program: ocean engineering challenges for the 80's

    SciTech Connect

    Talbert, D. M.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of the Subseabed Disposal Program is to assess the feasibility of disposing of high-level radioactive wastes or spent fuel in suitable geologic formations beneath the deep ocean floor. The program is entering a phase which will address engineering feasibility. While the current phase of the program to determine the scientific and environmental feasibility of the concept is not yet complete, activities to assess the engineering aspects are being initiated in parallel to facilitate the development of the concept on a time scale commensurate with other related programs both in the United States and abroad. It is anticipated that engineering aspects will become the central focus of the program during the early 80's and will continue so through the establishment of a pilot-plant level activity which could occur by the mid-90's.

  4. Thermal-Mechanical Modeling of Deep Borehole Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, B. W.; Clayton, D. J.; Herrick, C. G.; Hadgu, T.

    2010-12-01

    Disposal of high-level radioactive waste, including spent nuclear fuel, in deep (3 to 5 km) boreholes is a potential option for safely isolating these wastes from the surface and near-surface environment. Existing drilling technology permits reliable and cost-effective construction of such deep boreholes. Conditions favorable for deep borehole disposal in crystalline basement rocks, including low permeability, high salinity, and geochemically reducing conditions, exist at depth in many locations, particularly in geologically stable continental regions. Isolation of waste depends, in part, on the effectiveness of borehole seals and potential alteration of permeability in the disturbed host rock surrounding the borehole. Coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrologic processes induced by heat from the radioactive waste may impact the disturbed zone near the borehole and borehole wall stability. Numerical simulations of the coupled thermal-mechanical response in the host rock surrounding the borehole were conducted with three software codes or combinations of software codes. Software codes used in the simulations were FEHM, JAS3D, Aria, and Adagio. Simulations were conducted for disposal of spent nuclear fuel assemblies and for the higher heat output of vitrified waste from the reprocessing of fuel. Simulations were also conducted for both isotropic and anisotropic ambient horizontal stress in the host rock. Physical, thermal, and mechanical properties representative of granite host rock at a depth of 4 km were used in the models. Simulation results indicate peak temperature increases at the borehole wall of about 30 °C and 180 °C for disposal of fuel assemblies and vitrified waste, respectively. Peak temperatures near the borehole occur within about 10 years and decline rapidly within a few hundred years and with distance. The host rock near the borehole is placed under additional compression. Peak mechanical stress is increased by about 15 MPa (above the assumed ambient

  5. Thermal-mechanical modeling of deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, Bill Walter; Hadgu, Teklu

    2010-12-01

    Disposal of high-level radioactive waste, including spent nuclear fuel, in deep (3 to 5 km) boreholes is a potential option for safely isolating these wastes from the surface and near-surface environment. Existing drilling technology permits reliable and cost-effective construction of such deep boreholes. Conditions favorable for deep borehole disposal in crystalline basement rocks, including low permeability, high salinity, and geochemically reducing conditions, exist at depth in many locations, particularly in geologically stable continental regions. Isolation of waste depends, in part, on the effectiveness of borehole seals and potential alteration of permeability in the disturbed host rock surrounding the borehole. Coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrologic processes induced by heat from the radioactive waste may impact the disturbed zone near the borehole and borehole wall stability. Numerical simulations of the coupled thermal-mechanical response in the host rock surrounding the borehole were conducted with three software codes or combinations of software codes. Software codes used in the simulations were FEHM, JAS3D, Aria, and Adagio. Simulations were conducted for disposal of spent nuclear fuel assemblies and for the higher heat output of vitrified waste from the reprocessing of fuel. Simulations were also conducted for both isotropic and anisotropic ambient horizontal stress in the host rock. Physical, thermal, and mechanical properties representative of granite host rock at a depth of 4 km were used in the models. Simulation results indicate peak temperature increases at the borehole wall of about 30 C and 180 C for disposal of fuel assemblies and vitrified waste, respectively. Peak temperatures near the borehole occur within about 10 years and decline rapidly within a few hundred years and with distance. The host rock near the borehole is placed under additional compression. Peak mechanical stress is increased by about 15 MPa (above the assumed ambient

  6. Performance objectives for disposal of low-level radioactive wastes on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Kocher, D.C.

    1987-07-01

    This report presents a set of performance objectives for disposal of low-level radioactive wastes in a new facility on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The principal performance objectives include a limit on annual committed effective dose equivalent averaged over a lifetime of 0.25 mSv (25 mrem) for any member of the public beyond the boundary of the disposal facility, and a limit on annual committed effective dose equivalent averaged over a lifetime of 1 mSv (0.1 rem) and a limit on committed effective dose equivalent in any year of 5 mSv (0.5 rem) for any individual who inadvertently intrudes onto the disposal site after loss of active institutional controls. In addition, releases of radioactivity beyond the site boundary shall not result in annual dose equivalents to any number of the public from all sources of exposure that exceed limits established by Federal regulatory authorities and shall be kept as low as reasonably achievable. This report reviews generally applicable radiation protection standards for the public and environmental radiation standards for specific practices that have been developed by national and international authorities and discusses the use of limits on risk rather than dose as performance objectives and consideration of chemical toxicity rather than radiation dose in establishing limits on intakes of uranium. 63 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Geochemical evaluation of different groundwater-host rock systems for radioactive waste disposal.

    PubMed

    Metz, V; Kienzler, B; Schüssler, W

    2003-03-01

    The geochemical suitability of a deep bedrock repository for radioactive waste disposal is determined by the composition of geomatrix and groundwater. Both influence radionuclide solubility, chemical buffer capacity and radionuclide retention. They also determine the chemical compatibility of waste forms, containers and backfill materials. Evaluation of different groundwater-host rock systems is performed by modeling the geochemical environments and the resulting radionuclide concentrations. In order to demonstrate the evaluation method, model calculations are applied to data sets available for various geological formations such as granite, clay and rocksalt. The saturation state of the groundwater-geomatrix system is found to be fundamental for the evaluation process. Hence, calculations are performed to determine if groundwater is in equilibrium with mineral phases of the geological formation. In addition, corrosion of waste forms in different groundwater is examined by means of reaction path modeling. The corrosion reactions change the solution compositions and pH, resulting in significant changes of radionuclide solubilities. The results demonstrate that geochemical modeling of saturation state and compatibility of the host formation environment with the radioactive waste proves to be a feasible tool for evaluation of various sites considered as deep underground repositories. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  8. Considerations of human inturison in U.S. programs for deep geologic disposal of radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, Peter N.

    2013-01-01

    Regulations in the United States that govern the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in deep geologic repositories require the explicit consideration of hypothetical future human intrusions that disrupt the waste. Specific regulatory requirements regarding the consideration of human intrusion differ in the two sets of regulations currently in effect in the United States; one defined by the Environmental Protection Agencys 40 Code of Federal Regulations part 197, applied only to the formerly proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and the other defined by the Environmental Protection Agencys 40 Code of Federal Regulations part 191, applied to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico and potentially applicable to any repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the United States other than the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. This report reviews the regulatory requirements relevant to human intrusion and the approaches taken by the Department of Energy to demonstrating compliance with those requirements.

  9. The French Radioactive Waste Disposal System: Which Discussions for Which Decisions?

    SciTech Connect

    Baillet, J.P.; Ouzounian, G.

    2008-07-01

    Over the last 20 years or so, radioactive-waste management has undergone remarkable developments in France. The Law of 30 December 1991 prescribed that Parliament would convene once again at the end of a 15-year research period. In 2005, the government asked the National Commission on Public Debate to organise a public debate on radioactive-waste management. Hence, for the first time, such an event was held in accordance with a national policy and not on a specific project. The debate took place between 12 September 2005 and 13 January 2006. Although the debate remained mostly a discussion among experts and opposed most frequently pro-nuclear and anti-nuclear activists, it still provided an opportunity to define and clarify challenges. Following the public debate and in the light of the assessment of investigation results, Parliament adopted on 28 June 2006 a new Planning Act on the Management of Radioactive Waste, which applies to all radioactive residues, irrespective of their activity level, and prescribes specific procedures and deadlines, such as the commissioning of a disposal facility for radium-bearing and graphite waste by 2013 and of a deep geological repository for high-level and intermediate-level long-lived waste by 2025. In the latter case, the Planning Act renews the assessment system for Andra's studies and investigations by a committee of experts and by the OPECST over and above the review of the future licence application by the Nuclear Safety Authority. In addition, a new law will set up the reversibility conditions of the repository before the government may grant any authorisation. At the local level, the act reinforces the prerogatives of the Local Information and Oversight Committee, which is responsible for public information and consultation issues; furthermore, it prescribes that a public debate and a public inquiry be held as a prerequisite to the delivery of any authorisation. Hence, ANDRA is taking all necessary means in order to meet

  10. Quantitative risk assessment of the New York State operated West Valley Radioactive Waste Disposal Area.

    PubMed

    Garrick, B John; Stetkar, John W; Bembia, Paul J

    2010-08-01

    This article is based on a quantitative risk assessment (QRA) that was performed on a radioactive waste disposal area within the Western New York Nuclear Service Center in western New York State. The QRA results were instrumental in the decision by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority to support a strategy of in-place management of the disposal area for another decade. The QRA methodology adopted for this first of a kind application was a scenario-based approach in the framework of the triplet definition of risk (scenarios, likelihoods, consequences). The measure of risk is the frequency of occurrence of different levels of radiation dose to humans at prescribed locations. The risk from each scenario is determined by (1) the frequency of disruptive events or natural processes that cause a release of radioactive materials from the disposal area; (2) the physical form, quantity, and radionuclide content of the material that is released during each scenario; (3) distribution, dilution, and deposition of the released materials throughout the environment surrounding the disposal area; and (4) public exposure to the distributed material and the accumulated radiation dose from that exposure. The risks of the individual scenarios are assembled into a representation of the risk from the disposal area. In addition to quantifying the total risk to the public, the analysis ranks the importance of each contributing scenario, which facilitates taking corrective actions and implementing effective risk management. Perhaps most importantly, quantification of the uncertainties is an intrinsic part of the risk results. This approach to safety analysis has demonstrated many advantages of applying QRA principles to assessing the risk of facilities involving hazardous materials.

  11. Waste disposal package

    DOEpatents

    Smith, M.J.

    1985-06-19

    This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.

  12. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    SciTech Connect

    Bullen, D.B.; Gdowski, G.E. )

    1988-08-01

    Three copper-based alloys and three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys are being considered as possible materials for fabrication of high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers. The waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level waste in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The copper-based alloy materials are CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni). The austenitic materials are Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825. The waste-package containers must maintain substantially complete containment for at least 300 yr and perhaps as long as 1000 yr, and they must be retrievable from the disposal site during the first 50 yr after emplacement. The containers will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of high-level waste. This volume surveys the available data on the phase stability of both groups of candidate alloys. The austenitic alloys are reviewed in terms of the physical metallurgy of the iron-chromium-nickel system, martensite transformations, carbide formation, and intermetallic-phase precipitation. The copper-based alloys are reviewed in terms of their phase equilibria and the possibility of precipitation of the minor alloying constituents. For the austenitic materials, the ranking based on phase stability is: Alloy 825 (best), Type 316L stainless steel, and then Type 304L stainless steel (worst). For the copper-based materials, the ranking is: CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper) (best), and then both CDA 715 and CDA 613. 75 refs., 24 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Performance assessment handbook for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, R.R.; Garcia, R.S.; Kostelnik, K.M.; Starmer, R.J.

    1992-02-01

    Performance assessments of proposed low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities must be conducted to support licensing. This handbook provides a reference document that can be used as a resource by management and staff responsible for performance assessments. Brief discussions describe the performance assessment process and emphasize selected critical aspects of the process. References are also provided for additional information on many aspects of the performance assessment process. The user's manual for the National Low-Level Waste Management Program's Performance Assessment Center (PAC) on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Cray computer is included as Appendix A. The PAC provides users an opportunity to experiment with a number of performance assessment computer codes on a Cray computer. Appendix B describes input data required for 22 performance assessment codes.

  14. Historical relationship between performance assessment for radioactive waste disposal and other types of risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Rechard, R.P.

    1999-10-01

    This article describes the evolution of the process for assessing the hazards of a geologic disposal system for radioactive waste and, similarly, nuclear power reactors, and the relationship of this process with other assessments of risk, particularly assessments of hazards from manufactured carcinogenic chemicals during use and disposal. This perspective reviews the common history of scientific concepts for risk assessment developed until the 1950s. Computational tools and techniques developed in the late 1950s and early 1960s to analyze the reliability of nuclear weapon delivery systems were adopted in the early 1970s for probabilistic risk assessment of nuclear power reactors, a technology for which behavior was unknown. In turn, these analyses became an important foundation for performance assessment of nuclear waste disposal in the late 1970s. The evaluation of risk to human health and the environment from chemical hazards is built on methods for assessing the dose response of radionuclides in the 1950s. Despite a shared background, however, societal events, often in the form of legislation, have affected the development path for risk assessment for human health, producing dissimilarities between these risk assessments and those for nuclear facilities. An important difference is the regulator's interest in accounting for uncertainty.

  15. Historical relationship between performance assessment for radioactive waste disposal and other types of risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Rechard, R P

    1999-10-01

    This article describes the evolution of the process for assessing the hazards of a geologic disposal system for radioactive waste and, similarly, nuclear power reactors, and the relationship of this process with other assessments of risk, particularly assessments of hazards from manufactured carcinogenic chemicals during use and disposal. This perspective reviews the common history of scientific concepts for risk assessment developed until the 1950s. Computational tools and techniques developed in the late 1950s and early 1960s to analyze the reliability of nuclear weapon delivery systems were adopted in the early 1970s for probabilistic risk assessment of nuclear power reactors, a technology for which behavior was unknown. In turn, these analyses became an important foundation for performance assessment of nuclear waste disposal in the late 1970s. The evaluation of risk to human health and the environment from chemical hazards is built on methods for assessing the dose response of radionuclides in the 1950s. Despite a shared background, however, societal events, often in the form of legislation, have affected the development path for risk assessment for human health, producing dissimilarities between these risk assessments and those for nuclear facilities. An important difference is the regulator's interest in accounting for uncertainty.

  16. Licensing and Operations of the Clive, Utah Low-Level Containerized Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility- A Continuation of Excellence

    SciTech Connect

    Ledoux, M. R.; Cade, M. S.

    2002-02-25

    Envirocare's Containerized Waste Facility (CWF) is the first commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal facility to be licensed in the 21st century and the first new site to be opened and operated since the late 1970's. The licensing of this facility has been the culmination of over a decade's effort by Envirocare of Utah at their Clive, Utah site. With the authorization to receive and dispose of higher activity containerized Class A low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), this facility has provided critical access to disposal for the nuclear power industry, as well as the related research and medical communities. This paper chronicles the licensing history and operational efforts designed to address the disposal of containerized LLRW in accordance with state and federal regulations.

  17. A Probabilistic Performance Assessment Study of Potential Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Sites in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knowlton, R. G.; Arnold, B. W.; Mattie, P. D.; Kuo, M.; Tien, N.

    2006-12-01

    For several years now, Taiwan has been engaged in a process to select a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal site. Taiwan is generating LLW from operational and decommissioning wastes associated with nuclear power reactors, as well as research, industrial, and medical radioactive wastes. The preliminary selection process has narrowed the search to four potential candidate sites. These sites are to be evaluated in a performance assessment analysis to determine the likelihood of meeting the regulatory criteria for disposal. Sandia National Laboratories and Taiwan's Institute of Nuclear Energy Research have been working together to develop the necessary performance assessment methodology and associated computer models to perform these analyses. The methodology utilizes both deterministic (e.g., single run) and probabilistic (e.g., multiple statistical realizations) analyses to achieve the goals. The probabilistic approach provides a means of quantitatively evaluating uncertainty in the model predictions and a more robust basis for performing sensitivity analyses to better understand what is driving the dose predictions from the models. Two types of disposal configurations are under consideration: a shallow land burial concept and a cavern disposal concept. The shallow land burial option includes a protective cover to limit infiltration potential to the waste. Both conceptual designs call for the disposal of 55 gallon waste drums within concrete lined trenches or tunnels, and backfilled with grout. Waste emplaced in the drums may be solidified. Both types of sites are underlain or placed within saturated fractured bedrock material. These factors have influenced the conceptual model development of each site, as well as the selection of the models to employ for the performance assessment analyses. Several existing codes were integrated in order to facilitate a comprehensive performance assessment methodology to evaluate the potential disposal sites. First, a need

  18. Introduction to Special Section on Geophysical Investigations of Proposed Radioactive Waste Disposal Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, H. W.

    1987-07-01

    A symposium on "Geophysical Investigations of Proposed Radioactive Waste Disposal Sites" was held at the Fall Meeting of the American Geophysical Union, December 13, 1982. Since then, five of the papers presented at the symposium have been published in the Journal of Geophysical Research and an additional six papers are included in this issue. Three of the current papers involve geophysical research at Yucca Mountain, Nevada; two papers are on subsurface structure and fracturing of the Strath-Halladale granite in northern Scotland, a prime candidate for rad waste storage in the United Kingdom; and a general paper is included on the application of various geophysical methods for characterizing all the potential storage sites in the United States under consideration by the U.S. Department of Energy. In 1982, the following nine sites in the United States (Figure 1) were under consideration by the U.S. Department of Energy for the first U.S. repository of high-level radioactive waste (HLW). The host rock at each site is noted in parentheses (from NW to SE): Hanford, Washington (Miocene basalt flows); Yucca Mountain, Nevada (Tertiary tuff); Davis Canyon, Utah, (bedded salt); Lavender Canyon, Utah (bedded salt); Deaf Smith, Texas (Permian bedded salt); Swisher County, Texas (Permian bedded salt); Vacherie dome, Louisiana (domal salt); Richton dome, Mississippi (domal salt); and Cypress Creek dome, Mississippi (domal salt)

  19. The United States Department of Energy process for performance assessment for disposal of low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, D.E.; Owens, K.W.; Wilhite, E.L.; Duggan, G.J.

    1993-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) manages disposal of low-level radioactive waste through the requirements of DOE Order 5820.2A on Radioactive Waste Management. The order specifies long-term performance objectives for permanent disposal, requires a performance assessment to determine compliance with those objectives, and establishes a Peer Review Panel to review those assessments for technical quality and completeness. A Performance Assessment Task Team has been established to provide guidance and recommend policy for implementation and interpretation of the requirements to those preparing the assessments. This paper describes the requirements, the Peer Review Panel, the Performance Assessment Task Team, and their activities to date.

  20. Deep disposal of long-lived radioactive waste in France: The volunteering approach in site selection

    SciTech Connect

    Raynal, M.; Barber, P.

    1995-12-31

    The French Waste Act of December 1991 set up important dispositions among which the deep disposal of long-lived waste should be evaluated before 2006. ANDRA, the French National Agency for Radioactive Waste Management, is particularly responsible for the siting, the construction and the operation of underground laboratories designed to study potential geologic host-formations for deep disposal. An open decision-making process started up in 1992, specially to restore the public confidence after strong contest in the early 1990. The mission of negotiation conducted in 1993 all over the country by the appointed Member of Parliament, Mr. Bataille, allowed volunteer candidates for the siting surveyed by ANDRA in 1994 and 1995. Four areas are presently under characterization investigations, proceeding with the first phase of the underground laboratory program with the objective of choosing two sites for two underground laboratories. France is now entering a new and very important phase on the long path towards the creation of an underground repository where public`s understanding and acceptance is an important part of the overall process as it is shown in this paper.

  1. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    SciTech Connect

    Gdowski, G.E.; Bullen, D.B. )

    1988-08-01

    Three copper-based alloys and three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys are being considered as possible materials for fabrication of containers for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. This waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level waste in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The containers must maintain substantially complete containment for at least 300 yr and perhaps as long as 1000 yr. During the first 50 yr after emplacement, they must be retrievable from the disposal site. Shortly after the containers are emplaced in the repository, they will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of the high-level waste. This volume surveys the available data on oxidation and corrosion of the iron- to nickel-based austenitic materials (Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825) and the copper-based alloy materials (CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni)), which are the present candidates for fabrication of the containers. Studies that provided a large amount of data are highlighted, and those areas in which little data exists are identified. Examples of successful applications of these materials are given. On the basis of resistance to oxidation and general corrosion, the austenitic materials are ranked as follows: Alloy 825 (best), Type 316L stainless steel, and then Type 304L stainless steel (worst). For the copper-based materials, the ranking is as follows: CDA 715 and CDA 613 (both best), and CDA 102 (worst). 110 refs., 30 figs., 13 tabs.

  2. Monitoring of heat and moisture migration from radioactive waste disposed in an augered shaft

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.E.; McGrath, D.A.; Boland, J.R.

    1987-12-31

    Soil temperature and moisture data have been collected for the past 4 years at the Greater Confinement Disposal Test (GCDT) being conducted at the Nevada Test Site. High-specific-activity radioactive waste with a thermal output of 3.4 kW was buried at a depth of 30 m in tuffaceous alluvium. Prior to waste emplacement the ambient subsurface temperature was about 17{sup 0}C and the volumetric soil moisture content was 10 to 12%. Two years after waste emplacement the soil temperature exceeded 100{sup 0}C and the soil moisture content dropped below 4% at a radius of approximately 3 m from the thermal waste. Drying of the soil has occurred as the high temperature radiating from the thermal sources propels water vapor from the waste zone to a zone where dew-point temperatures are reached. The temperature and moisture data will be used in combination with data from gaseous tracer release tests in predicting and appraising the long-term performance of the GCDT.

  3. Monitoring of heat and moisture migration from radioactive waste disposed in an augered shaft

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.E.; Mc Grath, D.A.; Boland, J.R.

    1987-12-31

    Soil temperature and moisture data have been collected for the past 4 years at the Greater Confinement Disposal Test (GCDT) being conducted at the Nevada Test Site. High-specific-activity radioactive waste with a thermal output of 3.4 kW was buried at a depth of 30 m in tuffaceous alluvium. Prior to waste emplacement the ambient subsurface temperature was about 17{sup 0}C and the volumetric soil moisture content was 10-12%. Two years after waste emplacement the soil temperature exceeded 100{sup 0}C and the soil moisture content dropped below 4% at a radius of approximately 3 m from the thermal waste. Drying of the soil has occurred as the high temperature radiating from the thermal sources propels water vapor from the waste zone to a zone where dew-point temperatures are reached. The temperature and moisture data will be used in combination with data from gaseous tracer release tests in predicting and appraising the long-term performance of the GCDT.

  4. Hydrogeologic factors in the selection of shallow land burial sites for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fischer, John N.

    1986-01-01

    In the United States, low-level radioactive waste is disposed of by shallow land burial. Commercial low-level radioactive waste has been buried at six sites, and low-level radioactive waste generated by the Federal Government has been buried at nine major and several minor sites. Several existing low-level radioactive waste sites have not provided expected protection of the environment. These shortcomings are related, at least in part, to an inadequate understanding of site hydrogeology at the time the sites were selected. To better understand the natural systems and the effect of hydrogeologic factors on long-term site performance, the U.S. Geological Survey has conducted investigations at five of the six commercial low-level radioactive waste sites and at three Federal sites. These studies, combined with those of other Federal and State agencies, have identified and confirmed important hydrogeologic factors in the effective disposal of low-level radioactive waste by shallow land burial. These factors include precipitation, surface drainage, topography, site stability, geology, thickness of the host soil-rock horizon, soil and sediment permeability, soil and water chemistry, and depth to the water table.

  5. Intended long term performances of cementitious engineered barriers for future storage and disposal facilities for radioactive wastes in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fako, R.; Barariu, Gh.; Toma, R.; Georgescu, R.; Sociu, F.

    2013-07-01

    Considering the EU statements, Romania is engaged to endorse in the near future the IAEA relevant publications on geological repository (CNCANa), to update the Medium and Long Term National Strategy for Safe Management of Radioactive Waste and to approve the Road Map for Geological Repository Development. Currently, for example, spent fuel is wet stored for 6 years and after this period it is transported to dry storage in MACSTOR-200 (a concrete monolithic module) where it is intended to remain at least 50 years. The present situation for radioactive waste management in Romania is reviewed in the present paper. Focus will be done on existent disposal facilities but, also, on future facilities planned for storage / disposal of radioactive wastes. Considering specific data for Romanian radioactive waste inventory, authors are reviewing the advance in the radioactive waste management in Romania considering its particularities. The team tries to highlight the expected limitations and unknown data related with cementitious engineered barriers that has to be faced in the near future incase of interim storage or for the upcoming long periods of disposal.

  6. FINAL DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE IN GERMANY: PLAN APPROVAL PROCESS OF KONRAD MINE AND ACCEPTANCE REQUIREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Bandt, Gabriele; Posnatzki, Britta; Beckers, Klaus-Arno

    2003-02-27

    Currently no final repository for any type of radioactive waste is operated in Germany. Preliminary Final Storage Acceptance Requirements for radioactive waste packages were published in 1995. Up to now these are the basis for treatment of radioactive waste in Germany. After licensing of the final repository these preliminary waste acceptance requirements are completed with licensing conditions. Some of these conditions affect the preliminary waste acceptance requirements, e. g. behavior of chemo-toxic substances in case of accidents in the final repository or the allowed maximum concentration of fissile material. The presented examples of radioactive waste conditioning campaigns demonstrate that no difficulties are expected in management, characterization and quality assurance of radioactive wastes due to the licensing conditions.

  7. Tectonic and climatic considerations for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste: A UK perspective.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, F M; Schofield, D I; Shaw, R P; Norris, S

    2016-11-15

    Identifying and evaluating the factors that might impact on the long-term integrity of a deep Geological Disposal Facility (GDF) and its surrounding geological and surface environment is central to developing a safety case for underground disposal of radioactive waste. The geological environment should be relatively stable and its behaviour adequately predictable so that scientifically sound evaluations of the long-term radiological safety of a GDF can be made. In considering this, it is necessary to take into account natural processes that could affect a GDF or modify its geological environment up to 1millionyears into the future. Key processes considered in this paper include those which result from plate tectonics, such as seismicity and volcanism, as well as climate-related processes, such as erosion, uplift and the effects of glaciation. Understanding the inherent variability of process rates, critical thresholds and likely potential influence of unpredictable perturbations represent significant challenges to predicting the natural environment. From a plate-tectonic perspective, a one million year time frame represents a very short segment of geological time and is largely below the current resolution of observation of past processes. Similarly, predicting climate system evolution on such time-scales, particularly beyond 200ka AP is highly uncertain, relying on estimating the extremes within which climate and related processes may vary with reasonable confidence. The paper highlights some of the challenges facing a deep geological disposal program in the UK to review understanding of the natural changes that may affect siting and design of a GDF.

  8. Radionuclide concentrations in vegetation at radioactive-waste disposal Area G during the 1994 growing season

    SciTech Connect

    Fresquez, P.R.; Biggs, J.B.; Bennett, K.D.

    1995-07-01

    Overstory (pinon pine) and understory (grass and forb) vegetation samples were collected within and around selected points at Area G-a low-level radioactive solid-waste disposal facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory-for the analysis of tritium ({sup 3}H), strontium ({sup 90}Sr), plutonium ({sup 238} Pu and {sup 239}Pu), cesium ({sup 137}Cs), americium ({sup 241}Am), and total uranium. In general, most vegetation samples collected within and around Area G contained radionuclide levels in higher concentrations than vegetation collected from background areas. Tritium, in particular, was detected as high as 5,800 pCi/mL in overstory vegetation collected outside the fence just west of the tritium shafts; this suggests that tritium is migrating from this waste repository through subsurface pathways. Also, understory vegetation collected north of the transuranic (TRU) pads (outside the fence of Area G) contained the highest values of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 241}Am, and may be a result of surface holding, storage, or disposal activities.

  9. Importance of geologic characterization of potential low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weibel, C.P.; Berg, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    Using the example of the Geff Alternative Site in Wayne County, Illinois, for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste, this paper demonstrates, from a policy and public opinion perspective, the importance of accurately determining site stratigraphy. Complete and accurate characterization of geologic materials and determination of site stratigraphy at potential low-level waste disposal sites provides the frame-work for subsequent hydrologic and geochemical investigations. Proper geologic characterization is critical to determine the long-term site stability and the extent of interactions of groundwater between the site and its surroundings. Failure to adequately characterize site stratigraphy can lead to the incorrect evaluation of the geology of a site, which in turn may result in a lack of public confidence. A potential problem of lack of public confidence was alleviated as a result of the resolution and proper definition of the Geff Alternative Site stratigraphy. The integrity of the investigation was not questioned and public perception was not compromised. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  10. Solution speciation of plutonium and Americium at an Australian legacy radioactive waste disposal site.

    PubMed

    Ikeda-Ohno, Atsushi; Harrison, Jennifer J; Thiruvoth, Sangeeth; Wilsher, Kerry; Wong, Henri K Y; Johansen, Mathew P; Waite, T David; Payne, Timothy E

    2014-09-02

    During the 1960s, radioactive waste containing small amounts of plutonium (Pu) and americium (Am) was disposed in shallow trenches at the Little Forest Burial Ground (LFBG), located near the southern suburbs of Sydney, Australia. Because of periodic saturation and overflowing of the former disposal trenches, Pu and Am have been transferred from the buried wastes into the surrounding surface soils. The presence of readily detected amounts of Pu and Am in the trench waters provides a unique opportunity to study their aqueous speciation under environmentally relevant conditions. This study aims to comprehensively investigate the chemical speciation of Pu and Am in the trench water by combining fluoride coprecipitation, solvent extraction, particle size fractionation, and thermochemical modeling. The predominant oxidation states of dissolved Pu and Am species were found to be Pu(IV) and Am(III), and large proportions of both actinides (Pu, 97.7%; Am, 86.8%) were associated with mobile colloids in the submicron size range. On the basis of this information, possible management options are assessed.

  11. Fate of Brine Applied to Unpaved Roads at a Radioactive Waste Subsurface Disposal Area

    SciTech Connect

    Larry C. Hull; Carolyn W. Bishop

    2004-02-01

    Between 1984 and 1993, MgCl2 brine was used to suppress dust on unpaved roads at a radioactive waste subsurface disposal area. Because Cl– might enhance corrosion of buried metals in the waste, we investigated the distribution and fate of Cl– in the vadose zone using pore water samples collected from suction lysimeters and soluble salt concentrations extracted from sediment samples. The Cl/Br mass ratio and the total dissolved Cl– concentration of pore water show that brine contamination occurs primarily within 13 m of treated roads, but can extend as much as 30 m laterally in near-surface sedimentary deposits. Within the deep vadose zone, which consists of interlayered basalt lava flows and sedimentary interbeds, brine has moved up to 110 m laterally. This lateral migration suggests formation of perched water and horizontal transport during periods of high recharge. In a few locations, brine migrated to depths of 67 m within 3 to 5 yr. Elevated Cl– concentrations were found to depths of 2 m in roadbed material. In drainage ditches along roads, where runoff accumulates and recharge of surface water is high, Cl– was flushed from the sediments in 3 to 4 yr. In areas of lower recharge, Cl– remained in the sediments after 5 yr. Vertical brine movement is directly related to surface recharge through sediments. The distribution of Cl– in pore water and sediments is consistent with estimates of vadose zone residence times and spatial distribution of surface water recharge from other investigations at the subsurface disposal area.

  12. The application of magnetic gradiometry and electromagnetic induction at a former radioactive waste disposal site.

    PubMed

    Rucker, Dale Franklin

    2010-04-01

    A former radioactive waste disposal site is surveyed with two non-intrusive geophysical techniques, including magnetic gradiometry and electromagnetic induction. Data were gathered over the site by towing the geophysical equipment mounted to a non-electrically conductive and non-magnetic fibre-glass cart. Magnetic gradiometry, which detects the location of ferromagnetic material, including iron and steel, was used to map the existence of a previously unknown buried pipeline formerly used in the delivery of liquid waste to a number of surface disposal trenches and concrete vaults. The existence of a possible pipeline is reinforced by historical engineering drawing and photographs. The electromagnetic induction (EMI) technique was used to map areas of high and low electrical conductivity, which coincide with the magnetic gradiometry data. The EMI also provided information on areas of high electrical conductivity unrelated to a pipeline network. Both data sets demonstrate the usefulness of surface geophysical surveillance techniques to minimize the risk of exposure in the event of future remediation efforts.

  13. Not equitable, not efficient: U. S. policy on low-level radioactive waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Coates, D.; Munger, M. ); Heid, V.

    1994-01-01

    Elected officials and policy analysts alike often treat equity and efficiency as distinct concerns. In the case study, focusing on U.S. policy for disposing of low-level radioactive waste, the authors consider an instance where the distinction between equity and efficiency is difficult to sustain. The [open quotes]equity, then efficiency[close quotes] approach embodied in the compact system of regional agreements is largely to blame for the current crisis facing generators, regulatory officials, and citizens. They find that nearly three times more waste disposal facilities are being contemplated than are financially viable. More generally, it is claimed that the approach for achieving an equitable solution must be very carefully designed, and that the concept of economic efficiency must be considered (at least in this case study) as part of the definition of equity. This case study is unusual, because they are able to make a recommendation that improves both efficiency and equity. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  14. Low-level radioactive waste disposal: Status of the central interstate compact Nebraska Project

    SciTech Connect

    DeOld, J.; Neal, J.; Sabbe, M.

    1994-12-31

    The licensing process for a low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facility in Nebraska has encountered obstacles not previously anticipated. Various issues have arisen since the license application was submitted in July 1990. In early 1993 the State of Nebraska issued a notice of intent to deny the application based on its interpretation of regulations of site suitability issues (i.e., presence of wetlands, frequent ponding, and poor drainage of the site). At the same time, the Nebraska governor`s office filed a lawsuit alleging a lack of community consent in the siting process. The state`s technical and completeness reviews of the license application also presented challenges to the project. The project has reacted to these issues by developing and implementing strategies to ensure continuation of the license application review process. These events, however, have affected the project cost and schedule.

  15. Comparative approaches to siting low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Newberry, W.F.

    1994-07-01

    This report describes activities in nine States to select site locations for new disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste. These nine States have completed processes leading to identification of specific site locations for onsite investigations. For each State, the status, legal and regulatory framework, site criteria, and site selection process are described. In most cases, States and compact regions decided to assign responsibility for site selection to agencies of government and to use top-down mapping methods for site selection. The report discusses quantitative and qualitative techniques used in applying top-down screenings, various approaches for delineating units of land for comparison, issues involved in excluding land from further consideration, and different positions taken by the siting organizations in considering public acceptance, land use, and land availability as factors in site selection.

  16. Radioactive Solid Waste Storage and Disposal at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Description and Safety Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, L.D.

    2001-01-30

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a principle Department of Energy (DOE) Research Institution operated by the Union Carbide Corporation - Nuclear Division (UCC-ND) under direction of the DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office (DOE-ORO). The Laboratory was established in east Tennessee, near what is now the city of Oak Ridge, in the mid 1940s as a part of the World War II effort to develop a nuclear weapon. Since its inception, disposal of radioactively contaminated materials, both solid and liquid, has been an integral part of Laboratory operations. The purpose of this document is to provide a detailed description of the ORNL Solid Waste Storage Areas, to describe the practice and procedure of their operation, and to address the health and safety impacts and concerns of that operation.

  17. Model training curriculum for Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Tyner, C.J.; Birk, S.M.

    1995-09-01

    This document is to assist in the development of the training programs required to be in place for the operating license for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. It consists of an introductory document and four additional appendixes of individual training program curricula. This information will provide the starting point for the more detailed facility-specific training programs that will be developed as the facility hires and trains new personnel and begins operation. This document is comprehensive and is intended as a guide for the development of a company- or facility-specific program. The individual licensee does not need to use this model training curriculum as written. Instead, this document can be used as a menu for the development, modification, or verification of customized training programs.

  18. Estimation of contaminant transport in groundwater beneath radioactive waste disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.C.; Tauxe, J.D.; Lee, D.W.

    1995-05-25

    Performance assessments are required for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives, consider human exposures from water, air, and inadvertent intruder pathways. Among these, the groundwater pathway analysis usually involves complex numerical simulations with results which are often difficult to verify and interpret. This paper presents a technique to identify and simplify the essential parts of the groundwater analysis. The transport process of radionuclides including infiltration of precipitation, leachate generation, and advection and dispersion in the groundwater is divided into several steps. For each step, a simple analytical model is constructed and refined to capture the dominant phenomena represented in the complex analysis included in a site-specific performance assessment. This step-wise approach provides a means for gaining insights into the transport process and obtaining reasonable estimates of relevant quantities for facility design and site evaluation.

  19. Disposing of High-Level Radioactive Waste in Germany - A Note from the Licensing Authority - 12530

    SciTech Connect

    Pick, Thomas Stefan; Bluth, Joachim; Lauenstein, Christof; Markhoefer, Joerg

    2012-07-01

    Following the national German consensus on the termination of utilisation of nuclear energy in the summer of 2011, the Federal and Laender Governments have declared their intention to work together on a national consensus on the disposal of radioactive waste as well. Projected in the early 1970's the Federal Government had started exploring the possibility to establish a repository for HLW at the Gorleben site in 1977. However, there is still no repository available in Germany today. The delay results mainly from the national conflict over the suitability of the designated Gorleben site, considerably disrupting German society along the crevice that runs between supporters and opponents of nuclear energy. The Gorleben salt dome is situated in Lower Saxony, the German state that also hosts the infamous Asse mine repository for LLW and ILW and the Konrad repository project designated to receive LLW and ILW as well. With the fourth German project, the Morsleben L/ILW repository only 20 km away across the state border, the state of Lower Saxony carries the main load for the disposal of radioactive waste in Germany. After more than 25 years of exploration and a 10 year moratorium the Gorleben project has now reached a cross-road. Current plans for setting up a new site selection procedure in Germany call for the selection and exploration of up to four alternative sites, depending only on suitable geology. In the meantime the discussion is still open on whether the Gorleben project should be terminated in order to pacify the societal conflict or being kept in the selection process on account of its promising geology. The Lower Saxony Ministry for Environment and Climate Protection proposes to follow a twelve-step-program for finding the appropriate site, including the Gorleben site in the process. With its long history of exploration the site is the benchmark that alternative sites will have to compare with. Following the national consensus of 2011 on the termination of

  20. Mixed and low-level radioactive waste disposal from the Argonne National Laboratory-East Map Tube Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wescott, J.B.; Moos, L.P.

    1995-07-01

    The Map Tube Facility was a storage unit for small, highly radioactive objects. The facility consisted of 129 cast-iron pipes cast vertically in a concrete monolithic structure. The objects were packaged and placed into the pipes for storage prior to disposal or reuse in research experiments. Deterioration of the facility allowed water to enter the pipes. Release of this contaminated water has resulted in radiological contamination of underlying soil and groundwater. Sediment, principally corrosion products, collected in the bottom of the pipes. Decontamination and decommissioning of the Map Tube Facility generated a large quantity of radioactive mixed and low-level waste. All low-level and mixed waste that can not be treated on-site is sent to the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) in Richland, Washington for storage or disposal. Because of the difficulty and cost of disposing radioactive mixed waste, a great amount of effort was expended to limit the mixed waste volume. The final volume of mixed waste was approximately 99 percent less than originally generated with total waste disposal costs being reduced by roughly two-thirds.

  1. Design and operational considerations of United States commercial near-surface low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Birk, S.M.

    1997-10-01

    In accordance with the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, states are responsible for providing for disposal of commercially generated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) within their borders. LLW in the US is defined as all radioactive waste that is not classified as spent nuclear fuel, high-level radioactive waste, transuranic waste, or by-product material resulting from the extraction of uranium from ore. Commercial waste includes LLW generated by hospitals, universities, industry, pharmaceutical companies, and power utilities. LLW generated by the country`s defense operations is the responsibility of the Federal government and its agency, the Department of Energy. The commercial LLRW disposal sites discussed in this report are located near: Sheffield, Illinois (closed); Maxey Flats, Kentucky (closed); Beatty, Nevada (closed); West Valley, New York (closed); Barnwell, South Carolina (operating); Richland, Washington (operating); Ward Valley, California, (proposed); Sierra Blanca, Texas (proposed); Wake County, North Carolina (proposed); and Boyd County, Nebraska (proposed). While some comparisons between the sites described in this report are appropriate, this must be done with caution. In addition to differences in climate and geology between sites, LLW facilities in the past were not designed and operated to today`s standards. This report summarizes each site`s design and operational considerations for near-surface disposal of low-level radioactive waste. The report includes: a description of waste characteristics; design and operational features; post closure measures and plans; cost and duration of site characterization, construction, and operation; recent related R and D activities for LLW treatment and disposal; and the status of the LLW system in the US.

  2. Durability of a reinforced concrete designed for the construction of an intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffó, G. S.; Arva, E. A.; Schulz, F. M.; Vazquez, D. R.

    2012-01-01

    The National Atomic Energy Commission of the Argentine Republic is developing a nuclear waste disposal management programme that contemplates the design and construction of a facility for the final disposal of intermediate-level radioactive wastes. The repository is based on the use of multiple, independent and redundant barriers. The major components are made in reinforced concrete so, the durability of these structures is an important aspect for the facility integrity. This work presents an investigation performed on a reinforced concrete specifically designed for this purpose, to predict the service life of the intermediate level radioactive waste disposal facility from data obtained with several techniques. Results obtained with corrosion sensors embedded in a concrete prototype are also included. The information obtained will be used for the final design of the facility in order to guarantee a service life more or equal than the foreseen durability for this type of facilities.

  3. 78 FR 65390 - Exemption From Licensing for Disposal of Low-Activity Radioactive Waste at the US Ecology Idaho...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... COMMISSION Exemption From Licensing for Disposal of Low-Activity Radioactive Waste at the US Ecology Idaho... (SLC) site in Bloomsburg, Pennsylvania, at the US Ecology Idaho (USEI) Resource Conservation and... INFORMATION: I. Introduction The NRC staff is considering a request from the US Ecology, Inc. (US Ecology...

  4. Obstacle factors and overcoming plans of public communication: With an emphasis on radioactive waste disposal facility siting

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Hae-Woon; Oh, Chang-Taeg

    1996-12-31

    Korea is confronting a serious social conflict, which is phenomenon of local residents reaction to radioactive waste disposal facility. This phenomenon is traced back to the reason that the project sponsors and local residents do not communicate sufficiently each other. Accordingly, in order to overcome local residents` reaction to radioactive waste disposal facility siting effectively, it is absolutely necessary to consider the way of solutions and strategies with regard to obstacle factors for public communication. In this content, this study will review three cases (An-myon Island, Gul-up Island, Yang-yang) on local residents reaction to facility siting. As a result of analysis, authoritarian behavior of project sponsors, local stigma, risk, antinuclear activities of environmental group, failures in siting the radioactive waste disposal facility, etc. has negative impact on public communication of the radioactive waste disposal facility siting. In this study, 5 strategies (reform of project sponsor`s authoritarianism, incentive offer, strengthening PA activities, more active talks with environmental groups, promoting credibility of project sponsors) arc suggested to cope with obstacle factors of public communication.

  5. Centrifuge modeling of radioactive waste migration through backfill in a near surface disposal facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gurumoorthy, C.; Kusakabe, O.

    2007-07-01

    Investigations on the performance of backfill barrier in Near Surface Disposal Facility (NSDF) for radioactive wastes are important to ensure the long term safety of such disposal option. Favorable condition to delay migration of radionuclides from disposed waste to far fields is diffusion process. However, advective dispersion/diffusion mechanism plays an important role due to changes in backfill over a period of time. In order to understand these mechanisms, detailed laboratory experiments are usually conducted for developing mathematical models to assess the behaviour of backfill. However, these experiments are time consuming and suffer with the limitations due to material complexity. Also, there are constraints associated with validation of theoretical predictions due to intricacy of boundary conditions as well as the time scale is quite different as compared to the time required for completion of the processes in the field. Keeping in view these aspects, centrifuge modeling technique has been adopted by various researchers to model and understand various geo-environment problems in order to provide a link between the real life situation termed as the 'Prototype' and its model, which is exposed to a higher gravitational field. An attempt has been made in this paper to investigate the feasibility of this technique to model advective dispersion/diffusion mechanism of radionuclides through saturated Bentonite-Sand (B:S) backfill. Various stages of centrifuge modeling are highlighted. Column tests were conducted in the centrifuge to evaluate the hydraulic conductivity of B:S mixture under prototype NSDF stress conditions. Results showed that steady state hydraulic conductivity under saturated conditions was 2.86 10{sup -11} m/sec. Studies indicate the feasibility of centrifuge modeling technique and usefulness to model advective diffusion of radionuclides through B:S backfill. (authors)

  6. Safety monitoring of the FBG sensor in respect of radioactivity and deformation measurement of a silo structure for radioactive waste disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ki-Soo; Cho, Seong-Kyu

    2015-07-01

    The FBG sensor has globally been commercialized in various fields that is actively applied in Korea as well. Especially it is widely used as a structural monitoring sensor in civil engineering and construction structures due to its advantages including electrical stability, chemical stability and multiplexing. This report aims to introduce safety inspection of the FBG sensor in respect of radioactivity which has been applied to a silo structure for radioactive waste disposal as an example.

  7. Method for making a low density polyethylene waste form for safe disposal of low level radioactive material

    DOEpatents

    Colombo, P.; Kalb, P.D.

    1984-06-05

    In the method of the invention low density polyethylene pellets are mixed in a predetermined ratio with radioactive particulate material, then the mixture is fed through a screw-type extruder that melts the low density polyethylene under a predetermined pressure and temperature to form a homogeneous matrix that is extruded and separated into solid monolithic waste forms. The solid waste forms are adapted to be safely handled, stored for a short time, and safely disposed of in approved depositories.

  8. Report of ICRP Task Group 80: 'radiological protection in geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste'.

    PubMed

    Weiss, W

    2012-01-01

    The report of International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Task Group 80 entitled 'Radiological protection in geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste' updates and consolidates previous ICRP recommendations related to solid waste disposal (ICRP Publications 46, 77, and 81). The recommendations given in this report apply specifically to geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste. The report explains how the 2007 system of radiological protection, described in ICRP Publication 103, can be applied in the context of the geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste. The report is written as a self-standing document. It describes the different stages in the lifetime of a geological disposal facility, and addresses the application of relevant radiological protection principles for each stage depending on the various exposure situations that can be encountered. In particular, the crucial factor that influences application of the protection system over the different phases in the lifetime of a disposal facility is the level of oversight that is present. The level of oversight affects the capability to reduce or avoid exposures. Three main time frames have to be considered for the purpose of radiological protection: time of direct oversight when the disposal facility is being implemented and active oversight is taking place; time of indirect oversight when the disposal facility is sealed and indirect oversight is being exercised to provide additional assurance on behalf of the population; and time of no oversight when oversight is no longer exercised because memory is lost. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. The Belgian R and D feasibility programme on the geological disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Van Marcke, Philippe; Wacquier, William

    2013-07-01

    ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials, considers geological disposal in poorly indurated clay as the reference solution for the long-term management of high-level waste (HLW) and intermediate and low level waste, long-lived (ILLW-LL). The disposal concept entails the post-conditioning of the waste in disposal packages and the subsequent disposal of these packages in an underground repository. The R and D feasibility programme on geological disposal aims at demonstrating, at a conceptual level, that the proposed disposal system can be constructed, operated and closed. (authors)

  10. Linkage Between Post-Closure Safety Case Review and the Authorization Process for Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Streatfield, I. J.; Duerden, S. L.; Yearsley, R. A.; Bennett, D. G.

    2003-02-27

    The Environment Agency (the Agency) has responsibilities under the Radioactive Substances Act of 1993 for regulating the disposal and storage of radioactive wastes in England and Wales, including regulation of the disposal site for UK solid low-level waste (LLW) at Drigg in Cumbria, NW England. To help inform the next review of the Drigg disposal authorization, the Agency has required the operator, British Nuclear Fuels plc to submit a Post-Closure Safety Case which will assess the potential long-term impacts from the site. With the aim of using best practice to determine authorization conditions, the Agency contracted Galson Sciences, Ltd to undertake an international survey of authorization procedures for comparable facilities in other countries. This paper provides an overview of the findings from the international survey.

  11. Nuclear Waste Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, Glendon W.; Meyer, Philip D.; Ward, Andy L.

    2005-01-12

    Nuclear wastes are by-products of nuclear weapons production and nuclear power generation, plus residuals of radioactive materials used by industry, medicine, agriculture, and academia. Their distinctive nature and potential hazard make nuclear wastes not only the most dangerous waste ever created by mankind, but also one of the most controversial and regulated with respect to disposal. Nuclear waste issues, related to uncertainties in geologic disposal and long-term protection, combined with potential misuse by terrorist groups, have created uneasiness and fear in the general public and remain stumbling blocks for further development of a nuclear industry in a world that may soon be facing a global energy crisis.

  12. Considerations Related To Human Intrusion In The Context Of Disposal Of Radioactive Waste-The IAEA HIDRA Project

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, Roger; Kumano, Yumiko; Bailey, Lucy; Markley, Chris; Andersson, Eva; Beuth, Thomas

    2014-01-09

    The principal approaches for management of radioactive waste are commonly termed ‘delay and decay’, ‘concentrate and contain’ and ‘dilute and disperse’. Containing the waste and isolating it from the human environment, by burying it, is considered to increase safety and is generally accepted as the preferred approach for managing radioactive waste. However, this approach results in concentrated sources of radioactive waste contained in one location, which can pose hazards should the facility be disrupted by human action in the future. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) agree that some form of inadvertent human intrusion (HI) needs to be considered to address the potential consequences in the case of loss of institutional control and loss of memory of the disposal facility. Requirements are reflected in national regulations governing radioactive waste disposal. However, in practice, these requirements are often different from country to country, which is then reflected in the actual implementation of HI as part of a safety case. The IAEA project on HI in the context of Disposal of RadioActive waste (HIDRA) has been started to identify potential areas for improved consistency in consideration of HI. The expected outcome is to provide recommendations on how to address human actions in the safety case in the future, and how the safety case may be used to demonstrate robustness and optimize siting, design and waste acceptance criteria within the context of a safety case.

  13. Probability, conditional probability and complementary cumulative distribution functions in performance assessment for radioactive waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Helton, J.C.

    1996-03-01

    A formal description of the structure of several recent performance assessments (PAs) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is given in terms of the following three components: a probability space (S{sub st}, S{sub st}, p{sub st}) for stochastic uncertainty, a probability space (S{sub su}, S{sub su}, p{sub su}) for subjective uncertainty and a function (i.e., a random variable) defined on the product space associated with (S{sub st}, S{sub st}, p{sub st}) and (S{sub su}, S{sub su}, p{sub su}). The explicit recognition of the existence of these three components allows a careful description of the use of probability, conditional probability and complementary cumulative distribution functions within the WIPP PA. This usage is illustrated in the context of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s standard for the geologic disposal of radioactive waste (40 CFR 191, Subpart B). The paradigm described in this presentation can also be used to impose a logically consistent structure on PAs for other complex systems.

  14. Water balance at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, R.W.; Gray, J.R.; De Vries, G. M.; Mills, P.C.

    1989-01-01

    The water balance at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site in northwestern Illinois was studied from July 1982 through June 1984. Continuous data collection allowed estimates to be made for each component of the water-balance equation independent of other components. The average annual precipitation was 948 millimeters. Average annual evapotranspiration was estimated at 637 millimeters, runoff was 160 millimeters, change in water storage in a waste-trench cover was 24 millimeters, and deep percolation was 208 millimeters. The magnitude of the difference between precipitation and all other components (81 millimeters per year) indicates that, in a similar environment, the water-budget method would be useful in estimating evapotranspiration, but questionable for estimation of other components. Precipitation depth and temporal distribution had a very strong effect on all other components of the water-balance equation. Due to the variability of precipitation from year to year, it appears that two years of data are inadequate for characterization of the long-term average water balance at the site.

  15. Environmental risks of radioactive discharges from a low-level radioactive waste disposal site at Dessel, Belgium.

    PubMed

    Batlle, J Vives I; Sweeck, L; Wannijn, J; Vandenhove, H

    2016-10-01

    The potential radiological impact of releases from a low-level radioactive waste (Category A waste) repository in Dessel, Belgium on the local fauna and flora was assessed under a reference scenario for gradual leaching. The potential impact situations for terrestrial and aquatic fauna and flora considered in this study were soil contamination due to irrigation with contaminated groundwater from a well at 70 m from the repository, contamination of the local wetlands receiving the highest radionuclide flux after migration through the aquifer and contamination of the local river receiving the highest radionuclide flux after migration through the aquifer. In addition, an exploratory study was carried out for biota residing in the groundwater. All impact assessments were performed using the Environmental Risk from Ionising Contaminants: Assessment and Management (ERICA) tool. For all scenarios considered, absorbed dose rates to biota were found to be well below the ERICA 10 μGy h(-1) screening value. The highest dose rates were observed for the scenario where soil was irrigated with groundwater from the vicinity of the repository. For biota residing in the groundwater well, a few dose rates were slightly above the screening level but significantly below the dose rates at which the smallest effects are observed for those relevant species or groups of species. Given the conservative nature of the assessment, it can be concluded that manmade radionuclides deposited into the environment by the near surface disposal of category A waste at Dessel do not have a significant radiological impact to wildlife. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The NEA research and environmental surveillance programme related to sea disposal of low-level radioactive waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rugger, B.; Templeton, W. L.; Gurbutt, P.

    1983-05-01

    Sea dumping operations of certain types of packaged low and medium level radioactive wastes have been carried out since 1967 in the North-East Atlantic under the auspices of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. On the occasion of the 1980 review of the continued suitability of the North-East Atlantic site used for the disposal of radioactive waste, it was recommended that an effort should be made to increase the scientific data base relating to the oceanographic and biological characteristics of the dumping area. In particular, it was suggested that a site specific model of the transfer of radionuclides in the marine environment be developed, which would permit a better assessment of the potential radiation doses to man from the dumping of radioactive waste. To fulfill these objectives a research and environmental surveillance program related to sea disposal of radioactive waste was set up in 1981 with the participation of thirteen Member countries and the International Laboratory for Marine Radioactivity of the IAEA in Monaco. The research program is focused on five research areas which are directly relevant to the preparation of more site specific assessments in the future. They are: model development; physical oceanography; geochemistry; biology; and radiological surveillance. Promising results have already been obtained and more are anticipated in the not too distant future. An interim description of the NEA dumping site has been prepared which provides an excellent data base for this area.

  17. The Evolution of Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) Disposal Practices at the Savannah River Site Coupled with Vigorous Stakeholder Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Goldston, W. T.; Wilhite, E. L.; Cook, J. R.; Sauls, V. W.

    2002-02-25

    Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal practices at SRS evolved from trench disposal with little long-term performance basis to disposal in robust concrete vaults, again without modeling long-term performance. Now, based on an assessment of long-term performance of various waste forms and methods of disposal, the LLW disposal program allows for a ''smorgasbord'' of various disposal techniques and waste forms, all modeled to ensure long-term performance is understood. New disposal techniques include components-in-grout, compaction/volume reduction prior to disposal, and trench disposal of extremely low activity waste. Additionally, factoring partition coefficient (Kd) measurements based on waste forms has been factored into performance models. This paper will trace the development of the different disposal methods, and the extensive public communications effort that resulted in endorsement of the changes by the SRS Citizens Advisory Board.

  18. Study of extraterrestrial disposal of radioactive wastes. Part 3: Preliminary feasibility screening study of space disposal of the actinide radioactive wastes with 1 percent and 0.1 percent fission product contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyland, R. E.; Wohl, M. L.; Finnegan, P. M.

    1973-01-01

    A preliminary study was conducted of the feasibility of space disposal of the actinide class of radioactive waste material. This waste was assumed to contain 1 and 0.1 percent residual fission products, since it may not be feasible to completely separate the actinides. The actinides are a small fraction of the total waste but they remain radioactive much longer than the other wastes and must be isolated from human encounter for tens of thousands of years. Results indicate that space disposal is promising but more study is required, particularly in the area of safety. The minimum cost of space transportation would increase the consumer electric utility bill by the order of 1 percent for earth escape and 3 percent for solar escape. The waste package in this phase of the study was designed for normal operating conditions only; the design of next phase of the study will include provisions for accident safety. The number of shuttle launches per year required to dispose of all U.S. generated actinide waste with 0.1 percent residual fission products varies between 3 and 15 in 1985 and between 25 and 110 by 2000. The lower values assume earth escape (solar orbit) and the higher values are for escape from the solar system.

  19. Model for inactivation and disposal of infectious human immunodeficiency virus and radioactive waste in a BL3 facility

    SciTech Connect

    Stinson, M.C.; Galanek, M.S.; Ducatman, A.M.; Masse, F.X.; Kuritzkes, D.R. )

    1990-01-01

    A method is described for autoclaving low levels of solid infectious, radioactive waste. The method permits steam penetration to inactivate biologic waste, while any volatile radioactive compounds generated during the autoclave process are absorbed. Inactivation of radiolabeled infectious waste has been problematic because the usual sterilization techniques result in unacceptable radiation handling practices. If autoclaved under the usual conditions, there exists a high probability of volatilization or release of radioisotopes from the waste. This results in the radioactive contamination of the autoclave and the laboratory area where steam is released from the autoclave. Our results provide a practical method to inactivate and dispose of infectious radioactive waste. For our research, Bacillus pumilus spore strips and vaccinia virus were used as more heat-resistant surrogates of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). These surrogates were used because HIV is difficult to grow under most conditions and is less heat tolerant than the surrogates. In addition, B. pumilus has defined cell death values, whereas such values have not been established for HIV. Both B. pumilus and vaccinia virus are less hazardous to work with. The autoclave method is time efficient and can be performed by laboratory personnel with minimal handling of the waste. Furthermore, waste site handlers are able to visually inspect the solid waste containers and ascertain that inactivation procedures have been implemented.

  20. Radioactive waste storage issues

    SciTech Connect

    Kunz, Daniel E.

    1994-08-15

    In the United States we generate greater than 500 million tons of toxic waste per year which pose a threat to human health and the environment. Some of the most toxic of these wastes are those that are radioactively contaminated. This thesis explores the need for permanent disposal facilities to isolate radioactive waste materials that are being stored temporarily, and therefore potentially unsafely, at generating facilities. Because of current controversies involving the interstate transfer of toxic waste, more states are restricting the flow of wastes into - their borders with the resultant outcome of requiring the management (storage and disposal) of wastes generated solely within a state`s boundary to remain there. The purpose of this project is to study nuclear waste storage issues and public perceptions of this important matter. Temporary storage at generating facilities is a cause for safety concerns and underscores, the need for the opening of permanent disposal sites. Political controversies and public concern are forcing states to look within their own borders to find solutions to this difficult problem. Permanent disposal or retrievable storage for radioactive waste may become a necessity in the near future in Colorado. Suitable areas that could support - a nuclear storage/disposal site need to be explored to make certain the health, safety and environment of our citizens now, and that of future generations, will be protected.

  1. Legality of seabed disposal of high-level radioactive wastes under the London Dumping Convention

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    Disposal of high-level wastes in seabed sediments is the subject of ongoing technical, environmental, and engineering feasibility studies by several countries. In the London Dumping Convention (LDC's) definition of dumping, the phrase disposal at sea could be interpreted narrowly to mean the final resting place of wastes with seabed disposal excluded from coverage because those wastes are not in direct contact with marine waters. Given the LDC's object and purpose, though, the only harmonious and reasonable interpretation is that which defines disposal at sea to mean the place where the dumping activities occur. Other international agreements also support this object and purpose-based interpretation which concludes that seabed disposal is covered and prohibited. In addition, this approach is preferred because it contributes to the continued effectiveness of the LDC. 1 figure, 2 tables.

  2. A review of approaches for communicating uncertainty in radioactive waste disposal programmes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEvoy, Fiona; West, Julie; Bloodworth, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    The technical safety case for a geological repository is based in part on assessments of long-term future behaviour. Technical specialists are required to provide evidence to the greatest extent possible that the predictions are sufficiently reliable for the purpose of making the safety case. This process involves comparison of modelling results with laboratory and field results and with observations on natural and man-made analogue systems. A collection of arguments and evidence are required to help establish the basis for the safety of the repository, as well as to help reduce uncertainty and develop confidence in the analyses themselves. The safety case prepared for a proposed repository must be understood by regulators responsible for scrutinising and judging its acceptability. For the general public, however, it is difficult to make all of the arguments sufficiently transparent and understandable to ensure they share the same level of confidence as the technical specialists. A large body of qualified knowledge resides in the worldwide radioactive waste technical community. This knowledge should provide a firm scientific basis on which the long-term performance and safety of a geological repository can be discussed with confidence so informed decisions can be made. Despite this many countries around the world continue to face difficulties with implementing programmes for the deep geological disposal of radioactive waste. Geology, and effective communication of geological knowledge and uncertainty, are essential parts of the 'tool kit' needed to allow meaningful communication and engagement with the public. These tools can be used to build and maintain public confidence at each step in the process. The search for a geological disposal site is complex, with many stages. At each stage, geological uncertainty will inevitable exist as we will never know everything about the sub-surface unless it is mined out at which point it is of no use as a repository! What level

  3. Analysis and evaluation of a radioactive waste package retrieved from the Farallon Islands 900-meter disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    Colombo, P.; Kendig, M.W.

    1990-09-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was given a Congressional mandate to develop criteria and regulations governing the ocean disposal of all forms of waste. The EPA taken an active role both nationally and within the international nuclear regulatory community to develop the effective controls necessary to protect the health and safety of man and the marine environment. The EPA Office of Radiation Programs (ORP) first initiated feasibility studies to determine whether current technologies could be applied toward determining the fate of radioactive waste disposed of in the past. After successfully locating actual radioactive waste packages in formerly used disposal sites, in the United States, the Office of Radiation Programs developed an intensive program of site characterization studies to examine biological, chemical and physical characteristics including evaluations of the concentration and distribution of radionuclides within these sites, and has conducted a performance evaluation of past packaging techniques and materials. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has performed container corrosion and matrix analysis studies on the recovered radioactive waste packages. This report presents the final results of laboratory analyses performed. 17 refs., 40 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. Geochemical information for the West Chestnut Ridge Central Waste Disposal Facility for low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Seeley, F.G.; Kelmers, A.D.

    1984-06-01

    Geochemical support activities for the Central Waste Disposal Facility (CWDF) project included characterization of site materials, as well as measurement of radionuclide sorption and desorption isotherms and apparent concentration limit values under site-relevant laboratory test conditions. The radionuclide sorption and solubility information is needed as input data for the pathways analysis calculations to model expected radioactivity releases from emplaced waste to the accessible environment under various release scenarios. Batch contact methodology was used to construct sorption and desorption isotherms for a number of radionuclides likely to be present in waste to be disposed of at the site. The sorption rates for uranium and europium were rapid (> 99.8% of the total radionuclide present was adsorbed in approx. 30 min). With a constant-pH isotherm technique, uranium, strontium, cesium, and curium exhibited maximum Rs values of 4800 to > 30,000 L/kg throughout the pH range 5 to 7. Sorption ratios were generally lower at higher or lower pH levels. Retardation factors for uranium, strontium, and cesium, explored by column chromatographic tests, were consistent with the high sorption ratios measured in batch tests for these radionuclides. The addition of as little as 0.01 M organic reagent capable of forming strong soluble complexes with metals (e.g., ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or citric acid) was found to reduce the sorption ratio for uranium by as much as two orders of magnitude. Substitution of an actual low-level waste site trench water for groundwater in these tests was found to give a similar reduction in the sorption ratio.

  5. Native Plant Uptake Model for Radioactive Waste Disposal Areas at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    BROWN,THERESA J.; WIRTH,SHARON

    1999-09-01

    This report defines and defends the basic framework, methodology, and associated input parameters for modeling plant uptake of radionuclides for use in Performance Assessment (PA) activities of Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). PAs are used to help determine whether waste disposal configurations meet applicable regulatory standards for the protection of human health, the environment, or both. Plants adapted to the arid climate of the NTS are able to rapidly capture infiltrating moisture. In addition to capturing soil moisture, plant roots absorb nutrients, minerals, and heavy metals, transporting them within the plant to the above-ground biomass. In this fashion, plant uptake affects the movement of radionuclides. The plant uptake model presented reflects rooting characteristics important to plant uptake, biomass turnover rates, and the ability of plants to uptake radionuclides from the soil. Parameters are provided for modeling plant uptake and estimating surface contaminant flux due to plant uptake under both current and potential future climate conditions with increased effective soil moisture. The term ''effective moisture'' is used throughout this report to indicate the soil moisture that is available to plants and is intended to be inclusive of all the variables that control soil moisture at a site (e.g., precipitation, temperature, soil texture, and soil chemistry). Effective moisture is a concept used to simplify a number of complex, interrelated soil processes for which there are too little data to model actual plant available moisture. The PA simulates both the flux of radionuclides across the land surface and the potential dose to humans from that flux. Surface flux is modeled here as the amount of soil contamination that is transferred from the soil by roots and incorporated into aboveground biomass. Movement of contaminants to the surface is the only transport mechanism evaluated with the model presented here

  6. Radioactive waste disposal in seas adjacent to the territory of the Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Yablokov, A V

    2001-01-01

    The former USSR illegally dumped into the ocean liquid and solid radioactive wastes (RW) originating from nuclear-powered vessels and ships. The Russian President created a special Commission to analyse both the scale and consequences of this activity. According to documentary data and expert estimates at the Commission's disposal, the maximum activity of RW that entered the seas adjacent to Russian territory could have been as much as 2,500 kCi at the time of disposal. The greatest radio-ecological hazard comes from reactors from nuclear submarines and core plates of the nuclear icebreaker 'Lenin', which had spent nuclear fuel in place and which were dumped in shallow water in the Kara Sea near Novaya Zemlya. Editor's note: This article extracts material from a Commission which published a report produced in Russia in 1993. Numerous sources in many Ministries and other government agencies, noted in the text, formed the basis for the final draft. The authors of the draft report were A. Yablokov, V. Karasev, V. Rumyantsev, M. Kokeev, O. Petrov, V. Lystsov, A. Yemelyanenkov and P. Rubtsov. After approving the draft report, the Commission submitted the report to the President of the Russian Federation in February 1993. By Presidential decision, this report (after several technical corrections) was open to the public: it is known variously as 'the Yablokov Commission report, or more simply the 'Yablokov Report', the 'White Book' or 'Yablokov White Paper'. During April-May 1993, 500 copies were distributed among governmental agencies inside Russia, and abroad through a net of Russian Embassies. This article was later sent to Dr Mike Champ as part of the ongoing collections of papers on the Arctic published in this journal (edited by Champ et al.: 1997 'Contaminants in the Arctic', Marine Pollution Bulletin 35, pp. 203-385 and in Marine Pollution Bulletin 2000, vol. 40, pp. 801-868, and continued with the present collection).

  7. Low-Activity Radioactive Wastes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In 2003 EPA published an Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPR) to collect public comment on alternatives for disposal of waste containing low concentrations of radioactive material ('low-activity' waste).

  8. Submergible barge retrievable storage and permanent disposal system for radioactive waste

    DOEpatents

    Goldsberry, Fred L.; Cawley, William E.

    1981-01-01

    A submergible barge and process for submerging and storing radioactive waste material along a seabed. A submergible barge receives individual packages of radwaste within segregated cells. The cells are formed integrally within the barge, preferably surrounded by reinforced concrete. The cells are individually sealed by a concrete decking and by concrete hatch covers. Seawater may be vented into the cells for cooling, through an integral vent arrangement. The vent ducts may be attached to pumps when the barge is bouyant. The ducts are also arranged to promote passive ventilation of the cells when the barge is submerged. Packages of the radwaste are loaded into individual cells within the barge. The cells are then sealed and the barge is towed to the designated disposal-storage site. There, the individual cells are flooded and the barge will begin descent controlled by a powered submarine control device to the seabed storage site. The submerged barge will rest on the seabed permanently or until recovered by a submarine control device.

  9. Use of engineered soils beneath low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Sandford, T.C.; Humphrey, D.N.; DeMascio, F.A.

    1993-03-01

    Current regulations are oriented toward locating low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities on sites that have a substantial natural soil barrier and are above the groundwater table. In some of the northern states, like Maine, the overburden soils are glacially derived and in most places provide a thin cover over bedrock with a high groundwater table. Thus, the orientation of current regulations can severely limit the availability of suitable sites. A common characteristic of many locations in glaciated regions is the rapid change of soil types that may occur and the heterogeneity within a given soil type. In addition, the bedrock may be fractured, providing avenues for water movement. A reliable characterization of these sites can be difficult, even with a detailed subsurface exploration program. Moreover, fluctuating groundwater and frost as well as the natural deposition processes have introduced macro features such as cracks, fissures, sand and silt seams, and root holes. The significant effect that these macro features have on the permeability and adsorptive capacity of a large mass is often ignored or poorly accounted for in the analyses. This paper will examine an alternate approach, which is to use engineered soils as a substitute for some or all of the natural soil and to treat the fractures in the underlying bedrock. The site selection would no longer be primarily determined by the natural soil and rock and could even be placed in locations with no existing soils. Engineered soils can be used for below- or aboveground facilities.

  10. Retardation of uranium and thorium by a cementitious backfill developed for radioactive waste disposal.

    PubMed

    Felipe-Sotelo, M; Hinchliff, J; Field, L P; Milodowski, A E; Preedy, O; Read, D

    2017-07-01

    The solubility of uranium and thorium has been measured under the conditions anticipated in a cementitious, geological disposal facility for low and intermediate level radioactive waste. Similar solubilities were obtained for thorium in all media, comprising NaOH, Ca(OH)2 and water equilibrated with a cement designed as repository backfill (NRVB, Nirex Reference Vault Backfill). In contrast, the solubility of U(VI) was one order of magnitude higher in NaOH than in the remaining solutions. The presence of cellulose degradation products (CDP) results in a comparable solubility increase for both elements. Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) data suggest that the solubility-limiting phase for uranium corresponds to a becquerelite-type solid whereas thermodynamic modelling predicts a poorly crystalline, hydrated calcium uranate phase. The solubility-limiting phase for thorium was ThO2 of intermediate crystallinity. No breakthrough of either uranium or thorium was observed in diffusion experiments involving NRVB after three years. Nevertheless, backscattering electron microscopy and microfocus X-ray fluorescence confirmed that uranium had penetrated about 40 μm into the cement, implying active diffusion governed by slow dissolution-precipitation kinetics. Precise identification of the uranium solid proved difficult, displaying characteristics of both calcium uranate and becquerelite. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Investigations of Near-Field Thermal-Hydrologic-Mechanical-Chemical Models for Radioactive Waste Disposal in Clay/Shale Rock

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.H.; Li, L.; Zheng, L.; Houseworth, J.E.; Rutqvist, J.

    2011-06-20

    Clay/shale has been considered as potential host rock for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste throughout the world, because of its low permeability, low diffusion coefficient, high retention capacity for radionuclides, and capability to self-seal fractures. For example, Callovo-Oxfordian argillites at the Bure site, France (Fouche et al., 2004), Toarcian argillites at the Tournemire site, France (Patriarche et al., 2004), Opalinus Clay at the Mont Terri site, Switzerland (Meier et al., 2000), and Boom clay at the Mol site, Belgium (Barnichon and Volckaert, 2003) have all been under intensive scientific investigation (at both field and laboratory scales) for understanding a variety of rock properties and their relationships to flow and transport processes associated with geological disposal of radioactive waste. Figure 1-1 presents the distribution of clay/shale formations within the USA.

  12. Comparison of selected DOE and non-DOE requirements, standards, and practices for Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, L.; Kudera, D.; Newberry, W.

    1995-12-01

    This document results from the Secretary of Energy`s response to Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 94--2. The Secretary stated that the US Department of Energy (DOE) would ``address such issues as...the need for additional requirements, standards, and guidance on low-level radioactive waste management. `` The authors gathered information and compared DOE requirements and standards for the safety aspects Of low-level disposal with similar requirements and standards of non-DOE entities.

  13. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J.C.; Van Konynenburg, R.A.; McCright, R.D. ); Gdowski, G.E. )

    1988-06-01

    Three copper-based alloys, CDA 102 (oxygen-free, high-purity copper), CDA 613 (aluminum bronze), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni), are candidates for the fabrication of high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers. Waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as borosilicate glass, and will be sent to the prospective repository site at Yucca Mountain in Nye County, Nevada. The decay of radionuclides will result in the generation of substantial heat and in fluxes of gamma radiation outside the containers. In this environment, container materials might degrade by atmospheric oxidation, general aqueous phase corrosion, localized corrosion (LC), and stress corrosion cracking (SCC). This volume is a critical survey of available data on pitting and crevice corrosion of the copper-based candidates. Pitting and crevice corrosion are two of the most common forms of LC of these materials. Data on the SCC of these alloys is surveyed in Volume 4. Pitting usually occurs in water that contains low concentrations of bicarbonate and chloride anions, such as water from Well J-13 at the Nevada Test Site. Consequently, this mode of degradation might occur in the repository environment. Though few quantitative data on LC were found, a tentative ranking based on pitting corrosion, local dealloying, crevice corrosion, and biofouling is presented. CDA 102 performs well in the categories of pitting corrosion, local dealloying, and biofouling, but susceptibility to crevice corrosion diminishes its attractiveness as a candidate. The cupronickel alloy, CDA 715, probably has the best overall resistance to such localized forms of attack. 123 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Considerations on a de minimis dose and disposal of exempt concentrations of radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Kocher, D.C.; O'Donnell, F.R.

    1987-05-01

    We propose as a generally applicable de minimis dose for members of the general public (1) a principal limit on annual committed effectie dose equivalent averaged over a lifetime of 0.01 mSv (1 mrem) and (2) a subsidiary limit on committed effective dose equivalent in any year of 0.05 mSv (5 mrem). Existing methodologies for using a de minimis dose are reviewed to derive exempt concentrations of radionuclides in solid wastes for purposes of disposal, and a methodology for application to disposal on the Oak Ridge Reservation is presented. Difficulties in application are discussed with reference to a proposal for an exemption level for uranium in solid wastes of 30 pCi/g. Finally, we discuss existing methods for measuring the uranium content in bulk solid wastes, because such measurements probably will be required in exempting uranium-bearing wastes for disposal.

  15. Impact of free standing water on interim storage and disposal of radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Neilson, R.M. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Free standing water (FSW) is water or waste liquids which are not bound by the solidified waste form matrix. As a result, free standing water has the potential for the removal and dispersion of activity. Dependig upon the nature of its chemistry, FSW may also promite waste container corrosion, interact with other waste forms and packages in shallow land burial or degrade the retention capabilities of the disposal geology. The origin of FSW in the following waste forms is discussed: hydraulic cement, urea-formaldehyde, bitumen, and vinyl ester-styrene (thermositting polymers).

  16. Nuclear energy and radioactive waste disposal in the age of recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Conca, James L.; Apted, Michael

    2007-07-01

    The magnitude of humanity's energy needs requires that we embrace a multitude of various energy sources and applications. For a variety of reasons, nuclear energy must be a major portion of the distribution, at least one third. The often-cited strategic hurdle to this approach is nuclear waste disposal. Present strategies concerning disposal of nuclear waste need to be changed if the world is to achieve both a sustainable energy distribution by 2040 and solve the largest environmental issue of the 21. century - global warming. It is hoped that ambitious proposals to replace fossil fuel power generation by alternatives will drop the percentage of fossil fuel use substantially, but the absolute amount of fossil fuel produced electricity must be kept at or below its present 10 trillion kW-hrs/year. Unfortunately, the rapid growth in consumption to over 30 trillion kW-hrs/year by 2040, means that 20 trillion kW-hrs/yr of non-fossil fuel generated power has to come from other sources. If half of that comes from alternative non-nuclear, non-hydroelectric sources (an increase of 3000%), then nuclear still needs to increase by a factor of four worldwide to compensate. Many of the reasons nuclear energy did not expand after 1970 in North America (proliferation, capital costs, operational risks, waste disposal, and public fear) are no longer a problem. The WIPP site in New Mexico, an example of a solution to the nuclear waste disposal issue, and also to public fear, is an operating deep geologic nuclear waste repository in the massive bedded salt of the Salado Formation. WIPP has been operating for eight years, and as of this writing, has disposed of over 50,000 m{sup 3} of transuranic waste (>100 nCi/g but <23 Curie/liter) including high activity waste. The Salado Formation is an ideal host for any type of nuclear waste, especially waste from recycled spent fuel. (authors)

  17. Potential impacts of 40 CFR 193 on the development of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarado, R.A.

    1989-11-01

    Since the publication of the Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking in August, 1983, the proposed environmental regulations regarding low-level radioactive waste have become a serious uncertainty in the development of new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The proposed rule has been discussed on several occasions by the Technical Coordinating Committee and the purpose of this paper is to present the results of the Committee`s discussions regarding the proposed rule. The proposed standard has several closely related elements. The rule would prescribe limits on radiation exposure to individuals during processing, management and storage of low-level radioactive waste. It would set BRC levels and also set dose standards for the period following site closure. An important portion of the standard, as far as developing new facilities, is the ground water protection standard. The comments received during developing of 40 CFR 193 has also led the Environmental Protection Agency to propose 40 CFR 764 governing the disposal of naturally occurring radioactive material or NORM.

  18. Integrated Numerical Simulation of Thermo-Hydro-Chemical Phenomena Associated with Geologic Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang-Uk; Kim, Jun-Mo; Kihm, Jung-Hwi

    2014-05-01

    A series of numerical simulations was performed using a multiphase thermo-hydro-chemical numerical model to predict integratedly and evaluate quantitatively thermo-hydro-chemical phenomena due to heat generation associated with geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The average mineralogical composition of the fifteen unweathered igneous rock bodies, which were classified as granite, in Republic of Korea was adopted as an initial (primary) mineralogical composition of the host rock of the repository of high-level radioactive waste in the numerical simulations. The numerical simulation results show that temperature rises and thus convective groundwater flow occurs near the repository due to heat generation associated with geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Under these circumstances, a series of water-rock interactions take place. As a result, among the primary minerals, quartz, plagioclase (albite), biotite (annite), and muscovite are dissolved. However, orthoclase is initially precipitated and is then dissolved, whereas microcline is initially dissolved and is then precipitated. On the other hand, the secondary minerals such as kaolinite, Na-smectite, chlorite, and hematite are precipitated and are then partly dissolved. In addition, such dissolution and precipitation of the primary and secondary minerals change groundwater chemistry (quality) and induce reactive chemical transport. As a result, in groundwater, Na+, Fe2+, and HCO3- concentrations initially decrease, whereas K+, AlO2-, and aqueous SiO2 concentrations initially increase. On the other hand, H+ concentration initially increases and thus pH initially decreases due to dissociation of groundwater in order to provide OH-, which is essential in precipitation of Na-smectite and chlorite. Thus, the above-mentioned numerical simulation results suggest that thermo-hydro-chemical numerical simulation can provide a better understanding of heat transport, groundwater flow, and reactive

  19. Developing a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility in Connecticut: Update on progress and new directions

    SciTech Connect

    Gingerich, R.E.

    1993-03-01

    Connecticut is a member of the Northeast Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Compact (Northeast LLRW Compact). The other member of the Northeast LLRW Compact is New Jersey. The Northeast Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Commission (Northeast Compact Commission), the Northeast LLRW Compact`s governing body, has designated both Connecticut and New Jersey as host states for disposal facilities. The Northeast Compact Commission has recommended that, for purposes of planning for each state`s facility, the siting agency for the state should use projected volumes and characteristics of the LLW generated in its own state. In 1987 Connecticut enacted legislation that assigns major responsibilities for developing a LLW disposal facility in Connecticut to the Connecticut Hazardous Waste Management Service (CHWMS). The CHWMS is required to: prepare and revise, as necessary, a LLW Management Plan for the state; select a site for a LLW disposal facility; select a disposal technology to be used at the site; select a firm to obtain the necessary approvals for the facility and to develop and operate it; and serve as the custodial agency for the facility. This paper discusses progress in developing a facility.

  20. A review of geoscience characteristics and disposal experience at the commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal facility near West Valley, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Smoot, J.L.

    1989-08-01

    The West Valley Commercial Low-Level Radioactive Waste disposal site is located about 48 km south of Buffalo, New York. Operation of the site began in 1961 by Nuclear Fuels Service and was terminated in 1975. The disposal trenches at the site are excavated about 5 m into glacial till that has a thickness of about 28 m. About 65,000 m{sup 3} of the waste containing approximately 710,000 Ci were disposed at the site during the operational period. Ground-water movement through the till is predominantly downward as indicated by measurements and numerical simulation of hydraulic head. Radionuclides do not appear to have migrated more than 3 m either laterally or vertically from the waste disposal trenches. Numerical simulations of {sup 3}H, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 14}C migration are able to reproduce the observed concentration in the till beneath selected trenches. Uncertainty remains with respect to the continuity and heterogeneity of the hydrostratigraphic units and the spatial distribution of hydraulic conductivity and effective porosity. More work is needed to better define the waste inventory and any long-term changes that might be expected. Erosion poses a potential threat to the long-term integrity of the disposal area. 56 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs.

  1. Subsurface disposal of liquid low-level radioactive wastes at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Stow, S.H.; Haase, C.S.

    1986-01-01

    At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) subsurface injection has been used to dispose of low-level liquid nuclear waste for the last two decades. The process consists of mixing liquid waste with cement and other additives to form a slurry that is injected under pressure through a cased well into a low-permeability shale at a depth of 300 m. The slurry spreads from the injection well along bedding plane fractures and forms solid grout sheets of up to 200 m in radius. Using this process, ORNL has disposed of over 1.5 x 10/sup 6/ Ci of activity; the principal nuclides are /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs. In 1982, a new injection facility was put into operation. Each injection, which lasts some two days, results in the emplacement of approximately 750,000 liters of slurry. Disposal cost per liter is about $0.30, including capital costs of the facility. This subsurface disposal process is fundamentally different from other operations. Wastes are injected into a low-permeability aquitard, and the process is designed to isolate nuclides, preventing dispersion in groundwaters. The porosity into which wastes are injected is created by hydraulically fracturing the host formation along bedding planes. Investigations are under way to determine the long-term hydrologic isolation of the injection zone and the geochemical impact of saline groundwater on nuclide mobility. Injections are monitored by gamma-ray logging of cased observation wells to determine grout sheet orientation after an injection. Recent monitoring work has involved the use of tiltmeters, surface uplift surveys, and seismic arrays. Recent regulatory constraints may cause permanent cessation of the operation. Federal and state statutes, written for other types of injection facilities, impact the ORNL facility. This disposal process, which may have great applicability for disposal of many wastes, including hazardous wastes, may not be developed for future use.

  2. Feasibility of Space Disposal of Radioactive Nuclear Waste. 1: Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This NASA study, performed at the request of the AEC, concludes that transporting radioactive waste (primarily long-lived isotopes) into space is feasible. Tentative solutions are presented for technical problems involving safe packaging. Launch systems (existing and planned), trajectories, potential hazards, and various destinations were evaluated. Solar system escape is possible and would have the advantage of ultimate removal of the radioactive waste from man's environment. Transportation costs would be low (comparable to less than a 5 percent increase in the cost of electricity) even though more than 100 space shuttle launches per year would be required by the year 2000.

  3. Site selection and licensing issues: Southwest Compact low-level radioactive waste disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, J.L.

    1989-11-01

    The low-level radioactive waste disposal site in California is being selected through a three-phase program. Phase 1 is a systematic statewide, regional, and local screening study. This program was conducted during 1986 and 1987, and culminated in the selection of three candidate sites fur further study. The candidate sites are identified as the Panamint, Silurian, and Ward Valley sites. Phase 2 comprises site characterization and environmental and socio-economic impact study activities at the three candidate sites. Based upon the site characterization studies, the candidate sites are ranked according to the desirability and conformance with regulatory requirements. Phase 3 comprises preparation of a license application for the selected candidate site. The license application will include a detailed characterization of the site, detailed design and operations plans for the proposed facility, and assessments of potential impacts of the site upon the environment and the local communities. Five types of siting criteria were developed to govern the site selection process. These types are: technical suitability exclusionary criteria, high-avoidance criteria beyond technical suitability requirements, discretionary criteria, public acceptance, and schedule requirements of the LLWR Policy Act Amendments. This paper discusses the application of the hydrological and geotechnical criteria during the siting and licensing studies in California. These criteria address site location and performance, and the degree to which present and future site behavior can be predicted. Primary regulatory requirements governing the suitability of a site are that the site must be hydrologically and geologically simple enough for the confident prediction of future behavior, and that the site must be stable enough that frequent or intensive maintenance of the closed site will not be required. This paper addresses the methods to measure site suitability at each stage of the process, methods to

  4. Licensing of alternative methods of disposal of low-level radioactive waste: Branch technical position, Low-Level Waste Licensing Branch

    SciTech Connect

    Higginbotham, L.B.; Dragonette, K.S.; Pittiglio, C.L. Jr.

    1986-12-01

    This branch technical position statement identifies and describes specific methods of disposal currently being considered as alternatives to shallow land burial, provides general guidance on these methods of disposal, and recommends procedures that will improve and simplify the licensing process. The statement provides answers to certain questions that have arisen regarding the applicability of 10 CFR 61 to near-surface disposal of waste, using methods that incorporate engineered barriers or structures, and other alternatives to conventional shallow land burial disposal practices. This position also identifies a recently published NRC contractor report that addresses the applicability of 10 CFR 61 to a range of generic disposal concepts and which provides technical guidance that the staff intends to use for these concepts. This position statement combined with the above-mentioned NRC contractor report fulfills the requirements of Section 8(a) of Public Law 99-240, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985.

  5. Assessment of the disposal of radioactive petroleum industry waste in nonhazardous landfills using risk-based modeling.

    PubMed

    Smith, Karen P; Arnish, John J; Williams, Gustavious P; Blunt, Deborah L

    2003-05-15

    Certain petroleum production activities cause naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) to accumulate in concentrations above natural background levels, making safe and cost-effective management of such technologically enhanced NORM (TENORM) a key issue for the petroleum industry. As a result, both industry and regulators are interested in identifying cost-effective disposal alternatives that provide adequate protection of human health and the environment One such alternative, currently allowed in Michigan with restrictions, is the disposal of TENORM wastes in nonhazardous waste landfills. The disposal of petroleum industry wastes containing radium-226 (Ra-226) in nonhazardous landfills was modeled to evaluate the potential radiological doses and health risks to workers and the public. Multiple scenarios were considered in evaluating the potential risks associated with landfill operations and the future use of the property. The scenarios were defined, in part, to evaluate the Michigan policy; sensitivity analyses were conducted to evaluate the impact of key parameters on potential risks. The results indicate that the disposal of petroleum industry TENORM wastes in nonhazardous landfills in accordance with the Michigan policy and existing landfill regulations presents a negligible risk to most of the potential receptors considered in this study.

  6. An assessment of the disposal of radioactive petroleum industry waste in nonhazardous landfills using risk-based modeling.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K. P.; Arnish, J. J.; Williams, G. P.; Blunt, D. L.; Environmental Assessment

    2003-05-15

    Certain petroleum production activities cause naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) to accumulate in concentrations above natural background levels, making safe and cost-effective management of such technologically enhanced NORM (TENORM) a key issue for the petroleum industry. As a result, both industry and regulators are interested in identifying cost-effective disposal alternatives that provide adequate protection of human health and the environment. One such alternative, currently allowed in Michigan with restrictions, is the disposal of TENORM wastes in nonhazardous waste landfills. The disposal of petroleum industry wastes containing radium-226 (Ra-226) in nonhazardous landfills was modeled to evaluate the potential radiological doses and health risks to workers and the public. Multiple scenarios were considered in evaluating the potential risks associated with landfill operations and the future use of the property. The scenarios were defined, in part, to evaluate the Michigan policy; sensitivity analyses were conducted to evaluate the impact of key parameters on potential risks. The results indicate that the disposal of petroleum industry TENORM wastes in nonhazardous landfills in accordance with the Michigan policy and existing landfill regulations presents a negligible risk to most of the potential receptors considered in this study.

  7. Implementing Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste Technology Platform From the Strategic Research Agenda to its Deployment - 12015

    SciTech Connect

    Ouzounian, P.; Palmu, Marjatta; Eng, Torsten

    2012-07-01

    Several European waste management organizations (WMOs) have initiated a technology platform for accelerating the implementation of deep geological disposal of radioactive waste in Europe. The most advanced waste management programmes in Europe (i.e. Finland, Sweden, and France) have already started or are prepared to start the licensing process of deep geological disposal facilities within the next decade. A technology platform called Implementing Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste Technology Platform (IGD-TP) was launched in November 2009. A shared vision report for the platform was published stating that: 'Our vision is that by 2025, the first geological disposal facilities for spent fuel, high-level waste, and other long-lived radioactive waste will be operating safely in Europe'. In 2011, the IGD-TP had eleven WMO members and about 70 participants from academia, research, and the industry committed to its vision. The IGD-TP has started to become a tool for reducing overlapping work, to produce savings in total costs of research and implementation and to make better use of existing competence and research infrastructures. The main contributor to this is the deployment of the IGD-TP's newly published Strategic Research Agenda (SRA). The work undertaken for the SRA defined the pending research, development and demonstration (RD and D) issues and needs. The SRA document describing the identified issues that could be worked on collaboratively was published in July 2011. It is available on the project's public web site (www.igdtp.eu). The SRA was organized around 7 Key Topics covering the Safety Case, Waste forms and their behaviour, Technical feasibility and long-term performance of repository components, Development strategy of the repository, Safety of construction and operations, Monitoring, and Governance and stakeholder involvement. Individual Topics were prioritized within the Key Topics. Cross-cutting activities like Education and Training or Knowledge

  8. Lessons Learned Report for the radioactive mixed waste land disposal facility (Trench 31, Project W-025)

    SciTech Connect

    Irons, L.G.

    1995-06-20

    This report presents the lessons learned from a project that involved modification to the existing burial grounds at the Hanford Reservation. This project has been focused on the development and operation of a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act compliant landfill which will accept low-level radioactive wastes that have been placed in proper containers.

  9. Studies concerning the durability of concrete vaults for intermediate level radioactive waste disposal: Electrochemical monitoring and corrosion aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffó, G. S.; Farina, S. B.; Arva, E. A.; Giordano, C. M.; Lafont, C. J.

    2006-11-01

    The Argentine Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) is responsible of the development of a management nuclear waste disposal programme. This programme contemplates the design and construction of a facility for the final disposal of intermediate-level radioactive waste. The proposed concept is the near-surface monolithic repository similar to those in operation in El Cabril, Spain. The design of this type of repository is based on the use of multiple, independent and redundant barriers. Since the vault and cover are major components of the engineered barriers, the durability of these concrete structures is an important aspect for the facilities integrity. This work presents a laboratory and field investigation performed for the last 6 years on reinforced concrete specimens, in order to predict the service life of the intermediate level radioactive waste disposal vaults from data obtained from electrochemical techniques. On the other hand, the development of sensors that allow on-line measurements of rebar corrosion potential and corrosion current density; incoming oxygen flow that reaches the metal surface; concrete electrical resistivity and chloride concentration is shown. Those sensors, properly embedded in a new full scale vault (nowadays in construction), will allow the monitoring of the corrosion process of the steel rebars embedded in thestructure.

  10. Stakeholder Engagement on the Environmental Impact Statement for the Disposal of Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste -12565

    SciTech Connect

    Gelles, Christine; Joyce, James; Edelman, Arnold

    2012-07-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Disposal Operations is responsible for developing a permanent disposal capability for a small volume, but highly radioactive, class of commercial low-level radioactive waste, known as Greater-Than-Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste. DOE has issued a draft environmental impact statement (EIS) and will be completing a final EIS under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) that evaluates a range of disposal alternatives. Like other classes of radioactive waste, proposing and evaluating disposal options for GTCC waste is highly controversial, presents local and national impacts, and generates passionate views from stakeholders. Recent national and international events, such as the cancellation of the Yucca Mountain project and the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident, have heighten stakeholder awareness of everything nuclear, including disposal of radioactive waste. With these challenges, the Office of Disposal Operations recognizes that informed decision-making that will result from stakeholder engagement and participation is critical to the success of the GTCC EIS project. This paper discusses the approach used by the Office of Disposal Operations to engage stakeholders on the GTCC EIS project, provides advice based on our experiences, and proffers some ideas for future engagements in today's open, always connected cyber environment. (authors)

  11. Low-level radioactive waste from commercial nuclear reactors. Volume 2. Treatment, storage, disposal, and transportation technologies and constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Jolley, R.L.; Dole, L.R.; Godbee, H.W.; Kibbey, A.H.; Oyen, L.C.; Robinson, S.M.; Rodgers, B.R.; Tucker, R.F. Jr.

    1986-05-01

    The overall task of this program was to provide an assessment of currently available technology for treating commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), to initiate development of a methodology for choosing one technology for a given application, and to identify research needed to improve current treatment techniques and decision methodology. The resulting report is issued in four volumes. Volume 2 discusses the definition, forms, and sources of LLRW; regulatory constraints affecting treatment, storage, transportation, and disposal; current technologies used for treatment, packaging, storage, transportation, and disposal; and the development of a matrix relating treatment technology to the LLRW stream as an aid for choosing methods for treating the waste. Detailed discussions are presented for most LLRW treatment methods, such as aqueous processes (e.g., filtration, ion exchange); dewatering (e.g., evaporation, centrifugation); sorting/segregation; mechanical treatment (e.g., shredding, baling, compaction); thermal processes (e.g., incineration, vitrification); solidification (e.g., cement, asphalt); and biological treatment.

  12. Radioactive waste handling and disposal at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre.

    PubMed

    Al-Haj, Abdalla N; Lobriguito, Aida M; Al Anazi, Ibrahim

    2012-08-01

    King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre (KFSHRC) is the largest specialized medical center in Saudi Arabia. It performs highly specialized diagnostic imaging procedures with the use of various radionuclides required by sophisticated dual imaging systems. As a leading institution in cancer research, KFSHRC uses both long-lived and short-lived radionuclides. KFSHRC established the first cyclotron facility in the Middle East, which solved the in-house high demand for radionuclides and the difficulty in importing them. As both user and producer of high standard radiopharmaceuticals, KFSHRC generates large volumes of low and high level radioactive wastes. An old and small radioactive facility that was used for storage of radioactive waste was replaced with a bigger warehouse provided with facilities that will reduce radiation exposure of the staff, members of the public, and of the environment in the framework of "as low as reasonably achievable." The experiences and the effectiveness of the radiation protection program on handling and storage of radioactive wastes are presented.

  13. Disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in the unsaturated zone: Technical considerations and response to comments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackbarth, C. J.; Nicholson, T. J.; Evans, D. D.

    1985-10-01

    On July 22, 1985, the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) promulgated amendments to 10 CFR Part 60 concerning disposal of high level radioactive waste (HLW) in geologic repositories in the unsaturated zone (50 FR 29641). The principal technical issues considered by the NRC staff during the development of these amendments was discussed. Certain technical discussions originally presented in draft NUREG-1046 were revised based on public comment letters and an increasing understanding of the physical, geochemical, and hydrological processes operative in unsaturated geologic media. The following issues related to disposal of HLW within the unsaturated zone were discussed: hydrogeologic properties and conditions, heat dissipation and temperature, geochemistry, retrievability, potential for exhumation of the radioactive waste by natural causes and by human intrusion, the effects of future climatic changes on the level of the regional water table, and transport of radionuclides in the gaseous state. On July 22, 1985, the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) promulgated amendments to 10 CFR meter depth for waste emplacement, limitations on exploratory boreholes, backfill requirements, waste package design criteria, and provisions for ventilation.

  14. Validation of predictive models for geologic disposal of radioactive waste via natural analogs

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, J.J.; Smith, C.F.

    1981-03-01

    The incorporation of toxic or hazardous material in the earth's crust is a phenomenon not unique to radioactive waste burial. Useful insights on the environmental transport and effects of underground toxic or radioactive material can be derived from comparative analysis against natural (mineral) analogs. This paper includes a discussion of the background and rationale for the analog approach, a descripton of several variations of the approach, and some sample applications to illustrate the concept, focusing on Radium-226 and Iodine-129 as specific case studies.

  15. CONTAINMENT OF LOW-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE AT THE DOE SALTSTONE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, J.; Flach, G.

    2012-03-29

    As facilities look for permanent storage of toxic materials, they are forced to address the long-term impacts to the environment as well as any individuals living in affected area. As these materials are stored underground, modeling of the contaminant transport through the ground is an essential part of the evaluation. The contaminant transport model must address the long-term degradation of the containment system as well as any movement of the contaminant through the soil and into the groundwater. In order for disposal facilities to meet their performance objectives, engineered and natural barriers are relied upon. Engineered barriers include things like the design of the disposal unit, while natural barriers include things like the depth of soil between the disposal unit and the water table. The Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina is an example of a waste disposal unit that must be evaluated over a timeframe of thousands of years. The engineered and natural barriers for the SDF allow it to meet its performance objective over the long time frame. Some waste disposal facilities are required to meet certain standards to ensure public safety. These type of facilities require an engineered containment system to ensure that these requirements are met. The Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is an example of this type of facility. The facility is evaluated based on a groundwater pathway analysis which considers long-term changes to material properties due to physical and chemical degradation processes. The facility is able to meet these performance objectives due to the multiple engineered and natural barriers to contaminant migration.

  16. E-Alerts: Nuclear science and technology (radioactive wastes and radioactivity). E-mail newsletter

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    The newsletter discusses the following: Separation, processing, handling, storage, disposal, and reuse of radioactive wastes; Radioactive fallout; Fission products; Man-made or natural radioactivity; and Decommissioning.

  17. High-Level Radioactive Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Howard C.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a method to calculate the amount of high-level radioactive waste by taking into consideration the following factors: the fission process that yields the waste, identification of the waste, the energy required to run a 1-GWe plant for one year, and the uranium mass required to produce that energy. Briefly discusses waste disposal and…

  18. High-Level Radioactive Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Howard C.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a method to calculate the amount of high-level radioactive waste by taking into consideration the following factors: the fission process that yields the waste, identification of the waste, the energy required to run a 1-GWe plant for one year, and the uranium mass required to produce that energy. Briefly discusses waste disposal and…

  19. Distribution of gases in the unsaturated zone at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Striegl, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    The unsaturated zone is a medium that provides pneumatic communication for the movement of gases from wastes buried in landfills to the atmosphere, biota, and groundwater. Gases in unsaturated glacial and eolian deposits near a waste-disposal trench at the low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Bureau County, Illinois, were identified, and the spatial and temporal distributions of the partial pressures of those gases were determined for the period January 1984 through January 1986. Methods for the collection and analyses of the gases are described, as are geologic and hydrologic characteristics of the unsaturated zone that affect gas transport. The identified gases, which are of natural and of waste origin, include nitrogen, oxygen, and argon, carbon dioxide, methane, propane, butane, tritiated water vapor, carbon dioxide-14 and radon-222. Concentrations of methane and carbon dioxide-14 originated at the waste, as shown by partial-pressure gradients of the gases. Variations in partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide were seasonal among piezometers because of increased root and soil-microbe respiration during summer. Variations in methane and carbon dioxide-14 partial pressures were apparently related to discrete releases from waste sources at unpredictable intervals of time. No greater than background partial pressures for tritiated water vapor or radon-222 were measured. 26 refs., 38 figs., 10 tabs.

  20. Distribution of gases in the unsaturated zone at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Striegl, Robert G.

    1988-01-01

    The unsaturated zone is a medium that provides pneumatic communication for the movement of gases from wastes buried in landfills to the atmosphere, biota, and groundwater. Gases in unsaturated glacial and eolian deposits near a waste-disposal trench at the low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Bureau County, Illinois, were identified, and the spatial and temporal distributions of the partial pressures of those gases were determined for the period January 1984 through January 1986. Methods for the collection and analyses of the gases are described, as are geologic and hydrologic characteristics of the unsaturated zone that affect gas transport. The identified gases, which are of natural and of waste origin, include nitrogen, oxygen, and argon, carbon dioxide, methane, propane, butane, tritiated water vapor, 14carbon dioxide, and 222 radon. Concentrations of methane and 14carbon dioxide originated at the waste, as shown by partial-pressure gradients of the gases; 14carbon dioxide partial pressures exceeded natural background partial pressures by factors greater than 1 million at some locations. Variations in partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide were seasonal among piezometers because of increased root and soil-microbe respiration during summer. Variations in methane and 14carbon dioxide partial pressures were apparently related to discrete releases from waste sources at unpredictable intervals of time. No greater than background partial pressures for tritiated water vapor or 222 radon were measured. (USGS)

  1. Opportunities for Cost Effective Disposal of Radioactively Contaminated Solid Waste on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, TN - 13045

    SciTech Connect

    DeMonia, Brian; Dunning, Don; Hampshire John

    2013-07-01

    Department of Energy (DOE) requirements for the release of non-real property, including solid waste, containing low levels of residual radioactive materials are specified in DOE Order 458.1 and associated guidance. Authorized limits have been approved under the requirements of DOE Order 5400.5, predecessor to DOE Order 458.1, to permit disposal of solid waste containing low levels of residual radioactive materials at solid waste landfills located within the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Specifically, volumetric concentration limits for disposal of solid waste at Industrial Landfill V and at Construction/Demolition Landfill VII were established in 2003 and 2007, respectively, based on the requirements in effect at that time, which included: an evaluation to ensure that radiation doses to the public would not exceed 25 mrem/year and would be as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), with a goal of a few mrem/year or less (in fact, these authorized limits actually were derived to meet a dose constraint of 1 mrem/year); an evaluation of compliance with groundwater protection requirements; and reasonable assurance that the proposed disposal is not likely to result in a future requirement for remediation of the landfill. Prior to approval as DOE authorized limits, these volumetric concentration limits were coordinated with the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) and documented in a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the TDEC Division of Radiological Health and the TDEC Division of Solid Waste Management. These limits apply to the disposal of soil and debris waste generated from construction, maintenance, environmental restoration, and decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation. The approved site-specific authorized limits were incorporated in the URS/CH2M Oak Ridge LLC (UCOR) waste profile system that authorizes disposal of special wastes at either of the RCRA Subtitle D landfills. However, a

  2. Review of potential host rocks for radioactive waste disposal in the Piedmont Province of South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Secor, D.T. Jr.

    1980-10-01

    This report reviews the geology of the Piedmont Province of South Carolina with the aim of designating rock units favorable for field exploration for a potential underground repository for the storage of radioactive waste. Most of the rocks in the South Carolina Piedmont are metamorphosed sedimentary volcanic or igneous rocks that have experienced at least one episode of strong deformation. As a consequence of this deformation, they have irregular shapes, making it difficult to predict their subsurface extent. In evaluating the suitability of the rock units for radioactive waste storage, certain criteria were found to be particularly useful. The requirements that the storage site be located in a large volume of homogeneous, impermeable, relatively unfractured rock was the most important criteria in eliminating most of the Piedmont rock units for consideration as field study areas. Six large late- to post-tectonic igneous plutons (Winnsboro, Liberty Hill, Ogden, Newberry, Lowrys, and Bald Rock) are recommended as field study areas.

  3. Status of the North Carolina/Southeast Compact low-level radioactive waste disposal project

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, C.K.

    1993-03-01

    The Southeast Compact is a sited region for low-level radioactive waste because of the current facility at Barnwell, South Carolina. North Carolina has been designated as the next host state for the compact, and the North Carolina Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Authority is the agency charged with developing the new facility. Chem-Nuclear Systems, Inc., has been selected by the Authority as its primary site development and operations contractor. This paper will describe the progress currently being made toward the successful opening of the facility in January 1996. The areas to be addressed include site characterization, performance assessment, facility design, public outreach, litigation, finances, and the continued operation of the Barnwell facility.

  4. A decision theory perspective on the disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    PubMed

    Garrick, B J; Kaplan, S

    1999-10-01

    In this paper the problem of high-level nuclear waste disposal is viewed as a five-stage, cascaded decision problem. The first four of these decisions having essentially been made, the work of recent years has been focused on the fifth stage, which concerns specifics of the repository design. The probabilistic performance assessment (PPA) work is viewed as the outcome prediction for this stage, and the site characterization work as the information gathering option. This brief examination of the proposed Yucca Mountain repository through a decision analysis framework resulted in three conclusions: (1) A decision theory approach to the process of selecting and characterizing Yucca Mountain would enhance public understanding of the issues and solutions to high-level waste management; (2) engineered systems are an attractive alternative to offset uncertainties in the containment capability of the natural setting and should receive greater emphasis in the design of the repository; and (3) a strategy of "waste management" should be adopted, as opposed to "waste disposal," as it allows for incremental confirmation and confidence building of a permanent solution to the high-level waste problem.

  5. Subsurface disposal of liquid low-level radioactive wastes at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Stow, S.H.; Haase, C.S.

    1986-01-01

    At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) subsurface injection has been used to dispose of low-level liquid nuclear waste for the last two decades. The process consists of mixing liquid waste with cement and other additives to form a slurry that is injected under pressure through a cased well into a low-permeability shale at a depth of 300 m (1000 ft). The slurry spreads from the injection well along bedding plane fractures and forms solid grout sheets of up to 200 m (660 ft) in radius. Using this process, ORNL has disposed of over 1.5 x 10/sup 6/ Ci of activity; the principal nuclides are /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs. In 1982, a new injection facility was put into operation. Each injection, which lasts some two days, results in the emplacement of approximately 750,000 l (180,000 gal) of slurry. Disposal cost per liter is approximately $0.30, including capital costs of the facility. This subsurface disposal process is fundamentally different from other operations. Wastes are injected into a low-permeability aquitard, and the process is designed to isolate nuclides, preventing dispersion in groundwaters. The porosity into which wastes are injected is created by hydraulically fracturing the host formation along bedding planes. The site is in the structurally complex Valley and Ridge Province. The stratigraphy consists of lower Paleozoic rocks. Investigations are under way to determine the long-term hydrologic isolation of the injection zone and the geochemical impact of saline groundwater on nuclide mobility. Injections are monitored by gamma-ray logging of cased observation wells to determine grout sheet orientation after an injection. Recent monitoring work has involved the use of tiltmeters, surface uplift surveys, and seismic arrays. 26 refs., 7 figs.

  6. Hydrogeology of a fractured shale (Opalinus Clay): Implications for deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautschi, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    As part of the Swiss programme for high-level radioactive-waste disposal, a Jurassic shale (Opalinus Clay) is being investigated as a potential host rock. Observations in clay pits and the results of a German research programme focusing on hazardous waste disposal have demonstrated that, at depths of 10-30 m, the permeability of the Opalinus Clay decreases by several orders of magnitude. Hydraulic tests in deeper boreholes (test intervals below 300 m) yielded hydraulic conductivities <10-12 m/s, even though joints and faults were included in some of the test intervals. These measurements are consistent with hydrogeological data from Opalinus Clay sections in ten tunnels in the Folded Jura of northern Switzerland. Despite extensive faulting, only a few indications of minor water inflow were encountered in more than 6,600 m of tunnel. All inflows were in tunnel sections where the overburden is less than 200 m. The hydraulic data are consistent with clay pore-water hydrochemical and isotopic data. The extensive hydrogeological data base - part of which derives from particularly unfavourable geological environments - provides arguments that advective transport through faults and joints is not a critical issue for the suitability of Opalinus Clay as a host rock for deep geological waste disposal. Résumé. Dans le cadre du programme suisse de stockage de déchets hautement radioactifs, une formation argileuse du Jurassique, l'argile à Opalinus, a été étudiée en tant que roche hôte potentielle. Des observations dans des cavités dans l'argile et les résultats du programme de recherche allemand consacré au stockage de déchets à risques ont démontré que, à des profondeur de 10 à 30 m, la perméabilité des argiles à Opalinus décroît de plusieurs ordres de grandeur. Des essais hydrauliques dans des forages plus profonds (intervalles de test á une profondeur de plus de 300 m) ont donné des conductivités hydrauliques inférieures à 10-12 m/s, m

  7. Guidance on the application of quality assurance for characterizing a low-level radioactive waste disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    Pittiglio, C.L. Jr.; Starmer, R.J.; Hedges, D.

    1990-10-01

    This document provides the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's staff guidance to an applicant on meeting the quality control (QC) requirements of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 61, Section 61.12 (10 CFR 61.12), for a low-level waste disposal facility. The QC requirements combined with the requirements for managerial controls and audits are the basis for developing a quality assurance (QA) program and for the guidance provided herein. QA guidance is specified for site characterization activities necessary to meet the performance objectives of 10 CFR Part 61 and to limit exposure to or the release of radioactivity. 1 tab.

  8. Application of Polymers for the Long-Term Storage and Disposal of Low- and Intermediate-Level Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Bonin, Hugues W.; Walker, Michael W.; Bui, Van Tam

    2004-01-15

    Research carried out at the Royal Military College of Canada on the effects of mixed fields of radiation on high polymer adhesives and composite materials has shown that some polymers are quite resistant to radiation and could well serve in the fabrication of radioactive-waste disposal containers. A research program was launched to investigate the possibilities of using advanced polymers and polymer-based composites for high-level radioactive waste management on one hand and for intermediate- and low-level radioactive waste disposal on the other hand. Research was thus conducted in parallel on both fronts, and the findings for the later phase are presented. Thermoplastic polymers were studied for this application because they are superior materials, having the advantage over metals of not corroding and of displaying high resistance to chemical aggression. The experimental methods used in this research focused on determining the effects of radiation on the properties of the materials considered: polypropylene, nylon 66, polycarbonate, and polyurethane, with and without glass fiber reinforcement. The method involved submitting injection-molded tensile test bars to the mixed radiation field generated by the SLOWPOKE-2 nuclear reactor at the Royal Military College of Canada to accumulate doses ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 MGy. The physical, mechanical, and chemical effects of the various radiation doses on the materials were measured from density, tensile, differential scanning calorimetry, and scanning electron microscopy tests.For each polymer, the test results evidenced predominant cross-linking of the polymeric chains severed by radiation. This was evident from observed changes in the mechanical and chemical properties of the polymers, typical of cross-linking. The mechanical changes observed included an overall increase in density, an increase in Young's modulus, a decrease in strain at break, and only minor changes in strength. The chemical changes included

  9. Integration of computational modeling for the Los Alamos National Laboratory low level radioactive waste disposal performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Vold, E.L.; Birdsell, K.H.; Springer, E.P.; Hollis, D.K.; Shuman, R.

    1995-12-01

    The preliminary Performance Assessment for the Los Alamos National Laboratory Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility at Area G is drawing to completion. The disposal site is located on the top of a finger mesa in the complex terrain of a semi-arid region which leads to considerable complications in the atmospheric and subsurface transport and in the requisite modeling. Infiltration and run-off are evaluated for the proposed disposal unit closure configuration. A new analytic source release model characterizes the disposal unit performance utilizing detailed source term characterization from the inventory data base. This analysis provides input to the subsurface modeling done by the sophisticated finite element transport code, FEHM, using realistic 2-D cross-sections of the geologic units stratigraphies and the disposal units. Subsurface transport via lateral flow to intermittent alluvial waters in adjacent canyons is evaluated in addition to the usual deep aquifer. Vapor phase flow has been treated separately and calibrated to field data for tritium migration. Atmospheric transport is based on Gaussian dispersion with a correction for complex canyon terrain evaluated from on-going 3-D atmospheric transport studies. Indications to date are that the Performance Assessment objectives are met for all migration pathways.

  10. Long-term criticality control in radioactive waste disposal facilities using depleted uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1997-02-19

    Plant photosynthesis has created a unique planetary-wide geochemistry - an oxidizing atmosphere with oxidizing surface waters on a planetary body with chemically reducing conditions near or at some distance below the surface. Uranium is four orders of magnitude more soluble under chemically oxidizing conditions than it is under chemically reducing conditions. Thus, uranium tends to leach from surface rock and disposal sites, move with groundwater, and concentrate where chemically reducing conditions appear. Earth`s geochemistry concentrates uranium and can separate uranium from all other elements except oxygen, hydrogen (in water), and silicon (silicates, etc). Fissile isotopes include {sup 235}U, {sup 233}U, and many higher actinides that eventually decay to one of these two uranium isotopes. The potential for nuclear criticality exists if the precipitated uranium from disposal sites has a significant fissile enrichment, mass, and volume. The earth`s geochemistry suggests that isotopic dilution of fissile materials in waste with {sup 238}U is a preferred strategy to prevent long-term nuclear criticality in and beyond the boundaries of waste disposal facilities because the {sup 238}U does not separate from the fissile uranium isotopes. Geological, laboratory, and theoretical data indicate that the potential for nuclear criticality can be minimized by diluting fissile materials with-{sup 238}U to 1 wt % {sup 235}U equivalent.

  11. Vegetation cover and long-term conservation of radioactive waste packages: the case study of the CSM waste disposal facility (Manche District, France).

    PubMed

    Petit-Berghem, Yves; Lemperiere, Guy

    2012-03-01

    The CSM is the first French waste disposal facility for radioactive waste. Waste material is buried several meters deep and protected by a multi-layer cover, and equipped with a drainage system. On the surface, the plant cover is a grassland vegetation type. A scientific assessment has been carried out by the Géophen laboratory, University of Caen, in order to better characterize the plant cover (ecological groups and associated soils) and to observe its medium and long term evolution. Field assessments made on 10 plots were complemented by laboratory analyses carried out over a period of 1 year. The results indicate scenarios and alternative solutions which could arise, in order to passively ensure the long-term safety of the waste disposal system. Several proposals for a blanket solution are currently being studied and discussed, under the auspices of international research institutions in order to determine the most appropriate materials for the storage conditions. One proposal is an increased thickness of these materials associated with a geotechnical barrier since it is well adapted to the forest plants which are likely to colonize the site. The current experiments that are carried out will allow to select the best option and could provide feedback for other waste disposal facility sites already being operated in France (CSFMA waste disposal facility, Aube district) or in other countries.

  12. Vegetation Cover and Long-Term Conservation of Radioactive Waste Packages: The Case Study of the CSM Waste Disposal Facility (Manche District, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit-Berghem, Yves; Lemperiere, Guy

    2012-03-01

    The CSM is the first French waste disposal facility for radioactive waste. Waste material is buried several meters deep and protected by a multi-layer cover, and equipped with a drainage system. On the surface, the plant cover is a grassland vegetation type. A scientific assessment has been carried out by the Géophen laboratory, University of Caen, in order to better characterize the plant cover (ecological groups and associated soils) and to observe its medium and long term evolution. Field assessments made on 10 plots were complemented by laboratory analyses carried out over a period of 1 year. The results indicate scenarios and alternative solutions which could arise, in order to passively ensure the long-term safety of the waste disposal system. Several proposals for a blanket solution are currently being studied and discussed, under the auspices of international research institutions in order to determine the most appropriate materials for the storage conditions. One proposal is an increased thickness of these materials associated with a geotechnical barrier since it is well adapted to the forest plants which are likely to colonize the site. The current experiments that are carried out will allow to select the best option and could provide feedback for other waste disposal facility sites already being operated in France (CSFMA waste disposal facility, Aube district) or in other countries.

  13. Intruder dose pathway analysis for the onsite disposal of radioactive wastes: the ONSITE/MAXI1 computer program

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, B.A.; Peloquin, R.A.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Neuder, S.M.

    1984-10-01

    Because of uncertainties associated with assessing the potential risks from onsite burials of radioactive waste, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has amended its regulations to provide greater assurance that buried radioactive material will not present a hazard to public health and safety. The amended regulations now require licensees to apply for approval of proposed procedures for onsite disposal pursuant to 10 CFR 20.302. The NRC technically reviews these requests on a case-by-case basis. These technical reviews require modeling potential pathways to man and projecting radiation dose commitments. This document contains a summary of our efforts to develop human-intrusion scenarios and to modify a version of the MAXI computer program for potential use by the NRC in reviewing applications for onsite radioactive waste disposal. The documentation of the ONSITE/MAXI computer program is written for two audiences. The first (Audience A) includes persons concerned with the mathematical models and computer algorithms. The second (Audience B) includes persons concerned with exercising the computer program and scenarios for specific onsite disposal applications. Five sample problems are presented and discussed to assist the user in operating the computer program. Summaries of the input and output for the sample problems are included along with a discussion of the hand calculations performed to verify the correct operation of the computer program. Computer listings of the ONSITE/MAXI1 computer program with an abbreviated data base listing are included as Appendix 1 to this document. Finally, complete listings of the data base with listings of the special codes used to create the data base are included in Appendix 2 as a microfiche attachment to this document.

  14. Environmental monitoring report for commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites (1960`s through 1990`s)

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    During the time period covered in this report (1960`s through early 1990`s), six commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facilities have been operated in the US. This report provides environmental monitoring data collected at each site. The report summarizes: (1) each site`s general design, (2) each site`s inventory, (3) the environmental monitoring program for each site and the data obtained as the program has evolved, and (4) what the program has indicated about releases to off-site areas, if any, including a statement of the actual health and safety significance of any release. A summary with conclusions is provided at the end of each site`s chapter. The six commercial LLRW disposal sites discussed are located near: Sheffield, Illinois; Maxey Flats, Kentucky; Beatty, Nevada; West Valley, New York; Barnwell, South Carolina; Richland, Washington.

  15. Linking RESRAD-OFFSITE and HYDROGEOCHEM Model for Performance Assessment of Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility - 13429

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Wen-Sheng; Yu, Charley; Cheng, Jing-Jy; Kamboj, Sunita; Gnanapragasam, Emmanuel; Liu, Chen-Wuing; Li, Ming-Hsu

    2013-07-01

    Performance assessments are crucial steps for the long-term radiological safety requirements of low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility. How much concentration of radionuclides released from the near-field to biosphere and what radiation exposure levels of an individual can influence on the satisfactory performance of the LLW disposal facility and safety disposal environment. Performance assessment methodology for the radioactive waste disposal consists of the reactive transport modeling of safety-concerned radionuclides released from the near-field to the far-field, and the potential exposure pathways and the movements of radionuclides through the geosphere, biosphere and man of which the accompanying dose. Therefore, the integration of hydrogeochemical transport model and dose assessment code, HYDROGEOCHEM code and RESRAD family of codes is imperative. The RESRAD family of codes such as RESRAD-OFFSITE computer code can evaluate the radiological dose and excess cancer risk to an individual who is exposed while located within or outside the area of initial (primary) contamination. The HYDROGEOCHEM is a 3-D numerical model of fluid flow, thermal, hydrologic transport, and biogeochemical kinetic and equilibrium reactions in saturated and unsaturated media. The HYDROGEOCHEM model can also simulate the crucial geochemical mechanism, such as the effect of redox processes on the adsorption/desorption, hydrogeochemical influences on concrete degradation, adsorption/desorption of radionuclides (i.e., surface complexation model) between solid and liquid phase in geochemically dynamic environments. To investigate the safety assessment of LLW disposal facility, linking RESRAD-OFFSITE and HYDROGEOCHEM model can provide detailed tools of confidence in the protectiveness of the human health and environmental impact for safety assessment of LLW disposal facility. (authors)

  16. Infiltration control for low-level radioactive solid waste disposal areas: an assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Arora, H.S.

    1980-11-01

    The primary mode of radionuclide transport from shallow land-disposal sites for low-level wastes can be traced to infiltration of precipitation. This report examines the factors that affect surface water entry and movement in the ground and assesses available infiltration-control technology for solid-waste-disposal sites in the humid eastern portion of the United States. A survey of the literature suggests that a variety of flexible and rigid liner systems are available as barriers for the stored waste and would be effective in preventing water infiltration. Installation of near-surface seals of bentonite clay admixed with dispersive chemicals seem to offer the required durability and low permeability at a reasonable cost. The infiltration rate in a bentonite-sealed area may be further retarded by the application of dispersive chemicals that can be easily admixed with the surface soil. Because the effectiveness of a dispersive chemical for infiltration reduction is influenced by the physico-chemical properties of the soil, appropriate laboratory tests should be conducted prior to field application.

  17. Microbial impacts on (99m)Tc migration through sandstone under highly alkaline conditions relevant to radioactive waste disposal.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sarah L; Boothman, Christopher; Williams, Heather A; Ellis, Beverly L; Wragg, Joanna; West, Julia M; Lloyd, Jonathan R

    2017-01-01

    Geological disposal of intermediate level radioactive waste in the UK is planned to involve the use of cementitious materials, facilitating the formation of an alkali-disturbed zone within the host rock. The biogeochemical processes that will occur in this environment, and the extent to which they will impact on radionuclide migration, are currently poorly understood. This study investigates the impact of biogeochemical processes on the mobility of the radionuclide technetium, in column experiments designed to be representative of aspects of the alkali-disturbed zone. Results indicate that microbial processes were capable of inhibiting (99m)Tc migration through columns, and X-ray radiography demonstrated that extensive physical changes had occurred to the material within columns where microbiological activity had been stimulated. The utilisation of organic acids under highly alkaline conditions, generating H2 and CO2, may represent a mechanism by which microbial processes may alter the hydraulic conductivity of a geological environment. Column sediments were dominated by obligately alkaliphilic H2-oxidising bacteria, suggesting that the enrichment of these bacteria may have occurred as a result of H2 generation during organic acid metabolism. The results from these experiments show that microorganisms are able to carry out a number of processes under highly alkaline conditions that could potentially impact on the properties of the host rock surrounding a geological disposal facility for intermediate level radioactive waste. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Evaluation and Quantification of Uncertainty in the Modeling of Contaminant Transport and Exposure Assessment at a Radioactive Waste Disposal Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tauxe, J.; Black, P.; Carilli, J.; Catlett, K.; Crowe, B.; Hooten, M.; Rawlinson, S.; Schuh, A.; Stockton, T.; Yucel, V.

    2002-12-01

    The disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in the United States (U.S.) is a highly regulated undertaking. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), itself a large generator of such wastes, requires a substantial amount of analysis and assessment before permitting disposal of LLW at its facilities. One of the requirements that must be met in assessing the performance of a disposal site and technology is that a Performance Assessment (PA) demonstrate "reasonable expectation" that certain performance objectives, such as dose to a hypothetical future receptor, not be exceeded. The phrase "reasonable expectation" implies recognition of uncertainty in the assessment process. In order for this uncertainty to be quantified and communicated to decision makers, the PA computer model must accept probabilistic (uncertain) input (parameter values) and produce results which reflect that uncertainty as it is propagated through the model calculations. The GoldSim modeling software was selected for the task due to its unique facility with both probabilistic analysis and radioactive contaminant transport. Probabilistic model parameters range from water content and other physical properties of alluvium to the activity of radionuclides disposed to the amount of time a future resident might be expected to spend tending a garden. Although these parameters govern processes which are defined in isolation as rather simple differential equations, the complex interaction of couple processes makes for a highly nonlinear system with often unanticipated results. The decision maker has the difficult job of evaluating the uncertainty of modeling results in the context of granting permission for LLW disposal. This job also involves the evaluation of alternatives, such as the selection of disposal technologies. Various scenarios can be evaluated in the model, so that the effects of, for example, using a thicker soil cap over the waste cell can be assessed. This ability to evaluate mitigation

  19. Overview of a performance assessment methodology for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Kozak, M.W.; Chu, M.S.Y.

    1991-01-01

    A performance assessment methodology has been developed for use by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in evaluating license applications for low-level waste disposal facilities. This paper provides a summary and an overview of the modeling approaches selected for the methodology. The overview includes discussions of the philosophy and structure of the methodology. This performance assessment methodology is designed to provide the NRC with a tool for performing confirmatory analyses in support of license reviews related to postclosure performance. The methodology allows analyses of dose to individuals from off-site releases under normal conditions as well as on-site doses to inadvertent intruders. 24 refs., 1 tab.

  20. Research on Geo-information Data Model for Preselected Areas of Geological Disposal of High-level Radioactive Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, M.; Huang, S. T.; Wang, P.; Zhao, Y. A.; Wang, H. B.

    2016-11-01

    The geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (hereinafter referred to "geological disposal") is a long-term, complex, and systematic scientific project, whose data and information resources in the research and development ((hereinafter referred to ”R&D”) process provide the significant support for R&D of geological disposal system, and lay a foundation for the long-term stability and safety assessment of repository site. However, the data related to the research and engineering in the sitting of the geological disposal repositories is more complicated (including multi-source, multi-dimension and changeable), the requirements for the data accuracy and comprehensive application has become much higher than before, which lead to the fact that the data model design of geo-information database for the disposal repository are facing more serious challenges. In the essay, data resources of the pre-selected areas of the repository has been comprehensive controlled and systematic analyzed. According to deeply understanding of the application requirements, the research work has made a solution for the key technical problems including reasonable classification system of multi-source data entity, complex logic relations and effective physical storage structures. The new solution has broken through data classification and conventional spatial data the organization model applied in the traditional industry, realized the data organization and integration with the unit of data entities and spatial relationship, which were independent, holonomic and with application significant features in HLW geological disposal. The reasonable, feasible and flexible data conceptual models, logical models and physical models have been established so as to ensure the effective integration and facilitate application development of multi-source data in pre-selected areas for geological disposal.

  1. Evapotranspiration and microclimate at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site in northwestern Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, R.W.; DeVries, M.P.; Sturrock, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    From July 1982 through June 1984, a study was made of the microclimate and evapotranspiration at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Bureau County, Illinois. Vegetation at the site consists of mixed pasture grasses, primarily brome (Bromus inermis) and red clover (Trifoleum pratense). Three methods were used to estimate evapotranspiration: (1) an energy-budget with the Bowen ratio, (2) an aerodynamic-profile, and (3) a soil-based water-budget. For the aerodynamic-profile method, sensible-heat flux was estimated by a profile equation and evapotranspiration was then calculated as the residual in the energy-balance equation. Estimates by the energy-budget and aerodynamic-profile methods were computed from hourly data, then summed by days and months. Yearly estimates for March through November, by these methods, were quite close--648 and 626 millimeters, respectively. Daily estimates range up to a maximum of about 6 millimeters. The water-budget method produced only monthly estimates based on weekly or biweekly soil-moisture content measurements. The yearly evapotranspiration estimated by this method (which actually included only the months of April through October) was 655 millimeters. The March-through-November average for the three methods of 657 millimeters was equivalent to 70 percent of precipitation. Continuous measurements were made of incoming and reflected shortwave radiation, incoming and emitted longwave radiation, net radiation, soil-heat flux, soil temperature, horizontal windspeed, and wet- and dry-bulb air temperature. Windspeed and air temperature were measured at heights of 0.5 and 2.0 meters (and also at 1.0 meter after September 1983). Soil-moisture content of the soil zone was measured with a gamma-attenuation gage. Annual precipitation (938 millimeters) and average temperature (10.8 degrees Celsius) were virtually identical to long-term averages from nearby National Weather Service stations. Solar radiation averaged 65

  2. Evapotranspiration and microclimate at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site in northwestern Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, R.W.; DeVries, M.P.; Sturrock, Alex M.

    1989-01-01

    From July 1982 through June 1984, a study was made of the evapotranspiration and microclimate at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Bureau County, Illinois. Vegetation at the site consists of mixed pasture grasses, primarily awnless brome (Bromus inermis) and red clover (Trifoleum pratense). Three methods were used to estimate evapotranspiration: (1) an energy budget with the Bowen ratio, (2) an aerodynamic profile, and (3) a soil-based water budget. For the aerodynamic-profile method, sensible-heat flux was estimated by a profile equation and evapotranspiration was then calculated as the residual in the energy-balance equation. Estimates by the energy-budget and aerodynamic-profile methods were computed from hourly data and then summed by days and months. Yearly estimates (for March through November) by these methods were in close agreement: 648 and 626 millimeters, respectively. Daily estimates reach a maximum of about 6 millimeters. The water-budget method produced only monthly estimates based on weekly or biweekly soil-moisture content measurements. The yearly evapotranspiration estimated by this method (which actually included only the months of April through October) was 655 millimeters. The March-through-November average for the three methods of 657 millimeters was equivalent to 70 percent of total precipitation. Continuous measurements were made of incoming and reflected shortwave radiation, incoming and emitted longwave radiation, net radiation, soil-heat flux, soil temperature, horizontal windspeed, and wet- and dry-bulb air temperature. Windspeed and air temperature were measured at heights of 0.5 and 2.0 meters (and also at 1.0 meter after September 1983). Soilmoisture content of the soil zone was measured with a gamma-attenuation gage. Annual precipitation (938 millimeters) and average temperature (10.8 degrees Celsius) at the Sheffield site were virtually identical to long-term averages from nearby National Weather Service

  3. PROCESSING OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, B.M. Jr.; Barton, G.B.

    1961-11-14

    A process for treating radioactive waste solutions prior to disposal is described. A water-soluble phosphate, borate, and/or silicate is added. The solution is sprayed with steam into a space heated from 325 to 400 deg C whereby a powder is formed. The powder is melted and calcined at from 800 to 1000 deg C. Water vapor and gaseous products are separated from the glass formed. (AEC)

  4. Calculation of absorbed dose around a facility for disposing of low activity natural radioactive waste (C3-dump).

    PubMed

    Jansen, J T M; Zoetelief, J

    2005-01-01

    A C3-dump is a facility for disposing of low activity natural radioactive waste containing the uranium series 238U, the thorium series 232Th and 40K. Only the external radiation owing to gamma rays, X-rays and annihilation photons is considered in this study. For two situations--the semi-infinite slab and the tourist geometry--the conversion coefficients from specific activity to air kerma rate at 1 m above the relevant level are calculated. In the first situation the waste material is in contact with the air but in the tourist geometry it is covered with a 1.35 m thick layer. For the calculations, the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP is used. The yield and photon energy for each radionuclide are according to the database of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. For the tourist situation, the depth-dose distribution through the covering layer is calculated and extrapolated to determine the exit dose.

  5. Derivation of requirements and quality assurance for radioactive wastes to be disposed of in the Federal Republic of Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Martens, B.R.

    1994-12-31

    Three disposal projects or facilities exist in Germany. Any possible radiation exposure caused by these repositories is of main public and official interest. Dose limits are given by law for the normal operation of a repository and in the case of incidents. The limits to be met for the public during normal operation are also considered as limits for the post-operational phase - as far as science-based predictions are possible. The discretionary decision of the licensing authority may also take into account predictions which go beyond these predictable limits. To prove the observance of these dose limits, definite requirements must be kept by the radioactive waste. The fulfillment of these requirements is ensured by quality assurance based upon quality control of conditioning processes or sampling inspections of (already conditioned) waste packages.

  6. Problems in shallow land disposal of solid low-level radioactive waste in the united states

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stevens, P.R.; DeBuchananne, G.D.

    1976-01-01

    Disposal of solid low-level wastes containing radionuclides by burial in shallow trenches was initiated during World War II at several sites as a method of protecting personnel from radiation and isolating the radionuclides from the hydrosphere and biosphere. Today, there are 11 principal shallow-land burial sites in the United States that contain a total of more than 1.4 million cubic meters of solid wastes contaminated with a wide variety of radionuclides. Criteria for burial sites have been few and generalized and have contained only minimal hydrogeologic considerations. Waste-management practices have included the burial of small quantities of long-lived radionuclides with large volumes of wastes contaminated with shorter-lived nuclides at the same site, thereby requiring an assurance of extremely long-time containment for the entire disposal site. Studies at 4 of the 11 sites have documented the migration of radionuclides. Other sites are being studied for evidence of containment failure. Conditions at the 4 sites are summarized. In each documented instance of containment failure, ground water has probably been the medium of transport. Migrating radionuclides that have been identified include90Sr,137Cs,106Ru,239Pu,125Sb,60Co, and3H. Shallow land burial of solid wastes containing radionuclides can be a viable practice only if a specific site satisfies adequate hydrogeologic criteria. Suggested hydrogeologic criteria and the types of hydrogeologic data necessary for an adequate evaluation of proposed burial sites are given. It is mandatory that a concomitant inventory and classification be made of the longevity, and the physical and chemical form of the waste nuclides to be buried, in order that the anticipated waste types can be matched to the containment capability of the proposed sites. Ongoing field investigations at existing sites will provide data needed to improve containment at these sites and help develop hydrogeologic criteria for new sites. These

  7. Historical Relationship Between Performance Assessment for Radioactive Waste Disposal and Other Types of Risk Assessment in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    RECHARD,ROBERT P.

    2000-07-14

    This paper describes the evolution of the process for assessing the hazards of a geologic disposal system for radioactive waste and, similarly, nuclear power reactors, and the relationship of this process with other assessments of risk, particularly assessments of hazards from manufactured carcinogenic chemicals during use and disposal. This perspective reviews the common history of scientific concepts for risk assessment developed to the 1950s. Computational tools and techniques developed in the late 1950s and early 1960s to analyze the reliability of nuclear weapon delivery systems were adopted in the early 1970s for probabilistic risk assessment of nuclear power reactors, a technology for which behavior was unknown. In turn, these analyses became an important foundation for performance assessment of nuclear waste disposal in the late 1970s. The evaluation of risk to human health and the environment from chemical hazards is built upon methods for assessing the dose response of radionuclides in the 1950s. Despite a shared background, however, societal events, often in the form of legislation, have affected the development path for risk assessment for human health, producing dissimilarities between these risk assessments and those for nuclear facilities. An important difference is the regulator's interest in accounting for uncertainty and the tools used to evaluate it.

  8. Review of potential host rocks for radioactive waste disposal in the Piedmont Province of Georgia

    SciTech Connect

    Wenner, D.B.; Gillon, K.A.

    1980-10-01

    A literature study was conducted on the Piedmont province of Georgia to designate areas that may be favorable for field exploration for consideration of a repository for storage of radioactive waste. The criteria utilized in such a designation was based upon consideration of the rock unit having favorable geological, geotechnical, and geohydrological features. The most important are that the rock unit have: (1) satisfactory unit dimensions (> 100 km/sup 2/ outcrop area and at least 1500 meters (approx. 5000 feet) depth of a continuous rock type); and (2) acceptable geohydrological conditions. Among all rock types, it is concluded that the granites of the large post-metamorphic plutons and large, homogeneous orthogneissic units offer the most favorable geologic settings for exploration for siting a radioactive waste repository. Virtually all other rock types, including most metavolcanic and metasedimentary lithologies have unacceptable unit dimensions, generally unfavorable geohydrologic settings, and deleterious mechanical and physical geotechnical properties. After consideration of all major lithologies that comprise the Georgia Piedmont, the following units were deemed favorable: (1) the Elberton Pluton; (2) the Siloam Pluton; (3) the Sparta Pluton; (4) two unnamed plutons adjacent to the Snelson body of S.W. Georgia; (5) the Lithonia Gneiss; (6) basement orthogneisses and charnockites of the Pine Mountain Belt.

  9. Illustrative assessment of human health issues arising from the potential release of chemotoxic substances from a generic geological disposal facility for radioactive waste.

    PubMed

    Wilson, James C; Thorne, Michael C; Towler, George; Norris, Simon

    2011-12-01

    Many countries have a programme for developing an underground geological disposal facility for radioactive waste. A case study is provided herein on the illustrative assessment of human health issues arising from the potential release of chemotoxic and radioactive substances from a generic geological disposal facility (GDF) for radioactive waste. The illustrative assessment uses a source-pathway-receptor methodology and considers a number of human exposure pathways. Estimated exposures are compared with authoritative toxicological assessment criteria. The possibility of additive and synergistic effects resulting from exposures to mixtures of chemical contaminants or a combination of radiotoxic and chemotoxic substances is considered. The case study provides an illustration of how to assess human health issues arising from chemotoxic species released from a GDF for radioactive waste and highlights potential difficulties associated with a lack of data being available with which to assess synergistic effects. It also highlights how such difficulties can be addressed.

  10. ORNL results for Test Case 1 of the International Atomic Energy Agency`s research program on the safety assessment of Near-Surface Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Thorne, D.J.; McDowell-Boyer, L.M.; Kocher, D.C.; Little, C.A.; Roemer, E.K.

    1993-07-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) started the Coordinated Research Program entitled ```The Safety Assessment of Near-Surface Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities.`` The program is aimed at improving the confidence in the modeling results for safety assessments of waste disposal facilities. The program has been given the acronym NSARS (Near-Surface Radioactive Waste Disposal Safety Assessment Reliability Study) for ease of reference. The purpose of this report is to present the ORNL modeling results for the first test case (i.e., Test Case 1) of the IAEA NSARS program. Test Case 1 is based on near-surface disposal of radionuclides that are subsequently leached to a saturated-sand aquifer. Exposure to radionuclides results from use of a well screened in the aquifer and from intrusion into the repository. Two repository concepts were defined in Test Case 1: a simple earth trench and an engineered vault.

  11. Radioactive Waste Management

    SciTech Connect

    Bales, J.D.; Graham, J.; Boshears, R.

    1996-01-01

    Radioactive Waste Management (RWM) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information available on the critical topics of spent-fuel transport and storage, radioactive effluents from nuclear facilities, techniques of processing radioactive wastes, their storage, and ultimate disposal. Information on remedial actions and other environmental aspects is also included. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the past month. Also included are other US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency`s Energy Technology Data Exchange, the International Atomic Energy Agency`s International Nuclear Information System or government-to-government agreements.

  12. Treatment of Radioactive Metallic Waste from Operation of Nuclear Power Plants by Melting - The German Way for a Consistent Recycling to Minimize the Quantity of Radioactive Waste from Operation and Dismantling for Disposal - 12016

    SciTech Connect

    Wegener, Dirk; Kluth, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    During maintenance of nuclear power plants, and during their decommissioning period, a large quantity of radioactive metallic waste will accrue. On the other hand the capacity for final disposal of radioactive waste in Germany is limited as well as that in the US. That is why all procedures related to this topic should be handled with a maximum of efficiency. The German model of consistent recycling of the radioactive metal scrap within the nuclear industry therefore also offers high capabilities for facilities in the US. The paper gives a compact overview of the impressive results of melting treatment, the current potential and further developments. Thousands of cubic metres of final disposal capacity have been saved. The highest level of efficiency and safety by combining general surface decontamination by blasting and nuclide specific decontamination by melting associated with the typical effects of homogenization. An established process - nationally and internationally recognized. Excellent connection between economy and ecology. (authors)

  13. Study of extraterrestrial disposal of radioactive wastes. Part 2: Preliminary feasibility screening study of extraterrestrial disposal of radioactive wastes in concentrations, matrix materials, and containers designed for storage on earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyland, R. E.; Wohl, M. L.; Thompson, R. L.; Finnegan, P. M.

    1972-01-01

    The results are reported of a preliminary feasibility screening study for providing long-term solutions to the problems of handling and managing radioactive wastes by extraterrestrial transportation of the wastes. Matrix materials and containers are discussed along with payloads, costs, and destinations for candidate space vehicles. The conclusions reached are: (1) Matrix material such as spray melt can be used without exceeding temperature limits of the matrix. (2) The cost in mills per kw hr electric, of space disposal of fission products is 4, 5, and 28 mills per kw hr for earth escape, solar orbit, and solar escape, respectively. (3) A major factor effecting cost is the earth storage time. Based on a normal operating condition design for solar escape, a storage time of more than sixty years is required to make the space disposal charge less than 10% of the bus-bar electric cost. (4) Based on a 10 year earth storage without further processing, the number of shuttle launches required would exceed one per day.

  14. Understanding radioactive waste. Fourth edition

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, R.L.

    1994-12-31

    Understanding Radioactive Waste has proven to be an informative and valuable textbook for high school and college students as well as an excellent reference for concerned citizens. Now in its fourth edition, it explains what radioactivity is and goes on to explore the merits of various methods of disposal and the use of licensing and regulation as forms of protection.

  15. Performance and safety assessment of the co-location of the near surface radioactive waste disposal facilities and borehole disposal concept in the Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, Edmundo; Reyes, Rolando; Palattao, Maria Visitacion; Nohay, Carl; Singayan, Alfonso; Aurelio, Mario; Gedeon, Matej; Luna, Roy Anthony C.

    2013-07-01

    The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) in collaboration with the interagency technical committee on radioactive waste has been undertaking a national project to find a final solution to the country's low to intermediate level radioactive waste. The strategy adopted was to co-locate 2 disposal concepts that will address the types of radioactive waste generated from the use of radioactive materials. This strategy is expected to compensate for the small volumes of waste generated in the Philippines as compared to countries with big nuclear energy programs. It will also take advantage of the benefits of a shared infrastructure and R and D work that accompany such project. The preferred site selected from previous site selection and investigations is underlain by highly fractured 'andesitic volcaniclastics' mantled by residual clayey soil which act as the aquifer or water bearing layer. Results of investigation show that the groundwater in the area is relatively dilute and acidic. Springs at the lower elevations of the footprint also indicate acidic waters. The relatively acidic water is attributed to the formation of sulfuric acid by the oxidation of the pyrite in the andesite. A preliminary post closure safety assessment was carried out using the GMS MODFLOW and HYDRUS softwares purchased through the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) technical assistance. Results from MODFLOW modeling show that the radionuclide transport follows the natural gradient from the top of the hill down to the natural discharge zones. The vault dispersion model shows a circular direction from the vaults towards the faults and eventually to the creeks. The contaminant transport from borehole shows at least one confined plume from the borehole towards the creek designated as Repo1 and eventually follows downstream. The influx of surface water and rainfall to the disposal vault was modeled using the HYDRUS software. The pressure head and water content at the base of the

  16. Applications of UThPb isotope systematics to the problems of radioactive waste disposal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuckless, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    mobility can be obtained through the use of isotopic studies. Such information can be extremely important in the search for favorable hosts for containment of radioactive waste. Rocks such as the Go??temar Granite have undergone considerable rock-water interaction, most of which occurred ??? 400 Myr. ago and little in recent times. Thus a search for zones that have experienced only a little interaction with water may provide a misleading prediction as to the ability of such zones to shield radioactive wastes from the modern biosphere. From an isotopic point of view, an ideal candidate for evaluation as a host rock for radioactive wastes would have the following characteristics: (1) a high ratio (> 2) of radiogenic to common Pb in order to optimize precision of the results; (2) a simple two-stage geologic history so that results could be interpreted without multiple working hypotheses; and (3) an originally high percentage (> 50%) of labile U so that the results would be highly sensitive to even small amount of rock-water interaction. These characteristics should produce rocks with marked radioactive disequilibrium in surface samples. The disequilibrium should grade to radioactive equilibrium with increasing depth until zones in which water has not circulated are found. Extensive regions of such zones must exist because UThPb systematics of most analyzed granitoids demonstrate closed-system behavior for almost all of their history except for their recent history in the near-surface environment. ?? 1986.

  17. SELF SINTERING OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES

    DOEpatents

    McVay, T.N.; Johnson, J.R.; Struxness, E.G.; Morgan, K.Z.

    1959-12-29

    A method is described for disposal of radioactive liquid waste materials. The wastes are mixed with clays and fluxes to form a ceramic slip and disposed in a thermally insulated container in a layer. The temperature of the layer rises due to conversion of the energy of radioactivity to heat boillng off the liquid to fomn a dry mass. The dry mass is then covered with thermal insulation, and the mass is self-sintered into a leach-resistant ceramic cake by further conversion of the energy of radioactivity to heat.

  18. Mixed-layered bismuth-oxygen-iodine materials for capture and waste disposal of radioactive iodine

    DOEpatents

    Krumhansl, James L; Nenoff, Tina M

    2013-02-26

    Materials and methods of synthesizing mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine materials, which can be synthesized in the presence of aqueous radioactive iodine species found in caustic solutions (e.g. NaOH or KOH). This technology provides a one-step process for both iodine sequestration and storage from nuclear fuel cycles. It results in materials that will be durable for repository conditions much like those found in Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and estimated for Yucca Mountain (YMP). By controlled reactant concentrations, optimized compositions of these mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine inorganic materials are produced that have both a high iodine weight percentage and a low solubility in groundwater environments.

  19. Mixed-layered bismuth--oxygen--iodine materials for capture and waste disposal of radioactive iodine

    DOEpatents

    Krumhansl, James L; Nenoff, Tina M

    2015-01-06

    Materials and methods of synthesizing mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine materials, which can be synthesized in the presence of aqueous radioactive iodine species found in caustic solutions (e.g. NaOH or KOH). This technology provides a one-step process for both iodine sequestration and storage from nuclear fuel cycles. It results in materials that will be durable for repository conditions much like those found in Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and estimated for Yucca Mountain (YMP). By controlled reactant concentrations, optimized compositions of these mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine inorganic materials are produced that have both a high iodine weight percentage and a low solubility in groundwater environments.

  20. A performance assessment methodology for high-level radioactive waste disposal in unsaturated, fractured tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, D.P.

    1991-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, has developed a methodology for performance assessment of deep geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The applicability of this performance assessment methodology has been demonstrated for disposal in bedded salt and basalt; it has since been modified for assessment of repositories in unsaturated, fractured tuff. Changes to the methodology are primarily in the form of new or modified ground water flow and radionuclide transport codes. A new computer code, DCM3D, has been developed to model three-dimensional ground-water flow in unsaturated, fractured rock using a dual-continuum approach. The NEFTRAN 2 code has been developed to efficiently model radionuclide transport in time-dependent velocity fields, has the ability to use externally calculated pore velocities and saturations, and includes the effect of saturation dependent retardation factors. In order to use these codes together in performance-assessment-type analyses, code-coupler programs were developed to translate DCM3D output into NEFTRAN 2 input. Other portions of the performance assessment methodology were evaluated as part of modifying the methodology for tuff. The scenario methodology developed under the bedded salt program has been applied to tuff. An investigation of the applicability of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques to non-linear models indicate that Monte Carlo simulation remains the most robust technique for these analyses. No changes have been recommended for the dose and health effects models, nor the biosphere transport models. 52 refs., 1 fig.

  1. The Environmental Agency's Assessment of the Post-Closure Safety Case for the BNFL DRIGG Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Streatfield, I. J.; Duerden, S. L.; Yearsley, R. A.

    2002-02-26

    The Environment Agency is responsible, in England and Wales, for authorization of radioactive waste disposal under the Radioactive Substances Act 1993. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) is currently authorized by the Environment Agency to dispose of solid low level radioactive waste at its site at Drigg, near Sellafield, NW England. As part of a planned review of this authorization, the Environment Agency is currently undertaking an assessment of BNFL's Post-Closure Safety Case Development Programme for the Drigg disposal facility. This paper presents an outline of the review methodology developed and implemented by the Environment Agency specifically for the planned review of BNFL's Post-Closure Safety Case. The paper also provides an overview of the Environment Agency's progress in its on-going assessment programme.

  2. Plutonium Equivalent Inventory for Belowground Radioactive Waste at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Technical Area 54, Area G Disposal Facility - Fiscal Year 2011

    SciTech Connect

    French, Sean B.; Shuman, Rob

    2012-04-18

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) generates radioactive waste as a result of various activities. Many aspects of the management of this waste are conducted at Technical Area 54 (TA-54); Area G plays a key role in these management activities as the Laboratory's only disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste (LLW). Furthermore, Area G serves as a staging area for transuranic (TRU) waste that will be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for disposal. A portion of this TRU waste is retrievably stored in pits, trenches, and shafts. The radioactive waste disposed of or stored at Area G poses potential short- and long-term risks to workers at the disposal facility and to members of the public. These risks are directly proportional to the radionuclide inventories in the waste. The Area G performance assessment and composite analysis (LANL, 2008a) project long-term risks to members of the public; short-term risks to workers and members of the public, such as those posed by accidents, are addressed by the Area G Documented Safety Analysis (LANL, 2011a). The Documented Safety Analysis uses an inventory expressed in terms of plutonium-equivalent curies, referred to as the PE-Ci inventory, to estimate these risks. The Technical Safety Requirements for Technical Area 54, Area G (LANL, 2011b) establishes a belowground radioactive material limit that ensures the cumulative projected inventory authorized for the Area G site is not exceeded. The total belowground radioactive waste inventory limit established for Area G is 110,000 PE-Ci. The PE-Ci inventory is updated annually; this report presents the inventory prepared for 2011. The approach used to estimate the inventory is described in Section 2. The results of the analysis are presented in Section 3.

  3. Geology of the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana, with reference to subsurface disposal of radioactive wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beikman, Helen M.

    1962-01-01

    The Powder River Basin is a structural and topographic basin occupying an area of about 20,000 square miles in northeastern Wyoming arid southeastern Montana. The Basin is about 230 miles long in a northwest-southeast direction and is about 100 miles wide. It is bounded on three sides by mountains in which rocks of Precambrian age are exposed. The Basin is asymmetrical with a steep west limb adjacent to the Bighorn Mountains and a gentle east limb adjacent to the Black Hills. Sedimentary rocks within the Basin have a maximum thickness of about 18,000 feet and rocks of every geologic period are represented. Paleozoic rocks are about 2,500 feet thick and consist of marine bonate rocks and sandstone; Mesozoic rocks are about 9,500 feet thick and consist of both marine and nonmarine siltstone and sandstone; and Cenozoic rocks are from 4,000 to 6,000 feet thick and consist of coal-bearing sandstone and shale. Radioactive waste could be stored in the pore space of permeable sandstone or in shale where space could be developed. Many such rock units that could be used for storing radioactive wastes are present within the Powder River Basin. Permeable sandstone beds that may be possible reservoirs for storage of radioactive waste are present throughout the Powder River Basin. These include sandstone beds in the Flathead Sandstone and equivalent strata in the Deadwood Formation, the Tensleep Sandstone and equivalent strata in the Minnelusa Formation and the Sundance Formation in rocks of pre-Cretaceous age. However, most of the possible sandstone reservoirs are in rocks of Cretaceous age and include sandstone beds in the Fall River, Lakota, Newcastle, Frontier, Cody, and Mesaverde Formations. Problems of containment of waste such as clogging of pore space and chemical incompatibility would have to be solved before a particular sandstone unit could be selected for waste disposal. Several thick sequences of impermeable shale such as those in the Skull Creek, Mowry, Frontier

  4. An Update On Waste Control Specialists' 2004 License Application For Safe Disposal Of Class A, B, and C Low-Level Radioactive Waste In Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Baltzer, R.; Eriksson, L.

    2008-07-01

    On December 10, 2007, Waste Control Specialists LLC (WCS) received notification that the Executive Director of the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) had prepared an interim draft license and made a preliminary decision that it met all statutory and regulatory requirements for safe disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) at the WCS' site in Texas. Pursuant to this interim draft license, WCS will be authorized to dispose Class A, B, and C LLW in two enhanced near-surface landfills at WCS' 5.4-square-kilometer (1,338-acre) treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) site in Andrews County, Texas (Fig. 1). One landfill will be dedicated to LLW generated within the member/party states of the Texas Compact (Texas and Vermont), while the other will be dedicated to LLW generated by the federal government. The calculated annual peak dose to the maximally exposed member of the general public, i.e., an adjacent resident, from any of the proposed LLW-disposal landfills occurs approximately 36,400 years after closure and is 0.034 milli-sievert (mSv) (3.4 milli-rem (mrem)), which is less than 14 percent of the applicable regulatory limit of 25 mSv (25 mrem). The draft license will be published in February 2008, which will be followed by 12 months of public hearings, and three months for preparation of the final license. Based on this schedule, the final license is due in May 2009. When opened, the WCS site will achieve a national milestone; it will be the first new Compact LLW-disposal site in the USA to open under the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980, as amended in 1985. (authors)

  5. An Updated Performance Assessment For A New Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility In West Texas - 12192

    SciTech Connect

    Dornsife, William P.; Kirk, J. Scott; Shaw, Chris G.

    2012-07-01

    This Performance Assessment (PA) submittal is an update to the original PA that was developed to support the licensing of the Waste Control Specialists LLC Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) disposal facility. This update includes both the Compact Waste Facility (CWF) and the Federal Waste Facility (FWF), in accordance with Radioactive Material License (RML) No. R04100, License Condition (LC) 87. While many of the baseline assumptions supporting the initial license application PA were incorporated in this update, a new transport code, GoldSim, and new deterministic groundwater flow codes, including HYDRUS and MODFLOWSURFACT{sup TM}, were employed to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives codified in the regulations and RML No. R04100, LC 87. A revised source term, provided by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality staff, was used to match the initial 15 year license term. This updated PA clearly confirms and demonstrates the robustness of the characteristics of the site's geology and the advanced engineering design of the disposal units. Based on the simulations from fate and transport models, the radiation doses to members of the general public and site workers predicted in the initial and updated PA were a small fraction of the criterion doses of 0.25 mSv and 50 mSv, respectively. In a comparison between the results of the updated PA against the one developed in support of the initial license, both clearly demonstrated the robustness of the characteristics of the site's geology and engineering design of the disposal units. Based on the simulations from fate and transport models, the radiation doses to members of the general public predicted in the initial and updated PA were a fraction of the allowable 25 mrem/yr (0.25 m sievert/yr) dose standard for tens-of-thousands of years into the future. Draft Texas guidance on performance assessment (TCEQ, 2004) recommends a period of analysis equal to 1,000 years or until peak doses from the more

  6. Radionuclide concentrations in/on vegetation at radioactive-waste disposal Area G during the 1995 growing season. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Fresquez, P.R.; Vold, E.L.; Naranjo, L. Jr.

    1996-03-01

    Overstory (pinon pine) and understory (grass and forb) vegetation were collected within and around selected points at Area G--a low- level radioactive solid-waste disposal facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory--for the analysis of tritium ({sup 3}H), strontium ({sup 90}Sr), plutonium ({sup 238}Pu and {sup 239}Pu), cesium ({sup 137}Cs), and total uranium. Also, heavy metals (Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and Tl) in/on vegetation were determined. In general, most (unwashed) vegetation collected within and around Area G contained {sup 3}H, uranium, {sup 238}Pu, and {sup 239}Pu in higher concentrations than vegetation collected from background areas. Tritium, in particular, was detected as high as 7300 pCi mL{sup -1} in understory vegetation collected from the west side of the transuranic (TRU) pads. The south and west ends of the tritium shaft field also contained elevated levels of {sup 3}H in overstory, and especially in understory vegetation, as compared to background; this suggests that {sup 3}H may be migrating from this waste repository through surface and subsurface pathways. Also, understory vegetation collected north of the TRU pads (adjacent to the fence line of Area G) contained the highest values of {sup 238}Pu and {sup 239}Pu as compared to background, and may be a result of surface holding, storage, and/or disposal activities.

  7. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J.C.; Van Konynenburg, R.A.; McCright, R.D. ); Bullen, D.B. )

    1988-04-01

    Three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys (Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825) are being considered as candidate materials for the fabrication of high-level radioactive-waste containers. Waste will include fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level waste in borosilicate glass forms, and will be sent to the prospective repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The decay of radionuclides in the repository will result in the generation of substantial heat and in fluences of gamma radiation. Container materials may undergo any of several modes of degradation in this environment, including atmospheric oxidation; uniform aqueous phase corrosion; pitting; crevice corrosion; sensitization and intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC); and transgranular stress corrosion cracking (TGSCC). This report is an analysis of data relevant to the pitting, crevice corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of the three austenitic candidate alloys. The candidates are compared in terms of their susceptibilities to these forms of corrosion. Although all three candidates have demonstrated pitting and crevice corrosion in chloride-containing environments, Alloy 825 has the greatest resistance to these types of localized corrosion (LC); such resistance is important because pits can penetrate the metal and serve as crack initiation sites. Both Types 304L and 316L stainless steels are susceptible to SCC in acidic chloride media. In contrast, SCC has not been documented in Alloy 825 under comparable conditions. Gamma radiation has been found to enhance SCC in Types 304 and 304L stainless steels, but it has no detectable effect on the resistance of Alloy 825 to SCC. Furthermore, while the effects of microbiologically induced corrosion have been observed for 300-series stainless steels, nickel-based alloys such as Alloy 825 seem to be immune to such problems. 211 refs., 49 figs., 10 tabs.

  8. The USNRC's Final Regulations for Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Wastes in a Potential Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    McCartin, T.; Kotra, J.; Pohle, J.; Wittmeyer, G.

    2002-02-27

    On February 22, 1999, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) proposed licensing criteria in a new, separate part of its regulations, at 10 CFR Part 63 (hereafter referred to as Part 63), for disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in a potential geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada (1). After publication of the proposed Part 63, the staff provided members of the public and other stakeholders multiple opportunities to discuss the proposed requirements. On June 13, 2001, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued final environmental standards for a potential geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada at 40 CFR Part 197 (2), as mandated by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EnPA)(3). The NRC has prepared its final regulations based on careful review and consideration of the public comments received on its proposed rule and the statutory direction for NRC to adopt technical criteria consistent with final EPA standards.

  9. Issues in the review of a license application for an above grade low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ringenberg, J.D.

    1993-03-01

    In December 1987, Nebraska was selected by the Central Interstate Compact (CIC) Commission as the host state for the construction of a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. After spending a year in the site screening process, the Compact`s developer, US Ecology, selected three sites for detailed site characterization. These sites were located in Nemaha, Nuckolls and Boyd Counties. One year later the Boyd County site was selected as the preferred site and additional site characterization studies were undertaken. On July 29, 1990, US Ecology submitted a license application to the Nebraska Department of Environmental Control (now Department of Environmental Quality-NDEQ). This paper will present issues that the NDEQ has dealt with since Nebraska`s selection as the host state for the CIC facility.

  10. The application of Quadtree algorithm to information integration for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Min; Huang, Shutao; Zhong, Xia

    2009-09-01

    The establishment of multi-source database was designed to promote the informatics process of the geological disposal of High-level Radioactive Waste, the integration of multi-dimensional and multi-source information and its application are related to computer software and hardware. Based on the analysis of data resources in Beishan area, Gansu Province, and combined with GIS technologies and methods. This paper discusses the technical ideas of how to manage, fully share and rapidly retrieval the information resources in this area by using open source code GDAL and Quadtree algorithm, especially in terms of the characteristics of existing data resources, spatial data retrieval algorithm theory, programming design and implementation of the ideas.

  11. The application of Quadtree algorithm to information integration for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Min; Huang, Shutao; Zhong, Xia

    2010-11-01

    The establishment of multi-source database was designed to promote the informatics process of the geological disposal of High-level Radioactive Waste, the integration of multi-dimensional and multi-source information and its application are related to computer software and hardware. Based on the analysis of data resources in Beishan area, Gansu Province, and combined with GIS technologies and methods. This paper discusses the technical ideas of how to manage, fully share and rapidly retrieval the information resources in this area by using open source code GDAL and Quadtree algorithm, especially in terms of the characteristics of existing data resources, spatial data retrieval algorithm theory, programming design and implementation of the ideas.

  12. Corrosion behaviour of steel rebars embedded in a concrete designed for the construction of an intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffó, G. S.; Arva, E. A.; Schulz, F. M.; Vazquez, D. R.

    2013-07-01

    The National Atomic Energy Commission of the Argentine Republic is developing a nuclear waste disposal management programme that contemplates the design and construction of a facility for the final disposal of intermediate-level radioactive wastes. The repository is based on the use of multiple, independent and redundant barriers. The major components are made in reinforced concrete so, the durability of these structures is an important aspect for the facility integrity. This work presents an investigation performed on an instrumented reinforced concrete prototype specifically designed for this purpose, to study the behaviour of an intermediate level radioactive waste disposal facility from the rebar corrosion point of view. The information obtained will be used for the final design of the facility in order to guarantee a service life more or equal than the foreseen durability for this type of facilities.

  13. Treatment of uncertainty and developing conceptual models for environmental risk assessments and radioactive waste disposal safety cases.

    PubMed

    El-Ghonemy, Hamdi; Watts, Len; Fowler, Linda

    2005-01-01

    The common approach to performing quantitative risk assessments in the contaminated land industry in the UK lacks a formal methodology for the treatment of the full range of uncertainties and for documenting decisions regarding the development of conceptual models and the selection of computer codes. The approach presented here represents an alternative, more detailed, and systematic approach for developing conceptual models and addressing uncertainties when undertaking contaminated land risk assessments. It is intended that the advantages of this approach are recognised by practitioners in the contaminated land industry and adopted, where appropriate, to help improve the quality of contaminated land risk assessments. The identification of features, events, and processes (FEPs) has been applied to safety assessments of deep geological and near-surface disposal of radioactive wastes. One of the primary benefits of using this approach is in the development of conceptual models. The approach identifies the FEPs that need to be addressed during the development of conceptual models and in the selection of suitable computer codes that can be used to represent the conceptual models. This approach has been applied by BNFL at the low-level radioactive waste disposal site at Drigg in Cumbria and is currently being adopted for a contaminated land study at the Sellafield site, also in Cumbria. This paper presents the advantages of using FEPs in the development of conceptual models and the treatment of uncertainties. The paper also discusses the application of this approach to contaminated land studies and provides an example to demonstrate the application of the approach. BNFL's approach at the Drigg site involves the identification of components (features) and phenomena (events and processes) that govern interactions and dependencies between the components by arranging them in a matrix format.

  14. Comparative assessment of status and opportunities for carbon Dioxide Capture and storage and Radioactive Waste Disposal In North America

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, C.; Birkholzer, J.T.

    2011-07-22

    Aside from the target storage regions being underground, geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) and radioactive waste disposal (RWD) share little in common in North America. The large volume of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) needed to be sequestered along with its relatively benign health effects present a sharp contrast to the limited volumes and hazardous nature of high-level radioactive waste (RW). There is well-documented capacity in North America for 100 years or more of sequestration of CO{sub 2} from coal-fired power plants. Aside from economics, the challenges of GCS include lack of fully established legal and regulatory framework for ownership of injected CO{sub 2}, the need for an expanded pipeline infrastructure, and public acceptance of the technology. As for RW, the USA had proposed the unsaturated tuffs of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as the region's first high-level RWD site before removing it from consideration in early 2009. The Canadian RW program is currently evolving with options that range from geologic disposal to both decentralized and centralized permanent storage in surface facilities. Both the USA and Canada have established legal and regulatory frameworks for RWD. The most challenging technical issue for RWD is the need to predict repository performance on extremely long time scales (10{sup 4}-10{sup 6} years). While attitudes toward nuclear power are rapidly changing as fossil-fuel costs soar and changes in climate occur, public perception remains the most serious challenge to opening RW repositories. Because of the many significant differences between RWD and GCS, there is little that can be shared between them from regulatory, legal, transportation, or economic perspectives. As for public perception, there is currently an opportunity to engage the public on the benefits and risks of both GCS and RWD as they learn more about the urgent energy-climate crisis created by greenhouse gas emissions from current fossil-fuel combustion practices.

  15. 3D surface roughness recreation and data processing of granitic rocks and claystones, potential host rocks for radioactive waste disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buocz, Ildikó; Török, Ákos; Rozgonyi-Boissinot, Nikoletta

    2015-04-01

    The determination and modelling of the stability of rock slopes, tunnels, or underground spaces, i.e. radioactive waste disposal facilities, is an important task in engineering. The appropriate estimation of the mechanical parameters for a realistic description of the behaviour of rocks results in higher safety and more economic design. The failure of stability is primarily due to the shear failure of the rock masses along fractures and joints: therefore the correct determination of the shear strength is crucial. One of the most important parameters influencing the shear strength along rock joints is their surface roughness. Although the quantification of surface roughness has been an open question during the past century, several attempts have been made, starting with 2D and continuing with 3D measurements, to provide engineers with a method for determining shear strength numerically. As technology evolved, the 3D methods became more popular and several scientists started to investigate the surface properties through laser scanning and different photogrammetrical methods. This paper shows a photogrammetric method for the 3D digital recreation of joint surfaces of granitic rock and claystone, both potential host rocks for radioactive waste disposal. The rocks derived from Bátaapáti (South Hungary) and Mont Terri (North Switzerland) respectively. The samples are laboratory scaled specimens with an areal size of 50x50 mm. The software used is called ShapeMetrix3D, developed by 3GSM GmbH in Austria. The major steps of the creation of the 3D picture are presented, as well as the following data processing which leads to the quantification of the 3D surface roughness.

  16. Remote Sensing Analysis of the Sierra Blanca (Faskin Ranch) Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Site, Hudspeth County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    LeMone, D. V.; Dodge, R.; Xie, H.; Langford, R. P.; Keller, G. R.

    2002-02-26

    Remote sensing images provide useful physical information, revealing such features as geological structure, vegetation, drainage patterns, and variations in consolidated and unconsolidated lithologies. That technology has been applied to the failed Sierra Blanca (Faskin Ranch) shallow burial low-level radioactive waste disposal site selected by the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority. It has been re-examined using data from LANDSAT satellite series. The comparison of the earlier LANDSAT V (5/20/86) (30-m resolution) with the later new, higher resolution ETM imagery (10/23/99) LANDSAT VII data (15-m resolution) clearly shows the superiority of the LANDSAT VII data. The search for surficial indications of evidence of fatal flaws at the Sierra Blanca site utilizing was not successful, as it had been in the case of the earlier remote sensing analysis of the failed Fort Hancock site utilizing LANDSAT V data. The authors conclude that the tectonic activity at the Sierra Blanca site is much less recent and active than in the previously studied Fort Hancock site. The Sierra Blanca site failed primarily on the further needed documentation concerning a subsurface fault underneath the site and environmental justice issues. The presence of this fault was not revealed using the newer LANDSAT VII data. Despite this fact, it must be remembered that remote sensing provides baseline documentation for determining future physical and financial remediation responsibilities. On the basis of the two sites examined by LANDSAT remote sensing imaging, it is concluded that it is an essential, cost-effective tool that should be utilized not only in site examination but also in all nuclear-related facilities.

  17. Disposal of NORM waste in salt caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Blunt, D.; Williams, G.P.

    1998-07-01

    Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, there are no fatal flaws that would prevent a state regulatory agency from approving cavern disposal of NORM. On the basis of the costs charged by caverns currently used for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal caverns could be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

  18. Canister arrangement for storing radioactive waste

    DOEpatents

    Lorenzo, D.K.; Van Cleve, J.E. Jr.

    1980-04-23

    The subject invention relates to a canister arrangement for jointly storing high level radioactive chemical waste and metallic waste resulting from the reprocessing of nuclear reactor fuel elements. A cylindrical steel canister is provided with an elongated centrally disposed billet of the metallic waste and the chemical waste in vitreous form is disposed in the annulus surrounding the billet.

  19. Canister arrangement for storing radioactive waste

    DOEpatents

    Lorenzo, Donald K.; Van Cleve, Jr., John E.

    1982-01-01

    The subject invention relates to a canister arrangement for jointly storing high level radioactive chemical waste and metallic waste resulting from the reprocessing of nuclear reactor fuel elements. A cylindrical steel canister is provided with an elongated centrally disposed billet of the metallic waste and the chemical waste in vitreous form is disposed in the annulus surrounding the billet.

  20. [Disposal of radioactive contaminated waste from Ga-68-PET - calculation of a clearance level for Ge-68].

    PubMed

    Solle, Alexander; Wanke, Carsten; Geworski, Lilli

    2017-03-01

    Ga-68-labeled radiotracers, particularly used for the detection of neuroendocrine tumors by means of Ga-68-DOTA-TATE or -DOTA-TOC or for the diagnosis of prostate cancer by means of Ga-68-labeled antigens (Ga 68-PSMA), become increasingly important. In addition to the high sensitivity and specificity of these radiopharmaceuticals, the short-lived radionuclide Ga-68 offers almost ideal nuclear characteristics for use in PET. Ga-68 is obtained from a germanium-gallium-generator system, so that the availability of Ga-68-labeled radiotracers is independent of an on-site-cyclotron regardless of the short half-life of Ga-68 of about 68minutes. Regarding the disposal of the radioactively contaminated waste from the preparation of the radiopharmaceutical, the eluted Ga-68 has to be considered to be additionally contaminated with its parent nuclide Ge-68. Due to this production-related impurity in combination with the short half-life of Ga-68, the radioactive waste has to be considered to be contaminated with Ge-68 and Ga-68 in radioactive equilibrium (hereafter referred to as Ge-68+). As there are no clearance levels for Ge-68+ given in the German Radiation Protection Ordinance, this work presents a method to calculate the missing value basing on a recommendation of the German Radiation Protection Commission in combination with simple geometric models of practical radiation protection. Regarding the relevant exposure scenarios, a limit value for the unrestricted clearance of Ge-68+ of 0.4 Bq/g was determined. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  1. FFTF disposable solid waste cask

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, J. D.; Goetsch, S. D.

    1983-01-01

    Disposal of radioactive waste from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) will utilize a Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC) for the transport and burial of irradiated stainless steel and inconel materials. Retrievability coupled with the desire for minimal facilities and labor costs at the disposal site identified the need for the DSWC. Design requirements for this system were patterned after Type B packages as outlined in 10 CFR 71 with a few exceptions based on site and payload requirements. A summary of the design basis, supporting analytical methods and fabrication practices developed to deploy the DSWC is provided in this paper.

  2. Review of potential host rocks for radioactive waste disposal in the southeastern United States. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Bledsoe, H.W. Jr.; Marine, I.W.

    1980-10-01

    The geology of the southeastern United States was studied to recommend areas that should be considered for field exploration in order to select a site for a radioactive waste repository. The region studied included the Piedmont Province, the Triassic Basins, and the Atlantic Coastal Plain in Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. This study was entirely a review of literature and existing knowledge from a geotechnical point of view and was performed by subcontractors whose individual reports are listed in the bibliography. No field work was involved. The entire study was geotechnical in nature, and no consideration was given to socioeconomic or demographic factors. These factors need to be addressed in a separate study. For all areas, field study is needed before any area is further considered. A total of 29 areas are recommended for further consideration in the Piedmont Province subregion: one area in Maryland, 8 areas in Virginia, 4 areas in North Carolina, 6 areas in South Carolina, and 10 areas in Georgia. Of the 14 exposed and 5 buried or hypothesized basins identified in the Triassic basin subregion, 6 are recommended for further study: one basin in Virginia, 3 basins in North Carolina, and 2 basins in South Carolina. Four potential candidate areas are identified within the Atlantic Coastal Plain subregion: one in Maryland, one in North Carolina, and 2 in Georgia.

  3. Hydrogeology of a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, J.B.; Erickson, J.R.; Healy, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    The Sheffield low-level radioactive-waste facility is located on 20 acres of rolling terrain 3 miles southwest of Sheffield, Illinois. The shallow hydrogeologic system is composed of glacial sediments. Pennsylvania shale and mudstone bedrock isolate the regional aquifers below from the hydrogeologic system in the overlying glacial deposits. Pebbly sand underlies 67 percent of the site. Two ground-water flow paths were identified. The primary path conveys ground water from the site to the east through the pebbly-sand unit; a secondary path conveys ground water to the south and east through less permeable material. The pebbly-sand unit provides an underdrain that eliminates the risk of water rising into the trenches. Digital computer model results indicate that the pebbly-sand unit controls ground-water movement. Tritium found migrating in ground water in the southeast corner of the site travels approximately 25 feet per year. A group of water samples from wells which contained the highest tritium concentrations had specific conductivities, alkalinities, hardness, and chloride, sulfate, calcium, and magnesium contents higher than normal for local shallow ground water. (USGS)

  4. Performance Impact of Fast Flow Paths Through Grout Monoliths Used for Radioactive Waste Disposal - 13224

    SciTech Connect

    Dinwiddie, Cynthia L.; Walter, Gary R.; Esh, David W.; Barr, Cynthia S.

    2013-07-01

    Empty HLW handling and storage tanks at SRS and INL contain residual radioactivity; these tanks are being stabilized with cementitious grout during closure operations. The US NRC directed the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA{sup R}) to develop physical analogs of cementitious grout monoliths to investigate their potential to form fast flow pathways such as macro-cracks, separations between grout lifts, and annuli around pipes, supports, and along tank walls. CNWRA developed and tested 15 55-gal-drum-scale specimens and 2 larger specimens of tank-filling cementitious grout, and 9 specimens of pipe-filling grout. These experiments demonstrated that the size of fast flow pathways that develop and the peak temperatures attained during hydration are proportional to the scale of the specimen, and that annular apertures and bulk grout permeability generally increased with time post-placement. Cracks developed overnight following placement of each grout lift in the largest specimen, but developed more slowly in smaller specimens, perhaps due to a ∼20 deg. C difference in peak temperatures, which influence the thermal gradients that can induce cracking. Plastic and drying shrinkage commonly led to poor grout-to-metal and grout-to-grout bonding. Cracks, annular gaps, and grout flow lobe seams transmitted fluids during injection testing. Macro-scale flow pathways such as these are not readily observed in bench-scale specimens of cementitious tank grout. (authors)

  5. Radionuclide concentrations in soils and vegetation at radioactive-waste disposal Area G during the 1996 growing season. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Fresquez, P.R.; Vold, E.L.; Naranjo, L. Jr.

    1997-07-01

    Soil and overstory and understory vegetation (washed and unwashed) collected at eight locations within and around Area G--a low-level radioactive solid-waste disposal facility at Los Alamos National laboratory--were analyzed for {sup 3}H, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup tot}U, {sup 228}Ac, {sup 214}Bi, {sup 60}Co, {sup 40}K, {sup 54}Mn, {sup 22}Na, {sup 214}Pb, and {sup 208}Tl. Also, heavy metals (Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and Tl) in soil and vegetation were determined. In general, most radionuclide concentrations, with the exception of {sup 3}H and {sup 239}Pu, in soils and washed and unwashed overstory and understory vegetation collected from within and around Area G were within upper limit background concentrations. Tritium was detected as high as 14,744 pCi mL{sup {minus}1} in understory vegetation collected from transuranic (TRU) waste pad {number_sign}4, and the TRU waste pad area contained the highest levels of {sup 239}Pu in soils and in understory vegetation as compared to other areas at Area G.

  6. Natural analogues for processes affecting disposal of high-level radioactive waste in the vadose zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuckless, J. S.

    2003-04-01

    Natural analogues can contribute to understanding and predicting the performance of subsystems and processes affecting a mined geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste in several ways. Most importantly, analogues provide tests for various aspects of systems of a repository at dimensional scales and time spans that cannot be attained by experimental study. In addition, they provide a means for the general public to judge the predicted performance of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository in familiar terms such that the average person can assess the anticipated long-term performance and other scientific conclusions. Hydrologists working on the Yucca Mountain Project (currently the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Repository Development) have modeled the flow of water through the vadose zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada and particularly the interaction of vadose-zone water with mined openings. Analogues from both natural and anthropogenic examples confirm the prediction that most of the water moving through the vadose zone will move through the host rock and around tunnels. This can be seen both quantitatively where direct comparison between seepage and net infiltration has been made and qualitatively by the excellent degree of preservation of archaeologic artifacts in underground openings. The latter include Paleolithic cave paintings in southwestern Europe, murals and artifacts in Egyptian tombs, painted subterranean Buddhist temples in India and China, and painted underground churches in Cappadocia, Turkey. Natural analogues also suggest that this diversion mechanism is more effective in porous media than in fractured media. Observations from natural analogues are also consistent with the modeled decrease in the percentage of infiltration that becomes seepage with a decrease in amount of infiltration. Finally, analogues, such as tombs that have ben partially filled by mud flows, suggest that the same capillary forces that keep water in the

  7. Thermal-Hydrology Simulations of Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste in a Single Deep Borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Hadgu, Teklu; Stein, Emily; Hardin, Ernest; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Hammond, Glenn Edward

    2015-11-01

    Simulations of thermal-hydrology were carried out for the emplacement of spent nuclear fuel canisters and cesium and strontium capsules using the PFLOTRAN simulator. For the cesium and strontium capsules the analysis looked at disposal options such as different disposal configurations and surface aging of waste to reduce thermal effects. The simulations studied temperature and fluid flux in the vicinity of the borehole. Simulation results include temperature and vertical flux profiles around the borehole at selected depths. Of particular importance are peak temperature increases, and fluxes at the top of the disposal zone. Simulations of cesium and strontium capsule disposal predict that surface aging and/or emplacement of the waste at the top of the disposal zone reduces thermal effects and vertical fluid fluxes. Smaller waste canisters emplaced over a longer disposal zone create the smallest thermal effect and vertical fluid fluxes no matter the age of the waste or depth of emplacement.

  8. Performance Assessment of a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Site using GoldSim Integrated Systems Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrell, G.; Singh, A.; Tauxe, J.; Perona, R.; Dornsife, W.; grisak, G. E.; Holt, R. M.

    2011-12-01

    Texas Commission on Environmental Quality has approved licenses for four landfills at the Waste Control Specialists (WCS) site located in Andrews County, West Texas. The site includes a hazardous waste landfill and three landfills for radioactive waste. An updated performance assessment is necessary prior to acceptance of waste at the landfills. The updated performance assessment a) provides for more realistic and flexible dose modeling capabilities, b) addresses all plausible release and accident scenarios as they relate to the performance objectives, c) includes impact of climate and hydrologic scenarios that may impact long-term performance of the landfill, d) addresses impact of cover naturalization and degradation on the landfill, and e) incorporates uncertainty and sensitivity analysis for critical parameters. For the updated performance assessment, WCS has developed an integrated systems level performance assessment model using the GoldSim platform. GoldSim serves as a model for integrating all of the major components of a performance assessment, which include the radionuclide source term, facility design, environmental transport pathways, exposure scenarios, and radiological doses. Unlike many computer models that are based on first principles, GoldSim is a systems level model that can be used to integrate and abstract more complex sub-models into one system. This can then be used to assess the results into a unified model of the disposal system and environment. In this particular application, the GoldSim model consists of a) hydrogeologic model that simulates flow and transport through the Dockum geologic unit that underlies all of the waste facilities, b) waste cells that represent the containment unit and simulate degradation of waste forms, radionuclide leaching, and partitioning into the liquid and vapor phase within the waste unit, c) a cover system model that simulates upward diffusive transport from the underground repository to the atmosphere. In

  9. Milestones for disposal of radioactive waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Rechard, R.P.

    1998-04-01

    Since its identification as a potential deep geologic repository in about 1973, the regulatory assessment process for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico has developed over the past 25 years. National policy issues, negotiated agreements, and court settlements over the first half of the project had a strong influence on the amount and type of scientific data collected. Assessments and studies before the mid 1980s were undertaken primarily (1) to satisfy needs for environmental impact statements, (2) to develop general understanding of selected natural phenomena associated with nuclear waste disposal, or (3) to satisfy negotiated agreements with the State of New Mexico. In the last third of the project, federal compliance policy and actual regulations were sketched out, but continued to evolve until 1996. During this eight-year period, four preliminary performance assessments, one compliance performance assessment, and one verification performance assessment were performed.

  10. Milestones for disposal of radioactive waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    RECHARD,ROBERT P.

    2000-03-01

    The opening of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant on March 26, 1999, was the culmination of a regulatory assessment process that had taken 25 years. National policy issues, negotiated agreements, and court settlements during the first 15 years of the project had a strong influence on the amount and type of scientific data collected up to this point. Assessment activities before the mid 1980s were undertaken primarily (1) to satisfy needs for environmental impact statements, (2) to satisfy negotiated agreements with the State of New Mexico, or (3) to develop general understanding of selected natural phenomena associated with nuclear waste disposal. In the last 10 years, federal compliance policy and actual regulations were sketched out, and continued to evolve until 1996. During this period, stochastic simulations were introduced as a tool for the assessment of the WIPP's performance, and four preliminary performance assessments, one compliance performance assessment, and one verification performance assessment were performed.

  11. International Perspective on the Application of Non-Destructive Assay Technology Platforms for Sentencing and Disposal of Radioactive Waste - 12113

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, A.P.; Clapham, M.J.

    2012-07-01

    Over the past decade, major technology improvements have been introduced in the field of Non-Destructive Assay (NDA) for the management and disposal of radioactive waste in compliance with an evolving regulatory structure. For example in the United States, various NDA technologies have been successfully developed to meet the stringent characterization requirements of the Department of Energy. The use of this instrumentation, combined with the compliant operational processes and expertise levels that have emerged in parallel, have enabled over 75,000 m{sup 3} (or in excess of 145,000 containers) of contact and remote handled transuranic (TRU) waste to be sentenced to date to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant from 10 different consignor sites. Many of these techniques have applicability that transcends national borders and can be used for common characterization challenges in waste sentencing and disposal on an international basis. Applicable waste streams could include LLW, ILW, TRU and HLW. There are specific design aspects of assay equipment that must be tailored to meet the applicable regulatory requirements for detection and quantification of a set of nuclides of interest to a prescribed limit of detection and measurement uncertainty. Each host nation will have specific challenges in the form of matrix types and processes, availability of historical information, needs for portable versus fixed instruments and the requirement to measure all containers versus assay of a representative sample. Furthermore, the practice of load management (combining smaller packages into a larger package designed to meet the overall waste acceptance criteria for the bulk container) may not have universal acceptability. An evaluation has been performed on a sample of the most successful technologies that have recently emerged to understand their applicability in other countries. Two types of instrumentation 'suite' are considered for measurements on drums and larger boxes / crates: (i

  12. Hydrologic evaluation methodology for estimating water movement through the unsaturated zone at commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, P.D.; Rockhold, M.L.; Nichols, W.E.; Gee, G.W.

    1996-01-01

    This report identifies key technical issues related to hydrologic assessment of water flow in the unsaturated zone at low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. In addition, a methodology for incorporating these issues in the performance assessment of proposed LLW disposal facilities is identified and evaluated. The issues discussed fall into four areas: estimating the water balance at a site (i.e., infiltration, runoff, water storage, evapotranspiration, and recharge); analyzing the hydrologic performance of engineered components of a facility; evaluating the application of models to the prediction of facility performance; and estimating the uncertainty in predicted facility performance. To illustrate the application of the methodology, two examples are presented. The first example is of a below ground vault located in a humid environment. The second example looks at a shallow land burial facility located in an arid environment. The examples utilize actual site-specific data and realistic facility designs. The two examples illustrate the issues unique to humid and arid sites as well as the issues common to all LLW sites. Strategies for addressing the analytical difficulties arising in any complex hydrologic evaluation of the unsaturated zone are demonstrated.

  13. Mechanical environmental transport of actinides and ¹³⁷Cs from an arid radioactive waste disposal site.

    PubMed

    Snow, Mathew S; Clark, Sue B; Morrison, Samuel S; Watrous, Matthew G; Olson, John E; Snyder, Darin C

    2015-10-01

    Aeolian and pluvial processes represent important mechanisms for the movement of actinides and fission products at the Earth's surface. Soil samples taken in the early 1970's near a Department of Energy radioactive waste disposal site (the Subsurface Disposal Area, SDA, located in southeastern Idaho) provide a case study for studying the mechanisms and characteristics of environmental actinide and (137)Cs transport in an arid environment. Multi-component mixing models suggest actinide contamination within 2.5 km of the SDA can be described by mixing between 2 distinct SDA end members and regional nuclear weapons fallout. The absence of chemical fractionation between (241)Am and (239+240)Pu with depth for samples beyond the northeastern corner and lack of (241)Am in-growth over time (due to (241)Pu decay) suggest mechanical transport and mixing of discrete contaminated particles under arid conditions. Occasional samples northeast of the SDA (the direction of the prevailing winds) contain anomalously high concentrations of Pu with (240)Pu/(239)Pu isotopic ratios statistically identical to those in the northeastern corner. Taken together, these data suggest flooding resulted in mechanical transport of contaminated particles into the area between the SDA and a flood containment dike in the northeastern corner, following which subsequent contamination spreading in the northeastern direction resulted from wind transport of discrete particles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. How to treat climate evolution in the assessment of the long-term safety of disposal facilities for radioactive waste: examples from Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Geet, M.; de Craen, M.; Mallants, D.; Wemaere, I.; Wouters, L.; Cool, W.

    2009-02-01

    In order to protect man and the environment, long-lasting, passive solutions are needed for the different categories of radioactive waste. In Belgium, three main categories of conditioned radioactive waste (termed A, B and C) are defined by radiological and thermal power criteria. It is expected that Category A waste - low and intermediate level short-lived waste - will be disposed in a near-surface facility, whereas Category B and C wastes - high-level and other long-lived radioactive waste - will be disposed in a deep geological repository. In both cases, the long-term safety of a given disposal facility is evaluated. Different scenarios and assessment cases are developed illustrating the range of possibilities for the evolution and performance of a disposal system without trying to predict its precise behaviour. Within these scenarios, the evolution of the climate will play a major role as the time scales of the evaluation and long term climate evolution overlap. In case of a near-surface facility (Category A waste), ONDRAF/NIRAS is considering the conclusions of the IPCC, demonstrating that a global warming is nearly unavoidable. The consequences of such a global warming and the longer term evolutions on the evolution of the near-surface facility are considered. In case of a geological repository, in which much longer time frames are considered, even larger uncertainties exist in the various climate models. Therefore, the robustness of the geological disposal system towards the possible results of a spectrum of potential climate changes and their time of occurrence will be evaluated. The results of climate modelling and knowledge of past climate changes will merely be used as guidance of the extremes of climate changes to be considered and their consequences.

  15. Radionuclide Concentrations in Soils and Vegetation at Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area G during the 1997 Growing Season

    SciTech Connect

    L. Naranjo, Jr.; P. R. Fresquez; R. J. Wechsler

    1998-08-01

    Soil and overstory and understory vegetation (washed and unwashed) collected at eight locations within and around Area G-a low-level radioactive solid-waste disposal facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory-were analyzed for 3H, 238Pu, 239Pu, 137CS, 234U, 235U, 228AC, Be, 214Bi, 60Co, 40& 54Mn, 22Na, 214Pb and 208Tl. In general, most radionuclide concentrations, with the exception of 3Ef and ~9Pu, in soils and overstory and understory vegetation collected from within and around Area G were within upper (95'%) level background concentrations. Although 3H concentrations in vegetation from most sites were significantly higher than background (>2 pCi mL-l), concentrations decreased markedly in comparison to last year's results. The highest `H concentration in vegetation was detected from a juniper tree that was growing over tritium shaft /+150; it contained 530,000 pCi 3H mL-l. Also, as in the pas~ the transuranic waste pad area contained the highest levels of 239Pu in soils and in understory vegetation as compared to other areas at Area G.

  16. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers; Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J.C.; McCright, R.D.; Kass, J.N.

    1988-06-01

    Three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys and three copper-based alloys are being considered as candidate materials for the fabrication of high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers. The austenitic alloys are Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and the high-nickel material Alloy 825. The copper-based alloys are CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni). Waste in the forms of both spent fuel assemblies from reactors and borosilicate glass will be sent to the prospective repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The decay of radionuclides will result in the generation of substantial heat and gamma radiation. Container materials may undergo any of several modes of degradation in this environment, including undesirable phase transformations due to a lack of phase stability; atmospheric oxidation; general aqueous corrosion; pitting; crevice corrosion; intergranular stress corrosion cracking; and transgranular stress corrosion cracking. Problems specific to welds, such as hot cracking, may also occur. A survey of the literature has been prepared as part of the process of selecting, from among the candidates, a material that is adequate for repository conditions. The modes of degradation are discussed in detail in the survey to determine which apply to the candidate alloys and the extent to which they may actually occur. The eight volumes of the survey are summarized in Sections 1 through 8 of this overview. The conclusions drawn from the survey are also given in this overview.

  17. Radionuclide Concentration in Soils and Vegetation at Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area G during 2005

    SciTech Connect

    P.R. Fresquez; M.W. McNaughton; M.J. Winch

    2005-10-01

    Soil samples were collected at 15 locations and unwashed overstory and understory vegetation samples were collected from up to nine locations within and around the perimeter of Area G, the primary disposal facility for low-level radioactive solid waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Soil and plant samples were also collected from the proposed expansion area west of Area G for the purpose of gaining preoperational baseline data. Soil and plant samples were analyzed for radionuclides that have shown a history of detection in past years; these included {sup 3}H, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 238}U for soils and {sup 3}H, {sup 238}Pu, and {sup 239,240}Pu for plants. As in previous years, the highest levels of {sup 3}H in soils and vegetation were detected at the south portion of Area G near the {sup 3}H shafts; whereas, the highest concentrations of the Pu isotopes were detected in the northern and northeastern portions near the pads for transuranic waste. All concentrations of radionuclides in soils and vegetation, however, were still very low (pCi range) and far below LANL screening levels and regulatory standards.

  18. Low-impact sampling under an active solid low-level radioactive waste disposal unit using horizontal drilling technology

    SciTech Connect

    Puglisi, C.V.; Vold, E.L.

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of this project was to determine the performance of the solid low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal units located on a mesa top at TA-54, Area G, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM, and to provide in-situ (vadose zone) site characterization information to Area G`s Performance Assessment. The vadose zone beneath an active disposal unit (DU 37), was accessed by utilizing low-impact, air-rotary horizontal drilling technology. Core samples were pulled, via wire-line core method, in 3 horizontal holes fanning out below DU 37 at approximately 5 foot intervals depending on recovery percentage. Samples were surveyed and prepared in-field following Environmental Restoration (ER) guidelines. Samples were transferred from the field to the CST-9 Radvan for initial radiological screening. Following screening, samples were delivered to CST-3 analytical lab for analyses including moisture content, 23 inorganics, 60 volatile organic compounds (VOC`s), 68 semivolatile organic compounds (SVOC`s), tritium, lead 210, radium 226 & 228, cesium 137, isotopic plutonium, americium 241, strontium 90, isotopic uranium, and isotopic thorium. Other analyses included matric potential, alpha spectroscopy, gamma spectroscopy, and gross alpha/beta. The overall results of the analysis identified only tritium as having migrated from the DU. Am-241, Eu-152, and Pu-238 were possibly identified above background but the results are not definitive. Of all organics analysed for, only ethyl acetate was tentatively identified slightly above background. All inorganics were found to be well below regulatory limits. Based on the results of the above mentioned analyses, it was determined that Area G`s disposal units are performing well and no significant liquid phase migration of contaminants has occurred.

  19. Low-level radioactive waste, mixed low-level radioactive waste, and biomedical mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This document describes the proceedings of a workshop entitled: Low-Level Radioactive Waste, Mixed Low-Level Radioactive Waste, and Biomedical Mixed Waste presented by the National Low-Level Waste Management Program at the University of Florida, October 17-19, 1994. The topics covered during the workshop include technical data and practical information regarding the generation, handling, storage and disposal of low-level radioactive and mixed wastes. A description of low-level radioactive waste activities in the United States and the regional compacts is presented.

  20. Radiation protection recommendations as applied to the disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste. ICRP Publication 81.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    The present publication deals with the radiological protection of members of the public following the disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste using the 'concentrate and retain' strategy. It covers options including shallow land burial and deep geological disposal. The recommendations made in this report apply to new disposal facilities.The main protection issue concerns exposure that may or may not occur in the far future, i.e. a situation of potential exposure. Constrained optimisation is the central approach to evaluating the radiological acceptability of a waste disposal system. In this context optimisation of protection is a judgmental process with social and economic factors being taken into account and should be conducted in a structured essentially qualitative way.Two broad categories of exposure situations have to be considered: natural processes and human intrusion. Application of the radiological protection criteria to these two categories of exposure situations is different.In the first case, assessed doses or risks arising from natural processes should be compared with a constraint of no more than about 0.3 mSv per year or its risk equivalent of around 10(-5) per year. With regard to human intrusion, understood here as inadvertent human intrusion, the consequences from one or more plausible stylised scenarios should be considered in order to evaluate the resilience of the repository to such events. The Commission considers that in circumstances where human intrusion could lead to doses to those living around the site sufficiently high that intervention on current criteria would almost always be justified, reasonable efforts should be made at the repository development stage to reduce the probability of human intrusion or to limit its consequences. In this respect, the Commission has previously advised that an existing(1) annual dose of around 10 mSv per year may be used as a generic reference level below which intervention is not likely to be

  1. SimER: An advanced three-dimensional environmental risk assessment code for contaminated land and radioactive waste disposal applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kwong, S.; Small, J.; Tahar, B.

    2007-07-01

    SimER (Simulations of Environmental Risks) is a powerful performance assessment code developed to undertake assessments of both contaminated land and radioactive waste disposal. The code can undertake both deterministic and probabilistic calculations, and is fully compatible with all available best practice guidance and regulatory requirements. SimER represents the first time-dependent performance assessment code capable of providing a detailed representation of system evolution that is designed specifically to address issues found across UK nuclear sites. The code adopts flexible input language with build-in unit checking to model the whole system (i.e. near-field, geosphere and biosphere) in a single code thus avoiding the need for any time consuming data transfer and the often laborious interface between the different codes. This greatly speeds up the assessment process and has major quality assurance advantages. SimER thus provides a cost-effective tool for undertaking projects involving risk assessment from contaminated land assessments through to full post-closure safety cases and other work supporting key site endpoint decisions. A Windows version (v1.0) of the code was first released in June 2004. The code has subsequently been subject to further testing and development. In particular, Viewers have been developed to provide users with visual information to assist the development of SimER models, and output can now be produced in a format that can be used by the FieldView software to view the results and produce animation from the SimER calculations. More recently a Linux version of the code has been produced to extend coverage to the commonly used platform bases and offer an improved operating environment for probabilistic assessments. Results from the verification of the SimER code for a sample of test cases for both contaminated land and waste disposal applications are presented. (authors)

  2. Application of Probabilistic Performance Assessment Modeling for Optimization of Maintenance Studies for Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Sites at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Crowe, B.; Yucel, V.; Rawlinson, S.; Black, P.; Carilli, J.; DiSanza, F.

    2002-02-25

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration of the Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV) operates and maintains two active facilities on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) that dispose defense-generated low-level radioactive waste (LLW), mixed radioactive waste, and ''classified waste'' in shallow trenches and pits. The operation and maintenance of the LLW disposal sites are self-regulated by the DOE under DOE Order 435.1. This Order requires formal review of a performance assessment (PA) and composite analysis (CA; assessment of all interacting radiological sources) for each LLW disposal system followed by an active maintenance program that extends through and beyond the site closure program. The Nevada disposal facilities continue to receive NTS-generated LLW and defense-generated LLW from across the DOE complex. The PA/CAs for the sites have been conditionally approved and the facilities are now under a formal maintenance program that requires testing of conceptual models, quantifying and attempting to reduce uncertainty, and implementing confirmatory and long-term background monitoring, all leading to eventual closure of the disposal sites. To streamline and reduce the cost of the maintenance program, the NNSA/NV is converting the deterministic PA/CAs to probabilistic models using GoldSim, a probabilistic simulation computer code. The output of probabilistic models will provide expanded information supporting long-term decision objectives of the NTS disposal sites.

  3. Ground-water levels and precipitation data at the Maxey Flats low-level radioactive waste disposal site near Morehead, Kentucky, October 1988-September 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zettwoch, Douglas D.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet--Department for Environmental Protection--Division of Waste Management, has an ongoing program to monitor water levels at the Maxey Flats low-level radioactive waste disposal site near Morehead, Kentucky. Ground-water-level and precipitation data were collected from 112 wells and 1 rain gage at the Maxey Flats low-level radioactive waste disposal site during October 1988-September 2000. Data were collected on a semi-annual basis from 62 wells, continuously from 6 wells, and monthly or bimonthly from 44 wells (13 of which had continuous recorders installed for the period October 1998-September 2000). One tipping-bucket rain gage was used to collect data at the Maxey Flats site for the period October 1988-September 2000.

  4. Review and evaluation of principles used in the estimation of radiation doses associated with the practice of deepsea disposal of low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.A.; Templeton, W.L.; Soldat, J.K.

    1985-09-01

    The relevant national and international guidance concerning the estimation of radiological doses from the practice of deepsea disposal of radioactive waste was reviewed. The review includes the dose limitation guidance of the various national and international bodies, especially that of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Pathway modeling is discussed as well as the oceanographic models of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Included in the discussion are the recommendations for the definition of high-level waste by the IAEA for use by the London Dumping Convention (LDC) in setting limits for ocean disposal of waste. An assessment of the ICRP's radiological protection system using the effective whole-body dose methodology is made. Present models, which should continue to be improved as the research data becomes available, do provide an adequate basis for regulatory authorities to decide whether authorization for a proposed disposal can be granted, since they provide a means of indicating whether maximum individual (critical groups) exposure limits are likely to be exceeded. However, new models and information are continuously being developed by the international community to assess ocean disposal of radioactive waste in comparison to land disposal and to compare one site against another. 47 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. In-situ grouting of the low-level radioactive waste disposal silos at ORNL`s Solid Waste Storage Area Six

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, C.W.; Farmer, C.D.; Stansfield, R.G.

    1993-07-01

    At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), one method of solid low-level radioactive waste disposal has been disposed of in below-grade cylindrical concrete silos. Located in Solid Waste Storage Area 6 (SWSA 6), each silo measures 8 ft in diameter and 20 ft deep. Present day operations involve loading the silos with low-level radioactive waste and grouting the remaining void space with a particulate grout of low viscosity. Initial operations involving the disposal of wastes into the below-grade silos did not include the grouting process. Grouting was stated as a standard practice (in late 1988) after discovering that {approximately}75% of the silos accumulated water in the bottom of the silos in the {approximately}2 years after capping. Silo water (leachate) contained a wide range of types and concentrations of radionuclides. The migration of contaminated leachate out of the silo into adjoining soil and groundwater was considered to be a serious environmental concern. This report describes how a specially designed particulate-base grout was used to grout 54 silos previously filled with low-level radioactive waste. Grouting involved three steps: (1) silo preparation, (2) formulation and preparation of the grout mixture, and (3) injection of the grout into the silos. Thirty-five of the 54 silos grouted were equipped with a 3-in.-diam Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) pipe used to monitor water levels in the silos. A method for rupturing the bottom section of these PVC wells was developed so that grout could be pumped to the bottom of those silos. Holes (2-in. diam) were drilled through the {approximately}18 in. thick concrete to fill the remaining 19 wells without the PVC monitoring wells. The formulation of grout injected into the silos was based on a Portland Type I cement, flyash, sand, and silica fume admixture. Compressive strength of grout delivered to SWSA6 during grouting operations averaged 1,808 lb/in{sup 2} with a bulk density of 3,549 lb/yd{sup 3}.

  6. Data from studies of previous radioactive waste disposal in Massachusetts Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, W.R.; Mardis, H.M.

    1984-12-01

    This report presents the results of studies conducted in Massachusetts Bay during 1981 and 1982. Included are data from: (1) a side scan sonar survey of disposal areas in the Bay that was carried out by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) for EPA; (2) Collections of sediment and biota by NOAA for radiochemical analysis by EPA; (3) collections of marketplace seafood samples by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for radioanalysis by both FDA and EPA; and (4) a radiological monitoring survey of LLW disposal areas by EPA to determine whether there should be any concern for public health resulting from previous LLW disposals in the Bay.

  7. Deep sea waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Kester, D.R.; Burt, W.V.; Capuzzo, J.M.; Park, P.K.; Ketchum, B.W.; Duedall, I.W.

    1985-01-01

    The book presents papers on the marine disposal of wastes. Topics considered include incineration at sea, the modelling and biological effects of industrial wastes, microbial studies of ocean dumping, deep-sea mining wastes, the chemical analysis of ferromanganese nodules, and economic aspects of deep-sea disposal.

  8. Waste disposal options report. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, N.E.; McDonald, T.G.; Banaee, J.; Barnes, C.M.; Fish, L.W.; Losinski, S.J.; Peterson, H.K.; Sterbentz, J.W.; Wenzel, D.R.

    1998-02-01

    Volume 2 contains the following topical sections: estimates of feed and waste volumes, compositions, and properties; evaluation of radionuclide inventory for Zr calcine; evaluation of radionuclide inventory for Al calcine; determination of k{sub eff} for high level waste canisters in various configurations; review of ceramic silicone foam for radioactive waste disposal; epoxides for low-level radioactive waste disposal; evaluation of several neutralization cases in processing calcine and sodium-bearing waste; background information for EFEs, dose rates, watts/canister, and PE-curies; waste disposal options assumptions; update of radiation field definition and thermal generation rates for calcine process packages of various geometries-HKP-26-97; and standard criteria of candidate repositories and environmental regulations for the treatment and disposal of ICPP radioactive mixed wastes.

  9. 77 FR 72997 - Low-Level Waste Disposal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ... low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facilities to require new and revised site-specific... Disposal of Radioactive Waste,'' to require new and revised site-specific analyses and to permit the...; ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 61 RIN 3150-AI92 Low-Level Waste Disposal AGENCY:...

  10. The consequences of disposal of low-level radioactive waste from the Fernald Environmental Management Project: Report of the DOE/Nevada Independent Panel

    SciTech Connect

    Crowe, B.; Hansen, W.; Waters, R.; Sully, M.; Levitt, D.

    1998-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) convened a panel of independent scientists to assess the performance impact of shallow burial of low-level radioactive waste from the Fernald Environmental Management Project, in light of a transportation incident in December 1997 involving this waste stream. The Fernald waste has been transported to the Nevada Test Site and disposed in the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) since 1993. A separate DOE investigation of the incident established that the waste has been buried in stress-fractured metal boxes, and some of the waste contained excess moisture (high-volumetric water contents). The Independent Panel was charged with determining whether disposition of this waste in the Area 5 RWMS has impacted the conclusions of a previously completed performance assessment in which the site was judged to meet required performance objectives. To assess the performance impact on Area 5, the panel members developed a series of questions. The three areas addressed in these questions were (1) reduced container integrity, (2) the impact of reduced container integrity on subsidence of waste in the disposal pits and (3) excess moisture in the waste. The panel has concluded that there is no performance impact from reduced container integrity--no performance is allocated to the container in the conservative assumptions used in performance assessment. Similarly, the process controlling post-closure subsidence results primarily from void space within and between containers, and the container is assumed to degrade and collapse within 100 years.

  11. Potential migration of buoyant LNAPL from Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) emplaced in a geological disposal facility (GDF) for UK radioactive waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benbow, Steven J.; Rivett, Michael O.; Chittenden, Neil; Herbert, Alan W.; Watson, Sarah; Williams, Steve J.; Norris, Simon

    2014-10-01

    A safety case for the disposal of Intermediate Level (radioactive) Waste (ILW) in a deep geological disposal facility (GDF) requires consideration of the potential for waste-derived light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) to migrate under positive buoyancy from disposed waste packages. Were entrainment of waste-derived radionuclides in LNAPL to occur, such migration could result in a shorter overall travel time to environmental or human receptors than radionuclide migration solely associated with the movement of groundwater. This paper provides a contribution to the assessment of this issue through multiphase-flow numerical modelling underpinned by a review of the UK's ILW inventory and literature to define the nature of the associated ILW LNAPL source term. Examination has been at the waste package-local GDF environment scale to determine whether proposed disposal of ILW would lead to significant likelihood of LNAPL migration, both from waste packages and from a GDF vault into the local host rock. Our review and numerical modelling support the proposition that the release of a discrete free phase LNAPL from ILW would not present a significant challenge to the safety case even with conservative approximations. 'As-disposed' LNAPL emplaced with the waste is not expected to pose a significant issue. 'Secondary LNAPL' generated in situ within the disposed ILW, arising from the decomposition of plastics, in particular PVC (polyvinyl chloride), could form the predominant LNAPL source term. Released high molecular weight phthalate plasticizers are judged to be the primary LNAPL potentially generated. These are expected to have low buoyancy-based mobility due to their very low density contrast with water and high viscosity. Due to the inherent uncertainties, significant conservatisms were adopted within the numerical modelling approach, including: the simulation of a deliberately high organic material - PVC content wastestream (2D03) within an annular grouted waste package

  12. Potential migration of buoyant LNAPL from intermediate level waste (ILW) emplaced in a geological disposal facility (GDF) for U.K. radioactive waste.

    PubMed

    Benbow, Steven J; Rivett, Michael O; Chittenden, Neil; Herbert, Alan W; Watson, Sarah; Williams, Steve J; Norris, Simon

    2014-10-15

    A safety case for the disposal of Intermediate Level (radioactive) Waste (ILW) in a deep geological disposal facility (GDF) requires consideration of the potential for waste-derived light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) to migrate under positive buoyancy from disposed waste packages. Were entrainment of waste-derived radionuclides in LNAPL to occur, such migration could result in a shorter overall travel time to environmental or human receptors than radionuclide migration solely associated with the movement of groundwater. This paper provides a contribution to the assessment of this issue through multiphase-flow numerical modelling underpinned by a review of the UK's ILW inventory and literature to define the nature of the associated ILW LNAPL source term. Examination has been at the waste package-local GDF environment scale to determine whether proposed disposal of ILW would lead to significant likelihood of LNAPL migration, both from waste packages and from a GDF vault into the local host rock. Our review and numerical modelling support the proposition that the release of a discrete free phase LNAPL from ILW would not present a significant challenge to the safety case even with conservative approximations. 'As-disposed' LNAPL emplaced with the waste is not expected to pose a significant issue. 'Secondary LNAPL' generated in situ within the disposed ILW, arising from the decomposition of plastics, in particular PVC (polyvinyl chloride), could form the predominant LNAPL source term. Released high molecular weight phthalate plasticizers are judged to be the primary LNAPL potentially generated. These are expected to have low buoyancy-based mobility due to their very low density contrast with water and high viscosity. Due to the inherent uncertainties, significant conservatisms were adopted within the numerical modelling approach, including: the simulation of a deliberately high organic material--PVC content wastestream (2D03) within an annular grouted waste package

  13. Radioactive waste treatment technologies and environment

    SciTech Connect

    HORVATH, Jan; KRASNY, Dusan

    2007-07-01

    The radioactive waste treatment and conditioning are the most important steps in radioactive waste management. At the Slovak Electric, plc, a range of technologies are used for the processing of radioactive waste into a form suitable for disposal in near surface repository. These technologies operated by JAVYS, PLc. Nuclear and Decommissioning Company, PLc. Jaslovske Bohunice are described. Main accent is given to the Bohunice Radwaste Treatment and Conditioning Centre, Bituminization plant, Vitrification plant, and Near surface repository of radioactive waste in Mochovce and their operation. Conclusions to safe and effective management of radioactive waste in the Slovak Republic are presented. (authors)

  14. Subseabed storage of radioactive waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    The subject of the storage of nuclear wastes products incites emotional responses from the public, and thus the U.S. Subseabed Disposal Program will have to make a good case for waste storage beneath the ocean floor. The facts attendant, however, describe circumstances necessitating cool-headed analysis to achieve a solution to the growing nuclear waste problem. Emotion aside, a good case indeed is being made for safe disposal beneath the ocean floor.The problems of nuclear waste storage are acute. A year ago, U.S. military weapons production had accumulated over seventy-five million gallons of high-level radioactive liquid waste; solid wastes, such as spent nuclear fuel rods from reactors, amounted to more than 12,000 tons. These wastes are corrosive and will release heat for 1000 years or more. The wastes will remain dangerously radioactive for a period of 10,000 years. There are advantages in storing the wastes on land, in special underground repositories, or on the surface. These include the accessibility to monitor the waste and the possibility of taking action should a container rupture occur, and thus the major efforts to determine suitable disposal at this time are focused on land-based storage. New efforts, not to be confused with ocean dumping practices of the past, are demonstrating that waste containers isolated in the clays and sediments of the ocean floor may be superior (Environ. Sci. Tech., 16, 28A-37A 1982).

  15. Method and apparatus for extracting tritium and preparing radioactive waste for disposal

    DOEpatents

    Heung, Leung K.

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus for heating an object such as a nuclear target bundle to release and recover hydrogen and contain the disposable residue for disposal. The apparatus comprises an inverted furnace, a sleeve/crucible assembly for holding and enclosing the bundle, conveying equipment for placing the sleeve onto the crucible and loading the bundle into the sleeve/crucible, a lift for raising the enclosed bundle into the furnace, and hydrogen recovery equipment including a trap and strippers, all housed in a containment having negative internal pressure. The crucible/sleeve assembly has an internal volume that is sufficient to enclose and hold the bundle before heating; the crucible's internal volume is sufficient by itself to hold and enclose the bundle's volume after heating. The crucible can then be covered and disposed of; the sleeve, on the other hand, can be reused.

  16. Method and apparatus for extracting tritium and preparing radioactive waste for disposal

    DOEpatents

    Heung, L.K.

    1994-03-29

    Apparatus is described for heating an object such as a nuclear target bundle to release and recover hydrogen and contain the disposable residue for disposal. The apparatus comprises an inverted furnace, a sleeve/crucible assembly for holding and enclosing the bundle, conveying equipment for placing the sleeve onto the crucible and loading the bundle into the sleeve/crucible, a lift for raising the enclosed bundle into the furnace, and hydrogen recovery equipment including a trap and strippers, all housed in a containment having negative internal pressure. The crucible/sleeve assembly has an internal volume that is sufficient to enclose and hold the bundle before heating; the crucible's internal volume is sufficient by itself to hold and enclose the bundle's volume after heating. The crucible can then be covered and disposed of; the sleeve, on the other hand, can be reused. 4 figures.

  17. LIFETIME PREDICTIONS OF TOXIC AND RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL AND REMEDIATION SCHEMES

    SciTech Connect

    D.J. Wesolowski; R.C. Ewing; J. Bruno

    2005-06-28

    order to have a significant impact on global carbon emissions, worldwide nuclear and other carbon-free energy sources would have to increase tenfold by 2050. If this increase came entirely from electrical power plants using the once-through nuclear fuel cycle, about 3,500 new 1-GW plants would be needed, that would generate enough spent fuel to fill a Yucca Mountain-sized repository every year. Though this extreme scenario is not likely to unfold, it seems inevitable that we need this source of energy, if the public can be assured that the operation of these plants, and the disposal of the wastes generated from their operation, can be made acceptably safe. The Yucca Mountain field trip provided an excellent opportunity for a diverse cross section of engineers and geoscientists to gain a clearer perspective on the nature and problems related to this particular type of repository. The symposium not only brought together a similar broad cross section of scientists and engineers, but provided a forum for comparing and contrasting different repository designs being considered throughout the world, different methods of assessing their performance characteristics, and the surprisingly broad array of geochemical inputs needed in order to succeed in this Grand Challenge.

  18. Geologic and hydrologic considerations for various concepts of high-level radioactive waste disposal in conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ekren, E.B.; Dinwiddie, G.A.; Mytton, J.W.; Thordarson, William; Weir, J.E.; Hinrichs, E.N.; Schroder, L.J.

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate and identify which geohydrologic environments in conterminous United States are best suited for various concepts or methods of underground disposal of high-level radioactive wastes and to establish geologic and hydrologic criteria that are pertinent to high-level waste disposal. The unproven methods of disposal include (1) a very deep drill hole (30,000-50,000 ft or 9,140-15,240 m), (2) a matrix of (an array of multiple) drill holes (1,000-20,000 ft or 305-6,100 m), (3) a mined chamber (1,000-10,000 ft or 305-3,050 m), (4) a cavity with separate manmade structures (1,000-10,000 ft or 305-3,050 m), and (5) an exploded cavity (2,000-20,000 ft or 610-6,100 m) o The geohydrologic investigation is made on the presumption that the concepts or methods of disposal are technically feasible. Field and laboratory experiments in the future may demonstrate whether or not any of the methods are practical and safe. All the conclusions drawn are tentative pending experimental confirmation. The investigation focuses principally on the geohydrologic possibilities of several methods of disposal in rocks other than salt. Disposal in mined chambers in salt is currently under field investigation, and this disposal method has been intensely investigated and evaluated by various workers under the sponsorship of the Atomic Energy Commission. Of the various geohydrologic factors that must be considered in the selection of optimum waste-disposal sites, the most important is hydrologic isolation to assure that the wastes will be safely contained within a small radius of the emplacement zone. To achieve this degree of hydrologic isolation, the host rock for the wastes must have very low permeability and the site must be virtually free of faults. In addition, the locality should be in (1) an area of low seismic risk where the possibility of large earthquakes rupturing the emplacement zone is very low, (2) where the possibility- of flooding by

  19. The Belgian Research and Development Feasibility Programme for the Geological Disposal of High-Level and Long-Lived Radioactive Waste - 12338

    SciTech Connect

    Van Marcke, Philippe; Van Humbeeck, Hugues

    2012-07-01

    ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials, considers geological disposal in the poorly indurated Boom Clay as the reference solution for the long-term management of high-level and/or long-lived radioactive waste. To develop a safety concept and design for geological disposal, ONDRAF/NIRAS follows an iterative process demonstrating that the repository will be both safe and feasible to implement. This process is called the safety strategy. A part of the safety strategy is the feasibility programme which aims at demonstrating, at a conceptual level, that the proposed geological disposal system can be constructed, operated and progressively closed. The followed methodology is based on the substantiation of a hierarchy of feasibility statements. These statements cover all activities from the removal of primary waste packages from interim storage buildings to the closure of the disposal site and a period of institutional control. They focus on engineering practicability, health and safety and environmental considerations, costs and quality assurance issues. A 4 year research project to support the R and D feasibility programme was launched in 2009 with several international partners coordinated by ONDRAF/NIRAS. It aims at confirming that there are no fundamental flaws or show-stoppers in the feasibility of building and operating the facilities for geological disposal in the Boom Clay. (authors)

  20. Bibliography of reports by US Geological Survey personnel pertaining to underground nuclear testing and radioactive waste disposal at the Nevada Test Site, and radioactive waste disposal at the WIPP Site, New Mexico, January 1, 1979-December 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Glanzman, V.M.

    1980-01-01

    This bibliography presents reports released to the public between January 1, 1979, and December 31, 1979, by personnel of the US Geological Survey. Reports include information on underground nuclear testing and waste management projects at the NTS (Nevada Test Site) and radioactive waste projects at the WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) site, New Mexico. Reports on Project Dribble, Tatum Dome, Mississippi, previously prepared as administrative reports and released to the public as 474-series reports during 1979 are also included in this bibliography.

  1. Geology of the Williston basin, North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota, with reference to subsurface disposal of radioactive wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sandberg, C.A.

    1962-01-01

    The southern Williston basin, which underlies about 110,000 square miles #n North Dakota, South Dakota, and eastern Montana, is part of a large structural and sedimentary basin. Its surface is a flat to gently rolling plain, standing about 1,500 to 3,500 feet above sea level and locally studded by a few high buttes. The sedimentary sequence that fills the basin has a maximum thickness of about 16,700 feet and rests on Precambrian metamorphic rocks at depths of 500 to 13,900 feet below sea level. It contains rocks of every geologic system, from Cambrian to Quaternary. Rocks of Middle Cambrian through Middle Ordovician age are largely shale and sandstone, as much as 1,200 feet thick; rocks of Late Ordovician through Pennsylvanian age are largely limestone and dolomite, as much as 7,500 feet thick; and rocks of Permian through Tertiary age are predominantly shale and siltstone, as much as 8,000 feet thick. Pleistocene glacial drift mantles the northern and eastern parts of the area. Rocks of the Williston basin are gently folded and regional dips are 1? or less from the margins to the basin center. Dips on the flanks of the major anticlinal folds, the Nesson and cedar Creek anticlines and the Poplar and Bowdoin domes, generally are about 1? to 3? except on the steep west limb of the Cedar Creek anticline. The basin was shaped by Laramide orogeny during latest Cretaceous and early Tertiary time. Most of the present structural features, however, were initiated during the Precambrian and reactivated by several subsequent orogenies, of which the latest was the Laramide. The most important mineral resource of the area is oil, which is produced predominantly from the Paleozoic carbonate sequence and largely on three of the major anticlinal folds, and lignite, which is present near the surface in Paleocene rocks. The subsurface disposal of radioactive wastes at some places in the Williston basin appears to be geographically and geologically feasible. Many sites, at which

  2. Simulation of fluid flow and energy transport processes associated with high-level radioactive waste disposal in unsaturated alluvium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollock, David W.

    1986-01-01

    Many parts of the Great Basin have thick zones of unsaturated alluvium which might be suitable for disposing of high-level radioactive wastes. A mathematical model accounting for the coupled transport of energy, water (vapor and liquid), and dry air was used to analyze one-dimensional, vertical transport above and below an areally extensive repository. Numerical simulations were conducted for a hypothetical repository containing spent nuclear fuel and located 100 m below land surface. Initial steady state downward water fluxes of zero (hydrostatic) and 0. 0003 m yr** minus **1 were considered in an attempt to bracket the likely range in natural water flux. Predicted temperatures within the repository peaked after approximately 50 years and declined slowly thereafter in response to the decreasing intensity of the radioactive heat source. The extent of the dry zone was strongly controlled by the mobility of liquid water near the repository under natural conditions. In the case of initial hydrostatic conditions, the dry zone extended approximately 10 m above and 15 m below the repository. For the case of a natural flux of 0. 0003 m yr** minus **1 the relative permeability of water near the repository was initially more than 30 times the value under hydrostatic conditions, consequently the dry zone extended only about 2 m above and 5 m below the repository. In both cases a significant perturbation in liquid saturation levels persisted for several hundred years. This analysis illustrates the extreme sensitivity of model predictions to initial conditions and parameters, such as relative permeability and moisture characteristic curves.

  3. Bomb chlorine-36 analysis in the characterization of unsaturated flow at a proposed radioactive waste disposal facility, Chihuahuan Desert, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanlon, B. R.; Kubik, P. W.; Sharma, P.; Richter, B. C.; Gove, H. E.

    1990-12-01

    The distribution of anthropogenic chlorine-36 in the unsaturated zone is used to estimate the moisture flux at a study site in the Chihuahuan Desert, Texas, for a potential low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. The unsaturated zone at the study site is approximately 150 m thick; the uppermost section consists of 15 m of coarse-grained sediment that overlies 140 m of clay. The {36Cl}/{Cl} depth profile includes a well-defined peak ratio of 6.6×10 -12 at a depth of 0.5 m. A background {36Cl}/{Cl} ratio of 0.46 × 10 -12 below a depth of 1.25 m agrees with the predicted natural fallout of 0.50×10 -12 for this latitude. The measured total inventory of bomb 36Cl is 2.5 × 10 -12 atoms m -2, which is 73% of the predicted fallout at this latitude. The specific moisture flux based on the {36Cl}/{Cl} peak depth is 1.4 mm a -1, or 0.5% of the mean annual precipitation rate in the region. Because the bomb pulse is restricted to the root zone, it is not possible to determine if this infiltrating water will recharge the deep water table. The movement of liquid and vapor phases of water in the shallow, unsaturated zone is complex and includes both downward- and upward-directed flux components controlled by infiltration and evapotranspiration; therefore, Cl data that delineate the net movement of water over a long time period are critical in evaluation of the potential for radionuchde transport from disposal facilities.

  4. In situ corrosion studies on candidate container materials for the underground disposal of high level radioactive waste in Boom Clay

    SciTech Connect

    Kursten, B.; Iseghem, P. Van

    1999-07-01

    SCK{center{underscore}dot}CEN has developed in the early 1980's, with the support of NIRAS/ONDRAF and EC, an extensive in situ corrosion program to evaluate the long-term corrosion behavior of various candidate container materials for the disposal of conditioned high-level radioactive waste and spent fuel. The in situ corrosion experiments were performed in the underground research facility, HADES, situated in the Boom Clay formation at a depth of 225 meters below ground level. These experiments place the samples either in direct contact with clay (type I), in a humid clay atmosphere (type 2), or in a concrete saturated clay atmosphere (type 3). During the period 1985--1994, twelve in situ corrosion experiments were installed in the underground laboratory. The exploitation of these experiments ended in 1996. All samples were recuperated and analyzed. The purpose of this paper is to summarize and discuss the results from the type 1 corrosion experiments (samples in direct contact with Boom Clay). Surface analyses tend to indicate that the so-called corrosion-resistant materials, e.g. stainless steels, Ni- and Ti-alloys, remain intact after exposure to Boom Clay between 16 and 170 C, whereas carbon steel presents significant pitting corrosion. Carbon steel seems to be unsuitable for the Belgian repository concept (pits up to 240{micro}m deep are detected after direct exposure to the argillaceous environment for 2 years at 90 C). The stainless steels look very promising candidate container materials.

  5. Intruder dose pathway analysis for the onsite disposal of radioactive wastes: The ONSITE/MAXI1 computer program

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Peloquin, R.A.; Napier, B.A.; Neuder, S.M.

    1987-02-01

    This document summarizes initial efforts to develop human-intrusion scenarios and a modified version of the MAXI computer program for potential use by the NRC in reviewing applications for onsite radioactive waste disposal. Supplement 1 of NUREG/CR-3620 (1986) summarized modifications and improvements to the ONSITE/MAXI1 software package. This document summarizes a modified version of the ONSITE/MAXI1 computer program. This modified version of the computer program operates on a personal computer and permits the user to optionally select radiation dose conversion factors published by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in their Publication No. 30 (ICRP 1979-1982) in place of those published by the ICRP in their Publication No. 2 (ICRP 1959) (as implemented in the previous versions of the ONSITE/MAXI1 computer program). The pathway-to-human models used in the computer program have not been changed from those described previously. Computer listings of the ONSITE/MAXI1 computer program and supporting data bases are included in the appendices of this document.

  6. Evaluation of geologic materials to limit biological intrusion into low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    SciTech Connect

    Hakonson, T.E.

    1986-02-01

    This report describes the results of a three-year research program to evaluate the performance of selected soil and rock trench cap designs in limiting biological intrusion into simulated waste. The report is divided into three sections including a discussion of background material on biological interactions with waste site trench caps, a presentation of experimental data from field studies conducted at several scales, and a final section on the interpretation and limitations of the data including implications for the user.

  7. Determination of Dose from the Disposal of Radioactive Waste Related with TENORM using Residual Radioactivity (RESRAD) Monte Carlo Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    lwin, Maung Tin Moe; Kassim, Hassan Abu; Amin, Yusoff Mohd.

    2008-05-01

    The working procedures in the RESRAD for specific evaluations of environmental pollutants are briefly mentioned. The risk of human health associated with Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) who are working in the Malaysian oil and gas industry are analyzed. The sources of NORM and Technologically Enhanced NORM (TENORM) in the oil and gas industry are described. Some measurements for the external and internal effective dose equivalent on the workers will be described. These data are entered into the RESRAD software program and the output reports are taken. Long-term effects of TENORM to the industrial workers are also discussed with graphical illustrations. These results are compared with previous research work within the same field to validate and verify.

  8. The Site Investigation Of Low-Level Radioactive Waste For Sub-Surface Disposal Facility In Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosoya, S.; Sasaki, T.

    2006-12-01

    [1.Concept of the sub-surface disposal facility] In Japan, the facilities of Low-Level Radioactive West (LLW) for near-surface disposal have already been in operation. Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited (JNFL) has a plan of a new facility of LLW for sub-surface disposal with engineered barrier, for short "the sub-surface disposal facility".This facility can accept the relatively higher low-level waste from unclear power plant operation and in core materials from the decommissioning, estimated about 20 thousands cubic meter in total.In addition, this will accept transuranim (TRU) slightly contaminated waste from reprocessing plant operation and decommissioning. It shall be located at a sufficient depth enough to avoid normal human activities in future. [2.Site investigation] From 2001 to 2006,the site investigation on geology and hydrogeology has been performed in order to acquire the basic data for the design and the safety assessment for the sub-surface disposal facility.The candidate area is located at the site of JNFL, where Rokkasho-mura, Aomori Prefecture in the northern area of the Mainland of Japan.To confirm geology hydraulic conditions and geo-chemistry, 22 boring survey including 6 holes in swamp and marsh have been performed. The 1km long access tunnel (the entrance level EL 8.0m, incline of 1/10) to the altitude of EL -86m underground, around 100m depth from surface, has excavated. During excavating the tunnel, observation of geology, permeability tests, pore water pressure measurements and so on has been performed in situ.And the large size test cavern of 18m diameters was constructed at the end of the tunnel to demonstrate stability of the tunnel. Prior to the excavation, 3 measuring tunnels were excavated surrounding the test cavern to examine the excavation. [3.Geological features] The sedimentary rock called Takahoko formation at the Neogene period is distributed upper than EL-500m in the candidate area.The quaternary stratum about 10m in thickness is

  9. Radioactive Waste Management Basis

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, B K

    2009-06-03

    The purpose of this Radioactive Waste Management Basis is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

  10. Understanding radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes). (ATT)

  11. Trench water chemistry at commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. [Trench waters from Maxey Flats, Kentucky and West Valley, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Pietrzak, R.F.; Dayal, R.; Kinsley, M.T.; Clinton, J.; Czyscinski, K.S.; Weiss, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    Water samples from the disposal trenches of two low-level radioactive-waste-disposal sites were analyzed for their inorganic, organic, and radionuclide contents. Since oxidation of the trench waters can occur during their movement along the groundwater flow path, experiments were performed to measure the chemical and physical changes that occur in these waters upon oxidation. Low concentrations of chelating agents, shown to exist in trench waters, may be responsible for keeping radionuclides, particularly /sup 60/Co, in solution. 4 figures, 5 tables.

  12. A new irradiation effect and its implications for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, E H

    1980-09-26

    Materials containing alkali metals or alkaline earths are sensitized by bombardment with either ions, electrons, or photons to chemical attack by atmospheric moisture. The implications of this effect on the proposed immobilization and long-term storage of high-level nuclear waste in glass or similar materials is discussed.

  13. Preliminary report on the hydrogeology of a low-level radioactive waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, J.B.; Erickson, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    The Sheffield low-level radioactive-waste disposal site is located on 20 acres of rolling terrain about 3 miles southwest of Sheffield, Illinois. Twenty-one trenches were constructed and filled with radioactive waste from August 1967 through April 1978. Forty-three test wells were installed by the U.S. Geological Survey on and adjacent to the site. Continuous cores were collected from 36 wells to help in defining the subsurface geology. The wells have been used for water sample collection and to monitor water-level changes. A tunnel, 6.5 feet in diameter by 290 feet in length, was constructed beneath four burial trenches to provide access for collection of hydrologic and geologic data. Pennsylvanian shale and mudstone deposits are overlain by Pleistocene glacial deposits consisting of the Teneriffe Silt, Glasford Formation, Roxana Silt, Peoria Loess, Parkland Sand, Cahokia Alluvium, and Henry Formation. Three till units of the Glasford Formation, the Hulick Till Member, the Radnor Till Member, and Till A have been identified on the site. Stratigraphic position indicates that the Hulick Till Member and Till A are probably variations of the same till. A continuous pebbly sand deposit, classified as part of the Toulon Member, extends across the middle of the site and continues off site on the northeast and southwest corners. Because of its relatively high hydraulic conductivity, this deposit will be a controlling factor in shallow groundwater movement and in any radionuclide migration. Ground water at the site is derived through infiltration of precipitation and as underflow from adjacent highlands. Precipitation averages 35 inches per year, 1 or 2 inches of which probably recharge the ground water. Runoff is estimated to be 12 to 15 inches per year and evapotranspiration about 20 inches. The fluctuation of water levels has been about 2.5 feet in hilltop wells, 3.6 feet in sidehill wells, and 5.9 feet in valley wells. Hydraulic conductivity of the materials comprising

  14. Results of hydrologic research at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryan, Barbara J.

    1989-01-01

    Ten years of hydrologic research have been conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey at a commercial low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois. Research included studies of microclimate, evapotranspiration, and tritium release by plants; runoff and land modification; water movement through a trench cover; water and tritium movement in the unsaturated zone; gases in the unsaturated zone; water and tritium movement in the saturated zone; and water chemistry. Implications specific to each research topic and those based on overlapping research topics are summarized as to their potential effect on the selection, characterization, design, operation, and decommissioning processes of future low-level radioactive-waste disposal sites. Unconsolidated deposits at the site are diverse in lithologic character and are spatially and stratigraphically complex. Thickness of these Quaternary deposits ranges from 3 to 27 meters and averages 17 meters. The unconsolidated deposits overlay 140 meters of Pennsylvanian shale, mudstone, siltstone, and coal. Approximately 90,500 cubic meters of waste were buried from August 1967 through August 1978, in 21 trenches that were constructed in glacial materials by using a cut-and-fill process. Trenches generally were constructed below grade and ranged from 11 to 180 meters long, 2.4 to 21 meters wide, and 2.4 to about 7.9 meters deep. Research on microclimate and evapotranspiration at the site was conducted from July 1982 through June 1984. Continuous measurements were made of precipitation, incoming and reflected solar (shortwave) radiation, incoming and emitted terrestrial (longwave) radiation, horizontal windspeed and direction, wet- and dry-bulb air temperature, barometric pressure, soil-heat fluxes, and soil temperature. Soil-moisture content, for this research phase, was measured approximately biweekly. Evapotranspiration rates were estimated by using three techniques--energy budget, aerodynamic profile, and water

  15. Final closure cover for a Hanford radioactive mixed waste disposal facility

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, K.D.

    1996-02-06

    This study provides a preliminary design for a RCRA mixed waste landfill final closure cover. The cover design was developed by a senior class design team from Seattle University. The design incorporates a layered design of indigenous soils and geosynthetics in a layered system to meet final closure cover requirements for a landfill as imposed by the Washington Administrative Code WAC-173-303 implementation of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

  16. Tale taming radioactive fears: Linking nuclear waste disposal to the "continuum of the good".

    PubMed

    Yli-Kauhaluoma, Sari; Hänninen, Hannu

    2014-04-01

    We examine how the constructor of the world's first repository for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Eurajoki, Finland, aims to shape lay understanding of the facility's risks and to tame the nuclear fears of the local community by producing positive associations, imagery and tales. Our empirical material consists of the constructor's newsletters targeted mainly at the local residents. In the narrative analysis, we identified a storyline where the construction of the repository is linked into the "continuum of the good" in the municipality of the construction site and the surrounding areas. The storyline consists of five different themes all emphasizing the "continuum of the good" in the area: cultural heritage, well-being, developing expertise, natural environment, and local families. Our study contributes to the literature on pro-nuclear storytelling by showing how the inclination is towards narratives that are constructed around local symbols, cultural landmarks, and institutions.

  17. A biosphere assessment of high-level radioactive waste disposal in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Kautsky, Ulrik; Lindborg, Tobias; Valentin, Jack

    2015-04-01

    Licence applications to build a repository for the disposal of Swedish spent nuclear fuel have been lodged, underpinned by myriad reports and several broader reviews. This paper sketches out the technical and administrative aspects and highlights a recent review of the biosphere effects of a potential release from the repository. A comprehensive database and an understanding of major fluxes and pools of water and organic matter in the landscape let one envisage the future by looking at older parts of the site. Thus, today's biosphere is used as a natural analogue of possible future landscapes. It is concluded that the planned repository can meet the safety criteria and will have no detectable radiological impact on plants and animals. This paper also briefly describes biosphere work undertaken after the review. The multidisciplinary approach used is relevant in a much wider context and may prove beneficial across many environmental contexts.

  18. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Neutron Products Incorporated Sealed Source Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2014-08-31

    The purpose of this special analysis (SA) is to determine if the Neutron Products Incorporated (NPI) Sealed Sources waste stream (DRTK000000056, Revision 0) is suitable for disposal by shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The NPI Sealed Sources waste stream consists of 850 60Co sealed sources (Duratek [DRTK] 2013). The NPI Sealed Sources waste stream requires a special analysis (SA) because the waste stream 60Co activity concentration exceeds the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) Action Levels.

  19. Technology applications for radioactive waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Devgun, J.S.

    1994-07-01

    The nuclear power industry has achieved one of the most successful examples of waste minimization. The annual volume of low-level radioactive waste shipped for disposal per reactor has decreased to approximately one-fifth the volume about a decade ago. In addition, the curie content of the total waste shipped for disposal has decreased. This paper will discuss the regulatory drivers and economic factors for waste minimization and describe the application of technologies for achieving waste minimization for low-level radioactive waste with examples from the nuclear power industry.

  20. Low-level radioactive waste disposal. Study of a conceptual nuclear energy center at Green River, Utah. [Comparison of on-site disposal and transport to nearest commercial disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    Card, D.H.; Hunter, P.H.; Barg, D.; de Souza, F.; Felthauser, K.; Winkler, V.; White, R.

    1982-02-01

    This document constitutes a segment of a feasibility study investigating the ramifications of constructing a nuclear energy center in an arid western region. In this phase of the study, the alternatives for disposing of the low-level waste on the site are compared with the alternative of transporting the waste to the nearest commercial waste disposal site for permanent disposal. Both radiological and nonradiological impacts on the local socioeconomic infrastructure and the environment are considered. Disposal on the site was found to cost considerably less than off-site disposal with only negligible impacts associated with the disposal option on either mankind or the environment.

  1. Proposed design requirements for high-integrity containers used to store, transport, and dispose of high-specific-activity, low-level radioactive wastes from Three Mile Island Unit II

    SciTech Connect

    Vigil, M.G.; Allen, G.C.; Pope, R.B.

    1981-04-01

    This report develops proposed design requirements for high integrity containers used to store, transport and/or dispose of high-activity, low-level radioactive wastes from Three Mile Island Unit II. The wastes considered are the dewatered resins produced by the EPICOR II waste treatment system used to clean-up the auxiliary building water. The radioactivity level of some of these EPICOR II liners is 1300 curies per container. These wastes may be disposed of in an intermediate depth burial (10 to 20 meter depth) facility. The proposed container design requirements are directed to ensure isolation of the waste and protection of the public health and safety.

  2. A Monte Carlo procedure for the construction of complementary cumulative distribution functions for comparison with the EPA release limits for radioactive waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Helton, J.C.; Shiver, A.W.

    1994-10-01

    A Monte Carlo procedure for the construction of complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) for comparison with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) release limits for radioactive waste disposal (40 CFR 191, Subpart B) is described and illustrated with results from a recent performance assessment (PA) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The Monte Carlo procedure produces CCDF estimates similar to those obtained with stratified sampling in several recent PAs for the WIPP. The advantages of the Monte Carlo procedure over stratified sampling include increased resolution in the calculation of probabilities for complex scenarios involving drilling intrusions and better use of the necessarily limited number of mechanistic calculations that underlie CCDF construction.

  3. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    SciTech Connect

    Strum, M.J.; Weiss, H.; Farmer, J.C. ); Bullen, D.B. )

    1988-06-01

    This volume surveys the effects of welding on the degradation modes of three austenitic alloys: Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825. These materials are candidates for the fabrication of containers for the long-term storage of high-level nuclear waste. The metallurgical characteristics of fusion welds are reviewed here and related to potential degradation modes of the containers. Three specific areas are discussed in depth: (1) decreased resistance to corrosion in the forms of preferential corrosion, sensitization, and susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking, (2) hot cracking in the heat-affected zone and the weld zone, and (3) formation of intermetallic phases. The austenitic alloys are ranked as follows in terms of overall weldability: Alloy 825 (best) > Type 316L stainless steel > Type 304L stainless steel (worst). 108 refs., 31 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. Organizational approach to estimating public resistance at proposed disposal sites for radioactive and hazardous wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, B.A.

    1982-01-01

    This paper was intended to present an organizational approach to predicting collective action and then to apply that approach to the issue of siting of a nuclear or other hazardous waste repository. Borrowing largely from two previously developed models (one by Perry et al. at Battelle's Human Affairs Research Center and one by Charles Tilly), I developed a theoretical model. Indicators were identified for many of the variables, but they are not easily measured, requiring a number of decisions on thresholds which were not clarified in the paper. What remains is further discussion of these measurement problems, evaluation of the confirmation status of the propositions, and empirical tests of the model. In the meantime, however, the discussion should provide assessors of public resistance with a theoretical basis for their thinking and a guide to some revealing indicators of the potential for collective action.

  5. Survey of the degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive waste disposal containers

    SciTech Connect

    Vinson, D.W.; Nutt, W.M.; Bullen, D.B.

    1995-06-01

    Oxidation and atmospheric corrosion data suggest that addition of Cr provides the greatest improvement in oxidation resistance. Cr-bearing cast irons are resistant to chloride environments and solutions containing strongly oxidizing constituents. Weathering steels, including high content and at least 0.04% Cu, appear to provide adequate resistance to oxidation under temperate conditions. However, data from long-term, high-temperature oxidation studies on weathering steels were not available. From the literature, it appears that the low alloy steels, plain carbon steels, cast steels, and cast irons con-ode at similar rates in an aqueous environment. Alloys containing more than 12% Cr or 36% Ni corrode at a lower rate than plain carbon steels, but pitting may be worse. Short term tests indicate that an alloy of 9Cr-1Mo may result in increased corrosion resistance, however long term data are not available. Austenitic cast irons show the best corrosion resistance. A ranking of total corrosion performance of the materials from most corrosion resistant to least corrosion resistant is: Austenitic Cast Iron; 12% Cr = 36% Ni = 9Cr-1Mo; Carbon Steel = Low Alloy Steels; and Cast Iron. Since the materials to be employed in the Advanced Conceptual Design (ACD) waste package are considered to be corrosion allowance materials, the austenitic cast irons, high Cr steels, high Ni steels and the high Cr-Mo steels should not be considered as candidates for the outer containment barrier. Based upon the oxidation and corrosion data available for carbon steels, low alloy steels, and cast irons, a suitable list of candidate materials for a corrosion allowance outer barrier for an ACD waste package could include, A516, 2.25%Cr -- 1%Mo Steel, and A27.

  6. New regulations for radiation protection for work involving radioactive fallout emitted by the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi APP accident--disposal of contaminated soil and wastes.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Shojiro

    2014-01-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Atomic Power Plant that accompanied the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, released a large amount of radioactive material. To rehabilitate the contaminated areas, the government of Japan decided to carry out decontamination work and manage the waste resulting from decontamination. In the summer of 2013, the Ministry of the Environment planned to begin a full-scale process for waste disposal of contaminated soil and wastes removed as part of the decontamination work. The existing regulations were not developed to address such a large amount of contaminated wastes. The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW), therefore, had to amend the existing regulations for waste disposal workers. The amendment of the general regulation targeted the areas where the existing exposure situation overlaps the planned exposure situation. The MHLW established the demarcation lines between the two regulations to be applied in each situation. The amendment was also intended to establish provisions for the operation of waste disposal facilities that handle large amounts of contaminated materials. Deliberation concerning the regulation was conducted when the facilities were under design; hence, necessary adjustments should be made as needed during the operation of the facilities.

  7. Radionuclide Concentrations in soils an Vegetation at Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area G During 2004

    SciTech Connect

    P.R. Fresquez; E.A. Lopez

    2004-11-01

    Soil samples were collected at 15 locations and unwashed overstory and understory vegetation samples were collected at nine locations within and around the perimeter of Area G, the primary disposal facility for low-level radioactive solid waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). These samples were analyzed for {sup 3}H, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 241}Am, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 238}U. Soil samples collected at Area G contained detectable concentrations of 3H (27%), {sup 239,240}Pu (60%), {sup 238}Pu (40%), and {sup 241}Am (47%) above regional statistical reference levels (RSRLs). In contrast, the levels of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, and U in all of the soil samples at Area G were either nondetectable or within RSRLs. The highest levels of {sup 3}H in soils were detected in the southwestern portion of Area G near the {sup 3}H shafts, whereas the highest concentrations of the Pu isotopes were detected in the northern and northeastern portions. All concentrations of {sup 3}H and Pu in soils, however, were far below LANL screening action levels. As for vegetation, most radionuclides in/on plants were either nondetectable or within RSRLs. The exceptions were {sup 3}H in overstory and some understory vegetation, particularly in the southwestern portion of Area G, which correlated very well with the soils data in that area. Also, there was some foliar contamination from {sup 241}Am and Pu isotopes in/on a few plant samples--the highest concentrations occurring in the northern section of Area G.

  8. Suitability of Palestine salt dome, Anderson Co. , Texas for disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Patchick, P.F.

    1980-01-01

    The suitability of Palestine salt dome, in Anderson County, Texas, is in serious doubt for a repository to isolate high-level nuclear waste because of abandoned salt brining operations. The random geographic and spatial occurrence of 15 collapse sinks over the dome may prevent safe construction of the necessary surface installations for a repository. The dissolution of salt between the caprock and dome, from at least 15 brine wells up to 500 feet deep, may permit increased rates of salt dissolution long into future geologic time. The subsurface dissolution is occurring at a rate difficult, if not impossible, to assess or to calculate. It cannot be shown that this dissolution rate is insignificant to the integrity of a future repository or to ancillary features. The most recent significant collapse was 36 feet in diameter and took place in 1972. The other collapses ranged from 27 to 105 feet in diameter and from 1.5 to more than 15 feet in depth. ONWI recommends that this dome be removed from consideration as a candidate site.

  9. Project report: Tritiated oil repackaging highlighting the ISMS process. Historical radioactive and mixed waste disposal request validation and waste disposal project

    SciTech Connect

    Schriner, J.A.

    1998-08-01

    The Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) was established to define a framework for the essential functions of managing work safely. There are five Safety Management Functions in the model of the ISMS process: (1) work planning, (2) hazards analysis, (3) hazards control, (4) work performance, and (5) feedback and improve. Recent activities at the Radioactive and Mixed Waste Management Facility underscored the importance and effectiveness of integrating the ISMS process to safely manage high-hazard work with a minimum of personnel in a timely and efficient manner. This report describes how project personnel followed the framework of the ISMS process to successfully repackage tritium-contaminated oils. The main objective was to open the boxes without allowing the gaseous tritium oxide, which had built up inside the boxes, to release into the sorting room. The boxes would be vented out the building stack until tritium concentration levels were acceptable. The carboys would be repackaged into 30-gallon drums and caulked shut. Sealing the drums would decrease the tritium off-gassing into the RMWMF.

  10. ASSESSMENT OF RADIOACTIVE AND NON-RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINANTS FOUND IN LOW LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    R.H. Little, P.R. Maul, J.S.S. Penfoldag

    2003-02-27

    This paper describes and presents the findings from two studies undertaken for the European Commission to assess the long-term impact upon the environment and human health of non-radioactive contaminants found in various low level radioactive waste streams. The initial study investigated the application of safety assessment approaches developed for radioactive contaminants to the assessment of nonradioactive contaminants in low level radioactive waste. It demonstrated how disposal limits could be derived for a range of non-radioactive contaminants and generic disposal facilities. The follow-up study used the same approach but undertook more detailed, disposal system specific calculations, assessing the impacts of both the non-radioactive and radioactive contaminants. The calculations undertaken indicated that it is prudent to consider non-radioactive, as well as radioactive contaminants, when assessing the impacts of low level radioactive waste disposal. For some waste streams with relatively low concentrations of radionuclides, the potential post-closure disposal impacts from non-radioactive contaminants can be comparable with the potential radiological impacts. For such waste streams there is therefore an added incentive to explore options for recycling the materials involved wherever possible.

  11. Movement of a tritium plume in shallow groundwater at a legacy low-level radioactive waste disposal site in eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Hughes, C E; Cendón, D I; Harrison, J J; Hankin, S I; Johansen, M P; Payne, T E; Vine, M; Collins, R N; Hoffmann, E L; Loosz, T

    2011-10-01

    Between 1960 and 1968 low-level radioactive waste was buried in a series of shallow trenches near the Lucas Heights facility, south of Sydney, Australia. Groundwater monitoring carried out since the mid 1970s indicates that with the exception of tritium, no radioactivity above typical background levels has been detected outside the immediate vicinity of the trenches. The maximum tritium level detected in ground water was 390 kBq/L and the median value was 5400 Bq/L, decay corrected to the time of disposal. Since 1968, a plume of tritiated water has migrated from the disposal trenches and extends at least 100 m from the source area. Tritium in rainfall is negligible, however leachate from an adjacent and fill represents a significant additional tritium source. Study data indicate variation in concentration levels and plume distribution in response to wet and dry climatic periods and have been used to determine pathways for tritium migration through the subsurface.

  12. ORNL radioactive waste operations

    SciTech Connect

    Sease, J.D.; King, E.M.; Coobs, J.H.; Row, T.H.

    1982-01-01

    Since its beginning in 1943, ORNL has generated large amounts of solid, liquid, and gaseous radioactive waste material as a by-product of the basic research and development work carried out at the laboratory. The waste system at ORNL has been continually modified and updated to keep pace with the changing release requirements for radioactive wastes. Major upgrading projects are currently in progress. The operating record of ORNL waste operation has been excellent over many years. Recent surveillance of radioactivity in the Oak Ridge environs indicates that atmospheric concentrations of radioactivity were not significantly different from other areas in East Tennesseee. Concentrations of radioactivity in the Clinch River and in fish collected from the river were less than 4% of the permissible concentration and intake guides for individuals in the offsite environment. While some radioactivity was released to the environment from plant operations, the concentrations in all of the media sampled were well below established standards.

  13. [Microbiological Aspects of Radioactive Waste Storage].

    PubMed

    Safonov, A V; Gorbunova, O A; German, K E; Zakharova, E V; Tregubova, V E; Ershov, B G; Nazina, T N

    2015-01-01

    The article gives information about the microorganisms inhabiting in surface storages of solid radioactive waste and deep disposal sites of liquid radioactive waste. It was shown that intensification of microbial processes can lead to significant changes in the chemical composition and physical state of the radioactive waste. It was concluded that the biogeochemical processes can have both a positive effect on the safety of radioactive waste storages (immobilization of RW macrocomponents, a decreased migration ability of radionuclides) and a negative one (biogenic gas production in subterranean formations and destruction of cement matrix).

  14. A user's guide to the GoldSim/BLT-MS integrated software package:a low-level radioactive waste disposal performance assessment model.

    SciTech Connect

    Knowlton, Robert G.; Arnold, Bill Walter; Mattie, Patrick D.

    2007-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia), a U.S. Department of Energy National Laboratory, has over 30 years experience in the assessment of radioactive waste disposal and at the time of this publication is providing assistance internationally in a number of areas relevant to the safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal systems. In countries with small radioactive waste programs, international technology transfer program efforts are often hampered by small budgets, schedule constraints, and a lack of experienced personnel. In an effort to surmount these difficulties, Sandia has developed a system that utilizes a combination of commercially available software codes and existing legacy codes for probabilistic safety assessment modeling that facilitates the technology transfer and maximizes limited available funding. Numerous codes developed and endorsed by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and codes developed and maintained by United States Department of Energy are generally available to foreign countries after addressing import/export control and copyright requirements. From a programmatic view, it is easier to utilize existing codes than to develop new codes. From an economic perspective, it is not possible for most countries with small radioactive waste disposal programs to maintain complex software, which meets the rigors of both domestic regulatory requirements and international peer review. Therefore, revitalization of deterministic legacy codes, as well as an adaptation of contemporary deterministic codes, provides a credible and solid computational platform for constructing probabilistic safety assessment models. This document is a reference users guide for the GoldSim/BLT-MS integrated modeling software package developed as part of a cooperative technology transfer project between Sandia National Laboratories and the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER) in Taiwan for the preliminary assessment of several candidate low

  15. The Disposal of Hazardous Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhart, Benjamin J.

    1978-01-01

    The highlights of a symposium held in October, 1977 spotlight some problems and solutions. Topics include wastes from coal technologies, radioactive wastes, and industrial and agricultural wastes. (BB)

  16. The Disposal of Hazardous Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhart, Benjamin J.

    1978-01-01

    The highlights of a symposium held in October, 1977 spotlight some problems and solutions. Topics include wastes from coal technologies, radioactive wastes, and industrial and agricultural wastes. (BB)

  17. Mixed waste characterization, treatment & disposal focus area

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The mission of the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (referred to as the Mixed Waste Focus Area or MWFA) is to provide treatment systems capable of treating DOE`s mixed waste in partnership with users, and with continual participation of stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators. The MWFA deals with the problem of eliminating mixed waste from current and future storage in the DOE complex. Mixed waste is waste that contains both hazardous chemical components, subject to the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and radioactive components, subject to the requirements of the Atomic Energy Act. The radioactive components include transuranic (TRU) and low-level waste (LLW). TRU waste primarily comes from the reprocessing of spent fuel and the use of plutonium in the fabrication of nuclear weapons. LLW includes radioactive waste other than uranium mill tailings, TRU, and high-level waste, including spent fuel.

  18. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 545: Dumps, Waste Disposal Sites, and Buried Radioactive Materials Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Wickline, Alfred

    2007-06-01

    Corrective Action Unit 545, Dumps, Waste Disposal Sites, and Buried Radioactive Materials, consists of seven inactive sites located in the Yucca Flat area and one inactive site in the Pahute Mesa area. The eight CAU 545 sites consist of craters used for mud disposal, surface or buried waste disposed within craters or potential crater areas, and sites where surface or buried waste was disposed. The CAU 545 sites were used to support nuclear testing conducted in the Yucca Flat area during the 1950s through the early 1990s, and in Area 20 in the mid-1970s. This Corrective Action Investigation Plan has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. Under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, this Corrective Action Investigation Plan will be submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for approval. Fieldwork will be conducted following approval.

  19. Assessment of site conditions for disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes: a case study in southern China.

    PubMed

    Yi, Shuping; Ma, Haiyi; Zheng, Chunmiao; Zhu, Xiaobin; Wang, Hua'an; Li, Xueshan; Hu, Xueling; Qin, Jianbo

    2012-01-01

    Near surface disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes (LILW) requires evaluating the field conditions of the candidate site. However, assessment of the site conditions may be challenging due to the limited prior knowledge of some remote sites, and various multi-disciplinary data requirements at any given site. These situations arise in China as in the rest of the industrialized world, particularly since a regional strategy for LILW disposal has been implemented to protect humans and the environment. This paper presents a demonstration of the site assessment process through a case study focusing mainly on the geologic, hydrogeologic and geochemical characteristics of the candidate site. A joint on-site and laboratory investigation, supplemented by numerical modeling, was implemented in this assessment. Results indicate that no fault is present in the site area, although there are some minor joints and fractures, primarily showing a north-south trend. Most of the joints are filled with quartz deposits and would thus function hydraulically as impervious barriers. Investigation of local hydrologic boundaries has shown that the candidate site represents an essentially isolated hydrogeologic unit, and that little or no groundwater flow occurs across its boundaries on the north or east, or across the hilly areas to the south. Groundwater in the site area is recharged by precipitation and discharges primarily by evapo-transpiration and surface flow through a narrow outlet to the west. Groundwater flows slowly from the hilly area to the foot of the hills and discharges mainly into the inner brooks and marshes. Some groundwater circulates in deeper granite in a slower manner. The vadose zone in the site was investigated specially for their significant capability for restraining the transport of radionuclides. Results indicate that the vadose zone is up to 38m in thickness and is made up of alluvial clay soils and very highly weathered granite. The vadose

  20. Low-level radioactive waste regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Autry, V.

    1994-12-31

    This speaker presents definitions of low-level radioactive waste according to the Federal Government, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the South Carolina governing body. The classification of waste for near surface disposal and the various, NRC classes of waste are described.

  1. The consideration of geological uncertainty in the siting process for a Geological Disposal Facility for radioactive waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathers, Steve; McEvoy, Fiona; Shaw, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Any decision about the site of a Geological Disposal Facility at depth for medium to high level radioactive waste is based on a safety case which in turn is based on an understanding of the geological environment which enables, for example, understanding groundwater flows and groundwater chemical composition. Because the information on which geological understanding is based cannot be fully understood, it is important to ensure that: i. Inferences are made from data in a way that is consistent with the data. ii. The uncertainty in the inferred information is described, quantitatively where this is appropriate. Despite these uncertainties decisions can and must be made, and so the implications of the uncertainty need to be understood and quantified. To achieve this it is important to ensure that: i. An understanding of how error propagates in all models and decision tools. Information which is collected to support the decision-making process may be used as input into models of various kinds to generate further information. For example, a process model may be used to predict groundwater flows, so uncertainty in the properties which are input to the model (e.g. on rock porosity and structure) will give rise to uncertainty in the model predictions. Understanding how this happens is called the analysis of error propagation. It is important that there is an understanding of how error propagates in all models and decision tools, and therefore knowledge of how much uncertainty remains in the process at any stage. As successive phases of data collection take place the analysis of error propagation shows how the uncertainty in key model outputs is gradually reduced. ii. The implications of all uncertainties can be traced through the process. A clear analysis of the decision-making process is necessary so that the implications of all uncertainties can be traced through the process. This means that, when a final decision is made, one can state with a high level of confidence

  2. Air Monitoring Leads to Discovery of New Contamination at Radioactive Waste Disposal Site (Area G) at LANL

    SciTech Connect

    Kraig, D.H.; Conrad, R.C.

    1999-06-08

    Air monitoring at Area G, the low-level radioactive waste disposal area at Los Alamos National Laboratory, revealed increased air concentrations of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 241}Am at one location along the north boundary. This air monitoring location is a couple of meters north of a dirt road used to access the easternmost part of Area G. Air concentrations of {sup 238}Pu were essentially unaffected, which was puzzling because the {sup 238}Pu and {sup 239}Pu are present in the local, slightly contaminated soils. Air concentrations of these radionuclides increased about a factor of ten in early 1995 and remained at those levels until the first quarter of 1996. During the spring of 1996 air concentrations again increased by a factor of about ten. No other radionuclides were elevated and no other Area G stations showed elevations of these radionuclides. After several formal meetings didn't provide an adequate cause for the elevations, a gamma survey was performed and showed a small area of significant contamination just south of the monitor location. We found in February, 1995, a trench for a water line had been dug within a meter of so of the air stations. Then, during early 1996, the dirt road was rerouted such that its new path was directly over the unknown contamination. It appears that the trenching brought contaminated material to the surface and caused the first rise in air concentrations and then the rerouting of the road over the contamination caused the second rise, during 1996. We also found that during 1976 and 1977 contaminated soils from the clean-up of an old processing facility had been spread over the filled pits in the vicinity of the air monitors. These soils were very low in 238Pu which explains why we saw very little {sup 238}Pu in the increased air concentrations. A layer of gravel and sand was spread over the contaminated area. Although air concentrations of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 241}Am dropped considerably, the y have not returned to pre-1995 levels.

  3. Humans and ecosystems over the coming millennia: overview of a biosphere assessment of radioactive waste disposal in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Kautsky, Ulrik; Lindborg, Tobias; Valentin, Jack

    2013-05-01

    This is an overview of the strategy used to describe the effects of a potential release from a radioactive waste repository on human exposure and future environments. It introduces a special issue of AMBIO, in which 13 articles show ways of understanding and characterizing the future. The study relies mainly on research performed in the context of a recent safety report concerning a repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden (the so-called SR-Site project). The development of a good understanding of on-site processes and acquisition of site-specific data facilitated the development of new approaches for assessment of surface ecosystems. A systematic and scientifically coherent methodology utilizes the understanding of the current spatial and temporal dynamics as an analog for future conditions. We conclude that future ecosystem can be inferred from a few variables and that this multidisciplinary approach is relevant in a much wider context than radioactive waste.

  4. Some logistical considerations in designing a system of deep boreholes for disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Genetha Anne; Brady, Patrick Vane; Arnold, Bill Walter

    2012-09-01

    Deep boreholes could be a relatively inexpensive, safe, and rapidly deployable strategy for disposing Americas nuclear waste. To study this approach, Sandia invested in a three year LDRD project entitled %E2%80%9CRadionuclide Transport from Deep Boreholes.%E2%80%9D In the first two years, the borehole reference design and backfill analysis were completed and the supporting modeling of borehole temperature and fluid transport profiles were done. In the third year, some of the logistics of implementing a deep borehole waste disposal system were considered. This report describes what was learned in the third year of the study and draws some conclusions about the potential bottlenecks of system implementation.

  5. Radioactive waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Flax, S.J.

    1981-01-01

    This article examines the technical and legal considerations of nuclear waste management. The first three sections describe the technical aspects of spent-fuel-rod production, reprocessing, and temporary storage. The next two sections discuss permanent disposal of high-level wastes and spent-fuel rods. Finally, legislative and judicial responses to the nuclear-waste crisis.

  6. Geologic and hydrologic data collected during 1976-1983 at the Sheffield low-level radioactive waste disposal site and adjacent areas, Sheffield, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, J.B.; Garklavs, George; Mackey, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    Hydrogeologic studies were conducted at the low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois, from 1976-84. Data in this report include water levels in wells, lake stages, inorganic, organic, and radiometric chemical analyses of ground and surface water, hydraulic conductivities of glacial materials, grain-size distribution, clay and carbonate mineralogy, and cation exchange capacities of the glacial materials. Also included are results of petrographic analyses, physical measurements of wells, stratigraphy and lithology of cores collected from test wells, and horizontal coordinates of wells.

  7. Intruder dose pathway analysis for the onsite disposal of radioactive wastes: the ONSITE/MAXI1 computer program. Supplement No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Peloquin, R.A.; Napier, B.A.; Neuder, S.M.

    1986-05-01

    The document entitled Intruder Dose Pathway Analysis of the Onsite Disposal of Radioactive Wastes: The ONSITE/MAXI1 Computer Program (1984) summarizes initial efforts to develop human-intrustion scenarios and a modified version of the MAXI computer program for potential use by the NRC in reviewing applications for onsite radioactive waste disposal. This document is a supplement to that document and summarizes efforts to further modify and improve the ONSITE/MAXI1 software package. To facilitate cross-referencing, it follows the same format. Notable improvements to the software package include the capability to account for shielding conditions that represent noncompacted trash wastes and the option to indicate alternative land-use condition;s. This supplement contains a description of the implementation of these modifications. In addition, a series of discussions are included in an attempt to increase the user's understanding of the scenarios and dose calculation methods. These discussions respond to frequently asked questions about the mathematical models and use of the software. Computer listings of the ONSITE/MAXI1 computer program are included as Appendices A and B of this document. Appendix C lists external exposure dose-rate factor libraries.

  8. Source inventory for Department of Energy solid low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities: What it means and how to get one of your own

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.A.

    1991-12-31

    In conducting a performance assessment for a low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility, one of the important considerations for determining the source term, which is defined as the amount of radioactivity being released from the facility, is the quantity of radioactive material present. This quantity, which will be referred to as the source inventory, is generally estimated through a review of historical records and waste tracking systems at the LLW facility. In theory, estimating the total source inventory for Department of Energy (DOE) LLW disposal facilities should be possible by reviewing the national data base maintained for LLW operations, the Solid Waste Information Management System (SWIMS), or through the annual report that summarizes the SWIMS data, the Integrated Data Base (IDB) report. However, in practice, there are some difficulties in making this estimate. This is not unexpected, since the SWIMS and the IDB were not developed with the goal of developing a performance assessment source term in mind. The practical shortcomings using the existing data to develop a source term for DOE facilities will be discussed in this paper.

  9. Radioactive Waste Management in A Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Shoukat; Syed, AT; Ahmad, Reyaz; Rather, Tanveer A.; Ajaz, M; Jan, FA

    2010-01-01

    Most of the tertiary care hospitals use radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Safe disposal of the radioactive waste is a vital component of the overall management of the hospital waste. An important objective in radioactive waste management is to ensure that the radiation exposure to an individual (Public, Radiation worker, Patient) and the environment does not exceed the prescribed safe limits. Disposal of Radioactive waste in public domain is undertaken in accordance with the Atomic Energy (Safe disposal of radioactive waste) rules of 1987 promulgated by the Indian Central Government Atomic Energy Act 1962. Any prospective plan of a hospital that intends using radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures needs to have sufficient infrastructural and manpower resources to keep its ambient radiation levels within specified safe limits. Regular monitoring of hospital area and radiation workers is mandatory to assess the quality of radiation safety. Records should be maintained to identify the quality and quantity of radioactive waste generated and the mode of its disposal. Radiation Safety officer plays a key role in the waste disposal operations. PMID:21475524

  10. Radioactive waste management in a hospital.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shoukat; Syed, At; Ahmad, Reyaz; Rather, Tanveer A; Ajaz, M; Jan, Fa

    2010-01-01

    Most of the tertiary care hospitals use radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Safe disposal of the radioactive waste is a vital component of the overall management of the hospital waste. An important objective in radioactive waste management is to ensure that the radiation exposure to an individual (Public, Radiation worker, Patient) and the environment does not exceed the prescribed safe limits. Disposal of Radioactive waste in public domain is undertaken in accordance with the Atomic Energy (Safe disposal of radioactive waste) rules of 1987 promulgated by the Indian Central Government Atomic Energy Act 1962. Any prospective plan of a hospital that intends using radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures needs to have sufficient infrastructural and manpower resources to keep its ambient radiation levels within specified safe limits. Regular monitoring of hospital area and radiation workers is mandatory to assess the quality of radiation safety. Records should be maintained to identify the quality and quantity of radioactive waste generated and the mode of its disposal. Radiation Safety officer plays a key role in the waste disposal operations.

  11. Public attitudes about radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Bisconti, A.S.

    1992-12-31

    Public attitudes about radioactive waste are changeable. That is my conclusion from eight years of social science research which I have directed on this topic. The fact that public attitudes about radioactive waste are changeable is well-known to the hands-on practitioners who have opportunities to talk with the public and respond to their concerns-practitioners like Ginger King, who is sharing the podium with me today. The public`s changeability and open-mindedness are frequently overlooked in studies that focus narrowly on fear and dread. Such studies give the impression that the outlook for waste disposal solutions is dismal. I believe that impression is misleading, and I`d like to share research findings with you today that give a broader perspective.

  12. 77 FR 26991 - Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Issues

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 61 RIN 3150-AI92 Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Issues AGENCY... to the regulatory framework for the management of commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLW). The... Regulations (10 CFR) Part 61, ``Licensing Requirements for Land Disposal of Radioactive Waste.'' These...

  13. 77 FR 10401 - Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Issues

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ...; ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 61 RIN-3150-AI92 Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Issues... possible revisions to the regulatory framework for the management of commercial low-level radioactive waste... Disposal of Radioactive Waste.'' These regulations were published in the Federal Register on December 27...

  14. Integration of US Department of Energy contractor installations for the purpose of optimizing treatment, storage, and disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW)

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, M.; Gnoose, J.; Coony, M.; Martin, E.; Piscitella, R.

    1998-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) manages a multibillion dollar environmental management (EM) program. In June 1996, the Assistant Secretary of Energy for EM issued a memorandum with guidance and a vision for a ten year planning process for the EM Program. The purpose of this process, which became known as the Accelerated Cleanup: Focus on 2006, is to make step changes within the DOE complex regarding the approach for making meaningful environmental cleanup progress. To augment the process, Assistant Secretary requested the site contractors to engage in an effort to identify and evaluate integration alternatives for EM waste stream treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) that would parallel the 2006 Plan. In October 1996, ten DOE contractor installations began the task of identifying alternative opportunities for low level radioactive waste (LLW). Cost effective, efficient solutions were necessary to meet all requirements associated with storing, characterizing, treating, packaging, transporting, and disposing of LLW while protecting the workers` health and safety, and minimizing impacts to the environment. To develop these solutions, a systems engineering approach was used to establish the baseline requirements, to develop alternatives, and to evaluate the alternatives. Key assumptions were that unique disposal capabilities exist within the DOE that must be maintained; private sector disposal capability for some LLW may not continue to exist into the foreseeable future; and decisions made by the LLW Team must be made on a system or complex wide basis to fully realize the potential cost and schedule benefits. This integration effort promoted more accurate waste volume estimates and forecasts; enhanced recognition of existing treatment, storage, and disposal capabilities and capacities; and improved identification of cost savings across the complex.

  15. Well-construction and hydrogeologic data for observation wells in the vicinity of a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mansue, Lawrence J.; Mills, Patrick C.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted hydrogeologic studies at the low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois, from 1976 through 1987. During that period, 108 observation wells were installed in the vicinity of the disposal site in glacial and post-glacial deposits of Quaternary age and bedrock of Pennsylvanian age. Data in this report include the location of each well, the date each well was drilled, the geologic units penetrated by each well, the physical measurements of each well, the elevations of the top (measuring point) of each well and geologic-unit contacts at each well, and the highest and lowest recorded water levels in each well.

  16. Radioactive Waste Incineration: Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Diederich, A.R.; Akins, M.J.

    2008-07-01

    Incineration is generally accepted as a method of reducing the volume of radioactive waste. In some cases, the resulting ash may have high concentrations of materials such as Plutonium or Uranium that are valuable materials for recycling. Incineration can also be effective in treating waste that contains hazardous chemicals as well as radioactive contamination. Despite these advantages, the number of operating incinerators currently in the US currently appears to be small and potentially declining. This paper describes technical, regulatory, economic and political factors that affect the selection of incineration as a preferred method of treating radioactive waste. The history of incinerator use at commercial and DOE facilities is summarized, along with the factors that have affected each of the sectors, thus leading to the current set of active incinerator facilities. In summary: Incineration has had a long history of use in radioactive waste processing due to their ability to reduce the volume of the waste while destroying hazardous chemicals and biological material. However, combinations of technical, regulatory, economic and political factors have constrained the overall use of incineration. In both the Government and Private sectors, the trend is to have a limited number of larger incineration facilities that treat wastes from a multiple sites. Each of these sector is now served by only one or two incinerators. Increased use of incineration is not likely unless there is a change in the factors involved, such as a significant increase in the cost of disposal. Medical wastes with low levels of radioactive contamination are being treated effectively at small, local incineration facilities. No trend is expected in this group. (authors)

  17. Salt Disposal Investigations to Study Thermally Hot Radioactive Waste In A Deep Geologic Repository in Bedded Rock Salt - 12488

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Roger A.; Buschman, Nancy

    2012-07-01

    A research program is proposed to investigate the behavior of salt when subjected to thermal loads like those that would be present in a high-level waste repository. This research would build upon results of decades of previous salt repository program efforts in the US and Germany and the successful licensing and operation of a repository in salt for disposal of defense transuranic waste. The proposal includes a combination of laboratory-scale investigations, numerical simulations conducted to develop validated models that could be used for future repository design and safety case development, and a thermal field test in an underground salt formation with a configuration that replicates a small portion of a conceptual repository design. Laboratory tests are proposed to measure salt and brine properties across and beyond the range of possible repository conditions. Coupled numerical models will seek to describe phenomenology (thermal, mechanical, and hydrological) observed in the laboratory tests. Finally, the field test will investigate many phenomena that have been variously cited as potential issues for disposal of thermally hot waste in salt, including buoyancy effects and migration of pre-existing trapped brine up the thermal gradient (including vapor phase migration). These studies are proposed to be coordinated and managed by the Carlsbad Field Office of DOE, which is also responsible for the operation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) within the Office of Environmental Management. The field test portion of the proposed research would be conducted in experimental areas of the WIPP underground, far from disposal operations. It is believed that such tests may be accomplished using the existing infrastructure of the WIPP repository at a lower cost than if such research were conducted at a commercial salt mine at another location. The phased field test is proposed to be performed over almost a decade, including instrumentation development, several years

  18. Alternative Evaluation Study: Methods to Mitigate/Accommodate Subsidence for the Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County Nevada, with Special Focus on Disposal Cell U-3ax/bl

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, L.

    1997-09-01

    An Alternative Evaluation Study is a type of systematic approach to problem identification and solution. An Alternative Evaluation Study was convened August 12-15, 1997, for the purpose of making recommendations concerning closure of Disposal Cell U-3ax/bl and other disposal cells and mitigation/accommodation of waste subsidence at the Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site. This report includes results of the Alternative Evaluation Study and specific recommendations.

  19. Sorting method for radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Prisco, A.J.; Johnson, A.N.

    1988-08-09

    This paper describes a method for detecting radioactive components in dry active waste, comprising the steps of: providing a substantially airtight housing, withdrawing air from the housing, reducing the waste to pieces of substantially uniform size, providing a first conveyor in the housing, the first conveyor having a receiving portion and a discharge portion, discharging the pieces of reduced waste onto the first conveyor, flattening the pieces of reduced waste, detecting radiation emanating from the pieces of reduced waste from a position closely overlying the first conveyor, after the pieces are flattened, removing from the first conveyor the pieces of reduced waste from which radioactive radiation above a determined level is detected, providing a second conveyor in the housing, the second conveyor having a receiving portion and a discharge portion, disposing the second conveyor so that its receiving portion is below and spaced from the discharge portion of the first conveyor, discharging the pieces of reduced waste from the discharge portion of the first conveyor so that they fall onto the receiving portion of the second conveyor; the space between the last named discharge portion and the last named receiving portion being sufficiently great so that the pieces of reduced waste are substantially overturned and dispersed as they fall to the last named receiving portion.

  20. Three-Dimensional Geologic Modeling of a Prospective Deep Underground Laboratory Site for High-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. Y.; Lee, S.; Park, S. U.; Kim, J. M.; Kihm, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    A series of three-dimensional geologic modeling was performed using a geostatistical geologic model GOCAD (ASGA and Paradigm) to characterize quantitatively and to visualize realistically a prospective deep underground laboratory site for high-level radioactive waste disposal in Korea. The necessity of a deep underground laboratory arises from its in-situ conditions for related deep scientific experiments. However, the construction and operation of such a deep underground laboratory take great efforts and expenses owing to its larger depth and thus higher geologic uncertainty. For these reasons, quantitative characterization and realistic visualization of geologic formations and structures of a deep underground laboratory site is crucial before its construction and operation. The study area for the prospective deep underground laboratory site is mainly consists of Precambrian metamorphic rocks as a complex. First, various topographic and geologic data of the study area were collected from literature and boreholes and preliminarily analyzed. Based on the preliminary analysis results, a three-dimensional structural model, which consists of the boundaries between the geologic formations and structures, was established, and a three-dimensional grid model, which consists of hexahedral grid blocks, was produced. Three-dimensional geologic formation model was then established by polymerizing these two models. Finally, a series of three-dimensional lithofacies modeling was performed using the sequential indicator simulation (SIS) and truncated Gaussian simulation (TGS). The volume fractions of metamorphic rocks predicted using the TGS are more similar to the actual data observed in boreholes than those predicted using the SIS. These three-dimensional geologic modeling results can improve a quantitative and realistic understanding of geologic characteristics of the prospective deep underground laboratory site for high-level radioactive waste disposal and thus can provide

  1. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory EnergyX Macroencapsulated Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Shott, Gregory J.

    2015-06-01

    This special analysis (SA) evaluates whether the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) EnergyX Macroencapsulated waste stream (B LAMACRONCAP, Revision 1) is suitable for disposal by shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The LLNL EnergyX Macroencapsulated waste stream is macroencapsulated mixed waste generated during research laboratory operations and maintenance (LLNL 2015). The LLNL EnergyX Macroencapsulated waste stream required a special analysis due to tritium (3H), cobalt-60 (60Co), cesium-137 (137Cs), and radium-226 (226Ra) exceeding the NNSS Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) Action Levels (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office [NNSA/NFO] 2015).The results indicate that all performance objectives can be met with disposal of the waste stream in a SLB trench. Addition of the LLNL EnergyX Macroencapsulated inventory slightly increases multiple performance assessment results, with the largest relative increase occurring for the all-pathways annual total effective dose (TED). The maximum mean and 95th percentile 222Rn flux density remain less than the performance objective throughout the compliance period. The LLNL EnergyX Macroencapsulated waste stream is suitable for disposal by SLB at the Area 5 RWMS. The waste stream is recommended for approval without conditions.

  2. Regional geological assessment of the Devonian-Mississippian shale sequence of the Appalachian, Illinois, and Michigan basins relative to potential storage/disposal of radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Lomenick, T.F.; Gonzales, S.; Johnson, K.S.; Byerly, D.

    1983-01-01

    The thick and regionally extensive sequence of shales and associated clastic sedimentary rocks of Late Devonian and Early Mississippian age has been considered among the nonsalt geologies for deep subsurface containment of high-level radioactive wastes. This report examines some of the regional and basin-specific characteristics of the black and associated nonblack shales of this sequence within the Appalachian, Illinois, and Michigan basins of the north-central and eastern United States. Principal areas where the thickness and depth of this shale sequence are sufficient to warrant further evaluation are identified, but no attempt is made to identify specific storage/disposal sites. Also identified are other areas with less promise for further study because of known potential conflicts such as geologic-hydrologic factors, competing subsurface priorities involving mineral resources and groundwater, or other parameters. Data have been compiled for each basin in an effort to indicate thickness, distribution, and depth relationships for the entire shale sequence as well as individual shale units in the sequence. Included as parts of this geologic assessment are isopach, depth information, structure contour, tectonic elements, and energy-resource maps covering the three basins. Summary evaluations are given for each basin as well as an overall general evaluation of the waste storage/disposal potential of the Devonian-Mississippian shale sequence,including recommendations for future studies to more fully characterize the shale sequence for that purpose. Based on data compiled in this cursory investigation, certain rock units have reasonable promise for radioactive waste storage/disposal and do warrant additional study.

  3. Tritium Fluxes through the Shallow Unsaturated Zone adjacent to a Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility in an Arid Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maples, S.; Andraski, B. J.; Stonestrom, D. A.; Cooper, C. A.; Pohll, G.

    2011-12-01

    Studies at the U.S. Geological Survey's Amargosa Desert Research Site (ADRS) in southern Nevada have documented long-distance (>400-m) tritium (3H) transport adjacent to a commercial, low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. Transport at this scale is orders of magnitude greater than anticipated; however, lateral 3H fluxes through the shallow unsaturated zone (UZ) have not been investigated in detail. The objective of this study is to estimate and compare lateral and vertical tritiated water-vapor (3HHOg) fluxes in the shallow UZ and their relation to the observed plume migration. Previous studies have recognized two distinct plumes of 3H emanating from the facility. Shallow (0.5 and 1.5-m depth) soil-water vapor samples were collected yearly along 400-m long transects through both plumes from 2003-09. Within the south plume, 3H concentrations at 1.5-m depth have decreased by 44 ± 0.3% during this period, and plume advancement there has effectively ceased (i.e., rate of advance equals rate of decay). During the same period, the west plume showed a net decrease in concentration of 34 ± 0.9% within 100-m of the facility; however, plume advancement is observed at the leading edge of the plume, and concentrations 200-300-m from the facility show an increase in 3H concentration of 64 ± 28.4%. Lateral and vertical diffusive fluxes within both plumes were calculated using 3HHOg concentrations from 2006. Lateral 3HHOg diffusive fluxes within both plumes have been estimated 25-300-m from the facility at 1.5-m depth. Mean lateral 3HHOg diffusive fluxes are 10-14 g m-2 yr-1 within the south plume, and 10-13 g m-2 yr-1 within the west plume. Mean lateral fluxes in the south plume are an order of magnitude lower than in the west plume. This behavior corresponds with the observed relative immobility of the south plume, while the elevated west plume fluxes agree with the plume advancement seen there. Shallow, upward directed, mean vertical 3HHOg fluxes 25-300-m from the

  4. Generation and release of radioactive gases in LLW disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Yim, M.S.; Simonson, S.A.

    1995-02-01

    The atmospheric release of radioactive gases from a generic engineered LLW disposal facility and its radiological impacts were examined. To quantify the generation of radioactive gases, detailed characterization of source inventory for carbon-14, tritium, iodine-129, krypton-85, and radon-222, was performed in terms of their activity concentrations; their distribution within different waste classes, waste forms and containers; and their subsequent availability for release in volatile or gaseous form. The generation of gases was investigated for the processes of microbial activity, radiolysis, and corrosion of waste containers and metallic components in wastes. The release of radionuclides within these gases to the atmosphere was analyzed under the influence of atmospheric pressure changes.

  5. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Shott, Gregory J.

    2015-06-01

    This special analysis (SA) evaluates whether the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources waste stream (BCLALADOEOSRP, Revision 0) is suitable for disposal by shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The LLNL Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources waste stream consists of sealed sources that are no longer needed. The LLNL Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources waste stream required a special analysis because cobalt-60 (60Co), strontium-90 (90Sr), cesium-137 (137Cs), and radium-226 (226Ra) exceeded the NNSS Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) Action Levels (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office [NNSA/NFO] 2015). The results indicate that all performance objectives can be met with disposal of the LLNL Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources in a SLB trench. The LLNL Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources waste stream is suitable for disposal by SLB at the Area 5 RWMS. However, the activity concentration of 226Ra listed on the waste profile sheet significantly exceeds the action level. Approval of the waste profile sheet could potentially allow the disposal of high activity 226Ra sources. To ensure that the generator does not include large 226Ra sources in this waste stream without additional evaluation, a control is need on the maximum 226Ra inventory. A limit based on the generator’s estimate of the total 226Ra inventory is recommended. The waste stream is recommended for approval with the control that the total 226Ra inventory disposed shall not exceed 5.5E10 Bq (1.5 Ci).

  6. A Monte Carlo procedure for the construction of complementary cumulative distribution functions for comparison with the EPA release limits for radioactive waste disposal.

    PubMed

    Helton, J C; Shiver, A W

    1996-02-01

    A Monte Carlo procedure for the construction of complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) for comparison with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) release limits for radioactive waste disposal (40 CFR 191, Subpart B) is described and illustrated with results from a recent performance assessment (PA) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The Monte Carlo procedure produces CCDF estimates similar to those obtained with importance sampling in several recent PAs for the WIPP. The advantages of the Monte Carlo procedure over importance sampling include increased resolution in the calculation of probabilities for complex scenarios involving drilling intrusions and better use of the necessarily limited number of mechanistic calculations that underlie CCDF construction.

  7. Co-disposal of mixed waste materials

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, S.J.; Alexander, R.G.; Crane, P.J.; England, J.L.; Kemp, C.J.; Stewart, W.E.

    1993-08-01

    Co-disposal of process waste streams with hazardous and radioactive materials in landfills results in large, use-efficiencies waste minimization and considerable cost savings. Wasterock, produced from nuclear and chemical process waste streams, is segregated, treated, tested to ensure regulatory compliance, and then is placed in mixed waste landfills, burial trenches, or existing environmental restoration sites. Large geotechnical unit operations are used to pretreat, stabilize, transport, and emplace wasterock into landfill or equivalent subsurface structures. Prototype system components currently are being developed for demonstration of co-disposal.

  8. Environmental restoration waste materials co-disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, S.J.; Alexander, R.G.; England, J.L.; Kirdendall, J.R.; Raney, E.A.; Stewart, W.E.; Dagan, E.B.; Holt, R.G.

    1993-09-01

    Co-disposal of radioactive and hazardous waste is a highly efficient and cost-saving technology. The technology used for final treatment of soil-washing size fractionization operations is being demonstrated on simulated waste. Treated material (wasterock) is used to stabilize and isolate retired underground waste disposal structures or is used to construct landfills or equivalent surface or subsurface structures. Prototype equipment is under development as well as undergoing standardized testing protocols to prequalify treated waste materials. Polymer and hydraulic cement solidification agents are currently used for geotechnical demonstration activities.

  9. Survey of the degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive waste disposal containers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Vinson, D.W.; Bullen, D.B.

    1995-09-22

    One of the most significant factors impacting the performance of waste package container materials under repository relevant conditions is the thermal environment. This environment will be affected by the areal power density of the repository, which is dictated by facility design, and the dominant heat transfer mechanism at the site. The near-field environment will evolve as radioactive decay decreases the thermal output of each waste package. Recent calculations (Buscheck and Nitao, 1994) have addressed the importance of thermal loading conditions on waste package performance at the Yucca Mountain site. If a relatively low repository thermal loading design is employed, the temperature and relative humidity near the waste package may significantly affect the degradation of corrosion allowance barriers due to moist air oxidation and radiolytically enhanced corrosion. The purpose this report is to present a literature review of the potential degradation modes for moderately corrosion resistant nickel copper and nickel based candidate materials that may be applicable as alternate barriers for the ACD systems in the Yucca Mountain environment. This report presents a review of the corrosion of nickel-copper alloys, summaries of experimental evaluations of oxidation and atmospheric corrosion in nickel-copper alloys, views of experimental studies of aqueous corrosion in nickel copper alloys, a brief review of galvanic corrosion effects and a summary of stress corrosion cracking in these alloys.

  10. Development and comparison of five site-specific biosphere models for safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal.

    PubMed

    Pröhl, G; Olyslaegers, G; Kanyar, B; Pinedo, P; Bergström, U; Mobbs, S; Eged, K; Katona, T; Simón, I; Hallberg, U B; Chen, Q; Kowe, R; Zeevaert, T

    2005-12-01

    This paper describes the development and application of site-specific biosphere models that might be used for assessment of potential exposures in the framework of performance assessment studies of nuclear waste disposals. Model development follows the Reference Biosphere Methodology that has been set up in the framework of the BIOMASS study. In this paper, the application is to real sites at five European locations for which environmental and agricultural conditions have been described and characterised. For each of the sites a biosphere model has been developed specifically assuming a release of radionuclides to waters that are used by humans, for example as drinking water for humans and cattle and as irrigation water. Among the ingestion pathways, the intakes of drinking water, cereals, leafy vegetables, potatoes, milk, beef and freshwater fish are included in all models. Annual individual doses were calculated, and uncertainties in the results were estimated by means of stochastic calculations. To enable a comparison, all results were normalised to an activity concentration in groundwater of 1 Bq m(-3) for each of the radionuclides considered ((36)Cl, (79)Se, (99)Tc, (129)I, (135)Cs, (226)Ra, (231)Pa, (230)Th, (237)Np, (239)Pu, and (238)U), i.e. those that are usually most relevant in performance assessment studies of nuclear waste disposals. Although the results do not give answers in absolute terms on potential future exposures, they indicate the spectrum of exposures that might occur in different environments and specify the interaction of environmental conditions, human habits and potential exposure.

  11. Effects on radionuclide concentrations by cement/ground-water interactions in support of performance assessment of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Krupka, K.M.; Serne, R.J.

    1998-05-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is developing a technical position document that provides guidance regarding the performance assessment of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. This guidance considers the effects that the chemistry of the vault disposal system may have on radionuclide release. The geochemistry of pore waters buffered by cementitious materials in the disposal system will be different from the local ground water. Therefore, the cement-buffered environment needs to be considered within the source term calculations if credit is taken for solubility limits and/or sorption of dissolved radionuclides within disposal units. A literature review was conducted on methods to model pore-water compositions resulting from reactions with cement, experimental studies of cement/water systems, natural analogue studies of cement and concrete, and radionuclide solubilities experimentally determined in cement pore waters. Based on this review, geochemical modeling was used to calculate maximum concentrations for americium, neptunium, nickel, plutonium, radium, strontium, thorium, and uranium for pore-water compositions buffered by cement and local ground-water. Another literature review was completed on radionuclide sorption behavior onto fresh cement/concrete where the pore water pH will be greater than or equal 10. Based on this review, a database was developed of preferred minimum distribution coefficient values for these radionuclides in cement/concrete environments.

  12. Real-time gamma imaging of technetium transport through natural and engineered porous materials for radioactive waste disposal.

    PubMed

    Corkhill, Claire L; Bridge, Jonathan W; Chen, Xiaohui C; Hillel, Phil; Thornton, Steve F; Romero-Gonzalez, Maria E; Banwart, Steven A; Hyatt, Neil C

    2013-12-03

    We present a novel methodology for determining the transport of technetium-99m, a γ-emitting metastable isomer of (99)Tc, through quartz sand and porous media relevant to the disposal of nuclear waste in a geological disposal facility (GDF). Quartz sand is utilized as a model medium, and the applicability of the methodology to determine radionuclide transport in engineered backfill cement is explored using the UK GDF candidate backfill cement, Nirex Reference Vault Backfill (NRVB), in a model system. Two-dimensional distributions in (99m)Tc activity were collected at millimeter-resolution using decay-corrected gamma camera images. Pulse-inputs of ~20 MBq (99m)Tc were introduced into short (<10 cm) water-saturated columns at a constant flow of 0.33 mL min(-1). Changes in calibrated mass distribution of (99m)Tc at 30 s intervals, over a period of several hours, were quantified by spatial moments analysis. Transport parameters were fitted to the experimental data using a one-dimensional convection-dispersion equation, yielding transport properties for this radionuclide in a model GDF environment. These data demonstrate that (99)Tc in the pertechnetate form (Tc(VII)O4(-)) does not sorb to cement backfill during transport under model conditions, resulting in closely conservative transport behavior. This methodology represents a quantitative development of radiotracer imaging and offers the opportunity to conveniently and rapidly characterize transport of gamma-emitting isotopes in opaque media, relevant to the geological disposal of nuclear waste and potentially to a wide variety of other subsurface environments.

  13. Real-Time Gamma Imaging of Technetium Transport through Natural and Engineered Porous Materials for Radioactive Waste Disposal

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel methodology for determining the transport of technetium-99m, a γ-emitting metastable isomer of 99Tc, through quartz sand and porous media relevant to the disposal of nuclear waste in a geological disposal facility (GDF). Quartz sand is utilized as a model medium, and the applicability of the methodology to determine radionuclide transport in engineered backfill cement is explored using the UK GDF candidate backfill cement, Nirex Reference Vault Backfill (NRVB), in a model system. Two-dimensional distributions in 99mTc activity were collected at millimeter-resolution using decay-corrected gamma camera images. Pulse-inputs of ∼20 MBq 99mTc were introduced into short (<10 cm) water-saturated columns at a constant flow of 0.33 mL min–1. Changes in calibrated mass distribution of 99mTc at 30 s intervals, over a period of several hours, were quantified by spatial moments analysis. Transport parameters were fitted to the experimental data using a one-dimensional convection–dispersion equation, yielding transport properties for this radionuclide in a model GDF environment. These data demonstrate that 99Tc in the pertechnetate form (Tc(VII)O4–) does not sorb to cement backfill during transport under model conditions, resulting in closely conservative transport behavior. This methodology represents a quantitative development of radiotracer imaging and offers the opportunity to conveniently and rapidly characterize transport of gamma-emitting isotopes in opaque media, relevant to the geological disposal of nuclear waste and potentially to a wide variety of other subsurface environments. PMID:24147650

  14. 41 CFR 50-204.29 - Waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Waste disposal. 50-204.29 Section 50-204.29 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... Radiation Standards § 50-204.29 Waste disposal. No employer shall dispose of radioactive material except...

  15. 41 CFR 50-204.29 - Waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Waste disposal. 50-204.29 Section 50-204.29 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts... Radiation Standards § 50-204.29 Waste disposal. No employer shall dispose of radioactive material except...

  16. 41 CFR 50-204.29 - Waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Waste disposal. 50-204.29 Section 50-204.29 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts... Radiation Standards § 50-204.29 Waste disposal. No employer shall dispose of radioactive material except...

  17. 41 CFR 50-204.29 - Waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Waste disposal. 50-204.29 Section 50-204.29 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... Radiation Standards § 50-204.29 Waste disposal. No employer shall dispose of radioactive material except...

  18. 41 CFR 50-204.29 - Waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Waste disposal. 50-204.29 Section 50-204.29 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts... Radiation Standards § 50-204.29 Waste disposal. No employer shall dispose of radioactive material except by...

  19. [Investigation of radioactivity measurement of medical radioactive waste].

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Masuda, Kazutaka; Kusakabe, Kiyoko; Kinoshita, Fujimi; Kobayashi, Kazumi; Yamamoto, Tetsuo; Kanaya, Shinichi; Kida, Tetsuo; Yanagisawa, Masamichi; Iwanaga, Tetsuo; Ikebuchi, Hideharu; Kusama, Keiji; Namiki, Nobuo; Okuma, Hiroshi; Fujimura, Yoko; Horikoshi, Akiko; Tanaka, Mamoru

    2004-11-01

    To explore the possibility of which medical radioactive wastes could be disposed as general wastes after keeping them a certain period of time and confirming that their radioactivity reach a background level (BGL), we made a survey of these wastes in several nuclear medicine facilities. The radioactive wastes were collected for one week, packed in a box according to its half-life, and measured its radioactivity by scintillation survey meter with time. Some wastes could reach a BGL within 10 times of half-life, but 19% of the short half-life group (group 1) including 99mTc and 123I, and 8% of the middle half-life group (group 2) including 67Ga, (111)In, and 201Tl did not reach a BGL within 20 times of half-life. A reason for delaying the time of reaching a BGL might be partially attributed to high initial radiation dose rate or heavy package weight. However, mixing with the nuclides of longer half-life was estimated to be the biggest factor affecting this result. When disposing medical radioactive wastes as general wastes, it is necessary to avoid mixing with radionuclide of longer half-life and confirm that it reaches a BGL by actual measurement.

  20. Geologic and hydrologic characterization and evaluation of the Basin and Range Province relative to the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Part II. Geologic and hydrologic characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Sargent, K.A.; Bedinger, M.S.

    1985-12-31

    The geology and hydrology of the Basin and Range Province of the western conterminous United States are characterized in a series of data sets depicted in maps compiled for evaluation of prospective areas for further study of geohydrologic environments for isolation of high-level radioactive waste. The data sets include: (1) average precipitation and evaporation; (2) surface distribution of selected rock types; (3) tectonic conditions; and (4) surface- and ground-water hydrology and Pleistocene lakes and marshes. Rocks mapped for consideration as potential host media for the isolation of high-level radioactive waste are widespread and include argillaceous rocks, granitic rocks, tuffaceous rocks, mafic extrusive rocks, evaporites, and laharic breccias. The unsaturated zone, where probably as thick as 150 meters (500 feet), was mapped for consideration as an environment for isolation of high-level waste. Unsaturated rocks of various lithologic types are widespread in the Province. Tectonic stability in the Quaternary Period is considered the key to assessing the probability of future tectonism with regard to high-level radioactive waste disposal. Tectonic conditions are characterized on the basis of the seismic record, heat-flow measurements, the occurrence of Quaternary faults, vertical crustal movement, and volcanic features. Tectonic activity, as indicated by seismicity, is greatest in areas bordering the western margin of the Province in Nevada and southern California, the eastern margin of the Province bordering the Wasatch Mountains in Utah and in parts of the Rio Grande valley. Late Cenozoic volcanic activity is widespread, being greatest bordering the Sierra Nevada in California and Oregon, and bordering the Wasatch Mountains in southern Utah and Idaho. 43 refs., 22 figs.

  1. Method for calcining radioactive wastes

    DOEpatents

    Bjorklund, William J.; McElroy, Jack L.; Mendel, John E.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for the preparation of radioactive wastes in a low leachability form by calcining the radioactive waste on a fluidized bed of glass frit, removing the calcined waste to melter to form a homogeneous melt of the glass and the calcined waste, and then solidifying the melt to encapsulate the radioactive calcine in a glass matrix.

  2. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Sandia National Laboratory Classified Macroencapsulated Mixed Waste at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, Louis B.

    2015-12-01

    This special analysis evaluates whether the Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) Classified Macroencapsulated Mixed Waste stream (ASLA000001007, Revision 4) is suitable for disposal by shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The SNL Classified Macroencapsulated Mixed Waste stream consists of debris from classified nuclear weapons components (SNL 2015). The SNL Classified Macroencapsulated Mixed Waste stream required a special analysis due to tritium (3H) exceeding the NNSS Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) Action Levels (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office [NNSA/NFO] 2015). The SNL Classified Macroencapsulated Mixed Waste stream had no significant effect on the maximum mean and 95th percentile results for the resident air pathway and all-pathways annual total effective dose (TED). The SNL Classified Macroencapsulated Mixed Waste stream increases the mean air pathway and all-pathways annual TED from approximately 100 to 200 years after closure. Addition of the SNL Classified Macroencapsulated Mixed Waste stream inventory shifts the maximum TED to approximately 100 years after closure and increases the TED for several alternative exposure scenarios. The maximum mean and the 95th percentile 222Rn flux density remain less than the performance objective throughout the compliance period. The SNL Classified Macroencapsulated Mixed Waste stream is suitable for disposal by SLB at the Area 5 RWMS. The waste stream is recommended for approval without conditions.

  3. Floristic composition and plant succession on near-surface radioactive-waste-disposal facilities in the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Tierney, G.D.; Foxx, T.S.

    1982-03-01

    Since 1946, low-level radioactive waste has been buried in shallow landfills within the confines of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Five of these sites were studied for plant composition and successional patterns by reconnaissance and vegetation mapping. The data show a slow rate of recovery for all sites, regardless of age, in both the pinon-juniper and ponderosa pine communities. The sites are not comparable in succession or composition because of location and previous land use. The two oldest sites have the highest species diversity and the only mature trees. All sites allowed to revegetate naturally tend to be colonized by the same species that originally surrounded the sites. Sites on historic fields are colonized by the old field flora, whereas those in areas disturbed only by grazing are revegetated by the local native flora.

  4. Evaluation of a performance assessment methodology for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities: Validation needs. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Kozak, M.W.; Olague, N.E.

    1995-02-01

    In this report, concepts on how validation fits into the scheme of developing confidence in performance assessments are introduced. A general framework for validation and confidence building in regulatory decision making is provided. It is found that traditional validation studies have a very limited role in developing site-specific confidence in performance assessments. Indeed, validation studies are shown to have a role only in the context that their results can narrow the scope of initial investigations that should be considered in a performance assessment. In addition, validation needs for performance assessment of low-level waste disposal facilities are discussed, and potential approaches to address those needs are suggested. These areas of topical research are ranked in order of importance based on relevance to a performance assessment and likelihood of success.

  5. Underground Architecture and Layout for the Belgian High-Level and Long-Lived Intermediate-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility- 12116

    SciTech Connect

    Van Cotthem, Alain; Van Humbeeck, Hughes

    2012-07-01

    The underground architecture and layout of the proposed Belgian high-level (HLW) and long-lived, intermediate-level radioactive wastes (ILW-LL) disposal system (repository) is mainly based on lessons learned during the development and 30-year-long operation of an underground research laboratory (URL) ('HADES') located adjacent to the city of Mol at a depth of 225 m in a 100-m-thick, Tertiary clay formation; the Boom clay. The following main operational and safety challenges are addressed in the proposed architecture and layout: 1. Following excavation, the underground openings needed to be promptly supported to minimize the extent of the excavation damaged zone (EDZ). 2. The size and unsupported stand-up time at tunnel crossings/intersections also needed to be minimized to minimize the extent of the related EDZ. 3. Steel components had to be minimized to limit the related long-term (post-closure) corrosion and hydrogen production. 4. The shafts and all equipment had to go down through a 180-m-thick aquifer and handle up to 65-Ton payloads. 5. The shaft seals had to be placed in the underlying clay layer. The currently proposed layout minimizes the excavated volume based on strict long-term-safety criteria and optimizes operational safety. Operational safety is further enhanced by a remote-controlled waste-package-handling system transporting the waste packages from their respective surface location down to their respective disposal location with no intermediate operation. The related on-site preparation and thenceforth use of cement-based, waste package- transportation containers are integral operational-safety components. In addition to strengthening the waste packages and providing radiation protection, these containers also provide long-term corrosion protection of the internal 'primary' steel packages. (authors)

  6. Regulatory Requirements and Technical Analysis for Department of Energy Regulated Performance Assessments of Shallow-Trench Disposal of Low-Level Radioactive Waste at the Nevada Test Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowe, B.; Black, P.; Tauxe, J.; Yucel, V.; Rawlinson, S.; Colarusso, A.; DiSanza, F.

    2001-12-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV) operates and maintains two active facilities on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) that dispose Department of Energy (DOE) defense-generated low-level radioactive (LLW), mixed radioactive, and classified waste in shallow trenches, pits and large-diameter boreholes. The operation and maintenance of the LLW disposal sites are self-regulated under DOE Order 435.1, which requires review of a Performance Assessment for four performance objectives: 1) all pathways 25 mrem/yr limit; 2) atmospheric pathways 10 mrem/yr limit; 3) radon flux density of 20 pCi/m2/s; and 4) groundwater resource protection (Safe Drinking Water Act; 4 mrem/yr limit). The inadvertent human intruder is protected under a dual 500- and 100-mrem limit (acute and chronic exposure). In response to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 92 2, a composite analysis is required that must examine all interacting sources for compliance against both 30 and 100 mrem/yr limits. A small component of classified transuranic waste is buried at intermediate depths in 3-meter diameter boreholes at the Area 5 LLW disposal facility and is assessed through DOE-agreement against the requirements of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)'s 40 CFR 191. The hazardous components of mixed LLW are assessed against RCRA requirements. The NTS LLW sites fall directly under three sets of federal regulations and the regulatory differences result not only in organizational challenges, but also in different decision objectives and technical paths to completion. The DOE regulations require deterministic analysis for a 1,000-year compliance assessment supplemented by probabilistic analysis under a long-term maintenance program. The EPA regulations for TRU waste are probabilistically based for a compliance interval of 10,000 years. Multiple steps in the assessments are strongly dependent on assumptions for long-term land use policies

  7. Is Yucca Mountain a long-term solution for disposing of US spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste?

    PubMed

    Thorne, M C

    2012-06-01

    On 26 January 2012, the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future released a report addressing, amongst other matters, options for the managing and disposal of high-level waste and spent fuel. The Blue Ribbon Commission was not chartered as a siting commission. Accordingly, it did not evaluate Yucca Mountain or any other location as a potential site for the storage or disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste. Nevertheless, if the Commission's recommendations are followed, it is clear that any future proposals to develop a repository at Yucca Mountain would require an extended period of consultation with local communities, tribes and the State of Nevada. Furthermore, there would be a need to develop generally applicable regulations for disposal of spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste, so that the Yucca Mountain site could be properly compared with alternative sites that would be expected to be identified in the initial phase of the site-selection process. Based on what is now known of the conditions existing at Yucca Mountain and the large number of safety, environmental and legal issues that have been raised in relation to the DOE Licence Application, it is suggested that it would be imprudent to include Yucca Mountain in a list of candidate sites for future evaluation in a consent-based process for site selection. Even if there were a desire at the local, tribal and state levels to act as hosts for such a repository, there would be enormous difficulties in attempting to develop an adequate post-closure safety case for such a facility, and in showing why this unsaturated environment should be preferred over other geological contexts that exist in the USA and that are more akin to those being studied and developed in other countries.

  8. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Idaho National Laboratory Unirradiated Light Water Breeder Reactor Rods and Pellets Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    2014-08-31

    The purpose of this special analysis (SA) is to determine if the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Unirradiated Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) Rods and Pellets waste stream (INEL103597TR2, Revision 2) is suitable for disposal by shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The INL Unirradiated LWBR Rods and Pellets waste stream consists of 24 containers with unirradiated fabricated rods and pellets composed of uranium oxide (UO2) and thorium oxide (ThO2) fuel in zirconium cladding. The INL Unirradiated LWBR Rods and Pellets waste stream requires an SA because the 229Th, 230Th, 232U, 233U, and 234U activity concentrations exceed the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) Action Levels.

  9. Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site Safety Assessment Document

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, K.K.; Kendall, E.W.; Brown, J.J.

    1980-02-01

    The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Safety Assessment Document evaluates site characteristics, facilities and operating practices which contribute to the safe handling and storage/disposal of radioactive wastes at the Nevada Test Site. Physical geography, cultural factors, climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology (with emphasis on radionuclide migration), ecology, natural phenomena, and natural resources are discussed and determined to be suitable for effective containment of radionuclides. Also considered, as a separate section, are facilities and operating practices such as monitoring; storage/disposal criteria; site maintenance, equipment, and support; transportation and waste handling; and others which are adequate for the safe handling and storage/disposal of radioactive wastes. In conclusion, the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site is suitable for radioactive waste handling and storage/disposal for a maximum of twenty more years at the present rate of utilization.

  10. Geologic observations at the 2800-meter radioactive waste disposal site and associated deepwater dumpsite 106 (DWD-106) in the Atlantic Ocean. (Revised). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rawson, M.D.; Ryan, W.B.F.

    1983-09-01

    During 1975 and 1976 a total of eight manned submersible dives with DSRV ALVIN were carried out in a relatively small region of the Atlantic 2800m radioactive waste dumpsite and were centered at 38 degrees 30'N and 72 degrees 09'W. Six other dives were distributed through the northern part of Deepwater Dumpsite 106 (DWD-106) near the boundary of the continental rise/continental slope. One of the primary purposes of these dives was to observe the geological conditions in this disposal region slightly south of the Hudson submarine Canyon. The lower continental slope was found to be incised by submarine canyons debouching into the northern side of DWD-106. The upper continental rise was incised by narrow meandering channels. One of these channels passed through the radioactive waste dumpsite and was surveyed in detail. On the upper continental rise the local terrain was relatively flat but studded with numerous tracks, trails, holes, and mounds of biological orgin. The sediment carpet was composed of a grapy silty-clay. Detailed mineralogical analysis was performed.

  11. Radioactive tank waste remediation focus area

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    EM`s Office of Science and Technology has established the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to manage and carry out an integrated national program of technology development for tank waste remediation. The TFA is responsible for the development, testing, evaluation, and deployment of remediation technologies within a system architecture to characterize, retrieve, treat, concentrate, and dispose of radioactive waste stored in the underground stabilize and close the tanks. The goal is to provide safe and cost-effective solutions that are acceptable to both the public and regulators. Within the DOE complex, 335 underground storage tanks have been used to process and store radioactive and chemical mixed waste generated from weapon materials production and manufacturing. Collectively, thes tanks hold over 90 million gallons of high-level and low-level radioactive liquid waste in sludge, saltcake, and as supernate and vapor. Very little has been treated and/or disposed or in final form.

  12. Space disposal of nuclear wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priest, C. C.; Nixon, R. F.; Rice, E. E.

    1980-01-01

    The DOE has been studying several options for nuclear waste disposal, among them space disposal, which NASA has been assessing. Attention is given to space disposal destinations noting that a circular heliocentric orbit about halfway between Earth and Venus is the reference option in space disposal studies. Discussion also covers the waste form, showing that parameters to be considered include high waste loading, high thermal conductivity, thermochemical stability, resistance to leaching, fabrication, resistance to oxidation and to thermal shock. Finally, the Space Shuttle nuclear waste disposal mission profile is presented.

  13. Space disposal of nuclear wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priest, C. C.; Nixon, R. F.; Rice, E. E.

    1980-01-01

    The DOE has been studying several options for nuclear waste disposal, among them space disposal, which NASA has been assessing. Attention is given to space disposal destinations noting that a circular heliocentric orbit about halfway between Earth and Venus is the reference option in space disposal studies. Discussion also covers the waste form, showing that parameters to be considered include high waste loading, high thermal conductivity, thermochemical stability, resistance to leaching, fabrication, resistance to oxidation and to thermal shock. Finally, the Space Shuttle nuclear waste disposal mission profile is presented.

  14. Standard Review Plan for the review of a license application for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The Standard Review Plan (SRP) (NUREG-1200) provides guidance to staff reviewers in the Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards who perform safety reviews of applications to construct and operate low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The SRP ensures the quality and uniformity of the staff reviews and presents a well-defined base from which to evaluate proposed changes in the scope and requirements of the staff reviews. The SRP makes information about the regulatory licensing process widely available and serves to improve the understanding of the staff`s review process by interested members of the public and the industry. Each individual SRP addresses the responsibilities of persons performing the review, the matters that are reviewed, the Commission`s regulations and acceptance criteria necessary for the review, how the review is accomplished, the conclusions that are appropriate, and the implementation requirements.

  15. Preliminary design of a biological treatment facility for trench water from a low-level radioactive waste disposal area at West Valley, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Rosten, R.; Malkumus, D.; Sonntag, T.; Sundquist, J.

    1993-03-01

    The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) owns and manages a State-Licensed Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area (SDA) at West Valley, New York. Water has migrated into the burial trenches at the SDA and collected there, becoming contaminated with radionuclides and organic compounds. The US Environmental Protection Agency issued an order to NYSERDA to reduce the levels of water in the trenches. A treatability study of the contaminated trench water (leachate) was performed and determined the best available technology to treat the leachate and discharge the effluent. This paper describes the preliminary design of the treatment facility that incorporates the bases developed in the leachate treatability study.

  16. Recommendations to the NRC for review criteria for alternative methods of low-level radioactive waste disposal: Task 2b: Earth-mounded concrete bunkers

    SciTech Connect

    Denson, R.H.; Bennett, R.D.; Wamsley, R.M.; Bean, D.L.; Ainsworth, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    The US Army Engineers Waterways Experiment Station (WES) and US Army Engineer Division, Huntsville (HNDED) have developed general design criteria and specific design review criteria for the earth-mounded concrete bunker (EMCB) alternative method of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal. An EMCB is generally described as a reinforced concrete vault placed below grade, underneath a tumulus, surrounded by filter-blanket and drainage zones. The tumulus is covered over with a low permeability cover layer and top soil with vegetation. Eight major review criteria categories have been developed ranging from the loads imposed on the EMCB structure through material quality and durability considerations. Specific design review criteria have been developed in detail for each of the eight major categories. 63 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Low-level radioactive waste from commercial nuclear reactors. Volume 3. Bibliographic abstracts of significant source references. Part 2. Bibliography for treatment, storage, disposal and transportation regulatory constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Jolley, R.L.; Rodgers, B.R.

    1986-05-01

    The overall task of this program was to provide an assessment of currently available technology for treating commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), to initiate development of a methodology for choosing one technology for a given application, and to identify research needed to improve current treatment techniques and decision methodology. The resulting report is issued in four volumes. Volume 3 of this series is a collection of abstracts of most of the reference documents used for this study. Because of the large volume of literature, the abstracts have been printed in two separate parts. Federal, state, and local regulations affect the decision process for selecting technology applications. Regulations may favor a particular technology and may prevent application of others. Volume 3, part 2 presents abstracts of the regulatory constraint documents that relate to all phases of LLRW management (e.g., treatment, packaging, storage, transportation, and disposal).

  18. Recommendations to the NRC for review criteria for alternative methods of low-level radioactive waste disposal: Task 2a, Below-ground vaults

    SciTech Connect

    Denson, R.H.; Bennett, R.D.; Wamsley, R.M.; Bean, D.L.; Ainsworth, D.L.

    1987-12-01

    The US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) and the US Army Engineer Division, Huntsville (HNDED) have developed general design criteria and specific design review criteria for the below-ground vault (BGV) alternative method of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal. A BGV is a reinforced concrete vault (floor, walls, and roof) placed underground below the frost line, and above the water table, surrounded by filter blanket and drainage zones and covered with a low permeability earth layer and top soil with vegetation. Eight major review criteria categories have been developed ranging from the loads imposed on the BGV structure through material quality and durability considerations. Specific design review criteria have been developed in detail for seven of the eight major categories. 59 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Mechanical environmental transport of actinides and ¹³⁷Cs from an arid radioactive waste disposal site

    DOE PAGES

    Snow, Mathew S.; Clark, Sue B.; Morrison, Samuel S.; ...

    2015-10-01

    Particulate transport represents an important mechanism for actinides and fission products at the Earth's surface; soil samples taken in the early 1970's near the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) provide a case study for examining the mechanisms and characteristics of actinide transport under arid conditions. Transuranic waste was disposed via shallow land burial at the SDA until shortly after a flooding event that occurred in 1969. In this study we analyze soils collected in the early 1970's for ¹³⁷Cs, ²⁴¹Am, and Pu using a combination of radiometric and mass spectrometric techniques. Two distinct ²⁴⁰Pu/²³⁹Pu isotopic ratiosmore » are observed for contamination from the SDA, with values ranging from at least 0.059 to 0.069. ²⁴¹Am concentrations are observed to increase only slightly in 0-4 cm soils over the ~40 year period since soil sampling, contrary to Markham's previous hypothesis that ²⁴¹Pu is principally associated with the 0-4 cm soil fractions (Markham 1978). The lack of statistical difference in ²⁴¹Am/²³⁹⁺²⁴⁰Pu ratios with depth suggests mechanical transport and mixing discrete contaminated particles under arid conditions. Occasional samples beyond the northeastern corner are observed to contain anomalously high Pu concentrations with corresponding low ²⁴⁰Pu/²³⁹Pu atoms ratios, suggesting the occurrence of "hot particles;" application of a background Pu subtraction results in calculated Pu atom ratios for the "hot particles" which are statistically similar to those observed in the northeastern corner. Taken together, our data suggests that flooding resulted in mechanical transport of contaminated particles into the area between the SDA and the flood containment dike in the northeastern corner, following which subsequent contamination spreading resulted from wind transport of discrete particles.« less

  20. Mechanical environmental transport of actinides and ¹³⁷Cs from an arid radioactive waste disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, Mathew S.; Clark, Sue B.; Morrison, Samuel S.; Watrous, Matthew G.; Olson, John E.; Snyder, Darin C.

    2015-10-01

    Particulate transport represents an important mechanism for actinides and fission products at the Earth's surface; soil samples taken in the early 1970's near the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) provide a case study for examining the mechanisms and characteristics of actinide transport under arid conditions. Transuranic waste was disposed via shallow land burial at the SDA until shortly after a flooding event that occurred in 1969. In this study we analyze soils collected in the early 1970's for ¹³⁷Cs, ²⁴¹Am, and Pu using a combination of radiometric and mass spectrometric techniques. Two distinct ²⁴⁰Pu/²³⁹Pu isotopic ratios are observed for contamination from the SDA, with values ranging from at least 0.059 to 0.069. ²⁴¹Am concentrations are observed to increase only slightly in 0-4 cm soils over the ~40 year period since soil sampling, contrary to Markham's previous hypothesis that ²⁴¹Pu is principally associated with the 0-4 cm soil fractions (Markham 1978). The lack of statistical difference in ²⁴¹Am/²³⁹⁺²⁴⁰Pu ratios with depth suggests mechanical transport and mixing discrete contaminated particles under arid conditions. Occasional samples beyond the northeastern corner are observed to contain anomalously high Pu concentrations with corresponding low ²⁴⁰Pu/²³⁹Pu atoms ratios, suggesting the occurrence of "hot particles;" application of a background Pu subtraction results in calculated Pu atom ratios for the "hot particles" which are statistically similar to those observed in the northeastern corner. Taken together, our data suggests that flooding resulted in mechanical transport of contaminated particles into the area between the SDA and the flood containment dike in the northeastern corner, following which subsequent contamination spreading resulted from wind transport of discrete particles.

  1. Strategic planning for waste management: Characterization of chemically and radioactively hazardous waste and treatment, storage, and disposal capabilities for diverse and varied multisite operations

    SciTech Connect

    Jolley, R.L.; Rivera, A.L.; Fox, E.C.; Hyfantis, G.J.; McBrayer, J.F.

    1988-01-01

    Information about current and projected waste generation as well as available treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) capabilities and needs is crucial for effective, efficient, and safe waste management. This is especially true for large corporations that are responsible for multisite operations involving diverse and complex industrial processes. Such information is necessary not only for day-to-day operations, but also for strategic planning to ensure safe future performance. This paper reports on some methods developed and successfully applied to obtain requisite information and to assist waste management planning at the corporate level in a nationwide system of laboratories and industries. Waste generation and TSD capabilities at selected US Department of Energy (DOE) sites were studied. 1 ref., 2 tabs.

  2. Commercial low-level radioactive waste transportation liability and radiological risk

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, G.J.; Brown, O.F. II; Garcia, R.S.

    1992-08-01

    This report was prepared for States, compact regions, and other interested parties to address two subjects related to transporting low-level radioactive waste to disposal facilities. One is the potential liabilities associated with low-level radioactive waste transportation from the perspective of States as hosts to low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The other is the radiological risks of low-level radioactive waste transportation for drivers, the public, and disposal facility workers.

  3. Long-term cement corrosion in chloride-rich solutions relevant to radioactive waste disposal in rock salt - Leaching experiments and thermodynamic simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bube, C.; Metz, V.; Bohnert, E.; Garbev, K.; Schild, D.; Kienzler, B.

    Low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes are frequently solidified in a cement matrix. In a potential repository for nuclear wastes, the cementitious matrix is altered upon contact with solution and the resulting secondary phases may provide for significant retention of the radionuclides incorporated in the wastes. In order to assess the secondary phases formed upon corrosion in chloride-rich solutions, which are relevant for nuclear waste disposal in rock salt, leaching experiments were performed. Conventional laboratory batch experiments using powdered hardened cement paste in MgCl2-rich solutions were left to equilibrate for up to three years and full-scale cemented waste products were exposed to NaCl-rich and MgCl2-rich solutions for more than twenty years, respectively. Solid phase analyses revealed that corrosion of hardened cement in MgCl2-rich solutions advanced faster than in NaCl-rich solutions due to the extensive exchange of Mg from solution against Ca from the cementitious solid. Thermodynamic equilibrium simulations compared well to results at the final stages of the respective experiments indicating that close to equilibrium conditions were reached. At high cement product to brine ratios (>0.65 g mL-1), the solution composition in the laboratory-scale experiments was close to that of the full-scale experiments (cement to brine ratio of 2.5 g mL-1) in the MgCl2 systems. The present study demonstrates the applicability of thermodynamic methods used in this approach to adequately describe full-scale long-term experiments with cemented waste simulates.

  4. Transporting Radioactive Waste: An Engineering Activity. Grades 5-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HAZWRAP, The Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program.

    This brochure contains an engineering activity for upper elementary, middle school, and high school students that examines the transportation of radioactive waste. The activity is designed to inform students about the existence of radioactive waste and its transportation to disposal sites. Students experiment with methods to contain the waste and…

  5. An Improvement to Low-Level Radioactive Waste Vitrification Processes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    Protection Standards 40 CFR 191 EPA Environmental Standards for (DRAFT) the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel , High-Level and Transuranic ...test activities. In the U.S. Radwaste is subdivided into three categories: High-level Radioactive Wastes (HLW), Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (TRU...and Low-Level Radioactive Wastes (LLW). The Nuclear Regulatory Commission defines4 𔃿 HLW as: (1) Irradiated reactor fuel , (2) liquid wastes resulting

  6. Review of potential host rocks for radioactive waste disposal in the southeast United States-Southern Piedmont subregion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    A literature study was conducted on the geology of the Southern Piedmont province in the states of Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. The purpose was to identify geologic areas potentially suitable for containment of a repository for the long-term isolation of solidified radioactive waste. The crystalline rocks of the Southern Piedmont province range in age from Precambrian to Paleozoic, and are predominantly slates, phyllites, argillites, schists, metavolcanics, gneisses, gabbros, and granites. These rock units were classified as either favorable, potentially favorable, or unfavorable as potential study areas based on an evaluation of the geologic, hydrologic, and geotechnical characteristics. No socio-economic factors were considered. Rocks subjected to multiple periods of deformation and metamorphism, or described as highly fractured, or of limited areal extent were generally ranked as unfavorable. Potentially favorable rocks are primarily the high-grade metamorphic gneisses and granites. Sixteen areas were classified as being favorable for additional study. These areas are primarily large igneous granite plutons as follows: the Petersburg granite in Virginia; the Rolesville-Castallia, Churchland, and Landis plutons in North Carolina; the Liberty Hill, Winnsboro, and Ogden plutons in South Carolina; and the Siloam, Elberton, and six unnamed granite plutons in Georgia.

  7. Characterising and modelling the excavation damaged zone (EDZ) in crystalline rock in the context of radioactive waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, J.A.; Backstrom, A.; Rutqvist, J.; Jing, L.; Backers, T.; Chijimatsu, M.; Christiansson, R.; Feng, X.-T.; Kobayashi, A.; Koyama, T.; Lee, H.-S.; Neretnieks, I.; Pan, P.Z.; Rinne, M.; Shen, B.-T.

    2008-10-01

    This paper describes current knowledge about the nature of and potential for thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical modelling of the Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ) around the excavations for an underground radioactive waste repository. In the first part of the paper, the disturbances associated with excavation are explained, together with reviews of Workshops that have been held on the subject. In the second part of the paper, the results of a DECOVALEX research programme on modelling the EDZ are presented. Four research teams used four different models to simulate the complete stress-strain curve for Avro granite from the Swedish Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Subsequent research extended the work to computer simulation of the evolution of the repository using a 'wall block model' and a 'near-field model'. This included assessing the evolution of stress, failure and permeability and time dependent effects during repository evolution. As discussed, all the computer models are well suited to sensitivity studies for evaluating the influence of their respective supporting parameters on the complete stress-strain curve for rock and for modelling the EDZ.

  8. Military nuclear waste disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robb, David W.

    1984-04-01

    A National Research Council (NRC) panel has endorsed a plan for a proposed underground military nuclear waste disposal facility located on a site near Carlsbad, N.M. The Department of Energy (DOE) asked NRC to evaluate the geologic suitability of the site.The NRC panel, chaired by Frank L. Parker of Vanderbilt University, concluded in its final report that “the important issues about the geology of the site have been resolved…” Those issues include the purity and volume of salt, the absence of brine pockets at the repository horizon in the areas excavated, the absence of breccia pipes and of toxic gases, and the nearly horizontal bedding of the salt. Thick underground salt beds have long been considered prime candidates for nuclear waste repositories. The existence of salt beds is believed to indicate long-term stability. In addition, the salt is flexible and will seal cracks and discontinuities over time.

  9. Russian low-level waste disposal program

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, L.

    1993-03-01

    The strategy for disposal of low-level radioactive waste in Russia differs from that employed in the US. In Russia, there are separate authorities and facilities for wastes generated by nuclear power plants, defense wastes, and hospital/small generator/research wastes. The reactor wastes and the defense wastes are generally processed onsite and disposed of either onsite, or nearby. Treating these waste streams utilizes such volume reduction techniques as compaction and incineration. The Russians also employ methods such as bitumenization, cementation, and vitrification for waste treatment before burial. Shallow land trench burial is the most commonly used technique. Hospital and research waste is centrally regulated by the Moscow Council of Deputies. Plans are made in cooperation with the Ministry of Atomic Energy. Currently the former Soviet Union has a network of low-level disposal sites located near large cities. Fifteen disposal sites are located in the Federal Republic of Russia, six are in the Ukraine, and one is located in each of the remaining 13 republics. Like the US, each republic is in charge of management of the facilities within their borders. The sites are all similarly designed, being modeled after the RADON site near Moscow.

  10. Ground-water flow near two radioactive-waste-disposal areas at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center, Cattaraugus County, New York; results of flow simulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergeron, M.P.; Bugliosi, E.F.

    1988-01-01

    Two adjacent burial areas were excavated in a clay-rich till at a radioactive waste disposal site near West Valley in Cattaraugus County, N.Y.: (1) which contains mainly low-level radioactive wastes generated onsite by a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant, has been in operation since 1966; and (2) which contains commercial low-level radioactive wastes, was operated during 1963-75. Groundwater below the upper 3 meters of till generally moves downward through a 20- to 30-meter thick sequence of tills underlain by lacustrine and kame-delta deposits of fine sand and silt. Groundwater in the weathered, upper 3 meters of till can move laterally for several meters before either moving downward into the kame-delta deposits or discharging to the land surface. A two-dimensional finite-element model that simulates two vertical sections was used to evaluate hydrologic factors that control groundwater flow in the till. Conditions observed during March 1983 were reproduced accurately in steady-state simulations that used four isotropic units of differing hydraulic conductivity to represent two fractured and weathered till units near land surfaces, an intermediate group of isolated till zones that contain significant amounts of fine sand and silt, and a sequence of till units at depths that have been consolidated by overburden pressure. Recharge rates used in the best-fit simulation ranged from 1.4 cm/yr along smooth, sloping or compacted surfaces to 3.8 cm/yr near swampy areas. Values of hydraulic conductivity and infiltration used in the calibrated best-fit model were nearly identical to values used in a previous model analysis of the nearby commercial-waste burial area. Results of the model simulations of a burial pit assumed to be filled with water indicate that water near the bottom of the burial pit would migrate laterally in the shallow, weathered till for 5 to 6 meters before moving downward into the unweathered till, and water near the top of the pit would move laterally

  11. The disposal of orphan wastes using the greater confinement disposal concept

    SciTech Connect

    Bonano, E.J.; Chu, M.S.Y.; Price, L.L.; Conrad, S.H.; Dickman, P.T.

    1991-02-01

    In the United States, radioactive wastes are conventionally classified as high-level wastes, transuranic wastes, or low-level wastes. Each of these types of wastes, by law, has a ``home`` for their final disposal; i.e., high-level wastes are destined for disposal at the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, transuranic waste for the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, and low-level waste for shallow-land disposal sites. However, there are some radioactive wastes within the United States Department of Energy (DOE) complex that do not meet the criteria established for disposal of either high-level waste, transuranic waste, or low-level